WorldWideScience

Sample records for total pfc levels

  1. Bridgeless SEPIC PFC Converter for Multistring LED Driver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Aman; Singh, Bhim

    2018-05-01

    This paper deals with Power Factor Correction (PFC) in Low Voltage High Current (LVHC) multi-string light emitting diode (LED) using a bridgeless (BL) single ended primary inductance converter (SEPIC). This application is designed for large area LED lighting with illumination control. A multi-mode LED dimming technique is used for the lighting control. The BL-SEPIC PFC converter is used as a load emulator for high power factor. The regulated low voltage from flyback converter is a source power to the synchronous buck converters for multi-string LED driver and forced cooling system for LED junction. The BL-SEPIC PFC converter inductor design is based on Discontinuous Inductor Current Modes (DICM) which provides good PFC at low cost. Test results are found quite satisfactory for universal input AC (90-265 V). There is significant improvement in the power factor and input current Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) with good margin of harmonic limits for lighting IEC 61000-3-2 Class C.

  2. The separation of particulate within PFC decontamination wastewater generated by PFC decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gye Nam; Lee, Sung Yeol; Won, Hui Jun; Jung, Chong Hun; Oh, Won Zin; Park, Jin Ho; Narayan, M.

    2005-01-01

    When PFC(Perfluoro carbonate) decontamination technology is applied to removal of radioactive contaminated particulate adhered at surface during the operation of nuclear research facilities, it is necessary to develop a filtration equipment to reuse of PFC solution due to high price, also to minimize the volume of second wastewater. Contaminated characteristics of hot particulate was investigated and a filtration process was presented to remove suspended radioactive particulate from PFC decontamination wastewater generated on PFC decontamination. The range of size of hot particulate adhered at the surface of research facilities measured by SEM was 0.1∼10μm. Hot particulate of more than 2μm in PFC contamination wastewater was removed by first filter and then hot particulate of more than 0.2μm was removed by second filter. Results of filter experiments showed that filtration efficiency of PVDF(Poly vinylidene fluoride), PP(Polypropylene), Ceramic filter was 95∼97%. A ceramic filter showed a higher filtration efficiency with a little low permeate volume. Also, a ceramic of inorganic compound could be broken easily on experiment and has a high price but was highly stable at radioactivity in comparison of PVDF and PP of a macromolecule which generate H 2 gas in alpha radioactivity environment

  3. vlPFC-vmPFC-Amygdala Interactions Underlie Age-Related Differences in Cognitive Regulation of Emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvers, Jennifer A; Insel, Catherine; Powers, Alisa; Franz, Peter; Helion, Chelsea; Martin, Rebecca E; Weber, Jochen; Mischel, Walter; Casey, B J; Ochsner, Kevin N

    2017-07-01

    Emotion regulation is a critical life skill that develops throughout childhood and adolescence. Despite this development in emotional processes, little is known about how the underlying brain systems develop with age. This study examined emotion regulation in 112 individuals (aged 6-23 years) as they viewed aversive and neutral images using a reappraisal task. On "reappraisal" trials, participants were instructed to view the images as distant, a strategy that has been previously shown to reduce negative affect. On "reactivity" trials, participants were instructed to view the images without regulating emotions to assess baseline emotional responding. During reappraisal, age predicted less negative affect, reduced amygdala responses and inverse coupling between the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and amygdala. Moreover, left ventrolateral prefrontal (vlPFC) recruitment mediated the relationship between increasing age and diminishing amygdala responses. This negative vlPFC-amygdala association was stronger for individuals with inverse coupling between the amygdala and vmPFC. These data provide evidence that vmPFC-amygdala connectivity facilitates vlPFC-related amygdala modulation across development. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. An efficiency improved single-phase PFC converter for electric vehicle charger applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Dexuan; Tang, Yi; Jin, Chi

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an efficiency improved single-phase power factor correction (PFC) converter with its target application to plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) charging systems. The proposed PFC converter features sinusoidal input current, three-level output characteristic, and wide range...

  5. Neuroanatomy of the vmPFC and dlPFC predicts individual differences in cognitive regulation during dietary self-control across regulation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Liane; Tusche, Anita; Manoharan, Nicolas; Hutcherson, Cendri; Hare, Todd; Plassmann, Hilke

    2018-06-04

    Making healthy food choices is challenging for many people. Individuals differ greatly in their ability to follow health goals in the face of temptation, but it is unclear what underlies such differences. Using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), we investigated in healthy humans (i.e., men and women) links between structural variation in gray matter volume and individuals' level of success in shifting toward healthier food choices. We combined MRI and choice data into a joint dataset by pooling across three independent studies that employed a task prompting participants to explicitly focus on the healthiness of food items before making their food choices. Within this dataset, we found that individual differences in gray matter volume in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) predicted regulatory success. We extended and confirmed these initial findings by predicting regulatory success out of sample and across tasks in a second dataset requiring participants to apply a different regulation strategy that entailed distancing from cravings for unhealthy, appetitive foods. Our findings suggest that neuroanatomical markers in the vmPFC and dlPFC generalized to different forms of dietary regulation strategies across participant groups. They provide novel evidence that structural differences in neuroanatomy of two key regions for valuation and its control, the vmPFC and dlPFC, predict an individual's ability to exert control in dietary choices. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Dieting involves regulating food choices in order to eat healthier foods and fewer unhealthy foods. People differ dramatically in their ability to achieve or maintain this regulation, but it is unclear why. Here, we show that individuals with more gray matter volume in the dorsolateral and ventromedial prefrontal cortex are better at exercising dietary self-control. This relationship was observed across four different studies examining two different forms of dietary

  6. Stunted PFC activity during neuromuscular control under stress with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Ranjana K

    2016-02-01

    Obesity is an established risk factor for impaired cognition, which is primarily regulated by the prefrontal cortex (PFC). However, very little is known about the neural pathways that underlie obesity-related declines in neuromuscular control, particularly under stress. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of the PFC on neuromuscular control during handgrip exertions under stress with obesity. Twenty non-obese and obese young adults performed submaximal handgrip exertions in the absence and presence of a concurrent stressful task. Primary dependent measures included oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO2: a measure of PFC activity) and force fluctuations (an indicator of neuromuscular control). Higher HbO2 levels in the PFC were observed in the non-obese compared to the obese group (P = 0.009). In addition, higher HbO2 levels were observed in the stress compared to the control condition in the non-obese group; however, this trend was reversed in the obese group (P = 0.043). In general, force fluctuations increased by 26% in the stress when compared to the control condition (P = 0.001) and obesity was associated with 39% greater force fluctuation (P = 0.024). Finally, while not significant, obesity-related decrements in force fluctuations were magnified under stress (P = 0.063). The current study provides the first evidence that neuromuscular decrements with obesity were associated with impaired PFC activity and this relationship was augmented in stress conditions. These findings are important because they provide new information on obesity-specific changes in brain function associated with neuromuscular control since the knowledge previously focused largely on obesity-specific changes in peripheral muscle capacity.

  7. PFOS and PFC releases and associated pollution from a PFC production plant in Minnesota (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliaei, Fardin; Kriens, Don; Weber, Roland; Watson, Alan

    2013-04-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and PFOS-related substances have been listed as persistent organic pollutants in the Stockholm Convention. From August 2012, Parties to the Convention needed to address the use, storage, and disposal of PFOS-including production sites and sites where PFOS wastes have been deposited-in their national implementation plans. The paper describes the pollution in Minnesota (USA) caused by the 3M Company at one of the largest per/polyfluorinated chemical (PFC) production facilities. From early 1950s until the end of 2002, when 3M terminated PFOS and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) production, PFOS, PFOA, and other PFC production wastes were disposed around the plant and in local disposal sites. Discharges from the site and releases from deposits caused widespread contamination of ground and surface waters including local drinking water wells. Fish in the river downstream were contaminated with PFOS to levels that led to fish consumption advisories. Human exposures resulted from ingesting contaminated drinking water, requiring installation of water treatment facilities and alternate water supplies. The critical evaluation of the assessments done revealed a range of gaps in particular of human exposure where relevant exposure pathways including the entire exposure via food have not been taken into consideration. Currently, the exposure assessment of vulnerable groups such as children or Hmong minorities is inadequate and needs to be improved/validated by epidemiological studies. The assessment methodology described for this site may serve-with highlighted improvements-as a model for assessment of other PFOS/PFC production sites in the Stockholm Convention implementation.

  8. Development of filtration equipment to reuse PFC decontamination wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gye Nam; Lee, Sung Yeol; Won, Hui Jun; Jung Chong Hun; Oh, Won Zin; Park, Jin Ho

    2005-01-01

    When PFC(Perfluorocarbonate) decontamination technology is applied to removal of radioactive contaminated particulate adhered at surface during the operation of nuclear research facilities, it is necessary to develop a filtration equipment to reuse of PFC solution due to high price, also to minimize the volume of second wastewater. Contaminated characteristics of hot particulate was investigated and a filtration process was presented to remove suspended radioactive particulate from PFC decontamination wastewater generated on PFC decontamination

  9. Cyclo-octafluorobutane (PFC-318) in the global atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhle, J.; Vollmer, M. K.; Fraser, P. J.; Rhee, T. S.; Ivy, D. J.; Arnold, T.; Harth, C. M.; Salameh, P.; O'Doherty, S.; Young, D.; Steele, P.; Krummel, P. B.; Leist, M.; Schmidbauer, N.; Lunder, C.; Kim, J.; Kim, K.; Reimann, S.; Simmonds, P.; Prinn, R. G.; Weiss, R. F.

    2010-12-01

    PFC-318 (c-C4F8, cyclo-octafluorobutane) is a long-lived (3200 years) perfluorocarbon (PFC) greenhouse gas with a high 100-year Global Warming Potential (GWP100 = 10,300) and a wide range of industrial uses. We extend previous atmospheric measurements of PFC-318 in the Cape Grim Air Archive (Oram, 1999) with our new in situ measurements from remote and urban AGAGE (Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment) and affiliated stations. Our longest in situ record is from the Jungfraujoch observatory in the Swiss Alps, and our data set is augmented by measurements of flasks from the King Sejong and Troll coastal Antarctic stations and several locations in the Northern Hemisphere. In mid-2009 we find ˜1.25 ppt (parts-per-trillion, dry mol fraction) in the Northern Hemisphere and ˜1.20 ppt in the Southern Hemisphere, with rise rates of ˜0.03 ppt/yr and an interhemispheric ratio of ˜1.04. We obtain PFC-318 emissions for 2008-2010 of ˜1 Gg/yr using a simple box model, and preliminary measurements of older archived air at SIO indicate similar emissions since at the least the late 1990s. In contrast, the EDGAR v4 emissions database estimates much lower PFC-318 emissions of 0.02 Gg/yr for 2005. Using GWP100 we calculate ˜10 million tons of CO2-equivalent PFC-318 emissions/yr for 2008-2010, about double the CO2-equivalent PFC-218 annual emissions, or 0.4 times the CO2-equivalent PFC-116 annual emissions, reported for 2008-2009 by Mühle et al. (2010). Thus PFC-318 is the third most important PFC in terms of CO2-equivalent emissions. We find mostly baseline conditions at remote AGAGE stations and urban sites in the USA, Europe, and Australia, in contrast to frequent above baseline conditions at Gosan station, Jeju Island, South Korea, indicating significant emission sources in East Asia as found by Saito et al. (2010). Oram, D.E., Trends of long-lived anthropogenic halocarbons in the Southern Hemisphere and model calculation of global emissions, Ph.D. thesis, University

  10. Verification of radiation heat transfer analysis in KSTAR PFC and vacuum vessel during baking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, S.Y. [Chungnam National University, 79 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34167 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Y.J., E-mail: k43689@nfri.re.kr [National Fusion Research Institute, 169-148 Gwahang-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34133 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, S.T.; Jung, N.Y.; Im, D.S.; Gong, J.D.; Lee, J.M.; Park, K.R.; Oh, Y.K. [National Fusion Research Institute, 169-148 Gwahang-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34133 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Thermal network is used to analyze heat transfer from PFC to VV. • Three heat transfer rate equations are derived based on the thermal network. • The equations is verified using Experimental data and design documents. • Most of the heat lost in tokamak is transferred to experimental room air. • The heat loss to the air is 101 kW of the total heat loss of 154 kW in tokamak. - Abstract: KSTAR PFC (Plasma Facing Component) and VV (Vacuum Vessel) were not arrived at the target temperatures in bake-out phase, which are 300 °C and 110 °C, respectively. The purpose of this study is to find out the reason why they have not been reached the target temperature. A thermal network analysis is used to investigate the radiation heat transfer from PFC to VV, and the thermal network is drawn up based on the actual KSTAR tokamak. The analysis model consists of three equations, and is solved using the EES (Engineering Equation Solver). The heat transfer rates obtained with the analysis model is verified using the experimental data at the KSTAR bake-out phase. The analyzed radiation heat transfer rates from PFC to VV agree quite well with those of experiment throughout the bake-out phase. Heat loss from PFC to experimental room air via flange of VV is also calculated and compared, which is found be the main reason of temperature gap between the target temperature and actually attained temperature of KSTAR PFC.

  11. Verification of radiation heat transfer analysis in KSTAR PFC and vacuum vessel during baking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, S.Y.; Kim, Y.J.; Kim, S.T.; Jung, N.Y.; Im, D.S.; Gong, J.D.; Lee, J.M.; Park, K.R.; Oh, Y.K.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal network is used to analyze heat transfer from PFC to VV. • Three heat transfer rate equations are derived based on the thermal network. • The equations is verified using Experimental data and design documents. • Most of the heat lost in tokamak is transferred to experimental room air. • The heat loss to the air is 101 kW of the total heat loss of 154 kW in tokamak. - Abstract: KSTAR PFC (Plasma Facing Component) and VV (Vacuum Vessel) were not arrived at the target temperatures in bake-out phase, which are 300 °C and 110 °C, respectively. The purpose of this study is to find out the reason why they have not been reached the target temperature. A thermal network analysis is used to investigate the radiation heat transfer from PFC to VV, and the thermal network is drawn up based on the actual KSTAR tokamak. The analysis model consists of three equations, and is solved using the EES (Engineering Equation Solver). The heat transfer rates obtained with the analysis model is verified using the experimental data at the KSTAR bake-out phase. The analyzed radiation heat transfer rates from PFC to VV agree quite well with those of experiment throughout the bake-out phase. Heat loss from PFC to experimental room air via flange of VV is also calculated and compared, which is found be the main reason of temperature gap between the target temperature and actually attained temperature of KSTAR PFC.

  12. 76 FR 70809 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-15

    .... Pavement condition index airfield inspection. Brief Description of Withdrawn Projects: Safety management... management services. East terminal expansion. New upper level roadway, design and construction. PFC...

  13. High Efficiency PFC Frontend for Class-D Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qingnan; Frium, Mads P.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis investigates the design of high eciency Power Factor Correction (PFC) converter for Class-D amplier at universal line and 3.5kW power range. The work starts with an overview on dierent high eciency Bridgeless PFC topologies and investigates their applicability with respect to the given...... speci- cations in Chapter 1. Based on the conclusions of Chapter 2, the single-phase Two-Boost-Circuit Bridgeless PFC converter topology is considered the most promising to start with regarding the achievable converter eciency and the EMI performances.The subsequent Chapters discuss the method...

  14. Power factor correction (PFC) converters feeding brushless DC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a comprehensive study of power factor correction (PFC) converters for feeding brushless DC (BLDC) motor drive. This work explores various configurations of PFC converters which are classified into five different categories of non-isolated, bridgeless (BL) non-isolated, isolated, BL-isolated PFC ...

  15. Engineering and thermal-hydraulic design of water cooled PFC for SST-1 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paritosh Chaudhuri; Santra, P.; Rabi Prakash, N.; Khirwadkar, S.; Arun Prakash, A.; Ramash, G.; Dubey, S.; Chenna Reddy, D.; Saxena, Y.C.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Steady state Superconducting Tokamak (SST-1) is a medium size tokamak with superconducting magnetic field coils. It is a large aspect ratio tokamak with a major radius of 1.1 m and minor radius of 0.20 m. SST-1 is designed for plasma discharge duration of ∼1000 seconds to obtain fully steady state plasma with total input power up to 1.0 MW. First Wall or Plasma Facing Components (PFC) is one or the major sub-systems of SST-1 tokamak consisting of divertors, passive stabilizers, baffles, and poloidal limiters are designed to be compatible for steady state operation. All the PFC has the same basic configuration: graphite tiles are mechanically attached to a back plate made of high strength copper alloy, and SS tubes are embedded in the groove made in the back plate. Same tube will be used for cooling during plasma operation and baking during wall conditioning. The main consideration in the design of the PFC is the steady state heat removal of up to 1 MW/m 2 . In addition to remove high heat fluxes, the PFC are also designed to be compatible for high temperature baking at 350 deg. C. Water was chosen as the coolant because of its appropriate thermal properties, and while baking, hot nitrogen gas would flow through these tubes to bake the PFC at high temperature. Extensive studies, involving different flow parameters and various cooling layouts, has been done to select the final cooling parameters and layout, compatible for cooling and baking. During steady state operation, divertor and passive stabilizer heat loads are expected to be 0.6 and 0.25 MW/m 2 . The PFC also has been design to withstand the peak heat fluxes without significant erosion such that frequent replacement is not necessary. Since the tile must be mechanically attached to the back plate (heat sink), the fitting technique must provide the highest mechanical stress so that thermal transfer efficiency is maximized. Proper brazing of cooling tube on the copper back

  16. Pharmacological and therapeutic directions in ADHD: Specificity in the PFC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levy Florence

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent directions in the treatment of ADHD have involved both a broadening of pharmacological perspectives to include nor-adrenergic as well as dopaminergic agents. A review of animal and human studies of pharmacological and therapeutic directions in ADHD suggests that the D1 receptor is a specific site for dopaminergic regulation of the PFC, but optimal levels of dopamine (DA are required for beneficial effects on working memory. Animal and human studies indicate that the alpha-2A receptor is also important for prefrontal regulation, leaving open the question of the relative importance of these receptor sites. The therapeutic effects of ADHD medications in the prefrontal cortex have focused attention on the development of working memory capacity in ADHD. Hypothesis The actions of dopaminergic vs noradrenergic agents, currently available for the treatment of ADHD have overlapping, but different actions in the prefrontal cortex (PFC and subcortical centers. While stimulants act on D1 receptors in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, they also have effects on D2 receptors in the corpus striatum and may also have serotonergic effects at orbitofrontal areas. At therapeutic levels, dopamine (DA stimulation (through DAT transporter inhibition decreases noise level acting on subcortical D2 receptors, while NE stimulation (through alpha-2A agonists increases signal by acting preferentially in the PFC possibly on DAD1 receptors. On the other hand, alpha-2A noradrenergic transmission is more limited to the prefrontal cortex (PFC, and thus less likely to have motor or stereotypic side effects, while alpha-2B and alpha-2C agonists may have wider cortical effects. The data suggest a possible hierarchy of specificity in the current medications used in the treatment of ADHD, with guanfacine likely to be most specific for the treatment of prefrontal attentional and working memory deficits. Stimulants may have broader effects on both vigilance

  17. Physicochemical characteristics of PFC surfactants for dry decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Won Jin; Lee, Chi Woo [Korea University, Seoul (Korea)

    2001-04-01

    Even the trace amount of the used nuclear fuels of high radioactivity are hazardous to the earth and humans. Perfluorocarbons and perfluorocarbon surfactants are emerging to be efficient chemicals in the dry decontamination process of the used fuels of high radioactivity. The theme was undertaken to increase the knowledge on perfluorocarbon surfactants to develop the perfluorocarbon system in the dry decontamination process in Korea. Several cationic and anionic pfc surfactants were synthesized. Effects of pfc surfactants on electrochemical etching of silicon were investigated to form porous silicons. Forces were measured between silicon surfaces and AFM tip in the absence and presence of pfc surfactants. 7 refs., 10 figs. (Author)

  18. Activity in dlPFC and its effective connectivity to vmPFC are associated with temporal discounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd A Hare

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available There is widespread interest in identifying computational and neurobiological mechanisms that influence the ability to choose long-term benefits over more proximal and readily available rewards in domains such as dietary and economic choice. We present the results of a human fMRI study that examines how neural activity relates to observed individual differences in the discounting of future rewards during an intertemporal monetary choice task. We found that a region of left dlPFC BA-46 was more active in trials where subjects chose delayed rewards, after controlling for the subjective value of those rewards. We also found that the connectivity from dlPFC BA-46 to a region of vmPFC widely associated with the computational of stimulus values, increased at the time of choice, and especially during trials in which subjects chose delayed rewards. Finally, we found that estimates of effective connectivity between these two regions played a critical role in predicting out-of-sample, between-subject differences in discount rates. Together with previous findings in dietary choice, these results suggest that a common set of computational and neurobiological mechanisms facilitate choices in favor of long- term reward in both settings.

  19. The feasibility study of hot cell decontamination by the PFC spray method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hui-Jun Won; Chong-Hun Jung; Jei-Kwon Moon

    2008-01-01

    The characteristics of per-fluorocarbon compounds (PFC) are colorless, non-toxic, easily vaporized and nonflammable. Also, some of them are liquids of a high density, low surface tension, low latent heat and low specific heat. These particular chemical and physical properties of fluoro-organic compounds permit their use in very different fields such as electronics, medicine, tribology, nuclear and material science. The Sonatol process was developed under a contract with the DOE. The Sonatol process uses an ultrasonic agitation in a PFC solution that contains a fluorinated surfactant to remove radioactive particles from surfaces. Filtering the suspended particles allows the solutions to be reused indefinitely. They applied the Sonatol process to the decontamination of a heterogeneous legacy Pu-238 waste that exhibited an excessive hydrogen gas generation, which prevents a transportation of such a waste to a Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) is developing dry decontamination technologies applicable to a decontamination of a highly radioactive area loosely contaminated with radioactive particles. This contamination has occurred as a result of an examination of a post-irradiated material or the development of the DUPIC process. The dry decontamination technologies developed are the carbon dioxide pellet spray method and the PFC spray method. As a part of the project, PFC ultrasonic decontamination technology was developed in 2004. The PFC spray decontamination method which is based on the test results of the PFC ultrasonic method has been under development since 2005. The developed PFC spray decontamination equipment consists of four modules (spray, collection, filtration and distillation). Vacuum cup of the collection module gathers the contaminated PFC solution, then the solution is moved to the filtration module and it is recycled. After a multiple recycling of the spent PFC solution, it is purified in the distillation

  20. Estimation of reliability of a interleaving PFC boost converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulam Amer Sandepudi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliability plays an important role in power supplies. For other electronic equipment, a certain failure mode, at least for a part of the total system, can often be employed without serious (critical effects. However, for power supply no such condition can be accepted, since very high demands on its reliability must be achieved. At higher power levels, the continuous conduction mode (CCM boost converter is preferred topology for implementation a front end with PFC. As a result, significant efforts have been made to improve the performance of high boost converter. This paper is one of the efforts for improving the performance of the converter from the reliability point of view. In this paper, interleaving boost power factor correction converter is simulated with single switch in continuous conduction mode (CCM, discontinuous conduction mode (DCM and critical conduction mode (CRM under different output power ratings. Results of the converter are explored from reliability point of view.

  1. Investigation of stormwater quality improvements utilizing permeable friction course (PFC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    This report describes research into the water quality and hydraulics of the Permeable Friction Course (PFC). : Water quality monitoring of 3 locations in the Austin area indicates up to a 90 percent reduction in pollutant : discharges from PFC compar...

  2. 76 FR 56001 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ...: Regional intermodal transportation center. Determination: Partially approved. The FAA determined that... Approved for Collection and Use at a $3.00 PFC Level: Public information display kiosks. Wildlife hazard assessment study. Interactive employee training module. Blast fence extension--taxiway D. Aircraft rescue and...

  3. Study of radiation heat transfer between PFC and vacuum vessel during SST-1 baking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhuri, Paritosh E-mail: paritosh@ipr.res.in; Chenna Reddy, D.; Santra, P.; Khirwadkar, S.; Ravi Pragash, N.; Saxena, Y.C

    2003-01-01

    Steady-state superconducting tokamak (SST-1) is a medium size tokamak with superconducting magnetic field coils. Plasma facing components (PFC) of SST-1 are placed inside the vacuum vessel (VV) of the tokamak and are designed to be compatible for steady-state operation. The main consideration in the design of the PFC is the steady-state heat removal of up to 1 MW/m{sup 2}. In addition to remove high heat fluxes, the PFC are also designed to be compatible for baking at high temperature. Since it is difficult to calculate the radiation heat loads between PFC and VV in a 3-D irregular geometry, a simplified model of concentric cylinders has been chosen for the purpose of estimation of the power requirements and the thermal responses of PFC and VV during their bakeout phases. Thermal responses of the PFC and VV have been analysed and the analytical results have been compared with 2-D finite element analysis using ANSYS. The radiation losses between PFC and VV also have been evaluated on the actual model containing all PFC inside the VV.

  4. Design and thermal-hydraulic analysis of PFC baking for SST-1 Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhuri, Paritosh; Reddy, D. Chenna; Khirwadkar, S.; Prakash, N. Ravi; Santra, P.; Saxena, Y.C.

    2001-01-01

    The Steady-State Superconducting Tokamak (SST-1) is a medium-size tokamak with super-conducting magnetic field coils. Plasma facing components (PFC) of the SST-1, consisting of divertors, passive stabilisers, baffles, and poloidal limiters, are designed to be compatible for steady-state operation. Except for the poloidal limiters, all other PFC are structurally continuous in the toroidal direction. As SST-1 is designed to run double-null divertor plasmas, these components also have up-down symmetry. A closed divertor configuration is chosen to produce high recycling and high pumping speed in the divertor region. The passive stabilisers are located close to the plasma to provide stability against the vertical instability of the elongated plasma. The main consideration in the design of the PFC is the steady-state heat removal of up to 1 MW/m 2 . In addition to removing high heat fluxes, the PFC are also designed to be compatible for baking at 350 deg. C. Different flow parameters and various tube layouts have been examined to select the optimum thermal-hydraulic parameters and tube layout for different PFC of SST-1. Thermal response of the PFC during baking has been performed analytically (using a Fortran code) and two-dimensional finite element analysis using ANSYS. The detailed thermal hydraulics and thermal responses of PFC baking is presented in this paper

  5. Design and thermal-hydraulic analysis of PFC baking for SST-1 Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhuri, Paritosh E-mail: paritosh@ipr.res.in; Reddy, D. Chenna; Khirwadkar, S.; Prakash, N. Ravi; Santra, P.; Saxena, Y.C

    2001-09-01

    The Steady-State Superconducting Tokamak (SST-1) is a medium-size tokamak with super-conducting magnetic field coils. Plasma facing components (PFC) of the SST-1, consisting of divertors, passive stabilisers, baffles, and poloidal limiters, are designed to be compatible for steady-state operation. Except for the poloidal limiters, all other PFC are structurally continuous in the toroidal direction. As SST-1 is designed to run double-null divertor plasmas, these components also have up-down symmetry. A closed divertor configuration is chosen to produce high recycling and high pumping speed in the divertor region. The passive stabilisers are located close to the plasma to provide stability against the vertical instability of the elongated plasma. The main consideration in the design of the PFC is the steady-state heat removal of up to 1 MW/m{sup 2}. In addition to removing high heat fluxes, the PFC are also designed to be compatible for baking at 350 deg. C. Different flow parameters and various tube layouts have been examined to select the optimum thermal-hydraulic parameters and tube layout for different PFC of SST-1. Thermal response of the PFC during baking has been performed analytically (using a Fortran code) and two-dimensional finite element analysis using ANSYS. The detailed thermal hydraulics and thermal responses of PFC baking is presented in this paper.

  6. 78 FR 76389 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ... Aberdeen, South Dakota. Application Number: 13-03-C-00-ABR. Application Type: Impose and use a PFC. PFC... related improvements--design and construction. Redundant main electrical service feed--construction...

  7. Perfluorocarbon (PFC) emulsions as potential drug carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuhas, J.M.; Goodman, R.L.; Moore, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    PFC emulsions have excellent oxygen transporting properties and have been reported to enhance the response of murine tumors to both radiation and BCNU. While the presently available emulsions are far too toxic to the immune system to be used in cancer therapy, they can be used to investigate the overall potential of this approach. As an example, the authors have found that these emulsions can alter drug availability. The lipophilicity of both the PFC and the drug in question determine the partitioning of the drug between the organic and aqueous phases of an emulsion. In vitro, this can reduce drug effectiveness by reducing the amount of drug available to the cells. In vivo, however, this partitioning may produce sustained drug exposure, which could be of benefit in cancer therapy and other applications. In brief, as the drug is absorbed from the circulating aqueous phase, additional drug would leach from the PFC, thereby providing a sustained drug exposure similar to that obtained with liposomes. While a great deal more work will be required to evaluate the practicality of this approach, the existence of this phenomenon must be taken into account in both the design and interpretation of efficacy studies in which anesthetics, chemotherapeutics, etc are employed

  8. Investigating the role of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC in the assessment of brands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Paulo eSantos

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC is believed to be important in everyday preference judgments, processing emotions during decision-making. However, there is still controversy in the literature regarding the participation of the vmPFC. To further elucidate the contribution of the vmPFC in brand preference, we designed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study where 18 subjects assessed positive, indifferent and fictitious brands. Also, both the period during and after the decision process were analyzed, hoping to unravel temporally the role of the vmPFC, using modeled and model-free fMRI analysis. Considering together the period before and after decision-making, there was activation of the vmPFC when comparing positive with indifferent or fictitious brands. However, when the decision-making period was separated from the moment after the response, and especially for positive brands, the vmPFC was more active after the choice than during the decision process itself, challenging some of the existing literature. The results of the present study support the notion that the vmPFC may be unimportant in the decision stage of brand preference, questioning theories that postulate that the vmPFC is in the origin of such a choice. Further studies are needed to investigate in detail why the vmPFC seems to be involved in brand preference only after the decision process.

  9. 76 FR 12405 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-07

    ... monitoring terminals. Update pavement management program. Reimbursement for jet bridges and acquisition and.... Mandatory pavement markings. Airport signage. Runway guard lights. Wildlife study. PFC application.... Runway 18/36 pavement maintenance. Runway 13/31 pavement maintenance. PFC administration fees. Brief...

  10. Cocaine craving during protracted withdrawal requires PKCε priming within vmPFC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Bailey W; Wroten, Melissa G; Sacramento, Arianne D; Silva, Hannah E; Shin, Christina B; Vieira, Philip A; Ben-Shahar, Osnat; Kippin, Tod E; Szumlinski, Karen K

    2017-05-01

    In individuals with a history of drug taking, the capacity of drug-associated cues to elicit indices of drug craving intensifies or incubates with the passage of time during drug abstinence. This incubation of cocaine craving, as well as difficulties with learning to suppress drug-seeking behavior during protracted withdrawal, are associated with a time-dependent deregulation of ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) function. As the molecular bases for cocaine-related vmPFC deregulation remain elusive, the present study assayed the consequences of extended access to intravenous cocaine (6 hours/day; 0.25 mg/infusion for 10 day) on the activational state of protein kinase C epsilon (PKCε), an enzyme highly implicated in drug-induced neuroplasticity. The opportunity to engage in cocaine seeking during cocaine abstinence time-dependently altered PKCε phosphorylation within vmPFC, with reduced and increased p-PKCε expression observed in early (3 days) and protracted (30 days) withdrawal, respectively. This effect was more robust within the ventromedial versus dorsomedial PFC, was not observed in comparable cocaine-experienced rats not tested for drug-seeking behavior and was distinct from the rise in phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase observed in cocaine-seeking rats. Further, the impact of inhibiting PKCε translocation within the vmPFC using TAT infusion proteins upon cue-elicited responding was determined and inhibition coinciding with the period of testing attenuated cocaine-seeking behavior, with an effect also apparent the next day. In contrast, inhibitor pretreatment prior to testing during early withdrawal was without effect. Thus, a history of excessive cocaine taking influences the cue reactivity of important intracellular signaling molecules within the vmPFC, with PKCε playing a critical role in the manifestation of cue-elicited cocaine seeking during protracted drug withdrawal. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  11. Ex vivo dissection of optogenetically activated mPFC and hippocampal inputs to neurons in the basolateral amygdala: implications for fear and emotional memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cora eHübner

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Many lines of evidence suggest that a reciprocally interconnected network comprising the amygdala, ventral hippocampus (vHC, and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC participates in different aspects of the acquisition and extinction of conditioned fear responses and fear behavior. This could at least in part be mediated by direct connections from mPFC or vHC to amygdala to control amygdala activity and output. However, currently the interactions between mPFC and vHC afferents and their specific targets in the amygdala are still poorly understood. Here, we use an ex-vivo optogenetic approach to dissect synaptic properties of inputs from mPFC and vHC to defined neuronal populations in the basal amygdala (BA, the area that we identify as a major target of these projections. We find that BA principal neurons (PNs and local BA interneurons (INs receive monosynaptic excitatory inputs from mPFC and vHC. In addition, both these inputs also recruit GABAergic feedforward inhibition in a substantial fraction of PNs, in some neurons this also comprises a slow GABAB-component. Amongst the innervated PNs we identify neurons that project back to subregions of the mPFC, indicating a loop between neurons in mPFC and BA, and a pathway from vHC to mPFC via BA. Interestingly, mPFC inputs also recruit feedforward inhibition in a fraction of INs, suggesting that these inputs can activate dis-inhibitory circuits in the BA. A general feature of both mPFC and vHC inputs to local INs is that excitatory inputs display faster rise and decay kinetics than in PNs, which would enable temporally precise signaling. However, mPFC and vHC inputs to both PNs and INs differ in their presynaptic release properties, in that vHC inputs are more depressing. In summary, our data describe novel wiring, and features of synaptic connections from mPFC and vHC to amygdala that could help to interpret functions of these interconnected brain areas at the network level.

  12. Ex vivo dissection of optogenetically activated mPFC and hippocampal inputs to neurons in the basolateral amygdala: implications for fear and emotional memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübner, Cora; Bosch, Daniel; Gall, Andrea; Lüthi, Andreas; Ehrlich, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    Many lines of evidence suggest that a reciprocally interconnected network comprising the amygdala, ventral hippocampus (vHC), and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) participates in different aspects of the acquisition and extinction of conditioned fear responses and fear behavior. This could at least in part be mediated by direct connections from mPFC or vHC to amygdala to control amygdala activity and output. However, currently the interactions between mPFC and vHC afferents and their specific targets in the amygdala are still poorly understood. Here, we use an ex-vivo optogenetic approach to dissect synaptic properties of inputs from mPFC and vHC to defined neuronal populations in the basal amygdala (BA), the area that we identify as a major target of these projections. We find that BA principal neurons (PNs) and local BA interneurons (INs) receive monosynaptic excitatory inputs from mPFC and vHC. In addition, both these inputs also recruit GABAergic feedforward inhibition in a substantial fraction of PNs, in some neurons this also comprises a slow GABAB-component. Amongst the innervated PNs we identify neurons that project back to subregions of the mPFC, indicating a loop between neurons in mPFC and BA, and a pathway from vHC to mPFC via BA. Interestingly, mPFC inputs also recruit feedforward inhibition in a fraction of INs, suggesting that these inputs can activate dis-inhibitory circuits in the BA. A general feature of both mPFC and vHC inputs to local INs is that excitatory inputs display faster rise and decay kinetics than in PNs, which would enable temporally precise signaling. However, mPFC and vHC inputs to both PNs and INs differ in their presynaptic release properties, in that vHC inputs are more depressing. In summary, our data describe novel wiring, and features of synaptic connections from mPFC and vHC to amygdala that could help to interpret functions of these interconnected brain areas at the network level. PMID:24634648

  13. Engineering and thermal-hydraulics design of PFC cooling for SST-1 Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhuri, Paritosh; Reddy, D. Chenna; Santra, P.; Khiwadkar, S.; Prakash, N. Rabi; Ramash, G.; Dubey, Santosh; Prakash, Arun; Saxena, Y. C.

    2003-01-01

    The main consideration in the design of the PFC cooling for SST-1 tokamak is the steady state heat removal of upto 1MW/m2. The PFC also has been design to withstand the peak heat fluxes without significant erosion such that frequent replacement is not necessary. Proper brazing of cooling tube on the copper back plate is necessary for the efficient heat transfer from the tube to the back plate. Design considerations included 2-D steady state and transient tile temperature distribution and resulting thermal loads in PFC during baking, and cooling, coolant parameters necessary to maintain optimum thermal-hydraulic design, and tile fitting mechanism. Finite Element (FE) models using ANSYS have been developed to conduct the heat transfer and stress analyses of the PFC to understand its thermal and mechanical behaviors. The temperature distribution results for different PFC obtained by FE results were assessed by comparison with 2-D Finite Difference code. The results of the calculation led to a good understanding of the coolant flow behavior and the temperature distribution in the tube wall and the different parts of the PFC. The contact at the brazed joint of the tube to the backplate is critical for the above application. The manufactured modules need to be evaluated for the quality of brazed joint. Using an infra-red-camera, spatial and temporal evaluation of the temperature profile is studied under various flow parameters. These results of this study will be presented in details in this paper

  14. Plasma Facing Components Generic Facilities Review Panel (PFC-GFRP): Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrath, R.; Allen, S.; Hill, D.; Brooks, J.; Mattas, R.; Davis, J.; Lipschultz, B.; Ulrickson, M.

    1993-10-01

    The Plasma Facing Components (PFC) Facilities Review Panel was chartered by the US Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy, ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) and Technology Division, to outline the program plan and identify the supporting test facilities that lead to reliable, long-lived plasma facing components for ITER. This report summarizes the panel's findings and identifies the necessary and sufficient set of test facilities required for ITER PFC development

  15. Coagulation performance of a novel poly-ferric-acetate (PFC) coagulant in phosphate-kaolin synthetic water treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Yanxin; Lu, Jinpeng; Dong, Xiongzi; Yao, Chengli [Hefei Normal University, Hefei (China); Hao, Jianwen [Anhui Vocational and Technical College, Hefei (China)

    2017-10-15

    The process of coagulation-flocculation is increasingly applied in wastewater treatment. And the polymerized inorganic coagulants are widely used among these coagulation-flocculation processes. However, conventional coagulants using sulfates or chlorides as counter anion may give rise to corrosion. The purpose of this study was to synthesize PFC coagulants in which acetate is used as counter anion. The influences on the preparation of PFC were optimized. The synthesis was done at the optimum conditions, such as temperature of 60 .deg. C, the Fe/CH{sub 3}COOH molar ratio of 1 : 4.0 and reaction time of 6 h, respectively. The prepared PFC coagulants were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrophotometry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). PFC was found to mainly form complexation polymeric species and present more cluster and lamellar structure. A series of jar tests were carried out to study the coagulation performance of PFC and PFS in phosphate-kaolin synthetic water treatment. Results showed that the coagulation performance of PFC was more efficient than PFS's in terms of the phosphorus removal efficiency and the residual turbidity. Due to using acetate as counter anion to iron, PFC is less harmful to the processes of water treatment and equipment than that of the conventional coagulants applied chlorides or sulfates. Therefore, PFC is a promising coagulant in the process of corrosion sensitive applications and the process of wastewater containing phosphorus treatment.

  16. Differential Functional Connectivity Alterations of Two Subdivisions within the Right dlPFC in Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Caspers

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Patients suffering from Parkinson's disease (PD often show impairments in executive function (EF like decision-making and action control. The right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC has been strongly implicated in EF in healthy subjects and has repeatedly been reported to show alterations related to EF impairment in PD. Recently, two key regions for cognitive action control have been identified within the right dlPFC by co-activation based parcellation. While the posterior region is engaged in rather basal EF like stimulus integration and working memory, the anterior region has a more abstract, supervisory function. To investigate whether these functionally distinct subdivisions of right dlPFC are differentially affected in PD, we analyzed resting-state functional connectivity (FC in 39 PD patients and 44 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Patients were examined both after at least 12 h withdrawal of dopaminergic drugs (OFF and under their regular dopaminergic medication (ON. We found that only the posterior right dlPFC subdivision shows FC alterations in PD, while the anterior part remains unaffected. PD-related decreased FC with posterior right dlPFC was found in the bilateral medial posterior parietal cortex (mPPC and left dorsal premotor region (PMd in the OFF state. In the medical ON, FC with left PMd normalized, while decoupling with bilateral mPPC remained. Furthermore, we observed increased FC between posterior right dlPFC and the bilateral dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC in PD in the ON state. Our findings point to differential disturbances of right dlPFC connectivity in PD, which relate to its hierarchical organization of EF processing by stronger affecting the functionally basal posterior aspect than the hierarchically higher anterior part.

  17. Power factor correction (PFC) converters feeding brushless DC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR OKE

    1Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, INDIA ... Hence, power factor correction (PFC) converters are used for achieving a unity ...... He is currently working as a Systems Engineer (Power IC) in AvantGarde ...

  18. Serum metabolome biomarkers associate low-level environmental perfluorinated compound exposure with oxidative /nitrosative stress in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaofei; Liu, Liangpo; Zhang, Weibing; Zhang, Jie; Du, Xiaoyan; Huang, Qingyu; Tian, Meiping; Shen, Heqing

    2017-10-01

    Previous in vivo and in vitro studies have linked perfluorinated compound (PFC) exposure with metabolic interruption, but the inter-species difference and high treatment doses usually make the results difficult to be extrapolated to humans directly. The best strategy for identifying the metabolic interruption may be to establish the direct correlations between monitored PFCs data and metabolic data on human samples. In this study, serum metabolome data and PFC concentrations were acquired for a Chinese adult male cohort. The most abundant PFCs are PFOA and PFOS with concentration medians 7.56 and 12.78 nM, respectively; in together they count around 81.6% of the total PFCs. PFC concentration-related serum metabolic profile changes and the related metabolic biomarkers were explored by using partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). Respectively taking PFOS, PFOA and total PFC as the classifiers, serum metabolome can be differentiated between the lowest dose group (1st quartile PFCs) and the highest PFC dose group (4th quartile PFCs). Ten potential PFC biomarkers were identified, mainly involving in pollutant detoxification, antioxidation and nitric oxide (NO) signal pathways. These suggested that low-level environmental PFC exposure has significantly adverse impacts on glutathione (GSH) cycle, Krebs cycle, nitric oxide (NO) generation and purine oxidation in humans. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report investigating the association of environmental PFC exposure with human serum metabolome alteration. Given the important biological functions of the identified biomarkers, we suggest that PFC could increase the metabolism syndromes risk including diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Overall behaviour of PFC integrated SST-1 vacuum system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ziauddin; Raval, Dilip C.; Paravasu, Yuvakiran; Semwal, Pratibha; Dhanani, Kalpeshkumar R.; George, Siju; Shoaib, Mohammad; Prakash, Arun; Babu, Gattu R.; Thankey, Prashant; Pathan, Firozkhan S.; Pradhan, Subrata

    2017-04-01

    As a part of phase-I up-gradation of Steady-state Superconducting Tokamak (SST-1), Graphite Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) have been integrated inside SST-1 vacuum vessel as a first wall (FW) during Nov 14 and May 2015. The SST-1 FW has a total surface area of the installed PFCs exposed to plasma is ∼ 40 m2 which is nearly 50% of the total surface area of stainless steel vacuum chamber (∼75 m2). The volume of the vessel within the PFCs is ∼ 16 m3. After the integration of PFCs, the entire vessel as well as the PFC cooling/baking circuits has been qualified with an integrated helium leak tightness of baked at 250 °C for nearly 20 hours employing hot nitrogen gas to remove the absorbed water vapours. Thereafter, Helium glow discharges cleaning were carried out towards the removal of surface impurities. The pump down characteristics of SST-1 vacuum chamber and the changes in the residual gaseous impurities after the installation of the PFCs will be discussed in this paper.

  20. Reward acts on the pFC to enhance distractor resistance of working memory representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, Sean James; Cools, Roshan

    2014-12-01

    Working memory and reward processing are often thought to be separate, unrelated processes. However, most daily activities involve integrating these two types of information, and the two processes rarely, if ever, occur in isolation. Here, we show that working memory and reward interact in a task-dependent manner and that this task-dependent interaction involves modulation of the pFC by the ventral striatum. Specifically, BOLD signal during gains relative to losses in the ventral striatum and pFC was associated not only with enhanced distractor resistance but also with impairment in the ability to update working memory representations. Furthermore, the effect of reward on working memory was accompanied by differential coupling between the ventral striatum and ignore-related regions in the pFC. Together, these data demonstrate that reward-related signals modulate the balance between cognitive stability and cognitive flexibility by altering functional coupling between the ventral striatum and the pFC.

  1. 14 CFR 158.47 - Collection of PFC's on tickets issued outside the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS PASSENGER FACILITY CHARGES (PFC'S) Collection, Handling, and... required to collect a PFC on air travel tickets issued on its own ticket stock unless it serves a point or... public agency controlling the last airport at which the passenger is enplaned prior to departure from the...

  2. On temporal connectivity of PFC via Gauss-Markov modeling of fNIRS signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydöre, Sergül; Mihçak, M Kivanç; Ciftçi, Koray; Akin, Ata

    2010-03-01

    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is an optical imaging method, which monitors the brain activation by measuring the successive changes in the concentration of oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin in real time. In this study, we present a method to investigate the functional connectivity of prefrontal cortex (PFC) Sby applying a Gauss-Markov model to fNIRS signals. The hemodynamic changes on PFC during the performance of cognitive paradigm are measured by fNIRS for 17 healthy adults. The color-word matching Stroop task is performed to activate 16 different regions of PFC. There are three different types of stimuli in this task, which can be listed as incongruent stimulus (IS), congruent stimulus (CS), and neutral stimulus (NS), respectively. We introduce a new measure, called "information transfer metric" (ITM) for each time sample. The behavior of ITMs during IS are significantly different from the ITMs during CS and NS, which is consistent with the outcome of the previous research, which concentrated on fNIRS signal analysis via color-word matching Stroop task. Our analysis shows that the functional connectivity of PFC is highly relevant with the cognitive load, i.e., functional connectivity increases with the increasing cognitive load.

  3. 2-D temperature distribution and heat flux of PFC in 2011 KSTAR campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Eunnam, E-mail: bang14@nfri.re.kr; Hong, Suk-Ho; Yu, Yaowei; Kim, Kyungmin; Kim, Hongtack; Kim, Hakkun; Lee, Kunsu; Yang, Hyunglyul

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • The heat flux on PFC tiles of 12 s pulse duration and 630 kA plasma current is about 0.02 MW/m{sup 2}. • When the cryopump is operated, the heat flux of CD is higher than without cryopump. • The more H-mode duration is long, the more heat flux on divertor is high. -- Abstract: KSTAR has reached a plasma current up to 630 kA, plasma duration up to 12 s, and has achieved high confinement mode (H-mode) in 2011 campaign. The heat flux of PFC tile was estimated from the temperature increase of PFC since 2010. The heat flux of PFC tiles increases significantly with higher plasma current and longer pulse duration. The time-averaged heat flux of shots in 2010 campaign (with 3 s pulse durations and I{sub p} of 611 kA) is 0.01 MW/m{sup 2} while that in 2011 campaign (with 12 s pulse duration and I{sub p} of 630 kA) is about 0.02 MW/m{sup 2}. The heat flux at divertor is 1.4–2 times higher than that at inboard limiter or passive stabilizer. With the cryopump operation, the heat flux at the central divertor is higher than that without cryopump. The heat flux at divertor is proportional to, of course, the duration of H-mode. Furthermore, a software tool, which visualizes the 2D temperature distribution of PFC tile and estimates the heat flux in real time, is developed.

  4. Fuzzy Controlled Parallel AC-DC Converter for PFC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Subba Rao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Paralleling of converter modules is a well-known technique that is often used in medium-power applications to achieve the desired output power by using smaller size of high frequency transformers and inductors. In this paper, a parallel-connected single-phase PFC topology using flyback and forward converters is proposed to improve the output voltage regulation with simultaneous input power factor correction (PFC and control. The goal of the control is to stabilize the output voltage of the converter against the load variations. The paper presents the derivation of fuzzy control rules for the dc/dc converter circuit and control algorithm for regulating the dc/dc converter. This paper presents a design example and circuit analysis for 200 W power supply. The proposed approach offers cost effective, compact and efficient AC/DC converter by the use of parallel power processing. MATLAB/SIMULINK is used for implementation and simulation results show the performance improvement.

  5. Forward Conduction Mode Controlled Piezoelectric Transformer-Based PFC LED Drive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roedgaard, M. S.; Weirich, M.; Andersen, M. A. E.

    2013-01-01

    Light-emitting diode (LED) illumination is getting more and more common; as LED's performance is rising, the price is falling and is getting competitive. Some of the challenges of ac mains supplied illumination are the requirement of power factor correction (PFC) and the competitiveness of a low...... priced market. In this paper, a new forward conduction mode (FCM) control method for piezoelectric transformer (PT)-based power converters is proposed. A PT-based LED drive facilitating passive PFC is developed, utilizing and validating the FCM control method. The drive utilizes an inductorless half...... LED drive has been developed, supplied from 230-V 50-Hz ac mains, achieving a power factor of 0.96....

  6. Uncertainty-Dependent Extinction of Fear Memory in an Amygdala-mPFC Neural Circuit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuzhe; Nakae, Ken; Ishii, Shin; Naoki, Honda

    2016-01-01

    Uncertainty of fear conditioning is crucial for the acquisition and extinction of fear memory. Fear memory acquired through partial pairings of a conditioned stimulus (CS) and an unconditioned stimulus (US) is more resistant to extinction than that acquired through full pairings; this effect is known as the partial reinforcement extinction effect (PREE). Although the PREE has been explained by psychological theories, the neural mechanisms underlying the PREE remain largely unclear. Here, we developed a neural circuit model based on three distinct types of neurons (fear, persistent and extinction neurons) in the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). In the model, the fear, persistent and extinction neurons encode predictions of net severity, of unconditioned stimulus (US) intensity, and of net safety, respectively. Our simulation successfully reproduces the PREE. We revealed that unpredictability of the US during extinction was represented by the combined responses of the three types of neurons, which are critical for the PREE. In addition, we extended the model to include amygdala subregions and the mPFC to address a recent finding that the ventral mPFC (vmPFC) is required for consolidating extinction memory but not for memory retrieval. Furthermore, model simulations led us to propose a novel procedure to enhance extinction learning through re-conditioning with a stronger US; strengthened fear memory up-regulates the extinction neuron, which, in turn, further inhibits the fear neuron during re-extinction. Thus, our models increased the understanding of the functional roles of the amygdala and vmPFC in the processing of uncertainty in fear conditioning and extinction. PMID:27617747

  7. Uncertainty-Dependent Extinction of Fear Memory in an Amygdala-mPFC Neural Circuit Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuzhe; Nakae, Ken; Ishii, Shin; Naoki, Honda

    2016-09-01

    Uncertainty of fear conditioning is crucial for the acquisition and extinction of fear memory. Fear memory acquired through partial pairings of a conditioned stimulus (CS) and an unconditioned stimulus (US) is more resistant to extinction than that acquired through full pairings; this effect is known as the partial reinforcement extinction effect (PREE). Although the PREE has been explained by psychological theories, the neural mechanisms underlying the PREE remain largely unclear. Here, we developed a neural circuit model based on three distinct types of neurons (fear, persistent and extinction neurons) in the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). In the model, the fear, persistent and extinction neurons encode predictions of net severity, of unconditioned stimulus (US) intensity, and of net safety, respectively. Our simulation successfully reproduces the PREE. We revealed that unpredictability of the US during extinction was represented by the combined responses of the three types of neurons, which are critical for the PREE. In addition, we extended the model to include amygdala subregions and the mPFC to address a recent finding that the ventral mPFC (vmPFC) is required for consolidating extinction memory but not for memory retrieval. Furthermore, model simulations led us to propose a novel procedure to enhance extinction learning through re-conditioning with a stronger US; strengthened fear memory up-regulates the extinction neuron, which, in turn, further inhibits the fear neuron during re-extinction. Thus, our models increased the understanding of the functional roles of the amygdala and vmPFC in the processing of uncertainty in fear conditioning and extinction.

  8. 5-HT2a receptor in mPFC influences context-guided reconsolidation of object memory in perirhinal cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morici, Juan Facundo; Miranda, Magdalena; Gallo, Francisco Tomás; Zanoni, Belén; Bekinschtein, Pedro

    2018-01-01

    Context-dependent memories may guide adaptive behavior relaying in previous experience while updating stored information through reconsolidation. Retrieval can be triggered by partial and shared cues. When the cue is presented, the most relevant memory should be updated. In a contextual version of the object recognition task, we examined the effect of medial PFC (mPFC) serotonin 2a receptor (5-HT2aR) blockade during retrieval in reconsolidation of competing objects memories. We found that mPFC 5-HT2aR controls retrieval and reconsolidation of object memories in the perirhinal cortex (PRH), but not in the dorsal hippocampus in rats. Also, reconsolidation of objects memories in PRH required a functional interaction between the ventral hippocampus and the mPFC. Our results indicate that in the presence of conflicting information at retrieval, mPFC 5-HT2aR may facilitate top-down context-guided control over PRH to control the behavioral response and object memory reconsolidation. PMID:29717980

  9. vmPFC activation during a stressor predicts positive emotions during stress recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xi; Garcia, Katelyn M; Jung, Youngkyoo; Whitlow, Christopher T; McRae, Kateri; Waugh, Christian E

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Despite accruing evidence showing that positive emotions facilitate stress recovery, the neural basis for this effect remains unclear. To identify the underlying mechanism, we compared stress recovery for people reflecting on a stressor while in a positive emotional context with that for people in a neutral context. While blood–oxygen-level dependent data were being collected, participants (N = 43) performed a stressful anagram task, which was followed by a recovery period during which they reflected on the stressor while watching a positive or neutral video. Participants also reported positive and negative emotions throughout the task as well as retrospective thoughts about the task. Although there was no effect of experimental context on emotional recovery, we found that ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) activation during the stressor predicted more positive emotions during recovery, which in turn predicted less negative emotions during recovery. In addition, the relationship between vmPFC activation and positive emotions during recovery was mediated by decentering—the meta-cognitive detachment of oneself from one’s feelings. In sum, successful recovery from a stressor seems to be due to activation of positive emotion-related regions during the stressor itself as well as to their downstream effects on certain cognitive forms of emotion regulation. PMID:29462404

  10. Evaluation of 600V Superjunction Devices in Single Phase PFC Applications under CCM Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez Botella, Juan Carlos; Petersen, Lars Press; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2014-01-01

    electromagnetic interference (EMI). The dynamic characterization is based on a low inductive double pulse tester (DPT). The measured switching energy is used in order to evaluate the devices performance in a conventional PFC. This data is used together with the mathematical model for prediction of the conducted...... electromagnetic interference. The method allows comparing different devices and evaluating the performance as a function of the PFC power density and efficiency....

  11. 76 FR 34124 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ...--construction. Security equipment--fingerprinting machine (replacement). PFC Administrative costs. Brief... rescue and firefighting vehicle replacement. Electrical substation and distribution system rehabilitation...

  12. High-power piezo drive amplifier for large stack and PFC applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clingman, Dan J.; Gamble, Mike

    2001-08-01

    This paper describes the continuing development of Boeing High Power Piezo Drive Amplifiers. Described is the development and testing of a 1500 Vpp, 8 amp switching amplifier. This amplifier is used to drive a piezo stack driven rotor blade trailing edge flap on a full size helicopter. Also discuss is a switching amplifier designed to drive a Piezo Fiber Composite (PFC) active twist rotor blade. This amplifier was designed to drive the PFC material at 2000 Vpp and 0.5 amps. These amplifiers recycle reactive energy, allowing for a power and weight efficient amplifier design. This work was done in conjunction with the DARPA sponsored Phase II Smart Rotor Blade program and the NASA Langley Research Center sponsored Active Twist Rotor (ATR) blade program.

  13. Thermal analysis and improvement of cascode GaN device package for totem-pole bridgeless PFC rectifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    She, Shuojie; Zhang, Wenli; Liu, Zhengyang; Lee, Fred C.; Huang, Xiucheng; Du, Weijing; Li, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    The totem-pole bridgeless power factor correction (PFC) rectifier has a simpler topology and higher efficiency than other boost-type bridgeless PFC rectifiers. Its promising performance is enabled by using high-voltage gallium nitride (GaN) high-electron-mobility transistors, which have considerably better figures of merit (e.g., lower reverse recovery charges and less switching losses) than the state-of-the-art silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors. Cascode GaN devices in traditional packages, i.e., the TO-220 and power quad flat no-lead, are used in the totem-pole PFC boost rectifier. But the parasitic inductances induced by the traditional packages not only significantly deteriorate the switching characteristics of the discrete GaN device but also adversely affect the performance of the built PFC rectifier. A new stack-die packaging structure with an embedded capacitor has been introduced and proven to be efficient in reducing parasitic ringing at the turn-off transition and achieving true zero-voltage-switching turn-on. However, the thermal dissipation capability of the device packaged in this configuration becomes a limitation on further pushing the operating frequency and the output current level for high-efficiency power conversion. This paper focuses on the thermal analysis of the cascode GaN devices in different packages and the GaN-based multichip module used in a two-phase totem-pole bridgeless PFC boost rectifier. A series of thermal models are built based on the actual structures and materials of the packaged devices to evaluate their thermal performance. Finite element analysis (FEA) simulation results of the cascode GaN device in a flip-chip format demonstrate the possibility of increasing the device switching speed while maintaining the peak temperature of the device below 125 °C. Thermal analysis of the GaN-based power module in a very similar structure is also conducted using the FEA method. Experimental data measured using

  14. Isolated EWiRaC: A New Low-Stress Single-Stage Isolated PFC Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Henrik; Bergendorff, Stefan Pihl; Petersen, Lars

    2007-01-01

    A new PFC-family of Efficient Wide Range Converters named EWiRaC was recently introduced. EWiRaC has a major advantage in terms of efficiency at low-line and handles challenges like inrush current limiting as an integrated part of the conversion scheme. The main objective of this paper is to inve......A new PFC-family of Efficient Wide Range Converters named EWiRaC was recently introduced. EWiRaC has a major advantage in terms of efficiency at low-line and handles challenges like inrush current limiting as an integrated part of the conversion scheme. The main objective of this paper...

  15. 75 FR 65551 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... lot and rehabilitate north public parking lot. Install high mast lighting for cargo apron. PFC program... that the portions of the proposed project related to the solar energy project were not eligible...

  16. Simple Digital Control of a Two-Stage PFC Converter Using DSPIC30F Microprocessor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Török, Lajos; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2010-01-01

    The use of dsPIC digital signal controllers (DSC) in Switch Mode Power Supply (SMPS) applications opens new perspectives for cheap and flexible digital control solutions. This paper presents the digital control of a two stage power factor corrector (PFC) converter. The PFC circuit is designed...... and built for 70W rated output power. Average current mode control for boost converter and current programmed control for forward converter are implemented on a dsPIC30F1010. Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) technique is used to drive the switching MOSFETs. Results show that digital solutions with ds...

  17. GABA+ levels in postmenopausal women with mild-to-moderate depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhensong; Zhang, Aiying; Zhao, Bin; Gan, Jie; Wang, Guangbin; Gao, Fei; Liu, Bo; Gong, Tao; Liu, Wen; Edden, Richard A.E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: It is increasingly being recognized that alterations of the GABAergic system are implicated in the pathophysiology of depression. This study aimed to explore in vivo gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels in the anterior cingulate cortex/medial prefrontal cortex (ACC/mPFC) and posterior-cingulate cortex (PCC) of postmenopausal women with depression using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). Methods: Nineteen postmenopausal women with depression and thirteen healthy controls were enrolled in the study. All subjects underwent 1H-MRS of the ACC/mPFC and PCC using the “MEGA Point Resolved Spectroscopy Sequence” (MEGA-PRESS) technique. The severity of depression was assessed by 17-item Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD). Quantification of MRS data was performed using Gannet program. Differences of GABA+ levels from patients and controls were tested using one-way analysis of variance. Spearman correlation coefficients were used to evaluate the linear associations between GABA+ levels and HAMD scores, as well as estrogen levels. Results: Significantly lower GABA+ levels were detected in the ACC/mPFC of postmenopausal women with depression compared to healthy controls (P = 0.002). No significant correlations were found between 17-HAMD/14-HAMA and GABA+ levels, either in ACC/mPFC (P = 0.486; r = 0.170/P = 0.814; r = −0.058) or PCC (P = 0.887; r = 0.035/ P = 0.987; r = −0.004) in the patients; there is also no significant correlation between GABA+ levels and estrogen levels in patients group (ACC/mPFC: P = 0.629, r = −0.018; PCC: P = 0.861, r = 0.043). Conclusion: Significantly lower GABA+ levels were found in the ACC/mPFC of postmenopausal women with depression, suggesting that the dysfunction of the GABAergic system may also be involved in the pathogenesis of depression in postmenopausal women. PMID:27684829

  18. Simple adaptive control system design for a quadrotor with an internal PFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizumoto, Ikuro; Nakamura, Takuto; Kumon, Makoto; Takagi, Taro [Dept. of Mechanical Systems Engineering, Kumamoto University 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto, 860-8555 (Japan)

    2014-12-10

    The paper deals with an adaptive control system design problem for a four rotor helicopter or quadrotor. A simple adaptive control design scheme with a parallel feedforward compensator (PFC) in the internal loop of the considered quadrotor will be proposed based on the backstepping strategy. As is well known, the backstepping control strategy is one of the advanced control strategy for nonlinear systems. However, the control algorithm will become complex if the system has higher order relative degrees. We will show that one can skip some design steps of the backstepping method by introducing a PFC in the inner loop of the considered quadrotor, so that the structure of the obtained controller will be simplified and a high gain based adaptive feedback control system will be designed. The effectiveness of the proposed method will be confirmed through numerical simulations.

  19. 77 FR 33805 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... AGENCY: Tri State Airport Authority, Huntington, West Virginia. APPLICATION NUMBER: 12-07-C-00-HTS... equipment. Install perimeter fencing. Rehabilitate terminal building. Rehabilitate taxiway A (west). Access.... Passenger loading bridges. Security exit lane equipment. PFC consulting fees. Brief Description of...

  20. 78 FR 57211 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-17

    ... removal equipment. Emergency radio system upgrade. PFC administrative fees. Decision Date: November 1... Use: Taxiway A pavement analysis and soil test. Taxiway A pavement rehabilitation. Runway 17/35 rehabilitation design. Taxiway/apron/fuel road pavement replacement. Taxiway/apron/fuel road pavement replacement...

  1. Robust control of boost PFC converter using adaptive PLL for line synchronization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Török, Lajos; Mathe, Laszlo; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2013-01-01

    The continuous development of the digital processing technology made advanced control strategies available for switched-mode power-supply applications. This paper presents the study and implementation of an adaptive Phased-Locked Loop (PLL)-based grid-fault tolerant control of a boost PFC converter...

  2. 75 FR 33376 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ... Firefighting Station. Runway 18r/34l Overlay/Rehabilitation. Pavement Management Plan. Security Enhancement... maintain runway 16/34 pavement. PFC administration. Repair and maintain runway 03/21 pavement. Repair and maintain taxiway A pavement. Repair and maintain taxiway B pavement. [[Page 33377

  3. A Single Phase to Three Phase PFC Half-Bridge Converter Using BLDC Drive with SPWM Technique.

    OpenAIRE

    Srinu Duvvada; Manmadha Kumar B

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a buck half-bridge DC-DC converter is used as a single-stage power factor correction (PFC) converter for feeding a voltage source inverter (VSI) based permanent magnet brushless DC motor (BLDC) drive. The front end of this PFC converter is a diode bridge rectifier (DBR) fed from single-phase AC mains. The BLDC is used to drive a compressor load of an air conditioner through a three-phase VSI fed from a controlled DC link voltage. The speed of the compressor is controlled to ach...

  4. Survey of patterns, levels, and trends of perfluorinated compounds in aquatic organisms and bird eggs from representative German ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüdel, Heinz; Müller, Josef; Jürling, Heinrich; Bartel-Steinbach, Martina; Koschorreck, Jan

    2011-11-01

    Samples from the German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) covering particularly the years 1994-1996, 2000-2002, and 2006-2009 were analyzed for perfluorinated compounds (PFC; mainly C4-C13 carboxylic and sulfonic acids) to gain an overview on current PFC levels and patterns in marine, limnetic, and terrestrial biota; to assess their concentrations in different trophic levels; and to investigate whether risk management measures for PFC are successful. Specimens, either standardized annual pooled samples (blue mussels, eelpout liver, bream liver, pigeon eggs) or individual single samples (cormorant eggs, rook eggs), were collected for the German ESB program from representative sampling sites according to documented guidelines. After appropriate extraction, PFC were quantified under ISO/IEC 17025 accreditation by HPLC/MS-MS with isotopically labeled internal standards. Limits of quantification (LOQs) were 0.2-0.5 ng/g. Data are reported on a wet weight basis. In most samples the predominant PFC was perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS). However, in marine mussels from North and Baltic Seas, PFOS levels were mostly below the LOQ, but low residues of PFOS amide were found which declined in recent years. Livers of eelpout showed maximum concentrations of 15-25 ng/g PFOS in the period 2000-2002 and low amounts of perfluoropentanoate in all years. Beside PFOS (median 48 ng/g) several PFC could be determined in cormorant eggs sampled in 2009 from a Baltic Sea site. For a freshwater ecosystem, current PFC burdens for cormorant eggs were even higher (median 400 ng/g PFOS). Livers of bream from rivers showed concentrations of 130-260 ng/g PFOS, but for bream from a reference lake levels were only about 6 ng/g. In contrast to cormorants, eggs of rook and feral pigeon from terrestrial ecosystems displayed only low PFC burdens (up to 6 ng/g PFOS). Generally, PFC levels were lower in marine than in freshwater biota. PFC burdens were higher in biota from the ESB-North Sea sites than

  5. Study of intermittent bifurcations and chaos in boost PFC converters by nonlinear discrete models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hao; Ma Xikui; Xue Bianling; Liu Weizeng

    2005-01-01

    This paper mainly deals with nonlinear phenomena like intermittent bifurcations and chaos in boost PFC converters under peak-current control mode. Two nonlinear models in the form of discrete maps are derived to describe precisely the nonlinear dynamics of boost PFC converters from two points of view, i.e., low- and high-frequency regimes. Based on the presented discrete models, both the evolution of intermittent behavior and the periodicity of intermittency are investigated in detail from the fast and slow-scale aspects, respectively. Numerical results show that the occurrence of intermittent bifurcations and chaos with half one line period is one of the most distinguished dynamical characteristics. Finally, we make some instructive conclusions, which prove to be helpful in improving the performances of practical circuits

  6. Engagement of the PFC in Consolidation and Recall of Recent Spatial Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Wanda C.; Bruno, Martin A.; Allard, Simon; Nader, Karim; Cuello, A. Claudio

    2010-01-01

    The standard model of system consolidation proposes that memories are initially hippocampus dependent and become hippocampus independent over time. Previous studies have demonstrated the involvement of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in the retrieval of remote memories. The transformations required to make a memory undergo system's…

  7. A Comparison between Boundary and Continuous Conduction Modes in Single Phase PFC Using 600V Range Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez Botella, Juan Carlos; Petersen, Lars Press; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis and comparison of boundary conduction mode (BCM) and continuous conduction mode (CCM) in single phase power factor correction (PFC) applications. The comparison is based on double pulse tester (DPT) characterization results of state-of-the-art superjunction devices...... in the 600V range. The measured switching energy is used to evaluate the devices performance in a conventional PFC. This data is used together with a mathematical model for prediction of the conducted electromagnetic interference (EMI). This allows comparing the different devices in BCM and CCM operation...

  8. Ultrafast Switching Superjunction MOSFETs for Single Phase PFC Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez Botella, Juan Carlos; Petersen, Lars Press; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a guide on characterizing state-of-the-art silicon superjunction (SJ) devices in the 600V range for single phase power factor correction (PFC) applications. The characterization procedure is based on a minimally inductive double pulse tester (DPT) with a very low intrusive...... current measurement method, which enables reaching the switching speed limits of these devices. Due to the intrinsic low and non-linear capacitances in vertical SJ MOSFETs, special attention needs to be paid to the gate drive design to minimize oscillations and limit the maximum at turn off. This paper...

  9. Aggression and increased glutamate in the mPFC during withdrawal from intermittent alcohol in outbred mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwa, Lara S; Nathanson, Anna J; Shimamoto, Akiko; Tayeh, Jillian K; Wilens, Allison R; Holly, Elizabeth N; Newman, Emily L; DeBold, Joseph F; Miczek, Klaus A

    2015-08-01

    Disrupted social behavior, including occasional aggressive outbursts, is characteristic of withdrawal from long-term alcohol (EtOH) use. Heavy EtOH use and exaggerated responses during withdrawal may be treated using glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonists. The current experiments explore aggression and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) glutamate as consequences of withdrawal from intermittent access to EtOH and changes in aggression and mPFC glutamate caused by NMDAR antagonists memantine and ketamine. Swiss male mice underwent withdrawal following 1-8 weeks of intermittent access to 20 % EtOH. Aggressive and nonaggressive behaviors with a conspecific were measured 6-8 h into EtOH withdrawal after memantine or ketamine (0-30 mg/kg, i.p.) administration. In separate mice, extracellular mPFC glutamate after memantine was measured during withdrawal using in vivo microdialysis. At 6-8 h withdrawal from EtOH, mice exhibited more convulsions and aggression and decreased social contact compared to age-matched water controls. Memantine, but not ketamine, increased withdrawal aggression at the 5-mg/kg dose in mice with a history of 8 weeks of EtOH but not 1 or 4 weeks of EtOH or in water drinkers. Tonic mPFC glutamate was higher during withdrawal after 8 weeks of EtOH compared to 1 week of EtOH or 8 weeks of water. Five milligrams per kilogram of memantine increased glutamate in 8-week EtOH mice, but also in 1-week EtOH and water drinkers. These studies reveal aggressive behavior as a novel symptom of EtOH withdrawal in outbred mice and confirm a role of NMDARs during withdrawal aggression and for disrupted social behavior.

  10. PLGA/PFC particles loaded with gold nanoparticles as dual contrast agents for photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan J.; Strohm, Eric M.; Sun, Yang; Niu, Chengcheng; Zheng, Yuanyi; Wang, Zhigang; Kolios, Michael C.

    2014-03-01

    Phase-change contrast agents consisting of a perfluorocarbon (PFC) liquid core stabilized by a lipid, protein, or polymer shell have been proposed for a variety of clinical applications. Previous work has demonstrated that vaporization can be induced by laser irradiation through optical absorbers incorporated inside the droplet. In this study, Poly-lactide-coglycolic acid (PLGA) particles loaded with PFC liquid and silica-coated gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were developed and characterized using photoacoustic (PA) methods. Microsized PLGA particles were loaded with PFC liquid and GNPs (14, 35, 55nm each with a 20nm silica shell) using a double emulsion method. The PA signal intensity and optical vaporization threshold were investigated using a 375 MHz transducer and a focused 532-nm laser (up to 450-nJ per pulse). The laser-induced vaporization threshold energy decreased with increasing GNP size. The vaporization threshold was 850, 690 and 420 mJ/cm2 for 5μm-sized PLGA particles loaded with 14, 35 and 55 nm GNPs, respectively. The PA signal intensity increased as the laser fluence increased prior to the vaporization event. This trend was observed for all particles sizes. PLGA particles were then incubated with MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells for 6 hours to investigate passive targeting, and the vaporization of the PLGA particles that were internalized within cells. The PLGA particles passively internalized by MDA cells were visualized via confocal fluorescence imaging. Upon PLGA particle vaporization, bubbles formed inside the cells resulting in cell destruction. This work demonstrates that GNPs-loaded PLGA/PFC particles have potential as PA theranostic agents in PA imaging and optically-triggered drug delivery systems.

  11. Comparative Evaluation of Three-Phase Isolated Matrix-Type PFC Rectifier Concepts for High Efficiency 380VDC Supplies of Future Telco and Data Centers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, Patricio; Bortis, Dominik; Pittini, Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    rectifier and in many cases a mains transformer is used to provide galvanic isolation. In order to achieve a high efficiency in the DC voltage generation and to implement the required isolation, a single-stage concept, such as a matrix-type rectifier that enables PFC functionality and galvanic isolation...... in a single conversion, can be beneficial. In addition, due to the fact that with the matrix-type rectifier the galvanic isolation is performed with a high-frequency transformer, this results in a more compact rectifier system compared to conventional systems where the mains-frequency isolation transformer...... is located at the input of the PFC rectifier. In this paper, an overview of isolated matrix-type PFC rectifier topologies is given and a new converter circuit is proposed, analyzed and comparatively evaluated against another promising PFC rectifier concept, the phase-modular IMY-rectifier....

  12. tDCS Stimulation of the dlPFC Selectively Moderates the Detrimental Impact of Emotion on Analytical Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trémolière, Bastien; Maheux-Caron, Véronique; Lepage, Jean-François; Blanchette, Isabelle

    2018-01-01

    There is evidence of a detrimental effect of emotion on reasoning. Recent studies suggest that this relationship is mediated by working memory, a function closely associated with the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC). Relying on transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), the present research explores the possibility that anodal stimulation of the dlPFC has the potential to prevent the effect of emotion on analytical reasoning. Thirty-four participants took part in a lab experiment and were tested twice: one session using offline anodal stimulation (with a 2 mA current stimulation applied to the left dlPFC for 20 min), one session using a control (sham) stimulation. In each session, participants solved syllogistic reasoning problems featuring neutral and emotionally negative contents. Results showed that anodal stimulation diminished the deleterious effect of emotion on syllogistic reasoning, but only for a subclass of problems: problems where the conclusion was logically valid. We discuss our results in the light of the reasoning literature as well as the apparent variability of tDCS effects.

  13. Ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) as a target of the dorsolateral prefrontal modulation by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in drug addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura-Palacios, Ester Miyuki; Lopes, Isabela Bittencourt Coutinho; Souza, Rodolpho Albuquerque; Klauss, Jaisa; Batista, Edson Kruger; Conti, Catarine Lima; Moscon, Janine Andrade; de Souza, Rodrigo Stênio Moll

    2016-10-01

    Here, we report some electrophysiologic and imaging effects of the transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) in drug addiction, notably in alcohol and crack-cocaine dependence. The low resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) analysis obtained through event-related potentials (ERPs) under drug-related cues, more specifically in its P3 segment (300-500 ms) in both, alcoholics and crack-cocaine users, showed that the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) was the brain area with the largest change towards increasing activation under drug-related cues in those subjects that kept abstinence during and after the treatment with bilateral tDCS (2 mA, 35 cm(2), cathodal left and anodal right) over dlPFC, applied repetitively (five daily sessions). In an additional study in crack-cocaine, which showed craving decreases after repetitive bilateral tDCS, we examined data originating from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and we found increased DTI parameters in the left connection between vmPFC and nucleus accumbens (NAcc), such as the number of voxels, fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), in tDCS-treated crack-cocaine users when compared to the sham-tDCS group. This increasing of DTI parameters was significantly correlated with craving decreasing after the repetitive tDCS. The vmPFC relates to the control of drug seeking, possibly by extinguishing this behavior. In our studies, the bilateral dlPFC tDCS reduced relapses and craving to the drug use, and increased the vmPFC activation under drug cues, which may be of a great importance in the control of drug use in drug addiction.

  14. A low cost rapid prototype platform for a three phase PFC rectifier application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haase, Frerk; Kouchaki, Alireza; Nymand, Morten

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the design and development of a low cost rapid prototype platform for a Three Phase PFC rectifier application is presented. The active rectifier consists of a SiC-MOSFET based PWM converter and a low cost rapid prototype platform for simulating and implementing the digital control...

  15. Postprandial appetite ratings are reproducible and moderately related to total day energy intakes, but not ad libitum lunch energy intakes, in healthy young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Amy J; Heap, Sarah; Ingram, Jessica; Law, Marron; Wright, Amanda J

    2016-04-01

    Reproducibility and validity testing of appetite ratings and energy intakes are needed in experimental and natural settings. Eighteen healthy young women ate a standardized breakfast for 8 days. Days 1 and 8, they rated their appetite (Hunger, Fullness, Desire to Eat, Prospective Food Consumption (PFC)) over a 3.5 h period using visual analogue scales, consumed an ad libitum lunch, left the research center and recorded food intake for the remainder of the day. Days 2-7, participants rated their at-home Hunger at 0 and 30 min post-breakfast and recorded food intake for the day. Total area under the curve (AUC) over the 180 min period before lunch, and energy intakes were calculated. Reproducibility of satiety measures between days was evaluated using coefficients of repeatability (CR), coefficients of variation (CV) and intra-class coefficients (ri). Correlation analysis was used to examine validity between satiety measures. AUCs for Hunger, Desire to Eat and PFC (ri = 0.73-0.78), ad libitum energy intakes (ri = 0.81) and total day energy intakes (ri​ = 0.48) were reproducible; fasted ratings were not. Average AUCs for Hunger, Desire to Eat and PFC, Desire to Eat at nadir and PFC at fasting, nadir and 180 min were correlated to total day energy intakes (r = 0.50-0.77, P < 0.05), but no ratings were correlated to lunch consumption. At-home Hunger ratings were weakly reproducible but not correlated to reported total energy intakes. Satiety ratings did not concur with next meal intake but PFC ratings may be useful predictors of intake. Overall, this study adds to the limited satiety research on women and challenges the accepted measures of satiety in an experimental setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. NMDA antagonist, but not nNOS inhibitor, requires AMPA receptors in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) to induce antidepressant-like effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira, V. S.; Wegener, Gregers; Joca, S. R.

    2013-01-01

    of the glutamatergic and nitrergic systems of the vmPFC on the behavioral consequences induced by forced swimming (FS), an animal model of depression. Male Wistar rats (230-260g) with guide cannulas aimed at the prelimbic (PL) region of vmPFC were submitted to a 15min session of FS and, 24h later, they were submitted...

  17. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation over the Medial Prefrontal Cortex and Left Primary Motor Cortex (mPFC-lPMC) Affects Subjective Beauty but Not Ugliness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Koyo; Kawabata, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    Neuroaesthetics has been searching for the neural bases of the subjective experience of beauty. It has been demonstrated that neural activities in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the left primary motor cortex (lPMC) correlate with the subjective experience of beauty. Although beauty and ugliness seem to be semantically and conceptually opposite, it is still unknown whether these two evaluations represent extreme opposites in unitary or bivariate dimensions. In this study, we applied transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to examine whether non-invasive brain stimulation modulates two types of esthetic evaluation; evaluating beauty and ugliness. Participants rated the subjective beauty and ugliness of abstract paintings before and after the application of tDCS. Application of cathodal tDCS over the mPFC with anode electrode over the lPMC, which induced temporal inhibition of neural excitability of the mPFC, led to a decrease in beauty ratings but not ugliness ratings. There were no changes in ratings of both beauty and ugliness when applying anodal tDCS or sham stimulation over the mPFC. Results from our experiment indicate that the mPFC and the lPMC have a causal role in generating the subjective experience of beauty, with beauty and ugliness evaluations constituting two distinct dimensions. PMID:26696865

  18. The effect of future time perspective on delay discounting is mediated by the gray matter volume of vmPFC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yiqun; Chen, Zhiyi; Feng, Tingyong

    2017-07-28

    Although several previous studies have shown that individuals' attitude towards time could affect their intertemporal preference, little is known about the neural basis of the relation between time perspective (TP) and delay discounting. In the present study, we quantified the gray matter (GM) cortical volume using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) methods to investigate the effect of TP on delay discounting (DD) across two independent samples. For group 1 (102 healthy college students; 46 male; 20.40 ± 1.87 years), behavioral results showed that only Future TP was a significant predictor of DD, and higher scores on Future TP were related to lower discounting rates. Whole-brain analysis revealed that steeper discounting correlated with greater GM volume in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and ventral part of posterior cingulate cortex (vPCC). Also, GM volume of a cluster in the vmPFC was correlated with Future TP. Interestingly, there was an overlapping region in vmPFC that was correlated with both DD and Future TP. Region-of-interest analysis further indicated that the overlapping region of vmPFC played a partially mediating role in the relation between Future TP and DD in the other independent dataset (Group 2, 36 healthy college students; 14 male; 20.18±1.80 years). Taken together, our results provide a new perspective from neural basis for explaining the relation between DD and future TP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. An isolated bridgeless AC-DC PFC converter using a LC resonant voltage doubler rectifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sin-woo; Do, Hyun-Lark

    2016-12-01

    This paper proposed an isolated bridgeless AC-DC power factor correction (PFC) converter using a LC resonant voltage doubler rectifier. The proposed converter is based on isolated conventional single-ended primary inductance converter (SEPIC) PFC converter. The conduction loss of rectification is reduced than a conventional one because the proposed converter is designed to eliminate a full-bridge rectifier at an input stage. Moreover, for zero-current switching (ZCS) operation and low voltage stresses of output diodes, the secondary of the proposed converter is designed as voltage doubler with a LC resonant tank. Additionally, an input-output electrical isolation is provided for safety standard. In conclusion, high power factor is achieved and efficiency is improved. The operational principles, steady-state analysis and design equations of the proposed converter are described in detail. Experimental results from a 60 W prototype at a constant switching frequency 100 kHz are presented to verify the performance of the proposed converter.

  20. Alteration of synaptic transmission in the hippocampal-mPFC pathway during extinction trials of context-dependent fear memory in juvenile rat stress models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koseki, Hiroyo; Matsumoto, Machiko; Togashi, Hiroko; Miura, Yoshihide; Fukushima, Kazuaki; Yoshioka, Mitsuhiro

    2009-09-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has been proposed to be essential for extinction of fear memory, but its neural mechanism has been poorly understood. The present study examined whether synaptic transmission in the hippocampal-mPFC pathway is related to extinction of context-dependent fear memory in freely moving rats using electrophysiological approaches combined with behavioral analysis. Population spike amplitude in the mPFC was decreased during the first extinction trial by exposure to contextual fear conditioning. This synaptic inhibition was reversed by repeated extinction trials, accompanied by decreases in fear-related freezing behavior. These results suggest that alteration of synaptic transmission in the hippocampal-mPFC pathway is associated with the extinction processes of context-dependent fear memory. Further experiments were performed to elucidate whether early postnatal stress alters the synaptic response in the mPFC during extinction trials using a juvenile stress model, based on our previous findings that early postnatal stress affects the behavioral response to emotional stress. Adult rats that previously were exposed to five footshocks (FS) (shock intensity, 0.5 mA; intershock interval, 28 seconds; shock duration, 2 seconds) at postnatal day 21 to 25 (week 3; 3W-FS) exhibited impaired reversal of both inhibitory synaptic transmission and freezing behavior induced by repeated extinction trials. The neuronal and behavioral deficits observed in the 3W-FS group were prevented by pretreatment with the serotonin(1A) receptor agonist tandospirone (1 mg/kg, i.p.). These results indicate the possiblity that aversive stress exposure during the third postnatal week impaired extinction processes of context-dependent fear memory. The deficits in extinction observed in the 3W-FS group might be attributable to dysfunction of hippocampal-mPFC neural circuits involving 5-HT(1A) receptor mechanisms. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Pavlovian autoshaping procedures increase plasma corticosterone and levels of norepinephrine and serotonin in prefrontal cortex in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomie, Arthur; Tirado, Aidaluz D; Yu, Lung; Pohorecky, Larissa A

    2004-08-12

    Pavlovian autoshaping procedures provide for pairings of a small object conditioned stimulus (CS) with a rewarding substance unconditioned stimulus (US), resulting in the acquisition of complex sequences of CS-directed skeletal-motor responses or autoshaping conditioned responses (CRs). Autoshaping procedures induce higher post-session levels of corticosterone than in controls receiving CS and US randomly, and the enhanced post-session corticosterone levels have been attributed to the appetitive or arousal-inducing effects of autoshaping procedures. Enhanced corticosterone release can be induced by aversive stimulation or stressful situations, where it is often accompanied by higher levels of norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin (5-HT) in prefrontal cortex (PFC) but not in striatum (ST). Effects of autoshaping procedures on post-session corticosterone levels, NE contents in PFC, and 5-HT contents in PFC and ST were investigated in male Long-Evans rats. Post-session blood samples revealed higher corticosterone levels in the CS-US Paired group (n = 46) than in the CS-US Random control group (n = 21), and brain samples revealed higher levels of PFC NE and 5-HT in CS-US Paired group. Striatal 5-HT levels were unaltered by the autoshaping procedures. Autoshaping procedures provide for appetitive stimulation and induce an arousal-like state, as well as simultaneous stress-like changes in plasma corticosterone and monoamine levels in PFC. Autoshaping, therefore, may be useful for the study of endocrine and central processes associated with appetitive conditions.

  2. Leaching of PFC from soils contaminated with PFC of different origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalbe, Ute; Piechotta, Christian; Rothe, Robert

    2017-04-01

    Leaching tests are fundamental tools for the assessment of groundwater impact by contaminated soils concerning the soil-groundwater pathway. Such procedures are supposed to serve as the basis for a reliable leachate prognosis. They can be applied to determine the short and long term leaching behaviour as well as the source term of contaminated soils. For this purpose two types of leaching procedures have been validated in Germany for the examination of the leaching behaviour of frequently occurring organic substances (DIN 19528 - column test and DIN 19529 - batch test). A liquid-to-solid ratio (L/S) of 2 L/kg and 10 L/kg) is the basis for the risk assessment which is implemented in different German regulations. The equivalence of test results for both tests for the same material under investigation has been investigated for a variety of pollutants in order to assess their reliability in compliance testing. However, for emerging pollutants there is hardly data available on this issue. Leaching tests on soils contaminated with emerging pollutants such as PFC (Perfluorinated Surfactants) are currently coming more into consideration due to the increasing detection of contaminated sites. Therefore, two soils were investigated in this study from different contamination source (paper sludge containing compost and fire distinguishing foam) using both leaching tests and both liquid-to-solid ratios. The leachability of the various perfluorinated compounds in relation to their content in solid matter was considered. Furthermore the eluate pre-treatment prior analysis (in particular liquid/solid separation step needed for batch tests) has been taken into account. The comparability of the results from batch and column is dependent on the solubility of the various compounds, on the L/S and on the turbidity in the eluates.

  3. Histone deacetylase activity and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF levels in a pharmacological model of mania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Stertz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In the present study, we aimed to examine the effects of repeated D-amphetamine (AMPH exposure, a well-accepted animal model of acute mania in bipolar disorder (BD, and histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors on locomotor behavior and HDAC activity in the prefrontal cortex (PFC and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs of rats. Moreover, we aimed to assess brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF protein and mRNA levels in these samples. Methods: We treated adult male Wistar rats with 2 mg/kg AMPH or saline intraperitoneally for 14 days. Between the 8th and 14th days, rats also received 47.5 mg/kg lithium (Li, 200 mg/kg sodium valproate (VPT, 2 mg/kg sodium butyrate (SB, or saline. We evaluated locomotor activity in the open-field task and assessed HDAC activity in the PFC and PBMCs, and BDNF levels in the PFC and plasma. Results: AMPH significantly increased locomotor activity, which was reversed by all drugs. This hyperactivity was associated with increased HDAC activity in the PFC, which was partially reversed by Li, VPT, and SB. No differences were found in BDNF levels. Conclusion: Repeated AMPH administration increases HDAC activity in the PFC without altering BDNF levels. The partial reversal of HDAC increase by Li, VPT, and SB may account for their ability to reverse AMPH-induced hyperactivity.

  4. Webová aplikace v PLC PFC200

    OpenAIRE

    Michalík, David

    2017-01-01

    Tato bakalářská práce se věnuje implementaci vlastního způsobu ovládání vstupů, výstupů a paměti PLC PFC200 od firmy WAGO pomocí dynamického webového rozhraní. Součástí práce je popis PLC, způsobů jeho ovládání, rešerše volně dostupných webových serverů pro Linux a popis metod pro vytvoření real-time ovládání. Výstupem je webová aplikace běžící na webovém serveru v PLC, využívající vlastní runtime systém formou daemon programů. This bachelor’s thesis is mainly focused on implementation of ...

  5. 14 CFR 158.45 - Collection of PFC's on tickets issued in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... travel ticket, issuing air carriers and their agents shall collect a PFC from a passenger only for the.... (3) Issuing carriers and their agents shall collect PFCs based on the itinerary at the time of... travel on a nonrefundable or expired ticket is not a change in itinerary. If the ticket purchaser is not...

  6. Working Memory Modulates Glutamate Levels in the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex during 1H fMRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric A. Woodcock

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Glutamate is involved in excitatory neurotransmission and metabolic processes related to brain function. Previous studies using proton functional magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H fMRS have demonstrated elevated cortical glutamate levels by 2–4% during visual and motor stimulation, relative to periods of no stimulation. Here, we extended this approach to working memory cognitive task performance, which has been consistently associated with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC activation. Sixteen healthy adult volunteers completed a continuous visual fixation “rest” task followed by a letter 2-back working memory task during 1H fMRS acquisition of the left dlPFC, which encompassed Brodmann areas 45 and 46 over a 4.5-cm3 volume. Using a 100% automated fitting procedure integrated with LCModel, raw spectra were eddy current-, phase-, and shift-corrected prior to quantification resulting in a 32s temporal resolution or 8 averages per spectra. Task compliance was high (95 ± 11% correct and the mean Cramer-Rao Lower Bound of glutamate was 6.9 ± 0.9%. Relative to continuous passive visual fixation, left dlPFC glutamate levels were significantly higher by 2.7% (0.32 mmol/kg wet weight during letter 2-back performance. Elevated dlPFC glutamate levels reflect increased metabolic activity and excitatory neurotransmission driven by working memory-related cognitive demands. These results provide the first in vivo demonstration of elevated dlPFC glutamate levels during working memory.

  7. Total and antigen-specific Ige levels in umbilical cord blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sybilski AJ

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study was conducted to learn whether the perinatal and environmental factors could influence the total and antigen-specific IgE levels in umbilical cord blood. Retrospective data were obtained from 173 mother-infant pairs. Total and specific (for children's food, wheat/grass and house dust mite-HDM cord blood IgE levels were determined using the immunoassay test. The total cord blood IgE was between 0.0-23.08 IU/ml (mean 0.55 ± 2.07 IU/ml; median 0.16 IU/ml. Total IgE levels were significantly higher in boys compared with girls (OR = 2.2; P = 0.007, and in newborns with complicated pregnancy (OR = 2.7; P = 0.003. A greater number of siblings correlated with increases in the total cord blood IgE (P

  8. Dose-response characteristics of methylphenidate on locomotor behavior and on sensory evoked potentials recorded from the VTA, NAc, and PFC in freely behaving rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swann Alan C

    2006-01-01

    MPD-induced attenuation were also found among these brain areas. Conclusion These results suggest that an acute treatment of MPD produces electrophysiologically detectable alterations at the neuronal level, as well as observable, behavioral responses. The present study is the first to investigate the acute dose-response effects of MPD on behavior in terms of locomotor activity and in the brain involving the sensory inputs of VTA, NAc, and PFC neurons in intact, non-anesthetized, freely behaving rats previously implanted with permanent electrodes.

  9. Reduced total serum bilirubin levels are associated with ulcerative colitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen M Schieffer

    Full Text Available Chronic inflammation associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD results in increased oxidative stress that damages the colonic microenvironment. Low levels of serum bilirubin, an endogenous antioxidant, have been associated with increased risk for Crohn's disease (CD. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine whether total serum bilirubin levels are associated with ulcerative colitis (UC. We identified a retrospective case-control population (n = 6,649 from a single tertiary care center, Penn State Hershey Medical Center (PSU and a validation cohort (n = 1,996 from Virginia Commonwealth University Medical Center (VCU. Cases were age- and sex-matched to controls (PSU: CD n = 254, UC n = 187; VCU: CD n = 233, UC n = 124. Total serum bilirubin levels were obtained from de-identified medical records and segregated into quartiles. Logistic regression analysis was performed on each quartile of total serum bilirubin compared to the last quartile (highest bilirubin levels to determine the association of total serum bilirubin with UC. Similar to CD patients, UC patients demonstrated reduced levels of total serum bilirubin compared to controls at PSU and VCU. The lowest quartile of total serum bilirubin was independently associated with UC for the PSU (OR: 1.98 [95% CI: 1.09-3.63] and VCU cohorts (OR: 6.07 [95% CI: 3.01-12.75]. Lower levels of the antioxidant bilirubin may reduce the capability of UC patients to remove reactive oxygen species leading to an increase in intestinal injury. Therapeutics that reduce oxidative stress may be beneficial for these patients.

  10. Comparison of serum leptin, glucose, total cholesterol and total protein levels in fertile and repeat breeder cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saime Guzel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we measured serum glucose, leptin, total cholesterol and total protein concentrations in repeat breeder cows and compared them with fertile cows. For this aim, 20 repeat breeder cows and 20 fertile cows were used as material. Repeat breeder cows were found to have lower levels of leptin and glucose as compared with fertile ones. No significant differences in total cholesterol and total protein levels were observed between the two groups. No significant correlation of leptin with glucose, total cholesterol and total protein was observed in fertile and repeat breeder cows. Low concentrations of glucose and leptin can have some effects on reproductive problems as repeat breeder and help to understand potential mechanisms impairing fertility in repeat breeder cows.

  11. Japanese universities' activities for PFC development and PMI studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hino, T.

    1998-01-01

    Development of reliable plasma facing components (PFC) with active cooling structures is required for divertor plates of fusion devices in order to remove a large heat flow to the divertor. It is also known that plasma material interactions (PMIs), i.e. fuel hydrogen recycling and erosion of plasma facing material (PFM) determine the energy confinement characteristics. The lifetime of PFCs is limited by the erosion of PFMs. In Japanese universities, studies concerning PFCs and PMIs have been carried out so far for LHD and ITER. For the LHD divertor, both graphite/copper brazed components and mechanical joint components have been developed, and the heat load performance has been examined. For the particle control in LHD, a localized divertor called LID has been designed, the preliminary experiment was conducted in a small helical device, the CHS. In order to reduce the oxygen impurity level, boronization experiments have been conducted systematically, and properties such as oxygen gettering and hydrogen retention were clarified. In the TRIAM-1M tokamak, the damage of PFMs has been investigated using a surface probe. Data on hydrogen retention, which determines the degree of hydrogen recycling, have been accumulated for graphite, Li, B, B 4 C, SiC and W. Conditioning methods are also suggested. In this paper, the problems associated with PFCs and PMIs are pointed out and data recently obtained in Japanese universities and NIFS are briefly introduced. (orig.)

  12. Blonanserin Ameliorates Phencyclidine-Induced Visual-Recognition Memory Deficits: the Complex Mechanism of Blonanserin Action Involving D3-5-HT2A and D1-NMDA Receptors in the mPFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hida, Hirotake; Mouri, Akihiro; Mori, Kentaro; Matsumoto, Yurie; Seki, Takeshi; Taniguchi, Masayuki; Yamada, Kiyofumi; Iwamoto, Kunihiro; Ozaki, Norio; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Noda, Yukihiro

    2015-01-01

    Blonanserin differs from currently used serotonin 5-HT2A/dopamine-D2 receptor antagonists in that it exhibits higher affinity for dopamine-D2/3 receptors than for serotonin 5-HT2A receptors. We investigated the involvement of dopamine-D3 receptors in the effects of blonanserin on cognitive impairment in an animal model of schizophrenia. We also sought to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying this involvement. Blonanserin, as well as olanzapine, significantly ameliorated phencyclidine (PCP)-induced impairment of visual-recognition memory, as demonstrated by the novel-object recognition test (NORT) and increased extracellular dopamine levels in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). With blonanserin, both of these effects were antagonized by DOI (a serotonin 5-HT2A receptor agonist) and 7-OH-DPAT (a dopamine-D3 receptor agonist), whereas the effects of olanzapine were antagonized by DOI but not by 7-OH-DPAT. The ameliorating effect was also antagonized by SCH23390 (a dopamine-D1 receptor antagonist) and H-89 (a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor). Blonanserin significantly remediated the decrease in phosphorylation levels of PKA at Thr197 and of NR1 (an essential subunit of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors) at Ser897 by PKA in the mPFC after a NORT training session in the PCP-administered mice. There were no differences in the levels of NR1 phosphorylated at Ser896 by PKC in any group. These results suggest that the ameliorating effect of blonanserin on PCP-induced cognitive impairment is associated with indirect functional stimulation of the dopamine-D1-PKA-NMDA receptor pathway following augmentation of dopaminergic neurotransmission due to inhibition of both dopamine-D3 and serotonin 5-HT2A receptors in the mPFC. PMID:25120077

  13. Multimodal Investigation of Network Level Effects Using Intrinsic Functional Connectivity, Anatomical Covariance, and Structure-to-Function Correlations in Unmedicated Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinost, Dustin; Holmes, Sophie E; DellaGioia, Nicole; Schleifer, Charlie; Matuskey, David; Abdallah, Chadi G; Hampson, Michelle; Krystal, John H; Anticevic, Alan; Esterlis, Irina

    2018-04-01

    Converging evidence suggests that major depressive disorder (MDD) affects multiple large-scale brain networks. Analyses of the correlation or covariance of regional brain structure and function applied to structural and functional MRI data may provide insights into systems-level organization and structure-to-function correlations in the brain in MDD. This study applied tensor-based morphometry and intrinsic connectivity distribution to identify regions of altered volume and intrinsic functional connectivity in data from unmedicated individuals with MDD (n=17) and healthy comparison participants (HC, n=20). These regions were then used as seeds for exploratory anatomical covariance and connectivity analyses. Reduction in volume in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and lower structural covariance between the ACC and the cerebellum were observed in the MDD group. Additionally, individuals with MDD had significantly lower whole-brain intrinsic functional connectivity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). This mPFC region showed altered connectivity to the ventral lateral PFC (vlPFC) and local circuitry in MDD. Global connectivity in the ACC was negatively correlated with reported depressive symptomatology. The mPFC-vlPFC connectivity was positively correlated with depressive symptoms. Finally, we observed increased structure-to-function correlation in the PFC/ACC in the MDD group. Although across all analysis methods and modalities alterations in the PFC/ACC were a common finding, each modality and method detected alterations in subregions belonging to distinct large-scale brain networks. These exploratory results support the hypothesis that MDD is a systems level disorder affecting multiple brain networks located in the PFC and provide new insights into the pathophysiology of this disorder.

  14. Research on High Efficient Single-Phase Multi-Stage Interleaved Bridgeless PFC Frontend for Class-D Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qingnan; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a 3.5kW single-phase high efficient interleaved Bridgeless PFC (IBPFC) is proposed for class-D amplifiers. This topology achieves a relatively higher efficiency in a wide output power range, which helps to reduce the energy consuming of the whole system. In addition, a detailed...

  15. AAV-mediated overexpression of the CB1 receptor in the mPFC of adult rats alters cognitive flexibility, social behavior and emotional reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias eKlugmann

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The endocannabinoid (ECB system is strongly involved in the regulation of cognitive processing and emotional behavior and evidence indicates that ECB signaling might affect these behavioral abilities by modulations of prefrontal cortical functions. The aim of the present study was to examine the role of the CB1 receptor in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC on cognitive flexibility and emotional behavior. Therefore, the CB1 receptor was overexpressed by adeno-associated virus (AAV vector-mediated gene transfer specifically in the mPFC of adult Wistar rats. Animals were then tested in different anxiety-related paradigms for emotional reactivity (e.g. elevated plus maze (EPM, light/dark emergence test (EMT, social interaction and the attentional set shift task (ASST - an adaptation of the human Wisconsin card sorting test - for cognitive abilities and behavioral flexibility. A subtle increase in exploratory behavior was found in CB1 receptor overexpressing animals (CB1-R compared to empty vector injected controls (Empty in the EMT and EPM, although general locomotor activity did not differ between the groups. During social interaction testing, social contact behavior towards the unknown conspecific was found to be decreased, whereas social withdrawal was increased in CB1-R animals and they showed an inadequate increase in exploratory behavior compared to control animals. In the ASST, impaired reversal learning abilities were detected in CB1-R animals compared to controls, indicating reduced behavioral flexibility. In conclusion, upregulation of the CB1 receptor specifically in the rat mPFC induces alterations in emotional reactivity, leads to inadequate social behavior and impairs cognitive flexibility. These findings might be relevant for neuropsychiatric disorders, since higher cortical CB1 receptor expression levels as well as similar behavioral impairments as observed in the present study have been described in schizophrenic patients.

  16. Investigation of lithium PFC surface characteristics and low recycling at LTX/LTX-Beta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maan, Anurag; Kaita, Robert; Elliott, Drew; Boyle, Dennis; Majeski, Richard; Donovan, David; Buzi, Luxherta; Koel, Bruce E.; Biewer, Theodore M.

    2017-10-01

    Lithium coatings on high-Z PFCs at LTX have led to improved plasma performance. The initial hypothesis was that lithium retains hydrogen by forming lithium hydride and thereby enabling low recycling in LTX. However, recent in-vacuo measurements indicate the presence of lithium oxide in deposited lithium coatings. Improved plasma performance continued to be observed in the presence of lithium oxide. These observations raise questions like what is the nature of the lithium oxide surface, whether the PFC is an amorphous mixture of lithium and lithium oxide or something more ordered like a lithium oxide layer growing on top of lithium, and whether lithium oxide is responsible for any retention of hydrogen from the plasma. To investigate the mechanism by which the LTX PFC might be responsible for low recycling, we discuss the results of deuterium retention measurements using NRA/RBS and sample characterization using high resolution XPS (HR-XPS) in bulk lithium samples. Baseline HR-XPS scans indicate the presence of Lithium Oxide on sputtered lithium samples. Status of related planned experiments at LTX- β will also be discussed. This work was supported by the US. D.O.E. contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 and DE-AC02-09CH11466. BEK acknowledges support of this work by the U.S. DOE, Office of Science/FES under Award Number DE-SC0012890.

  17. Prefrontal and Striatal Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid Levels and the Effect of Antipsychotic Treatment in First-Episode Psychosis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente-Sandoval, Camilo; Reyes-Madrigal, Francisco; Mao, Xiangling; León-Ortiz, Pablo; Rodríguez-Mayoral, Oscar; Jung-Cook, Helgi; Solís-Vivanco, Rodolfo; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel; Shungu, Dikoma C

    2018-03-15

    Abnormally elevated levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) have been reported in antipsychotic-free patients with schizophrenia. Whether such GABA elevations are also present in other brain regions and persist after antipsychotic treatment has not been previously investigated. Twenty-eight antipsychotic-naïve patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP) and 18 healthy control subjects completed the study. Following baseline proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy scans targeting the mPFC and a second region, the dorsal caudate, patients with FEP were treated with oral risperidone for 4 weeks at an initial dose of 1 mg/day that was titrated as necessary based on clinical judgment. After the 4-week treatment period, both groups were brought back to undergo outcome magnetic resonance spectroscopy scans, which were identical to the scans conducted at baseline. At baseline, higher GABA levels were found both in the mPFC and in the dorsal caudate of patients with FEP compared with healthy control subjects. Following 4 weeks of antipsychotic treatment, GABA levels in patients with FEP decreased relative to baseline in the mPFC, but decreased only at the trend level relative to baseline in the dorsal caudate. For either brain region, GABA levels at 4 weeks or posttreatment did not differ between patients with FEP and healthy control subjects. The results of the present study documented elevations of GABA levels both in the mPFC and, for the first time, in the dorsal caudate of antipsychotic-naïve patients with FEP, which normalized in both regions following 4 weeks of antipsychotic treatment. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Total levels of hippocampal histone acetylation predict normal variability in mouse behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Addie May I Nesbitt

    Full Text Available Genetic, pharmacological, and environmental interventions that alter total levels of histone acetylation in specific brain regions can modulate behaviors and treatment responses. Efforts have been made to identify specific genes that are affected by alterations in total histone acetylation and to propose that such gene specific modulation could explain the effects of total histone acetylation levels on behavior - the implication being that under naturalistic conditions variability in histone acetylation occurs primarily around the promoters of specific genes.Here we challenge this hypothesis by demonstrating with a novel flow cytometry based technique that normal variability in open field exploration, a hippocampus-related behavior, was associated with total levels of histone acetylation in the hippocampus but not in other brain regions.Results suggest that modulation of total levels of histone acetylation may play a role in regulating biological processes. We speculate in the discussion that endogenous regulation of total levels of histone acetylation may be a mechanism through which organisms regulate cellular plasticity. Flow cytometry provides a useful approach to measure total levels of histone acetylation at the single cell level. Relating such information to behavioral measures and treatment responses could inform drug delivery strategies to target histone deacetylase inhibitors and other chromatin modulators to places where they may be of benefit while avoiding areas where correction is not needed and could be harmful.

  19. P.F.C Sigma® cruciate retaining fixed-bearing versus mobile-bearing knee arthroplasty: a prospective comparative study with minimum 10-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, O; Aqil, A; Sisodia, G; Chakrabarty, G

    2017-12-01

    To prospectively compare long-term clinical and radiological outcomes following a cruciate retaining fixed-bearing (FB) and a mobile-bearing (MB) primary total knee replacement (TKR). We prospectively reviewed 113 TKRs in 99 patients (14 bilateral) with a PFC sigma cruciate retaining rotating platform system, at an average follow-up of 11.1 years (range 10-12). Results were contrasted with those from 89 TKRs in 72 patients (17 bilateral) with a PFC sigma cruciate fixed-bearing prosthesis, at an average follow-up of 12.1 years (range 10-14.1). Outcomes collected included pre- and post-operative range of motion, Oxford Knee Scores, complications encountered, as well as radiographical assessments of polyethylene wear. In the MB group, mean Oxford Knee Scores improved from 16 pre-operatively to 42 at final follow-up. The mean range of motion was 115° (75-130). In the FB group, mean Oxford Knee Scores improved from 16.2 pre-operatively to 42.5 at final follow-up. The mean range of motion was 111.2 (80-135) degrees at final follow-up. We failed to elicit an objectively demonstrable clinical difference between the MB- and FB-implanted knees. Similarly, radiological benefits of the MB implants with regard to polyethylene wear were not evident at a minimum 10-year follow-up.

  20. Multimodal Investigation of Network Level Effects Using Intrinsic Functional Connectivity, Anatomical Covariance, and Structure-to-Function Correlations in Unmedicated Major Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinost, Dustin; Holmes, Sophie E; DellaGioia, Nicole; Schleifer, Charlie; Matuskey, David; Abdallah, Chadi G; Hampson, Michelle; Krystal, John H; Anticevic, Alan; Esterlis, Irina

    2018-01-01

    Converging evidence suggests that major depressive disorder (MDD) affects multiple large-scale brain networks. Analyses of the correlation or covariance of regional brain structure and function applied to structural and functional MRI data may provide insights into systems-level organization and structure-to-function correlations in the brain in MDD. This study applied tensor-based morphometry and intrinsic connectivity distribution to identify regions of altered volume and intrinsic functional connectivity in data from unmedicated individuals with MDD (n=17) and healthy comparison participants (HC, n=20). These regions were then used as seeds for exploratory anatomical covariance and connectivity analyses. Reduction in volume in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and lower structural covariance between the ACC and the cerebellum were observed in the MDD group. Additionally, individuals with MDD had significantly lower whole-brain intrinsic functional connectivity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). This mPFC region showed altered connectivity to the ventral lateral PFC (vlPFC) and local circuitry in MDD. Global connectivity in the ACC was negatively correlated with reported depressive symptomatology. The mPFC–vlPFC connectivity was positively correlated with depressive symptoms. Finally, we observed increased structure-to-function correlation in the PFC/ACC in the MDD group. Although across all analysis methods and modalities alterations in the PFC/ACC were a common finding, each modality and method detected alterations in subregions belonging to distinct large-scale brain networks. These exploratory results support the hypothesis that MDD is a systems level disorder affecting multiple brain networks located in the PFC and provide new insights into the pathophysiology of this disorder. PMID:28944772

  1. Exploring liquid metal plasma facing component (PFC) concepts-Liquid metal film flow behavior under fusion relevant magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narula, M.; Abdou, M.A.; Ying, A.; Morley, N.B.; Ni, M.; Miraghaie, R.; Burris, J.

    2006-01-01

    The use of fast moving liquid metal streams or 'liquid walls' as a plasma contact surface is a very attractive option and has been looked upon with considerable interest over the past several years, both by the plasma physics and fusion engineering programs. Flowing liquid walls provide an ever replenishing contact surface to the plasma, leading to very effective particle pumping and surface heat flux removal. A key feasibility issue for flowing liquid metal plasma facing component (PFC) systems, pertains to their magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) behavior under the spatially varying magnetic field environment, typical of a fusion device. MHD forces hinder the development of a smooth and controllable liquid metal flow needed for PFC applications. The present study builds up on the ongoing research effort at UCLA, directed towards providing qualitative and quantitative data on liquid metal free surface flow behavior under fusion relevant magnetic fields

  2. Study on a Novel High-Efficiency Bridgeless PFC Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Taiqiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to implement a high-efficiency bridgeless power factor correction converter, a new topology and operation principles of continuous conduction mode (CCM and DC steady-state character of the converter are analyzed, which show that the converter not only has bipolar-gain characteristic but also has the same characteristic as the traditional Boost converter, while the voltage transfer ratio is not related with the resonant branch parameters and switching frequency. Based on the above topology, a novel bridgeless Bipolar-Gain Pseudo-Boost PFC converter is proposed. With this converter, the diode rectifier bridge of traditional AC-DC converter is eliminated, and zero-current switching of fast recovery diode is achieved. Thus, the efficiency is improved. Next, we also propose the one-cycle control policy of this converter. Finally, experiments are provided to verify the accuracy and feasibility of the proposed converter.

  3. Levels of conflict in reasoning modulate right lateral prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stollstorff, Melanie; Vartanian, Oshin; Goel, Vinod

    2012-01-05

    Right lateral prefrontal cortex (rlPFC) has previously been implicated in logical reasoning under conditions of conflict. A functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study was conducted to explore its role in conflict more precisely. Specifically, we distinguished between belief-logic conflict and belief-content conflict, and examined the role of rlPFC under each condition. The results demonstrated that a specific region of rlPFC is consistently activated under both types of conflict. Moreover, the results of a parametric analysis demonstrated that the same region was modulated by the level of conflict contained in reasoning arguments. This supports the idea that this specific region is engaged to resolve conflict, including during deductive reasoning. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "The Cognitive Neuroscience of Thought". Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Age-related changes in overcoming proactive interference in associative memory: The role of PFC-mediated executive control processes at retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulas, Michael R; Duarte, Audrey

    2016-05-15

    Behavioral evidence has shown age-related impairments in overcoming proactive interference in memory, but it is unclear what underlies this deficit. Imaging studies in the young suggest overcoming interference may require several executive control processes supported by the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) and dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC). The present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigated whether age-related changes in dissociable executive control processes underlie deficits in overcoming proactive interference in associative memory during retrieval. Participants were tasked with remembering which associate (face or scene) objects were paired with most recently during study, under conditions of high or low proactive interference. Behavioral results demonstrated that, as interference increased, memory performance decreased similarly across groups, with slight associative memory deficits in older adults. Imaging results demonstrated that, across groups, left mid-VLPFC showed increasing activity with increasing interference, though activity did not distinguish correct from incorrect associative memory responses, suggesting this region may not directly serve in successful resolution of proactive interference, per se. Under conditions of high interference, older adults showed reduced associative memory accuracy effects in the DLPFC and anterior PFC. These results suggest that age-related PFC dysfunction may not be ubiquitous. Executive processes supported by ventral regions that detect mnemonic interference may be less affected than processes supported by dorsal and anterior regions that directly resolve interference. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Report on achievement in the preceding research related to global industry technologies for the global industry technology research and development project. Research on gas systems substituting global warming gases such as PFC used in manufacturing semiconductors; 1998 nendo chikyu kankyo sangyo gijutsu ni kakawaru sendo kenkyu. Handotai seizo nado ni shiyosuru PFC nado no chikyu ondanka gas no daitai gas system no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The present semiconductor manufacturing process uses a great amount of PFC having large global warming coefficients and extremely long atmospheric life. A research was made particularly on reduction of its emission from etching processes. After introducing how the semiconductor industry has been working conventionally on protection of the global environment, this paper makes clear the purpose and positioning of this preceding research, as well as how it is moved forward. The paper also reports the results of analyzing and discussing the exhaust gases from etching devices using several kinds of substitute PFC gases. Survey results are reported on the possibilities of new substitute gases, plasma decomposition and treatment of exhaust gases, reaction process simulation, and in-situ analyzing and evaluating technologies. Investigations were made on the possibility of using no PFC in wiring processes which consume greater amount of PFC, as well as on wiring techniques using inter-layer insulation film with low dielectric rate, a new wiring structure forming technology, new functional elements, circuits and systems in a wide range. Proposals were given on specific research and development themes and plans that begin in fiscal 1999. (NEDO)

  6. Fabrication and characterization of tungsten and graphite based PFC for divertor target elements of ITER like tokamak application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khirwadkar, S.S., E-mail: sameer@ipr.res.in [Institute For Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India); Singh, K.P.; Patil, Y.; Khan, M.S.; Buch, J.J.U.; Patel, Alpesh; Tripathi, Sudhir [Institute For Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India); Jaman, P.M.; Rangaraj, L.; Divakar, C. [Materials Science Division, National Aerospace Laboratories, CSIR, Bangalore, Karnataka (India)

    2011-10-15

    The development of the fabrication technology of macro-brush configuration of tungsten (W) and carbon (graphite and CFC) plasma facing components (PFCs) for ITER like tokamak application is presented. The fabrication of qualified joint of PFC is a requirement for fusion tokamak. Vacuum brazing method has been employed for joining of W/CuCrZr and C/CuCrZr. Oxygen free high conductivity (OFHC) copper casting on W tiles was performed followed by machining, polishing and ultrasonic cleaning of the samples prior to vacuum brazing. The W/CuCrZr and graphite/CuCrZr based test mockups were vacuum brazed using silver free alloys. The mechanical shear and tensile strengths were evaluated for the W/CuCrZr and graphite/CuCrZr brazed joint samples. The micro-structural examination of the joints showed smooth interface. The details of fabrication and characterization procedure for macro-brush tungsten and carbon based PFC test mockups are presented.

  7. Serum total bilirubin levels and coronary heart disease--Causal association or epiphenomenon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunutsor, Setor K

    2015-12-01

    Observational epidemiological evidence supports a linear inverse and independent association between serum total bilirubin levels and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk, but whether this association is causal remains to be ascertained. A Mendelian randomization approach was employed to test whether serum total bilirubin is causally linked to CHD. The genetic variant rs6742078--well known to specifically modify levels of serum total bilirubin and accounting for up to 20% of the variance in circulating serum total bilirubin levels--was used as an instrumental variable. In pooled analysis of estimates reported from published genome-wide association studies, every copy of the T allele of rs6742078 was associated with 0.42 standard deviation (SD) higher levels of serum total bilirubin (95% confidence interval, 0.40 to 0.43). Based on combined data from the Coronary Artery Disease Genome wide Replication and Meta-analyses and the Coronary Artery Disease (C4D) Genetics Consortium involving a total of 36,763 CHD cases and 76,997 controls, the odds ratio for CHD per copy of the T allele was 1.01 (95% confidence interval, 0.99 to 1.04). The odds ratio of CHD for a 1 SD genetically elevated serum total bilirubin level was 1.03 (95% confidence interval, 0.98 to 1.09). The current findings casts doubt on a strong causal association of serum total bilirubin levels with CHD. The inverse associations demonstrated in observational studies may be driven by biases such as unmeasured confounding and/or reverse causation. However, further research in large-scale consortia is needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. HIDRA: A new device for PFC and PMI development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andruczyk, Daniel; Ruzic, David N.; Allain, Jean Paul; Curreli, Davide; HIDRA Team

    2014-10-01

    A toroidal plasma device is being constructed at the University of Illinois dedicated in part as a toroidal liquid-metal PFC technology test bench. The Hybrid Illinois stellarator/tokamak Device for Research and Applications (HIDRA) is a medium sized classical stellarator (previously WEGA, IPP Greifswald) with, R = 0.72 m, a = 0.19 m, B < 0.5 T and will be able to reach Te = 10-50 eV, ne = 1017--1018 m-3 with plasmas running up to several minutes. A critical knowledge gap for liquid-metal PFCs is their integration and performance in asymmetric confinement fusion environments. HIDRA will be used to evaluate technologies such as TEMHD driven flows for the first wall, help address key questions including whether a full toroidal liquid-metal loop can operate in a toroidal machine, test low recycling regimes and whether D can be removed and recycled easily. Also, UIUC's experience with in-situ diagnostics will open up new opportunities for innovative Material Application Testing (HIDRA-MAT).

  9. Lower glutamic acid decarboxylase 65kD mRNA and protein levels in the prefrontal cortex in schizoaffective disorder but not schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glausier, JR; Kimoto, S; Fish, KN; Lewis, DA

    2014-01-01

    Background Altered GABA signaling in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) has been associated with cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. PFC levels of the GABA-synthesizing enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase 67kD (GAD67) has been consistently reported to be lower in these disorders, but the status of the second GABA-synthesizing enzyme, GAD65, remains unclear. Methods GAD65 mRNA levels were quantified in PFC area 9 by quantitative polymerase chain reaction from 62 subjects with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 62 matched healthy comparison subjects. GAD65 relative protein levels were quantified in a subset of subject pairs by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy. Results Mean GAD65 mRNA levels were 13.6% lower in schizoaffective disorder subjects, but did not differ in schizophrenia subjects, relative to their matched healthy comparison subjects. In the subjects with schizoaffective disorder, mean GAD65 protein levels were 19.4% lower and were correlated with GAD65 mRNA levels. Lower GAD65 mRNA and protein measures within schizoaffective disorder subjects was not attributable to factors commonly comorbid with the diagnosis. Conclusions In concert with previous studies, these findings suggest that schizoaffective disorder is associated with lower levels of both GAD65 and GAD67 mRNA and protein in the PFC, whereas subjects with schizophrenia have lower mean levels of only GAD67 mRNA and protein. Because cognitive function is generally better preserved in subjects with schizoaffective disorder relative to subjects with schizophrenia, these findings may support an interpretation that GAD65 down-regulation provides a homeostatic response complementary to GAD67 down-regulation expression that serves to reduce inhibition in the face of lower PFC network activity. PMID:24993056

  10. Lower glutamic acid decarboxylase 65-kDa isoform messenger RNA and protein levels in the prefrontal cortex in schizoaffective disorder but not schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glausier, Jill R; Kimoto, Sohei; Fish, Kenneth N; Lewis, David A

    2015-01-15

    Altered gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) signaling in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) has been associated with cognitive dysfunction in patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. Levels of the GABA-synthesizing enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase 67-kDa isoform (GAD67) in the PFC have been consistently reported to be lower in patients with these disorders, but the status of the second GABA-synthesizing enzyme, glutamic acid decarboxylase 65-kDa isoform (GAD65), remains unclear. GAD65 messenger RNA (mRNA) levels were quantified in PFC area 9 by quantitative polymerase chain reaction from 62 subjects with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 62 matched healthy comparison subjects. In a subset of subject pairs, GAD65 relative protein levels were quantified by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy. Mean GAD65 mRNA levels were 13.6% lower in subjects with schizoaffective disorder but did not differ in subjects with schizophrenia relative to their matched healthy comparison subjects. In the subjects with schizoaffective disorder, mean GAD65 protein levels were 19.4% lower and were correlated with GAD65 mRNA levels. Lower GAD65 mRNA and protein levels within subjects with schizoaffective disorder were not attributable to factors commonly comorbid with the diagnosis. In concert with previous studies, these findings suggest that schizoaffective disorder is associated with lower levels of both GAD65 and GAD67 mRNA and protein in the PFC, whereas subjects with schizophrenia have lower mean levels of only GAD67 mRNA and protein. Because cognitive function is generally better preserved in patients with schizoaffective disorder relative to patients with schizophrenia, these findings may support an interpretation that GAD65 downregulation provides a homeostatic response complementary to GAD67 downregulation that serves to reduce inhibition in the face of lower PFC network activity. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc

  11. Total oxidant status, total antioxidant capacity and ischemia modified albumin levels in children with celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayar, Ersin; Özdem, Sebahat; Uzun, Gülbahar; İşlek, Ali; Yılmaz, Aygen; Artan, Reha

    2015-01-01

    In our study, we aimed to investigate ischemia modified albumin (IMA) as an oxidative stress marker, as well as other oxidant and antioxidant markers that have not been evaluated in children with celiac disease. A total of 37 pediatric patients who were diagnosed with celiac disease (CD) and 29 healthy children were enrolled in this prospective study. We evaluated the IMA, total oxidant status, total antioxidant capacity, sulfhydryl, and advanced oxidation protein products in all of the subjects. We also compared the levels at the time of the diagnosis, and following a gluten-free diet (GFD) in the children with CD. While the IMA and the other oxidant marker levels were significantly higher in the patient group compared to the control group, the antioxidant marker levels were found to be significantly lower in the patient group, compared to the control group. We also determined that the tissue transglutaminase IgA showed a highly positive correlation, and that the IMA showed a moderately positive correlation with the Marsh-Oberhuber histopathological stage. Additionally, the IMA and other oxidant marker levels were significantly lower, while the antioxidant marker levels were significantly higher after the GFD, compared to the pre-diet period. We detected that oxidative stress played a role in the pathogenesis of CD, and that this could be evaluated using oxidative stress markers, which would regress after the GFD. We also detected that IMA is a marker that shows a correlation with the histopathological stage, and may be used in the diagnosis.

  12. Chronic LSD alters gene expression profiles in the mPFC relevant to schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, David A; Marona-Lewicka, Danuta; Nichols, David E; Nichols, Charles D

    2014-08-01

    Chronic administration of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) every other day to rats results in a variety of abnormal behaviors. These build over the 90 day course of treatment and can persist at full strength for at least several months after cessation of treatment. The behaviors are consistent with those observed in animal models of schizophrenia and include hyperactivity, reduced sucrose-preference, and decreased social interaction. In order to elucidate molecular changes that underlie these aberrant behaviors, we chronically treated rats with LSD and performed RNA-sequencing on the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), an area highly associated with both the actions of LSD and the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and other psychiatric illnesses. We observed widespread changes in the neurogenetic state of treated animals four weeks after cessation of LSD treatment. QPCR was used to validate a subset of gene expression changes observed with RNA-Seq, and confirmed a significant correlation between the two methods. Functional clustering analysis indicates differentially expressed genes are enriched in pathways involving neurotransmission (Drd2, Gabrb1), synaptic plasticity (Nr2a, Krox20), energy metabolism (Atp5d, Ndufa1) and neuropeptide signaling (Npy, Bdnf), among others. Many processes identified as altered by chronic LSD are also implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, and genes affected by LSD are enriched with putative schizophrenia genes. Our results provide a relatively comprehensive analysis of mPFC transcriptional regulation in response to chronic LSD, and indicate that the long-term effects of LSD may bear relevance to psychiatric illnesses, including schizophrenia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of Physical Activity on Symptoms of Morphine Addiction in Rats, after and before of Lesion of the mPFC Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vajiheh Saedi-Marghmaleki

    2013-10-01

    Administration of morphine as aforementioned, and treadmill running on rats with mPFC area, significantly alleviated some of the symptoms and signs, such as, bruxism, cycling, body lift, licking, standing and scratching (P

  14. Total mercury levels in commercial fish species from Italian fishery and aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lena, Gabriella; Casini, Irene; Caproni, Roberto; Fusari, Andrea; Orban, Elena

    2017-06-01

    Total mercury levels were measured in 42 commercial fish species caught off the Central Adriatic and Tyrrhenian coasts of Italy and in 6 aquaculture species. The study on wild fish covered species differing in living habitat and trophic level. The study on farmed fish covered marine and freshwater species from intensive and extensive aquaculture and their feed. Mercury levels were analysed by thermal decomposition-amalgamation-atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Total mercury concentrations in the muscle of wild fish showed a high variability among species (0.025-2.20 mg kg -1 wet weight). The lowest levels were detected in low trophic-level demersal and pelagic-neritic fish and in young individuals of high trophic-level species. Levels exceeding the European Commission limits were found in large-size specimens of high trophic-level pelagic and demersal species. Fish from intensive farming showed low levels of total mercury (0.008-0.251 mg kg -1 ). Fish from extensive rearing showed variable contamination levels, depending on the area of provenience. An estimation of the human intake of mercury associated to the consumption of the studied fish and its comparison with the tolerable weekly intake is provided.

  15. The Plasma-Facing Components Transporter (PFCT) : a Prototype System for PFC Replacement on the new ITER 2001 Cassette Mock-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micciche, G.; Lorenzelli, L.; Muro, L.; Irving, M.

    2006-01-01

    The remote maintainability of the early ITER divertor cassette (based on the ITER 1998 design) was successfully proved during test campaigns carried out in the Divertor Refurbishment Platform (DRP) at the ENEA research centre at Brasimone over the period 1999-2003. Due to subsequent major modifications in the ITER divertor cassette design, the main focus over the past few years has been on the design and manufacture of the various components, devices and tools needed for refurbishment of the new ITER 2001 Divertor Cassette. The design of this new cassette differs substantially from the earlier version: in particular the shape, weight and attachment system of the Plasma Facing Components (PFC's) has been completely revised, and this also entailed a review of the procedures adopted for its refurbishment. One of the major requirements of the cassette refurbishment process is removal and replacement of the three PFC's. In the old cassette concept, target replacement was performed by means of a purpose-built '' C '' frame slung from a standard bridge crane. The 2001 cassette design precludes such handling methods for a number of reasons, notably because of the extremely tight inter-PFC clearances, and the need for controlled inclination of the target in addition to normal translational movements, both impossible with a simple Cartesian crane. To demonstrate the refurbishment feasibility operations for the new ITER Divertor 2001 cassettes, an experimental machine known as the Plasma-Facing Component Transporter (PFCT) has been designed, fabricated and commissioned in the years 2004-5. This full six degree-of-freedom system has been designed to handle payloads of up to 5 tonnes with good positional accuracy, and axes capable of very low joint velocities, including inclination of the PFC's over the range of ± 10 o in both horizontal axes, and controlled rotation about the vertical axis. Preliminary trials carried out during the commissioning phase have proved its

  16. Serum levels of total IgE and soluble CD23 in bronchial asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Di Lorenzo

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare, during the pollen season, serum levels of total IgE and soluble CD23 (sCD23 from patients with allergic bronchial asthma, with those from healthy subjects. Significantly higher levels of total IgE and sCD23 were found in patients with asthma compared to the control group. Both in normal controls and in asthmatic patients, a significant correlation was shown between the levels of these two molecules. In asthmatic patients, significant correlations were found for both total IgE and sCD23, with lung function measured as bronchial responsiveness to inhaled methacholine. These results suggest that in asthmatic patients, in addition to the study of total serum IgE levels, the assessment of sCD23 serum levels may be helpful in the evaluation of disease activity.

  17. Decreased total antioxidant levels and increased oxidative stress in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    21–25 ... Decreased total antioxidant levels and increased oxidative stress in South ... antioxidant-rich diet and lifestyle changes in T2DM patients would help to avert the .... glycation of proteins and the formation of advanced glycosylation.

  18. Total circulating microparticle levels are increased in patients with deep infiltrating endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munrós, J; Martínez-Zamora, M A; Tàssies, D; Coloma, J L; Torrente, M A; Reverter, J C; Carmona, F; Balasch, J

    2017-02-01

    Are the levels of total circulating cell-derived microparticles (cMPs) and circulating tissue factor-containing microparticles (cMP-TF) increased in patients with endometriosis? The levels of total cMP, but not cMP-TF, were higher in patients with endometriosis, and these were attributed to higher levels in patients with deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE). Previous studies have reported elevated levels of total cMP in inflammatory conditions as well as higher levels of other inflammatory biomarkers in endometriosis. Increased expression of tissue factor (a transmembrane receptor for Factor VII/VIIa) in eutopic and ectopic endometrium from patients with endometriosis has been described. There is no previous data regarding total cMP and cMP-TF levels in patients with endometriosis. A prospective case-control study including two groups of patients was carried out. The E group included 65 patients with surgically confirmed endometriosis (37 with DIE lesions) and the C group comprises 33 women without surgical findings of any form of endometriosis. Patients and controls were recruited during the same 10-month period. Controls were the next patient without endometriosis undergoing surgery, after including two patients with endometriosis. Venous blood samples for total cMP and cMP-TF determinations were obtained at the time of surgery, before anesthesia at a tertiary care center. To assess total cMP, an ELISA functional assay was used and cMP-TF activity in plasma was measured using an ELISA kit. Total cMP levels in plasma were higher in the E group compared with the C group (P < 0.0001). The subanalysis of endometriosis patients with DIE or with ovarian endometriomas without DIE showed that total cMP levels were higher in the DIE group (P = 0.001). There were no statistically significant differences in cMP-TF levels among the groups analyzed. This is a preliminary study in which the sample size was arbitrarily decided, albeit in keeping with previous studies analyzing

  19. Blood trihalomethane levels and the risk of total cancer mortality in US adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Jin-Young; Min, Kyoung-Bok

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although animal data have suggested the carcinogenic activity of trihalomethanes (THMs), there is inconsistent evidence supporting the link between THM exposure and cancers in humans. Objectives: We investigated the association between specific and total blood THM levels with the risk of total cancer mortality in adults. Methods: We analyzed data from the 1999–2004 Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and the Linked Mortality File of the United States. A total of 933 adults (20–59 years of age) with available blood THM levels and no missing data for other variables were included. Four different THM species (chloroform, bromodichloromethane (BDCM), dibromochloromethane (DBCM) and bromoform) were included, and the codes associated with cancer (malignant neoplasm) were C00 through C97, based on the underlying causes of death listed in the International Classification of Disease 10the Revision. Results: Compared with adults in the lowest DBCM, bromoform, and total brominated THM tertiles, those in the highest DBCM, bromoform, and total brominated THM tertiles exhibited adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of total cancer mortality of 4.97 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.59–15.50), 4.94 (95% CI = 1.56–15.61), and 3.42 (95% CI = 1.21–15.43) respectively. The risk of total cancer mortality was not associated with increases in blood chloroform and total THM levels. Conclusions: We found that the baseline blood THM species, particularly brominated THMs, were significantly associated with total cancer mortality in adults. Although this study should be confirm by other studies, our findings suggest a possible link between THM exposures and cancer. - Highlights: • Trihalomethanes (THM) are classified as either probable or possible carcinogens. • Limited evidence on the link between THM and the incidence of cancer in humans. • We investigated the association between blood THM levels and the risk of total cancer mortality. • High

  20. Nontraumatic Fracture of the Femoral Condylar Prosthesis in a Total Knee Arthroplasty Leading to Mechanical Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish N. Swamy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a case of fatigue fracture of the femoral component in a cruciate-retaining cemented total knee arthroplasty (TKA. A 64-year-old man had undergone a primary TKA for osteoarthritis 10 years previously at another institution using the PFC-Sigma prosthesis. The patient recovered fully and was back to his regular activities. He presented with a history of sudden onset pain and locking of the left knee since the preceding three months. There was no history of trauma, and the patient was mobilizing with difficulty using crutches. Radiographs revealed fracture of the posterior condyle of the femoral prosthesis. Revision surgery was performed as an elective procedure revealing the broken prosthesis. The TC3RP-PFC revision prosthesis was used with a medial parapatellar approach. The patient recovered fully without any squeal. Mechanical failure of the knee arthroplasty prosthesis is rare, and nontraumatic fracture of the femoral metallic component has not been reported before.

  1. Nontraumatic fracture of the femoral condylar prosthesis in a total knee arthroplasty leading to mechanical failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, Girish N; Quah, Conal; Bagouri, Elmunzar; Badhe, Nitin P

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports a case of fatigue fracture of the femoral component in a cruciate-retaining cemented total knee arthroplasty (TKA). A 64-year-old man had undergone a primary TKA for osteoarthritis 10 years previously at another institution using the PFC-Sigma prosthesis. The patient recovered fully and was back to his regular activities. He presented with a history of sudden onset pain and locking of the left knee since the preceding three months. There was no history of trauma, and the patient was mobilizing with difficulty using crutches. Radiographs revealed fracture of the posterior condyle of the femoral prosthesis. Revision surgery was performed as an elective procedure revealing the broken prosthesis. The TC3RP-PFC revision prosthesis was used with a medial parapatellar approach. The patient recovered fully without any squeal. Mechanical failure of the knee arthroplasty prosthesis is rare, and nontraumatic fracture of the femoral metallic component has not been reported before.

  2. Total Water Level Fun Facts: The Relative Contribution of Extreme Total Water Levels Along the US West Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, K.; Ruggiero, P.; Stockdon, H. F.

    2016-02-01

    In the fall of 2014, parts of the US West Coast endured some of the highest monthly mean sea level anomalies on record, likely due to the presence of "the blob" (Bond et al., 2015), an anomalously warm water mass in the NE Pacific. However, despite the significantly above average water levels, the coastline experienced only marginal coastal flooding and erosion hazards because the ensuing winter lacked significant storms, underscoring the fact that extreme total water levels (TWLs) are compound events. To better understand how several individual processes combine to cause devastating coastal hazards, we investigate the relative contribution that each component (waves, tides, and non-tidal residuals) has on extreme TWLs on sandy beaches. Water level records along the US West Coast are decomposed into mean sea level, astronomical tide, and non-tidal residuals (NTRs). The NTR is further split into an intra-annual seasonal signal, monthly mean sea level anomalies (inter-annual variability), and meteorological surge. TWL time series are then generated by combining water levels with wave runup, computed using wave data and beach morphology. We use this data-driven, structural function approach to investigate the spatial variability of the relative contribution of each component to the maximum TWL event on record. We also use a probabilistic, full simulation TWL model (Serafin and Ruggiero, 2014) to generate multiple, synthetic TWL records, to explore the relative contribution of each component to extreme TWL return levels. We assess the sensitivity to local beach morphology by computing TWLs for a range of observed beach slopes. Extreme TWLs are higher in Oregon and Washington than in California. Wave runup typically comprises > 50% of the TWL signal, while NTRs often compose < 5%, illustrating the importance wave climate has on the potential for extreme TWLs. While waves are typically larger in the North, California experiences greater contributions to extreme TWLs from

  3. Investigation of total α and total β radioactive level of environment mediator in the Dushu lake campus of Suzhou university

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Wenhua; Wan Jun; Liu Li; He Chao; Tang Hua; Tu Yu

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To get the message of natural radioactive level in the Dushu lake cam- pus of Suzhou university. Methods: Different types of water, soil and food in this region were collected, and then the level of total α and total β radioactivity of the sample was investigated applying model BH1216 equipment which measuring was used for low background total α and β radioactivity. Results: Total α in city water, surface water and soil were 0.061 Bq/L, 0.104 Bq/L, 1708 Bq/kg respectively, total β were 0.183 Bq/L, 0.319 Bq/L, 780 Bq/kg respectively, total α in chive, potato, water bamboo, pork, fish were 1.83, 2.36, 1.84, 3.40, 3.76 Bq/kg respectively, total α of Fish bone was at infra-monitoring lower limit, total β in them were 70.81, 96.71, 60.63, 86.20, 97.51, 73.94 Bq/kg respectively. Conclusion: The results of the investigation display that the total radioactivity in drinking water and food don't exceed limits, in surface water and soil is at normal natural background. It can be concluded that this region has not been polluted by the artificial radioactivity and the environment of human habitation is healthy and safe. (authors)

  4. Experimental Qualification of the Sleeved Pin Multilink Attachment for Divertor PFC's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poutanen, J.; McCallum, A.; Turner, A.; Merola, M.

    2006-01-01

    The latest design for connecting the limited life ITER divertor plasma facing components (PFC's) to the reusable cassette body is the so called sleeved pin multilink attachment. The connection is made by expanding a 43 mm diameter hollow AlBr pin inside the fixation holes of components of the cassette body and PFC by a swaging process. The multilink is an easy, safe and fast assembly method, but the original dismantling method of drilling out the pin was found troublesome. Therefore, in the latest attachment design a thin sleeve is incorporated between the pin and the holes, which makes it possible to dismantle the joint by simply pulling out the pin and sleeve sequentially. Experimental qualification of the new sleeved design is now proceeding. The aim of the experimental qualification is to prove that the sleeved design meets the requirements of load carrying capability, clearance free connection, and easy and safe removal. Associated analytical studies were performed to develop and verify theoretical models and correlations for use in design. Results from the experimental qualification will provide reference information for developing tools for making and removing the connection. Theoretical finite element models in association with the results of earlier test campaigns with nonsleeved design were used to determine pin expansion parameters. The expansion parameters were verified with plate-pin tests measuring contact pressures produced by pin expansion. The plate-pin tests were also used to demonstrate the feasibility of pin removal and develop pin removal methodology. The mechanical capabilities of the connection design are being examined with test series of cyclic tensile loading plus articulation-induced loading of a single connection mock-up. Remaking properties of the attachment are being studied with multiple swaging and removing of the pin into the fixation holes. Finally the dismantling of the connection will be examined with full length pin extraction

  5. GLUCOSE AND TOTAL PROTEIN LEVEL IN LABORATORY RATS UNDER CONDITIONS OF SHORT-TERM FASTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Suljević

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Glucose level (UV enzymatic method and total protein level (Biuret method were measured in the blood samples of the rats exposed to short-term starvation. We found a statistically significant increase in the glucose level in experimental animals during starvation, which is also evident in males and females in the experimental group (p <0.05, while decrease in the total protein level was not statistically significant. During starvation, more significant weight loss was observed in females compared to males.Key words: glucose, total protein, serum, Rattus

  6. Plasma Total Homocysteine (tHcy) Levels in Healthy Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Establishment and stratification of reference values for a laboratory area of practice enhances the test result interpretation and sensitivity. Plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) is a metabolite of methionine which is dependent on vitamin B6, B12 and folate as co-factors. Plasma level (Hyperhomocysteinemia) is influenced by ...

  7. Decreased total antioxidant levels and increased oxidative stress in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Chronic hyperglycaemia in diabetes mellitus leads to increased lipid peroxidation in the body, followed by the development of chronic complications due to oxidative stress. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare total antioxidant (TAO) levels and oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) ...

  8. Region-specific changes in presynaptic agmatine and glutamate levels in the aged rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Y; Liu, P; Leitch, B

    2016-01-15

    During the normal aging process, the brain undergoes a range of biochemical and structural alterations, which may contribute to deterioration of sensory and cognitive functions. Age-related deficits are associated with altered efficacy of synaptic neurotransmission. Emerging evidence indicates that levels of agmatine, a putative neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain, are altered in a region-specific manner during the aging process. The gross tissue content of agmatine in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of aged rat brains is decreased whereas levels in the temporal cortex (TE) are increased. However, it is not known whether these changes in gross tissue levels are also mirrored by changes in agmatine levels at synapses and thus could potentially contribute to altered synaptic function with age. In the present study, agmatine levels in presynaptic terminals in the PFC and TE regions (300 terminals/region) of young (3month; n=3) and aged (24month; n=3) brains of male Sprague-Dawley rats were compared using quantitative post-embedding immunogold electron-microscopy. Presynaptic levels of agmatine were significantly increased in the TE region (60%; pagmatine and glutamate were co-localized in the same synaptic terminals, and quantitative analyses revealed significantly reduced glutamate levels in agmatine-immunopositive synaptic terminals in both regions in aged rats compared to young animals. This study, for the first time, demonstrates differential effects of aging on agmatine and glutamate in the presynaptic terminals of PFC and TE. Future research is required to understand the functional significance of these changes and the underlying mechanisms. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of PFC recycling conditions on JET pedestal density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesen, S.; Brezinsek, S.; Dittmar, T.; Matveev, D.; Harting, D.; De la Luna, E.; Schmid, K.

    2016-01-01

    There is experimental evidence that the pedestal dynamics in type-I ELMy H-mode discharges is significantly affected by a change in the recycling conditions at the tungsten plasma-facing components (W-PFCs) after an ELM event. The integrated code JINTRAC has been employed to assess the impact of recycling conditions during type-I ELMs in JET ITER-like wall H-mode discharges. By employing a heuristic approach, a model to mimic the physical processes leading to formation and release (i.e. outgassing) of finite near-surface fuel reservoirs in W-PFCs has been implemented into the EDGE2D-EIRENE plasma-wall interaction code being part of JINTRAC. As main result it is shown, that a delay in the density pedestal build-up after an ELM event can be provoked by reduced recycling induced by depleted W-PFC particle near-surface reservoirs. However the pedestal temperature evolution is barely affected by the change in recycling parameters suggesting that the presented model is incomplete. (copyright 2016 The Authors. Contributions to Plasma Physics published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA Weinheim. This)

  10. Lithium vapor trapping at a high-temperature lithium PFC divertor target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworski, Michael; Abrams, T.; Goldston, R. J.; Kaita, R.; Stotler, D. P.; de Temmerman, G.; Scholten, J.; van den Berg, M. A.; van der Meiden, H. J.

    2014-10-01

    Liquid lithium has been proposed as a novel plasma-facing material for NSTX-U and next-step fusion devices but questions remain on the ultimate temperature limits of such a PFC during plasma bombardment. Lithium targets were exposed to high-flux plasma bombardment in the Magnum-PSI experimental device resulting in a temperature ramp from room-temperature to above 1200°C. A stable lithium vapor cloud was found to form directly in front of the target and persist to temperature above 1000°C. Consideration of mass and momentum balance in the pre-sheath region of an attached plasma indicates an increase in the magnitude of the pre-sheath potential drop with the inclusion of ionization sources as well as the inclusion of momentum loss terms. The low energy of lithium emission from a surface measured in previous experiments (Contract DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  11. Can tokamaks PFC survive a single event of any plasma instabilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanein, A.; Sizyuk, V.; Miloshevsky, G.; Sizyuk, T.

    2013-07-01

    Plasma instability events such as disruptions, edge-localized modes (ELMs), runaway electrons (REs), and vertical displacement events (VDEs) are continued to be serious events and most limiting factors for successful tokamak reactor concept. The plasma-facing components (PFCs), e.g., wall, divertor, and limited surfaces of a tokamak as well as coolant structure materials are subjected to intense particle and heat loads and must maintain a clean and stable surface environment among them and the core/edge plasma. Typical ITER transient events parameters are used for assessing the damage from these four different instability events. HEIGHTS simulation showed that a single event of a disruption, giant ELM, VDE, or RE can cause significant surface erosion (melting and vaporization) damage to PFC, nearby components, and/or structural materials (VDE, RE) melting and possible burnout of coolant tubes that could result in shut down of reactor for extended repair time.

  12. Can tokamaks PFC survive a single event of any plasma instabilities?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanein, A.; Sizyuk, V.; Miloshevsky, G.; Sizyuk, T.

    2013-01-01

    Plasma instability events such as disruptions, edge-localized modes (ELMs), runaway electrons (REs), and vertical displacement events (VDEs) are continued to be serious events and most limiting factors for successful tokamak reactor concept. The plasma-facing components (PFCs), e.g., wall, divertor, and limited surfaces of a tokamak as well as coolant structure materials are subjected to intense particle and heat loads and must maintain a clean and stable surface environment among them and the core/edge plasma. Typical ITER transient events parameters are used for assessing the damage from these four different instability events. HEIGHTS simulation showed that a single event of a disruption, giant ELM, VDE, or RE can cause significant surface erosion (melting and vaporization) damage to PFC, nearby components, and/or structural materials (VDE, RE) melting and possible burnout of coolant tubes that could result in shut down of reactor for extended repair time

  13. Can tokamaks PFC survive a single event of any plasma instabilities?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassanein, A., E-mail: hassanein@purdue.edu [Center for Materials under Extreme Environment, School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, 400 Central Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Sizyuk, V.; Miloshevsky, G.; Sizyuk, T. [Center for Materials under Extreme Environment, School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, 400 Central Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2013-07-15

    Plasma instability events such as disruptions, edge-localized modes (ELMs), runaway electrons (REs), and vertical displacement events (VDEs) are continued to be serious events and most limiting factors for successful tokamak reactor concept. The plasma-facing components (PFCs), e.g., wall, divertor, and limited surfaces of a tokamak as well as coolant structure materials are subjected to intense particle and heat loads and must maintain a clean and stable surface environment among them and the core/edge plasma. Typical ITER transient events parameters are used for assessing the damage from these four different instability events. HEIGHTS simulation showed that a single event of a disruption, giant ELM, VDE, or RE can cause significant surface erosion (melting and vaporization) damage to PFC, nearby components, and/or structural materials (VDE, RE) melting and possible burnout of coolant tubes that could result in shut down of reactor for extended repair time.

  14. Can Serum Albumin Level and Total Lymphocyte Count be Surrogates for Malnutrition to Predict Wound Complications After Total Knee Arthroplasty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, Vivek M; Song, Young Dong; Whang, Ji Sup; Kang, Yeon Gwi; Kim, Tae Kyun

    2016-06-01

    Although the serum albumin level and total lymphocyte count (TLC) have been reported as valid and reliable markers for defining malnutrition, their cutoff levels and predictive values for wound complications in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) remain questionable. A total of 3169 TKAs performed between April 2003 and December 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. We determined the prevalence of malnutrition on applying different definitions, with various cutoff values of serum albumin and TLC and analyzed the variations in outcome. The differences between groups with and without malnutrition in terms of functional outcome and complications were determined using Student's t test and analysis of variance. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify the independent risk factors. Among all the patients (N = 3169), the serum albumin level and TLC varied widely, with means of 4.1 g/dL and 2189 cells/mm(3), respectively. The prevalence of malnutrition (21%) as per the conventional definition (serum albumin level malnutrition was defined as serum albumin malnutrition for predicting wound complications after TKA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Total mercury, cadmium and lead levels in main export fish of Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinadasa, B K K K; Edirisinghe, E M R K B; Wickramasinghe, I

    2014-01-01

    Total mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) levels were determined in the muscle of four commercialised exported fish species Thunnus albacares (yellowfin tuna), Xiphias gladius (swordfish), Makaira indica (black marlin) and Lutjanus sp (red snapper) collected from the Indian Ocean, Sri Lanka, during July 2009-March 2010 and measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results show that swordfish (n = 176) contained the highest total Hg (0.90 ± 0.51 mg/kg) and Cd (0.09 ± 0.13 mg/kg) levels, whereas yellowfin tuna (n = 140) contained the highest Pb levels (0.11 ± 0.16 mg/kg). The lowest total Hg (0.16 ± 0.11 mg/kg), Cd (0.01 ± 0.01 mg/kg) and Pb (0.04 ± 0.04 mg/kg) levels were found in red snapper (n = 28). Black marlin (n = 24) contained moderate levels of total Hg (0.49 ± 0.37), Cd (0.02 ± 0.02) and Pb (0.05 ± 0.05). Even though there are some concerns during certain months of the year, this study demonstrates the safety of main export fish varieties in terms of total Hg, Cd and Pb.

  16. The effects of maternal total protein, albumin and hemoglobin levels on birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berna Haliloglu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study was designed to investigate the influence of third trimester maternal total protein, albumin, hemoglobin levels on birth weight.\tMATERIAL-METHOD: Between January 2005 and July 2005, 750 pregnant women applied for delivery at Zeynep Kamil Women’s and Children Education and Research Hospital at 37-40 week’s gestation were examined. Maternal total protein, albumin and hemoglobin levels were measured. Data included maternal age, gravidity, parity, gestational age, birth weight, gender, presence of iron supplementation and its duration.\tRESULTS: The birth weight was significantly higher in anemic and hypoproteinemic groups compared those with normal levels. After adjusting for counfounding factors, significance of both findings lost. The cases received iron supplementation had infants with higher birth weight, however, it was not statistically significant (p: 0.055. A significant positive relation was observed between birth weight and maternal age, gravidity, parity and gestational age. No relation found between maternal total protein, albumin, hemoglobin levels and birth weight.\tCONCLUSION: The last trimester maternal total protein, albumin, hemoglobin levels seem not to be a determining factor on infant's birth weight.

  17. Effect of elevated total CoA levels on metabolic pathways in cultured hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steffen, C.A.; Smith, C.M.

    1987-01-01

    Livers from fasted rats have 30% higher total CoA levels than fed rats. To determine whether this increase of total CoA influences metabolism, the rates of gluconeogenesis, fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis were measured in hepatocytes with cyanamide (CYM) or pantothenate (PA) deficient medium used to vary total CoA levels independently of hormonal status. Primary cultures of rat hepatocytes were incubated 14 hrs with Bt 2 cAMP, dexamethasone + theophylline in PA deficient medium or with CYM (500 μM) + PA, rinsed and preincubated 0.5 hr to remove the CYM. Hepatocytes treated with CYM had total CoA levels 10-24% higher than PA deficient cells and lower rates of glucose production from lactate + pyruvate (L/P) or from alanine (0.23 +/- 0.05 and 0.089 +/- 0.02 μm/mg protein, respectively in CYM treated cells compared to 0.33 +/- 0.06 and 0.130 +/- 0.006 in PA deficient cells). This decrease was not due to CYM per se, as the direct addition of CYM stimulated glucose production from L/P. CYM treated cells with 15-40% higher total CoA and 30% higher fatty acyl-CoA levels had the same rates of [ 14 C]-palmitate oxidation as PA deficient cells. However, rates of ketogenesis were lower in CYM treated cells (163 +/- 11 nm/mg compared to 217 +/- 14 nm/mg protein). These results suggest that physiological alterations of hepatic total CoA levels are not necessary for fasting rates of gluconeogenesis, fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis

  18. Lack of effects of typical and atypical antipsychotics in DARPP-32 and NCS-1 levels in PC12 cells overexpressing NCS-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reis Helton J

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schizophrenia is the major psychiatry disorder, which the exact cause remains unknown. However, it is well known that dopamine-mediated neurotransmission imbalance is associated with this pathology and the main target of antipsychotics is the dopamine receptor D2. Recently, it was described alteration in levels of two dopamine signaling related proteins in schizophrenic prefrontal cortex (PFC: Neuronal Calcium Sensor-1 (NCS-1 and DARPP-32. NCS-1, which is upregulated in PFC of schizophrenics, inhibits D2 internalization. DARPP-32, which is decreased in PFC of schizophrenics, is a key downstream effector in transducing dopamine signaling. We previously demonstrated that antipsychotics do not change levels of both proteins in rat's brain. However, since NCS-1 and DARPP-32 levels are not altered in wild type rats, we treated wild type PC12 cells (PC12 WT and PC12 cells stably overexpressing NCS-1 (PC12 Clone with antipsychotics to investigate if NCS-1 upregulation modulates DARPP-32 expression in response to antipsychotics treatment. Results We chronically treated both PC12 WT and PC12 Clone cells with typical (Haloperidol or atypical (Clozapine and Risperidone antipsychotics for 14 days. Using western blot technique we observed that there is no change in NCS-1 and DARPP-32 protein levels in both PC12 WT and PC12 Clone cells after typical and atypical antipsychotic treatments. Conclusions Because we observed no alteration in NCS-1 and DARPP-32 levels in both PC12 WT and Clone cells treated with typical or atypical antipsychotics, we suggest that the alteration in levels of both proteins in schizophrenic's PFC is related to psychopathology but not with antipsychotic treatment.

  19. Kinetic properties and adrenergic control of TREK-2-like channels in rat medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) pyramidal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ładno, W; Gawlak, M; Szulczyk, P; Nurowska, E

    2017-06-15

    TREK-2-like channels were identified on the basis of electrophysiological and pharmacological tests performed on freshly isolated and enzymatically/mechanically dispersed pyramidal neurons of the rat medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Single-channel currents were recorded in cell-attached configuration and the impact of adrenergic receptors (α 1 , α 2 , β) stimulation on spontaneously appearing TREK-2-like channel activity was tested. The obtained results indicate that noradrenaline decreases the mean open probability of TREK-2-like channel currents by activation of β 1 but not of α 1 - and α 2 -adrenergic receptors. Mean open time and channel conductance were not affected. The system of intracellular signaling pathways depends on the activation of protein kinase A. We also show that adrenergic control of TREK-2-like channel currents by adrenergic receptors was similar in pyramidal neurons isolated from young, adolescent, and adult rats. Immunofluorescent confocal scans of mPFC slices confirmed the presence of the TREK-2 protein, which was abundant in layer V pyramidal neurons. The role of TREK-2-like channel control by adrenergic receptors is discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Levels of integration in cognitive control and sequence processing in the prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahlmann, Jörg; Korb, Franziska M; Gratton, Caterina; Friederici, Angela D

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive control is necessary to flexibly act in changing environments. Sequence processing is needed in language comprehension to build the syntactic structure in sentences. Functional imaging studies suggest that sequence processing engages the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC). In contrast, cognitive control processes additionally recruit bilateral rostral lateral PFC regions. The present study aimed to investigate these two types of processes in one experimental paradigm. Sequence processing was manipulated using two different sequencing rules varying in complexity. Cognitive control was varied with different cue-sets that determined the choice of a sequencing rule. Univariate analyses revealed distinct PFC regions for the two types of processing (i.e. sequence processing: left ventrolateral PFC and cognitive control processing: bilateral dorsolateral and rostral PFC). Moreover, in a common brain network (including left lateral PFC and intraparietal sulcus) no interaction between sequence and cognitive control processing was observed. In contrast, a multivariate pattern analysis revealed an interaction of sequence and cognitive control processing, such that voxels in left lateral PFC and parietal cortex showed different tuning functions for tasks involving different sequencing and cognitive control demands. These results suggest that the difference between the process of rule selection (i.e. cognitive control) and the process of rule-based sequencing (i.e. sequence processing) find their neuronal underpinnings in distinct activation patterns in lateral PFC. Moreover, the combination of rule selection and rule sequencing can shape the response of neurons in lateral PFC and parietal cortex.

  1. LCL filter design for three-phase two-level power factor correction using line impedance stabilization network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouchaki, Alireza; Nymand, Morten

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents LCL filter design method for three-phase two-level power factor correction (PFC) using line impedance stabilization network (LISN). A straightforward LCL filter design along with variation in grid impedance is not simply achievable and inevitably lead to an iterative solution...... for filter. By introducing of fast power switches for PFC applications such as silicon-carbide, major current harmonics around the switching frequency drops in the region that LISN can actively provide well-defined impedance for measuring the harmonics (i.e. 9 kHz- 30MHz). Therefore, LISN can be replaced...... is derived using the current ripple behavior of converter-side inductor. The grid-side inductor is achieved as a function of LISN impedance to fulfill the grid regulation. To verify the analyses, an LCL filter is designed for a 5 kW SiC-based PFC. The simulation and experimental results support the validity...

  2. Clinical Outcome of Medial Pivot Compared With Press-Fit Condylar Sigma Cruciate-Retaining Mobile-Bearing Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Hoo; Park, Jang-Won; Kim, Jun-Shik

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the long-term clinical results, radiographic results, range of knee motion, patient satisfaction, and the survival rate of Medial-Pivot posterior cruciate-substituting, knee prosthesis and a press-fit condylar (PFC) Sigma cruciate-retaining mobile-bearing knee prosthesis in the same patients. One hundred eighty-two patients received Medial-Pivot knee prosthesis in one knee and a PFC Sigma knee prosthesis in the contralateral knee. The minimum duration of follow-up was 11 years (range, 11-12.6 years). The knees with a Medial-Pivot knee prosthesis had significantly worse results than those with a PFC Sigma knee prosthesis at the final follow-up with regard to the mean postoperative Knee Society knee scores (90 compared with 95 points), Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index score (25 compared with 18 points), and range of knee motion (117° compared with 128°). Patients were more satisfied with PFC Sigma knee prosthesis (93%) than with Medial-Pivot knee prosthesis (75%). Complication rates were significantly higher in the Medial-Pivot knee group (26%) than those in the PFC Sigma knee group (6.5%). Radiographic results and survival rates (99% compared with 99.5%) were similar between the 2 groups. Although the long-term fixation and survival rate of both Medial-Pivot and PFC Sigma prostheses were similar, we observed a worse knee score, worse range of knee motion, and patient satisfaction was less in the Medial-Pivot knee group than in the PFC Sigma knee group. Furthermore, complication rate was also higher in the Medial-Pivot knee group than the other group. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Total homocysteine levels in children with diabetes type 1. Conditional factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Laborda, S; Salazar García-Blanco, M I; Rodríguez Rigual, M; Baldellou Vázquez, A

    2008-03-01

    To measure the plasma levels of total homocysteine (tHcy) in children with type I diabetes mellitus and their relationship with the control of the disease. We studied a total of 46 patients with ages between 4 and 19 years. The analyzed variables were: sex, age, puberty stage by Tanner, BMI, years of evolution of the illness, self-monitoring, associated diseases, tHcy, folic acid, vitamin B12, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), lipid profile and renal function. The mean tHcy was of 5.48 +/- 1,64 microm/l, similar to that in our control population. There was a positive correlation with tHcy when analyzing the puberty stage by the Tanner scale. The years of evolution of diabetes varied between 0.4 and 15, with a mean of 5.77 +/- 3.69, with no correlation with tHcy. The glycosylated haemoglobin mean was 7.35 %, with no correlation with tHcy. The levels of folic acid and vitamin B12 were similar to the control population. The lipid profile of our patients was normal, with no association with tHcy levels. There was no correlation between GFR and tHcy. A clinically correct control of children with diabetes mellitus type 1, appears to ensure a normal total homocysteinemia, with no significant differences with the healthy individuals of the same age and social environment.

  4. A PFC3D-based numerical simulation of cutting load for lunar rock simulant and experimental validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Jiang, Shengyuan; Tang, Dewei; Xu, Bo

    2017-05-01

    For sake of striking a balance between the need of drilling efficiency and the constrains of power budget on the moon, the penetrations per revolution of drill bit are generally limited in the range around 0.1 mm, and besides the geometric angle of the cutting blade need to be well designed. This paper introduces a simulation approach based on PFC3D (particle flow code 3 dimensions) for analyzing the cutting load feature on lunar rock simulant, which is derived from different geometric-angle blades with a small cutting depth. The mean values of the cutting force of five blades in the survey region (four on the boundary points and one on the center point) are selected as the macroscopic responses of model. The method of experimental design which includes Plackett-Burman (PB) design and central composite design (CCD) method is adopted in the matching procedure of microparameters in PFC model. Using the optimization method of enumeration, the optimum set of microparameters is acquired. Then, the experimental validation is implemented by using other twenty-five blades with different geometric angles, and the results from both simulations and laboratory tests give fair agreements. Additionally, the rock breaking process cut by different blades are quantified from simulation analysis. This research provides the theoretical support for the refinement of the rock cutting load prediction and the geometric design of cutting blade on the drill bit.

  5. A comparison of methods for monitoring low airborne concentrations of argon-41 and tritium, with MIT-PFC design applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLoughlin, J.C.

    1990-08-01

    Two primary methods, GM- and NaI-detection, of airborne 41 Ar monitoring were compared experimentally to determine the lowest resolvable concentration given reasonable sample sizes. NaI-detectors provided a lower resolvable concentration than GM tubes, primarily due to energy resolution, which greatly reduced background noise. Airborne 3 H collection was compared for two primary collection and one ancillary method (direct condensation). All 3 H detection was performed via liquid scintillation. Tritium collection with water baths yielded higher collection efficiencies than dessicant traps for short sampling durations. As the length of the sampling duration increased, water traps yielded lower collection efficiencies than dessicant traps, primarily due to evaporation of water from the water traps. Direct condensation as a collection method of airborne 3 H was found unsuitable, since large amounts of gas were initially condensed, yet evaporated as the sample's coolant was removed. 41 Ar detection for the MIT-PFC was determined to be best provided by a low 40 K NaI crystal shielded with lead and steel. A Marinelli beaker was used as a monitoring volume to hold the effluent sample. 3 H monitoring at the MIT-PFC was fulfilled with dessicant traps to catalytically separate the [HTO] and [HT] fractions without the use of a carrier gas for the [HT

  6. Is there any relationship between serum levels of total bilirubin and the severity of erectile dysfunction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Ercüment; Karabakan, Mehmet; Bozkurt, Aliseydi; Hirik, Erkan; Karabulut, İbrahim; Gunay, Murat; Çakan, Murat

    2018-04-01

    Recent studies have shown that atherosclerosis is associated with erectile dysfunction and the serum bilirubin level. In this study, the serum total bilirubin levels of patients with erectile dysfunction were measured to investigate the relationship between the levels of erectile dysfunction and total bilirubin. A total of 94 patients with erectile dysfunction were divided into three groups; severe erectile dysfunction (33 patients), moderate erectile dysfunction (31 patients), and mild erectile dysfunction (30 patients). In addition, a control group was formed with 31 healthy men. The International Index of Erectile Function-5 Questionnaire was used to measure the quality of erection in all the groups. The body mass index was calculated for all the participants. The serum glucose, low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein, cholesterol, triglyceride, total bilirubin, and total testosterone levels were also determined. No statistically significant difference was observed between the groups in terms of the mean age, hypertension, smoking status, alcohol use, cardiovascular diseases, hepatobiliary disease, diabetes mellitus, and levels of total testosterone, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and triglyceride. However, high-density lipoprotein, body mass index, and total bilirubin were significantly lower compared to the control group (p < 0.001). The serum total bilirubin level was found to be 0.41 ± 0.21 ng/dL in the severe erectile dysfunction, 0.43 ± 0.19 ng/dL in the moderate erectile dysfunction, and 0.48 ± 0.11 ng/dL in the mild erectile dysfunction groups (p < 0.001). Considering the significant differences between the erectile dysfunction and control groups in terms of serum total bilirubin levels, a low level of bilirubin may have a role in the etiology of erectile dysfunction.

  7. Combustion Control System Design of Diesel Engine via ASPR based Output Feedback Control Strategy with a PFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizumoto, Ikuro; Tsunematsu, Junpei; Fujii, Seiya

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, a design method of an output feedback control system with a simple feedforward input for a combustion model of diesel engine will be proposed based on the almost strictly positive real-ness (ASPR-ness) of the controlled system for a combustion control of diesel engines. A parallel feedforward compensator (PFC) design scheme which renders the resulting augmented controlled system ASPR will also be proposed in order to design a stable output feedback control system for the considered combustion model. The effectiveness of our proposed method will be confirmed through numerical simulations.

  8. Neurochemical metabolites in prefrontal cortex in patients with mild/moderate levels in first-episode depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sozeri-Varma G

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Gülfizar Sözeri-Varma,1 Nalan Kalkan-Oğuzhanoglu,1 Muharrem Efe,1 Yilmaz Kiroglu,2 Taçlan Duman11Department of Psychiatry, 2Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Pamukkale University, Denizli, TurkeyBackground: Previous studies have determined the neurochemical metabolite abnormalities in major depressive disorder (MDD. The results of studies are inconsistent. Severity of depression may relate to neurochemical metabolic changes. The aim of this study is to investigate neurochemical metabolite levels in the prefrontal cortex (PFC of patients with mild/moderate MDD.Methods: Twenty-one patients with mild MDD, 18 patients with moderate MDD, and 16 matched control subjects participated in the study. Patients had had their first episode. They had not taken treatment. The severity of depression was assessed by the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D. Levels of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA, choline-containing compounds (Cho, and creatine-containing compounds (Cr were measured using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS at 1.5 T, with an 8-cm3 single voxel placed in the right PFC.Results: The moderate MDD patients had lower NAA/Cr levels than the control group. No differences were found in neurochemical metabolite levels between the mild MDD and control groups. No correlation was found between the patients’ neurochemical metabolite levels and HAM-D scores.Conclusion: Our findings suggest that NAA/Cr levels are low in moderate-level MDD in the PFC. Neurochemical metabolite levels did not change in mild depressive disorder. Our results suggest that the severity of depression may affect neuronal function and viability. Studies are needed to confirm this finding, including studies on severely depressive patients.Keywords: major depressive disorder, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, N-acetyl aspartate, creatine, choline

  9. Borsa de PFC de l'ETSEIB: un projecte col·laboratiu entre la Biblioteca i el seu centre

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso, Laia; Ceña Cosials, Margarita; Codina Vila, Miquel

    2008-01-01

    In order to obtain a degree, the final step for the student at the Industrial Engineering School of Barcelona (ETSEIB) of the Technical University of Catalonia (UPC) is the submission of his/her dissertation. Before implementing the “Stock Exchange of Dissertations” the process of PFC was generally quite regulated and systematized, and with a good support of interaction through a web site, except in the initial part of the process, when the students have to choose the subject and the director...

  10. Chronic scream sound exposure alters memory and monoamine levels in female rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lili; Zhao, Xiaoge; Yang, Juan; Wang, Lumin; Yang, Yang; Song, Tusheng; Huang, Chen

    2014-10-01

    Chronic scream sound alters the cognitive performance of male rats and their brain monoamine levels, these stress-induced alterations are sexually dimorphic. To determine the effects of sound stress on female rats, we examined their serum corticosterone levels and their adrenal, splenic, and thymic weights, their cognitive performance and the levels of monoamine neurotransmitters and their metabolites in the brain. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats, with and without exposure to scream sound (4h/day for 21 day) were tested for spatial learning and memory using a Morris water maze. Stress decreased serum corticosterone levels, as well as splenic and adrenal weight. It also impaired spatial memory but did not affect the learning ability. Monoamines and metabolites were measured in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), striatum, hypothalamus, and hippocampus. The dopamine (DA) levels in the PFC decreased but the homovanillic acid/DA ratio increased. The decreased DA and the increased 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) levels were observed in the striatum. Only the 5-HIAA level increased in the hypothalamus. In the hippocampus, stress did not affect the levels of monoamines and metabolites. The results suggest that scream sound stress influences most physiologic parameters, memory, and the levels of monoamine neurotransmitter and their metabolites in female rats. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Plasma levels of acylated and total ghrelin in pediatric patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naufel, Maria Fernanda Soares; Bordon, Milena; de Aquino, Talita Marques; Ribeiro, Eliane Beraldi; de Abreu Carvalhaes, João Tomás

    2010-12-01

    This cross-sectional study set out to compare total and acyl ghrelin levels in children with mild chronic kidney disease (CKD) undergoing conservative treatment (n = 19) with children with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) undergoing hemodialysis (n = 24), and with healthy controls (n = 20). The relationship between ghrelin levels and parameters of renal function, nutritional status, and selective hormones were investigated. ESRD patients had higher total ghrelin levels than those with mild CKD or control individuals. However, acyl ghrelin did not differ between groups, indicating that the excess circulating ghrelin was desacylated. Since desacyl ghrelin has been shown to inhibit appetite, increased levels might contribute to protein-energy wasting in pediatric renal patients. When all 43 renal patients were combined, multiple regression analysis found age and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) to be significant negative predictors of total ghrelin. Acyl ghrelin was influenced negatively by age and positively by energy intake. Acyl to total ghrelin ratio related positively to GFR and energy intake. The results indicate that total but not acyl ghrelin is influenced by low GFR in children with CKD and suggests that ghrelin activation may be impaired in these patients. Since energy intake is a positive predictor of acyl ghrelin, the physiological control of ghrelin secretion appears to be altered in pediatric renal patients.

  12. Low-level waste disposal performance assessments - Total source-term analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhite, E.L.

    1995-12-31

    Disposal of low-level radioactive waste at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities is regulated by DOE. DOE Order 5820.2A establishes policies, guidelines, and minimum requirements for managing radioactive waste. Requirements for disposal of low-level waste emplaced after September 1988 include providing reasonable assurance of meeting stated performance objectives by completing a radiological performance assessment. Recently, the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board issued Recommendation 94-2, {open_quotes}Conformance with Safety Standards at Department of Energy Low-Level Nuclear Waste and Disposal Sites.{close_quotes} One of the elements of the recommendation is that low-level waste performance assessments do not include the entire source term because low-level waste emplaced prior to September 1988, as well as other DOE sources of radioactivity in the ground, are excluded. DOE has developed and issued guidance for preliminary assessments of the impact of including the total source term in performance assessments. This paper will present issues resulting from the inclusion of all DOE sources of radioactivity in performance assessments of low-level waste disposal facilities.

  13. Markedly Lower Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase 67 Protein Levels in a Subset of Boutons in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocco, Brad R; Lewis, David A; Fish, Kenneth N

    2016-06-15

    Convergent findings indicate that cortical gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic circuitry is altered in schizophrenia. Postmortem studies have consistently found lower levels of glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) messenger RNA (mRNA) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of subjects with schizophrenia. At the cellular level, the density of GABA neurons with detectable levels of GAD67 mRNA is ~30% lower across cortical layers. Knowing how this transcript deficit translates to GAD67 protein levels in axonal boutons is important for understanding the impact it might have on GABA synthesis. In addition, because reductions in GAD67 expression before, but not after, the maturation of GABAergic boutons results in a lower density of GABAergic boutons in mouse cortical cultures, knowing if GABAergic bouton density is altered in schizophrenia would provide insight into the timing of the GAD67 deficit. PFC tissue sections from 20 matched pairs of schizophrenia and comparison subjects were immunolabeled for the vesicular GABA transporter (vGAT) and GAD67. vGAT+ bouton density did not differ between subject groups, consistent with findings that vGAT mRNA levels are unaltered in the illness and confirming that the number of cortical GABAergic boutons is not lower in schizophrenia. In contrast, in schizophrenia subjects, the proportion of vGAT+ boutons with detectable GAD67 levels (vGAT+/GAD67+ boutons) was 16% lower and mean GAD67 levels were 14% lower in the remaining vGAT+/GAD67+ boutons. Our findings suggest that GABA production is markedly reduced in a subset of boutons in the PFC of schizophrenia subjects and that this reduction likely occurs after the maturation of GABAergic boutons. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Serum immunoglobulin levels in humans exposed to therapeutic total-body gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaskes, S.; Kingdon, G.C.; Balish, E.

    1975-01-01

    Reduced serum immunoglobulin (IgA, IgG, IgM) levels developed in the majority of 27 patients with hematologic disorders after treatment with 100 to 350 R total-body gamma-ray exposures at a dose rate of either 1.5 R/min to 1.5 R/hr. A reduction in IgA of 20 percent or more was found in 66 percent of the cases, while 56 percent showed an IgM decrease, and 49 percent an IgG decrease of 20 percent. The severity of immunoglobulin depression was influenced by the total radiation dose and the patient's primary disease. The occurrence of IgG and IgM depression was greater when the radiation was given at 1.5 R/hr than when the dose rate was 1.5 R/min. Substantial but incomplete recovery toward preirradiation immunoglobulin levels was found for most patients by 7 wk after total-body irradiation (TBI). (U.S.)

  15. Measuring total health inequality: adding individual variation to group-level differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gakidou Emmanuela

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have revealed large variations in average health status across social, economic, and other groups. No study exists on the distribution of the risk of ill-health across individuals, either within groups or across all people in a society, and as such a crucial piece of total health inequality has been overlooked. Some of the reason for this neglect has been that the risk of death, which forms the basis for most measures, is impossible to observe directly and difficult to estimate. Methods We develop a measure of total health inequality – encompassing all inequalities among people in a society, including variation between and within groups – by adapting a beta-binomial regression model. We apply it to children under age two in 50 low- and middle-income countries. Our method has been adopted by the World Health Organization and is being implemented in surveys around the world; preliminary estimates have appeared in the World Health Report (2000. Results Countries with similar average child mortality differ considerably in total health inequality. Liberia and Mozambique have the largest inequalities in child survival, while Colombia, the Philippines and Kazakhstan have the lowest levels among the countries measured. Conclusions Total health inequality estimates should be routinely reported alongside average levels of health in populations and groups, as they reveal important policy-related information not otherwise knowable. This approach enables meaningful comparisons of inequality across countries and future analyses of the determinants of inequality.

  16. Total proteins and protein fractions levels in pregnant rats subjected to whole-body gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, M.A.; Roushdy, H.M.; Mazhar, F.M.; Abu-Gabal, H.A.

    1986-01-01

    A total number of 180 mature rats (120 females and 60 males) weighing from 120-140 g were used to study the effect of two doses (2 and 4 Gy) whole-body gamma irradiation on the level of total protein and protein fractions in serum of pregnant rats during the period of organogenesis. It was found that the levels of total protein, albumin and gamma globulins significantly decreased according to the doses of exposure. The levels of alpha and beta globulins significantly increased more in the serum of rats exposed to 2 Gy than in rats exposed to 4 Gy. The level of A/G ratio significantly decreased more in the serum of rats exposed to 2Gy than in those exposed to 4 Gy

  17. Serum total bilirubin levels are negatively correlated with metabolic syndrome in aged Chinese women: a community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, P; Sun, D M; Wu, D H; Li, T M; Liu, X Y; Liu, H Y

    2017-01-26

    We evaluated serum total bilirubin levels as a predictor for metabolic syndrome (MetS) and investigated the relationship between serum total bilirubin levels and MetS prevalence. This cross-sectional study included 1728 participants over 65 years of age from Eastern China. Anthropometric data, lifestyle information, and previous medical history were collected. We then measured serum levels of fasting blood-glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and total bilirubin, as well as alanine aminotransferase activity. The prevalence of MetS and each of its individual component were calculated per quartile of total bilirubin level. Logistic regression was used to assess the correlation between serum total bilirubin levels and MetS. Total bilirubin level in the women who did not have MetS was significantly higher than in those who had MetS (Pbilirubin quartiles were linearly and negatively correlated with MetS prevalence and hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) in females (Pbilirubin was an independent predictor of MetS for females (OR: 0.910, 95%CI: 0.863-0.960; P=0.001). The present study suggests that physiological levels of serum total bilirubin might be an independent risk factor for aged Chinese women, and the prevalence of MetS and HTG are negatively correlated to serum total bilirubin levels.

  18. Annoyance from Road Traffic, Trains, Airplanes and from Total Environmental Noise Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragettli, Martina S; Goudreau, Sophie; Plante, Céline; Perron, Stéphane; Fournier, Michel; Smargiassi, Audrey

    2015-12-29

    There is a lack of studies assessing the exposure-response relationship between transportation noise and annoyance in North America. Our aims were to investigate the prevalence of noise annoyance induced by road traffic, trains and airplanes in relation to distance to transportation noise sources, and to total environmental noise levels in Montreal, Canada; annoyance was assessed as noise-induced disturbance. A telephone-based survey among 4336 persons aged >18 years was conducted. Exposure to total environmental noise (A-weighted outdoor noise levels-LAeq24h and day-evening-night equivalent noise levels-Lden) for each study participant was determined using a statistical noise model (land use regression-LUR) that is based on actual outdoor noise measurements. The proportion of the population annoyed by road traffic, airplane and train noise was 20.1%, 13.0% and 6.1%, respectively. As the distance to major roads, railways and the Montreal International Airport increased, the percentage of people disturbed and highly disturbed due to the corresponding traffic noise significantly decreased. When applying the statistical noise model we found a relationship between noise levels and disturbance from road traffic and total environmental noise, with Prevalence Proportion Ratios (PPR) for highly disturbed people of 1.10 (95% CI: 1.07-1.13) and 1.04 (1.02-1.06) per 1 dB(A) Lden, respectively. Our study provides the first comprehensive information on the relationship between transportation noise levels and disturbance in a Canadian city. LUR models are still in development and further studies on transportation noise induced annoyance are consequently needed, especially for sources other than road traffic.

  19. Hypogonadism and subnormal total testosterone levels in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogbera, O.A.; Sonny, C.; Olufemi, F.; Wale, A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of testosterone deficiency syndrome (TDS) in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Study Design: A cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: The Gbagada General Hospital, Gbagada Lagos, Nigeria, from December 2009 to May 2010. Methodology: A total of 203 men with type 2 DM aged 30-86 years were evaluated for TDS by a combination of positive ADAM (androgen deficiency in the ageing male) scores and subnormal total testosterone levels. Mild testosterone deficiency referred to total testosterone (TT) levels of 8-12 nmol/L with symptoms of hypogonadism and severe testosterone deficiency referred to TT levels < 8 nmol/L with or without hypogonadal symptoms. Results: Mild and severe TDS were present in 18.3% and 17% respectively of the study subjects. Commonly occurring clinical parameters of the TDS were erectile dysfunction and loss of libido, which were documented in 63% and 60% respectively in the study subjects. The majority of clinical features of the TDS were comparable in men with and without the TDS. Conclusion: About a third of men with type 2 DM had the TDS. The majority of the symptoms of hypogonadism are largely non-specific and their occurrence is comparable in men with and without low testosterone levels; thus, underscoring the need to have testosterone levels determined in men presenting with such symptoms. (author)

  20. Determination of total cyanide in Hanford Site high-level wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winters, W.I. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Pool, K.H. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-05-01

    Nickel ferrocyanide compounds (Na{sub 2-x}Cs{sub x}NiFe (CN){sub 6}) were produced in a scavenging process to remove {sup 137}Cs from Hanford Site single-shell tank waste supernates. Methods for determining total cyanide in Hanford Site high-level wastes are needed for the evaluation of potential exothermic reactions between cyanide and oxidizers such as nitrate and for safe storage, processing, and management of the wastes in compliance with regulatory requirements. Hanford Site laboratory experience in determining cyanide in high-level wastes is summarized. Modifications were made to standard cyanide methods to permit improved handling of high-level waste samples and to eliminate interferences found in Hanford Site waste matrices. Interferences and associated procedure modifications caused by high nitrates/nitrite concentrations, insoluble nickel ferrocyanides, and organic complexants are described.

  1. Determination of total cyanide in Hanford Site high-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winters, W.I.; Pool, K.H.

    1994-05-01

    Nickel ferrocyanide compounds (Na 2-x Cs x NiFe (CN) 6 ) were produced in a scavenging process to remove 137 Cs from Hanford Site single-shell tank waste supernates. Methods for determining total cyanide in Hanford Site high-level wastes are needed for the evaluation of potential exothermic reactions between cyanide and oxidizers such as nitrate and for safe storage, processing, and management of the wastes in compliance with regulatory requirements. Hanford Site laboratory experience in determining cyanide in high-level wastes is summarized. Modifications were made to standard cyanide methods to permit improved handling of high-level waste samples and to eliminate interferences found in Hanford Site waste matrices. Interferences and associated procedure modifications caused by high nitrates/nitrite concentrations, insoluble nickel ferrocyanides, and organic complexants are described

  2. Predicting Motivation: Computational Models of PFC Can Explain Neural Coding of Motivation and Effort-based Decision-making in Health and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassena, Eliana; Deraeve, James; Alexander, William H

    2017-10-01

    Human behavior is strongly driven by the pursuit of rewards. In daily life, however, benefits mostly come at a cost, often requiring that effort be exerted to obtain potential benefits. Medial PFC (MPFC) and dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC) are frequently implicated in the expectation of effortful control, showing increased activity as a function of predicted task difficulty. Such activity partially overlaps with expectation of reward and has been observed both during decision-making and during task preparation. Recently, novel computational frameworks have been developed to explain activity in these regions during cognitive control, based on the principle of prediction and prediction error (predicted response-outcome [PRO] model [Alexander, W. H., & Brown, J. W. Medial prefrontal cortex as an action-outcome predictor. Nature Neuroscience, 14, 1338-1344, 2011], hierarchical error representation [HER] model [Alexander, W. H., & Brown, J. W. Hierarchical error representation: A computational model of anterior cingulate and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Neural Computation, 27, 2354-2410, 2015]). Despite the broad explanatory power of these models, it is not clear whether they can also accommodate effects related to the expectation of effort observed in MPFC and DLPFC. Here, we propose a translation of these computational frameworks to the domain of effort-based behavior. First, we discuss how the PRO model, based on prediction error, can explain effort-related activity in MPFC, by reframing effort-based behavior in a predictive context. We propose that MPFC activity reflects monitoring of motivationally relevant variables (such as effort and reward), by coding expectations and discrepancies from such expectations. Moreover, we derive behavioral and neural model-based predictions for healthy controls and clinical populations with impairments of motivation. Second, we illustrate the possible translation to effort-based behavior of the HER model, an extended version of PRO

  3. Serum total and free carnitine levels in children with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asilsoy, Suna; Bekem, Ozlem; Karaman, Ozkan; Uzuner, Nevin; Kavukçu, Salih

    2009-02-01

    Serum carnitine is decreased in recurrent pulmonary infections. We aimed to evaluate serum carnitine levels in asthmatic children. Study group consisted of children with stable asthma and those with acute asthma attacks, while control group included healthy children. Attack severity was determined by the pulmonary score system. Total and free carnitine levels were studied in one blood sample from the control group and stable asthmatics and in two samples from children with acute asthma exacerbation during and after the attack. All the 40 patients in the study group had moderate asthma including 30 with acute attack (13 mild and 17 moderate) and 10 with stable asthma. Carnitine levels were significantly lower in acute attack asthmatics than in the stable asthmatics and controls, while there was no significant difference between the latter two groups. Carnitine levels were not different between asthmatics with mild and moderate attack, and were similar during and after an acute attack. Serum carnitine levels decrease in children with moderate asthma during exacerbation of asthma and shortly thereafter. Further studies are needed to evaluate the effect of carnitine treatment on serum carnitine level.

  4. Total and free thyroid hormone levels in chronic renal failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehta H

    1991-04-01

    Full Text Available The levels of serum total thyroxine (TT4, triiodothyronine (TT3, free T3, (FT3 free T4 (FT4 and thyrotropin (TSH were measured in 127 clinically euthyroid patients with varying grades of chronic renal failure (CRF; and 97 healthy individuals. They were grouped as: Group I containing 93 patients on conservative management; Group II containing 34 patients on regular dialysis therapy; and Group III (normals. Group I patients showed significant decrease in TT3, TT4 and FT3 levels (p less than 0.001 as compared to Group III, whereas FT4 and TSH values in group I were not significantly altered. TT3, TT4 and FT3 levels reduced as the severity of renal damage increased. Variations in TT3, TT4, FT3, FT4 and TSH levels in Group II patients were similar to those in Group I, except for a decrease in TSH levels (p less than 0.05 as compared to normals. Several thyroid function tests are abnormal in CRF patients, however, finding of normal FT4 and TSH levels would indicate functional euthyroid status.

  5. Total serum IgE level influences oral food challenge tests for IgE-mediated food allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horimukai, K; Hayashi, K; Tsumura, Y; Nomura, I; Narita, M; Ohya, Y; Saito, H; Matsumoto, K

    2015-03-01

    Probability curves predicting oral food challenge test (OFC) results based on specific IgE levels are widely used to prevent serious allergic reactions. Although several confounding factors are known to affect probability curves, the main factors that affect OFC outcomes are currently unclear. We hypothesized that an increased total IgE level would reduce allergic reactivity. Medical records of 337 and 266 patients who underwent OFCs for 3.5 g boiled hen's egg white and 3.1 ml raw cow's milk, respectively, were examined retrospectively. We subdivided the patients into three groups based on total IgE levels and age by percentile (75th percentiles), and logistic regression analyses were performed on each group. Patients with higher total IgE levels were significantly less responsive. In addition, age did not significantly affect the OFC results. Therefore, total IgE levels should be taken into account when predicting OFC results based on food-specific IgE levels. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Serum total IgG and IgG4 levels in thyroid eye disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sy A

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aileen Sy, Rona Z Silkiss Department of Ophthalmology, California Pacific Medical Center, San Francisco, CA, USA Purpose: To investigate the relationship between immunoglobulin G (IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD and thyroid eye disease (TED with respect to IgG levels. Patients and methods: A retrospective review of total IgG, IgG subclass, and thyroid stimulating immunoglobulin (TSI levels in 24 patients with TED. Results: Five patients (20.8% demonstrated serum IgG4 levels consistent with IgG4-RD without any additional systemic disease. Total IgG and IgG subclass levels were found to be an inadequate proxy for TSI elevation. Conclusion: There may be a subtype of TED patients with elevated IgG4 in the absence of IgG4-RD systemic findings. Keywords: thyroid eye disease, IgG subclass, IgG4, Graves’ disease, Graves’ ophthalmopathy, IgG4-RD

  7. Evolution of extreme Total Water Levels along the northern coast of the Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. F. Rasilla Álvarez

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the evolution of storminess along the northern coast of the Iberian Peninsula through the calculation of extreme (1% Total Water Levels (eTWL on both observed (tide gauge and buoy data and hindcasted (SIMAR-44 data. Those events were first identified and then characterized in terms of oceanographic parameters and atmospheric circulation features. Additionally, an analysis of the long-term trends in both types of data was performed. Most of the events correspond to a rough wave climate and moderate storm surges, linked to extratropical disturbances following a northern track. While local atmospheric conditions seem to be evolving towards lesser storminess, their impact has been balanced by the favorable exposure of the northern coast of the Iberian Peninsula to the increasing frequency and strength of distant disturbances crossing the North Atlantic. This evolution is also correctly reproduced by the simulated long-term evolution of the forcing component (meteorological sea level residuals and wave run up of the Total Water Level values calculated from the SIMAR 44 database, since sea level residuals have been experiencing a reduction while waves are arriving with longer periods. Finally, the addition of the rate of relative sea level trend to the temporal evolution of the atmospheric forcing component of the Total Water Level values is enough to simulate more frequent and persistent eTWL.

  8. Normal levels of total body sodium and chlorine by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, N.S.J.; Eastell, R.; Smith, M.A.; Tothill, P.

    1983-01-01

    In vivo neutron activation analysis was used to measure total body sodium and chlorine in 18 male and 18 female normal adults. Corrections for body size were developed. Normalisation factors were derived which enable the prediction of the normal levels of sodium and chlorine in a subject. The coefficient of variation of normalised sodium was 5.9% in men and 6.9% in women, and of normalised chlorine 9.3% in men and 5.5% in women. In the range examined (40-70 years) no significant age dependence was observed for either element. Total body sodium was correlated with total body chlorine and total body calcium. Sodium excess, defined as the amount of body sodium in excess of that associated with chlorine, also correlated well with total body calcium. In females there was a mean annual loss of sodium excess of 1.2% after the menopause, similar to the loss of calcium. (author)

  9. GABA content within the ventromedial prefrontal cortex is related to trait anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delli Pizzi, Stefano; Padulo, Caterina; Brancucci, Alfredo; Bubbico, Giovanna; Edden, Richard A; Ferretti, Antonio; Franciotti, Raffaella; Manippa, Valerio; Marzoli, Daniele; Onofrj, Marco; Sepede, Gianna; Tartaro, Armando; Tommasi, Luca; Puglisi-Allegra, Stefano; Bonanni, Laura

    2016-05-01

    The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) plays a key role in emotion processing and regulation. vmPFC dysfunction may lead to disinhibition of amygdala causing high anxiety levels. γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) inter-neurons within vmPFC shape the information flow to amygdala. Thus, we hypothesize that GABA content within vmPFC could be relevant to trait anxiety. Forty-three healthy volunteers aged between 20 and 88 years were assessed for trait anxiety with the Subscale-2 of the State-Trait-Anxiety Inventory (STAI-Y2) and were studied with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy to investigate GABA and Glx (glutamate+glutamine) contents within vmPFC. Total creatine (tCr) was used as internal reference. Partial correlations assessed the association between metabolite levels and STAI-Y2 scores, removing the effect of possible nuisance factors including age, educational level, volumes of gray matter and white matter within magnetic resonance spectroscopy voxel. We observed a positive relationship between GABA/tCr and STAI-Y2 scores. No significant relationships were found between Glx/tCr and STAI-Y2 and between tCr/water and STAI-Y2. No differences were found between males and females as regards to age, STAI-Y2, GABA/tCr, Glx/tCr, tCr/water, gray matter and white matter volumes. We suggest a close relationship between GABA content within vmPFC and trait anxiety providing new insights in the physiology of emotional brain. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Intermittent Ethanol during Adolescence Leads to Lasting Behavioral Changes in Adulthood and Alters Gene Expression and Histone Methylation in the PFC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer T. Wolstenholme

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Adolescents primarily consume alcohol in binges, which can be particularly harmful to the developing frontal cortex and increase risk for an adult alcohol use disorder. We conducted a study investigating immediate and long lasting changes to the prefrontal cortex (PFC transcriptome to determine the molecular mechanisms underlying adult ethanol behavioral sensitivity following binge ethanol in adolescence. DBA/2J mice were orally dosed with 4 g/kg ethanol intermittently from day 29 to 42. Adolescent mice were tested for anxiety-like behavior and ethanol sensitivity using the loss of righting reflex task. As adults, mice were tested for cognitive changes using the novel object recognition task, ethanol-induced anxiolysis and ethanol sensitivity. Adolescent binge ethanol altered ethanol sensitivity in young mice and led to lasting memory deficits in the object recognition test and greater ethanol sensitivity in adulthood. Using genomic profiling of transcripts in the PFC, we found that binge ethanol reduced myelin-related gene expression and altered chromatin modifying genes involved in histone demethylation at H3K9 and H3K36. We hypothesize that ethanol’s actions on histone methylation may be a switch for future transcriptional changes that underlie the behavioral changes lasting into adulthood.

  11. Lithium, phenserine, memantine and pioglitazone reverse memory deficit and restore phospho-GSK3β decreased in hippocampus in intracerebroventricular streptozotocin induced memory deficit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce-Lopez, Teresa; Liy-Salmeron, Gustavo; Hong, Enrique; Meneses, Alfredo

    2011-12-02

    Intracerebroventricular (ICV) streptozotocin (STZ) treated rat has been described as a suitable model for sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). Central application of STZ has demonstrated behavioral and neurochemical features that resembled those found in human AD. Chronic treatments with antioxidants, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors, or improving glucose utilization drugs have reported a beneficial effect in ICV STZ-treated rats. In the present study the post-training administration of a glycogen synthase kinase (GSK3) inhibitor, lithium; antidementia drugs: phenserine and memantine, and insulin sensitizer, pioglitazone on memory function of ICV STZ-rats was assessed. In these same animals the phosphorylated GSK3β (p-GSK3β) and total GSK3β levels were determined, and importantly GSK3β regulates the tau phosphorylation responsible for neurofibrillary tangle formation in AD. Wistar rats received ICV STZ application (3mg/kg twice) and 2 weeks later short- (STM) and long-term memories (LTM) were assessed in an autoshaping learning task. Animals were sacrificed immediately following the last autoshaping session, their brains removed and dissected. The enzymes were measured in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC) by western blot. ICV STZ-treated rats showed a memory deficit and significantly decreased p-GSK3β levels, while total GSK3β did not change, in both the hippocampus and PFC. Memory impairment was reversed by lithium (100mg/kg), phenserine (1mg/kg), memantine (5mg/kg) and pioglitazone (30 mg/kg). The p-GSK3β levels were restored by lithium, phenserine and pioglitazone in the hippocampus, and restored by lithium in the PFC. Memantine produced no changes in p-GSK3β levels in neither the hippocampus nor PFC. Total GSK3β levels did not change with either drug. Altogether these results show the beneficial effects of drugs with different mechanisms of actions on memory impairment induced by ICV STZ, and restored p-GSK3β levels, a kinase key of

  12. Total and ionized serum magnesium and calcium levels during magnesium sulfate administration for preterm labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Won Hee; An, Yuna; Moon, Jong Ho; Noh, Eun Ji; Kim, Jong Woon

    2018-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to estimate the association between total and ionized magnesium, and the changes in serum magnesium and calcium levels in patients with preterm labor during magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) administration. Methods The study population included 64 women who were candidates for intravenous MgSO4 treatment for preterm labor. Serial blood samples were taken and measured total magnesium (T-Mg), ionized magnesium (I-Mg), total calcium (T-Ca), and ionized calcium (I-Ca) levels every one-week interval (1st, 2nd, 3rd). Results There was no significant difference in T-Mg and I-Mg levels during MgSO4 administration (P>0.05). There was no significant difference in T-Ca and I-Ca levels during MgSO4 administration (P>0.05). Compared before and after administration of MgSO4, T-Mg and I-Mg levels and T-Ca levels were changed allow statistically significant (P0.05). There was significant correlation between levels of I-Mg and T-Mg (I-Mg=0.395×T-Mg+0.144, P<0.01). Conclusion There were no significant differences in serum Mg and Ca levels during MgSO4 administration for preterm labor. Compared to the before and after administration of MgSO4, only I-Ca levels were not substantially changed. There are significant correlations between I-Mg and T-Mg levels during administration of MgSO4 and I-Mg level seemed to have more correlation with adverse effect than T-Mg. PMID:29372150

  13. Levels of plasma selenium and urinary total arsenic interact to affect the risk for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsueh, Yu-Mei; Su, Chien-Tien; Shiue, Horng-Sheng; Chen, Wei-Jen; Pu, Yeong-Shiau; Lin, Ying-Chin; Tsai, Cheng-Shiuan; Huang, Chao-Yuan

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated whether plasma selenium levels modified the risk for prostate cancer (PC) related to arsenic exposure. We conducted a case-control study that included 318 PC patients and 318 age-matched, healthy control subjects. Urinary arsenic profiles were examined using HPLC-HG-AAS and plasma selenium levels were measured by ICP-MS. We found that plasma selenium levels displayed a significant dose-dependent inverse association with PC. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for PC was 0.07 (0.04-0.13) among participants with a plasma selenium level >28.06 μg/dL vs. ≤19.13 μg/dL. A multivariate analysis showed that participants with a urinary total arsenic concentration >29.28 μg/L had a significantly higher OR (1.75, 1.06-2.89) for PC than participants with ≤29.89 μg/L. The combined presence of a low plasma selenium level and a high urinary total arsenic concentration exponentially increased the OR for PC, and additively interacted with PSA at levels ≥20 ng/mL. This is the first epidemiological study to examine the combined effects of plasma selenium and urinary total arsenic levels on the OR for PC. Our data suggest a low plasma selenium level coupled with a high urinary total arsenic concentration creates a significant risk for aggressive PC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Genome-wide association study for levels of total serum IgE identifies HLA-C in a Japanese population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohei Yatagai

    Full Text Available Most of the previously reported loci for total immunoglobulin E (IgE levels are related to Th2 cell-dependent pathways. We undertook a genome-wide association study (GWAS to identify genetic loci responsible for IgE regulation. A total of 479,940 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were tested for association with total serum IgE levels in 1180 Japanese adults. Fine-mapping with SNP imputation demonstrated 6 candidate regions: the PYHIN1/IFI16, MHC classes I and II, LEMD2, GRAMD1B, and chr13∶60576338 regions. Replication of these candidate loci in each region was assessed in 2 independent Japanese cohorts (n = 1110 and 1364, respectively. SNP rs3130941 in the HLA-C region was consistently associated with total IgE levels in 3 independent populations, and the meta-analysis yielded genome-wide significance (P = 1.07×10(-10. Using our GWAS results, we also assessed the reproducibility of previously reported gene associations with total IgE levels. Nine of 32 candidate genes identified by a literature search were associated with total IgE levels after correction for multiple testing. Our findings demonstrate that SNPs in the HLA-C region are strongly associated with total serum IgE levels in the Japanese population and that some of the previously reported genetic associations are replicated across ethnic groups.

  15. Effects of Dry Storage and Resubmersion of Oysters on Total Vibrio vulnificus and Total and Pathogenic (tdh+/trh+) Vibrio parahaemolyticus Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsey, Thomas P; Lydon, Keri A; Bowers, John C; Jones, Jessica L

    2015-08-01

    Vibrio vulnificus (Vv) and Vibrio parahaemolyticus (Vp) are the two leading causes of bacterial illnesses associated with raw shellfish consumption. Levels of these pathogens in oysters can increase during routine antifouling aquaculture practices involving dry storage in ambient air conditions. After storage, common practice is to resubmerge these stored oysters to reduce elevated Vv and Vp levels, but evidence proving the effectiveness of this practice is lacking. This study examined the changes in Vv and in total and pathogenic (thermostable direct hemolysin gene and the tdh-related hemolysin gene, tdh+ and trh+) Vp levels in oysters after 5 or 24 h of dry storage (28 to 32°C), followed by resubmersion (27 to 32°C) for 14 days. For each trial, replicate oyster samples were collected at initial harvest, after dry storage, after 7 days, and after 14 days of resubmersion. Oysters not subjected to dry storage were collected and analyzed to determine natural undisturbed vibrio levels (background control). Vibrio levels were measured using a most-probable-number enrichment followed by real-time PCR. After storage, vibrio levels (excluding tdh+ and trh+ Vp during 5-h storage) increased significantly (P oysters stored for 5 h) were not significantly different (P oysters. Vv and total and pathogenic Vp levels were not significantly different (P > 0.1) from levels in background oysters after 14 days of resubmersion, regardless of dry storage time. These data demonstrate that oyster resubmersion after dry storage at elevated ambient temperatures allows vibrio levels to return to those of background control samples. These results can be used to help minimize the risk of Vv and Vp illnesses and to inform the oyster industry on the effectiveness of routine storing and resubmerging of aquaculture oysters.

  16. Low total cortisol correlates closely with low free cortisol in traumatic brain injury and predicts mortality and long-term hypopituitarism

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hannon, M J

    2011-06-01

    Published data has demonstrated that low 0900h plasma total cortisol (PTC) in the acute phase following traumatic brain injury (TBI) predicts mortality. However, there is concern regarding the use of PTC to evaluate the pituitary-adrenal axis in acutely unwell patients due to potential discrepancies between PTC and plasma free cortisol (PFC) due to variations in corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG). We hypothesised that low PTC would correlate closely with PFC and would predict mortality and long-term hypopituitarism.100 patients (84 men, median age 33, range 18-75) were recruited on admission with TBI (mean GCS+\\/-SD = 8.59+\\/-4.2). Each patient had PTC and CBG measured on days 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 following TBI. Results were compared with 15 patients admitted to ITU following vascular surgery. A PTC <300nmol\\/L in a patient in ITU was regarded clinically as inappropriately low. PFC was calculated for 25% of TBI samples and all control samples using Coolen\\'s equation (1). TBI patients reattended for dynamic pituitary testing >6 months after TBI.All controls had PTC >500 nmol\\/L on day 1, and >300 nmol on days 3–10. By contrast, 78\\/100 TBI patients had at least one PTC <300 nmol\\/L.TBI patients in the lowest quartile of final PTC measurement had the highest mortality (p=0.0187). PTC correlated closely with PFC in both TBI patients (r=0.99, p<0.0001) and controls (r=0.99, p<0.0001). 32\\/79 (40.5%) of TBI survivors attended for dynamic pituitary testing. The median time to dynamic pituitary testing was 14 months (range 6–24 months). 15\\/32 (46.9%) underwent insulin tolerance testing, 9\\/32 (28.1%) underwent glucagon testing and 8\\/32 (25%) underwent short synacthen testing. 6\\/32 (18.8%) were ACTH deficient, of whom 5\\/6 (83.3%) previously had low PTC. 6\\/32 were GH deficient, all of whom previously had low PTC. One patient was gonadotropin deficient; he previously had low PTC. No patients were TSH or prolactin deficient. Overall, 12\\/32 (37

  17. Levels of total mercury in predatory fish sold in Canada in 2005

    OpenAIRE

    Dabeka, R.W.; McKenzie, A.D.; Forsyth, D.S.

    2011-01-01

    Total mercury was analysed in 188 samples of predatory fish purchased at the retail level in Canada in 2005. The average concentrations (ng g−1, range) were: sea bass 329 (38–1367), red snapper 148 (36–431), orange roughy 543 (279–974), fresh water trout 55 (20–430), grouper 360 (8–1060), black cod 284 (71–651), Arctic char 37 (28–54), king fish 440 (42–923), tilefish 601 (79–1164) and marlin 854 (125–2346). The Canadian standard for maximum total mercury allowed in the edible portions of fis...

  18. Annoyance from Road Traffic, Trains, Airplanes and from Total Environmental Noise Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina S. Ragettli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a lack of studies assessing the exposure-response relationship between transportation noise and annoyance in North America. Our aims were to investigate the prevalence of noise annoyance induced by road traffic, trains and airplanes in relation to distance to transportation noise sources, and to total environmental noise levels in Montreal, Canada; annoyance was assessed as noise-induced disturbance. A telephone-based survey among 4336 persons aged >18 years was conducted. Exposure to total environmental noise (A-weighted outdoor noise levels—LAeq24h and day-evening-night equivalent noise levels—Lden for each study participant was determined using a statistical noise model (land use regression—LUR that is based on actual outdoor noise measurements. The proportion of the population annoyed by road traffic, airplane and train noise was 20.1%, 13.0% and 6.1%, respectively. As the distance to major roads, railways and the Montreal International Airport increased, the percentage of people disturbed and highly disturbed due to the corresponding traffic noise significantly decreased. When applying the statistical noise model we found a relationship between noise levels and disturbance from road traffic and total environmental noise, with Prevalence Proportion Ratios (PPR for highly disturbed people of 1.10 (95% CI: 1.07–1.13 and 1.04 (1.02–1.06 per 1 dB(A Lden, respectively. Our study provides the first comprehensive information on the relationship between transportation noise levels and disturbance in a Canadian city. LUR models are still in development and further studies on transportation noise induced annoyance are consequently needed, especially for sources other than road traffic.

  19. Annoyance from Road Traffic, Trains, Airplanes and from Total Environmental Noise Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragettli, Martina S.; Goudreau, Sophie; Plante, Céline; Perron, Stéphane; Fournier, Michel; Smargiassi, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    There is a lack of studies assessing the exposure-response relationship between transportation noise and annoyance in North America. Our aims were to investigate the prevalence of noise annoyance induced by road traffic, trains and airplanes in relation to distance to transportation noise sources, and to total environmental noise levels in Montreal, Canada; annoyance was assessed as noise-induced disturbance. A telephone-based survey among 4336 persons aged >18 years was conducted. Exposure to total environmental noise (A-weighted outdoor noise levels—LAeq24h and day-evening-night equivalent noise levels—Lden) for each study participant was determined using a statistical noise model (land use regression—LUR) that is based on actual outdoor noise measurements. The proportion of the population annoyed by road traffic, airplane and train noise was 20.1%, 13.0% and 6.1%, respectively. As the distance to major roads, railways and the Montreal International Airport increased, the percentage of people disturbed and highly disturbed due to the corresponding traffic noise significantly decreased. When applying the statistical noise model we found a relationship between noise levels and disturbance from road traffic and total environmental noise, with Prevalence Proportion Ratios (PPR) for highly disturbed people of 1.10 (95% CI: 1.07–1.13) and 1.04 (1.02–1.06) per 1 dB(A) Lden, respectively. Our study provides the first comprehensive information on the relationship between transportation noise levels and disturbance in a Canadian city. LUR models are still in development and further studies on transportation noise induced annoyance are consequently needed, especially for sources other than road traffic. PMID:26729143

  20. The feasibility of beryllium as structural material for the ITER plasma-facing components (PFC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieider, G.; Cardella, A.; Gorenflo, H.

    1993-01-01

    Be as plasma-facing armour has attractive features including excellent plasma compatibility, no T-retention via co-deposition and the potential for in-situ repair via plasma spraying. In order to avoid the bonding of the Be-armour to a heatsink structure in e.g., Cu-alloys, the ITER Joint Central Team (JCT) proposed for the divertor tubular elements with monolithic Be, both as plasma-facing and structural material. The analysis of these Be-tubes with 5 mm wall thickness at a heat load of 5 MW/m 2 showed that even for the most favourable assumptions thermal stresses exceed by far the allowed values according to design codes. Damage by neutrons and disruptions would worsen further the case for Be as monolithic plasma-facing and structural material. For PFC at heat flux significantly above 1 MW/m 2 it appears evident that Be should be used merely as armour bonded to a suitable structural material as heatsink. (orig.)

  1. A novel escapable social interaction test reveals that social behavior and mPFC activation during an escapable social encounter are altered by post-weaning social isolation and are dependent on the aggressiveness of the stimulus rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodell, Dayton J.; Ahern, Megan A.; Baynard, Jessica; Wall, Vanessa L.; Bland, Sondra T.

    2016-01-01

    Post-weaning social isolation (PSI) has been shown to increase aggressive behavior and alter medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) function in social species such as rats. Here we developed a novel escapable social interaction test (ESIT) allowing for the quantification of escape and social behaviors in addition to mPFC activation in response to an aggressive or nonaggressive stimulus rat. Male rats were exposed to 3 weeks of PSI (ISO) or group (GRP) housing, and exposed to 3 trials, with either no trial, all trials, or the last trial only with a stimulus rat. Analysis of social behaviors indicated that ISO rats spent less time in the escape chamber and more time engaged in social interaction, aggressive grooming, and boxing than did GRP rats. Interestingly, during the third trial all rats engaged in more of the quantified social behaviors and spent less time escaping in response to aggressive but not nonaggressive stimulus rats. Rats exposed to nonaggressive stimulus rats on the third trial had greater c-fos and ARC immunoreactivity in the mPFC than those exposed to an aggressive stimulus rat. Conversely, a social encounter produced an increase in large PSD-95 punctae in the mPFC independently of trial number, but only in ISO rats exposed to an aggressive stimulus rat. The results presented here demonstrate that PSI increases interaction time and aggressive behaviors during escapable social interaction, and that the aggressiveness of the stimulus rat in a social encounter is an important component of behavioral and neural outcomes for both isolation and group-reared rats. PMID:27633556

  2. GABA levels in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex during the viewing of appetitive and disgusting food images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padulo, Caterina; Delli Pizzi, Stefano; Bonanni, Laura; Edden, Richard A E; Ferretti, Antonio; Marzoli, Daniele; Franciotti, Raffaella; Manippa, Valerio; Onofrj, Marco; Sepede, Gianna; Tartaro, Armando; Tommasi, Luca; Puglisi-Allegra, Stefano; Brancucci, Alfredo

    2016-10-01

    Characterizing how the brain appraises the psychological dimensions of reward is one of the central topics of neuroscience. It has become clear that dopamine neurons are implicated in the transmission of both rewarding information and aversive and alerting events through two different neuronal populations involved in encoding the motivational value and the motivational salience of stimuli, respectively. Nonetheless, there is less agreement on the role of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and the related neurotransmitter release during the processing of biologically relevant stimuli. To address this issue, we employed magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), a non-invasive methodology that allows detection of some metabolites in the human brain in vivo, in order to assess the role of the vmPFC in encoding stimulus value rather than stimulus salience. Specifically, we measured gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and, with control purposes, Glx levels in healthy subjects during the observation of appetitive and disgusting food images. We observed a decrease of GABA and no changes in Glx concentration in the vmPFC in both conditions. Furthermore, a comparatively smaller GABA reduction during the observation of appetitive food images than during the observation of disgusting food images was positively correlated with the scores obtained to the body image concerns sub-scale of Body Uneasiness Test (BUT). These results are consistent with the idea that the vmPFC plays a crucial role in processing both rewarding and aversive stimuli, possibly by encoding stimulus salience through glutamatergic and/or noradrenergic projections to deeper mesencephalic and limbic areas. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Benefits of physical exercise on the aging brain: the role of the prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berchicci, Marika; Lucci, Giuliana; Di Russo, Francesco

    2013-11-01

    Motor planning in older adults likely relies on the overengagement of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and is associated with slowness of movement and responses. Does a physically active lifestyle counteract the overrecruitment of the PFC during action preparation? This study used high-resolution electroencephalography to measure the effect of physical exercise on the executive functions of the PFC preceding a visuomotor discriminative task. A total of 130 participants aged 15-86 were divided into two groups based on physical exercise participation. The response times and accuracy and the premotor activity of the PFC were separately correlated with age for the two groups. The data were first fit with a linear function and then a higher order polynomial function. We observed that after 35-40 years of age, physically active individuals have faster response times than their less active peers and showed no signs of PFC hyperactivity during motor planning. The present findings show that physical exercise could speed up the response of older people and reveal that also in middle-aged people, moderate-to-high levels of physical exercise benefits the planning/execution of a response and the executive functions mediated by the PFC, counteracting the neural overactivity often observed in the elderly adults.

  4. Painful or Mild-Pain Constipation? A Clinically Useful Alternative to Classification as Irritable Bowel Syndrome with Constipation Versus Functional Constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchoucha, Michel; Devroede, Ghislain; Mary, Florence; Bon, Cyriaque; Bejou, Bakhtiar; Benamouzig, Robert

    2018-02-28

    Abdominal pain is not used to characterize constipated patients. This study aimed to compare clinical, psychological, and physiological features in patients with IBS-constipation (IBS-C) with those in patients with functional constipation (FC) according to the intensity of abdominal pain. All patients filled a standard Rome III questionnaire. In addition, they indicated the intensity of constipation, diarrhea, bloating, and abdominal pain on a 10-point Likert scale, and their stool form with the Bristol Stool Form Scale. Anxiety and depression were assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Physiological evaluation included anorectal manometry and total and segmental colonic transit time. A total of 546 consecutive patients, 245 with IBS-C and 301 with FC, were included. Painful constipation (PFC) was found by cluster analysis and subsequently defined as having a value over four on the Likert scale for abdominal pain. PFC was found in 67% of IBS-C patients and in 22% of FC patients. PFC patients have digestive disorders with greater frequency and report higher levels of constipation and bloating, despite similar stool form. They have higher scores of depression, state and trait anxiety, and shorter terminal transit time than mild-pain constipated patients. Compared to IBS-C patients, PFC patients report higher levels of abdominal pain (P Painful constipation and mild-pain constipation could be an alternative way to identify constipated patients than using the diagnosis of IBS-C and FC for clinical evaluation and drug studies.

  5. Maternal blood total oxypurines and erythrocyte 2,3-diphosphoglycerate levels during normal pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, S; Akiyama, H; Kurauchi, O; Taira, H; Yamada, R; Narita, O; Tomoda, Y

    1985-01-01

    The effects of pregnancy on the levels of maternal plasma total oxypurines (hypoxanthine, xanthine and uric acid) and erythrocyte 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) was investigated. With advancing gestation there was a slight increasing tendency in plasma total oxypurines as well as erythrocyte 2,3-DPG in pregnant women. When the ratio of 2,3-DPG to total oxypurines was calculated, the ratio was almost unchanged until week 34. After week 35, the ratio decreased to week 37; the ratios between week 37 and 40 had similar values to cord blood. The above data suggest that the changes of these metabolites in maternal peripheral blood may be indicative for hypoxia with fetoplacental tissue.

  6. Total serum homocysteine levels do not identify cognitive dysfunction in multimorbid elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengstermann, S; Laemmler, G; Hanemann, A; Schweter, A; Steinhagen-Thiessen, E; Lun, A; Schulz, R-J

    2009-02-01

    Total blood homocysteine (Hcys) and folate levels have been investigated in association with cognitive dysfunction in healthy but not in multimorbid elderly patients. We hypothesized that total serum Hcys is an adequate marker to identify multimorbid elderly patients with cognitive dysfunction assessed by the Short Cognitive Performance Test (SKT) and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Cross-sectional study. The study center was an acute geriatric hospital. A total of 189 multimorbid elderly patients were recruited. Cognitive dysfunction was determined according to the SKT and MMSE. Biochemical parameters (Hcys, folate, vitamin B12, hemoglobin), nutritional status (BMI, Mini Nutritional Assessment, nutritional intake), and activities of daily living were assessed. According to the SKT, 25.4% of patients showed no cerebral cognitive dysfunction, 21.2% had suspected incipient cognitive dysfunction, 12.7% showed mild cognitive dysfunction, 9.0% had moderate cognitive dysfunction, and 31.7% of patients were demented. The median plasma Hcys value was elevated by approximately 20% in multimorbid elderly patients, independent of cognitive dysfunction. Serum folate and vitamin B12 concentrations were within normal ranges. We did not find significant differences in nutritional status, activities of daily living, numbers of diseases or medications, or selected biochemical parameters between the SKT groups. Elevated serum Hcys levels with normal plasma folate and vitamin B12 concentrations were observed in multimorbid elderly patients. The plasma Hcys level did not appear to be an important biological risk factor for cognitive dysfunction in multimorbid geriatric patients.

  7. Měření výpočetního výkonu PLC PFC200

    OpenAIRE

    Majchrák, František

    2017-01-01

    V práci sa analyzujú možnosti merania výpočetného výkonu PLC PFC200 od firmy WAGO. Prvú časť práce venujem priblíženiu funkčnosti automatu, jeho využitiu, jednotlivým možnostiam programovania, zoznamujem sa s implementáciou vlastných programových blokov v prostredí embedded Linux a zisťujem jeho prepojenie s PLC prostredím. V druhej časti práce sa sústredím na meranie výkonu, jeho typy, popis certifikovaných meraní a jeho celkové zhodnotenie. V poslednej časti je vysvetlená aplikácia, ktorá z...

  8. Drinking Level, Drinking Pattern, and Twenty-Year Total Mortality Among Late-Life Drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holahan, Charles J; Schutte, Kathleen K; Brennan, Penny L; Holahan, Carole K; Moos, Rudolf H

    2015-07-01

    Research on moderate drinking has focused on the average level of drinking. Recently, however, investigators have begun to consider the role of the pattern of drinking, particularly heavy episodic drinking, in mortality. The present study examined the combined roles of average drinking level (moderate vs. high) and drinking pattern (regular vs. heavy episodic) in 20-year total mortality among late-life drinkers. The sample comprised 1,121 adults ages 55-65 years. Alcohol consumption was assessed at baseline, and total mortality was indexed across 20 years. We used multiple logistic regression analyses controlling for a broad set of sociodemographic, behavioral, and health status covariates. Among individuals whose high level of drinking placed them at risk, a heavy episodic drinking pattern did not increase mortality odds compared with a regular drinking pattern. Conversely, among individuals who engage in a moderate level of drinking, prior findings showed that a heavy episodic drinking pattern did increase mortality risk compared with a regular drinking pattern. Correspondingly, a high compared with a moderate drinking level increased mortality risk among individuals maintaining a regular drinking pattern, but not among individuals engaging in a heavy episodic drinking pattern, whose pattern of consumption had already placed them at risk. Findings highlight that low-risk drinking requires that older adults drink low to moderate average levels of alcohol and avoid heavy episodic drinking. Heavy episodic drinking is frequent among late-middle-aged and older adults and needs to be addressed along with average consumption in understanding the health risks of late-life drinkers.

  9. Total aflatoxins in complementary foods produced at community levels using locally available ingredients in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayelign, Abebe; Woldegiorgis, Ashagrie Zewdu; Adish, Abdulaziz; De Saeger, Sarah

    2018-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine the occurrence and levels of total aflatoxins in complementary foods (CFs) and their ingredients. A total of 126 samples collected from 20 Districts from Amhara, Tigray, Oromia, and Southern Nations Nationalities and Peoples (SNNP) regions were analysed for levels of total aflatoxins using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Aflatoxins were detected in 62 out of 66 pre-milling samples with mean range of 0.3-9.9 µg/kg. Aflatoxins were also detected in 19 out of 20 post-production CFs and in all of the one-month stored CFs at households and grain banks, with a mean range of 0.5-8.0, 3.6-11.3, and 0.2-12.4 µg/kg, respectively. Overall, 3 out of 126 samples exceeded the maximum limit (10 µg/kg). Although most aflatoxin levels were below the maximum limit and thus considered to be safe for consumption, more effort should be implemented to reduce contamination, as these CFs are intended for consumption by young children.

  10. Prenatal alcohol exposure modifies glucocorticoid receptor subcellular distribution in the medial prefrontal cortex and impairs frontal cortex-dependent learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea M Allan

    Full Text Available Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE has been shown to impair learning, memory and executive functioning in children. Perseveration, or the failure to respond adaptively to changing contingencies, is a hallmark on neurobehavioral assessment tasks for human fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD. Adaptive responding is predominantly a product of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC and is regulated by corticosteroids. In our mouse model of PAE we recently reported deficits in hippocampal formation-dependent learning and memory and a dysregulation of hippocampal formation glucocorticoid receptor (GR subcellular distribution. Here, we examined the effect of PAE on frontal cortical-dependent behavior, as well as mPFC GR subcellular distribution and the levels of regulators of intracellular GR transport. PAE mice displayed significantly reduced response flexibility in a Y-maze reversal learning task. While the levels of total nuclear GR were reduced in PAE mPFC, levels of GR phosphorylated at serines 203, 211 and 226 were not significantly changed. Cytosolic, but not nuclear, MR levels were elevated in the PAE mPFC. The levels of critical GR trafficking proteins, FKBP51, Hsp90, cyclophilin 40, dynamitin and dynein intermediate chain, were altered in PAE mice, in favor of the exclusion of GR from the nucleus, indicating dysregulation of GR trafficking. Our findings suggest that there may be a link between a deficit in GR nuclear localization and frontal cortical learning deficits in prenatal alcohol-exposed mice.

  11. A novel escapable social interaction test reveals that social behavior and mPFC activation during an escapable social encounter are altered by post-weaning social isolation and are dependent on the aggressiveness of the stimulus rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodell, Dayton J; Ahern, Megan A; Baynard, Jessica; Wall, Vanessa L; Bland, Sondra T

    2017-01-15

    Post-weaning social isolation (PSI) has been shown to increase aggressive behavior and alter medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) function in social species such as rats. Here we developed a novel escapable social interaction test (ESIT) allowing for the quantification of escape and social behaviors in addition to mPFC activation in response to an aggressive or nonaggressive stimulus rat. Male rats were exposed to 3 weeks of PSI (ISO) or group (GRP) housing, and exposed to 3 trials, with either no trial, all trials, or the last trial only with a stimulus rat. Analysis of social behaviors indicated that ISO rats spent less time in the escape chamber and more time engaged in social interaction, aggressive grooming, and boxing than did GRP rats. Interestingly, during the third trial all rats engaged in more of the quantified social behaviors and spent less time escaping in response to aggressive but not nonaggressive stimulus rats. Rats exposed to nonaggressive stimulus rats on the third trial had greater c-fos and ARC immunoreactivity in the mPFC than those exposed to an aggressive stimulus rat. Conversely, a social encounter produced an increase in large PSD-95 punctae in the mPFC independently of trial number, but only in ISO rats exposed to an aggressive stimulus rat. The results presented here demonstrate that PSI increases interaction time and aggressive behaviors during escapable social interaction, and that the aggressiveness of the stimulus rat in a social encounter is an important component of behavioral and neural outcomes for both isolation and group-reared rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Plasma oxidative stress and total thiol levels in Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadag-Oncel, Eda; Erel, Ozcan; Ozsurekci, Yasemin; Caglayik, Dilek Yagci; Kaya, Ali; Gozel, Mustafa Gokhan; Icagasioglu, Fusun Dilara; Engin, Aynur; Korukluoglu, Gulay; Uyar, Yavuz; Elaldi, Nazif; Ceyhan, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the pro- and antioxidant status of patients with a pathogenesis of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) in terms of their role in its pathogenesis. During the study period, 34 children and 41 adults were diagnosed with CCHF. The control group consisted of healthy age- and gender-matched children and adults. Serum levels of the total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidant status (TOS), oxidative stress index (OSI), and plasma total thiol (TTL) were evaluated and compared between groups. The difference in mean TAC values between CCHF patients and healthy controls was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Mean TOS, OSI, and TTL values were significantly lower in CCHF patients than in healthy controls (P 0.05). Our results suggest that TTL may play a more important role in CCHF pathogenesis than the other parameters investigated. The mean TOS and OSI values were higher in the control group than in CCHF patients.

  13. Activation of human B lymphocytes. 8. Differential radiosensitivity of subpopulations of lymphoid cells involved in the polyclonally-induced PFC responses of peripheral blood B lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fauci, A S; Pratt, K R; Whalen, G [National Inst. of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, MD (USA)

    1978-11-01

    The differential effect of various doses of irradiation on subpopulations of human peripheral blood lymphoid cells involved in the pokeweed mitogen induced PFC response against sheep red blood cells was studied. The plaque forming B cells were quite sensitive to low doses of irradiation with complete suppression of responses at 300 to 500 rad. On the contrary, helper T-cell function was resistant to 2000 rad. Co-culture of irradiated T cells with autologous or allogeneic B cells resulted in marked enhancement of PFC responses consistent with the suppression of naturally occurring suppressor cells with a resulting pure helper effect. Irradiated T-cell-depleted suspensions failed to produce this effect as did heat killed T cells, whereas mitomycin C treated T cells gave effects similar to irradiated T cells. These findings are consistent with a lack of requirement of cell division for a T-cell helper effect and a requirement of mitosis or another irradiation sensitive, mitomycin C sensitive process for a T-suppressor cell effect. These studies have potential relevance in the evaluation of subpopulations of human lymphoid cells involved in antibody production in normal individuals and in disease states.

  14. Effects of buddleja officinalis total flavonoids on serum testosterone level of castrated male rats with xeroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Juan Li

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To observe buddleja officinalis total flavonoids' effect on the basal tear secretion amount, tear film stability, lacrimal gland histomorphology and serum testosterone level of castrated male rat model with xeroma, to study the mechanism of rat xeroma caused by buddleja officinalis total flavones' anti-sex hormones disorders.MEATHODS: A total of 150 Wistar male rats of 1 month old, weighted about 200g, were randomly divided into 5 groups with 30 rats in each group with A representing normal group; B representing sham operation group; C representing surgery control group; D representing group treated with androgen; E representing group treated with buddleja officinalis total flavonoids. For the groups C, D, E, the bilateral testicle and epididymis were excised; For group B, scrota were incised without removal of the testicles, as the sham operation group; For group A, nothing was done. One week after modeling when the wound was to be healed, drug was given to each group. Respectively at the 1st month, 3rd, and 5th months after treatment, 10 rats were randomly selected in each group, to receive Schirmer I test, tear breakup time measurement. Blood serum testosterone levels were tested in the fifth month. RESUITS: For groups D and E, the Schirmer I test measurements were significantly higher than that of group C(PPPCONCLUSION: Decreased androgen levels can lead to xeroma, and removal of bilateral testes and epididymis can successfully establish the animal models of xeroma in rats caused by decreased androgen levels. Buddleja officinalis total flavonoids have androgenic effect, which produces the similar treatment effect of xeroma with testosterone propionate. Buddleja officinalis total flavonoids may become a new treatment for xeroma.

  15. The levels of triglyceride and total cholesterol in methamphetamine dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meijuan; Lv, Dezhao; Zhou, Wu; Ji, Lili; Zhou, Beibei; Chen, Han; Gu, Yingying; Zhao, Jiyun; He, Jincai

    2017-04-01

    The serum triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) levels have been reported altered in the traditional drug-dependence (such as marijuana and heroin). However, studies assessing the relationships among serum TC, TG, and methamphetamine (MA)-dependence have not been described well. In this study, our aim is to explore the serum TG and TC levels in large sample of MA-dependent patients. A retrospective study was conducted in 938 MA-dependent patients who were recruited between February 2, 2008 and March 11, 2013, with social characteristics and drug-dependence history (duration of MA use, routes of drug administration, and daily dose were collected). Then, the serum levels of TC, TG, glucose (GLU), body mass index (BMI), and blood pressure were measured among the participants. Meanwhile, 985 age- and gender-matched healthy people in the physical examination center were selected as control group. Compared with the control group, significant decreases of TC, TG, GLU, and BMI were observed in MA-dependent patients (P < 0.05). Besides, we found that the daily dose of MA use was associated with TC (β = -0.079, P = 0.015) and the duration of MA use was independently related to BMI (β = -0.071, P = 0.031). This study demonstrated that the levels of TC, TG, GLU, and BMI factors altered in the MA-dependent patients. In addition, there is a negative association between MA dependence and TC and BMI.

  16. The KMO allele encoding Arg452 is associated with psychotic features in bipolar disorder type 1, and with increased CSF KYNA level and reduced KMO expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavebratt, C; Olsson, S; Backlund, L; Frisén, L; Sellgren, C; Priebe, L; Nikamo, P; Träskman-Bendz, L; Cichon, S; Vawter, M P; Osby, U; Engberg, G; Landén, M; Erhardt, S; Schalling, M

    2014-03-01

    The kynurenine pathway metabolite kynurenic acid (KYNA), modulating glutamatergic and cholinergic neurotransmission, is increased in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder type 1 with psychotic features. KYNA production is critically dependent on kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO). KMO mRNA levels and activity in prefrontal cortex (PFC) are reduced in schizophrenia. We hypothesized that KMO expression in PFC would be reduced in bipolar disorder with psychotic features and that a functional genetic variant of KMO would associate with this disease, CSF KYNA level and KMO expression. KMO mRNA levels were reduced in PFC of bipolar disorder patients with lifetime psychotic features (P=0.005, n=19) or schizophrenia (P=0.02, n=36) compared with nonpsychotic patients and controls. KMO genetic association to psychotic features in bipolar disorder type 1 was studied in 493 patients and 1044 controls from Sweden. The KMO Arg(452) allele was associated with psychotic features during manic episodes (P=0.003). KMO Arg(452) was studied for association to CSF KYNA levels in an independent sample of 55 Swedish patients, and to KMO expression in 717 lymphoblastoid cell lines and 138 hippocampal biopsies. KMO Arg(452) associated with increased levels of CSF KYNA (P=0.03) and reduced lymphoblastoid and hippocampal KMO expression (P≤0.05). Thus, findings from five independent cohorts suggest that genetic variation in KMO influences the risk for psychotic features in mania of bipolar disorder patients. This provides a possible mechanism for the previous findings of elevated CSF KYNA levels in those bipolar patients with lifetime psychotic features and positive association between KYNA levels and number of manic episodes.

  17. Thermal Dynamics in Newborn and Juvenile Models Cooled by Total Liquid Ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, Mathieu; Sage, Michael; Kohlhauer, Matthias; Vandamme, Jonathan; Mousseau, Julien; Robert, Raymond; Tissier, Renaud; Praud, Jean-Paul; Walti, Herve; Micheau, Philippe

    2016-07-01

    Total liquid ventilation (TLV) consists in filling the lungs with a perfluorocarbon (PFC) and using a liquid ventilator to ensure a tidal volume of oxygenated, CO 2 -free and temperature-controlled PFC. Having a much higher thermal capacity than air, liquid PFCs assume that the filled lungs become an efficient heat exchanger with pulmonary circulation. The objective of the present study was the development and validation of a parametric lumped thermal model of a subject in TLV. The lungs were modeled as one compartment in which the control volume varied as a function of the tidal volume. The heat transfer in the body was modeled as seven parallel compartments representing organs and tissues. The thermal model of the lungs and body was validated with two groups of lambs of different ages and weights (newborn and juvenile) undergoing an ultrafast mild therapeutic hypothermia induction by TLV. The model error on all animals yielded a small mean error of -0.1 ±0.4  (°)C for the femoral artery and 0.0 ±0.1   (°)C for the pulmonary artery. The resulting experimental validation attests that the model provided an accurate estimation of the systemic arterial temperature and the venous return temperature. This comprehensive thermal model of the lungs and body has the advantage of closely modeling the rapid thermal dynamics in TLV. The model can explain how the time to achieve mild hypothermia between newborn and juvenile lambs remained similar despite of highly different physiological and ventilatory parameters. The strength of the model is its strong relationship with the physiological parameters of the subjects, which suggests its suitability for projection to humans.

  18. Comparison of Total Calcium Level during General and Spinal Anesthesia in Gynecologic Abdominal Surgeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katayoun Haryalchi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available  Background: Calcium (Ca+2 plays an important role in many biophysiological mechanisms .The present study was carried out to assess alterations in total serum calcium level before and after operations in consider to the type of anesthesia. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was conducted on 74 women who candidate for gynecological abdominal operations during one year at Al-zahra maternity Hospital in Rasht, Iran. The patients underwent General Anesthesia (GA (N=37 or Spinal Anesthesia (SA (N=37 randomly. Blood samples (2 cc, were obtained an hour before the anesthesia and two hours after that. The blood samples had been sent to the laboratory for analyzing .Total serum calcium level, magnesium (Mg and albumin level were measured by photometric methods. Inferential statistic was analyzed with the Vilkson non-parametric and Pearson's correlation test. P-values less than 0.05 have been considered as significant different. Results: There was a significant trend to decrease in calcium levels after all gynecological abdominal operations, but there was a significant correlation between General anesthesia (GA and reduction of serum calcium level (p=0.026 . Therefore, General Anesthesia (GA is accompanied by more calcium reduction than Spinal Anesthesia (SA. Conclusion: Serum Calcium levels tend to decrease after all gynecological abdominal surgeries, but General Anesthesia (GA is accompanied by more calcium reduction than Spinal one. It needs to further specific studies, to illustrate association between different methods of anesthesia and Ca+2 changes.

  19. Survey of total mercury and methylmercury levels in edible fish from the Adriatic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storelli, M M; Giacominelli-Stuffler, R; Storelli, A; D'Addabbo, R; Palermo, C; Marcotrigiano, G O

    2003-12-01

    Total mercury and methylmercury concentrations were measured in the muscle tissue of different fish species from the Adriatic Sea to ascertain whether the concentrations exceeded the maximum level fixed by the European Commission. Large species-dependent variability was observed. The highest total mercury mean concentrations were in benthic (0.20-0.76 microg g(-1) wet wt) and demersal fish (0.22-0.73 microg g(-1) wet wt), while pelagic species showed the lowest levels (0.09-0.23 microg g(-1) wet wt). In 15% of frost fish, in 42% of skate and in 30% of angler fish samples total mercury concentrations exceeded the maximum level fixed by the European Commission (Hg = 1 microg g(-1) wet wt); for the species for which the maximum level was set to 0.5 microg g(-1) wet wt, concentrations exceeding the prescribed legal limit were observed in 6.4% of bokkem, in 6.6% of pandora, in 20% of megrin, in 12.5% of four-spotted megrim, in 16% of striped mullet, in 5.0% of forkbeard and in 5.3% of picarel samples. In all the different species, mercury was present almost completely in the methylated form, with mean percentages between 70 and 100%. Weekly intake was estimated and compared with the provisional tolerable weekly intake recommended by the FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. A high exposure was associated with the consumption of only skates, frost fish and angler fish, thought the consumption of the other species, such as, megrim, four spotted megrim, red fish striped mullet and forkbeard, resulted in a weekly intake slightly below the established provisional tolerable weekly intake.

  20. Numerical Simulations of Slow Stick Slip Events with PFC, a DEM Based Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, S. H.; Young, R. P.

    2017-12-01

    Nonvolcanic tremors around subduction zone have become a fascinating subject in seismology in recent years. Previous studies have shown that the nonvolcanic tremor beneath western Shikoku is composed of low frequency seismic waves overlapping each other. This finding provides direct link between tremor and slow earthquakes. Slow stick slip events are considered to be laboratory scaled slow earthquakes. Slow stick slip events are traditionally studied with direct shear or double direct shear experiment setup, in which the sliding velocity can be controlled to model a range of fast and slow stick slips. In this study, a PFC* model based on double direct shear is presented, with a central block clamped by two side blocks. The gauge layers between the central and side blocks are modelled as discrete fracture networks with smooth joint bonds between pairs of discrete elements. In addition, a second model is presented in this study. This model consists of a cylindrical sample subjected to triaxial stress. Similar to the previous model, a weak gauge layer at a 45 degrees is added into the sample, on which shear slipping is allowed. Several different simulations are conducted on this sample. While the confining stress is maintained at the same level in different simulations, the axial loading rate (displacement rate) varies. By varying the displacement rate, a range of slipping behaviour, from stick slip to slow stick slip are observed based on the stress-strain relationship. Currently, the stick slip and slow stick slip events are strictly observed based on the stress-strain relationship. In the future, we hope to monitor the displacement and velocity of the balls surrounding the gauge layer as a function of time, so as to generate a synthetic seismogram. This will allow us to extract seismic waveforms and potentially simulate the tremor-like waves found around subduction zones. *Particle flow code, a discrete element method based numerical simulation code developed by

  1. Immunoglobulin levels in dogs after total-body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vriesendorp, H.M.; Halliwell, R.E.; Johnson, P.M.; Fey, T.A.; McDonough, C.M.

    1985-01-01

    The influence of total-body irradiation (TBI) and autologous or allogeneic bone marrow transplantation on serum immunoglobulin subclasses was determined in a dog model. Only IgG1 levels decreased after low-dose (+/- 4.5 Gy) TBI, but levels of all immunoglobulin classes fell after high-dose TBI (8.5 GyX1 or 2X6.0 Gy). After autologous bone marrow transplantation IgM levels were the first and IgE levels were the last to return to normal. After successful allogeneic bone marrow transplantation prolonged low IgM and IgE levels were found but IgA levels increased rapidly to over 150% of pretreatment values. A comparison of dogs with or without clinical signs or graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), revealed no differences in IgM levels. Dogs with GVHD had higher IgA but lower IgE levels. Dogs that rejected their allogeneic bone marrow cells showed significant early rises in IgE and IgA levels in comparison with dogs with GVHD. These results differ from the observations made on Ig levels in human bone marrow transplant patients. No significant differences in phytohemagglutinin stimulation tests were found between dogs with or without GVHD or dogs receiving an autologous transplant for the first four months after TBI and transplantation. An early primary or secondary involvement of humoral immunity in GVHD and graft rejection in dogs is postulated

  2. Aloe vera extract reduces 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine levels and improves total antioxidants in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wulan Christijanti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease caused by lack of insulin production in the pancreas or by insulin resistance, the disease being characterized by elevated blood glucose levels. Hyperglycemia in diabetes could lead to oxidative stress due to the rise in 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG levels and the decrease in levels of total antioxidant status (TAS. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect Aloe vera extract on 8-oxo-dG level and total antioxidant status in diabetic rat testis.   Methods This was an experimental laboratory study with 20 rat samples which were divided into 4 groups (1 control group and 3 treatment groups. Diabetes was induced in the rats by streptozotocin (STZ at 65 mg/kgBW. The diabetic rats were then treated for 28 days with Aloe vera extract at 0 mg (P0, 200 mg rind (P1, 200 mg pulp (P2, respectively. The level of 8 -oxo-dG was measured by ELISA and total antioxidant status with 2,2' -azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS. Data were analyzed with ANOVA and Least Significant Difference Advanced Test at P<0.05.   Results 8-Oxo-dG levels were significantly different between the control group and both P0 and P2, but not between the control group and P1. Among the treatment groups the 8-oxo-dG levels were significantly different. Mean total antioxidant status was significantly different between control and treatment groups, and also between treatment groups (p<0.05.   Conclusions Aloe vera extract reduced free radicals (level of 8-oxo-dG and increased the total antioxidant status in diabetic rat testis.

  3. Effect of culture levels, ultrafiltered retentate addition, total solid levels and heat treatments on quality improvement of buffalo milk plain set yoghurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Vijesh; Gupta, Vijay Kumar; Meena, Ganga Sahay

    2018-05-01

    Studied the effect of culture (2, 2.5 and 3%), ultrafiltered (UF) retentate addition (0, 11, 18%), total milk solids (13, 13.50, 14%) and heat treatments (80 and 85 °C/30 min) on the change in pH and titratable acidity (TA), sensory scores and rheological parameters of yoghurt. With 3% culture levels, the required TA (0.90% LA) was achieved in minimum 6 h incubation. With an increase in UF retentate addition, there was observed a highly significant decrease in overall acceptability, body and texture and colour and appearance scores, but there was highly significant increase in rheological parameters of yoghurt samples. Yoghurt made from even 13.75% total solids containing nil UF retentate was observed to be sufficiently firm by the sensory panel. Most of the sensory attributes of yoghurt made with 13.50% total solids were significantly better than yoghurt prepared with either 13 or 14% total solids. Standardised milk heated to 85 °C/30 min resulted in significantly better overall acceptability in yoghurt. Overall acceptability of optimised yoghurt was significantly better than a branded market sample. UF retentate addition adversely affected yoghurt quality, whereas optimization of culture levels, totals milk solids and others process parameters noticeably improved the quality of plain set yoghurt with a shelf life of 15 days at 4 °C.

  4. Reduced GABA levels correlate with cognitive impairment in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Guanmei; Gao, Fei; Gong, Tao; Wang, Guangbin; Zhao, Bin; Edden, Richard A.E.; Li, Hao; Chen, Weibo; Liu, Xiaohui

    2018-01-01

    To investigate if brain gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) are abnormal compared with healthy controls, and their relationship to cognitive function in RRMS. Twenty-eight RRMS patients and twenty-six healthy controls underwent magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) at 3-T to detect GABA signals from posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and left hippocampus using the 'MEGAPoint Resolved Spectroscopy Sequence' (MEGA-PRESS) technique. All subjects also underwent a cognitive assessment. In RRMS patients, GABA+ were lower in the PCC (p = 0.036) and left hippocampus (p = 0.039) compared with controls, decreased GABA+ in the PCC and left hippocampus were associated with specific cognitive functions (r = -0.452, p = 0.016 and r = 0.451, p = 0.016 respectively); GABA+ in the mPFC were not significantly decreased or related to any cognitive scores (p > 0.05). This study demonstrates that abnormalities of the GABAergic system may be present in the pathogenesis of RRMS and suggests a potential link between regional GABA levels and cognitive impairment in patients with RRMS. (orig.)

  5. Reduced GABA levels correlate with cognitive impairment in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Guanmei; Gao, Fei; Gong, Tao; Wang, Guangbin; Zhao, Bin [Shandong University, Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute, Jinan (China); Edden, Richard A.E. [The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); Kennedy Krieger Institute, FM Kirby Center for Functional Brain Imaging, Baltimore, MD (United States); Li, Hao [Air Force General Hospital PLA, Beijing (China); Chen, Weibo [Philips Healthcare, Shanghai (China); Liu, Xiaohui [Shandong Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Department of Neurology, Jinan (China)

    2018-03-15

    To investigate if brain gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) are abnormal compared with healthy controls, and their relationship to cognitive function in RRMS. Twenty-eight RRMS patients and twenty-six healthy controls underwent magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) at 3-T to detect GABA signals from posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and left hippocampus using the 'MEGAPoint Resolved Spectroscopy Sequence' (MEGA-PRESS) technique. All subjects also underwent a cognitive assessment. In RRMS patients, GABA+ were lower in the PCC (p = 0.036) and left hippocampus (p = 0.039) compared with controls, decreased GABA+ in the PCC and left hippocampus were associated with specific cognitive functions (r = -0.452, p = 0.016 and r = 0.451, p = 0.016 respectively); GABA+ in the mPFC were not significantly decreased or related to any cognitive scores (p > 0.05). This study demonstrates that abnormalities of the GABAergic system may be present in the pathogenesis of RRMS and suggests a potential link between regional GABA levels and cognitive impairment in patients with RRMS. (orig.)

  6. Tear ascorbic acid levels and the total antioxidant status in contact lens wearers: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkata Sai

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The tear ascorbate owing to its high concentration, functions as an effective antioxidant against the oxidative damage of cornea. Contact lens wearers (CLW are prone to oxidative stress due to the lens-induced hypoxic conditions. A pilot study was done to compare the tear ascorbic acid level and the total antioxidant capacity give as in normal and CLW. Materials and Methods: In this study 21 CLW (Mean age 23 ± 3 years ; M-2, F-19, who were daily wear users, with duration of wear not more than four years, along with age-matched 28 controls (Mean age 28 ± 3 ; M-15, F-13 were recruited in the study for collection of reflex tears using Schirmer′s strip. Ascorbic acid in tears was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, total antioxidant capacity (TAC and total protein assay by spectrophotometric analysis. Results: CLW showed no significant change in the tear ascorbic acid levels (0.4 ± 0.26 mM compared to the control subjects (0.61 ± 0.59 mM. The amount of ascorbic acid in tears did not correlate with the TAC or the total protein of the tears. The mean TAC in CLW was 0.69 ± 0.16 mM, with a total protein of 1.35 ± 0.46 mg/ml while in controls it was 0.7 ± 0.18 mM and 1.21 ± 0.47 mg/ml respectively . Conclusions: Soft contact lens wear did not show any significant change in tear ascorbic acid, TAC and total protein levels compared to controls.

  7. Gender differences in total cholesterol levels in patients with acute heart failure and its importance for short and long time prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinarova, Lenka; Spinar, Jindrich; Vitovec, Jiri; Linhart, Ales; Widimsky, Petr; Fedorco, Marian; Malek, Filip; Cihalik, Cestmir; Miklik, Roman; Dusek, Ladislav; Zidova, Klaudia; Jarkovsky, Jiri; Littnerova, Simona; Parenica, Jiri

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether there are gender differences in total cholesterol levels in patients with acute heart failure and if there is an association of this parameter with short and long time mortality. The AHEAD MAIN registry is a database conducted in 7 university hospitals, all with 24 h cath lab service, in 4 cities in the Czech Republic. The database included 4 153 patients hospitalised for acute heart failure in the period 2006-2009. 2 384 patients had a complete record of their total cholesterol levels. 946 females and 1437 males were included in this analysis. According to the admission total cholesterol levels, patients were divided into 5 groups: 6.0 mmol/l (group E). The median total cholesterol levels were 4.24 in males and 4.60 in females (Ppercentage of women with total cholesterol levels above 6 mmol/l and lower percentage in the group below 4.5 mmol/l than in men. In all, total cholesterol categories women were older than men. Total cholesterol levels are important for in- hospital mortality and long term survival of patients admitted for acute heart failure.

  8. Haemorrheologic and fibrinolytic activities in pregnant women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Packed cell volumes (PCV), relative whole blood viscosity (RWBV), relative plasma viscosity (RPV), plasma fibrinogen concentration (PFC), euglobulin lysis time (ELT), total proteins and albumin were estimated. The differences in the values of PCV, RWBV, RPV, PFC, total proteins, albumin and globulin with gestational age ...

  9. Seminal plasma total antioxidant capacity and vitamin- C levels in asthenozoospermia: a case- control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Bidmeshkipour

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Defective sperm function is now recognized as one of the most important causes of male infertility. Seminal plasma possesses a rich source of different enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants such as vitamin C (ascorbic acid that protect spermatozoa against oxidative stress as one of the mediators of infertility causing sperm dysfunction and low sperm quality. The aim of this study was investigation of seminal total antioxidant capacity and determination of vitamin C effects on sperm motility. "n"nMethods: We designed a case-control study with a total subject of 62 males. Sperm parameters were analyzed according to World Health Organization guidelines (WHO, 1999. Total antioxidant capacity and vitamin C level of seminal plasma were measured in the 32 normozoospermic as the control group and 32 asthenospermic men as the case group using FRAP (Ferric Reducing of Antioxidants Powers and RP-HPLC (Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography methods, respectively. "n"nResults: Our results indicated that total antioxidant capacity levels in the seminal plasma of asthenospermic men were significantly lower than healthy men (p=0.002. In addition, we found a positive correlation between reduced total

  10. The Effect of Systemic Amantadine Sulfate on Malondialdehyde and Total Thiol Levels in Rat Corneas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Züleyha Yalniz-Akkaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the malondialdehyde (MDA and total thiol (sulfhydryl, SH levels in rat corneas after intraperitoneal injection of amantadine sulfate. Methods: A total of 12 Wistar albino rats were divided into two groups: control group (n = 6 and amantadine group (n = 6. Balanced salt solution (1 mL, 0.9% NaCl, twice/day was injected into rats in control group. Amantadine sulfate (2 mg/1 mL, twice/day was injected into rats in amantadine group. In each group, two rats were injected for 1 week, two received injections for 1 month, and two rats received injections for 3 months. The corneas were homogenized and MDA and SH levels were measured spectroflourometrically. Results: In control group, median MDA and SH levels were 2.37 (range, 0.92-3.60 and 25.35 (range, 6.30-54.0 nmol/mg, respectively. In amantadine group, median MDA and SH levels were 3.57 (range, 1.25-5.92 and 32.65 (range, 3.30-48.3 nmol/mg, respectively. The difference between this two groups regarding MDA (P = 0.14 and SH (P = 1.0 levels was statistically insignificant. Conclusion: Systemically administered amantadine sulfate seems not to cause MDA and SH imbalance in rat corneas.

  11. Elevated levels of numerous cytokines in drainage fluid after primary total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heide, Huub J L; van der Kraan, Peter M; Rijnberg, Willard J; Buma, Pieter; Schreurs, B Willem

    2010-12-01

    As cytokines are involved in wound healing and other inflammatory processes, it could be valuable to measure their levels at the operative site. This study was conducted to investigate whether different cytokines are measurable in drainage fluid and, when measurable, whether we can find a difference in cytokine levels between one and six hours postoperatively. Samples from the drainage system in 30 consecutive patients undergoing primary total hip replacement were collected at one and six hours after closure of the wound. Levels of several cytokines were measured in the drainage fluids. A significant elevation of almost all cytokines was observed between the sample after one hour and six hours postoperatively. We found a strong correlation between the different pro-inflammatory cytokines. The IL-6 to IL-10 ratio were also raised, showing a pro-inflammatory predominance. Levels were much higher than those previously shown in serum.

  12. Determination of total mercury in nuts at ultratrace level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Maria José da, E-mail: maryquimica@yahoo.com.br [Departamento de Química – Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Rue Dom Manoel de Medeiros s/n. Dois irmãos, 52171-900 Recife, PE (Brazil); Paim, Ana Paula S. [Departamento de Química Fundamental – Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Cidade Universitária, 50740-550 Recife, PE (Brazil); Pimentel, Maria Fernanda [Departamento de Engenharia Química – Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Cervera, M. Luisa; Guardia, Miguel de la [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Research Building, University of Valencia, 50th Dr. Moliner Street, E-46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain)

    2014-08-01

    Highlights: • Direct analysis of Hg in nuts has been improved by a previous fat removal. • Comparison of cold vapour atomic fluorescence and direct analysis of Hg in nuts. • Mercury content in tree nuts was determined. - Abstract: Total mercury, at μg kg{sup −1} level, was determined in different types of nuts (cashew nut, Brazil nuts, almond, pistachio, peanut, walnut) using a direct mercury analyser after previous sample defatting and by cold vapour atomic fluorescence spectrometry. There is not enough sensitivity in the second approach to determine Hg in previously digested samples due to the strong matrix effect. Mercury levels in 25 edible nut samples from Brazil and Spain were found in the range from 0.6 to 2.7 μg kg{sup −1} by using the pyrolysis of sample after the extraction of the nut fat. The accuracy of the proposed method was confirmed by analysing certified reference materials of Coal Fly Ash-NIST SRM 1633b, Fucus-IAEA 140 and three unpolished Rice Flour NIES-10. The observed results were in good agreement with the certified values. The recoveries of different amounts of mercury added to nut samples ranged from 94 to 101%. RSD values corresponding to three measurements varied between 2.0 and 14% and the limit of detection and quantification of the method were 0.08 and 0.3 μg kg{sup −1}, respectively.

  13. Determination of total mercury in nuts at ultratrace level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Maria José da; Paim, Ana Paula S.; Pimentel, Maria Fernanda; Cervera, M. Luisa; Guardia, Miguel de la

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Direct analysis of Hg in nuts has been improved by a previous fat removal. • Comparison of cold vapour atomic fluorescence and direct analysis of Hg in nuts. • Mercury content in tree nuts was determined. - Abstract: Total mercury, at μg kg −1 level, was determined in different types of nuts (cashew nut, Brazil nuts, almond, pistachio, peanut, walnut) using a direct mercury analyser after previous sample defatting and by cold vapour atomic fluorescence spectrometry. There is not enough sensitivity in the second approach to determine Hg in previously digested samples due to the strong matrix effect. Mercury levels in 25 edible nut samples from Brazil and Spain were found in the range from 0.6 to 2.7 μg kg −1 by using the pyrolysis of sample after the extraction of the nut fat. The accuracy of the proposed method was confirmed by analysing certified reference materials of Coal Fly Ash-NIST SRM 1633b, Fucus-IAEA 140 and three unpolished Rice Flour NIES-10. The observed results were in good agreement with the certified values. The recoveries of different amounts of mercury added to nut samples ranged from 94 to 101%. RSD values corresponding to three measurements varied between 2.0 and 14% and the limit of detection and quantification of the method were 0.08 and 0.3 μg kg −1 , respectively

  14. Levels of total mercury in marine organisms from Adriatic Sea, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perugini, Monia; Visciano, Pierina; Manera, Maurizio; Zaccaroni, Annalisa; Olivieri, Vincenzo; Amorena, Michele

    2009-08-01

    The presence of total mercury in fish, crustacean and cephalopod from Adriatic Sea, was investigated. The highest concentrations were observed in decreasing order in: Norway lobster (0.97 +/- 0.24 mg/kg; mean +/- SE), European hake (0.59 +/- 0.14 mg/kg), red mullet (0.48 +/- 0.09 mg/kg), blue whiting (0.38 +/- 0.09 mg/kg), Atlantic mackerel (0.36 +/- 0.08 mg/kg) and European flying squid (0.25 +/- 0.03 mg/kg). A significant difference (p fish and fishery products can exceed the maximum levels and stress the need of more information for consumers in particular for people that eat large amount of fish.

  15. Elevated Monoamine Oxidase-A Distribution Volume in Borderline Personality Disorder Is Associated With Severity Across Mood Symptoms, Suicidality, and Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolla, Nathan J; Chiuccariello, Lina; Wilson, Alan A; Houle, Sylvain; Links, Paul; Bagby, R Michael; McMain, Shelley; Kellow, Charis; Patel, Jalpa; Rekkas, Paraskevi V; Pasricha, Suvercha; Meyer, Jeffrey H

    2016-01-15

    Monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) is a treatment target in neurodegenerative illness and mood disorders that increases oxidative stress and predisposition toward apoptosis. Increased MAO-A levels in prefrontal cortex (PFC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) occur in rodent models of depressive behavior and human studies of depressed moods. Extreme dysphoria is common in borderline personality disorder (BPD), especially when severe, and the molecular underpinnings of severe BPD are largely unknown. We hypothesized that MAO-A levels in PFC and ACC would be highest in severe BPD and would correlate with symptom magnitude. [(11)C] Harmine positron emission tomography measured MAO-A total distribution volume (MAO-A VT), an index of MAO-A density, in severe BPD subjects (n = 14), moderate BPD subjects (n = 14), subjects with a major depressive episode (MDE) only (n = 14), and healthy control subjects (n = 14). All subjects were female. Severe BPD was associated with greater PFC and ACC MAO-A VT compared with moderate BPD, MDE, and healthy control subjects (multivariate analysis of variance group effect: F6,102 = 5.6, p mood symptoms (PFC: r = .52, p = .005; ACC: r = .53, p = .004) and suicidality (PFC: r = .40, p = .037; ACC: r = .38, p = .046), while hippocampus MAO-A VT was negatively correlated with verbal memory (r = -.44, p = .023). These results suggest that elevated MAO-A VT is associated with multiple indicators of BPD severity, including BPD symptomatology, mood symptoms, suicidality, and neurocognitive impairment. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Elevated Monoamine Oxidase-A Distribution Volume in Borderline Personality Disorder Is Associated With Severity Across Mood Symptoms, Suicidality, and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolla, Nathan J.; Chiuccariello, Lina; Wilson, Alan A.; Houle, Sylvain; Links, Paul; Bagby, R. Michael; McMain, Shelley; Kellow, Charis; Patel, Jalpa; Rekkas, Paraskevi V.; Pasricha, Suvercha; Meyer, Jeffrey H.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) is a treatment target in neurodegenerative illness and mood disorders that increases oxidative stress and predisposition toward apoptosis. Increased MAO-A levels in prefrontal cortex (PFC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) occur in rodent models of depressive behavior and human studies of depressed moods. Extreme dysphoria is common in borderline personality disorder (BPD), especially when severe, and the molecular underpinnings of severe BPD are largely unknown. We hypothesized that MAO-A levels in PFC and ACC would be highest in severe BPD and would correlate with symptom magnitude. METHODS [11C] Harmine positron emission tomography measured MAO-A total distribution volume (MAO-A VT), an index of MAO-A density, in severe BPD subjects (n = 14), moderate BPD subjects (n = 14), subjects with a major depressive episode (MDE) only (n = 14), and healthy control subjects (n = 14). All subjects were female. RESULTS Severe BPD was associated with greater PFC and ACC MAO-A VT compared with moderate BPD, MDE, and healthy control subjects (multivariate analysis of variance group effect: F6,102 = 5.6, p MAO-A VT were positively correlated with mood symptoms (PFC: r = .52, p = .005; ACC: r = .53, p = .004) and suicidality (PFC: r = .40, p = .037; ACC: r = .38, p = .046), while hippocampus MAO-A VT was negatively correlated with verbal memory (r = −.44, p = .023). CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that elevated MAO-A VT is associated with multiple indicators of BPD severity, including BPD symptomatology, mood symptoms, suicidality, and neurocognitive impairment. PMID:25698585

  17. Total Jamur, Jenis Kapang dan Khamir Pellet Ayam Kampung Super dengan Penambahan Berbagai Level Pollard Berprobiotik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nurdianto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available (Total fungi, type of mold and yeasts in super native chicken pelleted feed with various level of probiotic pollard ABSTRACT. The research objective is assessing the effect of adding various level of probiotic pollard on total fungi, type of mold and  yeast. The material used in this research were fermented vegetables waste , molasses, distilled water, pollard,  super native chicken’s feed, physiological NaCl (0.85% NaCl and sabaroud glucose agar (SGA.  Research using  completely randomized design with 4 treatments and 4 replications. The treatment used were T0 = 100% feed + 0% probiotic pollard, T1 = 90% feed + 10% probiotic pollard, T2 = 80% feed + 20% probiotic pollard and T3 = 70% feed + 30% probiotic pollard. The observed parameters were total fungi, type of molds and yeast. The average of total fungi are 0  CFU; 0,55 x 107 CFU; 0,55 x 107 CFU and 0 CFU. Type of mold is Aspergillus niger and none yeast have grown. The conclusion is the addition of 10% and 20%  probiotic pollard to super native chicken’s pellet  yield mold type Aspergillus niger as much 0,55 x 107 CFU.

  18. Total serum bilirubin levels and sensorineural hearing loss in the US adolescents: NHANES 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guoli; Fu, Wenjiang

    2018-02-01

    We aimed to investigate whether current levels of total serum bilirubin are associated with different subtypes of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in adolescents. A set of cross-sectional data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) (2007-2010) was used. A subset of 1404 adolescents was sampled for measurements of total serum bilirubin, tympanometry, and average pure tone threshold at low-frequencies (LPTA: 500, 1000, 2000 Hz) or high-frequencies (HPTA: 3000, 4000, 6000, and 8000 Hz). SNHL was defined as the hearing loss that had type A tympanograms with a peak admittance of 0.3 ml or greater. Associations between serum bilirubin (square-root transformed) and different subtypes of SNHL were evaluated using binary or multinomial logistic regression models with 4-year sampling weights. The bootstrap method was used for estimation of variance and 10-fold cross-validation for assessment of overfitting issue. Total serum bilirubin levels were found to be associated with any high-frequency (HPTA>15 dB in at least one ear, adjusted odds-ratio (OR a )(bootstrap 95% confidence interval) = 3.29(1.31-8.19), p = 0.011), but not with any low-frequency (LPTA>15 dB in at least one ear), SNHL in the US adolescents. Furthermore, high-frequency SNHL with HPTA>15 dB in both ears (bilateral) or HPTA≥25 dB in at least one ear, compared to that with HPTA>15 dB in one ear only (unilateral) or HPTA = 15-25 dB in at least one ear, had a stronger association with total serum bilirubin levels (OR a  = 5.37(1.27-22.65), p = 0.022 for bilateral; OR a  = 2.64(0.84-8.25), p = 0.094 for unilateral; OR a  = 5.00(0.95-26.58), p = 0.058 for HPTA≥25 dB in at least one ear; as well as OR a  = 3.06(1.15-8.25), p = 0.025 for HPTA = 15-25 dB in at least one ear). No severe overfitting problems were found. Our findings suggest that current levels of total serum bilirubin may be informative in predicting and/or targeting high-frequency SNHL

  19. SU-F-I-68: Longitudinal Neurochemical Changes On Rat Prefrontal Cortex of Single Prolonged Stress Model by Using Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy at 9.4T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, S-I; Yoo, C-H; Song, K-H; Choe, B-Y; Woo, D-C

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Single prolonged stress (SPS) is an animal model of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, it has not been known how PTSD develops from the first exposure to traumatic events and neurochemical differences between acute/single stress and PTSD-triggering stress. Therefore, the object of this study is to determine time-dependent neurochemical changes in prefrontal cortex (PFC) of rats using in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=14; body weight=200–220g) were used. The SPS protocol was used in this study. Rats were restrained for 2h and then immediately forced to swim for 20min in water (20–24 Celsius). After a 15-min recuperation period, rats were exposed to ether (using a desiccator) until general anesthesia occurred (<5min). In vivo proton MRS was performed 30min before the SPS (Base), approximately 10min after the SPS (D+0), 3 (D+3) and 7 (D+7) days after SPS to investigate time-dependent changes on metabolites levels in the PFC. Acquisition of in vivo MRS spectra and MRI was conducted at the four time points using 9.4 T Agilent Scanner. Concentration of metabolites was quantified by LCModel. Results: Statistical significance was analyzed using one-way ANOVA with post hoc Tukey HSD tests to assess the metabolite changes in the PFC. The SPS resulted in significant stress-induced differences for 7 days in glutamine (F(3,52)=6.750, P=0.001), choline-containing compounds (F(3,52)=16.442, P=0.000), glutamine/glutamate concentrations (F(3,52)=7.352, P=0.000). Conclusion: PTSD in human is associated with decreased neuronal activity in the PFC. In this study, SPS altered total choline, glutamine levels but not NAA levels in the PFC of the rats. Therefore, for the three stressors and quiescent period of seven days, SPS attenuated excitatory tone and membrane turnover but did not affect neural integrity in the PFC.

  20. SU-F-I-68: Longitudinal Neurochemical Changes On Rat Prefrontal Cortex of Single Prolonged Stress Model by Using Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy at 9.4T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, S-I; Yoo, C-H [Department of Biomedical Engineering, and Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Asan Institute for Life Sciences, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, K-H; Choe, B-Y [Department of Biomedical Engineering, and Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Woo, D-C [Asan Institute for Life Sciences, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Single prolonged stress (SPS) is an animal model of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, it has not been known how PTSD develops from the first exposure to traumatic events and neurochemical differences between acute/single stress and PTSD-triggering stress. Therefore, the object of this study is to determine time-dependent neurochemical changes in prefrontal cortex (PFC) of rats using in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=14; body weight=200–220g) were used. The SPS protocol was used in this study. Rats were restrained for 2h and then immediately forced to swim for 20min in water (20–24 Celsius). After a 15-min recuperation period, rats were exposed to ether (using a desiccator) until general anesthesia occurred (<5min). In vivo proton MRS was performed 30min before the SPS (Base), approximately 10min after the SPS (D+0), 3 (D+3) and 7 (D+7) days after SPS to investigate time-dependent changes on metabolites levels in the PFC. Acquisition of in vivo MRS spectra and MRI was conducted at the four time points using 9.4 T Agilent Scanner. Concentration of metabolites was quantified by LCModel. Results: Statistical significance was analyzed using one-way ANOVA with post hoc Tukey HSD tests to assess the metabolite changes in the PFC. The SPS resulted in significant stress-induced differences for 7 days in glutamine (F(3,52)=6.750, P=0.001), choline-containing compounds (F(3,52)=16.442, P=0.000), glutamine/glutamate concentrations (F(3,52)=7.352, P=0.000). Conclusion: PTSD in human is associated with decreased neuronal activity in the PFC. In this study, SPS altered total choline, glutamine levels but not NAA levels in the PFC of the rats. Therefore, for the three stressors and quiescent period of seven days, SPS attenuated excitatory tone and membrane turnover but did not affect neural integrity in the PFC.

  1. Levels-of-processing effects in first-degree relatives of individuals with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner-Jackson, Aaron; Csernansky, John G; Barch, Deanna M

    2007-05-15

    First-degree relatives of individuals with schizophrenia show cognitive impairments that are similar to but less severe than their ill relatives. We have shown that memory impairments can be improved and prefrontal cortical (PFC) activity increased in individuals with schizophrenia by providing beneficial encoding strategies. The current study used a similar paradigm to determine whether siblings of individuals with schizophrenia (SIBs) also show increases in brain activity when presented with beneficial encoding strategies. Twenty-one SIBs and 38 siblings of healthy comparison subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging scans while engaged in deep (abstract/concrete judgments) and shallow (orthographic judgments) encoding. Subjects were then given a recognition memory test. The groups did not differ on encoding or recognition accuracy, and the SIBs benefited from deep encoding to a similar degree as control subjects. The SIBs showed deep encoding-related activity in a number of PFC regions typically activated during semantic processing. However, SIBs showed more activity than control subjects in three subregions of PFC (left BA 44 & BA 47 bilaterally). Siblings of individuals with schizophrenia benefit from supportive verbal encoding conditions. Like individuals with schizophrenia, SIBs also show increased task-related activity in a larger number of PFC subregions than control subjects during deep verbal encoding.

  2. Ethanol affects acylated and total ghrelin levels in peripheral blood of alcohol-dependent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szulc, Michal; Mikolajczak, Przemyslaw L; Geppert, Bogna; Wachowiak, Roman; Dyr, Wanda; Bobkiewicz-Kozlowska, Teresa

    2013-07-01

    There is a hypothesis that ghrelin could take part in the central effects of alcohol as well as function as a peripheral indicator of the changes which occur during long-term alcohol consumption. The aim of this study was to determine a correlation between alcohol concentration and acylated and total form of ghrelin after a single administration of alcohol (intraperitoneal, i.p.) (experiment 1) and prolonged ethanol consumption (experiment 2). The study was performed using Wistar alcohol preferring (PR) and non-preferring (NP) rats and rats from inbred line (Warsaw High Preferring, WHP; Warsaw Low Preferring, WLP). It was found that ghrelin in ethanol-naive WHP animals showed a significantly lower level when compared with the ethanol-naive WLP or Wistar rats. After acute ethanol administration in doses of 1.0; 2.0 and 4.0 g/kg, i.p., the simple (WHP) or inverse (WLP and Wistar) relationship between alcohol concentration and both form of ghrelin levels in plasma were found. Chronic alcohol intake in all groups of rats led to decrease of acylated ghrelin concentration. PR and WHP rats, after chronic alcohol drinking, had lower levels of both form of ghrelin in comparison with NP and WLP rats, respectively, and the observed differences in ghrelin levels were in inverse relationship with their alcohol intake. In conclusion, it is suggested that there is a strong relationship between alcohol administration or intake, ethanol concentration in blood and both active and total ghrelin level in the experimental animals, and that ghrelin plasma concentration can be a marker of alcohol drinking predisposition. © 2013 The Authors, Addiction Biology © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  3. Perinatal, sociodemographic and lifestyle correlates of increased total and visceral fat mass levels in schoolchildren in Greece: the Healthy Growth Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschonis, George; Kaliora, Adriana C; Karatzi, Kalliopi; Michaletos, Aggelos; Lambrinou, Christina-Paulina; Karachaliou, Alexandra K; Chrousos, George P; Lionis, Christos; Manios, Yannis

    2017-03-01

    To identify possibly independent associations of perinatal, sociodemographic and lifestyle factors with childhood total and visceral body fat. A representative sample of 2655 schoolchildren (9-13 years) participated in the Healthy Growth Study, a cross-sectional epidemiological study. Seventy-seven primary schools in four large regions in Greece. A sample of 1228 children having full data on total and visceral fat mass levels, as well as on anthropometric, dietary, physical activity, physical examination, socio-economic and perinatal indices, was examined. Maternal (OR=3·03 and 1·77) and paternal obesity (OR=1·62 and 1·78), maternal smoking during pregnancy (OR=1·72 and 1·93) and rapid infant weight gain (OR=1·42 and 1·96) were significantly and positively associated with children's increased total and visceral fat mass levels, respectively. Children's television watching for >2 h/d (OR=1·40) and maternal pre-pregnancy obesity (OR=2·46) were associated with children's increased total and visceral fat mass level, respectively. Furthermore, increased children's physical activity (OR=0·66 and 0·47) were significantly and negatively associated with children's total and visceral fat mass levels, respectively. Lastly, both father's age >46 years (OR=0·57) and higher maternal educational level (OR=0·45) were associated with children's increased total visceral fat mass level. Parental sociodemographic characteristics, perinatal indices and pre-adolescent lifestyle behaviours were associated with children's abnormal levels of total and visceral fat mass. Any future programme for childhood prevention either from the perinatal age or at late childhood should take these indices into consideration.

  4. Occurrence of perfluorinated compounds in raw water from New Jersey public drinking water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Gloria B; Louis, Judith B; Lippincott, R Lee; Procopio, Nicholas A

    2013-01-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) were previously detected (≥ 4 ng/L) in 65% and 30%, respectively, of 23 New Jersey (NJ) public drinking water systems (PWS) sampled in 2006. We now report on a 2009 study of the occurrence of PFOA, PFOS, and eight other perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in raw water samples from 30 intakes (18 groundwater and 12 surface water) from 29 additional NJ PWS. Between 1 and 8 PFCs were detected (≥ 5 ng/L) in 21 (70%) of 30 PWS samples at total PFC concentrations of 5-174 ng/L. Although PFOA was the most commonly detected PFC (57% of samples) and was found at the highest maximum concentration (100 ng/L), some of the higher levels of other PFCs were at sites with little or no PFOA. Perfluorononanoic acid was detected more frequently (30%) and at higher concentrations (up to 96 ng/L) than in raw or finished drinking water elsewhere, and it was found at several sites as the sole or predominant PFC, a pattern not reported in other drinking water studies. PFOS, perfluoropentanoic acid, and perfluorohexanoic acid were each detected in more than 20% of samples, while perfluoroheptanoic acid, perfluorobutane sulfonic acid, and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid were detected less frequently. Perfluorobutanoic acid was found only once (6 ng/L), and perfluorodecanoic acid was not detected. Total PFCs were highest in two reservoirs near an airfield; these were also the only sites with total perfluorosulfonic acids higher than total perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs). PFC levels in raw and finished water from the same source were similar at those sites where both were tested. Five wells of two additional NJ PWS known to be contaminated with PFOA were also each sampled 4-9 times in 2010-13 for nine of the same PFCs. Total PFCs (almost completely PFCAs) at one of these PWS located near an industrial source of PFCs were higher than in any other PWS tested (up to 330 ng/L). These results show that multiple PFCs are

  5. Assessing adrenal insufficiency of corticosteroid secretion using free versus total cortisol levels in critical illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, N.; Groeneveld, A.B.J.; Dijstelbloem, H.M.; de Jong, M.F.C.; Girbes, A.R.J.; Heijboer, A.C.; Beishuizen, A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To study the value of free versus total cortisol levels in assessing relative adrenal insufficiency during critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency. Methods: A prospective study in a mixed intensive care unit from 2004 to 2007. We consecutively included 49 septic and 63

  6. Serum anti-Müllerian hormone, inhibin B, and total inhibin levels in women with hypothalamic amenorrhea and anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luisi, Stefano; Ciani, Valentina; Podfigurna-Stopa, Agnieszka; Lazzeri, Lucia; De Pascalis, Flavio; Meczekalski, Blazej; Petraglia, Felice

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate whether neuroendocrine forms of secondary amenorrhea (hypothalamic nervosa (HA) and anorexia nervosa (AN)) affect serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), inhibin B, and total inhibin levels. Amenorrheic women (n = 82) (aged between 16 and 35 years old) according to diagnosed with neuroendocrine forms of amenorrhea: HA (n = 64), AN (n = 18), and healthy women (n = 41) (control group) were enrolled. Serum AMH, inhibin B, and total inhibin levels were measured by specific ELISA. No statistically significant difference of AMH serum levels between women with HA, AN, and control group was observed. Serum inhibin B and total inhibin levels in women with HA (p < 0.0001), AN (p < 0.05) resulted significantly lower than in control healthy women. The present data showed that neuroendocrine forms of amenorrhea are associated with an impaired inhibin secretion while not AMH. These data indirectly support that AMH is an excellent marker of ovarian reserve and its secretion is not influenced by the hypothalamic-ovarian axis activity.

  7. Simulating tokamak PFC performance using simultaneous dual beam particle loading with pulsed heat loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Gregory; Gonderman, Sean; Tripathi, Jitendra; Ray, Tyler; Hassanein, Ahmed

    2017-10-01

    The performance of plasma facing components (PFCs) in a fusion device are expected to change due to high flux particle loading during operation. Tungsten (W) is a promising PFC candidate material, due to its high melting point, high thermal conductivity, and low tritium retention. However, ion irradiation of D and He have each shown to diminish the thermal strength of W. This work investigates the synergistic effect between ion species, using dual beam irradiation, on the thermal response of W during ELM-like pulsed heat loading. Experiments studied three different loading conditions: laser, laser + He+, and laser + He+ + D+. 100 eV He+ and D+ exposures used a flux of 3.0-3.5 x 1020 m-2 s-1. ELM-like loading was applied using a pulsed Nd:YAG laser at an energy density of 0.38-1.51 MJ m-2 (3600 1 ms pulses at 1 Hz). SEM imaging revealed that laser + He+ loading at 0.76 MJ m-2 caused surface melting, inhibiting fuzz formation. Increasing the laser fluence decreased grain size and increased surface pore density. Thermally-enhanced migration of trapped gases appear to reflect resultant molten morphology. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation PIRE project.

  8. Implementation of Single Phase Soft Switched PFC Converter for Plug-in-Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiswariya Sekar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new soft switching boost converter with a passive snubber cell without additional active switches for battery charging systems. The proposed snubber finds its application in the front-end ac-dc converter of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV battery chargers. The proposed auxiliary snubber circuit consists of an inductor, two capacitors and two diodes. The new converter has the advantages of continuous input current, low switching stresses, high voltage gain without extreme duty cycle, minimized charger size and charging time and fewer amounts of cost and electricity drawn from the utility at higher switching frequencies. The switch is made to turn ON by Zero Current Switching (ZCS and turn OFF by Zero Voltage Switching (ZVS. The detailed steady state analysis of the novel ac-dc Zero Current- Zero Voltage Switching (ZC-ZVS boost Power Factor Correction (PFC converter is presented with its operating principle. The experimental prototype of 20 kHz, 100 W converter verifies the theoretical analysis. The power factor of the prototype circuit reaches near unity with an efficiency of 97%, at nominal output power for a ±10% variation in the input voltage and ±20% variation in the snubber component values.

  9. Assessing adrenal insufficiency of corticosteroid secretion using free versus total cortisol levels in critical illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, Nienke; Johan Groeneveld, A. B.; Dijstelbloem, Hilde M.; de Jong, Margriet F. C.; Girbes, Armand R. J.; Heijboer, Annemieke C.; Beishuizen, Albertus

    2011-01-01

    To study the value of free versus total cortisol levels in assessing relative adrenal insufficiency during critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency. A prospective study in a mixed intensive care unit from 2004 to 2007. We consecutively included 49 septic and 63 non-septic patients with

  10. Co-release of noradrenaline and dopamine in the cerebral cortex elicited by single train and repeated train stimulation of the locus coeruleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Pierluigi

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies by our group suggest that extracellular dopamine (DA and noradrenaline (NA may be co-released from noradrenergic nerve terminals in the cerebral cortex. We recently demonstrated that the concomitant release of DA and NA could be elicited in the cerebral cortex by electrical stimulation of the locus coeruleus (LC. This study analyses the effect of both single train and repeated electrical stimulation of LC on NA and DA release in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC, occipital cortex (Occ, and caudate nucleus. To rule out possible stressful effects of electrical stimulation, experiments were performed on chloral hydrate anaesthetised rats. Results Twenty min electrical stimulation of the LC, with burst type pattern of pulses, increased NA and DA both in the mPFC and in the Occ. NA in both cortices and DA in the mPFC returned to baseline within 20 min after the end of the stimulation period, while DA in the Occ reached a maximum increase during 20 min post-stimulation and remained higher than baseline values at 220 min post-stimulation. Local perfusion with tetrodotoxin (TTX, 10 μM markedly reduced baseline NA and DA in the mPFC and Occ and totally suppressed the effect of electrical stimulation in both areas. A sequence of five 20 min stimulations at 20 min intervals were delivered to the LC. Each stimulus increased NA to the same extent and duration as the first stimulus, whereas DA remained elevated at the time next stimulus was delivered, so that baseline DA progressively increased in the mPFC and Occ to reach about 130 and 200% the initial level, respectively. In the presence of the NA transport (NAT blocker desipramine (DMI, 100 μM, multiple LC stimulation still increased extracellular NA and DA levels. Electrical stimulation of the LC increased NA levels in the homolateral caudate nucleus, but failed to modify DA level. Conclusion The results confirm and extend that LC stimulation induces a concomitant

  11. Total Testosterone Levels and the Effect of Sildenafil on Type 2 Diabetics with Erectile Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabeel Najib Fadhil Hadeed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Hypotestosteronemia has been reported in approximately half of type 2 diabetic men in general. This study aims to assess serum total testosterone levels in type 2 diabetics with erectile dysfunction and to correlate the degree of improvement between sildenafil citrate and testosterone levels. Methods: A cross sectional and prospective comparative interventional study was conducted at the Diabetic Clinic of Assalam Teaching Hospital in Mosul, during the period from January 1, 2009 through to December 31, 2011. The study enrolled 120 type 2 diabetic males with erectile dysfunction who were analyzed with regard to age, duration of diabetes, duration and severity of erectile dysfunction, serum total testosteron levels and the degree of response to sildenafil citrate in terms of testosterone levels. The data were statistically analyzed using the independent two-sample Student t test, χ2 test and Pearson correlation test. A p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Thirty six percent of type 2 diabetic males with erectile dysfunction were found to have low serum testosterone levels. The hypotestosteronemic and normotestosteronemic subgroups were not significantly different in terms of mean age, duration of diabetes, reduction of libido, and reduction in erectile function. The rate and the degree of improvement of erection by sildenafil in the normo-and-hypotestosteronemic respondents were not significantly different, but the degree of improvement by sildenafil was significantly correlated to testosterone levels among the hypotestosteronemic group. Conclusion: Hypotestosteronemia was found in 36% of type 2 diabetic males with erectile dysfunction. The degree of improvement of erectile dysfunction by sildenafil was directly proportional to the serum testosterone levels among the hypotestosteronemic group. Therapeutic supplement with testosterone preparation in the hypotestosteronemic diabetics with erectile

  12. [Serum total cholesterol levels and eligibility for long-term care insurance: a prospective cohort study of the Tsurugaya project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshi, Rena; Tomata, Yasutake; Kakizaki, Masako; Tsuboya, Toru; Nagai, Masato; Watanabe, Ikue; Hozawa, Atsushi; Tsuji, Ichiro

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between serum total cholesterol levels and certification eligibility for long-term care insurance in elderly Japanese individuals. The Tsurugaya Project was a comprehensive geriatric assessment conducted for community-dwelling elderly individuals aged ≥70 years in the Tsurugaya area, Sendai, Japan. Of the 2,925 inhabitants, 958 subjects participated in the Tsurugaya Project. For this analysis, we used 827 subjects who gave informed consent and were not qualified for long-term care insurance at the time of the baseline survey. Subjects were followed up for 6 years. We classified the subjects into 4 quintiles and used the fourth quintile (212-230 mg/dL) as a reference for statistical analysis. We used Cox proportional hazards model to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of certification eligibility for long-term care insurance according to total cholesterol levels in serum. During 6 years of follow-up, a total of 214 subjects were qualified for long-term care insurance certification. The lowest serum total cholesterol level (care insurance certification. Compared with the fourth quintile, multivariate HRs (95%CIs) of long-term care insurance certification were 1.91 (1.23-2.98), 1.36 (0.85-2.18), 0.99 (0.62-1.56), 1.38 (0.88-2.17), for total cholesterol levels were significantly associated with increased eligibility for long-term care insurance certification even after adjusting for a variety of confounding factors.

  13. SORCE Level 3 Total Solar Irradiance Daily Average V016

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) data set SOR3TSID contains the total solar irradiance (a.k.a solar constant) data collected by the Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM)...

  14. Production of anti-SRBC antibodies after DDC administration in whole-body irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kautska, J.; Hosek, B.; Misustova, J.

    1990-01-01

    Production of antibody-forming cells (PFC) was studied in mice subjected to a single whole-body radiation dose of 3.8 Gy following an injection of sodium diethyl dithiocarbamate (DDC, 800 mg/kg) 30 min before irradiation. The animals were immunized (1% SRBC) 4 hours and 5 and 10 days after irradiation, and the number of PFC was determined by a modified Jerne plaque technique on days 4, 7 and 10 after immunization. After irradiation alone, the PFC levels were markedly reduced at all time intervals in comparison with unirradiated controls. Upon immunization of animals on day 10 after irradiation the peak PFC levels were observed on day 7 after immunization in the irradiated only group and in the group irradiated after DDC administration (in controls on day 4 after immunization). The administration of DDC entirely eliminated the unfavourable effect of radiation if immunization was performed 4 h after irradiation, in terms of the number and the peak level of PFC. Upon immunization of animals on day 5 and day 10 after irradiation the PFC levels were not markedly influenced by DDC injection. (author). 3 figs., 25 refs

  15. Determinations of total residue, total oxide and density of high-level liquid waste (HLLW) by gravimetric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yun; Gao Yueying; Yang Ming; Jin Liyun

    1992-01-01

    Gravimetric method for determination of total residue, total oxide and density of HLLW is developed. An aliquot of the original HLLW solution is piped on to the small quartz disc and put into the mini muffle furnace carefully. It is first heated to below 100 degree C (for 1.5 hours to remove the free water, and then heated to 180 degree C for 2 hours to remove the crystal water in a furnace. The total residue is weighed at room temperature. The precision is better than 3% for the determination of total residue and total oxide. An aliquot of the original HLLW solution is piped into the weighing bottle and weighed. The precision is better than 1%

  16. Millennial total sea-level commitments projected with the Earth system model of intermediate complexity LOVECLIM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goelzer, H; Huybrechts, P; Raper, S C B; Loutre, M-F; Goosse, H; Fichefet, T

    2012-01-01

    Sea-level is expected to rise for a long time to come, even after stabilization of human-induced climatic warming. Here we use simulations with the Earth system model of intermediate complexity LOVECLIM to project sea-level changes over the third millennium forced with atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations that stabilize by either 2000 or 2100 AD. The model includes 3D thermomechanical models of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets coupled to an atmosphere and an ocean model, a global glacier melt algorithm to account for the response of mountain glaciers and ice caps, and a procedure for assessing oceanic thermal expansion from oceanic heat uptake. Four climate change scenarios are considered to determine sea-level commitments. These assume a 21st century increase in greenhouse gases according to SRES scenarios B1, A1B and A2 with a stabilization of the atmospheric composition after the year 2100. One additional scenario assumes 1000 years of constant atmospheric composition from the year 2000 onwards. For our preferred model version, we find an already committed total sea-level rise of 1.1 m by 3000 AD. In experiments with greenhouse gas concentration stabilization at 2100 AD, the total sea-level rise ranges between 2.1 m (B1), 4.1 m (A1B) and 6.8 m (A2). In all scenarios, more than half of this amount arises from the Greenland ice sheet, thermal expansion is the second largest contributor, and the contribution of glaciers and ice caps is small as it is limited by the available ice volume of maximally 25 cm of sea-level equivalent. Additionally, we analysed the sensitivity of the sea-level contributions from an ensemble of nine different model versions that cover a large range of climate sensitivity realized by model parameter variations of the atmosphere–ocean model. Selected temperature indices are found to be good predictors for sea-level contributions from the different components of land ice and oceanic thermal expansion after 1000 years. (letter)

  17. Total and allergen-specific IgE levels during and after pregnancy in relation to maternal allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Martina; Frykman, Anne; Jonsson, Yvonne; Persson, Marie; Ernerudh, Jan; Berg, Göran; Matthiesen, Leif; Ekerfelt, Christina; Jenmalm, Maria C

    2009-07-01

    Type 2 T-helper cell (Th2)-skewed immunity is associated with successful pregnancy and the ability to easily direct immune responses to a Th2-polarised profile may be an evolutionary benefit. The Th2-like immunity associated with allergic disease might generate favourable effects for the maintenance of pregnancy, but could also promote development of Th2-like immune responses and allergic disease in the offspring. The aim of this study was to explore, by using IgE as a stable proxy for Th2, the Th1/Th2 balance in allergic and non-allergic women by measuring allergen-specific and total IgE antibody levels in plasma during pregnancy and after delivery. Specific and total IgE antibody levels were determined by ImmunoCAP technology at five occasions during pregnancy (gestational weeks 10-12, 15-16, 25, 35 and 39), as well as at 2 and 12 months after delivery. Thirty-six women without and 20 women with allergic symptoms were included, of whom 13 were sensitised with allergic symptoms and 30 were non-sensitised without allergic symptoms. The levels of total IgE, but not allergen-specific IgE, were increased during early pregnancy when compared to 12 months after delivery in the sensitised women with allergic symptoms, but not in the non-sensitised women without allergic symptoms (ppregnancy only in the sensitised women with allergic symptoms indicates that allergy is associated with an enhanced Th2 deviation during pregnancy.

  18. The relationship between serum total testosterone and free testosterone levels with serum hemoglobin and hematocrit levels: a study in 1221 men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yu Seob; You, Jae Hyung; Cha, Jai Seong; Park, Jong Kwan

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the relationship between serum total testosterone (TT) and free testosterone (FT) levels in men with anemia. We reviewed the records of 1221 subjects between March 2009 and December 2014. All the subjects' blood samples were drawn for TT and FT assays. Their serum hemoglobin (Hb) and serum hematocrit (Hct) levels were measured. The primary objective of our study was to investigate the association between TT and FT levels with Hb and Hct levels. The mean age was 59.82 ± 12.71 years. The mean TT and FT levels were 4.54 ± 2.02 ng/mL and 10.63 ± 3.69 pg/mL, respectively. The mean Hb and Hct levels were 14.72 ± 1.34 g/dL and 43.11 ± 3.75%, respectively. Subjects with low TT (<2.35 ng/mL) had low Hb and Hct levels (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, respectively). TT was positively associated with FT, Hb, and Hct. TT and FT levels were significantly lower in older men. Subjects with low TT and FT levels had low Hb and Hct levels. This suggests that TT and FT play a significant role in erythropoiesis. Testosterone replacement therapy may be effective in men with hypogonadism to reduce the incidence of anemia.

  19. Effects of chronic REM sleep restriction on D1 receptor and related signal pathways in rat prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yan; Wen, Xiaosa; Rong, Fei; Chen, Xinmin; Ouyang, Ruying; Wu, Shuai; Nian, Hua; Ma, Wenling

    2015-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) mediates cognitive function that is sensitive to disruption by sleep loss, and molecular mechanisms regulating neural dysfunction induced by chronic sleep restriction (CSR), particularly in the PFC, have yet to be completely understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of chronic REM sleep restriction (REM-CSR) on the D1 receptor (D1R) and key molecules in D1R' signal pathways in PFC. We employed the modified multiple platform method to create the REM-CSR rat model. The ultrastructure of PFC was observed by electron microscopy. HPLC was performed to measure the DA level in PFC. The expressions of genes and proteins of related molecules were assayed by real-time PCR and Western blot, respectively. The general state and morphology of PFC in rats were changed by CSR, and DA level and the expression of D1R in PFC were markedly decreased (P CSR rats (P CSR induced cognitive dysfunction, and the PKA pathway of D1R may play an important role in the impairment of advanced neural function.

  20. Relationship between serum total bilirubin levels and mortality in uremia patients undergoing long-term hemodialysis: A nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hui-Hsien; Kao, Chia-Man; Lin, Yi-Chun; Lin, Yen-Chung; Kao, Chih-Chin; Chen, Hsi-Hsien; Hsu, Chih-Cheng; Chen, Kuan-Chou; Peng, Chiung-Chi; Wu, Mai-Szu

    2017-10-01

    Previous studies show that serum bilirubin has potent antioxidant effect and is associated with protection from kidney damage and reduce cardiovascular events. The aim of this study was to examine the association of serum total bilirubin level and mortality in uremia patients who underwent hemodialysis. This is a nationwide retrospective long-term cohort study. Patients were registered in the Taiwan Renal Registry Data System (TWRDS) from 2005 to 2012. A total of 115,535 hemodialysis patients were surveyed and those with valid baseline total bilirubin (TB) data were enrolled. All-cause mortality was the primary outcome. A total of 47,650 hemodialysis patients followed for 27.6 ± 12 months, were divided into 3 groups according to different baseline serum total bilirubin levels (0.1-0.3, 0.3-0.7, 0.7-1.2 mg/dL). Mean age was 61.4 ± 13.6 years, 50% were male, 13% were hepatitis B carriers, and 20% were hepatitis C carriers. Primary outcome was the 3-year mortality. The TB level 0.7-1.2 mg/dL group had high mortality, statistically significant hazard ratio of mortality was 1.14 (crude HR, 95% 1.07-1.20, p bilirubin on hemodialysis patients are needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Serum Levels Of Free And Total Insulin-Like Growth Factor (IGF)-1 And IGF Binding Protein-3 In Normal And Growth Hormone Deficient Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shousha, M.A.; Soliman, S.E.T.; Hafez, M.H.

    2006-01-01

    Serum levels of total insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) reflect the endogenous GH secretion in healthy children, which makes them good diagnostic markers for screening growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in short children, although some controversy still exists. Only a minor fraction of the total IGF-1 circulates in its free form, which is believed to be the biologically active form. Serum levels of free IGF-1, total IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were measured in 144 healthy children (72 boys and 72 girls, aged from 0 to 16 years) and in 12 pre-pubertal GH deficient (GHD) children to study the correlation between the age and free IGF-1, total IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels. In healthy subjects (both sexes), serum free IGF-1, total IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels were low in infancy, increasing during puberty and declining thereafter. Free IGF-1 in serum occupied about 0.97-1.45 % of the total IGF-1 values, and the ratios of free IGF-1 to total IGF-1 were significantly increased in the pubertal age groups than in the pre-pubertal age groups. Serum levels of free IGF-1 showed significant positive correlation with those of total IGF-I and IGFBP-3. Serum free IGF-1, total IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels in patients with GHD were decreased significantly with increasing the degree of hypopituitarism. These observations suggest that the increase in serum free IGF-1 level during puberty was caused by a dramatic increase in total IGF-1 rather than IGFBP-3. Also, high levels of these hormones may play an important role in pubertal growth spurt and may become a useful tool for diagnosing GHD and predicting growth response to long term GH therapy

  2. Serum levels of free and total insulin-link growth factor (IGF)-1 and (IGF) binding protein-3 in normal and growth hormone deficient children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shousha, M.A.; Soliman, S.E.T.; Hafez, H.M.

    2008-01-01

    Serum levels of total insulin-like growth factor- 1 (IGF-1) and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) reflect endogenous GH secretion in healthy children, which makes them good diagnostic markers for screening GH deficiency (GHD) in short children, although some controversy still exists. Only a minor fraction of the total IGF-1 circulates in its free form, which is believed to be the biologically active form. Serum levels of free IGF-1, total IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were measured in 144 healthy children (72 boys and 72 girls, aged from 0 to 16 years) and in 12 prepubertal GH. deficient (GHD) children to study correlation between the age and free IGF-1, total IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels. In healthy subjects (both sexes), serum free IGF-1, total IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels were low in infancy, increasing during puberty and declining thereafter. Free IGF-1 in serum occupied about 0.97. 1.45 % of the total IGF-1 values, and the ratios of free IGF-1 to total IGF-1 were significantly increased in the pubertal age groups than in the prepubertal age groups. Serum levels of free IGF-1 showed significant positive correlation with those of total IGF-I and IGFBP-3. Serum free IGF-1, total IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels in patients with GHD decreased significantly with increasing degree of hypopituitarism. These observations suggest that the increase in serum free IGF-1 level during puberty was caused by a dramatic increase in total IGF-1 rather than IGFBP-3. Also, high levels of these hormones may play an important role in pubertal growth spurt and may become a useful tool for diagnosing GHD and predicting growth response to long term GH therapy

  3. Total levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 in plasma yield high diagnostic sensitivity and specificity in patients with colon cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten-Andersen, Mads N; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen

    2002-01-01

    : Total TIMP-1 plasma levels were measured by ELISA in blood samples from two different blood donor populations from IBD patients, and preoperative samples from patients with primary colon cancer (CC), rectal cancer (RC), or breast cancer. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in plasma TIMP-1......PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to measure total levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP-1) by ELISA in plasma from blood donors, patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and patients with cancer and to correlate the results to patient diagnosis. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN...... levels between healthy donors and IBD or breast cancer patients, whereas patients with CC or RC had significantly elevated TIMP-1 levels. Total TIMP-1 levels identified patients with CC with a sensitivity of 63% at 98% specificity, patients with early CC (Dukes' A+B) with a sensitivity of 56% at 98...

  4. Industry-level total-factor energy efficiency in developed countries: A Japan-centered analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honma, Satoshi; Hu, Jin-Li

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • This study compares Japan with other developed countries for energy efficiency at the industry level. • We compute the total-factor energy efficiency (TFEE) for industries in 14 developed countries in 1995–2005. • Energy conservation can be further optimized in Japan’s industry sector. • Japan experienced a slight decrease in the weighted TFEE from 0.986 in 1995 to 0.927 in 2005. • Japan should adapt energy conservation technologies from the primary benchmark countries: Germany, UK, and USA. - Abstract: Japan’s energy security is more vulnerable today than it was before the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident in March 2011. To alleviate its energy vulnerability, Japan has no choice but to improve energy efficiency. To aid in this improvement, this study compares Japan’s energy efficiency at the industry level with that of other developed countries. We compute the total-factor energy efficiency (TFEE) of industries in 14 developed countries for 1995–2005 using data envelopment analysis. We use four inputs: labor, capital stock, energy, and non-energy intermediate inputs. Value added is the only relevant output. Results indicate that Japan can further optimize energy conservation because it experienced only a marginal decrease in the weighted TFEE, from 0.986 in 1995 to 0.927 in 2005. To improve inefficient industries, Japan should adapt energy conservation technologies from benchmark countries such as Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States

  5. Estimation of Serum Triglycerides, Serum Cholesterol, Total Protein, IgG Levels in Chronic Periodontitis Affected Elderly Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, A V; Ravishankar, P L; Kumar, Pradeep; Rajapandian, K; Kalaivani, V; Rajula, M Prem Blaisie

    2017-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the serum triglycerides, serum cholesterol, total protein, and IgG levels in elderly patients who were affected by periodontal disease. This study was conducted at the Rajah Muthiah Dental College and Hospital in the periodontics division. The study was conducted for a period of 3 months. This study is a prospective analytical study. Sixty individuals who were systemically healthy in the age group of 50 and above were included in this study. Control and experimental groups of 30 participants each were included. Plaque index, gingival index, probing pocket depth, and clinical attachment loss were recorded. Biochemical parameters such as serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides, total protein, and IgG levels were also evaluated and correlated with the periodontal parameters. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 16.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY). The relationship between periodontal status and the biochemical parameters such as serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides, total protein, and IgG levels were evaluated by Student's t-test. There was no significant difference in the plaque and gingival scores between the experimental and control group. It was observed that serum cholesterol level and total protein level was lower in participants suffering from chronic periodontitis. Triglycerides level was significantly elevated in the experimental group. IgG, a level which is not significant, concluded that there is no difference in control and experimental group. It was concluded from the results obtained from the study that there is an association between serum triglycerides, serum cholesterol, total protein, and periodontal disease. However, further longitudinal and well-controlled studies are required to evaluate the relationship between these biochemical parameters and periodontal disease.

  6. Galectin-3 levels relate in children to total body fat, abdominal fat, body fat distribution, and cardiac size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dencker, Magnus; Arvidsson, Daniel; Karlsson, Magnus K; Wollmer, Per; Andersen, Lars B; Thorsson, Ola

    2018-03-01

    Galectin-3 has recently been proposed as a novel biomarker for cardiovascular disease in adults. The purpose of this investigation was to assess relationships between galectin-3 levels and total body fat, abdominal fat, body fat distribution, aerobic fitness, blood pressure, left ventricular mass, left atrial size, and increase in body fat over a 2-year period in a population-based sample of children. Our study included 170 children aged 8-11 years. Total fat mass and abdominal fat were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Body fat distribution was expressed as abdominal fat/total fat mass. Maximal oxygen uptake was assessed by indirect calorimetry during a maximal exercise test and scaled to body mass. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure and pulse pressure were measured. Left atrial size, left ventricular mass, and relative wall thickness were measured by echocardiography. Frozen serum samples were analyzed for galectin-3 by the Proximity Extension Assay technique. A follow-up DXA scan was performed in 152 children 2 years after the baseline exam. Partial correlations, with adjustment for sex and age, between galectin-3 versus body fat measurements indicated weak to moderate relationships. Moreover, left atrial size, left ventricular mass, and relative wall thickness and pulse pressure were also correlated with galectin-3. Neither systolic blood pressure nor maximal oxygen uptake was correlated with galectin-3. There was also a correlation between galectin-3 and increase in total body fat over 2 years, while no such correlations were found for the other fat measurements. More body fat and abdominal fat, more abdominal body fat distribution, more left ventricular mass, and increased left atrial size were all associated with higher levels of galectin-3. Increase in total body fat over 2 years was also associated with higher levels of galectin-3. What is Known: • Galectin-3 has been linked to obesity and been proposed to be a novel biomarker

  7. Effect of oxygenated perfluorocarbon on isolated islets during transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terai, Sachio; Tsujimura, Toshiaki; Li, Shiri; Hori, Yuichi; Toyama, Hirochika; Shinzeki, Makoto; Matsumoto, Ippei; Kuroda, Yoshikazu; Ku, Yonson

    2010-08-01

    Previous studies demonstrated the efficacy of the two-layer method (TLM) using oxygenated perfluorochemicals (PFC) for pancreas preservation. The current study investigated the effect of oxygenated PFC on isolated islets during transportation. Purified rat islets were stored in an airtight conical tube for 24h in RPMI culture medium at 22 degrees C or University of Wisconsin solution (UW) at 4 degrees C, either with or without oxygenated PFC. After storage, the islets were assessed for in vitro viability by static incubation (SI), FDA/PI staining, and energy status (ATP, energy charge, and ADP/ATP ratio) and for in vivo viability by a transplantation study. UW at 4 degrees C and RPMI medium at 22 degrees C maintained islet quality almost equally in both in vitro and in vivo assessments. The ATP levels and energy status in the groups with PFC were significantly lower than those without PFC. The groups with PFC showed a significantly higher ADP/ATP ratio than those without PFC. In the transplantation study, blood glucose levels and AUC in the UW+PFC group were significantly higher than those in UW group. UW at 4 degrees C and RPMI medium at 22 degrees C maintained islet quality equally under the conditions for islet transportation. The addition of oxygenated PFC, while advantageous for pancreas preservation, is not useful for islet transportation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. What Are Normal Metal Ion Levels After Total Hip Arthroplasty? A Serologic Analysis of Four Bearing Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Brian T; Ortiz, Philippe A; Boles, John W; Lee, Yuo-Yu; Padgett, Douglas E; Westrich, Geoffrey H

    2017-05-01

    The recent experiences with adverse local tissue reactions have highlighted the need to establish what are normal serum levels of cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), and titanium (Ti) after hip arthroplasty. Serum Co, Cr, and Ti levels were measured in 80 nonconsecutive patients with well-functioning unilateral total hip arthroplasty and compared among 4 bearing surfaces: ceramic-on-ceramic (CoC); ceramic-on-polyethylene (CoP); metal-on-polyethylene (MoP), and dual mobility (DM). The preoperative and most recent University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) scores were compared among the different bearing surfaces. No significant difference was found among serum Co and Cr levels between the 4 bearing surface groups (P = .0609 and P = .1577). Secondary analysis comparing metal and ceramic femoral heads demonstrated that the metal group (MoP, modular dual mobility (Stryker Orthopedics, Mahwah, NJ) [metal]) had significant higher serum Co levels compared with the ceramic group (CoC, CoP, MDM [ceramic]) (1.05 mg/L ± 1.25 vs 0.59 mg/L ± 0.24; P = .0411). Spearman coefficient identified no correlation between metal ion levels and patient-reported outcome scores. No serum metal ion level differences were found among well-functioning total hip arthroplasty with modern bearing couples. Significantly higher serum Co levels were seen when comparing metal vs ceramic femoral heads in this study and warrants further investigation. Metal ion levels did not correlate with patient-reported outcome measures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Visualizing Hyperactivation in Neurodegeneration Based on Prefrontal Oxygenation: A Comparative Study of Mild Alzheimer's Disease, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Healthy Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kah Hui Yap

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cognitive performance is relatively well preserved during early cognitive impairment owing to compensatory mechanisms.Methods: We explored functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS alongside a semantic verbal fluency task (SVFT to investigate any compensation exhibited by the prefrontal cortex (PFC in Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI and mild Alzheimer's disease (AD. In addition, a group of healthy controls (HC was studied. A total of 61 volunteers (31 HC, 12 patients with MCI and 18 patients with mild AD took part in the present study.Results: Although not statistically significant, MCI exhibited a greater mean activation of both the right and left PFC, followed by HC and mild AD. Analysis showed that in the left PFC, the time taken for HC to achieve the activation level was shorter than MCI and mild AD (p = 0.0047 and 0.0498, respectively; in the right PFC, mild AD took a longer time to achieve the activation level than HC and MCI (p = 0.0469 and 0.0335, respectively; in the right PFC, HC, and MCI demonstrated a steeper slope compared to mild AD (p = 0.0432 and 0. 0107, respectively. The results were, however, not significant when corrected by the Bonferroni-Holm method. There was also found to be a moderately positive correlation (R = 0.5886 between the oxygenation levels in the left PFC and a clinical measure [Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE score] in MCI subjects uniquely.Discussion: The hyperactivation in MCI coupled with a better SVFT performance may suggest neural compensation, although it is not known to what degree hyperactivation manifests as a potential indicator of compensatory mechanisms. However, hypoactivation plus a poorer SVFT performance in mild AD might indicate an inability to compensate due to the degree of structural impairment.Conclusion: Consistent with the scaffolding theory of aging and cognition, the task-elicited hyperactivation in MCI might reflect the presence of compensatory mechanisms and

  10. Effect of maternal lipopolysaccharide administration on the development of dopaminergic receptors and transporter in the rat offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moogeh Baharnoori

    Full Text Available Epidemiological evidence supports that maternal infection during gestation are notable risk factors for developmental mental illnesses including schizophrenia and autism. In prenatal lipopolysaccharide (LPS model of immune activation in rats, the offspring exhibit significant impairments in behaviors mediated by central dopamine (DA system. This study aimed to examine the temporal and regional pattern of postnatal DA development in the male offspring of pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats administered with 100 µg/kg LPS or saline at gestational days 15/16. Using ligand autoradiography, D1 and D2 dopamine receptors (D1R, D2R and dopamine transporter (DAT binding levels were measured in the prefrontal cortex (PFC and sub cortical regions (dorsal striatum and nucleus accumbens core and shell at pre pubertal (P35 and post pubertal ages (P60. We found a significant decrease in D2R ligand [(3H] YM-90151-2 binding in the medial PFC (mPFC in prenatal LPS-treated animals at P35 and P60 compared to respective saline groups. The decrease in D2R levels was not observed in the striatum or accumbens of maternal LPS-treated animals. No significant changes were observed in [(3H] SCH23390 binding to D1R. However, the level of [(125I] RTI-121 binding to DAT was selectively reduced in the nucleus accumbens core and shell at P35 in the prenatal LPS group. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that number of D2R immunopositive cells in infralimbic/prelimbic (IL/PL part of mPFC was significantly reduced in the LPS group at P60. Prenatal LPS treatment did not significantly affect either the total number of mature neurons or parvalbumin (PV-immunopositive interneurons in this region. However the number of PV and D2R co-labeled neurons was significantly reduced in the IL/PL subregion of PFC of LPS treated animals. Our data suggests D2R deficit in the PFC and PV interneurons may be relevant to understanding mechanisms of cortical dysfunctions described in prenatal infection

  11. Elevation in Total Homocysteine Levels in Chinese Patients With Essential Hypertension Treated With Antihypertensive Benazepril.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shanqun; Pan, Mingluo; Wu, Suwen; Venners, Scott A; Zhong, Guisheng; Hsu, Yi-Hsiang; Weinstock, Justin; Wang, Binyan; Tang, Genfu; Liu, Dahai; Xu, Xiping

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the effect of benazepril on plasma homocysteine (Hcy) levels and to analyze the correlation between the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism and changes in Hcy levels in response to benazepril. A total of 231 patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension were enrolled, and benazepril was orally administered at a dose of 10 mg/d for 2 weeks. Plasma Hcy levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography at baseline and after 2 weeks of treatment. Genotyping of the MTHFR C677T polymorphism was performed by TaqMan probe technique. There was no significant change in Hcy level after benazepril treatment for 2 weeks (P = .97). However, stratified by baseline Hcy levels, the patients with baseline Hcy benazepril treatment. There were also no statistically significant interactions of gene and environment factors (ie, gene smoking and drinking) on the changes in Hcy levels after benazepril treatment. Benazepril may cause an increase in plasma Hcy levels among patients with hypertension with low baseline Hcy levels, while effect modification by MTHFR C677T genotypes on the changes in Hcy levels in response to benazepril was not significant among patients with essential hypertension. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Estimation of Serum Triglycerides, Serum Cholesterol, Total Protein, IgG Levels in Chronic Periodontitis Affected Elderly Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, A. V.; Ravishankar, P. L.; Kumar, Pradeep; Rajapandian, K.; Kalaivani, V.; Rajula, M. Prem Blaisie

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the serum triglycerides, serum cholesterol, total protein, and IgG levels in elderly patients who were affected by periodontal disease. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted at the Rajah Muthiah Dental College and Hospital in the periodontics division. The study was conducted for a period of 3 months. This study is a prospective analytical study. Sixty individuals who were systemically healthy in the age group of 50 and above were included in this study. Control and experimental groups of 30 participants each were included. Plaque index, gingival index, probing pocket depth, and clinical attachment loss were recorded. Biochemical parameters such as serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides, total protein, and IgG levels were also evaluated and correlated with the periodontal parameters. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 16.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY). The relationship between periodontal status and the biochemical parameters such as serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides, total protein, and IgG levels were evaluated by Student's t-test. Results: There was no significant difference in the plaque and gingival scores between the experimental and control group. It was observed that serum cholesterol level and total protein level was lower in participants suffering from chronic periodontitis. Triglycerides level was significantly elevated in the experimental group. IgG, a level which is not significant, concluded that there is no difference in control and experimental group. Conclusion: It was concluded from the results obtained from the study that there is an association between serum triglycerides, serum cholesterol, total protein, and periodontal disease. However, further longitudinal and well-controlled studies are required to evaluate the relationship between these biochemical parameters and periodontal disease. PMID:28462181

  13. The Small GTPase Rac1 Contributes to Extinction of Aversive Memories of Drug Withdrawal by Facilitating GABAA Receptor Endocytosis in the vmPFC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weisheng; Ju, Yun-Yue; Zhou, Qi-Xin; Tang, Jian-Xin; Li, Meng; Zhang, Lei; Kang, Shuo; Chen, Zhong-Guo; Wang, Yu-Jun; Ji, Hui; Ding, Yu-Qiang; Xu, Lin; Liu, Jing-Gen

    2017-07-26

    Extinction of aversive memories has been a major concern in neuropsychiatric disorders, such as anxiety disorders and drug addiction. However, the mechanisms underlying extinction of aversive memories are not fully understood. Here, we report that extinction of conditioned place aversion (CPA) to naloxone-precipitated opiate withdrawal in male rats activates Rho GTPase Rac1 in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) in a BDNF-dependent manner, which determines GABA A receptor (GABA A R) endocytosis via triggering synaptic translocation of activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc) through facilitating actin polymerization. Active Rac1 is essential and sufficient for GABA A R endocytosis and CPA extinction. Knockdown of Rac1 expression within the vmPFC of rats using Rac1-shRNA suppressed GABA A R endocytosis and CPA extinction, whereas expression of a constitutively active form of Rac1 accelerated GABA A R endocytosis and CPA extinction. The crucial role of GABA A R endocytosis in the LTP induction and CPA extinction is evinced by the findings that blockade of GABA A R endocytosis by a dynamin function-blocking peptide (Myr-P4) abolishes LTP induction and CPA extinction. Thus, the present study provides first evidence that Rac1-dependent GABA A R endocytosis plays a crucial role in extinction of aversive memories and reveals the sequence of molecular events that contribute to learning experience modulation of synaptic GABA A R endocytosis. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT This study reveals that Rac1-dependent GABA A R endocytosis plays a crucial role in extinction of aversive memories associated with drug withdrawal and identifies Arc as a downstream effector of Rac1 regulations of synaptic plasticity as well as learning and memory, thereby suggesting therapeutic targets to promote extinction of the unwanted memories. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/377096-15$15.00/0.

  14. A boost of confidence: The role of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex in memory, decision-making, and schemas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebscher, Melissa; Gilboa, Asaf

    2016-09-01

    The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) has been implicated in a wide array of functions across multiple domains. In this review, we focus on the vmPFC's involvement in mediating strategic aspects of memory retrieval, memory-related schema functions, and decision-making. We suggest that vmPFC generates a confidence signal that informs decisions and memory-guided behaviour. Confidence is central to these seemingly diverse functions: (1) Strategic retrieval: lesions to the vmPFC impair an early, automatic, and intuitive monitoring process ("feeling of rightness"; FOR) often associated with confabulation (spontaneous reporting of erroneous memories). Critically, confabulators typically demonstrate high levels of confidence in their false memories, suggesting that faulty monitoring following vmPFC damage may lead to indiscriminate confidence signals. (2) Memory schemas: the vmPFC is critically involved in instantiating and maintaining contextually relevant schemas, broadly defined as higher level knowledge structures that encapsulate lower level representational elements. The correspondence between memory retrieval cues and these activated schemas leads to FOR monitoring. Stronger, more elaborate schemas produce stronger FOR and influence confidence in the veracity of memory candidates. (3) Finally, we review evidence on the vmPFC's role in decision-making, extending this role to decision-making during memory retrieval. During non-mnemonic and mnemonic decision-making the vmPFC automatically encodes confidence. Confidence signal in the vmPFC is revealed as a non-linear relationship between a first-order monitoring assessment and second-order action or choice. Attempting to integrate the multiple functions of the vmPFC, we propose a posterior-anterior organizational principle for this region. More posterior vmPFC regions are involved in earlier, automatic, subjective, and contextually sensitive functions, while more anterior regions are involved in controlled actions

  15. Técnicas de análisis de tendencias en mediciones espectrales y de nivel total de parámetros de diagnóstico // Trend analysis techniques in spectral and total level mensurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Penabad Sanz

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se muestra la implementación del análisis de tendencia, como tecnología predictiva, a través de laestadística matemática y su utilización en mediciones de parámetros de diagnóstico tanto espectral como de nivel total. Elempleo de esta tecnología resulta de gran importancia debido a que permite pronosticar el momento de fallo, según elcomportamiento de los niveles de los parámetros medidos, lo cual facilita la gestión del mantenimiento.Palabras claves: mantenimiento, análisis de tendencia, medición espectral, medición de nivel total, pronósticode fallo, vibraciones.______________________________________________________________________AbstractIn this article is shown the implementation of the trend analysis, as predictive technology, through the mathematical statisticand its use in spectral and total level mensurations of diagnosis parameters. The use of this technology has a great importancebecause it allows to predict the failure moment, according to the behavior of the levels of measured parameters, that whichfacilitates the administration of the maintenance.Key words: maintenance, tendency analysis, spectral mensuration, total level mensuration, failure presage,vibrations, diagnosis.

  16. TCTE Level 3 Total Solar Irradiance Daily Means V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) Calibration Transfer Experiment (TCTE) data set TCTE3TSID contains daily averaged total solar irradiance (a.k.a solar constant) data...

  17. A prototype of volume-controlled tidal liquid ventilator using independent piston pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Raymond; Micheau, Philippe; Cyr, Stéphane; Lesur, Olivier; Praud, Jean-Paul; Walti, Hervé

    2006-01-01

    Liquid ventilation using perfluorochemicals (PFC) offers clear theoretical advantages over gas ventilation, such as decreased lung damage, recruitment of collapsed lung regions, and lavage of inflammatory debris. We present a total liquid ventilator designed to ventilate patients with completely filled lungs with a tidal volume of PFC liquid. The two independent piston pumps are volume controlled and pressure limited. Measurable pumping errors are corrected by a programmed supervisor module, which modifies the inserted or withdrawn volume. Pump independence also allows easy functional residual capacity modifications during ventilation. The bubble gas exchanger is divided into two sections such that the PFC exiting the lungs is not in contact with the PFC entering the lungs. The heating system is incorporated into the metallic base of the gas exchanger, and a heat-sink-type condenser is placed on top of the exchanger to retrieve PFC vapors. The prototype was tested on 5 healthy term newborn lambs (<5 days old). The results demonstrate the efficiency and safety of the prototype in maintaining adequate gas exchange, normal acido-basis equilibrium, and cardiovascular stability during a short, 2-hour total liquid ventilator. Airway pressure, lung volume, and ventilation scheme were maintained in the targeted range.

  18. Serum tree IGF-I, total IGF-I, IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-3 levels in an elderly population : relation to age and sex steroid levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, JAMJL; Stolk, RP; Pols, HAP; Grobbee, DE; de Jong, FH; Lamberts, SWJ

    BACKGROUND Most previous studies concerning the relationship between IGF-I and age used assays measuring total IGF-I, Although free IGF-I is considered of greater biological relevance, little is known about its relationship with sex steroids levels in elderly healthy subjects, MEASUREMENTS In a

  19. Postmortem serum levels of tryptase and total and specific IgE in fatal asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salkie, M L; Mitchell, I; Revers, C W; Karkhanis, A; Butt, J; Tough, S; Green, F H

    1998-01-01

    Sera were obtained postmortem from 55 subjects classified into three groups; death due to asthma (FA, n = 21), asthmatic but death not due to asthma (NFA, n = 24) and a nonasthmatic control group (NAC, n = 10). A full autopsy was performed on all cases and a medical history, including details of allergies, was obtained by questionnaire from the next of kin. Grading of asthma severity by either questionnaire or autopsy was comparable (tP = 0.435, p > 0.05) and the mean pathology-grade was significantly higher for the FA group (3.375) compared to the NFA group (2.375), p 2.0 micrograms/L) in 21/55 sera (38%) and there was no significant difference between the groups. ROC plots showed that tryptase levels did not discriminate between the FA and NFA groups, even if specimens were collected within 24 hours after death. Total IgE was significantly elevated in the FA group (geometric mean 140.3 kU/L) compared to the other two groups (NFA 30.2 kU/L, NAC 9.4 kU/L), p = 0.05. Fatal asthmatics also had a greater positivity (67%) to a screen for common inhalant allergens than did the other groups (NFA 30%, NAC 20%). Sera with a positive screen were tested against a panel of 10 common aero-allergens. Each sample was then assigned a number (N) and a score (S), dependent on either the number of allergens positive (N) or the total sum of pluses for all allergens (S). Both the N and S values were higher for the FA group (N = 98, S = 264) than the NFA group (N = 52, S = 151) and NAC group (N = 4, S = 8). The ratio (S/N) which gives an index (I) was 2.69, 2.90, and 2.00, respectively. Tryptase was poorly correlated to the total IgE level (r = 0.036); however, mean values for N and S were significantly different (N 6.81, S 4.50, and N 19.25, S 11.5, p or = 2.0 micrograms/L, respectively. We conclude that total and specific IgE may be useful predictors of asthma severity but that postmortem tryptase is not useful in the diagnosis of a fatal asthmatic attack.

  20. Total fluorine, extractable organic fluorine, perfluorooctane sulfonate and other related fluorochemicals in liver of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) and finless porpoises (Neophocaena phocaenoides) from South China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeung, L.W.Y. [Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China); National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Onogawa 16-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569 (Japan); Miyake, Y. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Onogawa 16-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569 (Japan); Wang, Y. [Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China); National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Onogawa 16-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569 (Japan); Taniyasu, S. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Onogawa 16-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569 (Japan); Yamashita, N. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Onogawa 16-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569 (Japan)], E-mail: nob.yamashita@aist.go.jp; Lam, P.K.S. [Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China)], E-mail: bhpksl@cityu.edu.hk

    2009-01-15

    The concentrations of 10 PFCs (perfluorinated compounds: PFOS, PFHxS, PFOSA, N-EtFOSA, PFDoDA, PFUnDA, PFDA, PFNA, PFOA, and PFHpA) were measured in liver samples of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) (n = 10) and finless porpoises (Neophocaena phocaenoides) (n = 10) stranded in Hong Kong between 2003 and 2007. PFOS was the dominant PFC in the tissues at concentrations ranging at 26-693 ng/g ww in dolphins and 51.3-262 ng/g ww in porpoises. A newly developed combustion ion chromatography for fluorine was applied to measure total fluorine (TF) and extractable organic fluorine (EOF) in these liver samples to understand PFC contamination using the concept of mass balance analysis. Comparisons between the amounts of known PFCs and EOF in the livers showed that a large proportion ({approx}70%) of the organic fluorine in both species is of unknown origin. These investigations are critical for a comprehensive assessment of the risks of these compounds to humans and other receptors. - Comparison between the amounts of known PFCs and EOF in the livers of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin and finless porpoise in South China showed that a large proportion ({approx}70%) of the organofluorine is of unknown origin.

  1. Total fluorine, extractable organic fluorine, perfluorooctane sulfonate and other related fluorochemicals in liver of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) and finless porpoises (Neophocaena phocaenoides) from South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeung, L.W.Y.; Miyake, Y.; Wang, Y.; Taniyasu, S.; Yamashita, N.; Lam, P.K.S.

    2009-01-01

    The concentrations of 10 PFCs (perfluorinated compounds: PFOS, PFHxS, PFOSA, N-EtFOSA, PFDoDA, PFUnDA, PFDA, PFNA, PFOA, and PFHpA) were measured in liver samples of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) (n = 10) and finless porpoises (Neophocaena phocaenoides) (n = 10) stranded in Hong Kong between 2003 and 2007. PFOS was the dominant PFC in the tissues at concentrations ranging at 26-693 ng/g ww in dolphins and 51.3-262 ng/g ww in porpoises. A newly developed combustion ion chromatography for fluorine was applied to measure total fluorine (TF) and extractable organic fluorine (EOF) in these liver samples to understand PFC contamination using the concept of mass balance analysis. Comparisons between the amounts of known PFCs and EOF in the livers showed that a large proportion (∼70%) of the organic fluorine in both species is of unknown origin. These investigations are critical for a comprehensive assessment of the risks of these compounds to humans and other receptors. - Comparison between the amounts of known PFCs and EOF in the livers of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin and finless porpoise in South China showed that a large proportion (∼70%) of the organofluorine is of unknown origin

  2. Effect of total lymphoid irradiation on levels of serum autoantibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus and in rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanay, A.; Schiffman, G.; Strober, S.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) on serum levels of autoantibodies, and of antibodies to diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, and pneumococcal polysaccharide in patients with lupus nephritis were compared with those previously observed in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Baseline levels of antibodies to diphtheria toxoid and tetanus toxoid decreased significantly after TLI in patients with lupus and RA, but antibody levels to pneumococcal polysaccharide remained unchanged. After TLI, the levels of antinuclear and anti-DNA antibodies were reduced significantly in lupus, but levels of rheumatoid factor, antinuclear, and antigranulocyte antibodies all tended to increase in RA

  3. Activation of beta2-Adrenoceptor Enhances Synaptic Potentiation and Behavioral Memory via cAMP-PKA Signaling in the Medial Prefrontal Cortex of Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hou-Cheng; Sun, Yan-Yan; Cai, Wei; He, Xiao-Ting; Yi, Feng; Li, Bao-Ming; Zhang, Xue-Han

    2013-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays a critical role in cognitive functions, including working memory, attention regulation, behavioral inhibition, as well as memory storage. The functions of PFC are very sensitive to norepinephrine (NE), and even low levels of endogenously released NE exert a dramatic influence on the functioning of the PFC.…

  4. Relationship Between Total and Bioaccessible Lead on Children’s Blood Lead Levels in Urban Residential Philadelphia Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relationships between total soil or bioaccessible lead (Pb), measured using an in vitro bioaccessibility assay, and children’s blood lead levels (BLL) were investigated in an urban neighborhood in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA, with a history of soil Pb contamination....

  5. Neural correlates of obstacle negotiation in older adults: An fNIRS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Michelle; Pillemer, Sarah; England, Sarah; Izzetoglu, Meltem; Mahoney, Jeannette R; Holtzer, Roee

    2017-10-01

    Older adults are less efficient at avoiding obstacles compared to young adults, especially under attention-demanding conditions. Using functional near-infrared-spectroscopy (fNIRS), recent studies implicated the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in cognitive control of locomotion, notably under dual-task walking conditions. The neural substrates underlying Obstacle Negotiation (ON), however, have not been established. The current study determined the role of the PFC in ON during walking in seniors. Non-demented older adults (n=90; mean age=78.1±5.5years; %female=51) underwent fNIRS acquisition to assess changes in hemodynamic activity in the PFC during normal-walk [NW] and walk-while-talk [WWT] conditions with and without obstacles. Obstacles were presented as red elliptical shapes using advanced laser technology, which resemble potholes. Linear mixed effects models were used to determine differences in oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO 2 ) levels among the four task conditions. The presence of slow gait, a risk factor for dementia and falls, served as a predictor hypothesized to moderate the effect of obstacles on PFC HbO 2 levels. PFC HbO 2 levels were significantly higher in WWT compared to NW (p<0.001) irrespective of ON. Slow gait moderated the effect of obstacles on HbO 2 levels across task conditions. Specifically, compared to participants with normal gait, PFC HbO 2 levels were significantly increased in ON-NW relative to NW (p=0.017) and ON-WWT relative to WWT (p<0.001) among individuals with slow gait. Consistent with Compensatory Reallocation, ON required greater PFC involvement among individuals with mobility limitations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Carvacrol attenuates serum levels of total protein, phospholipase A2 and histamine in asthmatic guinea pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Boskabady

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Pharmacological effects of carvacrol such as its anti-inflammatory activities have been shows. In this study the effects of carvacrol on serum levels of total protein (TP, phospholipase A2 (PLA2 and histamine in sensitized guinea pigs was evaluated. Materials and Methods: Sensitized guinea pigs were given drinking water alone (group S, drinking water containing three concentrations of carvacrol (40, 80 and 160 µg/ml or dexamethasone. Serum levels of TP, PLA2 and histamine were examined I all sensitized groups as well as a non-sensitized control group (n=6 for each group. Results: In sensitized animals, serum levels of TP, PLA2 and histamine were significantly increased compared to control animals (p

  7. Effect of dietary poly unsaturated fatty acids on total brain lipid concentration and anxiety levels of electron beam irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suchetha Kumari; Bekal, Mahesh

    2013-01-01

    The whole brain irradiation causes injury to the nervous system at various levels. Omega-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids are very much essential for the growth and development of nervous system. Dietary supplementation of these nutrients will promote the development of injured neuronal cells. Therefore this study was undertaken to establish the role of Omega-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids on total brain lipid concentration, lipid peroxidation and anxiety levels in the irradiated mice. The effect of Electron Beam Radiation (EBR) on total brain lipid concentration, lipid peroxidation and anxiety level were investigated in male Swiss albino mice. The study groups were subjected to a sub-lethal dose of EBR and also the flax seed extract and fish oil were given orally to the irradiated mice. Irradiated groups show significant elevation in anxiety levels when compared to control group, indicating the acute radiation effects on the central nervous system. But the oral supplementation of dietary PUFA source decrees the anxiety level in the irradiated group. The analysis of lipid peroxidation showed a significant level of changes when compared between control and radiation groups. Dietary PUFA supplementation showed a significant level of decrease in the lipid peroxidation in the irradiated groups. The observation of total lipids in brain shows decrease in concentration in the irradiated groups, the differences in the variables follow the similar patterns as of that the MDA levels. This study suggests that the dietary intake of PUFAs may help in prevention and recovery of the oxidative stress caused by radiation. (author)

  8. Total testosterone levels are often more than three times elevated in patients with androgen-secreting tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Dorte; Lambaa Altinok, Magda; Petersen, Kresten Rubeck

    2015-01-01

    surgery. Terminal hair growth on lip and chin gradually increases after menopause, which complicates distinction from normal physiological variation. Precise testosterone assays have just recently become available in the daily clinic. We present three women diagnosed with testosterone-producing tumours...... when total testosterone levels are above three times the upper reference limit....

  9. Quantitation of bilirubin conjugates with high-performance liquid chromatography in patients with low total serum bilirubin levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, P. L.; Cuypers, H. T.; Peters, W. H.

    1984-01-01

    Bilirubin mono- and diconjugates were determined by alkaline methanolysis and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in serum from patients with metastatic liver disease and liver cirrhosis. Conjugates could be detected and quantitated at normal or low total bilirubin levels. Comparison with

  10. False high level in total bilirubin estimation in nonicteric serum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    estimation of total bilirubin by DiaSys and Randox reagents along with simultaneous re-estimation by Roche reagents in ... been used mainly due to slightly lower cost in ... MATERIALS AND METHODS ... air-conditioned laboratory overnight. ..... Elevated IgG causing spurious elevation in serum total bilirubin assay. Asia.

  11. Effect of cold storage on total phenolics content, antioxidant activity and vitamin C level of selected potato clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Külen, Oktay; Stushnoff, Cecil; Holm, David G

    2013-08-15

    Twelve Colorado-grown specialty potato clones were evaluated for total phenolic content, antioxidant activity and ascorbic acid content at harvest and after 2, 4, 6 and 7 months cold storage at 4 °C. Potato clones were categorized as pigmented ('CO97226-2R/R', 'CO99364-3R/R', 'CO97215-2P/P', 'CO97216-3P/P', 'CO97227-2P/P', 'CO97222-1R/R', 'Purple Majesty', 'Mountain Rose' and 'All Blue'), yellow ('Yukon Gold') and white fleshed ('Russet Nugget', 'Russet Burbank'). Folin-Ciocalteu reagent was used to estimate total phenolic content, and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS(•+) ) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(•) ) radical scavenging assays were used to estimate antioxidant capacity. Pigmented potato genotypes had significantly higher total phenolic content and antioxidant activity at all data points than yellow- and white-fleshed cultivars. Vitamin C content was higher in 'Yukon Gold' than in the other clones. The highest level of vitamin C in all clones was at harvest and after 2 months in cold storage. Vitamin C content in all potato clones dropped rapidly with longer intervals of cold storage. Although total phenolic content and antioxidant activity fluctuated during cold storage, after 7 months of cold storage their levels were slightly higher than at harvest. Total phenolic content was better correlated with Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC)/ABTS(•+) than the TEAC/DPPH(•) radical scavenging assay. Pigmented potato clones had significantly higher total phenolic content and antioxidant activity, while the yellow-fleshed potato cultivar 'Yukon Gold' had significantly higher vitamin C content. Vitamin C content decreased in all potato clones during cold storage, while total phenolics increased in pigmented clones. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Transrectal ultrasound in detecting prostate cancer compared with serum total prostate-specific antigen levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamsel, S.; Killi, R.; Demirpolat, G.; Hekimgil, M.; Soydan, S.; Altay, B.

    2008-01-01

    We carried out a retrospective study to review the efficiency of grey-scale transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) in detecting prostate cancer compared with the data in recent published work, including alternative imaging methods of the prostate gland. Our study group consisted of 830 patients who underwent TRUS-guided biopsy of the prostate between May 2000 and June 2004. The relation between abnormal TRUS findings and serum total prostate-specific antigen (tPSA) levels was evaluated in patients with prostate cancer who were divided into three different groups according to serum tPSA levels. Group I included patients with tPSA levels of 4-9.9 ng/mL, group II included tPSA levels of 10-19.9 ng/mL and group III included patients with tPSA levels of 20 ng/mL or more. In general, TRUS detected 185 (64%) of 291 cancers with a specificity of 89%, a PPV of 76% and an accuracy of 80%. TRUS findings enabled the correct identification of 22 (56%) of the 39 cancers in group I, 28 (30%) of the 93 cancers in group II and 135 (85%) of the 159 cancers in group III. In conclusion, TRUS alone has a limited potential to identify prostate cancer, especially in patients with tPSA levels lower than 20 ng/mL. Therefore, increased numbers of systematically placed biopsy cores must be taken or alternative imaging methods are required to direct TRUS-guided biopsy for improving prostate cancer detection.

  13. Functional near infrared spectroscopy as a potential biological assessment of addiction recovery: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Jared P; Harris, Kitty S; Shumway, Sterling T; Kimball, Thomas G; Herrera, J Caleb; Dsauza, Cynthia M; Bradshaw, Spencer D

    2015-03-01

    Addiction science has primarily utilized self-report, continued substance use, and relapse factors to explore the process of recovery. However, the entry into successful abstinence substantially reduces our assessment abilities. Advances in neuroscience may be the key to objective understanding, treating, and monitoring long-term success in addiction recovery. To explore functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIR) as a viable technique in the assessment of addiction-cue reactivity. Specifically, prefrontal cortex (PFC) activation to alcohol cues was explored among formally alcohol-dependent individuals, across varying levels of successful abstinence. The aim of the investigation was to identify patterns of PFC activation change consistent with duration of abstinence. A total of 15 formally alcohol-dependent individuals, with abstinence durations ranging from 1 month to 10 years, viewed alcohol images during fNIR PFC assessment. Participants also subjectively rated the same images for affect and arousal level. Subjective ratings of alcohol cues did not significantly correlate with duration of abstinence. As expected, days of abstinence did not significantly correlate with neutral cue fNIR reactivity. However, for alcohol cues, fNIR results showed increased days of abstinence was associated with decreased activation within the dorsolateral and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex regions. The present results suggest that fNIR may be a viable tool in the assessment of addiction-cue reactivity. RESULTS also support previous findings on the importance of dorsolateral and dorsomedial PFC in alcohol-cue activation. The findings build upon these past results suggesting that fNIR-assessed activation may represent a robust biological marker of successful addiction recovery.

  14. Perceptual decision-making difficulty modulates feedforward effective connectivity to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bidhan eLamichhane

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Diverse cortical structures are known to coordinate activity as a network in relaying and processing of visual information to discriminate visual objects. However, how this discrimination is achieved is still largely unknown. To contribute to answering this question, we used face-house categorization tasks with three levels of noise in face and house images in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI experiments involving thirty-three participants. The behavioral performance error and response time (RT were correlated with noise in face-house images. We then built dynamical causal models (DCM of fMRI blood-oxygenation level dependent (BOLD signals from the face and house category-specific regions in ventral temporal cortex, the fusiform face area (FFA and parahippocampal place area (PPA, and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC. We found a strong feed-forward intrinsic connectivity pattern from FFA and PPA to dlPFC. Importantly, the feed-forward connectivity to dlPFC was significantly modulated by the perception of both faces and houses. The dlPFC-BOLD activity, the connectivity from FFA and PPA to the dlPFC all increased with noise level. These results suggest that the FFA-PPA-dlPFC network plays an important role for relaying and integrating competing sensory information to arrive at perceptual decisions.

  15. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) genotype affects cognitive control during total sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterfield, Brieann C; Hinson, John M; Whitney, Paul; Schmidt, Michelle A; Wisor, Jonathan P; Van Dongen, Hans P A

    2018-02-01

    Adaptive decision making is profoundly impaired by total sleep deprivation (TSD). This suggests that TSD impacts fronto-striatal pathways involved in cognitive control, where dopamine is a key neuromodulator. In the prefrontal cortex (PFC), dopamine is catabolized by the enzyme catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT). A functional polymorphism (Val158Met) influences COMT's enzymatic activity, resulting in markedly different levels of prefrontal dopamine. We investigated the effect of this polymorphism on adaptive decision making during TSD. Sixty-six healthy young adults participated in one of two in-laboratory studies. After a baseline day, subjects were randomized to either a TSD group (n = 32) with 38 h or 62 h of extended wakefulness or a well-rested control group (n = 34) with 10 h nighttime sleep opportunities. Subjects performed a go/no-go reversal learning (GNGr) task at well-rested baseline and again during TSD or equivalent control. During the task, subjects were required to learn stimulus-response relationships from accuracy feedback. The stimulus-response relationships were reversed halfway through the task, which required subjects to learn the new stimulus-response relationships from accuracy feedback. Performance on the GNGr task was quantified by discriminability (d') between go and no-go stimuli before and after the stimulus-response reversal. GNGr performance did not differ between COMT genotypes when subjects were well-rested. However, TSD exposed a significant vulnerability to adaptive decision making impairment in subjects with the Val allele. Our results indicate that sleep deprivation degrades cognitive control through a fronto-striatal, dopaminergic mechanism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of feeding level on ileal and total tract digestibility of nutrients and energy from soybean meal-based diets for piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerke, M; Mosenthin, R; Jezierny, D; Sauer, N; Piepho, H-P; Messerschmidt, U; Eklund, M

    2014-12-01

    A total of 36 piglets with an initial body weight (BW) of 5.6 ± 0.7 kg, fitted with simple T-cannulas at the distal ileum, were used to evaluate the effect of three graded feeding levels (50, 75 or 100 g/kg BW(0.75) day) on apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and total tract digestibility (ATTD) of dry matter (DM), nitrogen (N) and energy, and on ATTD of organic matter (OM), ether extracts (EE), neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF) and digestible (DE), metabolisable (ME) and net energy (NE) content in soybean meal (SBM)-casein-cornstarch-based diets. The AID of DM, N and energy and ATTD of NDF, ADF and EE in the diets were not affected (p > 0.05) by the feed intake (FI) level. There was a small decrease in ATTD of DM, N (CP), OM, ash and energy, and in DE, ME and NE content in the diets (p digestibility values, and for estimating urinary endogenous N loss. High variability in estimates of ileal endogenous N loss and total tract endogenous losses of N, EE and ash reflects great variation in individual endogenous losses between animals. Estimation of true total tract digestibility of N, EE and ash by regression analysis was affected by their decrease in ATTD with increasing FI level, as estimates for true digestibility were lower compared to their apparent values. The present results suggest that FI level can affect both apparent and true total tract nutrient digestibility in piglets. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Comparison of the Fc fragment from a human IgG1 and its CH2, pFc', and tFc' subfragments. A study using reductive methylation and 13C NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jentoft, J.E.; Rayford, R.

    1989-01-01

    The Fc fragment of a human monoclonal IgG1 was compared with subfragments containing (a) the intact CH2 domain (CH2 fragment) or (b) the intact CH3 domain (pFc' and tFc' fragments). All fragments were reductively 13 C-methylated and their resulting dimethyllysyl resonances characterized in 0.1 M KCl as a function of pH by 13 C NMR spectroscopy. Seven resonances were characterized for the 18 lysine residues of the Fc fragment, eight for the 12 lysines of the CH2 fragment, and five each for the 9 lysines of the pFc' and the 6 lysines of the tFc' fragments, respectively. The multiplicity of resonances indicates that the lysine residues in each fragment exist in a variety of microenvironments and that the fragments are all highly structured. The correspondence between 6 of the 12 or 13 perturbed lysine residues in the Fc fragment and the smaller subfragments indicates that the conformation of the CH2 and CH3 domains is largely unchanged in the smaller fragments. However, in addition to three lysines at the CH2-CH3 domain interface, whose environments were known to be disrupted in the smaller fragments, three or four lysine residues have somewhat different properties in the Fc fragment and in the subfragments, indicating that some local perturbations are included in the domain structure in the subfragments

  18. The Relationship Between Serum Levels of Total IgE, IL-18, IL-12, IFN- γ and Disease Severity in Children With Atopic Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies about the role of cytokines on the immunopathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD are generally based on in vitro observations and this role has not been completely clarified yet. Serum levels of total IgE, IL-18, IL-12, IFN- γ and the relationship between these parameters and disease severity, determined using the SCORAD index, in a group of atopic patients were investigated in this study. Serum levels of total IgE were measured by the nephelometric method and serum levels of IL-18, IL-12/p40 and IFN- γ were measured by ELISA method. Serum levels of total IgE and IL-18 were found significantly higher in study group than in controls ( p<.001 . There was no statistically significant difference between patients and controls in respect of serum levels of IL-12/p40 ( p=.227 . A statistically significant relationship between SCORAD values and serum levels of total IgE ( p<.001 , IL-18 ( p<.001 , and IL-12/p40 ( p<.001 was determined. These results show that serum levels of IL-18 can be a sensitive parameter that importantly correlates with clinical severity of AD, can play a role in the immunopathogenesis of AD, and furthermore may be used in the diagnosis and follow-up of the disease in addition to other parameters.

  19. The relationship between debt levels and total shareholder return of JSE-listed platinum companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Jooste

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate empirically whether there is a positive correlation between debt levels and total shareholder return (TSR of platinum JSE-listed companies. The study field comprised annual analyses for 12 companies listed under the Platinum and Precious Metals sector on the JSE Ltd for the 14-year period 2000 to 2013. The results of the study were inconclusive as a statistically significant positive correlation between changes in debt levels and changes in TSR could only be found in two of these years. The core audience of the study will be the management of South African platinum companies considering changes in their capital structure, and investors considering investment in a listed platinum company. The contribution of the study is therefore to add to the body of literature on capital structure decisions from a South African platinum mine context

  20. Effects of defined mixtures of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) on multiple cellular responses in the human hepatocarcinoma cell line, HepG2, using high content analysis screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Jodie [Institute for Global Food Security, School of Biological Sciences, Queen' s University Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Berntsen, Hanne Friis; Zimmer, Karin Elisabeth [Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Oslo (Norway); Frizzell, Caroline [Institute for Global Food Security, School of Biological Sciences, Queen' s University Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Verhaegen, Steven; Ropstad, Erik [Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Oslo (Norway); Connolly, Lisa, E-mail: l.connolly@qub.ac.uk [Institute for Global Food Security, School of Biological Sciences, Queen' s University Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are toxic substances, highly resistant to environmental degradation, which can bio-accumulate and have long-range atmospheric transport potential. Most studies focus on single compound effects, however as humans are exposed to several POPs simultaneously, investigating exposure effects of real life POP mixtures on human health is necessary. A defined mixture of POPs was used, where the compound concentration reflected its contribution to the levels seen in Scandinavian human serum (total mix). Several sub mixtures representing different classes of POPs were also constructed. The perfluorinated (PFC) mixture contained six perfluorinated compounds, brominated (Br) mixture contained seven brominated compounds, chlorinated (Cl) mixture contained polychlorinated biphenyls and also p,p’-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, hexachlorobenzene, three chlordanes, three hexachlorocyclohexanes and dieldrin. Human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) cells were used for 2 h and 48 h exposures to the seven mixtures and analysis on a CellInsight™ NXT High Content Screening platform. Multiple cytotoxic endpoints were investigated: cell number, nuclear intensity and area, mitochondrial mass and membrane potential (MMP) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Both the Br and Cl mixtures induced ROS production but did not lead to apoptosis. The PFC mixture induced ROS production and likely induced cell apoptosis accompanied by the dissipation of MMP. Synergistic effects were evident for ROS induction when cells were exposed to the PFC + Br mixture in comparison to the effects of the individual mixtures. No significant effects were detected in the Br + Cl, PFC + Cl or total mixtures, which contain the same concentrations of chlorinated compounds as the Cl mixture plus additional compounds; highlighting the need for further exploration of POP mixtures in risk assessment. - Highlights: • High content analysis (HCA) is a novel approach for determining toxicity of

  1. Effects of defined mixtures of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) on multiple cellular responses in the human hepatocarcinoma cell line, HepG2, using high content analysis screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, Jodie; Berntsen, Hanne Friis; Zimmer, Karin Elisabeth; Frizzell, Caroline; Verhaegen, Steven; Ropstad, Erik; Connolly, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are toxic substances, highly resistant to environmental degradation, which can bio-accumulate and have long-range atmospheric transport potential. Most studies focus on single compound effects, however as humans are exposed to several POPs simultaneously, investigating exposure effects of real life POP mixtures on human health is necessary. A defined mixture of POPs was used, where the compound concentration reflected its contribution to the levels seen in Scandinavian human serum (total mix). Several sub mixtures representing different classes of POPs were also constructed. The perfluorinated (PFC) mixture contained six perfluorinated compounds, brominated (Br) mixture contained seven brominated compounds, chlorinated (Cl) mixture contained polychlorinated biphenyls and also p,p’-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, hexachlorobenzene, three chlordanes, three hexachlorocyclohexanes and dieldrin. Human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) cells were used for 2 h and 48 h exposures to the seven mixtures and analysis on a CellInsight™ NXT High Content Screening platform. Multiple cytotoxic endpoints were investigated: cell number, nuclear intensity and area, mitochondrial mass and membrane potential (MMP) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Both the Br and Cl mixtures induced ROS production but did not lead to apoptosis. The PFC mixture induced ROS production and likely induced cell apoptosis accompanied by the dissipation of MMP. Synergistic effects were evident for ROS induction when cells were exposed to the PFC + Br mixture in comparison to the effects of the individual mixtures. No significant effects were detected in the Br + Cl, PFC + Cl or total mixtures, which contain the same concentrations of chlorinated compounds as the Cl mixture plus additional compounds; highlighting the need for further exploration of POP mixtures in risk assessment. - Highlights: • High content analysis (HCA) is a novel approach for determining toxicity of

  2. Stress-induced alterations in 5-HT1A receptor transcriptional modulators NUDR and Freud-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szewczyk, Bernadeta; Kotarska, Katarzyna; Daigle, Mireille; Misztak, Paulina; Sowa-Kucma, Magdalena; Rafalo, Anna; Curzytek, Katarzyna; Kubera, Marta; Basta-Kaim, Agnieszka; Nowak, Gabriel; Albert, Paul R

    2014-11-01

    The effect of stress on the mRNA and protein level of the 5-HT1A receptor and two of its key transcriptional modulators, NUDR and Freud-1, was examined in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus (Hp) using rodent models: olfactory bulbectomy (OB) and prenatal stress (PS) in male and female rats; chronic mild stress in male rats (CMS) and pregnancy stress. In PFC, CMS induced the most widespread changes, with significant reduction in both mRNA and protein levels of NUDR, 5-HT1A receptor and in Freud-1 mRNA; while in Hp 5-HT1A receptor and Freud-1 protein levels were also decreased. In male, but not female OB rats PFC Freud-1 and 5-HT1A receptor protein levels were reduced, while in Hp 5-HT1A receptor, Freud-1 and NUDR mRNA's but not protein were reduced. In PS rats PFC 5-HT1A receptor protein was reduced more in females than males; while in Hp Freud-1 protein was increased in females. In pregnancy stress, PFC NUDR, Freud-1 and 5-HT1A protein receptor levels were reduced, and in HP 5-HT1A receptor protein levels were also reduced; in HP only NUDR and Freud-1 mRNA levels were reduced. Overall, CMS and stress during pregnancy produced the most salient changes in 5-HT1A receptor and transcription factor expression, suggesting a primary role for altered transcription factor expression in chronic regulation of 5-HT1A receptor expression. By contrast, OB (in males) and PS (in females) produced gender-specific reductions in PFC 5-HT1A receptor protein levels, suggesting a role for post-transcriptional regulation. These and previous data suggest that chronic stress might be a key regulator of NUDR/Freud-1 gene expression.

  3. Behavioral effects of nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine in a rat model of depression: prefrontal cortex level of BDNF protein and monoaminergic neurotransmitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboul-Fotouh, Sawsan

    2015-03-01

    Several studies have pointed to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) antagonists, such as mecamylamine (MEC), as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of depression. The present study evaluated the behavioral and neurochemical effects of chronic administration of MEC (1, 2, and 4 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneally (i.p.)) in Wistar rats exposed to chronic restraint stress (CRS, 4 h × 6 W). MEC prevented CRS-induced depressive-like behavior via increasing sucrose preference, body weight, and forced swim test (FST) struggling and swimming while reducing immobility in FST and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity (adrenal gland weight and serum corticosterone). At the same time, MEC amended CRS-induced anxiety as indicated by decreasing central zone duration in open field test and increasing active interaction duration. Additionally, MEC modulated the prefrontal cortex (PFC) level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), 5-hydroxy tryptamine (5-HT), and norepinephrine (NE). In conclusion, the present data suggest that MEC possesses antidepressant and anxiolytic-like activities in rats exposed to CRS. These behavioral effects may be in part mediated by reducing HPA axis hyperactivity and increasing PFC level of BDNF and monoamines. Accordingly, these findings further support the hypothesis that nAChRs blockade might afford a novel promising strategy for pharmacotherapy of depression.

  4. Daily total physical activity level and total cancer risk in men and women: results from a large-scale population-based cohort study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Manami; Yamamoto, Seiichiro; Kurahashi, Norie; Iwasaki, Motoki; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2008-08-15

    The impact of total physical activity level on cancer risk has not been fully clarified, particularly in non-Western, relatively lean populations. The authors prospectively examined the association between daily total physical activity (using a metabolic equivalents/day score) and subsequent cancer risk in the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study. A total of 79,771 general-population Japanese men and women aged 45-74 years who responded to a questionnaire in 1995-1999 were followed for total cancer incidence (4,334 cases) through 2004. Compared with subjects in the lowest quartile, increased daily physical activity was associated with a significantly decreased risk of cancer in both sexes. In men, hazard ratios for the second, third, and highest quartiles were 1.00 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.90, 1.11), 0.96 (95% CI: 0.86, 1.07), and 0.87 (95% CI: 0.78, 0.96), respectively (p for trend = 0.005); in women, hazard ratios were 0.93 (95% CI: 0.82, 1.05), 0.84 (95% CI: 0.73, 0.96), and 0.84 (95% CI: 0.73, 0.97), respectively (p for trend = 0.007). The decreased risk was more clearly observed in women than in men, especially among the elderly and those who regularly engaged in leisure-time sports or physical exercise. By site, decreased risks were observed for cancers of the colon, liver, and pancreas in men and for cancer of the stomach in women. Increased daily physical activity may be beneficial in preventing cancer in a relatively lean population.

  5. Test-retest reliability at the item level and total score level of the Norwegian version of the Spinal Cord Injury Falls Concern Scale (SCI-FCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roaldsen, Kirsti Skavberg; Måøy, Åsa Blad; Jørgensen, Vivien; Stanghelle, Johan Kvalvik

    2016-05-01

    Translation of the Spinal Cord Injury Falls Concern Scale (SCI-FCS), and investigation of test-retest reliability on item-level and total-score-level. Translation, adaptation and test-retest study. A specialized rehabilitation setting in Norway. Fifty-four wheelchair users with a spinal cord injury. The median age of the cohort was 49 years, and the median number of years after injury was 13. Interventions/measurements: The SCI-FCS was translated and back-translated according to guidelines. Individuals answered the SCI-FCS twice over the course of one week. We investigated item-level test-retest reliability using Svensson's rank-based statistical method for disagreement analysis of paired ordinal data. For relative reliability, we analyzed the total-score-level test-retest reliability with intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC2.1), the standard error of measurement (SEM), and the smallest detectable change (SDC) for absolute reliability/measurement-error assessment and Cronbach's alpha for internal consistency. All items showed satisfactory percentage agreement (≥69%) between test and retest. There were small but non-negligible systematic disagreements among three items; we recovered an 11-13% higher chance for a lower second score. There was no disagreement due to random variance. The test-retest agreement (ICC2.1) was excellent (0.83). The SEM was 2.6 (12%), and the SDC was 7.1 (32%). The Cronbach's alpha was high (0.88). The Norwegian SCI-FCS is highly reliable for wheelchair users with chronic spinal cord injuries.

  6. A method comparison of total and HMW adiponectin: HMW/total adiponectin ratio varies versus total adiponectin, independent of clinical condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Andel, Merel; Drent, Madeleine L; van Herwaarden, Antonius E; Ackermans, Mariëtte T; Heijboer, Annemieke C

    2017-02-01

    Total and high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin have been associated with endocrine and cardiovascular pathology. As no gold standard is available, the discussion about biological relevance of isoforms is complicated. In our study we perform a method comparison between two commercially available assays measuring HMW and total adiponectin, in various patient groups, thus contributing further to this discussion. We determined levels of HMW and total adiponectin using assays by Lumipulse® and Millipore® respectively, in 126 patients with different clinical characteristics (n=29 healthy volunteers, n=22 dialysis patients, n=25 elderly with body mass index (BMI) LUMIPULSE ∗0.5-0.9=total adiponectin MILLIPORE , albeit with significant deviation from linearity (p<0.001). Pearson's correlation was R=0.987 (p=0.000). No significant differences between patient groups were observed (p=0.190). The HMW/total adiponectin ratio varies with total adiponectin concentration independent of clinical conditions studied. Our results imply that total and HMW adiponectin have similar utility when assessing adiponectin levels in blood, as the ratio is independent of clinical condition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The relationship between total testosterone levels and prostate cancer: a review of the continuing controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klap, Julia; Schmid, Marianne; Loughlin, Kevin R

    2015-02-01

    For many years it was believed that higher total testosterone contributed to prostate cancer and caused rapid cancer growth. International guidelines consider that adequate data are not available to determine whether there is additional risk of prostate cancer from testosterone replacement. Numerous studies with multiple designs and contradictory conclusions have investigated the relationship between total testosterone and prostate cancer development. To establish current knowledge in this field we reviewed the literature on total testosterone and the subsequent risk of prostate cancer as well as the safety of exogenous testosterone administration in patients with a history of prostate cancer. We searched the literature to identify articles from 1994 to 2014 related to the relationship between total testosterone and prostate cancer. Emphasis was given to prospective studies, series with observational data and randomized, controlled trials. Case reports were excluded. Articles on testosterone replacement safety were selected by patient population (under active surveillance or with a prostate cancer history). We organized our results according to the relationship between total testosterone and prostate cancer, including 1) the possible link between low total testosterone and prostate cancer, 2) the effect of high levels and 3) the absence of any link. Finally, we summarized studies of the risk of exogenous testosterone administration in patients already diagnosed with prostate cancer, treated or on active surveillance. We selected 45 articles of the relationship between total testosterone and prostate cancer, of which 18 and 17 showed a relationship to low and high total testosterone, respectively, and 10 showed no relation. Total testosterone was defined according to the definition in each article. Contradictory findings have been reported, largely due to the disparate methodologies used in many studies. Most studies did not adhere to professional society guidelines

  8. A cross-country analysis of total factor productivity using micro-level data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Şeker

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Total factor productivity (TFP is a crucial measure of efficiency and thus an important tool for policymakers. However, research on comparison of TFP performances using micro-level data across developing countries has been limited due to the unavailability of homogenous data sources. This study aims to fill this crucial gap by using a data set which has been collected through a large body of surveys conducted across 69 developing countries following the same methodology. The homogenous nature of the data and the diverse set of questions included in the surveys provide unique opportunity to compare average productivity performances of firms across a large set of characteristics and business environment factors. The analysis performed here provides the groundwork for testing various stylized facts about TFP and its related factors such as exporting, innovation, access to finance, foreign ownership, and regulations across developing countries.

  9. Diet matters: Glucocorticoid-related neuroadaptations associated with calorie intake in female rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Jodi R; Diaz, Maylen Perez; Pincus, Melanie; Kovacs-Balint, Zsofia; Feczko, Eric; Earl, Eric; Miranda-Dominguez, Oscar; Fair, Damien; Sanchez, Mar M; Wilson, Mark E; Michopoulos, Vasiliki

    2018-05-01

    Exposure to psychosocial stressors increases consumption of palatable, calorically dense diets (CDD) and the risk for obesity, especially in females. While consumption of an obesogenic diet and chronic stress have both been shown to decrease dopamine 2 receptor (D2R) binding and alter functional connectivity (FC) within the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), it remains uncertain how social experience and dietary environment interact to affect reward pathways critical for the regulation of motivated behavior. Using positron emission tomography (PET) and resting state functional connectivity magnetic resonance neuroimaging (rs-fMRI), in female rhesus monkeys maintained in a low calorie chow (n = 18) or a dietary choice condition (chow and a CDD; n = 16) for 12 months, the current study tested the overarching hypothesis that the adverse social experience resulting from subordinate social status would interact with consumption of an obesogenic diet to increase caloric intake that would be predicted by greater cortisol, lower prefrontal D2R binding potential (D2R-BP) and lower PFC-NAcc FC. Results showed that the consequences of adverse social experience imposed by chronic social subordination vary significantly depending on the dietary environment and are associated with alterations in prefrontal D2R-BP and FC in NAcc-PFC sub-regions that predict differences in caloric intake, body weight gain, and fat accumulation. Higher levels of cortisol in the chow-only condition were associated with mild inappetence, as well as increased orbitofrontal (OFC) D2R-BP and greater FC between the NAcc and the dorsolateral PFC (dlPFC) and ventromedial PFC (vmPFC). However, increased cortisol release in females in the dietary choice condition was associated with reduced prefrontal D2R-BP, and opposite FC between the NAcc and the vmPFC and dlPFC observed in the chow-only females. Importantly, the degree of these glucocorticoid-related neuroadaptations

  10. The effects of stress exposure on prefrontal cortex: Translating basic research into successful treatments for post-traumatic stress disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy F.T. Arnsten

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on the neurobiology of the stress response in animals has led to successful new treatments for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD in humans. Basic research has found that high levels of catecholamine release during stress rapidly impair the top-down cognitive functions of the prefrontal cortex (PFC, while strengthening the emotional and habitual responses of the amygdala and basal ganglia. Chronic stress exposure leads to dendritic atrophy in PFC, dendritic extension in the amygdala, and strengthening of the noradrenergic (NE system. High levels of NE release during stress engage low affinity alpha-1 adrenoceptors, (and likely beta-1 adrenoceptors, which rapidly reduce the firing of PFC neurons, but strengthen amygdala function. In contrast, moderate levels of NE release during nonstress conditions engage higher affinity alpha-2A receptors, which strengthen PFC, weaken amygdala, and regulate NE cell firing. Thus, either alpha-1 receptor blockade or alpha-2A receptor stimulation can protect PFC function during stress. Patients with PTSD have signs of PFC dysfunction. Clinical studies have found that blocking alpha-1 receptors with prazosin, or stimulating alpha-2A receptors with guanfacine or clonidine can be useful in reducing the symptoms of PTSD. Placebo-controlled trials have shown that prazosin is helpful in veterans, active duty soldiers and civilians with PTSD, including improvement of PFC symptoms such as impaired concentration and impulse control. Open label studies suggest that guanfacine may be especially helpful in treating children and adolescents who have experienced trauma. Thus, understanding the neurobiology of the stress response has begun to help patients with stress disorders.

  11. [Levels of total lipids, cholesterol and progesterone during estrus synchronization and pregnancy in sheep].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajnicáková, M; Bekeová, E; Hendrichovský, V; Maracek, I

    1993-01-01

    Our investigations were concerned with dynamic changes in total lipids (CL), cholesterol (CHOL) and progesterone (P4) in blood serum of sheep in the period of oestrus synchronization treatment and during mating and gravidity. Our experiment was carried out using 10 animals housed under the conditions of productive rearing. Blood samples were taken from v. jugularis on day of swab application (day 0) and on days 3 and 7 of the action of Agelin vaginal swabs, on day of insemination, and on days 7, 14, 17 and in the 2nd, 3rd and 4th month of gravidity. Blood serum was used to determine total lipids and cholesterol by means of Bio-Lachema tests, and P4 concentrations employing RIA-test-Prog kits (URVJT, Kosice). A statistically significant decrease in concentrations of total lipids (Fig. 1, Tab. I) in sheep blood serum was recorded on day of insemination (P < 0.05) compared to day 0, with the value 1.59 +/- 0.31 g/l of serum, and in the 3rd month of gravidity (P < 0.01), at concentrations 1.36 +/- 0.38 g/l of serum. The determined decrease in their values in the mentioned period can be modulated by the mutually changing ratio of steroid hormones or by inhibition of synthesis of lipoproteins responsible for changes in total plasma lipids. Changes in cholesterol concentrations (Fig. 2, Tab. I) during the introduction of swabs were insignificant and ranged from 1.60 +/- 0.42 to 1.73 +/- 0.33 mmol/l of serum. An insignificant increase in cholesterol concentrations (P < 0.05), with its highest levels 1.98 +/- 0.43 mmol/l of serum, was recorded in the 3rd month of gravidity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Losses evaluation of two-level and three-level PFC topologies based on semiconductor measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermulst, B.J.D.; Duarte, J.L.

    2014-01-01

    Finding and comparing power losses in power electronics topologies is most commonly done by using IGBT switching losses from datasheets. The method in this paper, however, is an approach using a measurement setup, of which the data are used in MATLAB Simulink in combination with Plexim PLECS. Using

  13. Posibilidad de identificar defectos en máquinas rotatorias utilizando la medición de nivel total de la señal vibratoria // Possibility of identification of defects in rotatory machinery by means of total level mesurations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Véliz Marrero

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Se expone una herramienta propuesta por el Dr. C. Cempel, poco difundida para identificar algunos defectos al realizar eldiagnóstico de máquinas rotatorias utilizando la medición de Nivel Total. Se ilustra a modo de ejemplo el diagnóstico de unreductor de velocidad.Palabras claves: Medición, vibraciones, nivel total, diagnóstico, engranaje, reductor de velocidad.________________________________________________________________________________AbstractIn this paper is exposed a not much divulged tool proposed by Dr. C. Cempel for the identification of some defects by meansof the measurement of Total Level of vibration in diagnosis of rotatory machinery. As example, a speed reducer diagnostic ispresented.Key words: Vibration measurement, total level, diagnostic, gears, speed reducer.

  14. Comparative seric TGF(β1, β2) levels and platelets count response in total body irradiated baboons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mestries, J.C.; Veyret, J.; Agay, D.; Van Uye, A.; Caterini, R.; Herodin, F.; Mathieu, J.; Chancerelle, Y.

    1994-01-01

    Total body irradiation associated or not with r-hIL-6 treatment a relation between TGF-β1 and TGF-β2 blood levels and platelets count. During radio-induced thrombocytopenia, by decreasing its ability to inhibit proliferation of stem cells and megakaryocytopoiesis, the TGF-β falling induced a favorable condition for hematopoietic recovery. (author)

  15. Quantification of the levels of tannins and total phenols and evaluation of the antioxidant activity of fruits of pepper tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Ribeiro Bernardes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The fruits of pepper tree (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi are widely used in the world cooking and its consumption has been encouraged since the late 80’s due to the presence of phenolic substances. Therefore, this study quantified the levels of tannins and total phenols in the fruits of pepper tree, aiming at establishing a possible correlation between these substances and their antioxidant activity. Phenolic compounds were extracted with acetone: water (7:3, and quantified by spectrophotometry. The antioxidant activity was measured by DPPH method. The results showed low levels of condensed tannins and total phenols in the peel of the fruit, not being detected hydrolysable tannins in them. Nevertheless, the methanolic extract showed high antioxidant potential, which indicates the absence of a correlation between antioxidant activity and the levels of phenolic compounds in these fruits.

  16. Dorsolateral Prefrontal Contributions to Human Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbey, Aron K.; Colom, Roberto; Grafman, Jordan

    2012-01-01

    Although cognitive neuroscience has made remarkable progress in understanding the involvement of the prefrontal cortex in executive control functions for human intelligence, the necessity of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) for key competencies of general intelligence and executive function remains to be well established. Here we studied human brain lesion patients with dlPFC lesions to investigate whether this region is computationally necessary for performance on neuropsychological tests of general intelligence and executive function, administering the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) and subtests of the Delis Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS) to three groups: dlPFC lesions (n = 19), non-dlPFC lesions (n = 152), and no brain lesions (n = 55). The key results indicate that: (1) patients with focal dlPFC damage exhibit lower scores, at the latent variable level, than controls in general intelligence (g) and executive function; (2) dlPFC patients demonstrate lower scores than controls in several executive measures; and (3) these latter differences are no longer significant when the pervasive influence of the general factor of intelligence (g) is statistically removed. The observed findings support a central role for the dlPFC in general intelligence and make specific recommendations for the interpretation and application of the WAIS and D-KEFS to the study of high-level cognition in health and disease. PMID:22634247

  17. Effects of ketamine administration on mTOR and reticulum stress signaling pathways in the brain after the infusion of rapamycin into prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelaira, Helena M; Réus, Gislaine Z; Ignácio, Zuleide M; Dos Santos, Maria Augusta B; de Moura, Airam B; Matos, Danyela; Demo, Júlia P; da Silva, Júlia B I; Michels, Monique; Abatti, Mariane; Sonai, Beatriz; Dal Pizzol, Felipe; Carvalho, André F; Quevedo, João

    2017-04-01

    Recent studies show that activation of the mTOR signaling pathway is required for the rapid antidepressant actions of glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists. A relationship between mTOR kinase and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway, also known as the unfolded protein response (UPR) has been shown. We evaluate the effects of ketamine administration on the mTOR signaling pathway and proteins of UPR in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus, amygdala and nucleus accumbens, after the inhibiton of mTOR signaling in the PFC. Male adult Wistar rats received pharmacological mTOR inhibitor, rapamycin (0.2 nmol), or vehicle into the PFC and then a single dose of ketamine (15 mg/kg, i.p.). The immunocontent of mTOR, eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1), eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase (eEF2K) homologous protein (CHOP), PKR-like ER kinase (PERK) and inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1) - alpha were determined in the brain. The mTOR levels were reduced in the rapamycin group treated with saline and ketamine in the PFC; p4EBP1 levels were reduced in the rapamycin group treated with ketamine in the PFC and nucleus accumbens; the levels of peEF2K were increased in the PFC in the vehicle group treated with ketamine and reduced in the rapamycin group treated with ketamine. The PERK and IRE1-alpha levels were decreased in the PFC in the rapamycin group treated with ketamine. Our results suggest that mTOR signaling inhibition by rapamycin could be involved, at least in part, with the mechanism of action of ketamine; and the ketamine antidepressant on ER stress pathway could be also mediated by mTOR signaling pathway in certain brain structures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Decreased medial prefrontal cortex activation during self-referential processing in bipolar mania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, Dorrit; Usnich, Tatiana; Spengler, Stephanie; Sajonz, Bastian; Bauer, Michael; Bermpohl, Felix

    2017-09-01

    Patients with bipolar disorder in mania exhibit symptoms pointing towards altered self-referential processing, such as decreased self-focus, flight of ideas and high distractibility. In depression, the opposite pattern of symptoms has been connected to increased activation of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) during self-referential processing. In this study, we hypothesized that (1) patients with mania will exhibit decreased activation in the mPFC during self-referential processing and (2) will be more alexithymic and that levels of alexithymia will correlate negatively with mPFC activation. The neural response to standardized pictures was compared in 14 patients with bipolar I disorder in mania to 14 healthy controls using blood oxygen level dependent contrast magnetic resonance imaging. Participants were asked to indicate with button press during the scanning session for each picture whether the pictures personally related to them or not. Toronto alexithymia scale (TAS) scores were recorded from all participants. In the group analysis, patients with mania exhibited decreased activation in a predefined region of interest in the mPFC during self-referential processing compared to healthy controls. Patients with mania showed significantly higher levels of alexithymia, attributable to difficulties in identifying and describing emotions. Activation in the mPFC correlated negatively with levels of alexithymia. Results presented here should be replicated in a larger group, potentially including unmedicated patients. The finding of decreased mPFC activation during self-referential processing in mania may reflect decreased self-focus and high distractibility. Support for this view comes from the negative correlation between higher alexithymia scores and decreased mPFC activation. These findings represent an opposite clinical and neuroimaging pattern to findings in depression. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Changes in iron levels, total iron binding capacity, transferrin saturation in race horses, before and after of physical exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gláucia Abramovitc

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Abramovitc G., Parra A.C. & Fernandes W.R. [Changes in iron levels, total iron binding capacity, transferrin saturation in race horses, before and after of physical exercise]. Variação de níveis séricos de ferro, da capacidade total de ligação do ferro e da saturação da transferrina em equinos de corrida, antes e após exercício físico. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 36(3:289-293, 2014. Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua Prof. Dr. Orlando Marques de Paiva 87, Cidade Universitária, Butantã, São Paulo, SP 05508-270, Brasil. Email: wilsonrf@usp.br The preparation of the horse for physical activities in competition is directly related to important factors such as nutrition, muscle adaptation and blood profile, related to the concentration of serum iron, total capacity total iron binding capacity (TIBC and saturation of transferrin. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of exercise in iron levels, the total iron and transferrin saturation in race horses. One hundred and eleven samples of blood serum were collected from Thoroughbred horses, from the Jockey Club of São Paulo, aged between 3 and 4 years old, male and female, clinically healthy, practitioners turf competition, in sand or grass. The samples were obtained before exercise (control time and 30 minutes after exercise (post exercise. These animals were submitted to gallop training, of high intensity and short duration for this research. As a result, it was observed that the serum concentration of iron (Fe showed a statistically significant lowering post-exercise, due to organic re-balance of iron, while TIBC (total iron binding capacity showed a clear and significant increase in their serum levels due to increased needs of iron during and after exercise. The percentage of transferrin saturation in serum was shown to be lower post-exercise, probably due to the recruitment of

  20. Effects of 3-week total meal replacement vs. typical food-based diet on human brain functional magnetic resonance imaging food-cue reactivity and functional connectivity in people with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahathuduwa, Chanaka Nadeeshan; Davis, Tyler; O'Boyle, Michael; Boyd, Lori Ann; Chin, Shao-Hua; Paniukov, Dmitrii; Binks, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Calorie restriction via total meal replacement (TMR) results in greater reduction of food cravings compared to reduced-calorie typical diet (TD). Direct evidence of the impact of these interventions on human brain fMRI food-cue reactivity (fMRI-FCR) and functional connectivity is absent. We examined the effects of a 3-week 1120 kcal/d TMR intervention as compared to an iso-caloric TD intervention using an fMRI-FCR paradigm. Thirty-two male and female subjects with obesity (19-60 years; 30-39.9 kg/m 2 ) participated in a randomized two-group repeated measures dietary intervention study consisting of 1120 kcal/d from either 1) TMR (shakes), 2) TD (portion control). Pre-intervention and following the 3-week diet fMRI-FCR, functional connectivity, food cravings (Food Craving Inventory) and weight were considered. Compared to TD, TMR showed increased fMRI-FCR of the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal (dlPFC), orbitofrontal, anterior cingulate, primary motor and left insular cortices and bilateral nucleus accumbens regions in the post-intervention state relative to the pre-intervention state. Compared to TD, TMR was also associated with negative modulation of fMRI-FCR of the nucleus accumbens, orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala by dlPFC. Reduced body weight (4.87 kg, P food cravings (0.41, P = 0.047) were seen in the TMR group. In the TD group reduced body weight (2.37 kg, P = 0.004) and body fat (1.64 kg, P = 0.002) were noted. Weight loss was significantly greater in TMR versus TD (2.50 kg, P = 0.007). Greater weight loss and reduced cravings, coupled with stronger activations and potential negative modulation of the food reward related regions by the dlPFC during exposure to visual food cues is consistent with increased executive control in TMR vs. TD. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Step-down vs. step-up noxious stimulation: differential effects on pain perception and patterns of brain activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J C; Kim, J; Kang, E; Choi, J-H; Park, W Y; Choi, Y-S; Cha, J; Han, C; Park, S K; Kim, M H; Lee, G H; Do, H-J; Jung, S W; Lee, J-M

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesize that pain and brain responses are affected by changes in the presentation sequence of noxious stimuli that are, overall, identical in intensity and duration. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanning, 21 participants experienced three patterns of noxious stimulation: Up-type (step-up noxious stimulation, 15 s), Down-type (step-down noxious stimulation, 15 s), and Down-up-type (decreasing and increasing pattern of noxious stimulation, 15 s). The total intensity and duration of the three noxious stimulation patterns were identical, but the stimulation sequences were different. Pain and unpleasantness ratings in the Down- and Down-up-type noxious stimulations were lower than in the Up-type noxious stimulation. The left prefrontal cortex [(PFC, BA (Brodmann area) 10, (-45, 50, 1)] was more highly activated in the Down- and Down-up-type noxious stimulations than in the Up-type noxious stimulation. The S1, S2, insula, bilateral PFC (BA 46), and midcingulate cortex were more highly activated in the Up-type noxious stimulation than in the Down-type noxious stimulation. PFC BA 10 was located at an inferior level compared to the bilateral PFC BA 46 (Z axis = 1 for BA 10, compared to 22 and 25 for the right and left BA 46, respectively). When cortisol level was increased, the left hippocampal cortex, along with the left parahippocampal cortex, was greatly activated for the Up-type noxious stimulation. When pain cannot be avoided in clinical practice, noxious stimuli should be applied to patients in a step-down pattern that delivers the most intense pain first and the least intense pain last. © 2015 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Serum total protein, albumin and globulin levels in Trypanosoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of orally administered Scoparia dulcis on Trypanosoma brucei-induced changes in serum total protein, albumin and globulin were investigated in rabbits over a period of twenty eight days. Results obtained show that infection resulted in hyperproteinaemia, hyperglobulinaemia and hypoalbuminaemia. However ...

  3. Protective role of curcumin against sulfite-induced structural changes in rats' medial prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorafshan, Ali; Asadi-Golshan, Reza; Abdollahifar, Mohammad-Amin; Karbalay-Doust, Saied

    2015-08-01

    Sodium metabisulfite as a food preservative can affect the central nervous system. Curcumin, the main ingredient of turmeric has neuroprotective activity. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of sulfite and curcumin on the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) using stereological methods. Thirty rats were randomly divided into five groups. The rats in groups I-V received distilled water, olive oil, curcumin (100 mg/kg/day), sodium metabisulfite (25 mg/kg/day), and sulfite + curcumin, respectively, for 8 weeks. The brains were subjected to the stereological methods. Cavalieri and optical disector techniques were used to estimate the total volume of mPFC and the number of neurons and glial cells. Intersections counting were applied on the thick vertical uniform random sections to estimate the dendrites length, and classify the spines. Non-parametric tests were used to analyze the data. The mean mPFC volume, neurons number, glia number, dendritic length, and total spines per neuron were 3.7 mm(3), 365,000, 180,000, 1820 µm, and 1700 in distilled water group, respectively. A reduction was observed in the volume of mPFC (∼8%), number of neurons (∼15%), and number of glia (∼14%) in mPFC of the sulfite group compared to the control groups (P curcumin had a protective role against the changes in the rats.

  4. A polymorphism in the IGF-I gene influences the age-related decline in circulating total IGF-I levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Rietveld (Ingrid); J.A.M.J.L. Janssen (Joseph); A. Hofman (Albert); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); S.W.J. Lamberts (Steven); H.A.P. Pols (Huib)

    2003-01-01

    markdownabstractOBJECTIVE: Recent studies have demonstrated an association between a 192 bp polymorphism of the IGF-I gene and total IGF-I serum levels, birth weight, body height and the risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular diseases later on in life. This IGF-I gene polymorphism in the

  5. Frontal cortex and hippocampus neurotransmitter receptor complex level parallels spatial memory performance in the radial arm maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugasundaram, Bharanidharan; Sase, Ajinkya; Miklosi, András G; Sialana, Fernando J; Subramaniyan, Saraswathi; Aher, Yogesh D; Gröger, Marion; Höger, Harald; Bennett, Keiryn L; Lubec, Gert

    2015-08-01

    Several neurotransmitter receptors have been proposed to be involved in memory formation. However, information on receptor complexes (RCs) in the radial arm maze (RAM) is missing. It was therefore the aim of this study to determine major neurotransmitter RCs levels that are modulated by RAM training because receptors are known to work in homo-or heteromeric assemblies. Immediate early gene Arc expression was determined by immunohistochemistry to show if prefrontal cortices (PFC) and hippocampi were activated following RAM training as these regions are known to be mainly implicated in spatial memory. Twelve rats per group, trained and untrained in the twelve arm RAM were used, frontal cortices and hippocampi were taken, RCs in membrane protein were quantified by blue-native PAGE immunoblotting. RCs components were characterised by co-immunoprecipitation followed by mass spectrometrical analysis and by the use of the proximity ligation assay. Arc expression was significantly higher in PFC of trained as compared to untrained rats whereas it was comparable in hippocampi. Frontal cortical levels of RCs containing AMPA receptors GluA1, GluA2, NMDA receptors GluN1 and GluN2A, dopamine receptor D1, acetylcholine nicotinic receptor alpha 7 (nAChR-α7) and hippocampal levels of RCs containing D1, GluN1, GluN2B and nAChR-α7 were increased in the trained group; phosphorylated dopamine transporter levels were decreased in the trained group. D1 and GluN1 receptors were shown to be in the same complex. Taken together, distinct RCs were paralleling performance in the RAM which is relevant for interpretation of previous and design of future work on RCs in memory studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Serum total proteins and creatinine levels in experimental gambian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Attempt was therefore made to evaluate the effect of two strains of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense on total proteins and other serum biochemical parameters using vervet monkeys as a model. The outcome of both strains in vervet monkeys was traumatic as the monkeys died from infection 12 – 15 weeks post infection while ...

  7. Total mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine among women free from occupational exposure and their relations to renal tubular function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Tomoko; Sakamoto, Mineshi; Kurosawa, Tomoko; Dakeishi, Miwako; Iwata, Toyoto; Murata, Katsuyuki

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the relations among total mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine, together with potential effects of methylmercury intake on renal tubular function, we determined their levels, and urinary N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase activity (NAG) and α 1 -microglobulin (AMG) in 59 women free from occupational exposures, and estimated daily mercury intakes from fish and other seafood using a food frequency questionnaire. Mercury levels (mean+/-SD) in the women were 1.51+/-0.91μg/g in hair, 0.59+/-0.32μg/g in toenail, and 0.86+/-0.66μg/g creatinine in urine; and, there were positive correlations among them (P<0.001). The daily mercury intake of 9.15+/-7.84μg/day was significantly correlated with total mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine (r=0.551, 0.537, and 0.604, P<0.001). Among the women, the NAG and AMG were positively correlated with both the daily mercury intake and mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine (P<0.01); and, these relations were almost similar when using multiple regression analysis to adjust for possible confounders such as urinary cadmium (0.47+/-0.28μg/g creatinine) and smoking status. In conclusion, mercury resulting from fish consumption can explain total mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine to some degree (about 30%), partly through the degradation into the inorganic form, and it may confound the renal tubular effect of other nephrotoxic agents. Also, the following equation may be applicable to the population neither with dental amalgam fillings nor with occupational exposures: [hair mercury (μg/g)]=2.44x[toenail mercury (μg/g)

  8. The role of ventromedial prefrontal cortex volume in the association of expressive suppression and externally oriented thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xu; Lu, Jiamei; Li, Bingbing; Li, Haijiang; Jin, Li; Qiu, Jiang

    2017-11-01

    Studies have suggested that expressive suppression (ES) is linked to externally oriented thinking (EOT) through the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), and there are gender differences in their association. The present structural magnetic resonance imaging study was to investigate the neural bases of ES and EOT and their association in females versus males in a Chinese college sample. A total of 142 participants (83 females) were enrolled, and they completed the ES subscale of the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale, and anatomical scanning. Voxel-based morphometry, region of interest, and whole brain analyses with peak-level significance (family-wise error corrected at p design limited causal conclusions. The vmPFC may be the only neural base of ES and EOT and their association. In addition, these results were sex-specific. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The increase in medial prefrontal glutamate/glutamine concentration during memory encoding is associated with better memory performance and stronger functional connectivity in the human medial prefrontal-thalamus-hippocampus network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thielen, Jan-Willem; Hong, Donghyun; Rohani Rankouhi, Seyedmorteza; Wiltfang, Jens; Fernández, Guillén; Norris, David G; Tendolkar, Indira

    2018-06-01

    The classical model of the declarative memory system describes the hippocampus and its interactions with representational brain areas in posterior neocortex as being essential for the formation of long-term episodic memories. However, new evidence suggests an extension of this classical model by assigning the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) a specific, yet not fully defined role in episodic memory. In this study, we utilized 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analysis to lend further support for the idea of a mnemonic role of the mPFC in humans. By using MRS, we measured mPFC γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate/glutamine (GLx) concentrations before and after volunteers memorized face-name association. We demonstrate that mPFC GLx but not GABA levels increased during the memory task, which appeared to be related to memory performance. Regarding functional connectivity, we used the subsequent memory paradigm and found that the GLx increase was associated with stronger mPFC connectivity to thalamus and hippocampus for associations subsequently recognized with high confidence as opposed to subsequently recognized with low confidence/forgotten. Taken together, we provide new evidence for an mPFC involvement in episodic memory by showing a memory-related increase in mPFC excitatory neurotransmitter levels that was associated with better memory and stronger memory-related functional connectivity in a medial prefrontal-thalamus-hippocampus network. © 2018 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Biomonitoring of Lead, Cadmium, Total Mercury, and Methylmercury Levels in Maternal Blood and in Umbilical Cord Blood at Birth in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yu-Mi; Chung, Jin-Young; An, Hyun Sook; Park, Sung Yong; Kim, Byoung-Gwon; Bae, Jong Woon; Han, Myoungseok; Cho, Yeon Jean; Hong, Young-Seoub

    2015-01-01

    With rising concerns of heavy metal exposure in pregnancy and early childhood, this study was conducted to assess the relationship between the lead, cadmium, mercury, and methylmercury blood levels in pregnancy and neonatal period. The study population included 104 mothers and their children pairs who completed both baseline maternal blood sampling at the second trimester and umbilical cord blood sampling at birth. The geometric mean maternal blood levels of lead, cadmium, total mercury, and methylmercury at the second trimester were 1.02 ± 1.39 µg/dL, 0.61 ± 1.51 µg/L, 2.97 ± 1.45 µg/L, and 2.39 ± 1.45 µg/L, respectively, and in the newborns, these levels at birth were 0.71 ± 1.42 µg/dL, 0.01 ± 5.31 µg/L, 4.44 ± 1.49 µg/L, and 3.67 ± 1.51 µg/L, respectively. The mean ratios of lead, cadmium, total mercury, and methylmercury levels in the newborns to those in the mothers were 0.72, 0.04, 1.76, and 1.81, respectively. The levels of most heavy metals in pregnant women and infants were higher in this study than in studies from industrialized western countries. The placenta appears to protect fetuses from cadmium; however, total mercury and methylmercury were able to cross the placenta and accumulate in fetuses. PMID:26516876

  11. Sustained High Levels of Both Total and High Molecular Weight Adiponectin in Plasma during the Convalescent Phase of Haemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome Are Associated with Disease Severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Tang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS is characterised by an uncontrolled immune response that causes vascular leakage. Adiponectin (APN is an adipocytokine involved in prorevascularisation and immunomodulation. To investigate the possible effects of APN in the pathogenesis of HFRS, total and high molecular weight (HMW APN levels in the plasma of patients with HFRS were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Compared with those in healthy controls, the plasma total and HMW APN levels in patients were elevated to different degrees from the fever onset and remained high at the convalescent phase. Consistent with these results, western blot analysis additionally showed that low molecular weight (LMW, middle molecular weight (MMW, and HMW APN levels were all elevated and contributed to the elevation of the total APN level. Importantly, sustained high levels of total and HMW APN at the convalescent phase were significantly higher in patients with critical disease than those in patients with mild or moderate disease. Moreover, total and HMW APN levels negatively correlated with white blood cell count and positively correlated with platelet count and serum albumin level. These results may provide insights into understanding the roles of total and HMW APN in the pathogenesis of HFRS.

  12. Total and Bioaccessible Soil Arsenic and Lead Levels and Plant Uptake in Three Urban Community Gardens in Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Misenheimer

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic (As and lead (Pb are two contaminants of concern associated with urban gardening. In Puerto Rico, data currently is limited on As and Pb levels in urban garden soils, soil metal (loid bioaccessibility, and uptake of As and Pb in soil by edible plants grown in the region. This study examined total and bioaccessible soil As and Pb concentrations and accumulation in 10 commonly grown garden plants collected from three urban community gardens in Puerto Rico. Bioavailability values were predicted using bioaccessibility data to compare site-specific bioavailability estimates to commonly used default exposure assumptions. Total and bioaccessible As levels in study soils ranged from 2 to 55 mg/kg and 1 to 18 mg/kg, respectively. Total and bioaccessible Pb levels ranged from 19 to 172 mg/kg and 17 to 97 mg/kg, respectively. Measured bioaccessibility values corresponded to 19% to 42% bioaccessible As and 61% to 100% bioaccessible Pb when expressed as a percent of total As and Pb respectively. Predicted relative percent bioavailability of soil As and Pb based on measured bioaccessibility values ranged from 18% to 36% and 51% to 85% for As and Pb respectively. Transfer factors (TFs measuring uptake of As in plants from soil ranged from 0 to 0.073 in the edible flesh (fruit or vegetable of plant tissues analyzed and 0.073 to 0.444 in edible leaves. Pb TFs ranged from 0.002 to 0.012 in flesh and 0.023 to 0.204 in leaves. Consistent with TF values, leaves accumulated higher concentrations of As and Pb than the flesh, with the highest tissue concentrations observed in the culantro leaf (3.2 mg/kg dw of As and 8.9 mg/kg dw of Pb. Leaves showed a general but not statistically-significant (α = 0.05 trend of increased As and Pb concentration with increased soil levels, while no trend was observed for flesh tissues. These findings provide critical data that can improve accuracy and reduce uncertainty when conducting site-specific risk determination of

  13. Autoreactive lymphocytes in thyroid disorders. 2. Comparison of anti-thyroglobulin antibody production by plaque-forming cell, radio-immunological and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, J; Feldt-Rasmussen, U; Siersbaek-Nielsen, K; Hoeier-Madsen, M; Larsen, F; Husby, S

    1986-01-01

    Blood mononuclear cells (MNC) from 9 randomly selected patients with autoimmune thyroiditis were stimulated in vitro with pokeweed mitogen (PWM), a polyclonal B lymphocyte activator. The secretion of immunoglobulins (Ig) and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies (TgAb) was assayed by means of haemolytic plaque-forming cell (PFC) assays, radioimmune assay (RIA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Total Ig and TgAb production was maximal using MNC cultured at 1.0 x 10/sup 6//ml as estimated by PFC, RIA and ELISA. The Ig and TgAb production as measured by RIA and ELISA was 1.5 - 3 times higher after 12 days' culture compared to 6 days' culture. Ig and TgAb production measured by PFC-assays at day 6 correlated positively to the results obtained by RIA and ELISA at day 12. PWM-induced TgAb secretion correlated positively to TgAb titres in serum. As judged by PFC, TgAb production was found in 8/9 patients; about 5% (range 0 - 7.9%) of the total PWM-stimulated IgG-secreting cells were involved in TgAb secretion. TgAb production as measured by ELISA and RIA was found in 6/9 patients. By reference to an affinity-purified human TgAb preparation, the TgAb secretion was about 0.7% (range 0 - 21.3%) of the total PWM-induced IgG secretion.

  14. Autoreactive lymphocytes in thyroid disorders. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, J.; Feldt-Rasmussen, U.; Siersbaek-Nielsen, K.; Hoeier-Madsen, M.; Larsen, F.; Husby, S.

    1986-01-01

    Blood mononuclear cells (MNC) from 9 randomly selected patients with autoimmune thyroiditis were stimulated in vitro with pokeweed mitogen (PWM), a polyclonal B lymphocyte activator. The secretion of immunoglobulins (Ig) and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies (TgAb) was assayed by means of haemolytic plaque-forming cell (PFC) assays, radioimmune assay (RIA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Total Ig and TgAb production was maximal using MNC cultured at 1.0 x 10 6 /ml as estimated by PFC, RIA and ELISA. The Ig and TgAb production as measured by RIA and ELISA was 1.5 - 3 times higher after 12 days' culture compared to 6 days' culture. Ig and TgAb production measured by PFC-assays at day 6 correlated positively to the results obtained by RIA and ELISA at day 12. PWM-induced TgAb secretion correlated positively to TgAb titres in serum. As judged by PFC, TgAb production was found in 8/9 patients; about 5% (range 0 - 7.9%) of the total PWM-stimulated IgG-secreting cells were involved in TgAb secretion. TgAb production as measured by ELISA and RIA was found in 6/9 patients. By reference to an affinity-purified human TgAb preparation, the TgAb secretion was about 0.7% (range 0 - 21.3%) of the total PWM-induced IgG secretion. (author)

  15. Typical and Atypical Antipsychotic Drugs Increase Extracellular Histamine Levels in the Rat Medial Prefrontal Cortex: Contribution of Histamine H1 Receptor Blockade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjell A Svensson

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Atypical antipsychotics such as clozapine and olanzapine have been shown to enhance histamine turnover and this effect has been hypothesized to contribute to their improved therapeutic profile compared to typical antipsychotics. In the present study, we examined the effects of antipsychotic drugs on histamine (HA efflux in the mPFC of the rat by means of in vivo microdialysis and sought to differentiate the receptor mechanisms which underlie such effects. Olanzapine and clozapine increased mPFC HA efflux in a dose related manner. Increased HA efflux was also observed after quetiapine, chlorpromazine and perphenazine treatment. We found no effect of the selective 5-HT2A antagonist MDL100907, 5-HT2c antagonist SB242084 or the 5-HT6 antagonist Ro 04-6790 on mPFC HA efflux. HA efflux was increased following treatment with selective H1 receptor antagonists pyrilamine, diphenhydramine and triprolidine, the H3 receptor antagonist ciproxifan and the mixed 5HT2A/H1 receptor antagonist ketanserin. The potential novel antipsychotic drug FMPD, which has a lower affinity at H1 receptors than olanzapine, did not affect HA efflux. Similarly, other antipsychotics with lower H1 receptor affinity (risperidone, aripiprazole and haloperidol were also without effect on HA efflux. Perfusion of clozapine and pyrilamine into the TMN, but not the mPFC, increased local HA efflux. Finally, HA efflux after antipsychotic treatment was significantly correlated with affinity at H1 receptors whereas 9 other receptors, including 5-HT2A, were not. These results demonstrate that both typical and atypical antipsychotics increase mPFC histamine efflux and this effect may be mediated via antagonism of histamine H1 receptors.

  16. Rostro-caudal and dorso-ventral gradients in medial and lateral prefrontal cortex during cognitive control of affective and cognitive interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahm, Christoffer; Liberg, Benny; Wiberg-Kristoffersen, Maria; Aspelin, Peter; Msghina, Mussie

    2013-04-01

    Characterizing the anatomical substrates of major brain functions such as cognition and emotion is of utmost importance to the ongoing efforts of understanding the nature of psychiatric ailments and their potential treatment. The aim of our study was to investigate how the brain handles affective and cognitive interferences on cognitive processes. Functional magnetic resonance imaging investigation was performed on healthy individuals, comparing the brain oxygenation level dependent activation patterns during affective and cognitive counting Stroop tasks. The affective Stroop task activated rostral parts of medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) and rostral and ventral parts of lateral PFC, while cognitive Stroop activated caudal parts of medial PFC and caudal and dorsal parts of lateral PFC. Our findings suggest that the brain may handle affective and cognitive interference on cognitive processes differentially, with affective interference preferentially activating rostral and ventral PFC networks and cognitive interference activating caudal and dorsal PFC networks. © 2013 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2013 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  17. Correlation between total vitamin D levels and psychotic psychopathology in patients with schizophrenia: therapeutic implications for add-on vitamin D augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksel, Rabia Nazik; Altunsoy, Neslihan; Tikir, Baise; Cingi Külük, Merve; Unal, Kubranur; Goka, Sema; Aydemir, Cigdem; Goka, Erol

    2014-12-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is one of the implicated factors in ethio-pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Low serum vitamin D levels have been reported in many schizophrenia studies. However, the question is still not answered: Is there a correlation between disease activity and serum vitamin D levels? This is the first study evaluating the relationship between serum total vitamin D levels and disease activity, by comparing total vitamin D levels in two schizophrenia groups abruptly different in terms of disease activity. 41 patients with schizophrenia in remission, 40 patients with schizophrenia those in an acute episode and 40 age- and sex -matched controls with no major psychopatology were recruited in this study. Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the Clinical Global Impression - Severety scale (CGI-S) were used to evaluate disease activity. A demographic data form that included entries on age, gender, ethnicity, weight, skin color, daily duration of sun exposure and nutritional assessment were used. Blood samples were taken from all patients and controls. Total vitamin D (D2+D3), calcium, phosphor, parathyroid hormone values were measured. Patients in an acute episode had significantly lower vitamin D levels compared to patients in remission and to healthy controls (in terms of median values respectively, 7.18, 15.03, 15.02, p vitamin D levels and CGI scores (r = -0.624, p vitamin D levels and PANNS scores (r = -0.508, p vitamin D levels. Even though important factors for vitamin D synthesis were similar, there was severe vitamin D deficiency in patients presenting with an acute episode, significantly different from those in remission. Is vitamin D deficiency the result or the cause of an acute episode? Our results contribute to the idea that vitamin D deficiency and schizophrenia may have interactions with an unknown pathway. Present data points out a possible influence at a genomic level. Future trials may investigate this association with longer follow up

  18. Neuro-Epigenetic Indications of Acute Stress Response in Humans: The Case of MicroRNA-29c.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Vaisvaser

    Full Text Available Stress research has progressively become more integrative in nature, seeking to unfold crucial relations between the different phenotypic levels of stress manifestations. This study sought to unravel stress-induced variations in expression of human microRNAs sampled in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and further assess their relationship with neuronal and psychological indices. We obtained blood samples from 49 healthy male participants before and three hours after performing a social stress task, while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. A seed-based functional connectivity (FC analysis was conducted for the ventro-medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC, a key area of stress regulation. Out of hundreds of microRNAs, a specific increase was identified in microRNA-29c (miR-29c expression, corresponding with both the experience of sustained stress via self-reports, and alterations in vmPFC functional connectivity. Explicitly, miR-29c expression levels corresponded with both increased connectivity of the vmPFC with the anterior insula (aIns, and decreased connectivity of the vmPFC with the left dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC. Our findings further revealed that miR-29c mediates an indirect path linking enhanced vmPFC-aIns connectivity during stress with subsequent experiences of sustained stress. The correlative patterns of miR-29c expression and vmPFC FC, along with the mediating effects on subjective stress sustainment and the presumed localization of miR-29c in astrocytes, together point to an intriguing assumption; miR-29c may serve as a biomarker in the blood for stress-induced functional neural alterations reflecting regulatory processes. Such a multi-level model may hold the key for future personalized intervention in stress psychopathology.

  19. Economical Appraisal of Total Aflatoxin Level in the Poultry Feeds by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherazai, S.T.H.; Shar, Z.; Iqbal, M.; Sumbal, G.A.

    2013-01-01

    Single-bounce attenuated total reflectance (SB-ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy has been used for the quantitative determination of total aflatoxins in the broiler poultry feed. An FTIR calibration spanning the range 1-70 micro g/L aflatoxin standards in (70:30, v/v) methanol-water solvent system based on partial least square (PLS) model, developed by relating mid IR region between 3755-950 cm/ sub -1/. The excellent coefficient of various (using 0.998) was achieved with 1.49 relative mean square error of calibration (RMSEC). Aflatoxins from each of eight poultry feeds was extracted and the determined by the widely used commercially available Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) procedure and the SB-ATR/FTIR method. The SB-ATR/FTIR aflatoxins predictions were related to those determined by the ELISA method by linear regression, producing an R value of 0.989 and a SD of +- 2.80 micro g/L. The result of the study clearly indicated that FT-IR spectroscopy due to its rapidity and simplicity along with data manipulation by advance computer software could be effectively used for routine determination of aflatoxins present in the poultry feeds at very low level. (author)

  20. Synapse density and dendritic complexity are reduced in the prefrontal cortex following seven days of forced abstinence from cocaine self-administration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khampaseuth Rasakham

    Full Text Available Chronic cocaine exposure in both human addicts and in rodent models of addiction reduces prefrontal cortical activity, which subsequently dysregulates reward processing and higher order executive function. The net effect of this impaired gating of behavior is enhanced vulnerability to relapse. Previously we have shown that cocaine-induced increases in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF expression in the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC is a neuroadaptive mechanism that blunts the reinforcing efficacy of cocaine. As BDNF is known to affect neuronal survival and synaptic plasticity, we tested the hypothesis that abstinence from cocaine self-administration would lead to alterations in neuronal morphology and synaptic density in the PFC. Using a novel technique, array tomography and Golgi staining, morphological changes in the rat PFC were analyzed following 14 days of cocaine self-administration and 7 days of forced abstinence. Our results indicate that overall dendritic branching and total synaptic density are significantly reduced in the rat PFC. In contrast, the density of thin dendritic spines are significantly increased on layer V pyramidal neurons of the PFC. These findings indicate that dynamic structural changes occur during cocaine abstinence that may contribute to the observed hypo-activity of the PFC in cocaine-addicted individuals.

  1. The release of noradrenaline in the locus coeruleus and prefrontal cortex studied with dual-probe microdialysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pudovkina, O; Kawahara, Y; de Vries, J.B; Westerink, B.H.C.

    2001-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate and compare the properties of noradrenaline release in the locus coeruleus (LC) and prefrontal cortex (PFC). For that aim the dual-probe microdialysis technique was applied for simultaneous detection of noradrenaline levels in the LC and PFC in

  2. Aerobic Stability and Effects of Yeasts during Deterioration of Non-fermented and Fermented Total Mixed Ration with Different Moisture Levels

    OpenAIRE

    W. Hao; H. L. Wang; T. T. Ning; F. Y. Yang; C. C. Xu

    2015-01-01

    The present experiment evaluated the influence of moisture level and anaerobic fermentation on aerobic stability of total mixed ration (TMR). The dynamic changes in chemical composition and microbial population that occur after air exposure were examined, and the species of yeast associated with the deterioration process were also identified in both non-fermented and fermented TMR to deepen the understanding of aerobic deterioration. The moisture levels of TMR in this experiment were adjusted...

  3. Determination of total hydrocarbons levels in some marine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pachyelina aurita), mussels (Mylitus edulis) and mangrove Oysters (Cassostrea gasar) from polluted and unpolluted (i.e. control) sampling stations in parts of the Niger Delta area has been assessed. Statistical results revealed that the THC levels ...

  4. Estonian total ozone climatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Eerme

    Full Text Available The climatological characteristics of total ozone over Estonia based on the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS data are discussed. The mean annual cycle during 1979–2000 for the site at 58.3° N and 26.5° E is compiled. The available ground-level data interpolated before TOMS, have been used for trend detection. During the last two decades, the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO corrected systematic decrease of total ozone from February–April was 3 ± 2.6% per decade. Before 1980, a spring decrease was not detectable. No decreasing trend was found in either the late autumn ozone minimum or in the summer total ozone. The QBO related signal in the spring total ozone has an amplitude of ± 20 DU and phase lag of 20 months. Between 1987–1992, the lagged covariance between the Singapore wind and the studied total ozone was weak. The spring (April–May and summer (June–August total ozone have the best correlation (coefficient 0.7 in the yearly cycle. The correlation between the May and August total ozone is higher than the one between the other summer months. Seasonal power spectra of the total ozone variance show preferred periods with an over 95% significance level. Since 1986, during the winter/spring, the contribution period of 32 days prevails instead of the earlier dominating 26 days. The spectral densities of the periods from 4 days to 2 weeks exhibit high interannual variability.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (middle atmosphere – composition and chemistry; volcanic effects – Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (climatology

  5. Methylphenidate and Atomoxetine Enhance Prefrontal Function through alpha[subscript 2]-Adrenergic and Dopamine D[subscript 1] Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamo, Nao J.; Wang, Min; Arnsten, Amy F. T.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the effects of the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder treatments, methylphenidate (MPH) and atomoxetine (ATM), on prefrontal cortex (PFC) function in monkeys and explored the receptor mechanisms underlying enhancement of PFC function at the behavioral and cellular levels. Method: Monkeys performed a working…

  6. Automatic control of the NMB level in general anaesthesia with a switching total system mass control strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Miguel; Mendonça, Teresa; Rocha, Paula; Rabiço, Rui

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a model based switching control strategy to drive the neuromuscular blockade (NMB) level of patients undergoing general anesthesia to a predefined reference. A single-input single-output Wiener system with only two parameters is used to model the effect of two different muscle relaxants, atracurium and rocuronium, and a switching controller is designed based on a bank of total system mass control laws. Each of such laws is tuned for an individual model from a bank chosen to represent the behavior of the whole population. The control law to be applied at each instant corresponds to the model whose NMB response is closer to the patient's response. Moreover a scheme to improve the reference tracking quality based on the analysis of the patient's response, as well as, a comparison between the switching strategy and the Extended Kalman Kilter (EKF) technique are presented. The results are illustrated by means of several simulations, where switching shows to provide good results, both in theory and in practice, with a desirable reference tracking. The reference tracking improvement technique is able to produce a better reference tracking. Also, this technique showed a better performance than the (EKF). Based on these results, the switching control strategy with a bank of total system mass control laws proved to be robust enough to be used as an automatic control system for the NMB level.

  7. Are total, intensity- and domain-specific physical activity levels associated with life satisfaction among university students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedišić, Željko; Greblo, Zrinka; Phongsavan, Philayrath; Milton, Karen; Bauman, Adrian E

    2015-01-01

    Thorough information about the relationship between physical activity (PA) and life satisfaction is still lacking. Therefore, this study examined the cross-sectional relationships between life satisfaction and meeting the World Health Organization (WHO) moderate to vigorous-intensity PA recommendations, total volume and duration of PA, intensity-specific PA (walking, moderate- and vigorous-intensity), domain-specific PA (work, transport-related, domestic, and leisure-time), and 11 domain and intensity-specific PA types among university students. Additionally, we examined the associations between life satisfaction and gender, age, disposable income, community size, smoking, alcohol intake, body mass index (BMI), and self-rated health. The study included a random sample of 1750 university students in Zagreb, Croatia (response rate = 71.7%; 62.4% females; mean age 21.5 ± 1.8 years), using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-long form and the Satisfaction with Life Scale. Higher life satisfaction was associated with female gender (β = 0.13; p = leisure-time vigorous-intensity PA was significantly associated with life satisfaction after adjustments for socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle and self-rated general health (β = 0.06; p = 0.045). This study indicated a weak positive relationship between leisure-time vigorous-intensity PA and life satisfaction, whilst no such association was found for other PA variables. These findings underscore the importance of analyzing domain and intensity-specific PA levels in future studies among university students, as drawing conclusions about the relationship between PA and life satisfaction based on total PA levels only may be misleading.

  8. A semi-immersive virtual reality incremental swing balance task activates prefrontal cortex: a functional near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso Moro, Sara; Bisconti, Silvia; Muthalib, Makii; Spezialetti, Matteo; Cutini, Simone; Ferrari, Marco; Placidi, Giuseppe; Quaresima, Valentina

    2014-01-15

    Previous functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) studies indicated that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is involved in the maintenance of the postural balance after external perturbations. So far, no studies have been conducted to investigate the PFC hemodynamic response to virtual reality (VR) tasks that could be adopted in the field of functional neurorehabilitation. The aim of this fNIRS study was to assess PFC oxygenation response during an incremental and a control swing balance task (ISBT and CSBT, respectively) in a semi-immersive VR environment driven by a depth-sensing camera. It was hypothesized that: i) the PFC would be bilaterally activated in response to the increase of the ISBT difficulty, as this cortical region is involved in the allocation of attentional resources to maintain postural control; and ii) the PFC activation would be greater in the right than in the left hemisphere considering its dominance for visual control of body balance. To verify these hypotheses, 16 healthy male subjects were requested to stand barefoot while watching a 3 dimensional virtual representation of themselves projected onto a screen. They were asked to maintain their equilibrium on a virtual blue swing board susceptible to external destabilizing perturbations (i.e., randomizing the forward-backward direction of the impressed pulse force) during a 3-min ISBT (performed at four levels of difficulty) or during a 3-min CSBT (performed constantly at the lowest level of difficulty of the ISBT). The center of mass (COM), at each frame, was calculated and projected on the floor. When the subjects were unable to maintain the COM over the board, this became red (error). After each error, the time required to bring back the COM on the board was calculated (returning time). An eight-channel continuous wave fNIRS system was employed for measuring oxygenation changes (oxygenated-hemoglobin, O2Hb; deoxygenated-hemoglobin, HHb) related to the PFC activation (Brodmann Areas 10, 11

  9. Involvement of serotonin 2A receptor activation in modulating medial prefrontal cortex and amygdala neuronal activation during novelty-exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervig, Mona El-Sayed; Jensen, Nadja Cecilie Hvid; Rasmussen, Nadja Bredo; Rydbirk, Rasmus; Olesen, Mikkel Vestergaard; Hay-Schmidt, Anders; Pakkenberg, Bente; Aznar, Susana

    2017-05-30

    The medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays a major role in executive function by exerting a top-down control onto subcortical areas. Novelty-induced frontal cortex activation is 5-HT 2A receptor (5-HT 2A R) dependent. Here, we further investigated how blockade of 5-HT 2A Rs in mice exposed to a novel open-field arena affects medial PFC activation and basolateral amygdala (BLA) reactivity. We used c-Fos immunoreactivity (IR) as a marker of neuronal activation and stereological quantification for obtaining the total number of c-Fos-IR neurons as a measure of regional activation. We further examined the impact of 5-HT 2A R blockade on the striatal-projecting BLA neurons. Systemic administration of ketanserin (0.5mg/kg) prior to novel open-field exposure resulted in reduced total numbers of c-Fos-IR cells in dorsomedial PFC areas and the BLA. Moreover, there was a positive correlation between the relative time spent in the centre of the open-field and BLA c-Fos-IR in the ketanserin-treated animals. Unilateral medial PFC lesions blocked this effect, ascertaining an involvement of this frontal cortex area. On the other hand, medial PFC lesioning exacerbated the more anxiogenic-like behaviour of the ketanserin-treated animals, upholding its involvement in modulating averseness. Ketanserin did not affect the number of activated striatal-projecting BLA neurons (measured by number of Cholera Toxin b (CTb) retrograde labelled neurons also being c-Fos-IR) following CTb injection in the ventral striatum. These results support a role of 5-HT 2A R activation in modulating mPFC and BLA activation during exposure to a novel environment, which may be interrelated. Conversely, 5-HT 2A R blockade does not seem to affect the amygdala-striatal projection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. How much locomotive activity is needed for an active physical activity level: analysis of total step counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohkawara Kazunori

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although physical activity recommendations for public health have focused on locomotive activity such as walking and running, it is uncertain how much these activities contribute to overall physical activity level (PAL. The purpose of the present study was to determine the contribution of locomotive activity to PAL using total step counts measured in a calorimeter study. Methods PAL, calculated as total energy expenditure divided by basal metabolic rate, was evaluated in 11 adult men using three different conditions for 24-hour human calorimeter measurements: a low-activity day (L-day targeted at a low active level of PAL (1.45, and a high-frequency moderate activity day (M-day or a high-frequency vigorous activity day (V-day targeted at an active level of PAL (1.75. These subjects were permitted only light activities except prescribed activities. In a separate group of 41 adults, free-living PAL was evaluated using doubly-labeled water (DLW. In both experiments, step counts per day were also measured using an accelerometer. Results In the human calorimeter study, PAL and step counts were 1.42 ± 0.10 and 8,973 ± 543 steps/d (L-day, 1.82 ± 0.14 and 29,588 ± 1,126 steps/d (M-day, and 1.74 ± 0.15 and 23,755 ± 1,038 steps/d (V-day, respectively. In the DLW study, PAL and step counts were 1.73 ± 0.15 and 10,022 ± 2,605 steps/d, and there was no significant relationship between PAL and daily step counts. Conclusions These results indicate that an enormous number of steps are needed for an active level of PAL if individuals extend physical activity-induced energy expenditure by only locomotive activity. Therefore, non-locomotive activity such as household activity should also play a significant role in increasing PAL under free-living conditions.

  11. Dysfunctional GABAergic inhibition in the prefrontal cortex leading to "psychotic" hyperactivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaka Shoji

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The GABAergic system in the brain seems to be dysfunctional in various psychiatric disorders. Many studies have suggested so far that, in schizophrenia patients, GABAergic inhibition is selectively but consistently reduced in the prefrontal cortex (PFC. Results This study used a computational model of the PFC to investigate the dynamics of the PFC circuit with and without chandelier cells and other GABAergic interneurons. The inhibition by GABAergic interneurons other than chandelier cells effectively regulated the PFC activity with rather low or modest levels of dopaminergic neurotransmission. This activity of the PFC is associated with normal cognitive functions and has an inverted-U shaped profile of dopaminergic modulation. In contrast, the chandelier cell-type inhibition affected only the PFC circuit dynamics in hyperdopaminergic conditions. Reduction of chandelier cell-type inhibition resulted in bistable dynamics of the PFC circuit, in which the upper stable state is associated with a hyperactive mode. When both types of inhibition were reduced, this hyperactive mode and the conventional inverted-U mode merged. Conclusion The results of our simulation suggest that, in schizophrenia, a reduction of GABAergic inhibition increases vulnerability to psychosis by (i producing the hyperactive mode of the PFC with hyperdopaminergic neurotransmission by dysfunctional chandelier cells and (ii increasing the probability of the transition to the hyperactive mode from the conventional inverted-U mode by dysfunctional GABAergic interneurons.

  12. First trimester serum levels of the soluble transcobalamin receptor, holo-transcobalamin, and total transcobalamin in relation to preeclampsia risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abuyaman, Omar; Torring, Niels; Obeid, Rima

    2016-01-01

    transcobalamin (TC) with the risk of subsequent preeclampsia using serum samples from asymptomatic first trimester pregnant women. Moreover, we aimed to establish reference intervals of the aforementioned biomarkers for first trimester pregnant women who remained healthy throughout pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN...... preeclampsia while the controls remained normotensive throughout pregnancy. We measured the serum concentration of sCD320, holoTC, and total TC by using in-house ELISA methods. RESULTS: First trimester median concentrations of sCD320, holoTC and total TC were not significantly different between cases...... and controls. The odd ratio for developing preeclampsia based on exposure to low or high levels of sCD320, holoTC or total TC at first trimester was not significant. The reference intervals (2.5-97.5% percentiles (median)) derived from the controls were 50-170 (90) pmol\\L for sCD320, 20-140 (70) pmol...

  13. Serum total homocysteine and lipoprotein (a) levels in acute myocardial infarction and their response to treatment with vitamins serum total homocysteine and lipoprotein (a) levels in acute myocardial infarction and their response to treatment with vitamins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haq, A.M.M.; Huque, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    To assess the relationship of serum total homocysteine (tHcy) and lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] levels with systemic hypertension, Diabetes mellitus and smoking as risk factors in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and changes in the former levels with vitamins supplementation. Study Design: An interventional study. Place and Duration of Study: Medical College for Women and Hospital (MCW and H), Dhaka, Bangladesh, from July 2008 to December 2009. Methodology: Consecutive AMI patients were recruited from the Coronary Care Unit (CCU) at MCW and H, Dhaka. Blood samples were collected at inclusion (Patient-I0). They were given conventional treatments and prescribed vitamins (vitamins B6=25 mg, B12=2 mg and folic acid=2.5 mg) daily for 2 months. After follow-up, blood samples were taken again (Patient-II0). A group of 25 normal subjects were also included as controls. Serum tHcy and Lp(a) were measured by kinetic method and nephelometric method respectively. Results: Serum tHcy (macor mol/L) and Lp(a) (mg/dl) levels were elevated in Patient-I that reduced in Patient-II after vitamins supplementation, but not to the normal control level. tHcy of Patient-I0 was 25.1 +- 4.7 macro mol/L, of Patient-II0 was 20.1 +- 4.5 mu mol/L and of controls 12.1 +- 3.3, p 0.1). However, in a significant proportion of patients tHcy and Lp(a) levels were reduced to control levels (tHcy: p < 0.001, Lp(a): p < 0.01). Conclusion: These results indicated that tHcy and Lp(a) levels were possibly atherogenic risk factors independent of conventional risk factors. Since both tHcy and Lp(a) levels responded in a similar fashion, a common point of the metabolic and pathogenetic pathways of tHcy and Lp(a) may be influenced by the vitamins supplementation. (author)

  14. Cerebrospinal fluid lactate levels and brain [18F]FDG PET hypometabolism within the default mode network in Alzheimer's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liguori, Claudio [University of Rome ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Neurophysiopathology Unit, Department of Systems Medicine, Rome (Italy); University of Rome ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Neurology Unit, Department of Systems Medicine, Rome (Italy); Chiaravalloti, Agostino; Schillaci, Orazio [University of Rome ' Tor Vergata' , Department of Biomedicine and Prevention, Rome (Italy); IRCSS Neuromed, Pozzilli (Italy); Sancesario, Giuseppe; Stefani, Alessandro [University of Rome ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Neurology Unit, Department of Systems Medicine, Rome (Italy); IRCCS Fondazione Santa Lucia, Rome (Italy); Sancesario, Giulia Maria [IRCCS Fondazione Santa Lucia, Rome (Italy); Mercuri, Nicola Biagio [University of Rome ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Neurophysiopathology Unit, Department of Systems Medicine, Rome (Italy); University of Rome ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Neurology Unit, Department of Systems Medicine, Rome (Italy); IRCCS Fondazione Santa Lucia, Rome (Italy); Pierantozzi, Mariangela [University of Rome ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Neurology Unit, Department of Systems Medicine, Rome (Italy)

    2016-10-15

    It has been suggested that neuronal energy metabolism may be involved in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this view, the finding of increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lactate levels in AD patients has been considered the result of energetic metabolism dysfunction. Here, we investigated the relationship between neuronal energy metabolism, as measured via CSF lactate levels, and cerebral glucose metabolism, as stated at the 2-deoxy-2-(18F)fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography ([18F]FDG PET) in AD patients. AD patients underwent lumbar puncture to measure CSF lactate levels and [18F]FDG PET to assess brain glucose metabolism. CSF and PET data were compared to controls. Since patients were studied at rest, we specifically investigated brain areas active in rest-condition owing to the Default Mode Network (DMN). We correlated the CSF lactate concentrations with the [18F]FDG PET data in brain areas owing to the DMN, using sex, age, disease duration, Mini Mental State Examination, and CSF levels of tau proteins and beta-amyloid as covariates. AD patients (n = 32) showed a significant increase of CSF lactate levels compared to Control 1 group (n = 28). They also showed brain glucose hypometabolism in the DMN areas compared to Control 2 group (n = 30). Within the AD group we found the significant correlation between increased CSF lactate levels and glucose hypometabolism in Broadman areas (BA) owing to left medial prefrontal cortex (BA10, mPFC), left orbitofrontal cortex (BA11, OFC), and left parahippocampal gyrus (BA 35, PHG). We found high CSF levels of lactate and glucose hypometabolism within the DMN in AD patients. Moreover, we found a relationship linking the increased CSF lactate and the reduced glucose consumption in the left mPFC, OFC and PHG, owing to the anterior hub of DMN. These findings could suggest that neural glucose hypometabolism may affect the DMN efficiency in AD, also proposing the possible role of damaged brain energetic machine in impairing

  15. Cerebrospinal fluid lactate levels and brain [18F]FDG PET hypometabolism within the default mode network in Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liguori, Claudio; Chiaravalloti, Agostino; Schillaci, Orazio; Sancesario, Giuseppe; Stefani, Alessandro; Sancesario, Giulia Maria; Mercuri, Nicola Biagio; Pierantozzi, Mariangela

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that neuronal energy metabolism may be involved in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this view, the finding of increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lactate levels in AD patients has been considered the result of energetic metabolism dysfunction. Here, we investigated the relationship between neuronal energy metabolism, as measured via CSF lactate levels, and cerebral glucose metabolism, as stated at the 2-deoxy-2-(18F)fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography ([18F]FDG PET) in AD patients. AD patients underwent lumbar puncture to measure CSF lactate levels and [18F]FDG PET to assess brain glucose metabolism. CSF and PET data were compared to controls. Since patients were studied at rest, we specifically investigated brain areas active in rest-condition owing to the Default Mode Network (DMN). We correlated the CSF lactate concentrations with the [18F]FDG PET data in brain areas owing to the DMN, using sex, age, disease duration, Mini Mental State Examination, and CSF levels of tau proteins and beta-amyloid as covariates. AD patients (n = 32) showed a significant increase of CSF lactate levels compared to Control 1 group (n = 28). They also showed brain glucose hypometabolism in the DMN areas compared to Control 2 group (n = 30). Within the AD group we found the significant correlation between increased CSF lactate levels and glucose hypometabolism in Broadman areas (BA) owing to left medial prefrontal cortex (BA10, mPFC), left orbitofrontal cortex (BA11, OFC), and left parahippocampal gyrus (BA 35, PHG). We found high CSF levels of lactate and glucose hypometabolism within the DMN in AD patients. Moreover, we found a relationship linking the increased CSF lactate and the reduced glucose consumption in the left mPFC, OFC and PHG, owing to the anterior hub of DMN. These findings could suggest that neural glucose hypometabolism may affect the DMN efficiency in AD, also proposing the possible role of damaged brain energetic machine in impairing

  16. Partitioning behaviour of perfluorinated alkyl contaminants between water, sediment and fish in the Orge River (nearby Paris, France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labadie, Pierre; Chevreuil, Marc

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on the partitioning behaviour of 15 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), including C 4 -C 10 sulfonates and C 5 -C 14 carboxylic acids, between water, sediment and fish (European chub, Leuciscus cephalus) in the Orge River (nearby Paris). Total PFC levels were 73.0 ± 3.0 ng L -1 in water and 8.4 ± 0.5 ng g -1 in sediment. They were in the range 43.1-4997.2 ng g -1 in fish, in which PFC tissue distribution followed the order plasma > liver > gills > gonads > muscle. Sediment-water distribution coefficients (log K d ) and bioaccumulation factors (log BAF) were in the range 0.8-4.3 and 0.9-6.7, respectively. Both distribution coefficients positively correlated with perfluoroalkyl chain length. Field-based biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) are also reported, for the first time for PFCs other than perfluorooctane sulfonate. log BSAF ranged between -1.3 and 1.5 and was negatively correlated with the perfluoroalkyl chain length in the case of carboxylic acids. - Research highlights: → PFC tissue distribution in European chub followed the order plasma > liver > gills > gonads > muscle. → K d and BAF correlated with PFC alkyl chain length. → BSAF negatively correlated with the perfluoroalkyl chain length in the case of carboxylic acids. → BSAF did not correlate with alkyl chain length of sulfonates. - Sediment-water, biota-water and biota-sediment partitioning coefficients were determined for perfluorinated acids and sulfonates and were generally correlated with alkyl chain length.

  17. Design of The High Efficiency Power Factor Correction Circuit for Power Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atiye Hülya OBDAN

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Designing power factor correction circuits for switched power supplies has become important in recent years in terms of efficient use of energy. Power factor correction techniques play a significant role in high power density and energy efficiency. For these purposes, bridgeless PFC topologies and control strategies have been developed alongside basic boost PFC circuits. The power density can be increased using bridgeless structures by means of reducing losses in the circuit. This article examines bridgeless PFC structures and compares their performances in terms of losses and power factor. A semi-bridgeless PFC, which is widely used at high power levels, was analyzed and simulated. The designed circuit simulation using the current mode control method was performed in the PSIM program. A prototype of a 900 W semi-bridgeless PFC circuit was implemented and the results obtained from the circuit are presented

  18. Implementing low power consumption in standby mode in the case of power supplies with power factor correction

    OpenAIRE

    Martín, Kevin; F., Pablo; G., Diego; Sebastián, Javier; Álvarez, Santiago

    2017-01-01

    This work analyzes different options to implement low power consumption in Switching Mode Power Supplies (SMPSs) with Power Factor Correction (PFC) when they are in standby mode. The standard SMPSs for power levels higher than 100 W are made up of two stages: a classical PFC stage based on a Boost Converter operating in the Continuous Conduction Mode and a second stage based on any type of isolated DC-DC converter. The value of the resistive sensors needed by the PFC control stage determines ...

  19. Association of Seminal Plasma Total Antioxidant Capacity and Malondialdehyde Levels With Sperm Parameters in Infertile Men With Varicocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salimi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Varicocele is one of the most common reasons for male infertility and could impair spermatogenesis through mechanisms that are not well known. Recently, oxidative stress has been introduced as a major reason for male infertility caused by varicocele. Objectives In the current study, we aimed to assess the TAC (total antioxidant capacity and MDA (malondialdehyde as stress oxidative markers in infertile men with varicocele and fertile men, and moreover, their correlation with sperm parameters. Patients and Methods This case control study was performed on 43 infertile men with varicocele and 46 men with proven fertility. The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP and thiobarbituric acid (TBA reaction methods were used for seminal plasma TAC and MDA assay, respectively. Results Lower TAC levels (1.7 ± 0.2 vs. 1.3 ± 0.4 mmol/L, P = 0.0004 and higher MDA levels (2.5 ± 1.1 vs. 5.8 ± 1.9 mmol/L, P < 0.0001 were observed in infertile men with varicocele compared to fertile men. There was no correlation between TAC and MDA in fertile men (r = 0.02, P = 0.9, however, a negative correlation was found between TAC and MDA levels in varicocele infertile men (r = −0.44, P = 0.003. Moreover, a positive correlation was found between sperm count and sperm motility with TAC levels in varicocele infertile men (r = 0.4, P = 0.02 and r = 0.6, P < 0.0001, respectively. There was a correlation between sperm motility and TAC levels in fertile men (r = 0.5, P = 0.001, but other parameters did not correlate with TAC in this group. A negative correlation was shown between semen volume, sperm count, total sperm, sperm motility, and sperm morphology with MDA levels in varicocele infertile men (r = 0.3, P = 0.045; r = −0.4, P = 0.009; r = −0.5, P = 0.002; r = −0.5, P = 0.001 and r = −0.4, P = 0.008, respectively. There was no correlation between these parameters and MDA in fertile men. Conclusions Our findings indicated that oxidative stress could

  20. Association Between Baseline LDL-C Level and Total and Cardiovascular Mortality After LDL-C Lowering: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarese, Eliano P; Robinson, Jennifer G; Kowalewski, Mariusz; Kolodziejczak, Michalina; Andreotti, Felicita; Bliden, Kevin; Tantry, Udaya; Kubica, Jacek; Raggi, Paolo; Gurbel, Paul A

    2018-04-17

    Effects on specific fatal and nonfatal end points appear to vary for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)-lowering drug trials. To evaluate whether baseline LDL-C level is associated with total and cardiovascular mortality risk reductions. Electronic databases (Cochrane, MEDLINE, EMBASE, TCTMD, ClinicalTrials.gov, major congress proceedings) were searched through February 2, 2018, to identify randomized clinical trials of statins, ezetimibe, and PCSK9-inhibiting monoclonal antibodies. Two investigators abstracted data and appraised risks of bias. Intervention groups were categorized as "more intensive" (more potent pharmacologic intervention) or "less intensive" (less potent, placebo, or control group). The coprimary end points were total mortality and cardiovascular mortality. Random-effects meta-regression and meta-analyses evaluated associations between baseline LDL-C level and reductions in mortality end points and secondary end points including major adverse cardiac events (MACE). In 34 trials, 136 299 patients received more intensive and 133 989 received less intensive LDL-C lowering. All-cause mortality was lower for more vs less intensive therapy (7.08% vs 7.70%; rate ratio [RR], 0.92 [95% CI, 0.88 to 0.96]), but varied by baseline LDL-C level. Meta-regression showed more intensive LDL-C lowering was associated with greater reductions in all-cause mortality with higher baseline LDL-C levels (change in RRs per 40-mg/dL increase in baseline LDL-C, 0.91 [95% CI, 0.86 to 0.96]; P = .001; absolute risk difference [ARD], -1.05 incident cases per 1000 person-years [95% CI, -1.59 to -0.51]), but only when baseline LDL-C levels were 100 mg/dL or greater (P baseline LDL-C level. Meta-regression showed more intensive LDL-C lowering was associated with a greater reduction in cardiovascular mortality with higher baseline LDL-C levels (change in RRs per 40-mg/dL increase in baseline LDL-C, 0.86 [95% CI, 0.80 to 0.94]; P baseline LDL-C levels were 100

  1. Daily total physical activity level and premature death in men and women: results from a large-scale population-based cohort study in Japan (JPHC study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Manami; Iso, Hiroyasu; Yamamoto, Seiichiro; Kurahashi, Norie; Iwasaki, Motoki; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2008-07-01

    The impact of daily total physical activity level on premature deaths has not been fully clarified in non-Western, relatively lean populations. We prospectively examined the association between daily total physical activity level (METs/day) and subsequent risk of all-cause mortality and mortalities from cancer, heart disease, and cerebrovascular disease. A total of 83,034 general Japanese citizens ages 45-74 years who responded to the questionnaire in 1995-1999 were followed for any cause of death through December 2005. Mutlivariate-adjusted hazard ratios were calculated with a Cox proportional hazards model controlling for potential confounding factors. During follow-up, a total of 4564 deaths were recorded. Compared with subjects in the lowest quartile, increased daily total physical activity was associated with a significantly decreased risk of all-cause mortality in both sexes (hazard ratios for the second, third, and highest quartiles were: men, 0.79, 0.82, 0.73 and women, 0.75, 0.64, 0.61, respectively). The decreased risk was observed regardless of age, frequency of leisure-time sports or physical exercise, or obesity status, albeit with a degree of risk attenuation among those with a high body mass index. A significantly decreased risk was similarly observed for death from cancer and heart disease in both sexes, and from cerebrovascular disease in women. Greater daily total physical activity level, either from occupation, daily life, or leisure time, may be of benefit in preventing premature death.

  2. Determination and assessment of total mercury levels in local, frozen and canned fish in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeid, Pierre J; El-Khoury, Bilal; Burger, Joanne; Aouad, Samer; Younis, Mira; Aoun, Amal; El-Nakat, John Hanna

    2011-01-01

    Fish is an important constituent of the Lebanese diet. However, very little attention in our area is given to bring awareness regarding the effect of the toxicity of mercury (Hg) mainly through fish consumption. This study aimed to report analytical data on total mercury levels in several fish species for the first time in thirty years and to also made individuals aware of the presence and danger from exposure to mercury through fish consumption. Fish samples were selected from local Lebanese markets and fisheries and included 94 samples of which were fresh, frozen, processed, and canned fish. All values were reported as microgram of mercury per gram of fish based on wet weight. The level of mercury ranged from 0.0190 to 0.5700 microg/g in fresh samples, 0.0059 to 0.0665 microg/g in frozen samples, and 0.0305 to 0.1190 microg/g in canned samples. The data clearly showed that higher levels of mercury were detected in local fresh fish as opposed to other types thus placing consumers at higher risk from mercury exposure. Moreover, the data revealed that Mallifa (yellowstripe barracuda/Sphyraena chrysotaenia), Sargous (white seabream/Diplodus sargus), Ghobbos (bogue/Boops boops), and shrimp (Penaeus sp.) were among the types containing the highest amounts of mercury. On the other hand, processed fish such as fish fillet, fish burger, small shrimp and crab are found to contain lower levels of mercury and are associated with lower exposure risks to mercury. Lebanese population should therefore, be aware to consume limited amounts of fresh local fish to minimize exposure to mercury.

  3. Uric Acid or 1-Methyl Uric Acid in the Urinary Bladder Increases Serum Glucose, Insulin, True Triglyceride, and Total Cholesterol Levels in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Balasubramanian

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In animals deprived of food for a long period, a drop in the fat mass below 5% of the total body mass results in an increase in blood glucocorticoids and uric acid levels, followed by foraging activity. Since the glucocorticoids increase the uric acid excretion, an increase in the level of uric acid in the bladder urine could be the signal for this feeding behaviour and subsequent fat storage. Accumulation of fat is associated with hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinaemia, hyperlipidaemia, and hypercholesterolaemia as seen in the metabolic syndrome or hibernation. It is hypothesized that uric acid or its structurally related compound, 1-methyl uric acid (one of the metabolites of the methyl xanthines namely caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine present in coffee, tea, cocoa, and some drugs, can act on the urinary bladder mucosa and increases the blood glucose, insulin, triglyceride, and cholesterol levels. In rats, perfusion of the urinary bladder with saturated aqueous solution of uric acid or 1-methyl uric acid results in a significant increase in the serum levels of glucose, insulin, true triglyceride, and total cholesterol in comparison with perfusion of the bladder with distilled water at 20, 40, and 80 min. The uric acid or the 1-methyl uric acid acts on the urinary bladder mucosa and increases the serum glucose, insulin, true triglyceride, and total cholesterol levels.

  4. Involvement of serotonin 2A receptor activation in modulating medial prefrontal cortex and amygdala neuronal activation during novelty-exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hervig, Mona El-Sayed; Jensen, Nadja Cecilie Hvid; Rasmussen, Nadja Bredo

    2017-01-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays a major role in executive function by exerting a top-down control onto subcortical areas. Novelty-induced frontal cortex activation is 5-HT2A receptor (5-HT2AR) dependent. Here, we further investigated how blockade of 5-HT2ARs in mice exposed to a novel open-field...... of 5-HT2AR blockade on the striatal-projecting BLA neurons. Systemic administration of ketanserin (0.5 mg/kg) prior to novel open-field exposure resulted in reduced total numbers of c-Fos-IR cells in dorsomedial PFC areas and the BLA. Moreover, there was a positive correlation between the relative time...... spent in the centre of the open-field and BLA c-Fos-IR in the ketanserin-treated animals. Unilateral medial PFC lesions blocked this effect, ascertaining an involvement of this frontal cortex area. On the other hand, medial PFC lesioning exacerbated the more anxiogenic-like behaviour of the ketanserin...

  5. Discriminant analysis of functional optical topography for schizophrenia diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Ching-Cheng; Nakagome, Kazuyuki; Pu, Shenghong; Lan, Tsuo-Hung; Lee, Chia-Yen; Sun, Chia-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Abnormal prefrontal function plays a central role in the cognition deficits of schizophrenic patients; however, the character of the relationship between discriminant analysis and prefrontal activation remains undetermined. Recently, evidence of low prefrontal cortex (PFC) activation in individuals with schizophrenia has also been found during verbal fluency tests (VFT) and other cognitive tests with several neuroimaging methods. The purpose of this study is to assess the hemodynamic changes of the PFC and discriminant analysis between schizophrenia patients and healthy controls during VFT task by utilizing functional optical topography. A total of 99 subjects including 53 schizophrenic patients and 46 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were studied. The results showed that the healthy group had larger activation in the right and left PFC than in the middle PFC. Besides, the schizophrenic group showed weaker task performance and lower activation in the whole PFC than the healthy group. The result of the discriminant analysis showed a significant difference with P value <0.001 in six channels (CH 23, 29, 31, 40, 42, 52) between the schizophrenic and healthy groups. Finally, 68.69% and 71.72% of subjects are correctly classified as being schizophrenic or healthy with all 52 channels and six significantly different channels, respectively. Our findings suggest that the left PFC can be a feature region for discriminant analysis of schizophrenic diagnosis.

  6. Total Blood Mercury Levels and Depression among Adults in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Tsz Hin H.; Mossey, Jana M.; Lee, Brian K.

    2013-01-01

    Background Mercury is a neurotoxicant linked with psychiatric symptoms at high levels of exposure. However, it is unclear whether an association is present at the low exposure levels in the US adult population. Materials and Methods Cross-sectional associations of total blood mercury and depression were assessed in 6,911 adults age ≥20 in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2005–2008. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 was used to assess depression (high likelihood of a depressive spectrum disorder diagnosis; score 5–27). Results Unadjusted survey weighted logistic regression suggested that higher total blood mercury was associated with lower odds of depression (Odds Ratio  = 0.49, 95% Confidence Interval: 0.36–0.65, comparing the highest and lowest mercury quintiles). This association largely disappeared after adjustment for sociodemographic variables (income-poverty ratio, education, marital status). However, in age-stratified analyses, this inverse relationship remained in older adults (age ≥40) even after adjustment for sociodemographic variables. Simulation analyses adjusting for expected confounding effects of fish intake suggested that the inverse relationship among older adults may be plausibly attributed to residual confounding (Odds Ratio  = 0.75, 95% Confidence Interval: 0.50–1.12, comparing the highest and lowest mercury quintiles). Conclusions Higher total blood mercury was not associated with increased odds of depression. The lower odds of depression in older adults with higher total blood mercury may be due to residual confounding. PMID:24244482

  7. Age-dependent, lasting effects of methylphenidate on the GABAergic system of ADHD patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle M. Solleveld

    2017-01-01

    First stimulant exposure at a young age is thus associated with lower baseline levels of GABA+ and increased responsivity in adulthood. This effect could not be found in patients that started treatment at an adult age. Hence, while adult stimulant treatment seems to exert no major effects on GABA+ levels in the mPFC, MPH may induce long-lasting alterations in the adult mPFC GABAergic system when treatment was started at a young age.

  8. Drug abusers have impaired cerebral oxygenation and cognition during exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kell Grandjean da Costa

    Full Text Available Individuals with Substance Use Disorder (SUD have lower baseline metabolic activity of the prefrontal cortex (PFC associated with impairment of cognitive functions in decision-making and inhibitory control. Aerobic exercise has shown to improve PFC function and cognitive performance, however, its effects on SUD individuals remain unclear.To verify the cognitive performance and oxygenation of the PFC during an incremental exercise in SUD individuals.Fourteen individuals under SUD treatment performed a maximum graded exercise test on a cycle ergometer with continuous measurements of oxygen consumption, PFC oxygenation, and inhibitory control (Stroop test every two minutes of exercise at different intensities. Fifteen non-SUD individuals performed the same protocol and were used as control group.Exercise increased oxyhemoglobin (O2Hb and total hemoglobin (tHb by 9% and 7%, respectively. However, when compared to a non-SUD group, this increase was lower at high intensities (p<0.001, and the inhibitory cognitive control was lower at rest and during exercise (p<0.007. In addition, PFC hemodynamics during exercise was inversely correlated with inhibitory cognitive performance (reaction time (r = -0.62, p = 0.001, and a lower craving perception for the specific abused substance (p = 0.0189 was reported immediately after exercise.Despite SUD individuals having their PFC cerebral oxygenation increased during exercise, they presented lower cognition and oxygenation when compared to controls, especially at elevated intensities. These results may reinforce the role of exercise as an adjuvant treatment to improve PFC function and cognitive control in individuals with SUD.

  9. Plasma total antioxidant capacity is associated with dietary intake and plasma level of antioxidants in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Yang, Meng; Lee, Sang-Gil; Davis, Catherine G; Kenny, Anne; Koo, Sung I; Chun, Ock K

    2012-12-01

    Increased plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) has been associated with a high consumption of fruits and vegetables. However, limited information is available on whether plasma TAC reflects the dietary intake of antioxidants and the levels of individual antioxidants in plasma. By using three different assays, the study aimed to determine if plasma TAC can effectively predict dietary intake of antioxidants and plasma antioxidant status. Forty overweight and apparently healthy postmenopausal women were recruited. Seven-day food records and 12-h fasting blood samples were collected for dietary and plasma antioxidant assessments. Plasma TAC was determined by vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity (VCEAC), ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays. TAC values determined by VCEAC were highly correlated with FRAP (r=0.79, Pantioxidants and represents more closely the plasma antioxidant levels than ORAC and FRAP. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Total mercury and methylmercury levels in pregnant women, nursing women and preschool children resident in fishing villages in the eighth region of Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruhn, C.G.; Rodriguez, A.A.

    1992-01-01

    The main aim of this project is to perform a descriptive study about the levels of total mercury (Hg-T) and of methylmercury (Me-Hg) in scalp hair specimens of a selected human population of high risk in the Eighth Region of Chile, the group studied included pregnant women (PW), nursing women (NW) and preschool children residing in fishing villages distributed within the coastal zone of this region, the diets of the test group included fish and shellfish as main food components. The degree of Hg contamination of this population was compared to a control population (''core programme''). The methylmercury-to-total mercury ratio (Me-Hg/Hg-T) levels in scalp hair enabled interpretation of the results with respect to the degree of contamination by Hg, and the dietary habits of the sample donors of each fishing village under study. Furthermore, Se levels in scalp hair of the populations with relatively high Hg content were to be investigated for possible correlation with Me-Hg levels (''supplementary programme''). 5 refs, 2 figs, 9 tabs

  11. Integration of Teaching Processes and Learning Assessment in the Prefrontal Cortex during a Video Game Teaching-learning Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Naoyuki; Mori, Takayuki; Suzukamo, Yoshimi; Izumi, Shin-Ichi

    2016-01-01

    Human teaching is a social interaction that supports reciprocal and dynamical feedback between the teacher and the student. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is a region of particular interest due to its demonstrated role in social interaction. In the present study, we evaluated the PFC activity simultaneously in two individuals playing the role of a teacher and student in a video game teaching-learning task. For that, we used two wearable near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) devices in order to elucidate the neural mechanisms underlying cognitive interactions between teachers and students. Fifteen teacher-student pairs in total ( N = 30) participated in this study. Each teacher was instructed to teach the video game to their student partner, without speaking. The PFC activity was simultaneously evaluated in both participants using a wearable 16-channel NIRS system during the video game teaching-learning task. Two sessions, each including a triplet of a 30-s teaching-learning task, were performed in order to evaluate changes in PFC activity after advancement of teaching-learning state. Changes in the teachers' left PFC activity between the first and second session positively correlated with those observed in students ( r = 0.694, p = 0.004). Moreover, among teachers, multiple regression analysis revealed a correlation between the left PFC activity and the assessment gap between one's own teaching and the student's understanding ( β = 0.649, p = 0.009). Activity in the left PFC changed synchronously in both teachers and students after advancement of the teaching-learning state. The left PFC of teachers may be involved in integrating information regarding one's own teaching process and the student's learning state. The present observations indicate that simultaneous recording and analysis of brain activity data during teacher-student interactions may be useful in the field of educational neuroscience.

  12. Spatial variability in levels of benzene, formaldehyde, and total benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes in New York City: a land-use regression study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheirbek, Iyad; Johnson, Sarah; Ross, Zev; Pezeshki, Grant; Ito, Kazuhiko; Eisl, Holger; Matte, Thomas

    2012-07-31

    Hazardous air pollutant exposures are common in urban areas contributing to increased risk of cancer and other adverse health outcomes. While recent analyses indicate that New York City residents experience significantly higher cancer risks attributable to hazardous air pollutant exposures than the United States as a whole, limited data exist to assess intra-urban variability in air toxics exposures. To assess intra-urban spatial variability in exposures to common hazardous air pollutants, street-level air sampling for volatile organic compounds and aldehydes was conducted at 70 sites throughout New York City during the spring of 2011. Land-use regression models were developed using a subset of 59 sites and validated against the remaining 11 sites to describe the relationship between concentrations of benzene, total BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes) and formaldehyde to indicators of local sources, adjusting for temporal variation. Total BTEX levels exhibited the most spatial variability, followed by benzene and formaldehyde (coefficient of variation of temporally adjusted measurements of 0.57, 0.35, 0.22, respectively). Total roadway length within 100 m, traffic signal density within 400 m of monitoring sites, and an indicator of temporal variation explained 65% of the total variability in benzene while 70% of the total variability in BTEX was accounted for by traffic signal density within 450 m, density of permitted solvent-use industries within 500 m, and an indicator of temporal variation. Measures of temporal variation, traffic signal density within 400 m, road length within 100 m, and interior building area within 100 m (indicator of heating fuel combustion) predicted 83% of the total variability of formaldehyde. The models built with the modeling subset were found to predict concentrations well, predicting 62% to 68% of monitored values at validation sites. Traffic and point source emissions cause substantial variation in street-level exposures

  13. Serum Total Tryptase Level Confirms Itself as a More Reliable Marker of Mast Cells Burden in Mast Cell Leukaemia (Aleukaemic Variant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Savini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mast cell leukemia (MCL is a very rare form of systemic mastocytosis (SM with a short median survival of 6 months. We describe a case of a 65-year-old woman with aleukaemic variant of MCL with a very high serum total tryptase level of 2255 μg/L at diagnosis, which occurred following an episode of hypotensive shock. She fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of SM, with a bone marrow smear infiltration of 50–60% of atypical mast cells (MCs. She tested negative for the KIT D816V mutation, without any sign of organ damage (no B- or C-findings and only few mediator-related symptoms. She was treated with antihistamine alone and then with imatinib for the appearance of anemia. She maintained stable tryptase level and a very indolent clinical course for twenty-two months; then, she suddenly progressed to acute MCL with a serum tryptase level up to 12960 μg/L. The patient died due to haemorrhagic diathesis twenty-four months after diagnosis. This clinical case maybe represents an example of the chronic form of mast cell leukemia, described as unpredictable disease, in which the serum total tryptase level has confirmed itself as a reliable marker of mast cells burden regardless of the presence of other signs or symptoms.

  14. Are Total, Intensity- and Domain-Specific Physical Activity Levels Associated with Life Satisfaction among University Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedišić, Željko; Greblo, Zrinka; Phongsavan, Philayrath; Milton, Karen; Bauman, Adrian E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Thorough information about the relationship between physical activity (PA) and life satisfaction is still lacking. Therefore, this study examined the cross-sectional relationships between life satisfaction and meeting the World Health Organization (WHO) moderate to vigorous-intensity PA recommendations, total volume and duration of PA, intensity-specific PA (walking, moderate- and vigorous-intensity), domain-specific PA (work, transport-related, domestic, and leisure-time), and 11 domain and intensity-specific PA types among university students. Additionally, we examined the associations between life satisfaction and gender, age, disposable income, community size, smoking, alcohol intake, body mass index (BMI), and self-rated health. Methods The study included a random sample of 1750 university students in Zagreb, Croatia (response rate = 71.7%; 62.4% females; mean age 21.5 ± 1.8 years), using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire — long form and the Satisfaction with Life Scale. Results Higher life satisfaction was associated with female gender (β = 0.13; p = life satisfaction and size of community (p = 0.567), smoking status (p = 0.056), alcohol consumption (p = 0.058), or BMI (p = 0.508). Among all PA variables, only leisure-time vigorous-intensity PA was significantly associated with life satisfaction after adjustments for socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle and self-rated general health (β = 0.06; p = 0.045). Conclusions This study indicated a weak positive relationship between leisure-time vigorous-intensity PA and life satisfaction, whilst no such association was found for other PA variables. These findings underscore the importance of analyzing domain and intensity-specific PA levels in future studies among university students, as drawing conclusions about the relationship between PA and life satisfaction based on total PA levels only may be misleading. PMID:25695492

  15. Level and distribution of employee exposures to total and respirable wood dust in two Canadian sawmills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschke, K; Hertzman, C; Morrison, B

    1994-03-01

    Personal respirable (N = 230) and total (N = 237) dust measurements were made in two coastal British Columbia sawmills using a sampling strategy that randomly selected workers from all jobs in the mills over two seasons. Information about job title, department, season, weather conditions, location of the job relative to wood-cutting machines, and control measures also was collected at the time of sampling. Only 16 respirable wood dust samples were above the detection limit of 0.08 mg/m3; all 16 had levels industry, but most sawmill investigations report mean wood dust concentrations lower than those measured in the furniture and cabinetmaking industries, where concerns about wood dust exposures initially were raised.

  16. Total Quality Management in the Classroom: Applications to University-Level Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Frank

    1995-01-01

    Describes a Total Quality Management-based system of instruction that is used in a variety of undergraduate mathematics courses. The courses that incorporate this approach include mathematics appreciation, introductory calculus, and advanced applied linear algebra. (DDR)

  17. Correlation of the concentration of the carbon-associated radiation damage levels with the total carbon concentration in silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferenczi, G.; Londos, C.A.; Pavelka, T.; Somogyi, M.; Mertens, A.

    1988-01-01

    The dominant carbon-related radiation damage center in silicon was studied in detail by deep level transient spectroscopy. Samples with different carbon and oxygen content were implanted with gradually increasing proton fluence. Two energetically closely spaced levels were revealed and tentative identities were assigned. One at E/sub T/+E/sub V/ = 0.344 eV (sigma/sub p/ = 1.1 x 10/sup -16/ cm/sup 2/) is assigned as the C+O/sub i/ complex, and that at E/sub T/+E/sub V/ = 0.370 eV (sigma/sub p/ = 8 x 10/sup -18/ cm/sup 2/) is assigned as the C/sub s/-Si/sub i/-C/sub s/ complex. It was shown that the concentration of these defects is correlated to the total concentration of carbon in the crystal.

  18. Selective post-training time window for memory consolidation interference of cannabidiol into the prefrontal cortex: Reduced dopaminergic modulation and immediate gene expression in limbic circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossignoli, Matheus Teixeira; Lopes-Aguiar, Cleiton; Ruggiero, Rafael Naime; Do Val da Silva, Raquel Araujo; Bueno-Junior, Lezio Soares; Kandratavicius, Ludmyla; Peixoto-Santos, José Eduardo; Crippa, José Alexandre; Cecilio Hallak, Jaime Eduardo; Zuardi, Antonio Waldo; Szawka, Raphael Escorsim; Anselmo-Franci, Janete; Leite, João Pereira; Romcy-Pereira, Rodrigo Neves

    2017-05-14

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC), amygdala and hippocampus display a coordinated activity during acquisition of associative fear memories. Evidence indicates that PFC engagement in aversive memory formation does not progress linearly as previously thought. Instead, it seems to be recruited at specific time windows after memory acquisition, which has implications for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorders. Cannabidiol (CBD), the major non-psychotomimetic phytocannabinoid of the Cannabis sativa plant, is known to modulate contextual fear memory acquisition in rodents. However, it is still not clear how CBD interferes with PFC-dependent processes during post-training memory consolidation. Here, we tested whether intra-PFC infusions of CBD immediately after or 5h following contextual fear conditioning was able to interfere with memory consolidation. Neurochemical and cellular correlates of the CBD treatment were evaluated by the quantification of extracellular levels of dopamine (DA), serotonin, and their metabolites in the PFC and by measuring the cellular expression of activity-dependent transcription factors in cortical and limbic regions. Our results indicate that bilateral intra-PFC CBD infusion impaired contextual fear memory consolidation when applied 5h after conditioning, but had no effect when applied immediately after it. This effect was associated with a reduction in DA turnover in the PFC following retrieval 5days after training. We also observed that post-conditioning infusion of CBD reduced c-fos and zif-268 protein expression in the hippocampus, PFC, and thalamus. Our findings support that CBD interferes with contextual fear memory consolidation by reducing PFC influence on cortico-limbic circuits. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Relationship between circulating serum osteoprotegerin and total receptor activator of nuclear κ-B ligand levels, triglycerides, and coronary calcification in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poornima, Indu G; Mackey, Rachel H; Buhari, Alhaji M; Cauley, Jane A; Matthews, Karen A; Kuller, Lewis H

    2014-07-01

    This study evaluates the relationship of blood osteoprotegerin (OPG) and receptor activator of nuclear κ-B ligand (RANKL) levels with coronary artery calcium (CAC) and cardiovascular risk factors in two studies of postmenopausal women. OPG, a marker of bone turnover, and its ligand, RANKL, may contribute to cardiovascular disease risk. We tested the hypothesis that serum OPG and RANKL levels were associated with CAC and cardiovascular disease risk factors among postmenopausal women in the Women On the Move through Activity and Nutrition Study (WOMAN Study; n = 86; mean [SD], age 58 [2.9] y) and replicated our findings in the Healthy Women Study (HWS; n = 205; mean [SD] age, 61 [2.3] y). Serum OPG, total RANKL, and CAC were measured at baseline and 48 months in the WOMAN Study and on the eighth postmenopausal visit in the HWS. In the WOMAN Study, higher OPG was associated with higher CAC, and higher total RANKL was associated with lower CAC and triglycerides. In the HWS, higher total RANKL was also associated with lower CAC and triglycerides. In logistic regression models adjusted for body mass index and triglycerides, the odds ratios (95% CIs) for CAC per unit increase in OPG were 1.78 (1.17-2.73) for the WOMAN Study and 1.02 (0.84-1.24) for the HWS, and the odds ratios (95% CIs) for CAC per unit increase in log total RANKL were 0.86 (0.64-1.17) for the WOMAN Study and 0.83 (0.72-0.96) for the HWS. The inverse association of total RANKL with CAC and triglycerides is a new finding and may have important implications given the increasing use of drugs that modify total RANKL and its receptor, receptor activator of nuclear κ-B.

  20. Medial prefrontal cortex involvement in the expression of extinction and ABA renewal of instrumental behavior for a food reinforcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, Meghan C; Todd, Travis P; Bouton, Mark E; Green, John T

    2016-02-01

    Instrumental renewal, the return of extinguished instrumental responding after removal from the extinction context, is an important model of behavioral relapse that is poorly understood at the neural level. In two experiments, we examined the role of the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) in extinction and ABA renewal of instrumental responding for a sucrose reinforcer. Previous work, exclusively using drug reinforcers, has suggested that the roles of the dmPFC and vmPFC in expression of extinction and ABA renewal may depend at least in part on the type of drug reinforcer used. The current experiments used a food reinforcer because the behavioral mechanisms underlying the extinction and renewal of instrumental responding are especially well worked out in this paradigm. After instrumental conditioning in context A and extinction in context B, we inactivated dmPFC, vmPFC, or a more ventral medial prefrontal cortex region by infusing baclofen/muscimol (B/M) just prior to testing in both contexts. In rats with inactivated dmPFC, ABA renewal was still present (i.e., responding increased when returned to context A); however responding was lower (less renewal) than controls. Inactivation of vmPFC increased responding in context B (the extinction context) and decreased responding in context A, indicating no renewal in these animals. There was no effect of B/M infusion on rats with cannula placements ventral to the vmPFC. Fluorophore-conjugated muscimol was infused in a subset of rats following test to visualize infusion spread. Imaging suggested that the infusion spread was minimal and mainly constrained to the targeted area. Together, these experiments suggest that there is a region of medial prefrontal cortex encompassing both dmPFC and vmPFC that is important for ABA renewal of extinguished instrumental responding for a food reinforcer. In addition, vmPFC, but not dmPFC, is important for expression of extinction of

  1. What is the functional relevance of prefrontal cortex entrainment to hippocampal theta rhythms?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Michael Hyman

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available There has been considerable interest in the importance of oscillations in the brain and in how these oscillations relate to the firing of single neurons. Recently a number of studies have shown that the spiking of individual neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC become entrained to the hippocampal (HPC theta rhythm. We recently showed that theta-entrained mPFC cells lost theta-entrainment specifically on error trials even though the firing rates of these cells did not change (Hyman et al., 2010. This implied that the level of HPC theta-entrainment of mPFC units was more predictive of trial outcome than differences in firing rates and that there is more information encoded by the mPFC on working memory tasks than can be accounted for by a simple rate code. Nevertheless, the functional meaning of mPFC entrainment to HPC theta remains a mystery. It is also unclear as to whether there are any differences in the nature of the information encoded by theta-entrained and non-entrained mPFC cells. In this review we discuss mPFC entrainment to HPC theta within the context of previous results as well as provide a more detailed analysis of the Hyman et al. (2010 data set. This re-analysis revealed that theta-entrained mPFC cells selectively encoded a variety of task relevant behaviors and stimuli while never theta-entrained mPFC cells were most strongly attuned to errors or the lack of expected rewards. In fact, these error responsive neurons were responsible for the error representations exhibited by the entire ensemble of mPFC neurons. A theta reset was also detected in the post-error period. While it is becoming increasingly evident that mPFC neurons exhibit correlates to virtually all cues and behaviors, perhaps phase-locking directs attention to the task-relevant representations required to solve a spatially based working memory task while the loss of theta-entrainment at the start of error trials may represent a shift of attention away from

  2. Estrogen Receptor β Agonist Attenuates Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Induced Changes in Social Behavior and Brain Connectivity in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crider, Amanda; Nelson, Tyler; Davis, Talisha; Fagan, Kiley; Vaibhav, Kumar; Luo, Matthew; Kamalasanan, Sunay; Terry, Alvin V; Pillai, Anilkumar

    2018-02-12

    Impaired social interaction is a key feature of several major psychiatric disorders including depression, autism, and schizophrenia. While, anatomically, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is known as a key regulator of social behavior, little is known about the cellular mechanisms that underlie impairments of social interaction. One etiological mechanism implicated in the pathophysiology of the aforementioned psychiatric disorders is cellular stress and consequent adaptive responses in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that can result from a variety of environmental and physical factors. The ER is an organelle that serves essential roles in protein modification, folding, and maturation of proteins; however, the specific role of ER stress in altered social behavior is unknown. In this study, treatment with tunicamycin, an ER stress inducer, enhanced the phosphorylation level of inositol-requiring ER-to-nucleus signal kinase 1 (IRE1) and increased X-box-binding protein 1 (XBP1) mRNA splicing activity in the mouse PFC, whereas inhibition of IRE1/XBP1 pathway in PFC by a viral particle approach attenuated social behavioral deficits caused by tunicamycin treatment. Reduced estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) protein levels were found in the PFC of male mice following tunicamycin treatment. Pretreatment with an ERβ specific agonist, ERB-041 significantly attenuated tunicamycin-induced deficits in social behavior, and activation of IRE1/XBP1 pathway in mouse PFC. Moreover, ERB-041 inhibited tunicamycin-induced increases in functional connectivity between PFC and hippocampus in male mice. Together, these results show that ERβ agonist attenuates ER stress-induced deficits in social behavior through the IRE-1/XBP1 pathway.

  3. Immunohistochemically determined total epidermal growth factor receptor levels not of prognostic value in newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme: Report from the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakravarti, Arnab; Seiferheld, Wendy; Tu Xiaoyu; Wang Huijun; Zhang Huazhong; Ang, K. Kian; Hammond, Elizabeth; Curran, Walter; Mehta, Minesh

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) performed an analysis of patterns of immunohistochemically detected total epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) protein expression levels and their prognostic significance on archival tissue in newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients from prior prospective RTOG clinical trials. Methods and materials: Patients in this study had been treated on previous RTOG GBM trials (RTOG 7401, 7918, 8302, 8409, 9006, 9305, 9602, and 9806). Tissue microarrays were prepared from 155 patients enrolled in these trials. These specimens were stained using a mouse monoclonal antibody specific for the extracellular binding domain of EGFR to detect total EGFR (including both wild-type phosphorylated and wild-type unphosphorylated isoforms with some cross-reactivity with EGFRvIII). The intensity of total EGFR protein expression was measured by computerized quantitative image analysis using the SAMBA 4000 Cell Image Analysis System. The parameters measured were the mean optical densities over the labeled areas and the staining index, which represents the proportion of stained area relative to the mean stain concentration. Both parameters were correlated with the clinical outcome. Results: No differences in either overall or progression-free survival could be demonstrated by the mean optical density class or mean optical density quartile or the staining index of total EGFR immunostaining among the representative RTOG GBM cases. Conclusion: Total EGFR protein expression levels, as measured immunohistochemically, do not appear to be of prognostic value in newly diagnosed GBM patients. Given the accumulating clinical evidence of the activity of anti-EGFR agents in GBM and the preclinical data suggesting the important role of downstream mediators as effectors of EGFR signaling, the RTOG is conducting additional investigations into the prognostic value of activation patterns of EGFR signaling, both at the level of the receptor

  4. The prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism at different total plasma cholesterol levels in middle aged men and women : a need for case-finding?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bindels, A.J.; Westendorp, R.G.; Frölich, M.; Seidell, J C; Blokstra, A.; Smelt, A.H.M.

    OBJECTIVE: In order to determine whether screening of thyroid function is justified in patients with hypercholesterolaemia, we determined the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism at different levels of total plasma cholesterol in middle-aged men and women. DESIGN AND METHODS: 1200 participants

  5. Cost-Effectiveness of Five Commonly Used Prosthesis Brands for Total Knee Replacement in the UK: A Study Using the NJR Dataset.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Pennington

    Full Text Available There is a lack of evidence on the effectiveness or cost-effectiveness of alternative brands of prosthesis for total knee replacement (TKR. We compared patient-reported outcomes, revision rates, and costs, and estimated the relative cost-effectiveness of five frequently used cemented brands of unconstrained prostheses with fixed bearings (PFC Sigma, AGC Biomet, Nexgen, Genesis 2, and Triathlon.We used data from three national databases for patients who had a TKR between 2003 and 2012, to estimate the effect of prosthesis brand on post-operative quality of life (QOL (EQ-5D-3L in 53 126 patients at six months. We compared TKR revision rates by brand over 10 years for 239 945 patients. We used a fully probabilistic Markov model to estimate lifetime costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs, incremental cost effectiveness ratios (ICERs, and the probability that each prosthesis brand is the most cost effective at alternative thresholds of willingness-to-pay for a QALY gain.Revision rates were lowest with the Nexgen and PFC Sigma (2.5% after 10 years in 70-year-old women. Average lifetime costs were lowest with the AGC Biomet (£9 538; mean post-operative QOL was highest with the Nexgen, which was the most cost-effective brand across all patient subgroups. For example, for 70-year-old men and women, the ICERs for the Nexgen compared to the AGC Biomet were £2 300 per QALY. At realistic cost per QALY thresholds (£10 000 to £30 000, the probabilities that the Nexgen is the most cost-effective brand are about 98%. These results were robust to alternative modelling assumptions.AGC Biomet prostheses are the least costly cemented unconstrained fixed brand for TKR but Nexgen prostheses lead to improved patient outcomes, at low additional cost. These results suggest that Nexgen should be considered as a first choice prosthesis for patients with osteoarthritis who require a TKR.

  6. Extreme total solar irradiance due to cloud enhancement at sea level of the NE Atlantic coast of Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piacentini, Ruben D. [Instituto de Fisica Rosario (CONICET-Universidad Nacional de Rosario), 27 de Febrero 210bis, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Ingenieria y Agrimensura, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Pellegrini 250, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Salum, Graciela M. [Instituto de Fisica Rosario (CONICET-Universidad Nacional de Rosario), 27 de Febrero 210bis, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Facultad Regional Concepcion del Uruguay, Universidad Tecnologica Nacional, Concepcion del Uruguay (Argentina); Fraidenraich, Naum; Tiba, Chigueru [Grupo de Pesquisas em Fontes Alternativas de Energia, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Av. Prof. Luiz Freire, 1000 - 50.740-540, Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2011-01-15

    Extraterrestrial total solar irradiance, usually called Solar Constant, is attenuated by the atmosphere in different proportions, depending mainly on solar zenith angle and altitude of the measurement point. In this work, it is presented very high and extreme horizontal plane measurements of global solar irradiance that in some days overpassed the Solar Constant corrected by the actual Sun-Earth distance (CSC). They were obtained at sea level of the intertropical Atlantic coast, in the city of Recife, Brazil, in the period February 2008-January 2009. Extreme total solar irradiance values larger than CSC were measured during 3.4% of the days of the total registered period. This percentage increases to 7.4% for global solar irradiance within 95.1-100% of the CSC and to 15.3% within 90.1-95% of the CSC. The largest extreme total solar irradiance value, 1477 {+-} 30 W/m{sup 2}, was registered the 28th of March 2008 at 11:34 local time (UT - 3h). It overpassed by 7.9% the CSC value for this day (1369.4 W/m{sup 2}) and by 42.3% the estimated value of the clear sky Iqbal C radiation model (1037.7 W/m{sup 2}). The observation of extreme values should be taken into account in the study of solar radiation effects related to materials exposed to the outside, UV index and biological effects, among others. Also, the detailed knowledge of this interesting effect may contribute significantly to clarify physical aspects about the interaction of global solar radiation with the ecosystem and climate change. (author)

  7. Laparoscopic total pancreatectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Li, Yongbin; Cai, Yunqiang; Liu, Xubao; Peng, Bing

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Laparoscopic total pancreatectomy is a complicated surgical procedure and rarely been reported. This study was conducted to investigate the safety and feasibility of laparoscopic total pancreatectomy. Patients and Methods: Three patients underwent laparoscopic total pancreatectomy between May 2014 and August 2015. We reviewed their general demographic data, perioperative details, and short-term outcomes. General morbidity was assessed using Clavien–Dindo classification and delayed gastric emptying (DGE) was evaluated by International Study Group of Pancreatic Surgery (ISGPS) definition. Diagnosis and Outcomes: The indications for laparoscopic total pancreatectomy were intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) (n = 2) and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PNET) (n = 1). All patients underwent laparoscopic pylorus and spleen-preserving total pancreatectomy, the mean operative time was 490 minutes (range 450–540 minutes), the mean estimated blood loss was 266 mL (range 100–400 minutes); 2 patients suffered from postoperative complication. All the patients recovered uneventfully with conservative treatment and discharged with a mean hospital stay 18 days (range 8–24 days). The short-term (from 108 to 600 days) follow up demonstrated 3 patients had normal and consistent glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level with acceptable quality of life. Lessons: Laparoscopic total pancreatectomy is feasible and safe in selected patients and pylorus and spleen preserving technique should be considered. Further prospective randomized studies are needed to obtain a comprehensive understanding the role of laparoscopic technique in total pancreatectomy. PMID:28099344

  8. The total workload of male and female white collar workers as related to age, occupational level, and number of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, U; Mårdberg, B; Frankenhaeuser, M

    1994-12-01

    A questionnaire assessing various aspects of paid as well as unpaid forms of productive activity was mailed to stratified samples of male and female white collar workers, approximately matched for educational and occupational level. Data from 501 men and 679 women employed full time revealed traditional gender differences in terms of main responsibility for household duties, child care etc. In keeping with this, women reported higher levels of work overload, stress and conflict than men, which increased significantly with the number of children at home. The various stress indices reached a peak between the ages of 35 and 39. Men reported more autonomy in their paid work whereas women reported more control at home. Men and women at the upper managerial levels reported more control over their total work situation and less conflict between demands.

  9. Essential fatty acids for premenstrual syndrome and their effect on prolactin and total cholesterol levels: a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinho Neto João S

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of polyunsaturated fatty acids for the treatment of the premenstrual syndrome (PMS using a graded symptom scale and to assess the effect of this treatment on basal plasma levels of prolactin and total cholesterol. Methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted with 120 women with PMS divided into three groups and treated with 1 or 2 grams of the medication or placebo. Symptoms were recorded over a 6-month period using the Prospective Record of the Impact and Severity of Menstruation (PRISM calendar. Total cholesterol and prolactin levels were measured. Analysis of variance (ANOVA, Pearson's chi-square test, Wilcoxon's nonparametric signed-rank test for paired samples and the Mann-Whitney nonparametric test for independent samples were used in the statistical analysis. Results There were no differences in age, marital status, schooling or ethnicity between the groups. In the group treated with 1 gram of the medication, a significant reduction was found when the median PRISM score recorded in the luteal phase at baseline (99 was compared with the median score recorded in the 3rd month (58 and in the 6th month of evaluation (35. In the 2-gram group, these differences were even more significant (baseline score: 98; 3rd month: 48; 6th month: 28. In the placebo group, there was a significant reduction at the 3rd but not at the 6th month (baseline: 96.5; 3rd month: 63.5; 6th month: 62. The difference between the phases of the menstrual cycle was greater in the 2-gram group compared to the group treated with 1 gram of the medication. There were no statistically significant differences in prolactin or total cholesterol levels between baseline values and those recorded after six months of treatment. Conclusion The difference between the groups using the medication and the placebo group with respect to the improvement in symptomatology appears to indicate the

  10. Effect of acute and chronic MK-801 administration on extracellular glutamate and ascorbic acid release in the prefrontal cortex of freely moving mice on line with open-field behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Dai-Ying; Zhang, Ya-Hong; Cao, Yue; Wu, Chun-Fu; Tanaka, Masatoshi; Wu, Ying-Liang

    2006-04-04

    The present study was designed to investigate the effects of acute and chronic administration of MK-801 (0.6 mg/kg), a noncompetitive NMDA-receptor antagonist on extracellular glutamate (Glu) and ascorbic acid (AA) release in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of freely moving mice using in vivo microdialysis with open-field behavior. In line with earlier studies, acute administration of MK-801 induced an increase of Glu in the PFC. We also observed single MK-801 treatment increased AA release in the PFC. In addition, our results indicated that the basal AA levels in the PFC after MK-801 administration for 7 consecutive days were significantly decreased, and basal Glu levels also had a decreased tendency. After chronic administration (0.6 mg/kg, 7 days), MK-801 (0.6 mg/kg) challenge significantly decreased dialysate levels of AA and Glu. Our study also found that both acute and chronic administration of MK-801 induced hyperactivity in mice, but the intensity of acute administration was more than that of chronic administration. Furthermore, in all acute treatment mice, individual changes in Glu dialysate concentrations and the numbers of locomotion were positively correlated. In conclusion, this study may provide new evidence that a single MK-801 administration induces increases of dialysate AA and Glu concentrations in the PFC of freely moving mice, which are opposite to those induced by repeated MK-801 administration, with an unknown mechanism. Our results suggested that redox-response might play an important role in the model of schizophrenic symptoms induced by MK-801.

  11. Effect of varying levels of formaldehyde treatment of mustard oil cake on rumen fermentation, digestibility in wheat straw based total mixed diets in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahima; Kumar, Vinod; Tomar, S. K.; Roy, Debashis; Kumar, Muneendra

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the current study was to protect the protein in mustard cake by different levels of formaldehyde treatment with a view to optimize the level of formaldehyde. Materials and Methods: Different levels of formaldehyde treatment (0, 1, 1.5 and 2% of crude protein) containing concentrate and roughages diet in 40:60 ratio were tested for their effect on nutrients digestibility, in vitro ammonia release, in vitro gas production and change in protein fractions. Non-significant (p≤0.05) effect on pH, microbial biomass, partitioning factor, total gas production (TGP), TGP per g dry matter and TGP per g digestible dry matter (ml/g) was observed in almost all the treatments. Results: Total volatile fatty acids at 2% formaldehyde treatment level of mustard cake was lower (p<0.05) as compared to other groups, while in vitro dry matter digestibility and in vitro organic matter digestibility were reported to be low in 1% formaldehyde treated group. Conclusion: On a holistic view, it could be considered that formaldehyde treatment at 1.5% level was optimal for protection of mustard oil cake protein. PMID:27047133

  12. Effect of varying levels of formaldehyde treatment of mustard oil cake on rumen fermentation, digestibility in wheat straw based total mixed diets in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahima

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the current study was to protect the protein in mustard cake by different levels of formaldehyde treatment with a view to optimize the level of formaldehyde. Materials and Methods: Different levels of formaldehyde treatment (0, 1, 1.5 and 2% of crude protein containing concentrate and roughages diet in 40:60 ratio were tested for their effect on nutrients digestibility, in vitro ammonia release, in vitro gas production and change in protein fractions. Non-significant (p≤0.05 effect on pH, microbial biomass, partitioning factor, total gas production (TGP, TGP per g dry matter and TGP per g digestible dry matter (ml/g was observed in almost all the treatments. Results: Total volatile fatty acids at 2% formaldehyde treatment level of mustard cake was lower (p<0.05 as compared to other groups, while in vitro dry matter digestibility and in vitro organic matter digestibility were reported to be low in 1% formaldehyde treated group. Conclusion: On a holistic view, it could be considered that formaldehyde treatment at 1.5% level was optimal for protection of mustard oil cake protein.

  13. Spatial variability in levels of benzene, formaldehyde, and total benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes in New York City: a land-use regression study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kheirbek Iyad

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hazardous air pollutant exposures are common in urban areas contributing to increased risk of cancer and other adverse health outcomes. While recent analyses indicate that New York City residents experience significantly higher cancer risks attributable to hazardous air pollutant exposures than the United States as a whole, limited data exist to assess intra-urban variability in air toxics exposures. Methods To assess intra-urban spatial variability in exposures to common hazardous air pollutants, street-level air sampling for volatile organic compounds and aldehydes was conducted at 70 sites throughout New York City during the spring of 2011. Land-use regression models were developed using a subset of 59 sites and validated against the remaining 11 sites to describe the relationship between concentrations of benzene, total BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes and formaldehyde to indicators of local sources, adjusting for temporal variation. Results Total BTEX levels exhibited the most spatial variability, followed by benzene and formaldehyde (coefficient of variation of temporally adjusted measurements of 0.57, 0.35, 0.22, respectively. Total roadway length within 100 m, traffic signal density within 400 m of monitoring sites, and an indicator of temporal variation explained 65% of the total variability in benzene while 70% of the total variability in BTEX was accounted for by traffic signal density within 450 m, density of permitted solvent-use industries within 500 m, and an indicator of temporal variation. Measures of temporal variation, traffic signal density within 400 m, road length within 100 m, and interior building area within 100 m (indicator of heating fuel combustion predicted 83% of the total variability of formaldehyde. The models built with the modeling subset were found to predict concentrations well, predicting 62% to 68% of monitored values at validation sites. Conclusions Traffic and

  14. Significance analysis of the leachate level in a solid waste landfill in a coastal zone using total water balance and slope stability alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Ja-Kong; Do, Nam-Young [Korea Advanced Institute of Science & Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    The K site near Seoul began landfilling in 1992. The landfilled wastes include municipal solid waste (66.4%), construction residues (20.4%), water and wastewater sludges (trace levels), and hazardous waste (trace levels). The water content of the municipal solid waste is very high (47.3%); as a result, the leachate level (average E.L.) of the landfill, the design value of which is 7.0 m, was measured at 10.3 m in January 1995 and is increasing. The increase of leachate level in the landfill site causes a problem with slope stability. The leachate level at each disposal stage divided by the intermediate cover layer was calculated with the HELP (Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance) model and calibrated with the data measured from February 1993 to June 1995. Also, the hydraulic conductivities of the waste layer and the intermediate cover layer in each stage were calibrated continuously with HELP model analysis. To verify these results, the total water balance in the landfill site was calculated using the infiltration rate calculated from HELP modeling. The leachate level was E.L. 10.0 m, which was close to the measured leachate level. To estimate the change of the leachate level in the future, the total water balances with different leachate discharge rates of 3,000, 3,500, and 5,000 m{sup 3}/day were analyzed. When the leachate discharge rate was 5,000 ton/day and the initial water content was decreased below 25%, the average leachate level was 10.8 m. This result satisfies the safety factor requirements (=1.3) for landfill slope stability. 4 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Levels of b-carotene, ascorbic acid and total phenols in the pulp of five commercial varieties of mango (Mangifera indica L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Five varieties of mangoes from four countries were evaluated with multiple harvests over a year to compare the ß-carotene, total phenol, and ascorbic acid levels of the fruit pulp. Only soft fruit (0.5 to 1 N compression) with a minimum of 10% soluble solids were used for these measurements to minim...

  16. Tibiofemoral contact stress and stress distribution evaluation of total knee arthroplasties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szivek, J A; Cutignola, L; Volz, R G

    1995-08-01

    The Fuji film (Itochu, Los Angeles, CA) area analysis technique demonstrates that a more accurate assessment of tibiofemoral contact stresses is possible when the film is used at 37 degrees C and at the upper end of its sensitivity range (in this case, a 2,000-N load). An AMK with a regular and Hylamer-M insert (DePuy, Warsaw, IN), an MG II (Zimmer, Warsaw, IN), an Omnifit (Osteonics, Allendale, NJ), an Ortholoc III (Dow Corning Wright, Midland, MI), a PCA II (Howmedica, Rutherford, NJ), and a PFC (Johnson & Johnson Orthopaedics, Raynham, MA) had average contact stresses that varied only 12% at 60 degrees flexion. At 0 degrees, 15 degrees and 60 degrees flexion, stresses ranged from 13 to 25 MPa. Contact area distribution ratios, which were smaller at 37 degrees C than at 24 degrees C, provide a quantitative means of grouping implants according to the shape of the tibiofemoral contact area. The Omnifit, MG II, PCA II, and PFC had small ratios (symmetric areas). The AMK and Ortholoc III had large ratios (asymmetric contact areas). If the impression is reflective of wear, it would be expected to be focal in knees with small ratios and contact areas, and uniform in knees with large ratios and contact areas, whereas large ratios and small areas would imply a linear wear pattern. Calibrated electrical resistance contact stress measurements indicated that the Fuji film measurements underestimated the magnitude of contact stresses. They also provided a means of quantifying the rate of area increase during initial loading of the knees, with the highest area increase noted for the knee with the roughest insert (Ortholoc III) and the lowest area increase for the knee with the smoothest insert (PCA II).

  17. Nível sérico de IgE total em alergia respiratória: estudo em pacientes com alto risco de infecção por helmintos Total IgE level in respiratory allergy: study of patients at high risk for helminthic infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Décio Medeiros

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Eosinofilia e elevação de IgE sérica são expressões de atopia, contudo há fatores intervenientes como, por exemplo, as parasitoses intestinais. Esta pesquisa verifica a relação entre IgE sérica total, eosinófilos e IgE específica anti-áscaris em indivíduos portadores de asma e/ou rinite alérgica. MÉTODOS: Estudo do tipo transversal em adolescentes portadores de asma e/ou rinite alérgica que foram examinados quanto ao nível sérico de IgE total, de IgE anti-áscaris e de contagem dos eosinófilos sangüíneos. RESULTADOS: Foram analisados 101 pacientes com idade entre 12 e 21 anos. A mediana da IgE foi 660 UI/mL (P25-75 243,5-1500, e a dos eosinófilos foi 510 células/mm³ (P25-75 284-811. A IgE anti-áscaris foi positiva em 73% (74/101 da amostra, mas houve apenas 33,7% (34/101 de positividade ao parasitológico de fezes. Os coeficientes de correlação encontrados foram: 0,34 (p = 0,001 entre IgE total e eosinófilos, 0,52 (p OBJECTIVE: Eosinophilia and increased serum IgE levels are indicators of atopy; however, other factors can also play a key role, such as intestinal parasitic infections. This study assesses the relationship between total serum IgE, eosinophil count, and anti-Ascaris IgE in individuals with asthma and/or allergic rhinitis. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in adolescents with asthma and/or allergic rhinitis. The patients had their total serum IgE, anti-Ascaris IgE and eosinophil count measured. RESULTS: A total of 101 patients aged 12 to 21 years were assessed. Median IgE level was 660 IU/mL (P25-75 243.5-1500, and the eosinophil count corresponded to 510 cells/mm³ (P25-75 284-811. Anti-Ascaris IgE was positive in 73% (74/101 of the individuals, but parasitological stool examination yielded positive results in only 33.7% (34/101. The correlation coefficients were the following: 0.34 (p = 0.001 between total IgE level and eosinophil count, 0.52 (p < 0.001 between total IgE level

  18. Effect of isoflavone-enriched soybean flour, zinc (Zn and vitamin E in the ration on testosterone level and total permatogenic cell in seminiferous tubules of rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astuti

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment are to evaluate the effects of isoflavoneen-enriched soybean flour, zinc (Zn and vitamin E on testosterone level of male rats and total spermatogenic cells in the seminiferous tubules of rat testes as animal model. Diet was given as isonitrogen and isocaloric with 15% of dietary protein. Thirty male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into six groups and treated with isoflavoneen-riched soybean flour, Zn and vitamin E in different combination. Isoflavoneen-riched soybean flour (3mg/day was given by oral administration, whereas Zn and vitamin E were mixed wih the basic diet. The treatment was done for 2 month. Results indicated that complete treatment of isoflavoneen-riched soybean flour, Zn and vitamin E on male rats increased testosteron level and total spermatogenic cells in comparison with single treatment and the other combination. The best results showed in the group that given isoflavoneen-enriched soybean flour with diet containing both Zn and vitamin E i.e; testosteron level 3.49 ± 0.31 ng/ml; while the number of spermatogonia, spermatocytes, early spermatids, late spermatids, and total spermatogenic cells were 37.56 ± 4.48, 67 ± 4.72, 287.11 ± 31.75, 227.22 ± 29.78, and 618.89 ± 47.38, respectively. It was concluded that synergic interaction between isoflavoneen-enriched soybean flour, Zn and vitamin E increased testosteron level and total spermatogenic cells of rat testes.

  19. Controllability and stability of primary frequency control from thermostatic loads with delays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziras, Charalampos; Vrettos, Evangelos; You, Shi

    2017-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in exploiting the flexibility of loads to provide ancillary services to the grid. In this paper we study how response delays and lockout constraints affect the controllability of an aggregation of refrigerators offering primary frequency control (PFC). First we...... examine the effect of delays in PFC provision from an aggregation of refrigerators, using a two-area power system. We propose a framework to systematically address frequency measurement and response delays and we determine safe values for the total delays via simulations. We introduce a controllability...... index to evaluate PFC provision under lockout constraints of refrigerators compressors. We conduct extensive simulations to study the effects of measurement delay, ramping times, lockout durations and rotational inertia on the controllability of the aggregation and system stability. Finally, we discuss...

  20. Ketamine Exhibits Different Neuroanatomical Profile After Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Inhibition in the Prefrontal Cortex: the Role of Inflammation and Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelaira, Helena M; Réus, Gislaine Z; Ignácio, Zuleide M; Dos Santos, Maria Augusta B; de Moura, Airam B; Matos, Danyela; Demo, Júlia P; da Silva, Júlia B I; Danielski, Lucineia G; Petronilho, Fabricia; Carvalho, André F; Quevedo, João

    2017-09-01

    Studies indicated that mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), oxidative stress, and inflammation are involved in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). Ketamine, an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, has been identified as a novel MDD therapy; however, the antidepressant mechanism is not fully understood. In addition, the effects of ketamine after mTOR inhibition have not been fully investigated. In the present study, we examined the behavioral and biochemical effects of ketamine in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus, amygdala, and nucleus accumbens after inhibition of mTOR signaling in the PFC. Male adult Wistar rats received pharmacological mTOR inhibitor, rapamycin (0.2 nmol) or vehicle into the PFC and then a single dose of ketamine (15 mg/kg, i.p.). Immobility was assessed in forced swimming tests, and then oxidative stress parameters and inflammatory markers were evaluated in the brain and periphery. mTOR activation in the PFC was essential to ketamine's antidepressant-like effects. Ketamine increased lipid damage in the PFC, hippocampus, and amygdala. Protein carbonyl was elevated in the PFC, amygdala, and NAc after ketamine administration. Ketamine also increased nitrite/nitrate in the PFC, hippocampus, amygdala, and NAc. Myeloperoxidase activity increased in the hippocampus and NAc after ketamine administration. The activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase were reduced after ketamine administration in all brain areas studied. Inhibition of mTOR signaling pathways by rapamycin in the PFC was required to protect against oxidative stress by reducing damage and increasing antioxidant enzymes. Finally, the TNF-α level was increased in serum by ketamine; however, the rapamycin plus treatment group was not able to block this increase. Activation of mTOR in the PFC is involved in the antidepressant-like effects of ketamine; however, the inhibition of this pathway was able to protect certain brain areas against

  1. Effect of sulfite treatment on total antioxidant capacity, total oxidant status, lipid hydroperoxide, and total free sulfydryl groups contents in normal and sulfite oxidase-deficient rat plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herken, Emine Nur; Kocamaz, Erdogan; Erel, Ozcan; Celik, Hakim; Kucukatay, Vural

    2009-08-01

    Sulfites, which are commonly used as preservatives, are continuously formed in the body during the metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids. Sulfite oxidase (SOX) is an essential enzyme in the pathway of the oxidative degradation of sulfite to sulfate protecting cells from sulfite toxicity. This article investigated the effect of sulfite on total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidant status, lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH), and total free sulfydryl groups (-SH) levels in normal and SOX-deficient male albino rat plasma. For this purpose, rats were divided into four groups: control, sulfite-treated, SOX-deficient, and sulfite-treated SOX-deficient groups. SOX deficiency was established by feeding rats a low molybdenum diet and adding to their drinking water 200 ppm tungsten. Sulfite (70 mg/kg) was administered to the animals via their drinking water. SOX deficiency together with sulfite treatment caused a significant increase in the plasma LOOH and total oxidant status levels. -SH content of rat plasma significantly decreased by both sulfite treatment and SOX deficiency compared to the control. There was also a significant decrease in plasma TAC level by sulfite treatment. In conclusion, sulfite treatment affects the antioxidant/oxidant balance of the plasma cells of the rats toward oxidants in SOX-deficient groups.

  2. Effect of Atorvastatin on Serum Levels of Total Cholesterol and High-Sensitivity C-reactive Protein in High-Risk Patients with Atrial Fibrillation in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ming Yu; Xue, Feng Hua; Teng, Shi Chao; Jiang, Li; Zhu, Jing; Yin, Feng; Gu, Hong Yue

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis was to investigate the effects of atorvastatin on serum levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and total cholesterol in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients in Asia. By searching English and Chinese language-based electronic databases (ie, PubMed, EBSCO, Ovid, SpringerLink, Wiley, Web of Science, Wanfang database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and VIP database), we identified 13 studies relevant to our topic of interest. Data were collected from the 13 studies and analyzed with Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software (version 2.0, Biostat Inc., Englewood, New Jersey). Initially, our database searches retrieved 356 studies (45 in English, 311 in Chinese). Thirteen studies were selected for the meta-analysis following stringent criteria. The data included 1239 patients with AF, of whom 634 were treated with atorvastatin and included in the treatment group, and 605 patients were treated with conventional treatment and included in the control group. The results of our meta-analysis suggested that the serum levels of hs-CRP (mg/L) and total cholesterol (mmol/L) in the treatment group were significantly lower than those of the control group (hs-CRP: standardized mean difference = 0.962; 95% CI, 0.629-1.295, P < 0.001; total cholesterol: standardized mean difference = 1.400; 95% CI, 0.653-2.146, P < 0.001). The findings of this study suggest that atorvastatin may be very effective in decreasing serum levels of hs-CRP and total cholesterol to prevent cardiovascular events. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The role of prefrontal cortex in working memory: a mini review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Homero Lara

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A prominent account of prefrontal cortex (PFC function is that single neurons within the PFC maintain representations of task-relevant stimuli in working memory. Evidence for this view comes from studies in which subjects hold a stimulus across a delay lasting up to several seconds. Persistent elevated activity in the PFC has been observed in animal models as well as in humans performing these tasks. This persistent activity has been interpreted as evidence for the encoding of the stimulus itself in working memory. However, recent findings have posed a challenge to this notion. A number of recent studies have examined neural data from the PFC and posterior sensory areas, both at the single neuron level in primates, and at a larger scale in humans, and have failed to find encoding of stimulus information in the PFC during tasks with a substantial working memory component. Strong stimulus related information, however, was seen in posterior sensory areas. These results suggest that delay period activity in the PFC might be better understood not as a signature of memory storage per se, but as a top down signal that influences posterior sensory areas where the actual working memory representations are maintained.

  4. Correlation of Seminal Plasma Total Antioxidant Capacity and Malondialdehyde Levels With Sperm Parameters in Men With Idiopathic Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazeli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Oxidative stress is the result of an imbalance between the production and scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Recently, oxidative stress has been introduced as a major cause of male infertility. Objectives The aim of the present study was to determine the correlation between total antioxidant capacity (TAC and malondialdehyde (MDA as markers of oxidative stress in relation to idiopathic male infertility and sperm parameters. Patients and Methods This case control study was conducted using 35 men with idiopathic infertility and 34 men with proven fertility. Seminal plasma TAC and MDA were measured by ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP and thiobarbituric acid (TBA reaction methods, respectively. Results Seminal TAC levels were significantly lower and seminal MDA levels were significantly higher in men with idiopathic infertility than in fertile men (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.004, respectively. A positive correlation was shown between sperm motility, sperm morphology, and TAC levels in men with idiopathic infertility (P = 0.002 and P = 0.002, respectively. In addition, there was a correlation between sperm motility and TAC levels in fertile men (P = 0.005. There was no correlation between sperm count and TAC levels in either men with idiopathic infertility or in fertile men. Negative correlations were observed between MDA levels and sperm motility, morphology, and sperm count only in men with idiopathic infertility (P = 0.003, P = 0.001, and P = 0.006, respectively. Conclusions Our results show that oxidative stress could play an important role in male infertility as well as in sperm motility and sperm morphology.

  5. A neural measure of behavioral engagement: task-residual low-frequency blood oxygenation level-dependent activity in the precuneus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sheng; Li, Chiang-Shan Ray

    2010-01-15

    Brain imaging has provided a useful tool to examine the neural processes underlying human cognition. A critical question is whether and how task engagement influences the observed regional brain activations. Here we highlighted this issue and derived a neural measure of task engagement from the task-residual low-frequency blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) activity in the precuneus. Using independent component analysis, we identified brain regions in the default circuit - including the precuneus and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) - showing greater activation during resting as compared to task residuals in 33 individuals. Time series correlations with the posterior cingulate cortex as the seed region showed that connectivity with the precuneus was significantly stronger during resting as compared to task residuals. We hypothesized that if the task-residual BOLD activity in the precuneus reflects engagement, it should account for a certain amount of variance in task-related regional brain activation. In an additional experiment of 59 individuals performing a stop signal task, we observed that the fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF) of the precuneus but not the mPFC accounted for approximately 10% of the variance in prefrontal activation related to attentional monitoring and response inhibition. Taken together, these results suggest that task-residual fALFF in the precuneus may be a potential indicator of task engagement. This measurement may serve as a useful covariate in identifying motivation-independent neural processes that underlie the pathogenesis of a psychiatric or neurological condition.

  6. Are total, intensity- and domain-specific physical activity levels associated with life satisfaction among university students?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Pedišić

    Full Text Available Thorough information about the relationship between physical activity (PA and life satisfaction is still lacking. Therefore, this study examined the cross-sectional relationships between life satisfaction and meeting the World Health Organization (WHO moderate to vigorous-intensity PA recommendations, total volume and duration of PA, intensity-specific PA (walking, moderate- and vigorous-intensity, domain-specific PA (work, transport-related, domestic, and leisure-time, and 11 domain and intensity-specific PA types among university students. Additionally, we examined the associations between life satisfaction and gender, age, disposable income, community size, smoking, alcohol intake, body mass index (BMI, and self-rated health.The study included a random sample of 1750 university students in Zagreb, Croatia (response rate = 71.7%; 62.4% females; mean age 21.5 ± 1.8 years, using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-long form and the Satisfaction with Life Scale.Higher life satisfaction was associated with female gender (β = 0.13; p = <0.001, younger age (β = -0.07; p = 0.024, higher disposable income (β = 0.10; p = 0.001, and better self-rated health (β = 0.30; p = <0.001. No significant association was found between life satisfaction and size of community (p = 0.567, smoking status (p = 0.056, alcohol consumption (p = 0.058, or BMI (p = 0.508. Among all PA variables, only leisure-time vigorous-intensity PA was significantly associated with life satisfaction after adjustments for socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle and self-rated general health (β = 0.06; p = 0.045.This study indicated a weak positive relationship between leisure-time vigorous-intensity PA and life satisfaction, whilst no such association was found for other PA variables. These findings underscore the importance of analyzing domain and intensity-specific PA levels in future studies among university students, as drawing conclusions about the

  7. Mildly elevated serum total bilirubin levels are negatively associated with carotid atherosclerosis among elderly persons with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Ryuichi; Ninomiya, Daisuke; Hasegawa, Yoichi; Kasai, Yoshihisa; Kusunoki, Tomo; Ohtsuka, Nobuyuki; Kumagi, Teru; Abe, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is strongly associated with several mechanisms of tissue damage such as oxidative stress. Serum bilirubin may have a beneficial role in preventing oxidative changes in cardiovascular disease (CVD). Limited information is available on whether serum bilirubin is an independent confounding factor for carotid atherosclerosis among elderly persons with type 2 diabetes. The study subjects were 169 men aged 79 ± 8 (mean ± SD) years and 205 women aged 81 ± 8 years that were enrolled consecutively from patients in the medical department. Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaque were derived via B-mode ultrasonography. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that serum total bilirubin (β = -0.160) was significantly associated with carotid IMT. Compared to subjects with a serum total bilirubin of tertile-1 (0.13-0.58 mg/dL), the multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of carotid IMT ≥1.0 mm including plaque and carotid plaque was 0.46 (0.23-0.93) and 0.32 (0.17-0.60) in the Tertile-3 group (0.87-1.93 mg/dL), respectively. Next, data were further stratified by gender, age, smoking status, medication and prevalence of CVD. There were no significant differences in serum total bilirubin levels between selected subgroups. Our data demonstrated a negative association between serum total bilirubin and carotid atherosclerosis among elderly persons with type 2 diabetes.

  8. Serum iron and total iron binding capacity levels among the abo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Iron deficiency anaemia is a common tropical disease. Iron plays a very important role in the human body. The understanding of the different blood groups ability to retain iron in their system can give an insight into their ability to handle the disease Iron deficiency anaemia. Serum Iron, Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC) and ...

  9. Decreased synaptic plasticity in the medial prefrontal cortex underlies short-term memory deficits in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheus, Filipe C; Rial, Daniel; Real, Joana I; Lemos, Cristina; Ben, Juliana; Guaita, Gisele O; Pita, Inês R; Sequeira, Ana C; Pereira, Frederico C; Walz, Roger; Takahashi, Reinaldo N; Bertoglio, Leandro J; Da Cunha, Cláudio; Cunha, Rodrigo A; Prediger, Rui D

    2016-03-15

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by motor dysfunction associated with dopaminergic degeneration in the dorsolateral striatum (DLS). However, motor symptoms in PD are often preceded by short-term memory deficits, which have been argued to involve deregulation of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). We now used a 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) rat PD model to explore if alterations of synaptic plasticity in DLS and mPFC underlie short-term memory impairments in PD prodrome. The bilateral injection of 6-OHDA (20μg/hemisphere) in the DLS caused a marked loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (>80%) and decreased monoamine levels in the striatum and PFC, accompanied by motor deficits evaluated after 21 days in the open field and accelerated rotarod. A lower dose of 6-OHDA (10μg/hemisphere) only induced a partial degeneration (about 60%) of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra with no gross motor impairments, thus mimicking an early premotor stage of PD. Notably, 6-OHDA (10μg)-lesioned rats displayed decreased monoamine levels in the PFC as well as short-term memory deficits evaluated in the novel object discrimination and in the modified Y-maze tasks; this was accompanied by a selective decrease in the amplitude of long-term potentiation in the mPFC, but not in DLS, without changes of synaptic transmission in either brain regions. These results indicate that the short-term memory dysfunction predating the motor alterations in the 6-OHDA model of PD is associated with selective changes of information processing in PFC circuits, typified by persistent changes of synaptic plasticity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Hypoactive medial prefrontal cortex functioning in adults reporting childhood emotional maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Harmelen, Anne-Laura; van Tol, Marie-José; Dalgleish, Tim; van der Wee, Nic J A; Veltman, Dick J; Aleman, André; Spinhoven, Philip; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Elzinga, Bernet M

    2014-12-01

    Childhood emotional maltreatment (CEM) has adverse effects on medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) morphology, a structure that is crucial for cognitive functioning and (emotional) memory and which modulates the limbic system. In addition, CEM has been linked to amygdala hyperactivity during emotional face processing. However, no study has yet investigated the functional neural correlates of neutral and emotional memory in adults reporting CEM. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated CEM-related differential activations in mPFC during the encoding and recognition of positive, negative and neutral words. The sample (N = 194) consisted of patients with depression and/or anxiety disorders and healthy controls (HC) reporting CEM (n = 96) and patients and HC reporting no abuse (n = 98). We found a consistent pattern of mPFC hypoactivation during encoding and recognition of positive, negative and neutral words in individuals reporting CEM. These results were not explained by psychopathology or severity of depression or anxiety symptoms, or by gender, level of neuroticism, parental psychopathology, negative life events, antidepressant use or decreased mPFC volume in the CEM group. These findings indicate mPFC hypoactivity in individuals reporting CEM during emotional and neutral memory encoding and recognition. Our findings suggest that CEM may increase individuals' risk to the development of psychopathology on differential levels of processing in the brain; blunted mPFC activation during higher order processing and enhanced amygdala activation during automatic/lower order emotion processing. These findings are vital in understanding the long-term consequences of CEM. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Effect of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation of the Medial Prefrontal Cortex on the Gratitude of Individuals with Heterogeneous Ability in an Experimental Labor Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pengcheng; Wang, Guangrong; Niu, Xiaofei; Shang, Huiliang; Li, Jianbiao

    2017-01-01

    Gratitude is an important aspect of human sociality, which benefits mental health and interpersonal relationships. Thus, elucidating the neural mechanism of gratitude, which is only now beginning to be investigated, is important. To this end, this study specifies the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) involved in the gratitude of heterogeneous individuals using the transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) technique. Previous neural studies have shown the involvement of mPFC in social cognition and value evaluation, which are closely related to gratitude. However, the causal relationship between this neural area and gratitude has not been fully examined and the effect of individual social heterogeneity has been ignored. Meanwhile, behavioral economics studies have proposed that the abilities of employees in the labor market would affect their gratitude and emotional response. Thus, we designed an experiment based on gift exchange game to investigate the relationship between mPFC and gratitude of heterogeneous employees. Before the experiment, participants were asked to perform self-cognition of their abilities through an appropriately difficult task. We then used the effort of participants to imply their gratitude and analyzed the effort levels of employees with different abilities under anodal, cathodal, and sham stimulations. The results showed that employees under anodal stimulation were significantly likely to increase their effort than those under sham stimulation, and employees under cathodal stimulation ranked at the bottom of the list. Moreover, the effort levels of low-ability employees were obviously higher than those of high-ability employees. The cathodal stimulation of mPFC significantly reduced the effort levels of low-ability employees, whereas its anodal tDCS stimulation increased the effort levels of high-ability employees. These outcomes verify the relationship between mPFC and gratitude using tDCS and provided one of the first instances of

  12. BAG3 regulates total MAP1LC3B protein levels through a translational but not transcriptional mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Andrea E; López-Crisosto, Camila; Peña-Oyarzún, Daniel; Salas, Daniela; Parra, Valentina; Quiroga, Clara; Morawe, Tobias; Chiong, Mario; Behl, Christian; Lavandero, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy is mainly regulated by post-translational and lipid modifications of ATG proteins. In some scenarios, the induction of autophagy is accompanied by increased levels of certain ATG mRNAs such as MAP1LC3B/LC3B, ATG5 or ATG12. However, little is known about the regulation of ATG protein synthesis at the translational level. The cochaperone of the HSP70 system BAG3 (BCL2-associated athanogene 3) has been associated to LC3B lipidation through an unknown mechanism. In the present work, we studied how BAG3 controls autophagy in HeLa and HEK293 cells. Our results showed that BAG3 regulates the basal amount of total cellular LC3B protein by controlling its mRNA translation. This effect was apparently specific to LC3B because other ATG protein levels were not affected. BAG3 knockdown did not affect LC3B lipidation induced by nutrient deprivation or proteasome inhibition. We concluded that BAG3 maintains the basal amount of LC3B protein by controlling the translation of its mRNA in HeLa and HEK293 cells.

  13. Modulation of total IgE levels in serum of normal and athymic nude BALB/c mice by cells and exogenous antigenic stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Akker, van den T.W.; Soeting, P.W.C.; Oudenaren, van A.; Benner, R.

    1989-01-01

    Several different grades of T-system impairment were studied for their effects on the total serum IgE concentration in BALB/c mice. Homozygous athymic nu/nu mice and their heterozygous nu/ littermates were compared for serum IgE levels while kept under either barrier-maintained or conventional

  14. Top-Down Control of Visual Attention by the Prefrontal Cortex. Functional Specialization and Long-Range Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paneri, Sofia; Gregoriou, Georgia G.

    2017-01-01

    The ability to select information that is relevant to current behavioral goals is the hallmark of voluntary attention and an essential part of our cognition. Attention tasks are a prime example to study at the neuronal level, how task related information can be selectively processed in the brain while irrelevant information is filtered out. Whereas, numerous studies have focused on elucidating the mechanisms of visual attention at the single neuron and population level in the visual cortices, considerably less work has been devoted to deciphering the distinct contribution of higher-order brain areas, which are known to be critical for the employment of attention. Among these areas, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) has long been considered a source of top-down signals that bias selection in early visual areas in favor of the attended features. Here, we review recent experimental data that support the role of PFC in attention. We examine the existing evidence for functional specialization within PFC and we discuss how long-range interactions between PFC subregions and posterior visual areas may be implemented in the brain and contribute to the attentional modulation of different measures of neural activity in visual cortices. PMID:29033784

  15. Top-Down Control of Visual Attention by the Prefrontal Cortex. Functional Specialization and Long-Range Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Paneri

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The ability to select information that is relevant to current behavioral goals is the hallmark of voluntary attention and an essential part of our cognition. Attention tasks are a prime example to study at the neuronal level, how task related information can be selectively processed in the brain while irrelevant information is filtered out. Whereas, numerous studies have focused on elucidating the mechanisms of visual attention at the single neuron and population level in the visual cortices, considerably less work has been devoted to deciphering the distinct contribution of higher-order brain areas, which are known to be critical for the employment of attention. Among these areas, the prefrontal cortex (PFC has long been considered a source of top-down signals that bias selection in early visual areas in favor of the attended features. Here, we review recent experimental data that support the role of PFC in attention. We examine the existing evidence for functional specialization within PFC and we discuss how long-range interactions between PFC subregions and posterior visual areas may be implemented in the brain and contribute to the attentional modulation of different measures of neural activity in visual cortices.

  16. Material Surface Characteristics and Plasma Performance in the Lithium Tokamak Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucia, Matthew James

    ---ascertained from plasma current and density measurements---progressively improved as plasma carbon and oxygen impurity levels fell. This was true for PFC conditioning by vacuum baking and argon glow discharge cleaning, as well as by lithium evaporation. Some evidence suggested that impurity sequestration was more important than hydrogen retention in enhancing LTX plasma performance. In contrast with expectations for lithium PFCs, heating the Li2 O PFCs in LTX caused increased plasma impurity levels that tended to reduce plasma performance.

  17. The Association of Increased Total Glycosylated Hemoglobin Levels with Delayed Age at Menarche in Young Women with Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, Kirstie K.; Palta, Mari; Allen, Catherine; D’Alessio, Donn J.

    2005-01-01

    Context: Delayed menarche is associated with subsequent reproductive and skeletal complications. Previous research has found delayed growth and pubertal maturation with type 1 diabetes and with poor glycemic control. The effect of diabetes management on menarche is important to clarify because tighter control might prevent these complications. Objective: To investigate age at menarche in young women with type 1 diabetes, and examine the effect of diabetes management (e.g. total glycosylated hemoglobin (GHb) level, number of blood glucose checks, insulin therapy intensity, insulin dose) on age at menarche in those diagnosed before menarche. Design: The Wisconsin Diabetes Registry Project is a follow-up study of a type 1 diabetes population-based incident cohort initially enrolled 1987 – 1992. Setting: Twenty-eight counties in south-central Wisconsin. Patients or Other Participants: Recruited through referrals, self-report, and hospital/clinic ascertainment. Individuals with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes, <30 years old, were invited to participate. Of 288 young women enrolled, 188 reported menarche by 2002; 105 were diagnosed before menarche. Interventions: Not applicable. Main Outcome Measure: Age at menarche. Results: Mean age at menarche was 12.78 years, compared to 12.54 years in the United States (p = 0.01). Ages at menarche and diagnosis were not associated. For those diagnosed before menarche, age at menarche was delayed 1.3 months with each one percent increase in mean total GHb level in the three years prior to menarche. Conclusions: Age at menarche was moderately delayed in young women with type 1 diabetes. Delayed menarche could potentially be minimized with improved GHb levels. PMID:16204372

  18. Leadership and Total Quality Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-15

    leadership and management skills yields increased productivity. This paper will focus on the skills required of senior level leaders (leaders at the...publication until it has been cleared by the appropriate mii..-, service or government agency. Leadership and Total Quality Management An Individual Study...llty Codes fAvti1 and/or DltISpecial Abstract AUTHOR: Harry D. Gatanas, LTC, USA TITLE: Leadership and Total Quality Management FORMAT- Individual

  19. Combined effects of DNA methyltransferase 1 and 3A polymorphisms and urinary total arsenic levels on the risk for clear cell renal cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Shu-Mei [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Huang, Chao-Yuan [Department of Urology, National Taiwan University Hospital, College of Medicine National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Shiue, Horng-Sheng [Department of Chinese Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Pu, Yeong-Shiau [Department of Urology, National Taiwan University Hospital, College of Medicine National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Yi-Hsun; Chen, Wei-Jen [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lin, Ying-Chin [Department of Family Medicine, Shung Ho Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Health Examination, Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Division of Family Medicine, School of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hsueh, Yu-Mei, E-mail: ymhsueh@tmu.edu.tw [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2016-08-15

    Our previous study showed that high urinary total arsenic levels were associated with higher odds ratio (OR) for renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) might influence DNMT enzyme activity associated with tumorigenesis. In this study, we investigated the association of five SNPs from DNMT1 (rs8101626 and rs2228611), DNMT3A (rs34048824 and rs1550117), and DNMT3B (rs1569686) with the risk of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). We also examined the combined effects of DNMT genotypes and urinary arsenic levels on ccRCC risk. We conducted a hospital-based case-control study, which included 293 subjects with ccRCC and 293 age- and gender-matched controls. The urinary arsenic species were determined by a high performance liquid chromatography-linked hydride generator and atomic absorption spectrometry. Genotypes were investigated using polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses. We observed that the DNMT1 rs8101626 G/G genotype was significantly associated with reduced odds ratio (OR) of ccRCC [OR = 0.38, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.14–0.99]. Subjects with concurrent DNMT1 rs8101626 A/A + A/G and DNMT3A rs34048824 T/T + T/C genotypes had significantly higher OR for ccRCC [OR = 2.88, 95% CI 1.44–5.77]. Participants with the high-risk genotype of DNMT1 rs8101626 and DNMT3A rs34048824 with concurrently high urinary total arsenic levels had even higher OR of ccRCC in a dose-response manner. This is the first study to evaluate variant DNMT1 rs8101626 and DNMT3A rs34048824 genotypes that modify the arsenic-related ccRCC risk in a geographic area without significant arsenic exposure in Taiwan. - Highlights: • High urinary total arsenic level or polymorphism of DNMT1 increased the OR of ccRCC. • High risk genotypes of combination of DNMT1 and DNMT3A increased the OR of ccRCC. • A joint effect of urinary total arsenic level and DNMTs genotypes may affect ccRCC.

  20. PSA kinetics following primary focal cryotherapy (hemiablation) in organ-confined prostate cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongnyuy, Michael; Islam, Shahidul; Mbah, Alfred K; Halpern, Daniel M; Werneburg, Glenn T; Kosinski, Kaitlin E; Chen, Connie; Habibian, David J; Schiff, Jeffrey T; Corcoran, Anthony T; Katz, Aaron E

    2018-02-01

    We aim to evaluate prostate-specific antigen (PSA) trends in post-primary focal cryotherapy (PFC) patients. This was an institutional review board-approved retrospective study of PFC patients from 2010 to 2015. Patients with at least one post-PFC PSA were included in the study. Biochemical recurrence (BCR) was determined using the Phoenix criteria. PSA bounce was also assessed. We analyzed rates of change of PSA over time of post-PFC between BCR and no BCR groups. PSA-derived variables were analyzed as potential predictors of BCR. A total of 104 PFC patients were included in our analysis. Median (range) age and follow-up time were 66 (48-82) years and 19 (6.3-38.6) months, respectively. Four (3.8%) patients experienced PSA bounce. The median percent drop in first post-PFC PSA of 80.0% was not associated with BCR (p = 0.256) and may indicate elimination of the index lesion. The rate of increase of PSA in BCR patients was significantly higher compared to patients who did not recur (median PSA velocity (PSAV): 0.15 vs 0.04 ng/ml/month, p = 0.001). Similar to PSAV (HR 9.570, 95% CI 3.725-24.592, p PSA nadir ≥ 2 ng/ml [HR (hazard ratio) 1.251, 95% CI 1.100-1.422, p = 0.001] was independently associated with BCR. A significant drop in post-PFC PSA may indicate elimination of the index lesion. Patients who are likely to recur biochemically have a significantly higher PSAV compared to those who do not recur. Nadir PSA of less than 2 ng/ml may be considered the new normal PSA in focal cryotherapy (hemiablation) follow-up.

  1. Reduced prefrontal cortex activation in the color-word Stroop task for Chinese dyslexic children: a near-infrared spectroscopy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Jinyan; Zhai Jiahuan; Gong Hui; Song Ranran; Zou Li

    2011-01-01

    Behavioral studies have investigated the performance of children with developmental dyslexia in conflict resolution, a function connected with the prefrontal cortex (PFC) closely. However, little is known about the prefrontal activation in conflict resolution for dyslexic children. In the present study, the involvement of the PFC in resolving conflict was evaluated for Chinese dyslexic children by means of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). The NIRS instrument is a portable, continuous-wave system and can measure concentration changes of hemodynamic parameters (including oxy-, deoxy-, and total hemoglobin). Considering better sensitivity, the oxy-hemoglobin (oxy-Hb) was chosen to indicate the prefrontal activation. Ten dyslexic children and 11 normal children were recruited to perform the Chinese-character color-word Stroop task, which included the neutral and color (incongruent) tasks. In behavioral performance, both groups showed significant Stroop effect, longer response time or higher error rate for the color task. In particular, the Stroop interference effect was marginally larger for dyslexic children than normal children in response time. What's more, the two groups showed distinct pattern of oxy-Hb activation during the Stroop tasks. The normal group recruited the bilateral PFC to perform the tasks, while the dyslexic group couldn't activate the bilateral PFC in the difficult color task. Moreover, significantly less color Stroop effect was found in the left PFC for the dyslexic group, showing their disability in coping with the Stroop interference. These findings suggest that the PFC is dysfunctional in conflict resolution for Chinese dyslexic children and that NIRS can be an effective tool in neurological research and clinical application.

  2. Reduced prefrontal cortex activation in the color-word Stroop task for Chinese dyslexic children: a near-infrared spectroscopy study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Jinyan; Zhai Jiahuan; Gong Hui [Britton Chance Center for Biomedical Photonics, Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics-Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Song Ranran; Zou Li, E-mail: huigong@mail.hust.edu.cn [Department of Child and Adolescent Health and Maternal Care, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2011-01-01

    Behavioral studies have investigated the performance of children with developmental dyslexia in conflict resolution, a function connected with the prefrontal cortex (PFC) closely. However, little is known about the prefrontal activation in conflict resolution for dyslexic children. In the present study, the involvement of the PFC in resolving conflict was evaluated for Chinese dyslexic children by means of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). The NIRS instrument is a portable, continuous-wave system and can measure concentration changes of hemodynamic parameters (including oxy-, deoxy-, and total hemoglobin). Considering better sensitivity, the oxy-hemoglobin (oxy-Hb) was chosen to indicate the prefrontal activation. Ten dyslexic children and 11 normal children were recruited to perform the Chinese-character color-word Stroop task, which included the neutral and color (incongruent) tasks. In behavioral performance, both groups showed significant Stroop effect, longer response time or higher error rate for the color task. In particular, the Stroop interference effect was marginally larger for dyslexic children than normal children in response time. What's more, the two groups showed distinct pattern of oxy-Hb activation during the Stroop tasks. The normal group recruited the bilateral PFC to perform the tasks, while the dyslexic group couldn't activate the bilateral PFC in the difficult color task. Moreover, significantly less color Stroop effect was found in the left PFC for the dyslexic group, showing their disability in coping with the Stroop interference. These findings suggest that the PFC is dysfunctional in conflict resolution for Chinese dyslexic children and that NIRS can be an effective tool in neurological research and clinical application.

  3. Radiation induced changes in plasma total protein nitrogen and urinary total nitrogen in desert rodent and albino rats subjected to dietary protein deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roushdy, H.; El-Husseini, M.; Saleh, F.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of gamma-irradiation on plasma total protein nitrogen and urinary total nitrogen was studied in the desert rodent, psammomy obesus obesus and albino rats subjected to dietary protein deficiency. In albino rats kept on high protein diet, the radiation syndrome resulted in urine retention, while in those kept on non-protein diet, such phenomenon was recorded only with the high radiation level of 1170r. Radiation exposure to 780 and 1170r caused remarkable diuresis in psammomys obesus obesus whereas they induced significant urine retention in albino rats. The levels of plasma total protein nitrogen and urinary total nitrogen were higher in albino rats maintained on high protein diet than in those kept on non-protein diet. Radiation exposure caused an initial drop in plasma total protein nitrogen concentration, concomitant with an initial rise in total urinary nitrogen, radiation exposure of psammomys obesus obesus caused significant increase in the levels of plasma protein nitrogen and urinary total nitrogen. Psammomys obesus obesus seemed to be more affected by radiation exposure than did the albino rats

  4. Comparison of Transcutaneous Bilirubin Measurement With Total Serum Bilirubin Levels in Preterm Neonates Receiving Phototherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendse, Amruta; Jasani, Bonny; Nanavati, Ruchi; Kabra, Nandkishor

    2017-08-15

    To compare transcutaneous bilirubin with total serum bilirubin in preterm neonates after initiation of phototherapy. Jaundice was assessed in 30 preterm neonates with transcutaneous bilirubin and total serum bilirubin before initiation of phototherapy and at 12 hr after initiation of phototherapy. A photo-occlusive patch was applied over the sternum. Transcutaneous bilirubin has a good correlation with total serum bilirubin after initiation of phototherapy. (r=0.918, Pbilirubin at 28-32 weeks of gestation (r = 0.97) was better correlated with total serum bilirubin than those at 32-37 weeks (r =0.88). The correlation was better for neonates 72 hours of age (r = 0.82). Transcutaneous bilirubin correlates significantly with total serum bilirubin at the patched sternal site after initiation of phototherapy in preterm neonates.

  5. Coping with Childbirth: Brain Structural Associations of Personal Growth Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Mangelsdorf

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Major life events require psychological adaptations and can be accompanied by brain structural and functional changes. The goal of the current study was to investigate the association of personal growth initiative (PGI as a form of proactive coping strategy before childbirth, with gray matter volume after delivery. Childbirth is one of the few predictable major life events, which, while being one of the most positive experiences for many, is also accompanied by multidimensional stress for the mother. Previous research has shown that high stress is associated with reductions in gray matter volume in limbic cortices as well as the prefrontal cortex (PFC. We hypothesized that PGI before childbirth is positively related to gray matter volume after delivery, especially in the ventromedial PFC (vmPFC. In a prospective study, 22 first-time mothers answered questionnaires about their PGI level 1 month before birth (T1 and 1 month after delivery (T2. Four months after giving birth, a follow-up assessment was applied with 16 of these mothers (T3. Structural brain data were acquired at both postpartal measurement occasions. Voxel-based morphometry was used to correlate prenatal PGI levels with postpartal gray matter volume. Higher PGI levels before delivery were positively associated with larger gray matter volume in the vmPFC directly after childbirth. Previous structural neuroimaging research in the context of major life events focused primarily on pathological reactions to stress (e.g., post-traumatic stress disorder; PTSD. The current study gives initial indications that proactive coping may be positively associated with gray matter volume in the vmPFC, a brain region which shows volumetric reductions in PTSD patients.

  6. Silencing of beta-carotene hydroxylase increases total carotenoid and beta-carotene levels in potato tubers

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    Pizzichini Daniele

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Beta-carotene is the main dietary precursor of vitamin A. Potato tubers contain low levels of carotenoids, composed mainly of the xanthophylls lutein (in the beta-epsilon branch and violaxanthin (in the beta-beta branch. None of these carotenoids have provitamin A activity. We have previously shown that tuber-specific silencing of the first step in the epsilon-beta branch, LCY-e, redirects metabolic flux towards beta-beta carotenoids, increases total carotenoids up to 2.5-fold and beta-carotene up to 14-fold. Results In this work, we silenced the non-heme beta-carotene hydroxylases CHY1 and CHY2 in the tuber. Real Time RT-PCR measurements confirmed the tuber-specific silencing of both genes . CHY silenced tubers showed more dramatic changes in carotenoid content than LCY-e silenced tubers, with beta-carotene increasing up to 38-fold and total carotenoids up to 4.5-fold. These changes were accompanied by a decrease in the immediate product of beta-carotene hydroxylation, zeaxanthin, but not of the downstream xanthophylls, viola- and neoxanthin. Changes in endogenous gene expression were extensive and partially overlapping with those of LCY-e silenced tubers: CrtISO, LCY-b and ZEP were induced in both cases, indicating that they may respond to the balance between individual carotenoid species. Conclusion Together with epsilon-cyclization of lycopene, beta-carotene hydroxylation is another regulatory step in potato tuber carotenogenesis. The data are consistent with a prevalent role of CHY2, which is highly expressed in tubers, in the control of this step. Combination of different engineering strategies holds good promise for the manipulation of tuber carotenoid content.

  7. Traumatic stress causes distinctive effects on fear circuit catecholamines and the fear extinction profile in a rodent model of posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chen-Cheng; Tung, Che-Se; Lin, Pin-Hsuan; Huang, Chuen-Lin; Liu, Yia-Ping

    2016-09-01

    Central catecholamines regulate fear memory across the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), amygdala (AMYG), and hippocampus (HPC). However, inadequate evidence exists to address the relationships among these fear circuit areas in terms of the fear symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). By examining the behavioral profile in a Pavlovian fear conditioning paradigm together with tissue/efflux levels of dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) and their reuptake abilities across the fear circuit areas in rats that experienced single prolonged stress (SPS, a rodent model of PTSD), we demonstrated that SPS-impaired extinction retrieval was concomitant with the changes of central DA/NE in a dissociable manner. For tissue levels, diminished DA and increased NE were both observed in the mPFC and AMYG. DA efflux and synaptosomal DA transporter were consistently reduced in the AMYG/vHPC, whereas SPS reduced NE efflux in the infralimbic cortex and synaptosomal NE transporter in the mPFC. Furthermore, a lower expression of synaptosomal VMAT2 was observed in the mPFC, AMYG, and vHPC after SPS. Finally, negative correlations were observed between retrieval freezing and DA in the mPFC/AMYG; nevertheless, the phenomena became invalid after SPS. Our results suggest that central catecholamines are crucially involved in the retrieval of fear extinction in which DA and NE play distinctive roles across the fear circuit areas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  8. Efeito do período experimental sobre a digestão parcial e total em bovinos alimentados com dois níveis de volumosos Effect of experimental periods on the parcial and total digestion in cattle fed two levels of forage

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    Kátia Cylene Guimarães

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar os efeitos de dois períodos experimentais e dois níveis de volumosos na dieta sobre a digestibilidade total e parcial da matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO, proteína bruta (PB, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, energia bruta (EB e amido. Foram utilizados quatro novilhos da raça Holandês Preto e Branco, com dois anos de idade e 340 kg de peso vivo e canulados no rúmen e duodeno. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o quadrado latino 4 x 4, em que os animais receberam quatro tratamentos, que consistiram de dois níveis de volumosos (30 e 70% e dois períodos experimentais (14 e 21 dias. Houve efeito significativo do nível de volumoso sobre a digestibilidade ruminal de FDA e FDN, a digestibilidade intestinal e total da MS, MO, PB e amido e a digestibilidade total da EB. Não houve efeito do período experimental sobre os coeficientes de digestibilidade dos nutrientes avaliados. Conclui-se que a utilização de período experimental de 14 dias, em experimentos de digestão, é viável, quando se utiliza feno como fonte de volumoso.The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of two experimental periods and two forage levels in the diet on the total and parcial apparent digestibility of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, acid detergent fiber (ADF, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, gross energy (GE and starch. Four Holstein steers, averaging two years old and 340 kg of body weight, ruminally and duodenally cannulated, were used. The experimental design was a 4 x 4 latin square and the animals received four treatments as following: two forage levels (30 and 70% and two experimental periods (14 and 21 days. There was effect of forage level on intestinal and total digestibility of DM, OM, CP and starch and on total digestibility of GE. There was effect of forage level on ruminal digestibility of ADF and NDF. There was no effect of

  9. [Studies on the relationship between beta-adrenergic receptor density on cell wall lymphocytes, total serum catecholamine level and heart rate in patients with hyperthyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajek, J; Zieba, I; Zyśko, D

    2000-08-01

    Hyperthyreosis mimics the hyperadrenergic state and its symptoms were though to be dependent on increased level of catecholamines. Another reason for the symptoms could be the increased density or affinity of beta-adrenergic receptors to catecholamines. The aim of the study was to examine the elements of sympathetic nervous system, thyroid hormones level and their influence on heart rate control in patients with hyperthyreosis. The study was carried out in 18 women, mean age 48.9 +/- 8.7 yrs and 6 men, mean age 54.2 +/- 8.7 yrs. The control group consisted of 30 healthy persons matched for age and sex. We examined the density of beta-adrenergic receptors using radioligand labelling method with 125I-cyanopindolol, serum total catecholamines level with radioenzymatic assay kit, the levels of free thyroid hormones using radioimmunoassays and thyreotropine level with immunoradiometric assay. Maximal, minimal and mean heart rate were studied using Holter monitoring system. The density of beta-adrenergic receptors in hyperthyreosis was 37.3 +/- 21.7 vs 37.2 +/- 18.1 fmol/mg in the control group (p = NS). Total catecholamines level was significantly decreased in hyperthyreosis group: 1.5 +/- 0.89 vs 1.9 +/- 0.73 pmol/ml (p < 0.05). There was significantly higher minimal, maximal and mean heart rate in hyperthyreosis group (p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001 and p < 0.05 respectively). There was a weak inverse correlation between minimum heart rate and triiodothyronine level (r = -0.38, p < 0.05). An inverse correlation between triiodothyronine and catecholamines level (r = -0.49, p < 0.05) was observed. Beta-adrenergic receptors density is unchanged and catecholamines level is decreased in hyperthyreosis when compared to normal subjects. There is no correlation between minimal heart rate and adrenergic receptors density or catecholamines level in hyperthyreosis.

  10. Impact of levels of total digestible nutrients on microbiome, enzyme profile and degradation of feeds in buffalo rumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kala, Anju; Kamra, D N; Kumar, Avinash; Agarwal, Neeta; Chaudhary, L C; Joshi, C G

    2017-01-01

    The present study was aimed at understanding a shift in rumen microbiome of buffaloes fed various levels of total digestible nutrients. To understand the process, the metagenomics of rumen microbes, in vivo and in vitro rumen fermentation studies were carried out. Three rumen fistulated adult male Murrah buffaloes were fed three isonitrogenous diets varying in total digestible nutrients (70, 85 and 100% of TDN requirement) in 3X3 switch over design. On dry matter basis, wheat straw/ roughage content were 81, 63 and 51% and that of maize grain was 8, 16 and 21% in three diets respectively. After 20 d of feeding, rumen liquor and rumen contents were sampled just before (0h) and 4h post feeding. Ruminococcus flavefaciens and R. albus (estimated with real time PCR) were higher in high roughage diets. The predominant phyla in all the three groups were Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes followed by Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Fibrobacteres. A core group of more than fifty rumen bacteria was present in all the animals with very little variations due to level of TDN. The most predominant bacterial genera reported in order of decreasing abundance were: Prevotella, Bacteroides, Clostridium, Ruminococcus, Eubacterium, Parabacteroides, Fibrobacter, Butyrivibrio etc. The higher diversity of the enyzmes families GH 23, GH 28, GH 39, GH 97, GH 106, and GH 127 (the enzymes active in fibre and starch degradation) were significantly higher on 100%TDN diet while CE 14 (required for the hydrolysis of bond between carbohydrate and lignin) was higher on low TDN (70%) diet, indicating ester bond cleavage was better in animals fed high roughage (wheat straw) diet.

  11. The relative contribution of waves, tides, and nontidal residuals to extreme total water levels on U.S. West Coast sandy beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, Katherine A.; Ruggiero, Peter; Stockdon, Hilary F.

    2017-01-01

    To better understand how individual processes combine to cause flooding and erosion events, we investigate the relative contribution of tides, waves, and nontidal residuals to extreme total water levels (TWLs) at the shoreline of U.S. West Coast sandy beaches. Extreme TWLs, defined as the observed annual maximum event and the simulated 100 year return level event, peak in Washington, and are on average larger in Washington and Oregon than in California. The relative contribution of wave-induced and still water levels (SWL) to the 100 year TWL event is similar to that of the annual maximum event; however, the contribution of storm surge to the SWL doubles across events. Understanding the regional variability of TWLs will lead to a better understanding of how sea level rise, changes in storminess, and possible changes in the frequency of major El Niños may impact future coastal flooding and erosion along the U.S. West Coast and elsewhere.

  12. The balance of kinetic and total energy simulated by the OSU two-level atmospheric general circulation model for January and July

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.-T.; Gates, W. L.; Kim, J.-W.

    1984-01-01

    A three-year simulation which prescribes seasonally varying solar radiation and sea surface temperature is the basis of the present study of the horizontal structure of the balances of kinetic and total energy simulated by Oregon State University's two-level atmospheric general circulation model. Mechanisms responsible for the local energy changes are identified, and the energy balance requirement's fulfilment is examined. In January, the vertical integral of the total energy shows large amounts of external heating over the North Pacific and Atlantic, together with cooling over most of the land area of the Northern Hemisphere. In July, an overall seasonal reversal is found. Both seasons are also characterized by strong energy flux divergence in the tropics, in association with the poleward transport of heat and momentum.

  13. Effects of graded levels of tannin-containing tropical tree leaves on in vitro rumen fermentation, total protozoa and methane production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatta, R; Saravanan, M; Baruah, L; Prasad, C S

    2015-03-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effect of graded levels of tannin-containing tropical tree leaves, Autocarpus integrifolis, Azardirachta indica and Ficus bengalensis, on the in vitro rumen fermentation pattern, total protozoa and methane suppression in order to establish the optimum dose of these leaves for inclusion in the ruminant diets. The air-dried and ground samples of Au. integrifolis, Az. indica and Ficus bengalensis were subjected to in vitro incubation using 30 ml buffered rumen fluid at 0, 2.5, 5.0, 10.0, 15.0, 20.0, 25.0 and 30.0% (dry matter refers to moisture-free basis) of a total mixed ration (TMR: refers to mixture of roughage and concentrate containing cereals and oil cakes) devoid of tannin. The TMR for the experimental incubation was prepared by mixing 40 parts of ground Elusine coracana straw as roughage source with 60 parts of concentrate mixture. The leaves contained an average 130 g kg(-1) CP with 7·0 MJ of ME kg(-1) DM. The average neutral detergent fibre (NDF) content was content also showed similar trend. However, condensed tannin (CT) was highest in F. bengalensis (260) followed by Au. integrifolis (186) and Az. indica (138). There was significant (P 5.0%) reduced TVFA concentration. Protozoa (cells per mL) were similar at all levels of inclusion with Au. integrifolis, but reduced in case of F. bengalensis and Az. indica. As the level of tannin increased in the incubation medium, there was a linear reduction in methane concentration. Highest methane reduction (%) was recorded in incubations supplemented with Az. indica (61.5) followed by F. bengalensis (46.8) and Au. integrifolis (30.3). It was established from this study that tropical leaves of F. bengalensis, Au. integrifolis and Az. indica suppress methanogenesis. Ficus bengalensis, Au. integrifolis and Az. indica leaves are of interest in the enteric methane ameliorative strategies. Total mixed ration containing 10-15% ground F. bengalensis or Au. integrifolis or Az

  14. A comparison of post-op haemoglobin levels and allogeneic blood transfusion rates following total knee arthroplasty without drainage or with reinfusion drains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Shariff; Bhattacharya, Rajarshi; Bhavikatti, Mainudden; Dawson, Matthew

    2010-02-01

    The effects of re-infusion drains on the rate of allogeneic blood transfusion and post-op haemoglobin levels in Total Knee Arthroplasty were examined. A group of 22 patients undergoing primary Total Knee Arthroplasty using a CBCII Constavac Stryker re-infusion drainage system were compared with a group of 30 patients, matched for age, sex and type of prosthesis but without any drain usage. The re-infusion drain.group had a significantly lower day 1 and day 3 post-operative haemoglobin compared to the non-drainage group. The re-infusion drain group had a higher allogenic transfusion rate compared to the non-drainage group. There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding the rate of wound and transfusion related complications and mean length of post-operative stay. We found that reinfusion drains were ineffective in reducing allogeneic transfusion requirements as compared with non-drainage in total knee arthroplasty.

  15. Prenatal phencyclidine treatment induces behavioral deficits through impairment of GABAergic interneurons in the prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toriumi, Kazuya; Oki, Mika; Muto, Eriko; Tanaka, Junko; Mouri, Akihiro; Mamiya, Takayoshi; Kim, Hyoung-Chun; Nabeshima, Toshitaka

    2016-06-01

    We previously reported that prenatal treatment with phencyclidine (PCP) induces glutamatergic dysfunction in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), leading to schizophrenia-like behavioral deficits in adult mice. However, little is known about the prenatal effect of PCP treatment on other types of neurons. We focused on γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic interneurons and evaluated the effect of prenatal PCP exposure on the neurodevelopment of GABAergic interneurons in the PFC. PCP was administered at the dose of 10 mg/kg/day to pregnant dams from embryonic day 6.5 to 18.5. After the pups were reared to adult, we analyzed their GABAergic system in the PFC using immunohistological, biochemical, and behavioral analyses in adulthood. The prenatal PCP treatment decreased the density of parvalbumin-positive cells and reduced the expression level of glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) and GABA content of the PFC in adults. Additionally, prenatal PCP treatment induced behavioral deficits in adult mice, such as hypersensitivity to PCP and prepulse inhibition (PPI) deficits. These behavioral deficits were ameliorated by pretreatment with the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen. Furthermore, the density of c-Fos-positive cells was decreased after the PPI test in the PFC of mice treated with PCP prenatally, and this effect was ameliorated by pretreatment with baclofen. These findings suggest that prenatal treatment with PCP induced GABAergic dysfunction in the PFC, which caused behavioral deficits.

  16. Adenosine A2A Receptors Control Glutamatergic Synaptic Plasticity in Fast Spiking Interneurons of the Prefrontal Cortex

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    Amber Kerkhofs

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR are activated upon increased synaptic activity to assist in the implementation of long-term plastic changes at synapses. While it is reported that A2AR are involved in the control of prefrontal cortex (PFC-dependent behavior such as working memory, reversal learning and effort-based decision making, it is not known whether A2AR control glutamatergic synapse plasticity within the medial PFC (mPFC. To elucidate that, we tested whether A2AR blockade affects long-term plasticity (LTP of excitatory post-synaptic potentials in pyramidal neurons and fast spiking (FS interneurons in layer 5 of the mPFC and of population spikes. Our results show that A2AR are enriched at mPFC synapses, where their blockade reversed the direction of plasticity at excitatory synapses onto layer 5 FS interneurons from LTP to long-term depression, while their blockade had no effect on the induction of LTP at excitatory synapses onto layer 5 pyramidal neurons. At the network level, extracellularly induced LTP of population spikes was reduced by A2AR blockade. The interneuron-specificity of A2AR in controlling glutamatergic synapse LTP may ensure that during periods of high synaptic activity, a proper excitation/inhibition balance is maintained within the mPFC.

  17. Scaling Up Cortical Control Inhibits Pain

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    Jahrane Dale

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Acute pain evokes protective neural and behavioral responses. Chronic pain, however, disrupts normal nociceptive processing. The prefrontal cortex (PFC is known to exert top-down regulation of sensory inputs; unfortunately, how individual PFC neurons respond to an acute pain signal is not well characterized. We found that neurons in the prelimbic region of the PFC increased firing rates of the neurons after noxious stimulations in free-moving rats. Chronic pain, however, suppressed both basal spontaneous and pain-evoked firing rates. Furthermore, we identified a linear correlation between basal and evoked firing rates of PFC neurons, whereby a decrease in basal firing leads to a nearly 2-fold reduction in pain-evoked response in chronic pain states. In contrast, enhancing basal PFC activity with low-frequency optogenetic stimulation scaled up prefrontal outputs to inhibit pain. These results demonstrate a cortical gain control system for nociceptive regulation and establish scaling up prefrontal outputs as an effective neuromodulation strategy to inhibit pain. : Dale et al. find that acute pain increases activity levels in the prefrontal cortex. Chronic pain reduces both basal spontaneous and pain-evoked activity in this region, whereas neurostimulation to restore basal activities can in turn enhance nociception-evoked prefrontal activities to inhibit pain. Keywords: chronic pain, neuromodulation, prefrontal cortex, PFC, cortical gain control

  18. Remote memories are enhanced by COMT activity through dysregulation of the endocannabinoid system in the prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheggia, D; Zamberletti, E; Realini, N; Mereu, M; Contarini, G; Ferretti, V; Managò, F; Margiani, G; Brunoro, R; Rubino, T; De Luca, M A; Piomelli, D; Parolaro, D; Papaleo, F

    2018-04-01

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is a crucial hub for the flexible modulation of recent memories (executive functions) as well as for the stable organization of remote memories. Dopamine in the PFC is implicated in both these processes and genetic variants affecting its neurotransmission might control the unique balance between cognitive stability and flexibility present in each individual. Functional genetic variants in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene result in a different catabolism of dopamine in the PFC. However, despite the established role played by COMT genetic variation in executive functions, its impact on remote memory formation and recall is still poorly explored. Here we report that transgenic mice overexpressing the human COMT-Val gene (COMT-Val-tg) present exaggerated remote memories (>50 days) while having unaltered recent memories (remote memories as silencing COMT Val overexpression starting from 30 days after the initial aversive conditioning normalized remote memories. COMT genetic overactivity produced a selective overdrive of the endocannabinoid system within the PFC, but not in the striatum and hippocampus, which was associated with enhanced remote memories. Indeed, acute pharmacological blockade of CB1 receptors was sufficient to rescue the altered remote memory recall in COMT-Val-tg mice and increased PFC dopamine levels. These results demonstrate that COMT genetic variations modulate the retrieval of remote memories through the dysregulation of the endocannabinoid system in the PFC.

  19. Benefits of physical exercise on basic visuo-motor functions across age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marika eBerchicci

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Motor performance deficits of older adults are due to dysfunction at multiple levels. Age-related differences have been documented on executive functions; motor control becomes more reliant on cognitive control mechanisms, including the engagement of the prefrontal cortex (PFC, possibly compensating for age-related sensorimotor declines. Since at functional level the PFC showed the largest age-related differences during discriminative response task, we wonder whether those effects are mainly due to the cognitive difficulty in stimulus discrimination or they could be also detected in a much easier task. In the present study, we measured the association of physical exercise with the PFC activation and response times (RTs using a simple response task (SRT, in which the participants were asked to respond as quickly as possible by manual key-press to visual stimuli. Simultaneous behavioral (RTs and electroencephalographic (EEG recordings were performed on 84 healthy participants aged 19-86 years. The whole sample was divided into three cohorts (young, middle-aged and older; each cohort was further divided into two equal sub-cohorts (exercise and not-exercise based on a self-report questionnaire measuring physical exercise. The EEG signal was segmented in epochs starting 1100 prior to stimulus onset and lasting 2-s. Behavioral results showed age effects, indicating a slowing of RTs with increasing age. The EEG results showed a significant interaction between age and exercise on the activities recorded on the PFC. The results indicates that: a the brain of older adults needs the PFC engagement also to perform elementary task, such as the SRT, while this activity is not necessary in younger adults, b physical exercise could reduce this age-related reliance on extra cognitive control also during the performance of a SRT, and c the activity of the PFC is a sensitive index of the benefits of physical exercise on sensorimotor decline.

  20. Effects of background noise on total noise annoyance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willshire, K. F.

    1987-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to assess the effects of combined community noise sources on annoyance. The first experiment baseline relationships between annoyance and noise level for three community noise sources (jet aircraft flyovers, traffic and air conditioners) presented individually. Forty eight subjects evaluated the annoyance of each noise source presented at four different noise levels. Results indicated the slope of the linear relationship between annoyance and noise level for the traffic noise was significantly different from that of aircraft and of air conditioner noise, which had equal slopes. The second experiment investigated annoyance response to combined noise sources, with aircraft noise defined as the major noise source and traffic and air conditioner noise as background noise sources. Effects on annoyance of noise level differences between aircraft and background noise for three total noise levels and for both background noise sources were determined. A total of 216 subjects were required to make either total or source specific annoyance judgements, or a combination of the two, for a wide range of combined noise conditions.

  1. False recall is reduced by damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex: implications for understanding the neural correlates of schematic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, David E; Jones, Samuel H; Duff, Melissa C; Tranel, Daniel

    2014-05-28

    Schematic memory, or contextual knowledge derived from experience (Bartlett, 1932), benefits memory function by enhancing retention and speeding learning of related information (Bransford and Johnson, 1972; Tse et al., 2007). However, schematic memory can also promote memory errors, producing false memories. One demonstration is the "false memory effect" of the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm (Roediger and McDermott, 1995): studying words that fit a common schema (e.g., cold, blizzard, winter) often produces memory for a nonstudied word (e.g., snow). We propose that frontal lobe regions that contribute to complex decision-making processes by weighting various alternatives, such as ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), may also contribute to memory processes by weighting the influence of schematic knowledge. We investigated the role of human vmPFC in false memory by combining a neuropsychological approach with the DRM task. Patients with vmPFC lesions (n = 7) and healthy comparison participants (n = 14) studied word lists that excluded a common associate (the critical item). Recall and recognition tests revealed expected high levels of false recall and recognition of critical items by healthy participants. In contrast, vmPFC patients showed consistently reduced false recall, with significantly fewer intrusions of critical items. False recognition was also marginally reduced among vmPFC patients. Our findings suggest that vmPFC increases the influence of schematically congruent memories, a contribution that may be related to the role of the vmPFC in decision making. These novel neuropsychological results highlight a role for the vmPFC as part of a memory network including the medial temporal lobes and hippocampus (Andrews-Hanna et al., 2010). Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/347677-06$15.00/0.

  2. Oxytocin in the prelimbic medial prefrontal cortex reduces anxiety-like behavior in female and male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabihi, Sara; Durosko, Nicole E; Dong, Shirley M; Leuner, Benedetta

    2014-07-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) is anxiolytic in rodents and humans. However, the specific brain regions where OT acts to regulate anxiety requires further investigation. The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has been shown to play a role in the modulation of anxiety-related behavior. In addition, the mPFC contains OT-sensitive neurons, expresses OT receptors, and receives long range axonal projections from OT-producing neurons in the hypothalamus, suggesting that the mPFC may be a target where OT acts to diminish anxiety. To investigate this possibility, female rats were administered OT bilaterally into the prelimbic (PL) region of the mPFC and anxiety-like behavior assessed. In addition, to determine if the effects of OT on anxiety-like behavior are sex dependent and to evaluate the specificity of OT, male and female anxiety-like behavior was tested following delivery of either OT or the closely related neuropeptide arginine vasopressin (AVP) into the PL mPFC. Finally, the importance of endogenous OT in the regulation of anxiety-like behavior was examined in male and female rats that received PL infusions of an OT receptor antagonist (OTR-A). Overall, even though males and females showed some differences in their baseline levels of anxiety-like behavior, OT in the PL region of the mPFC decreased anxiety regardless of sex. In contrast, neither AVP nor an OTR-A affected anxiety-like behavior in males or females. Together, these findings suggest that although endogenous OT in the PL region of the mPFC does not influence anxiety, the PL mPFC is a site where exogenous OT may act to attenuate anxiety-related behavior independent of sex. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. TUW at the First Total Recall Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-20

    TUW AT THE FIRST TOTAL RECALL TRACK MIHAI LUPU Abstract. For the first participation in the TREC Total Recall track, we set out to try some basic...significantly and consistently outperformed it. 1. Introduction As the organizers point out, the focus of the Total Recall Track is to evaluate methods to...TUW AT THE FIRST TOTAL RECALL TRACK 3 The only change we made was at a higher level. The Sofia ML library provides 5 more ML algorithms. The following

  4. Effect of variable power levels on the yield of total aerosol mass and formation of aldehydes in e-cigarette aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillman, I G; Kistler, K A; Stewart, E W; Paolantonio, A R

    2016-03-01

    The study objective was to determine the effect of variable power applied to the atomizer of refillable tank based e-cigarette (EC) devices. Five different devices were evaluated, each at four power levels. Aerosol yield results are reported for each set of 25 EC puffs, as mass/puff, and normalized for the power applied to the coil, in mass/watt. The range of aerosol produced on a per puff basis ranged from 1.5 to 28 mg, and, normalized for power applied to the coil, ranged from 0.27 to 1.1 mg/watt. Aerosol samples were also analyzed for the production of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein, as DNPH derivatives, at each power level. When reported on mass basis, three of the devices showed an increase in total aldehyde yield with increasing power applied to the coil, while two of the devices showed the opposite trend. The mass of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein produced per gram of total aerosol produced ranged from 0.01 to 7.3 mg/g, 0.006 to 5.8 mg/g, and acrolein from EC aerosols from specific devices, and were compared to estimated exposure from consumption of cigarettes, to occupational and workplace limits, and to previously reported results from other researchers. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Intensification of Organophosphorus Hydrolase Synthesis by Using Substances with Gas-Transport Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Senko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We have performed studies and comparative analysis of the biosynthesis characteristics of intracellular recombinant enzyme, such as hexahistidine-containing organophosphorus hydrolase (His6-OPH in Escherichia coli SG13009[pREP4] cells when various perfluorocarbon compounds (PFC were introduced into the medium for cell cultivation. The PFC were found to facilitate the biosynthesis of His6-OPH: increased levels of the total OPH-activity (up to 37% were measured upon introduction of 1,1,1,2,2,3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,6-tetradecafluorohexane (PFH and 4,7,10,13,16,19,22,25,28,31-decaoxaperfluoro-5,8,11,14,17,18,21,24,27,30-decamethyl tetratriacontane (Polyether II into culture medium. We have demonstrated the possibility of effective and multiple (at least five-fold use of PFH for biosynthesis of intracellular recombinant protein His6-OPH, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of organophosphorus pesticides (OP, is widely used in agriculture and can be applied as new antidote for OP-detoxification in vivo. The multiple use of PFH was achieved through recycling of this substance: sediment of Escherichia coli SG13009[pREP4] cell biomass was collected at the end of each culture growing step and disintegrated with ultrasound, and obtained residue containing almost all of the initially introduced PFC was then added to the medium at the start of the following culture growing step.

  6. The impact of hypoxemia on serum total and free prostate-specific antigen levels in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozge, Cengiz; Bozlu, Murat; Ozgur, Eylem Sercan; Tek, Mesut; Tunckiran, Ahmet; Muslu, Necati; Ilvan, Ahmet

    2015-05-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is the most important biochemical marker in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with prostate cancer. In recent years, a relationship between PSA levels and hypoxic conditions has been described. However, no study has investigated the PSA levels in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of hypoxemia on serum total (tPSA) and free PSA (fPSA) levels in patients with COPD. Between January 2010 and January 2014, 95 male patients who hospitalized for acute exacerbations of COPD and 80 control subjects were enrolled in the study. Serum tPSA and fPSA levels and f/tPSA ratios were determined in all patients on the first day of hospitalization (exacerbation) and 7 days after the treatment (stable state). Statistical analysis included paired t test and Mann-Whitney U test. No statistically significant differences were found between COPD and control groups with regard to the baseline characteristics, except for smoking status. The levels of serum tPSA and fPSA during exacerbation of COPD were significantly higher than the levels of the stable period (p 0.05). Hypoxemia during acute exacerbation of COPD can cause a rise in serum tPSA and fPSA levels, but f/tPSA ratio is not affected. Acute exacerbation of COPD may be added to list of the events in which PSA measurements must be interpreted with caution.

  7. Protein malnutrition during gestation and early life decreases neuronal size in the medial prefrontal cortex of post-pubertal rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roelf J. Cruz-Rizzolo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Retrospective studies in human populations indicate that protein deprivation during pregnancy and early life (early protein malnutrition, EPM is associated with cognitive impairments, learning disabilities and may represent a risk factor for the late onset of some psychiatric disorders, fundamentally schizophrenia, a condition where the prefrontal cortex plays an important role. The purpose of this study was to analyze whether EPM affects structural aspects of the rat medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC, such as cortical volume, neuronal density and neuronal soma size, which seem altered in patients with schizophrenia. For this, a rat model of EPM (5% casein from conception to postnatal day 60 was adopted and the rat mPFC volume, total number of neurons and average neuronal volume were evaluated on postnatal day 60 (post-pubertal animals by histo- and immunohistochemical techniques using unbiased stereological analysis. EPM did not alter the number of NeuN+ neurons in the rat mPFC. However, a very significant decrease in mPFC volume and average neuronal size was observed in malnourished rats. Although the present study does not establish causal relationships between malnutrition and schizophrenia, our results may indicate a similar structural phenomenon in these two situations.

  8. PC-based package for interactive assessment of MHD equilibrium and poloidal field coil design in axisymmetric toroidal geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelleher, W.P.

    1987-01-01

    In the assessment of Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibrium and Poloidal Field Coil (PFC) arrangement for toroidal axisymmetric geometry, the Grad-Shafranov equation must be solved, either analytically or numerically. Existing numerical tools have been developed primarily for mainframe usage and can prove cumbersome for screening assessments and parametric evaluations. The objective of this thesis was to develop a personal computer (PC)-based calculational tool for assessing MHD/PFC problems in a highly interactive mode, well suited for scoping studies. The approach adopted involves a two-step process: first the MHD equilibrium is calculated and then the PFC arrangement, consistent with the equilibrium, is determined in an interactive design environment. The PC-based system developed consists of two programs: (1) PCEQ, which solve the MHD equilibrium problem and (2) PFDE-SIGN, which is employed to arrive at a PFC arrangement. PCEQ provides an output file including, but not limited to, the following: poloidal beta, total beta, safety factors, q, on axis and on edge. PCEQ plots the following contours and/or profiles: flux, pressure and toroidal current density, safety factor, and ratio of plasma toroidal field to vacuum field

  9. Psychosocial stress impairs working memory at high loads: An association with cortisol levels and memory retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oei, N.Y.L.; Everaerd, W.T.A.M.; Elzinga, B.M.; van Well, S.; Bermond, B.

    2006-01-01

    Stress and cortisol are known to impair memory retrieval of well-consolidated declarative material. The effects of cortisol on memory retrieval may in particular be due to glucocorticoid (GC) receptors in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC). Therefore, effects of stress and cortisol should

  10. Optogenetic modulation of descending prefrontocortical inputs to the dorsal raphe bidirectionally bias socioaffective choices after social defeat

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    Collin eChallis

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available It has been well established that modulating serotonin (5-HT levels in humans and animals affects perception and response to social threats, however the circuit mechanisms that control 5-HT output during social interaction are not well understood. A better understanding of these systems could provide groundwork for more precise and efficient therapeutic interventions. Here we examined the organization and plasticity of microcircuits implicated in top-down control of 5-HT neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN by excitatory inputs from the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC and their role in social approach-avoidance decisions. We did this in the context of a social defeat model that induces a long lasting form of social aversion that is reversible by antidepressants. We first used viral tracing and Cre-dependent genetic identification of vmPFC glutamatergic synapses in the DRN to determine their topographic distribution in relation to 5-HT and GABAergic subregions and found that excitatory vmPFC projections primarily localized to GABA-rich areas of the DRN. We then used optogenetics in combination with cFos mapping and slice electrophysiology to establish the functional effects of repeatedly driving vmPFC inputs in DRN. We provide the first direct evidence that vmPFC axons drive synaptic activity and immediate early gene expression in genetically identified DRN GABA neurons through an AMPA receptor-dependent mechanism. In contrast, we did not detect vmPFC-driven synaptic activity in 5-HT neurons and cFos induction in 5-HT neurons was limited. Finally we show that optogenetically increasing or decreasing excitatory vmPFC input to the DRN during sensory exposure to an aggressor’s cues enhances or diminishes avoidance bias, respectively. These results clarify the functional organization of vmPFC-DRN pathways and identify GABAergic neurons as a key cellular element filtering top-down vmPFC influences on affect-regulating 5-HT output.

  11. A transient increase in total head phosphotyrosine levels is observed upon the emergence of Aedes aegypti from the pupal stage

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    Willy Jablonka

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of protein tyrosine residues constitutes a major biochemical regulatory mechanism for the cell. We report a transient increase in the total tyrosine phosphorylation of the Aedes aegypti head during the first days after emergence from the pupal stage. This correlates with an initial reduction in total head protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP activity. Similarly, phosphotyrosine (pTyr-containing bands are seen in extracts prepared from both male and female heads and are spread among a variety of structures including the antennae, proboscis and the maxillary palps combined with the proboscis. Also, mosquitoes treated with sodium orthovanadate, a classical PTP inhibitor, show reduced blood-feeding activity and higher head tyrosine phosphorylation levels. These results suggest that pTyr-mediated signalling pathways may play a role in the initial days following the emergence of the adult mosquito from the pupal stage.

  12. Association of obstructive sleep apnea with homocystein, nitric oxide and total antioxidant capacity levels in patients with or without coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortaç Ersoy, Ebru; Fırat, Hikmet; Akaydın, Sevgi; Özkan, Yeşim; Durusu, Mine; Darılmaz Yüce, Gülbahar; Ergün, Recai; Topeli, Arzu; Ardıç, Sadık

    2014-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Deficiency of nitric oxide (NO) and plasma levels of homocystein have been implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. OSA results in oxygen desaturation and arousal from sleep. Free oxygen radicals can be produced by hypoxia-reoxygenation. To test for the hypothesis that OSA is associated with cardiovascular morbidity, we investigated levels of homocystein, NO and total antioxidant capacity in OSA patients with and without coronary artery disease (CAD) in comparison with normal subjects and patients with CAD without OSA. Polysomnography was performed in 27 patients who had a myocardial infarction and in 25 patients without evidence of CAD. Patients were grouped according their polysomnography results as OSA with CAD (group 1), OSA without CAD (group 2), CAD (group 3), and normal (group 4) . Levels of homocystein, NO and total antioxidant capacity were determined after an overnight fasting. Data were analysed with parametric and non parametric statistical tests. According to apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) 44.4% of CAD patients were OSA. After polysomnographic evaluation, the patients were re-distributed as follows: OSA with CAD (n= 12), OSA without CAD (n= 14), CAD (n= 15), and normal (n= 11). Homocystein levels were higher in 3 groups compared to controls. AHI, MDI and desaturation time was higher in three -vessel disease compared to one and two- vessel diseases (p< 0.05). NO levels were correlated with the period of oxygen desaturation (r: -0.45, p= 0.031). The antioxidant capacity did not differ between OSA and healthy groups. OSA is frequent in CAD. AHI, MDI and desaturation time are higher in patients with severe CAD. It is important to evaluate OSA patients for CAD.

  13. The effect of low exposure-rate gamma irradiation on T and B lymphocyte function in the mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDermott, C.E.; Gengozian, N.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of chronic irradiation on T and B cell numbers and function was studied in mice. Cobalt 60 gamma radiation at 6 R/hour reduced the numbers of anti-SRBC PFC in the spleen, with minimal levels recorded after total exposures of 1000 to 2000 R. Recovery was incomplete after 1000 R, reaching only 40 to 50 per cent of normal in four months and remaining at that level for the animal's lifetime. The long-term deficiency in PFC formation was not due to a quantitative lack of T or B cells since normal cell numbers were observed in the spleen 60 to 144 days after 1000 R. Adoptive transfer studies with combinations of bone marrow and thymus cells, or of splenic T and B cells, from normal and irradiated mice, revealed functional defects in both cell compartments during the first two months. Normal and near normal function of T and B cells occurred 100 days postirradiation, a time when the splenic in vitro response was still only 50 per cent of the controls. The latter observation suggests that the microenvironment of the chronically irradiated spleen alters factors regulating T and B cell interactions in response to a T-dependent antigen. (author)

  14. Similar or different? The role of the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex in similarity detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béatrice Garcin

    Full Text Available Patients with frontal lobe syndrome can exhibit two types of abnormal behaviour when asked to place a banana and an orange in a single category: some patients categorize them at a concrete level (e.g., "both have peel", while others continue to look for differences between these objects (e.g., "one is yellow, the other is orange". These observations raise the question of whether abstraction and similarity detection are distinct processes involved in abstract categorization, and that depend on separate areas of the prefrontal cortex (PFC. We designed an original experimental paradigm for a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study involving healthy subjects, confirming the existence of two distinct processes relying on different prefrontal areas, and thus explaining the behavioural dissociation in frontal lesion patients. We showed that: 1 Similarity detection involves the anterior ventrolateral PFC bilaterally with a right-left asymmetry: the right anterior ventrolateral PFC is only engaged in detecting physical similarities; 2 Abstraction per se activates the left dorsolateral PFC.

  15. Investigation of neural correlates between perception of pain and hemodynamic response measured in the pre-frontal cortex using functional near infra-red spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Venkatagiri

    Perception of pain is multi-dimensional, comprising three major psychological dimensions: sensory-discriminative, motivational-affective and cognitive-evaluative. This dissertation study investigates the cognitive evaluation of pain, by acquiring functional Near Infra-Red Spectroscopic (fNIRS) measurements from the prefrontal cortex (PFC) areas, during mechanical and thermal pain stimulation induced on the subject's volar forearm. Clustered-wise analysis on the oxy-hemoglobin (HbO) response from specific PFC areas was followed by categorizing the resulting HbO response into early (0.1--12sec) and late (12.1--25sec) phases. For each respective phase, regression analysis was carried between the HbO-derived parameters and behaviorally measured pain rating. The major findings of this study include: (1) across both 41°C and 48°C thermal stimulation, significant DeltaHbO deactivation was observed during the late phase, in the left hemispheric (LH) anterior PFC (aPFC) or Brodmann area 10 (BA 10). (2) Significant correlates of pain rating were observed in the LH prefrontal areas: (a) under mechanical stimulation, early phase HbO-derived peak intensity (PI) from LH aPFC correlated with the pain rating. (b) Under both 41°C and 48°C thermal stimulation, late phase HbO-derived PI from the LH dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC or BA 46) showed correlation with the pain rating. (3) The significant correlates observed from the right hemispheric (RH) PFC were: (a) under mechanical stimulation, early phase HbO-derived FWHM from the RH aPFC correlated with the pain rating. (b) Under 41°C thermal stimulation, late phase HbO-derived PI from the RH DLPFC area correlated with the pain rating. (4) The late phase HbO-derived time to peak from LH aPFC reflected cognitive discrimination of two different pain levels (41°C and 48°C). The observed trend for DeltaHbO activation and deactivation could possibly be due to synaptic-induced vasodilation and vasoconstriction leading to increased or

  16. Measuring prefrontal cortical activity during dual task walking in patients with Parkinson's disease: feasibility of using a new portable fNIRS device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwhof, Freek; Reelick, Miriam F; Maidan, Inbal; Mirelman, Anat; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M; Olde Rikkert, Marcel G M; Bloem, Bastiaan R; Muthalib, Makii; Claassen, Jurgen A H R

    2016-01-01

    Many patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) have difficulties in performing a second task during walking (i.e., dual task walking). Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a promising approach to study the presumed contribution of dysfunction within the prefrontal cortex (PFC) to such difficulties. In this pilot study, we examined the feasibility of using a new portable and wireless fNIRS device to measure PFC activity during different dual task walking protocols in PD. Specifically, we tested whether PD patients were able to perform the protocol and whether we were able to measure the typical fNIRS signal of neuronal activity. We included 14 PD patients (age 71.2 ± 5.4 years, Hoehn and Yahr stage II/III). The protocol consisted of five repetitions of three conditions: walking while (i) counting forwards, (ii) serially subtracting, and (iii) reciting digit spans. Ability to complete this protocol, perceived exertion, burden of the fNIRS devices, and concentrations of oxygenated (O 2 Hb) and deoxygenated (HHb) hemoglobin from the left and right PFC were measured. Two participants were unable to complete the protocol due to fatigue and mobility safety concerns. The remaining 12 participants experienced no burden from the two fNIRS devices and completed the protocol with ease. Bilateral PFC O 2 Hb concentrations increased during walking while serially subtracting (left PFC 0.46 μmol/L, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.12-0.81, right PFC 0.49 μmol/L, 95 % CI 0.14-0.84) and reciting digit spans (left PFC 0.36 μmol/L, 95 % CI 0.03-0.70, right PFC 0.44 μmol/L, 95 % CI 0.09-0.78) when compared to rest. HHb concentrations did not differ between the walking tasks and rest. These findings suggest that a new wireless fNIRS device is a feasible measure of PFC activity in PD during dual task walking. Future studies should reduce the level of noise and inter-individual variability to enable measuring differences in PFC activity between different dual

  17. Comparative evaluation of serum and salivary immunoglobulin G and A levels with total serum protein in oral submucous fibrosis patients: A case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Kandasamy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim and Objective: The objective of this study is to estimate and compare the serum and salivary immunoglobulin G and A (IgG, IgA levels in various stages of oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF patients and relate it to total serum protein (TSP and hemoglobin (Hb levels. Materials and Methods: The sample for the present study comprised a total of 20 healthy controls, 20 OSMF patients. About 5 ml of blood and 2 ml of saliva were collected. Quantitative analysis of serum and salivary IgG, IgA was done by turbidometric immunoassay. TSP and Hb were estimated by Biuret and cyanmethemoglobin methods, respectively. Results: Serum and salivary IgA and IgG levels were statistically significantly increased (P < 0.001 in OSMF patients when compared to controls. Also serum and salivary IgG and IgA levels showed significantly increased (P < 0.01 in all the three staging of OSMF when compared to control group. Hb levels and TSP levels were significantly decreased (P < 0.001 in OSMF patients when compared to controls. One-way ANOVA, Pearson's correlation, and unpaired t -test were used for statistical analysis. Conclusion: The elevated levels of IgG and IgA are also in favor of polygammapathy, which are nonspecific and nondiagnostic objective reflections of an underlying disease. Decreased TSP is a result of host response and Hb, acts as an indicator of nutritional status plays an important role. It is also observed from the present study that the severity of OSMF was directly proportional to the estimated elevated levels of the major IgG and IgA. A need is also felt for the knowledge of immunoprofile estimation in etiology and pathogenesis that would prove a great asset in the proper assessment of this condition.

  18. Comparative evaluation of serum and salivary immunoglobulin G and A levels with total serum protein in oral submucous fibrosis patients: A case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, M; Jaisanghar, N; Austin, Ravi David; Srivastava, Kumar Chandan; Anusuya, G Sai; Anisa, N

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study is to estimate and compare the serum and salivary immunoglobulin G and A (IgG, IgA) levels in various stages of oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) patients and relate it to total serum protein (TSP) and hemoglobin (Hb) levels. The sample for the present study comprised a total of 20 healthy controls, 20 OSMF patients. About 5 ml of blood and 2 ml of saliva were collected. Quantitative analysis of serum and salivary IgG, IgA was done by turbidometric immunoassay. TSP and Hb were estimated by Biuret and cyanmethemoglobin methods, respectively. Serum and salivary IgA and IgG levels were statistically significantly increased ( P < 0.001) in OSMF patients when compared to controls. Also serum and salivary IgG and IgA levels showed significantly increased ( P < 0.01) in all the three staging of OSMF when compared to control group. Hb levels and TSP levels were significantly decreased ( P < 0.001) in OSMF patients when compared to controls. One-way ANOVA, Pearson's correlation, and unpaired t -test were used for statistical analysis. The elevated levels of IgG and IgA are also in favor of polygammapathy, which are nonspecific and nondiagnostic objective reflections of an underlying disease. Decreased TSP is a result of host response and Hb, acts as an indicator of nutritional status plays an important role. It is also observed from the present study that the severity of OSMF was directly proportional to the estimated elevated levels of the major IgG and IgA. A need is also felt for the knowledge of immunoprofile estimation in etiology and pathogenesis that would prove a great asset in the proper assessment of this condition.

  19. Pollen types and levels of total phenolic compounds in propolis produced by Apis mellifera L. (Apidae in an area of the Semiarid Region of Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VANESSA R. MATOS

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-two propolis samples produced by Apis mellifera L. in an area of the Semiarid region the the State of Bahia (Agreste of Alagoinhas, Brazil, were palynologically analyzed and quantified regarding their levels of total phenolic compounds. These samples were processed using the acetolysis technique with the changes suggested for use with propolis. We found 59 pollen types belonging to 19 families and 36 genera. The family Fabaceae was the most representative in this study with nine pollen types, followed by the family Asteraceae with seven types. The types Mikania and Mimosa pudica occurred in all samples analyzed. The types Mimosa pudica and Eucalyptus had frequency of occurrence above 50% in at least one sample. The highest similarity index (c. 72% occurred between the samples ER1 and ER2, belonging to the municipality of Entre Rios. Samples from the municipality of Inhambupe displayed the highest (36.78±1.52 mg/g EqAG and lowest (7.68 ± 2.58 mg/g EqAG levels of total phenolic compounds. Through the Spearman Correlation Coefficient we noticed that there was a negative linear correlation between the types Mimosa pudica (rs = -0.0419 and Eucalyptus (rs = -0.7090 with the profile of the levels of total phenolic compounds of the samples.

  20. Static synchronous compensator with superconducting magnetic energy storage for high power utility applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina, Marcelo G.; Mercado, Pedro E.; Watanabe, Edson H.

    2007-01-01

    Power systems security in the case of contingencies is ensured by maintaining adequate 'short-term generation reserve'. This reserve must be appropriately activated by means of the primary frequency control (PFC). Because the generation is an electro-mechanical process, the primary control reserve controllability is not as fast as required, especially by modern power systems. Since the new improvements achieved on the conventional control methods have not been enough to satisfy the high requirements established, the necessity of enhancing the performance of the PFC has arisen. At present, the new energy storage systems (ESS) are a feasible alternative to store excess energy for substituting for the primary control reserve. In this way, it is possible to combine this new ESS with power converter based flexible ac transmission systems (FACTS). This allows an effective exchange of active power with the electric grid and, thus, enhances the PFC. This paper presents an improved PFC scheme incorporating a static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) coupled with a superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) device. A detailed full model and a control algorithm based on a decoupled current control strategy of the enhanced compensator are proposed. The integrated STATCOM/SMES controller topology includes three level, multi-pulse, voltage source inverters (VSI) with phase control and incorporates a two quadrant, three level, dc-dc chopper as the interface between the STATCOM and the SMES coil. A novel three level control scheme is proposed by using concepts of instantaneous power in the synchronous rotating d-q reference frame. The dynamic performance of the presented control algorithms is evaluated through digital simulation performed by using SimPowerSystems of SIMULINK/MATLAB T M , and technical analysis is performed to obtain conclusions about the benefits of using SMES devices in the PFC of the electric system. Presently, a laboratory scale prototype device based on

  1. Qualità totale e mobilità totale Total Quality and Total Mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Trieste

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available FIABA ONLUS (Italian Fund for Elimination of Architectural Barriers was founded in 2000 with the aim of promoting a culture of equal opportunities and, above all, it has as its main goal to involve public and private institutions to create a really accessible and usable environment for everyone. Total accessibility, Total usability and Total mobility are key indicators to define quality of life within cities. A supportive environment that is free of architectural, cultural and psychological barriers allows everyone to live with ease and universality. In fact, people who access to goods and services in the urban context can use to their advantage time and space, so they can do their activities and can maintain relationships that are deemed significant for their social life. The main aim of urban accessibility is to raise the comfort of space for citizens, eliminating all barriers that discriminate people, and prevent from an equality of opportunity. “FIABA FUND - City of ... for the removal of architectural barriers” is an idea of FIABA that has already affected many regions of Italy as Lazio, Lombardy, Campania, Abruzzi and Calabria. It is a National project which provides for opening a bank account in the cities of referring, in which for the first time, all together, individuals and private and public institutions can make a donation to fund initiatives for the removal of architectural barriers within its own territory for a real and effective total accessibility. Last February the fund was launched in Rome with the aim of achieving a Capital without barriers and a Town European model of accessibility and usability. Urban mobility is a prerequisite to access to goods and services, and to organize activities related to daily life. FIABA promotes the concept of sustainable mobility for all, supported by the European Commission’s White Paper. We need a cultural change in management and organization of public means, which might focus on

  2. Prelimbic cortex extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 activation is required for memory retrieval of long-term inhibitory avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Fei; Zheng, Jian; Sun, Xuan; Deng, Wei-Ke; Li, Bao Ming; Liu, Fang

    2017-04-15

    Neural mechanism underlying memory retrieval has been extensively studied in the hippocampus and amygdala. However, little is known about the role of medial prefrontal cortex in long-term memory retrieval. We evaluate this issue in one-trial step-through inhibitory avoidance (IA) paradigm. Our results showed that, 1) inactivation of mPFC by local infusion of GABA A -receptor agonist muscimol caused severe deficits in retrieval of 1-day and 7-day but had no effects on 2-h inhibitory avoidance memory; 2) the protein level of phosphorylated-ERK1/2 in mPFC were significantly increased following retrieval of 1-day and 7-day IA memory, so did the numbers of phosphorylated-ERK (pERK) and phosphorylated-CREB (pCREB) labeled neurons; 3) intra-mPFC infusion of ERK kinase inhibitor PD98095 significantly reduced phosphorylated ERK1/2 levels and phosphorylated-ERK1/2 and phosphorylated-CREB labeled cells, and severely impaired retrieval of 7-day IA memory when the drugs were administrated 30min prior to test. The present study provides evidence that retrieval of long-lasting memory for inhibitory avoidance requires mPFC and involves the ERK-CREB signaling cascade. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Levels of lead in foods from the first French total diet study on infants and toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guérin, Thierry; Le Calvez, Emilie; Zinck, Julie; Bemrah, Nawel; Sirot, Véronique; Leblanc, Jean-Charles; Chekri, Rachida; Hulin, Marion; Noël, Laurent

    2017-12-15

    Infants and toddlers are highly vulnerable to exposure to lead due to its higher absorption in small children than in adults. This study describes the optimisation and validation of a very sensitive method for the determination of low levels of lead in foods mostly consumed by infants and toddlers. This method, based on inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry with a programmable temperature cyclonic spray chamber, attained a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.6 or 0.9µgPbkg -1 for a liquid or a solid sample, that was improved by a factor 5.6-8.3 compared to the previous method (LOQ: 5µgkg -1 ). The analytical method was then applied to 291 food samples from the first French total diet study on infants and toddlers. Lead was detected in most samples at relatively low concentrations (range 0.0-16µgkg -1 ). The highest lead concentrations were mainly found in processed food products (e.g. products containing chocolate). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Viral-mediated Zif268 expression in the prefrontal cortex protects against gonadectomy-induced working memory, long-term memory, and social interaction deficits in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossat, Amanda M; Jourdi, Hussam; Wright, Katherine N; Strong, Caroline E; Sarkar, Ambalika; Kabbaj, Mohamed

    2017-01-06

    In humans, some males experience reductions in testosterone levels, as a natural consequence of aging or in the clinical condition termed hypogonadism, which are associated with impaired cognitive performance and mood disorder(s). Some of these behavioral deficits can be reversed by testosterone treatment. Our previous work in rats reported that sex differences in the expression of the transcription factor Zif268, a downstream target of testosterone, within the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) mediates sex differences in social interaction. In the present study, we aimed to examine the effects of gonadectomy (GNX) in male rats on mPFC Zif268 expression, mood and cognitive behaviors. We also examined whether reinstitution of Zif268 in GNX rats will correct some of the behavioral deficits observed following GNX. Our results show that GNX induced a downregulation of Zif268 protein in the mPFC, which was concomitant with impaired memory in the y-maze and spontaneous object recognition test, reduced social interaction time, and depression-like behaviors in the forced swim test. Reinstitution of mPFC Zif268, using a novel adeno-associated-viral (AAV) construct, abrogated GNX-induced working memory and long-term memory impairments, and reductions in social interaction time, but not GNX-induced depression-like behaviors. These findings suggest that mPFC Zif268 exerts beneficial effects on memory and social interaction, and could be a potential target for novel treatments for behavioral impairments observed in hypogonadal and aged men with declining levels of gonadal hormones. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Prefrontal Engagement and Reduced Default Network Suppression Co-occur and Are Dynamically Coupled in Older Adults: The Default-Executive Coupling Hypothesis of Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Gary R; Spreng, R Nathan

    2015-12-01

    Reduced executive control is a hallmark of neurocognitive aging. Poor modulation of lateral pFC activity in the context of increasing task challenge in old adults and a "failure to deactivate" the default network during cognitive control tasks have been observed. Whether these two patterns represent discrete mechanisms of neurocognitive aging or interact into older adulthood remains unknown. We examined whether altered pFC and default network dynamics co-occur during goal-directed planning over increasing levels of difficulty during performance on the Tower of London task. We used fMRI to investigate task- and age-related changes in brain activation and functional connectivity across four levels of task challenge. Frontoparietal executive control regions were activated and default network regions were suppressed during planning relative to counting performance in both groups. Older adults, unlike young, failed to modulate brain activity in executive control and default regions as planning demands increased. Critically, functional connectivity analyses revealed bilateral dorsolateral pFC coupling in young adults and dorsolateral pFC to default coupling in older adults with increased planning complexity. We propose a default-executive coupling hypothesis of aging. First, this hypothesis suggests that failure to modulate control and default network activity in response to increasing task challenge are linked in older adulthood. Second, functional brain changes involve greater coupling of lateral pFC and the default network as cognitive control demands increase in older adults. We speculate that these changes reflect an adaptive shift in cognitive approach as older adults come to rely more upon stored representations to support goal-directed task performance.

  6. Anger Modulates Influence Hierarchies Within and Between Emotional Reactivity and Regulation Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Yael; Gilam, Gadi; Lin, Tamar; Raz, Gal; Hendler, Talma

    2018-01-01

    Emotion regulation is hypothesized to be mediated by the interactions between emotional reactivity and regulation networks during the dynamic unfolding of the emotional episode. Yet, it remains unclear how to delineate the effective relationships between these networks. In this study, we examined the aforementioned networks’ information flow hierarchy during viewing of an anger provoking movie excerpt. Anger regulation is particularly essential for averting individuals from aggression and violence, thus improving prosocial behavior. Using subjective ratings of anger intensity we differentiated between low and high anger periods of the film. We then applied the Dependency Network Analysis (DEPNA), a newly developed graph theory method to quantify networks’ node importance during the two anger periods. The DEPNA analysis revealed that the impact of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) was higher in the high anger condition, particularly within the regulation network and on the connections between the reactivity and regulation networks. We further showed that higher levels of vmPFC impact on the regulation network were associated with lower subjective anger intensity during the high-anger cinematic period, and lower trait anger levels. Supporting and replicating previous findings, these results emphasize the previously acknowledged central role of vmPFC in modulating negative affect. We further show that the impact of the vmPFC relies on its correlational influence on the connectivity between reactivity and regulation networks. More importantly, the hierarchy network analysis revealed a link between connectivity patterns of the vmPFC and individual differences in anger reactivity and trait, suggesting its potential therapeutic role. PMID:29681803

  7. THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN G6PD DEFICIENCY AND TOTAL SERUM BILIRUBIN LEVEL IN ICTERIC NEONATES

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    S. Behjati-Ardakani

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available "nGlucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency is the most important disease of the hexose monophosphate pathway. Deficiency of this enzym can lead to hemolysis of red blood cells. Our aim was to study the prevalence of G6PD deficiency in relation to neonatal jaundice. We studied 456 clinically icteric neonates Laboratory investigations included determination of direct and indirect serum bilirubin concentrations, blood group typing, direct coomb's test, hemoglobin, blood smear, reticulocyte count and G6PD level. We divided these neonates to 3 groups based on total serum bilirubin level (TSB: TSB< 20 mg%, TSB=20-25 mg%, and TSB>25 mg%. In only 35 (7.6% of cases G6PD deficiency was diagnosed. All of these babies were male. From 456 icteric neonates, 213 cases belong to group 1 (TSB<20 mg%, 158 cases belong to group 2 (TSB=20-25 mg% and 85 cases belong to group 3 (TSB>25 mg%. 16 neonates from 213 neonates of group 1, 6 neonates from 158 neonates of group 2 and 13 neonates from 85 neonates of group 3 had G6PD deficiency. There was statistically significant difference of prevalence of G6PD deficiency between group 2 and 3 ( 15.3% vs 3.8%( P = 0.001. Between groups 1 vs 2 and 1 vs 3 no statistically significant difference was found. Early detection of this enzymopathy regardless of sex and close surveillance of the affected newborns may be important in reducing the risk of severe hyperbilirubinemia. This emphasizes the necessity of neonatal screening on cord blood samples for G6PD deficiency.

  8. Risk of punishment influences discrete and coordinated encoding of reward-guided actions by prefrontal cortex and VTA neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Junchol

    2017-01-01

    Actions motivated by rewards are often associated with risk of punishment. Little is known about the neural representation of punishment risk during reward-seeking behavior. We modeled this circumstance in rats by designing a task where actions were consistently rewarded but probabilistically punished. Spike activity and local field potentials were recorded during task performance simultaneously from VTA and mPFC, two reciprocally connected regions implicated in reward-seeking and aversive behaviors. At the single unit level, we found that ensembles of putative dopamine and non-dopamine VTA neurons and mPFC neurons encode the relationship between action and punishment. At the network level, we found that coherent theta oscillations synchronize VTA and mPFC in a bottom-up direction, effectively phase-modulating the neuronal spike activity in the two regions during punishment-free actions. This synchrony declined as a function of punishment probability, suggesting that during reward-seeking actions, risk of punishment diminishes VTA-driven neural synchrony between the two regions. PMID:29058673

  9. Ceftriaxone pretreatment reduces the propensity of postpartum depression following stroke during pregnancy in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yonghong; Liu, Xianying; Su, Yuetian

    2016-10-06

    Ischemic stroke increases the propensity to develop depression in humans and laboratory animals, and we hypothesized that such an incidence during pregnancy may increase the risk for the development of postpartum depression (PPD). To test this hypothesis, we used bilateral common carotid arteries occlusion (BCCAO) to induce transient cerebral ischemia in pregnant rats, and evaluated its effects on subsequent development of PPD in dams. Additionally, we investigated whether ceftriaxone pretreatments before the induction of brain ischemia could alter the propensity of PPD. We found that 15min BCCAO during pregnancy enhanced immobility time and reduced the frequency of swimming or climbing behaviors in the forced swim test, and decreased the sucrose preference in dams at postpartum day 21. Such behavioral alterations were associated with lower level of GLT-1 expression in the medial prefrontal cortical regions (mPFC) of PPD dams. Specifically, mPFC GLT-1 expression levels in dams with ischemia history were correlated with sucrose preference levels at postpartum day 21. Finally, ceftriaxone pretreatment (200mg/kg/day, 5days) before the 15min BCCAO prevented the development of PPD, and prevented the reduction of GLT-1 expression in the mPFC. Taken together, our results suggested that ceftriaxone pretreatment before brain ischemia during pregnancy may reduce the propensity for the development of PPD by preventing the loss of GLT-1 expression in the mPFC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Treatment of micro air bubbles in rat adipose tissue at 25 kPa altitude exposures with perfluorocarbon emulsions and nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randsøe, Thomas; Hyldegaard, O

    2014-01-01

    Perfluorocarbon emulsions (PFC) and nitric oxide (NO) releasing agents have on experimental basis demonstrated therapeutic properties in treating and preventing the formation of venous gas embolism as well as increased survival rate during decompression sickness from diving. The effect is ascribed to an increased solubility and transport capacity of respiratory gases in the PFC emulsion and possibly enhanced nitrogen washout through NO-increased blood flow rate and/or the removal of endothelial micro bubble nuclei precursors. Previous reports have shown that metabolic gases (i.e., oxygen in particular) and water vapor contribute to bubble growth and stabilization during altitude exposures. Accordingly, we hypothesize that the administration of PFC and NO donors upon hypobaric pressure exposures either (1) enhance the bubble disappearance rate through faster desaturation of nitrogen, or in contrast (2) promote bubble growth and stabilization through an increased oxygen supply. In anesthetized rats, micro air bubbles (containing 79% nitrogen) of 4-500 nl were injected into exposed abdominal adipose tissue. Rats were decompressed in 36 min to 25 kPa (~10,376 m above sea level) and bubbles studied for 210 min during continued oxygen breathing (FIO2 = 1). Rats were administered PFC, NO, or combined PFC and NO. In all groups, most bubbles grew transiently, followed by a stabilization phase. There were no differences in the overall bubble growth or decay between groups or when compared with previous data during oxygen breathing alone at 25 kPa. During extreme altitude exposures, the contribution of metabolic gases to bubble growth compromises the therapeutic effects of PFC and NO, but PFC and NO do not induce additional bubble growth.

  11. Prefrontal cortex NG2 glia undergo a developmental switch in their responsiveness to exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Lyl; Huang, Po Hsuan; Colognato, Holly

    2018-03-22

    Aerobic exercise is known to influence brain function, e.g., enhancing executive function in both children and adults, with many of these influences being attributed to alterations in neurogenesis and neuronal function. Yet oligodendroglia in adult brains have also been reported to be highly responsive to exercise, including in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), a late myelinating region implicated in working memory. However, whether exercise affects oligodendroglia or myelination in juveniles, either in the PFC or in other brain regions, remains unknown. To address this, both juvenile and young adult mice were provided free access to running wheels for four weeks followed by an analysis of oligodendrocyte development and myelination in the PFC and the corpus callosum, a major white matter tract. Working memory and PFC NG2+