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Sample records for total pkc activity

  1. Oncogenic PKCactivates Vimentin during epithelial-mesenchymal transition in melanoma; a study based on PKC-ι and PKC-ζ specific inhibitors.

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    Ratnayake, Wishrawana S; Apostolatos, Christopher A; Apostolatos, André H; Schutte, Ryan J; Huynh, Monica A; Ostrov, David A; Acevedo-Duncan, Mildred

    2018-05-21

    Melanoma is one of the fastest growing cancers in the United States and is accompanied with a poor prognosis owing to tumors being resistant to most therapies. Atypical protein kinase Cs (aPKC) are involved in malignancy in many cancers. We previously reported that aPKCs play a key role in melanoma's cell motility by regulating cell signaling pathways which induce epithelial-mesenchymal Transition (EMT). We tested three novel inhibitors; [4-(5-amino-4-carbamoylimidazol-1-yl)-2,3-dihydroxycyclopentyl] methyl dihydrogen phosphate (ICA-1T) along with its nucleoside analog 5-amino-1-((1R,2S,3S,4R)-2,3-dihydroxy-4-methylcyclopentyl)-1H-imidazole-4-carboxamide (ICA-1S) which are specific to protein kinase C-iota (PKC-ι) and 8-hydroxy-1,3,6-naphthalenetrisulfonic acid (ζ-Stat) which is specific to PKC-zeta (PKC-ζ) on cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion of two malignant melanoma cell lines compared to normal melanocytes. Molecular modeling was used to identify potential binding sites for the inhibitors and to predict selectivity. Kinase assay showed >50% inhibition for specified targets beyond 5 μM for all inhibitors. Both ICA-1 and ζ-Stat significantly reduced cell proliferation and induced apoptosis, while ICA-1 also significantly reduced migration and melanoma cell invasion. PKC-ι stimulated EMT via TGFβ/Par6/RhoA pathway and activated Vimentin by phosphorylation at S39. Both ICA-1 and ζ-Stat downregulate TNF-α induced NF-κB translocation to the nucleus there by inducing apoptosis. Results suggest that PKC-ι is involved in melanoma malignancy than PKC-ζ. Inhibitors proved to be effective under in-vitro conditions and need to be tested in-vivo for the validity as effective therapeutics. Overall, results show that aPKCs are essential for melanoma progression and metastasis and that they could be used as effective therapeutic targets for malignant melanoma.

  2. Regulation of CCK-induced ERK1/2 activation by PKC epsilon in rat pancreatic acinar cells

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    Chenwei Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The extracellular signal-regulated kinase ERK1/2 is activated in pancreatic acinar cells by cholecystokinin (CCK and other secretagogues with this activation mediated primarily by protein kinase C (PKC. To identify the responsible PKC isoform, we utilized chemical inhibitors, cell permeant inhibitory peptides and overexpression of individual PKC dominant negative variants by means of adenoviral vectors. While the broad-spectrum PKC inhibitor GF109203X strongly inhibited ERK1/2 activation induced by 100 pM CCK, Go6976 which inhibits the classical PKC isoforms (alpha, beta and gamma, as well as Rottlerin, a specific PKC delta inhibitor, had no inhibitory effect. To test the role of PKC epsilon, we used specific cell permeant peptide inhibitors which block PKC interaction with their intracellular receptors or RACKs. Only PP93 (PKC epsilon peptide inhibitor inhibited CCK-induced ERK1/2 activation, while PP95, PP101 and PP98, which are PKC alpha, delta and zeta peptide inhibitors respectively, had no effect. We also utilized adenovirus to express dominant negative PKC isoforms in pancreatic acini. Only PKC epsilon dominant negative inhibited CCK-induced ERK1/2 activation. Dominant negative PKC epsilon expression similarly blocked the effect of carbachol and bombesin to activate ERK1/2. Immunoprecipitation results demonstrated that CCK can induce an interaction of c-Raf-1 and PKC epsilon, but not that of other isoforms of Raf or PKC. We conclude that PKC epsilon is the isoform of PKC primarily involved with CCK-induced ERK1/2 activation in pancreatic acinar cells.

  3. Black Ink of Activated Carbon Derived From Palm Kernel Cake (PKC)

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    Selamat, M. H.; Ahmad, A. H.

    2009-06-01

    Recycling the waste from natural plant to produce useful end products will benefit many industries and help preserve the environment. The research reported in this paper is an investigation on the use of the natural waste of palm kernel cake (PKC) to produce carbon residue as a black carbon for pigment source by using pyrolysis process. The activated carbons (AC) is produced in powder form using ball milling process. Rheological spectra in ink is one of quality control process in determining its performance properties. Findings from this study will help expand the scientific knowledge-base for black ink production and formulation base on PKC. Various inks with different weight percentage compositions of AC will be made and tested against its respective rheological properties in order to determine ideal ink printing system. The items in the formulation used comprised of organic and bio-waste materials with added additive to improve the quality of the black ink. Modified Polyurethane was used as binder. The binder's properties highlighted an ideal vehicle to be applied for good black ink opacity performance. The rheological behaviour is a general foundation for ink characterization where the wt% of AC-PKC resulted in different pseudoplastic behaviors, including the Newtonian behavior. The result found that Newtonian field was located in between 2 wt% and 10 wt% of AC-PKC composition with binder. Mass spectroscopy results shown that the carbon content in PKC is high and very suitable for black performance. In the ageing test, the pigment of PKC perform fairly according to the standard pigment of Black carbon (CB) of ferum oxide pigment. The contact angle for substrate's wettability of the ink system shown a good angle proven to be a water resistive coating on paper subtrates; an advantage of the PKC ink pigment performance.

  4. Investigating the Potential Signaling Pathways That Regulate Activation of the Novel PKC Downstream of Serotonin in Aplysia.

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    Carole A Farah

    Full Text Available Activation of the novel PKC Apl II in sensory neurons by serotonin (5HT underlies the ability of 5HT to reverse synaptic depression, but the pathway from 5HT to PKC Apl II activation remains unclear. Here we find no evidence for the Aplysia-specific B receptors, or for adenylate cyclase activation, to translocate fluorescently-tagged PKC Apl II. Using an anti-PKC Apl II antibody, we monitor translocation of endogenous PKC Apl II and determine the dose response for PKC Apl II translocation, both in isolated sensory neurons and sensory neurons coupled with motor neurons. Using this assay, we confirm an important role for tyrosine kinase activation in 5HT mediated PKC Apl II translocation, but rule out roles for intracellular tyrosine kinases, epidermal growth factor (EGF receptors and Trk kinases in this response. A partial inhibition of translocation by a fibroblast growth factor (FGF-receptor inhibitor led us to clone the Aplysia FGF receptor. Since a number of related receptors have been recently characterized, we use bioinformatics to define the relationship between these receptors and find a single FGF receptor orthologue in Aplysia. However, expression of the FGF receptor did not affect translocation or allow it in motor neurons where 5HT does not normally cause PKC Apl II translocation. These results suggest that additional receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs or other molecules must also be involved in translocation of PKC Apl II.

  5. NMDA modulates oligodendrocyte differentiation of subventricular zone cells through PKC activation

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    Fabio eCavaliere

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Multipotent cells from the juvenile subventricular zone (SVZ possess the ability to differentiate into new neural cells. Depending on local signals, SVZ can generate new neurons, astrocytes or oligodendrocytes. We previously demonstrated that activation of NMDA receptors in SVZ progenitors increases the rate of oligodendrocyte differentiation. Here we investigated the mechanisms involved in NMDA receptor-dependent differentiation. Using functional studies performed with the reporter gene luciferase we found that activation of NMDA receptor stimulates PKC. In turn, stimulation of PKC precedes the activation of NADPH oxidase (NOX as demonstrated by translocation of the p67phox subunit to the cellular membrane. We propose that NOX2 is involved in the transduction of the signal from NMDA receptors through PKC activation as the inhibitor gp91 reduced their pro-differentiation effect. In addition, our data and that from other groups suggest that signaling through the NMDA receptor/PKC/NOX2 cascade generates ROS that activate the PI3/mTOR pathway and finally leads to the generation of new oligodendrocytes.

  6. Natural Product Vibsanin A Induces Differentiation of Myeloid Leukemia Cells through PKC Activation.

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    Yu, Zu-Yin; Xiao, He; Wang, Li-Mei; Shen, Xing; Jing, Yu; Wang, Lin; Sun, Wen-Feng; Zhang, Yan-Feng; Cui, Yu; Shan, Ya-Jun; Zhou, Wen-Bing; Xing, Shuang; Xiong, Guo-Lin; Liu, Xiao-Lan; Dong, Bo; Feng, Jian-Nan; Wang, Li-Sheng; Luo, Qing-Liang; Zhao, Qin-Shi; Cong, Yu-Wen

    2016-05-01

    All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)-based cell differentiation therapy has been successful in treating acute promyelocytic leukemia, a unique subtype of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, other subtypes of AML display resistance to ATRA-based treatment. In this study, we screened natural, plant-derived vibsane-type diterpenoids for their ability to induce differentiation of myeloid leukemia cells, discovering that vibsanin A potently induced differentiation of AML cell lines and primary blasts. The differentiation-inducing activity of vibsanin A was mediated through direct interaction with and activation of protein kinase C (PKC). Consistent with these findings, pharmacological blockade of PKC activity suppressed vibsanin A-induced differentiation. Mechanistically, vibsanin A-mediated activation of PKC led to induction of the ERK pathway and decreased c-Myc expression. In mouse xenograft models of AML, vibsanin A administration prolonged host survival and inhibited PKC-mediated inflammatory responses correlated with promotion of skin tumors in mice. Collectively, our results offer a preclinical proof of concept for vibsanin A as a myeloid differentiation-inducing compound, with potential application as an antileukemic agent. Cancer Res; 76(9); 2698-709. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  7. PKC activation induces inflammatory response and cell death in human bronchial epithelial cells.

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    Hyunhee Kim

    Full Text Available A variety of airborne pathogens can induce inflammatory responses in airway epithelial cells, which is a crucial component of host defence. However, excessive inflammatory responses and chronic inflammation also contribute to different diseases of the respiratory system. We hypothesized that the activation of protein kinase C (PKC is one of the essential mechanisms of inflammatory response in airway epithelial cells. In the present study, we stimulated human bronchial lung epithelial (BEAS-2B cells with the phorbol ester Phorbol 12, 13-dibutyrate (PDBu, and examined gene expression profile using microarrays. Microarray analysis suggests that PKC activation induced dramatic changes in gene expression related to multiple cellular functions. The top two interaction networks generated from these changes were centered on NFκB and TNF-α, which are two commonly known pathways for cell death and inflammation. Subsequent tests confirmed the decrease in cell viability and an increase in the production of various cytokines. Interestingly, each of the increased cytokines was differentially regulated at mRNA and/or protein levels by different sub-classes of PKC isozymes. We conclude that pathological cell death and cytokine production in airway epithelial cells in various situations may be mediated through PKC related signaling pathways. These findings suggest that PKCs can be new targets for treatment of lung diseases.

  8. Angiotensin II inhibits the Na+-K+ pump via PKC-dependent activation of NADPH oxidase.

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    White, Caroline N; Figtree, Gemma A; Liu, Chia-Chi; Garcia, Alvaro; Hamilton, Elisha J; Chia, Karin K M; Rasmussen, Helge H

    2009-04-01

    The sarcolemmal Na(+)-K(+) pump, pivotal in cardiac myocyte function, is inhibited by angiotensin II (ANG II). Since ANG II activates NADPH oxidase, we tested the hypothesis that NADPH oxidase mediates the pump inhibition. Exposure to 100 nmol/l ANG II increased superoxide-sensitive fluorescence of isolated rabbit ventricular myocytes. The increase was abolished by pegylated superoxide dismutase (SOD), by the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin, and by myristolated inhibitory peptide to epsilon-protein kinase C (epsilonPKC), previously implicated in ANG II-induced Na(+)-K(+) pump inhibition. A role for epsilonPKC was also supported by an ANG II-induced increase in coimmunoprecipitation of epsilonPKC with the receptor for the activated kinase and with the cytosolic p47(phox) subunit of NADPH oxidase. ANG II decreased electrogenic Na(+)-K(+) pump current in voltage-clamped myocytes. The decrease was abolished by SOD, by the gp91ds inhibitory peptide that blocks assembly and activation of NADPH oxidase, and by epsilonPKC inhibitory peptide. Since colocalization should facilitate NADPH oxidase-dependent regulation of the Na(+)-K(+) pump, we examined whether there is physical association between the pump subunits and NADPH oxidase. The alpha(1)-subunit coimmunoprecipitated with caveolin 3 and with membrane-associated p22(phox) and cytosolic p47(phox) NADPH oxidase subunits at baseline. ANG II had no effect on alpha(1)/caveolin 3 or alpha(1)/p22(phox) interaction, but it increased alpha(1)/p47(phox) coimmunoprecipitation. We conclude that ANG II inhibits the Na(+)-K(+) pump via PKC-dependent NADPH oxidase activation.

  9. Amarogentin, a secoiridoid glycoside, abrogates platelet activation through PLC γ 2-PKC and MAPK pathways.

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    Yen, Ting-Lin; Lu, Wan-Jung; Lien, Li-Ming; Thomas, Philip Aloysius; Lee, Tzu-Yin; Chiu, Hou-Chang; Sheu, Joen-Rong; Lin, Kuan-Hung

    2014-01-01

    Amarogentin, an active principle of Gentiana lutea, possess antitumorigenic, antidiabetic, and antioxidative properties. Activation of platelets is associated with intravascular thrombosis and cardiovascular diseases. The present study examined the effects of amarogentin on platelet activation. Amarogentin treatment (15~60  μM) inhibited platelet aggregation induced by collagen, but not thrombin, arachidonic acid, and U46619. Amarogentin inhibited collagen-induced phosphorylation of phospholipase C (PLC) γ2, protein kinase C (PKC), and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). It also inhibits in vivo thrombus formation in mice. In addition, neither the guanylate cyclase inhibitor ODQ nor the adenylate cyclase inhibitor SQ22536 affected the amarogentin-mediated inhibition of platelet aggregation, which suggests that amarogentin does not regulate the levels of cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP. In conclusion, amarogentin prevents platelet activation through the inhibition of PLC γ2-PKC cascade and MAPK pathway. Our findings suggest that amarogentin may offer therapeutic potential for preventing or treating thromboembolic disorders.

  10. Amarogentin, a Secoiridoid Glycoside, Abrogates Platelet Activation through PLCγ2-PKC and MAPK Pathways

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    Ting-Lin Yen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Amarogentin, an active principle of Gentiana lutea, possess antitumorigenic, antidiabetic, and antioxidative properties. Activation of platelets is associated with intravascular thrombosis and cardiovascular diseases. The present study examined the effects of amarogentin on platelet activation. Amarogentin treatment (15~60 μM inhibited platelet aggregation induced by collagen, but not thrombin, arachidonic acid, and U46619. Amarogentin inhibited collagen-induced phosphorylation of phospholipase C (PLCγ2, protein kinase C (PKC, and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs. It also inhibits in vivo thrombus formation in mice. In addition, neither the guanylate cyclase inhibitor ODQ nor the adenylate cyclase inhibitor SQ22536 affected the amarogentin-mediated inhibition of platelet aggregation, which suggests that amarogentin does not regulate the levels of cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP. In conclusion, amarogentin prevents platelet activation through the inhibition of PLCγ2-PKC cascade and MAPK pathway. Our findings suggest that amarogentin may offer therapeutic potential for preventing or treating thromboembolic disorders.

  11. Brassica juncea nitric oxide synthase like activity is stimulated by PKC activators and calcium suggesting modulation by PKC-like kinase.

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    Talwar, Pooja Saigal; Gupta, Ravi; Maurya, Arun Kumar; Deswal, Renu

    2012-11-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important signaling molecule having varied physiological and regulatory roles in biological systems. The fact that nitric oxide synthase (NOS) is responsible for NO generation in animals, prompted major search for a similar enzyme in plants. Arginine dependent NOS like activity (BjNOSla) was detected in Brassica juncea seedlings using oxyhemoglobin and citrulline assays. BjNOSla showed 25% activation by NADPH (0.4 mM) and 40% by calcium (0.4 mM) but the activity was flavin mononucleotide (FMN), flavin dinucleotide (FAD) and calmodulin (CaM) independent. Pharmacological approach using mammalian NOS inhibitors, NBT (300 μM) and l-NAME (5 mM), showed significant inhibition (100% and 67% respectively) supporting that the BjNOSla operates via the oxidative pathway. Most of the BjNOSla activity (80%) was confined to shoot while root showed only 20% activity. Localization studies by NADPH-diaphorase and DAF-2DA staining showed the presence of BjNOSla in guard cells. Kinetic analysis showed positive cooperativity with calcium as reflected by a decreased K(m) (∼13%) and almost two fold increase in V(max). PMA (438 nM), a kinase activator, activated BjNOSla ∼1.9 fold while its inactive analog 4αPDD was ineffective. Calcium and PMA activated the enzyme to ∼3 folds. Interestingly, 1,2-DG6 (2.5 μM) and PS (1 μM) with calcium activated the enzyme activity to ∼7 fold. A significant inhibition of BjNOSla by PKC inhibitors-staurosporine (∼90%) and calphostin-C (∼40%), further supports involvement of PKC-like kinase. The activity was also enhanced by abiotic stress conditions (7-46%). All these findings suggest that BjNOSla generates NO via oxidative pathway and is probably regulated by phosphorylation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Protease-activated receptor-2 stimulates intestinal epithelial chloride transport through activation of PLC and selective PKC isoforms.

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    van der Merwe, Jacques Q; Moreau, France; MacNaughton, Wallace K

    2009-06-01

    Serine proteases play important physiological roles through their activity at G protein-coupled protease-activated receptors (PARs). We examined the roles that specific phospholipase (PL) C and protein kinase (PK) C (PKC) isoforms play in the regulation of PAR(2)-stimulated chloride secretion in intestinal epithelial cells. Confluent SCBN epithelial monolayers were grown on Snapwell supports and mounted in modified Ussing chambers. Short-circuit current (I(sc)) responses to basolateral application of the selective PAR(2) activating peptide, SLIGRL-NH(2), were monitored as a measure of net electrogenic ion transport caused by PAR(2) activation. SLIGRL-NH(2) induced a transient I(sc) response that was significantly reduced by inhibitors of PLC (U73122), phosphoinositol-PLC (ET-18), phosphatidylcholine-PLC (D609), and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K; LY294002). Immunoblot analysis revealed the phosphorylation of both PLCbeta and PLCgamma following PAR(2) activation. Pretreatment of the cells with inhibitors of PKC (GF 109203X), PKCalpha/betaI (Gö6976), and PKCdelta (rottlerin), but not PKCzeta (selective pseudosubstrate inhibitor), also attenuated this response. Cellular fractionation and immunoblot analysis, as well as confocal immunocytochemistry, revealed increases of PKCbetaI, PKCdelta, and PKCepsilon, but not PKCalpha or PKCzeta, in membrane fractions following PAR(2) activation. Pretreatment of the cells with U73122, ET-18, or D609 inhibited PKC activation. Inhibition of PI3K activity only prevented PKCdelta translocation. Immunoblots revealed that PAR(2) activation induced phosphorylation of both cRaf and ERK1/2 via PKCdelta. Inhibition of PKCbetaI and PI3K had only a partial effect on this response. We conclude that basolateral PAR(2)-induced chloride secretion involves activation of PKCbetaI and PKCdelta via a PLC-dependent mechanism resulting in the stimulation of cRaf and ERK1/2 signaling.

  13. PKC-epsilon activation is required for recognition memory in the rat.

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    Zisopoulou, Styliani; Asimaki, Olga; Leondaritis, George; Vasilaki, Anna; Sakellaridis, Nikos; Pitsikas, Nikolaos; Mangoura, Dimitra

    2013-09-15

    Activation of PKCɛ, an abundant and developmentally regulated PKC isoform in the brain, has been implicated in memory throughout life and across species. Yet, direct evidence for a mechanistic role for PKCɛ in memory is still lacking. Hence, we sought to evaluate this in rats, using short-term treatments with two PKCɛ-selective peptides, the inhibitory ɛV1-2 and the activating ψɛRACK, and the novel object recognition task (NORT). Our results show that the PKCɛ-selective activator ψɛRACK, did not have a significant effect on recognition memory. In the short time frames used, however, inhibition of PKCɛ activation with the peptide inhibitor ɛV1-2 significantly impaired recognition memory. Moreover, when we addressed at the molecular level the immediate proximal signalling events of PKCɛ activation in acutely dissected rat hippocampi, we found that ψɛRACK increased in a time-dependent manner phosphorylation of MARCKS and activation of Src, Raf, and finally ERK1/2, whereas ɛV1-2 inhibited all basal activity of this pathway. Taken together, these findings present the first direct evidence that PKCɛ activation is an essential molecular component of recognition memory and point toward the use of systemically administered PKCɛ-regulating peptides as memory study tools and putative therapeutic agents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Correlation between AQP4 mRNA and PKC activity after gamma knife radiosurgery in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Guangjian; Xu Minhui; Gen Mingying; Tang Wenyuan; Sun Shanquan

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore the change of AQP4 mRNA expression and the correlation with PKC in rat brain irradiated by γ knife radiosurgery (GKS). Methods: 30 Wistar rats were used in the study. The experimental radiosurgery model was established by radiating rat left rotral caudate nucleus with GKS(one target, 100 Gy in isocenter dose and 4 mm in collimator), and was examined at 1,3,7,15,30 and 45 d post-irradiation. AQP4 mRNA expression, PKC activity and free intracellular calcium ion concentration ([Ca 2+ ] i ) of brain tissue were determined by RT-PCR, liquid scintillation counter and Fura-2/AM, respectively. Results: AQP4 mRNA expression increased gradually from 0.99 ± 0.05 in control group to 2.32 ± 0.10 at 30 d post-irradiation, and decreased to 2.21 ± 0.08 at 45 d post-irradiation. The PKC activity and the free [Ca 2+ ] i decreased gradually from 0.5896 ± 0.2101 and 455.82 ± 20.13 in control group to 0.0404 ± 0.0294 and 196.72 ± 9.87 at 30 d post- irradiation, and increased to 0.1050 ± 0.0607 and 219.26 ± 10.43 at 45 d post-irradiation, respectively. The significant differences were found between experimental group and control group except at 1 d post-irradiation (P 2+ ] i and the PKC activity was positive (P=0.001, r=0.959). Conclusions: The increased expression of AQP4 mRNA might result from the inhibition of PKC activity due to the reduction of free [Ca 2+ ] i after GKS. (authors)

  15. Atypical PKC, PKCλ/ι, activates β-secretase and increases Aβ1-40/42 and phospho-tau in mouse brain and isolated neuronal cells, and may link hyperinsulinemia and other aPKC activators to development of pathological and memory abnormalities in Alzheimer's disease.

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    Sajan, Mini P; Hansen, Barbara C; Higgs, Margaret G; Kahn, C Ron; Braun, Ursula; Leitges, Michael; Park, Collin R; Diamond, David M; Farese, Robert V

    2018-01-01

    Hyperinsulinemia activates brain Akt and PKC-λ/ι and increases Aβ 1-40/42 and phospho-tau in insulin-resistant animals. Here, we examined underlying mechanisms in mice, neuronal cells, and mouse hippocampal slices. Like Aβ 1-40/42 , β-secretase activity was increased in insulin-resistant mice and monkeys. In insulin-resistant mice, inhibition of hepatic PKC-λ/ι sufficient to correct hepatic abnormalities and hyperinsulinemia simultaneously reversed increases in Akt, atypical protein kinase C (aPKC), β-secretase, and Aβ 1-40/42 , and restored acute Akt activation. However, 2 aPKC inhibitors additionally blocked insulin's ability to activate brain PKC-λ/ι and thereby increase β-secretase and Aβ 1-40/42 . Furthermore, direct blockade of brain aPKC simultaneously corrected an impairment in novel object recognition in high-fat-fed insulin-resistant mice. In neuronal cells and/or mouse hippocampal slices, PKC-ι/λ activation by insulin, metformin, or expression of constitutive PKC-ι provoked increases in β-secretase, Aβ 1-40/42 , and phospho-thr-231-tau that were blocked by various PKC-λ/ι inhibitors, but not by an Akt inhibitor. PKC-λ/ι provokes increases in brain β-secretase, Aβ 1-40/42 , and phospho-thr-231-tau. Excessive signaling via PKC-λ/ι may link hyperinsulinemia and other PKC-λ/ι activators to pathological and functional abnormalities in Alzheimer's disease. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Platelet activating factor enhances synaptic vesicle exocytosis via PKC, elevated intracellular calcium, and modulation of synapsin 1 dynamics and phosphorylation

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    Jennetta W Hammond

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Platelet activating factor (PAF is an inflammatory phospholipid signaling molecule implicated in synaptic plasticity, learning and memory and neurotoxicity during neuroinflammation. However, little is known about the intracellular mechanisms mediating PAF’s physiological or pathological effects on synaptic facilitation. We show here that PAF receptors are localized at the synapse. Using fluorescent reporters of presynaptic activity we show that a non-hydrolysable analogue of PAF (cPAF enhances synaptic vesicle release from individual presynaptic boutons by increasing the size or release of the readily releasable pool and the exocytosis rate of the total recycling pool. cPAF also activates previously silent boutons resulting in vesicle release from a larger number of terminals. The underlying mechanism involves elevated calcium within presynaptic boutons and protein kinase C (PKC activation. Furthermore, cPAF increases synapsin I phosphorylation at sites 1 and 3, and increases dispersion of synapsin I from the presynaptic compartment during stimulation, freeing synaptic vesicles for subsequent release. These findings provide a conceptual framework for how PAF, regardless of its cellular origin, can modulate synapses during normal and pathologic synaptic activity.

  17. Age-related deficits in synaptic plasticity rescued by activating PKA or PKC in sensory neurons of Aplysia californica

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    Andrew T Kempsell

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Brain aging is associated with declines in synaptic function that contribute to memory loss, including reduced postsynaptic response to neurotransmitters and decreased neuronal excitability. To understand how aging affects memory in a simple neural circuit, we studied neuronal proxies of memory for sensitization in mature versus advanced age Aplysia. Glutamate- (L-Glu- evoked excitatory currents were facilitated by the neuromodulator serotonin (5-HT in sensory neurons (SN isolated from mature but not aged animals. Activation of PKA and PKC signaling rescued facilitation of L-Glu currents in aged SN. Similarly, PKA and PKC activators restored increased excitability in aged tail SN. These results suggest that altered synaptic plasticity during aging involves defects in second messenger systems

  18. Age-related deficits in synaptic plasticity rescued by activating PKA or PKC in sensory neurons of Aplysia californica.

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    Kempsell, Andrew T; Fieber, Lynne A

    2015-01-01

    Brain aging is associated with declines in synaptic function that contribute to memory loss, including reduced postsynaptic response to neurotransmitters and decreased neuronal excitability. To understand how aging affects memory in a simple neural circuit, we studied neuronal proxies of memory for sensitization in mature vs. advanced age Aplysia californica (Aplysia). L-Glutamate- (L-Glu-) evoked excitatory currents were facilitated by the neuromodulator serotonin (5-HT) in sensory neurons (SN) isolated from mature but not aged animals. Activation of protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase C (PKC) signaling rescued facilitation of L-Glu currents in aged SN. Similarly, PKA and PKC activators restored increased excitability in aged tail SN. These results suggest that altered synaptic plasticity during aging involves defects in second messenger systems.

  19. Astrocytic connexin hemichannels are regulated by PKC phosphorylation in an isoform-specific manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacAulay, N.; Alstrom, J. S.; Hansen, D. B.

    2017-01-01

    /activation of PKC and by mutational disruption of the proposed PKC-phosphorylation sites. Cx30 hemichannel activity, in contrast, was down-regulated by PKC activation, in a manner suggesting PKC-mediated channel closure. No single PKC consensus site could be assigned to this regulatory property by mutational...

  20. Apoptosis by [Pt(O,O'-acac)(γ-acac)(DMS)] requires PKC-δ mediated p53 activation in malignant pleural mesothelioma.

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    Muscella, Antonella; Vetrugno, Carla; Cossa, Luca Giulio; Antonaci, Giovanna; Barca, Amilcare; De Pascali, Sandra Angelica; Fanizzi, Francesco Paolo; Marsigliante, Santo

    2017-01-01

    Mesothelioma cancer cells have epithelioid or sarcomatoid morphology. The worst prognosis is associated with sarcomatoid phenotype and resistance to therapy is affected by cells heterogeneity. We recently showed that in ZL55 mesothelioma cell line of epithelioid origin [Pt(O,O'-acac)(γ-acac)(DMS)] (Ptac2S) has an antiproliferative effect in vitro and in vivo. Aim of this work was to extend the study on the effects of Ptac2S on ZL34 cell line, representative of sarcomatoid mesothelioma. ZL34 cells were used to assay the antitumor activity of Ptac2S in a mouse xenograft model in vivo. Then, both ZL34 and ZL55 cells were used in order to assess the involvement of p53 protein in (a) the processes underlying the sensitivity to chemotherapy and (b) the activation of various transduction proteins involved in apoptosis/survival processes. Ptac2S increases ZL34 cell death in vivo compared with cisplatin and, in vitro, Ptac2S was more efficacious than cisplatin in inducing apoptosis. In Ptac2S-treated ZL34 and ZL55 cells, p53 regulated gene products of apoptotic BAX and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins via transcriptional activation. Ptac2S activated PKC-δ and PKC-ε; their inhibition by PKC-siRNA decreased the apoptotic death of cells. PKC-δ was responsible for JNK1/2 activation that has a role in p53 activation. In addition, PKCactivation provoked phosphorylation of p38MAPK, concurring to apoptosis. In ZL34 cells, Ptac2S also activated PKC-α thus provoking ERK1/2 activation; inhibition of PKC-α, or ERK1/2, increased Ptac2S cytotoxicity. Results confirm that Ptac2S is a promising therapeutic agent for malignant mesothelioma, giving a substantial starting point for its further validation.

  1. A novel mouse PKC{delta} splice variant, PKC{delta}IX, inhibits etoposide-induced apoptosis

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    Kim, Jung D. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Kwang W. [Department of Internal Medicines, Ulsan University Hospital and School of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Eun A.; Quang, Nguyen N. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Hong R. [Department of Surgery, Ulsan University Hospital and School of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Biomedical Research Center, Ulsan University Hospital and School of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Byungsuk, E-mail: bskwon@mail.ulsan.as.kr [School of Biological Sciences, University of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Biomedical Research Center, Ulsan University Hospital and School of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-01

    Highlights: {yields} A novel PKC{delta} isoform, named PKC{delta}IX, that lacks the C1 domain and the ATP-binding site is ubiquitously expressed. {yields} PKC{delta}IX inhibits etoposide-induced apoptosis. {yields} PKC{delta}IX may function as an endogenous dominant negative isoform for PKC{delta}. -- Abstract: Protein kinase C (PKC) {delta} plays an important role in cellular proliferation and apoptosis. The catalytic fragment of PKC{delta} generated by caspase-dependent cleavage is essential for the initiation of etoposide-induced apoptosis. In this study, we identified a novel mouse PKC{delta} isoform named PKC{delta}IX (Genebank Accession No. (HQ840432)). PKC{delta}IX is generated by alternative splicing and is ubiquitously expressed, as seen in its full-length PKC{delta}. PKC{delta}IX lacks the C1 domain, the caspase 3 cleavage site, and the ATP binding site but preserves an almost intact c-terminal catalytic domain and a nuclear localization signal (NLS). The structural characteristics of PKC{delta}IX provided a possibility that this PKC{delta} isozyme functions as a novel dominant-negative form for PKC{delta} due to its lack of the ATP-binding domain that is required for the kinase activity of PKC{delta}. Indeed, overexpression of PKC{delta}IX significantly inhibited etoposide-induced apoptosis in NIH3T3 cells. In addition, an in vitro kinase assay showed that recombinant PKC{delta}IX protein could competitively inhibit the kinase activity of PKC{delta}. We conclude that PKC{delta}IX can function as a natural dominant-negative inhibitor of PKC{delta}in vivo.

  2. Dopaminergic neurotoxicant 6-OHDA induces oxidative damage through proteolytic activation of PKC{delta} in cell culture and animal models of Parkinson's disease

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    Latchoumycandane, Calivarathan; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Jin, Huajun; Kanthasamy, Anumantha; Kanthasamy, Arthi, E-mail: arthik@iastate.edu

    2011-11-15

    The neurotoxicant 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) is used to investigate the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying selective degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD). Oxidative stress and caspase activation contribute to the 6-OHDA-induced apoptotic cell death of dopaminergic neurons. In the present study, we sought to systematically characterize the key downstream signaling molecule involved in 6-OHDA-induced dopaminergic degeneration in cell culture and animal models of PD. Treatment of mesencephalic dopaminergic neuronal N27 cells with 6-OHDA (100 {mu}M) for 24 h significantly reduced mitochondrial activity and increased cytosolic cytochrome c, followed by sequential activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. Co-treatment with the free radical scavenger MnTBAP (10 {mu}M) significantly attenuated 6-OHDA-induced caspase activities. Interestingly, 6-OHDA induced proteolytic cleavage and activation of protein kinase C delta (PKC{delta}) was completely suppressed by treatment with a caspase-3-specific inhibitor, Z-DEVD-FMK (50 {mu}M). Furthermore, expression of caspase-3 cleavage site-resistant mutant PKC{delta}{sup D327A} and kinase dead PKC{delta}{sup K376R} or siRNA-mediated knockdown of PKC{delta} protected against 6-OHDA-induced neuronal cell death, suggesting that caspase-3-dependent PKC{delta} promotes oxidative stress-induced dopaminergic degeneration. Suppression of PKC{delta} expression by siRNA also effectively protected N27 cells from 6-OHDA-induced apoptotic cell death. PKC{delta} cleavage was also observed in the substantia nigra of 6-OHDA-injected C57 black mice but not in control animals. Viral-mediated delivery of PKC{delta}{sup D327A} protein protected against 6-OHDA-induced PKC{delta} activation in mouse substantia nigra. Collectively, these results strongly suggest that proteolytic activation of PKC{delta} is a key downstream event in dopaminergic degeneration, and these results may have important translational value for

  3. Long-term pioglitazone treatment augments insulin sensitivity and PKC-epsilon and PKC-theta activation in skeletal muscles in sucrose fed rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marková, I.; Zídek, Václav; Musilová, Alena; Šimáková, Miroslava; Mlejnek, Petr; Kazdová, L.; Pravenec, Michal

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 4 (2010), s. 509-516 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0520; GA MŠk(CZ) ME08006; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500110604; GA MZd(CZ) NR9387; GA MZd(CZ) NR9359; GA MZd(CZ) NS9759 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : pioglitazone * PKC * insulin resistance Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 1.646, year: 2010

  4. Neurotensin Phosphorylates GSK-3α/β through the Activation of PKC in Human Colon Cancer Cells

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    Qingding Wang

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Neurotensin (NT, a gastrointestinal hormone, binds its receptor [neurotensin receptor (NTR] to regulate the growth of normal and neoplastic intestinal cells; molecular mechanisms remain largely undefined. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3 regulates diverse cellular processes, including cell growth and apoptosis. Here, we show that NT induces the phosphorylation of GSK-3α/β in the human colon cancer cell line HT29, HCT116, or SW480, which possesses high-affinity NTR. The effect of NT was blocked by inhibitors of protein kinase C (PKC, but not by inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK1 or phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase, suggesting a predominant role for PKC in GSK-3β phosphorylation by NT. Pretreatment with Gö6976 (which inhibits PKCα and PKCβ1 or downregulation of endogenous PKCα or PKCβ1 blocked NT-mediated GSK-3β (but not GSK-3α phosphorylation. Moreover, a selective PKCβ inhibitor, LY379196, reduced NT-mediated GSK-3β (but not GSK-3α phosphorylation, suggesting a role for PKCbβ in the NT-mediated phosphorylation of GSK-3β and an undefined kinase in the NT-mediated phosphorylation of GSK-3α. Treatment with NT or the GSK-3 inhibitor SB216763 increased the expression of cyclin D1, a downstream effector protein of GSK-3 and a critical protein for the proliferation of various cells. Our results indicate that NT uses PKC-dependent pathways to modulate GSK-3, which may play a role in the NT regulation of intestinal cell growth.

  5. Regulation of taurine transport at the blood-placental barrier by calcium ion, PKC activator and oxidative stress conditions

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    Lee Na-Young

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the present study, we investigated the changes of uptake and efflux transport of taurine under various stress conditions using rat conditionally immortalized syncytiotrophoblast cell line (TR-TBT cells, as in vitro blood-placental barrier (BPB model. Methods The transport of taurine in TR-TBT cells were characterized by cellular uptake study using radiolabeled taurine. The efflux of taurine was measured from the amount of radiolabeled taurine remaining in the cells after the uptake of radiolabeled taurine for 60 min. Results Taurine uptake was significantly decreased by phosphorylation of protein kinase C (PKC activator in TR-TBT cells. Also, calcium ion (Ca2+ was involved in taurine transport in TR-TBT cells. Taurine uptake was inhibited and efflux was enhanced under calcium free conditions in the cells. In addition, oxidative stress induced the change of taurine transport in TR-TBT cells, but the changes were different depending on the types of oxidative stress inducing agents. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, lipopolysaccharide (LPS and diethyl maleate (DEM significantly increased taurine uptake, but H2O2 and nitric oxide (NO donor decreased taurine uptake in the cells. Taurine efflux was down-regulated by TNF-α in TR-TBT cells. Conclusion Taurine transport in TR-TBT cells were regulated diversely at extracellular Ca2+ level, PKC activator and oxidative stress conditions. It suggested that variable stresses affected the taurine supplies from maternal blood to fetus and taurine level of fetus.

  6. Tetrandrine, an Activator of Autophagy, Induces Autophagic Cell Death via PKC-α Inhibition and mTOR-Dependent Mechanisms

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    Vincent Kam Wai Wong

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence suggests the therapeutic role of autophagic modulators in cancer therapy. This study aims to identify novel traditional Chinese medicinal herbs as potential anti-tumor agents through autophagic induction, which finally lead to autophagy mediated-cell death in apoptosis-resistant cancer cells. Using bioactivity-guided purification, we identified tetrandrine (Tet from herbal plant, Radix stephaniae tetrandrae, as an inducer of autophagy. Across a number of cancer cell lines, we found that breast cancer cells treated with tetrandrine show an increase autophagic flux and formation of autophagosomes. In addition, tetrandrine induces cell death in a panel of apoptosis-resistant cell lines that are deficient for caspase 3, caspase 7, caspase 3 and 7, or Bax-Bak respectively. We also showed that tetrandrine-induced cell death is independent of necrotic cell death. Mechanistically, tetrandrine induces autophagy that depends on mTOR inactivation. Furthermore, tetrandrine induces autophagy in a calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase-β (CaMKK-β, 5′ AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK independent manner. Finally, by kinase profiling against 300 WT kinases and computational molecular docking analysis, we showed that tetrandrine is a novel PKC-α inhibitor, which lead to autophagic induction through PKC-α inactivation. This study provides detailed insights into the novel cytotoxic mechanism of an anti-tumor compound originated from the herbal plant, which may be useful in promoting autophagy mediated- cell death in cancer cell that is resistant to apoptosis.

  7. A PKM Generated by Calpain Cleavage of a Classical PKC Is Required for Activity-Dependent Intermediate-Term Facilitation in the Presynaptic Sensory Neuron of "Aplysia"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, Carole A.; Hastings, Margaret H.; Dunn, Tyler W.; Gong, Katrina; Baker-Andresen, Danay; Sossin, Wayne S.

    2017-01-01

    Atypical PKM, a persistently active form of atypical PKC, is proposed to be a molecular memory trace, but there have been few examinations of the role of PKMs generated from other PKCs. We demonstrate that inhibitors used to inhibit PKMs generated from atypical PKCs are also effective inhibitors of other PKMs. In contrast, we demonstrate that…

  8. PKC/ROS-Mediated NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation Is Attenuated by Leishmania Zinc-Metalloprotease during Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jee Yong; Chang, Kwang-Poo; Olivier, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Parasites of the Leishmania genus infect and survive within macrophages by inhibiting several microbicidal molecules, such as nitric oxide and pro-inflammatory cytokines. In this context, various species of Leishmania have been reported to inhibit or reduce the production of IL-1β both in vitro and in vivo. However, the mechanism whereby Leishmania parasites are able to affect IL-1β production and secretion by macrophages is still not fully understood. Dependent on the stimulus at hand, the maturation of IL-1β is facilitated by different inflammasome complexes. The NLRP3 inflammasome has been shown to be of pivotal importance in the detection of danger molecules such as inorganic crystals like asbestos, silica and malarial hemozoin, (HZ) as well as infectious agents. In the present work, we investigated whether Leishmania parasites modulate NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Using PMA-differentiated THP-1 cells, we demonstrate that Leishmania infection effectively inhibits macrophage IL-1β production upon stimulation. In this context, the expression and activity of the metalloprotease GP63 - a critical virulence factor expressed by all infectious Leishmania species - is a prerequisite for a Leishmania-mediated reduction of IL-1β secretion. Accordingly, L. mexicana, purified GP63 and GP63-containing exosomes, caused the inhibition of macrophage IL-1β production. Leishmania-dependent suppression of IL-1β secretion is accompanied by an inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production that has previously been shown to be associated with NLRP3 inflammasome activation. The observed loss of ROS production was due to an impaired PKC-mediated protein phosphorylation. Furthermore, ROS-independent inflammasome activation was inhibited, possibly due to an observed GP63-dependent cleavage of inflammasome and inflammasome-related proteins. Collectively for the first time, we herein provide evidence that the protozoan parasite Leishmania, through its surface

  9. ARC (NSC 188491 has identical activity to Sangivamycin (NSC 65346 including inhibition of both P-TEFb and PKC

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    Hollingshead Melinda G

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The nucleoside analog, ARC (NSC 188491 is a recently characterized transcriptional inhibitor that selectively kills cancer cells and has the ability to perturb angiogenesis in vitro. In this study, the mechanism of action of ARC was further investigated by comparing in vitro and in vivo activity with other anti-neoplastic purines. Methods Structure-based homology searches were used to identify those compounds with similarity to ARC. Comparator compounds were then evaluated alongside ARC in the context of viability, cell cycle and apoptosis assays to establish any similarities. Following this, biological overlap was explored in detail using gene-expression analysis and kinase inhibition assays. Results Results demonstrated that sangivamycin, an extensively characterized pro-apoptotic nucleoside isolated from Streptomyces, had identical activity to ARC in terms of 1 cytotoxicity assays, 2 ability to induce a G2/M block, 3 inhibitory effects on RNA/DNA/protein synthesis, 4 transcriptomic response to treatment, 5 inhibition of protein kinase C, 6 inhibition of positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb, 7 inhibition of VEGF secretion, and 8 activity within hollow fiber assays. Extending ARC activity to PKC inhibition provides a molecular basis for ARC cancer selectivity and anti-angiogenic effects. Furthermore, functional overlap between ARC and sangivamycin suggests that development of ARC may benefit from a retrospective of previous sangivamycin clinical trials. However, ARC was found to be inactive in several xenograft models, likely a consequence of rapid serum clearance. Conclusion Overall, these data expand on the biological properties of ARC but suggest additional studies are required before it can be considered a clinical trials candidate.

  10. Modulation of transglutaminase 2 activity in H9c2 cells by PKC and PKA signalling: a role for transglutaminase 2 in cytoprotection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almami, Ibtesam; Dickenson, John M; Hargreaves, Alan J; Bonner, Philip L R

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Tissue transglutaminase (TG2) has been shown to mediate cell survival in many cell types. In this study, we investigated whether the role of TG2 in cytoprotection was mediated by the activation of PKA and PKC in cardiomyocyte-like H9c2 cells. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH H9c2 cells were extracted following stimulation with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) and forskolin. Transglutaminase activity was determined using an amine incorporating and a protein crosslinking assay. The presence of TG isoforms (TG1, 2, 3) was determined using Western blot analysis. The role of TG2 in PMA- and forskolin-induced cytoprotection was investigated by monitoring H2O2-induced oxidative stress in H9c2 cells. KEY RESULTS Western blotting showed TG2 >> TG1 protein expression but no detectable TG3. The amine incorporating activity of TG2 in H9c2 cells increased in a time and concentration-dependent manner following stimulation with PMA and forskolin. PMA and forskolin-induced TG2 activity was blocked by PKC (Ro 31-8220) and PKA (KT 5720 and Rp-8-Cl-cAMPS) inhibitors respectively. The PMA- and forskolin-induced increases in TG2 activity were attenuated by the TG2 inhibitors Z-DON and R283. Immunocytochemistry revealed TG2-mediated biotin-X-cadaverine incorporation into proteins and proteomic analysis identified known (β-tubulin) and novel (α-actinin) protein substrates for TG2. Pretreatment with PMA and forskolin reversed H2O2-induced decrease in MTT reduction and release of LDH. TG2 inhibitors R283 and Z-DON blocked PMA- and forskolin-induced cytoprotection. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS TG2 activity was stimulated via PKA- and PKC-dependent signalling pathways in H9c2 cells These results suggest a role for TG2 in cytoprotection induced by these kinases. PMID:24821315

  11. Modulatory effects of cAMP and PKC activation on gap junctional intercellular communication among thymic epithelial cells

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    Neves-dos-Santos Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated the effects of the signaling molecules, cyclic AMP (cAMP and protein-kinase C (PKC, on gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC between thymic epithelial cells (TEC. Results Treatment with 8-Br-cAMP, a cAMP analog; or forskolin, which stimulates cAMP production, resulted in an increase in dye transfer between adjacent TEC, inducing a three-fold enhancement in the mean fluorescence of coupled cells, ascertained by flow cytometry after calcein transfer. These treatments also increased Cx43 mRNA expression, and stimulated Cx43 protein accumulation in regions of intercellular contacts. VIP, adenosine, and epinephrine which may also signal through cyclic nucleotides were tested. The first two molecules did not mimic the effects of 8-Br-cAMP, however epinephrine was able to increase GJIC suggesting that this molecule functions as an endogenous inter-TEC GJIC modulators. Stimulation of PKC by phorbol-myristate-acetate inhibited inter-TEC GJIC. Importantly, both the enhancing and the decreasing effects, respectively induced by cAMP and PKC, were observed in both mouse and human TEC preparations. Lastly, experiments using mouse thymocyte/TEC heterocellular co-cultures suggested that the presence of thymocytes does not affect the degree of inter-TEC GJIC. Conclusions Overall, our data indicate that cAMP and PKC intracellular pathways are involved in the homeostatic control of the gap junction-mediated communication in the thymic epithelium, exerting respectively a positive and negative role upon cell coupling. This control is phylogenetically conserved in the thymus, since it was seen in both mouse and human TEC preparations. Lastly, our work provides new clues for a better understanding of how the thymic epithelial network can work as a physiological syncytium.

  12. Role of FAT/CD36 in novel PKC isoform activation in heart of spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klevstig, M. J.; Marková, I.; Burianová, J.; Kazdová, L.; Pravenec, Michal; Nováková, O.; Novák, F.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 357, 1-2 (2011), s. 163-169 ISSN 0300-8177 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GD305/08/H037; GA MŠk(CZ) ME08006 Grant - others:Univerzita Karlova(CZ) SVV33779266 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : CD36 * novel PKC * spontaneously hypertensive rat * insulin resistance Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 2.057, year: 2011

  13. Intermittent reductions in respiratory neural activity elicit spinal TNF-α-independent, atypical PKC-dependent inactivity-induced phrenic motor facilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baertsch, Nathan A; Baker-Herman, Tracy L

    2015-04-15

    In many neural networks, mechanisms of compensatory plasticity respond to prolonged reductions in neural activity by increasing cellular excitability or synaptic strength. In the respiratory control system, a prolonged reduction in synaptic inputs to the phrenic motor pool elicits a TNF-α- and atypical PKC-dependent form of spinal plasticity known as inactivity-induced phrenic motor facilitation (iPMF). Although iPMF may be elicited by a prolonged reduction in respiratory neural activity, iPMF is more efficiently induced when reduced respiratory neural activity (neural apnea) occurs intermittently. Mechanisms giving rise to iPMF following intermittent neural apnea are unknown. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that iPMF following intermittent reductions in respiratory neural activity requires spinal TNF-α and aPKC. Phrenic motor output was recorded in anesthetized and ventilated rats exposed to brief intermittent (5, ∼1.25 min), brief sustained (∼6.25 min), or prolonged sustained (30 min) neural apnea. iPMF was elicited following brief intermittent and prolonged sustained neural apnea, but not following brief sustained neural apnea. Unlike iPMF following prolonged neural apnea, spinal TNF-α was not required to initiate iPMF during intermittent neural apnea; however, aPKC was still required for its stabilization. These results suggest that different patterns of respiratory neural activity induce iPMF through distinct cellular mechanisms but ultimately converge on a similar downstream pathway. Understanding the diverse cellular mechanisms that give rise to inactivity-induced respiratory plasticity may lead to development of novel therapeutic strategies to treat devastating respiratory control disorders when endogenous compensatory mechanisms fail. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  14. "Slow" Voltage-Dependent Inactivation of CaV2.2 Calcium Channels Is Modulated by the PKC Activator Phorbol 12-Myristate 13-Acetate (PMA.

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    Lei Zhu

    Full Text Available CaV2.2 (N-type voltage-gated calcium channels (Ca2+ channels play key roles in neurons and neuroendocrine cells including the control of cellular excitability, neurotransmitter / hormone secretion, and gene expression. Calcium entry is precisely controlled by channel gating properties including multiple forms of inactivation. "Fast" voltage-dependent inactivation is relatively well-characterized and occurs over the tens-to- hundreds of milliseconds timeframe. Superimposed on this is the molecularly distinct, but poorly understood process of "slow" voltage-dependent inactivation, which develops / recovers over seconds-to-minutes. Protein kinases can modulate "slow" inactivation of sodium channels, but little is known about if/how second messengers control "slow" inactivation of Ca2+ channels. We investigated this using recombinant CaV2.2 channels expressed in HEK293 cells and native CaV2 channels endogenously expressed in adrenal chromaffin cells. The PKC activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA dramatically prolonged recovery from "slow" inactivation, but an inactive control (4α-PMA had no effect. This effect of PMA was prevented by calphostin C, which targets the C1-domain on PKC, but only partially reduced by inhibitors that target the catalytic domain of PKC. The subtype of the channel β-subunit altered the kinetics of inactivation but not the magnitude of slowing produced by PMA. Intracellular GDP-β-S reduced the effect of PMA suggesting a role for G proteins in modulating "slow" inactivation. We postulate that the kinetics of recovery from "slow" inactivation could provide a molecular memory of recent cellular activity and help control CaV2 channel availability, electrical excitability, and neurotransmission in the seconds-to-minutes timeframe.

  15. Sodium Phenylbutyrate Enhances Astrocytic Neurotrophin Synthesis via Protein Kinase C (PKC)-mediated Activation of cAMP-response Element-binding Protein (CREB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Grant T.; Roy, Avik; Pahan, Kalipada

    2013-01-01

    Neurotrophins, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), are believed to be genuine molecular mediators of neuronal growth and homeostatic synapse activity. However, levels of these neurotrophic factors decrease in different brain regions of patients with Alzheimer disease (AD). Induction of astrocytic neurotrophin synthesis is a poorly understood phenomenon but represents a plausible therapeutic target because neuronal neurotrophin production is aberrant in AD and other neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we delineate that sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPB), a Food and Drug Administration-approved oral medication for hyperammonemia, induces astrocytic BDNF and NT-3 expression via the protein kinase C (PKC)-cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) pathway. NaPB treatment increased the direct association between PKC and CREB followed by phosphorylation of CREB (Ser133) and induction of DNA binding and transcriptional activation of CREB. Up-regulation of markers for synaptic function and plasticity in cultured hippocampal neurons by NaPB-treated astroglial supernatants and its abrogation by anti-TrkB blocking antibody suggest that NaPB-induced astroglial neurotrophins are functionally active. Moreover, oral administration of NaPB increased the levels of BDNF and NT-3 in the CNS and improved spatial learning and memory in a mouse model of AD. Our results highlight a novel neurotrophic property of NaPB that may be used to augment neurotrophins in the CNS and improve synaptic function in disease states such as AD. PMID:23404502

  16. Involvement of HDAC1 and the PI3K/PKC signaling pathways in NF-κB activation by the HDAC inhibitor apicidin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Kee; Seo, Dong-Wan; Kang, Dong-Won; Lee, Hoi Young; Han, Jeung-Whan; Kim, Su-Nam

    2006-01-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are appreciated as one of promising anticancer drugs, but they exert differential responses depending on the cell type. We recently reported the critical role of NF-κB as a modulator in determining cell fate for apoptosis in response to an HDAC inhibitor. In this study, we investigate a possible signaling pathway required for NF-κB activation in response to the HDAC inhibitor apicidin. Treatment of HeLa cells with apicidin leads to an increase in transcriptional activity of NF-κB and the expression of its target genes, IL-8 and TNF-α. TNF-α expression by apicidin is induced at earlier time points than NF-κB activation or IL-8 expression. In addition, our data show that the early expression of TNF-α does not lead to activation of NF-κB, because disruption of TNF-α activity by a neutralizing antibody does not affect nuclear translocation of NF-κB, IκBα degradation or reporter gene activation by apicidin. However, this activation of NF-κB requires the PI3K and PKC signaling pathways, but not ERK or JNK. Furthermore, apicidin activation of NF-κB seems to result from HDAC1 inhibition, as evidenced by the observation that overexpression of HDAC1, but not HDAC2, 3 or 4, dramatically inhibits NF-κB reporter gene activity. Collectively, our results suggest that activation of NF-κB signaling by apicidin requires both the PI3K/PKC signaling pathways and HDAC1, and functions as a critical modulator in determining the cellular effect of apicidin

  17. Niacin activates the PI3K/Akt cascade via PKC- and EGFR-transactivation-dependent pathways through hydroxyl-carboxylic acid receptor 2.

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    Huawang Sun

    Full Text Available Niacin has been demonstrated to activate a PI3K/Akt signaling cascade to prevent brain damage after stroke and UV-induced skin damage; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms for HCA2-induced Akt activation remain to be elucidated. Using CHO-K1 cells stably expressing HCA2 and A431 cells, a human epidermoid cell line with high levels of endogenous expression of functional HCA2 receptors, we first demonstrated that niacin induced a robust Akt phosphorylation at both Thr308 and Ser473 in a time-dependent fashion, with a maximal activation at 5 min and a subsequent reduction to baseline by 30 min through HCA2, and that the activation was significantly blocked by pertussis toxin. The HCA2-mediated activation of Akt was also significantly inhibited by the PKC inhibitors GF109203x and Go6983 in both cell lines, by the PDGFR-selective inhibitor tyrphostin A9 in CHO-HCA2 cells and by the MMP inhibitor GM6001 and EGFR-specific inhibitor AG1478 in A431 cells. These results suggest that the PKC pathway and PDGFR/EGFR transactivation pathway play important roles in HCA2-mediated Akt activation. Further investigation indicated that PI3K and the Gβγ subunit were likely to play an essential role in HCA2-induced Akt activation. Moreover, Immunobloting analyses using an antibody that recognizes p70S6K1 phosphorylated at Thr389 showed that niacin evoked p70S6K1 activation via the PI3K/Akt pathway. The results of our study provide new insight into the signaling pathways involved in HCA2 activation.

  18. Apoptosis of murine melanoma B16-BL6 cells induced by quercetin targeting mitochondria, inhibiting expression of PKC-alpha and translocating PKC-delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xian-Ming; Chen, Jia; Xia, Yu-Gui; Xu, Qiang

    2005-03-01

    In our previous study, quercetin was found to induce apoptosis of murine melanoma B16-BL6 cells. The cellular and molecular mechanism of quercetin-induced apoptosis was investigated in the present study. Nuclear morphology was determined by fluorescence microscopy. DNA fragmentation was analyzed by electrophoresis and quantified by the diphenylamine method. The transmembrane potential of mitochondria was measured by flow cytometry. Bcl-2, Bcl-X(L), PKC-alpha, PKC-beta, and PKC-delta were detected by Western blotting. Caspase activity was determined spectrophotometrically. Quercetin induced the condensation of nuclei of B16-BL6 cells in a dose-dependent pattern as visualized by Hoechst 33258 and propidium iodide dying. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), a PKC activator, significantly enhanced apoptosis induced by quercetin, while doxorubicin, a PKC inhibitor, markedly decreased it. Both PMA and doxorubicin showed a consistent effect on the fragmentation of nuclear DNA caused by various dosages of quercetin. Quercetin dose-dependently led to loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential, which was also significantly reinforced or antagonized by PMA and doxorubicin, respectively. Moreover, PMA showed reinforcement, while doxorubicin showed significant antagonization, of the quercetin-mediated decrease in the expression of Bcl-2. Quercetin promoted caspase-3 activity in a dose-dependent manner, which was also regulated by PMA and doxorubicin with a pattern similar to that seen in their effect on apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential and Bcl-2 expression, but none of these were directly affected by PMA and doxorubicin. Free fatty acid and chlorpromazine, a PKC activator and inhibitor, respectively, did not interfere with these effects of quercetin. B16-BL6 cells expressed PKC-alpha, PKC-beta, and PKC-delta. Quercetin dose-dependently inhibited the expression of PKC-alpha but not that of PKC-beta and PKC-delta. Doxorubicin almost completely blocked the effect of

  19. Protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms in cancer, tumor promotion and tumor suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isakov, Noah

    2018-02-01

    The AGC family of serine/threonine kinases (PKA, PKG, PKC) includes more than 60 members that are critical regulators of numerous cellular functions, including cell cycle and differentiation, morphogenesis, and cell survival and death. Mutation and/or dysregulation of AGC kinases can lead to malignant cell transformation and contribute to the pathogenesis of many human diseases. Members of one subgroup of AGC kinases, the protein kinase C (PKC), have been singled out as critical players in carcinogenesis, following their identification as the intracellular receptors of phorbol esters, which exhibit tumor-promoting activities. This observation attracted the attention of researchers worldwide and led to intense investigations on the role of PKC in cell transformation and the potential use of PKC as therapeutic drug targets in cancer diseases. Studies demonstrated that many cancers had altered expression and/or mutation of specific PKC genes. However, the causal relationships between the changes in PKC gene expression and/or mutation and the direct cause of cancer remain elusive. Independent studies in normal cells demonstrated that activation of PKC is essential for the induction of cell activation and proliferation, differentiation, motility, and survival. Based on these observations and the general assumption that PKC isoforms play a positive role in cell transformation and/or cancer progression, many PKC inhibitors have entered clinical trials but the numerous attempts to target PKC in cancer has so far yielded only very limited success. More recent studies demonstrated that PKC function as tumor suppressors, and suggested that future clinical efforts should focus on restoring, rather than inhibiting, PKC activity. The present manuscript provides some historical perspectives on the tumor promoting function of PKC, reviewing some of the observations linking PKC to cancer progression, and discusses the role of PKC in the pathogenesis of cancer diseases and its

  20. C-peptide increases Na,K-ATPase expression via PKC- and MAP kinase-dependent activation of transcription factor ZEB in human renal tubular cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Galuska

    Full Text Available Replacement of proinsulin C-peptide in type 1 diabetes ameliorates nerve and kidney dysfunction, conditions which are associated with a decrease in Na,K-ATPase activity. We determined the molecular mechanism by which long term exposure to C-peptide stimulates Na,K-ATPase expression and activity in primary human renal tubular cells (HRTC in control and hyperglycemic conditions.HRTC were cultured from the outer cortex obtained from patients undergoing elective nephrectomy. Ouabain-sensitive rubidium ((86Rb(+ uptake and Na,K-ATPase activity were determined. Abundance of Na,K-ATPase was determined by Western blotting in intact cells or isolated basolateral membranes (BLM. DNA binding activity was determined by electrical mobility shift assay (EMSA. Culturing of HRTCs for 5 days with 1 nM, but not 10 nM of human C-peptide leads to increase in Na,K-ATPase α(1-subunit protein expression, accompanied with increase in (86Rb(+ uptake, both in normal- and hyperglycemic conditions. Na,K-ATPase α(1-subunit expression and Na,K-ATPase activity were reduced in BLM isolated from cells cultured in presence of high glucose. Exposure to1 nM, but not 10 nM of C-peptide increased PKCε phosphorylation as well as phosphorylation and abundance of nuclear ERK1/2 regardless of glucose concentration. Exposure to 1 nM of C-peptide increased DNA binding activity of transcription factor ZEB (AREB6, concomitant with Na,K-ATPase α(1-subunit mRNA expression. Effects of 1 nM C-peptide on Na,K-ATPase α(1-subunit expression and/or ZEB DNA binding activity in HRTC were abolished by incubation with PKC or MEK1/2 inhibitors and ZEB siRNA silencing.Despite activation of ERK1/2 and PKC by hyperglycemia, a distinct pool of PKCs and ERK1/2 is involved in regulation of Na,K-ATPase expression and activity by C-peptide. Most likely C-peptide stimulates sodium pump expression via activation of ZEB, a transcription factor that has not been previously implicated in C

  1. Cadmium-induced heme-oxygenase-1 expression plays dual roles in autophagy and apoptosis and is regulated by both PKC-δ and PKB/Akt activation in NRK52E kidney cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    So, Keum-Young; Oh, Seon-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) protects cells against cadmium (Cd)-induced oxidative stress. However, the mechanism underlying this protection is not well understood. In this study, we elucidated the role of HO-1 in Cd-induced cytotoxicity. Exposure of NRK52E cells to Cd induced protein kinase B (PKB)/Akt, protein kinase C (PKC)-δ, and glycogen synthase kinase (GSK) 3αb phosphorylation, and eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 2α dephosphorylation. Pharmacological inhibition of Akt resulted in HO-1 suppression and eIF2α activation, which partially suppressed CHOP and PARP-1 cleavage, but promoted autophagy and decreased cell viability. Pharmacological inactivation of PKC-δ markedly suppressed Cd-induced phospho-serine (p-Ser) GSK3αβ, and HO-1, and partially inhibited PARP-1 cleavage, but massively induced autophagy and decreased cell viability. Pharmacological upregulation of p-Ser GSK3αβ enhanced Cd-induced HO-1, CHOP, and PARP-1 cleavage, but decreased autophagy. Genetic deficiency of GSK3β suppressed HO-1 and PARP-1 cleavage and increased autophagy. Genetic suppression of HO-1 reduced Cd-induced PARP-1 cleavage, but increased LC3-II. Cd exposure led to accumulation of p-PKC-δ, p-Ser GSK3αβ, and HO-1 in the nucleus and particulate fractions, suggesting that they have dual functions in response to Cd. N-acetylcysteine treatment suppressed Cd-induced activation of PKC-δ and Akt. These results indicate that HO-1 induced by Cd exposure is regulated by PKC-δ, p-Ser GSK3αβ, and PKB/Akt, which restrain autophagic cell death, but mildly induce apoptosis in NRK52E cells. Together, the results suggest that HO-1 expression in response to Cd maintains cellular homeostasis during oxidative stress.

  2. PKA and PKC Are Required for Long-Term but Not Short-Term in Vivo Operant Memory in "Aplysia"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Maximilian; Green, Charity L.; Lyons, Lisa C.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the involvement of PKA and PKC signaling in a negatively reinforced operant learning paradigm in "Aplysia", learning that food is inedible (LFI). In vivo injection of PKA or PKC inhibitors blocked long-term LFI memory formation. Moreover, a persistent phase of PKA activity, although not PKC activity, was necessary for long-term…

  3. The Role of miR-330-3p/PKC-α Signaling Pathway in Low-Dose Endothelial-Monocyte Activating Polypeptide-II Increasing the Permeability of Blood-Tumor Barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiahui Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to determine whether EMAP II increases the permeability of the blood-tumor barrier (BTB by affecting the expression of miR-330-3p as well as its possible mechanisms. We determined the over-expression of miR-330-3p in glioma microvascular endothelial cells (GECs by Real-time PCR. Endothelial monocyte-activating polypeptide-II (EMAP-II significantly decreased the expression of miR-330-3p in GECs. Pre-miR-330-3p markedly decreased the permeability of BTB and increased the expression of tight junction (TJ related proteins ZO-1, occludin and claudin-5, however, anti-miR-330-3p had the opposite effects. Anti-miR-330-3p could enhance the effect of EMAP-II on increasing the permeability of BTB, however, pre-miR-330-3p partly reversed the effect of EMAP-II on that. Similarly, anti-miR-330-3p improved the effects of EMAP-II on increasing the expression levels of PKC-α and p-PKC-α in GECs and pre-miR-330-3p partly reversed the effects. MiR-330-3p could target bind to the 3′UTR of PKC-α. The results of in vivo experiments were similar to those of in vitro experiments. These suggested that EMAP-II could increase the permeability of BTB through inhibiting miR-330-3p which target negative regulation of PKC-α. Pre-miR-330-3p and PKC-α inhibitor decreased the BTB permeability and up-regulated the expression levels of ZO-1, occludin and claudin-5 while anti-miR-330-3p and PKCactivator brought the reverse effects. Compared with EMAP-II, anti-miR-330-3p and PKCactivator alone, the combination of the three combinations significantly increased the BTB permeability. EMAP-II combined with anti-miR-330-3p and PKCα activator could enhance the DOX’s effects on inhibiting the cell viabilities and increasing the apoptosis of U87 glioma cells. Our studies suggest that low-dose EMAP-II up-regulates the expression of PKC-α and increases the activity of PKC-α by inhibiting the expression of miR-330-3p, reduces the expression of ZO-1

  4. An Asp49 Phospholipase A2 from Snake Venom Induces Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression and Prostaglandin E2 Production via Activation of NF-κB, p38MAPK, and PKC in Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Moreira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Phospholipases A2 (PLA2 are key enzymes for production of lipid mediators. We previously demonstrated that a snake venom sPLA2 named MT-III leads to prostaglandin (PGE2 biosynthesis in macrophages by inducing the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2. Herein, we explored the molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways leading to these MT-III-induced effects. Results demonstrated that MT-III induced activation of the transcription factor NF-κB in isolated macrophages. By using NF-κB selective inhibitors, the involvement of this factor in MT-III-induced COX-2 expression and PGE2 production was demonstrated. Moreover, MT-III-induced COX-2 protein expression and PGE2 release were attenuated by pretreatment of macrophages with SB202190, and Ly294002, and H-7-dihydro compounds, indicating the involvement of p38MAPK, PI3K, and PKC pathways, respectively. Consistent with this, MT-III triggered early phosphorylation of p38MAPK, PI3K, and PKC. Furthermore, SB202190, H-7-dihydro, but not Ly294002 treatment, abrogated activation of NF-κB induced by MT-III. Altogether, these results show for the first time that the induction of COX-2 protein expression and PGE2 release, which occur via NF-κB activation induced by the sPLA2-MT-III in macrophages, are modulated by p38MAPK and PKC, but not by PI3K signaling proteins.

  5. Agonist-mediated activation of Bombyx mori diapause hormone receptor signals to extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 through Gq-PLC-PKC-dependent cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xue; Yang, Jingwen; Shen, Zhangfei; Chen, Yajie; Shi, Liangen; Zhou, Naiming

    2016-08-01

    Diapause is a developmental strategy adopted by insects to survive in challenging environments such as the low temperatures of a winter. This unique process is regulated by diapause hormone (DH), which is a neuropeptide hormone that induces egg diapause in Bombyx mori and is involved in terminating pupal diapause in heliothis moths. An G protein-coupled receptor from the silkworm, B. mori, has been identified as a specific cell surface receptor for DH. However, the detailed information on the DH-DHR system and its mechanism(s) involved in the induction of embryonic diapause remains unknown. Here, we combined functional assays with various specific inhibitors to elucidate the DHR-mediated signaling pathways. Upon activation by DH, B. mori DHR is coupled to the Gq protein, leading to a significant increase of intracellular Ca(2+) and cAMP response element-driven luciferase activity in an UBO-QIC, a specific Gq inhibitor, sensitive manner. B. mori DHR elicited ERK1/2 phosphorylation in a dose- and time-dependent manner in response to DH. This effect was almost completely inhibited by co-incubation with UBO-QIC and was also significantly suppressed by PLC inhibitor U73122, PKC inhibitors Gö6983 and the Ca(2+) chelator EGTA. Moreover, DHR-induced activation of ERK1/2 was significantly attenuated by treatment with the Gβγ specific inhibitors gallein and M119K and the PI3K specific inhibitor Wortmannin, but not by the Src specific inhibitor PP2. Our data also demonstrates that the EGFR-transactivation pathway is not involved in the DHR-mediated ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Future efforts are needed to clarify the role of the ERK1/2 signaling pathway in the DH-mediated induction of B. mori embryonic diapause. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. NMDA receptor activation and PKC but not PKA lead to the modification of the long-term potentiation in the insular cortex induced by conditioned taste aversion: differential role of kinases in metaplasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Durán, Luis F; Escobar, Martha L

    2014-06-01

    It has been reported that training in behavioral tasks modifies the ability to induce long-term potentiation (LTP) in an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-dependent manner. This receptor leads to calcium entry into neuronal cells, promoting the activation of protein kinases as protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase C (PKC), which contribute significantly to the formation of different types of memories and play a pivotal role in the expression of LTP. Our previous studies involving the insular cortex (IC) have demonstrated that induction of LTP in the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus (BLA)-IC projection prior to conditioned taste aversion (CTA) training enhances the retention of this task. Recently, we showed that CTA training triggers a persistent impairment in the ability to induce subsequent synaptic plasticity on the BLA-IC pathway in a protein synthesis-dependent manner, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study we investigated whether the blockade of NMDAR, as well as the inhibition of PKC and PKA affects the CTA-dependent impairment of the IC-LTP. Thus, CTA-trained rats received high frequency stimulation in the Bla-IC projection in order to induce LTP 48 h after the aversion test. The NMDAR antagonist CPP and the specific inhibitors for PKC (chelerythrine) and PKA (KT-5720) were intracortically administered during the acquisition session. Our results show that the blockade of NMDAR and the inhibition of PKC activity prevent the CTA memory-formation as well as the IC-LTP impairment. Nevertheless, PKA inhibition prevents the memory formation of taste aversion but produces no interference with the CTA-dependent impairment of the IC-LTP. These findings reveal the differential roles of protein kinases on CTA-dependent modification of IC-LTP enhancing our understanding of the effects of memory-related changes on synaptic function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Palmitic acid mediates hypothalamic insulin resistance by altering PKC-θ subcellular localization in rodents

    OpenAIRE

    Benoit, Stephen C.; Kemp, Christopher J.; Elias, Carol F.; Abplanalp, William; Herman, James P.; Migrenne, Stephanie; Lefevre, Anne-Laure; Cruciani-Guglielmacci, Céline; Magnan, Christophe; Yu, Fang; Niswender, Kevin; Irani, Boman G.; Holland, William L.; Clegg, Deborah J.

    2009-01-01

    Insulin signaling can be modulated by several isoforms of PKC in peripheral tissues. Here, we assessed whether one specific isoform, PKC-θ, was expressed in critical CNS regions that regulate energy balance and whether it mediated the deleterious effects of diets high in fat, specifically palmitic acid, on hypothalamic insulin activity in rats and mice. Using a combination of in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, we found that PKC-θ was expressed in discrete neuronal populations of ...

  8. Programming of neurotoxic cofactor CXCL-10 in HIV-1-associated dementia: abrogation of CXCL-10-induced neuro-glial toxicity in vitro by PKC activator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehla Rajeev

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background More than 50% of patients undergoing lifelong suppressive antiviral treatment for HIV-1 infection develop minor HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders. Neurological complications during HIV-1 infection are the result of direct neuronal damage by proinflammatory products released from HIV-1-infected or -uninfected activated lymphocytes, monocytes, macrophages, microglia and astrocytes. The specific pro-inflammatory products and their roles in neurotoxicity are far from clear. We investigated proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of HIV-demented (HIV-D and HIV-nondemented (HIV-ND patients and studied their affect on neuroglial toxicity. Methods and results Bioplex array showed elevated levels of signatory chemokines or cytokines (IL-6, IFN-γ, CXCL10, MCP-1 and PDGF in the CSF of HIV-D patients (n = 7 but not in that of HIV-ND patients (n = 7. Among the signatory cytokines and chemokines, CXCL10 was distinctly upregulated in-vitro in HIV-1 (NLENG1-activated human fetal astrocytes, HIV-1 (Ba-L-infected macrophages, and HIV-1 (NLENG1-infected lymphocytes. Virus-infected macrophages also had increased levels of TNF-α. Consistently, human fetal astrocytes treated with HIV-1 and TNF-α induced the signatory molecules. CXCL10 in combination with HIV-1 synergistically enhanced neuronal toxicity and showed chemotactic activity (~ 40 fold for activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC, suggesting the intersection of signaling events imparted by HIV-1 and CXCL10 after binding to their respective surface receptors, CXCR4 and CXCR3, on neurons. Blocking CXCR3 and its downstream MAP kinase (MAPK signaling pathway suppressed combined CXCL10 and HIV-1-induced neurotoxicity. Bryostatin, a PKC modulator and suppressor of CXCR4, conferred neuroprotection against combined insult with HIV-1 and CXCL10. Bryostatin also suppressed HIV-1 and CXCL10-induced PBMC chemotaxis. Although, therapeutic targeting

  9. The role of laserpuncture exposure on gonad maturation mechanism of catfish (Clarias sp. through Ca2+, PKC and GABA neurotransmitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pungky Slamet Wisnu Kusuma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Laser puncture exposure at reproduction acupoint is proven to increase cellular activity like Ca2+ in the skin tissues. The aim of the study is to determine the role of laserpuncture exposure on gonad maturation by evaluating Ca2+ stimulation and PKC activity in skin tissue and the release of GABA from GABAergic neurons of the brain tissue of catfish (Clarias sp.. A total of 36 females and 36 males of 8–9-month old of F1 catfish broodstock Sangkuriang (female and Paiton (male. This study used Completely Randomized Design (CDR experimental method. Expression analysis was conducted using immunohistochemical staining with a streptavidinbiotin method with calcineurin kit, PKC kit, and GABA kit. The results showed that laserpuncture can stimulate calcineurin and PKC expression in skin tissue, and GABA expression in the brain tissue on the condition pre-spawn, spawn, and post-spawn (P < .05. It can be concluded that laserpuncture stimulates gonad maturation through Ca2+, PKC, and GABA neurotransmitter.

  10. Functional divergence of platelet protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms in thrombus formation on collagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilio, Karen; Harper, Matthew T; Cosemans, Judith M E M; Konopatskaya, Olga; Munnix, Imke C A; Prinzen, Lenneke; Leitges, Michael; Liu, Qinghang; Molkentin, Jeffery D; Heemskerk, Johan W M; Poole, Alastair W

    2010-07-23

    Arterial thrombosis, a major cause of myocardial infarction and stroke, is initiated by activation of blood platelets by subendothelial collagen. The protein kinase C (PKC) family centrally regulates platelet activation, and it is becoming clear that the individual PKC isoforms play distinct roles, some of which oppose each other. Here, for the first time, we address all four of the major platelet-expressed PKC isoforms, determining their comparative roles in regulating platelet adhesion to collagen and their subsequent activation under physiological flow conditions. Using mouse gene knock-out and pharmacological approaches in human platelets, we show that collagen-dependent alpha-granule secretion and thrombus formation are mediated by the conventional PKC isoforms, PKCalpha and PKCbeta, whereas the novel isoform, PKC, negatively regulates these events. PKCdelta also negatively regulates thrombus formation but not alpha-granule secretion. In addition, we demonstrate for the first time that individual PKC isoforms differentially regulate platelet calcium signaling and exposure of phosphatidylserine under flow. Although platelet deficient in PKCalpha or PKCbeta showed reduced calcium signaling and phosphatidylserine exposure, these responses were enhanced in the absence of PKC. In summary therefore, this direct comparison between individual subtypes of PKC, by standardized methodology under flow conditions, reveals that the four major PKCs expressed in platelets play distinct non-redundant roles, where conventional PKCs promote and novel PKCs inhibit thrombus formation on collagen.

  11. Phosphorylation of synaptotagmin-1 controls a post-priming step in PKC-dependent presynaptic plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Jong, Arthur P H; Meijer, Marieke; Saarloos, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    Presynaptic activation of the diacylglycerol (DAG)/protein kinase C (PKC) pathway is a central event in short-term synaptic plasticity. Two substrates, Munc13-1 and Munc18-1, are essential for DAG-induced potentiation of vesicle priming, but the role of most presynaptic PKC substrates is not unde......Presynaptic activation of the diacylglycerol (DAG)/protein kinase C (PKC) pathway is a central event in short-term synaptic plasticity. Two substrates, Munc13-1 and Munc18-1, are essential for DAG-induced potentiation of vesicle priming, but the role of most presynaptic PKC substrates...... is not understood. Here, we show that a mutation in synaptotagmin-1 (Syt1(T112A)), which prevents its PKC-dependent phosphorylation, abolishes DAG-induced potentiation of synaptic transmission in hippocampal neurons. This mutant also reduces potentiation of spontaneous release, but only if alternative Ca(2+)sensors...

  12. Sodium phenylbutyrate enhances astrocytic neurotrophin synthesis via protein kinase C (PKC)-mediated activation of cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB): implications for Alzheimer disease therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Grant T; Roy, Avik; Pahan, Kalipada

    2013-03-22

    Neurotrophins, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), are believed to be genuine molecular mediators of neuronal growth and homeostatic synapse activity. However, levels of these neurotrophic factors decrease in different brain regions of patients with Alzheimer disease (AD). Induction of astrocytic neurotrophin synthesis is a poorly understood phenomenon but represents a plausible therapeutic target because neuronal neurotrophin production is aberrant in AD and other neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we delineate that sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPB), a Food and Drug Administration-approved oral medication for hyperammonemia, induces astrocytic BDNF and NT-3 expression via the protein kinase C (PKC)-cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) pathway. NaPB treatment increased the direct association between PKC and CREB followed by phosphorylation of CREB (Ser(133)) and induction of DNA binding and transcriptional activation of CREB. Up-regulation of markers for synaptic function and plasticity in cultured hippocampal neurons by NaPB-treated astroglial supernatants and its abrogation by anti-TrkB blocking antibody suggest that NaPB-induced astroglial neurotrophins are functionally active. Moreover, oral administration of NaPB increased the levels of BDNF and NT-3 in the CNS and improved spatial learning and memory in a mouse model of AD. Our results highlight a novel neurotrophic property of NaPB that may be used to augment neurotrophins in the CNS and improve synaptic function in disease states such as AD.

  13. Palmitic acid mediates hypothalamic insulin resistance by altering PKC-θ subcellular localization in rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Stephen C.; Kemp, Christopher J.; Elias, Carol F.; Abplanalp, William; Herman, James P.; Migrenne, Stephanie; Lefevre, Anne-Laure; Cruciani-Guglielmacci, Céline; Magnan, Christophe; Yu, Fang; Niswender, Kevin; Irani, Boman G.; Holland, William L.; Clegg, Deborah J.

    2009-01-01

    Insulin signaling can be modulated by several isoforms of PKC in peripheral tissues. Here, we assessed whether one specific isoform, PKC-θ, was expressed in critical CNS regions that regulate energy balance and whether it mediated the deleterious effects of diets high in fat, specifically palmitic acid, on hypothalamic insulin activity in rats and mice. Using a combination of in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, we found that PKC-θ was expressed in discrete neuronal populations of the arcuate nucleus, specifically the neuropeptide Y/agouti-related protein neurons and the dorsal medial nucleus in the hypothalamus. CNS exposure to palmitic acid via direct infusion or by oral gavage increased the localization of PKC-θ to cell membranes in the hypothalamus, which was associated with impaired hypothalamic insulin and leptin signaling. This finding was specific for palmitic acid, as the monounsaturated fatty acid, oleic acid, neither increased membrane localization of PKC-θ nor induced insulin resistance. Finally, arcuate-specific knockdown of PKC-θ attenuated diet-induced obesity and improved insulin signaling. These results suggest that many of the deleterious effects of high-fat diets, specifically those enriched with palmitic acid, are CNS mediated via PKCactivation, resulting in reduced insulin activity. PMID:19726875

  14. Palmitic acid mediates hypothalamic insulin resistance by altering PKC-theta subcellular localization in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Stephen C; Kemp, Christopher J; Elias, Carol F; Abplanalp, William; Herman, James P; Migrenne, Stephanie; Lefevre, Anne-Laure; Cruciani-Guglielmacci, Céline; Magnan, Christophe; Yu, Fang; Niswender, Kevin; Irani, Boman G; Holland, William L; Clegg, Deborah J

    2009-09-01

    Insulin signaling can be modulated by several isoforms of PKC in peripheral tissues. Here, we assessed whether one specific isoform, PKC-theta, was expressed in critical CNS regions that regulate energy balance and whether it mediated the deleterious effects of diets high in fat, specifically palmitic acid, on hypothalamic insulin activity in rats and mice. Using a combination of in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, we found that PKC-theta was expressed in discrete neuronal populations of the arcuate nucleus, specifically the neuropeptide Y/agouti-related protein neurons and the dorsal medial nucleus in the hypothalamus. CNS exposure to palmitic acid via direct infusion or by oral gavage increased the localization of PKC-theta to cell membranes in the hypothalamus, which was associated with impaired hypothalamic insulin and leptin signaling. This finding was specific for palmitic acid, as the monounsaturated fatty acid, oleic acid, neither increased membrane localization of PKC-theta nor induced insulin resistance. Finally, arcuate-specific knockdown of PKC-theta attenuated diet-induced obesity and improved insulin signaling. These results suggest that many of the deleterious effects of high-fat diets, specifically those enriched with palmitic acid, are CNS mediated via PKC-theta activation, resulting in reduced insulin activity.

  15. Decreased phosphorylation of δ and ε subunits of the acetylcholine receptor coincides with delayed postsynaptic maturation in PKC θ deficient mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanuza, Maria A; Besalduch, Núria; González, Carmen; Santafé, Manel M; Garcia, Neus; Tomàs, Marta; Nelson, Phillip G; Tomàs, Josep

    2010-09-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) activity is involved in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) redistribution at the neuromuscular junction in vivo during postnatal maturation. Here we studied, in PKC theta (PKCtheta) deficient mice (KO), how the theta isoform of PKC is involved in the nAChR cluster maturation that is accompanied by the developmental activity-dependent neuromuscular synapse elimination process. We found that axonal elimination and dispersion of nAChR from the postsynaptic plaques and its redistribution to form the mature postsynaptic apparatus were delayed but not totally suppressed in PKCtheta deficient mice. Moreover, the delay in the maturation of the morphology of the nAChR clusters during the early postnatal synapse elimination period in the PKCtheta deficient mice coincides with a reduction in the PKCtheta-mediated phosphorylation on the delta subunit of the nAChR. In addition, we show evidence for PKCtheta regulation of PKA in normally phosphorylating the epsilon subunit of nAChR. We have also found that the theta isoform of PKC is located on the postsynaptic component of the neuromuscular junction but is also expressed by motoneurons in the spinal cord and in the motor nerve terminals. The results allow us to hypothesize that a spatially specific and opposing action of PKCtheta and PKA may result in activity-dependent alterations to synaptic connectivity at both the nerve inputs and the postsynaptic nAChR clusters. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Domain-specific phosphomimetic mutation allows dissection of different protein kinase C (PKC) isotype-triggered activities of the RNA binding protein HuR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Sebastian; Doller, Anke; Pendini, Nicole R; Wilce, Jacqueline A; Pfeilschifter, Josef; Eberhardt, Wolfgang

    2013-12-01

    The ubiquitous mRNA binding protein human antigen R (HuR) participates in the post-transcriptional regulation of many AU-rich element (ARE)-bearing mRNAs. Previously, by using in vitro kinase assay, we have identified serines (Ser) 158, 221 and 318 as targets of protein kinase C (PKC)-triggered phosphorylation. In this study, we tested whether GFP- or GST-tagged HuR constructs bearing a phosphomimetic Ser (S)-to-Asp (D) substitution at the different PKC target sites, would affect different HuR functions including HuR nucleo-cytoplasmic redistribution and binding to different types of ARE-containing mRNAs. The phosphomimetic GFP-tagged HuR protein bearing a phosphomimetic substitution in the hinge region of HuR (HuR-S221D) showed an increased cytoplasmic abundance when compared to wild-type HuR. Conversely, data from in vitro kinase assay and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), implicates that phosphorylation at Ser 221 is not relevant for mRNA binding of HuR. Quantification of in vitro binding affinities of GST-tagged wild-type HuR and corresponding HuR proteins bearing a phosphomimetic substitution in either RRM2 (HuR-S158D) or in RRM3 (HuR-S318D) by microscale thermophoresis (MST) indicates a specific binding of wild-type HuR to type I, II or type III-ARE-oligonucleotides in the high nanomolar range. Interestingly, phosphomimetic mutation at position 158 or 318 had a negative influence on HuR binding to type I- and type II-ARE-mRNAs whereas it significantly enhanced HuR affinity to a type III-ARE substrate. Our data suggest that differential phosphorylation of HuR by PKCs at different HuR domains coordinates subcellular HuR distribution and leads to a preferential binding to U-rich bearing target mRNA. © 2013.

  17. TOTAL 2003 activities report in brief

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This activities report presents the activities of the petroleum industry Group Total for the year 2003. The following topics are detailed: the corporate social responsibility with the environment stewardship, the energy future management, the safety enhancing, the human resources and the ethics and local development; the shareholder information with the Total share and the share-holding structure; the activities with informations on the Group, the main events, the upstream exploration and production,, the downstream refining, marketing, trading and shipping, the chemicals with overview 2003, base chemical and polymers, performance and specialities. (A.L.B.)

  18. PKC{eta} is a negative regulator of AKT inhibiting the IGF-I induced proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahaf, Galit; Rotem-Dai, Noa; Koifman, Gabriela; Raveh-Amit, Hadas; Frost, Sigal A.; Livneh, Etta, E-mail: etta@bgu.ac.il

    2012-04-15

    The PI3K-AKT pathway is frequently activated in human cancers, including breast cancer, and its activation appears to be critical for tumor maintenance. Some malignant cells are dependent on activated AKT for their survival; tumors exhibiting elevated AKT activity show sensitivity to its inhibition, providing an Achilles heel for their treatment. Here we show that the PKC{eta} isoform is a negative regulator of the AKT signaling pathway. The IGF-I induced phosphorylation on Ser473 of AKT was inhibited by the PKC{eta}-induced expression in MCF-7 breast adenocarcinoma cancer cells. This was further confirmed in shRNA PKC{eta}-knocked-down MCF-7 cells, demonstrating elevated phosphorylation on AKT Ser473. While PKC{eta} exhibited negative regulation on AKT phosphorylation it did not alter the IGF-I induced ERK phosphorylation. However, it enhanced ERK phosphorylation when stimulated by PDGF. Moreover, its effects on IGF-I/AKT and PDGF/ERK pathways were in correlation with cell proliferation. We further show that both PKC{eta} and IGF-I confer protection against UV-induced apoptosis and cell death having additive effects. Although the protective effect of IGF-I involved activation of AKT, it was not affected by PKC{eta} expression, suggesting that PKC{eta} acts through a different route to increase cell survival. Hence, our studies show that PKC{eta} provides negative control on AKT pathway leading to reduced cell proliferation, and further suggest that its presence/absence in breast cancer cells will affect cell death, which could be of therapeutic value.

  19. The interrelation between aPKC and glucose uptake in the skeletal muscle during contraction and insulin stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, J M; Benite-Ribeiro, S A; Queiroz, G; Duarte, J A

    2014-12-01

    Contraction and insulin increase glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. While the insulin pathway, better characterized, requires activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and atypical protein kinase (aPKC), muscle contraction seems to share insulin-activated components to increase glucose uptake. This study aimed to investigate the interrelation between the pathway involved in glucose uptake evoked by insulin and muscle contraction. Isolated muscle of rats was treated with solvent (control), insulin, wortmannin (PI3K inhibitor) and the combination of insulin plus wortmannin. After treatment, muscles were electrically stimulated (contracted) or remained at rest. Glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) localization, glucose uptake and phospho-aPKC (aPKC activated form) were assessed. Muscle contraction and insulin increased glucose uptake in all conditions when compared with controls not stimulating an effect that was accompanied by an increase in GLUT4 and of phospho-aPKC at the muscle membrane. Contracted muscles treated with insulin did not show additive effects on glucose uptake or aPKC activity compared with the response when these stimuli were applied alone. Inhibition of PI3K blocked insulin effect on glucose uptake and aPKC but not in the contractile response. Thus, muscle contraction seems to stimulate aPKC and glucose uptake independently of PI3K. Therefore, aPKC may be a convergence point and a rate limit step in the pathway by which, insulin and contraction, increase glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Functional Divergence of Platelet Protein Kinase C (PKC) Isoforms in Thrombus Formation on Collagen*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilio, Karen; Harper, Matthew T.; Cosemans, Judith M. E. M.; Konopatskaya, Olga; Munnix, Imke C. A.; Prinzen, Lenneke; Leitges, Michael; Liu, Qinghang; Molkentin, Jeffery D.; Heemskerk, Johan W. M.; Poole, Alastair W.

    2010-01-01

    Arterial thrombosis, a major cause of myocardial infarction and stroke, is initiated by activation of blood platelets by subendothelial collagen. The protein kinase C (PKC) family centrally regulates platelet activation, and it is becoming clear that the individual PKC isoforms play distinct roles, some of which oppose each other. Here, for the first time, we address all four of the major platelet-expressed PKC isoforms, determining their comparative roles in regulating platelet adhesion to collagen and their subsequent activation under physiological flow conditions. Using mouse gene knock-out and pharmacological approaches in human platelets, we show that collagen-dependent α-granule secretion and thrombus formation are mediated by the conventional PKC isoforms, PKCα and PKCβ, whereas the novel isoform, PKCθ, negatively regulates these events. PKCδ also negatively regulates thrombus formation but not α-granule secretion. In addition, we demonstrate for the first time that individual PKC isoforms differentially regulate platelet calcium signaling and exposure of phosphatidylserine under flow. Although platelet deficient in PKCα or PKCβ showed reduced calcium signaling and phosphatidylserine exposure, these responses were enhanced in the absence of PKCθ. In summary therefore, this direct comparison between individual subtypes of PKC, by standardized methodology under flow conditions, reveals that the four major PKCs expressed in platelets play distinct non-redundant roles, where conventional PKCs promote and novel PKCs inhibit thrombus formation on collagen. PMID:20479008

  1. PKC 412 sensitizes U1810 non-small cell lung cancer cells to DNA damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemstroem, Therese H.; Joseph, Bertrand; Schulte, Gunnar; Lewensohn, Rolf; Zhivotovsky, Boris

    2005-01-01

    Non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) is characterized by resistance to drug-induced apoptosis, which might explain the survival of lung cancer cells following treatment. Recently we have shown that the broad-range kinase inhibitor staurosporine (STS) reactivates the apoptotic machinery in U1810 NSCLC cells [Joseph et al., Oncogene 21 (2002) 65]. Lately, several STS analogs that are more specific in kinase inhibition have been suggested for tumor treatment. In this study the apoptosis-inducing ability of the STS analogs PKC 412 and Ro 31-8220 used alone or in combination with DNA-damaging agents in U1810 cells was investigated. In these cells Ro 31-8220 neither induced apoptosis when used alone, nor sensitized cells to etoposide treatment. PKC 412 as a single agent induced death of a small number of U1810 cells, whereas it efficiently triggered a dose- and time-dependent apoptosis in U1285 small cell lung carcinoma cells. In both cell types PKC 412 triggered release of mitochondrial proteins followed by caspase activation. However, concomitant activation of a caspase-independent pathway was essential to kill NSCLC cells. Importantly, PKC 412 was able to sensitize etoposide- and radiation-induced death of U1810 cells. The best sensitization was achieved when PKC 412 was administered 24 h after treatments. In U1810 cells, Ro 31-8220 decreased PMA-induced ERK phosphorylation as efficiently as PKC 412, indicating that the failure of Ro 31-8220 to induce apoptosis was not due to weaker inhibition of conventional and novel PKC isoforms. However, Ro 31-8220 increased the basal level of ERK and Akt phosphorylation in both cell lines, whereas Akt phosphorylation was suppressed in the U1810 cells, which might influence apoptosis. These results suggest that PKC 412 could be a useful tool in increasing the efficiency of therapy of NSCLC

  2. PKC-η-MARCKS Signaling Promotes Intracellular Survival of Unopsonized Burkholderia thailandensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheva-Viteva, Sofiya N; Shou, Yulin; Ganguly, Kumkum; Wu, Terry H; Hong-Geller, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Pathogenic Burkholderia rely on host factors for efficient intracellular replication and are highly refractory to antibiotic treatment. To identify host genes that are required by Burkholderia spp. during infection, we performed a RNA interference (RNAi) screen of the human kinome and identified 35 host kinases that facilitated Burkholderia thailandensis intracellular survival in human monocytic THP-1 cells. We validated a selection of host kinases using imaging flow cytometry to assess efficiency of B. thailandensis survival in the host upon siRNA-mediated knockdown. We focused on the role of the novel protein kinase C isoform, PKC-η, in Burkholderia infection and characterized PKC-η/MARCKS signaling as a key event that promotes the survival of unopsonized B. thailandensis CDC2721121 within host cells. While infection of lung epithelial cells with unopsonized Gram-negative bacteria stimulated phosphorylation of Ser175/160 in the MARCKS effector domain, siRNA-mediated knockdown of PKC-η expression reduced the levels of phosphorylated MARCKS by >3-fold in response to infection with Bt CDC2721121. We compared the effect of the conventional PKC-α and novel PKC-η isoforms on the growth of B. thailandensis CDC2721121 within monocytic THP-1 cells and found that ≥75% knock-down of PRKCH transcript levels reduced intracellular bacterial load 100% more efficiently when compared to growth in cells siRNA-depleted of the classical PKC-α, suggesting that the PKC-η isoform can specifically mediate Burkholderia intracellular survival. Based on imaging studies of intracellular B. thailandensis , we found that PKC-η function stimulates phagocytic pathways that promote B. thailandensis escape into the cytoplasm leading to activation of autophagosome flux. Identification of host kinases that are targeted by Burkholderia during infection provides valuable molecular insights in understanding Burkholderia pathogenesis, and ultimately, in designing effective host

  3. Runx-dependent expression of PKC is critical for cell survival in the sea urchin embryo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCarthy John J

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Runx transcription factors play critical roles in the developmental control of cell fate and contribute variously as oncoproteins and tumor suppressors to leukemia and other cancers. To discover fundamental Runx functions in the cell biology of animal development, we have employed morpholino antisense-mediated knockdown of the sea urchin Runx protein SpRunt-1. Previously we showed that embryos depleted of SpRunt-1 arrest development at early gastrula stage and underexpress the conventional protein kinase C SpPKC1. Results We report here that SpRunt-1 deficiency leads to ectopic cell proliferation and extensive apoptosis. Suppression of the apoptosis by pharmacological inhibition of caspase-3 prevents the ectopic proliferation and rescues gastrulation, indicating that many of the overt defects obtained by knockdown of SpRunt-1 are secondary to the apoptosis. Inhibition or knockdown of SpPKC1 also causes apoptosis, while cell survival is rescued in SpRunt-1 morphant embryos coinjected with SpPKC1 mRNA, suggesting that the apoptosis associated with SpRunt-1 deficiency is caused by the deficit in SpPKC1 expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation indicates that SpRunt-1 interacts physically with SpPKC1 in vivo, and cis-regulatory analysis shows that this interaction activates SpPKC1 transcription. Conclusions Our results show that Runx-dependent activation of SpPKC1 is essential for maintaining protein kinase C activity at levels conducive to cell survival during embryogenesis.

  4. ETV6-NTRK3 as a therapeutic target of small molecule inhibitor PKC412

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chi, Hoang Thanh, E-mail: kk086406@mgs.k.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Medical Genome Sciences, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); Ly, Bui Thi Kim [Department of Medical Genome Sciences, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); Kano, Yasuhiko [Division of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Tochigi Cancer Center, Tochigi 321-0293 (Japan); Tojo, Arinobu [Division of Molecular Therapy, Department of Hematology/Oncology, Research Hospital, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Watanabe, Toshiki [Department of Medical Genome Sciences, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); Sato, Yuko [Musashimurayama Hospital, Musashimurayama, Tokyo 208-0011 (Japan)

    2012-12-07

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ETV6-NTRK3 is an oncogene with transformation activity in multiple cell lineages. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PKC412 could block ETV6-NTRK3 activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Loss of ETV6-NTRK3 phosphorylation leads to inactivation of its downstream signaling pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of ETV6-NTRK3 activation by PKC412 could be a novel strategy for the treatment. -- Abstract: The ETV6-NTRK3 (EN) fusion gene which encodes a chimeric tyrosine kinase was first identified by cloning of the t(12;15)(p13;q25) translocation in congenital fibrosarcoma (CFS). Since then, EN has been also found in congenital mesoblastic nephroma (CMN), secretory breast carcinoma (SBC) and acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). Using IMS-M2 and M0-91 cell lines harboring the EN fusion gene, and Ba/F3 cells stably transfected with EN, we demonstrated that PKC412, also known as midostaurin, is an inhibitor of EN. Inhibition of EN activity by PKC412 suppressed the activity of it downstream molecules leading to inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis. Our data for the first time suggested that PKC412 could serve as therapeutic drug for treatment of patients with this fusion.

  5. ETV6–NTRK3 as a therapeutic target of small molecule inhibitor PKC412

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, Hoang Thanh; Ly, Bui Thi Kim; Kano, Yasuhiko; Tojo, Arinobu; Watanabe, Toshiki; Sato, Yuko

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► ETV6–NTRK3 is an oncogene with transformation activity in multiple cell lineages. ► PKC412 could block ETV6–NTRK3 activation. ► Loss of ETV6–NTRK3 phosphorylation leads to inactivation of its downstream signaling pathway. ► Inhibition of ETV6–NTRK3 activation by PKC412 could be a novel strategy for the treatment. -- Abstract: The ETV6–NTRK3 (EN) fusion gene which encodes a chimeric tyrosine kinase was first identified by cloning of the t(12;15)(p13;q25) translocation in congenital fibrosarcoma (CFS). Since then, EN has been also found in congenital mesoblastic nephroma (CMN), secretory breast carcinoma (SBC) and acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). Using IMS-M2 and M0–91 cell lines harboring the EN fusion gene, and Ba/F3 cells stably transfected with EN, we demonstrated that PKC412, also known as midostaurin, is an inhibitor of EN. Inhibition of EN activity by PKC412 suppressed the activity of it downstream molecules leading to inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis. Our data for the first time suggested that PKC412 could serve as therapeutic drug for treatment of patients with this fusion.

  6. Curcumin inhibits EMMPRIN and MMP-9 expression through AMPK-MAPK and PKC signaling in PMA induced macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jiatian; Han, Zhihua; Tian, Lei; Chen, Kan; Fan, Yuqi; Ye, Bozhi; Huang, Weijian; Wang, Changqian; Huang, Zhouqing

    2014-09-21

    In coronary arteries, plaque disruption, the major acute clinical manifestations of atherosclerosis, leads to a subsequent cardiac event, such as acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and unstable angina pectoris (UA). Numerous reports have shown that high expression of MMP-9 (matrix metalloproteinase-9), MMP-13 (matrix metalloproteinase-13) and EMMPRIN (extracellular matrix metalloproteinase induce) in monocyte/macrophage results in the plaque progression and destabilization. Curcumin exerts well-known anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects and probably has a protective role in the atherosclerosis. The purpose of our study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms by which curcumin affects MMP-9, MMP13 and EMMPRIN in PMA (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate) induced macrophages. Human monocytic cells (THP-1 cells) were pretreated with curcumin or compound C for 1 h, and then induced by PMA for 48 h. Total RNA and proteins were collected for real-time PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively. In the present study, the exposure to curcumin resulted in attenuated JNK, p38, and ERK activation and decreased expression of MMP-9, MMP-13 and EMMPRIN in PMA induced macrophages. Moreover, we demonstrated that AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase) and PKC (Protein Kinase C) was activated by PMA during monocyte/macrophage differentiation. Furthermore, curcumin reversed PMA stimulated PKC activation and suppressed the chronic activation of AMPK, which in turn reduced the expression of MMP-9, MMP-13 and EMMPRIN. Therefore, it is suggested that curcumin by inhibiting AMPK-MAPK (mitogen activated protein kinase) and PKC pathway may led to down-regulated EMMPRIN, MMP-9 and MMP-13 expression in PMA-induced THP-1 cells.

  7. Regulation of Kv1.4 potassium channels by PKC and AMPK kinases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Martin Nybo; Skibsbye, Lasse; Saljic, Arnela

    2018-01-01

    around the ubiquitin ligase Nedd4-2. In the present study we examined whether Kv1.4, constituting the cardiac Ito,s current, is subject to similar regulation. In the epithelial Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cell line, which constitutes a highly reproducible model system for addressing membrane...... targeting, we find, by confocal microscopy, that Kv1.4 cell surface expression is downregulated by activation of protein kinase C (PKC) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). In contrast, manipulating the activities of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K) and serum and glucocorticoid......-regulated kinase 1 (SGK1) were without effect on channel localization. The PKC and AMPK-mediated downregulation of Kv1.4 membrane surface localization was confirmed by two-electrode voltage clamp in Xenopus laevis oocytes, where pharmacological activation of PKC and AMPK reduced Kv1.4 current levels. We further...

  8. Total's LNG activities from Algeria to Yemen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vedrenne, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    In March 1995, further to an international tender, Total was awarded the leadership of the first LNG project in Yemen. On January 1997 Total announced the extension of the share-holding of the Yemen LNG Co. to include the companies with interests in the Marib area (Hunt-Exxon-Yukong). The Marib area will supply the gas to the future liquefaction plant. The ratification of these agreements confirms the role of Total as lead shareholder with 36% in the share-holding structure and guarantees gas supply from the Marib licence, operated by Hunt-Exxon. (author)

  9. PKC-Mediated ZYG1 Phosphorylation Induces Fusion of Myoblasts as well as of Dictyostelium Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiko Amagai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We have previously demonstrated that a novel protein ZYG1 induces sexual cell fusion (zygote formation of Dictyostelium cells. In the process of cell fusion, involvements of signal transduction pathways via Ca2+ and PKC (protein kinase C have been suggested because zygote formation is greatly enhanced by PKC activators. In fact, there are several deduced sites phosphorylated by PKC in ZYG1 protein. Thereupon, we designed the present work to examine whether or not ZYG1 is actually phosphorylated by PKC and localized at the regions of cell-cell contacts where cell fusion occurs. These were ascertained, suggesting that ZYG1 might be the target protein for PKC. A humanized version of zyg1 cDNA (mzyg1 was introduced into myoblasts to know if ZYG1 is also effective in cell fusion of myoblasts. Quite interestingly, enforced expression of ZYG1 in myoblasts was found to induce markedly their cell fusion, thus strongly suggesting the existence of a common signaling pathway for cell fusion beyond the difference of species.

  10. PKC-theta in regulatory and effector T-cell functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedran eBrezar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the major goals in immunology research is to understand the regulatory mechanisms that underpin the rapid switch on/off of robust and efficient effector (Teff or regulatory (Tregs T-cell responses. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of such responses is critical for the development of effective therapies. T-cell activation involves the engagement of T-cell receptor and co-stimulatory signals, but the subsequent recruitment of serine/threonine-specific protein Kinase C-theta (PKC-θ to the immunological synapse is instrumental for the formation of signalling complexes, that ultimately lead to a transcriptional network in T cells. Recent studies demonstrated that major differences between Teffs and Tregs occurred at the immunological synapse where its formation induces altered signalling pathways in Tregs. These pathways are characterized by reduced recruitment of PKC-θ, suggesting that PKC-θ inhibits Tregs suppressive function in a negative feedback loop. As the balance of Teffs and Tregs has been shown to be central in several diseases, it was not surprising that some studies revealed that PKC-θ plays a major role in the regulation of this balance.This review will examine recent knowledge on the role of PKC-θ in T-cell transcriptional responses and how this protein can impact on the function of both Tregs and Teffs.

  11. Fisetin regulates TPA-induced breast cell invasion by suppressing matrix metalloproteinase-9 activation via the PKC/ROS/MAPK pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Eun-Mi; Park, Yeon-Ju; Kim, Jeong-Mi; Kim, Mi-Seong; Kim, Ha-Rim; Song, Hyun-Kyung; Hong, On-Yu; So, Hong-Seob; Yang, Sei-Hoon; Kim, Jong-Suk; Park, Samg Hyun; Youn, Hyun-Jo; You, Yong-Ouk; Choi, Ki-Bang; Kwon, Kang-Beom; Lee, Young-Rae

    2015-10-05

    Invasion and metastasis are among the main causes of death in patients with malignant tumors. Fisetin (3,3',4',7-tetrahydroxyflavone), a natural flavonoid found in the smoke tree (Cotinus coggygria), is known to have antimetastatic effects on prostate and lung cancers; however, the effect of fisetin on breast cancer metastasis is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the anti-invasive activity of fisetin in human breast cancer cells. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 is a major component facilitating the invasion of many cancer tumor cell types, and thus the inhibitory effect of fisetin on MMP-9 expression in 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-stimulated human breast cancer cells was investigated in this study. Fisetin significantly attenuated TPA-induced cell invasion in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells, and was found to inhibit the activation of the PKCα/ROS/ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK signaling pathways. This effect was furthermore associated with reduced NF-κB activation, suggesting that the anti-invasive effect of fisetin on MCF-7 cells may result from inhibited TPA activation of NF-κB and reduced TPA activation of PKCα/ROS/ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK signals, ultimately leading to the downregulation of MMP-9 expression. Our findings indicate the role of fisetin in MCF-7 cell invasion, and clarify the underlying molecular mechanisms of this role, suggesting fisetin as a potential chemopreventive agent for breast cancer metastasis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Hu-Lu-Ba-Wan Attenuates Diabetic Nephropathy in Type 2 Diabetic Rats through PKC-α/NADPH Oxidase Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lishan Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hu-Lu-Ba-Wan (HLBW is a Chinese herbal prescription used to treat kidney deficiency. The aim of this study was to explore the effect and mechanism of HLBW on diabetic nephropathy (DN in type 2 diabetic rats. The rat model of DN was established by being fed a high-fat diet and intravenous injection of streptozotocin. Then, HLBW decoction was administered for 16 weeks. Blood glucose level, lipid profile, renal function, 24-hour total urinary protein, and albumin content were examined. Renal morphology and superoxide anion levels were evaluated. The activity of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH and protein kinase C-alpha (PKC-α related genes expression in renal tissue were also determined. Our data demonstrated that HLBW significantly improved hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and proteinuria in diabetic rats compared with those of control group. HLBW also alleviated glomerular expansion and fibrosis, extracellular matrix accumulation and effacement of the foot processes. Additionally, HLBW reduced superoxide anion level, NADPH oxidase activity, the protein and mRNA expressions of p47phox, and the protein expression of phosphorylated PKC-α in renal tissue. These results suggest that HLBW is effective in the treatment of DN in rats. The underlying mechanism may be related to the attenuation of renal oxidative stress via PKC-α/NADPH oxidase signaling pathway.

  13. Kibra and aPKC regulate starvation-induced autophagy in Drosophila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Ahrum [Department of Biological Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of); Neufeld, Thomas P. [Department of Genetics, Cell Biology and Development, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Choe, Joonho, E-mail: jchoe@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Biological Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-04

    Autophagy is a bulk degradation system that functions in response to cellular stresses such as metabolic stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, oxidative stress, and developmental processes. During autophagy, cytoplasmic components are captured in double-membrane vesicles called autophagosomes. The autophagosome fuses with the lysosome, producing a vacuole known as an autolysosome. The cellular components are degraded by lysosomal proteases and recycled. Autophagy is important for maintaining cellular homeostasis, and the process is evolutionarily conserved. Kibra is an upstream regulator of the hippo signaling pathway, which controls organ size by affecting cell growth, proliferation, and apoptosis. Kibra is mainly localized in the apical membrane domain of epithelial cells and acts as a scaffold protein. We found that Kibra is required for autophagy to function properly. The absence of Kibra caused defects in the formation of autophagic vesicles and autophagic degradation. We also found that the well-known cell polarity protein aPKC interacts with Kibra, and its activity affects autophagy upstream of Kibra. Constitutively active aPKC decreased autophagic vesicle formation and autophagic degradation. We confirmed the interaction between aPKC and Kibra in S2 cells and Drosophila larva. Taken together, our data suggest that Kibra and aPKC are essential for regulating starvation-induced autophagy. - Highlights: • Loss of Kibra causes defects in autophagosome formation and autophagic degradation. • Constitutively-active aPKCs negatively regulate autophagy. • Kibra interacts with aPKC in vitro and in vivo. • Kibra regulates autophagy downstream of aPKC.

  14. Knockout of the predominant conventional PKC isoform, PKCalpha, in mouse skeletal muscle does not affect contraction-stimulated glucose uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas E; Maarbjerg, Stine J; Rose, Adam J

    2009-01-01

    Conventional (c) protein kinase C (PKC) activity has been shown to increase with skeletal muscle contraction, and numerous studies using primarily pharmacological inhibitors have implicated cPKCs in contraction-stimulated glucose uptake. Here, to confirm that cPKC activity is required for contrac...... working on other parts of contraction-induced signaling or the remaining cPKC isoforms are sufficient for stimulating glucose uptake during contractions.......Conventional (c) protein kinase C (PKC) activity has been shown to increase with skeletal muscle contraction, and numerous studies using primarily pharmacological inhibitors have implicated cPKCs in contraction-stimulated glucose uptake. Here, to confirm that cPKC activity is required...... for contraction-stimulated glucose uptake in mouse muscles, contraction-stimulated glucose uptake ex vivo was first evaluated in the presence of three commonly used cPKC inhibitors (calphostin C, Gö-6976, and Gö-6983) in incubated mouse soleus and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles. All potently inhibited...

  15. Inhibition of PKC-dependent extracellular Ca2+ entry contributes to the depression of contractile activity in long-term pressure-overloaded endothelium-denuded rat aortas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padilla, J.; López, R.M.; López, P.; Castillo, M.C.; Querejeta, E.; Ruiz, A.; Castillo, E.F.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the contractile responsiveness of rat thoracic aortas under pressure overload after long-term suprarenal abdominal aortic coarctation (lt-Srac). Endothelium-dependent angiotensin II (ANG II) type 2 receptor (AT 2 R)-mediated depression of contractions to ANG II has been reported in short-term (1 week) pressure-overloaded rat aortas. Contractility was evaluated in the aortic rings of rats subjected to lt-Srac or sham surgery (Sham) for 8 weeks. ANG I and II levels and AT 2 R protein expression in the aortas of lt-Srac and Sham rats were also evaluated. lt-Srac attenuated the contractions of ANG II and phenylephrine in the aortas in an endothelium-independent manner. However, lt-Srac did not influence the transient contractions induced in endothelium-denuded aortic rings by ANG II, phenylephrine, or caffeine in Ca 2+ -free medium or the subsequent tonic constrictions induced by the addition of Ca 2+ in the absence of agonists. Thus, the contractions induced by Ca 2+ release from intracellular stores and Ca 2+ influx through stored-operated channels were not inhibited in the aortas of lt-Srac rats. Potassium-elicited contractions in endothelium-denuded aortic rings of lt-Srac rats remained unaltered compared with control tissues. Consequently, the contractile depression observed in aortic tissues of lt-Srac rats cannot be explained by direct inhibition of voltage-operated Ca 2+ channels. Interestingly, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced contractions in endothelium-denuded aortic rings of lt-Srac rats were depressed in the presence but not in the absence of extracellular Ca 2+ . Neither levels of angiotensins nor of AT 2 R were modified in the aortas after lt-Srac. The results suggest that, in rat thoracic aortas, lt-Srac selectively inhibited protein kinase C-mediated activation of contraction that is dependent on extracellular Ca 2+ entry

  16. Expression of P-aPKC-iota, E-cadherin, and beta-catenin related to invasion and metastasis in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Guang-Sheng; Wang, Jian-Ming; Lu, Jin-Xi; Li, Qiang; Ma, Chao-Qun; Du, Ji-Tao; Zou, Sheng-Quan

    2009-06-01

    Atypical protein kinase C iota (aPKC-iota) and its associated intracellular molecules, E-cadherin and beta-catenin, are important for cell polarization in tumorigenesis and progression. Expression of aPKC-iota, P-aPKC-iota (activated aPKC-iota), E-cadherin, and beta-catenin in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was measured, and correlation with clinicopathological characteristics of HCC was analyzed. Paraffin-embedded tumor tissue was obtained from patients with HCC after resection without preoperative radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Gene expression was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and protein expression was detected by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. Expressions of aPKC-iota, P-aPKC-iota, E-cadherin, and beta-catenin were analyzed with relation to the clinicopathological data. The gene and protein expression of aPKC-iota are obviously higher in HCC tissues than that in peritumoral tissues and normal tissues by semiquantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry methods. Accumulation of aPKC-iota in HCC cytoplasm and nucleolus inhibited the later formation of belt-like adherens junctions (AJs) and/or tight junctions (TJs) in cell-cell contact. E-cadherin was reduced and accumulation of cytoplasm beta-catenin was increased in HCC. The expression of aPKC-iota was closely related to pathological differentiation, tumor size, invasion, and metastasis of HCC. Accumulation of cytoplasm aPKC-iota may reflect pathological differentiation, invasion, and metastasis potential of HCC. In this regard, our study on HCC revealed the potential usefulness of aPKC-iota, E-cadherin, and beta-catenin as a prognostic marker, closely related to pathological differentiation, invasion, metastasis, and prognosis of HCC.

  17. The aPKC-CBP Pathway Regulates Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis in an Age-Dependent Manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayden Gouveia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available While epigenetic modifications have emerged as attractive substrates to integrate environmental changes into the determination of cell identity and function, specific signals that directly activate these epigenetic modifications remain unknown. Here, we examine the role of atypical protein kinase C (aPKC-mediated Ser436 phosphorylation of CBP, a histone acetyltransferase, in adult hippocampal neurogenesis and memory. Using a knockin mouse strain (CbpS436A in which the aPKC-CBP pathway is deficient, we observe impaired hippocampal neuronal differentiation, maturation, and memory and diminished binding of CBP to CREB in 6-month-old CbpS436A mice, but not at 3 months of age. Importantly, elevation of CREB activity rescues these deficits, and CREB activity is reduced whereas aPKC activity is increased in the murine hippocampus as they age from 3 to 6 months regardless of genotype. Thus, the aPKC-CBP pathway is a homeostatic compensatory mechanism that modulates hippocampal neurogenesis and memory in an age-dependent manner in response to reduced CREB activity.

  18. Evidence against roles for phorbol binding protein Munc13-1, ADAM adaptor Eve-1, or vesicle trafficking phosphoproteins Munc18 or NSF as phospho-state-sensitive modulators of phorbol/PKC-activated Alzheimer APP ectodomain shedding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovestone Simon

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shedding of the Alzheimer amyloid precursor protein (APP ectodomain can be accelerated by phorbol esters, compounds that act via protein kinase C (PKC or through unconventional phorbol-binding proteins such as Munc13-1. We have previously demonstrated that application of phorbol esters or purified PKC potentiates budding of APP-bearing secretory vesicles at the trans-Golgi network (TGN and toward the plasma membrane where APP becomes a substrate for enzymes responsible for shedding, known collectively as α-secretase(s. However, molecular identification of the presumptive "phospho-state-sensitive modulators of ectodomain shedding" (PMES responsible for regulated shedding has been challenging. Here, we examined the effects on APP ectodomain shedding of four phorbol-sensitive proteins involved in regulation of vesicular membrane trafficking of APP: Munc13-1, Munc18, NSF, and Eve-1. Results Overexpression of either phorbol-sensitive wildtype Munc13-1 or phorbol-insensitive Munc13-1 H567K resulted in increased basal APP ectodomain shedding. However, in contrast to the report of Roßner et al (2004, phorbol ester-dependent APP ectodomain shedding from cells overexpressing APP and Munc13-1 wildtype was indistinguishable from that observed following application of phorbol to cells overexpressing APP and Munc13-1 H567K mutant. This pattern of similar effects on basal and stimulated APP shedding was also observed for Munc18 and NSF. Eve-1, an ADAM adaptor protein reported to be essential for PKC-regulated shedding of pro-EGF, was found to play no obvious role in regulated shedding of sAPPα. Conclusion Our results indicate that, in the HEK293 system, Munc13-1, Munc18, NSF, and EVE-1 fail to meet essential criteria for identity as PMES for APP.

  19. Evidence against roles for phorbol binding protein Munc13-1, ADAM adaptor Eve-1, or vesicle trafficking phosphoproteins Munc18 or NSF as phospho-state-sensitive modulators of phorbol/PKC-activated Alzheimer APP ectodomain shedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikin, Annat F; Causevic, Mirsada; Pedrini, Steve; Benson, Lyndsey S; Buxbaum, Joseph D; Suzuki, Toshiharu; Lovestone, Simon; Higashiyama, Shigeki; Mustelin, Tomas; Burgoyne, Robert D; Gandy, Sam

    2007-12-09

    Shedding of the Alzheimer amyloid precursor protein (APP) ectodomain can be accelerated by phorbol esters, compounds that act via protein kinase C (PKC) or through unconventional phorbol-binding proteins such as Munc13-1. We have previously demonstrated that application of phorbol esters or purified PKC potentiates budding of APP-bearing secretory vesicles at the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and toward the plasma membrane where APP becomes a substrate for enzymes responsible for shedding, known collectively as alpha-secretase(s). However, molecular identification of the presumptive "phospho-state-sensitive modulators of ectodomain shedding" (PMES) responsible for regulated shedding has been challenging. Here, we examined the effects on APP ectodomain shedding of four phorbol-sensitive proteins involved in regulation of vesicular membrane trafficking of APP: Munc13-1, Munc18, NSF, and Eve-1. Overexpression of either phorbol-sensitive wildtype Munc13-1 or phorbol-insensitive Munc13-1 H567K resulted in increased basal APP ectodomain shedding. However, in contrast to the report of Rossner et al (2004), phorbol ester-dependent APP ectodomain shedding from cells overexpressing APP and Munc13-1 wildtype was indistinguishable from that observed following application of phorbol to cells overexpressing APP and Munc13-1 H567K mutant. This pattern of similar effects on basal and stimulated APP shedding was also observed for Munc18 and NSF. Eve-1, an ADAM adaptor protein reported to be essential for PKC-regulated shedding of pro-EGF, was found to play no obvious role in regulated shedding of sAPPalpha. Our results indicate that, in the HEK293 system, Munc13-1, Munc18, NSF, and EVE-1 fail to meet essential criteria for identity as PMES for APP.

  20. Role and mechanism of PKC on radiosensitization in pancreatic carcinoma cell line Panc-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao Qiao; Zhang Shuo; Chen Yanzhi; Li Guang

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effect of PKC on radiosensitization in pancreatic carcinoma cell line Panc-1, and its mediating mechanism. Methods: Panc-1 cells were treated with the specific activator of PKC (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, PMA) and the specific inhibitor of PKC (chelerythrine, CH) to observe the SF2 changes. Cell survival was determined by clonogenic assay. The apoptosis rates of the cells were analyzed by flow cytometry with Annexin V/PI staining. The expression of apoptosis related protein Bcl-2 and Bax after the treatment of CH and/or irradiation was determined by immunocytochemistry. Results: The SF 2 values of radiation group, PMA group and CH group were 0.78 ± 0.02, 0.92 ± 0.11 and 0.19 ± 0.20, respectively. CH can significantly increase the sensitivity of Panc-1 to irradiation. SERs of Panc-1 cells were 1.05, 1.24 and 1.77 after the treatment of 0.5, 2 and 8 μmol/L of CH, respectively. The result of flow cytometry analysis showed that PMA decreased the apoptosis index with irradiation, while CH significantly increased the apoptosis index. Expression of Bax protein was increased significantly (P<0.05) while that of Bcl-2 was not influenced; however, the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 was increased. Conclusions: PKC regulates the radiosensitivity of Panc-1 by mediating the apoptosis of tumor cells. (authors)

  1. Nup358 interacts with Dishevelled and aPKC to regulate neuronal polarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankhuri Vyas

    2013-10-01

    Par polarity complex, consisting of Par3, Par6, and aPKC, plays a conserved role in the establishment and maintenance of polarization in diverse cellular contexts. Recent reports suggest that Dishevelled (Dvl, a cytoplasmic mediator of Wnt signalling, interacts with atypical protein kinase C and regulates its activity during neuronal differentiation and directed cell migration. Here we show that Nup358 (also called RanBP2, a nucleoporin previously implicated in polarity during directed cell migration, interacts with Dishevelled and aPKC through its N-terminal region (BPN and regulates axon–dendrite differentiation of cultured hippocampal neurons. Depletion of endogenous Nup358 leads to generation of multiple axons, whereas overexpression of BPN abrogates the process of axon formation. Moreover, siRNA-mediated knockdown of Dvl or inhibition of aPKC by a pseudosubstrate inhibitor significantly reverses the multiple axon phenotype produced by Nup358 depletion. Collectively, these data suggest that Nup358 plays an important role in regulating neuronal polarization upstream to Dvl and aPKC.

  2. PKC signaling regulates drug resistance of the fungal pathogen Candida albicans via circuitry comprised of Mkc1, calcineurin, and Hsp90.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shantelle L LaFayette

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Fungal pathogens exploit diverse mechanisms to survive exposure to antifungal drugs. This poses concern given the limited number of clinically useful antifungals and the growing population of immunocompromised individuals vulnerable to life-threatening fungal infection. To identify molecules that abrogate resistance to the most widely deployed class of antifungals, the azoles, we conducted a screen of 1,280 pharmacologically active compounds. Three out of seven hits that abolished azole resistance of a resistant mutant of the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and a clinical isolate of the leading human fungal pathogen Candida albicans were inhibitors of protein kinase C (PKC, which regulates cell wall integrity during growth, morphogenesis, and response to cell wall stress. Pharmacological or genetic impairment of Pkc1 conferred hypersensitivity to multiple drugs that target synthesis of the key cell membrane sterol ergosterol, including azoles, allylamines, and morpholines. Pkc1 enabled survival of cell membrane stress at least in part via the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK cascade in both species, though through distinct downstream effectors. Strikingly, inhibition of Pkc1 phenocopied inhibition of the molecular chaperone Hsp90 or its client protein calcineurin. PKC signaling was required for calcineurin activation in response to drug exposure in S. cerevisiae. In contrast, Pkc1 and calcineurin independently regulate drug resistance via a common target in C. albicans. We identified an additional level of regulatory control in the C. albicans circuitry linking PKC signaling, Hsp90, and calcineurin as genetic reduction of Hsp90 led to depletion of the terminal MAPK, Mkc1. Deletion of C. albicans PKC1 rendered fungistatic ergosterol biosynthesis inhibitors fungicidal and attenuated virulence in a murine model of systemic candidiasis. This work establishes a new role for PKC signaling in drug resistance, novel circuitry through which

  3. Physical activity of elderly patients after total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukras, Zbigniew; Praczko, Katarzyna; Kostka, Tomasz; Jegier, Anna

    2007-01-01

    Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is the most common method of treatment of severe hip osteoarthritis. There is little data concerning the physical activity of total hip arthroplasty patients in Poland and investigations to explore this area are useful. The aim of the study was to describe the post-operative physical activity of total hip arthroplasty patients. A total of 146 adult people were examined, among which 28 men and 41 women had undergone total hip arthroplasty due to primary osteoarthritis of the hip, while another 32 men and 41 women matched for age who had not undergone hip surgery for osteoarthritis served as controls. The physical activity of study participants was assessed with the 7-Day Physical Activity Recall Questionnaire. All participants were also asked about the type and amount of physical activity they engaged in to maintain good health. Physical activity measured as the total amount of calories expended through physical activity per week was similar in the post-THA patients compared to the controls. The only differences were a smaller amount of calories expended during low-intensity physical activity by men after total hip arthroplasty compared to men who had not undergone surgery for osteoarthritis and a smaller amount of calories expended through high-intensity physical activity by women after total hip arthroplasty compared to female controls. The kinds of recreational physical activity most commonly practised by patients a mean of two years after total hip arthroplasty were marching, bicycling and general body conditioning exercises (usually the continuation of exercises recommended during post-operative rehabilitation). The percentage of post-THA patients undertaking physical activity for the prevention of non-communicable diseases was low. Physical activity should be more effectively encouraged in patients after total hip arthroplasty.

  4. Inhibition of MAPK and PKC pathways by 60Co γ-radiation in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Guanghong; Ma Yexin; Xiao Jianming

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the signal transduction pathways inhibited by 60 Co γ-radiation in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). Methods: The cultured VSMC were irradiated with 60 Co γ-radiation of 3.5, 7.0 and 14 Gy respectively. VSMC proliferation was measured by 3 H-TdR incorporation, while PKC, MAPK activities were determined by radioactivity assay. Results: Proliferation of VSMC was inhibited by 7.0, 14 Gy 60 Co γ-irradiation and the activities of PKC, MAPK were decreased significantly. Conclusion: Inhibitory effect of 7.0, 14 Gy 60 Co γ-irradiation on proliferation of VSMC might be resulted from decrease of the activity of PKC, MAPK

  5. TNF-alpha stimulates Akt by a distinct aPKC-dependent pathway in premalignant keratinocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurschou, A.; Gniadecki, R.

    2008-01-01

    , ERK1/2 and p38. The specific peptide blocking the activity of the atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) species zeta and iota/lambda abrogated the effects of TNF-alpha on Akt and ERK1/2 but increased the activation of p38. The TNF-alpha-dependent phosphorylation of Akt-ERK1/2 was slightly decreased by NF...

  6. Phytochemical screening, total phenolic, total flavonoids contents and antioxidant activity of cinchona ledgeriana leaves ethanol extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundowo, Andini; Artanti, Nina; Hanafi, M.; Minarti, Primahana, Gian

    2017-11-01

    C ledgeriana is a medicinal plant that contains alkaloids, especially on the barks for commercial production of quinine as antimalarial. The main alkaloids in this plant are cinchonine, cinchonidine, quinine and quinidine. Besides for antiamalarial this plant is also commonly used to treat whooping cough, influenza and dysentery. Compare to other medicinal plants, nowadays only very few studies were conducted in Cinchona species. Our current study aims to determine the content of phytochemical, total phenol and total flavonoids from C. ledgeriana leaves 70% ethanol extract. The extraction was performed by maceration method using 70% ethanol solvent and then fractionated into hexane, ethylacetate and butanol. Phytochemical screening was performed to determine the content of alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins and saponins. Total phenol and flavonoid contents of the extract were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu and alumunium chloride colorimetric methods using gallic acid and quercetin as standards. The antioxidant activity was determined by using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. The results of phytochemical screening showed that the 70% ethanol extract of C. ledgeriana leaves contained alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins and saponins. The total phenol and total flavonoids analysis showed that ethyl acetate fraction had the highest total phenol (40.23%) and total flavonoids (65.34%).

  7. PKC-Dependent GlyT1 Ubiquitination Occurs Independent of Phosphorylation: Inespecificity in Lysine Selection for Ubiquitination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana P Barrera

    Full Text Available Neurotransmitter transporter ubiquitination is emerging as the main mechanism for endocytosis and sorting of cargo into lysosomes. In this study, we demonstrate PKC-dependent ubiquitination of three different isoforms of the glycine transporter 1 (GlyT1. Incubation of cells expressing transporter with the PKC activator phorbol ester induced a dramatic, time-dependent increase in GlyT1 ubiquitination, followed by accumulation of GlyT1 in EEA1 positive early endosomes. This occurred via a mechanism that was abolished by inhibition of PKC. GlyT1 endocytosis was confirmed in both retinal sections and primary cultures of mouse amacrine neurons. Replacement of only all lysines in the N-and C-termini to arginines prevented ubiquitination and endocytosis, displaying redundancy in the mechanism of ubiquitination. Interestingly, a 40-50% reduction in glycine uptake was detected in phorbol-ester stimulated cells expressing the WT-GlyT1, whereas no significant change was for the mutant protein, demonstrating that endocytosis participates in the reduction of uptake. Consistent with previous findings for the dopamine transporter DAT, ubiquitination of GlyT1 tails functions as sorting signal to deliver transporter into the lysosome and removal of ubiquitination sites dramatically attenuated the rate of GlyT1 degradation. Finally, we showed for the first time that PKC-dependent GlyT1 phosphorylation was not affected by removal of ubiquitination sites, suggesting separate PKC-dependent signaling events for these posttranslational modifications.

  8. A novel DLX3-PKC integrated signaling network drives keratinocyte differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzo, Elisabetta; Kellett, Meghan D; Cataisson, Christophe; Bible, Paul W; Bhattacharya, Shreya; Sun, Hong-Wei; Gormley, Anna C; Yuspa, Stuart H; Morasso, Maria I

    2017-04-01

    Epidermal homeostasis relies on a well-defined transcriptional control of keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation, which is critical to prevent skin diseases such as atopic dermatitis, psoriasis or cancer. We have recently shown that the homeobox transcription factor DLX3 and the tumor suppressor p53 co-regulate cell cycle-related signaling and that this mechanism is functionally involved in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma development. Here we show that DLX3 expression and its downstream signaling depend on protein kinase C α (PKCα) activity in skin. We found that following 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) topical treatment, DLX3 expression is significantly upregulated in the epidermis and keratinocytes from mice overexpressing PKCα by transgenic targeting (K5-PKCα), resulting in cell cycle block and terminal differentiation. Epidermis lacking DLX3 (DLX3cKO), which is linked to the development of a DLX3-dependent epidermal hyperplasia with hyperkeratosis and dermal leukocyte recruitment, displays enhanced PKCα activation, suggesting a feedback regulation of DLX3 and PKCα. Of particular significance, transcriptional activation of epidermal barrier, antimicrobial peptide and cytokine genes is significantly increased in DLX3cKO skin and further increased by TPA-dependent PKC activation. Furthermore, when inhibiting PKC activity, we show that epidermal thickness, keratinocyte proliferation and inflammatory cell infiltration are reduced and the PKC-DLX3-dependent gene expression signature is normalized. Independently of PKC, DLX3 expression specifically modulates regulatory networks such as Wnt signaling, phosphatase activity and cell adhesion. Chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing analysis of primary suprabasal keratinocytes showed binding of DLX3 to the proximal promoter regions of genes associated with cell cycle regulation, and of structural proteins and transcription factors involved in epidermal differentiation. These results indicate

  9. Changes in total carbohydrate and total antioxidant activity induced by gamma irradiation of wheat flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manupriya, B.R.; Shenoy, K. Bhasker; Patil, Shrikant L.; Somashekarappa, H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Wheat is a staple food grain in India after rice and occupies number one position in the world. The wheat crop not only gives food grains but also gives fodder for animals. Among many preservation methods irradiation is a current technique used to overcome infestation, contamination and spoilage of stored grains. The present study is aimed to check the changes in composition of irradiated wheat flour. Wheat flour was exposed to five different irradiation doses (0.25 KGy, 0.5KGy, 1KGy, 5KGy and 10 KGy) by using 60 Co gamma-irradiation chamber. Irradiated flour was stored in air sealed polyethylene pouch and plastic container at room temperature for different time intervals (0 th day, 1 month and 3 months). The stored flour was checked for total antioxidant activity by phosphomolybdate method and total carbohydrates concentration by phenol-sulphuric acid method. On 0 th day total antioxidant activity and total carbohydrate concentration was found to be increased at 0.5KGy (0.113 mg/ml and 0.045 mg/ml respectively) when compared to control (0.79 mg/ml and 39.5 mg/ml). Similarly for 1 month stored samples of air sealed polyethylene pouch total antioxidant activity and total carbohydrate concentration was observed to be increased at 0.5KGy (0.117 mg/ml and 0.045mg/ml respectively) when compared to control (0.096 mg/ml and 0.035 mg/ml). But in case of stored samples of plastic container total antioxidant activity increased at 0.25KGy (0.060 mg/ml) and total carbohydrate increased at 5KGy (0.051 mg/ml). Increased and decreased values were found in both factors for 3 months stored samples of air sealed polyethylene pouch and plastic container. Total antioxidant activity increased at 5KGy (0.072 mg/ml) for polyethylene bag samples and at 0.5KGy (0.137 mg/ml) for plastic container sample. Same way total carbohydrate concentration increased at 0.25KGy (0.046 mg/ml) and at 1KGy (0.045 mg/ml) respectively. This increase is due to affects of γ-irradiation on biomolecules by

  10. Response of total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of bush ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The positive health benefits associated with tea are made possible by the antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds present in tea. The total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of bush tea (Athrixia phylicoides DC.) and special tea (Monsonia burkeana) were studied. The extractions were done in triplicate using cold ...

  11. Anisotropy of Crumbs and aPKC drives myosin cable assembly during tube formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röper, Katja

    2012-11-13

    The formation of tubular structures from epithelial sheets is a key process of organ formation in all animals, but the cytoskeletal rearrangements that cause the cell shape changes that drive tubulogenesis are not well understood. Using live imaging and super-resolution microscopy to analyze the tubulogenesis of the Drosophila salivary glands, I find that an anisotropic plasma membrane distribution of the protein Crumbs, mediated by its large extracellular domain, determines the subcellular localization of a supracellular actomyosin cable in the cells at the placode border, with myosin II accumulating at edges where Crumbs is lowest. Laser ablation shows that the cable is under increased tension, implying an active involvement in the invagination process. Crumbs anisotropy leads to anisotropic distribution of aPKC, which in turn can negatively regulate Rok, thus preventing the formation of a cable where Crumbs and aPKC are localized. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Participation of Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) in Asthma Exacerbations Induced by Psychological Stress via PKA/PKC Signal Pathway in Airway-Related Vagal Preganglionic Neurons (AVPNs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Lili; Zhu, Lei; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Xingyi; Zhang, Guoqing; Liu, Zhenwei; Li, Qiang; Zhou, Xin

    2017-01-01

    Present study was performed to examine whether ADH was implicated in psychological stress asthma and to explore the underlying molecular mechanism. We not only examined ADH levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) via radioimmunoassay, but also measured ADH receptor (ADHR) expression in airway-related vagal preganglionic neurons (AVPNs) through real-time PCR in all experimental mice. Western blotting was performed to evaluate the relationship between ADH and PKA/PKC in psychological stress asthma. Finally, the role of PKA/PKC in psychological stress asthma was analyzed. Marked asthma exacerbations were noted owing to significantly elevated levels of ADH and ADHR after psychological stress induction as compared to OVA alone (asthma group). ADHR antagonists (SR-49095 or SR-121463A) dramatically lowered higher protein levels of PKAα and PKCα induced by psychological stress as compared to OVA alone, suggesting the correlation between ADH and PKA/PKC in psychological stress asthma. KT-5720 (PKA inhibitor) and Go-7874 (PKC inhibitor) further directly revealed the involvement of PKA/PKC in psychological stress asthma. Some notable changes were also noted after employing PKA and PKC inhibitors in psychological stress asthma, including reduced asthmatic inflammation (lower eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) activity, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, immunoglobulin E (IgE) level, and histamine release), substantial decrements in inflammatory cell counts (eosinophils and lymphocytes), and decreased cytokine secretion (IL-6, IL-10, and IFN-γ), indicating the involvement of PKA/PKC in asthma exacerbations induced by psychological stress. Our results strongly suggested that ADH participated in psychological stress-induced asthma exacerbations via PKA/PKC signal pathway in AVPNs. © 2017 The Author(s)Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Polydatin Attenuates H2O2-Induced Oxidative Stress via PKC Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huilian Qiao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction, which is found to precede the development of diverse cardiovascular diseases (CVDs. The aim of this study was to observe the protective effects of PD against H2O2-induced oxidative stress injury (OSI in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs and the possible mechanism of PD in OSI treatment. HUVECs were subjected to H2O2 in the absence or presence of PD. It turned out that PD improved cell viability and adhesive and migratory abilities, inhibited the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and reactive oxygen species (ROS, and elevated the content of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and superoxide dismutase (SOD. TUNEL, fluorometric assays, and Western blotting showed that OSI upregulated the apoptosis ratio, the activity of caspase-3 and the level of proapoptotic protein Bax and decreased the level of antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2. However, PD treatment partially reversed these damage effects and Protein Kinase C (PKC activation by thymeleatoxin (THX in turn eliminated the antiapoptotic effect of PD. Furthermore, PD attenuated the H2O2-induced phosphorylation of PKCs α and δ and increased the phosphorylation of PKC ε. Our results indicated that PD might exert protective effects against OSI through various interactions with PKC pathway.

  14. Bryostatin modulates latent HIV-1 infection via PKC and AMPK signaling but inhibits acute infection in a receptor independent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Mehla

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available HIV's ability to establish long-lived latent infection is mainly due to transcriptional silencing in resting memory T lymphocytes and other non dividing cells including monocytes. Despite an undetectable viral load in patients treated with potent antiretrovirals, current therapy is unable to purge the virus from these latent reservoirs. In order to broaden the inhibitory range and effectiveness of current antiretrovirals, the potential of bryostatin was investigated as an HIV inhibitor and latent activator. Bryostatin revealed antiviral activity against R5- and X4-tropic viruses in receptor independent and partly via transient decrease in CD4/CXCR4 expression. Further, bryostatin at low nanomolar concentrations robustly reactivated latent viral infection in monocytic and lymphocytic cells via activation of Protein Kinase C (PKC -alpha and -delta, because PKC inhibitors rottlerin and GF109203X abrogated the bryostatin effect. Bryostatin specifically modulated novel PKC (nPKC involving stress induced AMP Kinase (AMPK inasmuch as an inhibitor of AMPK, compound C partially ablated the viral reactivation effect. Above all, bryostatin was non-toxic in vitro and was unable to provoke T-cell activation. The dual role of bryostatin on HIV life cycle may be a beneficial adjunct to the treatment of HIV especially by purging latent virus from different cellular reservoirs such as brain and lymphoid organs.

  15. Cytotoxicity, Total Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant Activity of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The leaves of Annona muricata were extracted using ethanol and the extracts were evaluated for cytotoxicity using Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay, total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity using DPPH radical scavenging assay. The crude extract showed 73.33 % mortality at 1000 μg/mL concentration and its ...

  16. Study on Total Quality Management Activities in Taiwan Tourism Factories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chan Chung

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available As competition becomes increasingly fierce, how to integrate the concept of information technology involvement into total quality management activities and better serve the customers, thus increasing the effectiveness of their services, has become an important focus for many tourism factories in their selection of an appropriate operational strategy. With the tourism factories in Taiwan as the subjects, this study was therefore set out to investigate the impact of operational strategies, information technology involvement and motivation on the executive degree of total quality management (TQM activities, as well as the correlation between the executive degree of TQM activities and operational performance. This research was conducted from March to April 2016 using 56 effective questionnaires through a questionnaire survey method. According to the research findings, the higher the executive degree of TQM activities was, the more significant a positive impact it would have on operational performance; the execution of differentiation strategies would have a positive impact on the execution of TQM activities; the more a company was involved in information technology, the more significant a positive impact it would have on the execution of TQM activities; the higher the intrinsic motivation was, the more significant a positive impact it would have on the executive degrees of TQM activities. It is therefore advisable for tourism factories to implement TQM activities, adopt differentiation strategies, seek greater information technology involvement and become more strongly motivated toward TQM implementation in order to improve operational performance.

  17. Total phenolics and antioxidant activity of five medicinal plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, Cleyton Marcos de M.; Silva, Hilris Rocha e; Vieira-Junior, Gerardo Magela; Ayres, Mariane Cruz C.; Costa, Charllyton Luis S. da; Araajo, Delton Servulo; Cavalcante, Luis Carlos D.; Barros, Elcio Daniel S.; Araujo, Paulo Breitner de M.; Brandao, Marcela S.; Chaves, Mariana H.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes total phenolics content and antioxidant activity in the ethanolic extract of leaves, bark and roots of five medicinal plants: Terminalia brasiliensis Camb., Terminalia fagifolia Mart. and Zucc., Copernicia cerifera (Miller) H.E. Moore, Cenostigma macrophyllum Tul. var. acuminata Teles Freire and Qualea grandiflora Mart. The total phenolics content of the plant extracts, determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, varied from 250.0 ±8,2 to 763,63 ±13.03 mg of gallic acid equivalent/g dry EtOH extract. The antioxidant activity of extracts was evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay system. Extract of bark from T. brasiliensis, the most active, with an EC 50 value of 27.59 ± 0.82 μg/mL, was comparable to rutin (EC 50 = 27.80 ± 1.38) and gallic acid (EC 50 = 24.27 ± 0.31), used as positive controls. The relationship between total phenolic content and antioxidant activity was positive and significant for T. brasiliensis, C. macrophyllum and C. cerifera. (author)

  18. Failure of the PTEN/aPKC/Lgl Axis Primes Formation of Adult Brain Tumours in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Paglia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Different regions in the mammalian adult brain contain immature precursors, reinforcing the concept that brain cancers, such as glioblastoma multiforme (GBM, may originate from cells endowed with stem-like properties. Alterations of the tumour suppressor gene PTEN are very common in primary GBMs. Very recently, PTEN loss was shown to undermine a specific molecular axis, whose failure is associated with the maintenance of the GBM stem cells in mammals. This axis is composed of PTEN, aPKC, and the polarity determinant Lethal giant larvae (Lgl: PTEN loss promotes aPKC activation through the PI3K pathway, which in turn leads to Lgl inhibition, ultimately preventing stem cell differentiation. To find the neural precursors responding to perturbations of this molecular axis, we targeted different neurogenic regions of the Drosophila brain. Here we show that PTEN mutation impacts aPKC and Lgl protein levels also in Drosophila. Moreover, we demonstrate that PI3K activation is not sufficient to trigger tumourigenesis, while aPKC promotes hyperplastic growth of the neuroepithelium and a noticeable expansion of the type II neuroblasts. Finally, we show that these neuroblasts form invasive tumours that persist and keep growing in the adult, leading the affected animals to untimely death, thus displaying frankly malignant behaviours.

  19. Quercetin inhibits the invasion of murine melanoma B16-BL6 cells by decreasing pro-MMP-9 via the PKC pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xian-Ming; Huang, Shao-Peng; Xu, Qiang

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of the inhibitory effect of quercetin on the invasion of melanoma B16-BL6 cells previously reported by us, the mechanisms of quercetin-mediated inhibition of invasion were further investigated in the present study. The ability of B16-BL6 cells to invade and migrate was evaluated in terms of the numbers of cells penetrating a reconstituted basement membrane in the Transwell coculture system. The relative levels and activities of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and MMP-2 were determined by gelatin zymography and quantified using LabWorks 4.0 software. The quercetin-mediated inhibition of invasion was partially blocked by phorbol-12,13-dibutyrate (PDB), a PKC (protein kinase C) activator, and by doxorubicin, a PKC inhibitor. Only the proforms of MMP-9 (92 kDa) and MMP-2 (72 kDa) were detected by gelatin zymography. Quercetin dose-dependently decreased the gelatinolytic activity of pro-MMP-9. Doxorubicin also markedly reversed the quercetin-induced decrease. Quercetin showed a dose-dependent antagonism of increases in gelatinolytic activity of pro-MMP-9 induced by PDB and free fatty acid (another PKC activator). Together with the report that quercetin directly reduces PKC activity, the results reported here suggest that quercetin may inhibit the invasion of B16-BL6 cells by decreasing pro-MMP-9 via the PKC pathway.

  20. Activity and Quality of Life after Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świtoń, Anna; Wodka-Natkaniec, Ewa; Niedźwiedzki, Łukasz; Gaździk, Tadeusz; Niedźwiedzki, Tadeusz

    2017-10-31

    Coxarthrosis is a chronic musculoskeletal condition that causes severe pain and considerable limi-tation of the patient's motor performance. Total hip arthroplasty is one of the most common and effective methods used in the treatment of advanced degenerative changes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the activity and quality of life of patients after unilateral total hip arthroplasty. The study was conducted in a group of 189 patients who had undergone unilateral total hip arthroplasty. Goniometry was used to determine the range of motion of both hip joints. Patients' physical ability and pain severity were assessed based on the Harris Hip Score (HHS) questionnaire. The examination of the range of motion in the lower extremities revealed statistically significant diffe-rences in flexion (p<0.01), abduction (p=<0.01), adduction (p<0.01) and external rotation (p<0.01) between the operated and the healthy extremity. The greatest limitation of motion was demonstrated for external rotation (<14°). Approximately 14% of the patients were not able to perform this motion in their healthy hip joint, while 17.5% of them could not do so in the affected hip joint. Analysis of HHS results (mean = 79 pts) revealed that more than 50% of the patients described their functional ability and quality of life as good and excellent. It was demonstrated that 54% of patients did not suffer from pain, whereas minor or mild pain was noted in 35%. 1. A subjective clinical assessment of patients after total hip arthroplasty showed that their quality of life had improved. 2. It is necessary to perform physiotherapy after total hip arthroplasty, on both the operated and healthy side. 3. Exacerbation of pain and impaired activity in patients after total hip arthroplasty were associated with the female sex to a considerable extent.

  1. [Smoked sausages and food additives: evaluation of total mutagenic activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, A M; Tkacheva, D L

    2011-01-01

    The paper deals with the evaluation of the total mutagenic activity of samples of the inorganic and organic fractions of three technology smoked sausages (boiled-smoked, semi-smoked, and raw-smoked) and some food additives used to manufacture the above sausages. Their mild and moderate mutagenic effects were recorded in a Salmonella typhimurium bacterial test system with a metabolic activation system. Physicochemical analysis of the fractions of the smoked sausages has shown that their study samples are substantially contaminated with heavy metals and representatives of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, partially causing the mutagenic effects observed.

  2. Antioxidant activity, total phenolic, and total flavonoid of extracts from stems of Jasminum nervosum Lour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei, Xiangyong

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Guangxi traditional Chinese Medical University Universidad de Medicina Tradicional China de Guangxi This study evaluated the antioxidant activities of the extracts of Jasminum nervosum Lour. stems along with the effects of different extract solvents on total phenolics (TP, total flavonoids (TF, and antioxidant potential. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was assessed using the following methods: DPPH, ABTS+ both free radicals scavenging assays, and reducing assays. TP and TF were detected by spectrophotometric and HPLC methods. In former methods, the highest amount of TP content was ethy lacetate extract (EAE, expressed as gallic acid equivalents. The greatest TF content was in the n-butanol extract (BE, expressed as lutin equivalents. No significant difference was observed in the TP/TF content between these two extracts. The antioxidant activity and TP/TF content of three extracts seemed to follow the same trend. This implied that there is a good correlation between antioxidant activities and TP/TF content. But in HPLC methods, EAE contained the highest content of lutin and gallic acid, which decreased in the same order of EAE > BE > PE, the rank order of TP/TF content of EAE and BE were different according to antioxidant ability. The overall results showed that the EAE and BE were richer in phenolics and flavonoids than petroleum ether extract (PE, and may represent a good source of antioxidants.Este estudio evaluó las actividades antioxidantes de extractos de tallos de Jasminum nervosum Lour., y el efecto de diferentes disolventes de extracción en los fenoles totales (TP y flavonoides totales (TF, y su potencial antioxidante. La actividad antioxidante de los extractos fue evaluada usando los siguientes métodos: DPPH, ABTS+ y ensayos reductores. TP y TF fueron detectados por métodos espectroscópicos y por HPLC. Con el primer método, el contenido más alto de TP se obtuvo en el extracto con acetato de etilo (EAE, expresado como

  3. Effect of α1-adrenergic stimulation on phosphoinositide metabolism and protein kinase C (PK-C) in rat cardiomyocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaku, T.; Lakatta, E.; Filburn, C.R.

    1986-01-01

    Alpha 1 -adrenergic stimulation is known to enhance membrane phospholipid metabolism resulting in increases in inositol phosphates (IP's) and diacylglycerol (DAG). Cardiomyocytes prelabeled with 3 H-myo-inositol were treated with norepinephrine (NE) for 1-15 min, acid extracted, and IP's separated by ion exchange chromatography. Addition of NE (10 -5 M) in the presence of propranolol (10 -5 M) and LiCl (9 mM) enhanced the accumulation of IP's, linearly with time up to 15 min, and reached 7.3, and 1.5-fold at 15 min for IP 1 , IP 2 , and IP 3 , respectively. KCl at 30 mM had no effect on accumulation of IP's, but augmented the effect of NE. PK-C activity was measured in both cytosol (S) and particulate (P) fractions of treated cells. NE alone had a negligible effect on membrane PK-C, while 30 mM KCl caused a small increase. However, pretreatment with KCl followed by NE produced a significant increase above that seen with KCl alone. Dioctanoylglycerol also stimulated membrane association of PK-C in these cells. These data suggest that α 1 -adrenergic stimulation of membrane association of myocardial PK-C is mediated by DAG but may be dependent on membrane potential and/or the extent of Ca 2+ loading

  4. Antioxidant Activities of Total Pigment Extract from Blackberries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiechao Liu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Total pigment has been extracted from blackberries and its antioxidant activity against lipid peroxidation and scavenging capacities towards superoxide anion radicals, hydroxyl radicals and nitrite in different in vitro systems have been investigated. The total pigment extract from blackberries (TPEB exhibited strong antioxidant activity against lipid peroxidation in a linoleic acid model system and scavenging capacities towards superoxide anion radicals, generated by a pyrogallol autoxidation system or by an illuminating riboflavin system, hydroxyl radicals generated by Fenton reaction, and nitrite. Furthermore, the antioxidant activities were correlated with the concentrations of the TPEB. In the test concentration range, the maximum inhibition percentage against linoleic acid peroxidation was 98.32 % after one week’s incubation, and the maximum scavenging percentages for the free radicals and nitrite inhibition in the above reactive systems reached 90.48, 96.48, 93.58 and 98.94 %, respectively. The TPEB is a natural, edible colorant with excellent antioxidant activities and health benefits and it seems to be applicable in both healthy food and medicine.

  5. Interfering RNA against PKC-α Inhibits TNF-α-induced IP3R1 Expression and Improves Glomerular Filtration Rate in Rats with Fulminant Hepatic Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong-Lei; Dai, Wen-Ying; Wang, Wen; Wen, Ying; Zhou, Ying; Zhao, Yi-Tong; Wu, Jian; Liu, Pei

    2018-01-10

    We have reported that tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-α) is critical for reduction of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in rats with fulminant hepatic failure (FHF). The present study aims to evaluate the underlying mechanisms of decreased GFR during acute hepatic failure. Rats with FHF induced by D-galactosamine plus lipopolysaccharide (GalN/LPS) were injected intravenously with recombinant lentivirus harboring shRNA against the protein kinase C-α (PKC-α) gene (Lenti-shRNA-PKC-α). GFR, serum levels of aminotransferases, creatinine, urea nitrogen, potassium, sodium, chloride, TNF-α and endothelin-1 (ET-1), as well as type 1 inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R1) expression in renal tissue were assessed. The effects of PKC-α silencing on TNF-α-induced IP3R1, specificity protein 1 (SP-1) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) expression, as well as cytosolic calcium content were determined in glomerular mesangial cell (GMCs) with RNAi against PKC-α. Renal IP3R1 overexpression was abrogated by pre-treatment with Lenti-shRNA-PKC-α. The PKC- silence significantly improved the compromised GFR, reduced Cr levels, and reversed the decrease in glomerular inulin space and the increase in glomerular calcium content in GalN/LPS-exposed rats. TNF-α treatment increased expression of PKC-α, IP3R1, specificity protein 1 (SP-1), JNK and p-JNK in GMCs, and increased Ca2+ release and binding activity of SP-1 to the IP3R1 promoter. These effects were blocked by transfection of siRNA against the PKC-α gene, and the PKC-α gene silence also restored cytosolic [Ca2+]i. RNAi targeting PKC-α inhibited TNF-α-induced IP3R1 overexpression, and in turn improved compromised GFR in the development of acute kidney injury during FHF in rats.

  6. A novel DLX3–PKC integrated signaling network drives keratinocyte differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzo, Elisabetta; Kellett, Meghan D; Cataisson, Christophe; Bible, Paul W; Bhattacharya, Shreya; Sun, Hong-wei; Gormley, Anna C; Yuspa, Stuart H; Morasso, Maria I

    2017-01-01

    Epidermal homeostasis relies on a well-defined transcriptional control of keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation, which is critical to prevent skin diseases such as atopic dermatitis, psoriasis or cancer. We have recently shown that the homeobox transcription factor DLX3 and the tumor suppressor p53 co-regulate cell cycle-related signaling and that this mechanism is functionally involved in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma development. Here we show that DLX3 expression and its downstream signaling depend on protein kinase C α (PKCα) activity in skin. We found that following 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) topical treatment, DLX3 expression is significantly upregulated in the epidermis and keratinocytes from mice overexpressing PKCα by transgenic targeting (K5-PKCα), resulting in cell cycle block and terminal differentiation. Epidermis lacking DLX3 (DLX3cKO), which is linked to the development of a DLX3-dependent epidermal hyperplasia with hyperkeratosis and dermal leukocyte recruitment, displays enhanced PKCα activation, suggesting a feedback regulation of DLX3 and PKCα. Of particular significance, transcriptional activation of epidermal barrier, antimicrobial peptide and cytokine genes is significantly increased in DLX3cKO skin and further increased by TPA-dependent PKC activation. Furthermore, when inhibiting PKC activity, we show that epidermal thickness, keratinocyte proliferation and inflammatory cell infiltration are reduced and the PKC-DLX3-dependent gene expression signature is normalized. Independently of PKC, DLX3 expression specifically modulates regulatory networks such as Wnt signaling, phosphatase activity and cell adhesion. Chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing analysis of primary suprabasal keratinocytes showed binding of DLX3 to the proximal promoter regions of genes associated with cell cycle regulation, and of structural proteins and transcription factors involved in epidermal differentiation. These results indicate

  7. Total body neutron activation analysis of calcium: calibration and normalisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, N S.J.; Eastell, R; Ferrington, C M; Simpson, J D; Strong, J A [Western General Hospital, Edinburgh (UK); Smith, M A; Tothill, P [Royal Infirmary, Edinburgh (UK)

    1982-05-01

    An irradiation system has been designed, using a neutron beam from a cyclotron, which optimises the uniformity of activation of calcium. Induced activity is measured in a scanning, shadow-shield whole-body counter. Calibration has been effected and reproducibility assessed with three different types of phantom. Corrections were derived for variations in body height, depth and fat thickness. The coefficient of variation for repeated measurements of an anthropomorphic phantom was 1.8% for an absorbed dose equivalent of 13 mSv (1.3 rem). Measurements of total body calcium in 40 normal adults were used to derive normalisation factors which predict the normal calcium in a subject of given size and age. The coefficient of variation of normalised calcium was 6.2% in men and 6.6% in women, with the demonstration of an annual loss of 1.5% after the menopause. The narrow range should make single measurements useful for diagnostic purposes.

  8. Expression and proliferation profiles of PKC, JNK and p38MAPK in physiologically stretched human bladder smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wazir, Romel; Luo, De-Yi; Dai, Yi; Yue, Xuan; Tian, Ye; Wang, Kun-Jie

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Stretch induces proliferation in human bladder smooth muscle cells (HBSMC). •5% Equibiaxial elongation produces maximum proliferation. •Physiologic stretch decreases apoptotic cell death. •PKC is involved in functional modulation of bladder. •JNK and p38 are not involved in proliferating HBSMC. -- Abstract: Objective: To determine protein kinase C (PKC), c-Jun NH2-Terminal Kinase (JNK) and P38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (p38MAPK) expression levels and effects of their respective inhibitors on proliferation of human bladder smooth muscle cells (HBSMCs) when physiologically stretched in vitro. Materials and methods: HBSMCs were grown on silicone membrane and stretch was applied under varying conditions; (equibiaxial elongation: 2.5%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%), (frequency: 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1 Hz). Optimal physiological stretch was established by assessing proliferation with 5-Bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) assay and flow cytometry. PKC, JNK and p38 expression levels were analyzed by Western blot. Specificity was maintained by employing specific inhibitors; (GF109203X for PKC, SP600125 for JNK and SB203580 for p38MAPK), in some experiments. Results: Optimum proliferation was observed at 5% equibiaxial stretch (BrdU: 0.837 ± 0.026 (control) to 1.462 ± 0.023)%, (P 0.05 SP600125) and (1.461 ± 0.01, P > 0.05 SB203580). These findings show that mechanical stretch can promote magnitude-dependent proliferative modulation through PKC and possibly JNK but not via p38MAPK in hBSMCs

  9. NMDAR NR2A and NR2B specific PKC-dependent regulation of mGluR is defective in the Fragile X Syndrome mouse model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banke, Tue G.; Toft, Anna Karina; Lundbye, Camilla Johanne

    The Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) animal model, the Fmr1 knock-out (KO) mouse, has demonstrated an increased mGluR5-mediated long-term depression (LTD). However, surprisingly little information exists about other ion channels/receptors and their effects on FXS, including NMDA receptors (NMDAR). Here we....... Furthermore, in this model it appears that NR2B activation stimulates PKC, while NR2A activation halts or reverses this effect. In addition, in the KO mice, the coupling between specific NMDAR subunits and mGluR-LTD activity through PKC seems defective in an age-dependent manner. These findings suggest strong...

  10. Melatonin potentiates glycine currents through a PLC/PKC signalling pathway in rat retinal ganglion cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wen-Jie; Zhang, Min; Miao, Yanying; Yang, Xiong-Li; Wang, Zhongfeng

    2010-07-15

    In vertebrate retina, melatonin regulates various physiological functions. In this work we investigated the mechanisms underlying melatonin-induced potentiation of glycine currents in rat retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Immunofluorescence double labelling showed that rat RGCs were solely immunoreactive to melatonin MT(2) receptors. Melatonin potentiated glycine currents of RGCs, which was reversed by the MT(2) receptor antagonist 4-P-PDOT. The melatonin effect was blocked by intracellular dialysis of GDP-beta-S. Either preincubation with pertussis toxin or application of the phosphatidylcholine (PC)-specific phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor D609, but not the phosphatidylinositol (PI)-PLC inhibitor U73122, blocked the melatonin effect. The protein kinase C (PKC) activator PMA potentiated the glycine currents and in the presence of PMA melatonin failed to cause further potentiation of the currents, whereas application of the PKC inhibitor bisindolylmaleimide IV abolished the melatonin-induced potentiation. The melatonin effect persisted when [Ca(2+)](i) was chelated by BAPTA, and melatonin induced no increase in [Ca(2+)](i). Neither cAMP-PKA nor cGMP-PKG signalling pathways seemed to be involved because 8-Br-cAMP or 8-Br-cGMP failed to cause potentiation of the glycine currents and both the PKA inhibitor H-89 and the PKG inhibitor KT5823 did not block the melatonin-induced potentiation. In consequence, a distinct PC-PLC/PKC signalling pathway, following the activation of G(i/o)-coupled MT(2) receptors, is most likely responsible for the melatonin-induced potentiation of glycine currents of rat RGCs. Furthermore, in rat retinal slices melatonin potentiated light-evoked glycine receptor-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic currents in RGCs. These results suggest that melatonin, being at higher levels at night, may help animals to detect positive or negative contrast in night vision by modulating inhibitory signals largely mediated by glycinergic amacrine cells in the inner

  11. A PKC-MARCKS-PI3K regulatory module links Ca2+ and PIP3 signals at the leading edge of polarized macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemba, Brian P; Falke, Joseph J

    2018-01-01

    The leukocyte chemosensory pathway detects attractant gradients and directs cell migration to sites of inflammation, infection, tissue damage, and carcinogenesis. Previous studies have revealed that local Ca2+ and PIP3 signals at the leading edge of polarized leukocytes play central roles in positive feedback loop essential to cell polarization and chemotaxis. These prior studies showed that stimulation of the leading edge Ca2+ signal can strongly activate PI3K, thereby triggering a larger PIP3 signal, but did not elucidate the mechanistic link between Ca2+ and PIP3 signaling. A hypothesis explaining this link emerged, postulating that Ca2+-activated PKC displaces the MARCKS protein from plasma membrane PIP2, thereby releasing sequestered PIP2 to serve as the target and substrate lipid of PI3K in PIP3 production. In vitro single molecule studies of the reconstituted pathway on lipid bilayers demonstrated the feasibility of this PKC-MARCKS-PI3K regulatory module linking Ca2+ and PIP3 signals in the reconstituted system. The present study tests the model predictions in live macrophages by quantifying the effects of: (a) two pathway activators-PDGF and ATP that stimulate chemoreceptors and Ca2+ influx, respectively; and (b) three pathway inhibitors-wortmannin, EGTA, and Go6976 that inhibit PI3K, Ca2+ influx, and PKC, respectively; on (c) four leading edge activity sensors-AKT-PH-mRFP, CKAR, MARCKSp-mRFP, and leading edge area that report on PIP3 density, PKC activity, MARCKS membrane binding, and leading edge expansion/contraction, respectively. The results provide additional evidence that PKC and PI3K are both essential elements of the leading edge positive feedback loop, and strongly support the existence of a PKC-MARCKS-PI3K regulatory module linking the leading edge Ca2+ and PIP3 signals. As predicted, activators stimulate leading edge PKC activity, displacement of MARCKS from the leading edge membrane and increased leading edge PIP3 levels, while inhibitors

  12. A PKC-MARCKS-PI3K regulatory module links Ca2+ and PIP3 signals at the leading edge of polarized macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian P Ziemba

    Full Text Available The leukocyte chemosensory pathway detects attractant gradients and directs cell migration to sites of inflammation, infection, tissue damage, and carcinogenesis. Previous studies have revealed that local Ca2+ and PIP3 signals at the leading edge of polarized leukocytes play central roles in positive feedback loop essential to cell polarization and chemotaxis. These prior studies showed that stimulation of the leading edge Ca2+ signal can strongly activate PI3K, thereby triggering a larger PIP3 signal, but did not elucidate the mechanistic link between Ca2+ and PIP3 signaling. A hypothesis explaining this link emerged, postulating that Ca2+-activated PKC displaces the MARCKS protein from plasma membrane PIP2, thereby releasing sequestered PIP2 to serve as the target and substrate lipid of PI3K in PIP3 production. In vitro single molecule studies of the reconstituted pathway on lipid bilayers demonstrated the feasibility of this PKC-MARCKS-PI3K regulatory module linking Ca2+ and PIP3 signals in the reconstituted system. The present study tests the model predictions in live macrophages by quantifying the effects of: (a two pathway activators-PDGF and ATP that stimulate chemoreceptors and Ca2+ influx, respectively; and (b three pathway inhibitors-wortmannin, EGTA, and Go6976 that inhibit PI3K, Ca2+ influx, and PKC, respectively; on (c four leading edge activity sensors-AKT-PH-mRFP, CKAR, MARCKSp-mRFP, and leading edge area that report on PIP3 density, PKC activity, MARCKS membrane binding, and leading edge expansion/contraction, respectively. The results provide additional evidence that PKC and PI3K are both essential elements of the leading edge positive feedback loop, and strongly support the existence of a PKC-MARCKS-PI3K regulatory module linking the leading edge Ca2+ and PIP3 signals. As predicted, activators stimulate leading edge PKC activity, displacement of MARCKS from the leading edge membrane and increased leading edge PIP3 levels, while

  13. The participation of NMDA receptors, PKC, and MAPK in the formation of memory following operant conditioning in Lymnaea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenegger David

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Memory is the ability to store, retain, and later retrieve information that has been learned. Intermediate term memory (ITM that persists for up to 3 h requires new protein synthesis. Long term memory (LTM that persists for at least 24 h requires: DNA transcription, RNA translation, and the trafficking of newly synthesized proteins. It has been shown in a number of different model systems that NMDA receptors, protein kinase C (PKC and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK are all involved in the memory formation process. Results Here we show that snails trained in control conditions are capable of forming, depending on the training procedure used, either ITM or LTM. However, blockage of NMDA receptors (MK 801, inhibition of PKC (GF109203X hydrochloride and MAPK activity (UO126 prevent the formation of both ITM and LTM. Conclusions The injection of either U0126 or GF109203X, which inhibit MAPK and PKC activity respectively, 1 hour prior to training results in the inhibition of both ITM and LTM formation. We further found that NMDA receptor activity was necessary in order for both ITM and LTM formation.

  14. Notch and PKC are involved in formation of the lateral region of the dorso-ventral axis in Drosophila embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremmel, Daniel M; Resad, Sedat; Little, Christopher J; Wesley, Cedric S

    2013-01-01

    The Notch gene encodes an evolutionarily conserved cell surface receptor that generates regulatory signals based on interactions between neighboring cells. In Drosophila embryos it is normally expressed at a low level due to strong negative regulation. When this negative regulation is abrogated neurogenesis in the ventral region is suppressed, the development of lateral epidermis is severely disrupted, and the dorsal aminoserosa is expanded. Of these phenotypes only the anti-neurogenic phenotype could be linked to excess canonical Notch signaling. The other phenotypes were linked to high levels of Notch protein expression at the surface of cells in the lateral regions indicating that a non-canonical Notch signaling activity normally functions in these regions. Results of our studies reported here provide evidence. They show that Notch activities are inextricably linked to that of Pkc98E, the homolog of mammalian PKCδ. Notch and Pkc98E up-regulate the levels of the phosphorylated form of IκBCactus, a negative regulator of Toll signaling, and Mothers against dpp (MAD), an effector of Dpp signaling. Our data suggest that in the lateral regions of the Drosophila embryos Notch activity, in conjunction with Pkc98E activity, is used to form the slopes of the opposing gradients of Toll and Dpp signaling that specify cell fates along the dorso-ventral axis.

  15. Notch and PKC are involved in formation of the lateral region of the dorso-ventral axis in Drosophila embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M Tremmel

    Full Text Available The Notch gene encodes an evolutionarily conserved cell surface receptor that generates regulatory signals based on interactions between neighboring cells. In Drosophila embryos it is normally expressed at a low level due to strong negative regulation. When this negative regulation is abrogated neurogenesis in the ventral region is suppressed, the development of lateral epidermis is severely disrupted, and the dorsal aminoserosa is expanded. Of these phenotypes only the anti-neurogenic phenotype could be linked to excess canonical Notch signaling. The other phenotypes were linked to high levels of Notch protein expression at the surface of cells in the lateral regions indicating that a non-canonical Notch signaling activity normally functions in these regions. Results of our studies reported here provide evidence. They show that Notch activities are inextricably linked to that of Pkc98E, the homolog of mammalian PKCδ. Notch and Pkc98E up-regulate the levels of the phosphorylated form of IκBCactus, a negative regulator of Toll signaling, and Mothers against dpp (MAD, an effector of Dpp signaling. Our data suggest that in the lateral regions of the Drosophila embryos Notch activity, in conjunction with Pkc98E activity, is used to form the slopes of the opposing gradients of Toll and Dpp signaling that specify cell fates along the dorso-ventral axis.

  16. Podocytic PKC-alpha is regulated in murine and human diabetes and mediates nephrin endocytosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irini Tossidou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Microalbuminuria is an early lesion during the development of diabetic nephropathy. The loss of high molecular weight proteins in the urine is usually associated with decreased expression of slit diaphragm proteins. Nephrin, is the major component of the glomerular slit diaphragm and loss of nephrin has been well described in rodent models of experimental diabetes as well as in human diabetic nephropathy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this manuscript we analyzed the role of PKC-alpha (PKCalpha on endocytosis of nephrin in podocytes. We found that treatment of diabetic mice with a PKCalpha-inhibitor (GO6976 leads to preserved nephrin expression and reduced proteinuria. In vitro, we found that high glucose stimulation would induce PKCalpha protein expression in murine and human podocytes. We can demonstrate that PKCalpha mediates nephrin endocytosis in podocytes and that overexpression of PKCalpha leads to an augmented endocytosis response. After PKC-activation, we demonstrate an inducible association of PKCalpha, PICK1 and nephrin in podocytes. Moreover, we can demonstrate a strong induction of PKCalpha in podocytes of patients with diabetic nephropathy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We therefore conclude that activation of PKCalpha is a pathomechanistic key event during the development of diabetic nephropathy. PKCalpha is involved in reduction of nephrin surface expression and therefore PKCalpha inhibition might be a novel target molecule for anti-proteinuric therapy.

  17. Method to determine the activity concentration and total activity of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angeles C, A.

    2001-02-01

    A characteristic system of radioactive waste is described to determine the concentration of radionuclides activity and the total activity of bundles of radioactive waste. The system this integrated by three subsystems: - Elevator of drums. - Electromechanics. - Gamma spectroscopy. In the system it is analyzed waste of issuing gamma specifically, and this designed for materials of relative low density and it analyzes materials of cylindrical recipients

  18. Impact Of Total Quality Management (TQM), Activity Based Costing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Time (JIT), and Total Quality Management (TQM) as strategic initiatives lead to improved financial performance in the Turkish textile industry. Strong evidence emerged that there is a strong positive association between using ABC, JIT or TQM ...

  19. Role for PKC-ε in neuronal death induced by oxidative stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Yi-Sook; Ryu, Bo Rum; Lee, Bo Kyung; Mook-Jung, Inhee; Kim, Seung Up; Lee, Soo Hwan; Baik, Eun Joo; Moon, Chang-Hyun

    2004-01-01

    We investigated which isoforms of PKCs can be modulated and what their roles are during L-buthionine-S,R-sulfoximine (BSO)-induced neuronal death. We observed the isoform specific translocation of PKC-ε from the soluble fraction to the particulate in cortical neurons treated with 10 mM BSO. The translocation of PKC-ε by BSO was blocked by antioxidant trolox, suggesting the PKC-ε as a downstream of reactive oxygen species (ROS) elevated by BSO. Trolox inhibited the ROS elevation and the neuronal death in BSO-treated cortical cells. The BSO-induced neuronal death was remarkably inhibited by both the pharmacological inhibition of PKC-ε with εV1-2 and the functional blockade for PKC-ε through overexpression of PKC-ε V1 region, suggesting the detrimental role of PKC-ε. These results suggest that PKC-ε is the major PKC isoform involved in the pathways triggered by ROS, leading to neuronal death in BSO-treated cortical neurons

  20. Tamoxifen in combination with temozolomide induce a synergistic inhibition of PKC-pan in GBM cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balça-Silva, Joana; Matias, Diana; do Carmo, Anália; Girão, Henrique; Moura-Neto, Vivaldo; Sarmento-Ribeiro, Ana Bela; Lopes, Maria Celeste

    2015-04-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is a highly proliferative, angiogenic grade IV astrocytoma that develops resistance to the alkylating agents used in chemotherapy, such as temozolomide (TMZ), which is considered the gold standard. The mean survival time for GBM patients is approximately 12 months, increasing to 14.6 months after TMZ treatment. The resistance of GBM to chemotherapy seems to be associated to genetic alterations and to the constitutive activation of several signaling pathways. Therefore, the combination of different drugs with different mechanisms of action may contribute to circumvent the chemoresistance of glioma cells. Here we describe the potential synergistic behavior of the therapeutic combination of tamoxifen (TMX), a known inhibitor of PKC, and TMZ in GBM. We used two GBM cell lines incubated in absence and presence of TMX and/or TMZ and measured cell viability, proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle, migration ability, cytoskeletal organization and the phosphorylated amount of the p-PKC-pan. The combination of low doses of TMX with increasing doses of TMZ shows an increased antiproliferative and apoptotic effect compared to the effect with TMX alone. The combination of TMX and TMZ seems to potentiate the effect of each other. These alterations seem to be associated to a decrease in the phosphorylation status of PKC. We emphasize that TMX is an inhibitor of the p-PKC-pan and that these combination is more effective in the reduction of proliferation and in the increase of apoptosis than each drug alone, which presents a new therapeutic strategy in GBM treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. PKA- and PKC-dependent regulation of angiopoietin 2 mRNA in human granulosa lutein cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, P S; Pietrowski, D; Keck, C

    2004-02-01

    New blood vessels develop from preexisting vessels in response to growth factors or hypoxic conditions. Recent studies have shown that angiopoietin 2 (ANGPT-2) plays an important role in the modulation of angiogenesis and vasculogenesis in humans and mice. The signaling pathways that lead to the regulation of ANGPT-2 are largely unclear. Here, we report that protein kinase C and protein kinase A activators (ADMB, 8-Cl-cAMP) increased the mRNA levels of ANGPT-2 in human Granulosa cells, whereas PKC and PKA Inhibitors (Rp-cAMP, GO 6983) decreased markedly the level of ANGPT-2 mRNA. Due to varying specificity of the modulators for certain protein kinases subunits, we conclude that the conventional PKCs, but not PKC alpha and beta1, the atypical PKCs and the PKA I, are involved in the regulation of ANGPT-2. These findings may help to explain the role of both PKA and PKC dependent signaling cascades in the regulation of ANGPT-2 mRNA.

  2. rich extract on total polyphenols and antioxidant activity obtained

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Z. Ghouila

    USTHB, Organic Functional Analysis Laboratory, 16111 Bab Ezzouar, Algiers, ... Keywords: Ahmeur Bouamer, extraction, grape seeds, total polyphenols, ... These compounds are known as good natural antioxidant agents arising from natural ... surface between solid and liquid phases; this is mainly due to the dispersion of ...

  3. Antioxidant, Phytotoxic and Antiurease Activities, and Total Phenolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the antioxidant, phytotoxic and anti-urease properties of dichloromethane and methanol extracts of Conocarpus lancifolius in correlation with total phenolic and flavonoid contents. Methods: The whole plant (dried aerial parts and root) of Conocarpus lancifolius was extracted successively with ...

  4. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic and flavonoid content of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-19

    Dec 19, 2011 ... Figure 3. Antioxidant activity of A. squarrosus extract by FTC method. A low absorbance value represents a high level of antioxidant activity. lipid peroxides. The Fe3+-thiocyanate complex produces a deep red color, which is detectable at 500 nm. The advantage of using ammonium thiocyanate over other.

  5. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil, Total Phenolics, Total Flavonoids and Antioxidant Activity of Methanolic Extracts of Satureja montana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avni Hajdari

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aerial parts of Satureja montana L. (Lamiaceae were collected from seven growing wild populations (four populations in Kosovo, two in Albania and one in Montenegro in 2013 with the aim of assessing the natural variation in the chemical composition of the essential oils, total flavonoids, total phenolics and the antioxidant activity of their methanolic extracts. Essential oils were obtained by steam distillation and analysed using GC-FID and GC-MS, whereas total flavonoids, total phenolics and antioxidant activities were determined using spectrophotometric methods. Sixty-one volatile constituents were identified. The main constituents were myrcene, p-cymene, γ-terpinene, linalool, thymol, carvacrol and viridiflorol. Total phenolics ranged from 68.1 to 102.6 mg/g dry mass, the total flavonoid content ranged from 38.3 to 67.0 mg/g dm, and the antioxidant activity according to the DPPH assay ranged from 253.3 to 342.9 mg TE/g dm and according to the FRAP assay ranged from 8.9 to 11.4 mg TE/g dm. Hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analyses were used to assess the geographical variations in the essential oil composition. Statistical analysis revealed that the analysed populations are grouped into four main clusters that appear to reflect the environmental impact on the chemical composition, which is influenced by differences in habitat composition, altitude and microclimatic conditions.

  6. The protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors combined with chemotherapy in the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L L; Cao, F F; Wang, Y; Meng, F L; Zhang, Y; Zhong, D S; Zhou, Q H

    2015-05-01

    The application of newer signaling pathway-targeted agents has become an important addition to chemotherapy in the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In this study, we evaluated the efficacy and toxicities of PKC inhibitors combined with chemotherapy versus chemotherapy alone for patients with advanced NSCLC systematically. Literature retrieval, trials selection and assessment, data collection, and statistic analysis were performed according to the Cochrane Handbook 5.1.0. The outcome measures were tumor response rate, disease control rate, progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and adverse effects. Five randomized controlled trials, comprising totally 1,005 patients, were included in this study. Meta-analysis showed significantly decreased response rate (RR 0.79; 95 % CI 0.64-0.99) and disease control rate (RR 0.90; 95 % CI 0.82-0.99) in PKC inhibitors-chemotherapy groups versus chemotherapy groups. There was no significant difference between the two treatment groups regarding progression-free survival (PFS, HR 1.05; 95 % CI 0.91-1.22) and overall survival (OS, HR 1.00; 95 % CI 0.86-1.16). The risk of grade 3/4 neutropenia, leucopenia, and thrombosis/embolism increased significantly in PKC inhibitors combination groups as compared with chemotherapy alone groups. The use of PKC inhibitors in addition to chemotherapy was not a valid alternative for patients with advanced NSCLC.

  7. Total Lightning Flash Activity Response to Aerosol over China Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengguo Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Twelve years of measurements of aerosol optical depth (AOD, cloud fraction, cloud top height, ice cloud optical thickness and lightning flash density from 2001 to 2012 have been analyzed to investigate the effect of aerosols on electrical activity over an area of China. The results show that increasing aerosol loading inspires the convective intensity, and then increases the lightning flash density. The spatial distribution of the correlation between aerosol loading and electrical activity shows a remarkable regional difference over China. The high-correlation regions embody the positive aerosol microphysical effect on the intensity of the electrical activity, while the large-scale processes may play the main role in convection development and producing lightning in low-correlation regions.

  8. Metformin and liraglutide ameliorate high glucose-induced oxidative stress via inhibition of PKC-NAD(P)H oxidase pathway in human aortic endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchuluun, Battsetseg; Inoguchi, Toyoshi; Sonoda, Noriyuki; Sasaki, Shuji; Inoue, Tomoaki; Fujimura, Yoshinori; Miura, Daisuke; Takayanagi, Ryoichi

    2014-01-01

    Metformin and glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) prevent diabetic cardiovascular complications and atherosclerosis. However, the direct effects on hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress in endothelial cells are not fully understood. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the effects of metformin and a GLP-1 analog, liraglutide on high glucose-induced oxidative stress. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), activation of protein kinase C (PKC) and NAD(P)H oxidase, and changes in signaling molecules in response to high glucose exposure were evaluated in human aortic endothelial cells with and without treatment of metformin and liraglutide, alone or in combination. PKC-NAD(P)H oxidase pathway was assessed by translocation of GFP-fused PKCβ2 isoform and GFP-fused p47phox, a regulatory subunit of NAD(P)H oxidase, in addition to endogenous PKC phosphorylation and NAD(P)H oxidase activity. High glucose-induced ROS overproduction was blunted by metformin or liraglutide treatment, with a further decrease by a combination of these drugs. Exposure to high glucose caused PKCβ2 translocation and a time-dependent phosphorylation of endogenous PKC but failed to induce its translocation and phosphorylation in the cells treated with metformin and liraglutide. Furthermore, both drugs inhibited p47phox translocation and NAD(P)H oxidase activation, and prevented the high glucose-induced changes in intracellulalr diacylglycerol (DAG) level and phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). A combination of these drugs further enhanced all of these effects. Metformin and liraglutide ameliorate high glucose-induced oxidative stress by inhibiting PKC-NAD(P)H oxidase pathway. A combination of these two drugs provides augmented protective effects, suggesting the clinical usefulness in prevention of diabetic vascular complications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Total synthesis and allelopathic activity of cytosporones A-C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamberlam, Charles E.M.; Meza, Alisson; Lima, Denis P. de; Beatriz, Adilson [Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologia, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo Grande, MS (Brazil); Leite, Carla Braga; Marques, Maria Rita [Centro de Ciencias Biologicas e da Saude, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo Grande, MS (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The search for efficient, environmentally friendly herbicides has been the focus of numerous studies on the organic synthesis of compounds isolated from natural sources. Cytosporones, which are phenolic lipids isolated from fungi, exhibit noteworthy biological properties. This paper reports the preparation of cytosporones A-C from the same starting material through a short synthetic route, with good yields. All compounds were tested for allelopathic activity on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L) seeds. Cytosporone A and its methylated precursor showed remarkable allelopathic activity, inhibiting seed germination and plantule growth. (author)

  10. Total synthesis and allelopathic activity of cytosporones A-C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamberlam, Charles E.M.; Meza, Alisson; Lima, Denis P. de; Beatriz, Adilson; Leite, Carla Braga; Marques, Maria Rita

    2012-01-01

    The search for efficient, environmentally friendly herbicides has been the focus of numerous studies on the organic synthesis of compounds isolated from natural sources. Cytosporones, which are phenolic lipids isolated from fungi, exhibit noteworthy biological properties. This paper reports the preparation of cytosporones A-C from the same starting material through a short synthetic route, with good yields. All compounds were tested for allelopathic activity on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L) seeds. Cytosporone A and its methylated precursor showed remarkable allelopathic activity, inhibiting seed germination and plantule growth. (author)

  11. Inhibition of PKC-dependent extracellular Ca{sup 2+} entry contributes to the depression of contractile activity in long-term pressure-overloaded endothelium-denuded rat aortas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padilla, J.; López, R.M.; López, P.; Castillo, M.C.; Querejeta, E.; Ruiz, A.; Castillo, E.F. [Sección de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigación, Escuela Superior de Medicina, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, México, DF (Mexico)

    2014-08-01

    We examined the contractile responsiveness of rat thoracic aortas under pressure overload after long-term suprarenal abdominal aortic coarctation (lt-Srac). Endothelium-dependent angiotensin II (ANG II) type 2 receptor (AT{sub 2}R)-mediated depression of contractions to ANG II has been reported in short-term (1 week) pressure-overloaded rat aortas. Contractility was evaluated in the aortic rings of rats subjected to lt-Srac or sham surgery (Sham) for 8 weeks. ANG I and II levels and AT{sub 2}R protein expression in the aortas of lt-Srac and Sham rats were also evaluated. lt-Srac attenuated the contractions of ANG II and phenylephrine in the aortas in an endothelium-independent manner. However, lt-Srac did not influence the transient contractions induced in endothelium-denuded aortic rings by ANG II, phenylephrine, or caffeine in Ca{sup 2+}-free medium or the subsequent tonic constrictions induced by the addition of Ca{sup 2+} in the absence of agonists. Thus, the contractions induced by Ca{sup 2+} release from intracellular stores and Ca{sup 2+} influx through stored-operated channels were not inhibited in the aortas of lt-Srac rats. Potassium-elicited contractions in endothelium-denuded aortic rings of lt-Srac rats remained unaltered compared with control tissues. Consequently, the contractile depression observed in aortic tissues of lt-Srac rats cannot be explained by direct inhibition of voltage-operated Ca{sup 2+} channels. Interestingly, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced contractions in endothelium-denuded aortic rings of lt-Srac rats were depressed in the presence but not in the absence of extracellular Ca{sup 2+}. Neither levels of angiotensins nor of AT{sub 2}R were modified in the aortas after lt-Srac. The results suggest that, in rat thoracic aortas, lt-Srac selectively inhibited protein kinase C-mediated activation of contraction that is dependent on extracellular Ca{sup 2+} entry.

  12. Activation of protein kinase C by elevation of glucose concentration: Proposal for a mechanism in the development of diabetic vascular complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Tianshing; Saltsman, K.A.; Ohashi, Hiromi; King, G.L.

    1989-01-01

    Hyperglycemia is believed to be the major cause of diabetic vascular complications involving both microvessels and arteries as in the retina, renal glomeruli, and aorta. It is unclear by which mechanism hyperglycemia is altering the metabolism and functions of vascular cells, although changes in nonenzymatic protein glycosylation and increases in cellular sorbitol levels have been postulated to be involved. Previously, the authors have reported that the elevation of extracellular glucose levels with cultured bovine retinal capillary endothelial cells causes an increase in protein kinase C (PKC) activity of the membranous pool with a parallel decrease in the cytosol without alteration of its total activity. Now they demonstrate that the mechanism for the activation of PKC is due to an enhanced de novo synthesis of diacylglycerol as indicated by a 2-fold increase of [ 14 C]diacylglycerol labeling from [ 14 C]glucose. The elevated diacylglycerol de novo synthesis is secondarily due to increased formation of precursors derived from glucose metabolism; this formation is enhanced by hyperglycemia as substantiated by elevated [ 3 H]glucose conversion into water. This effect of hyperglycemia on PKC is also observed in cultured aortic smooth muscle and endothelial cells and the retina and kidney of diabetic rats, but not in the brain. Since PKC in vascular cells has been shown to modulate hormone receptor turnover, neovascularization in vitro, and cell growth, they propose that this mechanism of enhancing the membranous PKC activities by hyperglycemia plays an important role in the development of diabetic vascular complications

  13. Haemoglobin and Lung Total and Lysosomal Phosphatase Activity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Smoking of ordinary cigarette exposes its active smokers to health hazards and the filter-tipped cigarette, is said to reduce the hazards. However, it is not certain if the filter-tipped cigarette reduces the hazards in passive smokers since they inhail the cigarette smoke through their nostrils regardless of whether the cigarette is ...

  14. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic and flavonoid content of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antioxidant capacity of the flowering aerial parts of Astragalus squarrosus was determined by 1,1- diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and ferric thiocyanate methods. The phenolic and flavonoid content was also measured. A. squarrosus showed weak free radical scavenging activity with the DPPH ...

  15. Whole-body dose meters. Measurements of total activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeppe, P.; Klinikum Steglitz, Berlin

    1990-01-01

    By means of measurements using a whole-body dose meter, the course of the incorporation of radionuclides was established between April 1986 and May 1989 for unchanged conditions of alimentation, activity-conscious alimentation, and uniquely increased incorporation. Monitoring covered persons from the most different spheres of life. The incorporation is compared with the one resulting from nuclear weapons explosions in the atmosphere. (DG) [de

  16. Rhodium in car exhaust tips by total automatic activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grass, F.; Westphal, G.P.; Lemmel, H.; Sterba, J.

    2007-01-01

    Exhaust systems of modern cars contain catalysts for the reduction of CO, NO x and hydrocarbons. These catalysts are made of ceramic materials with a large surface on which platinum metals catalyse the oxidation. The catalysts contain approximately 2 g of platinum and 0.4 g of rhodium. Recently platinum is being replaced by palladium. During driving the platinum-group elements (PGEs) are expelled from the tip in fine particles and are deposited in the environment. For a projected study of emissions from cars driven on streets and highways it is important to know which elements can be measured by short time activation analysis without any chemical procedure. (author)

  17. Acadesine kills chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML cells through PKC-dependent induction of autophagic cell death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Robert

    Full Text Available CML is an hematopoietic stem cell disease characterized by the t(9;22 (q34;q11 translocation encoding the oncoprotein p210BCR-ABL. The effect of acadesine (AICAR, 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-D-ribofuranoside a compound with known antileukemic effect on B cell chronic lymphoblastic leukemia (B-CLL was investigated in different CML cell lines. Acadesine triggered loss of cell metabolism in K562, LAMA-84 and JURL-MK1 and was also effective in killing imatinib-resistant K562 cells and Ba/F3 cells carrying the T315I-BCR-ABL mutation. The anti-leukemic effect of acadesine did not involve apoptosis but required rather induction of autophagic cell death. AMPK knock-down by Sh-RNA failed to prevent the effect of acadesine, indicating an AMPK-independent mechanism. The effect of acadesine was abrogated by GF109203X and Ro-32-0432, both inhibitor of classical and new PKCs and accordingly, acadesine triggered relocation and activation of several PKC isoforms in K562 cells. In addition, this compound exhibited a potent anti-leukemic effect in clonogenic assays of CML cells in methyl cellulose and in a xenograft model of K562 cells in nude mice. In conclusion, our work identifies an original and unexpected mechanism by which acadesine triggers autophagic cell death through PKC activation. Therefore, in addition to its promising effects in B-CLL, acadesine might also be beneficial for Imatinib-resistant CML patients.

  18. Differential roles of PKC isoforms (PKCs) in GnRH stimulation of MAPK phosphorylation in gonadotrope derived cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugami, Shany; Dobkin-Bekman, Masha; Rahamim-Ben Navi, Liat; Naor, Zvi

    2018-03-05

    The role of protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms (PKCs) in GnRH-stimulated MAPK [ERK1/2, JNK1/2 and p38) phosphorylation was examined in gonadotrope derived cells. GnRH induced a protracted activation of ERK1/2 and a slower and more transient activation of JNK1/2 and p38MAPK. Gonadotropes express conventional PKCα and PKCβII, novel PKCδ, PKCε and PKCθ, and atypical PKC-ι/λ. The use of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-PKCs constructs revealed that GnRH induced rapid translocation of PKCα and PKCβII to the plasma membrane, followed by their redistribution to the cytosol. PKCδ and PKCε localized to the cytoplasm and Golgi, followed by the rapid redistribution by GnRH of PKCδ to the perinuclear zone and of PKCε to the plasma membrane. The use of dominant negatives for PKCs and peptide inhibitors for the receptors for activated C kinase (RACKs) has revealed differential role for PKCα, PKCβII, PKCδ and PKCε in ERK1/2, JNK1/2 and p38MAPK phosphorylation in a ligand-and cell context-dependent manner. The paradoxical findings that PKCs activated by GnRH and PMA play a differential role in MAPKs phosphorylation may be explained by persistent vs. transient redistribution of selected PKCs or redistribution of a given PKC to the perinuclear zone vs. the plasma membrane. Thus, we have identified the PKCs involved in GnRH stimulated MAPKs phosphorylation in gonadotrope derived cells. Once activated, the MAPKs will mediate the transcription of the gonadotropin subunits and GnRH receptor genes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Physical education in schools, sport activity and total physical activity in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Missaki Nakamura

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Less than half of adolescents reach the recommended300 minutes per week of physical activity (PA. Physical educationclasses and sports participation provideopportunities for adolescents to accumulate moretime for PA practice; however, littleis known about the influence of these variables onthe level of total physical activity ofadolescents. The aim of this study was toinvestigate the association between the practiceof physical education (PE in schools and sportsactivities (SA with the practice oftotal PA of adolescents. The study wascross-sectional and involved 467 adolescents ofhigh school (15.8 ± 0.9 years-old from the city ofRio Claro, in the State of São Paulo. Participants completed the Physical ActivityQuestionnaire to Older Children (PAQ-Cand questions related to the practice of PE and SAin schools. We performed a logisticregression with p<0.05 using SPSS. Girls hadlower prevalence of PA than boys, 9.4% and26.8%, respectively. Boys who did not participateof PE classes (OR=0.25, CI95%=0.09-0.66 and SA in schools (OR=0.34, CI95%=0.12-0.95were less likely to be active in PAthan boys who practiced these activities. Theparticipation in PE classes or engagementin some SA were positively associated with thepractice of total PA in boys.

  20. Physical education in schools, sport activity and total physical activity in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Missaki Nakamura

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2013v15n5p517 Less than half of adolescents reach the recommended300 minutes per week of physical activity (PA. Physical educationclasses and sports participation provideopportunities for adolescents to accumulate moretime for PA practice; however, littleis known about the influence of these variables onthe level of total physical activity ofadolescents. The aim of this study was toinvestigate the association between the practiceof physical education (PE in schools and sportsactivities (SA with the practice oftotal PA of adolescents. The study wascross-sectional and involved 467 adolescents ofhigh school (15.8 ± 0.9 years-old from the city ofRio Claro, in the State of São Paulo. Participants completed the Physical ActivityQuestionnaire to Older Children (PAQ-Cand questions related to the practice of PE and SAin schools. We performed a logisticregression with p<0.05 using SPSS. Girls hadlower prevalence of PA than boys, 9.4% and26.8%, respectively. Boys who did not participateof PE classes (OR=0.25, CI95%=0.09-0.66 and SA in schools (OR=0.34, CI95%=0.12-0.95were less likely to be active in PAthan boys who practiced these activities. Theparticipation in PE classes or engagementin some SA were positively associated with thepractice of total PA in boys.

  1. [Pt(O,O'-acac)(γ-acac)(DMS)] alters SH-SY5Y cell migration and invasion by the inhibition of Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 1 occurring through a PKC-ε/ERK/mTOR Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscella, Antonella; Vetrugno, Carla; Calabriso, Nadia; Cossa, Luca Giulio; De Pascali, Sandra Angelica; Fanizzi, Francesco Paolo; Marsigliante, Santo

    2014-01-01

    We previously showed that [Pt(O,O'-acac)(γ-acac)(DMS)] ([Pt(acac)2(DMS)]) exerted substantial cytotoxic effects in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, and decreased metalloproteases (MMPs) production and cells migration in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. The ubiquitously distributed sodium-hydrogen antiporter 1 (NHE1) is involved in motility and invasion of many solid tumours. The present study focuses on the effects of [Pt(acac)2(DMS)] in SH-SY5Y cell migration and also on the possibility that NHE1 may be involved in such effect. After sublethal [Pt(acac)2(DMS)] treatment cell migration was examined by wounding assay and cell invasion by transwell assay. NHE1 activity was measured in BCECF-loaded SH-SY5Y as the rate of Na+-dependent intracellular pH recovery in response to an acute acid pulse. Gelatin zymography for MMP-2/9 activities, Western blottings of MMPs, MAPKs, mTOR, S6 and PKCs and small interfering RNAs to PKC-ε/-δ mRNA were performed. Sublethal concentrations of [Pt(acac)2(DMS)] decreases NHE1 activity, inhibits cell migration and invasion and decreases expression and activity of MMP-2 and -9. [Pt(acac)2(DMS)] administered to SH-SY5Y cells provokes the increment of ROS, generated by NADPH oxidase, responsible for the PKC-ε and PKCactivation. Whilst PKCactivates p38/MAPK, responsible for the inhibition of MMP-2 and -9 secretion, PKCactivates a pathway made of ERK1/2, mTOR and S6K responsible for the inhibition of NHE1 activity and cell migration. In conclusion, we have shown a drastic impairment in tumour cell metastatization in response to inhibition of NHE1 and MMPs activities by [Pt(acac)2(DMS)] occurring through a novel mechanism mediated by PKC-δ/-ε activation.

  2. Effect of extraction solvent on total phenol content, total flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity of Limnophila aromatica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quy Diem Do

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Limnophila aromatica is commonly used as a spice and a medicinal herb in Southeast Asia. In this study, water and various concentrations (50%, 75%, and 100% of methanol, ethanol, and acetone in water were used as solvent in the extraction of L. aromatica. The antioxidant activity, total phenolic content, and total flavonoid content of the freeze-dried L. aromatica extracts were investigated using various in vitro assays. The extract obtained by 100% ethanol showed the highest total antioxidant activity, reducing power and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity. The same extract also exhibited the highest phenolic content (40.5 mg gallic acid equivalent/g of defatted L. aromatica and the highest flavonoid content (31.11 mg quercetin equivalent/g of defatted L. aromatica. The highest extraction yield was obtained by using 50% aqueous acetone. These results indicate that L. aromatica can be used in dietary applications with a potential to reduce oxidative stress.

  3. Palm kernel cake extract exerts hepatoprotective activity in heat-induced oxidative stress in chicken hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskoueian, Ehsan; Abdullah, Norhani; Idrus, Zulkifli; Ebrahimi, Mahdi; Goh, Yong Meng; Shakeri, Majid; Oskoueian, Armin

    2014-10-02

    Palm kernel cake (PKC), the most abundant by-product of oil palm industry is believed to contain bioactive compounds with hepatoprotective potential. These compounds may serve as hepatoprotective agents which could help the poultry industry to alleviate adverse effects of heat stress on liver function in chickens. This study was performed to evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of PKC extract in heat-induced oxidative stress in chicken hepatocytes. The nature of the active metabolites and elucidation of the possible mechanism involved were also investigated. The PKC extract possessed free radical scavenging activity with values significantly (p < 0.05) lower than silymarin as the reference antioxidant. Heat-induced oxidative stress in chicken hepatocyte impaired the total protein, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes activity significantly (p < 0.05). Treatment of heat-induced hepatocytes with PKC extract (125 μg/ml) and silymarin as positive control increased these values significantly (p < 0.05). The real time PCR and western blot analyses revealed the significant (p < 0.05) up-regulation of oxidative stress biomarkers including TNF-like, IFN-γ and IL-1β genes; NF-κB, COX-2, iNOS and Hsp70 proteins expression upon heat stress in chicken hepatocytes. The PKC extract and silymarin were able to alleviate the expression of all of these biomarkers in heat-induced chicken hepatocytes. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of PKC extract showed the presence of fatty acids, phenolic compounds, sugar derivatives and other organic compounds such as furfural which could be responsible for the observed hepatoprotective activity. Palm kernel cake extract could be a potential agent to protect hepatocytes function under heat induced oxidative stress.

  4. Protein kinase C δ is activated in mouse ovarian surface epithelial cancer cells by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Shalmica R.; Son, Deok-Soo; Terranova, Paul F.

    2004-01-01

    Interactions between the 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and protein kinase C (PKC) signaling pathways are governed in cell and tissue-specific manners, albeit the physiological significance of which is unclear. This research sought to define the effects of TCDD on the PKC pathway using a mouse ovarian surface epithelial cancer cell line (ID8). Phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) potentiated (1 nM) TCDD-induced 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity after 24 h of treatment, and pre-treatment with (1 μM) of either a general PKC inhibitor (BisI) or PKCδ-specific inhibitor (Rotterlin) abolished the potentiation indicating that activation of PKC enhances TCDD signal transduction. Western blot analysis revealed that unstimulated ID8 cells express PKCα, β, ε, τ, λ and RACK1. PKCγ, η, θ and DGKθ were not detected. TCDD (1 nM) increased PKCδ protein approximately eight-fold after 24 h of treatment and this effect was dose-dependent (0.1-100 nM); other PKC isoforms and related signaling proteins tested were unaffected by TCDD treatment. Immunofluorescent microscopy revealed that TCDD (1 nM) promoted the subcellular redistribution of PKCδ, from the cytoplasm and the nucleus to the perinuclear area after 2 h of treatment, however, after 24 h of treatment PKCδ was observed in nuclear structures that resembled nucleoli. TCDD (1 nM) also increased total PKC and PKCδ-specific kinase activities in biphasic time-responsive manners. Total PKC and PKCδ-specific activities increased after 1-2 h of treatment. Then TCDD increased the total PKC activity again after 12 h of treatment, whereas, PKCδ-specific activity resurged at 24 h and remained elevated at 48 h after treatment. The results indicate that TCDD preferentially induces PKCδ protein expression and phosphotransferase activity, and its membrane translocation, indicating a potential intracellular role for PKCδ as an effector molecule for TCDD-mediated biological events in this ovarian

  5. Complex interactions between GSK3 and aPKC in Drosophila embryonic epithelial morphogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole A Kaplan

    Full Text Available Generally, epithelial cells must organize in three dimensions to form functional tissue sheets. Here we investigate one such sheet, the Drosophila embryonic epidermis, and the morphogenetic processes organizing cells within it. We report that epidermal morphogenesis requires the proper distribution of the apical polarity determinant aPKC. Specifically, we find roles for the kinases GSK3 and aPKC in cellular alignment, asymmetric protein distribution, and adhesion during the development of this polarized tissue. Finally, we propose a model explaining how regulation of aPKC protein levels can reorganize both adhesion and the cytoskeleton.

  6. Method to determine the activity concentration and total activity of radioactive waste; Metodo para determinar la concentracion de actividad y actividad total de desechos radiactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angeles C, A

    2001-02-15

    A characteristic system of radioactive waste is described to determine the concentration of radionuclides activity and the total activity of bundles of radioactive waste. The system this integrated by three subsystems: - Elevator of drums. - Electromechanics. - Gamma spectroscopy. In the system it is analyzed waste of issuing gamma specifically, and this designed for materials of relative low density and it analyzes materials of cylindrical recipients.

  7. The diacylglycerol kinase α/atypical PKC/β1 integrin pathway in SDF-1α mammary carcinoma invasiveness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Rainero

    Full Text Available Diacylglycerol kinase α (DGKα, by phosphorylating diacylglycerol into phosphatidic acid, provides a key signal driving cell migration and matrix invasion. We previously demonstrated that in epithelial cells activation of DGKα activity promotes cytoskeletal remodeling and matrix invasion by recruiting atypical PKC at ruffling sites and by promoting RCP-mediated recycling of α5β1 integrin to the tip of pseudopods. In here we investigate the signaling pathway by which DGKα mediates SDF-1α-induced matrix invasion of MDA-MB-231 invasive breast carcinoma cells. Indeed we showed that, following SDF-1α stimulation, DGKα is activated and localized at cell protrusion, thus promoting their elongation and mediating SDF-1α induced MMP-9 metalloproteinase secretion and matrix invasion. Phosphatidic acid generated by DGKα promotes localization at cell protrusions of atypical PKCs which play an essential role downstream of DGKα by promoting Rac-mediated protrusion elongation and localized recruitment of β1 integrin and MMP-9. We finally demonstrate that activation of DGKα, atypical PKCs signaling and β1 integrin are all essential for MDA-MB-231 invasiveness. These data indicates the existence of a SDF-1α induced DGKα - atypical PKC - β1 integrin signaling pathway, which is essential for matrix invasion of carcinoma cells.

  8. Assessment of uranium exposure from total activity and 234U:238U activity ratios in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholas, T.; Bingham, D.

    2011-01-01

    Radiation workers at Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) are monitored for uranium exposure by routine bioassay sampling (primarily urine sampling). However, the interpretation of uranium in urine and faecal results in terms of occupational intakes is difficult because of the presence of uranium due to intakes from environmental (dietary) sources. For uranium in urine data obtained using current analytical techniques at AWE, the mean, median and standard deviation of excreted uranium concentrations were 0.006, 0.002 and 0.012 μg per g creatinine, respectively. These values are consistent with what might be expected from local dietary intakes and the knowledge that occupational exposures at AWE are likely to be very low. However, some samples do exceed derived investigation levels (DILs), which have been set up taking account of the likely contribution from environmental sources. We investigate how the activity and isotopic composition of uranium in the diet affects the sensitivity of uranium in urine monitoring for occupational exposures. We conclude that DILs based on both total uranium in urine activity and also 234 U: 238 U ratios are useful given the likely variation in dietary contribution for AWE workers. Assuming a background excretion rate and that the enrichment of the likely exposure is known, it is possible to assess exposures using 234 U: 238 U ratios and/or total uranium activity. The health implications of internalised uranium, enriched to 235 U, centre on its nephrotoxicity; the DILs for bioassay samples at AWE are an order of magnitude below the conservative recommendations made by the literature. (authors)

  9. Effect of PKC412, an inhibitor of protein kinase C, on spontaneous metastatic model mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kazuki; Yoshikawa, Noriko; Yamaguchi, Yu; Kagota, Satomi; Shinozuka, Kazumasa; Kunitomo, Masaru

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the anti-metastatic effect of PKC412, a selective inhibitor of protein kinase C (PKC), on a spontaneous metastatic mouse model, which was prepared by inoculation with B16-BL6 mouse melanoma cells into the footpad of the right hind leg. At two weeks after inoculation, the primary tumor was amputated completely. PKC412 (200 mg/kg) administered orally for four weeks after the tumor inoculation, significantly prolonged survival compared with the control. Furthermore, to elucidate the mechanism of the anti-metastatic effect of PKC412, we examined the growth rate of B16-BL6 cells premixed with Matrigel in vivo and the invasiveness of B16-BL6 cells using a chemo-invasion chamber in vitro. PKC412 significantly reduced the growth rate of cells in vivo (100 and 200 mg/kg) and the invading cells in vitro (10, 30 and 100 nM) in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, PKC412 exerts an anti-metastatic action through inhibition of the invasiveness of melanoma cells in the extracellular matrix.

  10. How much locomotive activity is needed for an active physical activity level: analysis of total step counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohkawara Kazunori

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although physical activity recommendations for public health have focused on locomotive activity such as walking and running, it is uncertain how much these activities contribute to overall physical activity level (PAL. The purpose of the present study was to determine the contribution of locomotive activity to PAL using total step counts measured in a calorimeter study. Methods PAL, calculated as total energy expenditure divided by basal metabolic rate, was evaluated in 11 adult men using three different conditions for 24-hour human calorimeter measurements: a low-activity day (L-day targeted at a low active level of PAL (1.45, and a high-frequency moderate activity day (M-day or a high-frequency vigorous activity day (V-day targeted at an active level of PAL (1.75. These subjects were permitted only light activities except prescribed activities. In a separate group of 41 adults, free-living PAL was evaluated using doubly-labeled water (DLW. In both experiments, step counts per day were also measured using an accelerometer. Results In the human calorimeter study, PAL and step counts were 1.42 ± 0.10 and 8,973 ± 543 steps/d (L-day, 1.82 ± 0.14 and 29,588 ± 1,126 steps/d (M-day, and 1.74 ± 0.15 and 23,755 ± 1,038 steps/d (V-day, respectively. In the DLW study, PAL and step counts were 1.73 ± 0.15 and 10,022 ± 2,605 steps/d, and there was no significant relationship between PAL and daily step counts. Conclusions These results indicate that an enormous number of steps are needed for an active level of PAL if individuals extend physical activity-induced energy expenditure by only locomotive activity. Therefore, non-locomotive activity such as household activity should also play a significant role in increasing PAL under free-living conditions.

  11. PKC/CREB pathway mediates the expressions of GABAA receptor subunits in cultured hippocampal neurons after low-Mg2+ solution treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guofeng; Yu, Jinpeng; Wang, Likun; Ren, Siying; Zhang, Yixia

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the potential effects of the PKC/CREB pathway on the expressions of GABA A receptor subunits α1, γ2, and δ in cultured hippocampal neurons using a model of epilepsy that employed conditions of low magnesium (Mg 2+ ). A total of 108 embryonic rats at the age of 18 embryonic days (E18)prepared from adult female SD rats were used as experimental subjects. Primary rat hippocampal cultures were prepared from the embryonic 18 days rats. The cultured hippocampal neurons were then treated with artificial cerebrospinal fluid containing low Mg 2+ solutions to generate a low Mg 2+ model of epilepsy. The low Mg 2+ stimulation lasted for 3 h and then returned to in maintenance medium for 20 h. The changes of the GABA A receptor subunit α1, γ2, δ were observed by blocking or activating the function of the CREB. The quantification of the GABA A receptor subunit α1, γ2, δ and the CREB were determined by a qRT-PCR and a Western blot method. After the neurons were exposed to a low-Mg 2+ solution for 3 h, GABA A receptor mRNA expression markedly increased compared to the control, and then gradually decreased. In contrast, CREB mRNA levels exhibited a dramatic down-regulation 3 h after terminating low-Mg 2+ treatment, and then peaked at 9 h. Western blot analyses verified that staurosporine suppressed CREB phosphorylation (p-CREB). The mRNA expression of GABA A receptor subunit α1 increased only in the presence of staurosporine, whereas the expressions of subunits γ2 and δ significantly increased in the presence of either KG-501 or staurosporine. Furthermore, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) decreased the expressions of GABA A subunits α1, γ2, and δ when administered alone. However, the administration of either KG-501 or staurosporine reversed the inhibitory effects of PMA. The PKC/CREB pathway may negatively regulate the expressions of GABA A receptor subunits α1, γ2, and δ in cultured hippocampal neurons in low Mg 2+ model of

  12. Alterations in protein kinase C activity and processing during zinc-deficiency-induced cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Susan S; Clegg, Michael S; Momma, Tony Y; Niles, Brad J; Duffy, Jodie Y; Daston, George P; Keen, Carl L

    2004-10-01

    Protein kinases C (PKCs) are a family of serine/threonine kinases that are critical for signal transduction pathways involved in growth, differentiation and cell death. All PKC isoforms have four conserved domains, C1-C4. The C1 domain contains cysteine-rich finger-like motifs, which bind two zinc atoms. The zinc-finger motifs modulate diacylglycerol binding; thus, intracellular zinc concentrations could influence the activity and localization of PKC family members. 3T3 cells were cultured in zinc-deficient or zinc-supplemented medium for up to 32 h. Cells cultured in zinc-deficient medium had decreased zinc content, lowered cytosolic classical PKC activity, increased caspase-3 processing and activity, and reduced cell number. Zinc-deficient cytosols had decreased activity and expression levels of PKC-alpha, whereas PKC-alpha phosphorylation was not altered. Inhibition of PKC-alpha with Gö6976 had no effect on cell number in the zinc-deficient group. Proteolysis of the novel PKC family member, PKC-delta, to its 40-kDa catalytic fragment occurred in cells cultured in the zinc-deficient medium. Occurrence of the PKC-delta fragment in mitochondria was co-incident with caspase-3 activation. Addition of the PKC-delta inhibitor, rottlerin, or zinc to deficient medium reduced or eliminated proteolysis of PKC-delta, activated caspase-3 and restored cell number. Inhibition of caspase-3 processing by Z-DQMD-FMK (Z-Asp-Gln-Met-Asp-fluoromethylketone) did not restore cell number in the zinc-deficient group, but resulted in processing of full-length PKC-delta to a 56-kDa fragment. These results support the concept that intracellular zinc concentrations influence PKC activity and processing, and that zinc-deficiency-induced apoptosis occurs in part through PKC-dependent pathways.

  13. The Effect of Structured Exercise Intervention on Intensity and Volume of Total Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niko Wasenius

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effects of a 12-week structured exercise intervention on total physical activity and its subcategories. Twenty-three overweight or obese middle aged men with impaired glucose regulation were randomized into a 12-week Nordic walking group, a power-type resistance training group, and a non-exercise control group. Physical activity was measured with questionnaires before the intervention (1–4 weeks and during the intervention (1–12 weeks and was expressed in metabolic equivalents of task. No significant change in the volume of total physical activity between or within the groups was observed (p > 0.050. The volume of total leisure-time physical activity (structured exercises + non-structured leisure-time physical activity increased significantly in the Nordic walking group (p 0.050 compared to the control group. In both exercise groups increase in the weekly volume of total leisure-time physical activity was inversely associated with the volume of non-leisure-time physical activities. In conclusion, structured exercise intervention did not increase the volume of total physical activity. Albeit, endurance training can increase the volume of high intensity physical activities, however it is associated with compensatory decrease in lower intensity physical activities. To achieve effective personalized exercise program, individuality in compensatory behavior should be recognised.

  14. Increased aPKC Expression Correlates with Prostatic Adenocarcinoma Gleason Score and Tumor Stage in the Japanese Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony S. Perry

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Levels of the protein kinase aPKC have been previously correlated with prostate cancer prognosis in a British cohort. However, prostate cancer incidence and progression rates, as well as genetic changes in this disease, show strong ethnic variance, particularly in Asian populations. Objective. The aim of this study was to validate association of aPKC expression with prostatic adenocarcinoma stages in a Japanese cohort. Methods. Tissue microarrays consisting of 142 malignant prostate cancer cases and 21 benign prostate tissues were subject to immunohistological staining for aPKC. aPKC staining intensity was scored by three independent pathologists and categorized as absent (0, dim (1+, intermediate (2+, and bright (3+. aPKC staining intensities were correlated with Gleason score and tumor stage. Results. Increased aPKC staining was observed in malignant prostate cancer, in comparison to benign tissue. Additionally, aPKC staining levels correlated with Gleason score and tumor stage. Our results extend the association of aPKC with prostate cancer to a Japanese population and establish the suitability of aPKC as a universal prostate cancer biomarker that performs consistently across ethnicities.

  15. Effects of total solar eclipse on the behavioural and metabolic activities of tropical intertidal animals

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parulekar, A.H.; Ansari, Z.A.; Verlecar, X.N.; Harkantra, S.N.

    To study the effects of total solar eclipse of 16th Feb. 1980, on the behaviour and metabolic activities of intertidal invertebrates - nematodes, gastropods and bivalves - having different habitat preference a set of relevant observations, covering...

  16. The active and passive kinematic difference between primary reverse and total shoulder prostheses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alta, T.D.; de Toledo, J.S.; Veeger, H.E.J.; Janssen, T.W.J.; Willems, W.J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) and total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) effectively decrease pain and improve clinical outcome. However, indications and biomechanical properties vary greatly. Our aim was to analyze both active and passive shoulder motion (thoracohumeral [TH],

  17. In vitro antioxidant, antibacterial and anti-tumor activities of total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the in vitro antioxidant, antibacterial and anti-tumor activities of total flavonoids from Elsholtzia densa Benth of Sichuan Province, China. Methods: The total flavonoids of Elsholtzia densa Bent were extracted utilizing the ultrasonic extraction method, and purified by D101 macroporous adsorption resin ...

  18. Quantitation of the degree of osteoporosis by measure of total-body calcium employing neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, S.H.; Zanzi, I.; Vaswani, A.; Wallach, S.; Aloia, J.; Ellis, K.J.

    1975-01-01

    Two techniques for measuring the amount of Ca in the total skeleton were employed: total-body neutron activation analysis (TBNAA) and the determination of the mineral content of a bone of the appendicular skeleton (absorptiometric measurement of the radius, BMC). (U.S.)

  19. Assessment of total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity of Mullein (Verbascum songaricum ecotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: The Mullein genus is the largest genus of Scrophulariaceae family which has extensive natural habitat in southwest of Iran. Mullein contains compounds such as phenolic compounds, mucilage, saponins and anthocyanin. The aim of this study was to evaluate the total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity of mullein ecotypes in Iran. Methods: Six ecotypes of the Verbascum songaricum were evaluated. Determination of total flavonoid content was performed bythealuminium chloride colourimetric method. The antioxidant activity of the flower extracts was measured using the DPPH method. Results: The results showed that total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity were different among ecotypes.  The highest and lowest amounts of total flavonoidwas obtained  from Shermard ecotype (13.42 mg rutin /g DW and Klar ecotypes(10.10 mg rutin /g DW, respectively. The highest amounts of antioxidant activity were obtained from the Shermard ecotype (IC50 246.35 μg/mL. The correlation analysis showed that a significant relation between flavonoid, antioxidant activity and habitat elevation. Conclusion: Total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity of the samples were affected by habitat climatic.  The present data indicated that the highest antioxidant activity may be due to higher flavonoid content and the habitat elevation was effective on the flavonoid content. Due to the high amounts of flavonoid and antioxidant activity of mullein extract, it seems to be a good herbal option as an antioxidant in complementary therapies.

  20. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Total Flavonoids from Corn Silk and Their Antioxidant Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Ling-Li; Wen, Guan; Yuan, Min-Yong; Gao, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Object. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of total flavonoids from corn silk and their antioxidant activities were studied. Methods. Response surface methodology was adopted to optimize the extraction conditions and antioxidant activities of the extracted total flavonoids were detected through ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Results. Through a three-level, three-variable Box-Behnken design of response surface methodology (RSM) adopting yield as response, the optimal conditions we...

  1. Phosphorylation of protein kinase C sites Ser42/44 decreases Ca2+-sensitivity and blunts enhanced length-dependent activation in response to protein kinase A in human cardiomyocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnker, P.J.M.; Sequeira Oliveira, V.; Witjas-Paalberends, E.R.; Foster, D.B.; dos Remedios, C.G.; Murphy, A.M.; Stienen, G.J.M.; van der Velden, J.

    2014-01-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC)-mediated phosphorylation of troponin I (cTnI) at Ser42/44 is increased in heart failure. While studies in rodents demonstrated that PKC-mediated Ser42/44 phosphorylation decreases maximal force and ATPase activity, PKC incubation of human cardiomyocytes did not affect maximal

  2. Atypical PKC-iota Controls Stem Cell Expansion via Regulation of the Notch Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In Kyoung Mah

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The number of stem/progenitor cells available can profoundly impact tissue homeostasis and the response to injury or disease. Here, we propose that an atypical PKC, Prkci, is a key player in regulating the switch from an expansion to a differentiation/maintenance phase via regulation of Notch, thus linking the polarity pathway with the control of stem cell self-renewal. Prkci is known to influence symmetric cell division in invertebrates; however a definitive role in mammals has not yet emerged. Using a genetic approach, we find that loss of Prkci results in a marked increase in the number of various stem/progenitor cells. The mechanism used likely involves inactivation and symmetric localization of NUMB, leading to the activation of NOTCH1 and its downstream effectors. Inhibition of atypical PKCs may be useful for boosting the production of pluripotent stem cells, multipotent stem cells, or possibly even primordial germ cells by promoting the stem cell/progenitor fate.

  3. Total. Group dynamics and activities. Competitive environment and strategic perspectives. Release - July 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-07-01

    After a synthesis which notably proposes a SWOT analysis of the Total group, this report proposes a presentation of the Total Group (general overview, presentation of activities, human resources, shareholder structure and stock market data, competitive environment). It gives an overview of the Total group dynamics and of its activities through a presentation of an environment analysis (world oil demand, refining-chemistry activity, hydrocarbon prices), a presentation of the group activity (turnover, turnover per segment, operational income and financial results of competitors). It comments important events and development axes: four strategic orientations, strengthening of the upstream pole, restructuring of refining and chemical activities, widening of the energy provision, consolidation of positions in the marketing and services sector. Financial data are presented along with the main economic and financial indicators. Important statistical data are provided

  4. Effect of different cooking methods on total phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of four Boletus mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liping; Bai, Xue; Zhuang, Yongliang

    2014-11-01

    The influences of cooking methods (steaming, pressure-cooking, microwaving, frying and boiling) on total phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of fruit body of Boletus mushrooms (B. aereus, B. badius, B. pinophilus and B. edulis) have been evaluated. The results showed that microwaving was better in retention of total phenolics than other cooking methods, while boiling significantly decreased the contents of total phenolics in samples under study. Effects of different cooking methods on phenolic acids profiles of Boletus mushrooms showed varieties with both the species of mushroom and the cooking method. Effects of cooking treatments on antioxidant activities of Boletus mushrooms were evaluated by in vitro assays of hydroxyl radical (OH·) -scavenging activity, reducing power and 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH·) -scavenging activity. Results indicated the changes of antioxidant activities of four Boletus mushrooms were different in five cooking methods. This study could provide some information to encourage food industry to recommend particular cooking methods.

  5. Total sitting time, leisure time physical activity and risk of hospitalization due to low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Mie; Holmberg, Teresa; Petersen, Christina B

    2018-01-01

    AIMS: This study aimed to test the hypotheses that a high total sitting time and vigorous physical activity in leisure time increase the risk of low back pain and herniated lumbar disc disease. METHODS: A total of 76,438 adults answered questions regarding their total sitting time and physical...... activity during leisure time in the Danish Health Examination Survey 2007-2008. Information on low back pain diagnoses up to 10 September 2015 was obtained from The National Patient Register. The mean follow-up time was 7.4 years. Data were analysed using Cox regression analysis with adjustment...... disc disease. However, moderate or vigorous physical activity, as compared to light physical activity, was associated with increased risk of low back pain (HR = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.03-1.30 and HR = 1.45, 95% CI: 1.15-1.83). Moderate, but not vigorous physical activity was associated with increased risk...

  6. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Total Flavonoids from Corn Silk and Their Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Li Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Object. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of total flavonoids from corn silk and their antioxidant activities were studied. Methods. Response surface methodology was adopted to optimize the extraction conditions and antioxidant activities of the extracted total flavonoids were detected through ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assay. Results. Through a three-level, three-variable Box-Behnken design of response surface methodology (RSM adopting yield as response, the optimal conditions were determined as follows: ultrasonic power 500 W, extraction time 20 min, material solvent ratio 1 : 20, and ethanol concentration 30%. Under the optimum conditions, the extraction yield of total flavonoids was 1.13%. FRAP value of total flavonoids extracted from corn silk was 467.59 μmol/L. Conclusion. The total flavonoids of corn silk could be developed as food natural antioxidant reagents.

  7. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY, TOTAL PHENOLIC AND FLAVONOID CONTENT OF MORINDA CITRIFOLIA FRUIT EXTRACTS FROM VARIOUS EXTRACTION PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRAVEEN K. RAMAMOORTHY

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Soxhlet, Ultrasonic extract of Morinda citrifolia L. fruit and four extracts from high pressure extraction at 10 MPa using ethanol, ethyl acetate as solvent and dried by vacuum oven and spray dryer were analyzed for their antioxidant activity by peroxide value method and diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical scavenging method. The five extracts along with the reference samples, butylated hydroxyl toluene and tannic acid were further analyzed to determine their total phenolic content by Folin-Ciocalteau method and total flavonoid content by Dowd method. The M. citrifolia extract by high pressure extraction with ethyl acetate as solvent and spray dried was found to exhibit highest antioxidant activity and total flavonoid content. High total phenolic content was determined in the high pressure extract using ethyl acetate as solvent and vacuum dried. It was interesting to note that ultrasonic extract exhibited significant antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid content. High pressure extracted M. citrifolia in ethanol was found to express lesser values comparatively. The significant difference in activity among the high pressure extracts was found to be due to the polarity of the solvents used for extraction as M. citrifolia fruit contains relatively larger quantity of non-polar antioxidant compounds. It was also found that the drying methods had significant impact on the antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid content of the extracts.

  8. Overview of total beta activity index and beta rest in surface waters of the Spanish rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujol, L.; Payeras, J.; Pablo, M. A. de

    2013-01-01

    This work aims to give an overview of the index of total beta activity and the activity index beta rest in surface waters of the main Spanish rivers. These indices are a parameter over water quality that CEDEX comes determined by order of the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment, in water policy. (Author)

  9. Inhibition of total oxygen uptake by silica nanoparticles in activated sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sibag, Mark [Department of Environment and Energy, Sejong University, 98 Gunja-Dong, Gwangjin-Gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Byeong-Gyu [School of Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering, Korea University, 145, Anam-ro, Sungbuk-ku, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Changwon [Energy Lab, Environment Group, Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, 130 Samsung-ro, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do 443-803 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kwan Hyung; Lee, Jae Woo [Department of Environmental Engineering and Program in Environmental Technology and Policy, Korea University, Sejong 339-700 (Korea, Republic of); Maeng, Sung Kyu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Sejong University, 98 Gunja-Dong, Gwangjin-Gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jinwoo, E-mail: jinwoocho@sejong.edu [Department of Environment and Energy, Sejong University, 98 Gunja-Dong, Gwangjin-Gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-11

    Highlights: • Silica nanoparticles (SNP) inhibit total oxygen uptake in activated sludge. • Relatively smaller SNP are inhibitorier than larger SNP. • SNP alters C15:0, C16:0 and C18:0 in activated sludge fatty acid methyl ester profile. - Abstract: Nanoparticle toxicity to biological activities in activated sludge is largely unknown. Among the widely used nanoparticles, silica nanoparticles (SNP) have a limited number of studies associated with inhibition to the activated sludge process (ASP). We demonstrated SNP inhibition of activated sludge respiration through oxygen uptake rate (OUR) measurement. Based on the percentage inhibition of total oxygen consumption (I{sub T}), we observed that smaller SNPs (12 nm, I{sub T} = 33 ± 3%; 151 nm, I{sub T} = 23 ± 2%) were stronger inhibitors than larger SNPs (442 and 683 nm, I{sub T} = 5 ± 1%). Transmission electron micrographs showed that some of the SNPs were adsorbed on and/or apparently embedded somewhere in the microbial cell membrane. Whether SNPs are directly associated with the inhibition of total oxygen uptake warrants further studies. However, it is clear that SNPs statistically significantly altered the composition of microbial membrane lipids, which was more clearly described by principal component analysis and weighted Euclidian distance (PCA-ED) of the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) data. This study suggests that SNPs potentially affect the biological activity in activated sludge through the inhibition of total oxygen uptake.

  10. A PKC-dependent recruitment of MMP-2 controls semaphorin-3A growth-promoting effect in cortical dendrites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand Gonthier

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence for a crucial role of proteases and metalloproteinases during axon growth and guidance. In this context, we recently described a functional link between the chemoattractive Sema3C and Matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3. Here, we provide data demonstrating the involvement of MMP-2 to trigger the growth-promoting effect of Sema3A in cortical dendrites. The in situ analysis of MMP-2 expression and activity is consistent with a functional growth assay demonstrating in vitro that the pharmacological inhibition of MMP-2 reduces the growth of cortical dendrites in response to Sema3A. Hence, our results suggest that the selective recruitment and activation of MMP-2 in response to Sema3A requires a PKC alpha dependent mechanism. Altogether, we provide a second set of data supporting MMPs as effectors of the growth-promoting effects of semaphorins, and we identify the potential signalling pathway involved.

  11. Evaluation of antibacterial and anthelmintic activities with total phenolic contents of Piper betel leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazi Akter

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study was conducted to investigate the antibacterial and anthelmintic activities and to determine total phenolic contents of methanolic extract of Piper betel leaves. Materials and Methods: The extract was subjected to assay for antibacterial activity using both gram positive and gram negative bacterial strains through disc diffusion method; anthelmintic activity with the determination of paralysis and death time using earthworm (Pheritima posthuma at five different concentrations and the determination of total phenolic contents using the Folin-ciocalteau method. Results: The extract showed significant (p

  12. Evaluation of antibacterial and anthelmintic activities with total phenolic contents of Piper betel leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akter, Kazi Nahid; Karmakar, Palash; Das, Abhijit; Anonna, Shamima Nasrin; Shoma, Sharmin Akter; Sattar, Mohammad Mafruhi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The study was conducted to investigate the antibacterial and anthelmintic activities and to determine total phenolic contents of methanolic extract of Piper betel leaves. Materials and Methods: The extract was subjected to assay for antibacterial activity using both gram positive and gram negative bacterial strains through disc diffusion method; anthelmintic activity with the determination of paralysis and death time using earthworm (Pheritima posthuma) at five different concentrations and the determination of total phenolic contents using the Folin-ciocalteau method. Results: The extract showed significant (pbetel leaves extract, therefore it may be processed for further drug research. PMID:25386394

  13. Activities Contributing to Total Energy Expenditure in the United States: Results from the NHAPS Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Block Gladys

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity is increasingly recognized as an important factor influencing health and disease status. Total energy expenditure, both low-intensity and high-intensity, contributes to maintenance of healthy body weight. This paper presents the results of a quantitative approach to determining the activities that contribute to total energy expenditure in the United States. Methods Data from the National Human Activity Pattern Survey (NHAPS were used. In 1992–1994 the NHAPS sampled 4,185 females and 3,330 males, aged 18 years and over, weighted to be representative of the 48 contiguous United States. A detailed report of each activity performed in the previous 24 hours was obtained. A score was created for each activity, by multiplying duration and intensity for each individual and summing across individuals. This score was then used to rank each activity according to its contribution to total population energy expenditure, for the total sample and separately for each gender, race, age, region, and season. Results This analysis reveals our society to be primarily sedentary; leisure time physical activity contributed only approximately 5% of the population's total energy expenditure. Not counting sleeping, the largest contributor to energy expenditure was "Driving a car", followed by "Office work" and "Watching TV". Household activities accounted for 20.1% and 33.3% of energy expenditure for males and females respectively. Conclusion The information presented in this paper may be useful in identifying common activities that could be appropriate targets for behavioral interventions to increase physical activity.

  14. Absence of PDGF-induced, PKC-independent c-fos expression in a chemically transformed C3H/10T1/2 cell clone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassbotn, F S; Skar, R; Holmsen, H; Lillehaug, J R

    1992-09-01

    The effect of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) on c-fos mRNA transcription was studied in the immortalized mouse embryo fibroblast C3H/10T1/2 Cl 8 (10T1/2) cells and the chemically transformed, tumorigenic subclone C3H/10T1/2 Cl 16 (Cl 16). In the 10T1/2 cells as well as the Cl 16 subclone, the dose-dependent PDGF stimulation of c-fos mRNA synthesis was similar in both logarithmically growing and confluent cultures. c-fos mRNA was induced severalfold by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in both 10T1/2 and Cl 16. Down-regulation of protein kinase C (PKC) activity by TPA pretreatment inhibited PDGF-stimulated c-fos mRNA expression in Cl 16 cells but did not affect this induction in the 10T1/2 cells. This inhibition was not a general phenomenon of 3-methylcholanthrene-mediated transformation of 10T1/2 cells since experiments with another transformed 10T1/2 cell clone, C3H/10T1/2 TPA 482, gave qualitatively the same results as the 10T1/2 cells. Receptor binding experiments showed that the nontransformed and transformed cells had a comparable number of PDGF receptors, 1.3 x 10(5) and 0.7 x 10(5) receptors per cell, respectively. Furthermore, cAMP-induced c-fos expression induced by forskolin is formerly shown to be independent of PKC down-regulation. In our experiments, forskolin induced c-fos expression in both clones. However, PKC down-regulation inhibited the forskolin-induced c-fos expression in Cl 16 cells. This apparently demonstrates cross talk between PKC and PKA in the c-fos induction pathway. The present results provide evidence for an impaired mechanism for activating c-fos expression through PKC-independent, PDGF-induced signal transduction in the chemically transformed Cl 16 fibroblasts compared to that in nontransformed 10T1/2 cells.

  15. The determinants of total entrepreneurial activity : a spatial approach / by Albertus Jacobus Meintjes

    OpenAIRE

    Meintjes, Albertus Jakobus

    2006-01-01

    Various bodies and governments from around the world have recognised the importance of entrepreneurship in economic growth and job creation. The rate of start-up businesses and entrepreneurial activity is crucial in every country. The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) recognises the contribution of entrepreneurial activity to economic growth and measures it by means of the total entrepreneurial activity (TEA) index. Most recent evidence suggests that regional (or spatial...

  16. Different associations of CD45 isoforms with STAT3, PKC and ERK regulate IL-6-induced proliferation in myeloma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Zheng

    Full Text Available In response to interleukin 6 (IL-6 stimulation, both CD45RO and CD45RB, but not CD45RA, translocate to lipid rafts. However, the significance of this distinct translocation and the downstream signals in CD45 isoforms-participated IL-6 signal are not well understood. Using sucrose fractionation, we found that phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT3 and STAT1 were mainly localized in lipid rafts in response to IL-6 stimulation, despite both STAT3 and STAT1 localizing in raft and non-raft fractions in the presence or absence of IL-6. On the other hand, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK, and phosphorylated ERK were localized in non-raft fractions regardless of the existence of IL-6. The rafts inhibitor significantly impeded the phosphorylation of STAT3 and STAT1 and nuclear translocation, but had little effect on (and only postponing the phosphorylation of ERK. This data suggests that lipid raft-dependent STAT3 and STAT1 pathways are dominant pathways of IL-6 signal in myeloma cells. Interestingly, the phosphorylation level of STAT3 but not STAT1 in CD45+ cells was significantly higher compared to that of CD45- cells, while the phosphorylation level of ERK in CD45+ myeloma cells was relatively low. Furthermore, exogenously expressed CD45RO/RB significantly enhanced STAT3, protein kinase C (PKC and downstream NF-κB activation; however, CD45RA/RB inhibited IL-6-induced ERK phosphorylation. CD45 also enhanced the nuclear localization of STAT3 but not that of STAT1. In response to IL-6 stimulation, CD45RO moved into raft compartments and formed a complex with STAT3 and PKC in raft fraction, while CD45RA remained outside of lipid rafts and formed a complex with ERK in non-raft fraction. This data suggests a different role of CD45 isoforms in IL-6-induced signaling, indicating that while CD45RA/RB seems inhibit the rafts-unrelated ERK pathway, CD45RO/RB may actually work to enhance the rafts-related STAT3 and PKC

  17. Mechanism of phorbol ester-mediated protein kinase C activation in EL4 thymoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, F.L.; Arora, P.K.; Hanna, E.E.; Huang, K.P.

    1987-01-01

    Mouse thymoma EL4 cells respond to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) in interleukin-2 secretion and growth inhibition. A rapid translocation of protein kinase C (PKC) from cytosol to the particulate fraction and followed by proteolytic degradation occur when EL4 cells are incubated with PMA. In the present study the translocated membrane-associated PKC (PP-PKC) was solubilized by buffer containing NP-40 and its behavior on column chromatography, molecular weight, and kinetic properties were compared to the cytosolic PKC (CS-PKC) from untreated cells. From DE-52 cellulose column, CS-PKC could be eluted by buffer containing 0.1 M KCl, whereas PP-PKC was eluted with buffer containing 0.25 M KCl and 0.2% NP-40. On gel filtration the partially purified PP-PKC from DE-52 was separated into two species: a high Mr species, which was a complex of 82KDa PKC, PMA, and lipid as evidenced by immunoblot analysis and labeling with [ 3 H]PMA and [ 3 H]myristic acid, and a 82KDa species, which was free of PMA and lipid. This 82KDa PP-PKC, though similar to the CS-PKC in molecular weight, is distinguishable from the CS-PKC in having lower Ka values for both Ca 2+ and PS and no longer requires diacylglycerol for maximum activation. These results indicate that upon PMA treatment of EL4 cells, the CS-PKC was modified through enhancing the kinase activity and affinity for membrane lipid. The modification results in the translocation and complexing of PKC with membrane lipid and PMA and subsequent degradation

  18. Normal levels of total body sodium and chlorine by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, N.S.J.; Eastell, R.; Smith, M.A.; Tothill, P.

    1983-01-01

    In vivo neutron activation analysis was used to measure total body sodium and chlorine in 18 male and 18 female normal adults. Corrections for body size were developed. Normalisation factors were derived which enable the prediction of the normal levels of sodium and chlorine in a subject. The coefficient of variation of normalised sodium was 5.9% in men and 6.9% in women, and of normalised chlorine 9.3% in men and 5.5% in women. In the range examined (40-70 years) no significant age dependence was observed for either element. Total body sodium was correlated with total body chlorine and total body calcium. Sodium excess, defined as the amount of body sodium in excess of that associated with chlorine, also correlated well with total body calcium. In females there was a mean annual loss of sodium excess of 1.2% after the menopause, similar to the loss of calcium. (author)

  19. Chapter 4: Measurements of total beta-activity in the fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duggleby, J.C.; Johannessen, J.C.; Kotler, L.H.; Stewart, F.M.

    1974-01-01

    In order to provide information on fresh fission products in fallout reaching Australia from nuclear tests being conducted by France in Polynesia, measurements were made of total beta activity in daily fallout deposition of 25 Australian sampling stations covering a three month period from 25 July to 23 October 1973. The methods employed to measure the radioactivity of the samples are described and the data on total beta-activity, and the calculated external gamma radiation doses from fresh fallout are presented. (R.L.)

  20. Improvements in knee biomechanics during walking are associated with increased physical activity after total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, John B; Mackintosh, Shylie; Olds, Timothy S; Jones, Sara; Thewlis, Dominic

    2015-12-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in people with knee osteoarthritis increases knee-specific and general physical function, but it has not been established if there is a relationship between changes in these elements of functional ability. This study investigated changes and relationships between knee biomechanics during walking, physical activity, and use of time after TKA. Fifteen people awaiting TKA underwent 3D gait analysis before and six months after surgery. Physical activity and use of time were determined in free-living conditions from a high resolution 24-h activity recall. After surgery, participants displayed significant improvements in sagittal plane knee biomechanics and improved their physical activity profiles, standing for 105 more minutes (p=0.001) and performing 64 min more inside chores on average per day (p=0.008). Changes in sagittal plane knee range of motion (ROM) and peak knee flexion positively correlated with changes in total daily energy expenditure, time spent undertaking moderate to vigorous physical activity, inside chores and passive transport (r=0.52-0.66, p=0.005-0.047). Restoration of knee function occurs in parallel and is associated with improvements in physical activity and use of time after TKA. Increased functional knee ROM is required to support improvements in total and context specific physical activity. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Total phenol content and antioxidant activity of water solutions of plant extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Kopjar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Water solutions of extracts were investigated for total phenol content, flavonoid content and antioxidant activity. Susceptibility to degradation of water solutions of plant extracts, under light and in the dark, during storage at room temperature was investigated in order to determine their stability prior to their application for fortification of food products. Large dispersion of total phenol (TP content in the investigated model solutions of selected extracts (olive leaves, green tea, red grape, red wine, pine bark PE 5:1, pine bark PE 95 %, resveratrol, ranging from 11.10 mg GAE/100 mL to 92.19 mg GAE/100 mL was observed. Consequently, large dispersion of total flavonoids (TF content (8.89 mg to 61.75 mg CTE/100 mL was also observed. Since phenols have been mostly responsible for antioxidant activity of extracts, in most cases, antioxidant activity followed the TP content. That was proven by estimation of correlation coefficient between the total phenol content and antioxidant activity. Correlation coefficients between investigated parameters ranged from 0.5749 to 0.9604. During storage of 5 weeks at room temperature loss of phenols and flavonoids occurred. Antioxidant activity decreased with the decrease of TP and TF content. Degradations of phenols and flavonoids were more pronounced in samples stored at light.

  2. [Pt(O,O’-acac)(γ-acac)(DMS)] Alters SH-SY5Y Cell Migration and Invasion by the Inhibition of Na+/H+ Exchanger Isoform 1 Occurring through a PKC-ε/ERK/mTOR Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscella, Antonella; Vetrugno, Carla; Calabriso, Nadia; Cossa, Luca Giulio; De Pascali, Sandra Angelica; Fanizzi, Francesco Paolo; Marsigliante, Santo

    2014-01-01

    We previously showed that [Pt(O,O’-acac)(γ-acac)(DMS)] ([Pt(acac)2(DMS)]) exerted substantial cytotoxic effects in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, and decreased metalloproteases (MMPs) production and cells migration in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. The ubiquitously distributed sodium-hydrogen antiporter 1 (NHE1) is involved in motility and invasion of many solid tumours. The present study focuses on the effects of [Pt(acac)2(DMS)] in SH-SY5Y cell migration and also on the possibility that NHE1 may be involved in such effect. After sublethal [Pt(acac)2(DMS)] treatment cell migration was examined by wounding assay and cell invasion by transwell assay. NHE1 activity was measured in BCECF-loaded SH-SY5Y as the rate of Na+-dependent intracellular pH recovery in response to an acute acid pulse. Gelatin zymography for MMP-2/9 activities, Western blottings of MMPs, MAPKs, mTOR, S6 and PKCs and small interfering RNAs to PKC-ε/-δ mRNA were performed. Sublethal concentrations of [Pt(acac)2(DMS)] decreases NHE1 activity, inhibites cell migration and invasion and decreases expression and activity of MMP-2 and -9. [Pt(acac)2(DMS)] administered to SH-SY5Y cells provokes the increment of ROS, generated by NADPH oxidase, responsible for the PKC-ε and PKCactivation. Whilst PKCactivates p38/MAPK, responsible for the inhibition of MMP-2 and -9 secretion, PKCactivates a pathway made of ERK1/2, mTOR and S6K responsible for the inhibition of NHE1 activity and cell migration. In conclusion, we have shown a drastic impairment in tumour cell metastatization in response to inhibition of NHE1 and MMPs activities by [Pt(acac)2(DMS)] occurring through a novel mechanism mediated by PKC-δ/-ε activation. PMID:25372487

  3. Total body-calcium measurements: comparison of two delayed-gamma neutron activation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, R.; Ellis, K.J.; Shypailo, R.J.; Pierson, R.N. Jr.

    1999-01-01

    This study compares two independently calibrated delayed-gamma neutron activation (DGNA) facilities, one at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, New York, and the other at the Children's Nutrition Research Center (CNRC), Houston, Texas that measure total body calcium (TBCa). A set of BNL phantoms was sent to CNRC for neutron activation analysis, and a set of CNRC phantoms was measured at BNL. Both facilities showed high precision (<2%), and the results were in good agreement, within 5%. (author)

  4. Differential sensitivity of total and active soil microbial communities to drought and forest management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastida, Felipe; Torres, Irene F; Andrés-Abellán, Manuela; Baldrian, Petr; López-Mondéjar, Rubén; Větrovský, Tomáš; Richnow, Hans H; Starke, Robert; Ondoño, Sara; García, Carlos; López-Serrano, Francisco R; Jehmlich, Nico

    2017-10-01

    Climate change will affect semiarid ecosystems through severe droughts that increase the competition for resources in plant and microbial communities. In these habitats, adaptations to climate change may consist of thinning-that reduces competition for resources through a decrease in tree density and the promotion of plant survival. We deciphered the functional and phylogenetic responses of the microbial community to 6 years of drought induced by rainfall exclusion and how forest management affects its resistance to drought, in a semiarid forest ecosystem dominated by Pinus halepensis Mill. A multiOMIC approach was applied to reveal novel, community-based strategies in the face of climate change. The diversity and the composition of the total and active soil microbiome were evaluated by 16S rRNA gene (bacteria) and ITS (fungal) sequencing, and by metaproteomics. The microbial biomass was analyzed by phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs), and the microbially mediated ecosystem multifunctionality was studied by the integration of soil enzyme activities related to the cycles of C, N, and P. The microbial biomass and ecosystem multifunctionality decreased in drought-plots, as a consequence of the lower soil moisture and poorer plant development, but this decrease was more notable in unthinned plots. The structure and diversity of the total bacterial community was unaffected by drought at phylum and order level, but did so at genus level, and was influenced by seasonality. However, the total fungal community and the active microbial community were more sensitive to drought and were related to ecosystem multifunctionality. Thinning in plots without drought increased the active diversity while the total diversity was not affected. Thinning promoted the resistance of ecosystem multifunctionality to drought through changes in the active microbial community. The integration of total and active microbiome analyses avoids misinterpretations of the links between the soil microbial

  5. TOTAL PHENOLIC CONTENT, ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES OF THE EXTRACT OF EPHEDRA PROCERA FISCH. ET MEY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehkordi, Naser Vahed; Kachouie, Mehrdad Ataie; Pirbalouti, Abdollah Ghasemi; Malekpoor, Fatemeh; Rabei, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Ephedra prcera belonging to the family Ephedraceae is a poison and medicinal plant. The main aim of present study was to determine total phenolic content and antioxidant and antibacterial activities of ethanolic extract from the aerial parts of E. procera collected from a natural habitat in Chaharmahal va Bakhtiari province, Southwestern Iran. The total phenolic content of the extract by Folin-Ciocalteu method and the antioxidant activity using DPPH assay were determined. The antibacterial activity, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the extract were evaluated against five bacteria, including Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enteobacter aeogenes, Bacillus ceirus and Staphylococcus aureus. Total phenolic content in the extract of E. procera was 0.718 mg tannic acid/g dry weight extract. The results indicated that the ethanolic extract of E. piocera exhibited radical scavenging activity. In addition, the results of this study confirmed that the ethanolic extract of E. procera exhibited antibacterial activity. In conclusion, the extract of E. piocera could be an important source of phenolic components with antioxidant capacity and antibacterial activity.

  6. PKC and AMPK regulation of Kv1.5 potassium channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Martin Nybo; Skibsbye, Lasse; Tang, Chuyi

    2015-01-01

    The voltage-gated Kv1.5 potassium channel, conducting the ultra-rapid rectifier K(+) current (IKur), is regulated through several pathways. Here we investigate if Kv1.5 surface expression is controlled by the 2 kinases PKC and AMPK, using Xenopus oocytes, MDCK cells and atrial derived HL-1 cells....

  7. PKC α regulates netrin-1/UNC5B-mediated survival pathway in bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jiao; Kong, Chui-ze; Gong, Da-xin; Zhang, Zhe; Zhu, Yu-yan

    2014-01-01

    Netrin-1 and its receptor UNC5B play important roles in angiogenesis, embryonic development, cancer and inflammation. However, their expression patttern and biological roles in bladder cancer have not been well characterized. The present study aims to investigating the clinical significance of PKC α, netrin-1 and UNC5B in bladder cancer as well as their association with malignant biological behavior of cancer cells. Netrin-1 and UNC5B expression was examined in 120 bladder cancer specimens using immunohistochemistry and in 40 fresh cancer tissues by western blot. Immunofluorescence was performed in cancer cell lines. PKC α agonist PMA and PKC siRNA was employed in bladder cancer cells. CCK-8, wound healing assays and flow cytometry analysis were used to examine cell proliferation, migration and cell cycle, respectively. Netrin-1 expression was positively correlated with histological grade, T stage, metastasis and poor prognosis in bladder cancer tissues. Immunofluorescence showed elevated netrin-1 and decreased UNC5B expression in bladder cancer cells compared with normal bladder cell line. Furthermore, cell proliferation, migration and cell cycle progression were promoted with PMA treatment while inhibited by calphostin C. In addition, PMA treatment could induce while calphostin C reduce netrin-1 expression in bladder cancer cells. The present study identified netrin-1/UNC5B, which could be regulated by PKC signaling, was important mediators of bladder cancer progression

  8. Total pepsin activity and gastrin in sera as markers of eradication of Helicobacter pylori

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khoshkholgh, M.; Saberi-Firoozi, M.; Fattahi, M.; Siavoshi, F.; Khatibian, M.; Vahedi, H.; Mikaeli, J.; Ansari, R.; Alizadeh, B.; Malekzadeh, R.; Massarrat, S.

    1994-01-01

    The measurement of total pepsin activity by colorimetry, and gastrin by radioimmunoassay method was performed on the sera of 100 patients (80 with duodenal ulcer and 20 with non-ulcer dyspepsia) before and 4 weeks after the end of antibacterial treatment for eradication of Helicobacter pylori. While

  9. [Spectrum-effect Relationship Between Total Antioxidant Activity and HPLC Fingerprint of Arctium lappa Root].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-juan; Jiang, Lin

    2014-12-01

    To explore the spectrum-effect relationship between the HPLC fingerprint of Arctium lappa root methanol extract and the total antioxidant activity. The experiment was carried out with Gemini C18 110A (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 µm) column using methanol-0.04% phosphoric acid as gradient mobile phase at the flow rate of 1.0 mL/min, detection wavelength of 320 nm. The total antioxidant activity was determined by measuring the absorbance of each sample after being reacted with ammonium molybdate reagent. The spectrum-effect relationship was investigated using canonical correlation analysis (CCA). The spectrum-effect relationship between the HPLC fingerprint of Arctium lappa root methanol extract and the total antioxidant activity were established, the similarity of fingerprint of all samples was above 0.9. Peaks 1, 6, 9, 12 and 14 were principle components of Arctium lappa root for the total antioxidant activity. This method contributes to the fast comprehensive evaluation of quality of Arctium lappa root.

  10. A study of extraction process and in vitro antioxidant activity of total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the extraction method of Rhizoma Imperatae and its antioxidant activity, and provided a basis for its rational development. The extraction method of Rhizoma Imperatae was determined using orthogonal design test and by total phenol content, its hydroxyl radical scavenging ability was measured by ...

  11. Phytochemical screening, antioxidant activity, total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of seven local varieties of Rosa indica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahid, Kiran; Ahmed, Maqsood; Khan, Farah

    2018-05-01

    Rosa indica symbol of godness and beauty known for various healing power, has astringent, sedative, anti-inflammatory and antidepressant qualities. Standard methods were used for qualitative detection of phyto-compounds, and quantitative detection of antioxidants was done using DPPH radical scavenging assay, total phenolics and total flavonoids content were expressed in mg GAE/g dry weight and mg QE/g dry weight. Results revealed phyto-compounds presence in all varieties under study however maximum % inhibition was observed by R. indica var pink perfume (94 ± 0.6) with IC50 value 0.3376 ± 0.01 mg/mL. Highest phenolic and flavonoid content was observed in the leaves extract of R. indica var cardinal red, i.e. 3.3553 ± 0.11 (ethanol) mg of Gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g dry weight and 3.736 ± 0.001(ethanol) mg of quercetin equivalents (QE)/g dry weight, respectively, at conc. 0.125 mg/mL. Our finding provides evidence that all varieties of rose contain medicinally important bioactive compounds and justifies their use for treatment of different diseases.

  12. Population dynamics of active and total ciliate populations in arable soil amended with wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekelund, F.; Frederiksen, Helle B.; Ronn, R.

    2002-01-01

    of the population may be encysted. The factors governing the dynamics of active and encysted cells in the soil are not well understood. Our objective was to determine the dynamics of active and encysted populations of ciliates during the decomposition of freshly added organic material. We monitored, in soil...... microcosms, the active and total populations of ciliates, their potential prey (bacteria and small protozoa), their potential competitors (amoebae, flagellates, and nematodes), and their potential predators (nematodes). We sampled with short time intervals (2 to 6 days) and generated a data set, suitable...

  13. Determination of phytochemicals, antioxidant activity and total phenolic content in Andrographis paniculata using chromatographic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzawa, Marzanna; Filipiak-Szok, Anna; Kłodzińska, Ewa; Szłyk, Edward

    2015-07-15

    Antioxidant activity, total phenolics content and selected phytochemicals (alkaloids and andrographolides) were determined in Andrographis paniculata and in dietary supplements containing this plant. Antioxidant activity was measured by FRAP, CUPRAC and DPPH procedures and ranged from 503.36 to 6164.09μmol TE/100g d.m. depending on methods, part of plant and kind of dietary supplement. The total phenolics (175.13-1723.79mg GAE/100g) and andrographolides content (19.44-85.13mg/g) in the studied samples were correlated with antioxidant activities determined by CUPRAC, FRAP and DPPH (r>0.95, ppaniculata leaves, whereas the lowest in dietary supplement Pn. Moreover principal component analysis, cluster analysis and one-way ANOVA follow by Duncan's tests were also performed. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Role of protein kinase C in regulation of Na+- and K +-dependent ATPase activity and pump function in corneal endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatou, Shin; Yamada, Masakazu; Mochizuki, Hiroshi; Nishida, Teruo

    2009-05-01

    Na+- and K+-dependent ATPase (Na,K-ATPase) plays an important role in the pump function of the corneal endothelium. We investigated the possible role of protein kinase C (PKC) in regulation of Na,K-ATPase activity and pump function in corneal endothelial cells. Confluent monolayers of mouse corneal endothelial cells were exposed to phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu) to induce activation of PKC. ATPase activity of the cells was evaluated by using ammonium molybdate in spectrophotometric measurement of phosphate released from ATP, with Na,K-ATPase activity being defined as the portion of total ATPase activity sensitive to ouabain. Pump function of the cells was measured with a Ussing chamber, with the pump function attributable to Na,K-ATPase activity being defined as the portion of the total short-circuit current sensitive to ouabain. PDBu (10(-7) M) increased the Na,K-ATPase activity and pump function of the cultured cells. These effects of PDBu were potentiated by the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin and the cytochrome P(450) inhibitor resorufin and were blocked by okadaic acid, an inhibitor of protein phosphatases 1 and 2A. Our results suggest that PKC bidirectionally regulates Na,K-ATPase activity in mouse corneal endothelial cells: it inhibits Na,K-ATPase activity in a cyclooxygenase- and cytochrome P(450)-dependent manner, whereas it stimulates such activity by activating protein phosphatases 1 or 2A.

  15. Antioxidant activity, total phenols and flavonoids of lichens from Venezuelan Andes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia M. Plaza

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Context:The biological potential of lichens has been documented through their use in traditional medicine. Secondary lichen metabolites exert a wide variety of biological actions, including their use as antioxidants. Aims:To evaluate the antioxidant activity, total phenol content, and flavonoids of four lichen fungal taxa collected in Mérida (Venezuela, and statistically evaluate the correlation between the antioxidant activity and the amount of phenols and flavonoids in the samples. Methods: Extracts were prepared with water, ethanol and dichloromethane from Cladonia aff. rappii, Cora aff. glabrata, Peltigera laciniata and Thamnolia vermicularis. The antioxidant capacity assessment was determined using DPPH• radical method and reducing power, with ascorbic acid as control. Total phenols were determined by means of the Folin-Ciocalteu method with gallic acid. Total flavonoids were estimated according to the modified Dowd method, using quercetin as standard. Results:The ethanolic extracts of the tested lichens showed the highest scavenging activity and reducing power compared to water and dichloromethane extracts at 4 mg/mL. The highest antiradical power value was found in ethanolic extract of Peltigera laciniata (2.28 mL/mgand the lowest in dichloromethane extract of Cora aff. glabrata (0.30 mL/mg. The correlation between antioxidant activity and total phenolic content was moderate. The flavonoids content of ethanolic extracts was highly significant but negative (p < 0.05. There was good correlation in dichloromethane extracts. The ethanolic extract of P. laciniata exhibited the highest antiradical activity despite showing the lowest flavonoid content. Conclusions: The ethanolic extracts of lichens tested showed to have the higher antioxidant activity and may be used as natural sources of new antioxidants.

  16. Go-6976 Reverses Hyperglycemia-Induced Insulin Resistance Independently of cPKC Inhibition in Adipocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Katherine A.; Hegyi, Krisztina; Hannun, Yusuf A.; Buse, Maria G.; Sethi, Jaswinder K.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic hyperglycemia induces insulin resistance by mechanisms that are incompletely understood. One model of hyperglycemia-induced insulin resistance involves chronic preincubation of adipocytes in the presence of high glucose and low insulin concentrations. We have previously shown that the mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) plays a partial role in the development of insulin resistance in this model. Here, we demonstrate that treatment with Go-6976, a widely used “specific” inhibitor of cPKCs, alleviates hyperglycemia-induced insulin resistance. However, the effects of mTOR inhibitor, rapamycin and Go-6976 were not additive and only rapamycin restored impaired insulin-stimulated AKT activation. Although, PKCα, (but not –β) was abundantly expressed in these adipocytes, our studies indicate cPKCs do not play a major role in causing insulin-resistance in this model. There was no evidence of changes in the expression or phosphorylation of PKCα, and PKCα knock-down did not prevent the reduction of insulin-stimulated glucose transport. This was also consistent with lack of IRS-1 phosphorylation on Ser-24 in hyperglycemia-induced insulin-resistant adipocytes. Treatment with Go-6976 did inhibit a component of the mTORC1 pathway, as evidenced by decreased phosphorylation of S6 ribosomal protein. Raptor knock-down enhanced the effect of insulin on glucose transport in insulin resistant adipocytes. Go-6976 had the same effect in control cells, but was ineffective in cells with Raptor knock-down. Taken together these findings suggest that Go-6976 exerts its effect in alleviating hyperglycemia-induced insulin-resistance independently of cPKC inhibition and may target components of the mTORC1 signaling pathway. PMID:25330241

  17. Sports activity after total joint arthroplasty: recommendations for the counseling physician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buza, John A; Fink, Leslie A; Levine, William N

    2013-02-01

    Sports activity after total joint arthroplasty (TJA) has become an increasingly important topic, as many younger patients seeking TJA have higher postoperative expectations with regard to return to athletic activity. Our current knowledge of this area is largely based on retrospective clinical studies and surveys of surgeon recommendations. The decision to participate in sports after TJA depends on the patient's general health, prior athletic experience, type of TJA, and desired sporting activity. Ultimately, patients should discuss these factors with their physician in order to make an educated decision regarding sports activity after TJA. This article summarizes the best available evidence to help guide physicians in their conversation with patients regarding safe and appropriate sports activity after TJA.

  18. Apelin-13 upregulates Egr-1 expression in rat vascular smooth muscle cells through the PI3K/Akt and PKC signaling pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Qi-Feng [Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Liaoning Medical University, Jinzhou 121001 (China); Yu, Hong-Wei [Department of Cardiology, Jinzhou Central Hospital, Jinzhou 121001 (China); Sun, Li-Li [Department of Ophthalmology, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Liaoning Medical University, Jinzhou 121001 (China); You, Lu; Tao, Gui-Zhou [Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Liaoning Medical University, Jinzhou 121001 (China); Qu, Bao-Ze, E-mail: qubaoze1971@hotmail.com [Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Liaoning Medical University, Jinzhou 121001 (China)

    2015-12-25

    Previous studies have shown that Apelin-13 upregulates early growth response factor-1 (Egr-1) via the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) signaling pathway. Apelin-13 induces proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) as well as the upregulation of osteopontin (OPN) via the upregulation of Egr-1. This study was designed to further explore the activity of Apelin-13 in VSMCs by investigating members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family, in particular Jun kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (P38). We also examined whether the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) and protein kinase C (PKC) signaling pathways were involved in the regulation of Egr-1 by Apelin-13. We treated rat aortic VSMCs with Apelin-13 and examined the expression of JNK, p-JNK, P38, and p-P38 to investigate whether Apelin-13-mediated increases in Egr-1 occurred through the JNK and P38 signaling pathways. We then pretreated VSMCs with the Gi protein inhibitor pertussis toxin (PTX) and the Gq inhibitor YM254890, added Apelin-13 and looked for changes in Egr-1 expression. Finally, we pretreated with the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 and the PKC inhibitor GF109203X, and treated with Apelin-13. Our results showed that JNK and P38 did not participate in Apelin-13-mediated increase in Egr-1. Instead, Apelin-13 upregulation of Egr-1 was mediated by a PTX-sensitive Gi protein. Apelin-13 did increase ERK phosphorylation through the PI3K/Akt and PKC signaling pathways, resulting in changes in Egr-1 expression. These data provide important targets for future studies to modulate vascular remodeling. - Highlights: • Apelin-13 mediates Egr-1 upregulation in vascular smooth muscle cells via ERK1/2. • The underlying mechanisms are unknown, but exclude Jnk or p38 pathway activation. • Apelin-13 binds to Gi, activating the PI3K/Akt and PKC signaling cascades. • Consequent ERK phosphorylation results in increased Egr-1

  19. Apelin-13 upregulates Egr-1 expression in rat vascular smooth muscle cells through the PI3K/Akt and PKC signaling pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Qi-Feng; Yu, Hong-Wei; Sun, Li-Li; You, Lu; Tao, Gui-Zhou; Qu, Bao-Ze

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that Apelin-13 upregulates early growth response factor-1 (Egr-1) via the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) signaling pathway. Apelin-13 induces proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) as well as the upregulation of osteopontin (OPN) via the upregulation of Egr-1. This study was designed to further explore the activity of Apelin-13 in VSMCs by investigating members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family, in particular Jun kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (P38). We also examined whether the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) and protein kinase C (PKC) signaling pathways were involved in the regulation of Egr-1 by Apelin-13. We treated rat aortic VSMCs with Apelin-13 and examined the expression of JNK, p-JNK, P38, and p-P38 to investigate whether Apelin-13-mediated increases in Egr-1 occurred through the JNK and P38 signaling pathways. We then pretreated VSMCs with the Gi protein inhibitor pertussis toxin (PTX) and the Gq inhibitor YM254890, added Apelin-13 and looked for changes in Egr-1 expression. Finally, we pretreated with the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 and the PKC inhibitor GF109203X, and treated with Apelin-13. Our results showed that JNK and P38 did not participate in Apelin-13-mediated increase in Egr-1. Instead, Apelin-13 upregulation of Egr-1 was mediated by a PTX-sensitive Gi protein. Apelin-13 did increase ERK phosphorylation through the PI3K/Akt and PKC signaling pathways, resulting in changes in Egr-1 expression. These data provide important targets for future studies to modulate vascular remodeling. - Highlights: • Apelin-13 mediates Egr-1 upregulation in vascular smooth muscle cells via ERK1/2. • The underlying mechanisms are unknown, but exclude Jnk or p38 pathway activation. • Apelin-13 binds to Gi, activating the PI3K/Akt and PKC signaling cascades. • Consequent ERK phosphorylation results in increased Egr-1

  20. In vivo Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis Facility for Total Body Nitrogen and Cd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munive, Marco; Revilla, Angel; Solis, Jose L.

    2007-01-01

    A Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) system has been designed and constructed to measure the total body nitrogen and Cd for in vivo studies. An aqueous solution of KNO 3 was used as phantom for system calibration. The facility has been used to monitor total body nitrogen (TBN) of mice and found that is related to their diet. Some mice swallowed diluted water with Cl 2 Cd, and the presence of Cd was detected in the animals. The minimum Cd concentration that the system can detect was 20 ppm

  1. The Antioxidant Activities and Total Phenolic of Artemisia Martima, Achillea Millefolium and Matricaria Recutica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Mirzaei

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Consumption of plant derived antioxidant contributes to reducing risks of certain chronic and degenerative diseases. The aim of the present study was to study the antioxidant activities and total phenolic of Artemisia Martima, Achillea Millefolium and Matricaria Recutica Materials & Methods: The present study was conducted at Yasuj University of Medical Sciences in 2009. The Stem and flower sample of plants were air-dried, and then grinded and were finally extracted by ethanol: water (70: 30 for 48 h in room temperature. Extracts were filtered and dried under vacuum system. The antioxidant activity of three ethanol extract of the medicinal plants, Artemisia martima, Achillea millefolium and Matricaria recutica, were analyzed by five different methods (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical, 2, 20azinobis- (3-ethylbenzthiazoline -6-sulphonic acid (ABTS radical cation,Ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP, phosphomolybdenum (PMB and reducing power ( RP. In addition, for determination of antioxidant components, the total phenolic content was also analyzed. The collected data was analyzed by SPSS software. Results: For all antioxidant activity assays, Artemisia martima had the highest antioxidant activity value and also total phenol content. Antioxidant capacity analyses revealed that the FRAP and DPPH had comparable results. Antioxidant activity at 1 mg/mL, in ABTS were in the order Artemisia martima> Achillea millefolium> Matricaria recutica. Similar trend was observed for PMB content. RP, FRAP and DPPH were in the order Artemisia martima> Matricaria recutica > Achillea millefolium . Conclusion: The extracts showed a variety of antioxidant activities in all antioxidant assay system. This study demonstrated that Artemisia martima crude extract exhibit significant antioxidant activity.

  2. Physical Activity and Adherence to Mediterranean Diet Increase Total Antioxidant Capacity: The ATTICA Study

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    Stavros A. Kavouras

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the association of physical activity and adherence to the Mediterranean diet, in total antioxidant capacity (TAC. A random sample of 1514 men and 1528 women was selected from Attica region. Physical activity was assessed with a translated version of the validated “International Physical Activity Questionnaire” (iPAQ, and dietary intake through a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was assessed by the MedDietScore that incorporated the inherent characteristics of this diet. TAC was positively correlated with the degree of physical activity (P<.05. TAC was also positively correlated with MedDietScore (r=0.24, P<.001. Stratified analysis by diet status revealed that the most beneficial results were observed to highly active people as compared to inactive, who also followed the Mediterranean diet (288  ±  70 μmol/L, 230  ±  50 μmol/L, resp., after adjusting for various confounders. Increased physical activity and greater adherence to the Mediterranean diet were associated with increased total antioxidant capacity.

  3. Screening of immunomodulatory activity of total and protein extracts of some Moroccan medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoudi, Abdeljlil; Aarab, Lotfi; Abdel-Sattar, Essam

    2013-04-01

    Herbal and traditional medicines are being widely used in practice in many countries for their benefits of treating different ailments. A large number of plants in Morocco were used in folk medicine to treat immune-related disorders. The objective of this study is to evaluate the immunomodulatory activity of protein extracts (PEs) of 14 Moroccan medicinal plants. This activity was tested on the proliferation of immune cells. The prepared total and PEs of the plant samples were tested using MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay on the splenocytes with or without stimulation by concanavalin-A (Con-A), a mitogenic agent used as positive control. The results of this study indicated different activity spectra. Three groups of activities were observed. The first group represented by Citrullus colocynthis, Urtica dioica, Elettaria cardamomum, Capparis spinosa and Piper cubeba showed a significant immunosuppressive activity. The second group that showed a significant immunostimulatory activity was represented by Aristolochia longa, Datura stramonium, Marrubium vulgare, Sinapis nigra, Delphynium staphysagria, Lepidium sativum, Ammi visnaga and Tetraclinis articulata. The rest of the plant extracts did not alter the proliferation induced by Con-A. This result was more important for the PE than for the total extract. In conclusion, this study revealed an interesting immunomodulating action of certain PEs, which could explain their traditional use. The results of this study may also have implications in therapeutic treatment of infections, such as prophylactic and adjuvant with cancer chemotherapy.

  4. Metabolic Profiling of Total Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in Community-Dwelling Men.

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    Kota Fukai

    Full Text Available Physical activity is known to be preventive against various non-communicable diseases. We investigated the relationship between daily physical activity level and plasma metabolites using a targeted metabolomics approach in a population-based study.A total of 1,193 participants (male, aged 35 to 74 years with fasting blood samples were selected from the baseline survey of a cohort study. Information on daily total physical activity, classified into four levels by quartile of metabolic equivalent scores, and sedentary behavior, defined as hours of sitting per day, was collected through a self-administered questionnaire. Plasma metabolite concentrations were quantified by capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry method. We performed linear regression analysis models with multivariable adjustment and corrected p-values for multiple testing in the original population (n = 808. The robustness of the results was confirmed by replication analysis in a separate population (n = 385 created by random allocation.Higher levels of total physical activity were associated with various metabolite concentrations, including lower concentrations of amino acids and their derivatives, and higher concentrations of pipecolate (FDR p <0.05 in original population. The findings persisted after adjustment for age, body mass index, smoking, alcohol intake, and energy intake. Isoleucine, leucine, valine, 4-methyl-2-oxoisopentanoate, 2-oxoisopentanoate, alanine, and proline concentrations were lower with a shorter sitting time.Physical activity is related to various plasma metabolites, including known biomarkers for future insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes. These metabolites might potentially play a key role in the protective effects of higher physical activity and/or less sedentary behavior on non-communicable diseases.

  5. Precise shape reconstruction by active pattern in total-internal-reflection-based tactile sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saga, Satoshi; Taira, Ryosuke; Deguchi, Koichiro

    2014-03-01

    We are developing a total-internal-reflection-based tactile sensor in which the shape is reconstructed using an optical reflection. This sensor consists of silicone rubber, an image pattern, and a camera. It reconstructs the shape of the sensor surface from an image of a pattern reflected at the inner sensor surface by total internal reflection. In this study, we propose precise real-time reconstruction by employing an optimization method. Furthermore, we propose to use active patterns. Deformation of the reflection image causes reconstruction errors. By controlling the image pattern, the sensor reconstructs the surface deformation more precisely. We implement the proposed optimization and active-pattern-based reconstruction methods in a reflection-based tactile sensor, and perform reconstruction experiments using the system. A precise deformation experiment confirms the linearity and precision of the reconstruction.

  6. Anti-oxidant and hepatoprotective activities of total flavonoids of Indocalamus latifolius

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    Juan Tan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The total flavonoids of Indocalamus latifolius were evaluated in term of their anti-oxidant and hepatoprotective activities. The results showed that in vitro hepatoprotective and anti-oxidant activities of total flavonoids at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg, respectively, were comparable to those of the known hepatoprotective drug silymarin at 100 mg/kg. These data were supplemented with histopathological studies of rat liver sections. Seven of the main flavonoid compounds purified by column chromatography using silica gel, sephadex LH-20 and develosil ODS, and determined to be vitexin, orientin, isovitexin, homoorientin, tricin, tricin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside and quercetin-3-O-glucopyranoside.

  7. RAPID KNEE-EXTENSIONS TO INCREASE QUADRICEPS MUSCLE ACTIVITY IN PATIENTS WITH TOTAL KNEE ARTHROPLASTY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Rasmus Skov; Wilquin, Lousia; Jakobsen, Thomas Linding

    2017-01-01

    rapid knee-extensions were associated with greater voluntary quadriceps muscle activity during an experimental strength training session, compared to that elicited using slow knee-extensions. STUDY DESIGN: A randomized cross-over study. METHODS: Twenty-four patients (age 66.5) 4-8 weeks post total knee...... agonist muscle activity, especially if the exercise is conducted using rapid muscle contractions. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine if patients with total knee arthroplasty could perform rapid knee-extensions using a 10 RM load four to eight weeks after surgery, and the degree to which...... arthroplasty randomly performed one set of five rapid, and one set of five slow knee-extensions with the operated leg, using a load of their 10 repetition maximum, while surface electromyography recordings were obtained from the vastus medialis and lateralis of the quadriceps muscle. RESULTS: Data from 23...

  8. Rapid knee-extensions to increase quadriceps muscle activity in patients with total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Rasmus Skov; Wilquin, Lousia; Jakobsen, Thomas Linding

    2017-01-01

    rapid knee-extensions were associated with greater voluntary quadriceps muscle activity during an experimental strength training session, compared to that elicited using slow knee-extensions. STUDY DESIGN: A randomized cross-over study. METHODS: Twenty-four patients (age 66.5) 4-8 weeks post total knee...... agonist muscle activity, especially if the exercise is conducted using rapid muscle contractions. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine if patients with total knee arthroplasty could perform rapid knee-extensions using a 10 RM load four to eight weeks after surgery, and the degree to which...... arthroplasty randomly performed one set of five rapid, and one set of five slow knee-extensions with the operated leg, using a load of their 10 repetition maximum, while surface electromyography recordings were obtained from the vastus medialis and lateralis of the quadriceps muscle. RESULTS: Data from 23...

  9. Acute Exercise Increases Plasma Total Antioxidant Status and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in Untrained Men

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    C. Berzosa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant defences are essential for cellular redox regulation. Since free-radical production may be enhanced by physical activity, herein, we evaluated the effect of acute exercise on total antioxidant status (TAS and the plasma activities of catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase and its possible relation to oxidative stress resulting from exercise. Healthy untrained male subjects (=34 performed three cycloergometric tests, including maximal and submaximal episodes. Venous blood samples were collected before and immediately after each different exercise. TAS and enzyme activities were assessed by spectrophotometry. An increase of the antioxidant enzyme activities in plasma was detected after both maximal and submaximal exercise periods. Moreover, under our experimental conditions, exercise also led to an augmentation of TAS levels. These findings are consistent with the idea that acute exercise may play a beneficial role because of its ability to increase antioxidant defense mechanisms through a redox sensitive pathway.

  10. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor, wortmannin, inhibits insulin-induced activation of phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis and associated protein kinase C translocation in rat adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standaert, M L; Avignon, A; Yamada, K; Bandyopadhyay, G; Farese, R V

    1996-02-01

    We questioned whether phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) and protein kinase C (PKC) function as interrelated signalling mechanisms during insulin action in rat adipocytes. Insulin rapidly activated a phospholipase D that hydrolyses phosphatidylcholine (PC), and this activation was accompanied by increases in diacylglycerol and translocative activation of PKC-alpha and PKC-beta in the plasma membrane. Wortmannin, an apparently specific PI 3-kinase inhibitor, inhibited insulin-stimulated, phospholipase D-dependent PC hydrolysis and subsequent translocation of PKC-alpha and PKC-beta to the plasma membrane. Wortmannin did not inhibit PKC directly in vitro, or the PKC-dependent effects of phorbol esters on glucose transport in intact adipocytes. The PKC inhibitor RO 31-8220 did not inhibit PI 3-kinase directly or its activation in situ by insulin, but inhibited both insulin-stimulated and phorbol ester-stimulated glucose transport. Our findings suggest that insulin acts through PI 3-kinase to activate a PC-specific phospholipase D and causes the translocative activation of PKC-alpha and PKC-beta in plasma membranes of rat adipocytes.

  11. Measurement of total-body oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon in vivo by photon activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulin, K.

    1984-01-01

    With the aim of assessing nutritional status, the feasibility of measuring the total body quantities of the major body elements, i.e. oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon, using the photon beam of a 45 MV betatron and a whole-body counter, has been evaluated in detail. Following photon activation a single energy γ-radiation (.511 MeV) is observed from all three elements to be measured. The half-lives of 15 O, 13 N, and 11 C, however, are sufficiently different (20.5 min, 10.0 min, and 20.4 min. respectively) to permit their measurement from an analysis of the measured decay curve. Following corrections for interfering reactions, a computer curve-fitting algorithm is used to resolve the data into 15 O, 13 N, and 11 C components. Measurements of O, N, and C have been made both in phantoms and in live and dead rats. A comparison of the body composition results from this technique with results from chemical analysis indicates that measured carbon can quite accurately predict total body fat. The comparison of the total body nitrogen measurement by photon activation with total body protein by chemical analysis was inconclusive and suggests that further work be done to verify the estimated accuracy of the nitrogen measurement

  12. Autonomous and professional maintenance in metallurgical enterprise as activities within total productive maintenance

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    B. Gajdzik

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The content of this publication consists of notions connected with Total Productive Maintenance (TPM in metallurgical enterprise. The basic areas of devices condition management through Autonomous and Professional Maintenance are described here. Mentioned areas of activities are performed in metallurgical enterprise ArcelorMittal Poland within pillars of World Class Manufacturing (WCM. The aims of UR programs are to maintain the basic functionality of the devices and decrease the number of failures in order to reach improvement of production efficiency.

  13. Solvent Effect on Antioxidant Activity and Total Phenolic Content of Betula alba and Convolvulus arvensi

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Azman A. Nurul; Husni Shafik; Almajano P. Maria; Gallego G. Maria

    2013-01-01

    The potential of using herbal Betula alba (BA) and Convolvulus arvensis (CA) as a natural antioxidant for food applications were investigated. Each plant extract was prepared by using pure ethanol, different concentration of ethanol aqueous solutions, including 50% and 75%, 50% methanol aqueous and water. Total phenolic content (TPC) was determined using Folin–Ciocalteau method and antioxidant activity were analyzed by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals, trolox equivalent antioxida...

  14. Quality control on the accuracy of the total Beta activity index in different sample matrices water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujol, L.; Pablo, M. A. de; Payeras, J.

    2013-01-01

    The standard ISO/IEC 17025:2005 of general requirements for the technical competence of testing and calibration laboratories, provides that a laboratory shall have quality control procedures for monitoring the validity of tests and calibrations ago. In this paper, the experience of Isotopic Applications Laboratory (CEDEX) in controlling the accuracy rate of total beta activity in samples of drinking water, inland waters and marine waters is presented. (Author)

  15. Patient reported activities after reverse total shoulder arthroplasty in rotator cuff arthropathy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcobía-Díaz, B; Lópiz, Y; García-Fernández, C; Rizo de Álvaro, B; Marco, F

    Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty in rotator cuff arthropathy patients, improves anteversion and abduction, but not rotational, outcomes. The main aim of this study is to determine its repercussions on daily life activities in our patients. Between 2009 and 2011 we implanted 210 shoulder arthroplasties, 126 of them were reverse total shoulder arthroplasty in a rotator cuff arthropathy context. About 88% were women, with a mean age at time of surgery of 81 years, 95% were retired. The mean follow up was 53 months. The Constant scale, Visual Analogue Scale, Charlson Comorbidity Index, range of motion were measured for each patient and whether they could manage 40 daily life activities by means of a new questionnaire, classifying them according toshoulder functional demand. Mean normalized by sex and age Constant value was 81.2%. Mean Visual Analogue Scale and Charlson Index were 3.56 and 1.69 respectively. Improvement in anteversion and abduction, not in rotational range of motion. Limitation was found in low and high functional demand activities in 20% and 51% respectively, especially those which involved internal rotation. Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty treatment for RCA in the elderly, achieves adequate pain management and good functional outcomes. Nevertheless, an important risk of DLA limitation must be accepted in those which involve internal rotation or shoulder high functional demand. Copyright © 2017 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Measurement of total body chlorine by prompt gamma in vivo neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beddoe, A.H.; Streat, S.J.; Hill, G.L.

    1987-01-01

    A method of measuring total body chlorine (TBCl) by prompt gamma in vivo neutron activation analysis is described depending on the same NaI(Tl) spectra used for determinations of total body nitrogen. Ratios of chlorine to hydrogen are derived and TBCl determined using a model of body composition depending on measured body weight, total body water (by tritium dilution) and protein (6.25 x nitrogen) as well as estimated body minerals and glycogen. The precision of the method based on scanning an anthropomorphic phantom is approximately 9% (SD), for a patient dose equivalent of less than 0.30 mSv. Spectra collected from 67 normal volunteers (32 male, 35 female) yielded mean values of TBCl of 72 +- 19 (SD) g in males and 53.6 +- 15 g in females, in broad agreement with values reported by workers using delayed gamma methods. Results are presented for two human cadavers analysed by neutron activation and conventional chemical analysis; the ratios of TBCl (neutron activation) to TBCl (chemical) were 0.980 +- 0.028 (SEM) and 0.91 +- 0.09. It is suggested that an improvement in precision will be achieved by increasing the scanning time (thereby increasing the radiation dose equivalent) and by adding two more detectors. (author)

  17. AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN DAN KADAR FENOLIK TOTAL DARI GANGGANG MERAH (Gracilaria verrucosa L. [Antioxidant Activity and Total Phenolic Content of Red Sea Weed (Gracilaria verrucosa L.

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    Lydia Ninan Lestario*

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to compare the antioxidant activity and the total phenolic content of red sea weed (Gracilaria verrucosa L. from extract of methanol, ethanol, acetone, chloroform and hexane; and the correlation between total phenolic content and the antioxidant activity of each extract; then to determine the chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and carotene content of each extract and their correlation with the free radical scavenging activity as well. The antioxidant activity were measured by free radical scavenging method with DPPH and by reducing power method with K4Fe(CN6 as standard, whereas the total phenolic content was measured by Folin Ciocalteu method with gallic acid as standard. Chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and carotene were determined by spectrophotometric method based on Lambert-Beer law. The data of antioxidant activity and total phenolic content were statistically analyzed by Randomized Completely Block Design (RCBD with five kinds of solvents as treatments and five replications. Honestly Significant Difference Test (HSDT was used to compare the difference of treatments; whereas the chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and carotene content were not statistically analyzed since they were only supplement data. The results showed that the highest of the antioxidant activity by free radical scavenging method was found in acetone extract : 43.43% (BHT: 84.15%; whereas by reducing power method was found in chloroform extract : 0.1756 meq K4Fe(CN6/g extract (BHT : 6.1767 meq K4Fe(CN6/g extract; and the highest of the total phenolic content was also found in acetone extract : 45.29 mg /g extract. There were close correlation between phenolic content and antioxidant activity both by free radical scavenging method and by reducing power method with r (coefficient correlation respectivelly 0.89 and 0.91.Chlorophyll a and carotene had also close correlation with the free radical scaveging activity, but not for chlorophyll b.

  18. Mineral Composition, Total Phenol Content and Antioxidant Activity of a Macrolichen Everniastrum cirrhatum (Fr. Hale (Parmeliaceae

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    T. R. Prashith Kekuda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated for the first time mineral composition, total phenol content and antioxidant activity of a foliose macrolichen Everniastrum cirrhatum (Fr. Hale (Parmeliaceae from Bhadra wildlife sanctuary, Karnataka, India. Mineral content of the lichen was estimated by Atomic absorption spectrophotometer after acid digestion. The secondary metabolites were detected by thin layer chromatography (TLC and phytochemical assays. The lichen material was extracted with methanol in soxhlet apparatus. Total phenol content was estimated by folin ciocalteu method. Antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH, Ferric reducing and metal chelating assays. Among the principal elements, calcium was found in high concentration followed by magnesium, potassium and phosphorus. Among trace elements, iron was detected in high amount followed by zinc, manganese and copper. The DPPH radical scavenging activity was found to be dose dependent with an IC50 of 6.73 μg/mL. In ferric reducing assay, the absorbance increased with the concentration of extract suggesting reducing power. The extract exhibited good metal chelating activity with an IC50 value of 29.28 μg/mL. Total phenol content was 101.2 mg tannic acid equivalents per gram of extract. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins and terpenoids. TLC revealed atranorin, salazinic acid and protolichesterinic acid. The lichen can be consumed as a source of minerals required for the body as appreciable amount of minerals has been detected. The marked antioxidant activity may be attributed to the presence of phenol content in the extract. Further studies on isolation of metabolites and their bioactivities are under investigation.

  19. Diabetes that impacts on routine activities predicts slower recovery after total knee arthroplasty: an observational study

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    Nurudeen Amusat

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Question: In the 6 months after total knee arthroplasty (TKA, what is the pattern of pain resolution and functional recovery in people without diabetes, with diabetes that does not impact on routine activities, and with diabetes that does impact on routine activities? Is diabetes that impacts on routine activities an independent predictor of slower resolution of pain and functional recovery after TKA? Design: Community-based prospective observational study. Participants: A consecutive cohort of 405 people undergoing primary TKA, of whom 60 (15% had diabetes. Participants with diabetes were also asked preoperatively whether diabetes impacted on their routine activities. Participants were categorised into three groups: no diabetes (n = 345, diabetes with no impact on activities (n = 41, and diabetes that impacted activities (n = 19. Outcome measures: Pain and function were measured using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC Osteoarthritis Index within the month before surgery and 1, 3 and 6 months after surgery. Demographic, medical and surgical factors were also measured, along with depression, social support and health-related quality of life. Results: No baseline differences in pain and function were seen among the three groups (p > 0.05. Adjusting for age, gender and contralateral joint involvement across the 6 postoperative months, participants with diabetes that impacted on routine activities had pain scores that were 8.3 points higher (indicating greater pain and function scores that were 5.4 points higher (indicating lower function than participants without diabetes. Participants with diabetes that doesn’t impact on routine activities had similar recovery to those without diabetes. Conclusion: People undergoing TKA who report preoperatively that diabetes impacts on their routine activities have less recovery over 6 months than those without diabetes or those with diabetes that does not impact on routine activities

  20. A gravimetric method for the measurement of total spontaneous activity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesiadecki, B J; Brand, P H; Koch, L G; Britton, S L

    1999-10-01

    Currently available methods for the measurement of spontaneous activity of laboratory animals require expensive, specialized equipment and may not be suitable for use in low light conditions with nocturnal species. We developed a gravimetric method that uses common laboratory equipment to quantify the total spontaneous activity of rats and is suitable for use in the dark. The rat in its home cage is placed on a top-loading electronic balance interfaced to a computer. Movements are recorded by the balance as changes in weight and transmitted to the computer at 10 Hz. Data are analyzed on-line to derive the absolute value of the difference in weight between consecutive samples, and the one-second average of the absolute values is calculated. The averages are written to file for off-line analysis and summed over the desired observation period to provide a measure of total spontaneous activity. The results of in vitro experiments demonstrated that: 1) recorded weight changes were not influenced by position of the weight on the bottom of the cage, 2) values recorded from a series of weight changes were not significantly different from the calculated values, 3) the constantly decreasing force exerted by a swinging pendulum placed on the balance was accurately recorded, 4) the measurement of activity was not influenced by the evaporation of a fluid such as urine, and 5) the method can detect differences in the activity of sleeping and waking rats over a 10-min period, as well as during 4-hr intervals recorded during active (night-time) and inactive (daytime) periods. These results demonstrate that this method provides an inexpensive, accurate, and noninvasive method to quantitate the spontaneous activity of small animals.

  1. Protection against Ischemia-Induced Oxidative Stress Conferred by Vagal Stimulation in the Rat Heart: Involvement of the AMPK-PKC Pathway

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    Wei-Jin Zang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS production is an important mechanism in myocardial ischemia and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH oxidase is one of major sources of ROS in the heart. Previous studies showed that vagus nerve stimulation (VNS is beneficial in treating ischemic heart diseases. However, the effect of VNS on ROS production remains elusive. In this study, we investigated the role of VNS onischemia-induced ROS production. Our results demonstrated that VNS alleviated the myocardial injury, attenuated the cardiac dysfunction, reserved the antioxidant enzyme activity and inhibited the formation of ROS as evidenced by the decreased NADPH oxidase (Nox activity and superoxide fluorescence intensity as well as the expression of p67phox, Rac1 and nitrotyrosine. Furthermore, VNS resulted in the phosphorylation and activation of adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK, which in turn led to an inactivation of Nox by protein kinase C (PKC; however, the phenomena were repressed by the administration of a muscarinic antagonist atropine. Taken together, these data indicate that VNS decreases ROS via AMPK-PKC-Nox pathway; this may have potential importance for the treatment of ischemic heart diseases.

  2. Total phenolics, flavonoids, tannins and antioxidant activity of lima beans conserved in a Brazilian Genebank

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    Tânia da Silveira Agostini-Costa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize for the first time polyphenols and DPPH (2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl radical antioxidant activity in commonly cultivated accessions of Phaseolus lunatus from an ex situ germplasm collection maintained by Embrapa, in Brazil. Furthermore, the study aimed to detect changes in total polyphenols, total flavonoids and condensed tannin for the same accessions after regeneration in a greenhouse. The results showed the diversity of the lima bean collection for phenolic compounds, which were strongly correlated with antioxidant activity. Lima beans accessions with the highest polyphenols and antioxidant activity were those with colored seeds. Conservation through cold storage of P. lunatus seeds in a cold chamber in the germplasm collection did not necessarily affect phenolic compounds. Variations observed in values after regeneration seeds may be mainly results of biotic and abiotic factors, including not only cultivar, but also environmental conditions. This study suggests that polyphenols in the lima beans present antioxidant activity, with possible beneficial effects for human health. It was expected that the potential of this tasty legume can be also used as a functional food crop and/or as a new ingredient in gastronomy.

  3. Determination of chemical composition, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of xylanthemum macropodum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samiullah, A.; Tareen, R.B.; Khan, N.; Akber, A.; Ali, I.; Khan, A.K.

    2017-01-01

    Evaluation of the phytochemistry, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of the endemic plant of northern Balochistan Xylanthemum Macropodum of the Asteraceae family, is reported for the first time in this document. Chemical composition of Xylanthemum Macropodum was determined using well-established chemical tests and modern spectroscopic techniques. Extracts were taken from the whole plant using methanol and the extracts were tested for phytochemicals (secondary metabolites), total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity. The phytochemical (biochemical) examination of Xylanthemum Macropodum exposed the presence of alkaloids, phenols, steroids, flavonoids, tannins, terpenoids, saponins, coumarins, carbohydrates, cardiac glycosides, reducing sugars, and quinines. TPC of crude methanolic extract (CME) of plant was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu's reagent. The TPC determined was 256mg of tannic acid Eq/g of extract. Antioxidant activities were determined spectrophotometrically using the DPPH assay and Ferric ion (Fe/sup +3/) reducing antioxidant power assay. The potency of the DPPH assay of Xylanthemum Macropodum extract was 68% for the 0.10 mg/ml concentration and the FRAP value of the extract was 3.368 mmol Fe/sup +2//g of extract. Xylanthemum Macropodum has proved to be very rich in secondary metabolites, natural phenolics and has a very potent antioxidant activity. (author)

  4. Total phenolic content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Blepharis edulis extracts

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    Mohaddese Mahboubi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Blepharis edulis is traditionally used as an antiseptic, purgative, aphrodisiac and anti-inflammatory agent. The extractsof plant aerial parts were screened for total phenolic content (TPC gallic acid equivalents (GAE, total flavonoid compound(TFC quercetin equivalents (QE, antioxidant capacity and its antimicrobial activity by micro broth dilution assay. The 50%-inhibition values of BHT and 70% (v/v aqueous ethanol, 70% (v/v aqueous methanol, methanol, and water extracts of B.edulis according to the DPPH method were found to be 19.6, 71.2, 73.7, 81.4, and 218.4 g/ml, respectively. TPC ranged from38.9 to 102.7 mg GAE/g dry extracts. The antimicrobial activity showed that yeast and fungi were sensitive and resistantmicroorganisms to the extracts. The 70%-methanol extract showed more drastic antimicrobial activity than the others. Theantimicrobial activity of ethanolic extract is the same as of the methanolic extract; water extract had the weakest antimicrobialactivity.

  5. Essential oils chemical composition, antioxidant activities and total phenols of Astrodaucus persicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Goodarzi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:Astrodaucus persicus, Apiaceae, is used as vegetable or food additive in some parts of Iran. The essential oils of different parts of Astrodaucus persicus from Kordestan province were analyzed for the first time and compared with other regions. In this study, antioxidant activities and total phenols determination of aerial parts essential oils and root fractions of A. persicus were investigated. Materials and Methods: The essential oils were obtained by hydro-distillation from flowers/fruits, leaves/stems, ripe fruits and roots of plant and analyzed by GC-MS. Crude root extract was fractionated with hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol. Antioxidant activities by DPPH and FRAP methods and total phenols by Folin-ciocalteu assay were measured. Results: The abundant compounds of flowers/fruits blue essential oil were α-thujene, β-pinene and α-pinene. The predominant components of blue leaves/stems essential oil were α-thujene, α-pinene and α-fenchene. The major volatiles of ripe fruits blue essential oil were β-pinene, α-thujene and α-pinene. The chief compounds of root yellow essential oil were trans-caryophyllene, bicycogermacrene and germacrene-D. Total root extract and ethyl acetate fraction showed potent antioxidant activities and high amount of total phenols in comparison to other samples. Among volatile oils, the flowers/fruits essential oil showed potent reducing capacity. Conclusion: The major compounds of aerial parts essential oils were hydrocarbon monoterpenes while the chief percentage of roots essential oil constituents were hydrocarbon sesquiterpenes. α-Eudesmol and β-eudesmol were identified as responsible for creation of blue color in aerial parts essential oils. A. persicus was known as a potent antioxidant among Apiaceae.

  6. Essential oils chemical composition, antioxidant activities and total phenols of Astrodaucus persicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodarzi, Saeid; Hadjiakhoondi, Abbas; Yassa, Narguess; Khanavi, Mahnaz; Tofighi, Zahra

    2016-02-01

    Astrodaucus persicus, Apiaceae, is used as vegetable or food additive in some parts of Iran. The essential oils of different parts of Astrodaucus persicus from Kordestan province were analyzed for the first time and compared with other regions. In this study, antioxidant activities and total phenols determination of aerial parts essential oils and root fractions of A. persicus were investigated. The essential oils were obtained by hydro-distillation from flowers/fruits, leaves/stems, ripe fruits and roots of plant and analyzed by GC-MS. Crude root extract was fractionated with hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol. Antioxidant activities by DPPH and FRAP methods and total phenols by Folin-ciocalteu assay were measured. The abundant compounds of flowers/fruits blue essential oil were α-thujene, β-pinene and α-pinene. The predominant components of blue leaves/stems essential oil were α-thujene, α-pinene and α-fenchene. The major volatiles of ripe fruits blue essential oil were β-pinene, α-thujene and α-pinene. The chief compounds of root yellow essential oil were trans-caryophyllene, bicycogermacrene and germacrene-D. Total root extract and ethyl acetate fraction showed potent antioxidant activities and high amount of total phenols in comparison to other samples. Among volatile oils, the flowers/fruits essential oil showed potent reducing capacity. The major compounds of aerial parts essential oils were hydrocarbon monoterpenes while the chief percentage of roots essential oil constituents were hydrocarbon sesquiterpenes. α-Eudesmol and β-eudesmol were identified as responsible for creation of blue color in aerial parts essential oils. A. persicus was known as a potent antioxidant among Apiaceae.

  7. Effectiveness of Three Different Walking Prescription Durations on Total Physical Activity in Normal- and Overweight Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Schutz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: While there is a dose-response relationship between physical activity (PA and health benefit, little is known about the effectiveness of different PA prescriptions on total daily PA. Aim: To test, under real-life conditions and using an objective, non-invasive measurement technique (accelerometry, the effect of prescribing additional physical activity (walking only of different durations (30, 60 and 90 min/day on compliance (to the activity prescribed and compensation (to total daily PA. Participants in each group were prescribed 5 sessions of walking per week over 4 weeks. Methods: 55 normal-weight and overweight women (mean BMI 25 ± 5 kg/m2, height 165 ± 1 cm, weight 68 ± 2 kg and mean age 27 ± 1 years were randomly assigned to 3 prescription groups: 30, 60 or 90 min/day PA. Results: Walking duration resulted in an almost linear increase in the number of steps per day during the prescription period from an average of about 10,000 steps per day for the 30-min prescription to about 14,000 for the 90-min prescription. Compliance was excellent for the 30-min prescription but decreased significantly with 60-min and 90-min prescriptions. In parallel, degree of compensation subsequent to exercise increased progressively as length of prescription increased. Conclusion: A 30-min prescription of extra walking 5 times per week was well tolerated. However, in order to increase total PA further, much more than 60 min of walking may need to be prescribed in the majority of individuals. While total exercise ‘volume' increased with prescriptions longer than 30 min, compliance to the prescription decreased and greater compensation was evident.

  8. Dioxin modulates expression of receptor for activated C kinase (RACK-1) in developing neurons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, J.H.; Kim, S.Y.; Lee, H.G.; Kim, M.Y.; Lee, J.H.; Chae, W.G. [Catholic Univ. of Daegu, Dept. of Pharmacology/Toxicology, Daegu (Korea)

    2004-09-15

    TCDD is sensitive to the central nerve system of the developing brain. The TCDD-induced neurodevelopmental deficits include the cognitive disability and motor dysfunction. While TCDD may lead to neurodevelopmental and neurobehavioral deficit, it is not known which molecular substances are intracellular targets for TCDD. Since TCDD accumulates in brain and the brain contains the Ah receptor, it is possible that TCDD may act at the target site such as cerebellum, which is responsible for cognitive abilities and motor function. A recent in vitro studies using cerebellar granule cells demonstrated a translocation of PKC-{alpha} and {epsilon} following the TCDD or PCB exposure. One of the most pivotal second messenger molecules involved in neuronal function and development is protein kinase C (PKC). PKC signaling pathways have been implicated as an important factor in learning and memory processes. PKC signaling events are optimized by the adaptor proteins, which organize PKCs near their selective substrates and away from others. RACK-1(receptor for activated C-kinase) is one of adaptor proteins that anchor the activated PKC at the site of translocation 6. RACKs bind PKC only in the presence of PKC activators. RACKs are 30- and 36-kDa proteins located in cytoskeletal compartment and play a key role in PKC activation and in membrane amchoring. Since different PKC isoforms translocate to distinct subcellular sites on activation, it is suggested that isoform-specific RACK may be present. Activation of certain PKC isoforms (PKC-a and {beta}II) is preferentially associated with RACK-1. While TCDD modulates PKC signaling pathway, role of RACK-1 on TCDD-mediated signaling pathway is not known. To identify the intracellular target for TCDD and understand a mechanism of signaling pathway in the developing brain, the present study attempted to analyze effects of RACK-1 in the cerebellar granule cells following TCDD exposure.

  9. Rational design and validation of an anti-protein kinase C active-state specific antibody based on conformational changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, Darlene Aparecida; Andrade, Victor Piana de; Silva, Gabriela Ávila Fernandes; Neves, José Ivanildo; Oliveira, Paulo Sergio Lopes de; Alves, Maria Julia Manso; Devi, Lakshmi A; Schechtman, Deborah

    2016-02-25

    Protein kinase C (PKC) plays a regulatory role in key pathways in cancer. However, since phosphorylation is a step for classical PKC (cPKC) maturation and does not correlate with activation, there is a lack of tools to detect active PKC in tissue samples. Here, a structure-based rational approach was used to select a peptide to generate an antibody that distinguishes active from inactive cPKC. A peptide conserved in all cPKCs, C2Cat, was chosen since modeling studies based on a crystal structure of PKCβ showed that it is localized at the interface between the C2 and catalytic domains of cPKCs in an inactive kinase. Anti-C2Cat recognizes active cPKCs at least two-fold better than inactive kinase in ELISA and immunoprecipitation assays, and detects the temporal dynamics of cPKC activation upon receptor or phorbol stimulation. Furthermore, the antibody is able to detect active PKC in human tissue. Higher levels of active cPKC were observed in the more aggressive triple negative breast cancer tumors as compared to the less aggressive estrogen receptor positive tumors. Thus, this antibody represents a reliable, hitherto unavailable and a valuable tool to study PKC activation in cells and tissues. Similar structure-based rational design strategies can be broadly applied to obtain active-state specific antibodies for other signal transduction molecules.

  10. In vitro antimicrobial activity of total extracts of the leaves of Petiveria alliacea L. (Anamu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ania Ochoa Pacheco

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of 13 total extracts was evaluated, 10 soft extracts (B and 3 blended extracts (E prepared from dry and fresh leaves of Petiveria alliacea L. Various solvents were used for their preparation: hydroalcoholic solution at 30%, 80% and isopropyl alcohol. The antimicrobial effect of the extracts was tested by means of the method of Kirby-Bauer, using four bacterial strains from the ATCC collection (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and a leveduriform fungus (Candida albicans. The following quality control parameters were determined for most active extracts: physical, physical-chemical and chemical parameters. The results were: nine extracts showed antibacterial activity, being the most concentrated (B8 and E3, the ones with the highest activity in the presence of the bacteria tested; the effect of blended extracts (E1, E2 and E3 was greater in the presence of P. aeruginosa. Blended extracts are considered more potent and active than soft extracts. No antifungal activity was obtained for both types of extracts. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC were determined for both extracts, with the following results: MIC-soft extracts (>100 mg/mL, blended extracts (>50 mg/mL; MBC-soft extracts (≥400 mg/mL, blended extracts (≥200 mg/mL based on fresh leaves.

  11. To total amount of activity ..... and beyond: Perspectives on measuring physical behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes B.J. Bussmann

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to describe and discuss some perspectives on definitions, constructs and outcome parameters of physical behaviour. The paper focuses on the following constructs: Physical activity & active lifestyle vs. sedentary behaviour & sedentary lifestyle; Amount of physical activity vs. amount of walking; Detailed body posture & movement data vs. overall physical activity data; Behavioural context of activities; Quantity vs. quality; Physical behaviour vs. physiological response.Subsequently, the following outcome parameters provided by data reduction procedures are discussed: Distribution of length of bouts; Variability in bout length; Time window; Intensity and intensity threshold.The overview indicates that physical behaviour is a multi-dimensional construct, and it stresses the importance and relevance of constructs and parameters other than total amount of physical activity.It is concluded that the challenge for the future will be to determine which parameters are most relevant, valid and responsive. This is a matter for physical behaviour researchers to consider, that is critical to multi-disciplinary collaboration.

  12. Changes in body chemical composition with age measured by total-body neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, S.H.; Vaswani, A.; Zanzi, I.; Aloia, J.F.; Roginsky, M.S.; Ellis, K.J.

    1976-01-01

    Total-body levels of calcium and phosphorus (reflecting skeletal mass) and total-body levels of potassium (reflecting muscle mass) were measured by neutron activation analysis in 39 men and 40 women ages 30 to 90 yr. In order to intercompare the total body calcium (TBCa) values in a heterogeneous population, such as this, it was necessary to normalize the data for skeletal size. The normalization consisted of dividing the absolute calcium level by the predicted calcium level for each individual matched to a set of critical parameters. The parameter used in the computation of normal values were age, sex, muscle mass, i.e., total body potassium (TBK) and height. For the calcium data of the women, it was necessary to add an age correction factor after the age of 55 yr. The calcium ratio (mean ratio of the predicted to measured TBCa) in men was 1.000 +- 7.8 percent and in women 0.996 +- 7.1 percent. The TBCa of normal males and females can thus be predicted to +-13 percent (at the 90 percent confidence level). An exception to this was found in males (70 to 90 yr) who exhibited a mean calcium ratio greater than 1.13

  13. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content in Red Ginger (Zingiber officinale) based drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widayat; Cahyono, B.; Satriadi, H.; Munfarida, S.

    2018-01-01

    Indonesia is a rich spices country, both as a cooking spice and medicine. One of the most abundant commodities is red ginger, where it still less in application. On the other hand, the level of pollution is higher, so antioxidants are needed to protect the body cells from the bad effects of free radicals. The body can not naturally produce antioxidants as needed, so we need to consume foods with high antioxidant content. The purpose of this study is to know the antioxidant activity and total phenolic content in red ginger (Zingiber officinale) based drinks. Research design with complete randomized design (RAL) with factorial pattern 3 x 3, as the first factor is red ginger extract and water ratio (1: 1, 1: 2 and 1: 3) and second factor is the type of sugar used (cane sugar, palm sugar and mixed sugar). The results of this study indicate that red ginger extract and water ratio of 1: 3 give higher antioxidant. The highest antioxidant obtained in red ginger extract and water ratio of 1: 3 and using mixed sugar. That antioxidants value is 88.56%, it is not significant decreased compared to the antioxidant of pure ginger extract that is 91.46%. For higher phenol total content obtained on syrup that uses palm sugar. The highest phenol total content obtained in red ginger extract and water ratio of 1: 1 and using palm sugar. That total phenol content value is 6299 ppm.

  14. 6-Gingerol inhibits ROS and iNOS through the suppression of PKC-α and NF-κB pathways in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated mouse macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Tzung-Yan; Lee, Ko-Chen; Chen, Shih-Yuan; Chang, Hen-Hong

    2009-01-01

    Inflammation is involved in numerous diseases, including chronic inflammatory diseases and the development of cancer. Many plants possess a variety of biological activities, including antifungal, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities. However, our understanding of the anti-inflammatory effects of 6-gingerol is very limited. We used lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages as a model of inflammation to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of 6-gingerol, which contains phenolic structure. We found that 6-gingerol exhibited an anti-inflammatory effect. 6-Gingerol could decrease inducible nitric oxide synthase and TNF-α expression through suppression of I-κBα phosphorylation, NF-κB nuclear activation and PKC-α translocation, which in turn inhibits Ca 2+ mobilization and disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential in LPS-stimulated macrophages. Here, we demonstrate that 6-gingerol acts as an anti-inflammatory agent by blocking NF-κB and PKC signaling, and may be developed as a useful agent for the chemoprevention of cancer or inflammatory diseases.

  15. Anti-pseudomonas activity of essential oil, total extract, and proanthocyanidins of Pinus eldarica Medw. bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Masoud; Zolfaghari, Behzad; Jahanian-Najafabadi, Ali; Abtahi, Seyed Reza

    2016-01-01

    Pinus eldarica Medw. (Iranian pine) is native to Transcaucasian region and has been vastly planted in Iran, Afghanistan, and Pakistan. Various parts of this plant have been widely used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases including infectious conditions (e.g. infectious wounds). In this study we aimed to investigate the antibacterial activity of P. eldarica bark extract, essential oil and proanthocyanidins on three important bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Antibacterial analysis was performed using standard disk diffusion method with different concentrations of essential oil, bark total hydroalcoholic extract, and bark proanthocyanidins (0.5, 1, 2 and 3 mg/ml). After incubation at 37°C for 24 h, the antibacterial activity was assessed by measuring the zone of growth inhibition surrounding the disks. The results indicated that the essential oil, total hydroalcoholic extract, and proanthocyanidins of the bark of the P. eldarica were effective against the gram negative bacteria, P. aeruginosa, and significantly inhibited its growth in disk diffusion method (Pessential oil had the most potent inhibitory effect. However, none of the bark preparations could significantly inhibit the growth of S. aureus or E. coli. Our findings showed that P. eldarica bark components have significant anti-pseudomonas activity having potentials for new sources of antibacterial agents or antibacterial herbal preparations.

  16. Soybean and tempeh total isoflvones improved antioxidant activities in normal and scopolamine-induced rat brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliya Ahmad

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To highlight the comparative studies between total isoflavone extracts from soybean and tempeh on the neuronal oxidative stress and antioxidant activities. Methods: The total isoflavones were administered orally for 15 days with 3 selected doses (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg. Piracetam (400 mg/kg, p.o. was used as a standard drug while scopolamine (1 mg/kg, i.p. was used as a drug that promoted amnesia in selected groups. The oxidative markers (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and nitric oxide were measured in brain homogenate. The antioxidant activities evaluated were catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and glutathione. Results: Our results showed that soybean and tempeh isoflavones significantly improved the levels of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and glutathione while decreased levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and nitric oxide in both the brain of normal as well as scopolamine-induced animals. Conclusions: Our findings suggested that soybean and tempeh isoflavones could be useful in the management and prevention of age-related neurodegenerative changes including Alzheimer’s disease through its antioxidant activities.

  17. Comparative study of the total phenol content and antioxidant activity of some medicinal herbal extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hajimehdipoor

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medicines can be used as the potential sources of anti-oxidative compounds to help the treatment of diseases associated to oxidative stress. In this paper, the Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP activity of four Lamiaceae herbal extracts, which traditionally applied in oxidative stress related diseases, has been evaluated and total phenolics contents of these extracts determined by using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. The aqueous methanol extracts were prepared by percolation method and investigated for antioxidant properties and total phenolics content evaluation. All the extracts showed antioxidant effect from 123.6±4.6 mmol of FeSO4.7H2Oequivalent/100 g dried extract in Scutellaria tornefortii to 551.5±16.0 mmol of FeSO4.7H2Oequivalent/100 g dried extract in Satureja sahendica. Interestingly, although Satureja sahendica exhibited the most antioxidant activity, the highest content of polyphenolics belonged to Stachys byzantina. Taking together, antioxidant activity of the mentioned medicinal plants is not necessarily associated with polyphenolic compounds and might be partially due to the presence of other polar constituents like terpenoid-glycosides in aqueous extracts that traditionally used as decoction.

  18. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY AND TOTAL PHENOLIC CONTENT OF GRAPE SEEDS AND PEELS FROM ROMANIAN VARIETIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mădălina IUGA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Grape seeds and peels are valuable by-products from wine production industry that can be valorized in food production. Both grape seeds and peels have a great amount of antioxidants and polyphenolic compounds. The aim of this study was to investigate the total phenolic content of red and white grape seeds and peels and to establish the optimal solvent concentration for highest extraction yield. For this purpose, Folin Ciocâlteu method was used to achieve the phenols content and the antioxidant activity was estimated using 2,2 – diphenyl-1-1picrylhydrazyl (DPPH reagent. The total phenolic content ranged from 81.13 mg GAE/g for red peels, 93.47 mg GAE/g for white peels, to 128.47 mg GAE/g for red seeds and 164.70 mg GAE/g for white seeds. The One-Way ANOVA method was used to see if there are differences between the antioxidant activities depending on the solvent concentration. The results showed that the methanol concentration significantly (p < 0.05 influences the antioxidants extraction. The inhibition percent IC50 ranged from 0,24 to 4,37 μg/mL for white peels, from 3,12 to 6,29 μg/mL for red peels, from 5,53 to 5,90 μg/mL for white seeds and from 4,59 to 6,14 μg/mL for red seeds. This study highlighted the possibility to use grape seeds and peels as food ingredients or natural antioxidant to extend the shelf life of food, especial of lipids and lipid-containing foods because of their high antioxidant activity and total phenolic content.

  19. Total phenolic and phytosterol compounds and the radical scavenging activity of germinated Australian sweet lupin flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumiyati; Jayasena, Vijay; James, Anthony P

    2013-12-01

    In addition to their favourable nutritional profile, legumes also contain a range of bioactive compounds such as phenolic compounds and phytosterols which may protect against chronic diseases including cancer and cardiovascular disease. Germination of some legume seeds has been previously reported to increase the concentration of the bioactive compounds. In this study, the effect of germination of Australian Sweet Lupin (ASL) seeds for 9 days on the concentration of some bioactive compounds and the radical scavenging activity in the resulting flour was determined. The concentration of total phenolic compounds in methanolic extracts of germinated ASL flour was determined using Folin Ciocalteu reagent and phytosterols in oil extracts were analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography. The methanolic and oil extracts were also used to determine radical scavenging activity toward 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. In the methanolic extracts of germinated ASL flour, phenolic contents and the antioxidant activity were significantly increased following germination (700 and 1400 %, respectively). Analysis of the oil extracts of germinated ASL flour revealed that the concentration of phytosterols and the antioxidant activity were also increased significantly compared to ungerminated ASL flour (300 and 800 %, respectively). The relative proportion of phytosterols in germinated ASL flour was: β-sitosterol (60 %), stigmasterol (30 %) and campesterol (10 %). Germination increases the concentration of bioactive compounds and the radical scavenging activity in the germinated ASL flour.

  20. Total phenolic content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Equisetum arvense L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kukrić Zoran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Equisetum arvense L. harvested in a polluted urban area were investigated. The total phenolic content determined by a modified Folin-Ciocalteu method was 335.8 mg of GEA/g of the dried ethanol extract. Antioxidant activity determined by FRAP method was 28.7 mM Fe(II/g of extract, whereas antioxidant activity index for stable DPPH free radicals was 3.86. The results were compared with control antioxidants (gallic acid, vitamin C, BHA and BHT. Antimicrobial activity was tested by monitoring the impact of different extract concentrations through measuring the change in optical density of bacterial suspension over time and by determining MIC and MBC using macrodilution method. E. arvense extract has been effective on the tested microorganisms depending on the concentration and exposure time. The extract had the strongest antibacterial activity on Staphylococcus aureus, with MIC and MBC of 11.14 mg/mL and 22.28 mg/mL respectively, and the weakest effect on Bacillus cereus, with MIC of 89.10 mg/mL.

  1. Measurement of total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of aerial parts of medicinal plant Coronopus didymus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreen, Hafiza; Semmar, Nabil; Farman, Muhammad; McCullagh, James S O

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the total phenolic content and compare the antioxidant activity of various solvent extracts and fractions from the aerial parts of Coronopus didymus through various assays. Total phenolic content was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and the in vitro antioxidant activity of a number of different extracts was investigated in a dose-dependent manner with three different methods: the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. A flavone was isolated from the most active ethanolic extract with high antioxidant activity using size exclusion chromatography. IC 50 values were calculated for the DPPH and ABTS methods. The FRAP activity was assessed in terms of μM Fe (II) equivalent. The phenolic content was found to be highest in the ethanol extract (CDA Et; 47.8 mM GAE) and the lowest in the dichloromethane extract (CDA DCM; 3.13 mM GAE). The ethanol extract showed high radical scavenging activity towards DPPH and ABTS radicals with IC 50 values of (7.80 × 10 2 ) and (4.32 × 10 2 ) μg/mL, respectively. The most active ethanol extract had a FRAP value of 1921.7 μM Fe (II) equivalent. The isolated flavone F10C (5,7,4'-trihydroxy-3'-methoxy flavone) was far more effective for scavenging free radicals in the DPPH and ABTS assays with IC 50 of 43.8 and 0.08 μg/mL, than the standard trolox, with IC 50 values of 97.5 and 21.1 μg/mL, respectively. In addition, the flavone F10C and the standard ascorbic acid had FRAP values of 1621.7 and 16 038.0 μM Fe (II) equivalents, respectively. The total phenolic content of extracts in decreasing order is ethanol extract (CDA Et) > acetone extract (CDA ACE) > phenolic extract (CDA MW) > n-hexane extract (CDA nHX)> chloroform extract (CDA CHL) > dichloromethane extract (CDA DCM). The ordering of extracts in terms of antioxidant activity from highest to lowest is CDA Et

  2. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor, wortmannin, inhibits insulin-induced activation of phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis and associated protein kinase C translocation in rat adipocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    Standaert, M L; Avignon, A; Yamada, K; Bandyopadhyay, G; Farese, R V

    1996-01-01

    We questioned whether phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) and protein kinase C (PKC) function as interrelated signalling mechanisms during insulin action in rat adipocytes. Insulin rapidly activated a phospholipase D that hydrolyses phosphatidylcholine (PC), and this activation was accompanied by increases in diacylglycerol and translocative activation of PKC-alpha and PKC-beta in the plasma membrane. Wortmannin, an apparently specific PI 3-kinase inhibitor, inhibited insulin-stimulat...

  3. Total body calcium by neutron activation analysis. Reference data for children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, K.J.; Shypailo, R.J.

    2001-01-01

    There is a paucity of data on the chemical composition of the human body during growth. Total body calcium (TBCa) has been reported for only one male child, aged 41/2 yr. TBCa values for 25 children and 27 young women using in vivo neutron activation analysis have been obtained. TBCa results were lower than those reported for the one male cadaver, as well as the estimates derived for the 'Reference Man' model. It was concluded that the reference values for TBCa may need to be adjusted to appropriately describe skeletal mineralization of contemporary children. (author)

  4. The use of Total Body In Vivo Neutron Activation Analysis (TBIVNAA) in balance studies in rodents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.A.; Lindsay, R.L.; Anderson, J.

    1976-01-01

    In the investigation of animals subject to alteration in diet or other metabolic experiments, the measurements of change in body calcium, phosphorus, sodium and nitrogen are of considerable interest. However, conventional balance studies are tedious and subject to both random and cumulative error, necessitating as they do accurate estimates of dietary intake and faecal and urinary output. The object of the present study was to determine the usefulness of total body in vivo neutron activation analysis, used at the beginning and end of the experimental period, as an alternative to conventional balance techniques. (orig.) [de

  5. Total gamma activity measurements for determining the radioactivity of residual materials from nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auler, I.; Meyer, M.; Stickelmann, J.

    1995-01-01

    Large amounts of residual materials from retrofitting measures and from decommissioning of nuclear power stations shows such a weak level of radioactivity that they could be released after decision measurements. Expenses incurred with complex geometry cannot be taken with common methods. NIS developed a Release Measurement Facility (RMF) based on total gamma activity measurements especially for these kind of residual materials. The RMF has been applied for decision measurements in different nuclear power plants. Altogether about 2,000 Mg of various types of materials have been measured up to now. More than 90 % of these materials could be released 0 without any restriction after decision measurements

  6. Total synthesis of leopolic acid A, a natural 2,3-pyrrolidinedione with antimicrobial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul A. Dhavan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The first total synthesis of leopolic acid A, a fungal metabolite with a rare 2,3-pyrrolidinedione nucleus linked to an ureido dipeptide, was designed and carried out. Crucial steps for the strategy include a Dieckmann cyclization to obtain the 2,3-pyrrolidinedione ring and a Wittig olefination to install the polymethylene chain. An oxazolidinone-containing leopolic acid A analogue was also synthesized. The antibacterial activity showed by both compounds suggests that they could be considered as promising candidates for future developments.

  7. [Evaluation of the total biological activity and allergenic composition of allergenic extracts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardero, M; González, R; Duffort, O; Juan, F; Ayuso, R; Ventas, P; Cortés, C; Carreira, J

    1986-01-01

    In the present study, a complete procedure is presented in order to standardize allergenic extracts, the meaning of which is the measurement of the total allergenic activity and the determination of the allergenic composition. The measurement of the biological activity comprises 2 steps: Preparation of Reference Extracts and determination of their "in vivo" activity. Evaluation of the total allergenic activity of extracts for clinical use. Reference extracts were prepared from the main allergens and their "in vivo" biological activity was determined by a quantitative skin prick test in a sample of at least 30 allergic patients. By definition, the protein concentration of Reference Extract that produces, in the allergic population, a geometric mean wheal of 75 mm.2 has an activity of 100 biological units (BUs). The determination of the biological activity of a problem extract is made by RAST inhibition. The sample is compared with the corresponding Reference Extract by this technique and, from this comparison, it is possible to quantify the activity of the problem extract in biologic units (BUs) with clinical significance. Likewise, different techniques have been used to determine the allergenic composition of extracts. These techniques comprise 2 steps: Separation of the components of the extract. Identification of the components that bind specific human IgE. The separation of the components of the extract has been carried out by isoelectric focusing (IEF) and electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS-PAGE). In order to identify the allergenic components, an immunoblotting technique has been employed. The separated components in the IEF gel or SDS-PAGE gel are transferred to a nitrocellulose sheet and later on, this membrane is overlaid with a serum pool from allergic patients and a mouse monoclonal anti-human IgE, labelled with 125I. Finally, the autoradiography of the nitrocellulose membrane is obtained. In this way it is possible to compare

  8. Localization of aPKC lambda/iota and its interacting protein, Lgl2, is significantly associated with lung adenocarcinoma progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Naoko; Horikoshi, Yosuke; Matsuzaki, Tomohiko; Toriumi, Kentaro; Kitatani, Kanae; Ogura, Go; Masuda, Ryota; Nakamura, Naoya; Takekoshi, Susumu; Iwazaki, Masayuki

    2013-12-20

    Atypical protein kinase C lambda/iota (aPKC λ/ι) is expressed in several human cancers; however, the correlation between aPKC λ/ι localization and cancer progression in human lung adenocarcinoma (LAC) remains to be clarified. We found that patients with a high level of aPKC λ/ι expression in LAC had significantly shorter overall survival than those with a low level of aPKC λ/ι expression. In addition, localization of aPKC λ/ι in the apical membrane or at the cell-cell contact was associated with both lymphatic invasion and metastasis. The intercellular adhesion molecule, E-cadherin, was decreased in LACs with highly expressed aPKC λ/ι at the invasion site of tumor cells. This result suggested that the expression levels of aPKC λ/ι and E-cadherin reflect the progression of LAC. On double-immunohistochemical analysis, aPKC λ/ι and Lgl2, a protein that interacts with aPKC λ/ι, were co-localized within LACs. Furthermore, we found that Lgl2 bound the aPKC λ/ι-Par6 complex in tumor tissue by immune-cosedimentation analysis. Apical membrane localization of Lgl2 was correlated with lymphatic invasion and lymph node metastasis. These results thus indicate that aPKC λ/ι expression is altered upon the progression of LAC. This is also the first evidence to show aPKC λ/ι overexpression in LAC and demonstrates that aPKC λ/ι localization at the apical membrane or cell-cell contact is associated with lymphatic invasion and metastasis of the tumor.

  9. Measurement of fluorine total concentration in dental enamel using fast neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouadili, A.; Vernais, J.; Isabelle, D.B.

    1988-01-01

    Fluorine which is present in dental enamel, at the level of a few tens to a few hundred ppm, plays an important role in the behaviour of this tissue. Therefore quantitative determination is of interest for particular studies of the dental system. We present a nuclear nondestructive method to determine the total fluorine content in dental enamel by cyclotron-produced fast-neutron activation. The 19 F(n,2n) reaction leads to 18 F which is a β + emitter with a 109.8 min half-life. The irradiated sample activity is measured by detecting in coincidence the annihilation photons. A fluorine standard is used for calibration. The detection limit is of the order of 1 ppm, while the reproducibility is better than 95% [pt

  10. Polysaccharides, total flavonoids content and antioxidant activities in different parts of Silybum marianum L. plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Li, Xinhua; Yu, Xiaolei

    2017-01-01

    Silybum marianum L. is used for the production of silymarin, a flavonoid utilized for regenerating damaged hepatic tissues. Herein, the total flavonoid content (TFC) and polysaccharides content (PC) in the roots, main stems, leaves, fruit receptacles, and pappi of Silybum marianum were determined. The antioxidant activities of plant ethanol extracts were assessed to validate the medicinal potential of the various plant parts. The pappi exhibited the highest TFC (17.10 mg rutin/g of dry plant material), followed by the fruit receptacles (15.34 mg/g). The PC varied from 3.57±0.23 to 11.02±0.35 mg glucose /g dry plant material; the highest PC was obtained from the roots. At 50 ug/mL, the pappi ethanol extract showed the highest 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity (69.68%), followed by the roots (66.02%).

  11. Effect of growth stages on total phenolics content and antioxidant activity of Fumaria vaillantii L.

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    L. Mehdizadeh*

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Plant extracts and their constituents are known to exert biological effects, especially antioxidant activity. Fumaria vaillantii (Fumariaceae has several therapeutic effects in traditional medicine. Antioxidants are able to protect the human body from oxidative damage connected to the reaction of free radicals. Synthetic antioxidants have toxic and carcinogenic effects on human health; therefore, their application has been limited. Thus, there has been an increasing interest in the natural antioxidant compounds to prevent the foods from deterioration. In this study, the antioxidant activity of F. vaillantii extracts at three stages of growth has been evaluated. Methods: The ethanol extracts from the aerial parts of the plants at different phenological stages were prepared and the total phenolics content was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Also, the antioxidant activity were determined by three methods as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, ferric-ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and phosphomolybdenum complex tests. All experiments were carried out in triplicate, and data were subjected to ANOVA according to the SAS software. Results: Total phenolics content of vegetative, budding and flowering stages were 68.38, 71.11 and 56.42 mg GAE/g extract, respectively. Although flowering stage showed the highest antioxidant activity in phosphomolybdenum complex, in DPPH and FRAP methods, it decreased from vegetative to flowering stages. Conclusion: According to the results, the Iranian F. vaillantii extract from vegetative stage was a potential source of natural antioxidants for food and pharmaceutical industries that can be used in different industries.

  12. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents and biological activities of Cachrys cristata DC. extracts

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    Matejić Jelena S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The total phenolic/flavonoid contents and antioxidant potential of the methanol, ethyl-acetate, acetone and water extracts obtained from the aerial parts and fruits of Cachrys cristata DC.(Apiaceae were compared. The total phenolic contents of the tested extracts were determined using Folin-Ciocalteu’s reagent. The amounts per g of dry plant extract of gallic acid (GA and quercetin (Qu ranged between 22.60-166.97 mg, and 8.91-46.02 mg, respectively. The antioxidant activity, expressed as IC50, ranged from 1.784-17.621 mg/mL and from 1.01-3.42 mg L(+-ascorbic acid (Vitamin C/g when tested with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and ABTS, respectively. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts was investigated by the microwell dilution assay, for the most common human gastrointestinal pathogenic bacterial strains: Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027, Salmonella enteritidis ATCC 13076, Bacillus cereus ATCC 10876, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC15313, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and yeast Candida albicans ATCC 10231. The results indicate that C. cristata can be regarded as a potential source of antioxidant and antimicrobial agents. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173029

  13. Effect of gibberellic acid on total antioxidant activity during Chenopodium rubrum L. ontogenesis invitro

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    Mitrović Aleksandra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Total antioxidant activity (TAA represents the combined ability of diverse antioxidants present in a sample of plant material to scavenge free radicals. Chenopodium rubrum L. sel. 184 is a qualitatively short-day plant; as an early-flowering species, it is a suitable object for studying ontogenesis in vitro. We investigated the effect of GA3 (5 mg/l on TAA during C. rubrum ontogenesis under two different inductive photoperiodic regimes in vitro. Total antioxidant activ­ity does not change in different phases of C. rubrum ontogenesis under the same photoperiodic treatment. Exposure to continuous irradiation caused an increase of TAA in both C. rubrum plants and collected matured seeds. Gibberellic acid stimulated stem elongation, but did not affect leaf development or the number of matured seeds per plant, regardless of photoperiodic treatment; it induced a decrease of TAA in C. rubrum plants regardless of photoperiodic treatment or the phase of development, while it had no effect on TAA of matured seeds.

  14. Curing Ingredients, Characteristics, Total Phenolic, and Antioxidant Activity of Commercial Indonesian Dried Meat Product (Dendeng

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    T. Suryati

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Dendeng is Indonesian dried meat product that used spices rich in antioxidant component as ingredient. In addition, commercial dendeng usually use saltpeter (nitrate/nitrite salt as curing ingredient to inhibit rancidity and to produce stable red color. The aims of this study were to investigate composition of spices and saltpeter added, characteristic, total phenolic, and antioxidant activity of commercial dendeng. This research was conducted through interview with some dendeng producers to get information about saltpeter adding and spices composition used in their products. Then the interview results were verified by laboratory analysis. The results showed that spices and saltpeter adding from some producers varied. The saltpeter added in curing process produced inconsistent red color on commercial dendeng in this investigation. Total phenolic of dendeng from producers ranged from 42.47 to 102.0 mg GAE/100 g DM for raw dendeng, and 36.51 to 95.49 mg GAE/100 g DM for fried dendeng. Antioxidant capacity against DPPH ranged from 79.35 to 379.40 mg VCE/100 g DM for raw dendeng, and 94.30 to 559.40 mg VCE/100 g DM for fried dendeng. Antioxidant capacity of raw dendeng was influenced by phenolic content about 87.2%, but in fried dendeng was only 59.0%. In conclusion, dendeng has a significant antioxidant activity, even after frying, and saltpeter addition was not effective to maintain stable red color in dendeng products.

  15. Role of LPAR3, PKC and EGFR in LPA-induced cell migration in oral squamous carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brusevold, Ingvild J; Tveteraas, Ingun H; Aasrum, Monica; Ødegård, John; Sandnes, Dagny L; Christoffersen, Thoralf

    2014-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma is an aggressive neoplasm with serious morbidity and mortality, which typically spreads through local invasive growth. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is involved in a number of biological processes, and may have a role in cancer cell migration and invasiveness. LPA is present in most tissues and can activate cells through six different LPA receptors (LPAR1-6). Although LPA is predominantly promigratory, some of the receptors may have antimigratory effects in certain cells. The signalling mechanisms of LPA are not fully understood, and in oral carcinoma cells the specific receptors and pathways involved in LPA-stimulated migration are unknown. The oral carcinoma cell lines E10, SCC-9, and D2 were investigated. Cell migration was studied in a scratch wound assay, and invasion was demonstrated in organotypic three dimensional co-cultures. Protein and mRNA expression of LPA receptors was studied with Western blotting and qRT-PCR. Activation of signalling proteins was examined with Western blotting and isoelectric focusing, and signalling mechanisms were further explored using pharmacological agents and siRNA directed at specific receptors and pathways. LPA stimulated cell migration in the two oral carcinoma cell lines E10 and SCC-9, but was slightly inhibitory in D2. The receptor expression profile and the effects of specific pharmacological antagonist and agonists indicated that LPA-stimulated cell migration was mediated through LPAR3 in E10 and SCC-9. Furthermore, in both these cell lines, the stimulation by LPA was dependent on PKC activity. However, while LPA induced transactivation of EGFR and the stimulated migration was blocked by EGFR inhibitors in E10 cells, LPA did not induce EGFR transactivation in SCC-9 cells. In D2 cells, LPA induced EGFR transactivation, but this was associated with slowing of a very high inherent migration rate in these cells. The results demonstrate LPA-stimulated migration in oral carcinoma cells through LPAR3

  16. Duration and frequency of every day activities in total hip patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morlock, M; Schneider, E; Bluhm, A; Vollmer, M; Bergmann, G; Müller, V; Honl, M

    2001-07-01

    Little knowledge about frequency and duration of daily activities in patients after total hip arthroplasty is available. Such information is required for the definition of realistic load collectives for pre-clinical testing of prostheses. It could also be helpful for the quantitative evaluation of surgery outcome with different prosthesis types. The purpose of this study was to develop and apply a system for the determination of frequency and duration of patient activities in their habitual environment and to compare the results to a clinical outcome score (Harris hip score).A portable activity monitoring system (weight 1.6 kg including batteries) was designed using a Palm top computer, 2 inclination sensors for the thigh and calf and one goniometer positioned at the knee joint. An algorithm was developed to identify frequency and duration of the activities lying, sitting, standing, walking and stair climbing from the signals of the 3 sensors. 42 patients participated in the study and were equipped with the system in the morning at their home. Datasets of 31 patients (age 62.5+/-11.5 y) covered more than 6h (9.8 +/- 1.6 h) and were included in the analysis. Prosthesis specific data as well as the Harris hip score were collected. The most frequent patient activity was sitting (44.3% of the time), followed by standing (24.5%), walking (10.2%), lying (5.8%) and stair climbing (0.4%). The median number of steps/stairs was 6048/164. The number of step cycles representing one year in vivo use should, consequently, be increased to 1.1 million. The Harris hip score (91.4 +/- 9.8) correlated significantly with the number of stairs (r(2) = 0.26, p = 0.003) and showed a positive tendency with the number of steps per day. No differences in activity levels between prosthesis specific factors were found.

  17. Physical activity level, leisure activities and related quality of life 1 year after lumbar decompression or total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolving, Nanna; Obling, Kirstine H; Christensen, Finn B; Fonager, Kirsten

    2013-04-01

    Lumbar decompression surgery (LDS) and total hip arthroplasty (THA) are frequently performed in the elderly population, but very little is known about their subsequent physical capacity and participation in leisure activities. Despite similar demographics and comorbidities, it is questionable whether LDS patients achieve equally high levels of physical capacity and quality of life postoperatively as do THA patients. The aim was to compare the physical activity level, participation in leisure activities and related quality of life 1 year after an LDS and THA procedure. Data from 95 THA patients and 83 LDS patients were gathered from questionnaires on self-reported physical activity level, leisure activities and quality of life. LDS and THA patients reported equally moderate levels of physical activity. The median score was 42.3 METs/day (IQR 37.9; 47.7) for the LDS group and 41.0 METs/day (IQR 38.5; 48.5) for the THA group (p = 0.79). Weekly time consumption for leisure activities in the LDS group was a median of 420 min/week (IQR 210; 660) compared to a median of 480 min/week (IQR 240; 870) in the THA group (p = 0.16). Regarding quality of life, LDS patients reported significantly worse Euroqol Five Dimensions scores with a median value of 0.740 (IQR 0.68; 0.82) compared to THA patients' median of 0.824 (IQR 0.72; 1.0), p leisure activities, LDS patients did not achieve a quality of life comparable to that of THA patients 1 year postoperatively.

  18. Atypical protein kinase C activity is required for extracellular matrix degradation and invasion by Src-transformed cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Elena M; Dunham, Elizabeth E; Martin, G Steven

    2009-10-01

    Atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) isoforms have been shown to mediate Src-dependent signaling in response to growth factor stimulation. To determine if aPKC activity contributes to the transformed phenotype of cells expressing oncogenic Src, we have examined the activity and function of aPKCs in 3T3 cells expressing viral Src (v-Src). aPKC activity and tyrosine phosphorylation were found to be elevated in some but not all clones of mouse fibroblasts expressing v-Src. aPKC activity was inhibited either by addition of a membrane-permeable pseudosubstrate, by expression of a dominant-negative aPKC, or by RNAi-mediated knockdown of specific aPKC isoforms. aPKC activity contributes to morphological transformation and stress fiber disruption, and is required for migration of Src-transformed cells and for their ability to polarize at the edge of a monolayer. The lambda isoform of aPKC is specifically required for invasion through extracellular matrix in Boyden chamber assays and for degradation of the extracellular matrix in in situ zymography assays. Tyrosine phosphorylation of aPKClambda is required for its ability to promote cell invasion. The defect in invasion upon aPKC inhibition appears to result from a defect in the assembly and/or function of podosomes, invasive adhesions on the ventral surface of the cell that are sites of protease secretion. aPKC was also found to localize to podosomes of v-Src transformed cells, suggesting a direct role for aPKC in podosome assembly and/or function. We conclude that basal or elevated aPKC activity is required for the ability of Src-transformed cells to degrade and invade the extracellular matrix. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. aPKC-ι/P-Sp1/Snail signaling induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition and immunosuppression in cholangiocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yawei; Yao, Wei; Yang, Tao; Yang, Yan; Liu, Yan; Shen, Qi; Zhang, Jian; Qi, Weipeng; Wang, Jianming

    2017-10-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a highly malignant bile duct cancer that tends to invade and metastasize early. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been implicated in cancer cell invasion and metastasis, as well as in cancer cell evasion of host immunity. In this study, we investigated the interaction between atypical protein kinase C-iota (aPKC-ι) and Snail in the regulation of EMT and its relationship to CCA immunosuppression. Our results demonstrated that aPKC-ι, Snail, and infiltrated immunosuppressive cells were significantly up-regulated in CCA tumor tissues and linked to poor prognosis. aPKC-ι induced EMT and immunosuppression by regulating Snail in vitro and in vivo, although aPKC-ι did not directly interact with Snail in coimmunoprecipitation experiments. To further clarify the molecular interaction between aPKC-ι and Snail in relation to EMT, quantitative iTRAQ-based phosphoproteomic analysis and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry were conducted to identify the substrates of aPKC-ι-dependent phosphorylation. Combined with coimmunoprecipitation, we showed that specificity protein 1 (Sp1) was directly phosphorylated by aPKC-ι on Ser59 (P-Sp1). Both Sp1 and P-Sp1 were up-regulated in CCA tumor tissues and associated with clinicopathological features and poor prognosis in CCA patients. Moreover, using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, we found that P-Sp1 regulated Snail expression by increasing Sp1 binding to the Snail promoter. P-Sp1 also regulated aPKC-ι/Snail-induced EMT-like changes and immunosuppression in CCA cells. Our findings further indicated that CCA cells with EMT-like features appear to generate immunosuppressive natural T regulatory-like cluster of differentiation 4-positive (CD4 + )CD25 - cells rather than to increase CD4 + CD25 + natural T regulatory cells, in part by mediating T regulatory-inducible cytokines such as transforming growth factor β1 and interleukin 2. These results demonstrate that aPKC

  20. Effect of Different Solvents on Total Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant Activity of Zizyphus jujube Miller Fruits

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    Gholamhossein Davarynejad

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Phenolic compounds have an ability to scavenge free radicals and cause the balance of reactive oxygen species (ROS in our body. This balance prevents atherosclerosis, coronary heart and cancer diseases. Butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT is a well-known synthetic antioxidant, which is restricted to be used due to its probable toxic effects. Therefore, replacement of synthetic antioxidants with plant materials with high amounts of antioxidant activity, which protect the body from free radicals and many diseases caused by lipid peroxidation, is an appropriate option. ZiziphusjujubaMiller is one of the forty species belonging to Rhamnaceae family, which produces a great deal of industrial raw materials for horticultural, ornamental, food, and pharmaceutical industries. Antioxidants can be extracted by various solvents and extraction methods. Solvent extraction is the most common method used for separating natural antioxidants. Solvent properties undoubtedly play a key role in the extraction of antioxidative compounds. The type and yield of antioxidant extracted have been found to vary as affected by the solvent properties such as polarity, viscosity and vapor pressure. Therefore, it is difficult to develop a unified standard method for the extraction of antioxidants from all plant materials. Materials and Methods: Plant materials Fresh fruits were collected from Birjand, Iran, in late summer 2014. The samples were air dried under the shade at room temperature. Dried fruits were ground by using a mortar and pestle and were separately extracted by distilled water and organic solvents such as methanol, ethanol and acetone (50%, 90% and100% (v/v. After filtering through the Whatman paper #3 and removing the solvents (using a rotary evaporator (BUCHI V-850 and water (using a freeze dryer, (OPERON, FDB-5503, Korea, the dried extracts were stored in refrigerator for further analysis. Determination of Total Phenolic Content (TPC Samples were

  1. Effect of Sulfites on Antioxidant Activity, Total Polyphenols, and Flavonoid Measurements in White Wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardini, Mirella; Garaguso, Ivana

    2018-03-09

    Polyphenols content and antioxidant activity are directly related to the quality of wine. Wine also contains sulfites, which are added during the winemaking process. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of sulfites on the assays commonly used to measure the antioxidant activity and polyphenols and flavonoids content of white wines. The effects of sulfites were explored both in the standard assays and in white wine. The addition of sulfites (at 1-10 μg) in the standard assays resulted in a significant, positive interference in the Folin-Ciocalteu's assay used for polyphenols measurements and in both the Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power and 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt radical cation decolorization assays, which were used for antioxidant activity evaluation. A negative interference of sulfites (at 1-20 μg) was observed for the colorimetric aluminium-chloride flavonoids assay. The addition of sulfites to organic white wines (at 25-200 mg/L wine) clearly resulted in a significant overestimation of antioxidant activity and polyphenols content, and in an underestimation of flavonoids concentration. To overcome sulfite interferences, white wines were treated with cross-linked polyvinylpyrrolidone. The total polyphenols content and antioxidant activity measurements obtained after polyvinylpyrrolidone treatment were significantly lower than those obtained in the untreated wines. Flavonoids were expected to be higher after polyvinylpyrrolidone treatment, but were instead found to be lower than for untreated wines, suggesting that in addition to sulfites, other non-phenolic reducing compounds were present in white wine and interfered with the flavonoid assay. In view of our results, we advise that a purification procedure should be applied in order to evaluate the quality of white wine.

  2. Enhancing anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge by pretreatment: effect of volatile to total solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Duan, Xu; Chen, Jianguang; Fang, Kuo; Feng, Leiyu; Yan, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Qi

    2016-01-01

    In this study the effect of volatile to total solids (VS/TS) on anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS) pretreated by alkaline, thermal and thermal-alkaline strategies was studied. Experimental results showed that the production of methane from sludge was increased with VS/TS. When anaerobic digesters were fed with sludge pretreated by the thermal-alkaline method, the average methane yield was improved from 2.8 L/d at VS/TS 0.35 to 4.7 L/d at VS/TS 0.56. Also, the efficiency of VS reduction during sludge anaerobic digestion varied between 18.9% and 45.6%, and increased gradually with VS/TS. Mechanism investigation of VS/TS on WAS anaerobic digestion suggested that the general activities of anaerobic microorganisms, activities of key enzymes related to sludge hydrolysis, acidification and methanogenesis, and the ratio of Archaea to Bacteria were all increased with VS/TS, showing good agreement with methane production.

  3. Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity, Total Flavonoids, Tannins and Phenolic Compounds in Psychotria Leaf Extracts

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    Anelise Samara Nazari Formagio

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activity of Psychotria carthagenensis, P. leiocarpa, P. capillacea and P. deflexa (Rubiaceae extracts were investigated, and the concentrations of total phenolics, flavonoids, condensed tannins and flavonols were determined. The chemical compositions of the extracts were investigated using the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC/PAD method. We used 1,1-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH, β-Carotene bleaching and 2,2-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS radical cations to determine antioxidant activity. The ability to scavenge radical was measured in these experiments by the discoloration of the solution. Concentrations of constituents were measured spectrophotometrically. P. carthagenensis and P. capillacea exhibited the highest antioxidant activity, in the DPPH test, β-carotene bleaching and ABTS system. The highest phenolic, flavonoid, condensed tannin and flavonol concentration was found in P. carthagenensis and P. capillacea extracts. HPLC-PDA analysis of P. carthagenensis and P. capillacea revealed hydroxycinnamic acid (p-coumaric acid. This is the first report on the antioxidant properties and constituent analysis of these Psychotria extracts.

  4. Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity and Total Phenol Compounds of Punica granatum Hydro-Alcoholic Extract

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    Elahe Ahmadi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Punica granatum is a non-productive form of a plant and is used for the treatment of diseases in traditional medicine. In this study, we evaluate the antibacterial activity and the total phenol compounds of Punica granatum. Materials & Methods: Disk and well diffusion methods and MIC were used to evaluate the antibacterial activity of hydro-alcoholic extract on S. aureus and E. coli compared to standard commercial antibiotic disks. Measurement of phenol compounds were performed by Seevers and Daly colorimetric methods (Folin-ciocalteu indicator. Results: 35 and 29 mm inhibition zones in S. aureus and 22 and 17 mm inhibition zones in E. coli were shown by disk and well diffusion method, respectively. Also, 7.8 mg/ml concentration of extract showed the MIC points for two bacteria. Phenol compound of extract was 233.15±5.1 mg/g of extraction. Conclusion: Antibacterial effect of Punica granatum compared to antibiotics indicates the strong activity against examined bacteria. Extensive antibacterial study of Punica granatum is suggested.

  5. Male aging symptoms: the positive influence of moderate and total physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa de Carvalho Souza Vieira

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2016v18n4p460   The aim of the research was to analyze the association of physical activity (PA intensity and duration with male aging symptoms. This is a cross-sectional study of probabilistic sample involving 416 men from two cities in southern Brazil. Data collection used a questionnaire divided into six parts: sample characteristics; anthropometric measurements; economic level by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE; International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ short-version; Behavioral Risk Factors Surveillance System Questionnaire (BRFSS and Male Aging Symptoms Scale (AMS. The sample was divided into two groups: with and without male aging symptoms, making use of descriptive and inferential statistics. The presence of male aging symptoms was identified in 61.6% of men, especially somatic and psychological symptoms. Most were considered sufficiently active (60.1%, highlighting men without male aging symptoms (p = 0.026, with a possible effect of moderate and total PA on low-intensity symptoms (p = 0.027; p = 0.015. This study identified relationships between PA duration and intensity and intensity of male aging symptoms. PA practice with specific intensity and duration is suggested in order to obtain health benefits related to male aging symptoms.

  6. The relationship between total cholinesterase activity and mortality in four butterfly species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargar, Timothy A.

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between total cholinesterase activity (TChE) and mortality in four butterfly species (great southern white [Ascia monuste], common buckeye [Junonia coenia], painted lady [Vanessa cardui], and julia butterflies [Dryas julia]) was investigated. Acute contact toxicity studies were conducted to evaluate the response (median lethal dose [LD50] and TChE) of the four species following exposure to the organophosphate insecticide naled. The LD50 for these butterflies ranged from 2.3 to 7.6 μg/g. The average level of TChE inhibition associated with significant mortality ranged from 26 to 67%, depending on the species. The lower bounds of normal TChE activity (2 standard deviations less than the average TChE for reference butterflies) ranged from 8.4 to 12.3 μM/min/g. As a percentage of the average reference TChE activity for the respective species, the lower bounds were similar to the inhibition levels associated with significant mortality, indicating there was little difference between the dose resulting in significant TChE inhibition and that resulting in mortality.

  7. Daily total physical activity level and total cancer risk in men and women: results from a large-scale population-based cohort study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Manami; Yamamoto, Seiichiro; Kurahashi, Norie; Iwasaki, Motoki; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2008-08-15

    The impact of total physical activity level on cancer risk has not been fully clarified, particularly in non-Western, relatively lean populations. The authors prospectively examined the association between daily total physical activity (using a metabolic equivalents/day score) and subsequent cancer risk in the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study. A total of 79,771 general-population Japanese men and women aged 45-74 years who responded to a questionnaire in 1995-1999 were followed for total cancer incidence (4,334 cases) through 2004. Compared with subjects in the lowest quartile, increased daily physical activity was associated with a significantly decreased risk of cancer in both sexes. In men, hazard ratios for the second, third, and highest quartiles were 1.00 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.90, 1.11), 0.96 (95% CI: 0.86, 1.07), and 0.87 (95% CI: 0.78, 0.96), respectively (p for trend = 0.005); in women, hazard ratios were 0.93 (95% CI: 0.82, 1.05), 0.84 (95% CI: 0.73, 0.96), and 0.84 (95% CI: 0.73, 0.97), respectively (p for trend = 0.007). The decreased risk was more clearly observed in women than in men, especially among the elderly and those who regularly engaged in leisure-time sports or physical exercise. By site, decreased risks were observed for cancers of the colon, liver, and pancreas in men and for cancer of the stomach in women. Increased daily physical activity may be beneficial in preventing cancer in a relatively lean population.

  8. Time-driven activity based costing of total knee replacement surgery at a London teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Alvin; Sabharwal, Sanjeeve; Akhtar, Kashif; Makaram, Navnit; Gupte, Chinmay M

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a time-driven activity based costing (TDABC) analysis of the clinical pathway for total knee replacement (TKR) and to determine where the major cost drivers lay. The in-patient pathway was prospectively mapped utilising a TDABC model, following 20 TKRs. The mean age for these patients was 73.4 years. All patients were ASA grade I or II and their mean BMI was 30.4. The 14 varus knees had a mean deformity of 5.32° and the six valgus knee had a mean deformity of 10.83°. Timings were prospectively collected as each patient was followed through the TKR pathway. Pre-operative costs including pre-assessment and joint school were £ 163. Total staff costs for admission and the operating theatre were £ 658. Consumables cost for the operating theatre were £ 1862. The average length of stay was 5.25 days at a total cost of £ 910. Trust overheads contributed £ 1651. The overall institutional cost of a 'noncomplex' TKR in patients without substantial medical co-morbidities was estimated to be £ 5422, representing a profit of £ 1065 based on a best practice tariff of £ 6487. The major cost drivers in the TKR pathway were determined to be theatre consumables, corporate overheads, overall ward cost and operating theatre staffing costs. Appropriate discounting of implant costs, reduction in length of stay by adopting an enhanced recovery programme and control of corporate overheads through the use of elective orthopaedic treatment centres are proposed approaches for reducing the overall cost of treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. In vivo prompt gamma activation analysis facility for total body nitrogen and cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munive, Marco; Solis, Jose; Revilla, Angel

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Prompt Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) is a technique that could have medical applications, like determination of body's contents of protein and heavy metals in vivo. The in vivo PGNAA facility, contains a neutron source (Cf-252) with safety device, a compartment for animal irradiation, and a gamma rays detecting system based on the NaI(Tl) detector with an analytical software. The prompt gamma rays were emitted after 10 -15 s of the interaction, so they don't produce radioactive waste, and have a characteristics energy for each element, i.e. a strong peak at 2.24 MeV is observed for H. The facility has been used with laboratory mice. Water-filled phantom placed in the neutron beam was used to system calibration. Three study groups of 5 mice each one were selected and were feed with a different diet and the total body nitrogen (TBN) of the mice was monitored with the facility. The diet produced a different TBN for each group. Some mice drunk diluted water with Cl 2 Cd, so the presence of Cd was detected in the mouse. The minimum Cd concentration that the system can detect was 20 ppm. The total dose (neutron and gamma dose was measured from TLDs and simulated by MNCP-4B in the sample compartment during the irradiation time (5 minutes) is less than 2.5 mSv. This total dose is low than the dose from other analytical radiological techniques (25 a 50 mSv). (author)

  10. Determination of Total Arsenic in Seaweed Products by Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salim, N.; Santoso, M.; Yanuar, A.; Damayanti; Kartawinata, T.G.

    2013-01-01

    Seaweed products are widely consumed as food nowadays. Seaweeds are known to contain arsenic due to their capability to accumulate arsenic from the environment. Arsenic is a known toxic element which naturally occurs in the environment. Ingestion of high levels of arsenic will cause several adverse health effects. Arsenic in food occurs at trace concentrations which require sensitive and selective analysis methods to perform elemental analysis on. Validated neutron activation analysis was used to determine the arsenic contents in seaweed products namely catoni from domestic product and nori from foreign products. The total arsenic concentration in the samples analyzed ranges from 0.79 mg/kg to 30.14 mg/kg with mean concentration 14.39 mg/kg. The estimated exposure to arsenic contributed by the analyzed products is from 0.07% up to 8.54% of the established provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI) which is still far below the maximum tolerable level. (author)

  11. Determination of Total Arsenic in Seaweed Products by Neutron Activation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Salim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Seaweed products are widely consumed as food nowadays. Seaweeds are known to contain arsenic due to their capability to accumulate arsenic from the environment. Arsenic is a known toxic element which naturally occurs in the environment. Ingestion of high levels of arsenic will cause several adverse health effects. Arsenic in food occurs at trace concentrations which require sensitive and selective analysis methods to perform elemental analysis on. Validated neutron activation analysis was used to determine the arsenic contents in seaweed products namely catoni from domestic product and nori from foreign products. The total arsenic concentration in the samples analyzed ranges from 0.79 mg/kg to 30.14 mg/kg with mean concentration 14.39 mg/kg. The estimated exposure to arsenic contributed by the analyzed products is from 0.07% up to 8.54% of the established provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI which is still far below the maximum tolerable level

  12. Time-driven Activity-based Cost of Fast-Track Total Hip and Knee Arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Signe E; Holm, Henriette B; Jørgensen, Mira

    2017-01-01

    this between 2 departments with different logistical set-ups. METHODS: Prospective data collection was analyzed using the time-driven activity-based costing method (TDABC) on time consumed by different staff members involved in patient treatment in the perioperative period of fast-track THA and TKA in 2 Danish...... orthopedic departments with standardized fast-track settings, but different logistical set-ups. RESULTS: Length of stay was median 2 days in both departments. TDABC revealed minor differences in the perioperative settings between departments, but the total cost excluding the prosthesis was similar at USD......-track methodology, the result could be a more cost-effective pathway altogether. As THA and TKA are potentially costly procedures and the numbers are increasing in an economical limited environment, the aim of this study is to present baseline detailed economical calculations of fast-track THA and TKA and compare...

  13. Antitumor Activity of Total Flavonoids from Daphne genkwa in Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wen-Juan; Yang, Xiao-Lin; Song, Zi-Jing; Wang, Jiao-Ying; Zhang, Wen-Jun; He, Xin; Zhang, Run-Qi; Zhang, Chun-Feng; Li, Fei; Yu, Chun-Hao; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2016-02-01

    Daphne genkwa Sieb.et Zucc. is a well-known medicinal plant. This study was designed to investigate the anticancer effects of total flavonoids in D. genkwa (TFDG) in vitro and in vivo. HT-29 and SW-480 human colorectal cancer cells were cultured to investigate the anticancer activity of TFDG. In addition, the Apc(Min/+) mouse model was applied in the in vivo experiment. Results of the cell experiment revealed that TFDG possessed significant inhibitory effects on HT-29 and SW-480 human colorectal cancer cells (both p colon (both p cancer therapeutics, and TFDG's action is likely linked to its ability to regulate immune function and inhibit the production of inflammatory cytokines. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. A study of extraction process and in vitro antioxidant activity of total phenols from Rhizoma Imperatae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xian-rong; Wang, Jian-hua; Jiang, Bo; Shang, Jin; Zhao, Chang-qiong

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated the extraction method of Rhizoma Imperatae and its antioxidant activity, and provided a basis for its rational development. The extraction method of Rhizoma Imperatae was determined using orthogonal design test and by total phenol content, its hydroxyl radical scavenging ability was measured by Fenton reaction, and potassium ferricyanide reduction method was used to determine its reducing power. The results showed that the optimum extraction process of Rhizoma Imperatae was a 50-fold volume of water, 30 °C, three times of extraction with 2 h each. Its IC50 for scavenging of hydroxyl radicals was 0.0948 mg/mL, while IC50 of ascorbic acid was 0.1096 mg/mL; in the ferricyanide considerable reduction method, the extract exhibited reducing power comparable to that of the ascorbic acid. The study concluded that Rhizoma Imperatae extract contains relatively large amount of polyphenols, and has a good anti-oxidation ability.

  15. [Hygienic evaluation of the total mutagenic activity of snow samples from Magnitogorsk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legostaeva, T B; Ingel', F I; Antipanova, N A; Iurchenko, V V; Iuretseva, N A; Kotliar, N N

    2010-01-01

    The paper gives the results of 4-year monitoring of the total mutagenic activity of snow samples from different Magnitogork areas in a test for induction of dominant lethal mutations (DLM) in the gametes of Drosophila melanogaster. An association was first found between the rate of DLM and the content of some chemical compounds in the ambient air and snow samples; moreover all the substances present in the samples, which had found genotoxic effects, showed a positive correlation with the rate of DLM. Furthermore, direct correlations were first established between the rate of DLM and the air pollution index and morbidity rates in 5-7-year-old children residing in the areas under study. The findings allow the test for induction of dominant lethal mutations (DLM) in the gametes of Drosophila melanogaster to be recommended due to its unique informative and prognostic value for monitoring ambient air pollution and for extensive use in the risk assessment system.

  16. Independence of protein kinase C-delta activity from activation loop phosphorylation: structural basis and altered functions in cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yin; Belkina, Natalya V; Graham, Caroline; Shaw, Stephen

    2006-04-28

    Activation loop phosphorylation plays critical regulatory roles for many kinases. Unlike other protein kinase Cs (PKC), PKC-delta does not require phosphorylation of its activation loop (Thr-507) for in vitro activity. We investigated the structural basis for this unusual capacity and its relevance to PKC-delta function in intact cells. Mutational analysis demonstrated that activity without Thr-507 phosphorylation depends on 20 residues N-terminal to the kinase domain and a pair of phenylalanines (Phe-500/Phe-527) unique to PKC-delta in/near the activation loop. Molecular modeling demonstrated that these elements stabilize the activation loop by forming a hydrophobic chain of interactions from the C-lobe to activation loop to N-terminal (helical) extension. In cells PKC-delta mediates both apoptosis and transcription regulation. We found that the T507A mutant of the PKC-delta kinase domain resembled the corresponding wild type in mediating apoptosis in transfected HEK293T cells. But the T507A mutant was completely defective in AP-1 and NF-kappaB reporter assays. A novel assay in which the kinase domain of PKC-delta and its substrate (a fusion protein of PKC substrate peptide with green fluorescent protein) were co-targeted to lipid rafts revealed a major substrate-selective defect of the T507A mutant in phosphorylating the substrate in cells. In vitro analysis showed strong product inhibition on the T507A mutant with particular substrates whose characteristics suggest it contributes to the substrate selective defect of the PKC-delta T507A mutant in cells. Thus, activation loop phosphorylation of PKC-delta may regulate its function in cells in a novel way.

  17. PKC phosphorylates residues in the N-terminal of the DA transporter to regulate amphetamine-induced DA efflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiang; Bubula, Nancy; Brown, Jason; Wang, Yunliang; Kondev, Veronika; Vezina, Paul

    2016-05-27

    The DA transporter (DAT), a phosphoprotein, controls extracellular dopamine (DA) levels in the central nervous system through transport or reverse transport (efflux). Multiple lines of evidence support the claim that PKC significantly contributes to amphetamine-induced DA efflux. Other signaling pathways, involving CaMKII and ERK, have also been shown to regulate DAT mediated efflux. Here we assessed the contribution of putative PKC residues (S4, S7, S13) in the N-terminal of the DAT to amphetamine-induced DA efflux by transfecting DATs containing different serine to alanine (S-A) point mutations into DA pre-loaded HEK-293 cells and incubating these cells in amphetamine (2μM). The effects of a S-A mutation at the non-PKC residue S12 and a threonine to alanine (T-A) mutation at the ERK T53 residue were also assessed for comparison. WT-DATs were used as controls. In an initial experiment, we confirmed that inhibiting PKC with Go6976 (130nM) significantly reduced amphetamine-induced DA efflux. In subsequent experiments, cells transfected with the S4A, S12A, S13A, T53A and S4,7,13A mutants showed a reduction in amphetamine-induced DA efflux similar to that observed with Go6976. Interestingly, cells transfected with the S7A mutant, identified by some as a PKC-PKA residue, showed unperturbed WT-DAT levels of amphetamine-induced DA efflux. These results indicate that phosphorylation by PKC of select residues in the DAT N-terminal can regulate amphetamine-induced efflux. PKC can act either independently or in concert with other kinases such as ERK to produce this effect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Antioxidant, Cytotoxic, and Antiproliferative Activities and Total Polyphenol Contents of the Extracts of Geissospermum reticulatum Bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna J. Sajkowska-Kozielewicz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Geissospermum species are medically important plants due to their health-promoting effects. The objective of this study was to determine the antioxidant ability and antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects of infusions, tinctures, and ethanolic extracts of Geissospermum reticulatum barks in relation to the contents of total phenolics and flavonoids. Seven samples of barks were collected in various regions of Peruvian Amazonia. We found that the amount of total phenolics in the studied products varied from 212.40 ± 0.69 to 1253.92 ± 11.20 mg GAE/kg. In our study there is a correlation (R2=0.7947 between the results of antioxidants assays: FRAP and ORAC for tinctures, infusions, and ethanolic extracts of G. reticulatum barks. We have also observed antiproliferative activities of the ethanolic extracts on normal T-cells. These extracts have caused death on malignant cell lines (THP-1 and HL-60 and this data correlates well with their antioxidant capacity measured by ORAC method. Interestingly, the highest concentration of the ethanolic extract was not toxic in the zebrafish embryo developmental assay. Our results indicate that G. reticulatum is rich in antioxidants and have cytotoxic and antiproliferative properties. The data suggests potential immunosuppressive role of the extracts. This is the first study presenting the results of chemical and biological analysis of multiple preparations from G. reticulatum.

  19. Antioxidant, Cytotoxic Activities and Total Phenolic Content of Four Indonesian Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waras Nurcholis

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The crude ethanol extracts of four Indonesian medicinal plants namely Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb.,Phyllanthus niruri Linn., Andrographis paniculata Ness., and Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb. wereexamined for their antioxidant (radical scavenging activity using 2, 2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH free radical and cytotoxicity using brine shrimp lethality test (BSLT. The total phenoliccontent was used the Folin-Ciocalteu method. IC50 values for DPPH radical scavenging activityranged from 14.5 to 178.5 μg/ml, with P. niruri having the lowest value and therefore the mostpotent, and C. aeruginosa having the highest value. LC50 values for BSLT ranged from 210.3 to593.2 μg/ml, with C. xanthorrhiza and A. paniculata having the lowest and highest values,respectively. The total phenolic content of the Indonesian plants ranged from 133.0 ±3.7 to863.3±54.7 mg tannic acid equivalent per 1 g extract, with C. aeruginosa and P. niruri having thelowest and highest values, respectively. A positive correlation between free radical scavengingactivity and the content of phenolic compounds was found in the four of Indonesian medicinal plants.

  20. Evaluation of Postprandial Total Antioxidant Activity in Normal and Overweight Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Arslan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Postprandial changes acutely alter some mechanisms in body. There are many studies showing blood oxidative status changes after food intake, and supplementation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a standardized meal on serum total antioxidant activity (TAA in normal weight and overweight individuals. Material and Method: Fourteen normal weight and twelve overweight individuals were given a standardized meal in the morning after an overnight fast. Serum TAA, glucose, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglyceride concentrations were measured at baseline, 3rd hour, and 6th hour after the meal in both groups.Results: In both normal and overweight groups, the difference between baseline and 3rd hour was significant for TAA. The TAA of the overweight group was also significantly lower than the TAA of the normal weight group at 3rd hour. However, there was no significant correlation between lipid parameters and TAA levels. Discussion: The present study shows that postprandial oxidative damage occurs more prominently in overweight individuals than in normal weight individuals. Postprandial changes acutely induce oxidative stress and impair the natural antioxidant defense mechanism. It should be noted that consuming foods with antioxidants in order to avoid various diseases and complications is useful, particularly in obese subjects.

  1. Volatile flavor compounds, total polyphenolic contents and antioxidant activities of a China gingko wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Xie, Kelin; Zhuang, Haining; Ye, Ran; Fang, Zhongxiang; Feng, Tao

    2015-09-01

    The volatile compounds in gingko wine, a novel functional wine, were extracted by head-space solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) coupled with odor activity value (OAV) and relative odor contribution (ROC) analyses. In addition, the total polyphenolic content of gingko wine was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, and its antioxidant capacity was evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) assays. Fifty-eight compounds were tentatively identified, including 13 esters, 10 alcohols, 11 acids, 12 carbonyl compounds, 2 lactones, 2 phenols, and 8 hydrocarbons. Ethyl hexanoate, ethyl pentanoate, nonanal, ethyl butyrate and ethyl heptanoate were the major contributors to the gingko wine aroma based on the results of OAV and ROC. The total phenols content of the gingko wine was 456 mg/L gallic acid equivalents, and its antioxidant capacity was higher than those of typical Chinese liquors analyzed in this paper. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Total Content of Phenolics and Antioxidant Activity in Crispbreads with Plant By-product addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrade Daiga

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable processing in food industry results in significant amount of by-products – peel, mark, bark, seeds still rich in bioactive compounds. Apple, carrot and pumpkin peel and mark may be used for production of crispbreads as functional ingredients. The objective of this study is to investigate the stability of total phenolic content (TPC and antioxidant activity after high temperature and short time (HTST extrusion cooking of a wheat and rice-based crispbreads with addition of apple, carrot and pumpkin by-products obtained after juice extraxtion and dried. Raw materials for crispbread production were wheat flour, rice flour, wheat bran (72%, 24% and 4% respectively with addition of microwave–vacuum dried by-product powder in different amount (5%, 10%, 15%, 20%. Extrusion process was performed by using a laboratory singlescrew extruder GÖTTFERT 1 screw Extrusiometer L series (Germany. Total phenolic content (TPC was determined using the Folin Ciocalteu method. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by free radical 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH antioxidant scavenging activity using a modified colorimetric method. Comparing different raw formulations, it was observed that the TPC of the apple by-product flour was significantly higher (p < 0.05 than in carrot and pumpkin flour. TPC in cereal-based crispbread was 36.06±1.15 before extrusion and 13.90±1.01 mg GAEg-1 DW (milligram Gallic acid equivalent per 100 g of dry weight (mg GAE 100 g−1 DW after extrusion. Addition of apple BPF increased TPC in crispbreads to 106.25±2.08, carrot BPF 84.73±3.45 and pumpkin BPF to 108.82±1.04 mg GAEg−1 DW. Antioxidant activity of control sample was 1.07±0.01mg TE (Trolox equivalents g−1 DW but in samples with addition of 20% apple by-products, it reached 3.77±0.02 TE g−1 DW for samples wih 20% carrot by-products reached 2.52±0.03TE g−1 DW and for samples wih 20% pumpkin by-products reached 3.77±0.02 TE g−1 DW.

  3. Return to work and workplace activity limitations following total hip or knee replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, A; Davis, A M; Palaganas, M P; Beaton, D E; Badley, E M; Gignac, M A

    2013-10-01

    Total hip (THR) and knee (TKR) replacements increasingly are performed on younger people making return to work a salient outcome. This research evaluates characteristics of individuals with early and later return to work following THR and TKR. Additionally, at work limitations pre-surgery and upon returning to work, and factors associated with work limitations were evaluated. 190 THR and 170 TKR of a total 931 cohort participants were eligible (i.e., working or on short-term disability pre-surgery). They completed questionnaires pre-surgery and 1, 3, 6 and 12 months post-surgery that included demographics, type of occupation, and the Workplace Activity Limitations Scale (WALS). 166 (87%) and 144 (85%) returned to work by 12 months following THR and TKR, respectively. Early (1 month) return to work was associated with, male gender, university education, working in business, finance or administration, and low physical demand work. People with THR returned to work earlier than those with TKR. For both groups, less pain and every day functional limitations were associated with less workplace activity limitations at the time return to work. The majority of individuals working prior to surgery return to work following hip or knee replacement for osteoarthritis (OA) and experience fewer limitations at work than pre-surgery. The changing workforce dynamics and trends toward surgery at younger ages mean that these are important outcomes for clinicians to assess. Additionally, this is important information for employers in understanding continued participation in employment for people with OA. Copyright © 2013 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Patient Activity Levels After Reverse Total Shoulder Arthroplasty: What Are Patients Doing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Grant H; Taylor, Samuel A; DePalma, Brian J; Mahony, Gregory T; Grawe, Brian M; Nguyen, Joseph; Dines, Joshua S; Dines, David M; Warren, Russell F; Craig, Edward V; Gulotta, Lawrence V

    2015-11-01

    The indications for reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA) continue to expand, which has resulted in younger patients who want to remain active after RTSA. Little information is available to manage expectations of both physicians and patients for return to sporting activities. To determine the rate of return to sporting activities and assess average time to return to sports after RTSA. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. This was a retrospective review of consecutive RTSA patients collected from our institution's shoulder arthroplasty registry. All patients who played sports preoperatively and had a minimum of 1-year follow-up were included. Final follow-up consisted of an additional patient-reported questionnaire with questions regarding physical fitness and sporting activities. Each patient also completed an assessment with the American Shoulder and Elbow Society (ASES) Shoulder Score and a visual analog scale (VAS) for pain. Seventy-six patients played a sport preoperatively and met inclusion and exclusion criteria. The average follow-up was 31.6 months (range, 12-65 months), and average age was 74.8 years (range, 49.9-92.6 years). Average VAS pain scores improved from 6.57 to 0.63 (P sport. Average time to return to full sports was 5.3 months. Fitness sports had the highest direct rate of return (81.5%), followed by swimming (66.7%), running (57.1%), cycling (50.0%), and golf (50%). Postoperatively, 41.1% of patients reported improved physical fitness; 88.2% felt that their sports outcome was good to excellent, and 93.4% felt that their surgical outcome was good to excellent. Patients undergoing RTSA had an 85% rate of return to 1 or more sporting activities at an average of 5.3 months after surgery. Age greater than 70 years was a significant predictor of decreased return to activities. The present study offers valuable information to help manage patient and surgeon expectations. © 2015 The Author(s).

  5. Phytochemistry, antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content and anti-inflammatory activity of Hibiscus sabdariffa leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Jing; Villani, Thomas S; Guo, Yue; Qi, Yadong; Chin, Kit; Pan, Min-Hsiung; Ho, Chi-Tang; Simon, James E; Wu, Qingli

    2016-01-01

    A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method was developed for the simultaneous separation, and determination of natural compounds including phenolic acids and flavonoids in the leaves of Hibiscus sabdariffa. By analyzing the UV and MS data, and comparison with authenticated standards, 10 polyphenols including neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid, quercetin, kaempferol and their glycosides were identified together with 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural. Major constituents in the leaves of 25 different populations from worldwide accessions were quantified and compared with each other. The total phenolic content of each accession was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu assay, ranging from 18.98 ± 2.7 to 29.9 ± 0.5 mg GAE/g. Their in vitro antioxidant activities were measured by ABTS radical cation decolorization assay, varying from 17.5 to 152.5 ± 18.8 μmol Trolox/g. After the treatment of H. sabdariffa leaf extract, the reduction of LPS-induced NO production dose-dependently in RAW 264.7 cell indicates the extract's potential anti-inflammatory activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Pharmacokinetic studies of active triterpenoid saponins and the total secondary saponin from Anemone raddeana Regel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dandan; Lei, Tianli; Lv, Chongning; Zhao, Huimin; Xu, Haiyan; Lu, Jincai

    2017-02-15

    The rhizome of Anemone raddeana Regel, a Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) which has a robust history treating rheumatism and neuralgia. The total secondary saponin (TSS) from it has demonstrated antitumor activity. In this study, a rapid and validated LC-MS/MS method was developed to simultaneously determine the active compounds (Hederacolchiside A1 and Eleutheroside K). Analytes were separated on a reverse-phase C18 column with acetonitrile-water (5mmol/L ammonium acetate) as the mobile phase. This assay showed acceptable linearity (r>0.99) over the concentration range 5-1000 nmol/L for two analytes. The intra- and inter-day precision was within 8.06% and accuracy was ranged from -3.16% to 3.34% for two analytes. The mean extraction recoveries of analytes and IS from rat plasma were all more than 76.0%. Under the developed analytical conditions, the obtained values of main pharmacokinetic parameters (C max and AUC 0-t ) indicated that the pure compounds were more efficient than the TSS extract in Hederacolchiside A1 and Eleutheroside K absorption. In addition, pharmacokinetic studies of two individual compounds demonstrated their poor oral absorption in rat ( a F%, 0.019-1.521). In the study of absorption and transportation of Hederacolchiside A1 and Eleutheroside K in Caco-2 cell monolayer model, the uptake permeability was in 10 -6 cm/sec range suggesting poor absorption, which confirmed the previous pharmacokinetic profiles in vivo. Interestingly, the uptake ratio of them declined significantly when treated with phloridzin (SGLT1 inhibitor). It indicated that the absorption of Hederacolchiside A1 in intestine was mainly through positive transport and SGLT1 might participate in its active absorption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Total physical activity volume, physical activity intensity, and metabolic syndrome: 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churilla, James R; Fitzhugh, Eugene C

    2012-02-01

    This study examined the association of total physical activity volume (TPAV) and physical activity (PA) from three domains [leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), domestic, transportation] with metabolic syndrome. We also investigated the relationship between LTPA intensity and metabolic syndrome risk. Sample included adults who participated in the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Physical activity measures were created for TPAV, LTPA, domestic PA, and transportational PA. For each, a six-level measure based upon no PA (level 1) and quintiles (levels 2-6) of metabolic equivalents (MET)·min·wk(-1) was created. A three-level variable associated with the current Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) PA recommendation was also created. SAS and SUDAAN were used for the statistical analysis. Adults reporting the greatest volume of TPAV and LTPA were found to be 36% [odds ratio (OR) 0.64; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.49-0.83] and 42% (OR 0.58; 95% CI 0.43-0.77), respectively, less likely to have metabolic syndrome. Domestic and transportational PA provided no specific level of protection from metabolic syndrome. Those reporting a TPAV that met the DHHS PA recommendation were found to be 33% (OR 0.67; 95%; CI 0.55-0.83) less likely to have metabolic syndrome compared to their sedentary counterparts. Adults reporting engaging in only vigorous-intensity LTPA were found to be 37% (OR 0.63; 95 CI 0.42-0.96) to 56% (OR 0.44; 95% CI 0.29-0.67) less likely to have metabolic syndrome. Volume, intensity, and domain of PA may all play important roles in reducing the prevalence and risk of metabolic syndrome.

  8. Quantifying Changes in Total and Pyrogenic Carbon Stocks Across Fire Severity Gradients Using Active Wildfire Incidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Miesel

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Positive feedbacks between wildfire emissions and climate are expected to increase in strength in the future; however, fires not only release carbon (C from terrestrial to atmospheric pools, they also produce pyrogenic C (PyC which contributes to longer-term C stability. Our objective was to quantify wildfire impacts on total C and PyC stocks in California mixed-conifer forest, and to investigate patterns in C and PyC stocks and changes across gradients of fire severity, using metrics derived from remote sensing and field observations. Our unique study accessed active wildfires to establish and measure plots within days before and after fire, prior to substantial erosion. We measured pre- and post-fire aboveground forest structure and woody fuels to calculate aboveground biomass, C and PyC, and collected forest floor and 0–5 cm mineral soil samples. Immediate tree mortality increased with severity, but overstory C loss was minimal and limited primarily to foliage. Fire released 85% of understory and herbaceous C (comprising < 1.0% of total ecosystem C. The greatest C losses occurred from downed wood and forest floor pools (19.3 ± 5.1 Mg ha−1 and 25.9 ± 3.2 Mg ha−1, respectively. Tree bark and downed wood contributed the greatest PyC gains (1.5 ± 0.3 Mg ha−1 and 1.9 ± 0.8 Mg ha−1, respectively, and PyC in tree bark showed non-significant positive trends with increasing severity. Overall PyC losses of 1.9 ± 0.3 Mg ha−1 and 0.5 ± 0.1 Mg ha−1 occurred from forest floor and 0–5 cm mineral soil, with no clear patterns across severity. Fire resulted in a net ecosystem PyC gain (1.0 ± 1.0 Mg ha−1 across aboveground and belowground components of these forests, and there were no differences among severity levels. Carbon emissions represented only 21.6% of total forest C; however, extensive conversion of C from live to dead pools will contribute to large downed wood C pools susceptible to release in a subsequent fire, indicating

  9. A cell-death-defying factor, anamorsin mediates cell growth through inactivation of PKC and p38MAPK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Yuri; Shibayama, Hirohiko; Tanaka, Hirokazu; Tanimura, Akira; Kanakura, Yuzuru

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Anamorsin (AM) (also called CIAPIN-1) is a cell-death-defying factor. → Biological mechanisms of AM functions have not been elucidated yet. → PKCθ , PKCδ and p38MAPK were more phosphorylated in AM deficient MEF cells. → AM may negatively regulates PKCs and p38MAPK in MEF cells. -- Abstract: Anamorsin (AM) plays crucial roles in hematopoiesis and embryogenesis. AM deficient (AM KO) mice die during late gestation; AM KO embryos are anemic and very small compared to wild type (WT) embryos. To determine which signaling pathways AM utilizes for these functions, we used murine embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells generated from E-14.5 AM KO or WT embryos. Proliferation of AM KO MEF cells was markedly retarded, and PKCθ, PKCδ, and p38MAPK were more highly phosphorylated in AM KO MEF cells. Expression of cyclinD1, the target molecule of p38MAPK, was down-regulated in AM KO MEF cells. p38MAPK inhibitor as well as PKC inhibitor restored expression of cyclinD1 and cell growth in AM KO MEF cells. These data suggest that PKCθ, PKCδ, and p38MAPK activation lead to cell cycle retardation in AM KO MEF cells, and that AM may negatively regulate novel PKCs and p38MAPK in MEF cells.

  10. Total polyphenol content and antioxidant activity of commercial Noni (Morinda citrifolia L. juice and its components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Bramorski

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The plant Morinda citrifolia L. (noni has been the focus of many recent studies due to its potential effects on treatment and prevention of several diseases. However, there are few in vivo and in vitro studies concerning its composition and antioxidant capacity. The aim of the present study was to determine the total polyphenol content (TPC and antioxidant capacity of a juice commercialized as noni juice, but containing grape, blueberry and noni fruits. Commercial noni juice was compared against its separate constituents of blueberry and grape juice. Folin-Ciocalteu and DPPH• methods were used to determine the concentration of total polyphenol content and antioxidant activity, respectively. Commercial noni juice presented higher values of TPC (91.90 mg of gallic acid/100 mL juice and antioxidant activity (5.85 mmol/L compared to its 5% diluted constituents. Concentrated blueberry juice presented higher TPC and antioxidant activity than the other juices analyzed. Considering that the blueberry and grape juices account for only 10% in the composition of commercial noni juice, it can be inferred that these two components contribute significantly to the antioxidant activity. Therefore, additional studies are necessary in order to elucidate the contribution of the noni juice as an antioxidant.A planta Morinda citrifolia L. tem sido objeto de muitas pesquisas decorrente de seus efeitos benéficos no tratamento e prevenção de muitas doenças. No entanto, são escassos os estudos in vivo e in vitro sobre os compostos presentes e sua capacidade de atuar como antioxidante. Objetivou-se com este trabalho determinar o índice de polifenóis totais (IPT e a capacidade antioxidante do suco de noni comercial, constituído de uva, mirtilo e a fruta do noni. O suco de noni comercial foi comparado com seus constituintes (mirtilo e suco de uva separadamente. Os métodos Folin-Ciocalteu e DPPH• foram utilizados para determinar a concentração de polifen

  11. Functional clonal deletion versus active suppression in transplantation tolerance induced by total-lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morecki, S.; Leshem, B.; Weigensberg, M.; Bar, S.; Slavin, S.

    1985-01-01

    Transplantation tolerance and stable chimerism were established in adult mice conditioned with a short course of total-lymphoid irradiation (TLI) followed by infusion of 30 X 10(6) allogeneic bone marrow cells. Spleen cells of tolerant mice could not exert a proliferative or cytotoxic response against host-type cells in vitro and were unable to induce graft-versus-host reaction in secondary host-type recipients. The degree of suppression assessed by coculturing tolerant splenocytes in vitro in the one-way mixed lymphocyte reaction was quite variable--and, in some cases, was not at all demonstrable, although tolerance was clearly maintained. Suppression, when apparent, could not be ascribed to T lymphocytes. Suppressor cells were found to bind soybean agglutinin and could be separated from the nonsuppressive cells by means of this lectin. Dissociation of the suppressive population (SBA+ cells) from that which is normally alloreactive (SBA- cells) resulted in a suppressor cell-depleted fraction that was still unable to respond to host-type cells but regained reactivity to unrelated cells. Limiting dilution analysis of chimeric splenocytes revealed markedly reduced frequencies of cytotoxic T lymphocyte precursors (CTL-P) directed against host-type cells, as compared with normal splenocytes reacting against the same target cells. This difference was accentuated when these cells were sensitized to host-type target cells prior to plating in limiting dilution cultures. In 1:1 mixing experiments of normal and chimeric splenocytes, there was no evidence of any in vitro suppressive activity to account for hyporeactivity of chimeric cells against host-type cells. Thus, maintenance of TLI-induced tolerance seemed not to be mediated primarily through an active suppressor cell mechanism

  12. Physical Activity Behavior of Patients 1 Year After Primary Total Hip Arthroplasty : A Prospective Multicenter Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenmakers, Robert; Stevens, Martin; Groothoff, Johan W.; Zijlstra, Wiebren; Bulstra, Sjoerd K.; van Beveren, Jan; van Raaij, Jos J. A. M.; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge

    Background. Besides the important beneficial effects of regular physical activity on general health, some of the musculoskeletal effects of physical activity are of particular interest for older adults after total hip arthroplasty (THA). However, research on physical activity behavior of patients

  13. Concerns of patients actively contemplating total knee replacement: differences by race and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Huan J; Mehta, Priya S; Rosenberg, Aaron; Scrimshaw, Susan C

    2004-02-15

    To examine differences by race/ethnicity and gender in patients' concerns regarding total knee replacement (TKR). Focus groups of patients actively considering TKR were conducted. Discussion included patients' questions and concerns regarding TKR. The software ATLAS.ti was used to tabulate themes by race/ethnicity and gender. Concerns raised by focus group participants were compared with thematic content from patient joint replacement information materials. This comparison used patient literature from 3 high-volume academic TKR centers, the Arthritis Foundation, and the American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons. All groups shared similar concerns. However, some issues were more prevalent among certain gender and racial groups. For instance, concerns regarding anesthesia were more important to white Americans and concerns regarding recovery were more important to women. Some of these concerns were not addressed in the available patient literature. Different gender and racial subgroups focus on different concerns when considering TKR. These differences may contribute to gender and race/ethnicity disparity seen in TKR use.

  14. Evaluation of fruit quality, bioactive compounds and total antioxidant activity of flat peach cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Vaio, Claudio; Marallo, Nadia; Graziani, Giulia; Ritieni, Alberto; Di Matteo, Antonio

    2015-08-15

    Fruit quality traits (fresh weight, dry weight, soluble solids content, titratable acidity and firmness) as well as the content of bioactive compounds (phenolic compounds) and total antioxidant activity were evaluated in four commercial cultivars of peach (Greta, Ufo 4, Rome Star and Ufo 6) and four of nectarine (Neve, Planet 1, Maria Carla and Mesembrina) differing in fruit shape (standard or flat) and flesh colour (white or yellow), important cultivars of the Italian and foreign market. The higher fruit organoleptic quality and nutritional profile of flat peach and nectarine cultivars make them candidates for exploiting new market opportunities and the chance to improve profits of farmers. The results showed that assayed quality parameters differed greatly among cultivars. In particular, flesh color and fruit shape accounted for most of the variation in traits underlying organoleptic and nutritional quality. Overall data suggested that the flat white-fleshed nectarine Planet 1, the yellow-fleshed nectarine Mesembrina and the yellow-fleshed peach Ufo 6, because of their profiles in terms of soluble solids content, titratable acidity and bioactive compounds, have the greatest potential to meet current consumer requirements. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Assessment of bacterial growth and total organic carbon removal on granular activated carbon contactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancroft, K; Maloney, S W; McElhaney, J; Suffet, I H; Pipes, W O

    1983-01-01

    The overall growth rate of bacteria on granular activated carbon (GAC) contactors at the Philadelphia Torresdale Water Treatment Pilot Plant facility was found to decrease until steady state was reached. The growth rate was found to fluctuate between 6.94 X 10(-3) and 8.68 X 10(-4) doublings per h. The microbiological removal of total organic carbon (TOC) was calculated by considering the GAC contactors as semiclosed continuous culture systems and using growth yield factors determined in laboratory experiments. After ozonation, the average TOC entering the contactors was 1,488 micrograms/liter, and the average effluent TOC was 497 micrograms/liter. Microbiological TOC removal was found to average 240 micrograms/liter on GAC contactors, which was not significantly different from microbiological TOC (220 micrograms/liter) removal across a parallel sand contactor where no adsorption took place. Thus, GAC did not appear to enhance biological TOC removal. Bacterial growth and maintenance was responsible for approximately 24% of the TOC removal on GAC under the conditions of this study. PMID:6639023

  16. Antioxidant activity, total phenolics, flavonoids and antinutritional characteristics of germinated foxtail millet (Setaria italica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Sharma

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A central composite rotatable design was applied to analyse the effects of independent variables [soaking time (ST, germination time (Gt and temperature (GT] on responses [antioxidant activity (AoxA, total phenolic contents (TPC and flavonoid contents (TFC]. The results indicated that with increase in ST, Gt and GT, AoxA, TPC (free/bound and TFC (free/bound of foxtail millet increased significantly. The best combination of germination bioprocess variables for producing optimized germinated foxtail millet flour with the highest AoxA (90.5%, TPC (45.67 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/100 g sample and TFC (30.52–43.96 mg RU/g sample were found with soaking time of 15.84 min having germination temperature of 25°C. The optimized germinated foxtail millet flour was nutritionally rich as it produced higher protein (14.32 g/100 g, dietary fibre (27.42 g/100 g, calcium (25.62 mg/kg, iron (54.23 mg/kg, magnesium (107.16 mg/kg and sodium (69.45 mg/kg per kg as compared to un-germinated foxtail millet flour.

  17. Assessment of bacterial growth and total organic carbon removal on granular activated carbon contactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancroft, K; Maloney, S W; McElhaney, J; Suffet, I H; Pipes, W O

    1983-09-01

    The overall growth rate of bacteria on granular activated carbon (GAC) contactors at the Philadelphia Torresdale Water Treatment Pilot Plant facility was found to decrease until steady state was reached. The growth rate was found to fluctuate between 6.94 X 10(-3) and 8.68 X 10(-4) doublings per h. The microbiological removal of total organic carbon (TOC) was calculated by considering the GAC contactors as semiclosed continuous culture systems and using growth yield factors determined in laboratory experiments. After ozonation, the average TOC entering the contactors was 1,488 micrograms/liter, and the average effluent TOC was 497 micrograms/liter. Microbiological TOC removal was found to average 240 micrograms/liter on GAC contactors, which was not significantly different from microbiological TOC (220 micrograms/liter) removal across a parallel sand contactor where no adsorption took place. Thus, GAC did not appear to enhance biological TOC removal. Bacterial growth and maintenance was responsible for approximately 24% of the TOC removal on GAC under the conditions of this study.

  18. Effects of palm kernel cake (PKC on growth performance, blood components and liver histopathology of sex reversed red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukasem, N.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Effects of Palm Kernel Cake (PKC on growth performance, blood components and liver histopathology of sex- reversed red tilapia Oreochromis niloticus were studied using seven isocaloric diets (3400 kCal/ kg containing different levels of protein and PKC. Diet 1, 2 and 3 contained 20% protein with the supplementation of 15, 30 and 45% PKC, respectively. Diets 4, 5 and 6 contained 24% protein in combinationwith the same PKC supplemention levels mentioned above, and diet 7 was commercial feed containing 20% protein as a control diet. Experimental diets were fed to experimental fish of 48.65 g initial average body weight cultured in floating cages (3 cages/diet for 10 weeks. Fish fed diets containing higher protein (24%; diets 4, 5 and 6 had significantly better growth performance (p<0.05 than those fed lower protein (20%; diets 1, 2 and 3. Considering the effect of PKC, fish fed diet 5 (Prot. 24%, PKC 30% gave the greatest growth performance (p<0.05 and all the PKC-fed groups had significantly higher growth than fish fed control diet. There was evidence that supplementation of PKC in fish feed ranging from 15 to 45% had no effect to the survival rate, blood components, or hepatocytic cells of tilapia. However, liver tissue showed higher numbers of lipid droplets in fish fed diet contained 45% PKC (diets 3 and 6. For the production cost, all test diets with PKC supplementation had significantly higher price (p<0.05 than commercial feed. However, when considering the feeding cost per unit of fish production, fish reared with PKC supplemented diets had significantly lower cost (p<0.05 than fish fed commercial feed.

  19. Association of total daily physical activity with disability in community-dwelling older persons: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Raj C

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Based on findings primarily using self-report measures, physical activity has been recommended to reduce disability in old age. Collecting objective measures of total daily physical activity in community-dwelling older adults is uncommon, but might enhance the understanding of the relationship of physical activity and disability. We examined whether greater total daily physical activity was associated with less report of disability in the elderly. Methods Data were from the Rush Memory and Aging Project, a longitudinal prospective cohort study of common, age-related, chronic conditions. Total daily physical activity was measured in community-dwelling participants with an average age of 82 using actigraphy for approximately 9 days. Disability was measured via self-reported basic activities of daily living (ADL. The odds ratio and 95% Confidence Interval (CI were determined for the baseline association of total daily physical activity and ADL disability using a logistic regression model adjusted for age, education level, gender and self-report physical activity. In participants without initial report of ADL disability, the hazard ratio and 95% CI were determined for the relationship of baseline total daily physical activity and the development of ADL disability using a discrete time Cox proportional hazard model adjusted for demographics and self-report physical activity. Results In 870 participants, the mean total daily physical activity was 2. 9 × 105 counts/day (range in 105 counts/day = 0.16, 13. 6 and the mean hours/week of self-reported physical activity was 3.2 (SD = 3.6. At baseline, 718 (82.5% participants reported being independent in all ADLs. At baseline, total daily physical activity was protective against disability (OR per 105 counts/day difference = 0.55; 95% CI = 0.47, 0.65. Of the participants without baseline disability, 584 were followed for 3.4 years on average. Each 105 counts/day additional total

  20. Drivers shaping the diversity and biogeography of total and active bacterial communities in the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yao; Zhao, Zihao; Dai, Minhan; Jiao, Nianzhi; Herndl, Gerhard J

    2014-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that different drivers shape the diversity and biogeography of the total and active bacterial community, we examined the bacterial community composition along two transects, one from the inner Pearl River estuary to the open waters of the South China Sea (SCS) and the other from the Luzon Strait to the SCS basin, using 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA and 16S rRNA gene (V1-3 regions) and thereby characterizing the active and total bacterial community, respectively. The diversity and biogeographic patterns differed substantially between the active and total bacterial communities. Although the composition of both the total and active bacterial community was strongly correlated with environmental factors and weakly correlated with geographic distance, the active bacterial community displayed higher environmental sensitivity than the total community and particularly a greater distance effect largely caused by the active assemblage from deep waters. The 16S rRNA vs. rDNA relationships indicated that the active bacteria were low in relative abundance in the SCS. This might be due to a high competition between active bacterial taxa as indicated by our community network models. Based on these analyses, we speculate that high competition could cause some dispersal limitation of the active bacterial community resulting in a distinct distance-decay relationship. Altogether, our results indicated that the biogeographic distribution of bacteria in the SCS is the result of both environmental control and distance decay. PMID:24684298

  1. PKC in motorneurons underlies self-learning, a form of motor learning in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Colomb

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Tethering a fly for stationary flight allows for exquisite control of its sensory input, such as visual or olfactory stimuli or a punishing infrared laser beam. A torque meter measures the turning attempts of the tethered fly around its vertical body axis. By punishing, say, left turning attempts (in a homogeneous environment, one can train a fly to restrict its behaviour to right turning attempts. It was recently discovered that this form of operant conditioning (called operant self-learning, may constitute a form of motor learning in Drosophila. Previous work had shown that Protein Kinase C (PKC and the transcription factor dFoxP were specifically involved in self-learning, but not in other forms of learning. These molecules are specifically involved in various forms of motor learning in other animals, such as compulsive biting in Aplysia, song-learning in birds, procedural learning in mice or language acquisition in humans. Here we describe our efforts to decipher which PKC gene is involved in self-learning in Drosophila. We also provide evidence that motorneurons may be one part of the neuronal network modified during self-learning experiments. The collected evidence is reminiscent of one of the simplest, clinically relevant forms of motor learning in humans, operant reflex conditioning, which also relies on motorneuron plasticity.

  2. Determination of total alpha activity index in samples of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galicia C, F. J.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a methodology of preparation and quantification of samples containing radionuclides beta and/or alpha emitters, to determine the rates of alpha and beta total activity of radioactive waste samples. For this, a device of planchettes preparer was designed, to assist the planchettes preparation in a controlled environment and free of corrosive vapors. Planchettes were prepared in three means: nitrate, carbonate and sulfate, to different mass thickness, natural uranium (alpha and beta emitter) and in case of Sr-90 (beta emitter pure) only in half nitrate; and these planchettes were quantified in an alpha/beta counter, in order to construct the self-absorption curves for alpha and beta particles. These curves are necessary to determine the rate of alpha-beta activity of any sample because they provide the self-absorption correction factor to be applied in calculating the index. Samples with U were prepared with the help of the device of planchettes preparer and subsequently were analyzed in the proportional counter Mpc-100 Pic brand. Samples with Sr-90 were prepared without the device to see if there was a different behavior with respect to obtaining mass thickness. Similarly they were calcined and carried out count in the Mpc-100. To perform the count, first the parameters of counter operating were determined: operating voltages for alpha and beta particles 630 and 1500 V respectively, a count routine was generated where the time and count type were adjusted, and counting efficiencies for alpha and beta particles, with the aid of calibration sources of 210 Po for alphas and 90 Sr for betas. According to the results, the counts per minute will decrease as increasing the mass thickness of the sample (self-absorption curve), adjusting this behavior to an exponential function in all cases studied. The minor self-absorption of alpha and beta particles in the case of U was obtained in sulfate medium. The self-absorption curves of Sr-90 follow the

  3. Ultrasonically activated scalpel versus monopolar electrocautery shovel in laparoscopic total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bao-Jun; Song, Wei-Qing; Yan, Qing-Hui; Cai, Jian-Hui; Wang, Feng-An; Liu, Jin; Zhang, Guo-Jian; Duan, Guo-Qiang; Zhang, Zhan-Xue

    2008-07-07

    To investigate the feasibility and safety of monopolar electrocautery shovel (ES) in laparoscopic total mesorectal excision (TME) with anal sphincter preservation for rectal cancer in order to reduce the cost of the laparoscopic operation, and to compare ES with the ultrasonically activated scalpel (US). Forty patients with rectal cancer, who underwent laparoscopic TME with anal sphincter preservation from June 2005 to June 2007, were randomly divided into ultrasonic scalpel group and monopolar ES group, prospectively. White blood cells (WBC) were measured before and after operation, operative time, blood loss, pelvic volume of drainage, time of anal exhaust, visual analogue scales (VAS) and surgery-related complications were recorded. All the operations were successful; no one was converted to open procedure. No significant differences were observed in terms of preoperative and postoperative d 1 and d 3 WBC counts (P=0.493, P=0.375, P=0.559), operation time (P=0.235), blood loss (P=0.296), anal exhaust time (P=0.431), pelvic drainage volume and VAS in postoperative d 1 (P=0.431, P=0.426) and d 3 (P=0.844, P=0.617) between ES group and US group. The occurrence of surgery-related complications such as anastomotic leakage and wound infection was the same in the two groups. ES is a safe and feasible tool as same as US used in laparoscopic TME with anal sphincter preservation for rectal cancer on the basis of the skillful laparoscopic technique and the complete understanding of laparoscopic pelvic anatomy. Application of ES can not only reduce the operation costs but also benefit the popularization of laparoscopic operation for rectal cancer patients.

  4. Ultrasonically activated scalpel versus monopolar electrocautery shovel in laparoscopic total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bao-Jun; Song, Wei-Qing; Yan, Qing-Hui; Cai, Jian-Hui; Wang, Feng-An; Liu, Jin; Zhang, Guo-Jian; Duan, Guo-Qiang; Zhang, Zhan-Xue

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the feasibility and safety of monopolar electrocautery shovel (ES) in laparoscopic total mesorectal excision (TME) with anal sphincter preservation for rectal cancer in order to reduce the cost of the laparoscopic operation, and to compare ES with the ultrasonically activated scalpel (US). METHODS: Forty patients with rectal cancer, who underwent laparoscopic TME with anal sphincter preservation from June 2005 to June 2007, were randomly divided into ultrasonic scalpel group and monopolar ES group, prospectively. White blood cells (WBC) were measured before and after operation, operative time, blood loss, pelvic volume of drainage, time of anal exhaust, visual analogue scales (VAS) and surgery-related complications were recorded. RESULTS: All the operations were successful; no one was converted to open procedure. No significant differences were observed in terms of preoperative and postoperative d 1 and d 3 WBC counts (P = 0.493, P = 0.375, P = 0.559), operation time (P = 0.235), blood loss (P = 0.296), anal exhaust time (P = 0.431), pelvic drainage volume and VAS in postoperative d 1 (P = 0.431, P = 0.426) and d 3 (P = 0.844, P = 0.617) between ES group and US group. The occurrence of surgery-related complications such as anastomotic leakage and wound infection was the same in the two groups. CONCLUSION: ES is a safe and feasible tool as same as US used in laparoscopic TME with anal sphincter preservation for rectal cancer on the basis of the skillful laparoscopic technique and the complete understanding of laparoscopic pelvic anatomy. Application of ES can not only reduce the operation costs but also benefit the popularization of laparoscopic operation for rectal cancer patients. PMID:18609692

  5. Sexual activity after total hip replacement in Korean patients: how they do, what they want, and how to improve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Byung-Ho; Lee, Kyung-Hag; Noh, Serae; Ha, Yong-Chan; Lee, Young-Kyun; Koo, Kyung-Hoi

    2013-12-01

    Concerns of patients on sexual activity after total hip arthroplasty have not been well studied in Asian patients. This study aimed to determine the following: (1) what are the concerns of patients related to sexual activity after total hip arthroplasty? (2) what are the changes in sexual activity after total hip replacement in Korean patients? Details of sexual activity and concerns were obtained using a questionnaire designed specifically for the study. The questionnaire was administered to 64 patients in a face-to-face interview at an outpatient clinic. Preoperatively, 53.1% of patients experienced difficulties, primarily due to hip pathology and limitations of motion. The median time to the resumption of sexual activity was 3 months postoperatively, and most patients had no increase in the frequency of sexual activity after the total hip replacement. In 39.1% of patients were seen having difficulties with leg positioning following total hip replacement, and they were likely to change coital positions. The most common concern regarding sexual activity of patients was the fear of dislocation. Furthermore, patients with a higher stress level had lower satisfaction rates. Most patients were unable to obtain information on sexual activity following the total hip arthroplasty, and they did not consult with a physician due to the private nature of the topic. Dislocation was the most common concern of patients during sexual activity following a total hip arthroplasty, and a higher stress level was found to be associated with a lower satisfaction rate. Because most patients were unprepared to consult a physician, the provision of appropriate information before a consultation might be beneficial.

  6. Joint association of physical activity in leisure and total sitting time with metabolic syndrome amongst 15,235 Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christina Bjørk; Nielsen, Asser Jon; Bauman, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    and total daily sitting time were assessed by self-report in 15,235 men and women in the Danish Health Examination Survey 2007-2008. Associations between leisure time physical activity, total sitting time and metabolic syndrome were investigated in logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Adjusted odds ratios......BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that physical inactivity as well as sitting time are associated with metabolic syndrome. Our aim was to examine joint associations of leisure time physical activity and total daily sitting time with metabolic syndrome. METHODS: Leisure time physical activity...... (OR) for metabolic syndrome were 2.14 (95% CI: 1.88-2.43) amongst participants who were inactive in leisure time compared to the most active, and 1.42 (95% CI: 1.26-1.61) amongst those who sat for ≥10h/day compared to physical activity, sitting time...

  7. The influence of ripening stage and cultivation system on the total antioxidant activity and total phenolic compounds of yellow passion fruit pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macoris, Mariana S; De Marchi, Renata; Janzantti, Natália S; Monteiro, Magali

    2012-07-01

    This work aimed to investigate the influence of both ripening stage and cultivation system on the total phenolic compounds (TPC) and total antioxidant activity (TAA) of passion fruit pulp. TPC extraction was optimized using a 2³ central composed design. The variables were fruit pulp volume, methanol volume and extraction solution volume. TPC was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu reaction, and TAA using the ABTS radical reaction. The conditions to extract TPC were 2 mL passion fruit pulp and 9 mL extraction solution containing 40% methanol:water (v/v). TPC values increased in the passion fruit pulp during ripening for both cultivation systems, ranging from 281.8 to 361.9 mg gallic acid L⁻¹ (P ≤ 0.05) for the organic pulp and from 291.0 to 338.6 mg gallic acid L⁻¹ (P ≤ 0.05) for the conventional pulp. TPC values increased during ripening for both organic and conventional passion fruit. The same was true for TAA values for conventional passion fruit. For organic passion fruit, however, TAA values were highest at the initial ripening stages. These results suggest that antioxidant compounds exert strong influence on the initial ripening stages for organic passion fruit, when TPC still did not reach its maximum level. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Cellulase Activity in Solid State Fermentation of Palm Kernel Cake with Trichoderma sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massaud, M. B. N.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The effect of different types of fungal inocula to the cellulase activity measured on palm kernel cake (PKC was studied. Methodology and Results: Isolate Pro-A1 which was identified as Trichoderma sp. was selected as a potential producer of cellulase via solid state fermentation technique (SSF. Two types of PKCs were used; raw PKC (containing residual oil and defatted PKC. The PKCs were inoculated with different concentrations of conidia and varying amounts (g of solid mycelia plugs (SMP for SSF. The effect of ultrafiltered crude fungal filtrate (CFF as inocula was also being tested. The highest cellulase activity of 2.454 FPU/mL was detected with 60% (wt/wt SMP applied to the raw PKC. Conversely, 2.059 FPU/mL of cellulase activity was measured when 80% (wt/wt of SMP was applied to the defatted PKC which is 62.3% higher than the untreated defatted PKC; and more than 100% increase in enzymatic activity compared to raw PKC. The cellulase activity in the SSF inoculated with 8 x 106 conidia /mL and 12 x 106 conidia /mL were 1.704 FPU/mL for raw PKC and 1.856 FPU/mL for defatted PKC, an enhancement of about 46% from uninoculated batch. Inoculation with CFF bears corresponding maximum improvement of the cellulase activity on both PKCs of 13.58% (raw and 2.86% (defatted. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: The current study proves that Trichoderma sp. in the form of SMP can enhance the cellulase activity on PKCs effectively with more than 100% increment. Fungal conidia are also a better choice in enhancing cellulase activity of Trichoderma sp. permitted that the PKC used is devoid of oil. From this study, Trichoderma sp. holds the potential of converting lignocellulosic materials into products of commercial and industrial values such as glucose and other biofuels.

  9. Change in active travel and changes in recreational and total physical activity in adults: longitudinal findings from the iConnect study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background To better understand the health benefits of promoting active travel, it is important to understand the relationship between a change in active travel and changes in recreational and total physical activity. Methods These analyses, carried out in April 2012, use longitudinal data from 1628 adult respondents (mean age 54 years; 47% male) in the UK-based iConnect study. Travel and recreational physical activity were measured using detailed seven-day recall instruments. Adjusted linear regression models were fitted with change in active travel defined as ‘decreased’ (15 min/week) as the primary exposure variable and changes in (a) recreational and (b) total physical activity (min/week) as the primary outcome variables. Results Active travel increased in 32% (n=529), was maintained in 33% (n=534) and decreased in 35% (n=565) of respondents. Recreational physical activity decreased in all groups but this decrease was not greater in those whose active travel increased. Conversely, changes in active travel were associated with commensurate changes in total physical activity. Compared with those whose active travel remained unchanged, total physical activity decreased by 176.9 min/week in those whose active travel had decreased (adjusted regression coefficient −154.9, 95% CI −195.3 to −114.5) and was 112.2 min/week greater among those whose active travel had increased (adjusted regression coefficient 135.1, 95% CI 94.3 to 175.9). Conclusion An increase in active travel was associated with a commensurate increase in total physical activity and not a decrease in recreational physical activity. PMID:23445724

  10. Evaluation and comparison of the content of total polyphenols and antioxidant activity of selected species of the genus Allium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna LENKOVÁ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The species of the genus Allium are very important crops for human health. They contain many health beneficial substances, such as polyphenols (especially flavonoids, sulphur compounds, vitamins, mineral substances and substances with antioxidant activity. This work has focused on the comparison of total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of selected species of the genus Allium – garlic (Allium sativum L., chives (Allium schoenoprasum L., ramson (Allium ursinum L. and red, yellow and white onion (Allium cepa L.. Samples of plant material were collected at the stage of full maturity in the area of Nitra. Total polyphenols content was determined using the spectrophotometric method of Folin-Ciocalteu agents. Determined the content of total polyphenols were in the range 444.3 - 1591 mg*kg-1. Total polyphenols content in the observed crops declined in the following order: chives > red onion > garlic > yellow onion > ramson > white onion. Antioxidant activity was measured by the spectrophotometric method using a compound DPPH (2.2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl. Determined the value of antioxidant activity ranged 12.29 – 76.57%. Antioxidant activity observed in crops declined in the following order: chives > ramson > red onion > yellow onion > garlic > white onion. In all the analysed crop plants was confirmed by the strong dependence of the antioxidant activity and the total content of polyphenolic substances.

  11. Simultaneous determination of multi-mycotoxins in palm kernel cake (PKC) using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yibadatihan, S; Jinap, S; Mahyudin, N A

    2014-01-01

    Palm kernel cake (PKC) is a useful source of protein and energy for livestock. Recently, it has been used as an ingredient in poultry feed. Mycotoxin contamination of PKC due to inappropriate handling during production and storage has increased public concern about economic losses and health risks for poultry and humans. This concern has accentuated the need for the evaluation of mycotoxins in PKC. Furthermore, a method for quantifying mycotoxins in PKC has so far not been established. The aims of this study were therefore (1) to develop a method for the simultaneous determination of mycotoxins in PKC and (2) to validate and verify the method. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method using an electrospray ionisation interface (ESI) in both positive- and negative-ion modes was developed for the simultaneous determination of aflatoxins (AFB₁, AFB₂, AFG₁ and AFG₂), ochratoxin A (OTA), zearalenone (ZEA), deoxynivalenol (DON), fumonisins (FB₁ and FB₂), T-2 and HT-2 toxin in PKC. An optimum method using a 0.2 ml min⁻¹ flow rate, 0.2% formic acid in aqueous phase, 10% organic phase at the beginning and 90% organic phase at the end of the gradient was achieved. The extraction of mycotoxins was performed using a solvent mixture of acetonitrile-water-formic acid (79:20:1, v/v) without further clean-up. The mean recoveries of mycotoxins in spiked PKC samples ranged from 81% to 112%. Limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantification (LOQs) for mycotoxin standards and PKC samples ranged from 0.02 to 17.5 μg kg⁻¹ and from 0.06 to 58.0 μg kg⁻¹, respectively. Finally, the newly developed method was successfully applied to PKC samples. The results illustrated the fact that the method is efficient and accurate for the simultaneous multi-mycotoxin determination in PKC, which can be ideal for routine analysis.

  12. Asymmetric total synthesis of 6-Tuliposide B and its biological activities against tulip pathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigetomi, Kengo; Omoto, Shoko; Kato, Yasuo; Ubukata, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    The structure-activity relationship was investigated to evaluate the antifungal activities of tuliposides and tulipalins against tulip pathogenic fungi. 6-Tuliposide B was effectively synthesized via the asymmetric Baylis-Hillman reaction. Tuliposides and tulipalins showed antifungal activities against most of the strains tested at high concentrations (2.5 mM), while Botrytis tulipae was resistant to tuliposides. Tulipalin formation was involved in the antifungal activity, tulipalin A showed higher inhibitory activity than 6-tuliposide B and tulipalin B. Both the tuliposides and tulipalins showed pigment-inducing activity against Gibberella zeae and inhibitory activity against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp tulipae. These activities were induced at a much lower concentration (0.05 mM) than the antifungal MIC values.

  13. Tree age, fruit size and storage conditions affect levels of ascorbic acid, total phenolic concentrations and total antioxidant activity of 'Kinnow' mandarin juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Samina; Malik, Aman U; Khan, Ahmad S; Shahid, Muhammad; Shafique, Muhammad

    2016-03-15

    Bioactive compounds (ascorbic acid, total phenolics and total antioxidants) are important constituents of citrus fruit juice; however, information with regard to their concentrations and changes in relation to tree age and storage conditions is limited. 'Kinnow' (Citrus nobilis Lour × Citrus deliciosa Tenora) mandarin juice from fruit of three tree ages (6, 18 and 35 years old) and fruit sizes (large, medium and small) were examined for their bioactive compounds during 7 days under ambient storage conditions (20 ± 2 °C and 60-65% relative humidity (RH)) and during 60 days under cold storage (4 ± 1 °C and 75-80% RH) conditions. Under ambient conditions, a reduction in total phenolic concentrations (TPC) and in total antioxidant activity (TAA) was found for the juice from all tree ages and fruit sizes. Overall, fruit from 18-year-old trees had higher mean TPC (95.86 µg mL(-1) ) and TAA (93.68 mg L(-1) ), as compared to 6 and 35-year-old trees. Likewise, in cold storage, TAA decreased in all fruit size groups from 18 and 35-year-old trees. In all tree age and fruit size groups, TPC decreased initially during 15 days of cold storage and then increased gradually with increase in storage duration. Ascorbic acid concentrations showed an increasing trend in all fruit size groups from 35-year-old trees. Overall, during cold storage, fruit from 18-year-old trees maintained higher mean ascorbic acid (33.05 mg 100 mL(-1) ) concentrations, whereas fruit from 6-year-old trees had higher TAA (153.1 mg L(-1) ) and TPC (115.1 µg mL(-1) ). Large-sized fruit had higher ascorbic acid (32.08 mg 100 mL(-1) ) concentrations and TAA (157.5 mg L(-1) ). Fruit from 18-year-old trees maintained higher TPC and TAA under ambient storage conditions, whereas fruit from 6-year-old trees maintained higher TPC and TAA during cold storage. Small-sized fruit had higher TPC after ambient temperature storage, whereas large fruit size showed higher ascorbic acid concentrations and TAA after cold

  14. Total phenols and antioxidant activities of leaf and stem extracts from coriander, mint and parsley grown in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Juhaimi, F.; Ghafoorr, K.

    2011-01-01

    Leaves and stems of three different herbs from two different families were used to extract phenolic compounds and the bioactivity of the extracts was evaluated by using 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl or DPPH scavenging ability or their antioxidant activities. Extract from leaves of mint, which belongs to Lamiaceae family contained 1.24 mgGAE/100 mL of total phenolic compounds and 34.21% antioxidant activity which were significantly higher than those in extracts from coriander and parsley, both of which belong to Apiaceae family. Extracts of leaves from these herbs showed more quantity of total phenols and higher antioxidant activities than extracts from stem parts, however both leaves and stems of these three herbs grown in Saudi Arabia contained good quantities of total phenols (>1.02 mgGAE/100 mL) and showed more than 18.3% free radical scavenging activity. (author)

  15. In vitro anthelmintic activity of Barleria buxifolia on Indian adult earthworms and estimation of total flavonoid content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purna A. Chander

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the anthelmintic activity of Barleria buxifolia leaf and to estimate the total flavonoid content. Methods: The aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts were prepared and these were analyzed for total flavonoid content by aluminium chloride colorimetric method and Pheretima posthuma was used for anthelmintic activity by using the different concentrations (10, 20, 40, 80 and 100 mg/mL. Results: All the investigational extracts showed an anthelmintic activity at concentration of 10 mg/mL. The ethanolic extract of 100 mg/mL has produced an significant effect (P<0.001 when compared to aqueous extract. The total flavonoid content was found to be 5.67 mg QE/100 g. Conclusions: From the above study, the leaf extract has shown a good anthelmintic activity.

  16. THE DYNAMICS OF TOTAL AMYLASE\\'S ACTIVITY IN PANICUM MILIACEUM AND SETARIA GLAUCA DURING THE GERMINATION PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Ciornea

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available : It was studied the dynamics of total amylase\\'s activity in millet (Panicum miliaceum and bristle grass (Setaria glauca during the germination period. The enzymatic activity was determined by the Noelting - Brenfeld method, the results obtained being expressed in M maltose / g. In both millet and bristle grass, it was evidenced that both parameters taken into study (the species and the germination time do influence the enzymatic activity, although to a different extent.

  17. Structural insight with mutational impact on tyrosinase and PKC-β interaction from Homo sapiens: Molecular modeling and docking studies for melanogenesis, albinism and increased risk for melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Arundhati; Ray, Sujay

    2016-10-30

    Human tyrosinase, is an important protein for biosynthetic pathway of melanin. It was studied to be phosphorylated and activated by protein kinase-C, β-subunit (PKC-β) through earlier experimentations with in vivo evidences. Documentation documents that mutation in two essentially vital serine residues in C-terminal end of tyrosinase leads to albinism. Due to the deficiency of protective shield like enzyme; melanin, albinos are at an increased peril for melanoma and other skin cancers. So, computational and residue-level insight including a mutational exploration with evolutionary importance into this mechanism lies obligatory for future pathological and therapeutic developments. Therefore, functional tertiary models of the relevant proteins were analyzed after satisfying their stereo-chemical features. Evolutionarily paramount residues for the activation of tyrosinase were perceived via multiple sequence alignment phenomena. Mutant-type tyrosinase protein (S98A and S102A) was thereby modeled, maintaining the wild-type proteins' functionality. Furthermore, this present comparative study discloses the variation in the stable residual participation (for mutant-type and wild-type tyrosinase-PKCβ complex). Mainly, an increased number of polar negatively charged residues from the wild-type tyrosinase participated with PKC-β, predominantly. Fascinatingly supported by evaluation of statistical significances, mutation even led to a destabilizing impact in tyrosinase accompanied by conformational switches with a helix-to-coil transition in the mutated protein. Even the allosteric sites in the protein got poorly hampered upon mutation leading to weaker tendency for binding partners to interact. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Total Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB), Antioxidant Activity, and Acceptance of Synbiotic Yoghurt with Binahong Leaf Extract (Anredera cordifolia (Ten.) Steenis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, R. P.; Nissa, C.; Afifah, D. N.; Anjani, G.; Rustanti, N.

    2018-02-01

    Alternative treatment for metabolic syndrome can be done by providing a diet consist of functional foods or beverages. Synbiotic yoghurt containing binahong leaf extract which high in antioxidant, total LAB and fiber can be selected to reduce the risk of metabolic syndrome. The effect of binahong leaf extract in synbiotic yoghurt against total LAB, antioxidant activity, and acceptance were analyzed. The experiment was done with complete randomized design with addition of binahong leaf extract 0% (control); 0.12%; 0.25%; 0.5% in synbiotic yoghurt. Analysis of total LAB using Total Plate Count test, antioxidant activity using DPPH, and acceptance were analyzed by hedonic test. The addition of binahong leaf extract in various doses in synbiotic yoghurt decreased total LAB without significant effect (p=0,145). There was no effect of addition binahong leaf extract on antioxidant activity (p=0,297). The addition of binahong leaf extract had an effect on color, but not on aroma, texture and taste. The best result was yoghurt synbiotic with addition of 0,12% binahong leaf extract. Conclusion of the research was the addition of binahong leaf extract to synbiotic yogurt did not significantly affect total LAB, antioxidant activity, aroma, texture and taste; but had a significant effect on color.

  19. Phytochemical constituents, antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid contents of Arisarum vulgare seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Hadjer Kadri; Salah Eddine Djilani; Abdelouaheb Djilani

    2013-01-01

    Background.Arisarum vulgare is screened and its total phenolic compounds and total flavonoid contents were measured. In addition, the antioxidant capacity of the methanol-water (7:3) extract of this plant is evalu- ated by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1 picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS (2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfon- ic)) tests expressed by Vitamin C Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (VCEAC). HPLC analyses are carried out to identify some polyphenols. The aim of this study is to identify, ...

  20. Role of protein kinase C in TBT-induced inhibition of lytic function and MAPK activation in human natural killer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraha, Abraham B; Rana, Krupa; Whalen, Margaret M

    2010-11-01

    Human natural killer (NK) cells are lymphocytes that destroy tumor and virally infected cells. Previous studies have shown that exposure of NK cells to tributyltin (TBT) greatly diminishes their ability to destroy tumor cells (lytic function) while activating mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) (p44/42, p38, and JNK) in NK cells. The signaling pathway that regulates NK lytic function appears to include activation of protein kinase C(PKC) as well as MAPK activity. TBT-induced activation of MAPKs would trigger a portion of the NK lytic signaling pathway, which would then leave the NK cell unable to trigger this pathway in response to a subsequent encounter with a target cell. In the present study we evaluated the involvement of PKC in inhibition of NK lysis of tumor cells and activation of MAPKs caused by TBT exposure. TBT caused a 2–3-fold activation of PKC at concentrations ranging from 50 to 300 nM (16–98 ng/ml),indicating that activation of PKC occurs in response to TBT exposure. This would then leave the NK cell unable to respond to targets. Treatment with the PKC inhibitor, bisindolylmaleimide I, caused an 85% decrease in the ability of NK cells to lyse tumor cells, validating the involvement of PKC in the lytic signaling pathway. The role of PKC in the activation of MAPKs by TBT was also investigated using bisindolylmaleimide I. The results indicated that, in NK cells where PKC activation was blocked, there was no activation of the MAPK, p44/42 in response to TBT.However, TBT-induced activation of the MAPKs, p38 and JNK did not require PKC activation. These results indicate the pivotal role of PKC in the TBT-induced loss of NK lytic function including activation of p44/42 by TBT in NK cells.

  1. Role of protein kinase C in the TBT-induced inhibition of lytic function and MAPK activation in human natural killer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraha, Abraham B.; Rana, Krupa; Whalen, Margaret M.

    2010-01-01

    Human natural killer (NK) cells are lymphocytes that destroy tumor and virally infected cells. Previous studies have shown that exposures of NK cells to tributyltin (TBT) greatly diminish their ability to destroy tumor cells (lytic function) while activating mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) (p44/42, p38, and JNK) in the NK cells. The signaling pathway that regulates NK lytic function appears to include activation of protein kinase C (PKC) as well as MAPK activity. The TBT-induced activation of MAPKs would trigger a portion of the NK lytic signaling pathway, which would then leave the NK cell unable to trigger this pathway in response to a subsequent encounter with a target cell. In the present study we evaluated the involvement of PKC in the inhibition of NK lysis of tumor cells and activation of MAPKs caused by TBT exposures. TBT caused a 2–3 fold activation of PKC at concentrations ranging from 50–300 nM (16–98 ng/mL), indicating that activation of PKC occurs in response to TBT exposures. This would then leave the NK cell unable to respond to targets. Treatment with the PKC inhibitor, bisindolylmaleimide I, caused an 85% decrease in the ability of NK cells to lyse tumor cells validating the involvement of PKC in the lytic signaling pathway. The role of PKC in the activation of MAPKs by TBT was also investigated using bisindolylmaleimide I. The results indicated that in NK cells where PKC activation was blocked there was no activation of the MAPK, p44/42 in response to TBT. However, TBT-induced activation of the MAPKs, p38 and JNK did not require PKC activation. These results indicate the pivotal role of PKC in the TBT-induced loss of NK lytic function including the activation of p44/42 by TBT in NK cells. PMID:20390410

  2. To total amount of activity. And beyond: Perspectives on measuring physical behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.B.J. Bussmann (Hans); H.J.G. van den Berg-Emons (Rita)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this paper is to describe and discuss some perspectives on definitions, constructs, and outcome parameters of physical behavior. The paper focuses on the following constructs: Physical activity and active lifestyle vs. sedentary behavior and sedentary lifestyle; Amount of

  3. Mechanism of the protective effects of the combined treatment with rhynchophylla total alkaloids and sinapine thiocyanate against a prothrombotic state caused by vascular endothelial cell inflammatory damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunlun; Zhang, Xinya; Yang, Wenqing; Li, Chao; Chu, Yanjun; Jiang, Haiqiang; Shen, Zhenzhen

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect and the underlying mechanism of the combined treatment of rhynchophylla total alkaloids (RTA) and sinapine thiocyanate for protection against a prothrombotic state (PTS) associated with the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)-induced inflammatory injury of vascular endothelial cells (VECs). A TNF-α-induced VEC inflammatory injury model was established, and cell morphology of VECs was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy. In addition, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis were performed to examine the mRNA and protein expression of coagulation-related factors, including nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), tissue factor (TF), plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1), protease-activation receptors (PAR-1) and protein kinase C (PKC-α) in VECs. Combined treatment with RTA and sinapine thiocyanate was demonstrated to reduce, to a varying extent, the mRNA and protein expression of NF-κB, TGF-β1, TF, PAR-1, PKC-α and PAI-1. Furthermore, combined treatment with RTA and sinapine thiocyanate was able to downregulate the expression of coagulation-related factors in injured VECs, thereby inhibiting the PTS induced by vascular endothelial injury. The underlying mechanism is partially associated with the TF-mediated activation of the thrombin-receptor signaling pathway that suppresses coagulation during inflammation and balances fibrinolysis in order to inhibit fibrin generation and deposition.

  4. Deposition of atmospheric 210Pb and total beta activity in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jussi Paatero; Murat Buyukay; Juha Hatakka; Kaisa Vaaramaa; Jukka Lehto

    2015-01-01

    The seasonal and regional variation of the atmospheric 210 Pb deposition in Finland was studied. The 210 Pb activity concentration in precipitation shows a decreasing trend from southeastern Finland north-westwards. An average deposition of 40 Bq/m 2 during a 12 months period was observed. The deposition of 210 Pb shows a seasonal variation with minimum in spring and maximum in autumn and winter. The specific activity of 210 Pb (activity of 210 Pb per unit mass of stable lead) in the atmosphere has returned to the level prior to World War II owing to the reduced lead emissions into the atmosphere. (author)

  5. Fruit quality, anthocyanin and total phenolic contents, and antioxidant activities of 45 blueberry cultivars grown in Suwon, Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jin Gook; Kim, Hong Lim; Kim, Su Jin; Park, Kyo-Sun

    2013-01-01

    Blueberry fruits from 45 commercial cultivars (39 northern highbush and 6 half highbush blueberry) grown in Suwon, Korea were analyzed for fruit size, soluble solids content, titratable acidity, total anthocyanin content, total phenolic content, and antioxidant activity. Fruit characteristics varied widely among the 45 blueberry cultivars. Fruit weight ranged from 0.9 to 3.6 g, soluble solids content from 8.3 to 14.3 °Brix, and titratable acidity from 0.8% to 3.6%. Antioxidant activity ranged...

  6. PKCθ is required for the activation of human T lymphocytes induced by CD43 engagement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rio, Roxana del; Rincon, Mercedes; Layseca-Espinosa, Esther; Fierro, Nora A.; Rosenstein, Yvonne; Pedraza-Alva, Gustavo

    2004-01-01

    The turnover of phosphoinositides leading to PKC activation constitutes one of the principal axes of intracellular signaling. In T lymphocytes, the enhanced and prolonged PKC activation resulting from the engagement of the TcR and co-receptor molecules ensures a productive T cell response. The CD43 co-receptor promotes activation and proliferation, by inducing IL-2 secretion and CD69 expression. CD43 engagement has been shown to promote phosphoinositide turnover and DAG production. Moreover, PKC activation was found to be required for the activation of the MAP kinase pathway in response to CD43 ligation. Here we show that CD43 engagement led to the membrane translocation and enzymatic activity of specific PKC isoenzymes: cPKC (α/β), nPKC (ε and θ), aPKC (ζ) and PKCμ. We also show that activation of PKCθ resulting from CD43 ligation induced CD69 expression through an ERK-dependent pathway leading to AP-1, NF-κB activation and an ERK independent pathway promoting NFAT activation. Together, these data suggest that PKCθ plays a critical role in the co-stimulatory functions of CD43 in human T cells

  7. EFFECTS OF SEED IRRADIATION ON 14C FIXATION AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF VITAMIN C AND TOTAL PHENOLS OF CANOLA LEAVES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KAMEL, H.A.

    2008-01-01

    Seeds of canola were gamma irradiated with doses of 10, 25, 50, 100 and 200 Gy then cultivated in 30 cm plastic pots containing 7 kg clay soil. After 45 days of cultivation, plants were used to measure 14 C fixation capacity, vitamin C, total phenol, free proline and peroxidase activity in addition to the antioxidant activity. The results showed decrease in the chlorophyll content and 14 C fixation at all gamma doses. Irradiation of canola seeds caused significant reduction in vitamin C and phenol content, while significant increase was occurred in free proline and peroxidase activity. Antioxidant activity of vitamin C was higher than that of phenols at all doses used

  8. Total body irradiation for installment of arylsulfatase B activity in a cat by bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macy, D.W.; Gillette, E.L.; Gasper, P.W.; Thrall, M.A.; Wenger, D.A.; Kessell, M.L.; Hoover, E.A.

    1984-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis VI is an inherited, metabolic defect in which a deficiency of arylsulfatase B, results in accumulation of glycosaminoglycans (GAG) in lysosomes. Arylsulfatase B activity was installed in an affected 2 year old siamese cat with no arylsulfatase B activity, excess urinary GAG, Alder-Reilly bodies in neutrophils, facial dysmorphia, corneal clouding, multiple epiphyseal dysplasia, and hind limb paresis. Following grafting of bone marrow from an immunologically nonreactive, female sibling with normal arylsulfatase B activity, increased arylsulfatase B activity and urinary excretion of hexuronic acid decreased by 19 days post transplantation. There were no metachromatic inclusions in circulating neutrophils, which were phenotypically female. The cat now has competent trilineage hematopoiesis, resolution of the facial dysmorphia, no corneal clouding, and improved movement of the head, neck, and mandible. The technique, sequence of hematologic recovery, and evidence of engraftment, are discussed. This may be a model for correction of mucopolysaccharidosis VI in man

  9. Total joint replacement: A multiple risk factor analysis of physical activity level 1-2 years postoperatively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Elizabeth W; Torres, Andy; Love, Rebecca M; Barber, Thomas C; Sheth, Dhiren S; Inacio, Maria C S

    2016-07-01

    Background and purpose - The effect of total joint arthroplasty (TJA) on physical activity is not fully understood. We investigated the change in physical activity after TJA and patient factors associated with change. Patients and methods - Using a total joint replacement registry, primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) patients (n = 5,678) and knee arthroplasty (TKA) patients (n = 11,084) between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2012 were identified. Median age at THA was 68 and median age at TKA was 67. Change in self-reported physical activity (minutes per week) from before TJA (within 1 year of surgery) to after TJA (1-2 years) was the outcome of interest. Patient demographics and comorbidities were evaluated as risk factors. Multiple linear regression was used. Results - Median physical activity before surgery was 50 min/week (IQR: 0-140) for THA patients and 58 (IQR: 3-143) for TKA patients. Median physical activity after surgery was 150 min/week (IQR: 60-280) for both THA patients and TKA patients. Following TJA, 50% of patients met CDC/WHO physical activity guideline criteria. Higher body mass index was associated with lower change in physical activity (THA: -7.1 min/week; TKA: -5.9 min/week). Females had lower change than males (THA: -11 min/week; TKA: -9.1 min/week). In TKA patients, renal failure was associated with lower change (-17 min/week), as were neurological disorders (-30 min/week). Interpretation - Self-reported minutes of physical activity increased from before to after TJA, but 50% of TJA patients did not meet recommended physical activity guideline criteria. Higher body mass index, female sex, and specific comorbidities were found to be associated with low change in physical activity. Patient education on the benefits of physical activity should concentrate on these subgroups of patients.

  10. Effect of cold storage on total phenolics content, antioxidant activity and vitamin C level of selected potato clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Külen, Oktay; Stushnoff, Cecil; Holm, David G

    2013-08-15

    Twelve Colorado-grown specialty potato clones were evaluated for total phenolic content, antioxidant activity and ascorbic acid content at harvest and after 2, 4, 6 and 7 months cold storage at 4 °C. Potato clones were categorized as pigmented ('CO97226-2R/R', 'CO99364-3R/R', 'CO97215-2P/P', 'CO97216-3P/P', 'CO97227-2P/P', 'CO97222-1R/R', 'Purple Majesty', 'Mountain Rose' and 'All Blue'), yellow ('Yukon Gold') and white fleshed ('Russet Nugget', 'Russet Burbank'). Folin-Ciocalteu reagent was used to estimate total phenolic content, and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS(•+) ) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(•) ) radical scavenging assays were used to estimate antioxidant capacity. Pigmented potato genotypes had significantly higher total phenolic content and antioxidant activity at all data points than yellow- and white-fleshed cultivars. Vitamin C content was higher in 'Yukon Gold' than in the other clones. The highest level of vitamin C in all clones was at harvest and after 2 months in cold storage. Vitamin C content in all potato clones dropped rapidly with longer intervals of cold storage. Although total phenolic content and antioxidant activity fluctuated during cold storage, after 7 months of cold storage their levels were slightly higher than at harvest. Total phenolic content was better correlated with Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC)/ABTS(•+) than the TEAC/DPPH(•) radical scavenging assay. Pigmented potato clones had significantly higher total phenolic content and antioxidant activity, while the yellow-fleshed potato cultivar 'Yukon Gold' had significantly higher vitamin C content. Vitamin C content decreased in all potato clones during cold storage, while total phenolics increased in pigmented clones. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Chromium Fractions Changes Compared With Total-Cr As Determined by Neutron Activation Analysis Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Sabour, M.F.; Abdou, F.M.; Elwan, I.M.; Al-Salama, Y.J.

    2003-01-01

    Fifteen soil samples were chosen from different locations (five different locations at north greater Cairo, Egypt to represent different soils (alluvial and sandy) as well as different source of contaminated wastewater (sewage and industrial effluent). Using sequential extraction technique (extracting the soil with different solutions, which is designed to separate metal fractions), Cr was separated into six operationally defined fractions water soluble, exchangeable, carbonate bound, Fe-Mn oxides bound, organic bound and residual fractions. Result of soil total-Cr indicated the serious accumulation of Cr in soils subjected to prolonged irrigation with contaminated wastewater. As it could seen, total-Cr in the tested contaminated soils exceeds the permissible levels (75-100)ppm Cr by several order of magnitude particularly at the surface and subsurface layers. The highest accumulation of total Cr down to depth 60 cm was observed in case of soil E. Data showed that values of total Cr determined by NAA method were always higher than the relevant values determined either by AAS or those calculated after the sequential extraction method. T-test analysis showed the significant difference between NAA and either AAS or sequential extraction methods. Although T-test analysis showed that were significant differences between total content in soils as determined by destructive (AAS or SUM) and non-destructive (NAA) analytical techniques however, strong liner relation between NAA and other tested methods was obtained. Chromium distribution between different extractants shows that the greatest amounts are found in the residual and Occluded in Fe and Mn-Oxides fractions followed by carbonate or organic fractions. In most cases the proportion of all tested Cr-forms has increased in contaminated soil layers with higher enrichment in organically bound Cr, occluded in Fe and Mn oxides, carbonate exchangeable and soluble fractions. Results indicate that soil properties have a

  12. Comparative Analysis of ?-Oryzanol, ?-Glucan, Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity in Fermented Rice Bran of Different Varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Tae-Dong; Shin, Gi-Hae; Kim, Jae-Min; Choi, Sun-Il; Lee, Jin-Ha; Lee, Sang Jong; Park, Seon Ju; Woo, Koan Sik; Oh, Sea Kwan; Lee, Ok-Hawn

    2017-01-01

    Rice bran, a by-product derived from processing rice, is a rich source of bioactive compounds. Recent studies have suggested that the fermentation can improve their biological activities. This study aimed to determined the level of γ-oryzanol, β-glucan and total phenol contents of fermented rice bran from 21 Korean varieties, as well as to evaluate their antioxidant activities. We also assessed the validation of the analytical method for determining γ-oryzanol content in fermented rice brans....

  13. Activation of Protein Kinase C and Protein Kinase D in Human Natural Killer Cells: Effects of Tributyltin, Dibutyltin, and Tetrabromobisphenol A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Krupa; Whalen, Margaret M.

    2015-01-01

    Up to now, the ability of target cells to activate protein kinase C (PKC) and protein kinase D (PKD) (which is often a downstream target of PKC) has not been examined in natural killer (NK) lymphocytes. Here we examined whether exposure of human NK cells to lysis sensitive tumor cells activated PKC and PKD. The results of these studies show for the first time that activation of PKC and PKD occurs in response to target cell binding to NK cells. Exposure of NK cells to K562 tumor cells for 10 and 30 minutes increased phosphorylation/activation of both PKC and PKD by roughly 2 fold. Butyltins (tributyltin (TBT); dibutyltin (DBT)) and brominated compounds (tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA)) are environmental contaminants that are found in human blood. Exposures of NK cells to TBT, DBT or TBBPA decrease NK cell lytic function in part by activating the mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) that are part of the NK lytic pathway. We established that PKC and PKD are part of the lytic pathway upstream of MAPKs and thus we investigated whether DBT, TBT, and TBBPA exposures activated PKC and PKD. TBT activated PKC by 2–3 fold at 10 min at concentrations ranging from 50–300 nM while DBT caused a 1.3 fold activation at 2.5 μM at 10 min. Both TBT and DBT caused an approximately 2 fold increase in phosphorylation/activation of PKC. Exposures to TBBPA caused no statistically significant changes in either PKC or PKD activation. PMID:26228090

  14. Evaluation of 40K in vegetables collected Malaysia by determination total potassium using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafaei, M.A.; Saion, E.; Naghavi, K.; Wood, K.; Rezaee, Kh.

    2011-01-01

    Some vegetables of important nutritive requirements have been collected from Kuala Lumpur region capital of Malaysia. The vegetables were analyzed in order to determine activity concentration level of potassium using neutron activation analysis (NAA). The NAA results obtained showed the activity concentration of 40 K varied from 379 Bq/kg (Egg-plant) to 1585 Bq/kg (Spinach Red). These results are compared to other researches and are clear that the concentrations of K are relatively high in the Malaysia in compared to rather than vegetables of Pakistan and Jamaican. However, they are seen not to pose any serious internal health burden due to ingestion given the realities of vegetables choice by individuals in the study area. (author)

  15. Determination of trace elements in total particulate matter of cigarette smoke by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, U.C.; Shaikh, G.N.

    1985-01-01

    Cigarette smoke contains many trace elements hazardous for human body. Tobacco samples were analyzed for their trace element contents and the results were reported earlier. This paper presents results on the trace element content analyzed in cigarette smoke using an automatic smoking machine developed in laboratory to simulate actual smoking pattern. The trace element levels in the total particulate matter samples of the cigarette smoke collected on filter papers were measured and compared with those of cigarette smoke condensate reported in the literature. Both methods of collection give comparable results. (author)

  16. Determination of total alpha activity index in samples of radioactive wastes; Determinacion del indice de actividad alfa total en muestras de desechos radiactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galicia C, F. J.

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to develop a methodology of preparation and quantification of samples containing radionuclides beta and/or alpha emitters, to determine the rates of alpha and beta total activity of radioactive waste samples. For this, a device of planchettes preparer was designed, to assist the planchettes preparation in a controlled environment and free of corrosive vapors. Planchettes were prepared in three means: nitrate, carbonate and sulfate, to different mass thickness, natural uranium (alpha and beta emitter) and in case of Sr-90 (beta emitter pure) only in half nitrate; and these planchettes were quantified in an alpha/beta counter, in order to construct the self-absorption curves for alpha and beta particles. These curves are necessary to determine the rate of alpha-beta activity of any sample because they provide the self-absorption correction factor to be applied in calculating the index. Samples with U were prepared with the help of the device of planchettes preparer and subsequently were analyzed in the proportional counter Mpc-100 Pic brand. Samples with Sr-90 were prepared without the device to see if there was a different behavior with respect to obtaining mass thickness. Similarly they were calcined and carried out count in the Mpc-100. To perform the count, first the parameters of counter operating were determined: operating voltages for alpha and beta particles 630 and 1500 V respectively, a count routine was generated where the time and count type were adjusted, and counting efficiencies for alpha and beta particles, with the aid of calibration sources of {sup 210}Po for alphas and {sup 90}Sr for betas. According to the results, the counts per minute will decrease as increasing the mass thickness of the sample (self-absorption curve), adjusting this behavior to an exponential function in all cases studied. The minor self-absorption of alpha and beta particles in the case of U was obtained in sulfate medium. The self-absorption curves of Sr-90

  17. A comparison of the antioxidant activity with the Total Phenolic and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus, radical scavenging as well as antioxidant potentials of the plant are good indications of its effectiveness in disease management. Objective: This study evaluates the antioxidant activity of the extracts from the leaves and stem bark of Anogeissus leiocarpa.. Materials and Methods: Dried powdered leaves and bark were ...

  18. Total Content of Polyphenols and Antioxidant Activity of Different Melliferous Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Pasca

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study polyphenols content and antioxidant activity of melliferous plants for the following: mint (Mentha pulegium, burdock (Arctium lappa, comfrey (Symphytum officinale, plantain (Pantago lanceolata, thyme (Thymus vulgaris, sage (Salvia officinalis, marigold (Calendula officinalis, small marshmallow (Althaea officinalis, echinacea (Echinaceea angustifolia and black popular (Populus nigra were investigated, using two different extraction methods. High content of polyphenols and flavones were extracted from Populus nigra, with an average of both extractions 23.14 mg GAE/g and 78.07 mg QE/g flavones. Among the studied plants, Arctium lappa registered the highest antioxidant activity (0.129 mmol Trolox/mL in alcoholic extract and Echinaceea angustifolia with a value of 0.122 mmol Trolox/mL in aqueous extract. The lowest values were recorded for the antioxidant activity of Althaea officinalis (alcoholic extract and Arctium lappa (aqueous extract. The results show that Arctium lappa, Echinaceea angustifolia and Populus nigra can be considered melliferous plants for their high biologically active compounds potential and bee products (honey and pollen that having the composition of these plants will have high antioxidant and antibacterial properties.

  19. Antioxidant activities and total phenol content of Inula viscosa extracts selected from three regions of Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naima Chahmi

    2015-03-01

    Conclusions: Our results of antioxidant assays were justified and partially supported the popular usage of the tested plants. The high antioxidant activity found in the plant from Sefrou and its great biomass in this region suggested that Inula viscosa is a good source of natural antioxidants compounds which might have benefits for health.

  20. Effects of gamma irradiation on chickpea seeds vis-a-vis total seed storage proteins, antioxidant activity and protein profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagyawant, S S; Gupta, N; Shrivastava, N

    2015-10-23

    The present work describes radiation—induced effects on seed composition vis—à—vis total seed proteins, antioxidant levels and protein profiling employing two dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D—GE) in kabuli and desi chickpea varities. Seeds were exposed to the radiation doses of 1,2,3,4 and 5 kGy. The total protein concentrations decreased and antioxidant levels were increased with increasing dose compared to control seed samples. Radiation induced effects were dose dependent to these seed parameters while it showed tolerance to 1 kGy dose. Increase in the dose was complimented with increase in antioxidant levels, like 5 kGy enhanced % scavenging activities in all the seed extracts. Precisely, the investigations reflected that the dose range from 2 to 5 kGy was effective for total seed storage proteins, as depicted quantitatively and qualitative 2D—GE means enhance antioxidant activities in vitro.

  1. Prothrombin fragment 1+2 in urine as an indicator of sustained coagulation activation after total hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borris, L.C.; Breindahl, M.; Ryge, C.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 measured in spot urine (uF1 + 2) is an indicator of thrombin generation. We examined whether measured levels of uF1 + 2 can be used to differentiate between patients who do and do not acquire sustained coagulation activation after total hip arthroplasty (THA...

  2. In vitro callus culture of Heliotropium indicum Linn. for assessment of total phenolic and flavonoid content and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Muthusamy Senthil; Chaudhury, Shibani; Balachandran, Srinivasan

    2014-12-01

    The total phenolic and flavonoid content and percentage of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity of callus and in vivo plant parts of Heliotropium indicum Linn. were estimated. Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) 2.0 mg/l with benzyladenine (BA) 0.5 mg/l showed the highest amount of callus biomass (1.87 g/tube). The morphology of callus was significantly different according to the plant growth regulators and their concentrations used in the medium. The highest amount of total phenolic (21.70 mg gallic acid equivalent per gram (GAE/g)) and flavonoid (4.90 mg quercetin equivalent per gram (QE/g)) content and the maximum percentage (77.78 %) of radical scavenging activity were estimated in the extract of inflorescence. The synergistic effect of NAA (2.0 mg/l) and BA (0.5 mg/l) enhances the synthesis of total phenolic (9.20 mg GAE/g) and flavonoid (1.25 mg QE/g) content in the callus tissue. The callus produced by the same concentration shows 45.24 % of free radical scavenging activity. While comparing the various concentrations of NAA with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) for the production of callus biomass, total phenolic and flavonoid content and free radical scavenging activity, all the concentrations of NAA were found to be superior than those of 2,4-D.

  3. Measurement of activated rCBF by the 133Xe inhalation technique: a comparison of total versus partial curve analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leli, D.A.; Katholi, C.R.; Hazelrig, J.B.; Falgout, J.C.; Hannay, H.J.; Wilson, E.M.; Wills, E.L.; Halsey, J.H. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    An initial assessment of the differential sensitivity of total versus partial curve analysis in estimating task related focal changes in cortical blood flow measured by the 133 Xe inhalation technique was accomplished by comparing the patterns during the performance of two sensorimotor tasks by normal subjects. The validity of these patterns was evaluated by comparing them to the activation patterns expected from activation studies with the intra-arterial technique and the patterns expected from neuropsychological research literature. Subjects were 10 young adult nonsmoking healthy male volunteers. They were administered two tasks having identical sensory and cognitive components but different response requirements (oral versus manual). The regional activation patterns produced by the tasks varied with the method of curve analysis. The activation produced by the two tasks was very similar to that predicted from the research literature only for total curve analysis. To the extent that the predictions are correct, these data suggest that the 133 Xe inhalation technique is more sensitive to regional flow changes when flow parameters are estimated from the total head curve. The utility of the total head curve analysis will be strengthened if similar sensitivity is demonstrated in future studies assessing normal subjects and patients with neurological and psychiatric disorders

  4. Evaluation of body composition and nitrogen content of renal patients on chronic dialysis as determined by total body neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, S.H.; Brennan, B.L.; Yasumura, S.; Vartsky, D.; Vaswani, A.N.; Ellis, K.J.

    1983-01-01

    Total body protein (nitrogen), body cell mass (potassium), fat, and water were measured in 15 renal patients on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD). Total body nitrogen was measured by means of prompt γ neutron activation analysis; total body water was determined with tritium labeled water; total body potassium was measured by whole body counting. The extracellular water was determined by a technique utilizing the measurement of total body chloride and plasma chloride. When compared with corresponding values of a control group of the same age, sex, and height, the protein content, body cell mass, and total body fat of the MHD patients were within the normal range. The only significant change was an increase in the extracellular water/body cell mass ratio in the male MHD patients compared to the control. The lack of significant difference of the nitrogen values of the MHD patients compared to matched controls suggests that dialysis minimizes any residual effects of uremic toxicity or protein-calorie malnutrition. These findings further suggest that there is a need to reevaluate the traditional anthropometric and biochemical standards of nutritional status for MHD patients. It was concluded that it is particularly important to measure protein stores of MHD patients with low protein intake to ascertain nutritional status. Finally, in vivo measurement of total body nitrogen and potassium for determination of body composition provides a simple, direct, and accurate assessment of the nutritional status of MHD patients

  5. Scheduling a maintenance activity under skills constraints to minimize total weighted tardiness and late tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djalal Hedjazi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Skill management is a key factor in improving effectiveness of industrial companies, notably their maintenance services. The problem considered in this paper concerns scheduling of maintenance tasks under resource (maintenance teams constraints. This problem is generally known as unrelated parallel machine scheduling. We consider the problem with a both objectives of minimizing total weighted tardiness (TWT and number of tardiness tasks. Our interest is focused particularly on solving this problem under skill constraints, which each resource has a skill level. So, we propose a new efficient heuristic to obtain an approximate solution for this NP-hard problem and demonstrate his effectiveness through computational experiments. This heuristic is designed for implementation in a static maintenance scheduling problem (with unequal release dates, processing times and resource skills, while minimizing objective functions aforementioned.

  6. Methodology assessment of the total beta activity in tobacco and tobacco products and certain results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgieva, A.; Srentz, A.

    2016-01-01

    The presence of alpha and beta radionuclides in tobacco and tobacco products is a frequently discussed issue. However, any information in publications about them and their presence in tobacco products is too scarce. World Health care Organization monitors the influence of tobacco smoking on human health. In 2003, a Framework Convention on Tobacco Control was accepted with the aim to protect human health, which was signed by 179 countries, including Bulgaria. The first debates on the presence of radionuclides in tobacco products are raised in Moscow in 2014. These were instigated by data on the findings of polonium-210, reported by USA and Russia. The aim of the report is to outline a methodology to detect the presence of beta-active radionuclides in tobacco and its products. Keywords: beta activity, geiger counter, samples with infinite thickness, tobacco samples

  7. Determination of Total Arsenic in Seaweed Products by Neutron Activation Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Salim, N; Santoso, M; Damayanti, S; Kartawinata, T.G

    2013-01-01

    Seaweed products are widely consumed as food nowadays. Seaweeds are known to contain arsenic due to their capability to accumulate arsenic from the environment. Arsenic is a known toxic element which naturally occurs in the environment. Ingestion of high levels of arsenic will cause several adverse health effects. Arsenic in food occurs at trace concentrations which require sensitive and selective analysis methods to perform elemental analysis on. Validated neutron activation analysis was use...

  8. The Effect of Tallow As Lipase Inducer on Total of Aspergillus Niger, Lipolitic Activity and Lipase Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manik Eirry Sawitri

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research was to determined of tallow addition with different concentration as lipase Aspergillus niger inducer to total of A. niger, lipolitic activity and lipase yield. The result showed that tallow addition as inducer in the lipase A. niger production gave no significant effect on total of A. niger (5.3 x 107 – 1.7 x 108 cfu/gram in the medium. Tallow addition gave a highly significant effect on lipolytic activity and yield of lipase A. niger. Lipolytic activity ranged between 32.0354 – 53.1197 U/mg protein, while the yield of lipase was 6.6418–7.8941 µg/ml. The conclusion of this research was the addition of tallow for 8% as the lipase inducer of A. niger on lipase production was  more effective to obtain the optimal result. Keywords : Tallow, lipase, inducer, Aspergillus niger

  9. Fruit quality, anthocyanin and total phenolic contents, and antioxidant activities of 45 blueberry cultivars grown in Suwon, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Gook; Kim, Hong Lim; Kim, Su Jin; Park, Kyo-Sun

    2013-09-01

    Blueberry fruits from 45 commercial cultivars (39 northern highbush and 6 half highbush blueberry) grown in Suwon, Korea were analyzed for fruit size, soluble solids content, titratable acidity, total anthocyanin content, total phenolic content, and antioxidant activity. Fruit characteristics varied widely among the 45 blueberry cultivars. Fruit weight ranged from 0.9 to 3.6 g, soluble solids content from 8.3 to 14.3 °Brix, and titratable acidity from 0.8% to 3.6%. Antioxidant activity ranged from 0.7 to 2.1 mg of quercetin equivalents per gram of fresh berries in different blueberry cultivars. Among the 45 blueberry cultivars, high amounts of anthocyanins and polyphenols, and high antioxidant activity were observed in 'Elliott', 'Rubel', 'Rancocas', and 'Friendship'.

  10. Antioxidant activity, phenolic and flavonoids total of ethanolic extract of Ipomoea batata L. leaves (white, yellow, orange, and purple)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewijanti, Indah Dwiatmi; Banjarnahor, Sofna D.; Triyuliani, Maryani, Faiza; Meilawati, Lia

    2017-11-01

    Antioxidant activity, phenolic and total flavonoids from sweet potato ethanol extract (Ipomea batatas L.) of different varieties (white, yellow, orange and purple) were studied. Sweet potatoes were collected from Research Centre for Chemistry. Sweet potato leaves have been used for numerous oxidative-associated diseases such as cancer, allergy, aging, HIV and cardiovascular. 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) method was used to investigate antioxidant activity in leaves, in which the yellow and purple varieties showed the highest and the lowest scavenging activities of 47.65 µg/ ml (IC50) and 87.402 µg/ ml (IC50), respectively. In this study, the yellow leaves showed the highest concentrations of total phenolic and flavonoids contents at 11.293 µg/g and 44.963 µg/g, respectively. Therefore, sweet potato leaves can be used as a prospective natural antioxidant.

  11. Quantification of the levels of tannins and total phenols and evaluation of the antioxidant activity of fruits of pepper tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Ribeiro Bernardes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The fruits of pepper tree (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi are widely used in the world cooking and its consumption has been encouraged since the late 80’s due to the presence of phenolic substances. Therefore, this study quantified the levels of tannins and total phenols in the fruits of pepper tree, aiming at establishing a possible correlation between these substances and their antioxidant activity. Phenolic compounds were extracted with acetone: water (7:3, and quantified by spectrophotometry. The antioxidant activity was measured by DPPH method. The results showed low levels of condensed tannins and total phenols in the peel of the fruit, not being detected hydrolysable tannins in them. Nevertheless, the methanolic extract showed high antioxidant potential, which indicates the absence of a correlation between antioxidant activity and the levels of phenolic compounds in these fruits.

  12. Lifestyle predictors of oxidant and antioxidant enzyme activities and total antioxidant capacity in healthy women: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahasneh, Amjad A; Zhang, Yali; Zhao, Hua; Ambrosone, Christine B; Hong, Chi-Chen

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify demographic and modifiable lifestyle factors that may be related to endogenous oxidant and antioxidant activity measured in blood specimens from putatively healthy women recruited at the Roswell Park Cancer Institute (Buffalo, NY, USA). Total glutathione (TGSH), catalase (CAT), CuZn-superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were measured in 124 healthy women, and associations with epidemiological factors were tested using general linear models. There were significant differences in oxidant and antioxidant enzyme activities according to lifestyle factors, after adjusting for duration of blood storage and season of blood draw. Compared to women who consumed ≤2.8 servings of fruits and vegetables daily, those consuming >5.3 servings had on average 31 % lower MPO activity (p-trend = 0.02), as a marker of oxidative stress, 16 % higher antioxidant GPx activity (p-trend = 0.08), and 9 % higher TAC (p-trend = 0.05). Obese women (body mass index, BMI ≥ 30) in contrast showed 17 % lower antioxidant GPx activity, 44 % higher MPO activity (p-trend = 0.03), and 10 % higher TAC (p-trend = 0.03) compared to women with normal BMI lifestyle factors and, therefore, may be potentially modifiable, with implications for risk reduction of chronic conditions related to oxidative stress.

  13. Antioxidant Activities of Total Phenols of Prunella vulgaris L. in Vitro and in Tumor-bearing Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Shi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Prunella vulgaris L. (PV, Labiatae is known as a self-heal herb. The different extracts of dried spikes were studied for the best antioxidant active compounds. The 60% ethanol extract (P-60 showed strong antioxidant activity based on the results of 2,2’-azino-di(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS˙+, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assay methods. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and LC/MS analysis showed that the main active compounds in P-60 were phenols, such as caffeic acid, rosmarinic acid, rutin and quercetin. Total phenols were highly correlated with the antioxidant activity (R2 = 0.9988 in ABTS˙+; 0.6284 in DPPH and 0.9673 FRAP tests. P-60 could inhibit significantly the tumor growth in C57BL/6 mice. It can also been showed that increased superoxide dismutase (SOD activity and decreased malondialdehyde (MDA content in serum of tumor-bearing mice. These results suggested that P-60 extract had high antioxidant activity in vitro and in vivo and total phenols played an important role in antioxidant activity for inhibition of tumor growth.

  14. Determination of total alpha and beta activities on vegetable samples by LSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira, Regina Apolinaria; Santos, Eliane Eugenia dos; Bakker, Alexandre Pereira; Vavassori, Giullia

    2011-01-01

    Gross alpha and beta analyses are screening techniques used for environmental radioactivity monitoring. The present study proposes to determine the gross alpha and beta activities in vegetable samples by using LSC - liquid scintillation spectrometry. The procedure was applied to vegetable foods. After ashing vegetable samples in a muffle furnace, 100 mg of ash were added to gel mixture of scintillation cocktails, Water - Instagel - Ultima Gold AB (6:10:4) ml, in polyethylene vial. Am-241 standard solution and a KCl (K-40) solution were used to determine the counting configuration, alpha/beta efficiencies and spillover

  15. Unbiased total electron content (UTEC), their fluctuations, and correlation with seismic activity over Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornely, Pierre-Richard; Hughes, John

    2018-02-01

    Earthquakes are among the most dangerous events that occur on earth and many scientists have been investigating the underlying processes that take place before earthquakes occur. These investigations are fueling efforts towards developing both single and multiple parameter earthquake forecasting methods based on earthquake precursors. One potential earthquake precursor parameter that has received significant attention within the last few years is the ionospheric total electron content (TEC). Despite its growing popularity as an earthquake precursor, TEC has been under great scrutiny because of the underlying biases associated with the process of acquiring and processing TEC data. Future work in the field will need to demonstrate our ability to acquire TEC data with the least amount of biases possible thereby preserving the integrity of the data. This paper describes a process for removing biases using raw TEC data from the standard Rinex files obtained from any global positioning satellites system. The process is based on developing an unbiased TEC (UTEC) data and model that can be more adaptable to serving as a precursor signal for earthquake forecasting. The model was used during the days and hours leading to the earthquake off the coast of Tohoku, Japan on March 11, 2011 with interesting results. The model takes advantage of the large amount of data available from the GPS Earth Observation Network of Japan to display near real-time UTEC data as the earthquake approaches and for a period of time after the earthquake occurred.

  16. In vitro activity of total aqueous ethanol leaf extracts of Ricinus communis on Leishmania major promastigotes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okech, B.G.A.; Irungu, L.W.; Anjili, C.O.; Munyua, J.K.; Njagi, E.N.M.; Rukungu, G.

    2006-01-01

    The activity of aqueous and ethanol extracts of Ricinus communis was tested on Leishmania promastigotes in cell-free culture media. Serial dilutions of the extracts ranging from 500μg/ml, 250 μg/ml and 62.5μg/ml were prepared in triplicate using Schneiders Drosophila medium supplemented with 20% fetal bovine serum in the absence of antibiotics and the growth of approximately 1x 10 (power 6) parasites monitored every two days for a period of 8 days. Parasite density was estimated every two days using the Neuabeur counting chamber. At the end of the 8-day period cell morphology was observed and photographed. Significant growth inihibitory effect was observed on the promastigotes by the aqueous and ethanol extracts especially at high concentrations. However, there was an enhanced growth effect initially thereafter leading to to a rapid decline in promastigote cell population. Flagellar motility was also greatly affected at high concentration and it appeared that there was a linear relationship between flagellar motilities and the level of concentrations. Parasite morphology was affected severely. Most of the cultures observed appeared to have abnormal round morphology. Rosseting was also evident in the extract treated cultures. The aqueous leaf extract interfered with parasite morphology but this was dose dependent. The importance of R. communis plant as a potential source for chemotypes with antileishmanial activity is discussed. (author)

  17. Scalable total synthesis and comprehensive structure-activity relationship studies of the phytotoxin coronatine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littleson, Mairi M; Baker, Christopher M; Dalençon, Anne J; Frye, Elizabeth C; Jamieson, Craig; Kennedy, Alan R; Ling, Kenneth B; McLachlan, Matthew M; Montgomery, Mark G; Russell, Claire J; Watson, Allan J B

    2018-03-16

    Natural phytotoxins are valuable starting points for agrochemical design. Acting as a jasmonate agonist, coronatine represents an attractive herbicidal lead with novel mode of action, and has been an important synthetic target for agrochemical development. However, both restricted access to quantities of coronatine and a lack of a suitably scalable and flexible synthetic approach to its constituent natural product components, coronafacic and coronamic acids, has frustrated development of this target. Here, we report gram-scale production of coronafacic acid that allows a comprehensive structure-activity relationship study of this target. Biological assessment of a >120 member library combined with computational studies have revealed the key determinants of potency, rationalising hypotheses held for decades, and allowing future rational design of new herbicidal leads based on this template.

  18. Phytochemicals Screening, Total Phenol Estimation, Antioxidant Activity of Blainvillea Acmella Leaf and Stem Successive Extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, P.; Sharma, G.N.; Shrivastava, B.; Jadhav, H.R.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of present work was to investigate antioxidant potential of different extracts of Blainvillea acmella leaf and stem. The successive extraction of individual plant part was carried out using solvents of different polarity viz. n-hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water. Preliminary phyto chemical screening of all the extracts was done. The present total phenolic contents were estimated by Folin-Ciocalteu reagent method and expressed as μg/ mg of gallic acid equivalent. The antioxidant potential and reducing power of all the prepared extracts were measured against DPPH, as compared to standard ascorbic acid, and BHA respectively. The result data indicate that the phenolic contents were higher in methanolic extracts of leaf (73.67 ± 0.38 mg/ g) followed by ethyl acetate (29.08 ± 0.38 mg/ g), aqueous (21.50 ± 0.28 mg/ g), and n-Hexane (9.29 ± 0.38 mg/ g); gallic acid equivalent. The similar pattern in stem part was also observed for example methanolic extracts (41.90 ± 0.45 mg/ g), ethyl acetate (21.92 ± 0.28 mg/ g), aqueous (15.13 ± 0.18 mg/ g), and n-Hexane (3.69 ± 0.28 mg/ g). The antioxidant capacity of methanolic extract of both the part for example leaf and stem was found to be maximum, as IC50 values were 226.49 ± 0.16, 402.05 ± 1.10 respectively. The reducing power was also highest in methanol extract of both parts. The result data conclude that the higher antioxidant as well as reducing power may be due to present phenolic contents. (author)

  19. An active one-particle microrheometer: incorporating magnetic tweezers to total internal reflection microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xiangjun; Hua, Li; Wu, Chi; Ngai, To

    2013-03-01

    We present a novel microrheometer by incorporating magnetic tweezers in the total internal reflection microscopy (TIRM) that enables measuring of viscoelastic properties of materials near solid surface. An evanescent wave generated by a solid∕liquid interface in the TIRM is used as the incident light source in the microrheometer. When a probe particle (of a few micrometers diameter) moves near the interface, it can interact with the evanescent field and reflect its position with respect to the interface by the scattered light intensity. The exponential distance dependence of the evanescent field, on the one hand, makes this technique extremely sensitive to small changes from z-fluctuations of the probe (with a resolution of several nanometers), and on the other, it does not require imaging of the probe with high lateral resolution. Another distinct advantage is the high sensitivity in determining the z position of the probe in the absence of any labeling. The incorporated magnetic tweezers enable us to effectively manipulate the distance of the embedded particle from the interface either by a constant or an oscillatory force. The force ramp is easy to implement through a coil current ramp. In this way, the local viscous and elastic properties of a given system under different confinements can therefore be measured by resolving the near-surface particle motion. To test the feasibility of applying this microrheology to soft materials, we measured the viscoelastic properties of sucrose and poly(ethylene glycol) solutions and compared the results to bulk rheometry. In addition, we applied this technique in monitoring the structure and properties of deformable microgel particles near the flat surface.

  20. Total phenolics and antioxidant activity of five medicinal plant; Fenois totais e atividade antioxidante de cinco plantas medicinais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Cleyton Marcos de M.; Silva, Hilris Rocha e; Vieira-Junior, Gerardo Magela; Ayres, Mariane Cruz C.; Costa, Charllyton Luis S. da; Araajo, Delton Servulo; Cavalcante, Luis Carlos D.; Barros, Elcio Daniel S.; Araujo, Paulo Breitner de M.; Brandao, Marcela S.; Chaves, Mariana H. [Universidade Federal do Piaui, Teresina, PI (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: mariana@ufpi.br

    2007-03-15

    This paper describes total phenolics content and antioxidant activity in the ethanolic extract of leaves, bark and roots of five medicinal plants: Terminalia brasiliensis Camb., Terminalia fagifolia Mart. and Zucc., Copernicia cerifera (Miller) H.E. Moore, Cenostigma macrophyllum Tul. var. acuminata Teles Freire and Qualea grandiflora Mart. The total phenolics content of the plant extracts, determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, varied from 250.0 {+-}8,2 to 763,63 {+-}13.03 mg of gallic acid equivalent/g dry EtOH extract. The antioxidant activity of extracts was evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay system. Extract of bark from T. brasiliensis, the most active, with an EC{sub 50} value of 27.59 {+-} 0.82 {mu}g/mL, was comparable to rutin (EC{sub 50} = 27.80 {+-} 1.38) and gallic acid (EC{sub 50} = 24.27 {+-} 0.31), used as positive controls. The relationship between total phenolic content and antioxidant activity was positive and significant for T. brasiliensis, C. macrophyllum and C. cerifera. (author)

  1. Warming and organic matter sources impact the proportion of dissolved to total activities in marine extracellular enzymatic rates

    KAUST Repository

    Baltar, Federico

    2017-04-19

    Extracellular enzymatic activities (EEAs) are the rate-limiting step in the degradation of organic matter. Extracellular enzymes can be found associated to cells or dissolved in the surrounding water. The proportion of cell-free EEA constitutes in many marine environments more than half of the total activity. This high proportion causes an uncoupling between hydrolysis rates and the actual bacterial activity. However, we do not know what factors control the proportion of dissolved relative to total EEA, nor how this may change in the future ocean. To resolve this, we performed laboratory experiments with water from the Great Barrier Reef (Australia) to study the effects of temperature and dissolved organic matter sources on EEA and the proportion of dissolved EEA. We found that warming increases the rates of organic matter hydrolysis and reduces the proportion of dissolved relative to total EEA. This suggests a potential increase of the coupling between organic matter hydrolysis and heterotrophic activities with increasing ocean temperatures, although strongly dependent on the organic matter substrates available. Our study suggests that local differences in the organic matter composition in tropical coastal ecosystems will strongly affect the proportion of dissolved EEA in response to ocean warming.

  2. Physical Activity Attenuates Total and Cardiovascular Mortality Associated With Physical Disability: A National Cohort of Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Gomez, David; Guallar-Castillon, Pilar; Higueras-Fresnillo, Sara; Garcia-Esquinas, Esther; Lopez-Garcia, Esther; Bandinelli, Stefania; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando

    2018-01-16

    Regular physical activity (PA) has been shown to protect against disability onset but, once the disability is present, it is unclear if PA might attenuate its harmful health consequences. Thus, we examined if mortality risk associated with physical disability can be offset by PA among older adults. We used data from a cohort of 3,752 individuals representative of the noninstitutionalized population aged 60 years and older in Spain. In 2000-2001, participants self-reported both PA levels (inactive, occasionally, monthly, weekly) and five physical disabilities (agility, mobility, global daily activities, instrumental activities of daily living, and self-care). Individuals were prospectively followed through 2014 to assess incident deaths. The mean follow-up was 10.8 years, with a total of 1,727 deaths, 638 of them due to cardiovascular disease (CVD). All disability types were associated with higher total and CVD mortality. Being physically active (ie, doing any PA) was associated with a statistically significant 26%-37% and 35%-50% lower risk of total and CVD death, respectively, across types of disability. As compared with those being physically active and without disability, those who were inactive and had a disability showed the highest mortality risk from total (hazard ratios from 1.52 to 1.90 across disabilities, all p disability. In older adults, PA could attenuate the increased risk of mortality associated with physical disability. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Remediation of total petroleum hydrocarbons using combined in-vessel composting ‎and oxidation by activated persulfate

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    A.R. Asgari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was investigated the efficiency of activated persulfate and ‎in-vessel composting for removal of total petroleum hydrocarbons. ‎Remediation by activated persulfate with ferrous sulfate as pre-treatment was done at batch system. In the chemical oxidation, various variables including persulfate concentrations (10-3000 mg/g as waste, pH (3-7, ferrous sulfate (0.5-4 mg/g as wasteand temperature (20-60°C were studied. In the biological system, premature compost was added as an amendment. The filter cake to compost ratio were 1:0 (as control and 1:5 to 15 (as dry basis. C: N: P ratio and moisture content were 100:5:1 and 45-60%, respectively. The results showed that acidic pH (pH=3 had high efficiency for the removal of total petroleum hydrocarbons by activated persulfate. Temperature had the significant effect during the persulfate oxidation. When ferrous sulfate was used as an activator for degradation at acidic condition and 60°C, removal efficiency increased to 47.32%. The results of biological process showed that the minimum total petroleum hydrocarbons removal in all reactors was 62 percent. The maximum and minimum removal efficiency was obtained at 1:5 (69.46% and 1:10 (62.42% mixing ratios, respectively. Kinetic study showed that second order kinetic model (R2>0.81 shows the best agreement with the experimental data and the rate of TPH degradation at low mixing ratio (1:3 was faster than high mixing ratio (1:15. Therefore, according to the results, in-vessel composting after pre-treatment by activated persulfate is suggested as an efficient process for degradation of total petroleum hydrocarbons.

  4. Knee Flexion and Daily Activities in Patients following Total Knee Replacement: A Comparison with ISO Standard 14243

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    Markus A. Wimmer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Walking is only one of many daily activities performed by patients following total knee replacement (TKR. The purpose of this study was to examine the hypotheses (a that subject activity characteristics are correlated with knee flexion range of motion (ROM and (b that there is a significant difference between the subject’s flexion/extension excursion throughout the day and the ISO specified input for knee wear testing. In order to characterize activity, the number of walking and stair stepping cycles, the time spent with dynamic and stationary activities, the number of activity sequences, and the knee flexion/extension excursion of 32 TKR subjects were collected during daily activity. Flexion/extension profiles were compared with the ISO 14243 simulator input profile using a level crossing classification algorithm. Subjects took an average of 3102 (range: 343–5857 walking cycles including 65 (range: 0–319 stair stepping cycles. Active and passive ROMs were positively correlated with stair walking time, stair step counts, and stair walking sequences. Simulated knee motion according to ISO showed significantly fewer level crossings at the flexion angles 20–40° and beyond 50° than those measured with the monitor. This suggests that implant wear testing protocols should contain more cycles and a variety of activities requiring higher knee flexion angles with incorporated resting/transition periods to account for the many activity sequences.

  5. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of Moringa oleifera leaves in two stages of maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreelatha, S; Padma, P R

    2009-12-01

    Antioxidants play an important role in inhibiting and scavenging free radicals, thus providing protection to human against infections and degenerative diseases. Current research is now directed towards natural antioxidants originated from plants due to safe therapeutics. Moringa oleifera is used in Indian traditional medicine for a wide range of various ailments. To understand the mechanism of pharmacological actions, antioxidant properties of the Moringa oleifera leaf extracts were tested in two stages of maturity using standard in vitro models. The successive aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera exhibited strong scavenging effect on 2, 2-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical, superoxide, nitric oxide radical and inhibition of lipid per oxidation. The free radical scavenging effect of Moringa oleifera leaf extract was comparable with that of the reference antioxidants. The data obtained in the present study suggests that the extracts of Moringa oleifera both mature and tender leaves have potent antioxidant activity against free radicals, prevent oxidative damage to major biomolecules and afford significant protection against oxidative damage.

  6. Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity of Total Extract of Onopordon leptolepis L. in Vitro

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    Einollah Valizadeh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives : Medicinal plants are valuable natural resources that have been considered nowadays in developed countries as raw materials for converting into safe drugs for human. Antioxidants are compounds that effectively prevent oxygen free radical reactions and reduce damage or cell death, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Material and Methods : After extraction of floral and vegetative parts of Onopordon leptolepis plant, antioxidant potential was determined by two testes: 1. 1diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical-scavenging and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP. Results : The hydro-alcohol extract (methanol 70% of floral and vegetative parts of O. leptolepis plant was found as the most active in scavenging DPPH radicals and in FRAP. The antioxidant potential of hydro-alcohol (H.A70% extracts of the floral part of O.leptolepis showed weak effect than the extract of vegetative of O.leptolepis plant. Conclusion : Results showed that the hydro-alcohol extract (methanol 70% of vegetative part can be considered for medicinal and food industries due to the high antioxidant properties.

  7. Total phenolic contents and free-radical scavenging activities of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) and grape products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keser, Serhat; Celik, Sait; Turkoglu, Semra

    2013-03-01

    Grape is one of the world's largest fruit crops, with an approximate annual production of 58 million metric tons, and it is well known that the grape skins, seeds and stems, waste products generated during wine and grape juice processing, are rich sources of polyphenols. It contains flavonoids, phenolic acids and stilbenes. In this study, we tried to determine antioxidant properties and phenolic contents of grape and grape products (fresh fruit, seed, dried fruit, molasses, pestil, vinegar) of ethanol and water extracts. Antioxidant properties of extracts were investigated by DPPH(√), ABTS(√+), superoxide, H(2)O(2) scavenging, reducing power, metal chelating activity and determination of total phenolic contents. The seed extracts revealed highest ABTS(√+), DPPH(√), H(2)O(2) scavenging and reducing power activities. Furthermore, these extracts showed higher total phenolic contents than other grape product extracts.

  8. Statistical mixture design selective extraction of compounds with antioxidant activity and total polyphenol content from Trichilia catigua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonni, Audrey Alesandra Stinghen Garcia; Longhini, Renata; Lopes, Gisely Cristiny; de Mello, João Carlos Palazzo; Scarminio, Ieda Spacino

    2012-03-16

    Statistical design mixtures of water, methanol, acetone and ethanol were used to extract material from Trichilia catigua (Meliaceae) barks to study the effects of different solvents and their mixtures on its yield, total polyphenol content and antioxidant activity. The experimental results and their response surface models showed that quaternary mixtures with approximately equal proportions of all four solvents provided the highest yields, total polyphenol contents and antioxidant activities of the crude extracts followed by ternary design mixtures. Principal component and hierarchical clustering analysis of the HPLC-DAD spectra of the chromatographic peaks of 1:1:1:1 water-methanol-acetone-ethanol mixture extracts indicate the presence of cinchonains, gallic acid derivatives, natural polyphenols, flavanoids, catechins, and epicatechins. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Role of SSNTD technique in three-step method for total assay of alpha activity in air effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolekar, R.V.; Joshi, V.B.; Bhanti, D.P.; Bhagwat, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    In the present work, low levels of alpha activity in air effluents were estimated. Currently this essay involves collection of effluent samples and assaying them for the release using ZnS(Ag) based scintillation counter (background=1 cpm). Any activity below 1 cpm (net) therefore goes unreported. Air samples showing activity -6 Bq/m 3 (3.73x10 -17 Ci/m 3 ) to 36.41x10 -6 Bq/m 3 (9.84x10 -16 Ci/m 3 ) for samples studied over twelve months period. The three step procedure helps to measure total activity without significant burden on SSNTD technique thereby improving the acceptability of the methodology. (author)

  10. Fluctuations in phenolic content, ascorbic acid and total carotenoids and antioxidant activity of fruit beverages during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Castro-López

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Stability of the total phenolic content, ascorbic acid, total carotenoids and antioxidant activity in eight fruit beverages was analyzed. The influence of storage temperature (4, 8 and 11 °C during the product shelf-life (20 days was evaluated. Pomegranate Juice presented the highest values for antioxidant activity by DPPH·− assay (552.93 ± 6.00 GAE μg mL−1, total carotenoids (3.18 ± 0.11 βCE μg mL−1, and total phenolic content (3967.07 ± 2.47 GAE μg mL−1; while Splash Blend recorded the highest levels of ascorbic acid (607.39 ± 2.13 AAE μg mL−1. The antioxidant capacity was stable at 4 and 8 °C for the first 8 days of storage; while carotenoids and ascorbic acid were slightly degraded through the storage time, possibly due to oxidation and/or reactions with other compounds. The results suggest that the observed variation during testing could be related to storage conditions of the final product.

  11. Impact of Altitudes and Habitats on Valerenic Acid, Total Phenolics, Flavonoids, Tannins, and Antioxidant Activity of Valeriana jatamansi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jugran, Arun K; Bahukhandi, Amit; Dhyani, Praveen; Bhatt, Indra D; Rawal, Ranbeer S; Nandi, Shyamal K

    2016-07-01

    The changes in total phenolics, flavonoids, tannins, valerenic acid, and antioxidant activity were assessed in 25 populations of Valeriana jatamansi sampled from 1200 to 2775 m asl and four habitat types of Uttarakhand, West Himalaya. Significant (p analysis, and principal component analysis (PCA) identified Talwari, Jaberkhet, Manjkhali, and Khirshu populations as promising sources with higher phytochemicals and antioxidant activity. The results recommended that the identified populations with higher value of phytochemicals and antioxidants can be utilized for mass multiplication and breeding program to meet the domestic as well as commercial demand.

  12. Evaluation of extracts and essential oil from Callistemon viminalis leaves: antibacterial and antioxidant activities, total phenolic and flavonoid contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Mohamed Z M; Ali, Hayssam M; El-Shanhorey, Nader A; Abdel-Megeed, Ahmed

    2013-10-01

    To investigate antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Callistemon viminalis (C. viminalis) leaves. The essential oil of C. viminalis leaves obtained by hydro-distillation was analyzed by GC/MS. Different extracts were tested for total phenolic and flavonoid contents and in vitro antioxidant (DPPH assay) and antibacterial (agar disc diffusion and 96-well micro-plates methods) actives. Fourteen components were identified in the essential oil, representing 98.94% of the total oil. The major components were 1,8-cineole (64.53%) and α-pinene (9.69%). Leaf essential oil exhibited the highest antioxidant activity of (88.60±1.51)% comparable to gallic acid, a standard compound [(80.00±2.12)%]. Additionally, the biggest zone of inhibitions against the studied bacterial strains was observed by the essential oil when compared to the standard antibiotic (tetracycline). The crude methanol extract and ethyl acetate fraction had a significant antibacterial activity against the tested bacterial strains. It can be suggested that C. viminalis is a great potential source of antibacterial and antioxidant compounds useful for new antimicrobial drugs from the natural basis. The present study revealed that the essential oil as well as the methanol extracts and ethyl acetate fraction of C. viminalis leaves exhibited highly significant antibacterial activity against the tested bacterial strains. Copyright © 2013 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Antiproliferative activity in tumor cell lines, antioxidant capacity and total phenolic, flavonoid and tannin contents of Myrciaria floribunda

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    LUIS A.C. TIETBOHL

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Myrciaria floribunda (H. West ex Willd. O. Berg, Myrtaceae, is a native plant species of the Atlantic Rain Forest, from north to south of Brazil. The lyophilized ethyl acetate extract from the leaves of M. floribunda was investigated for its antiproliferative activity in tumor cell lines, antioxidant capacity and its total phenolic, flavonoid and tannin contents. Antiproliferative activity was tested in vitro against seven human cancer cells and against immortalized human skin keratinocytes line (HaCat, no cancer cell. Antioxidant activity was determined using 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging and oxygen radical absorbing capacity (ORAC assays and total phenolic, flavonoid and tannin contents were determined by spectrophotometric techniques. Ethyl acetate extract of M. floribunda exhibited antiproliferative activity against cancer cell lines with total growth inhibition (TGI between 69.70 and 172.10 µg/mL. For HaCat cell, TGI value was 213.60 µg/mL. M. floribunda showed a strong antioxidant potential: EC50 of 45.89±0.42 µg/mL and 0.55±0.05 mmol TE/g for DPPH and ORAC, respectively. Total phenolic content was 0.23±0.013g gallic acid equivalents (GAE/g extract and exhibited 13.10±1.60% of tannins content. The content of flavonoid was 24.08±0.44% expressed as rutin equivalents. These results provide a direction for further researches about the antitumoral potential of M. floribunda.

  14. Total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity in leaves and stems extract of cultivated and wild tabat barito (Ficus deltoidea Jack)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manurung, Hetty; Kustiawan, Wawan; Kusuma, Irawan W.; Marjenah

    2017-02-01

    Tabat barito (Ficus deltoidea Jack) is a name given by Dayak Tribe who lived in Borneo-Kalimantan and it is belongs to the moraceae. Almost all of the parts of F. deltoidea plant is widely used as a medicinal property. The total flavonoid content (TFC) and antioxidant activity from cultivated and wild F. deltoidea leaves and stems extract were assessed. Total flavonoid content was estimated by using Aluminium chloride colorimetric method and expressed as catechin equivalents (mg CE g-1 extract) and the antioxidant activity by the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl) method. The content of total flavonoid of leaves and stems (430.77 and 371.80 µg CE mg-1 extract) of cultivated F. deltoidea were higher than in the wild leaves and stems (114.82 and 66.67 µg CE mg-1 extract). The IC50 of leaves extract of cultivated and wild F. deltoidea, based on the DPPH assay, has a strong antioxidant activity (34.19 and 39.31 µg mL-1 extract) as compared to stems extract. These results showed that the cultivated F. deltoidea are suitable source for medicinal properties and the leaves could be exploited as source of natural antioxidants.

  15. Mammalian aPKC/Par polarity complex mediated regulation of epithelial division orientation and cell fate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorhagen, Susanne; Niessen, Carien M., E-mail: carien.niessen@uni-koeln.de

    2014-11-01

    Oriented cell division is a key regulator of tissue architecture and crucial for morphogenesis and homeostasis. Balanced regulation of proliferation and differentiation is an essential property of tissues not only to drive morphogenesis but also to maintain and restore homeostasis. In many tissues orientation of cell division is coupled to the regulation of differentiation producing daughters with similar (symmetric cell division, SCD) or differential fate (asymmetric cell division, ACD). This allows the organism to generate cell lineage diversity from a small pool of stem and progenitor cells. Division orientation and/or the ratio of ACD/SCD need to be tightly controlled. Loss of orientation or an altered ratio can promote overgrowth, alter tissue architecture and induce aberrant differentiation, and have been linked to morphogenetic diseases, cancer and aging. A key requirement for oriented division is the presence of a polarity axis, which can be established through cell intrinsic and/or extrinsic signals. Polarity proteins translate such internal and external cues to drive polarization. In this review we will focus on the role of the polarity complex aPKC/Par3/Par6 in the regulation of division orientation and cell fate in different mammalian epithelia. We will compare the conserved function of this complex in mitotic spindle orientation and distribution of cell fate determinants and highlight common and differential mechanisms in which this complex is used by tissues to adapt division orientation and cell fate to the specific properties of the epithelium.

  16. Growth Factor Inhibiting PKC Sensor in E-coli Environment Using Classification Technique and ANN Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. K. BASAK

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Protein kinease C plays an important role in angiogenesis and apoptosis in cancer. During the phase of angiogenesis the growth factor is up regulated where as during apoptosis the growth factor is down regulated. For down regulation of growth factor the pH environment of intra-cellular fluid has a specific range in the alkaline medium. Protein kinease C along with E-coli through interaction of Selenometabolite is able to maintain that alkaline environment for the apoptosis of the cancer cell with inhibition of the growth factor related to antioxidant/oxidant ratio. The present paper through implementation of Artificial Neural Network and Decision Tree has focused on metastasis linked with Capacitance Relaxation phenomena and down regulation of growth factor (VGEF. In this paper a distributed neural network has been applied to a data mining problem for classification of cancer stages inorder to have proper diagnosis of patient with PKC sensor. The Network was trained off line using 270 patterns each of 6 inputs. Using the weight obtained during training, fresh patterns were tested for accuracy in diagnosis linked with the stages of cancer.

  17. Evaluation and comparison of the content of total polyphenols and antioxidant activity in garlic (Allium sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Lenková

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Garlic (Allium sativum L. is one of the oldest cultivated plants in the world and highly valued throughout the ages as a culinary spice. It is a hardy perennial belonging to the Alliaceae family. The garlic bulb is the most commonly used portion of the plant, composed of 5 - 20 individual. It is a very good source of manganese, selenium, vitamin C and vitamin B6 (pyridoxine. In addition, garlic is a good source of other minerals, including phosphorous, calcium, potassium, iron and copper. Many of the perceived therapeutic effects of garlic are thought to be due to its active ingredient allicin. This sulphur-containing compound gives garlic its distinctive pungent smell and taste. Garlic possesses antiviral, antibacterial, anti-fungal properties allowing it to stand against all infections. This work has focused on the evaluation and comparison of total content of polyphenols and antioxidant activity in five varieties of garlic - Mojmír, Záhorský, Lukan, Havran and Makoi. Samples of plant material were collected at the stage of full maturity in the area of Nitra. The total content of polyphenols was determined using the spectrophotometric method of Folin-Ciocalteu agents. Determined the content of total polyphenols in garlic were in the range 621.13 mg.kg-1 (Záhorský to 763.28 mg.kg-1 (Havran. Total polyphenols content in garlic declined in the following order: Havran >Mojmír >Makoi >Lukan >Záhorský. Antioxidant activity was measured by the spectrophotometric method using a compound DPPH (2.2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl. Statistically significant highest value of antioxidant was recorded in 20.22% (Mojmír and the lowest value was in 13.61% (Záhorský. The values of antioxidant activity observed in the varieties of garlic may be arranged as follows: Mojmír >Havran >Lukan >Makoi >Záhorský. In all the analysed varieties of garlic was confirmed by the strong dependence of the antioxidant activity and the total content of polyphenols.

  18. Validity and reproducibility of the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) questionnaire for the measurement of the physical activity level in patients after total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolszak, Sylvain; Casartelli, Nicola C; Impellizzeri, Franco M; Maffiuletti, Nicola A

    2014-02-20

    The need for valid and reproducible questionnaires to routinely assess the physical activity level of patients after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is of particular concern in clinical settings. Aims of this study were to evaluate the validity and reproducibility of the physical activity scale for the elderly (PASE) questionnaire in TKA patients, with a particular view on gender differences. A total of 50 elderly patients (25 women and 25 men aged 70 ± 6 years) following primary unilateral TKA were recruited. The reproducibility was evaluated by administering the PASE questionnaire during two occasions separated by 7 days. The construct (criterion) validity was investigated by comparing the physical activity level reported by patients in the PASE questionnaire to that measured by accelerometry. Reproducibility was evaluated using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC3,1) for reliability and standard error of measurement (SEM) and smallest detectable change (SDC) for agreement, while validity was investigated with Pearson correlation coefficients. Reliability of the PASE total score was acceptable for men (ICC = 0.77) but not for women (ICC = 0.58). Its agreement was low for both men and women, as witnessed by high SEM (32% and 35%, respectively) and SDC (89% and 97%, respectively). Construct validity of the PASE total score was low in both men (r = 0.45) and women (r = 0.06). The PASE questionnaire has several validity and reproducibility shortcomings, therefore its use is not recommended for the assessment of physical activity level in patients after TKA, particularly in women.

  19. Investigation of the effect of support thermal treatment on gold-based catalysts' activity towards propene total oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamallem, M.; Cousin, R.; Thomas, R.; Siffert, St.; Aissi, F.; Aboukais, A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports a study on the effect of support thermal treatment on the activity of gold-based catalysts for the total oxidation of propene. Ce 0.3 Ti 0.7 O 2 supports were prepared using sol-gel method. These compounds are calcined at 400, 500 and 600 C. Physico-chemical properties of synthesized materials were characterized by means of XRD, DR/UV-vis and H 2 -TPR. Then gold was deposited on these supports by the deposition precipitation method. Thus the catalytic activity of these solids in the propene oxidation was evaluated. On the basis of the catalytic results, a better activity is obtained when gold is deposited on Ce 0.3 Ti 0.7 O 2 support previously calcined at 400 C under air. (authors)

  20. Determination of biological activities and total phenolic contents of flowers of jasminum humile and roots of dorema aucheri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.; Farooq, U.; Ullah, F.; Iqbal, J.

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate in vitro antioxidant, NO scavenging, and antibacterial activities as well as total phenolic contents of different extracts of flowers of Jasminum humile and roots of Dorema aucheri. The plant extracts showed significant antioxidant activity, having IC50 values comparable to those of references used in each assay and also inhibited accumulation of nitrite in vitro. The plant extracts yielded phenolic contents and showed significant antibacterial activity. The observed antioxidant potential and phenolic contents of the extracts showed that flowers of J. humile and roots of D. aucheri are potential source of natural antioxidants that may help to retard oxidative degradation and microbial growth in food industry. (author)

  1. Reduced hepatotoxicity by total glucosides of paeony in combination treatment with leflunomide and methotrexate for patients with active rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhu; Li, Xiang-Pei; Li, Zhi-Jun; Xu, Liang; Li, Xiao-Mei

    2013-03-01

    Combination use of methotrexate (MTX) and leflunomide (LEF) has been proved effective in the treatment of active rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, previous trials have documented that both are associated with increased incidence of liver toxicity. As active compounds extracted from the roots of the traditional Chinese herb Paeonia lactiflora Pall, total glucosides of paeony (TGP) have been shown to have anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective and immuno-regulatory activities, without evident toxicity or side effects. In this 24-week, open label, randomized multicenter clinical trial, we investigated the efficacy of TGP and the protective effect on hepatotoxicity in the combination treatment with LEF and MTX for patients with active RA. A total of 204 patients with active RA (DAS28>3.2) recruited from 3 regional referral centers were enrolled and received MTX and LEF combination therapy (MTX 10 mg/week plus LEF 20 mg/day) with or without TGP for up to 24 weeks by randomization. Hepatotoxicity was defined as an increase of at least 1.5-fold the upper limits of normal (ULN) of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) or aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Significantly less frequent hepatotoxicity was observed in patients with TGP than those without (9.5% vs 34.8%, p 1.5 to ≤2 times and >2 to ≤3 times the ULN were lower in TGP group than the control (1.9% vs 10.1%, 2.9% vs 12.4%, p TGP group achieved a European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) good response or moderate response at 12 weeks, although there is no statistical significance. Similar results were observed at 24 weeks. Our preliminary study demonstrates the hepatoprotective and additive role of TGP in combination with MTX and LEF in the treatment of active RA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Optimization of extraction conditions of total phenolics, antioxidant activities, and anthocyanin of oregano, thyme, terebinth, and pomegranate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rababah, Taha M; Banat, Fawzi; Rababah, Anfal; Ereifej, Khalil; Yang, Wade

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the total phenolic extracts and antioxidant activity and anthocyanins of varieties of the investigated plants. These plants include oregano, thyme, terebinth, and pomegranate. The optimum extraction conditions including temperature and solvent of the extraction process itself were investigated. Total phenolic and anthocyanin extracts were examined according to Folin-Ciocalteu assay and Rabino and Mancinelli method, respectively. The effect of different extracting solvents and temperatures on extracts of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins were studied. Plant samples were evaluated for their antioxidant chemical activity by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazl assay, to determine their potential as a source of natural antioxidant. Results showed that all tested plants exhibited appreciable amounts of phenolic compounds. The methanolic extract (60 °C) of sour pomegranate peel contained the highest phenolic extract (4952.4 mg/100 g of dry weight). Terebinth green seed had the lowest phenolic extract (599.4 mg/100 g of dry weight). Anthocyanins ranged between 3.5 (terebinth red seed) and 0.2 mg/100 g of dry material (thyme). Significant effect of different extracting solvents and temperatures on total phenolics and anthocyanin extracts were found. The methanol and 60 °C of extraction conditions found to be the best for extracting phenolic compounds. The distilled water and 60 °C extraction conditions found to be the best for extracting anthocyanin.

  3. Early decrease in total hemolytic complement activity (CH100) after fasting or intestinal bypass in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanari, M; Violi, V; Muri, M; Roncoroni, L; Mora, G; Ronzoni, M

    1986-01-01

    An evaluation of total hemolytic complement activity (CH100) after fasting or intestinal bypass was performed in rats. The experiment lasted 6 days. Three groups, of 5 animals each, were studied. On the 1st day, basal values of total complement (TC), albumin and body weight were determined. Group A received normal, ad libitum feeding, group B started on a 'water only' diet, group C underwent intestinal bypass. On the 4th and 6th day the parameters were assessed. TC mean values were significantly lower in groups B and C, as compared to group A, on the 4th as well as on the 6th day (p less than 0.01 by Mann-Whitney's U test). Body weight showed a similar trend. Differences in albumin were never statistically significant. Limitations of the analytical method are discussed. The data show that fasting or bypass-induced malabsorption may determine an early decrease in total hemolytic complement activity, though a development of an immune deficiency is not proved.

  4. Cadmium-induced changes in pigments, total phenolics, and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity in fronds of Azolla imbricata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ling-Peng; Xiong, Zhi-Ting; Huang, Yu; Li, Min-Jing

    2006-10-01

    This study was designed to examine the effects of cadmium on several color-related parameters (including chlorophyll, carotenoid, and anthocyanin), total phenolics, and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity in an aquatic fern species Azolla imbricate (A. imbricata). Cd accumulation and effects in the fronds were closely related with Cd concentration in the growth medium. The fronds under 0.5 mg/L Cd treatment turned red on the 3rd day, and this color change also appeared under 0.05 and 0.1 mg/L Cd treatment on the 5th day. Correlated with the color change, the contents of chlorophyll and carotenoid in the fronds significantly decreased in the presence of high Cd concentrations, while the anthocyanin content increased during the experiment. Significant increase in total phenolics content and PAL activity were also detected during Cd treatment. The results suggested that the Cd-induced change in color of fronds might be due to the decrease in chlorophyll and carotenoid and the increase in anthocyanin. Anthocyanin, total phenolics and their biosynthesis-related PAL might play a role in detoxification of Cd in A. imbricata.

  5. The contact mechanics and occurrence of edge loading in modular metal-on-polyethylene total hip replacement during daily activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Xijin; Li, Junyan; Jin, Zhongmin; Fisher, John

    2016-06-01

    The occurrence of edge loading in hip joint replacement has been associated with many factors such as prosthetic design, component malposition and activities of daily living. The present study aimed to quantify the occurrence of edge loading/contact at the articulating surface and to evaluate the effect of cup angles and edge loading on the contact mechanics of a modular metal-on-polyethylene (MoP) total hip replacement (THR) during different daily activities. A three-dimensional finite element model was developed based on a modular MoP bearing system. Different cup inclination and anteversion angles were modelled and six daily activities were considered. The results showed that edge loading was predicted during normal walking, ascending and descending stairs activities under steep cup inclination conditions (≥55°) while no edge loading was observed during standing up, sitting down and knee bending activities. The duration of edge loading increased with increased cup inclination angles and was affected by the cup anteversion angles. Edge loading caused elevated contact pressure at the articulating surface and substantially increased equivalent plastic strain of the polyethylene liner. The present study suggested that correct positioning the component to avoid edge loading that may occur during daily activities is important for MoP THR in clinical practice. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Investigation of Total Phenolic and Flavonoid Contents, and Evaluation of Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities from Baeckea frutescens Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisa, K.; Nurhayati, S.; Apriyana, W.; Indrianingsih, A. W.

    2017-12-01

    Baeckea frutescens L. is a medicinal plant endemic to the tropical area and it has been used by locals for topical and oral ailments. This study investigated total phenolic and flavonoid contents and also evaluated in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of of Baeckea frutescens crude extracts. These extracts were assessed for their antibacterial activities against strains of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella thypii, and Pseudomonas aureginosa by the broth micro-dilution methods using a modified tetrazolium-based colorimetric assay (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay). Baeckea frutescens crude extracts were also tested against the stable DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate) free-radical. The results indicated that Baeckea frutescens water and ethanol extracts possesed remarkable antibacterial activity with the minimum inhibitory concentration less than 100 μg/ml against Escherichia coli and Salmonella thypi. On the evaluation of the antioxidant activity via DPPH assay, Baeckea frutescens ethanol extracts exhibited a good antioxidant activity with IC50 less than 50 μg/ml and Baeckea frutescens water extracts showed a moderate antioxidant activity with IC50 less than 100 μg/ml.

  7. Influence of physical activity on the metabolism and the total body content of sodium and potassium in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, J.K.; Yasumura, A.; Aloia, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise (EX) and immobilization (IMB) on the absorption, excretion and total body content of sodium (TBNa) and potassium (TBK). Female Sprague Dawley rats 5 weeks old were divided into four groups: EX; Control (CON); EX with pair feeding to the level equal to the CON (EX-P); IMB by sciatica denervation. The nutritional balance study data was taken 5 weeks into the experimental period and the animals were sacrificed after 5 additional weeks of experimentation. The carcasses were kept frozen and used for total body composition by neutron activation. The results of the total body composition show that EX resulted in an increase, IMB resulted in a decrease, of the TBNa and TBK. There was no significant difference in TBNa of TBK, between the EX and the EX-P groups even though, the food intake was higher in the EX group. The results of the nutritional balance study confirmed the results of the total body composition

  8. Performance on a Clinical Quadriceps Activation Battery Is Related to a Laboratory Measure of Activation and Recovery After Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bade, Michael; Struessel, Tamara; Paxton, Roger; Winters, Joshua; Baym, Carol; Stevens-Lapsley, Jennifer

    2018-01-01

    To determine the relation between performance on a clinical quadriceps activation battery with (1) activation measured by doublet interpolation and (2) recovery of quadriceps strength and functional performance after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Planned secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial. University research laboratory. Patients (N=162; mean age, 63±7y; 89 women) undergoing TKA. Patients were classified as high (quadriceps activation battery ≥4/6) or low (quadriceps activation battery ≤3/6) based on performance on the quadriceps activation battery measured 4 days after TKA. Differences between groups in activation and recovery at 1, 2, 3, 6, and 12 months after TKA were compared using a repeated-measures maximum likelihood model. The low quadriceps activation battery group demonstrated poorer quadriceps activation via doublet interpolation (P=.01), greater quadriceps strength loss (P=.01), and greater functional performance decline (all Pbattery group. Differences between low and high quadriceps activation battery groups on all measures did not persist at 3 and 12 months (all P>.05). Poor performance on the quadriceps activation battery early after TKA is related to poor quadriceps activation and poor recovery in the early postoperative period. Patients in the low quadriceps activation battery group took 3 months to recover to the same level as the high quadriceps activation battery group. The quadriceps activation battery may be useful in identifying individuals who need specific interventions to target activation deficits or different care pathways in the early postoperative period to speed recovery after TKA. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Influence of different extracts addition on total phenols, anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity of blackberry juice during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanka Bilić

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was investigation of influence of different extracts addition on total phenols, anthocyanin content, antioxidant activity and percent of polymeric colour of blackberry juice during storage of 52 days at 4 °C. Anthocyanin content of control sample (blackberry juice without extracts addition was 149.91 mg/L. Samples with addition of extracts (olive leaf, pine bark PE 5:1, pine bark PE 95 %, green tea, red wine PE 30 %, red wine PE 4:1 and bioflavonoids had higher anthocyanin content (from 152.42 to 161.19 mg/L in comparison to control sample. Sample with addition of bioflavonoids had the highest anthocyanin content. Samples with addition of extracts had much higher total phenol content and antioxidant activity than control sample, what was expected since extracts are rich in phenols. During storage decrease of phenols, anthocyanins and antioxidant activity occurred in higher or lesser extent, depending on extract type addition. Anthocyanin content in control sample was 119.85 mg/L. Samples with addition of bioflavonoids, olive leaf, pine bark PE 5:1 and red wine PE 4:1 had lower (from 103.44 to 118.84 mg/L, while other samples had higher (from 131.99 to 135.57 mg/L anthocyanin content than control sample. After storage, decrease of anthocyanins was followed with increase of percent of polymeric colour, with exception of samples with addition of green tea.

  10. Joint reconstruction of dynamic PET activity and kinetic parametric images using total variation constrained dictionary sparse coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haiqing; Chen, Shuhang; Chen, Yunmei; Liu, Huafeng

    2017-05-01

    Dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) is capable of providing both spatial and temporal information of radio tracers in vivo. In this paper, we present a novel joint estimation framework to reconstruct temporal sequences of dynamic PET images and the coefficients characterizing the system impulse response function, from which the associated parametric images of the system macro parameters for tracer kinetics can be estimated. The proposed algorithm, which combines statistical data measurement and tracer kinetic models, integrates a dictionary sparse coding (DSC) into a total variational minimization based algorithm for simultaneous reconstruction of the activity distribution and parametric map from measured emission sinograms. DSC, based on the compartmental theory, provides biologically meaningful regularization, and total variation regularization is incorporated to provide edge-preserving guidance. We rely on techniques from minimization algorithms (the alternating direction method of multipliers) to first generate the estimated activity distributions with sub-optimal kinetic parameter estimates, and then recover the parametric maps given these activity estimates. These coupled iterative steps are repeated as necessary until convergence. Experiments with synthetic, Monte Carlo generated data, and real patient data have been conducted, and the results are very promising.

  11. Correlations between patient satisfaction and ability to perform daily activities after total knee arthroplasty: why aren't patients satisfied?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Hiroyuki; Okazaki, Ken; Mizu-Uchi, Hideki; Hamai, Satoshi; Tashiro, Yasutaka; Matsuda, Shuichi; Iwamoto, Yukihide

    2015-01-01

    Patient satisfaction has become an important parameter for assessing overall outcomes after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The level of difficulty in performing activities of daily life that affects overall patient satisfaction is unknown. We therefore evaluated the influence of difficulty in performing activities of daily life on patient satisfaction and expectations. The 2011 Knee Society Knee Scoring System Questionnaire was mailed to patients who had undergone TKA with 375 patients completing and returning it. We evaluated the relationship between the ability to perform daily activities, as assessed via the questionnaire, and patient satisfaction and expectations of the same score in each patient using linear regression analysis. We also determined which activities affected patient satisfaction and expectations using multivariate linear regression analyses. All patient-derived functional activities correlated significantly with the patient satisfaction score. In particular, "climbing up or down a flight of stairs" followed by "getting into or out of a car," "moving laterally (stepping to the side)" and "walking and standing" correlated strongly with patient satisfaction by linear regression analysis and were revealed to have significant contributions to patient satisfaction by multivariate linear regression analysis. Regarding expectations, all patient-derived functional activities correlated significantly with the patient expectation score, although none of the correlation coefficients was very high. "Squatting," followed by "walking and standing," contributed to the patient expectation score by multivariate linear regression analysis. Activities related to walking and standing are some of the most basic movements and basic demands for patients. In addition, "climbing up or down a flight of stairs," "getting into and out of a car" and "squatting" are very important and distressing activities that significantly correlate with patient satisfaction after TKA.

  12. Total glucosides of paeony can reduce the hepatotoxicity caused by Methotrexate and Leflunomide combination treatment of active rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Nan; Li, Xiao-Mei; Zhang, Miao-Jia; Zhao, Dong-Bao; Zhu, Ping; Zuo, Xiao-Xia; Yang, Min; Su, Yin; Li, Zhan-Guo; Chen, Zhu; Li, Xiang-Pei

    2015-09-01

    Total glucosides of paeony (TGP) have been confirmed to exert anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective effects. Methotrexate (MTX) and Leflunomide (LEF) combination has a better efficacy in the treatment of active rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but hepatotoxicity was observed. In this study, we investigated the effect of TGP on hepatic dysfunction caused by MTX and LEF in patients with active RA. A total of 268 patients with active RA (disease activity score in 28 joints, DAS28>3.2) were enrolled in this study. All patients were randomly assigned to two groups, the therapeutic group in which patients were treated with TGP (1.8 g/day) combined with MTX and LEF (MTX 10mg/week plus LEF 20mg/day) while in the control group, patients were treated without TGP up to 12 weeks. The efficacy and liver abnormalities were observed. The incidence of abnormal liver function within 12 weeks in TGP group was significantly lower than that in control group (11.38% vs 23.26%, P=0.013). The proportion of patients with ALT/AST >3 times ULN (upper limits of normal) was significantly lower in TGP group than control group (1.63% vs 7.75%, P=0.022). More patients achieved remission, good and moderate response in TGP group than control group at 4, 8 and 12 weeks, but the difference was not significant (P>0.05). The proportions of all adverse events were comparable in the two groups except for diarrhea. Our study demonstrates that TGP can significantly reduce the incidence and severity of liver damage caused by MTX+LEF in the treatment of active RA patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Phytochemical screening, total phenolics and antioxidant activities of bark and leaf extracts of Goniothalamus velutinus (Airy Shaw from Brunei Darussalam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erum Iqbal

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Goniothalamus velutinus Airy Shaw belongs to the family Annonaceae which is known to have anticancer, antitumor and many other bioactivities. Natives of Sabah and Sarawak use root decoction of G. velutinus for the treatment of headache and food poisoning while the bark was used as a mosquito repellent. Bark and leaf extracts of this plant, obtained from Brunei Darussalam, were tested for phytochemical and antioxidant activities. Phytochemical screening of plant extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, steroids, terpenoids and cardiac glycosides. Quantitative determination of total phenolics, total flavonoids, and various in vitro antioxidant activities (DPPH, ABTS and FRAP of methanolic extract was carried out using colorimetric methods. The total phenolic content, expressed as mg of gallic acid equivalent (GAE per gram of extract, was found to be 68 mg GAE/g and 78 mg GAE/g for bark and leaves respectively. The radical scavenging activity measurement, expressed in terms of EC50 (effective concentration of extract in μg/mL that reduces DPPH absorbance to 50% as compared to negative control, for leaf and bark extracts was found to be 155 μg/mL and 204 μg/mL respectively. Standards trolox and ascorbic acid show EC50 value of 5 μg/mL and 4 μg/mL respectively. Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC was measured using the ABTS and FRAP method. Result for bark and leaf extracts was 79 mg and 106 mg trolox equivalent (TE/g respectively for the ABTS method. For FRAP assay, results for bark and leaf extracts were 80 and 89 mg TE/g respectively.

  14. The Attributable Proportion of Specific Leisure-Time Physical Activities to Total Leisure Activity Volume Among US Adults, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Kathleen Bachtel; Dai, Shifan; Paul, Prabasaj; Carlson, Susan A; Carroll, Dianna D; Fulton, Janet

    2016-11-01

    Previous studies have examined participation in specific leisure-time physical activities (PA) among US adults. The purpose of this study was to identify specific activities that contribute substantially to total volume of leisure-time PA in US adults. Proportion of total volume of leisure-time PA moderate-equivalent minutes attributable to 9 specific types of activities was estimated using self-reported data from 21,685 adult participants (≥ 18 years) in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2006. Overall, walking (28%), sports (22%), and dancing (9%) contributed most to PA volume. Attributable proportion was higher among men than women for sports (30% vs. 11%) and higher among women than men for walking (36% vs. 23%), dancing (16% vs. 4%), and conditioning exercises (10% vs. 5%). The proportion was lower for walking, but higher for sports, among active adults than those insufficiently active and increased with age for walking. Compared with other racial/ethnic groups, the proportion was lower for sports among non-Hispanic white men and for dancing among non-Hispanic white women. Walking, sports, and dance account for the most activity time among US adults overall, yet some demographic variations exist. Strategies for PA promotion should be tailored to differences across population subgroups.

  15. PKA, PKC, and AKAP localization in and around the neuromuscular junction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Alexandra

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One mechanism that directs the action of the second messengers, cAMP and diacylglycerol, is the compartmentalization of protein kinase A (PKA and protein kinase C (PKC. A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs can recruit both enzymes to specific subcellular locations via interactions with the various isoforms of each family of kinases. We found previously that a new class of AKAPs, dual-specific AKAPs, denoted D-AKAP1 and D-AKAP2, bind to RIα in addition to the RII subunits. Results Immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy were used here to determine that D-AKAP1 colocalizes with RIα at the postsynaptic membrane of the vertebrate neuromuscular junction (NMJ and the adjacent muscle, but not in the presynaptic region. The labeling pattern for RIα and D-AKAP1 overlapped with mitochondrial staining in the muscle fibers, consistent with our previous work showing D-AKAP1 association with mitochondria in cultured cells. The immunoreactivity of D-AKAP2 was distinct from that of D-AKAP1. We also report here that even though the PKA type II subunits (RIIα and RIIβ are localized at the NMJ, their patterns are distinctive and differ from the other R and D-AKAP patterns examined. PKCβ appeared to colocalize with the AKAP, gravin, at the postsynaptic membrane. Conclusions The kinases and AKAPs investigated have distinct patterns of colocalization, which suggest a complex arrangement of signaling micro-environments. Because the labeling patterns for RIα and D-AKAP 1 are similar in the muscle fibers and at the postsynaptic membrane, it may be that this AKAP anchors RIα in these regions. Likewise, gravin may be an anchor of PKCβ at the NMJ.

  16. Understanding why people do or do not engage in activities following total joint replacement: a longitudinal qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, F; Perruccio, A V; Jenkinson, R; Jaglal, S; Schemitsch, E; Waddell, J P; Venkataramanan, V; Bytautas, J; Davis, A M

    2015-06-01

    Numerous studies report large and significant improvements in basic mobility and activities of daily living following total hip or knee replacement (TJR). Nevertheless, quantitative research has shown minimal increase in participation in activities that benefit overall health. This study explored why people do or do not engage in activities following hip or knee TJR. This was a longitudinal qualitative study. Sampling was guided by constructivist grounded theory and data collected using open-ended, semi-structured interviews. Participants were recruited using maximum variation sampling based on age, sex and joint replaced (hip or knee). Data were analysed using a constant comparative approach and coded for thematic patterns and relationships from which overarching themes were constructed. Twenty-nine patients participated in interviews prior to, and 8 and 18 months post following TJR. A high degree of variability with regard to participants' return to activities was found and five emergent themes were identified that accounted for this variability. These themes highlight the importance of issues beyond medical factors alone, such as socio-cultural factors that partially determine participants' participation in activity following TJR. Findings suggest that multi-faceted experiences impact participation in activity following TJR. These experiences include changes in identity and lifestyle that preclude a 'return to normal'. There is an urgent need for supports to increase people's activity post-TJR in order to facilitate enhancement of post-surgery levels of engagement. Approaches that take into consideration more personalized interventions may be critical to promoting healthy aging in people with TJR. Copyright © 2015 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The roles of serine protease, intracellular and extracellular phenoloxidase in activation of prophenoloxidase system, and characterization of phenoloxidase from shrimp haemocytes induced by lipopolysaccharide or dopamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Peng; Pan, Luqing; Xu, Wujie; Yue, Feng

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and dopamine (DA) on the activation of the prophenoloxidase (proPO) system of Litopenaeus vannamei. LPS and DA were shown with a negative dose-dependent effect on hyalne cells (HC), semi-granular cells (SGC), large granular cells (LGC), and total haemocyte count (THC). When haemocytes were treated with LPS or DA, serine proteinase activity and intracellular phenoloxidase (PO) activity were significantly reduced, but extracellular PO activity increased significantly. These findings indicated that the reduction in haemocyte counts was mainly because of the degranulation and activation of the proPO system from semi-granule and large granule cells. The PKC inhibitor, chelerythrine, and the TPK inhibitor, genistein, had an inhibitory effect on extracellular PO activity, while serine proteinase and intracellular PO activity increased. This suggests that the LPS and DA induce the activation of proPO in haemocytes via PKC and TPK-related signaling pathways, but serine proteinase may be activated only by PKC, as the genistein effects were not statistically significant. Electrophoresis analysis revealed that POs induced by LPS or DA have the same molecular mass and high diphenolase activity. Two PO bands at 526 kDa and 272 kDa were observed in PAGE, while in the haemocyte lysate supernatant (HLS), only a 272-kDa band was observed. This band was resolved after SDS-PAGE under non-reducing and reducing conditions into two groups of POs, 166 kDa and 126 kDa, and 78.1 kDa and 73.6 kDa, respectively, suggesting that PO in L. vannamei is an oligomer, which may have different compositions intra- and extracellularly.

  18. A Motivational Model of Physical Education and Links to Enjoyment, Knowledge, Performance, Total Physical Activity and Body Mass Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arto Gråstén, Anthony Watt

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper examined the full sequence of the Hierarchical Model of Motivation in physical education (PE including motivational climate, basic psychological needs, intrinsic motivation, and related links to contextual enjoyment, knowledge, performance, and total moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA. Gender differences and correlations with body mass index (BMI were also analyzed. Cross-sectional data was represented by self-reports and objective assessments of 770 middle school students (52% of girls in North-East Finland. The results showed that task-involving climate in girls’ PE classes was related to enjoyment and knowledge through physical competence and intrinsic motivation, whereas task-involving climate was associated with enjoyment and knowledge via competence and autonomy, and total MVPA via autonomy, intrinsic motivation, and knowledge within boys. This may indicate that girls and boys perceive PE classes in a different way. Graded PE assessments appeared to be essential in motivating both girls and boys to participate in greater total MVPA, whereas BMI was negatively linked with competence and social relatedness only among girls. Although, the current and previous empirical findings supported task-involving teaching methods in PE, in some cases, ego-involving climate should be considered. Therefore, both task- and ego-involving teaching practices can be useful ways of developing preferred behaviors in PE classes.

  19. Overview of total beta activity index and beta rest in surface waters of the Spanish rivers; Vision general del indice de actividad beta total y beta resto en las aguas superficiales de los rios espanoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pujol, L.; Payeras, J.; Pablo, M. A. de

    2013-07-01

    This work aims to give an overview of the index of total beta activity and the activity index beta rest in surface waters of the main Spanish rivers. These indices are a parameter over water quality that CEDEX comes determined by order of the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment, in water policy. (Author)

  20. Magnetic field effect on growth, arsenic uptake, and total amylolytic activity on mesquite (Prosopis juliflora x P. velutina) seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Tavizón, Edith; Mokgalaka-Matlala, Ntebogeng S.; Elizalde Galindo, José T.; Castillo-Michelle, Hiram; Peralta-Videa, Jose R.; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L.

    2012-04-01

    Magnetic field is closely related to the cell metabolism of plants [N. A. Belyavskaya, Adv. Space Res. 34, 1566 (2004)]. In order to see the effect of magnetic field on the plant growth, arsenic uptake, and total amylolytic activity of mesquite (Prosopis juliflora x P. velutina) seeds, ten sets of 80 seeds were selected to be oriented with the long axis parallel or randomly oriented to an external magnetic field. The external magnetic field magnitude was 1 T, and the exposition time t = 30 min. Then, the seeds were stored for three days in a plastic bag and then sown on paper towels in a modified Hoagland's nutrient solution. After three days of germination in the dark and three days in light, seedlings were grown hydroponically in modified Hoagland's nutrient solution (high PO42-) containing 0, 10, or 20 ppm of arsenic as As (III) and (V). The results show that the germination ratios, growth, elongation, arsenic uptake, and total amylolytic activity of the long axis oriented mesquite seeds were much higher than those of the randomly oriented seeds. Also, these two sets of seeds showed higher properties than the ones that were not exposed to external magnetic field.

  1. Sports Activity after Low-contact-stress Total Knee Arthroplasty – A long term follow-up study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vielgut, Ines; Leitner, Lukas; Kastner, Norbert; Radl, Roman; Leithner, Andreas; Sadoghi, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide comprehensive long-term data about sports activity levels in patients following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and to determine the impact of pre-operative function, pain and specific performed sports on the results. 236 patients who have undergone TKA for severe osteoarthritis of the knee were asked to provide specific information regarding exercised types of sports before surgery and after at least 10 years following TKA. Pre- and postoperative function and pain were evaluated by the use of Tegner-, WOMAC- and VAS Score. After a mean of 14.9 years, a significant improvement regarding pain and function was observed. Pre-operative Tegner- and WOMAC scores revealed significant positive correlations with the post-operative Tegner-Score. Accordingly, a high percentage of patients (70.9%) stayed actively involved in sports. Nevertheless, the number of performing patients has decreased according to the sports impact. 71.3% continued practising low-impact-, 43.7% intermediate-impact sports whereas only 16.4% kept performing high impact sports. We conclude that TKA is highly effective in long-time pain reduction as well as improvement of function. Additionally, we found considerable sports activities preserved in the investigated series. However, sports activities in particular, seem to decrease according to the impact of sports. PMID:27090945

  2. Total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of pomegranate juice and whey based novel beverage fermented by kefir grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabokbar, Nayereh; Khodaiyan, Faramarz

    2016-01-01

    Mixture of pomegranate juice and whey was evaluated as a potential substrate for production of a novel beverage by kefir grains. The effects of two different variables, fermentation, temperature (19 and 25 °C) and kefir grain amount (5 %w/v and 8 %w/v), on total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activities of beverage were examined during a fermentation time of 32 h. TPC and antioxidant activities including 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, reducing power, inhibition effect upon linoleic acid autoxidation and inhibition effect upon ascorbate autoxidation increased significantly (p < 0.05) during fermentation, but metal chelating effect showed no significant difference. The highest increases were observed when the temperature of 25 °C and kefir grain amount of 8 %w/v were applied. Results proved antioxidant activities of beverages were desirable and fermentation by kefir grains has the ability to enhance these antioxidant activities, as compared with unfermented beverage. Also pomegranate juice and whey were suitable media for producing a novel dairy-juice beverage.

  3. Sports Activity after Low-contact-stress Total Knee Arthroplasty - A long term follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vielgut, Ines; Leitner, Lukas; Kastner, Norbert; Radl, Roman; Leithner, Andreas; Sadoghi, Patrick

    2016-04-19

    The purpose of this study was to provide comprehensive long-term data about sports activity levels in patients following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and to determine the impact of pre-operative function, pain and specific performed sports on the results. 236 patients who have undergone TKA for severe osteoarthritis of the knee were asked to provide specific information regarding exercised types of sports before surgery and after at least 10 years following TKA. Pre- and postoperative function and pain were evaluated by the use of Tegner-, WOMAC- and VAS Score. After a mean of 14.9 years, a significant improvement regarding pain and function was observed. Pre-operative Tegner- and WOMAC scores revealed significant positive correlations with the post-operative Tegner-Score. Accordingly, a high percentage of patients (70.9%) stayed actively involved in sports. Nevertheless, the number of performing patients has decreased according to the sports impact. 71.3% continued practising low-impact-, 43.7% intermediate-impact sports whereas only 16.4% kept performing high impact sports. We conclude that TKA is highly effective in long-time pain reduction as well as improvement of function. Additionally, we found considerable sports activities preserved in the investigated series. However, sports activities in particular, seem to decrease according to the impact of sports.

  4. The Evaluation of Protein C Activity and Some Inflammatory Markers in Synovia of Patients Undergoing Total Knee Arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Ata Alturfan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Total knee arthroplasty (TKA is a major risk factor for thrombosis in patients over 40 years of age and this risk persists for several weeks after the surgery. Since inflammatory mechanisms affect coagulation and the natural anticoagulant system, we aimed to investigate protein C activities and inflammatory markers in patients undergoing TKA surgery.Material and Methods: We included 20 osteoarthritis patients and 20 healthy controls. Protein C activity and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α levels in plasma and synovia were evaluated by ELISA technique. Results: In the patient group, protein C activities decreased and TNF-α levels increased significantly both in synovia and plasma when compared with the controls. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate of the patient group was found to be significantly elevated in comparison to the controls. On the other hand, serum C reactive protein values increased insignificantly when compared to controls.Conclusion: The decreased activity of protein C and increased levels of inflammatory markers in preoperative plasma and synovia of the patient group may enhance the risk for developing thrombosis.

  5. Effectiveness of Active Packaging on Control of Escherichia Coli O157:H7 and Total Aerobic Bacteria on Iceberg Lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Haixia; Zhu, Junli; Li, Jianrong; Chen, Jinru

    2015-06-01

    Contaminated leafy green vegetables have been linked to several outbreaks of human gastrointestinal infections. Antimicrobial interventions that are adoptable by the fresh produce industry for control of pathogen contamination are in great demand. This study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of sustained active packaging on control of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and total aerobic bacteria on lettuce. Commercial Iceberg lettuce was inoculated with a 3-strain mixture of E. coli O157:H7 at 10(2) or 10(4) CFU/g. The contaminated lettuce and un-inoculated controls were placed respectively in 5 different active packaging structures. Traditional, nonactive packaging structure was included as controls. Packaged lettuce was stored at 4, 10, or 22 °C for 3 wk and sampled weekly for the population of E. coli O157:H7 and total aerobic bacteria. Results showed that packaging structures with ClO2 generator, CO2 generator, or one of the O2 scavengers effectively controlled the growth of E. coli O157:H7 and total aerobic bacteria under all storage conditions. Packaging structure with the ClO2 generator was most effective and no E. coli O157:H7 was detected in samples packaged in this structure except for those that were inoculated with 4 log CFU/g of E. coli O157:H7 and stored at 22 °C. Packaging structures with an oxygen scavenger and the allyl isothiocyanate generator were mostly ineffective in control of the growth of the bacteria on Iceberg lettuce. The research suggests that some of the packaging structures evaluated in the study can be used to control the presence of foodborne pathogens on leafy green vegetables. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Preservation of cocoa antioxidant activity, total polyphenols, flavan-3-ols, and procyanidin content in foods prepared with cocoa powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, L; Miller, K B; Apgar, J; Sweigart, D S; Stuart, D A; McHale, N; Ou, B; Kondo, M; Hurst, W J

    2009-08-01

    Little is known about the effects of common cooking processes on cocoa flavanols. Antioxidant activity, total polyphenols (TP), flavanol monomers, and procyanidin oligomers were determined in chocolate frosting, a hot cocoa drink, chocolate cookies, and chocolate cake made with natural cocoa powder. Recoveries of antioxidant activity, TP, flavanol monomers, and procyanidins ranged from 86% to over 100% in the chocolate frosting, hot cocoa drink, and chocolate cookies. Losses were greatest in the chocolate cake with recoveries ranging from 5% for epicatechin to 54% for antioxidant activity. The causes of losses in baked chocolate cakes were investigated by exchanging baking soda with baking powder or combinations of the 2 leavening agents. Use of baking soda as a leavening agent was associated with increased pH and darkening color of cakes. Losses of antioxidant activity, TP, flavanol monomers, and procyanidins were associated with an increased extractable pH of the baked cakes. Chocolate cakes made with baking powder for leavening resulted in an average extractable pH of 6.2 with essentially complete retention of antioxidant activity and flavanol content, but with reduced cake heights and lighter cake color. Commercially available chocolate cake mixes had final pHs above 8.3 and contained no detectable monomeric flavanols after baking. These results suggest that baking soda causes an increase in pH and subsequent destruction of flavanol compounds and antioxidant activity. Use of an appropriate leavening agent to moderate the final cake pH to approximately 7.25 or less results in both good leavening and preservation of cocoa flavanols and procyanidins.

  7. Phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate-induced protein kinase C activation triggers sustained contracture in human myometrium in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massenavette, Laurence; Paul, Wilène; Corriveau, Stéphanie; Pasquier, Jean-Charles; Rousseau, Éric

    2017-09-01

    Although physiologic transition from rhythmic contractions to uterine retraction postpartum remains a poorly understood process, it has been shown that the latter is essential in the prevention of hemorrhage and its negative consequences. To investigate the transition from oscillatory contractions to tonic contracture in human myometrium after delivery, a mechanism purported to facilitate postpartum hemostasis. Protein kinase C (PKC) plays a key regulatory role in human uterine contractions because it can prevent dephosphorylation of regulatory proteins and sensitize the contractile machinery to low Ca 2+ . Thus, activation of PKC by phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu) may act as a strong uterotonic agent. Uterine biopsies were obtained from consenting women undergoing elective caesarian delivery at term without labor (N = 19). Isometric tension measurements were performed on uterine strips (n = 114). The amplitudes and area under the curve of phasic contractions and tonic responses were measured and compared. A total of 1 μM PDBu was added to the isolated organ baths, and maximal tension of the uterine contracture was determined in the absence and presence of either 1 μM of staurosporine, 100 nM nifedipine, or 10 μM cyclopiazonic acid to assess the role of PKC and calcium sensitivity on uterine contractility. On the addition of PDBu on either basal or oxytocin-induced activity, consistent contractures were obtained concomitant with complete inhibition of phasic contractions. After a 30-minute incubation period, the mean amplitude of the PDBu-induced tone represented 65.3% of the amplitude of spontaneous contraction. Staurosporine, a protein kinase inhibitor, induced a 91.9% inhibition of PDBu contractures, a process not affected by nifedipine or cyclopiazonic acid, thus indicating that this mechanism is largely Ca 2+ independent. Pharmacologic activation of PKC leads to a significant contracture of the myometrium. Together, these data suggest that the up

  8. The content of total polyphenols, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity in selected varieties of quince (Cydonia oblonga mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judita Bystrická

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Quince fruit (Cydonia oblonga Miller is an important source of bioactive compounds, especially of polyphenolic compounds, phenolic acids, flavonoids also of minerals and vitamins. This compounds exhibit health promoting properties including antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antidiabetic and cardioprotective properties. Quine fruit have a high therapeutic value, can be used as good sources of antioxidants. This study provides some knowledge about content of total polyphenols, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity in selected varieties of quince fruit samples. Four quince fruit cultivars (Semenáč, Konstantinopler Apfelquitte, Cydora Robusta, Mammut were analysed. The content of the total polyphenols (TPC was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent (FCR at 765 nm using spectrophotometer. Ascorbic acid (AsA content was determined using standard HPLC gradient method. Antioxidant activity (AA was measures using a compound DPPH˙(2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. The content of (TPC in fresh samples of quince fruit ranged from 661 ±11.60 mg.kg-1 to 1044 ±11.03 mg.kg-1 and content of AsA were in interval from 151 ±0.58 mg.kg-1 to 215 ±0.75 mg.kg-1. The values of antioxidant activity in quince fruit samples were in range from 26.90 ±0.61% to 49.14 ±0.38%. Statistically significant highest content TPC, AsA and AA was recorded in cultivar Konstaninopler Apfelquitte and statistically lowest content was recorded in cultivar Semenáč. The content of TPC, AsA and AA beside the variety may be affected by many factors also climatic conditions and the agrochemical composition of the soil. 

  9. Estimation of total phenolic content, cytotoxicity and in-vitro antioxidant activity of stem bark of Moringa oleifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumbhare MR

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the phytochemical constituents, total phenolic content, cytotoxicity and invitro antioxidant activity of stem bark extracts of Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera (Moringaceae. Methods: Brine shrimp lethality (BSL bioassay was used to investigate the cytotoxic effects. DPPH and nitric oxide radical scavenging activity was used to demonstrate antioxidant activity. Results: Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, steroids and alkaloids. The LC 50 values were obtained for extracts as 850 毺 g/mL for petroleum ether extract, 800 毺 g/mL for chloroform extract and 900 毺 g/mL for methanol extract. The total phenolic content of the methanolic extract was 50.72% w/w, equivalent to gallic acid. Petroleum ether, chloroform and methanolic extracts of M. oleifera and standard ascorbic acid were found to be scavenger of DPPH radical with an IC 50 of 124.75, 112.08, 54.34 and 13.86 毺 g/mL, respectively. Methanolic extract was found to be good scavenger of DPPH radical. Petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate soluble fraction of methanolic extracts of M. oleifera and ascorbic acid were found to be scavenger of nitric oxide radical with an IC 50 of 93.32, 65.12, 54.83 and 12.59 毺 g/mL, respectively. Ethyl acetate soluble fraction was found to be good scavenger of nitric oxide radical. Conclusions: It can be concluded that the crude extracts of M. oleifera is a potential source of natural antioxidants, and this justifies its uses in folkloric medicines.

  10. Case study on total electron content enhancements at low latitudes during low geomagnetic activities before the storms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libo Liu

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Sometimes the ionospheric total electron content (TEC is significantly enhanced during low geomagnetic activities before storms. In this article, we investigate the characteristics of those interesting TEC enhancements using regional and global TEC data. We analyzed the low-latitude TEC enhancement events that occurred around longitude 120° E on 10 February 2004, 21 January 2004, and 4 March 2001, respectively. The TEC data are derived from regional Global Positioning System (GPS observations in the Asia/Australia sector as well as global ionospheric maps (GIMs produced by Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL. Strong enhancements under low geomagnetic activity before the storms are simultaneously presented at low latitudes in the Asia/Australia sector in regional TEC and JPL GIMs. These TEC enhancements are shown to be regional events with longitudinal and latitudinal extent. The regions of TEC enhancements during these events are confined at narrow longitude ranges around longitude 120° E. The latitudinal belts of maxima of enhancements locate around the northern and southern equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA crests, which are consistent with those low-latitude events presented by Liu et al. (2008. During the 4 March 2001 event, the total plasma density Ni observed by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP spacecraft F13 at 840 km altitude are of considerably higher values on 4 March than on the previous day in the TEC enhanced regions. Some TEC enhancement events are possibly due to contributions from auroral/magnetospheric origins; while there are also quasi-periodic enhancement events not related to geomagnetic activity and associated probably with planetary wave type oscillations (e.g. the 6 January 1998 event. Further investigation is warrented to identify/separate contributions from possible sources.

  11. Total Artificial Heart Implantation as a Bridge to Heart Transplantation in an Active Duty Service Member With Amyloid Cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Michael S; Wessman, Dylan E; McKee, James M; Francisco, Gregory M; Nayak, Keshav R; Kobashigawa, Jon A

    2017-03-01

    Cardiac involvement by light-chain (AL) amyloid occurs in up to 50% of patients with primary AL amyloidosis. The prognosis of amyloid heart disease is poor with 1-year survival rates of 35 to 40%. Historically, heart transplantation was considered controversial for patients with AL amyloid cardiomyopathy (CM) given the systemic nature of the disease and poor survival. We present a case report of an active duty service member diagnosed with advanced cardiac amyloid who underwent total artificial heart transplant as a bridge to heart transplant and eventual autologous stem cell transplant. A 47-year-old active duty male initially evaluated for atypical chest pain was found to have severe concentric left ventricular hypertrophy on echocardiogram but normal voltage on electrocardiogram. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, laboratory studies, and bone marrow biopsy established the diagnosis of cardiac amyloidosis. At the time of diagnosis, the patient's prognosis was very poor with a median survival of 5 months on the basis of the Mayo Clinic revised prognostic staging system for amyloidosis. The patient developed rapidly progressive left ventricular dysfunction and heart failure leading to cardiac arrest. The patient received a total artificial heart as a bridge to orthotopic heart and kidney transplantation and eventual stem cell transplant. He continues to be in remission and has a fair functional capacity without restriction in activities of daily living or moderate exercise. Amyloid CM is a rare and devastating disease. The natural course of the disease has made heart transplant in these patients controversial. Modern advancements in chemotherapies and advanced heart failure treatments have improved outcomes for select patients with AL amyloid CM undergoing heart transplantation. There is ongoing research seeking improvement in treatment options and outcomes for patients with this deadly disease. Reprint & Copyright © 2017 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  12. Invited Article: An active terahertz polarization converter employing vanadium dioxide and a metal wire grating in total internal reflection geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xudong; Chen, Xuequan; Parrott, Edward P. J.; Han, Chunrui; Humbert, Georges; Crunteanu, Aurelian; Pickwell-MacPherson, Emma

    2018-05-01

    Active broadband terahertz (THz) polarization manipulation devices are challenging to realize, but also of great demand in broadband terahertz systems. Vanadium dioxide (VO2) shows a promising phase transition for active control of THz waves and provides broadband polarization characteristics when integrated within grating-type structures. We creatively combine a VO2-based grating structure with a total internal reflection (TIR) geometry providing a novel interaction mechanism between the electromagnetic waves and the device, to realize a powerful active broadband THz polarization-controlling device. The device is based on a Si-substrate coated with a VO2 layer and a metal grating structure on top, attached to a prism for generating the TIR condition on the Si-VO2-grating interface. The grating is connected to electrodes for electrically switching the VO2 between its insulating and conducting phases. By properly selecting the incident angle of the THz waves, the grating direction, and the incident polarization state, we first achieved a broadband intensity modulator under a fused silica prism with an average modulation depth of 99.75% in the 0.2-1.1 THz region. Additionally, we realized an active ultra-broadband quarter-wave converter under a Si prism that can be switched between a 45° linear rotator and a quarter wave converter in the 0.8-1.5 THz region. This is the first demonstration of an active quarter-wave converter with ultra-broad bandwidth performance. Our work shows a highly flexible and multifunctional polarization-controlling device for broadband THz applications.

  13. Total lactic acid bacteria, antioxidant activity, and acceptance of synbiotic yoghurt with red ginger extract (Zingiberofficinale var. rubrum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larasati, B. A.; Panunggal, B.; Afifah, D. N.; Anjani, G.; Rustanti, N.

    2018-02-01

    Antioxidant related to oxidative stress can caused the metabolic disorders. A functional food that high in antioxidant can be use as the alternative prevention. The addition of red ginger extract in yoghurt could form a functional food, that high in antioxidant, synbiotic and fiber. The influence of red ginger extract on yoghurt synbiotic against lactic acid bacteria, antioxidant activity and acceptance were analyzed. This was an experimental research with one factor complete randomized design, specifically the addition of red ginger extract 0%; 0,1%; 0,3% and 0,5% into synbiotic yoghurt. Total plate count method used to analyze the lactic acid bacteria, 1-1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method for antioxidant activity, and acceptance analyzed with hedonic test. The higher the dose of extract added to synbiotic yoghurt, the antioxidant activity got significantly increased (ρ=0,0001), while the lactic acid bacteria got insignificantly decreased (ρ=0,085). The addition of 0,5% red ginger extract obtained the antioxidant activity of 71% and 4,86 × 1013 CFU/ml on lactic acid bacteria, which the requirement for probiotic on National Standard of Indonesia is >107 CFU/ml. The addition of extract had a significant effect on acceptance (ρ=0,0001) in flavor, color, and texture, but not aroma (ρ=0,266). The optimal product in this research was the yoghurt synbiotic with addition of 0,1% red ginger extract. To summarize, the addition of red ginger extract in synbiotic yoghurt had significant effect on antioxidant activity, flavor, color, and texture, but no significant effect on lactic acid bacteria and aroma.

  14. Can total knee arthroplasty (TKA) achieve its goal in knee flexion floor activity of Thai Buddhist monks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sresuriyasawad, Viriya

    2012-10-01

    To study knee's angulation required for Thai Buddhist monks whose activity based on floor sitting basis. And to identify an inter-observer reliability of knee flexion measurement based on radiologic reading. Descriptive analysis study comprised of measuring bilateral knee flexing angulation in 4 postures of floor activities; kneeling, monk's position in both right and left manner and sit cross-legged position, in 35 Thai Buddhist monks at Priest Hospital using plain radiograph image. The radiograph imaging for each patient was performed by one radiologist and two orthopedics. The measurement result was also analyzed for inter-observer reliability. Mean knee flexion angle in kneel, left monk's position, right monk's position and sit cross-legged postures were 163.21, 146.49, 148.89 and 138.38 degree, respectively. No statistical difference between knee flexion measurements among 3 investigators. Daily floor activity of Thai Buddhist monks need more flexion capacity than that can achieve by total knee arthroplasty instrument using nowadays.

  15. Benefits of using customized instrumentation in total knee arthroplasty: results from an activity-based costing model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibesku, Carsten O; Hofer, Pamela; Portegies, Wesley; Ruys, C J M; Fennema, Peter

    2013-03-01

    The growing demand for total knee arthroplasty (TKA) associated with the efforts to contain healthcare expenditure by advanced economies necessitates the use of economically effective technologies in TKA. The present analysis based on activity-based costing (ABC) model was carried out to estimate the economic value of patient-matched instrumentation (PMI) compared to standard surgical instrumentation in TKA. The costs of the two approaches, PMI and standard instrumentation in TKA, were determined by the use of ABC which measures the cost of a particular procedure by determining the activities involved and adding the cost of each activity. Improvement in productivity due to increased operating room (OR) turn-around times was determined and potential additional revenue to the hospital by the efficient utilization of gained OR time was estimated. Increased efficiency in the usage of OR and utilization of surgical trays were noted with patient-specific approach. Potential revenues to the hospital were estimated with the use of PMI by efficient utilization of time saved in OR. Additional revenues of 78,240 per year were estimated considering utilization of gained OR time to perform surgeries other than TKA. The analysis suggests that use of PMI in TKA is economically effective when compared to standard instrumentation.

  16. The effect of ultraviolet treatment on enzymatic activity and total phenolic content of minimally processed potato slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Li Shing; Lasekan, Ola; Adzahan, Noranizan Mohd; Hashim, Norhashila

    2016-07-01

    In this work, potato slices were exposed to different doses of UV-C irradiation (i.e. 2.28, 6.84, 11.41, and 13.68 kJ m -2 ) with or without pretreatment [i.e. ascorbic acid and calcium chloride (AACCl) dip] and stored at 4 ± 1 °C. Changes in enzymatic activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO), peroxidase (POD) and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), as well as total phenolic content (TPC) were investigated after 0, 3, 7 and 10 days of storage. Results showed that untreated and UV-C treated potato slices at 13.68 kJ m -2 dosage level showed significantly higher PPO, POD and PAL activities. Conversely, untreated potato slices showed the lowest TPC during storage period. Potato slices subjected to AACCl dip plus UV-C at 6.84 kJ m -2 produced lower PPO, POD and PAL activities, as well as maintained a high TPC during storage.

  17. Determination of total Betta-activity and heavy metals in biomonitor species (phytomonitors) from the area of ITR-Sofia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrov, S.; Yovchev, M.; Geleva, E.

    2010-01-01

    For the purposes of environmental assessment of the area around the Research reactor in Sofia, species from monitored control points, selected in a certain way (habitat, population, air and hydrogeological parameters) are examined. Samples from following phytomonitored species: Betula pendula (silver birch) popullus canadensis (Canadian populus), Quercus sp. (Oak), Dactilus glomerata (Cock's-foot), Abies alba (Silver Fir) and Sequoia sempervirens (Coast Redwood) were analyzed. The total beta activity was determined by radiometric analysis and heavy metals content was measured using X-ray fluorescence analysis. The results are discussed in terms of radiation monitoring program of INRNE (gamma-background, aerosols, surface and groundwater, soil, plants) and obtained values are compared with reference points in the country

  18. [Study on the separation process of pharmacological active total alkaloids from Chelidonium majus L. growing in Georgia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozhadze, A D; Vachnadze, V Iu; Dzhokhadze, M S; Berashvili, D T; Bakuridze, A Dzh

    2013-04-01

    In present article was studied the separation process of pharmacological active total alkaloids from Chelidonium majus L. growing in Georgia. Alkaloids were extracted from medicinal herbal material and separated by liquid extraction, diluents gas and a microfiltration through membrane equipment. The obtained A1, A2, A3 fractions were analyzed by GC/MS method; in all cases separation proceeds by the principle of extraction of the target alkaloids. It was concluded that the A1 is enriched with α and β cryptopins, and protopin, but homochelidonine and chelidonine are in low contents. As accompanying alkaloid is identified dihydrosanguinarine as an artifact; the A2 is enriched with the maximum contents of stylopine and protopin, but the poor contents of chelidonine and homochelidonine; the A3 is enriched with α and β cryptopins and maximum content of chelidonine. Extraction of alkaloids from Chelidonium majus L. proceeds selectively, but depending on a way of separation of the total alkaloids allows varying qualitative and quantitative consistence of the final product.

  19. Uniform implantation of CNTs on total activated carbon surfaces: a smart engineering protocol for commercial supercapacitor applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jian; Li, Linpo; Liu, Yani; Liu, Siyuan; Xu, Maowen; Zhu, Jianhui

    2017-04-07

    The main obstacles to building better supercapacitors are still trade-offs between energy and power parameters. To promote commercial supercapacitor behaviors, proper optimization toward electrode configurations/architectures may be a feasible and effective way. We herein propose a smart and reliable electrode engineering protocol, by in situ implantation of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on total activated carbon (AC) surfaces via a mild chemical vapor deposition process at ∼550 °C, using nickel nitrate hydroxide (NNH) thin films and waste ethanol solvents as the catalyst and carbon sources, respectively. The direct and conformal growth of NNH layers onto carbonaceous scaffold guarantees the later uniform implantation of long and high-quality CNTs on total AC outer surfaces. Such fluffy and entangled CNTs preserve ionic diffusion channels, well connect neighboring ACs and function as superhighways for electrons transfer, endowing electrodes with outstanding capacitive behaviors including large output capacitances of ∼230 F g -1 in 1 M Na 2 SO 4 neutral solution and ∼502.5 F g -1 in 6 M KOH using Ni valence state variation, and very negligible capacity decay in long-term cycles. Furthermore, a full symmetric supercapacitor device of CNTs@ACs//CNTs@ACs has been constructed, capable of delivering both high specific energy and power densities (maximum values reaching up to ∼97.2 Wh kg -1 and ∼10.84 kW kg -1 ), which holds great potential in competing with current mainstream supercapacitors.

  20. Total Phenolic, Flavonoid, Tomatine, and Tomatidine Contents and Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Extracts of Tomato Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Beltrán, Norma Patricia; Ruiz-Cruz, Saul; Cira-Chávez, Luis Alberto; Estrada-Alvarado, María Isabel; Ornelas-Paz, José de Jesús; López-Mata, Marco Antonio; Del-Toro-Sánchez, Carmen Lizette; Ayala-Zavala, J. Fernando; Márquez-Ríos, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of extracts of different fractions of two tomato plant cultivars. The stems, roots, leaves, and whole-plant fractions were evaluated. Tomatine and tomatidine were identified by HPLC-DAD. The leaf extracts from the two varieties showed the highest flavonoids, chlorophyll, carotenoids, and total phenolics contents and the highest antioxidant activity determined by DPPH, ABTS, and ORAC. A positive correlation was observed between the antioxidant capacities of the extracts and the total phenolic, flavonoid, and chlorophyll contents. The Pitenza variety extracts inhibited the growth of pathogens such as E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria ivanovii, yielding inhibition halos of 8.0 to 12.9 mm in diameter and MIC values of 12.5 to 3.125 mg/mL. These results suggest that tomato plant shows well potential as sources of various bioactive compounds, antioxidants, and antimicrobials. PMID:26609308

  1. Quantitative determination of total cesium in highly active liquid waste by using liquid electrode plasma optical emission spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Van-Khoai; Yamamoto, Masahiko; Taguchi, Shigeo; Takamura, Yuzuru; Surugaya, Naoki; Kuno, Takehiko

    2018-06-01

    A sensitive analytical method for determination of total cesium (Cs) in highly active liquid waste (HALW) by using modified liquid electrode plasma optical emission spectrometry (LEP-OES) is developed in this study. The instrument is modified to measure radioactive samples in a glove box. The effects of important factors, including pulsed voltage sequence and nitric acid concentration, on the emission of Cs are investigated. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) are 0.005 mg/L and 0.02 mg/L, respectively. The achieved LOD is one order lower than that of recently developed spectroscopic methods using liquid discharge plasma. The developed method is validated by subjecting a simulated HALW sample to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The recoveries obtained from a spike-and-recovery test are 96-102%, implying good accuracy. The method is successfully applied to the quantification of Cs in a real HALW sample at the Tokai reprocessing plant in Japan. Apart from dilution and filtration of the HALW sample, no other pre-treatment process is required. The results agree well with the values obtained using gamma spectrometry. The developed method offers a reliable technique for rapid analysis of total Cs in HALW samples. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Changes in total phenol, flavonoid contents and anti-Lactobacillus activity of Callisia fragrans due to extraction solvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Thom; Cao, Diem Kieu; Pham, Thanh Vy; Huynh, Tan Dat; Ta, Nhat Thuy Anh; Nguyen, Ngoc Thao Linh; Nguyen, Huu Thanh; Le, Hue Huong; Bui, Anh Vo; Truong, Dieu-Hien

    2018-04-01

    Callisia fragrans is a wonder herb with many medicinal properties such as burn, dental diseases, cancer diseases and arthritis in folk medicine. It is noted that the phytochemical constituents and antimicrobial activity of traditional plants depend on not only the extracting method but also the solvent used for extraction. In this study, the effect of five extraction solvents (i.e., distilled water, 80% methanol, 80% ethanol, 80% ethyl acetate, and 80% chloroform) on yield, total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) of Callisia leaves was determined. Besides, changes in anti-Lactobacillus fermentum activity of C. fragrans freeze-dried extract was also evaluated using disk-diffusion method. The recovery percentage of extractable yield of fresh leaves are ranged from 11.93% w/w for distilled water extract to 16.60% w/w for aqueous ethanol extracts. The yield of 80% aqueous methanol extract (16.27% w/w) is only slightly less than that of the ethanol extract. Significant differences were observed among TPC and TFC obtaining by 80% methanol (0.0522% and 0.0335% w/w, respectively) compared to other solvents (p < 0.05). TPC and TFC of C. fragrans extracts increase in the following order: distilled water < 80% chloroform < 80% ethyl acetate < 80% ethanol < 80% methanol. The results revealed that 80% aqueous methanol Calissia extracts has moderate inhibition (9.0 mm of inhibition zone for 1.5 mg/mL of extracts) of L. fermentum compared to standard antibacterial agent. Based on the study results, it can be concluded that the yield, TPC and TFC of C. frgrans extract varied with the extracting solvent. It also showed that Callisia extracts can prevent dental caries by inhibiting the growth of L. fermentum, towards new insights for treatment of dental caries.

  3. Are Total, Intensity- and Domain-Specific Physical Activity Levels Associated with Life Satisfaction among University Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedišić, Željko; Greblo, Zrinka; Phongsavan, Philayrath; Milton, Karen; Bauman, Adrian E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Thorough information about the relationship between physical activity (PA) and life satisfaction is still lacking. Therefore, this study examined the cross-sectional relationships between life satisfaction and meeting the World Health Organization (WHO) moderate to vigorous-intensity PA recommendations, total volume and duration of PA, intensity-specific PA (walking, moderate- and vigorous-intensity), domain-specific PA (work, transport-related, domestic, and leisure-time), and 11 domain and intensity-specific PA types among university students. Additionally, we examined the associations between life satisfaction and gender, age, disposable income, community size, smoking, alcohol intake, body mass index (BMI), and self-rated health. Methods The study included a random sample of 1750 university students in Zagreb, Croatia (response rate = 71.7%; 62.4% females; mean age 21.5 ± 1.8 years), using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire — long form and the Satisfaction with Life Scale. Results Higher life satisfaction was associated with female gender (β = 0.13; p = life satisfaction and size of community (p = 0.567), smoking status (p = 0.056), alcohol consumption (p = 0.058), or BMI (p = 0.508). Among all PA variables, only leisure-time vigorous-intensity PA was significantly associated with life satisfaction after adjustments for socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle and self-rated general health (β = 0.06; p = 0.045). Conclusions This study indicated a weak positive relationship between leisure-time vigorous-intensity PA and life satisfaction, whilst no such association was found for other PA variables. These findings underscore the importance of analyzing domain and intensity-specific PA levels in future studies among university students, as drawing conclusions about the relationship between PA and life satisfaction based on total PA levels only may be misleading. PMID:25695492

  4. Are total, intensity- and domain-specific physical activity levels associated with life satisfaction among university students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedišić, Željko; Greblo, Zrinka; Phongsavan, Philayrath; Milton, Karen; Bauman, Adrian E

    2015-01-01

    Thorough information about the relationship between physical activity (PA) and life satisfaction is still lacking. Therefore, this study examined the cross-sectional relationships between life satisfaction and meeting the World Health Organization (WHO) moderate to vigorous-intensity PA recommendations, total volume and duration of PA, intensity-specific PA (walking, moderate- and vigorous-intensity), domain-specific PA (work, transport-related, domestic, and leisure-time), and 11 domain and intensity-specific PA types among university students. Additionally, we examined the associations between life satisfaction and gender, age, disposable income, community size, smoking, alcohol intake, body mass index (BMI), and self-rated health. The study included a random sample of 1750 university students in Zagreb, Croatia (response rate = 71.7%; 62.4% females; mean age 21.5 ± 1.8 years), using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-long form and the Satisfaction with Life Scale. Higher life satisfaction was associated with female gender (β = 0.13; p = leisure-time vigorous-intensity PA was significantly associated with life satisfaction after adjustments for socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle and self-rated general health (β = 0.06; p = 0.045). This study indicated a weak positive relationship between leisure-time vigorous-intensity PA and life satisfaction, whilst no such association was found for other PA variables. These findings underscore the importance of analyzing domain and intensity-specific PA levels in future studies among university students, as drawing conclusions about the relationship between PA and life satisfaction based on total PA levels only may be misleading.

  5. Total glucosides of paeony regulates JAK2/STAT3 activation and macrophage proliferation in diabetic rat kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kun; Wu, Yong-Gui; Su, Jing; Zhang, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Pei; Qi, Xiang-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Total glucosides of paeony (TGP) is the major active constituent of Paeonia lactiflora Pall., which has shown renoprotection in experimental diabetic nephropathy. Activation of Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT) is an important mechanism by which hyperglycemia contributes to renal damage. Macrophages also play an essential role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. Herein, we investigated the ability of TGP to modulate JAK2/STAT3 activation and macrophage proliferation in rats with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. TGP (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) was administered orally once a day for eight weeks. Levels of p-JAK2 and p-STAT3 were determined by Western blot analysis. Immunohistochemistry and double immunohistochemistry were used to identify p-STAT3, ED-1, PCNA/ED-1, and p-STAT3/ED-1-positive (+) cells. The elevated 24-h urinary albumin excretion rate was markedly attenuated by treatment with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg TGP. Western blot analysis showed that the significantly increased levels of p-JAK2, p-STAT3 proteins in the kidneys of diabetic rats were significantly inhibited by 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg TGP treatment. The marked accumulation and proliferation of macrophages in diabetic kidneys were significantly inhibited by TGP treatment. ED-1+/p-STAT3+ cells were significantly increased in the kidneys from the model group but were significantly inhibited by TGP treatment. These results show that TGP significantly inhibited diabetic nephropathy progression and suggest that these protective effects are associated with the ability of TGP to inhibit the JAK2/STAT3 pathway and macrophage proliferation and action.

  6. Direct binding and activation of protein kinase C isoforms by steroid hormones.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Alzamora, Rodrigo

    2008-10-01

    The non-genomic action of steroid hormones regulates a wide variety of cellular responses including regulation of ion transport, cell proliferation, migration, death and differentiation. In order to achieve such plethora of effects steroid hormones utilize nearly all known signal transduction pathways. One of the key signalling molecules regulating the non-genomic action of steroid hormones is protein kinase C (PKC). It is thought that rapid action of steroids hormones results from the activation of plasma membrane receptors; however, their molecular identity remains elusive. In recent years, an increasing number of studies have pointed at the selective binding and activation of specific PKC isoforms by steroid hormones. This has led to the hypothesis that PKC could act as a receptor as well as a transducer of the non-genomic effects of these hormones. In this review we summarize the current knowledge of the direct binding and activation of PKC by steroid hormones.

  7. Serum Total Cholinesterase Activity on Admission Is Associated with Disease Severity and Outcome in Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Hong Zhang

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is one of the leading causes of neurological disability. In this retrospective study, serum total cholinesterase (ChE activities were analyzed in 188 patients for diagnostic as well as predictive values for mortality.Within 72 hours after injury, serum ChE activities including both acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase were measured. Disease severity was evaluated with Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II score, Glasgow Coma Score, length of coma, post-traumatic amnesia and injury feature. Neurocognitive and functional scores were assessed using clinical records. Of 188 patients, 146 (77.7% survived and 42 (22.3% died within 90 days. Lower ChE activities were noted in the non-survivors vs. survivors (5.94±2.19 vs. 7.04±2.16 kU/L, p=0.023, in septic vs. non-infected patients (5.93±1.89 vs. 7.31±2.45 kU/L, p=0.0005 and in patients with extremely severe injury vs. mild injury (6.3±1.98 vs. 7.57±2.48 kU/L, p=0.049. The trajectories of serum ChE levels were also different between non-survivors and survivors, septic and non-infected patients, mild and severely injured patients, respectively. Admission ChE activities were closely correlated with blood cell counts, neurocognitive and functional scores both on admission and at discharge. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that the area under the curve for ChE was inferior to that for either APACHE II or white blood cell (WBC count. However, at the optimal cutoff value of 5 kU/L, the sensitivity of ChE for correct prediction of 90-day mortality was 65.5% and the specificity was 86.4%. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that lower ChE activity (5 kU/L (p=0.04. After adjusting for other variables, ChE was identified as a borderline independent predictor for mortality as analyzed by Binary logistic regression (P=0.078.Lowered ChE activity measured on admission appears to be associated with disease severity and outcome for TBI patients.

  8. Isolamento e caracterização de um mutante de saccharomyces cerevisiae com características fenotípicas opostas à cepa pkc

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Katia das Neves

    2004-01-01

    Em leveduras, a proteína quinase C participa da regulação da via bioquímica responsável pela transcrição de uma subunidade da enzima glucano sintase, a qual está envolvida na síntese da parede celular. A via PKC MAP quinase consiste das enzimas Bck1, Mkk1/2 e Mpk1 que são ativadas por fosforilação. Recentemente, nós descobrimos que o mutante pkc1 D, contrariamente aos demais mutantes da cascata Map quinase, exibe dois principais defeitos no controle do metabolismo de carbono. A cepa pkc1 D ap...

  9. Total glucosides of paeony inhibits Th1/Th17 cells via decreasing dendritic cells activation in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jinpiao; Xiao, Lianbo; Ouyang, Guilin; Shen, Yu; Huo, Rongfen; Zhou, Zhou; Sun, Yue; Zhu, Xianjin; Zhang, Jie; Shen, Baihua; Li, Ningli

    2012-12-01

    Total glucoside of paeony (TGP), an active compound extracted from paeony root, has been used in therapy for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Th1 and Th17 cells are now believed to play crucial roles in the lesions of RA. However, the molecular mechanism of TGP in inhibition of Th1 and Th17 cells remains unclear. In this study, we found that TGP treatment significantly decreased percentage and number of Th1 and Th17 cells in collagen induced arthritis (CIA) mice. Consistently, treatment with TGP decreased expression of T-bet and RORγt as well as phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT3. In particular, TGP treatment inhibited dendritic cells (DCs) maturation and reduced production of IL-12 and IL-6. Moreover, TGP-treatment RA patients showed shank population of matured DCs and IFN-γ-, IL-17-producing cells. Taken together, our results demonstrated that TGP inhibited maturation and activation of DCs, which led to impaired Th1 and Th17 differentiation in vivo. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Return to Sports and Physical Activity After Total and Unicondylar Knee Arthroplasty: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witjes, Suzanne; Gouttebarge, Vincent; Kuijer, P Paul F M; van Geenen, Rutger C I; Poolman, Rudolf W; Kerkhoffs, Gino M M J

    2016-02-01

    People today are living longer and want to remain active. While obesity is becoming an epidemic, the number of patients suffering from osteoarthritis (OA) is expected to grow exponentially in the coming decades. Patients with OA of the knee are progressively being restricted in their activities. Since a knee arthroplasty (KA) is a well accepted, cost-effective intervention to relieve pain, restore function and improve health-related quality of life, indications are expanding to younger and more active patients. However, evidence concerning return to sports (RTS) and physical activity (PA) after KA is sparse. Our aim was to systematically summarise the available literature concerning the extent to which patients can RTS and be physically active after total (TKA) and unicondylar knee arthroplasty (UKA), as well as the time it takes. PRISMA guidelines were followed and our study protocol was published online at PROSPERO under registration number CRD42014009370. Based on the keywords (and synonyms of) 'arthroplasty', 'sports' and 'recovery of function', the databases MEDLINE, Embase and SPORTDiscus up to January 5, 2015 were searched. Articles concerning TKA or UKA patients who recovered their sporting capacity, or intended to, were included and were rated by outcomes of our interest. Methodological quality was assessed using Quality in Prognosis Studies (QUIPS) and data extraction was performed using a standardised extraction form, both conducted by two independent investigators. Out of 1115 hits, 18 original studies were included. According to QUIPS, three studies had a low risk of bias. Overall RTS varied from 36 to 89% after TKA and from 75 to >100% after UKA. The meta-analysis revealed that participation in sports seems more likely after UKA than after TKA, with mean numbers of sports per patient postoperatively of 1.1-4.6 after UKA and 0.2-1.0 after TKA. PA level was higher after UKA than after TKA, but a trend towards lower-impact sports was shown after both TKA

  11. Screening of protein kinase inhibitors identifies PKC inhibitors as inhibitors of osteoclastic acid secretion and bone resorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boutin Jean A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone resorption is initiated by osteoclastic acidification of the resorption lacunae. This process is mediated by secretion of protons through the V-ATPase and chloride through the chloride antiporter ClC-7. To shed light on the intracellular signalling controlling extracellular acidification, we screened a protein kinase inhibitor library in human osteoclasts. Methods Human osteoclasts were generated from CD14+ monocytes. The effect of different kinase inhibitors on lysosomal acidification in human osteoclasts was investigated using acridine orange for different incubation times (45 minutes, 4 and 24 hours. The inhibitors were tested in an acid influx assay using microsomes isolated from human osteoclasts. Bone resorption by human osteoclasts on bone slices was measured by calcium release. Cell viability was measured using AlamarBlue. Results Of the 51 compounds investigated only few inhibitors were positive in both acidification and resorption assays. Rottlerin, GF109203X, Hypericin and Ro31-8220 inhibited acid influx in microsomes and bone resorption, while Sphingosine and Palmitoyl-DL-carnitine-Cl showed low levels of inhibition. Rottlerin inhibited lysosomal acidification in human osteoclasts potently. Conclusions In conclusion, a group of inhibitors all indicated to inhibit PKC reduced acidification in human osteoclasts, and thereby bone resorption, indicating that acid secretion by osteoclasts may be specifically regulated by PKC in osteoclasts.

  12. Calcitonin gene-related peptide promotes the wound healing of human bronchial epithelial cells via PKC and MAPK pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yong; Zhang, Min; Sun, Guo-Ying; Liu, Yong-Ping; Ran, Wen-Zhuo; Peng, Li; Guan, Cha-Xiang

    2013-06-10

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a 37-amino acid neuropeptide derived from the calcitonin gene. CGRP is widely distributed in the central and peripheral neuronal systems. In the lung, CGRP could modulate dendritic cell function, stimulate proliferation of alveolar epithelial cells and mediate lung injury in mice. In this study, we investigated the effect of CGRP on the wound healing of human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) in vitro. The results showed that CGRP accelerated the recovery of wound area of monolayer HBECs in a dose-dependent manner. CGRP inhibited the lipopolysaccharide-induced apoptosis in HBECs. The percentage of S phase and G2/M phase was increased in HBECs after CGRP treatment. CGRP upregulated the expression of Ki67 in a dose-dependent manner. Some pathway inhibitors were used to investigate the signal pathway in which CGRP was involved. We found out that PKC pathway inhibitor (H-7) and MAPK pathway inhibitor (PD98059) could partially attenuate the effect of CGRP, which indicated that CGRP might promote the wound healing of HBECs via PKC and/or MAPK dependent pathway by accelerating migration and proliferation, and inhibiting apoptosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (SACE) activity as an indicator of total body granuloma load and prognosis in sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthuswamy, P P; Lopez-Majano, V; Ranginwala, M; Trainor, W D

    1987-09-01

    The relationship between the level of serum angiotensin converting enzyme (SACE) and the total body granuloma load in patients with sarcoidosis was studied in two groups using SACE levels and total body gallium67 scans. The study group consisted of 22 patients with SACE levels greater than or equal to 100 U/ml (EH-SACE group) and the control group consisted of 24 patients consecutively diagnosed to have sarcoidosis in a one year period with SACE level of less than 80 U/ml. The average number of organs involved in the EH-SACE group was 3.9 +/- 1 compared to 2.3 +/- 1 in the control group (p less than 0.0001). The incidence of extra pulmonary organ involvement in the EH-SACE group was 2.2 +/- 1 organs compared to 1.0 + 0.8 in the control group (p less than 0.0002). The SACE level was correlated with the number of organs involved for all patients with sarcoidosis (r = .55; p less than .0001). Following corticosteroid therapy for 39 +/- 41 weeks the SACE dropped to 64 +/- 45 units in the EH-SACE group. But it took only 13 +/- 10 weeks to normalize the SACE level to 27 +/- 9 units in the control group. The EH-SACE group patients were followed for 114 +/- 64 weeks and 73% of them still have active sarcoidosis requiring repeated cycles of corticosteroid therapy, while after 42 +/- 23 weeks of follow up only 10% of patients from the control group were still on therapy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Total protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003483.htm Total protein To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes ...

  15. Are total, intensity- and domain-specific physical activity levels associated with life satisfaction among university students?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Pedišić

    Full Text Available Thorough information about the relationship between physical activity (PA and life satisfaction is still lacking. Therefore, this study examined the cross-sectional relationships between life satisfaction and meeting the World Health Organization (WHO moderate to vigorous-intensity PA recommendations, total volume and duration of PA, intensity-specific PA (walking, moderate- and vigorous-intensity, domain-specific PA (work, transport-related, domestic, and leisure-time, and 11 domain and intensity-specific PA types among university students. Additionally, we examined the associations between life satisfaction and gender, age, disposable income, community size, smoking, alcohol intake, body mass index (BMI, and self-rated health.The study included a random sample of 1750 university students in Zagreb, Croatia (response rate = 71.7%; 62.4% females; mean age 21.5 ± 1.8 years, using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-long form and the Satisfaction with Life Scale.Higher life satisfaction was associated with female gender (β = 0.13; p = <0.001, younger age (β = -0.07; p = 0.024, higher disposable income (β = 0.10; p = 0.001, and better self-rated health (β = 0.30; p = <0.001. No significant association was found between life satisfaction and size of community (p = 0.567, smoking status (p = 0.056, alcohol consumption (p = 0.058, or BMI (p = 0.508. Among all PA variables, only leisure-time vigorous-intensity PA was significantly associated with life satisfaction after adjustments for socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle and self-rated general health (β = 0.06; p = 0.045.This study indicated a weak positive relationship between leisure-time vigorous-intensity PA and life satisfaction, whilst no such association was found for other PA variables. These findings underscore the importance of analyzing domain and intensity-specific PA levels in future studies among university students, as drawing conclusions about the

  16. Activation of protein kinase C alters the intracellular distribution and mobility of cardiac Na+ channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallaq, Haifa; Wang, Dao W; Kunic, Jennifer D; George, Alfred L; Wells, K Sam; Murray, Katherine T

    2012-02-01

    Na(+) current derived from expression of the cardiac isoform SCN5A is reduced by receptor-mediated or direct activation of protein kinase C (PKC). Previous work has suggested a possible role for loss of Na(+) channels at the plasma membrane in this effect, but the results are controversial. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that PKC activation acutely modulates the intracellular distribution of SCN5A channels and that this effect can be visualized in living cells. In human embryonic kidney cells that stably expressed SCN5A with green fluorescent protein (GFP) fused to the channel COOH-terminus (SCN5A-GFP), Na(+) currents were suppressed by an exposure to PKC activation. Using confocal microscopy, colocalization of SCN5A-GFP channels with the plasma membrane under control and stimulated conditions was quantified. A separate population of SCN5A channels containing an extracellular epitope was immunolabeled to permit temporally stable labeling of the plasma membrane. Our results demonstrated that Na(+) channels were preferentially trafficked away from the plasma membrane by PKC activation, with a major contribution by Ca(2+)-sensitive or conventional PKC isoforms, whereas stimulation of protein kinase A (PKA) had the opposite effect. Removal of the conserved PKC site Ser(1503) or exposure to the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin eliminated the PKC-mediated effect to alter channel trafficking, indicating that both channel phosphorylation and ROS were required. Experiments using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching demonstrated that both PKC and PKA also modified channel mobility in a manner consistent with the dynamics of channel distribution. These results demonstrate that the activation of protein kinases can acutely regulate the intracellular distribution and molecular mobility of cardiac Na(+) channels in living cells.

  17. Determination of total creatine kinase activity in blood serum using an amperometric biosensor based on glucose oxidase and hexokinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucherenko, I S; Soldatkin, O O; Lagarde, F; Jaffrezic-Renault, N; Dzyadevych, S V; Soldatkin, A P

    2015-11-01

    Creatine kinase (CK: adenosine-5-triphosphate-creatine phosphotransferase) is an important enzyme of muscle cells; the presence of a large amount of the enzyme in blood serum is a biomarker of muscular injuries, such as acute myocardial infarction. This work describes a bi-enzyme (glucose oxidase and hexokinase based) biosensor for rapid and convenient determination of CK activity by measuring the rate of ATP production by this enzyme. Simultaneously the biosensor determines glucose concentration in the sample. Platinum disk electrodes were used as amperometric transducers. Glucose oxidase and hexokinase were co-immobilized via cross-linking with BSA by glutaraldehyde and served as a biorecognition element of the biosensor. The biosensor work at different concentrations of CK substrates (ADP and creatine phosphate) was investigated; optimal concentration of ADP was 1mM, and creatine phosphate - 10 mM. The reproducibility of the biosensor responses to glucose, ATP and CK during a day was tested (relative standard deviation of 15 responses to glucose was 2%, to ATP - 6%, to CK - 7-18% depending on concentration of the CK). Total time of CK analysis was 10 min. The measurements of creatine kinase in blood serum samples were carried out (at 20-fold sample dilution). Twentyfold dilution of serum samples was chosen as optimal for CK determination. The biosensor could distinguish healthy and ill people and evaluate the level of CK increase. Thus, the biosensor can be used as a test-system for CK analysis in blood serum or serve as a component of multibiosensors for determination of important blood substances. Determination of activity of other kinases by the developed biosensor is also possible for research purposes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Total {sup 18}F-dopa PET tumour uptake reflects metabolic endocrine tumour activity in patients with a carcinoid tumour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiebrich, Helle-Brit; Walenkamp, Annemiek M.; Vries, Elisabeth G.E. de [University Medical Centre Groningen, Department of Medical Oncology, Groningen (Netherlands); Jong, Johan R. de; Koopmans, Klaas Pieter; Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O.; Brouwers, Adrienne H. [University Medical Centre Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Groningen (Netherlands); Kema, Ido P. [University Medical Centre Groningen, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Groningen (Netherlands); Sluiter, Wim; Links, Thera P. [University Medical Centre Groningen, Department of Endocrinology, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2011-10-15

    Positron emission tomography (PET) using 6-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-L-dihydroxyphenylalanine ({sup 18}F-dopa) has an excellent sensitivity to detect carcinoid tumour lesions. {sup 18}F-dopa tumour uptake and the levels of biochemical tumour markers are mediated by tumour endocrine metabolic activity. We evaluated whether total {sup 18}F-dopa tumour uptake on PET, defined as whole-body metabolic tumour burden (WBMTB), reflects tumour load per patient, as measured with tumour markers. Seventy-seven consecutive carcinoid patients who underwent an {sup 18}F-dopa PET scan in two previously published studies were analysed. For all tumour lesions mean standardised uptake values (SUVs) at 40% of the maximal SUV and tumour volume on {sup 18}F-dopa PET were determined and multiplied to calculate a metabolic burden per lesion. WBMTB was the sum of the metabolic burden of all individual lesions per patient. The 24-h urinary serotonin, urine and plasma 5-hydroxindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), catecholamines (nor)epinephrine, dopamine and their metabolites, measured in urine and plasma, and serum chromogranin A served as tumour markers. All but 1 were evaluable for WBMTB; 74 patients had metastatic disease. {sup 18}F-dopa PET detected 979 lesions. SUV{sub max} on {sup 18}F-dopa PET varied up to 29-fold between individual lesions within the same patients. WBMTB correlated with urinary serotonin (r = 0.51) and urinary and plasma 5-HIAA (r = 0.78 and 0.66). WBMTB also correlated with urinary norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine and plasma dopamine, but not with serum chromogranin A. Tumour load per patient measured with {sup 18}F-dopa PET correlates with tumour markers of the serotonin and catecholamine pathway in urine and plasma in carcinoid patients, reflecting metabolic tumour activity. (orig.)

  19. Habitual Physical Activity After Total Knee Replacement : analysis in 830 patients and comparison with a sex-and age-matched normative population (vol 92, pg 1109, 2012)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersten, Roel F. M. R.; Stevens, Martin; van Raay, Jos J. A. M.; Bulstra, Sjoerd K.; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge

    Background. Previous studies on physical activity after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) concentrated mainly on a return to sports activities. Objective. The objectives of this study were to determine the habitual physical activity behavior of people who had undergone TKA (TKA group) 1 to 5 years after

  20. Physical Activity, Aerobic Capacity, and Total Antioxidant Capacity in Healthy Men and in Men with Coronary Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Gawron-Skarbek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of the study was to assess total antioxidant capacity (TAC of blood serum in relation with habitual leisure time physical activity (LTPA and aerobic capacity in a group of 90 men with coronary heart disease (CHD aged 34.8–77.0 years and in 90 age-matched peers without CHD. Methods. Two spectrophotometric methods were applied to assess TAC: Ferric Reducing Ability of Serum (TAC-FRAS and 2.2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (TAC-DPPH tests. Aerobic capacity was expressed as physical working capacity at 85% of the maximal heart rate (PWC85%HRmax. Results. CHD patients had higher values of TACFRAS (1.37±0.28 versus 1.27±0.23 mmol FeCl2·L−1; P<0.05 but there were no group differences for TAC-DPPH and for uric acid (UA. Negative correlation was found between LTPA (also when calculated per kg of body mass and TAC-DPPH in CHD patients. In CHD patients, TAC-FRAS and UA were lower in subjects with higher aerobic capacity expressed as PWC85%HRmax/kg. Those associations were not found in healthy men. Conclusions. We conclude that TAC of blood serum is moderately adversely related to LTPA and aerobic capacity in patients with CHD. UA, as the main determinant of serum TAC, may be partially responsible for those associations.

  1. Denitrification activity is closely linked to the total ambient Fe concentration in mangrove sediments of Goa, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Sheryl Oliveira; Gonsalves, Maria-Judith; Michotey, Valérie D.; Bonin, Patricia C.; Loka, A.; Bharathi, P.

    2013-10-01

    Denitrification activity (DNT) and associated environmental parameters were examined in two mangrove ecosystems of Goa, India - the relatively unimpacted Tuvem and the anthropogenically-influenced Divar. Sampling was carried out at every 2 cm interval within the 0-10 cm depth range to determine (1) seasonal (pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon) down-core variation in DNT (2) assess the environmental factors influencing the DNT and (3) to build predictive models for benthic DNT. Denitrification generally decreased with depth and showed marked seasonal variation at both the locations. Denitrification peaked during the pre-monsoon occurring at a rate of up to 21.00 ± 12.84 nmol N2O g-1 h-1 within 0-4 cm at both the locations. Further, DNT at pre-monsoon was significantly influenced by Fe content at Tuvem and Divar suggesting Fe-mediated nitrate respiration. The influence of other limiting substrates such as NO3- and NO2- was most important during the monsoon and post-monsoon especially at Divar. The multiple regression models developed could predict 67-98% of the observed variability in DNT through the seasons. About 6-9 environmental variables were required to relatively well-predict DNT in these sediments with the complexity governing DNT decreasing from pre-monsoon to post-monsoon. Our results reveal that seasonal dynamics of DNT in tropical mangrove sediments are closely linked to the total Fe at the prevailing ambient concentration in both the systems.

  2. Total body calcium by neutron activation analysis in normals and osteoporotic populations: a discriminator of significant bone mass loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, S.M.; Murano, R.; Lewellen, T.K.; Nelp, W.B.; Chesnut, C.M.

    1983-01-01

    Measurements of total body calcium by neutron activation (TBC) in 94 normal individuals and 86 osteoporotic patients are reported. The ability of TBC to discriminate normal from osteoporotic females was evaluated with decision analysis. Bone mineral content (BMC) by single-photon absorptiometry was also measured. TBC was higher in males (range 826 to 1363 gm vs 537 to 1054 in females) and correlated with height in all normals. In females over age 55 there was a negative correlation with age. Thus, for normals an algorithm was derived to allow comparison between measured TBC and that predicted by sex, age, and height (TBCp). In the 28 normal females over age 55, the TBC was 764 +/- 115 gm vs. 616 +/- 90 in the osteoporotics. In 63 of the osteoporotic females an estimated height, from tibial length, was used to predict TBC. In normals the TBC/TBCp ratio was 1.00 +/- 0.12, whereas in osteoporotic females it was 0.80 +/- 0.12. A receiver operating characteristic curve showed better discrimination of osteoporosis with TBC/TBCp than with wrist BMC. By using Bayes' theorem, with a 25% prevalence of osteoporosis (estimate for postmenopausal women), the posttest probability of disease was 90% when the TBC/TBCp ratio was less than 0.84. The authors conclude that a low TBC/TBCp ratio is very helpful in determining osteoporosis

  3. 3D in vivo femoro-tibial kinematics of tri-condylar total knee arthroplasty during kneeling activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Shinichiro; Sharma, Adrija; Kobayashi, Masahiko; Ito, Hiromu; Nakamura, Kenji; Zingde, Sumesh M; Nakamura, Takashi; Komistek, Richard D

    2014-01-01

    Kneeling position can serve as an important posture, providing stability and balance from a standing position to sitting on the floor or vice-versa. The purpose of the current study was to determine the kinematics during kneeling activities after subjects were implanted with a tri-condylar total knee arthroplasty. Kinematics was evaluated in 54 knees using fluoroscopy and a three-dimensional model fitting approach. The average knee flexion at before contact status, at complete contact and at maximum flexion was 98.1±9.0°, 107.2±6.7°, and 139.6±12.3°, respectively. On average, there was no gross anterior displacement from before contact status to complete contact. Only slight posterior rollback motion of both condyles from complete contact to maximum flexion was observed. Three of 39 (7.7%) knees experienced anterior movement of both condyles more than 2mm from before contact status to complete contact. Reverse rotation pattern from before contact status to complete contact and then normal rotation pattern from complete contact to maximum flexion were observed. Condylar lift-off greater than 1.0 mm was observed in 45 knees (83.3%). The presence of the ball-and-socket joint articulation provides sufficient antero-posterior stability in these designs to enable the patients to kneel safely without the incidence of any dislocation. This study suggests a safe implant design for kneeling. © 2013.

  4. Physical Activity, Aerobic Capacity, and Total Antioxidant Capacity in Healthy Men and in Men with Coronary Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawron-Skarbek, Anna; Kostka, Joanna; Nowak, Dariusz; Drygas, Wojciech; Jegier, Anna; Kostka, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of the study was to assess total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of blood serum in relation with habitual leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and aerobic capacity in a group of 90 men with coronary heart disease (CHD) aged 34.8–77.0 years and in 90 age-matched peers without CHD. Methods. Two spectrophotometric methods were applied to assess TAC: Ferric Reducing Ability of Serum (TAC-FRAS) and 2.2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (TAC-DPPH) tests. Aerobic capacity was expressed as physical working capacity at 85% of the maximal heart rate (PWC85%HRmax). Results. CHD patients had higher values of TACFRAS (1.37 ± 0.28 versus 1.27 ± 0.23 mmol FeCl2·L−1; P < 0.05) but there were no group differences for TAC-DPPH and for uric acid (UA). Negative correlation was found between LTPA (also when calculated per kg of body mass) and TAC-DPPH in CHD patients. In CHD patients, TAC-FRAS and UA were lower in subjects with higher aerobic capacity expressed as PWC85%HRmax/kg. Those associations were not found in healthy men. Conclusions. We conclude that TAC of blood serum is moderately adversely related to LTPA and aerobic capacity in patients with CHD. UA, as the main determinant of serum TAC, may be partially responsible for those associations. PMID:26451234

  5. Technological properties, antioxidant activity and total phenolic and flavonoid content of pigmented chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiras-Palazuelos, Mar J; Ochoa-Lugo, Mirna I; Gutiérrez-Dorado, Roberto; López-Valenzuela, José A; Mora-Rochín, Saraid; Milán-Carrillo, Jorge; Garzón-Tiznado, José A; Reyes-Moreno, Cuauhtémoc

    2013-02-01

    Chickpeas are rich sources of highly nutritious protein and dietary fibre; the health benefits of consuming legumes such as antioxidant activity (AoxA) could be effective for the expansion of their food uses. The technological properties and antioxidant potential of five pigmented chickpea cultivars were evaluated. Protein content of the grains varied from 24.9 to 27.4 g/100 g sample (dw). The cooking time (CT) of the whole grains ranged from 90.5 to 218.5 min; the lowest CT corresponded to Black ICC3761 cultivar. The total phenolic content (TPC) and AoxA [oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) value] varied from 1.23 to 1.51 mg GAE/g sample (dw) and from 5011 to 5756 μmol TE/100 g sample (dw), respectively; Red ICC13124 showed the highest ORAC value. The differences in technological properties and AoxA among cultivars could be used in chickpea breeding programmes. Chickpea cultivars could contribute significantly to the management and/or prevention of degenerative diseases associated with free radical damage.

  6. Evaluation of total phenols, total flavonoids and antioxidant activity of the leaves crude extracts of locally grown pigeon pea traditionally used in Sultanate of Oman for the treatment of jaundice and diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Hamood Al-Saeedi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the total phenols, total flavonoids and evaluate the antioxidant activity of crude extracts from the leaves of pigeon pea native to Sultanate of Oman by a popular method. Methods: The powdered leaves samples from pigeon pea were used for extraction by maceration method with methanol solvent. The methanol free crude extract by maceration method was suspended in water and successively extracted with different polarities of solvents. The obtained crude extracts with different polarities were used for the determination of total phenols and flavonoids contents by using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and aluminum chloride methods. The antioxidant activity of six crude extracts from pigeon pea was determined by α, α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl method. Results: The different polarities leaves crude extracts showed a significant amount of total phenols content ranging from 97.80 to 256.00 mg of GAE/g of crude extract. The same leaves crude extracts also showed good amount of total flavonoids content ranging from 1.38 to 8.51 mg QE/g plant material. The six crude extracts from the leaves displayed significant α, α- diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity with highest value in chloroform extract followed by methanol, butanol, ethyl acetate, hexane and water crude extracts (98.13%, 89.26%, 88.82%, 86.41%, 79.95% and 69.44%, respectively. Conclusions: Leaves crude extracts from pigeon pea have high contents of total phenols and flavonoids. In this regards, it could be used as a medicine for the treatment of different diseases.

  7. Stabilization and activation of p53 are regulated independently by different phosphorylation events

    OpenAIRE

    Chernov, Mikhail V.; Ramana, Chilakamarti V.; Adler, Victor V.; Stark, George R.

    1998-01-01

    Treatment of mouse or human cells with the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors H7 or bisindolylmaleimide I induced an increase in the lifetime of p53, leading to its accumulation. In inhibitor-treated cells, p53 translocated to the nuclei and bound to DNA but was not competent to induce transcription. However, transactivation could be induced by subsequent DNA damage. Phorbol ester, a potent activator of PKC, significantly inhibited the accumulation of p53 after DNA damage. Therefore, constitut...

  8. Protein kinase C-α signals P115RhoGEF phosphorylation and RhoA activation in TNF-α-induced mouse brain microvascular endothelial cell barrier dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Xiaolu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, a proinflammatory cytokine, is capable of activating the small GTPase RhoA, which in turn contributes to endothelial barrier dysfunction. However, the underlying signaling mechanisms remained undefined. Therefore, we aimed to determine the role of protein kinase C (PKC isozymes in the mechanism of RhoA activation and in signaling TNF-α-induced mouse brain microvascular endothelial cell (BMEC barrier dysfunction. Methods Bend.3 cells, an immortalized mouse brain endothelial cell line, were exposed to TNF-α (10 ng/mL. RhoA activity was assessed by pull down assay. PKCactivity was measured using enzyme assasy. BMEC barrier function was measured by transendothelial electrical resistance (TER. p115RhoGEF phosphorylation was detected by autoradiography followed by western blotting. F-actin organization was observed by rhodamine-phalloidin staining. Both pharmacological inhibitors and knockdown approaches were employed to investigate the role of PKC and p115RhoGEF in TNF-α-induced RhoA activation and BMEC permeability. Results We observed that TNF-α induces a rapid phosphorylation of p115RhoGEF, activation of PKC and RhoA in BMECs. Inhibition of conventional PKC by Gö6976 mitigated the TNF-α-induced p115RhoGEF phosphorylation and RhoA activation. Subsequently, we found that these events are regulated by PKC-α rather than PKC-β by using shRNA. In addition, P115-shRNA and n19RhoA (dominant negative mutant of RhoA transfections had no effect on mediating TNF-α-induced PKCactivation. These data suggest that PKC-α but not PKC-β acts as an upstream regulator of p115RhoGEF phosphorylation and RhoA activation in response to TNF-α. Moreover, depletion of PKC-α, of p115RhoGEF, and inhibition of RhoA activation also prevented TNF-α-induced stress fiber formation and a decrease in TER. Conclusions Taken together, our results show that PKC-α phosphorylation of p115RhoGEF mediates TNF

  9. The activity and community structure of total bacteria and denitrifying bacteria across soil depths and biological gradients in estuary ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Hoon; Kang, Hojeong

    2016-02-01

    The distribution of soil microorganisms often shows variations along soil depth, and even in the same soil layer, each microbial group has a specific niche. In particular, the estuary soil is intermittently flooded, and the characteristics of the surface soil layer are different from those of other terrestrial soils. We investigated the microbial community structure and activity across soil depths and biological gradients composed of invasive and native plants in the shallow surface layer of an estuary ecosystem by using molecular approaches. Our results showed that the total and denitrifying bacterial community structures of the estuarine wetland soil differed according to the short depth gradient. In growing season, gene copy number of 16S rRNA were 1.52(±0.23) × 10(11), 1.10(±0.06) × 10(11), and 4.33(±0.16) × 10(10) g(-1) soil; nirS were 5.41(±1.25) × 10(8), 4.93(±0.94) × 10(8), and 2.61(±0.28) × 10(8) g(-1) soil; and nirK were 9.67(±2.37) × 10(6), 3.42(±0.55) × 10(6), and 2.12(±0.19) × 10(6) g(-1) soil in 0 cm, 5 cm, and 10 cm depth layer, respectively. The depth-based difference was distinct in the vegetated sample and in the growing season, evidencing the important role of plants in structuring the microbial community. In comparison with other studies, we observed differences in the microbial community and functions even across very short depth gradients. In conclusion, our results suggested that (i) in the estuary ecosystem, the denitrifying bacterial community could maintain its abundance and function within shallow surface soil layers through facultative anaerobiosis, while the total bacterial community would be both quantitatively and qualitatively affected by the soil depth, (ii) the nirS gene community, rather than the nirK one, should be the first candidate used as an indicator of the microbial denitrification process in the estuary system, and (iii) as the microbial community is distributed and plays a certain niche role according to

  10. Inhibition of JAK3 and PKC via Immunosuppressive Drugs Tofacitinib and Sotrastaurin Inhibits Proliferation of Human B Lymphocytes In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martina, M N; Ramirez Bajo, M J; Bañon-Maneus, E; Moya Rull, D; Hierro-Garcia, N; Revuelta, I; Campistol, J M; Rovira, J; Diekmann, F

    2016-11-01

    Antibody-mediated response in solid organ transplantation is critical for graft dysfunction and loss. The use of immunosuppressive agents partially inhibits the B-lymphocyte response leading to a risk of acute and chronic antibody-mediated rejection. This study evaluated the impact of JAK3 and PKC inhibitors tofacitinib (Tofa) and sotrastaurin (STN), respectively, on B-cell proliferation, apoptosis, and activation in vitro. Human B cells isolated from peripheral blood of healthy volunteers were cocultured with CD40 ligand-transfected fibroblasts as feeder cells in the presence of interleukin (IL) 2, IL-10, and IL-21. The cocultures were treated with immunosuppressants Tofa, STN, and rapamycin (as a control), to analyze the proliferation and apoptosis of B cells by means of Cyquant and flow cytometry, respectively. CD27 and IgG staining were applied to evaluate whether treatments modified the activation of B cells. Tofa and STN were able to inhibit B-cell proliferation to the same extent as rapamycin, without inducing cell apoptosis. After 6 days in coculture with feeder cells, all B cells showed CD27 memory B-cell phenotype. None of the immunosuppressive treatments modified the proportion between class-switched and non-class-switched memory B cells observed in nontreated cultures. The high predominance of CD27 + CD24 + phenotype was not modified by any immunosuppressive treatment. Our results show that Tofa and STN can suppress B-cell antibody responses to an extent similar to rapamycin, in vitro; therefore these compounds may be a useful therapy against antibody-mediated rejection in transplantation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Biological variation and reference intervals for circulating osteopontin, osteoprotegerin, total soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sennels, H P; Jacobsen, Søren; Jensen, T

    2007-01-01

    Objective. Monitoring inflammatory diseases and osteoclastogenesis with osteopontin (OPN), osteoprotegerin (OPG), total soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (total sRANKL) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) has recently attracted increased interest. The purpose...

  12. Total phenolic content and in-vitro antioxidant activities from methanolic extract of alligator pipefish, Syngnathoides biaculeatus (Bloch, 1785)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sanaye, S.V.; Pise, N.M.; Pawar, A.P.; Parab, P.P.; Sreepada, R.A.; Pawar, H.B.; Murugan, A.

    -vitro antioxidant activities in terms of reducing power (RP), metal chelating activity (MCA), 2,2 diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), inhibition of lipid peroxidation (LPX) and hydroxyl radical...

  13. SAETTA: fine-scale observation of the total lightning activity in the framework of the CORSiCA atmospheric observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coquillat, Sylvain; Defer, Eric; Lambert, Dominique; Martin, Jean-Michel; Pinty, Jean-Pierre; Pont, Véronique; Prieur, Serge

    2015-04-01

    Located in the West Mediterranean basin, Corsica is strategically positioned for atmospheric studies referred by MISTRALS/HyMeX and MISTRALS/CHARMEX programs. The implementation of the project of atmospheric observatory CORSiCA (supported by the Collectivité Territoriale de Corse via CPER/FEDER funds) was an opportunity to strengthen the potential observation of convective events causing heavy rainfall and flash floods, by acquiring a total lightning activity detection system adapted to storm tracking at a regional scale. This detection system called SAETTA (Suivi de l'Activité Electrique Tridimensionnelle Totale de l'Atmosphère) is a network of 12 LMA stations (Lightning Mapping Array). Developed by New Mexico Tech (USA), the instrument allows observing lightning flashes in 3D and real time, at high temporal and spatial resolutions. It detects the radiations emitted by cloud discharges in the 60-66 MHz band, in a radius of about 300 km from the centre of the network, in passive mode and standalone (solar panel and battery). Each LMA station samples the signal at high rate (80 microseconds), records data on internal hard disk, and transmits a decimated signal in real-time via the 3G phone network. The decimated data are received on a server that calculates the position of the detected sources by the time-of-arrival method and manages a quasi real-time display on a website. The non decimated data intended for research applications are recovered later on the field. Deployed in May and June 2014, SAETTA operated nominally from July 13 to October 20, 2014. It is to be definitively re-installed in spring 2015 after a hardware updating. The operation of SAETTA is contractually scheduled until the end of 2019, but it is planned to continue well beyond to obtain longer-term observations for addressing issues related to climatic trends. SAETTA has great scientific potential in a broad range of topics: physics of discharge; monitoring and simulation of storm systems

  14. Multifractal analysis of vertical total electron content (VTEC at equatorial region and low latitude, during low solar activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. A. Bolzan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the multifractal aspects of the GPS data (measured during a period of low solar activity obtained from two Brazilian stations: Belém (01.3° S, 48.3° W and São José dos Campos (SJC (23.2° S, 45.9° W. The results show that the respective geographic sites show important scaling differences as well as similarities when their multifractal signatures for vertical total electron content (VTEC are compared. The f(α spectra have a narrow shape for great scales, which indicates the predominance of deterministic phenomena, such as solar rotation (27 days over intermittent phenomena. Furthermore, the f(α spectra for both sites have a strong multifractality degree at small scales. This strong multifractality degree observed at small scales (1 to 12 h at both sites is because the ionosphere over Brazil is a non-equilibrium system. The differences found were that Belém presented a stronger multifractality at small scales (1 h to 12 h compared with SJC, particularly in 2006. The reason for this behaviour may be associated with the location of Belém, near the geomagnetic equator, where at this location the actions of X-rays, ultraviolet, and another wavelength from the Sun are more direct, strong, and constant throughout the whole year. Although the SJC site is near ionospheric equatorial anomaly (IEA peaks, this interpretation could explain the higher values found for the intermittent parameter μ for Belém compared with SJC. Belém also showed the presence of one or two flattening regions for f(α spectra at the same scales mentioned before. These differences and similarities also were interpreted in terms of the IEA content, where this phenomenon is an important source of intermittence due the presence of the VTEC peaks at ±20° geomagnetic latitudes.

  15. Determination of platinum group metal catalyst residues in active pharmaceutical ingredients by means of total reflection X-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marguí, Eva; Queralt, Ignasi; Hidalgo, Manuela

    2013-01-01

    The control of metal catalyst residues (i.e., platinum group metals (PGMs)) in different stages of the manufacturing processes of the active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and, especially, in the final product is crucial. For API specimens, there are strict guidelines to limit the levels of metal residues based on their individual levels of safety concern. For PGMs the concentration limit has been established at 10 mg/kg in the API. Therefore great effort is currently being devoted to the development of new and simple procedures to control metals in pharmaceuticals. In the present work, an analytical methodology based on benchtop total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (TXRF) has been developed for the rapid and simple determination of some PGM catalyst impurities (Rh, Pd, Ir and Pt) in different types of API samples. An evaluation of different sample treatments (dissolution and digestion of the solid pharmaceutical samples) has been carried out and the developed methodologies have been validated according to the analytical parameters to be considered and acceptance criteria for PGM determination according to the United States Pharmacopeia (USP). Limits of quantification obtained for PGM metals were in the range of 2–4 mg/kg which are satisfactory according to current legislation. From the obtained results it is shown that the developed TXRF method can be implemented in the pharmaceutical industries to increase productivity of the laboratory; offering an interesting and complementary analytical tool to other atomic spectroscopic methods. - Highlights: • A TXRF method for PGM catalyst residue determination in API samples is presented. • Analysis can be performed using 10 μL of the internal standardized dissolved API. • The method is rapid, simple and suitable according to the USP requirements

  16. An amperometric bienzymatic cholesterol biosensor based on functionalized graphene modified electrode and its electrocatalytic activity towards total cholesterol determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjunatha, Revanasiddappa; Shivappa Suresh, Gurukar; Melo, Jose Savio; D'Souza, Stanislaus F; Venkatesha, Thimmappa Venkatarangaiah

    2012-09-15

    Cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) and cholesterol esterase (ChEt) have been covalently immobilized onto functionalized graphene (FG) modified graphite electrode. Enzymes modified electrodes were characterized using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). FG accelerates the electron transfer from electrode surface to the immobilized ChOx, achieving the direct electrochemistry of ChOx. A well defined redox peak was observed, corresponding to the direct electron transfer of the FAD/FADH(2) of ChOx. The electron transfer coefficient (α) and electron transfer rate constant (K(s)) were calculated and their values are found to be 0.31 and 0.78 s(-1), respectively. For the free cholesterol determination, ChOx-FG/Gr electrode exhibits a sensitive response from 50 to 350 μM (R=-0.9972) with a detection limit of 5 μM. For total cholesterol determination, co-immobilization of ChEt and ChOx on modified electrode, i.e. (ChE