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Sample records for total pbde levels

  1. PBDE levels in human milk: the situation in Germany and potential influencing factors - a controlled study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieth, B.; Mielke, H.; Ostermann, B.; Ruediger, T. [Federal Inst. for Risk Assessment, Berlin (Germany); Herrmann, T.; Paepke, O. [ERGO Forschungsgesellschaft mbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    An exponential increase of PBDE levels in breast milk from Sweden between 1972 and 1997 has been reported, which is in contrast to the continuous decline of other chlorinated POPs in breast milk. Also in blood samples from Germany, an increasing trend has been observed during the period from 1985 to 1999. The knowledge about human exposure pathways, which contribute to the PBDE body burden, is very limited. Consumption of food of animal origin, inhalation or ingestion of dust and further factors possibly influencing the PBDE levels in human matrices, like age, breast-feeding or smoking are under discussion. Only a few data on PBDE levels in breast milk from Germany have been published. To fill the data gaps, a controlled study was started in 2001 to characterise the PBDE levels in human milk from Germany with special efforts to identify and quantify deca-BDE-209. Furthermore, it was intended to verify potential factors possibly influencing PBDE levels. Two main hypotheses were proposed: (1) Are PBDE levels in breast milk from mothers consuming traditional food (omnivores) higher than those found in breast milk from mothers consuming vegetarian or vegan food? and (2) Are the PBDE levels found in human milk after a three-months period of breast-feeding lower than those detected at the beginning or does breast feeding result in a lower body burden, respectively? This paper summarises preliminary results. Further analytical data and results of data evaluation will be presented at the conference.

  2. Associations between serum levels of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants and environmental and behavioral factors in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttke, Danielle E; Wolkin, Amy; Stapleton, Heather M; Miranda, Marie Lynn

    2013-03-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) are flame retardants that were previously used in upholstery, fabrics, and household appliances. PBDEs have been linked to adverse health outcomes, including neurotoxicity, thyroid hormone dysregulation, endocrine disruption, and poor semen quality. Because PBDEs pass into placental circulation, maternal exposures can approximate fetal exposures. Our objectives were to determine whether diet and specific human behaviors were significantly associated with PBDE exposures in a cohort of pregnant women. Women between the 34th and 38th week of pregnancy were given a questionnaire about behavioral, environmental, and dietary factors and asked to provide blood samples. Serum PBDE levels were measured using GS-MS and lipid adjusted. An adjusted ordinary least squares regression model was run to identify potential associations between behaviors and serum PBDE levels. Serum concentrations of BDEs 47, 99, 100, and 153 were found above the limit of detection in at least 50% of study participants and used in our models. Associations with serum PBDEs were observed with self-reported hand-to-mouth behaviors, including biting nails and licking fingers. Serum BDE levels of 47, 99, 153, and total PBDEs were also significantly higher in those individuals owning a large-screen TV compared with those who did not. Serum PBDE levels were comparable to levels reported in the general population. Hand-to-mouth behaviors may influence serum PBDE concentrations in adults. Household electronics such as large-screen TVs appear to serve as a significant source of PBDEs in pregnant women. Together, hand-to-mouth behaviors and TV ownership may serve as a route of exposure to PBDEs in adults.

  3. Highest PBDE levels (max 63 ppm) yet found in biota measured in seabird eggs from San Francisco Bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    She, J.; Holden, A.; Tanner, M.; Sharp, M.; Hooper, K. [Department of Toxic Substances Control, Berkeley, CA (United States). Hazardous Materials Lab.; Adelsbach, T. [Environmental Contaminants Division, Sacramento Fish and Wildlife Office, US Fish and Wildlife Service, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    2004-09-15

    High levels of polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) have been found in humans and wildlife from the San Francisco Bay Area, with levels in women among the highest in the world, and levels in piscivorous seabird eggs at the ppm level. Seabirds are useful for monitoring and assessing ecosystem health at various times and places because they occupy a high trophic level in the marine food web, are long-lived, and are generally localized near their breeding and non-breeding sites. In collaboration with the US Fish and Wildlife Services (USFWS), we are carrying out a three-year investigation of dioxin, PCB and PBDE levels in eggs from fish-eating seabirds. Year 1 (2002) PBDE measurements from 73 bird eggs were reported at Dioxin2003. Year 2 (2003) PBDE measurements from 45 samples are presented in this report. The highest PBDE level measured in eggs was 63 ppm, lipid, which is the highest PBDE level, yet reported in biota.

  4. Serum PBDE levels in exposed rats in relation to effects on thyroxine homeostasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darnerud, P.O.; Aune, M.; Larsson, L.; Hallgren, S. [National Food Administration, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2004-09-15

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) is a group of environmental chemicals for which lately both interest and knowledge have increased considerably. Among the BFRs, the polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have attained special interest. Much data on environmental and human levels have been presented and several toxicological reviews are now published. Among interesting results is the difference in human PBDE levels that seem to exist between U.S.A. and Europe, results that suggest differences in exposure but without being able to pin-point the exact sources. In experimental studies PBDEs alter serum thyroxin levels, an effect seen both in rats and in mice. The mechanism(s) are still not completely clarified, but are thought to include alterations in serum transport, induced enzymatic degradation and possibly also direct effects on the thyroid gland. As perinatal alterations in thyroid homeostasis could affect brain development, early effects on thyroid hormones may be of special concern. Indeed, PBDEs have been shown to affect behaviour and learning in mice, when given neonatally. The aim of the present study was to relate the serum levels of PBDEs in rats to effects of these compounds on thyroxine homeostasis in these animals. Specifically, the relation between serum PBDE levels and effects on serum thyroxine levels was investigated, after two weeks of daily oral exposure. The result may have consequences for the future risk assessment activities on PBDE and specifically in finding the critical serum PBDE concentration at which the effect on thyroid hormone levels begin to occur.

  5. Thyroid hormone levels and hepatic enzyme activity in lactating dams after gestational exposure to low dose PBDE 47

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuriyama, S.N.; Grande, S.W.; Akkoc, Z.; Souza, C.A.M. de; Chahoud, I. [Charite Univ. Medical School Berlin (Germany). Inst. of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Dept. Toxicology, Campus Benjamin Franklin; Fidalgo-Neto, A.A. [Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Lab. of Environmental Toxicology

    2004-09-15

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), a class of widely used flame retardants, are found extensively in the environment (shown by several studies on sentinel animal species), as well as in humans. In rodents, technical commercial PBDE mixtures and individual congeners have shown to interfere with thyroid hormone homeostasis, produce a mix-type induction of hepatic microsomal enzymes, disrupt spontaneous behaviour, impair learning and memory and alter the cholinergic transmitter system. In rat and mice, some technical PBDE commercial mixtures such as DE-71 and Bromkal 70 and the congener PBDE 47 have shown to decrease circulating thyroid hormone levels. PBDEs are also able to induce both hepatic phase I and phase II detoxification enzymes, demonstrated by several investigations in laboratory animals. For example, induction of ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), pentoxyresorufin-Odespenthylase (PROD) and uridinediphospho-glucuronosyltransferase (UDPGT) has been shown in rodents and cell lines after exposure to technical mixtures or individual congeners. However, these studies deal with doses much higher than that found in human tissues, highlighting the importance of assessing the adverse effects of doses close to human exposure levels. PBDE 47 is the most predominant congener found in environmental and human samples (including human milk) and, therefore, hazard identification is extremely important for human risk assessment. We administered a single dose to gravid dams on gestation day 6 of either 140 {mu}g/kg BW or 700 {mu}g/kg BW of the congener, 2,2'4,4'-tetrabromo diphenyl ether (PBDE 47). These doses are pertinent to human exposure levels because a study by She et al. found a mean level of 33.3 {mu}g PBDE 47 /kg fat in human breast adipose tissue with a range from 7.01 to 196 {mu}g PBDE 47 /kg fat. In this study, thyroid hormone levels and hepatic enzyme activity were evaluated in lactating dams after in utero administration of low dose PBDE 47.

  6. PBDE and PCB levels correlated in wild caught and farm-raised fish fillets in the USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayward, D.; Wong, J.; Krynitsky, A. [US Food and Drug Administration, College Park (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are two classes of industrial chemicals that have been widely used in the manufacture of many materials found commonly in highly industrial societies. PCBs used as an electrical insulator and in plastics have been banned in the US since 1977. PCB levels have steadily declined in foods. PBDEs are currently used as effective flame retardant in electronics, automobiles, home furnishings, textiles and in building materials. Environmental levels have not reached equilibrium. Both classes are ubiquitous contaminants with a strong tendency for bioaccumulation. The detection of PBDEs in human and some animal fats and fish/shellfish has been reported1. Recent reports of PBDEs in the US population have reported PBDE levels higher than most other industrialized countries. The pathway of these exposures is not precisely known, but one likely pathway is food. US FDA is planning to monitor some PBDE congeners beginning 2005. Data collection will begin with fish and shellfish and most likely be expanded to other foods. Fish/shellfish are already being monitored for PCDD/F and some PCB content. Several different instrumental approaches have been used successfully to measure PBDEs in human tissues and in environmental media including HRGC/HRMS, ECNI-LRMS, EI-LRMS and tandem mass spectrometry. The focus of this study is to determine PBDE levels in fish that are already known to have higher levels of PCBs relative to other fish or other foods. EI-LRMS was selected for initial testing with PBDE measurements in fish for its simplicity and availability in every FDA field laboratory.

  7. Levels of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether (PBDE) flame retardants in animals representing different trophic levels of the North Sea food web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, J.P.; Lewis, W.E.; Tjoen-A-Choy, M.R.; Allchin, C.R.; Law, R.J.; Boer, de J.

    2002-01-01

    The levels of individual PBDE congeners were investigated in the invertebrate species whelk (Buccinum undatum), seastar (Asterias rubens), and hermit crab (Pagurus bernhardus), the gadoid fish species whiting (Merlangius merlangus) and cod (Gadus morhua), and the marine mammal species harbor seal

  8. Differences in neonatal neurotoxicity of brominated flame retardants, PBDE 99 and TBBPA, in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viberg, Henrik; Eriksson, Per

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Neonatal exposure to PBDE 99, but not TBBPA, causes changes in the neonatal brain. → CaMKII increases in neonatal hippocampus after PBDE 99 exposure. → CaMKII, GAP-43 and synaptophysin increase in neonatal cortex after PBDE 99 exposure. → CaMKII increase in hippocampus has earlier been seen to proceed behavioral changes. → Neonatal exposure to PBDE 99, but not TBBPA, is known to cause behavioral deficits. -- Abstract: Flame retardants such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) and tetrabromobisphenol A are used as flame retardants and detected in the environmental, wildlife species and human tissues. Exposure to PBDEs during the neonatal development of the brain has been shown to affect behavior and learning and memory in adult mice, while neonatal exposure to TBBPA (another brominated flame retardant) did not affect behavioral variables in the adult. In this study, we hypothesized that the effects of these compounds could be reflected by changes in biochemical substrates and cholinergic receptors and have examined the levels of four proteins involved in maturation of the brain, neuronal growth and synaptogenesis and the densities of both muscarinic and nicotinic cholinergic receptors. We measured the levels of radioactivity in the brain after administration of 14 C-labelled TBBPA at different time points and saw that levels of TBBA peaked earlier and decreased faster than the earlier reported levels of PBDE 99. The protein analysis in the neonatal brain showed changes in the levels of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), growth associated protein-43 (GAP-43) and synaptophysin following neonatal exposure to PBDE 99 (21 μmol/kg body weight), but not following exposure TBBPA. Furthermore, neonatal exposure to PBDE 99 and TBBPA caused a decrease in binding sites of the nicotinic ligand cytisine in frontal cortex. These results confirm earlier reported data that PBDE 99 can act as a developmental neurotoxicant, possibly

  9. Long term trends in PBDE concentrations in gannet (Morus bassanus) eggs from two UK colonies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crosse, John D.; Shore, Richard F.; Jones, Kevin C.; Pereira, M. Glória

    2012-01-01

    We used the eggs of an avian sentinel, the Northern gannet (Morus bassanus), to determine long-term (1977–2007) trends in PBDE contamination in Western Atlantic (Ailsa Craig colony) and North Sea (Bass Rock colony) waters around the UK. BDEs 47, 49, 99, 100, 153, 154 were the most abundant and were found in all eggs. Individual congener and ΣPBDE concentrations in eggs from both colonies increased mainly from the late 1980s, peaked in 1994, and then rapidly declined so that concentrations in 2002 were similar to or lower than those in the 1970s and 1980s. The PBDE congener profile and temporal variation in PBDE concentrations suggests that the Penta-BDE technical formula was the main source of PBDE contamination. However, contributions of heavier BDE congeners to ΣPBDE concentrations have increased over time, suggesting other sources are becoming more important. PBDEs had no measurable effect on egg volume or eggshell index. - Highlights: ► Detailed long-term (1977–2007) PBDE trends are presented in gannet eggs from the UK. ► Temporal trends mirror consumption of PeBDE technical products. ► In recent years the PBDE profile heavier BDEs became increasingly more important. ► BDE35 concentrations decreased linearly throughout the monitoring period. ► ΣPBDE levels in gannet eggs are below levels linked to impaired reproductive output. - PBDE levels in gannet eggs from two UK colonies mirrored patterns of PBDE consumption, but sources other than PeBDE became more prevalent in recent years.

  10. PBDE and PCB accumulation in benthos near marine wastewater outfalls: The role of sediment organic carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinn, Pamela M.; Johannessen, Sophia C.; Ross, Peter S.; Macdonald, Robie W.; Whiticar, Michael J.; Lowe, Christopher J.; Roodselaar, Albert van

    2012-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in sediments and benthic invertebrates near submarine municipal outfalls in Victoria and Vancouver, B.C., Canada, two areas with contrasting receiving environments. PBDE concentrations in wastewater exceeded those of the legacy PCBs by eight times at Vancouver and 35 times at Victoria. Total PBDE concentrations in benthic invertebrates were higher near Vancouver than Victoria, despite lower concentrations in sediments, and correlated with organic carbon-normalized concentrations in sediment. Principal Components Analysis indicated uptake of individual PBDE congeners was determined by sediment properties (organic carbon, grain size), while PCB congener uptake was governed by physico-chemical properties (octanol-water partitioning coefficient). Results suggest the utility of sediment quality guidelines for PBDEs and likely PCBs benefit if based on organic carbon-normalized concentrations. Also, where enhanced wastewater treatment increases the PBDEs to particulate organic carbon ratio in effluent, nearfield benthic invertebrates may face increased PBDE accumulation. - Highlights: ► Physical receiving environment affects PBDE bioaccumulation by benthic invertebrates. ► PBDE uptake is correlated with organic-carbon normalized sediment concentrations. ► PBDE and PCB congener uptake are governed by different properties. ► PBDE sediment quality guidelines may benefit by using organic carbon-normalized data. ► Enhanced wastewater treatment may mean increased benthic invertebrate PBDE bioaccumulation. - The physical receiving environment affects the accumulation of PBDEs by benthic invertebrates near submarine municipal outfalls, and uptake of PBDE congeners is governed by different properties than for PCB congeners.

  11. Levels and distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the freshwater environment surrounding a PBDE manufacturing plant in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Jie; Gao Zishen; Xian Qiming; Yu Hongxia; Feng Jianfang

    2009-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were determined in muscle, liver and eggs of freshwater fishes and surface sediments from the Nongkang River in Jinhu, Jiangsu Province, China. The present study is the first to report PBDE concentrations in the freshwater environment surrounding a PBDE manufacturing plant in China. The concentrations of 13 PBDE congeners in muscle, liver and eggs of freshwater fishes ranged from < LOD to 130, < LOD to 252 and < LOD to 33.3 ng/g lipid wt, respectively, while the concentrations of 13 PBDE congeners in surface sediments from sewage outfall, upstream and downstream of the river were 52, 9.2, 7.1 ng/g organic carbon wt, respectively. Contamination by PBDEs in this area was not serious when compared with other regions of the world. A relatively high proportion of BDE-183 was found, consistent with the octa-BDE technical mixtures from the manufacturing plant by the side of the river. - The first study to report concentrations of PBDEs in the freshwater environment surrounding a PBDE manufacturing plant in China.

  12. Toxic effect of PBDE-47 on thyroid development, learning, and memory, and the interaction between PBDE-47 and PCB153 that enhances toxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ping; Wang, Aiguo; Niu, Qiang; Guo, Lijuan; Xia, Tao; Chen, Xuemin

    2011-04-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are widespread environmental contaminants. There are potential interactive effects between PBDEs and PCBs, as these compounds share similar structures. The developmental neurotoxicity of 2, 2', 4, 4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (PBDE-47) and the interaction of PBDE-47 with 2, 2', 4, 4', 5, 5'-hexachlorobipheny (PCB153) were investigated herein, as the dominant congener forms of PBDEs and PCBs, respectively. SD rats were exposed to a single oral dose of PBDE-47 (1, 5, and 10 μg/g) and/or PCB153 (5 μg/g) on post-natal day (PND) 10. Concentrations of PBDE-47, triiodothyronine (T(3)), thyroxine (T(4)), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in serum; organ-to-body weight ratios; as well as long-term learning and memory were measured in 2-month-old rats. The present study found that some doses of PBDE-47 decreased the organ-to-body weight ratios of the thyroid and uterus, decreased the concentration of T(4) in serum, and increased the organ-to-body weight ratio of the ovaries (p action of PBDE-47 during combined exposure, but this interaction was not found between PBDE-47 and PCB153. In a Morris water maze experiment, the latency periods were significantly prolonged and time ratios were obviously depressed in all PBDE-47-treated groups compared to the control (p memory capabilities in adult rats exposed to PBDE-47 on PND 10. PCB153 can interact with PBDE-47, resulting in an increase in developmental neurotoxicity.

  13. Toxicity and physiological effects of brominated flame retardant PBDE-47 on two life stages of grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, Peter B; Chung, Katy W; Hoguet, Jennifer; Shaddrix, Brian; Fulton, Michael H

    2008-07-25

    This study examined the effects of a polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) compound, PBDE-47, on adult and larval stages of the estuarine grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio). The 96-h LC50 test resulted in an estimate of 23.60 microg/L (95% confidence interval=14.51-38.37 microg/L) for larval shrimp. Adult shrimp had a higher 96-h LC50 of 78.07 microg/L (95% CI=65.1-93.63 microg/L). Four physiological biomarkers glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation (LPx), cholesterol (CHL) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) were then assessed to study the sublethal effects of PBDE-47 exposure. GSH, LPx and AChE levels in both adults and larvae were not affected by PBDE-47 at concentrations up to 50 microg/L for 96 h. CHL levels were elevated in adults and larvae at the lowest exposure concentrations tested, but significant differences were found only in adult exposures. Effects associated with PBDE-47 aqueous exposures were observed at levels well above those reported in the environment.

  14. PCB and PBDE levels in a highly threatened dolphin species from the Southeastern Brazilian coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavandier, Ricardo; Arêas, Jennifer; Quinete, Natalia; Moura, Jailson F. de; Taniguchi, Satie; Montone, Rosalinda; Siciliano, Salvatore; Moreira, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    In the Northern coast of Rio de Janeiro State is located the major urban centers of the oil and gas industry of Brazil. The intense urbanization in recent decades caused an increase in human use of the coastal areas, which is constantly impacted by agricultural, industrial and wastewater discharges. Franciscana dolphin (Pontoporia blainvillei) is a small cetacean that inhabits coastal regions down to a 30 m depth. This species is considered the most threatened cetacean in the Western South Atlantic Ocean. This study investigated the levels of 52 PCB congeners and 9 PBDE congeners in liver of nine individuals found stranded or accidentally caught between 2011 and 2012 in the Northern coast of Rio de Janeiro. PCB mean levels ranged from 208 to 5543 ng g"−"1 lw and PBDEs mean concentrations varied between 13.84 and 36.94 ng g"−"1 lw. Contamination patterns suggest the previous use of Aroclor 1254, 1260 and penta-BDE mixtures in Brazil. While still few studies have assessed the organic contamination in cetaceans from the Southern Hemisphere, including Brazil, the levels found in this study could represent a health risk to these endangered species. - Highlights: • PCBs and PBDEs were measured in liver samples from Franciscana dolphins. • BDE 47, 99 and 100 were found in all individuals samples. • PCB-153, 138 and 180 were the major PCB congeners detected. • Results suggest the existence of PCBs and PBDEs contamination sources in Brazil. • PCBs and PDBEs levels could represent a risk to these endangered dolphin species. - PCB and PBDE concentrations found in Franciscana dolphins suggest the presence of contamination sources in Southeastern Brazil and could represent a high health risk to these endangered species.

  15. Levels of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants in animals representing different trophic levels of the North Sea food Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Jan P; Lewis, Wilma E; Tjoen-A-Choy, Michael R; Allchin, Colin R; Law, Robin J; De Boer, Jacob; Ten Hallers-Tjabbes, Cato C; Zegers, Bart N

    2002-10-01

    The levels of individual PBDE congeners were investigated in the invertebrate species whelk (Buccinum undatum), seastar (Asterias rubens), and hermit crab (Pagurus bernhardus), the gadoid fish species whiting (Merlangius merlangus) and cod (Gadus morhua), and the marine mammal species harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) and harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena). These species are all important representatives of different trophic levels of the North Sea food web. All six major PBDE congeners detected (BDEs 28, 47, 99, 100, 153, and 154) are most prevalent in the commercial Penta-BDE formulation. There is no evidence for the occurrence of the Octa-BDE formulation in the North Sea food web, since its dominant congener, BDE183, was never detected. BDE209, the main congener (> 97%) in the Deca-BDE formulation, was detected only in a minority of the samples and always in concentrations around the limit of detection. Since BDE209 is often the major BDE congener in sediments from the area, the main reason for its low concentrations in biota from the North Sea seems to be a relatively low bioaccumulation potential. This can either be due to a low uptake rate of the very large molecule or a relatively rapid excretion after biotransformation. Since all invertebrates investigated are sentinel species, they are highly representative for the area of capture. The highest lipid-normalized concentrations of PBDEs in the invertebrates occurred near the mouth of the river Tees at the East coast of the UK. The geographical distribution of the PBDEs can be explained by the residual currents in the area. The direction of these currents differs between the summer and the winter season as a result of the presence or absence of vertical summer stratification of the deeper waters north of the Dogger Bank. Summer stratification results in the development of a density-driven bottom water current formed after the onset of vertical stratification of the water column in May leaving the UK coast near

  16. Sex-dependent behavioral changes in rat offspring after in utero administration of a single low dose PBDE 47

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuriyama, S.N.; Talsness, C.E.; Chahoud, I. [Charite Univ. Medical School Berlin (Germany). Inst. of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Dept. Toxicology, Campus Benjamin Franklin

    2004-09-15

    Increasing levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in environmental and human samples has resulted in intensive discussion regarding possible hazard identification and risk assessment in the last years. In rodents, exposure to PBDE mixtures or single congeners has resulted in a mixed induction of CYP450- dependent enzymes, showing increased activity of hepatic EROD and PROD. In addition, genotoxicity has been observed in recombination assays, and neurotoxicity has been reported in mice exposed during development. Acute and sub-chronic exposures of mice and rats to a PBDE mixture (DE-71) cause dose-dependent reductions in serum concentrations of thyroxin (T4), and stressinduced elevations in plasma corticosterone. Further, some hydroxylated metabolites of PBDE congeners exhibit a higher potency in vivo than T4 in competitive binding to human transthyretin (TTR), the transport protein mediating transfer of thyroid hormones across the placenta and into the brain. The available information in the literature clearly indicates that PBDEs are potent neurotoxicants, causing effects at doses lower than that able to disrupt thyroid hormone profiles and change CYP 450 activities. Neurobehavior effects, which includes defects in learning and memory, and changes in nicotinic receptors were found at doses starting at 0.45 ppm in mouse (9). The congeners, PBDE 47 and PBDE 99, have also been shown to cause permanent aberrations in spontaneous behavior in mice which was more pronounced with increasing age. PBDE 47 is the most predominant congener found in environmental and human samples, including human breast milk. Its presence in breast milk highlights the importance of evaluating possible effects following early developmental exposure and because this period represents a critical time which an organism is extremely susceptible to minor changes in hormonal milieu. Variances in terms of time point and concentration of exposure to steroids can lead to an organizational

  17. Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) effects in rat neuronal cultures: 14C-PBDE accumulation, biological effect, and structure-activity relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodavanti, P.R.; Ward, T. [Neurotoxicology Div., NHEERL/ORD, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Burka, T. [National Insts. of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Ludewig, G.; Robertson, L. [The Univ. of Iowa Coll. of Public Health, Iowa City, IA (United States); Birnbaum, L. [Experimental Toxicology Div., NHEERL/ORD, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used as flame-retardants in many types of consumer products such as electrical equipment, plastics, and building materials. PBDEs are structurally similar to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). PBDEs are now ubiquitous; they can be found in air, water, fish, birds, marine mammals, and humans, and in many cases, they are increasing over time. In spite of their widespread occurrence in the environment, only limited information is available on the toxicology of PBDEs. Recent studies showed that PBDE exposure caused aberrations in spontaneous behavior and reduced learning and memory in mice these effects are similar to those seen after exposure to DDT or PCBs. However, the mode of action for this group of chemicals remains unclear. Previously, we demonstrated that PCBs, which are known to cause neurotoxic effects, affected intracellular signaling pathways including [{sup 3}H]arachidonic acid ([{sup 3}H]AA) release, calcium homeostasis, and translocation of protein kinase C (PKC). Regarding PBDEs, we have reported that PBDEs altered [{sup 3}H]AA release in neuronal cultures like PCBs. These signaling pathways have been associated with learning and memory, and the development of the nervous system. The objectives of the present study were to test: (a) whether biologically relevant PBDE congeners affected PKC translocation in neuronal cultures in a similar way to those of other organohalogens; (b) compare the potency and efficacy of PBDE congeners with their 14C-accumulation; and (c) understand the structure-activity relationships among PBDE congeners.

  18. PBDE exposure from food in Ireland: optimising data exploitation in probabilistic exposure modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudel, David; Tlustos, Christina; Von Goetz, Natalie; Scheringer, Martin; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2011-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a class of brominated flame retardants added to plastics, polyurethane foam, electronics, textiles, and other products. These products release PBDEs into the indoor and outdoor environment, thus causing human exposure through food and dust. This study models PBDE dose distributions from ingestion of food for Irish adults on congener basis by using two probabilistic and one semi-deterministic method. One of the probabilistic methods was newly developed and is based on summary statistics of food consumption combined with a model generating realistic daily energy supply from food. Median (intermediate) doses of total PBDEs are in the range of 0.4-0.6 ng/kg(bw)/day for Irish adults. The 97.5th percentiles of total PBDE doses lie in a range of 1.7-2.2 ng/kg(bw)/day, which is comparable to doses derived for Belgian and Dutch adults. BDE-47 and BDE-99 were identified as the congeners contributing most to estimated intakes, accounting for more than half of the total doses. The most influential food groups contributing to this intake are lean fish and salmon which together account for about 22-25% of the total doses.

  19. Use of wild trout for PBDE assessment in freshwater environments: Review and summary of critical factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M. Ríos

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Certain wild animals represent sentinels to address issues related to environmental pollution, since they can provide integrative data on both pollutant exposure and biological effects. Despite their technological benefits, PBDEs are considered a threat to environmental health due to their persistence, toxicity, and capacity to be accumulated. These pollutants have been found geographically widespread in fish, particularly in predator species such as trout. The aim of this work is to critically review the applicability and usefulness of wild trout for assessing PBDEs in freshwater environments. Reviewed reports include data from highly industrialized areas as well as areas from remote regions with relatively low human activity, including European and North American great lakes and freshwater environments in Europe, Greenland, subarctic areas and Patagonia, respectively. A summary of relevant factors were grouped into organism-specific factors (food habits, age, size, lipid content, sex and reproduction, tissue type, mechanism of contaminant uptake and metabolism, and PBDE levels in the surrounding environment (sediment. Five wild trout species [rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, brown trout (Salmo trutta, lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush, arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus, and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis], collected worldwide within the 1994 to present time frame, were considered. Multivariate techniques (principal component analysis-PCA and mapping approach, showed clear differences in geographic distribution patterns of PBDE levels in trout depending on the region studied: wild trout from European and North American great lakes have the highest PBDE loads. This pattern could be due to high industrial activity at these locations. A correlational approach used to explore intraspecific relationships between PBDE levels and morphometry, showed positive relationships only for brown trout. Further, brown trout showed the highest trout

  20. Widespread polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) contamination of urban soils in Melbourne, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Thomas J; Morrison, Paul D; Sandiford, Christopher J; Ball, Andrew S; Clarke, Bradley O

    2016-12-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been used as flame retardants in a variety of materials and products. PBDEs have been shown to accumulate in the environment and human populations while exhibiting a range of toxic effects. In this study, surface soil samples from 30 sites in the city of Melbourne, Australia, were analysed for PBDEs. Eight congeners of environmental concern (BDE-28, -47, -99, -100, -153, -154 -183 and -209) were assessed using selective pressurized liquid extraction (S-PLE) and gas chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). PBDEs were detected in 29/30 samples with Σ 8 PBDE soil concentrations ranging nd-13,200 ng/g dw and Σ 7 PBDEs (excluding BDE-209) levels of nd-70.5 ng/g dw. Soils from waste disposal sites (n = 6) contained the highest median Σ 7 PBDE and Σ 8 PBDE concentrations, followed by manufacturing sites (n = 18) and then non-source sites (n = 6). Electronics recycling facilities contained the greatest levels of Σ 8 PBDEs by a significant margin (p production, with the most significant congener correlation existing between BDE-47 and BDE-99 (p < 0.001, r = 0.943). This first assessment of PBDEs in Melbourne soils indicates widespread contamination of the urban environment, including locations where direct sources to soil are not clear. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of two PBDE congeners on the moulting enzymes of the freshwater amphipod Gammarus pulex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gismondi, Eric; Thomé, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are abundant in aquatic environment. However, only few studies have investigated their impacts on freshwater invertebrates. This work aimed to study the effects of BDE-47 and BDE-99 congeners on the chitobiase and chitinolytic enzymes activities of the freshwater amphipod Gammarus pulex, according to gender, PBDE concentration and time of exposure. In addition, the bioaccumulation of BDE-47 and BDE-99 were measured. Results revealed that females have bioaccumulated more PBDE than males, and BDE-99 was more accumulated than BDE-47. PBDE exposures for 96 h have caused chitobiase and chitinolytic enzymes inhibition. This study not only indicate the importance of taking into account various confounding factors (gender, congeners, concentration) to understand PBDE effects, but underline also disruptions of molting enzymes activities. These disturbances suggest effects on the gammarid development and reproduction, and consequently effects on the gammarid population, and on a larger scale, a dysfunction of the ecosystem. - Highlights: • G. pulex females bioaccumulate more PBDE than males. • PBDE exposure increases enzyme activities involved in moult process. • Gammarid gender, PBDE congener and concentration are confounding factors. - BDE-47 and BDE-99 are accumulated in Gammarus pulex males and females and have impacted the moulting process, since they influenced the moult enzymes activities

  2. Effects of PBDE-47 on thyroid and steroid hormone status in juvenile turbot (Schophtalamus maximus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenssen, G.; Tyrhaug, I.B.; Sormo, E.G. [Dept. of Biology, Norwegian Univ. of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway); Andersen, O.K. [Rogaland Research Akvamiljo, Mekjarvik (Norway)

    2004-09-15

    Many of the brominated flame retardant (BFR) chemicals, and particularly polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), has become of increasing concern to scientists over the past decade. Many of the PBDEs are persistent and lipophilic and have been shown to bioaccumulate. The levels of PBDEs in biota seem to be increasing, and several trends, including in humans, indicate that this increase may be rapid1. In general, BFRs have a low acute toxicity, but there is concern about their long-term toxic effects. Exposure studies have revealed a range of subtle biochemical, cellular and physiological effects following low-dose exposure, and many BFRs have been reported to have endocrine disruptive properties. Thus, there is concern about their potential to affect organisms and populations. Thyroid hormones (THs) play an important role in organism's development, metabolism, growth and behavior. Polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs) including BFRs may affect the thyroid system through several mechanisms. They may directly affect the thyroid gland function, the peripheral metabolism of THs and/or the binding of THs to plasma transport proteins. Effects of PHAHs on TH homeostasis have been documented in a number of species, including fish. Du to its persistence against degradation PBDE-47 is among the most abundant PBDE congener in biota, and there is a great concern about its ecotoxicological effects on organisms and populations. The aim of the present study was to examine if PBDE-47 may affect levels of circulating steroid and thyroid hormones in juvenile turbot (Scophtalamus maximus). The turbot is a benthic living flatfish that can be exposed to PHAHs via the sediment living organisms. Thus, plasma levels of T, E, and the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) were determined in juvenile turbot that had been continuously exposed to PBDE-47 via water for 3 weeks.

  3. Occurrence and fate of PBDE in sewage sludge from municipal waste water treatment plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoth, W.; Mann, W.; Meyer, R.; Nebhuth, J. [Federal Environmental Agency, POP Laboratory, Langen (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    With the rapidly growing use of combustible polymer material, e.g. for IT/TV casings, mattresses, upholstered furniture, the use of flame retardants like polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) has also increased strongly. PBDE are available as three commercial mixtures of BDE congeners named after their principal component: PeBDE, OcBDE and DeBDE. They can release into the environment during their production, use or after disposal and have become ubiquitous. Because of (exponentially) increasing levels of the main congeners of technical Pe- and OcBDE in human blood and milk in Europe and California, the use and the placing on the market of preparations and articles containing these two flame retardants in concentrations >0.1% by mass are prohibited from August 15, 2004 in the European Union4 and in California from the year 2008. The main North American manufacturer of PeBDE flame retardant will voluntarily cease production by the end of 2004. For DeBDE a risk assessment is in progress. Surprising high levels were analysed in blood samples from 155 volunteers in the UK2 and a debromination to more bioavailable Hx- and HpBDE by juvenile carp (cyprinus carpio) following dietary exposure was observed. The objective of this study is to get more information about the actual levels and time trend of PBDE in sewage sludge in Germany and on a possible degradation of DeBDE by photolytic or reductive debromination during waste water treatment process.

  4. Study of the toxic effects of flame retardant PBDE-47 on the clam Chamelea gallina (Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatora Angela Angioni

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to evaluate the effects of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenylether (PBDE-47 on the Chamelea gallina clam (according to current commercial regulations: Venus gallina. PBDEs, which are used as flame retardants in various industrial products, are classed as hazardous substances by Directive 2011/65/EU. They are bioaccumulative compounds, considered to be endocrine disruptors, genotoxic, neurotoxic and practically ubiquitous, and their concentration in the environment has considerably increased in recent years. The aim of this study is to establish the effects of PBDE-47 on Chamelea gallina: toxic power and any harmful effects on the gonads, bioaccumulation capacity in the tissues, and possible entry into the food chain. The research used 96-hour and 21-day experimental tests on clams housed in filtered seawater. The tests were preceded by a period of acclimatisation of the molluscs lasting five to seven days. The clams were fed on seaweed (Dunaliella tertiolecta. The choice of the toxic compound PBDE-47 was based on the high concentration, among the congeners of PBDE, found in some aquatic species. The study demonstrated that the concentration of the contaminant used did not alter the vital functions, cause significant levels of mortality or lead to evident alteration in the gonads of Chamelea gallina. However, the research demonstrated the bioaccumulation capacity of the bivalve mollusc, allowing PBDE-47 to enter the food chain.

  5. Neonatal exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE 153) disrupts spontaneous behaviour, impairs learning and memory, and decreases hippocampal cholinergic receptors in adult mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viberg, Henrik; Fredriksson, Anders; Eriksson, Per

    2003-01-01

    Neonatal exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE 153) disrupts spontaneous behaviour, impairs learning and memory, and decreases hippocampal cholinergic receptors in adult mice. Flame retardants are used to suppress or inhibit combustion processes in an effort to reduce the risk of fire. One class of flame retardants, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), are present and increasing in the environment and in human milk. The present study shows that neonatal exposure to 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexaBDE (PBDE 153), a PBDE persistent both in environment and in human milk, can induce developmental neurotoxic effects, such as changes in spontaneous behaviour (hyperactivity), impairments in learning and memory, and reduced amounts of nicotinic receptors, effects that get worse with age. Neonatal NMRI male mice were orally exposed on day 10 to 0.45, 0.9, or 9.0 mg of PBDE 153/kg of body weight. Spontaneous behaviour (locomotion, rearing, and total activity) was observed in 2-, 4-, and 6-month-old mice, Morris water maze at an age of 6 months. The behaviour tests showed that the effects were dose-response and time-response related. Animals showing defects in learning and memory also showed significantly reduced amounts of nicotinic receptors in hippocampus, using α-bungarotoxin binding assay. The observed developmental neurotoxic effects seen for PBDE 153 are similar to those seen for PBDE 99 and for certain PCBs. Furthermore, PBDEs appear to as potent as the PCBs

  6. Exposure to brominated flame retardant PBDE-99 affects cytoskeletal protein expression in the neonatal mouse cerebral cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alm, Henrik; Kultima, Kim; Scholz, Birger

    2008-01-01

    , and the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of PBDE-99 in primary cultures of fetal rat cortical cells. We used two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) to analyze protein samples isolated from the cortex of NMRI mice 24h after exposure to a single oral dose of 12 mg/kg PBDE-99 on post-natal day 10....... Protein resolution was enhanced by sample pre-fractionation. In the cell model, we determined cell viability using the trypan blue exclusion assay, and apoptosis using immunocytochemical detection of cleaved caspase-3. We determined the identity of 111 differentially expressed proteins, 32 (29%) of which...... are known to be cytoskeleton-related. Similar to previous findings in the striatum, we found elevated levels of the neuron growth-associated protein Gap43 in the cortex. In cultured cortical cells, a high concentration of PBDE-99 (30 microM) induced cell death without any apparent increase in caspase-3...

  7. Spatial trends of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spatial trends of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners were analyzed in young of the year bluefish collected along the U.S. Atlantic coastline from...

  8. PBDE: Structure-Activity Studies for the Inhibition of Hepatitis C Virus NS3 Helicase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazi Abdus Salam

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The helicase portion of the hepatitis C virus nonstructural protein 3 (NS3 is considered one of the most validated targets for developing direct acting antiviral agents. We isolated polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE 1 from a marine sponge as an NS3 helicase inhibitor. In this study, we evaluated the inhibitory effects of PBDE (1 on the essential activities of NS3 protein such as RNA helicase, ATPase, and RNA binding activities. The structure-activity relationship analysis of PBDE (1 against the HCV ATPase revealed that the biphenyl ring, bromine, and phenolic hydroxyl group on the benzene backbone might be a basic scaffold for the inhibitory potency.

  9. Bar-coded pyrosequencing reveals the responses of PBDE-degrading microbial communities to electron donor amendments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiying Xu

    Full Text Available Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs can be reductively degraded by microorganisms under anaerobic conditions. However, little is known about the effect of electron donors on microbial communities involved in PBDEs degradation. Here we employed 454 Titanium pyrosequencing to examine the phylogenetic diversity, composition, structure and dynamics of microbial communities from microcosms under the conditions of different electron donor amendments. The community structures in each of the five alternate electron donor enrichments were significantly shifted in comparison with those of the control microcosm. Commonly existing OTUs between the treatment and control consortia increased from 5 to 17 and more than 50% of OTUs increased around 13.7 to 186 times at least in one of the microcosms after 90-days enrichment. Although the microbial communities at different taxonomic levels were significantly changed by different environmental variable groups in redundancy analysis, significant correlations were observed between the microbial communities and PBDE congener profiles. The lesser-brominated PBDE congeners, tri-BDE congener (BDE-32 and hexa-BDE, were identified as the key factors shaping the microbial community structures at OTU level. Some rare populations, including the known dechlorinating bacterium, Dehalobacter, showed significant positive-correlation with the amounts of PBDE congeners in the consortia. The same results were also observed on some unclassified bacteria. These results suggest that PBDEs-degrading microbial communities can be successfully enriched, and their structures and compositions can be manipulated through adjusting the environmental parameters.

  10. Revisión global de los contaminantes emergentes PBDE y el caso particular de México

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha-Gutiérrez, Beatriz Adriana; Peralta-Pérez, María del Rosario; Zavala-Díaz de la Serna, Francisco Javier

    2015-01-01

    Los éteres de bifenilos polibromados (PBDE, por sus siglas en inglés) son un grupo específico de contaminantes emergentes que se caracterizan por ser lipofílicos, hidrofóbicos, bioacumulables y resistentes a la biodegradación. La familia de PBDE consiste de 209 isómeros o congéneres y su estructura química, persistencia y distribución en el ambiente siguen patrones muy similares a los polibromobifenilos (PBB) y a los policlorobifenilos (PCB). El uso principal de los PBDE es como retardantes d...

  11. Developmental exposure to PBDE 99 and PCB affects estrogen sensitivity of target genes in rat brain regions and female sexual behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lichtensteiger, W; Faass, O; Ceccatelli, R; Schlumpf, M [Zurich Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. of Pharmacology and Toxicology

    2004-09-15

    We recently reported effects of PBDE99 (2,2',4,4'5-pentabromoBDE) on sexual differentiation processes in rat reproductive organs and central nervous system. These studies were prompted by reports on an increase of PBDE levels in human milk, an indicator of the body burden of pregnant women and of potential exposure of the nursing infant, during the last decade. Even higher human adipose tissue and milk levels were reported for North America. PBDE99 is present in human and animal samples and exhibits developmental neurotoxicity in mice. The developing brain is subject to the organizing action of estradiol locally formed from circulating testosterone, and thus represents a target for endocrine active chemicals. One molecular mechanism by which chemicals may interfere with sexual brain differentiation, may be a change in the expression of sex hormone (estrogen)-regulated genes. Such effects may manifest themselves in mRNA expression levels, or in the sensitivity of the genes to estrogen. In order to detect alterations of the latter, more subtle parameter, we have conducted experiments in developmentally chemical-exposed rat offspring that were gonadectomized in adulthood and injected with a challenge dose of estradiol. Effects of PBDE99 were compared with those of a commercial PCB mixture, Aroclor 1254, which had previously been found to influence sexual brain differentiation. We analyzed the expression of estrogen-regulated genes in ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) and medial preoptic area (MPO), two brain regions that are part of a network involved in the integration of environmental cues, sexual behavior and gonadal function. Since prominent changes were observed in VMH which is particularly important for female sexual behavior, the study was completed by a behavioral analysis.

  12. Time trends of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in East China Seas: Response to the booming of PBDE pollution industry in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanyuan; Lin, Tian; Hu, Limin; Feng, Jialiang; Guo, Zhigang

    2016-01-01

    The East China Seas (ECSs) are the receptors of the land-based persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) mainly from China through atmospheric deposition driven by the East Asian winter monsoon and fluvial discharge (e.g., Yangtze River and Yellow River), making the offshore sediments to be a good proxy to reconstruct history of those pollutants in China. In this work, four well-placed sediment cores were extracted from the mud areas in the ECSs, and the (210)Pb-dated cores were analyzed to yield historical concentration profiles of PBDEs in the area. The results showed that there was a persistent increase from 1970s and almost no clear sign in the decline of PBDEs until recently in China. More importantly, there was a faster increase of PBDEs from 1990s in China; while this period was just shown as gradually leveling off or even declining trends in developed countries. The persistently increasing trend of PBDEs in China since 1990s could be largely due to the booming of the manufacturing industry and unexpectedly transfer of PBDE pollution from developed countries to China. Besides, the relative high concentrations and fluxes of PBDEs in the core from coastal ECS located near a well-known electrical/electronic waste (e-waste) recycling area suggests an important contribution of PBDE emissions from recycling centers of e-waste in China. Although efforts in environmental monitoring of PBDE contamination have been substantially increased over the last decade, China is still lagging behind in terms of nationwide regulation of PBDE usage and treatment of disposal PBDE-containing products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Temporal variability of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) serum concentrations over one year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makey, Colleen M; McClean, Michael D; Sjödin, Andreas; Weinberg, Janice; Carignan, Courtney C; Webster, Thomas F

    2014-12-16

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are flame retardant chemicals used in consumer products. They are common contaminants in human serum and associated with adverse health effects. Our objectives were to characterize PBDE serum concentrations in a New England cohort and assess temporal variability of this exposure biomarker over a one-year period. We collected three repeated measurements at six-month intervals from 52 office workers from the greater Boston (MA, United States) area from 2010 to 2011. The intraclass correlation coefficient for BDEs 28, 47, 99, 100, and 153 ranged from 0.87 to 0.99, indicating that a single serum measurement can reliably estimate exposure over a one-year period. This was true for both lipid adjusted and nonlipid adjusted concentrations. The kappa statistics, quantifying the level of agreement of categorical exposure classification, based on medians, tertiles, or quartiles ranged from 0.67 to 0.90. Some congeners showed nonsignificant increases from sampling round 1 (winter) to round 2 (summer) and significant decreases from round 2 to round 3 (winter). This study highlights the high reliability of a single serum PBDE measurement for use in human epidemiologic studies.

  14. Effect of developmental low dose PBDE 47 exposure on thyroid hormone status and serum concentrations of FSH and inhibin B in male rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, A.J.M.; Kuriyama, S.N.; Akkoc, Z.; Talsness, C.E.; Chahoud, I. [Charite Univ. Medical School Berlin (Germany). Inst. of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Dept. Toxicology, Campus Benjamin Franklin

    2004-09-15

    Several persistent halogenated organic compounds such as PCBs, dioxins and more recently, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been shown to disrupt thyroid hormone homeostasis in experimental animals. Particular concern exists regarding exposure to these compounds during critical periods of development when thyroid hormones orchestrate the growth and differentiation of many organs including the brain and the testis. While the contamination levels of PCBs and other persistent organic pollutants have declined in the past years, increasing levels of PBDEs have been detected in environmental and human samples including human breast milk. PBDEs are produced in large quantities and used worldwide as flame retardants in electrical appliances, carpets and furniture upholstery. Similar to other halogenated environmental organic pollutants, PBDEs seem to present a wide range of toxic effects including reproductive, endocrine, neurobehavioral and hepatic toxicity. Recently, it has been demonstrated that in utero and pubertal exposures to DE-71 (a commercial mixture containing mostly tetra- and penta-bromodiphenyl ethers) significantly reduce thyroxine levels (T4) in rats. The present study has focused on the possible effects of the tetra- BDE congener 2,2'4,4'-tetrabromo diphenyl ether (PBDE 47) on thyroid hormone status and associated changes on FSH and inhibin B levels in the developing male rat. We administered a single dose to gravid dams on gestation day 6 of either 140 {mu}g/kg BW or 700 {mu}g/kg BW PBDE 47. These doses are pertinent to human exposure situation because a study by She et al.3 found a mean level of 33.3 {mu}g PBDE 47 /kg fat in human breast adipose tissue with a range from 7.01 to 196 {mu}g PBDE 47 /kg fat.

  15. Developmental exposure to PBDE 99 and PCB affects estrogen sensitivity of target genes in rat brain regions and female sexual behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lichtensteiger, W.; Faass, O.; Ceccatelli, R.; Schlumpf, M. [Zurich Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. of Pharmacology and Toxicology

    2004-09-15

    We recently reported effects of PBDE99 (2,2',4,4'5-pentabromoBDE) on sexual differentiation processes in rat reproductive organs and central nervous system. These studies were prompted by reports on an increase of PBDE levels in human milk, an indicator of the body burden of pregnant women and of potential exposure of the nursing infant, during the last decade. Even higher human adipose tissue and milk levels were reported for North America. PBDE99 is present in human and animal samples and exhibits developmental neurotoxicity in mice. The developing brain is subject to the organizing action of estradiol locally formed from circulating testosterone, and thus represents a target for endocrine active chemicals. One molecular mechanism by which chemicals may interfere with sexual brain differentiation, may be a change in the expression of sex hormone (estrogen)-regulated genes. Such effects may manifest themselves in mRNA expression levels, or in the sensitivity of the genes to estrogen. In order to detect alterations of the latter, more subtle parameter, we have conducted experiments in developmentally chemical-exposed rat offspring that were gonadectomized in adulthood and injected with a challenge dose of estradiol. Effects of PBDE99 were compared with those of a commercial PCB mixture, Aroclor 1254, which had previously been found to influence sexual brain differentiation. We analyzed the expression of estrogen-regulated genes in ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) and medial preoptic area (MPO), two brain regions that are part of a network involved in the integration of environmental cues, sexual behavior and gonadal function. Since prominent changes were observed in VMH which is particularly important for female sexual behavior, the study was completed by a behavioral analysis.

  16. Hepatic in vitro toxicity assessment of PBDE congeners BDE47, BDE153 and BDE154 in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Softeland, Liv, E-mail: lso@nifes.no [National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research, PO Box 2029 Nordnes, N-5817 Bergen (Norway); Petersen, Kjell [Computational Biology Unit, Bergen Centre for Computational Science, Uni Research AS, Thormohlensgt 55, N5008 Bergen (Norway); Stavrum, Anne-Kristin [Dept of Clinical Medicine, University of Bergen (Norway); Wu, Terence [Yale University W.M. Keck Biotechnology Resource, 300 George St., Room G001, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Olsvik, Pal A. [National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research, PO Box 2029 Nordnes, N-5817 Bergen (Norway)

    2011-10-15

    The brominated flame retardant congeners BDE47, BDE153 and BDE154 are among the congeners accumulating to the highest degree in fish. In order to gain knowledge about the toxicological effects of PBDEs in fish, microarray-based transcriptomic and 2D-DIGE/MALDI-TOF/TOF proteomic approaches were used to screen for effects in primary Atlantic salmon hepatocytes exposed to these congeners alone or in combination (PBDE-MIX). A small set of stress related transcripts and proteins were differentially expressed in the PBDE exposed hepatocytes. The PBDE-MIX, and BDE153 to a lesser degree, seems to have induced metabolic disturbances by affecting several pathways related to glucose homeostasis. Further, effects on cell cycle control and proliferation signal pathways in PBDE-MIX-exposed hepatocytes clearly suggest that the PBDE exposure affected cell proliferation processes. CYP1A was 7.41- and 7.37-fold up-regulated in hepatocytes exposed to BDE47 and PBDE-MIX, respectively, and was the only biotransformation pathway affected by the PBDE exposure. The factorial design and PLS regression analyses of the effect of the PBDE-MIX indicated that BDE47 contributed the most to the observed CYP1A response, suggesting that this congener should be incorporated in the toxic equivalent (TEQ) concept in future risk assessment of dioxin-like chemicals. Additionally, a significant up-regulation of the ER-responsive genes VTG and ZP3 was observed in cells exposed to BDE47 and PBDE-MIX. Further analyses suggested that BDE47 and BDE154 have an estrogenic effect in male fish. The data also suggested an antagonistic interaction between BDE153 and BDE154. In conclusion, this study shows that PBDEs can affect several biological systems in Atlantic salmon cells, and demonstrates the need for more studies on the simultaneous exposure to chemical mixtures to identify combined effects of chemicals.

  17. [PHAHs levels in soil samples from the E-waste disassembly sites and their sources allocation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Gao-Feng; Wang, Zi-Jian

    2009-06-15

    Soil samples (each with 3 replicates of - 1 kg, at the top 0-5 cm layer) were collected from each of the e-waste disassembly sites and the control site. Also obtained from each disassembly site were samples (each weighing - 0.2 kg) of cable coating,stuffing powder, and circuit boards chipping. The contents of 23 PBB congeners, 12 PBDE congeners, and 27 PCB congeners in soil and in their potential sources, including e-waste residues, were measured using the GC-MS5975B technique. The highest level of PBBs was found in the cable coating among the three e-waste residues, with a concentration of 35.25 ng x g(-1). The contents of low-brominated PBBs (including monobromobiphenyls and dibromobiphenyls) accounted for 38% of the total PBBs concentration observed in cable coating sample. The highest levels of PBDEs and PBDE209 were found in the stuffing powder for electronic component among the collected e-waste residues, with a concentration of 29.71 and 4.19 x 10(3) ng x g(-1). PBDE153 and PBDE183 were the most predominant PBDE congeners, with their concentration accounting for 43% and 24% of the total PBDEs concentration observed in the stuffing powder sample, respectively. Levels of PCBs in cable coating were the highest in these e-waste residues, with a concentration of 680.02 ngx g(-1). The observed values of the three PHAHs in soils from the disassembly site were considerably higher than their corresponding values observed in the control site (p < 0.05), which indicates that these PHAHs from e-waste is the pollution source of local environment.

  18. Prey species as possible sources of PBDE exposures for peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) nesting in major California cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, June-Soo; Fong, Alison; Chu, Vivian; Holden, Arthur; Linthicum, Janet; Hooper, Kim

    2011-04-01

    Our earlier findings indicate that (1) peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus anatum Bonaparte) nesting in major California cities have among the highest polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) levels in the world (max ∑PBDEs=100 ppm), and (2) Big City peregrines have higher levels and proportions of the higher-brominated congeners (hepta- to deca-BDEs) than do their Coastal counterparts. In this study we classified the prey species (n =185) from the remains of prey (feathers) at 38 peregrine nest sites over 25 years (1974-1998). We grouped the prey species into 15 categories based on diet and found distinctly different prey patterns for Big City vs. Coastal peregrines. Big City peregrines had a higher (almost three times) weight percentage intake of food waste-eating birds (e.g., rock pigeons, Columba livia) than Coastal peregrines. These differing prey patterns suggest diet as a potential source of the unusually high levels and proportions of higher-brominated PBDEs in Big City peregrines. The relative contributions of diet and dust (e.g., preening) exposure to PBDE patterns in Big City peregrines will be explored in future investigations. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

  19. Advances in the study of current-use non-PBDE brominated flame retardants and dechlorane plus in the environment and humans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The fate of the high production volume,currently in use,and not regulated non-polybrominated diphenyl ether(PBDE) flame retardants,such as tetrabromobisphenol A(TBBPA) ,hexabromocyclododecane(HBCD) and dechlorane plus(DP),and the alternative flame retardants of PBDE,such as BTBPE and DBDPE,in the environment has attracted increasing attention and aroused concern due to the increasing regulation and phasing-out of PBDEs.This paper reviews the distribution,bioaccumulation,human exposure and environmental behavior of those non-PBDE flame retardants in various environmental compartments.The data gaps and needs for future research are discussed.

  20. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) in Surface Soils across Five Asian Countries: Levels, Spatial Distribution, and Source Contribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Long; Ma, Wan-Li; Jia, Hong-Liang; Hong, Wen-Jun; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Nakata, Haruhiko; Minh, Nguyen Hung; Sinha, Ravindra Kumar; Chi, Kai Hsien; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Sverko, Ed; Li, Yi-Fan

    2016-12-06

    A total of 23 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners were measured in soil samples collected in areas with no known point source [urban/rural/background (U/R/B) sites] and in areas with known point source [brominated flame retardant (BFR)-related industrial sites (F sites) and e-waste recycling sites (E sites)] across five Asian countries. The highest PBDE concentrations were found in BFR-related industrial and e-waste recycling sites. The concentrations of PBDEs in U/R/B sites decreased in the following order: urban > rural > background sites. Total PBDE concentrations were dominated by BDE-209, while BDE-17, -85, -138, -191, -204, and -205 were the least abundant compounds. In both urban sites and rural sites, the mean concentrations of total PBDEs (∑ 23 BDEs) in soils decreased in the following order: Japan > China > South Korea > India > Vietnam. The concentrations of PBDEs in soils were comparable with those reported in other studies. Among the three commercial PBDE mixtures, relatively large contributions of commercial penta-BDE were observed in Vietnam, whereas deca-BDE was the dominant form in mixtures contributing from 55.8 ± 2.5 to 100.0 ± 1.2% of the total PBDEs in soils collected from other four countries. Regression analysis suggested that local population density (PD) is a good indicator of PBDEs in soils of each country. Significant and positive correlation between soil organic content and PBDE level was observed in Chinese soil for most nondeca-BDE homologues with their usage stopped 10 years ago, indicating its important role in controlling the revolatilization of PBDEs from soil and changing the spatial trend of PBDE in soil from the primary distribution pattern to the secondary distribution pattern, especially when primary emission is ceased.

  1. Effects of developmental exposure to a Commercial PBDE mixture (DE-71) on protein networks in the rat Cerebellum and Hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Title (20 words): Effects of developmental exposure to a Commercial PBDE mixture (DE-71) on protein networks in the rat Cerebellum and Hippocampus. Introduction (120 words): Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE5) possess neurotoxic effects similar to those of PCBs. The cellular a...

  2. Effect of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) treatment on the composition and function of the bacterial community in the sponge Haliclona cymaeformis.

    KAUST Repository

    Tian, Ren-Mao

    2014-01-01

    Marine sponges play important roles in benthic environments and are sensitive to environmental stresses. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been widely used as flame retardants since the 1970s and are cytotoxic and genotoxic to organisms. In the present study, we studied the short-period effect of PBDE-47 (2,2\\',4,4\\'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether) treatment on the community structure and functional gene composition of the bacterial community inhabiting the marine sponge Haliclona cymaeformis. Our results showed that the bacterial community shifted from an autotrophic bacteria-dominated community to a heterotrophic bacteria-dominated community in response to PBDE-47 in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. A potentially symbiotic sulfur-oxidizing bacterium (SOB) was dominant (>80% in abundance) in the untreated sponge. However, exposure to a high concentration (1 μg/L) of PBDE-47 caused a substantial decrease in the potential symbiont and an enrichment of heterotrophic bacteria like Clostridium. A metagenomic analysis showed a selective effect of the high concentration treatment on the functional gene composition of the enriched heterotrophic bacteria, revealing an enrichment for the functions responsible for DNA repair, multidrug efflux pumping, and bacterial chemotaxis and motility. This study demonstrated that PBDE-47 induced a shift in the composition of the community and functional genes in the sponge-associated bacterial community, revealing the selective effect of PBDE-47 treatment on the functions of the bacterial community in the microenvironment of the sponge.

  3. Biomonitoring of Danish school children and mothers including biomarkers of PBDE and glyphosate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Hansen, Pernille Winton; Mizrak, Seher

    2017-01-01

    Danish school children aged 6–11 years and their mothers from rural and urban areas in autumn 2011. Some – but not all – results were published; however, the concurrence of the chemicals has not been assessed. Methods: The measured concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and glyphosate...... is assessed to complete the investigation of all 66 chemicals in DEMOCOPHES. The concentrations of PBDEs were measured in plasma samples of 143 mothers and 116 children. Glyphosate was measured in a subsample of 27 urine samples. Previously assessed chemicals were polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs...... the concentrations of the different environmental chemicals. investigated by correlation analysis. Results: PBDE47 was found in relatively high levels compared with previous Danish results in both mothers and children, with a significantly higher level in the children compared to their mothers. Glyphosate...

  4. Black carbon inclusive multichemical modeling of PBDE and PCB biomagnification and -transformation in estuarine food webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Paolo, Carolina; Gandhi, Nilima; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Van den Heuvel-Greve, Martine; Koelmans, Albert A

    2010-10-01

    Bioavailability and bioaccumulation of polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) are affected by adsorption on black carbon (BC) and metabolism in biota, respectively. Recent studies have addressed these two processes separately, illustrating their importance in assessing contaminant dynamics. In order to properly examine biomagnification of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and PBDEs in an estuarine food-web, here we set up a black carbon inclusive multichemical model. A dual domain sorption model, which accounted for sorption to organic matter (OM) and black carbon (BC), was used to estimate aqueous phase concentrations from the measured chemical concentrations in suspended solids. We adapted a previously published multichemical model that tracks the movement of a parent compound and its metabolites in each organism and within its food web. First, the model was calibrated for seven PCB congeners assuming negligible metabolism. Subsequently, PBDE biomagnification was modeled, including biotransformation and bioformation of PBDE congeners, keeping the other model parameters the same. The integrated model was capable of predicting trophic magnification factors (TMF) within error limits. PBDE metabolic half-lives ranged 21-415 days and agreed to literature data. The results showed importance of including BC as an adsorbing phase, and biotransformation and bioformation of PBDEs for a proper assessment of their dynamics in aquatic systems.

  5. Levels, profile and distribution of Dechloran Plus (DP) and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) in the environment of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Jabir Hussain; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Li, Jun; Wang, Yan; Xu, Yue; Zhang, Gan; Jones, Kevin C

    2013-11-01

    No scientific data is available on emerging contaminants including Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) and Dechloran Plus (DP) levels in the environment in Pakistan. Levels of PBDEs and DP were determined in the soil, sediment and atmospheric samples along the stretch of River Ravi in Punjab Province. Average concentrations of ΣPBDEs in atmosphere, soils and sediments were 36 pg m(-3), 40 ng g(-1) and 640 ng g(-1). BDE-209 was the most abundant PBDE congener, showing that deca-BDE accounts for most of the total PBDE emitted in the environment of Pakistan. Total DP levels were calculated as 88 pg m(-3), 0.8 ng g(-1) and 1.9 ng g(-1) in air, soil and sediment samples, respectively. The lower average fractions of anti-DP showed significant differences to those of the technical mixtures, indicating the lack of DP production source in Pakistan. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Dietary exposure assessment of Chinese population to tetrabromobisphenol-A, hexabromocyclododecane and decabrominated diphenyl ether: Results of the 5th Chinese Total Diet Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Zhixiong; Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Yunfeng; Sun, Zhiwei; Zhou, Xianqing; Li, Jingguang; Wu, Yongning

    2017-01-01

    Based on the 5th Chinese Total Diet Study (TDS) carried out in 2011, the dietary exposure of Chinese population to three currently used brominated flame retardants (BFRs), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and decabrominated diphenyl ether (BDE-209), was estimated and the related health risks were assessed. Levels of the three BFRs were determined in 80 composite samples from four animal-origin food groups. The average levels of BFRs in various food groups ranged from 0.671 to 5.76 ng/g lipid weight (lw). The levels of TBBPA were lower than those of HBCD but higher than those of BDE-209. Moreover, average contamination levels of TBBPA and HBCD in TDS 2011 were found to be 3 to 30 times higher than those observed in TDS 2007 in the four food groups, indicating an increase in TBBPA and HBCD in the environment during 2007–2011. The average estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of TBBPA, HBCD and BDE-209 via food consumption for a “standard Chinese man” were 1.34, 1.51 and 0.96 ng/kg bw/day, respectively. Meat and meat products were found to be the major contributor to the daily dietary intake because the consumption of meat and meat products were significantly higher than that of other food groups in China. In comparison, the levels and EDIs of BFRs in this study were found to be higher than those in most studies worldwide. However, the large margin of exposure (MOE), with at least 1.1 × 10 5 calculated following the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) approach, indicates that the estimated dietary exposure to these three BFRs is unlikely to raise significant health concerns. In addition, a comparison between the contamination levels of TBBPA, HBCD, BDE-209 and some novel BFRs in food samples from TDS 2011 indicated an obvious shift in the industrial production and usage pattern between PBDE and non-PBDE BFRs in China. - Highlights: • In a national survey, TBBPA, HBCD and BDE-209 were measured in food composites collected from 20

  7. Contamination of U.S. butter with polybrominated diphenyl ethers from wrapping paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schecter, Arnold; Smith, Sarah; Colacino, Justin; Malik, Noor; Opel, Matthias; Paepke, Olaf; Birnbaum, Linda

    2011-02-01

    Our aim was to report the first known incidence of U.S. butter contamination with extremely high levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Ten butter samples were individually analyzed for PBDEs. One of the samples and its paper wrapper contained very high levels of higher-brominated PBDEs. Dietary estimates were calculated using the 2007 U.S. Department of Agriculture Loss-Adjusted Food Availability data, excluding the elevated sample. The highly contaminated butter sample had a total upper bound PBDE level of 42,252 pg/g wet weight (ww). Levels of brominated diphenyl ether (BDE)-206, -207, and -209 were 2,000, 2,290, and 37,600 pg/g ww, respectively. Its wrapping paper contained a total upper-bound PBDE concentration of 804,751 pg/g ww, with levels of BDE-206, -207, and -209 of 51,000, 11,700, and 614,000 pg/g, respectively. Total PBDE levels in the remaining nine butter samples ranged from 180 to 1,212 pg/g, with geometric mean of 483 and median of 284 pg/g. Excluding the outlier, total PBDE daily intake from all food was 22,764 pg/day, lower than some previous U.S. dietary intake estimates. Higher-brominated PBDE congeners were likely transferred from contaminated wrapping paper to butter. A larger representative survey may help determine how frequently PBDE contamination occurs. Sampling at various stages in food production may identify contamination sources and reduce risk.

  8. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in surface sediments of the Yangtze River Delta: Levels, distribution and potential hydrodynamic influence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shejun; Gao Xiaojiang; Mai Bixian; Chen Zhuomin; Luo Xiaojun; Sheng Guoying; Fu Jiamo; Zeng, Eddy Y.

    2006-01-01

    A total of 32 surface sediments collected from the Yangtze River Estuary, Hangzhou Bay and the Qiantang River were analyzed for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The concentrations of ΣPBDEs (sum of 12 PBDE congeners without BDE 209) and BDE 209 varied from n.d. to 0.55 and from 0.16 to 94.6 ng/g, respectively. The spatial variability of ΣPBDEs concentrations indicated that waste discharge from the urban areas might been the main source of PBDEs in the Yangtze River Delta. BDE 209 was the predominant congener (∼90-100%) detected among the 13 congeners, consistent with the fact that technical deca-BDE mixtures are presently the dominant technical PBDE mixtures used in China. Compared to published data acquired from other locales, PBDE congeners with less than four bromines were more abundant in the present study area. The hydrodynamic conditions may likely be a significant factor in dictating the observed levels and congener distribution patterns of PBDEs. - This study discussed the possible effects of hydrodynamic conditions on the distribution of PBDEs in estuarine and marine boundary

  9. Polybrominated diphenyl ether levels in foodstuffs collected from three locations from the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schecter, Arnold; Colacino, Justin; Patel, Keyur; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Yun, Se Hun; Haffner, Darrah; Harris, T. Robert; Birnbaum, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives of this study were to provide updated measurements of PBDEs in US food, to estimate possible difference in levels from differing geographical regions, and to provide an improved estimate of current dietary intake. Methods: Thirty matched food samples for a total of 90 samples were collected from each of three cities (Los Angeles, California; Dallas, Texas; and Albany, New York) and were analyzed for 13 polybrominated diphenyl ether congeners (BDE 28, 47, 49, 66, 85, 99, 100, 138, 153, 154, 183, 203, and 209). Dietary intake of PBDEs was estimated by food type, age, and sex. Results: In this pilot study, we did not note a statistically significant difference in total PBDE levels in food collected from the three locations. The median total PBDE levels (estimating non-detected values as half of the detection limit) in meat, dairy, eggs, and fish were 267 pg/g wet weight (ww) (range 102-3156 pg/g ww), 176 pg/g ww (range 41-954 pg/g ww), 637 pg/g ww (range 193-932 pg/g ww), and 243 pg/g ww (range 36-2161 pg/g ww). PBDE intake from food was estimated to range from 2.7 ng/kg/day for children 2 through 5 years of age to 0.8 ng/kg/day for women aged 60 years and older. This compares closely with our previous study where the intake estimate was 2.7 ng/kg/day for children 2 through 5 years of age and 0.9 ng/kg/day for women aged 60 years and older. Conclusion: We did not find a decrease of PBDEs in food since our previous studies which we expected to find due to the declining use of PBDEs in the USA. These findings could be consistent with food contamination from depot sources of PBDEs. A larger, more representative sampling of the US food supply is indicated based on our findings.

  10. The importance of uptake from food for the bioaccumulation of PCB and PBDE in the marine planktonic copepod Acartia clausi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnusson, Kerstin, E-mail: kerstin.magnusson@marecol.gu.se [Department of Marine Ecology-Kristineberg, University of Gothenburg, Kristineberg 566, SE 45034 Fiskebaeckskil (Sweden); Tiselius, Peter [Department of Marine Ecology-Kristineberg, University of Gothenburg, Kristineberg 566, SE 45034 Fiskebaeckskil (Sweden)

    2010-07-15

    The accumulation of {sup 14}C-labelled PCB 31, PCB 101, PCB 153 and PBDE 99 was investigated at the two lowest trophic levels of the pelagic food web. Accumulation was measured in the small phytoplankter Thalassiosira weissflogii (Coscinodiscophyceae: Thalassiosirales) and in the neritic zooplankter Acartia clausi (Copepoda: Calanoida) exposed to the substance either only via water or through ingestion of contaminated T. weissflogii. Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) for all four compounds were significantly higher in A. clausi feeding on contaminated phytoplankton than in animals exposed only via water. The log BAF for the PCBs increased linearly with the octanol-water partitioning coefficients (log K{sub OW}) in both the algae and the copepods, but with steeper slopes for feeding than non-feeding animals. Reported values for K{sub OW} for PBDEs vary by almost an order of magnitude and it was therefore not meaningful to calculate a log BAF - log K{sub OW} ratio for PBDE 99. It is clear that the nutritional status of the zooplankton affects the uptake of the compounds and that the bioaccumulation cannot be modelled as a passive partitioning between the organisms and the surrounding water. Small copepods are typical of coastal waters and point sources (both temporal and spatial) may be the rule for HOC releases into the sea. Thus, the pathways shown in this study are important and realistic.

  11. The importance of uptake from food for the bioaccumulation of PCB and PBDE in the marine planktonic copepod Acartia clausi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnusson, Kerstin; Tiselius, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The accumulation of 14 C-labelled PCB 31, PCB 101, PCB 153 and PBDE 99 was investigated at the two lowest trophic levels of the pelagic food web. Accumulation was measured in the small phytoplankter Thalassiosira weissflogii (Coscinodiscophyceae: Thalassiosirales) and in the neritic zooplankter Acartia clausi (Copepoda: Calanoida) exposed to the substance either only via water or through ingestion of contaminated T. weissflogii. Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) for all four compounds were significantly higher in A. clausi feeding on contaminated phytoplankton than in animals exposed only via water. The log BAF for the PCBs increased linearly with the octanol-water partitioning coefficients (log K OW ) in both the algae and the copepods, but with steeper slopes for feeding than non-feeding animals. Reported values for K OW for PBDEs vary by almost an order of magnitude and it was therefore not meaningful to calculate a log BAF - log K OW ratio for PBDE 99. It is clear that the nutritional status of the zooplankton affects the uptake of the compounds and that the bioaccumulation cannot be modelled as a passive partitioning between the organisms and the surrounding water. Small copepods are typical of coastal waters and point sources (both temporal and spatial) may be the rule for HOC releases into the sea. Thus, the pathways shown in this study are important and realistic.

  12. A Sustainable Alternative to a Breast Milk Monitoring Program: Using NHANES Serum Data to Estimate Breast Milk PBDE Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are high-production-volume chemicals that have been widely used as flame retardants in a variety of consumer products. PBDE concentrations in the environment, wildlife, and humans have been increasing for several decades. Concentrations in t...

  13. Levels and congener profiles of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in Zebra mussels (D. polymorpha) from Lake Maggiore (Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binelli, A. [Department of Biology, Via Celoria 26, University of Milan, 20133 Milan (Italy)], E-mail: andrea.binelli@unimi.it; Guzzella, L.; Roscioli, C. [IRSA-CNR, 20047 Brugherio (Milan) (Italy)

    2008-06-15

    Several congeners of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were monitored in 14 different sampling stations of Lake Maggiore, the second largest Italian lake in regard to surface, volume and average depth, using the sentinel-organism Zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha). Results revealed a moderate contamination with {sigma}PBDE levels (BDE-17, -28, -47, -66, -71, -85, -99, -100, -138, -153, -154, -183, -190 and -209) ranging from 40 to 447 ng g{sup -1} lipid weight which are similar to those found in environments polluted by deposition or atmospheric transport. The general order of decreasing congener contribution to the total load was BDE-47 > -99 > -100 > -209, which closely reflected patterns observed in mussels collected in freshwater ecosystems worldwide. - This study shows the first data of PBDE contamination in freshwater invertebrates from Mediterranean basin.

  14. Levels and congener profiles of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in Zebra mussels (D. polymorpha) from Lake Maggiore (Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binelli, A.; Guzzella, L.; Roscioli, C.

    2008-01-01

    Several congeners of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were monitored in 14 different sampling stations of Lake Maggiore, the second largest Italian lake in regard to surface, volume and average depth, using the sentinel-organism Zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha). Results revealed a moderate contamination with ΣPBDE levels (BDE-17, -28, -47, -66, -71, -85, -99, -100, -138, -153, -154, -183, -190 and -209) ranging from 40 to 447 ng g -1 lipid weight which are similar to those found in environments polluted by deposition or atmospheric transport. The general order of decreasing congener contribution to the total load was BDE-47 > -99 > -100 > -209, which closely reflected patterns observed in mussels collected in freshwater ecosystems worldwide. - This study shows the first data of PBDE contamination in freshwater invertebrates from Mediterranean basin

  15. Current levels of primary polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in Norwegian seafood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bethune, C.; Nielsen, J.; Julshamn, K. [National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research, Bergen (Norway)

    2004-09-15

    The brominated flame retardants (BFRs) represent major industrial chemicals whose use has increased dramatically over the past few decades. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are BFRs that are used in many types of consumer products. PBDEs have come to the attention of regulators and scientists due to their bioaccumulation, increasing exposure and persistence in the environment, and adverse health effects in animals and humans. Although PBDE contamination in marine fish was first detected in Sweden in 1979, and certain PBDEs are now banned as of this year, the European Union has yet to establish regulations on PBDE levels in either feed or seafood. The determination of these contaminants in consumer seafood is important for dietary exposure assessment and protection of human health. This study reports on the levels of 6 prominent PBDE congeners (28, 47, 99, 100, 153, and 154) in a selection of common Norwegian seafood.

  16. Brominated flame retardants in Canadian chicken egg yolks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawn, D F K; Sadler, A; Quade, S C; Sun, W-F; Lau, B P-Y; Kosarac, I; Hayward, S; Ryan, J J

    2011-06-01

    Chicken eggs categorised as conventional, omega-3 enriched, free range and organic were collected at grading stations in three regions of Canada between 2005 and 2006. Free run eggs, which were only available for collection from two regions, were also sampled during this time frame. Egg yolks from each of these egg types (n = 162) were analysed to determine brominated flame retardant levels, specifically polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD). PBDEs were detected in 100% of the 162 samples tested, while HBCD was observed in 85% of the egg yolks. Total PBDE concentrations in egg yolks ranged from 0.018 to 20.9 ng g(-1) lipid (median = 3.03 ng g(-1) lipid), with PBDE 209 identified as being the major contributor to ΣPBDE concentrations. In addition to PBDE 209, PBDE 99, 47, 100, 183 and 153 were important contributors to ΣPBDE concentrations. Total HBCD concentrations ranged from below the limit of detection to a maximum concentration of 71.9 ng g(-1) lipid (median = 0.053 ng g(-1) lipid). The α-isomer was the dominant contributor to ΣHBCD levels in Canadian egg yolks and was the most frequently detected HBCD isomer. ΣPBDE levels exhibited large differences in variability between combinations of region and type. ΣHBCD concentrations were not significantly different among regions, although differences were observed between the different types of egg yolks analysed in the present study.

  17. Effect of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) treatment on the composition and function of the bacterial community in the sponge Haliclona cymaeformis.

    KAUST Repository

    Tian, Ren-Mao; Lee, On On; Wang, Yong; Cai, Lin; Bougouffa, Salim; Chiu, Jill Man Ying; Wu, Rudolf Shiu Sun; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    . In the present study, we studied the short-period effect of PBDE-47 (2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether) treatment on the community structure and functional gene composition of the bacterial community inhabiting the marine sponge Haliclona cymaeformis. Our

  18. Exposure assessment of French women and their newborn to brominated flame retardants: Determination of tri- to deca- polybromodiphenylethers (PBDE) in maternal adipose tissue, serum, breast milk and cord serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Cariou, Ronan; Zalko, Daniel; Berrebi, Alain; Cravedi, Jean-Pierre; Maume, Daniel; Marchand, Philippe; Monteau, Fabrice; Riu, Anne; Andre, Francois; Le Bizec, Bruno

    2009-01-01

    In the frame of a French monitoring program, tri- to deca- polybromodiphenylethers (PBDE) have been measured in maternal and cord serum, adipose tissue, and breast milk samples, collected from 93 volunteer women during caesarean deliveries. The seven major tri- to heptaBDE (BDE-28, 47, 99, 100, 153, 154, and 183) were detected in adipose tissue and breast milk with cumulated median values of 2.59 and 2.51 ng g -1 l w. Nine highly brominated octa- to decaBDE (BDE-196, 197, 201, 202, 203, 206, 207, 208 and 209) was performed in the same samples, with cumulated median values of 2.73 and 3.39 ng g -1 l w in adipose tissue and breast milk, respectively. At this opposite, median levels of octa- to decaBDE in maternal and cord serum appeared significantly higher than the levels of tri- to heptaBDE in the same matrices, i.e. 8.85 and 12.34 versus 0.98 and 0.69 ng g -1 l w, respectively. - This study provides the first data at the French level regarding the occurrence of PBDE in human, and demonstrates the exposure of both human foetus at late stage of pregnancy and newborn at early stages of life through breastfeeding with special emphasis on the presence of highly brominated compounds

  19. Exposure assessment of French women and their newborn to brominated flame retardants: Determination of tri- to deca- polybromodiphenylethers (PBDE) in maternal adipose tissue, serum, breast milk and cord serum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antignac, Jean-Philippe [Laboratoire d' Etude des Residus et Contaminants dans les Aliments (LABERCA), USC INRA 2013, Ecole Nationale Veterinaire de Nantes (ENVN), Route de Gachet, BP 50707, 44307 Nantes Cedex 3 (France)], E-mail: antignac@vet-nantes.fr; Cariou, Ronan [Laboratoire d' Etude des Residus et Contaminants dans les Aliments (LABERCA), USC INRA 2013, Ecole Nationale Veterinaire de Nantes (ENVN), Route de Gachet, BP 50707, 44307 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Zalko, Daniel [UMR 1089 Xenobiotiques, INRA, 31931 Toulouse (France); Berrebi, Alain [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Hopital Paule de Viguier, Service de gynecologie-obstetrique, Toulouse (France); Cravedi, Jean-Pierre [UMR 1089 Xenobiotiques, INRA, 31931 Toulouse (France); Maume, Daniel; Marchand, Philippe; Monteau, Fabrice [Laboratoire d' Etude des Residus et Contaminants dans les Aliments (LABERCA), USC INRA 2013, Ecole Nationale Veterinaire de Nantes (ENVN), Route de Gachet, BP 50707, 44307 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Riu, Anne [Unite Signalisation Hormonale, Environnement et Cancer, U824 INSERM, 34298 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Andre, Francois; Le Bizec, Bruno [Laboratoire d' Etude des Residus et Contaminants dans les Aliments (LABERCA), USC INRA 2013, Ecole Nationale Veterinaire de Nantes (ENVN), Route de Gachet, BP 50707, 44307 Nantes Cedex 3 (France)

    2009-01-15

    In the frame of a French monitoring program, tri- to deca- polybromodiphenylethers (PBDE) have been measured in maternal and cord serum, adipose tissue, and breast milk samples, collected from 93 volunteer women during caesarean deliveries. The seven major tri- to heptaBDE (BDE-28, 47, 99, 100, 153, 154, and 183) were detected in adipose tissue and breast milk with cumulated median values of 2.59 and 2.51 ng g{sup -1} l w. Nine highly brominated octa- to decaBDE (BDE-196, 197, 201, 202, 203, 206, 207, 208 and 209) was performed in the same samples, with cumulated median values of 2.73 and 3.39 ng g{sup -1} l w in adipose tissue and breast milk, respectively. At this opposite, median levels of octa- to decaBDE in maternal and cord serum appeared significantly higher than the levels of tri- to heptaBDE in the same matrices, i.e. 8.85 and 12.34 versus 0.98 and 0.69 ng g{sup -1} l w, respectively. - This study provides the first data at the French level regarding the occurrence of PBDE in human, and demonstrates the exposure of both human foetus at late stage of pregnancy and newborn at early stages of life through breastfeeding with special emphasis on the presence of highly brominated compounds.

  20. A Sustainable Alternative to a U.S. Breast Milk Monitoring Program: Using NHANES Serum Data to Estimate Breast Milk PBDE Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are high-production-volume chemicals that have been widely used as flame retardants in a variety of consumer products. PBDE concentrations in the environment, wildlife, and humans have been increasing for several decades. Concentrations in t...

  1. Levels and distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in various tissues of birds of prey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voorspoels, Stefan; Covaci, Adrian; Lepom, Peter; Jaspers, Veerle L.B.; Schepens, Paul

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, concentrations and tissue distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs; IUPAC nos. 28, 47, 99, 100, 153, 154, 183, and 209) were examined in brain, adipose tissue, liver, muscle, and serum of birds of prey. Median ΣPBDE levels (BDE 28-183) in the tissues of sparrowhawks ranged from 360 to 1900 ng/g lipid weight (lw), which was in general one order of magnitude higher than in the tissues of common buzzards (26-130 ng/g lw). There were no differences in PBDE congener patterns between the various tissues within individuals of a certain species. Inter-species differences in PBDE patterns and in particular the percentage of BDE 99, 100 and 153 were, however, pronounced between sparrowhawk and common buzzard. BDE 209 was detected in nearly all serum and in some liver samples, but not in any other tissues. This observation suggests that exposure to BDE 209 is low or that this congener is poorly accumulated. Passive (lipid content related) diffusion could not completely describe the PBDE tissue distribution, e.g. the lowest PBDE-load was measured in brain, a fairly lipid rich tissue. - Distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in birds of prey is tissue dependent

  2. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in pinnipeds stranded along the southern California coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Xiangzhou; Blasius, Mary Ellen; Gossett, Richard W.; Maruya, Keith A.

    2009-01-01

    Little to no information exists for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in marine mammals frequenting the highly urbanized southern California (USA) coast. Fourteen PBDE congeners were determined by GC-ECNI-MS in blubber of pinnipeds stranded locally between 1994 and 2006. Total PBDE concentrations (ΣPBDE) in California sea lion (n = 63) ranged from 0.04 to 33.7 μg/g wet weight (mean: 5.24 μg/g). To our knowledge, these are the highest reported PBDE levels in marine mammals to date. By comparison, mean ΣPBDE in Pacific harbor seals (n = 9) and northern elephant seals (n = 16) were 0.96 and 0.09 μg/g, respectively. PBDEs in adult males were higher than for adult females, however, no age class differences or temporal trends were observed. As the first PBDE data reported for marine mammals in this region, the elevated levels underscore the need for additional studies on the sources, temporal trends, and potential effects of PBDEs in highly urbanized coastal zones. - Levels of PBDEs in pinnipeds found stranded along the southern California coast (USA) between 1994 and 2006 are the highest reported to date for marine mammals.

  3. Associations between brominated flame retardants in house dust and hormone levels in men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Paula I.; Stapleton, Heather M.; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Hauser, Russ; Meeker, John D.

    2013-01-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are used in the manufacture of a variety of materials and consumer products in order to meet fire safety standards. BFRs may persist in the environment and have been detected in wildlife, humans and indoor dust and air. Some BFRs have demonstrated endocrine and reproductive effects in animals, but human studies are limited. In this exploratory study, we measured serum hormone levels and flame retardant concentrations [31 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners and 6 alternate flame retardants] in house dust from men recruited through a US infertility clinic. PBDE congeners in dust were grouped by commercial mixtures (i.e. penta-, octa- and deca-BDE). In multivariable linear regression models adjusted by age and body mass index (BMI), significant positive associations were found between house dust concentrations of pentaBDEs and serum levels of free T4, total T3, estradiol, and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), along with an inverse association with follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). There were also positive associations of octaBDE concentrations with serum free T4, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone and an inverse association of decaBDE concentrations with testosterone. Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) was associated with decreased SHBG and increased free androgen index. Dust concentrations of bis-tribromophenoxyethane (BTBPE) and tetrabromo-diethylhexylphthalate (TBPH) were positively associated with total T3. These findings are consistent with our previous report of associations between PBDEs (BDE 47, 99 and 100) in house dust and hormone levels in men, and further suggest that exposure to contaminants in indoor dust may be leading to endocrine disruption in men. - Highlights: ► Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) including PBDEs and alternates were measured. ► Exposure to BFRs is characterized from concentrations in participant vacuum bag dust. ► Exposure to PBDEs and

  4. Associations between brominated flame retardants in house dust and hormone levels in men

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Paula I. [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Stapleton, Heather M. [Nicholas School of the Environment, Box 90328, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Mukherjee, Bhramar [Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Hauser, Russ [Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Ave., Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Meeker, John D., E-mail: meekerj@umich.edu [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are used in the manufacture of a variety of materials and consumer products in order to meet fire safety standards. BFRs may persist in the environment and have been detected in wildlife, humans and indoor dust and air. Some BFRs have demonstrated endocrine and reproductive effects in animals, but human studies are limited. In this exploratory study, we measured serum hormone levels and flame retardant concentrations [31 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners and 6 alternate flame retardants] in house dust from men recruited through a US infertility clinic. PBDE congeners in dust were grouped by commercial mixtures (i.e. penta-, octa- and deca-BDE). In multivariable linear regression models adjusted by age and body mass index (BMI), significant positive associations were found between house dust concentrations of pentaBDEs and serum levels of free T4, total T3, estradiol, and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), along with an inverse association with follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). There were also positive associations of octaBDE concentrations with serum free T4, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone and an inverse association of decaBDE concentrations with testosterone. Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) was associated with decreased SHBG and increased free androgen index. Dust concentrations of bis-tribromophenoxyethane (BTBPE) and tetrabromo-diethylhexylphthalate (TBPH) were positively associated with total T3. These findings are consistent with our previous report of associations between PBDEs (BDE 47, 99 and 100) in house dust and hormone levels in men, and further suggest that exposure to contaminants in indoor dust may be leading to endocrine disruption in men. - Highlights: ► Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) including PBDEs and alternates were measured. ► Exposure to BFRs is characterized from concentrations in participant vacuum bag dust. ► Exposure to PBDEs and

  5. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in South China maternal and fetal blood and breast milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bi Xinhui [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environment and Resources, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Qu Weiyue [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environment and Resources, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Sheng Guoying [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environment and Resources, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); School of Environment and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Zhang Wenbing [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environment and Resources, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Mai Bixian [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environment and Resources, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Chen Dunjin [Obstetrical and Gynecological Institute, Guangzhou Second People' s Hospital, Guangzhou 510150 (China); Yu Lin [Obstetrical and Gynecological Institute, Guangzhou Second People' s Hospital, Guangzhou 510150 (China); Fu Jiamo [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environment and Resources, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China) and School of Environment and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China)]. E-mail: fujm@gig.ac.cn

    2006-12-15

    Twenty-one-paired human fetal and maternal serum and 27 breast milk samples at South China were analyzed for concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Seven PBDE congeners (BDE-28, -47, -99, -100, -153, -154, and -183) were quantified using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). This is the first report to present the residue levels of PBDEs in human samples of China. The concentrations of total PBDEs ranged from 1.5 to 17 ng/g in the samples and were within the range reported in European samples for a similar population, but lower than human tissue levels in North America. BDE-47 and -153 were the dominant PBDE congeners in all samples and accounted for 60% of the total PBDEs. Further research is needed to determine the exposure route of PBDEs and their health effects. - A survey of PBDE concentrations in human blood and milk helps identify background concentrations in South China population.

  6. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in marine mammals from Arctic and North Atlantic regions, 1986-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotander, Anna; van Bavel, Bert; Polder, Anuschka; Rigét, Frank; Auðunsson, Guðjón Atli; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing; Víkingsson, Gísli; Bloch, Dorete; Dam, Maria

    2012-04-01

    A selection of PBDE congeners was analyzed in pooled blubber samples of pilot whale (Globicephala melas), ringed seal (Phoca hispida), minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus), harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) and Atlantic white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus), covering a time period of more than 20 years (1986-2009). The analytes were extracted and cleaned-up using open column extraction and multi-layer silica gel column chromatography, and the analysis was performed on a GC-MS system operating in the NCI mode. The highest PBDE levels were found in the toothed whale species pilot whale and white-sided dolphin, and the lowest levels in fin whales and ringed seals. One-sided analyses of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey comparisons of means were applied to test for differences between years and sampling areas. Due to inter-year sampling variability, only general comparisons of PBDE concentrations between different sampling areas could be made. Differences in PBDE concentrations between three sampling periods, from 1986 to 2007, were evaluated in samples of pilot whales, ringed seals, white-sided dolphins and hooded seals. The highest PBDE levels were found in samples from the late 1990s or beginning of 2000, possibly reflecting the increase in the global production of technical PBDE mixtures in the 1990s. The levels of BDE #153 and #154 increased relative to the total PBDE concentration in some of the species in recent years, which may indicate an increased relative exposure to higher brominated congeners. In order to assess the effect of measures taken in legally binding international agreements, it is important to continuously monitor POPs such as PBDEs in sub-Arctic and Arctic environments. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Determination of potential sources of PCBs and PBDEs in sediments of the Niagara River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samara, Fatin [Department of Chemistry, 611 Natural Science Complex, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260-3000 (United States); Tsai, Christina W. [Department of Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering, 233 Jarvis Hall, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260-4400 (United States); Aga, Diana S. [Department of Chemistry, 611 Natural Science Complex, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260-3000 (United States)]. E-mail: dianaaga@buffalo.edu

    2006-02-15

    Sediments from Niagara River, an important waterway connecting two of the Great Lakes (Lake Erie to Lake Ontario), were analyzed for 14 congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 9 congeners of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) using accelerated solvent extraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Total concentrations of PCBs ranged from 1.7 to 124.6 ng/g were PCBs 138 and 153 were found in all samples. All sites but one showed PBDE in sediments with total concentrations as high as 148 ng/g, suggesting that PBDE is becoming an important class of POP. A land-use and coverage map was used to trace potential localized sources of PCB and PBDE contamination. Results indicate that the highest levels of PCBs and PBDEs were found in sediments collected from areas closest to the discharge locations of municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) and local industries. This is the first study that suggests the importance of WWTP discharges as a potential source of PBDE contamination in the Great Lakes. - Wastewater treatment plant discharges are a main source of PCBs and PBDEs to Niagara River sediments.

  8. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in pinnipeds stranded along the southern California coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng Xiangzhou [Southern California Coastal Water Research Project, 3535 Harbor Blvd, Suite 110, Costa Mesa, CA 92626 (United States); Blasius, Mary Ellen; Gossett, Richard W. [Institute for Integrated Research in Materials, Environments and Society (IIRMES), California State University, Long Beach, 1250 Bellflower Blvd, Long Beach, CA 90840 (United States); Maruya, Keith A., E-mail: keithm@sccwrp.or [Southern California Coastal Water Research Project, 3535 Harbor Blvd, Suite 110, Costa Mesa, CA 92626 (United States)

    2009-10-15

    Little to no information exists for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in marine mammals frequenting the highly urbanized southern California (USA) coast. Fourteen PBDE congeners were determined by GC-ECNI-MS in blubber of pinnipeds stranded locally between 1994 and 2006. Total PBDE concentrations (SIGMAPBDE) in California sea lion (n = 63) ranged from 0.04 to 33.7 mug/g wet weight (mean: 5.24 mug/g). To our knowledge, these are the highest reported PBDE levels in marine mammals to date. By comparison, mean SIGMAPBDE in Pacific harbor seals (n = 9) and northern elephant seals (n = 16) were 0.96 and 0.09 mug/g, respectively. PBDEs in adult males were higher than for adult females, however, no age class differences or temporal trends were observed. As the first PBDE data reported for marine mammals in this region, the elevated levels underscore the need for additional studies on the sources, temporal trends, and potential effects of PBDEs in highly urbanized coastal zones. - Levels of PBDEs in pinnipeds found stranded along the southern California coast (USA) between 1994 and 2006 are the highest reported to date for marine mammals.

  9. Spatio-temporal and species-specific variation in PBDE levels/patterns in British Columbia's coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikonomou, Michael G.; Fernandez, Marc P.; Hickman, Zachary L.

    2006-01-01

    Congener-specific levels of PBDEs were measured in the livers and some muscle tissues of Dungeness crab (Cancer magister), English sole (Pleuronectes vetulus) and spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias). Highest concentrations (1200-560 ng/g lipid) were found in crab collected near heavily urbanized areas (pop. ∼0.3-1.8 million), followed by moderate levels at pulp/paper mills sites (∼150 ng/g), and lowest levels occurred in areas that were somewhat removed from industrial/populated areas (<24 ng/g). Temporal increases in total PBDEs and particularly in BDE-47 for Dungeness crab collected near pulp and paper and urbanized areas between 1994 and 2000 were observed. These correspond to Canadian and worldwide trends seen for PBDEs in biota. English sole and dogfish showed a pattern similar to that of the Columbia River whitefish samples, which corresponded closely to the patterns in the 'penta' commercial mixture. Conversely, Dungeness crab were enriched in lower chlorinated PBDEs, particularly BDE-47 and BDE-49, compared to the fish and shark species from BC. - PBDEs in biota and sediments from the West Coast of Canada reflect temporal, species-specific and geographic distributions

  10. Occurrence of PCDD/F, PCB, PBDE, PFAS, and organotin compounds in fish meal, fish oil and fish feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suominen, K; Hallikainen, A; Ruokojärvi, P; Airaksinen, R; Koponen, J; Rannikko, R; Kiviranta, H

    2011-10-01

    We analysed polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/F, dioxins), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in 13 fish meal, five fish oil, and seven fish feed samples. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE), organotin compounds (OTC), and perfluoroalkylated substances (PFAS) were analysed in ten fish meal, two fish oil, and two fish feed samples. All measured TEQ concentrations of PCDD/F and PCB were below the maximum levels set by Directive 2002/32/EC. There was no correlation between concentrations of WHOPCDD/F-TEQ and indicator PCB in our samples. The most common congeners among PBDEs were BDE-47 and BDE-100. BDE-209 was present in five fish meals of the ten analysed. Tributyltin (TBT) was the predominant congener in all samples except in three fish meals, where monobutyltin (MBT) was the major congener. Perfluorooctane sulphonate (PFOS) was the predominant congener in six fish meals of the ten analysed. There was large variation in concentrations and congener distributions of the studied compounds between our samples. Our results underline a need to pay special attention to the origin and purity of feed raw material of marine origin. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Estimation of Anaerobic Debromination Rate Constants of PBDE Pathways Using an Anaerobic Dehalogenation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakas, Filiz; Imamoglu, Ipek

    2017-04-01

    This study aims to estimate anaerobic debromination rate constants (k m ) of PBDE pathways using previously reported laboratory soil data. k m values of pathways are estimated by modifying a previously developed model as Anaerobic Dehalogenation Model. Debromination activities published in the literature in terms of bromine substitutions as well as specific microorganisms and their combinations are used for identification of pathways. The range of estimated k m values is between 0.0003 and 0.0241 d -1 . The median and maximum of k m values are found to be comparable to the few available biologically confirmed rate constants published in the literature. The estimated k m values can be used as input to numerical fate and transport models for a better and more detailed investigation of the fate of individual PBDEs in contaminated sediments. Various remediation scenarios such as monitored natural attenuation or bioremediation with bioaugmentation can be handled in a more quantitative manner with the help of k m estimated in this study.

  12. Do temporal and geographical patterns of HBCD and PBDE flame retardants in U.S. fish reflect evolving industrial usage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Da; La Guardia, Mark J; Luellen, Drew R; Harvey, Ellen; Mainor, T Matteson; Hale, Robert C

    2011-10-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) are common flame retardants in polymers and textiles. Recognition of the persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic properties of PBDEs has prompted reductions in their use. In contrast, HBCD has received less scrutiny. The U.S has historically been a dominant BFR consumer. However, the few publications on HBCD in wildlife here suggest modest levels compared to Asian and European studies. In contrast, the HBCD concentrations we detected in U.S. fish are among the highest reported in the world. The temporal trends observed suggest that HBCD use may have risen, and that of Penta-BDE declined, following the 2004 termination of its U.S. manufacture. For example, Hyco River carp collected in 1999-2002 exhibited a mean ∑HBCD (sum of α-, β- and γ-HBCD) concentration of only 13 ng/g (lipid weight basis), but was 4640 ng/g in fish collected in 2006-2007. In contrast, the mean ∑PBDE level in these same fish decreased from 40,700 ng/g in 1999-2002 to 9140 ng/g in 2006-2007. Concentrations of HBCD and PBDEs in several Hyco River fish species exceeded those from rivers less influenced by manufacturing outfalls. Results support the contention that textile-related production, relative to its BFR market share, may release disproportionately large amounts of HBCD to the environment.

  13. Analysis of hepatic deiodinase 2 mRNA levels in natural fish lake populations exposed to different levels of putative thyroid disrupters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarque, Sergio; Bosch, Carme; Casado, Marta; Grimalt, Joan O.; Raldúa, Demetrio; Piña, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Hepatic mRNA levels of the dio2 gene (deiodinase 2), implicated in thyroid hormone homeostasis, were analyzed in trout from six remote lakes in the Pyrenees (Spain) and the Tatra Mountains (Slovakia). Highest levels corresponded to fish from the two coldest lakes in Pyrenees, whereas relatively low levels were found in the Tatra lakes. These values correlated with the presence of highly-brominated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) congeners in the muscle of the same animals, reflecting the distribution of these compounds across European mountain ranges. In contrast, cyp1a expression levels, diagnostic for the presence of dioxin-like pollutants, mirrored the distribution of semi-volatile organochlorine compounds, indicating the specificity of the two types of biological responses. Exposure to PDBEs is known to increase transcription of dio2 and other thyroid-related genes in laboratory experiments; we propose that our data reflects the same phenomenon in natural populations, driven by anthropogenic pollutants at the environmental concentrations. - Highlights: • Hepatic deiodinase 2 (dio2) mRNA levels vary among mountain lake trout populations. • High dio2 expression correlated with elevated levels of PBDE 153 and 154 in muscle. • Expression patterns of dio2 and cyp1a diverge among the same fish populations. • Elevated biological responses associated to high loads of specific pollutants. • These data indicate that thyroid disruption may occur in remote ecosystems. - Deionidase dio2 expression as a marker for exposure to putative thyroid disruptors in mountain lake trout

  14. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in atmosphere and soil of a production area in China: levels and partitioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jun; Wang, Ying; Liu, Weizhi; Yang, Congqiao; Hu, Jicheng; Cui, Jian

    2011-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured in atmosphere and soil samples taken in winter and summer at a PBDE production area of Laizhou Bay in China. The concentrations of Sigma11PBDE were 0.017-1.17 ng/m3 in gaseous phase, 0.5-161.1 ng/m3 in particulate phase, and 73-2629 ng/g dry weight in soil samples. The PBDE congener pattern in the gaseous phase differed from that in the particulate phase, and the PBDE congener pattern in the particulate phase was similar with that in soil. This demonstrated that there was little difference with atmospheric particle-soil transfer efficiency among PBDE congeners. In addition, there were seasonal variations in percentages on particle for lower brominated congeners. The BDE-28 was mostly in the gaseous phase in summer (88.3%), whereas the average proportion of BDE-28 in gaseous phase in winter was 38.9%. Higher brominated congeners (i.e., BDE-206, BDE-207, BDE-208, and BDE-209) were bound to the atmospheric particulate phase, and their potentials for long-range migration were mainly affected by the environmental behavior of atmospheric particles. Results indicated that PBDE congeners in summer were closer to gas-particle partition equilibrium than in winter. Temperature should be considered the main factor causing nonequilibrium in winter.

  15. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in atmosphere and soil of a production area in China: Levels and partitioning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Jin; Ying Wang; Weizhi Liu; Congqiao Yang; Jicheng Hu; Jian Cui

    2011-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured in atmosphere and soil samples taken in winter and summer at a PBDE production area of Laizhou Bay in China. The concentrations of ∑11 PBDE were 0.017-1.17 ng/m3 in gaseous phase, 0.5-161.1 ng/m3 in particulate phase, and 73-2629 ng/g dry weight in soil samples. The PBDE congener pattern in the gaseous phase differed from that in the particulate phase, and the PBDE congener pattern in the particulate phase was similar with that in soil. This demonstrated that there was little difference with atmospheric panicle-soil transfer efficiency among PBDE congeners. In addition, there were seasonal variations in percentages on particle for lower brominated congeners. The BDE-28 was mostly in the gaseous phase in summer (88.3%),whereas the average proportion of BDE-28 in gaseous phase in winter was 38.9%. Higher brominated congeners (i.e., BDE-206, BDE207, BDE-208, and BDE-209) were bound to the atmospheric particulate phase, and their potentials for long-range migration were mainly affected by the environmental behavior of atmospheric particles. Results indicated that PBDE congeners in summer were closer to gas-particle partition equilibrium than in winter. Temperature should be considered the main factor causing nonequilibrium in winter.

  16. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers fate in China: a review with an emphasis on environmental contamination levels, human exposure and regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuan; Li, Jinhui; Liu, Lili; Zhao, Nana

    2012-12-30

    Because of their highly effective flame-retardant capability, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been extensively used as flame retardants in consumer goods. However, compelling evidence shows that many congeners of PBDEs have been accumulating in the environment, in biota and in human populations worldwide. In China, although octabrominated diphenyl ether (octaBDE) has never been produced or used, pentabrominated diphenyl ether (pentaBDE) and decabrominated diphenyl ether (decaBDE) have been produced and used in large quantities. In the face of increasing evidence about PBDE pollution and the adoption of international conventions, there is a growing push for China to develop more stringent methods of managing PBDE waste. This paper summarizes the information about PBDE production and application, describes the flame-retarding mechanism, and then reviews the toxicity and levels of PBDEs in China's environmental media and human tissues. Based on international regulations on PBDEs, the paper finally puts forward some suggestions for Chinese policy making and for self-regulation within the flame retardant industry. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the serum and breast milk of the resident population from production area, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jun; Wang, Ying; Yang, Congqiao; Hu, Jicheng; Liu, Weizhi; Cui, Jian; Tang, Xiaoyan

    2009-10-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been produced in the south coast area of Laizhou Bay, Shandong Province in China, but little is known about the PBDE exposure level of residents to these compounds. We set out to assess potential health risks of PBDEs in the south coast area of the Laizhou Bay by determining the concentrations of PBDEs in serum and breast milk. We measured concentrations of eight PBDE congeners in serum and breast milk. The arithmetic means of Sigma(8)PBDE in pooled serum and breast milk were 613 ng/g lipid and 81.5 ng/g lipid, respectively. The highest concentration for Sigma(8)PBDE in all serum pools was 1830 ng/g lipid from the 41-50 year old female group. BDE-209 was the predominant congener, with the mean concentrations of 403 ng/g lipid in serum and 45.6 ng/g lipid in breast milk, respectively. BDE-209 averagely accounted for 65.8% and 54.2% of the total PBDEs, respectively. Our results suggest that high exposures to PBDEs have led to very high PBDE concentrations in serum and breast milk from the residents living in the south coast area of Laizhou Bay. High PBDE concentrations in human serum, particularly in women, pose a potential public health threat to local residents.

  18. Levels and congener profiles of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in Zebra mussels (D. polymorpha) from Lake Maggiore (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binelli, A; Guzzella, L; Roscioli, C

    2008-06-01

    Several congeners of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were monitored in 14 different sampling stations of Lake Maggiore, the second largest Italian lake in regard to surface, volume and average depth, using the sentinel-organism Zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha). Results revealed a moderate contamination with summation operatorPBDE levels (BDE-17, -28, -47, -66, -71, -85, -99, -100, -138, -153, -154, -183, -190 and -209) ranging from 40 to 447ngg(-1) lipid weight which are similar to those found in environments polluted by deposition or atmospheric transport. The general order of decreasing congener contribution to the total load was BDE-47>-99>-100>-209, which closely reflected patterns observed in mussels collected in freshwater ecosystems worldwide.

  19. Effects of industrial processing on essential elements and regulated and emerging contaminant levels in seafood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Rie Romme; Søndergaard, Annette Bøge; Bøknæs, Niels; Cederberg, Tommy Licht; Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Granby, Kit

    2017-06-01

    Mitigation of contaminants in industrial processing was studied for prawns (cooked and peeled), Greenland halibut (cold smoked) and Atlantic salmon (cold smoked and trimmed). Raw prawns had significantly higher cadmium, chromium, iron, selenium and zinc content in autumn than in spring, while summer levels typically were intermediate. Peeling raw prawns increased mercury concentration but reduced the concentration of all other elements including inorganic arsenic, total arsenic, chromium, zinc, selenium but especially cadmium, copper and iron (p processing was observed. Non-toxic organic arsenic in raw Greenland halibut (N = 10) and salmon (N = 4) did not transform to carcinogenic inorganic arsenic during industrial cold smoking. Hence inorganic arsenic was low (Processing salmon did not significantly change any levels (calculated both per wet weight, dry weight or lipid content). Cold smoking decreased total arsenic (17%) and increased PCB congeners (10-22%) in Greenland halibut (wet weight). However PFOS, PCB and PBDE congeners were not different in processed Greenland halibut when corrected for water loss or lipid content. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Concentrations and speciation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in human amniotic fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mark F.; Chernyak, Sergei M.; Domino, Steven E.; Batterman, Stuart A.; Loch-Caruso, Rita

    2012-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are persistent organic chemicals used as flame retardants in textiles, plastics, and consumer products. Although PBDE accumulation in humans has been noted since the 1970s, few studies have investigated PBDEs within the gestational compartment, and none to date has identified levels in amniotic fluid. The present study reports congener-specific brominated diphenyl ether (BDE) concentrations in second-trimester clinical amniotic fluid samples collected in 2009 from fifteen women in southeast Michigan, USA. Twenty-one BDE congeners were measured by GC/MS/NCI. The average total PBDE concentration was 3795 pg/ml amniotic fluid (range: 337 – 21842 pg/ml). BDE-47 and BDE-99 were identified in all samples. Based on median concentrations, the dominant congeners were BDE-208, 209, 203, 206, 207, and 47 representing 23, 16, 12, 10, 9 and 6%, respectively, of the total detected PBDEs. PBDE concentrations were identified in all amniotic fluid samples from southeast Michigan, supporting a need for further investigations of fetal exposure pathways and potential impacts on perinatal health. PMID:22236635

  1. Spatio-temporal and species-specific variation in PBDE levels/patterns in British Columbia's coastal waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikonomou, Michael G. [Marine Environmental Quality, Institute of Ocean Sciences, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 9860 W. Saanich Road, Sidney, British Columbia V8L 4B2 (Canada)]. E-mail: ikonomoum@dfo-mpo.gc.ca; Fernandez, Marc P. [Marine Environmental Quality, Institute of Ocean Sciences, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 9860 W. Saanich Road, Sidney, British Columbia V8L 4B2 (Canada); Hickman, Zachary L. [College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, 630 West 168th Street, New York, NY 10032 (United States)

    2006-03-15

    Congener-specific levels of PBDEs were measured in the livers and some muscle tissues of Dungeness crab (Cancer magister), English sole (Pleuronectes vetulus) and spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias). Highest concentrations (1200-560 ng/g lipid) were found in crab collected near heavily urbanized areas (pop. {approx}0.3-1.8 million), followed by moderate levels at pulp/paper mills sites ({approx}150 ng/g), and lowest levels occurred in areas that were somewhat removed from industrial/populated areas (<24 ng/g). Temporal increases in total PBDEs and particularly in BDE-47 for Dungeness crab collected near pulp and paper and urbanized areas between 1994 and 2000 were observed. These correspond to Canadian and worldwide trends seen for PBDEs in biota. English sole and dogfish showed a pattern similar to that of the Columbia River whitefish samples, which corresponded closely to the patterns in the 'penta' commercial mixture. Conversely, Dungeness crab were enriched in lower chlorinated PBDEs, particularly BDE-47 and BDE-49, compared to the fish and shark species from BC. - PBDEs in biota and sediments from the West Coast of Canada reflect temporal, species-specific and geographic distributions.

  2. Total and antigen-specific Ige levels in umbilical cord blood

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    Sybilski AJ

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study was conducted to learn whether the perinatal and environmental factors could influence the total and antigen-specific IgE levels in umbilical cord blood. Retrospective data were obtained from 173 mother-infant pairs. Total and specific (for children's food, wheat/grass and house dust mite-HDM cord blood IgE levels were determined using the immunoassay test. The total cord blood IgE was between 0.0-23.08 IU/ml (mean 0.55 ± 2.07 IU/ml; median 0.16 IU/ml. Total IgE levels were significantly higher in boys compared with girls (OR = 2.2; P = 0.007, and in newborns with complicated pregnancy (OR = 2.7; P = 0.003. A greater number of siblings correlated with increases in the total cord blood IgE (P

  3. Reduced total serum bilirubin levels are associated with ulcerative colitis.

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    Kathleen M Schieffer

    Full Text Available Chronic inflammation associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD results in increased oxidative stress that damages the colonic microenvironment. Low levels of serum bilirubin, an endogenous antioxidant, have been associated with increased risk for Crohn's disease (CD. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine whether total serum bilirubin levels are associated with ulcerative colitis (UC. We identified a retrospective case-control population (n = 6,649 from a single tertiary care center, Penn State Hershey Medical Center (PSU and a validation cohort (n = 1,996 from Virginia Commonwealth University Medical Center (VCU. Cases were age- and sex-matched to controls (PSU: CD n = 254, UC n = 187; VCU: CD n = 233, UC n = 124. Total serum bilirubin levels were obtained from de-identified medical records and segregated into quartiles. Logistic regression analysis was performed on each quartile of total serum bilirubin compared to the last quartile (highest bilirubin levels to determine the association of total serum bilirubin with UC. Similar to CD patients, UC patients demonstrated reduced levels of total serum bilirubin compared to controls at PSU and VCU. The lowest quartile of total serum bilirubin was independently associated with UC for the PSU (OR: 1.98 [95% CI: 1.09-3.63] and VCU cohorts (OR: 6.07 [95% CI: 3.01-12.75]. Lower levels of the antioxidant bilirubin may reduce the capability of UC patients to remove reactive oxygen species leading to an increase in intestinal injury. Therapeutics that reduce oxidative stress may be beneficial for these patients.

  4. Comparison of serum leptin, glucose, total cholesterol and total protein levels in fertile and repeat breeder cows

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    Saime Guzel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we measured serum glucose, leptin, total cholesterol and total protein concentrations in repeat breeder cows and compared them with fertile cows. For this aim, 20 repeat breeder cows and 20 fertile cows were used as material. Repeat breeder cows were found to have lower levels of leptin and glucose as compared with fertile ones. No significant differences in total cholesterol and total protein levels were observed between the two groups. No significant correlation of leptin with glucose, total cholesterol and total protein was observed in fertile and repeat breeder cows. Low concentrations of glucose and leptin can have some effects on reproductive problems as repeat breeder and help to understand potential mechanisms impairing fertility in repeat breeder cows.

  5. Determination of PBDEs in human milk. Analysis and quality control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paepke, O.; Herrmann, T. [Ergo Research, Hamburg (Germany); Vieth, B.; Ostermann, B. [Federal Institute for Risk Assessment, Berlin (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    Polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) are widely used as flame retardants in polymer materials, textiles, electronic boards and various other materials. Technical PBDE preparations are produced as mixtures of mainly penta-, octa- or decabromobiphenyl ethers. PBDEs are structurally similar to other environmental pollutants, such as dioxins and PCBs. They are lipophilic and persistent compounds and widespread in the environment. For certain congeners, bioaccumulation has been observed. Recent findings of increasing levels in humans showed that more detailed investigations of human milk (or other suitable matrices) will be required in order to evaluate the general human exposure to this group of environmental contaminants. Only a few data on PBDE levels in breast milk from Germany had been published. To fill the data gaps, in 2001 a controlled study was started to characterize the PBDE levels in human milk from Germany with special efforts to identify and quantify deca-BDE-209. 103 samples were analyzed in this study so far including 10 hidden pool samples provided by Federal Institute for Risk Assessment to ERGO laboratory (total number of samples finally will be 157 (including 14 hidden pool samples)). This paper describes the analytical procedure applied and emphasizes on the quality control procedure.

  6. Occurrence and levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in house dust and hair samples from Northern Poland; an assessment of human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Król, Sylwia; Namieśnik, Jacek; Zabiegała, Bożena

    2014-09-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are among most ubiquitous compounds to be found in indoor environment and ingestion of household dust is considered an important route of exposure to PBDEs, especially in toddlers and young children. The present work reported concentration levels of PBDE congeners (PBDE-28, -47, -99, -100, -153, -154, -183 and -209) in hair and dust samples from selected households from Northern Poland. The concentrations of PBDEs in dust ranged from human hair. PBDE-209 was reported the dominating congener. Two separated exposure scenarios (mean and 95th percentile) were used to provide a comprehensive overview of possible risks arising from ingestion of household dust. The estimated exposure to ∑PBDEs via ingestion of household dust varied from 21 to 92ngd(-1) in toddlers and from 3.7 to 20ngd(-1) in adults. By comparison of correlation between the concentrations of PBDEs in paired hair and dust samples the present work also investigated the possibility of use of hair for reflecting the actual exposure to PBDEs in humans. Finally the possible uncertainties associated with exposure assessment were investigated in the present study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Altered cardiovascular reactivity and osmoregulation during hyperosmotic stress in adult rats developmentally exposed to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Ashini; Coburn, Cary G.; Watson-Siriboe, Abena; Whitley, Rebecca; Shahidzadeh, Anoush; Gillard, Elizabeth R.; Nichol, Robert; Leon-Olea, Martha; Gaertner, Mark; Kodavanti, Prasada Rao S.; Curras-Collazo, Margarita C.

    2011-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and the structurally similar chemicals polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) disrupt the function of multiple endocrine systems. PCBs and PBDEs disrupt the secretion of vasopressin (VP) from the hypothalamus during osmotic activation. Since the peripheral and central vasopressinergic axes are critical for osmotic and cardiovascular regulation, we examined whether perinatal PBDE exposure could impact these functions during physiological activation. Rats were perinatally dosed with a commercial PBDE mixture, DE-71. Dams were given 0 (corn oil control), 1.7 (low dose) or 30.6 mg/kg/day (high dose) in corn oil from gestational day (GD) 6 through postnatal day (PND) 21 by oral gavage. In the male offspring exposed to high dose PBDE plasma thyroxine and triiodothyronine levels were reduced at PND 21 and recovered to control levels by PND 60 when thyroid stimulating hormone levels were elevated. At 14-18 months of age, cardiovascular responses were measured in four groups of rats: Normal (Oil, normosmotic condition), Hyper (Oil, hyperosmotic stress), Hyper PBDE low (1.7 mg/kg/day DE-71 perinatally, hyperosmotic stress), and Hyper PBDE high (30.6 mg/kg/day DE-71 perinatally, hyperosmotic stress). Systolic blood pressure (BP), diastolic BP, and heart rate (HR) were determined using tail cuff sphygmomanometry and normalized to pretreatment values (baseline) measured under basal conditions. Hyperosmotic treatment yielded significant changes in systolic BP in PBDE exposed rats only. Hyper PBDE low and high dose rats showed 36.1 and 64.7% greater systolic BP responses at 3 h post hyperosmotic injection relative to pretreatment baseline, respectively. No treatment effects were measured for diastolic BP and HR. Hyper and Hyper PBDE rats showed increased mean plasma osmolality values by 45 min after injection relative to normosmotic controls. In contrast to Hyper rats, Hyper PBDE (high) rats showed a further increase in mean plasma osmolality at 3

  8. Total levels of hippocampal histone acetylation predict normal variability in mouse behavior.

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    Addie May I Nesbitt

    Full Text Available Genetic, pharmacological, and environmental interventions that alter total levels of histone acetylation in specific brain regions can modulate behaviors and treatment responses. Efforts have been made to identify specific genes that are affected by alterations in total histone acetylation and to propose that such gene specific modulation could explain the effects of total histone acetylation levels on behavior - the implication being that under naturalistic conditions variability in histone acetylation occurs primarily around the promoters of specific genes.Here we challenge this hypothesis by demonstrating with a novel flow cytometry based technique that normal variability in open field exploration, a hippocampus-related behavior, was associated with total levels of histone acetylation in the hippocampus but not in other brain regions.Results suggest that modulation of total levels of histone acetylation may play a role in regulating biological processes. We speculate in the discussion that endogenous regulation of total levels of histone acetylation may be a mechanism through which organisms regulate cellular plasticity. Flow cytometry provides a useful approach to measure total levels of histone acetylation at the single cell level. Relating such information to behavioral measures and treatment responses could inform drug delivery strategies to target histone deacetylase inhibitors and other chromatin modulators to places where they may be of benefit while avoiding areas where correction is not needed and could be harmful.

  9. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in fish and sediment from river polluted by electronic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo Qian [Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China); Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China); Cai Zongwei [Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: zwcai@hkbu.edu.hk; Wong Minghung [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: mhwong@hkbu.edu.hk

    2007-09-20

    The present study investigated contamination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in sediment and fish samples collected from rivers in Guiyu, China where electronic waste (e-waste) is recycled and disposed. PBDE congeners with mono-to hepta-brominated and deca-brominated substitutions were detected using {sup 13}C{sub 12} isotope dilution GC/MS/MS and GC/MS methods, respectively. The total PBDE concentrations ranged from 4434 to 16088 ng/g (dry weight) in Nanyang River bank sediment, from 55 to 445 ng/g in Nanyang River bottom sediment and 51.3 to 365 ng/g in Lianjiang River bottom sediment in Guiyu compared with those from 16.1 to 21.4 ng/g in wastewater discharged from a vehicle repairing workshop in Lo Uk Tsuen in Hong Kong. No PBDE congeners were detected in bottom sediment and fish from Mai Po Marshes in Hong Kong. The mean concentrations of total PBDEs in mixed muscles of tilapia (Oreochromis spp) from Lianjiang River were 115 ng/g wet weight (ww) and from wastewater in Hong Kong were 4.1 ng/g ww. Highest mean PBDE concentration was obtained in liver (2687 ng/g ww), followed by abdomen muscle (1088 ng/g ww) of bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) collected from Nanyang River. A significant correlation of concentration of each PBDE congener between sediment and muscle from Guiyu was observed. The present results of total PBDEs in sediment and fish were 10 and 1000 times higher than other studies. Open burning and dumping of e-waste are the major causes of PBDE contamination.

  10. Placental IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 expression correlate with umbilical cord blood PAH and PBDE levels from prenatal exposure to electronic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Xijin; Yekeen, Taofeek Akangbe; Xiao, Qiongna; Wang, Yuangping; Lu, Fangfang; Huo, Xia

    2013-01-01

    Electronic waste recycling produces Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) which may affect fetal growth and development by altering the insulin-like-growth factor (IGF) system. Questionnaires were administered to pregnant women (Guiyu, an e-waste site, n = 101; control, n = 53), and umbilical cord blood (UCB) and placentas were collected upon delivery. PBDEs and PAHs in UCB and placental IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 mRNA levels were analyzed using GC–MS and real-time PCR, respectively. Infant birth length and Apgar scores were lower in Guiyu. All PAHs (except Fl, Chr, IP, BbF and BP), total 16-PAHs, total/individual PBDEs, placental IGF-1 (median 0.23 vs 0.19; P < 0.05) and IGFBP-3 (median 1.91 vs 0.68; P < 0.001) levels were significantly higher in Guiyu. Spearman correlation showed that BDE-154, BDE-209 and ∑5ring-PAHs positively correlate with IGF-1 while PBDEs, 4 rings and total PAHs correlate with IGFBP-3 expression. Increased placental IGF-1 level might indirectly affect fetal growth and development. -- Highlights: •PAHs and PBDEs from e-waste may affect fetal growth via alteration of IGF system. •Infant birth length and Apgar scores were lower in Guiyu compared to Chaoan. •Most PAHs, all PBDEs, IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels were significantly higher in Guiyu. •IGF-1 positively correlates with BDE-154, BDE-209 and ∑5ring-PAHs. •The observed increase in IGF-1 might indirectly affect fetal growth and development. -- The correlation between POPs and placental IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 assessed provides more information on the human health risk associated with electronic waste

  11. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and heavy metals in road dusts from a plastic waste recycling area in north China: implications for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhenwu; Huang, Qifei; Yang, Yufei; Nie, Zhiqiang; Cheng, Jiali; Yang, Jun; Wang, Yuwen; Chai, Miao

    2016-01-01

    Road dusts were collected from an area where intense mechanical recycling of plastic wastes occurs in Wen'an, north China. These dusts were investigated for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and heavy metals contamination to assess the health risk related to these components. Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) and Σ21PBDE concentrations in these dusts ranged from 2.67 to 10,424 ng g(-1) and from 3.23 to 10,640 ng g(-1), respectively. These PBDE concentrations were comparable to those observed in road dust from e-waste recycling areas but were 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than concentrations in outdoor or road dusts from other areas. This indicates that road dusts in the study area have high levels of PBDE pollution. BDE-209 was the predominant congener, accounting for 86.3% of the total PBDE content in dusts. Thus, commercial deca-BDE products were the dominant source. The average concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, Sb, and Zn in these same dust samples were 10.1, 0.495, 112, 54.7, 0.150, 71.8, 10.6, and 186 mg kg(-1), respectively. The geoaccumulation index suggests that road dusts in this area are moderately to heavily polluted with Cd, Hg, and Sb. This study shows that plastic waste processing is a major source of toxic pollutants in road dusts in this area. Although the health risk from exposure to dust PBDEs was low, levels of some heavy metals in this dust exceeded acceptable risk levels for children and are of great concern.

  12. Distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in Japanese autopsy tissue and body fluid samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Tetsuya; Fujimine, Yoshinori; Watanabe, Shaw; Nakano, Takeshi

    2012-09-01

    Brominated flame retardants are components of many plastics and are used in products such as cars, textiles, televisions, and personal computers. Human exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants has increased exponentially during the last three decades. Our objective was to measure the body burden and distribution of PBDEs and to determine the concentrations of the predominant PBDE congeners in samples of liver, bile, adipose tissue, and blood obtained from Japanese autopsy cases. Tissues and body fluids obtained from 20 autopsy cases were analyzed. The levels of 25 PBDE congeners, ranging from tri- to hexa-BDEs, were assessed. The geometric means of the sum of the concentrations of PBDE congeners having detection frequencies >50 % (ΣPBDE) in the blood, liver, bile, and adipose tissue were 2.4, 2.6, 1.4, and 4.3 ng/g lipid, respectively. The most abundant congeners were BDE-47 and BDE-153, followed by BDE-100, BDE-99, and BDE-28+33. These concentrations of PBDE congeners were similar to other reports of human exposure in Japan but were notably lower than concentrations than those reported in the USA. Significant positive correlations were observed between the concentrations of predominant congeners and ΣPBDE among the samples analyzed. The ΣPBDE concentration was highest in the adipose tissue, but PBDEs were distributed widely among the tissues and body fluids analyzed. The PBDE levels observed in the present study are similar to those reported in previous studies in Japan and significantly lower than those reported in the USA.

  13. Serum total bilirubin levels and coronary heart disease--Causal association or epiphenomenon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunutsor, Setor K

    2015-12-01

    Observational epidemiological evidence supports a linear inverse and independent association between serum total bilirubin levels and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk, but whether this association is causal remains to be ascertained. A Mendelian randomization approach was employed to test whether serum total bilirubin is causally linked to CHD. The genetic variant rs6742078--well known to specifically modify levels of serum total bilirubin and accounting for up to 20% of the variance in circulating serum total bilirubin levels--was used as an instrumental variable. In pooled analysis of estimates reported from published genome-wide association studies, every copy of the T allele of rs6742078 was associated with 0.42 standard deviation (SD) higher levels of serum total bilirubin (95% confidence interval, 0.40 to 0.43). Based on combined data from the Coronary Artery Disease Genome wide Replication and Meta-analyses and the Coronary Artery Disease (C4D) Genetics Consortium involving a total of 36,763 CHD cases and 76,997 controls, the odds ratio for CHD per copy of the T allele was 1.01 (95% confidence interval, 0.99 to 1.04). The odds ratio of CHD for a 1 SD genetically elevated serum total bilirubin level was 1.03 (95% confidence interval, 0.98 to 1.09). The current findings casts doubt on a strong causal association of serum total bilirubin levels with CHD. The inverse associations demonstrated in observational studies may be driven by biases such as unmeasured confounding and/or reverse causation. However, further research in large-scale consortia is needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in water, sediment, soil, and biological samples from different industrial areas in Zhejiang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Junxia; Lin, Zhenkun; Lin, Kuangfei; Wang, Chunyan; Zhang, Wei; Cui, Changyuan; Lin, Junda; Dong, Qiaoxiang; Huang, Changjiang

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► We examined PBDE concentrations in various matrices from different industrial areas. ► Elevated PBDE levels were found in areas with low-voltage electrical manufactures. ► Areas with e-waste recycling activities also had higher PBDE concentrations. ► PBDE content and composition in water samples varied from one area to another. ► PBDE composition in sediment/soil and biological samples was predominated by BDE-209. - Abstract: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been used extensively in electrical and electronic products, but little is known about their distribution in the environment surrounding the manufacturing factories. This study reports PBDE contamination in various matrices from the location (Liushi, Zhejiang province) that produces more than 70% of the low-voltage electrical appliances in China. Additionally, PBDE contamination was compared with other industries such as the e-waste recycling business (Fengjiang) in the same region. Specifically, we measured seven PBDE congeners (BDEs – 47, 99, 100, 153, 154, 183, and 209) in water, sediment, soil, plant, and animal tissues from four different areas in this region. The present study revealed elevated PBDE concentrations in all matrices collected from Liushi and Fengjiang in comparison with highly industrialized areas without significant PBDE contamination sources. In water samples, there were large variations of PBDE content and composition across different areas. In sediment/soil and biological samples, BDE-209 was the predominant congener and this could be due to the abundant usage of deca-BDE mixtures in China. Our findings provide the very first data on PBDE contamination in the local environments surrounding the electronics industry, and also reveal widespread PBDE contamination in highly industrialized coastal regions of China.

  15. Total oxidant status, total antioxidant capacity and ischemia modified albumin levels in children with celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayar, Ersin; Özdem, Sebahat; Uzun, Gülbahar; İşlek, Ali; Yılmaz, Aygen; Artan, Reha

    2015-01-01

    In our study, we aimed to investigate ischemia modified albumin (IMA) as an oxidative stress marker, as well as other oxidant and antioxidant markers that have not been evaluated in children with celiac disease. A total of 37 pediatric patients who were diagnosed with celiac disease (CD) and 29 healthy children were enrolled in this prospective study. We evaluated the IMA, total oxidant status, total antioxidant capacity, sulfhydryl, and advanced oxidation protein products in all of the subjects. We also compared the levels at the time of the diagnosis, and following a gluten-free diet (GFD) in the children with CD. While the IMA and the other oxidant marker levels were significantly higher in the patient group compared to the control group, the antioxidant marker levels were found to be significantly lower in the patient group, compared to the control group. We also determined that the tissue transglutaminase IgA showed a highly positive correlation, and that the IMA showed a moderately positive correlation with the Marsh-Oberhuber histopathological stage. Additionally, the IMA and other oxidant marker levels were significantly lower, while the antioxidant marker levels were significantly higher after the GFD, compared to the pre-diet period. We detected that oxidative stress played a role in the pathogenesis of CD, and that this could be evaluated using oxidative stress markers, which would regress after the GFD. We also detected that IMA is a marker that shows a correlation with the histopathological stage, and may be used in the diagnosis.

  16. Flame retardant exposure: polybrominated diphenyl ethers in blood from Swedish workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjödin, A; Hagmar, L; Klasson-Wehler, E; Kronholm-Diab, K; Jakobsson, E; Bergman, A

    1999-08-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used as additives in polymers and textiles to prohibit the development of fires. Because of the production and use of PBDEs, their lipophilic characteristics, and persistence, these compounds have become ubiquitous environmental contaminants. The aim of the present study was to determine potential exposures of PBDEs to clerks working full-time at computer screens and personnel at an electronics-dismantling plant, with hospital cleaners as a control group. Five PBDE congeners--2,2',4,4'-tetraBDE; 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexaBDE; 2,2',4,4',5, 6'-hexaBDE; 2,2',3,4,4',5',6-heptaBDE; and decaBDE--were quantified in blood serum from all three categories of workers. Subjects working at the dismantling plant showed significantly higher levels of all PBDE congeners in their serum as compared to the control group. Decabromodiphenyl ether is present in concentrations of 5 pmol/g lipid weight (lw) in the personnel dismantling electronics; these concentrations are comparable to the concentrations of 2,2',4, 4'-tetraBDE. The latter compound was the dominating PBDE congener in the clerks and cleaners. The major compound in personnel at the dismantling plant was 2,2',3,4,4',5',6-heptaBDE. Concentrations of this PBDE congener are almost twice as high as for 2,2',4, 4'-tetraBDE in these workers and seventy times the level of this heptaBDE in cleaners. The total median PBDE concentrations in the serum from workers at the electronics-dismantling plant, clerks, and cleaners were 37, 7.3, and 5.4 pmol/g lw, respectively. The results show that decabromodiphenyl ether is bioavailable and that occupational exposure to PBDEs occurs at the electronics-dismantling plant.

  17. Changes in physiological responses of an Antarctic fish, the emerald rock cod (Trematomus bernacchii), following exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Ruma; Lokman, P Mark; Lamare, Miles D; Metcalf, Victoria J; Burritt, David J; Davison, William; Hageman, Kimberly J

    2013-03-15

    Although polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have the ability to undergo long-range atmospheric transport to remote ecosystems like Antarctica, a recent study found evidence for a local source within the Antarctic. PBDEs from sewage treatment outfalls of McMurdo Station and Scott Base on Ross Island have been attributed to the high concentrations measured in emerald rock cod (Trematomus bernacchii). The potential impact of PBDEs on Antarctic fish physiology is unknown and therefore, the aim of this study was to obtain a greater understanding of physiological responses of emerald rock cod for assessing changes in ecosystem quality. A PBDE mixture (ΣPBDE 8 congeners) was administered fortnightly over 42 days and physiological changes were observed throughout this period and for a further 14 days thereafter. Changes in liver composition, molecular level changes and enzyme activities of selected detoxification-mediated and antioxidant defence markers were measured. Changes in total lipid, lipid peroxide and protein carbonyl concentrations in emerald rock cod liver were consistent with increases in nucleus surface area in the PBDE-treated groups, suggesting alterations in cellular function. Changes in the activities of selected antioxidant enzymes indirectly indicated oxidative stress, possibly resulting in the changes in liver composition. Additionally, glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity reached its peak faster than that of ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), suggesting that during the early response to PBDE exposures there could be a greater involvement of GST-mediated detoxification. Thus, for at least the species examined here, protein carbonyl and lipid peroxides were useful and informative biomarkers for cellular level responses following PBDE-related exposure. Furthermore, our findings suggest that emerald rock cod exposed to PBDEs develop oxidative stress - a condition with potential consequences for fish growth, health and reproduction. Copyright

  18. Levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in dust from personal automobiles in conjunction with studies on the photochemical degradation of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagalante, Anthony F; Shedden, Courtney S; Greenbacker, Peter W

    2011-07-01

    The levels of 21 PBDE congeners were detemined in the dust sampled from 66 personal automobiles. The dominant congener in automobile dust was BDE-209 with a median level of 8.12 μg g⁻¹. Personal vehicle dust samples contained the characteristic profile of the PBDE congeners that comprise the PentaBDE and DecaBDE commercial formulations. Levels of PBDEs in personal automobiles are generally reduced in comparison to our previously reported levels in resale vehicles on dealership lots presumably due to a dilution effect introduced by dust or debris that does not originate from the vehicle. Laboratory photochemical studies were conducted on both automobile dust collected from personal vehicles as well as BDE-209 adsorbed to sodium sulfate. No significant degradation occurred in the personal vehicle dust after 56 days of constant UVA irradiation while significant degradation did occur with BDE-209 adsorbed to sodium sulfate. PBDEs from the degradation of BDE-209 were identified and potential degradation pathways elucidated. Human exposure potential to PBDEs from automobile dust ingestion remains a serious concern in the U.S. population. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in water, sediment, soil, and biological samples from different industrial areas in Zhejiang, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Junxia; Lin, Zhenkun [Zhejiang Provincial Key Lab for Technology and Application of Model Organisms, Institute of Watershed Science and Environmental Ecology, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou 325035 (China); Lin, Kuangfei [School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology/State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Environmental Risk Assessment and Control on Chemical Process, Shanghai 200237 (China); Wang, Chunyan [Zhejiang Provincial Key Lab for Technology and Application of Model Organisms, Institute of Watershed Science and Environmental Ecology, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou 325035 (China); Zhang, Wei [School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology/State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Environmental Risk Assessment and Control on Chemical Process, Shanghai 200237 (China); Cui, Changyuan [Zhejiang Provincial Key Lab for Technology and Application of Model Organisms, Institute of Watershed Science and Environmental Ecology, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou 325035 (China); Lin, Junda [Department of Biological Sciences, Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne, FL 32901 (United States); Dong, Qiaoxiang, E-mail: dqxdong@163.com [Zhejiang Provincial Key Lab for Technology and Application of Model Organisms, Institute of Watershed Science and Environmental Ecology, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou 325035 (China); Huang, Changjiang, E-mail: cjhuang5711@163.com [Zhejiang Provincial Key Lab for Technology and Application of Model Organisms, Institute of Watershed Science and Environmental Ecology, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou 325035 (China)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examined PBDE concentrations in various matrices from different industrial areas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Elevated PBDE levels were found in areas with low-voltage electrical manufactures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Areas with e-waste recycling activities also had higher PBDE concentrations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PBDE content and composition in water samples varied from one area to another. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PBDE composition in sediment/soil and biological samples was predominated by BDE-209. - Abstract: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been used extensively in electrical and electronic products, but little is known about their distribution in the environment surrounding the manufacturing factories. This study reports PBDE contamination in various matrices from the location (Liushi, Zhejiang province) that produces more than 70% of the low-voltage electrical appliances in China. Additionally, PBDE contamination was compared with other industries such as the e-waste recycling business (Fengjiang) in the same region. Specifically, we measured seven PBDE congeners (BDEs - 47, 99, 100, 153, 154, 183, and 209) in water, sediment, soil, plant, and animal tissues from four different areas in this region. The present study revealed elevated PBDE concentrations in all matrices collected from Liushi and Fengjiang in comparison with highly industrialized areas without significant PBDE contamination sources. In water samples, there were large variations of PBDE content and composition across different areas. In sediment/soil and biological samples, BDE-209 was the predominant congener and this could be due to the abundant usage of deca-BDE mixtures in China. Our findings provide the very first data on PBDE contamination in the local environments surrounding the electronics industry, and also reveal widespread PBDE contamination in highly industrialized coastal regions of China.

  20. Total mercury levels in commercial fish species from Italian fishery and aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lena, Gabriella; Casini, Irene; Caproni, Roberto; Fusari, Andrea; Orban, Elena

    2017-06-01

    Total mercury levels were measured in 42 commercial fish species caught off the Central Adriatic and Tyrrhenian coasts of Italy and in 6 aquaculture species. The study on wild fish covered species differing in living habitat and trophic level. The study on farmed fish covered marine and freshwater species from intensive and extensive aquaculture and their feed. Mercury levels were analysed by thermal decomposition-amalgamation-atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Total mercury concentrations in the muscle of wild fish showed a high variability among species (0.025-2.20 mg kg -1 wet weight). The lowest levels were detected in low trophic-level demersal and pelagic-neritic fish and in young individuals of high trophic-level species. Levels exceeding the European Commission limits were found in large-size specimens of high trophic-level pelagic and demersal species. Fish from intensive farming showed low levels of total mercury (0.008-0.251 mg kg -1 ). Fish from extensive rearing showed variable contamination levels, depending on the area of provenience. An estimation of the human intake of mercury associated to the consumption of the studied fish and its comparison with the tolerable weekly intake is provided.

  1. Serum levels of total IgE and soluble CD23 in bronchial asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Di Lorenzo

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare, during the pollen season, serum levels of total IgE and soluble CD23 (sCD23 from patients with allergic bronchial asthma, with those from healthy subjects. Significantly higher levels of total IgE and sCD23 were found in patients with asthma compared to the control group. Both in normal controls and in asthmatic patients, a significant correlation was shown between the levels of these two molecules. In asthmatic patients, significant correlations were found for both total IgE and sCD23, with lung function measured as bronchial responsiveness to inhaled methacholine. These results suggest that in asthmatic patients, in addition to the study of total serum IgE levels, the assessment of sCD23 serum levels may be helpful in the evaluation of disease activity.

  2. Persistent organic pollutants in ringed seals from the Russian Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savinov, Vladimir; Muir, Derek C G; Svetochev, Vladislav; Svetocheva, Olga; Belikov, Stanislav; Boltunov, Andrey; Alekseeva, Ludmila; Reiersen, Lars-Otto; Savinova, Tatiana

    2011-06-15

    Organochlorine compounds total DDT (ΣDDT), total HCH isomers (ΣHCH), toxaphenes (sum of Parlar 26, 50, 62), mirex, endrin, methoxychlor, total chlorinated benzenes (ΣCBz), total chlordane compounds (ΣCHL), polychlorinated biphenyls (total of 56 congeners; ΣPCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (sum of 7 tri- to hepta congeners; ΣPBDEs) were analysed in the blubber of adult ringed seals from the four areas of the Russian Arctic (White Sea, Barents Sea, Kara Sea and Chukchi Sea) collected in 2001-2005. Ringed seals from the south-western part of the Kara Sea (Dikson Island - Yenisei estuary) were the most contaminated with ΣDDTs, ΣPCBs, ΣCHL, and mirex as compared with those found in the other three areas of Russian Arctic, while the highest mean concentrations of ΣHCHs and PCDD/Fs were found in the blubber of ringed seals from the Chukchi Sea and the White Sea, respectively. Among all organochlorine compounds measured in ringed seals from the European part of the Russian Arctic, concentrations of ΣDDT and ΣPCBs only were higher as compared with the other Arctic regions. Levels of all other organochlorine compounds were similar or lower than in seals from Svalbard, Alaska, the Canadian Arctic and Greenland. ΣPBDEs were found in all ringed seal samples analysed. There were no significant differences between ΣPBDE concentrations found in the blubber of ringed seals from the three studied areas of the European part of the Russian Arctic, while PBDE contamination level in ringed seals from the Chukchi Sea was 30-50 times lower. ΣPBDE levels in the blubber of seals from the European part of the Russian Arctic are slightly higher than in ringed seals from the Canadian Arctic, Alaska, and western Greenland but lower compared to ringed seals from Svalbard and eastern Greenland. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Decreased total antioxidant levels and increased oxidative stress in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    21–25 ... Decreased total antioxidant levels and increased oxidative stress in South ... antioxidant-rich diet and lifestyle changes in T2DM patients would help to avert the .... glycation of proteins and the formation of advanced glycosylation.

  4. PBDE and HBCDD levels in blood from Dutch mothers and infants. Analysis of a Dutch Groningen infant cohort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, J.; Linderholm, L.; Athanassiadis, I.; Bergman, Aa. [Dept. of Environmental Chemistry, Stockholm Univ. (Sweden); Meijer, L.; Sauer, P. [Dept. of Paediatrics, State Univ. Groningen (Netherlands)

    2004-09-15

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are chemicals with a large industrial production and ubiquitous global use. The three major classes of BFRs produced worldwide are; tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), three commercial mixtures of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), Deca-, Octa- and PentaBDE and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD). Several BFRs are, due to their lipophilicity and bioaccumulation properties, both expected and in reality found in wildlife and humans. The aim of this study was to establish a clean up method for HBCDD analysis in human serum, as well as to investigate levels of PBDEs and HBCDD in serum from mothers and infants from a Dutch cohort. A total of 90 human serum samples were analyzed. To the best of our knowledge, HBCDD has not been reported previously in humans, and PBDEs have not been reported in human serum from The Netherlands.

  5. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers, perfluorinated alkylated substances, and metals in tile drainage and groundwater following applications of municipal biosolids to agricultural fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschall, N; Topp, E; Edwards, M; Russell, P; Payne, M; Kleywegt, S; Curnoe, W; Lapen, D R

    2010-01-15

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), perfluorinated alkylated substances (PFAS), and metals were monitored in tile drainage and groundwater following liquid (LMB) and dewatered municipal biosolid (DMB) applications to silty-clay loam agricultural field plots. LMB was applied (93,500 L ha(-1)) in late fall 2005 via surface spreading on un-tilled soil (SS(LMB)), and a one-pass aerator-based pre-tillage prior to surface spreading (AerWay SSD) (A). The DMB was applied (8 Mg d wha(-1)) in early summer 2006 on the same plots by injecting DMB beneath the soil surface (DI), and surface spreading on un-tilled soil (SS(DMB)). Key PBDE congeners (BDE-47, -99, -100, -153, -154, -183, -209) comprising 97% of total PBDE in LMB, had maximum tile effluent concentrations ranging from 6 to 320 ng L(-1) during application-induced tile flow. SS(LMB) application-induced tile mass loads for these PBDE congeners were significantly higher than those for control (C) plots (no LMB) (p0.05). PBDE mass loss via tile (0-2h post-application) as a percent of mass applied was approximately 0.04-0.1% and approximately 0.8-1.7% for A and SS(LMB), respectively. Total PBDE loading to soil via LMB and DMB application was 0.0018 and 0.02 kg total PBDE ha(-1)yr(-1), respectively. Total PBDE concentration in soil (0-0.2m) after both applications was 115 ng g(-1)dw, (sampled 599 days and 340 days post LMB and DMB applications respectively). Of all the PFAS compounds, only PFOS (max concentration=17 ng L(-1)) and PFOA (12 ng L(-1)) were found above detectable limits in tile drainage from the application plots. Mass loads of metals in tile for the LMB application-induced tile hydrograph event, and post-application concentrations of metals in groundwater, showed significant (pA>C for tile and SS(LMB) and A>C for groundwater for most results). Following DMB application, no significant differences in metal mass loads in tile were found between SS(DMB) and DI treatments (PBDE/PFAS were not measured). But for

  6. Total circulating microparticle levels are increased in patients with deep infiltrating endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munrós, J; Martínez-Zamora, M A; Tàssies, D; Coloma, J L; Torrente, M A; Reverter, J C; Carmona, F; Balasch, J

    2017-02-01

    Are the levels of total circulating cell-derived microparticles (cMPs) and circulating tissue factor-containing microparticles (cMP-TF) increased in patients with endometriosis? The levels of total cMP, but not cMP-TF, were higher in patients with endometriosis, and these were attributed to higher levels in patients with deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE). Previous studies have reported elevated levels of total cMP in inflammatory conditions as well as higher levels of other inflammatory biomarkers in endometriosis. Increased expression of tissue factor (a transmembrane receptor for Factor VII/VIIa) in eutopic and ectopic endometrium from patients with endometriosis has been described. There is no previous data regarding total cMP and cMP-TF levels in patients with endometriosis. A prospective case-control study including two groups of patients was carried out. The E group included 65 patients with surgically confirmed endometriosis (37 with DIE lesions) and the C group comprises 33 women without surgical findings of any form of endometriosis. Patients and controls were recruited during the same 10-month period. Controls were the next patient without endometriosis undergoing surgery, after including two patients with endometriosis. Venous blood samples for total cMP and cMP-TF determinations were obtained at the time of surgery, before anesthesia at a tertiary care center. To assess total cMP, an ELISA functional assay was used and cMP-TF activity in plasma was measured using an ELISA kit. Total cMP levels in plasma were higher in the E group compared with the C group (P < 0.0001). The subanalysis of endometriosis patients with DIE or with ovarian endometriomas without DIE showed that total cMP levels were higher in the DIE group (P = 0.001). There were no statistically significant differences in cMP-TF levels among the groups analyzed. This is a preliminary study in which the sample size was arbitrarily decided, albeit in keeping with previous studies analyzing

  7. Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) in e-waste plastic in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindiku, O; Babayemi, J O; Tysklind, M; Osibanjo, O; Weber, R; Watson, A; Schlummer, M; Lundstedt, S

    2015-10-01

    Plastics from cathode ray tube (CRT) casings were sampled in Nigeria and analysed for their polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PBDD/F) content. PBDD/Fs, consisting mainly of PBDFs, were detected in BFR containing plastic with a median (mean) concentration of 18,000 ng/g (41,000 ng/g). The PBDD/Fs levels were highest in samples containing PBDEs, but the levels of PBDFs were two orders of magnitude higher than the levels reported in the technical PBDE mixtures and where frequently exceeding 1000 μg/g of PBDE content. These higher levels are likely to arise from additional transformation of PBDEs during production, use, recycling, or storage, but the processes responsible were not identified in this study. PBDD/Fs in CRT casings containing1,2-bistribromophenoxyethane (TBPE) were dominated by tetrabrominated dibenzo-p-dioxin (TBDDs) with concentrations around 10 μg/g of the TBPE content. The PBDD/Fs in CRT casings containing tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) were found at concentrations around 0.1 μg/g of TBBPA levels. Casings treated with TBPE or TBBPA often contained PBDEs (and PBDF) as impurities-probably originating from recycled e-waste plastics. It was estimated that the 237,000 t of CRT casings stockpiled in Nigeria contain between 2 and 8 t of PBDD/Fs. The total PBDD/F contamination in polymers arising from total historic PBDE production/use is estimated in the order of 1000 t. TEQ values of CRT samples frequently exceeded the Basel Convention's provisional low POPs content of 15 ng TEQ/g. Due to the significant risks to health associated with PBDD/Fs, more detailed studies on the exposure routes from PBDD/Fs in stockpiles are needed.

  8. Species-specific accumulation of polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants in birds of prey from the Chesapeake Bay region, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Da, E-mail: chen@vims.ed [Department of Environmental and Aquatic Animal Health, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, College of William and Mary, Gloucester Point, VA 23062 (United States); Hale, Robert C. [Department of Environmental and Aquatic Animal Health, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, College of William and Mary, Gloucester Point, VA 23062 (United States); Watts, Bryan D. [Center for Conservation Biology, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23185 (United States); La Guardia, Mark J.; Harvey, Ellen [Department of Environmental and Aquatic Animal Health, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, College of William and Mary, Gloucester Point, VA 23062 (United States); Mojica, Elizabeth K. [Center for Conservation Biology, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23185 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    Compared to organochlorines, little is known about polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) contamination of birds of prey breeding in the Chesapeake Bay, the largest estuary in the U.S. This study examined and compared PBDE contamination in eggs of osprey, double-crested cormorant, brown pelican and peregrine falcon from this area. Several legacy persistent organic pollutants such as PCBs and DDE were also investigated. The level of urbanization of the landscape appeared to influence the level of PBDE exposure. PBDE congener distribution patterns varied between piscivorous and terrestrial-feeding birds. This suggests individual congeners may be subject to differences in bioaccumulation, biomagnification or metabolism in the aquatic and terrestrial food webs. Biomagnification of PBDEs was studied in the Bay aquatic food chains for the first time. A biomagnification factor of 25.1 was estimated for SIGMAPBDEs for the fish - osprey egg food chain. Hazard quotients, applied as a preliminary evaluation, indicated that PBDEs may pose a moderate hazard to ospreys and peregrine falcons through impairment of reproductive performance. - Birds of prey breeding in the Chesapeake Bay (USA) exhibited species-specific PBDE accumulation patterns.

  9. Species-specific accumulation of polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants in birds of prey from the Chesapeake Bay region, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Da; Hale, Robert C.; Watts, Bryan D.; La Guardia, Mark J.; Harvey, Ellen; Mojica, Elizabeth K.

    2010-01-01

    Compared to organochlorines, little is known about polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) contamination of birds of prey breeding in the Chesapeake Bay, the largest estuary in the U.S. This study examined and compared PBDE contamination in eggs of osprey, double-crested cormorant, brown pelican and peregrine falcon from this area. Several legacy persistent organic pollutants such as PCBs and DDE were also investigated. The level of urbanization of the landscape appeared to influence the level of PBDE exposure. PBDE congener distribution patterns varied between piscivorous and terrestrial-feeding birds. This suggests individual congeners may be subject to differences in bioaccumulation, biomagnification or metabolism in the aquatic and terrestrial food webs. Biomagnification of PBDEs was studied in the Bay aquatic food chains for the first time. A biomagnification factor of 25.1 was estimated for ΣPBDEs for the fish - osprey egg food chain. Hazard quotients, applied as a preliminary evaluation, indicated that PBDEs may pose a moderate hazard to ospreys and peregrine falcons through impairment of reproductive performance. - Birds of prey breeding in the Chesapeake Bay (USA) exhibited species-specific PBDE accumulation patterns.

  10. Exponential increases of the brominated flame retardants, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, in the Canadian Arctic from 1981 to 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikonomou, Michael G; Rayne, Sierra; Addison, Richard F

    2002-05-01

    A suite of 37 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners and all of the homologue groups from mono- to deca-brominated were determined in ringed seal (Phoca hispida) blubber collected from subsistence hunts in the Canadian Arctic in 1981, 1991, 1996, and 2000. Total PBDE (sum(PBDE)) concentrations have increased exponentially over this period in male ringed seals aged 0-15 years. Penta- and hexa-BDEs are increasing at approximately the same rate (t2 = 4.7 and 4.3 years, respectively) and more rapidly than tetra-BDEs (t2 = 8.6 years) and tri-BDEs (t2 = infinity) in this age/sex grouping. In contrast to declining PBDE concentrations since 1997 in human milk from Sweden, sum(PBDE) concentrations in arctic ringed seals continue to increase exponentially similar to worldwide commercial penta-BDE production. PBDE congener profiles in male ringed seals aged 0-15 years from 1991 to 2000 also differ significantly from other aquatic organisms and semipermeable membrane devices collected from temperate coastal regions of British Columbia. While PBDE concentrations are 50 times lower than those of mono-ortho and non-ortho PCBs, and approxiamately 500 times higher than PCDD/Fs, our data indicate that, at current rates of bioaccumulation, PBDEs will surpass PCBs to become the most prevalent organohalogen compound in Canadian arctic ringed seals by 2050.

  11. Blood trihalomethane levels and the risk of total cancer mortality in US adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Jin-Young; Min, Kyoung-Bok

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although animal data have suggested the carcinogenic activity of trihalomethanes (THMs), there is inconsistent evidence supporting the link between THM exposure and cancers in humans. Objectives: We investigated the association between specific and total blood THM levels with the risk of total cancer mortality in adults. Methods: We analyzed data from the 1999–2004 Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and the Linked Mortality File of the United States. A total of 933 adults (20–59 years of age) with available blood THM levels and no missing data for other variables were included. Four different THM species (chloroform, bromodichloromethane (BDCM), dibromochloromethane (DBCM) and bromoform) were included, and the codes associated with cancer (malignant neoplasm) were C00 through C97, based on the underlying causes of death listed in the International Classification of Disease 10the Revision. Results: Compared with adults in the lowest DBCM, bromoform, and total brominated THM tertiles, those in the highest DBCM, bromoform, and total brominated THM tertiles exhibited adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of total cancer mortality of 4.97 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.59–15.50), 4.94 (95% CI = 1.56–15.61), and 3.42 (95% CI = 1.21–15.43) respectively. The risk of total cancer mortality was not associated with increases in blood chloroform and total THM levels. Conclusions: We found that the baseline blood THM species, particularly brominated THMs, were significantly associated with total cancer mortality in adults. Although this study should be confirm by other studies, our findings suggest a possible link between THM exposures and cancer. - Highlights: • Trihalomethanes (THM) are classified as either probable or possible carcinogens. • Limited evidence on the link between THM and the incidence of cancer in humans. • We investigated the association between blood THM levels and the risk of total cancer mortality. • High

  12. Seasonal variations and the influence of geomembrane liners on the levels of PBDEs in landfill leachates, sediment and groundwater in Gauteng Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Sibiya

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the seasonal concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs in leachate and sediment samples, and the influence of geomembrane liners on PBDE levels and the extent of their infiltration into groundwater on selected landfill sites in Gauteng Province, South Africa were determined. Leachate and sediment samples were collected from seven operational landfill sites namely: Goudkoppies, Robinson Deep, Marie Louis, Soshanguve, Onderstepoort, Hatherly and Garankuwa from Johannesburg and Pretoria, in winter and summer. Groundwater samples were collected from monitoring boreholes from two landfill sites. Liquid-liquid and Soxhlet extraction techniques were employed for the extraction of leachate and groundwater, and sediment respectively using dichloromethane. The extracted samples were subjected to column clean up and, thereafter, analysed using gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy (GC-MS. PBDEs selected for the study were: BDE-17, -28, -47, -100, -99, -153, -154, -183 and -209. The ∑9PBDE concentrations in leachate samples for winter and summer ranged from 0.316–1.36 ng L−1 and 0.560–1.08 ng L−1 respectively. The ∑9 PBDE concentrations obtained for sediment in winter and summer were 3.00–4.91 ng g−1 and 2.50–3.71 ng g−1 respectively. Winter samples exhibited higher (p < 0.05 concentrations for both leachate and sediment samples compared to summer samples. This trend was attributed to high precipitation rate in summer which may have infiltrated into the landfills, subsequently diluting the leachate and sediment samples. In contrast, the winter period is generally dry and PBDEs are, therefore, more likely to be concentrated. The concentrations of PBDEs in leachate and sediment samples were higher in landfill sites with geomembrane liners compared to those without liners. Groundwater samples taken from the vicinity of selected landfill sites without geomembrane liners exhibited high

  13. Total Water Level Fun Facts: The Relative Contribution of Extreme Total Water Levels Along the US West Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, K.; Ruggiero, P.; Stockdon, H. F.

    2016-02-01

    In the fall of 2014, parts of the US West Coast endured some of the highest monthly mean sea level anomalies on record, likely due to the presence of "the blob" (Bond et al., 2015), an anomalously warm water mass in the NE Pacific. However, despite the significantly above average water levels, the coastline experienced only marginal coastal flooding and erosion hazards because the ensuing winter lacked significant storms, underscoring the fact that extreme total water levels (TWLs) are compound events. To better understand how several individual processes combine to cause devastating coastal hazards, we investigate the relative contribution that each component (waves, tides, and non-tidal residuals) has on extreme TWLs on sandy beaches. Water level records along the US West Coast are decomposed into mean sea level, astronomical tide, and non-tidal residuals (NTRs). The NTR is further split into an intra-annual seasonal signal, monthly mean sea level anomalies (inter-annual variability), and meteorological surge. TWL time series are then generated by combining water levels with wave runup, computed using wave data and beach morphology. We use this data-driven, structural function approach to investigate the spatial variability of the relative contribution of each component to the maximum TWL event on record. We also use a probabilistic, full simulation TWL model (Serafin and Ruggiero, 2014) to generate multiple, synthetic TWL records, to explore the relative contribution of each component to extreme TWL return levels. We assess the sensitivity to local beach morphology by computing TWLs for a range of observed beach slopes. Extreme TWLs are higher in Oregon and Washington than in California. Wave runup typically comprises > 50% of the TWL signal, while NTRs often compose < 5%, illustrating the importance wave climate has on the potential for extreme TWLs. While waves are typically larger in the North, California experiences greater contributions to extreme TWLs from

  14. Investigation of total α and total β radioactive level of environment mediator in the Dushu lake campus of Suzhou university

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Wenhua; Wan Jun; Liu Li; He Chao; Tang Hua; Tu Yu

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To get the message of natural radioactive level in the Dushu lake cam- pus of Suzhou university. Methods: Different types of water, soil and food in this region were collected, and then the level of total α and total β radioactivity of the sample was investigated applying model BH1216 equipment which measuring was used for low background total α and β radioactivity. Results: Total α in city water, surface water and soil were 0.061 Bq/L, 0.104 Bq/L, 1708 Bq/kg respectively, total β were 0.183 Bq/L, 0.319 Bq/L, 780 Bq/kg respectively, total α in chive, potato, water bamboo, pork, fish were 1.83, 2.36, 1.84, 3.40, 3.76 Bq/kg respectively, total α of Fish bone was at infra-monitoring lower limit, total β in them were 70.81, 96.71, 60.63, 86.20, 97.51, 73.94 Bq/kg respectively. Conclusion: The results of the investigation display that the total radioactivity in drinking water and food don't exceed limits, in surface water and soil is at normal natural background. It can be concluded that this region has not been polluted by the artificial radioactivity and the environment of human habitation is healthy and safe. (authors)

  15. GLUCOSE AND TOTAL PROTEIN LEVEL IN LABORATORY RATS UNDER CONDITIONS OF SHORT-TERM FASTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Suljević

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Glucose level (UV enzymatic method and total protein level (Biuret method were measured in the blood samples of the rats exposed to short-term starvation. We found a statistically significant increase in the glucose level in experimental animals during starvation, which is also evident in males and females in the experimental group (p <0.05, while decrease in the total protein level was not statistically significant. During starvation, more significant weight loss was observed in females compared to males.Key words: glucose, total protein, serum, Rattus

  16. Plasma Total Homocysteine (tHcy) Levels in Healthy Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Establishment and stratification of reference values for a laboratory area of practice enhances the test result interpretation and sensitivity. Plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) is a metabolite of methionine which is dependent on vitamin B6, B12 and folate as co-factors. Plasma level (Hyperhomocysteinemia) is influenced by ...

  17. Decreased total antioxidant levels and increased oxidative stress in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Chronic hyperglycaemia in diabetes mellitus leads to increased lipid peroxidation in the body, followed by the development of chronic complications due to oxidative stress. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare total antioxidant (TAO) levels and oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) ...

  18. Can Serum Albumin Level and Total Lymphocyte Count be Surrogates for Malnutrition to Predict Wound Complications After Total Knee Arthroplasty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, Vivek M; Song, Young Dong; Whang, Ji Sup; Kang, Yeon Gwi; Kim, Tae Kyun

    2016-06-01

    Although the serum albumin level and total lymphocyte count (TLC) have been reported as valid and reliable markers for defining malnutrition, their cutoff levels and predictive values for wound complications in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) remain questionable. A total of 3169 TKAs performed between April 2003 and December 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. We determined the prevalence of malnutrition on applying different definitions, with various cutoff values of serum albumin and TLC and analyzed the variations in outcome. The differences between groups with and without malnutrition in terms of functional outcome and complications were determined using Student's t test and analysis of variance. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify the independent risk factors. Among all the patients (N = 3169), the serum albumin level and TLC varied widely, with means of 4.1 g/dL and 2189 cells/mm(3), respectively. The prevalence of malnutrition (21%) as per the conventional definition (serum albumin level malnutrition was defined as serum albumin malnutrition for predicting wound complications after TKA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Total mercury, cadmium and lead levels in main export fish of Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinadasa, B K K K; Edirisinghe, E M R K B; Wickramasinghe, I

    2014-01-01

    Total mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) levels were determined in the muscle of four commercialised exported fish species Thunnus albacares (yellowfin tuna), Xiphias gladius (swordfish), Makaira indica (black marlin) and Lutjanus sp (red snapper) collected from the Indian Ocean, Sri Lanka, during July 2009-March 2010 and measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results show that swordfish (n = 176) contained the highest total Hg (0.90 ± 0.51 mg/kg) and Cd (0.09 ± 0.13 mg/kg) levels, whereas yellowfin tuna (n = 140) contained the highest Pb levels (0.11 ± 0.16 mg/kg). The lowest total Hg (0.16 ± 0.11 mg/kg), Cd (0.01 ± 0.01 mg/kg) and Pb (0.04 ± 0.04 mg/kg) levels were found in red snapper (n = 28). Black marlin (n = 24) contained moderate levels of total Hg (0.49 ± 0.37), Cd (0.02 ± 0.02) and Pb (0.05 ± 0.05). Even though there are some concerns during certain months of the year, this study demonstrates the safety of main export fish varieties in terms of total Hg, Cd and Pb.

  20. The effects of maternal total protein, albumin and hemoglobin levels on birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berna Haliloglu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study was designed to investigate the influence of third trimester maternal total protein, albumin, hemoglobin levels on birth weight.\tMATERIAL-METHOD: Between January 2005 and July 2005, 750 pregnant women applied for delivery at Zeynep Kamil Women’s and Children Education and Research Hospital at 37-40 week’s gestation were examined. Maternal total protein, albumin and hemoglobin levels were measured. Data included maternal age, gravidity, parity, gestational age, birth weight, gender, presence of iron supplementation and its duration.\tRESULTS: The birth weight was significantly higher in anemic and hypoproteinemic groups compared those with normal levels. After adjusting for counfounding factors, significance of both findings lost. The cases received iron supplementation had infants with higher birth weight, however, it was not statistically significant (p: 0.055. A significant positive relation was observed between birth weight and maternal age, gravidity, parity and gestational age. No relation found between maternal total protein, albumin, hemoglobin levels and birth weight.\tCONCLUSION: The last trimester maternal total protein, albumin, hemoglobin levels seem not to be a determining factor on infant's birth weight.

  1. Effect of elevated total CoA levels on metabolic pathways in cultured hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steffen, C.A.; Smith, C.M.

    1987-01-01

    Livers from fasted rats have 30% higher total CoA levels than fed rats. To determine whether this increase of total CoA influences metabolism, the rates of gluconeogenesis, fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis were measured in hepatocytes with cyanamide (CYM) or pantothenate (PA) deficient medium used to vary total CoA levels independently of hormonal status. Primary cultures of rat hepatocytes were incubated 14 hrs with Bt 2 cAMP, dexamethasone + theophylline in PA deficient medium or with CYM (500 μM) + PA, rinsed and preincubated 0.5 hr to remove the CYM. Hepatocytes treated with CYM had total CoA levels 10-24% higher than PA deficient cells and lower rates of glucose production from lactate + pyruvate (L/P) or from alanine (0.23 +/- 0.05 and 0.089 +/- 0.02 μm/mg protein, respectively in CYM treated cells compared to 0.33 +/- 0.06 and 0.130 +/- 0.006 in PA deficient cells). This decrease was not due to CYM per se, as the direct addition of CYM stimulated glucose production from L/P. CYM treated cells with 15-40% higher total CoA and 30% higher fatty acyl-CoA levels had the same rates of [ 14 C]-palmitate oxidation as PA deficient cells. However, rates of ketogenesis were lower in CYM treated cells (163 +/- 11 nm/mg compared to 217 +/- 14 nm/mg protein). These results suggest that physiological alterations of hepatic total CoA levels are not necessary for fasting rates of gluconeogenesis, fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis

  2. Spatiotemporal patterns and relationships among the diet, biochemistry, and exposure to flame retardants in an apex avian predator, the peregrine falcon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernie, Kim J; Chabot, Dominique; Champoux, Louise; Brimble, Samantha; Alaee, Mehran; Marteinson, Sarah; Chen, Da; Palace, Vince; Bird, David M; Letcher, Robert J

    2017-10-01

    Flame retardants (FR) are industrial chemicals and some are proven environmental contaminants that accumulate in predatory birds. Few studies have examined the influence of diet on FR profiles in nestling raptors and the possible physiological implications of such FR exposure. The objectives of this research were (1) to determine spatial patterns of ≤ 48 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners and ≤ 26 non-PBDE FRs, including organophosphate esters (OPEs), in nestling peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) across the Canadian Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River Basin (GL-SLR; 2010) and in the eastern Canadian Arctic (2007); (2) to identify temporal changes in FR concentrations from the mid-2000s to 2010 in GL-SLR peregrine nestlings; (3) to investigate the role of diet using stable isotopes on exposure patterns of quantifiable FRs; and (4) to assess possible associations between circulating FRs and total (T) thyroxine (TT 4 ) and triiodothyronine (TT 3 ), tocopherol, retinol and oxidative status (isoprostanes). The summed concentrations of the top 5 PBDEs (Σ 5 ) (BDE-47, -99, -100, -154, -153) were significantly higher in rural nestlings than urban nestlings in the GL-SLR, followed by the eastern Arctic nestlings. The PBDE congener profile of rural nestlings was dominated by BDE-99 (34‰), whereas BDE-209 (31‰) became dominant in the 2010 urban PBDE profile marking a shift since the mid-2000s. Low (ppb) concentrations of 25 novel non-PBDE FRs (e.g., 1,2-bis-(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE), decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE)) were measured in the nestlings in at least one region, with the first report in peregrines of 15 novel non-PBDE FRs (e.g., 2-ethyl-1-hyxyl 2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate (EHTBB), pentabromo allyl ether (PBPAE), tetrabromoethylcyclohexane (α-, β-DBE-DBCH)) as well as of tris (2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) (0-7.5ng/g ww) > tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP) (0.1-5.5ng/g ww) > tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) (0.02-2.0ng

  3. Levels of dechloranes and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in human serum from France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasseur, Catherine; Pirard, Catherine; Scholl, Georges; De Pauw, Edwin; Viel, Jean-François; Shen, Li; Reiner, Eric J; Focant, Jean-François

    2014-04-01

    Human exposure to dechloranes has been evaluated in Western Europe (France) with the analysis of Dechlorane Plus (DP), Dechloranes (Dec) 602, 603 and 604, Chlordene Plus (CP) and Mirex in 48 serum samples collected between 2003 and 2005. While no production source has been identified in Europe until now, detection frequencies for all investigated dechloranes were high, except for Dec 604 which was below detection limit for all samples. The mean DP concentration was 1.40±1.40ng/g lipid weight (lw), lower than levels reported in serum from Chinese population, but higher than levels reported in Canadian human milk. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that ∑5dechlorane levels are reported for human serum. A specific pattern of contamination was found (Dec 603>DP>Mirex>Dec 602>CP) compared to other biota samples that have been analyzed from Europe, with Dec 603 as the most abundant dechlorane (mean level: 2.61±2.63ng/g lw). Dec 603 and CP levels were correlated with age and with levels of some bioaccumulative organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). These results indicate that bioaccumulation properties should be further investigated and taken in consideration when assessing human exposure to dechloranes. For comparison purposes, polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) levels were also measured for BDE-47, -99, -100, -153 and -154 in the serum samples. As expected, BDE-47 and BDE-153 were the major congeners with mean levels of 2.06±1.80ng/g lw and 1.39±0.97ng/g lw, respectively. The mean ∑5PBDE levels (4.32±2.99ng/g lw) were in the range typical of Western Europe levels, but lower than the mean ∑5dechlorane levels (6.24±4.16ng/g lw). These results indicate that the attention to dechloranes should be continued if research indicates toxicological concerns. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Exposure to a PBDE/OH-BDE mixture alters juvenile zebrafish (Danio rerio) development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaulay, Laura J; Chernick, Melissa; Chen, Albert; Hinton, David E; Bailey, Jordan M; Kullman, Seth W; Levin, Edward D; Stapleton, Heather M

    2017-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and their metabolites (e.g., hydroxylated BDEs [OH-BDEs]) are contaminants frequently detected together in human tissues and are structurally similar to thyroid hormones. Thyroid hormones partially mediate metamorphic transitions between life stages in zebrafish, making this a critical developmental window that may be vulnerable to chemicals disrupting thyroid signaling. In the present study, zebrafish were exposed to 6-OH-BDE-47 (30 nM; 15 μg/L) alone, or to a low-dose (30 μg/L) or high-dose (600 μg/L) mixture of PentaBDEs, 6-OH-BDE-47 (0.5-6 μg/L), and 2,4,6-tribromophenol (5-100 μg/L) during juvenile development (9-23 d postfertilization) and evaluated for developmental endpoints mediated by thyroid hormone signaling. Fish were sampled at 3 time points and examined for developmental and skeletal morphology, apical thyroid and skeletal gene markers, and modifications in swimming behavior (as adults). Exposure to the high-dose mixture resulted in >85% mortality within 1 wk of exposure, despite being below reported acute toxicity thresholds for individual congeners. The low-dose mixture and 6-OH-BDE-47 groups exhibited reductions in body length and delayed maturation, specifically relating to swim bladder, fin, and pigmentation development. Reduced skeletal ossification was also observed in 6-OH-BDE-47-treated fish. Assessment of thyroid and osteochondral gene regulatory networks demonstrated significantly increased expression of genes that regulate skeletal development and thyroid hormones. Overall, these results indicate that exposures to PBDE/OH-BDE mixtures adversely impact zebrafish maturation during metamorphosis. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:36-48. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  5. Concentrations and distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in soils and plants from a deca-BDE manufacturing factory in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Niu, Shan; Hai, Reti; Li, Meng

    2015-01-01

    Residues of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), including eight PBDE congeners, were investigated in soils and plants from a deca-BDE manufacturing factory located in the Shandong province of China to evaluate and discuss their pollution level and distribution. Total concentrations in topsoil ranged from 17.0 to 146 μg g(-1) dry weight (dw) with a mean value of 58.7 μg g(-1) dw. BDE-209 was the dominant congener in soils, accounting for 55.63-99.27 % of the total PBDEs. Concentrations and congener patterns in soils varied among different soil depths. Concentration levels in topsoil are high and the heavy accumulation in deep soil also can be observed, even for some sites, the concentrations in 50-100 cm depth are higher than in topsoil. In plant samples, total PBDE concentrations and the proportion of BDE-209 were high (69.92-99.10 %). The extent of pollution by PBDEs in the deca-BDE production factory was higher than in other regions, and the environmental risk caused by the production of deca-BDE is of concern. This is the first study to report pollution of PBDEs in soils and plants from the vicinity of a deca-BDE manufacturing factory.

  6. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether Exposure and Thyroid Function Tests in North American Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makey, Colleen M; McClean, Michael D; Braverman, Lewis E; Pearce, Elizabeth N; He, Xue-Mei; Sjödin, Andreas; Weinberg, Janice M; Webster, Thomas F

    2016-04-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are flame-retardant chemicals that are added to many consumer products. Multiple animal studies have shown PBDEs to be thyroid hormone (TH) disruptors. Epidemiologic evidence of PBDE exposure associated with TH disruption has been inconclusive. We used repeated measures to estimate associations between serum PBDE concentrations and THs in a North American adult cohort. From 2010 to 2011, we collected ≤ 3 serum samples at approximately 6-month intervals from 52 healthy adult office workers from Boston, Massachusetts, for analysis of PBDE congeners and THs. The geometric mean sum concentrations of the most prevalent PBDE congeners (BDE-28, BDE-47, BDE-99, BDE-100, and BDE-153) were 22 ng/g lipid in winter 2010, 23 ng/g lipid in summer 2010, and 19 ng/g lipid in winter 2011. BDE-47 was the predominant congener. Based on a multivariable mixed regression model, we estimated that on average, a 1-ng/g serum increase in BDE-47 was associated with a 2.6-μg/dL decrease in total thyroxine (T4) (95% CI: -4.7, -0.35). Total T4 was inversely associated with each PBDE congener. Serum concentrations of PBDEs were not strongly associated with total triiodothyronine (T3), free T4, or thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). These results are consistent with those from animal studies showing that exposure to PBDEs is associated with a decrease in serum T4. Because the other TH concentrations did not appear to be associated with BDE exposures, our findings do not indicate effects on the pituitary-thyroid axis. Taken together, our findings suggest that PBDE exposure might decrease the binding of T4 to serum T4 binding proteins. Makey CM, McClean MD, Braverman LE, Pearce EN, He XM, Sjödin A, Weinberg JM, Webster TF. 2016. Polybrominated diphenyl ether exposure and thyroid function tests in North American adults. Environ Health Perspect 124:420-425; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1509755.

  7. Association of PCB, PBDE and PCDD/F body burdens with hormone levels for children in an e-waste dismantling area of Zhejiang Province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Peiwei, E-mail: pwxu@cdc.zj.cn; Lou, Xiaoming; Ding, Gangqiang; Shen, Haitao; Wu, Lizhi; Chen, Zhijian; Han, Jianlong; Han, Guangen; Wang, Xiaofeng, E-mail: zjcdcwxf@gmail.com

    2014-11-15

    Increased electronic waste (e-waste) has raised public concerns regarding exposure to numerous toxic contaminants, particularly polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). In China, the body burdens of PCBs, PBDEs and PCDD/Fs are associated with thyroid hormones in populations from e-waste dismantling sites; however, it is unclear whether this association occurs in children. In this study, we determined the serum levels of PCBs, PBDEs and PCDD/Fs and the endocrine hormones including free triiodothyronine (FT3), total triiodothyronine (TT3), free thyroxine (FT4), total thyroxine (TT4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol and growth hormone (GH) in 21 children from an e-waste dismantling area and 24 children from a control area. The results showed that the mean levels of ∑ PCBs and ∑ PBDEs in the exposure group were significantly higher than in the control group (40.56 and 32.09 ng g{sup −1} lipid vs. 20.69 and 8.43 ng g{sup −1} lipid, respectively, p < 0.01 for each), and the mean level of ∑ PCDD/Fs in the exposure group was higher than in the control group, but the difference was not significant (206.17 vs. 160.27 pg g{sup −1} lipid, p > 0.05). For the endocrine hormones, we did not find significant differences between the exposed and control groups, although the mean levels of FT3, TT3, TT4, ACTH, cortisol and GH were higher, whereas the mean levels of FT4 and TSH were lower in the exposed group. The mean level of ∑ PBDEs was positively correlated with the mean levels of ∑ PCBs (r = 0.60, p < 0.05) and ∑ PCDD/Fs (r = 0.61, p < 0.05). Furthermore, the mean level of ∑ PBDEs was positively correlated with ACTH (r = 0.61, p < 0.05). In conclusion, our data suggested that exposure to e-waste dismantling environment increased the body burdens of PCBs and PBDEs in local children and that these contaminants

  8. Association of PCB, PBDE and PCDD/F body burdens with hormone levels for children in an e-waste dismantling area of Zhejiang Province, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Peiwei; Lou, Xiaoming; Ding, Gangqiang; Shen, Haitao; Wu, Lizhi; Chen, Zhijian; Han, Jianlong; Han, Guangen; Wang, Xiaofeng

    2014-01-01

    Increased electronic waste (e-waste) has raised public concerns regarding exposure to numerous toxic contaminants, particularly polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). In China, the body burdens of PCBs, PBDEs and PCDD/Fs are associated with thyroid hormones in populations from e-waste dismantling sites; however, it is unclear whether this association occurs in children. In this study, we determined the serum levels of PCBs, PBDEs and PCDD/Fs and the endocrine hormones including free triiodothyronine (FT3), total triiodothyronine (TT3), free thyroxine (FT4), total thyroxine (TT4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol and growth hormone (GH) in 21 children from an e-waste dismantling area and 24 children from a control area. The results showed that the mean levels of ∑ PCBs and ∑ PBDEs in the exposure group were significantly higher than in the control group (40.56 and 32.09 ng g −1 lipid vs. 20.69 and 8.43 ng g −1 lipid, respectively, p < 0.01 for each), and the mean level of ∑ PCDD/Fs in the exposure group was higher than in the control group, but the difference was not significant (206.17 vs. 160.27 pg g −1 lipid, p > 0.05). For the endocrine hormones, we did not find significant differences between the exposed and control groups, although the mean levels of FT3, TT3, TT4, ACTH, cortisol and GH were higher, whereas the mean levels of FT4 and TSH were lower in the exposed group. The mean level of ∑ PBDEs was positively correlated with the mean levels of ∑ PCBs (r = 0.60, p < 0.05) and ∑ PCDD/Fs (r = 0.61, p < 0.05). Furthermore, the mean level of ∑ PBDEs was positively correlated with ACTH (r = 0.61, p < 0.05). In conclusion, our data suggested that exposure to e-waste dismantling environment increased the body burdens of PCBs and PBDEs in local children and that these contaminants released from the e

  9. Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE)-induced alterations in vitamin A and thyroid hormone concentrations in the rat during lactation and early postnatal development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis-Hutchings, Robert G.; Cherr, Gary N.; Hanna, Lynn A.; Keen, Carl L.

    2006-01-01

    In experimental animals fed standard laboratory diets, penta-BDE mixtures can decrease circulating thyroid hormone and liver vitamin A concentrations. A substantial number of pregnant women and their children have marginal vitamin A status, potentially increasing their risk of adverse effects to penta-BDE exposure. The current study investigated the effects of maternal gestational and lactational penta-BDE exposure on thyroid hormone and vitamin A homeostasis in rats of sufficient vitamin A (VAS) or marginal vitamin A (VAM) status and their offspring. Dams were administered daily oral doses of 18 mg/kg DE-71 (a penta-BDE mixture) or a corn oil vehicle from gestation day 6 through lactation day (LD) 18. Thyroid hormone and vitamin A homeostasis were assessed in plasma and tissues of LD 19 dams and postnatal day (PND) 12, 18, and 31 pups. DE-71 exposure induced hepatomegaly in VAS and VAM pups at all timepoints and increased testes weights at PND 31. While liver vitamin A concentrations were low in DE-71 treated dams and pups, plasma retinol concentrations and plasma retinol binding protein levels were only low in VAM animals exposed to DE-71. DE-71 exposure lowered plasma thyroxine concentrations in VAS and VAM dams and pups. Plasma thyroid stimulating hormone concentrations were high in VAM dams exposed to DE-71, suggesting that marginal vitamin A status enhances the susceptibility to thyroid hormone axis disruption by DE-71. These results support the concept that marginal vitamin A status in pregnant women may increase the risk for PBDE-induced disruptions in vitamin A and thyroid hormone homeostasis

  10. [Total homocysteine levels in children with diabetes type 1. Conditional factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Laborda, S; Salazar García-Blanco, M I; Rodríguez Rigual, M; Baldellou Vázquez, A

    2008-03-01

    To measure the plasma levels of total homocysteine (tHcy) in children with type I diabetes mellitus and their relationship with the control of the disease. We studied a total of 46 patients with ages between 4 and 19 years. The analyzed variables were: sex, age, puberty stage by Tanner, BMI, years of evolution of the illness, self-monitoring, associated diseases, tHcy, folic acid, vitamin B12, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), lipid profile and renal function. The mean tHcy was of 5.48 +/- 1,64 microm/l, similar to that in our control population. There was a positive correlation with tHcy when analyzing the puberty stage by the Tanner scale. The years of evolution of diabetes varied between 0.4 and 15, with a mean of 5.77 +/- 3.69, with no correlation with tHcy. The glycosylated haemoglobin mean was 7.35 %, with no correlation with tHcy. The levels of folic acid and vitamin B12 were similar to the control population. The lipid profile of our patients was normal, with no association with tHcy levels. There was no correlation between GFR and tHcy. A clinically correct control of children with diabetes mellitus type 1, appears to ensure a normal total homocysteinemia, with no significant differences with the healthy individuals of the same age and social environment.

  11. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls in human adipose tissue from New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Restrepo, Boris; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Rapaport, David P; Rodan, Bruce D

    2005-07-15

    Human adipose tissue samples (n=52) collected in New York City during 2003-2004 were analyzed for the presence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Concentrations of PBDEs in adipose tissues ranged from 17 to 9630 ng/g, lipid wt (median: 77; mean: 399 ng/g, lipid wt; sum all di- through hexaBDE congeners). Average PBDE concentrations in human adipose tissues from New York City were 10- to 100-times greater than those reported for European countries. A concentration of 9630 ng/g, lipid wt, found in a sample of adipose tissue, is one of the highest concentrations reported to date. PBDE 47 (2,2',4,4'-tetraBDE) was the major congener detected in human tissues, followed by PBDE congeners #99 (2,2',4,4',5-penta BDE), 100 (2,2',4,4',6-pentaBDE), and 153 (2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexaBDE). A few individuals contained PBDE 153 as the predominant congener in total PBDE concentrations, suggesting alternative exposure sources, possibly occupational. Principal component analysis of PBDE congener composition in human adipose tissues revealed the presence of five clusters, each characterized by varying composition. No significant difference was found in the concentrations of PBDEs between gender. Concentrations of PBDEs were, on average, similar to those for PCBs in human adipose tissues, and substantially higher when PBDE outliers were retained. PBDE and PCB concentrations were not correlated. PBDE concentrations did not increase with increasing age of the subjects, whereas concentrations of PCBs increased with increasing age in males but not in females in this study. These results suggest differences between PBDEs and PCBs in their sources or time course of exposure and disposition. The presence of comparable or greater concentrations of PBDEs, relative to PCBs, highlights the importance of recentvoluntary and regulatory effortsto cease production of commercial penta- and octa-BDE in North America, although these efforts do not address

  12. Fate, partitioning, and mass loading of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) during the treatment processing of municipal sewage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Min; Chu, Shaogang; Letcher, Robert J; Seth, Rajesh

    2006-10-15

    Sewage treatment plant (STP) effluents are likely a major source of contamination for PBDEs, especially in the receiving water bodies of local aquatic environments surrounding the location of these discharges. Congeners of the pentaBDE mixture, 2,2,',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE47), 2,2,',4,4',5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE99), 2,2,',4,4',6-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE100), 2,2,',4,4',5,5'-hexabromodiphenyl ether (BDE153), and 2,2,',4,4',5,6'-hexabromodiphenyl ether (BDE154), are of great environmental concern in North America due to their persistence, potential for bioaccumulation, and >97% use of the global production of the mixture in the region. Detailed characterization of the distribution of eight PBDE congeners (2,4,4'-tribromoDE (BDE28) and BDE47, 99, 100, 138, 153, 154, and 183) was carried out at five sites along the treatment process at an activated sludge-type secondary treatment municipal STP facility. PentaBDE mixture congeners, sigma5PBDE (sum of BDE47, 99, 100, 153, and 154) accounted for >98% of the total (sigma 8) PBDE concentration at all sites, with over 80% of the composition being BDE47 and BDE99. Presence of dissolved organic matter affected the mobility of PBDEs during the initial stages of the treatment process. About 9% of the influent mass of sigma5PBDE to the facility is estimated to be discharged into the Little River (leading to the Detroit River) with the final effluent, resulting in an estimated mass loading of approximately 0.7 kg/year. The total mass loading of sigma5PBDE to the Detroit River is expected to be much larger as effluent from this facility accounts for <10% of the total STP discharges to the river.

  13. Is there any relationship between serum levels of total bilirubin and the severity of erectile dysfunction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Ercüment; Karabakan, Mehmet; Bozkurt, Aliseydi; Hirik, Erkan; Karabulut, İbrahim; Gunay, Murat; Çakan, Murat

    2018-04-01

    Recent studies have shown that atherosclerosis is associated with erectile dysfunction and the serum bilirubin level. In this study, the serum total bilirubin levels of patients with erectile dysfunction were measured to investigate the relationship between the levels of erectile dysfunction and total bilirubin. A total of 94 patients with erectile dysfunction were divided into three groups; severe erectile dysfunction (33 patients), moderate erectile dysfunction (31 patients), and mild erectile dysfunction (30 patients). In addition, a control group was formed with 31 healthy men. The International Index of Erectile Function-5 Questionnaire was used to measure the quality of erection in all the groups. The body mass index was calculated for all the participants. The serum glucose, low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein, cholesterol, triglyceride, total bilirubin, and total testosterone levels were also determined. No statistically significant difference was observed between the groups in terms of the mean age, hypertension, smoking status, alcohol use, cardiovascular diseases, hepatobiliary disease, diabetes mellitus, and levels of total testosterone, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and triglyceride. However, high-density lipoprotein, body mass index, and total bilirubin were significantly lower compared to the control group (p < 0.001). The serum total bilirubin level was found to be 0.41 ± 0.21 ng/dL in the severe erectile dysfunction, 0.43 ± 0.19 ng/dL in the moderate erectile dysfunction, and 0.48 ± 0.11 ng/dL in the mild erectile dysfunction groups (p < 0.001). Considering the significant differences between the erectile dysfunction and control groups in terms of serum total bilirubin levels, a low level of bilirubin may have a role in the etiology of erectile dysfunction.

  14. Effects of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and their derivatives on protein disulfide isomerase activity and growth hormone release of GH3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Shoko; Yoshimura, Hiromi; Okada, Kazushi; Uramaru, Naoto; Sugihara, Kazumi; Kitamura, Shigeyuki; Imaoka, Susumu

    2012-03-19

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been used in a variety of consumer products such as flame retardants and recently have been known to be widespread environmental pollutants, which probably affect biological functions of mammalian cells. However, the risk posed by PBDE metabolites has not been clarified. Our previous study suggested that bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine-disrupting chemical, binds to protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) and inhibits its activity. PDI is an isomerase enzyme in the endoplasmic reticulum and facilitates the formation or cleavage of disulfide bonds. PDI consists of a, b, b', and a' domains and the c region, with the a and a' domains having isomerase active sites. In the present study, we tested the effects of 10 kinds of PBDE compounds and their metabolites on PDI. OH-PBDEs specifically inhibited the isomerase activity of PDI, with 4'-OH-PBDE more effective than 2' (or 2)-OH-PBDEs. 4'-OH-PBDE inhibited the isomerase activity of the b'a'c fragment but not that of ab and a'c, suggesting that the b' domain of PDI is essential for the inhibition by 4'-OH-PBDE. We also investigated the effects of these chemicals on the production of growth hormone (GH) in GH3 cells. In GH3 cells, levels of mRNA and protein of GH stimulated by T(3) were reduced by 4'-OH-PBDE and 4'-MeO-PBDE. The reduction in GH expression caused by these compounds was not changed by the overexpression or knockdown of PDI in GH3 cells, while these manipulations of PDI levels significantly suppressed the expression of GH. These results suggest that the biological effects of PBDEs differed depending on their brominated and hydroxylated positions. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  15. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers: human tissue levels and toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Udai; Chu, Ih; Ryan, John J; Feeley, Mark

    2004-01-01

    with behavioral alterations in neonatal mice. When considering the outlier value for PBDE-99 at 229 ng/g, this would result in an estimated PBDE-99 body burden of 46 microg/kg, or a MOS of only 9. However, no toxicokinetics data are available for humans, and the actual margin of safety may be much smaller if based on levels in critical target organs or tissues.

  16. Exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs): Changes in thyroid, vitamin A, glutathione homeostasis, and oxidative stress in American kestrels (Falco sparverius)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernie, K.J.; Shutt, J.L.; Mayne, G.; Hoffman, D.; Letcher, R.J.; Drouillard, K.G.; Ritchie, I.J.

    2005-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), a class of additive flame retardants, are temporally increasing in wildlife tissues and capable of disrupting normal endocrine function. We determined whether in ovo and post-hatch exposure of captive American kestrels (Falco sparverius) to environmentally relevant PBDEs alter thyroid, retinol, and oxidative stress measures. Control eggs were injected with safflower oil and subsequent nestlings fed the same vehicle; dosed eggs received PBDE congeners (BDE-47, -99, -100, -153), which mainly comprise the Penta-BDE commercial mixture, dissolved in safflower oil at concentrations (1500 ng/g total [Sigma] PBDEs) approximating those in Great Lakes gull eggs. Nestlings hatching from dosed eggs were orally exposed for 29 days to variable Sigma PBDE concentrations that are similar to levels reported in tissues of Great Lakes trout (100 ng/g). Treatment kestrels had lower plasma thyroxine (T-4), plasma retinol, and hepatic retinol and retinyl palmitate concentrations, but unaltered triiodothyronine (T-3) concentrations and thyroid glandular structure. BDE-47, -100, and -99 were negatively associated with plasma T-4, plasma retinol (BDE-100, -99) and hepatic retinol (BDE-47). Despite an antioxidant-rich diet, PBDE exposure induced hepatic oxidative stress, particularly in females, with an increased hepatic GSSG:GSH ratio, a marginal increase in lipid peroxidation, and increased oxidized glutathione. Positive associations were found between concentrations of BDE-183 and thiols and, in males, between BDE-99 and reduced GSH, but a negative association occurred between BDE-99 and TBARS. Subsequently, concentrations of PBDE congeners in wild birds may alter thyroid hormone and vitamin A concentrations, glutathione metabolism and oxidative stress.

  17. An assessment of sources and pathways of human exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Restrepo, Boris; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2009-07-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are ubiquitous in the indoor environment, owing to their use in consumer products ranging from electronics to mattresses, furniture, and carpets. People are exposed to PBDEs through inhalation of indoor air and ingestion, and dermal absorption of dust particles present in the air. In this study, concentrations of PBDEs were determined in indoor air and house dust collected from homes in Albany, New York, USA. Based on the measured concentrations of PBDEs in indoor air and dust, we estimated daily exposure dose (DED) of PBDEs. In addition, we used previously published PBDE concentrations reported for breast milk from Massachusetts, USA [Johnson-Restrepo, B., Addink, R., Wong, C., Arcaro, K., Kannan, K., 2007. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and organochlorine pesticides in human breast milk from Massachusetts. USA. J. Environ. Monitor. 9, 1205-1212] and foodstuffs collected from Texas and Florida, USA [Schecter, A., Päpke, O., Harris, T.R., Tung, K.C., Musumba, A., Olson, J., Birnbaum, L., 2006. Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) levels in an expanded market basket survey of U.S. food and estimated PBDE dietary intake by age and sex. Environ. Health Perspect. 114, 1515-1520, Johnson-Restrepo, B., Kannan, K., Addink, R., Adams, D.H., 2005b. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls in a marine foodweb of coastal Florida. Environ. Sci. Technol. 39, 8243-8250], in an estimation of dietary exposure to PBDEs. The exposure assessment was performed for five age groups: infants (accounting for, on average, 56-77% of the total PBDE intake.

  18. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in US meat and poultry: 2012-13 levels, trends and estimated consumer exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupton, Sara J; Hakk, Heldur

    2017-09-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a class of brominated flame retardants whose use has contaminated foods and caused subsequent human exposures. To address the issue of possible human exposure, samples from a 2012-13 US meat and poultry (beef, pork, chicken, turkey) study were analysed for seven PBDEs. The mean summed concentrations of the seven BDE congeners (ΣPBDE) from beef, pork, chicken and turkey were 0.40, 0.36, 0.19, and 0.76 ng g -1 lipid weight (lw). The range of ΣPBDEs for all meat classes was 0.01-15.78 ng g -1 lw. A comparison of this study with a 2007-08 study revealed a decline in the median ΣPBDEs for all four meat classes, a reduction of 25.9% to 70.0%, with pork, chicken and turkey PBDE residues being statistically lower relative to the 2007-08 study. BDEs 47 and 99 contributed the most to the ΣPBDE concentrations, indicating likely animal exposures to the penta-BDE formulation. Based on the reported data an estimate of US consumer daily intake of PBDEs from meat and poultry was 6.42 ng day -1 .

  19. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in airborne particulates collected during a research expedition from the Bohai Sea to the Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-Ming; Ding, Xiang; Mai, Bi-Xian; Xie, Zhou-Qing; Xiang, Cai-Hong; Sun, Li-Guang; Sheng, Guo-Ying; Fu, Jia-Mo; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2005-10-15

    In July to September 2003, particulates in the oceanic atmosphere from the Bohai Sea to the high Arctic (37 degrees N to 80 degrees N) were collected aboard a research expedition icebreaker, Xuelong (Snow Dragon), under the 2003 Chinese Arctic Research Expedition Program (CHINARE 2003). These samples were analyzed to elucidate the atmospheric distributions of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the North Pacific Ocean and adjacent Arctic region. The levels of 11 PBDE congeners (BDE-28, -47, -66, -100, -99, -85, -154, -153, -138, -183, and -209; the sum was defined as sigma11PBDE) in the oceanic atmosphere of Far East Asia (34-48 degrees N/122-148 degrees E) ranged from 2.25 to 198.9 pg/m3 with a mean of 58.3 pg/m3. BDE-47, -99, -100, and -209 were the dominant congeners in all the samples, suggesting that the widely used commercial penta- and deca-BDE products were the original sources. The PBDE levels exhibited a decreasing trend from the mid- to high-latitudinal regions of the North Pacific Ocean, probably resulting from dilution, deposition, and decomposition of PBDEs during long-range transport of air masses. On the other hand, no apparent geographical pattern of PBDE distribution was observed within the Arctic, attributable to unstable air circulation and strong air mixing. Correlations among the PBDE congeners suggested that air masses collected from the North Pacific Ocean were relatively fresh, whereas those from the Arctic were aged as a result of photodecompoisiton. The higher average level (17.3 pg/m3) of PBDE congeners in the Arctic than those in the adjacent North Pacific Ocean (12.8 pg/m3) or other remote areas reported in the literature was attributed to the impact of the North American continent and temperature effects, which was consistent with the hypotheses of global fractionation.

  20. Comparative developmental neurotoxicity of flame-retardants, polybrominated flame-retardants and organophosphorous compounds, in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, P.; Johansson, N.; Viberg, H.; Fischer, C.; Fredriksson, A. [Dept. of Environmental Toxicology, Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)

    2004-09-15

    Recently we have reported that certain PBDEs, such as 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (PBDE 47), 2,2',4,4',5- pentabromodiphenyl ether (PBDE 99), 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromodiphenyl ether (PBDE153) and 2,2',3,3',4,4',5,5',6,6'-decabromodiphenyl ether (PBDE 209) can cause developmental neurotoxic effects when given to neonatal mice. The developmental neurotoxic effects after neonatal exposure to PBDE 209 are suggested to be caused by a metabolite (possible de-brominated one). Neonatal exposure HBCDD has also been shown to cause developmental neurotoxic effects. Neonatal exposure to PBDE 99, PBDE 153 and HBCDD was also found to affect learning and memory in the adult animal. The induction of permanent aberration in spontaneous behaviour was induced during limited period of the neonatal brain development. The altered spontaneous behaviour was also seen to worsen with age. In these studies we have also found that the cholinergic system is one target that is affected, observed as changes in the response of the cholinergic system and a decrease in cholinergic receptors, and is one of the mechanisms underlying the observed behavioural changes. BFRs so far studied TBBPA appears not to cause developmental neurotoxic effects when administered at the same dose levels to neonatal mice. In the present studies we have investigated whether neonatal exposure to three highly brominated dipehenyl ethers, 2,2',3,4,4',5',6'-heptabromodiphenyl ether (PBDE183), 2,2',3'4'4',5,5',6- octabromodiphenyl ether (PBDE 203) and 2,2',3,3',4,4',5',6'-nonabromodiphenyl ether (PBDE 206) can induce developmental neurotoxic effects, such as aberrations in spontaneous behaviour and in learning and memory. Furthermore, neonatal developmental neurotoxicity effects were also studied for two OPs used as FR, triphenyl phosphate and tris(2-chloro-ethyl)phosphate.

  1. Plasma levels of acylated and total ghrelin in pediatric patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naufel, Maria Fernanda Soares; Bordon, Milena; de Aquino, Talita Marques; Ribeiro, Eliane Beraldi; de Abreu Carvalhaes, João Tomás

    2010-12-01

    This cross-sectional study set out to compare total and acyl ghrelin levels in children with mild chronic kidney disease (CKD) undergoing conservative treatment (n = 19) with children with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) undergoing hemodialysis (n = 24), and with healthy controls (n = 20). The relationship between ghrelin levels and parameters of renal function, nutritional status, and selective hormones were investigated. ESRD patients had higher total ghrelin levels than those with mild CKD or control individuals. However, acyl ghrelin did not differ between groups, indicating that the excess circulating ghrelin was desacylated. Since desacyl ghrelin has been shown to inhibit appetite, increased levels might contribute to protein-energy wasting in pediatric renal patients. When all 43 renal patients were combined, multiple regression analysis found age and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) to be significant negative predictors of total ghrelin. Acyl ghrelin was influenced negatively by age and positively by energy intake. Acyl to total ghrelin ratio related positively to GFR and energy intake. The results indicate that total but not acyl ghrelin is influenced by low GFR in children with CKD and suggests that ghrelin activation may be impaired in these patients. Since energy intake is a positive predictor of acyl ghrelin, the physiological control of ghrelin secretion appears to be altered in pediatric renal patients.

  2. Low-level waste disposal performance assessments - Total source-term analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhite, E.L.

    1995-12-31

    Disposal of low-level radioactive waste at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities is regulated by DOE. DOE Order 5820.2A establishes policies, guidelines, and minimum requirements for managing radioactive waste. Requirements for disposal of low-level waste emplaced after September 1988 include providing reasonable assurance of meeting stated performance objectives by completing a radiological performance assessment. Recently, the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board issued Recommendation 94-2, {open_quotes}Conformance with Safety Standards at Department of Energy Low-Level Nuclear Waste and Disposal Sites.{close_quotes} One of the elements of the recommendation is that low-level waste performance assessments do not include the entire source term because low-level waste emplaced prior to September 1988, as well as other DOE sources of radioactivity in the ground, are excluded. DOE has developed and issued guidance for preliminary assessments of the impact of including the total source term in performance assessments. This paper will present issues resulting from the inclusion of all DOE sources of radioactivity in performance assessments of low-level waste disposal facilities.

  3. Serum immunoglobulin levels in humans exposed to therapeutic total-body gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaskes, S.; Kingdon, G.C.; Balish, E.

    1975-01-01

    Reduced serum immunoglobulin (IgA, IgG, IgM) levels developed in the majority of 27 patients with hematologic disorders after treatment with 100 to 350 R total-body gamma-ray exposures at a dose rate of either 1.5 R/min to 1.5 R/hr. A reduction in IgA of 20 percent or more was found in 66 percent of the cases, while 56 percent showed an IgM decrease, and 49 percent an IgG decrease of 20 percent. The severity of immunoglobulin depression was influenced by the total radiation dose and the patient's primary disease. The occurrence of IgG and IgM depression was greater when the radiation was given at 1.5 R/hr than when the dose rate was 1.5 R/min. Substantial but incomplete recovery toward preirradiation immunoglobulin levels was found for most patients by 7 wk after total-body irradiation (TBI). (U.S.)

  4. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers: occurrence, dietary exposure, and toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darnerud, P O; Eriksen, G S; Jóhannesson, T; Larsen, P B; Viluksela, M

    2001-03-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used as flame retardants in plastics (concentration, 5--30%) and in textile coatings. Commercial products consist predominantly of penta-, octa-, and decabromodiphenyl ether mixtures, and global PBDE production is about 40,000 tons per year. PBDEs are bioaccumulated and biomagnified in the environment, and comparatively high levels are often found in aquatic biotopes from different parts of the world. During the mid-1970--1980s there was a substantial increase in the PBDE levels with time in both sediments and aquatic biota, whereas the latest Swedish data (pike and guillemot egg) may indicate that levels are at steady state or are decreasing. However, exponentially increasing PBDE levels have been observed in mother's milk during 1972--1997. Based on levels in food from 1999, the dietary intake of PBDE in Sweden has been estimated to be 0.05 microg per day. Characteristic end points of animal toxicity are hepatotoxicity, embryotoxicity, and thyroid effects as well as maternal toxicity during gestation. Recently, behavioral effects have been observed in mice on administration of PBDEs during a critical period after birth. Based on the critical effects reported in available studies, we consider the lowest-observed-adverse-effect level (LOAEL) value of the PBDE group to be 1 mg/kg/day (primarily based on effects of pentaBDEs). In conclusion, with the scientific knowledge of today and based on Nordic intake data, the possible consumer health risk from PBDEs appears limited, as a factor of over 10(6) separates the estimated present mean dietary intake from the suggested LOAEL value. However, the presence of many and important data gaps, including those in carcinogenicity, reproduction, and developmental toxicity, as well as additional routes of exposure, make this conclusion only preliminary. Moreover, the time trend of PBDEs in human breast milk is alarming for the future.

  5. Measuring total health inequality: adding individual variation to group-level differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gakidou Emmanuela

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have revealed large variations in average health status across social, economic, and other groups. No study exists on the distribution of the risk of ill-health across individuals, either within groups or across all people in a society, and as such a crucial piece of total health inequality has been overlooked. Some of the reason for this neglect has been that the risk of death, which forms the basis for most measures, is impossible to observe directly and difficult to estimate. Methods We develop a measure of total health inequality – encompassing all inequalities among people in a society, including variation between and within groups – by adapting a beta-binomial regression model. We apply it to children under age two in 50 low- and middle-income countries. Our method has been adopted by the World Health Organization and is being implemented in surveys around the world; preliminary estimates have appeared in the World Health Report (2000. Results Countries with similar average child mortality differ considerably in total health inequality. Liberia and Mozambique have the largest inequalities in child survival, while Colombia, the Philippines and Kazakhstan have the lowest levels among the countries measured. Conclusions Total health inequality estimates should be routinely reported alongside average levels of health in populations and groups, as they reveal important policy-related information not otherwise knowable. This approach enables meaningful comparisons of inequality across countries and future analyses of the determinants of inequality.

  6. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in indoor and outdoor window organic films in Izmir, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetin, Banu; Odabasi, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) concentrations of outdoor and indoor organic films on window glasses were measured at different locations (offices, laboratories, and homes in urban, suburban, rural, and industrial sites) in Izmir, Turkey. Σ 7 PBDE concentrations were dominated by technical penta and deca-BDE mixture components. Average total outdoor PBDE (Σ 7 PBDE) concentrations for suburban, urban, and industrial sites were 43.5, 45.5, and 206 ng m -2 , respectively. This spatial gradient (industrial > urban > suburban concentrations) was similar to one observed for ambient air concentrations recently in Izmir, Turkey. The highest concentrations measured in the industrial area were attributed to the significant PBDE emissions from several steel plants located in the area. Air-organic film partitioning modeling results have suggested that organic films can be used in conjunction with the dynamic uptake model to approximate the gas-phase ambient air concentrations. Modeling results have also indicated that congeners in the gas-phase with very large octanol-air partition coefficients (i.e., BDE-154, -153, and -209) will require several months to approach equilibrium with the surface films. This finding may have important implications for gas-particle and gas-film partitioning, transport, and photolytic degradation of atmospheric PBDEs.

  7. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in indoor and outdoor window organic films in Izmir, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cetin, Banu [Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Dokuz Eylul University, Kaynaklar Campus, 35160 Buca, Izmir (Turkey); Odabasi, Mustafa, E-mail: mustafa.odabasi@deu.edu.tr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Dokuz Eylul University, Kaynaklar Campus, 35160 Buca, Izmir (Turkey)

    2011-01-30

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) concentrations of outdoor and indoor organic films on window glasses were measured at different locations (offices, laboratories, and homes in urban, suburban, rural, and industrial sites) in Izmir, Turkey. {Sigma}{sub 7}PBDE concentrations were dominated by technical penta and deca-BDE mixture components. Average total outdoor PBDE ({Sigma}{sub 7}PBDE) concentrations for suburban, urban, and industrial sites were 43.5, 45.5, and 206 ng m{sup -2}, respectively. This spatial gradient (industrial > urban > suburban concentrations) was similar to one observed for ambient air concentrations recently in Izmir, Turkey. The highest concentrations measured in the industrial area were attributed to the significant PBDE emissions from several steel plants located in the area. Air-organic film partitioning modeling results have suggested that organic films can be used in conjunction with the dynamic uptake model to approximate the gas-phase ambient air concentrations. Modeling results have also indicated that congeners in the gas-phase with very large octanol-air partition coefficients (i.e., BDE-154, -153, and -209) will require several months to approach equilibrium with the surface films. This finding may have important implications for gas-particle and gas-film partitioning, transport, and photolytic degradation of atmospheric PBDEs.

  8. Total proteins and protein fractions levels in pregnant rats subjected to whole-body gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, M.A.; Roushdy, H.M.; Mazhar, F.M.; Abu-Gabal, H.A.

    1986-01-01

    A total number of 180 mature rats (120 females and 60 males) weighing from 120-140 g were used to study the effect of two doses (2 and 4 Gy) whole-body gamma irradiation on the level of total protein and protein fractions in serum of pregnant rats during the period of organogenesis. It was found that the levels of total protein, albumin and gamma globulins significantly decreased according to the doses of exposure. The levels of alpha and beta globulins significantly increased more in the serum of rats exposed to 2 Gy than in rats exposed to 4 Gy. The level of A/G ratio significantly decreased more in the serum of rats exposed to 2Gy than in those exposed to 4 Gy

  9. Serum total bilirubin levels are negatively correlated with metabolic syndrome in aged Chinese women: a community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, P; Sun, D M; Wu, D H; Li, T M; Liu, X Y; Liu, H Y

    2017-01-26

    We evaluated serum total bilirubin levels as a predictor for metabolic syndrome (MetS) and investigated the relationship between serum total bilirubin levels and MetS prevalence. This cross-sectional study included 1728 participants over 65 years of age from Eastern China. Anthropometric data, lifestyle information, and previous medical history were collected. We then measured serum levels of fasting blood-glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and total bilirubin, as well as alanine aminotransferase activity. The prevalence of MetS and each of its individual component were calculated per quartile of total bilirubin level. Logistic regression was used to assess the correlation between serum total bilirubin levels and MetS. Total bilirubin level in the women who did not have MetS was significantly higher than in those who had MetS (Pbilirubin quartiles were linearly and negatively correlated with MetS prevalence and hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) in females (Pbilirubin was an independent predictor of MetS for females (OR: 0.910, 95%CI: 0.863-0.960; P=0.001). The present study suggests that physiological levels of serum total bilirubin might be an independent risk factor for aged Chinese women, and the prevalence of MetS and HTG are negatively correlated to serum total bilirubin levels.

  10. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers--plasma levels and thyroid status of workers at an electronic recycling facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julander, A; Karlsson, M; Hagström, K; Ohlson, C G; Engwall, M; Bryngelsson, I-L; Westberg, H; van Bavel, B

    2005-08-01

    Personnel working with electronic dismantling are exposed to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), which in animal studies have been shown to alter thyroid homeostasis. The aim of this longitudinal study was to measure plasma level of PBDEs in workers at an electronic recycling facility and to relate these to the workers' thyroid status. PBDEs and three thyroid hormones: triiodothyronine (T(3)), thyroxin (T(4)) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were repeatedly analysed in plasma from 11 workers during a period of 1.5 years. Plasma levels of PBDEs at start of employment were plasma levels of PBDEs fluctuated during the study period. Due to small changes in thyroid hormone levels it was concluded that no relevant changes were present in relation to PBDE exposure within the workers participating in this study.

  11. Annoyance from Road Traffic, Trains, Airplanes and from Total Environmental Noise Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragettli, Martina S; Goudreau, Sophie; Plante, Céline; Perron, Stéphane; Fournier, Michel; Smargiassi, Audrey

    2015-12-29

    There is a lack of studies assessing the exposure-response relationship between transportation noise and annoyance in North America. Our aims were to investigate the prevalence of noise annoyance induced by road traffic, trains and airplanes in relation to distance to transportation noise sources, and to total environmental noise levels in Montreal, Canada; annoyance was assessed as noise-induced disturbance. A telephone-based survey among 4336 persons aged >18 years was conducted. Exposure to total environmental noise (A-weighted outdoor noise levels-LAeq24h and day-evening-night equivalent noise levels-Lden) for each study participant was determined using a statistical noise model (land use regression-LUR) that is based on actual outdoor noise measurements. The proportion of the population annoyed by road traffic, airplane and train noise was 20.1%, 13.0% and 6.1%, respectively. As the distance to major roads, railways and the Montreal International Airport increased, the percentage of people disturbed and highly disturbed due to the corresponding traffic noise significantly decreased. When applying the statistical noise model we found a relationship between noise levels and disturbance from road traffic and total environmental noise, with Prevalence Proportion Ratios (PPR) for highly disturbed people of 1.10 (95% CI: 1.07-1.13) and 1.04 (1.02-1.06) per 1 dB(A) Lden, respectively. Our study provides the first comprehensive information on the relationship between transportation noise levels and disturbance in a Canadian city. LUR models are still in development and further studies on transportation noise induced annoyance are consequently needed, especially for sources other than road traffic.

  12. Hypogonadism and subnormal total testosterone levels in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogbera, O.A.; Sonny, C.; Olufemi, F.; Wale, A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of testosterone deficiency syndrome (TDS) in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Study Design: A cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: The Gbagada General Hospital, Gbagada Lagos, Nigeria, from December 2009 to May 2010. Methodology: A total of 203 men with type 2 DM aged 30-86 years were evaluated for TDS by a combination of positive ADAM (androgen deficiency in the ageing male) scores and subnormal total testosterone levels. Mild testosterone deficiency referred to total testosterone (TT) levels of 8-12 nmol/L with symptoms of hypogonadism and severe testosterone deficiency referred to TT levels < 8 nmol/L with or without hypogonadal symptoms. Results: Mild and severe TDS were present in 18.3% and 17% respectively of the study subjects. Commonly occurring clinical parameters of the TDS were erectile dysfunction and loss of libido, which were documented in 63% and 60% respectively in the study subjects. The majority of clinical features of the TDS were comparable in men with and without the TDS. Conclusion: About a third of men with type 2 DM had the TDS. The majority of the symptoms of hypogonadism are largely non-specific and their occurrence is comparable in men with and without low testosterone levels; thus, underscoring the need to have testosterone levels determined in men presenting with such symptoms. (author)

  13. Determination of total cyanide in Hanford Site high-level wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winters, W.I. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Pool, K.H. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-05-01

    Nickel ferrocyanide compounds (Na{sub 2-x}Cs{sub x}NiFe (CN){sub 6}) were produced in a scavenging process to remove {sup 137}Cs from Hanford Site single-shell tank waste supernates. Methods for determining total cyanide in Hanford Site high-level wastes are needed for the evaluation of potential exothermic reactions between cyanide and oxidizers such as nitrate and for safe storage, processing, and management of the wastes in compliance with regulatory requirements. Hanford Site laboratory experience in determining cyanide in high-level wastes is summarized. Modifications were made to standard cyanide methods to permit improved handling of high-level waste samples and to eliminate interferences found in Hanford Site waste matrices. Interferences and associated procedure modifications caused by high nitrates/nitrite concentrations, insoluble nickel ferrocyanides, and organic complexants are described.

  14. Determination of total cyanide in Hanford Site high-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winters, W.I.; Pool, K.H.

    1994-05-01

    Nickel ferrocyanide compounds (Na 2-x Cs x NiFe (CN) 6 ) were produced in a scavenging process to remove 137 Cs from Hanford Site single-shell tank waste supernates. Methods for determining total cyanide in Hanford Site high-level wastes are needed for the evaluation of potential exothermic reactions between cyanide and oxidizers such as nitrate and for safe storage, processing, and management of the wastes in compliance with regulatory requirements. Hanford Site laboratory experience in determining cyanide in high-level wastes is summarized. Modifications were made to standard cyanide methods to permit improved handling of high-level waste samples and to eliminate interferences found in Hanford Site waste matrices. Interferences and associated procedure modifications caused by high nitrates/nitrite concentrations, insoluble nickel ferrocyanides, and organic complexants are described

  15. Dietary intake of PBDEs of residents at two major electronic waste recycling sites in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, J.K.Y. [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China); School of Biological Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong (China); Man, Y.B. [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China); Wu, S.C. [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China); State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Wong, M.H., E-mail: mhwong@hkbu.edu.hk [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China)

    2013-10-01

    The dietary intake of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) of local residents from 2 major electronic waste (e-waste) processing sites (Guiyu, Guangdong Province and Taizhou, Zhejiang Province) in China was investigated. Seventy-four food items were collected from these sites, divided into 9 food groups (freshwater fish, marine fish, shellfish, pork, poultry, chicken offal, egg, vegetables and cereals), and examined for residual PBDE concentrations. Out of all food items examined, the freshwater bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) contained extremely high (11,400 ± 254 ng/g wet wt.) concentrations of PBDE, the highest concentrations amongst published data concerning PBDE detected in freshwater fish. Food consumption data obtained through semi-quantitative food intake questionnaires showed that Guiyu residents had a PBDE dietary intake of 931 ± 772 ng/kg bw/day, of which BDE-47 (584 ng/kg bw/day) exceeded the US EPA's reference dose (100 ng/kg/day). Taizhou (44.7 ± 26.3 ng/kg bw/day) and Lin'an (1.94 ± 0.86 ng/kg bw/day) residents exhibited lower readings. The main dietary source of PBDEs in Guiyu and Taizhou residents was seafood (88–98%) and pork (41%) in Lin'an. The present results indicated that health risks arising from PBDE dietary exposure are of significance in terms of public health and food safety to local residents of e-waste processing sites. - Highlights: ► Food basket analysis was conducted in 2 major e-waste processing sites in China. ► Different food items were contaminated by PBDE contained in e-waste sites in China. ► Guiyu residents had an potential unsafe level of PBDE dietary exposure.

  16. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in plastic products, indoor dust, sediment and fish from informal e-waste recycling sites in Vietnam: a comprehensive assessment of contamination, accumulation pattern, emissions, and human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anh, Hoang Quoc; Nam, Vu Duc; Tri, Tran Manh; Ha, Nguyen Manh; Ngoc, Nguyen Thuy; Mai, Pham Thi Ngoc; Anh, Duong Hong; Minh, Nguyen Hung; Tuan, Nguyen Anh; Minh, Tu Binh

    2017-08-01

    Residue concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in different kinds of samples including consumer products, indoor dust, sediment and fish collected from two e-waste recycling sites, and some industrial, urban and suburban areas in Vietnam were determined to provide a comprehensive assessment of the contamination levels, accumulation pattern, emission potential and human exposure through dust ingestion and fish consumption. There was a large variation of PBDE levels in plastic parts of obsolete electronic equipment (from 1730 to 97,300 ng/g), which is a common result observed in consumer plastic products reported elsewhere. PBDE levels in indoor dust samples collected from e-waste recycling sites ranged from 250 to 8740 ng/g, which were markedly higher than those in industrial areas and household offices. Emission rate of PBDEs from plastic parts of disposed electronic equipment to dust was estimated to be in a range from 3.4 × 10 -7 to 1.2 × 10 -5 (year -1 ) for total PBDEs and from 2.9 × 10 -7 to 7.2 × 10 -6 (year -1 ) for BDE-209. Some fish species collected from ponds in e-waste recycling villages contained elevated levels of PBDEs, especially BDE-209, which were markedly higher than those in fish previously reported. Overall, levels and patterns of PBDE accumulation in different kinds of samples suggest significant emission from e-waste sites and that these areas are potential sources of PBDE contamination. Intakes of PBDEs via fish consumption were generally higher than those estimated through dust ingestion. Intake of BDE-99 and BDE-209 through dust ingestion contributes a large proportion due to higher concentrations in dust and fish. Body weight normalized daily intake through dust ingestion estimated for the e-waste recycling sites (0.10-3.46 ng/day/kg body wt.) were in a high range as compared to those reported in other countries. Our results highlight the potential releases of PBDEs from informal recycling activities and

  17. Levels and distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in Three Gorges Reservoir, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxian Wang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs were investigated in water, sediments, suspended sediments and biofilms in Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR, China. Results showed that dissolved bioavailable PBDEs in water of TGR collected with semipermeable membrane device (SPMD-based virtual organisms (VOs were very low in the range of n.d. to 811 pg/g lipid and the detected compounds were mainly low molecular BDEs such as BDE-15, 17, 28, 47, 49, 66, 99 and 100. The PBDE levels in the sediment core collected near the dam were also very low in the range of 84–300 pg/g dw and the detected compounds were mainly large molecular BDEs such as BDE-196, 197, 206, 207 and 208. In suspended sediments and biofilms, the levels of PBDEs ranged from 298 to 52,843 pg/g dw and the detected compounds were also mainly large molecular BDEs such as BDE- 196, 197, 201, 203, 206, 207, 208 and 209. The dominant compound was BDE-209 which accounted for more than 90% of the total BDEs. Therefore, large molecular BDEs tended to be attached on fine particles. The vertical profile of BDEs on suspended sediments (SS showed that SSs in the middle depth of water contained high level of BDE-209. The phenomenon indicated that most of BDE-209 did not settle into the sediment in front of the dam, instead transported further to downstream.

  18. Serum total and free carnitine levels in children with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asilsoy, Suna; Bekem, Ozlem; Karaman, Ozkan; Uzuner, Nevin; Kavukçu, Salih

    2009-02-01

    Serum carnitine is decreased in recurrent pulmonary infections. We aimed to evaluate serum carnitine levels in asthmatic children. Study group consisted of children with stable asthma and those with acute asthma attacks, while control group included healthy children. Attack severity was determined by the pulmonary score system. Total and free carnitine levels were studied in one blood sample from the control group and stable asthmatics and in two samples from children with acute asthma exacerbation during and after the attack. All the 40 patients in the study group had moderate asthma including 30 with acute attack (13 mild and 17 moderate) and 10 with stable asthma. Carnitine levels were significantly lower in acute attack asthmatics than in the stable asthmatics and controls, while there was no significant difference between the latter two groups. Carnitine levels were not different between asthmatics with mild and moderate attack, and were similar during and after an acute attack. Serum carnitine levels decrease in children with moderate asthma during exacerbation of asthma and shortly thereafter. Further studies are needed to evaluate the effect of carnitine treatment on serum carnitine level.

  19. Total and free thyroid hormone levels in chronic renal failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehta H

    1991-04-01

    Full Text Available The levels of serum total thyroxine (TT4, triiodothyronine (TT3, free T3, (FT3 free T4 (FT4 and thyrotropin (TSH were measured in 127 clinically euthyroid patients with varying grades of chronic renal failure (CRF; and 97 healthy individuals. They were grouped as: Group I containing 93 patients on conservative management; Group II containing 34 patients on regular dialysis therapy; and Group III (normals. Group I patients showed significant decrease in TT3, TT4 and FT3 levels (p less than 0.001 as compared to Group III, whereas FT4 and TSH values in group I were not significantly altered. TT3, TT4 and FT3 levels reduced as the severity of renal damage increased. Variations in TT3, TT4, FT3, FT4 and TSH levels in Group II patients were similar to those in Group I, except for a decrease in TSH levels (p less than 0.05 as compared to normals. Several thyroid function tests are abnormal in CRF patients, however, finding of normal FT4 and TSH levels would indicate functional euthyroid status.

  20. Measurement of the flame retardants polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) in house dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stapleton, H.; Dodder, N.; Schantz, M.; Wise, S. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Current monitoring of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) has shown that concentrations are increasing in the environment very rapidly with doubling times as short as three to five years. North America consumes a large percentage of the global market demand for PBDEs, and as a result, concentrations of PBDEs in human milk and serum are an order of magnitude higher in women from North America relative to Europe. Within sampled populations, PBDE levels in human serum have been shown to range over an order of magnitude, and high levels cannot always be attributed to occupational exposure, age or diet. One source that may be responsible for these observations is exposure in the home. These compounds are liberally applied to many common household items such as furniture, mattresses, computers and TVs to retard or hinder the outbreak of fire. Over time, these flame retardants may leach out into the home environment, where they may be inhaled or ingested, resulting in elevated levels in human serum. Very few studies have examined PBDE levels within the home and only one study has measured the concentrations of two PBDE congeners in house dust. The present study was undertaken to measure a suite PBDE congeners in house dust from a variety of homes and to assess the contribution of the three commercial PBDE mixtures (penta-, octa- and decaBDE) to the house dust composition. In addition, we also measured the concentrations of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD), another flame retardant. Correlations with properties of the houses such as year of construction, square footage, carpeting coverage and number of computers in the house were also examined for any positive influences.

  1. Organic pollutant levels in an agricultural watershed: the importance of analyzing multiple matrices for assessing stream water pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Mariana; Miglioranza, Karina S B; Grondona, Sebastían I; Silva Barni, Maria Florencia; Martinez, Daniel E; Peña, Aránzazu

    2013-04-01

    This study is aimed at analyzing the occurrence and transport of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the Quequén Grande river basin, as representative of a catchment under diffuse pollution sources. Pollutant levels in soils, river bottom sediments (RBS), streamwater (Sw), suspended particle materials (SPMs), macrophytes and muscle of silverside were determined by GC-ECD. Soil K(d) values for the current-used insecticides, endosulfans and cypermethrin, were established. Total levels (ng g(-1) dry weight) in soil ranged between 0.07–0.9 for OCPs, 0.03–0.37 for PCBs and 0.01–0.05 for PBDEs. Endosulfan insecticide (α- + b- + sulfate metabolite) represented up to 72.5% of OCPs. The low soil retention for α-endosulfan (K(d): 77) and endosulfan sulfate (K(d): 100) allows their transport to Sw, SPM and RBS. Levels of endosulfan in Sw in some cases exceeded the value postulated by international guidelines for aquatic biota protection (3 ng L(-1)). PCB and PBDE pollution was related to harbour, dumping sites and pile tire burning. Tri and hexa PCB congeners predominated in all matrices and exceeded the quality guideline value of 0.04 ng L(-1) in Sw. Considering levels in silverside muscle, none of the oral reference doses were exceeded, however, PCBs accounted for 18.6% of the total daily allowed ingest for a 70 kg individual. Although the levels of PCBs and OCPs in soil and RBS were low and did not go beyond quality guidelines, these compounds could still represent a risk to aquatic biota and humanbeings, and thus actions towards preventing this situation should be undertaken.

  2. Total serum IgE level influences oral food challenge tests for IgE-mediated food allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horimukai, K; Hayashi, K; Tsumura, Y; Nomura, I; Narita, M; Ohya, Y; Saito, H; Matsumoto, K

    2015-03-01

    Probability curves predicting oral food challenge test (OFC) results based on specific IgE levels are widely used to prevent serious allergic reactions. Although several confounding factors are known to affect probability curves, the main factors that affect OFC outcomes are currently unclear. We hypothesized that an increased total IgE level would reduce allergic reactivity. Medical records of 337 and 266 patients who underwent OFCs for 3.5 g boiled hen's egg white and 3.1 ml raw cow's milk, respectively, were examined retrospectively. We subdivided the patients into three groups based on total IgE levels and age by percentile (75th percentiles), and logistic regression analyses were performed on each group. Patients with higher total IgE levels were significantly less responsive. In addition, age did not significantly affect the OFC results. Therefore, total IgE levels should be taken into account when predicting OFC results based on food-specific IgE levels. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Exposure to mixtures of organohalogen contaminants and associative interactions with thyroid hormones in East Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanger, Gro D; Jenssen, Bjørn M; Fjeldberg, Rita R; Letcher, Robert J; Muir, Derek C G; Kirkegaard, Maja; Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune

    2011-05-01

    We investigated the multivariate relationships between adipose tissue residue levels of 48 individual organohalogen contaminants (OHCs) and circulating thyroid hormone (TH) levels in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from East Greenland (1999-2001, n=62), using projection to latent structure (PLS) regression for four groupings of polar bears; subadults (SubA), adult females with cubs (AdF_N), adult females without cubs (AdF_S) and adult males (AdM). In the resulting significant PLS models for SubA, AdF_N and AdF_S, some OHCs were especially important in explaining variations in circulating TH levels: polybrominated diphenylether (PBDE)-99, PBDE-100, PBDE-153, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-52, PCB-118, cis-nonachlor, trans-nonachlor, trichlorobenzene (TCB) and pentachlorobenzene (QCB), and both negative and positive relationships with THs were found. In addition, the models revealed that DDTs had a positive influence on total 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (TT3) in AdF_S, and that a group of 17 higher chlorinated ortho-PCBs had a positive influence on total 3,5,3',5'-tetraiodothyronine (thyroxine, TT4) in AdF_N. TH levels in AdM seemed less influenced by OHCs because of non-significant PLS models. TH levels were also influenced by biological factors such as age, sex, body size, lipid content of adipose tissue and sampling date. When controlling for biological variables, the major relationships from the PLS models for SubA, AdF_N and AdF_S were found significant in partial correlations. The most important OHCs that influenced TH levels in the significant PLS models may potentially act through similar mechanisms on the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis, suggesting that both combined effects by dose and response addition and perhaps synergistic potentiation may be a possibility in these polar bears. Statistical associations are not evidence per se of biological cause-effect relationships. Still, the results of the present study indicate that OHCs may affect circulating

  4. Pollutant Dehalogenation Capability May Depend on the Trophic Evolutionary History of the Organism: PBDEs in Freshwater Food Webs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartrons, Mireia; Grimalt, Joan O.; de Mendoza, Guillermo; Catalan, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    Organohalogen compounds are some of the most notorious persistent pollutants disturbing the Earth biosphere. Although human-made, these chemicals are not completely alien to living systems. A large number of natural organohalogens, part of the secondary metabolism, are involved in chemical trophic interactions. Surprisingly, the relationship between organisms’ trophic position and synthetic organohalogen biotransformation capability has not been investigated. We studied the case for polybromodiphenyl ethers (PBDE), a group of flame-retardants of widespread use in the recent years, in aquatic food webs from remote mountain lakes. These relatively simple ecosystems only receive pollution by atmospheric transport. A large predominance of the PBDE congener currently in use in Europe, BDE-209, largely dominated the PBDE composition of the basal resources of the food web. In contrast, primary consumers (herbivores and detritivores) showed a low proportion of BDE-209, and dominance of several less brominated congeners (e.g. BDE-100, BDE47). Secondary consumers (predators) showed large biomagnification of BDE-209 compare to other congeners. Finally, top predator fish characterized by low total PBDE concentrations. Examination of the bromine stable isotopic composition indicates that primary consumers showed higher PBDE biotransformation capability than secondary consumers. We suggest that the evolutionary response of primary consumers to feeding deterrents would have pre-adapted them for PBDE biotransformation. The observed few exceptions, some insect taxa, can be interpreted in the light of the trophic history of the evolutionary lineage of the organisms. Bromine isotopic composition in fish indicates that low PBDE values are due to not only biotransformation but also to some other process likely related to transport. Our finding illustrates that organohalogen compounds may strongly disturb ecosystems even at low concentrations, since the species lacking or having

  5. Pollutant dehalogenation capability may depend on the trophic evolutionary history of the organism: PBDEs in freshwater food webs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireia Bartrons

    Full Text Available Organohalogen compounds are some of the most notorious persistent pollutants disturbing the Earth biosphere. Although human-made, these chemicals are not completely alien to living systems. A large number of natural organohalogens, part of the secondary metabolism, are involved in chemical trophic interactions. Surprisingly, the relationship between organisms' trophic position and synthetic organohalogen biotransformation capability has not been investigated. We studied the case for polybromodiphenyl ethers (PBDE, a group of flame-retardants of widespread use in the recent years, in aquatic food webs from remote mountain lakes. These relatively simple ecosystems only receive pollution by atmospheric transport. A large predominance of the PBDE congener currently in use in Europe, BDE-209, largely dominated the PBDE composition of the basal resources of the food web. In contrast, primary consumers (herbivores and detritivores showed a low proportion of BDE-209, and dominance of several less brominated congeners (e.g. BDE-100, BDE47. Secondary consumers (predators showed large biomagnification of BDE-209 compare to other congeners. Finally, top predator fish characterized by low total PBDE concentrations. Examination of the bromine stable isotopic composition indicates that primary consumers showed higher PBDE biotransformation capability than secondary consumers. We suggest that the evolutionary response of primary consumers to feeding deterrents would have pre-adapted them for PBDE biotransformation. The observed few exceptions, some insect taxa, can be interpreted in the light of the trophic history of the evolutionary lineage of the organisms. Bromine isotopic composition in fish indicates that low PBDE values are due to not only biotransformation but also to some other process likely related to transport. Our finding illustrates that organohalogen compounds may strongly disturb ecosystems even at low concentrations, since the species lacking

  6. Serum total IgG and IgG4 levels in thyroid eye disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sy A

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aileen Sy, Rona Z Silkiss Department of Ophthalmology, California Pacific Medical Center, San Francisco, CA, USA Purpose: To investigate the relationship between immunoglobulin G (IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD and thyroid eye disease (TED with respect to IgG levels. Patients and methods: A retrospective review of total IgG, IgG subclass, and thyroid stimulating immunoglobulin (TSI levels in 24 patients with TED. Results: Five patients (20.8% demonstrated serum IgG4 levels consistent with IgG4-RD without any additional systemic disease. Total IgG and IgG subclass levels were found to be an inadequate proxy for TSI elevation. Conclusion: There may be a subtype of TED patients with elevated IgG4 in the absence of IgG4-RD systemic findings. Keywords: thyroid eye disease, IgG subclass, IgG4, Graves’ disease, Graves’ ophthalmopathy, IgG4-RD

  7. Evolution of extreme Total Water Levels along the northern coast of the Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. F. Rasilla Álvarez

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the evolution of storminess along the northern coast of the Iberian Peninsula through the calculation of extreme (1% Total Water Levels (eTWL on both observed (tide gauge and buoy data and hindcasted (SIMAR-44 data. Those events were first identified and then characterized in terms of oceanographic parameters and atmospheric circulation features. Additionally, an analysis of the long-term trends in both types of data was performed. Most of the events correspond to a rough wave climate and moderate storm surges, linked to extratropical disturbances following a northern track. While local atmospheric conditions seem to be evolving towards lesser storminess, their impact has been balanced by the favorable exposure of the northern coast of the Iberian Peninsula to the increasing frequency and strength of distant disturbances crossing the North Atlantic. This evolution is also correctly reproduced by the simulated long-term evolution of the forcing component (meteorological sea level residuals and wave run up of the Total Water Level values calculated from the SIMAR 44 database, since sea level residuals have been experiencing a reduction while waves are arriving with longer periods. Finally, the addition of the rate of relative sea level trend to the temporal evolution of the atmospheric forcing component of the Total Water Level values is enough to simulate more frequent and persistent eTWL.

  8. Normal levels of total body sodium and chlorine by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, N.S.J.; Eastell, R.; Smith, M.A.; Tothill, P.

    1983-01-01

    In vivo neutron activation analysis was used to measure total body sodium and chlorine in 18 male and 18 female normal adults. Corrections for body size were developed. Normalisation factors were derived which enable the prediction of the normal levels of sodium and chlorine in a subject. The coefficient of variation of normalised sodium was 5.9% in men and 6.9% in women, and of normalised chlorine 9.3% in men and 5.5% in women. In the range examined (40-70 years) no significant age dependence was observed for either element. Total body sodium was correlated with total body chlorine and total body calcium. Sodium excess, defined as the amount of body sodium in excess of that associated with chlorine, also correlated well with total body calcium. In females there was a mean annual loss of sodium excess of 1.2% after the menopause, similar to the loss of calcium. (author)

  9. Incidence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in central air conditioner filter dust from a new office building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni Honggang; Cao Shanping; Chang Wenjing [Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Circular Economy, Shenzhen Graduate School, Peking University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Zeng Hui, E-mail: huizeng0608@gmail.com [Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Circular Economy, Shenzhen Graduate School, Peking University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Department of Ecology, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2011-07-15

    This study examined polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in central air conditioner filter (CACF) dust from a new office building in Shenzhen, China. Human exposure to PBDE via dust inhalation and ingestion were also estimated. PBDEs level in CACF dust was lower than those in the other countries and regions. Approximately 0.671 pg/kg bw/day PM{sub 2.5} (Particulate Matter up to 2.5 {mu}m in size) bounded {Sigma}{sub 15}PBDEs can be inhaled deep into the lungs and 4.123 pg/kg bw/day PM{sub 10} (Particulate Matter up to 10 {mu}m in size) bounded {Sigma}{sub 15}PBDEs tend to be deposited in the upper parts of the respiratory system. The average total intake of {Sigma}{sub 15}PBDEs via dust inhalation and ingestion for adults reached {approx}141 pg/kg bw/day in this building. This value was far below the reference dose (RfD) recommended by United States Environmental Protection Agency. Human exposure to PBDEs via dust inhalation and ingestion in the new building is less than the old ones. - Highlights: > Human exposure to PBDEs via dust inhalation and ingestion in the new building is less than that in the old ones. > PBDE emissions from indoor sources can be expected to continue for a long time as the PBDE-containing products in offices were to be kept many years. > The household consumer products, especially computers, are the main sources of PBDEs in central air conditioner filter dust. > Further studies are needed to fully understand the emission mechanism of PBDE from indoor consumer products. - PBDEs in central air conditioner filter dust from a new building were investigated

  10. Incidence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in central air conditioner filter dust from a new office building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni Honggang; Cao Shanping; Chang Wenjing; Zeng Hui

    2011-01-01

    This study examined polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in central air conditioner filter (CACF) dust from a new office building in Shenzhen, China. Human exposure to PBDE via dust inhalation and ingestion were also estimated. PBDEs level in CACF dust was lower than those in the other countries and regions. Approximately 0.671 pg/kg bw/day PM 2.5 (Particulate Matter up to 2.5 μm in size) bounded Σ 15 PBDEs can be inhaled deep into the lungs and 4.123 pg/kg bw/day PM 10 (Particulate Matter up to 10 μm in size) bounded Σ 15 PBDEs tend to be deposited in the upper parts of the respiratory system. The average total intake of Σ 15 PBDEs via dust inhalation and ingestion for adults reached ∼141 pg/kg bw/day in this building. This value was far below the reference dose (RfD) recommended by United States Environmental Protection Agency. Human exposure to PBDEs via dust inhalation and ingestion in the new building is less than the old ones. - Highlights: → Human exposure to PBDEs via dust inhalation and ingestion in the new building is less than that in the old ones. → PBDE emissions from indoor sources can be expected to continue for a long time as the PBDE-containing products in offices were to be kept many years. → The household consumer products, especially computers, are the main sources of PBDEs in central air conditioner filter dust. → Further studies are needed to fully understand the emission mechanism of PBDE from indoor consumer products. - PBDEs in central air conditioner filter dust from a new building were investigated

  11. Temporal trends of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the blood of newborns from New York State during 1997 through 2011: analysis of dried blood spots from the newborn screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wan-Li; Yun, Sehun; Bell, Erin M; Druschel, Charlotte M; Caggana, Michele; Aldous, Kenneth M; Buck Louis, Germaine M; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2013-07-16

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants, and on a global basis, North American populations are exposed to the highest doses of PBDEs. In response to the exponential increase in human exposure to PBDEs during the late 1990s, some PBDE formulations were phased out from production in the early 2000s. The effectiveness of the phase-out of commercial penta-BDE and octa-BDE mixtures in 2004 in the U.S. on human exposure levels is not known. Dried blood spots (DBSs), collected for the newborn screening program (NSP) in the U.S., are a valuable resource for the elucidation of trends in exposure to environmental pollutants in newborns. In this study, seven PBDE congeners were determined by gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) in archived DBS samples (in total, 51 blood spot composites from 1224 newborns) collected from newborns in New York State (NYS) from 1997 to 2011. The most frequently detected PBDE congener was BDE-47, with a detection rate (DR) of 86%, followed by BDE-99 (DR: 45%) and BDE-100 (DR: 43%). The mean concentrations determined during 1997 through 2011 in the whole blood of newborns were 0.128, 0.040, and 0.012 ng/mL for BDE-47, -99, and -100, respectively. A significant correlation was found among the concentrations of three major congeners (p < 0.001). PBDE concentrations were similar during 1997 through 2002 and, thereafter, decreased significantly, which was similar to the trends observed for perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in DBS samples. Occurrence of PBDEs in the whole blood of newborns confirms that these compounds do cross the placental barrier.

  12. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls in sediments of southwest Taiwan: Regional characteristics and potential sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Jheng-Jie; Lee, Chon-Lin; Fang, Meng-Der; Ko, Fung-Chi; Baker, Joel E.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → This paper presents the very first PBDE and PCB study in coastal sediment of Taiwan. → Compositional patterns indicated deca-BDE and octa-BDE products as dominant sources. → The possible source of PBDE may be the nearby electric/electronic industry in Taiwan. → PCB signatures suggested the legacy of past use of commercial PCB mixtures in Taiwan. - Abstract: Very little information is available on the contamination of coastal sediments of Taiwan by PBDEs and PCBs. In this study, we determined the concentrations of 19 PBDE and 209 PCB congeners in 57 surface sediment samples to identify the possible sources of PBDEs and PCBs. The total PBDE and PCB concentrations ranged from below detection limit to 7.73 ng/g and 0.88-7.13 ng/g, respectively; these values are within the ranges observed for most coastal sediments worldwide. The PBDE congeners were dominated by BDE-209 (50.7-99.7%), with minor contributions from penta- and octa-BDEs. The signatures of PCB congeners suggested that PCB residues in Kaohsiung coast may be the legacy of past use or the result of ongoing inputs from the maintenance, repair and salvage of old ships. Principal component analysis of the congener-specific composition of PBDEs and PCBs revealed distinct regional patterns that are related to the use of commercial products.

  13. Levels of brominated flame retardants and other pesistent organic pollutants in breast milk samples from Limpopo province, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darnerud, Per Ola, E-mail: poda@slv.se [Toxicology Division, National Food Administration, P.O. Box 622, SE-751 26 Uppsala (Sweden); Aune, Marie; Larsson, Lotta [Chemistry Division 2, National Food Administration, P.O. Box 622, SE-751 26 Uppsala (Sweden); Lignell, Sanna [Toxicology Division, National Food Administration, P.O. Box 622, SE-751 26 Uppsala (Sweden); Mutshatshi, Tshinanne; Okonkwo, Jonathan; Botha, Ben [Faculty of Science, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria (South Africa); Agyei, Nana [Department of Chemistry, Limpopo University, Medunsa (South Africa)

    2011-09-01

    The non-occupational exposure to brominated flame retardants, and other persistent organic pollutants (POPs) was studied by collecting human breast milk samples from mothers residing in Thohoyandou area, a rural district in the Limpopo Province, northern part of South Africa (SA). Of all collected samples to be analysed (n = 28), those with large enough milk volumes, (n = 14) were quantified for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) (9 congeners: BDE-28, 47, 66, 99, 100, 138, 153, 154, and 183) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) on a GC equipped with dual capillary columns and dual electron-capture detectors (ECD). The levels of PBDE congeners (median sumBDE 1.3 ng/g of lipids) and of HBCD were not far from levels generally found in European studies, and this study may be the first report on the presence of PBDEs and HBCD in SA breast milk. On a congener basis, the finding of comparably high BDE-183 levels suggests a specific PBDE usage, or contamination situation in SA. Apart from BFRs, the high DDT levels found in the breast milk from this area (median and maximum sumDDT levels of about 4 600 and over 20 000 ng/g of lipids, respectively; n = 28) have earlier been reported. In addition, other POPs (PCBs, HCB and HCHs) were found in SA breast milk, at relatively low levels. To conclude, measurable levels of PBDEs and HBCD, and a specific BDE congener pattern, were found in breast milk from the Limpopo province, SA. A number of other POPs, including DDTs in high levels, were also present. - Highlights: {yields} Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were analysed in South African breast milk. {yields} Focus of interest were brominated flame retardants (BRFs). {yields} Sampling area was the rural Limpopo Province, northern SA. {yields} Probably the first reported African data on BFRs (PBDEs, HBCD) in breast milk. {yields} Reported BFR data similar to European levels.

  14. Total and ionized serum magnesium and calcium levels during magnesium sulfate administration for preterm labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Won Hee; An, Yuna; Moon, Jong Ho; Noh, Eun Ji; Kim, Jong Woon

    2018-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to estimate the association between total and ionized magnesium, and the changes in serum magnesium and calcium levels in patients with preterm labor during magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) administration. Methods The study population included 64 women who were candidates for intravenous MgSO4 treatment for preterm labor. Serial blood samples were taken and measured total magnesium (T-Mg), ionized magnesium (I-Mg), total calcium (T-Ca), and ionized calcium (I-Ca) levels every one-week interval (1st, 2nd, 3rd). Results There was no significant difference in T-Mg and I-Mg levels during MgSO4 administration (P>0.05). There was no significant difference in T-Ca and I-Ca levels during MgSO4 administration (P>0.05). Compared before and after administration of MgSO4, T-Mg and I-Mg levels and T-Ca levels were changed allow statistically significant (P0.05). There was significant correlation between levels of I-Mg and T-Mg (I-Mg=0.395×T-Mg+0.144, P<0.01). Conclusion There were no significant differences in serum Mg and Ca levels during MgSO4 administration for preterm labor. Compared to the before and after administration of MgSO4, only I-Ca levels were not substantially changed. There are significant correlations between I-Mg and T-Mg levels during administration of MgSO4 and I-Mg level seemed to have more correlation with adverse effect than T-Mg. PMID:29372150

  15. Concentration of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in sediment cores of Sundarban mangrove wetland, northeastern part of Bay of Bengal (India)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binelli, Andrea; Sarkar, Santosh Kumar; Chatterjee, Mousumi; Riva, Consuelo; Parolini, Marco; Bhattacharya, Bhaskar deb; Bhattacharya, Asok Kumar; Satpathy, Kamala Kanta

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents the first comprehensive survey of congener profiles (12 congeners) of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in core sediment samples ( 12 PBDE values ranging from 0.08 to 29.03 ng g -1 , reflecting moderate to low contamination closely in conformity to other Asian aquatic environments. The general order of decreasing congener contribution to the total load was: BDE 47 > 99 > 100 > 154, similar to the distribution pattern worldwide. Although tetrabromodiphenyl ether BDE 47 was found in all samples followed by hexabromodiphenyl ether BDE-154, they were not necessarily the dominant congeners. No uniform temporal trend on PBDE levels was recorded probably due to particular hydrological characteristics of the wetland and/on non-homologous inputs from point sources (untreated municipal wastewater and local industries, electronic wastes from the dump sites, etc.) of these compounds. Because of the propensity of PBDEs to accumulate in various compartments of wildlife and human food webs, evaluation of biological tissues should be undertaken as a high priority

  16. Levels of plasma selenium and urinary total arsenic interact to affect the risk for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsueh, Yu-Mei; Su, Chien-Tien; Shiue, Horng-Sheng; Chen, Wei-Jen; Pu, Yeong-Shiau; Lin, Ying-Chin; Tsai, Cheng-Shiuan; Huang, Chao-Yuan

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated whether plasma selenium levels modified the risk for prostate cancer (PC) related to arsenic exposure. We conducted a case-control study that included 318 PC patients and 318 age-matched, healthy control subjects. Urinary arsenic profiles were examined using HPLC-HG-AAS and plasma selenium levels were measured by ICP-MS. We found that plasma selenium levels displayed a significant dose-dependent inverse association with PC. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for PC was 0.07 (0.04-0.13) among participants with a plasma selenium level >28.06 μg/dL vs. ≤19.13 μg/dL. A multivariate analysis showed that participants with a urinary total arsenic concentration >29.28 μg/L had a significantly higher OR (1.75, 1.06-2.89) for PC than participants with ≤29.89 μg/L. The combined presence of a low plasma selenium level and a high urinary total arsenic concentration exponentially increased the OR for PC, and additively interacted with PSA at levels ≥20 ng/mL. This is the first epidemiological study to examine the combined effects of plasma selenium and urinary total arsenic levels on the OR for PC. Our data suggest a low plasma selenium level coupled with a high urinary total arsenic concentration creates a significant risk for aggressive PC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Congener distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in feral carp (Cyprinus carpio) from the Llobregat River, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labandeira, Ana [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IIQAB, CSIC, Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Eljarrat, Ethel [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IIQAB, CSIC, Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: eeeqam@cid.csic.es; Barcelo, Damia [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IIQAB, CSIC, Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain)

    2007-03-15

    Feral carp were collected at two Spanish rivers, Anoia and Cardener, showing PBDE levels from 29 to 638 ng/g lipid weight (lw) and from 54 to 744 ng/g lw, respectively. Sediments were also collected, showing PBDE contamination between 2 and 10 ng/g dry weight (dw). Differences in PBDE profiles between sediments and fish were noticed. Contribution of BDE-47 in sediment was up to 11%, whereas it contributed 37-90% of PBDEs in fish. Similar results were observed for BDE-154, which was only detected in one sediment sample, but presented high contribution in carp. In contrast, BDE-99 contributed up to 32% in sediments, but it was not detected in fish. Similar results were observed for BDE-153, BDE-183 and BDE-209. The main reason for their concentration decrease or absence in biota may be due to low bioavailability potential or due to biotransformation processes. - Differences in PBDE profiles between sediments and fish were observed, suggesting biotransformation in carp.

  18. Congener distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in feral carp (Cyprinus carpio) from the Llobregat River, Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labandeira, Ana; Eljarrat, Ethel; Barcelo, Damia

    2007-01-01

    Feral carp were collected at two Spanish rivers, Anoia and Cardener, showing PBDE levels from 29 to 638 ng/g lipid weight (lw) and from 54 to 744 ng/g lw, respectively. Sediments were also collected, showing PBDE contamination between 2 and 10 ng/g dry weight (dw). Differences in PBDE profiles between sediments and fish were noticed. Contribution of BDE-47 in sediment was up to 11%, whereas it contributed 37-90% of PBDEs in fish. Similar results were observed for BDE-154, which was only detected in one sediment sample, but presented high contribution in carp. In contrast, BDE-99 contributed up to 32% in sediments, but it was not detected in fish. Similar results were observed for BDE-153, BDE-183 and BDE-209. The main reason for their concentration decrease or absence in biota may be due to low bioavailability potential or due to biotransformation processes. - Differences in PBDE profiles between sediments and fish were observed, suggesting biotransformation in carp

  19. Summer atmospheric polybrominated diphenyl ethers in urban and rural areas of northern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chen; Li Wei; Chen Jiwei; Wang Hongqijie; Li Tongchao; Shen Guofeng; Shen Huizhong; Huang Ye; Wang Rong; Wang Bin; Zhang Yanyan; Tang Jianhui; Liu Wenxin; Wang Xilong; Tao Shu

    2012-01-01

    High levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been extensively reported in urban areas and at e-waste recycling sites in coastal China. However, data are scarce in northern China and are not available in rural areas at all. In addition, it is often believed that air concentrations in rural areas are lower than those in urban areas without distinguishing rural residential areas and open fields. In this study, air samples were collected at 17 sites covering urban and rural (residential and open field) areas in northern China using active samplers. With BDE-209 dominated in all congeners, the average concentrations of BDE-209 (41 ± 72 pg/m 3 ) and other 13 PBDEs (16 ± 12 pg/m 3 ) were significantly lower than those found in south China, such as in Guangzhou or Hong Kong. On average, the total PBDE concentrations at the urban sites were 2.2 and 2.9 times of those at the rural residential and field sites, respectively. - Graphical abstract: Concentration of PBDEs at each site of the studied area. Highlights: ► High levels of PBDEs with BDE-209 domination were detected in air in northern China. ► PBDE concentrations in rural residential areas were significantly higher than those in rural open fields. ► Proportions of BDE-209 in urban areas were higher than those in rural areas. ► PBDE concentrations were correlated to local population density and Gross Domestic Production. - In northern China, PBDEs in air in rural residential areas were significantly higher than those in open fields.

  20. Genome-wide association study for levels of total serum IgE identifies HLA-C in a Japanese population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohei Yatagai

    Full Text Available Most of the previously reported loci for total immunoglobulin E (IgE levels are related to Th2 cell-dependent pathways. We undertook a genome-wide association study (GWAS to identify genetic loci responsible for IgE regulation. A total of 479,940 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were tested for association with total serum IgE levels in 1180 Japanese adults. Fine-mapping with SNP imputation demonstrated 6 candidate regions: the PYHIN1/IFI16, MHC classes I and II, LEMD2, GRAMD1B, and chr13∶60576338 regions. Replication of these candidate loci in each region was assessed in 2 independent Japanese cohorts (n = 1110 and 1364, respectively. SNP rs3130941 in the HLA-C region was consistently associated with total IgE levels in 3 independent populations, and the meta-analysis yielded genome-wide significance (P = 1.07×10(-10. Using our GWAS results, we also assessed the reproducibility of previously reported gene associations with total IgE levels. Nine of 32 candidate genes identified by a literature search were associated with total IgE levels after correction for multiple testing. Our findings demonstrate that SNPs in the HLA-C region are strongly associated with total serum IgE levels in the Japanese population and that some of the previously reported genetic associations are replicated across ethnic groups.

  1. Polybrominated diphenyl ether congeners in the young-of-the-year bluefish, Pomatomus saltatrix, from several nursery habitats along the US Atlantic coastline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Ashok D; Dockum, Bruce W

    2013-12-15

    Spatial trends of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners were examined by using high resolution gas chromatography-low resolution electron impact mass spectrometry (GC-EIMS) in 414 samples of young-of-the-year (YOY) bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix) collected from a total of 29 nursery habitats along the US Atlantic coastline from Massachusetts to Florida. Of the 26 target PBDE congeners, BDE-47 (4 Br), BDE-100 (5 Br), BDE-49 (4 Br), BDE-99 (5 Br), and BDE-154 (6 Br) were the five most frequently detected congeners in the order of decreasing importance. The sum of the concentrations of five major PBDE congeners, referred to as ΣPBDEs, varied between estuaries and also among samples from a given estuary. ΣPBDEs were lowest in YOY bluefish from Vineyard Sound, Nantucket Sound, Great Bay, Delaware Bay, Lynnhaven Bay, Cape Lookout, and Crescent Beach, with maximum ΣPBDE concentrations below 10 ng/g wet weight. ΣPBDEs in three bluefish samples from Stamford Harbor were detected at relatively high to unusually high concentrations of 69.1, 205, and 561 ng/g wet weight. ΣPBDE values for other Stamford Harbor bluefish were generally low. Highest PBDE concentrations were detected in the vicinity of industrial and urban locations within the New York-New Jersey metropolitan complex. Among them, bluefish from Newark Bay were generally the most contaminated with an average ΣPBDE value of 56.6 ± 30.8 ng/g wet weight. ΣPBDEs in bluefish from Newark Bay were numerically greater than ΣPBDEs in bluefish from all locations, however these differences were not statistically significant. Modest to good correlations between ΣPBDEs and lipids were observed for YOY bluefish from Buzzards Bay, Upper New Bedford Harbor, Lower New Bedford Harbor, Outer New Bedford Harbor, Providence Harbor, Housatonic River, Norwalk Harbor, Little Neck Bay, Newark Bay, Sandy Hook Bay, Great Bay, Delaware Bay, Patuxent River and Crescent Beach. Poor correlations between ΣPBDE and lipids were

  2. Effects of Dry Storage and Resubmersion of Oysters on Total Vibrio vulnificus and Total and Pathogenic (tdh+/trh+) Vibrio parahaemolyticus Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsey, Thomas P; Lydon, Keri A; Bowers, John C; Jones, Jessica L

    2015-08-01

    Vibrio vulnificus (Vv) and Vibrio parahaemolyticus (Vp) are the two leading causes of bacterial illnesses associated with raw shellfish consumption. Levels of these pathogens in oysters can increase during routine antifouling aquaculture practices involving dry storage in ambient air conditions. After storage, common practice is to resubmerge these stored oysters to reduce elevated Vv and Vp levels, but evidence proving the effectiveness of this practice is lacking. This study examined the changes in Vv and in total and pathogenic (thermostable direct hemolysin gene and the tdh-related hemolysin gene, tdh+ and trh+) Vp levels in oysters after 5 or 24 h of dry storage (28 to 32°C), followed by resubmersion (27 to 32°C) for 14 days. For each trial, replicate oyster samples were collected at initial harvest, after dry storage, after 7 days, and after 14 days of resubmersion. Oysters not subjected to dry storage were collected and analyzed to determine natural undisturbed vibrio levels (background control). Vibrio levels were measured using a most-probable-number enrichment followed by real-time PCR. After storage, vibrio levels (excluding tdh+ and trh+ Vp during 5-h storage) increased significantly (P oysters stored for 5 h) were not significantly different (P oysters. Vv and total and pathogenic Vp levels were not significantly different (P > 0.1) from levels in background oysters after 14 days of resubmersion, regardless of dry storage time. These data demonstrate that oyster resubmersion after dry storage at elevated ambient temperatures allows vibrio levels to return to those of background control samples. These results can be used to help minimize the risk of Vv and Vp illnesses and to inform the oyster industry on the effectiveness of routine storing and resubmerging of aquaculture oysters.

  3. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in road and farmland soils from an e-waste recycling region in Southern China: Concentrations, source profiles, and potential dispersion and deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Yong; Luo Xiaojun; Lin Zhen; Chen Shejun; Liu Juan; Mai Bixian; Yang Zhongyi

    2009-01-01

    The present study analyzed road soils collected near the dismantling workshops of an e-waste recycling region in South China to determine the PBDE profiles. Farmland soils at a distance of about 2 km from the dismantling workshops were also collected to evaluate the potential dispersion and deposition of PBDEs in the surrounding environment. Total PBDE concentrations ranged from 191 to 9156 ng/g dry weight in road soils and from 2.9 to 207 ng/g dry weight in farmland soils, respectively. Three PBDE source profiles were observed from the road soils by principal component analysis, and were compared with the congener patterns in different technical products. Elevated abundances of octa- and nona-congeners were found in the 'deca-' derived PBDEs as compared with the deca-BDE products. The results in this study suggest that debromination of BDE 209 may have occurred during the use of electric and electronic equipment and/or another technical formulation (Bromkal 79-8DE) was also likely the source of octa- and nona-congeners in e-wastes. Comparison of the PBDE patterns in road and farmland soils implied that the PBDEs in farmland soils have been subject to complex environmental processes

  4. Natural and anthropogenically-produced brominated compounds in endemic dolphins from Western South Atlantic: Another risk to a vulnerable species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, Mariana B.; Eljarrat, Ethel; Gorga, Marina; Secchi, Eduardo R.; Bassoi, Manuela; Barbosa, Lupércio; Bertozzi, Carolina P.; Marigo, Juliana; Cremer, Marta; Domit, Camila; Azevedo, Alexandre F.; Dorneles, Paulo R.; Torres, João Paulo M.

    2012-01-01

    Liver samples from 53 Franciscana dolphins along the Brazilian coast were analyzed for organobrominated compounds. Target substances included the following anthropogenic pollutants: polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), pentabromoethylbenzene (PBEB), hexabromobenzene (HBB), decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE), as well as the naturally-generated methoxylated-PBDEs (MeO-PBDEs). PBDE concentrations ranged from 6 to 1797 ng/g lw (mean 166 ± 298 ng/g lw) and were similar to those observed in cetaceans from Northern Hemisphere. PBBs were found in all sampling locations (< LOQ to 57 ng/g lw). DBDPE was detected in 42% of the dolphins from the most industrialized Brazilian state and the concentrations ranging from < LOQ to 352 ng/g lw. Franciscana dolphins from the tropical Brazilian shore presented the highest MeO-PBDE concentrations ever reported for coastal cetaceans (up to 14 μg/g lw). Eight MeO-PBDE congeners were detected and the present investigation constituted the first record of occurrence of six of them in marine mammal livers. - Highlights: ► PBDE, emerging BFR and MeO-PBDE levels in Franciscana dolphin from Brazil were reported. ► Six MeO-PBDEs were detected for the first time in marine mammals. ► PBDE contamination was similar than those from other industrialized areas around the world. ► MeO-PBDEs presented the higher concentrations found in coastal biota worldwide. - Concentrations and accumulation profiles of PBDEs, MeO-PBDEs and emerging brominated compounds in livers of dolphins from South Atlantic.

  5. Levels of total mercury in predatory fish sold in Canada in 2005

    OpenAIRE

    Dabeka, R.W.; McKenzie, A.D.; Forsyth, D.S.

    2011-01-01

    Total mercury was analysed in 188 samples of predatory fish purchased at the retail level in Canada in 2005. The average concentrations (ng g−1, range) were: sea bass 329 (38–1367), red snapper 148 (36–431), orange roughy 543 (279–974), fresh water trout 55 (20–430), grouper 360 (8–1060), black cod 284 (71–651), Arctic char 37 (28–54), king fish 440 (42–923), tilefish 601 (79–1164) and marlin 854 (125–2346). The Canadian standard for maximum total mercury allowed in the edible portions of fis...

  6. Annoyance from Road Traffic, Trains, Airplanes and from Total Environmental Noise Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina S. Ragettli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a lack of studies assessing the exposure-response relationship between transportation noise and annoyance in North America. Our aims were to investigate the prevalence of noise annoyance induced by road traffic, trains and airplanes in relation to distance to transportation noise sources, and to total environmental noise levels in Montreal, Canada; annoyance was assessed as noise-induced disturbance. A telephone-based survey among 4336 persons aged >18 years was conducted. Exposure to total environmental noise (A-weighted outdoor noise levels—LAeq24h and day-evening-night equivalent noise levels—Lden for each study participant was determined using a statistical noise model (land use regression—LUR that is based on actual outdoor noise measurements. The proportion of the population annoyed by road traffic, airplane and train noise was 20.1%, 13.0% and 6.1%, respectively. As the distance to major roads, railways and the Montreal International Airport increased, the percentage of people disturbed and highly disturbed due to the corresponding traffic noise significantly decreased. When applying the statistical noise model we found a relationship between noise levels and disturbance from road traffic and total environmental noise, with Prevalence Proportion Ratios (PPR for highly disturbed people of 1.10 (95% CI: 1.07–1.13 and 1.04 (1.02–1.06 per 1 dB(A Lden, respectively. Our study provides the first comprehensive information on the relationship between transportation noise levels and disturbance in a Canadian city. LUR models are still in development and further studies on transportation noise induced annoyance are consequently needed, especially for sources other than road traffic.

  7. Annoyance from Road Traffic, Trains, Airplanes and from Total Environmental Noise Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragettli, Martina S.; Goudreau, Sophie; Plante, Céline; Perron, Stéphane; Fournier, Michel; Smargiassi, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    There is a lack of studies assessing the exposure-response relationship between transportation noise and annoyance in North America. Our aims were to investigate the prevalence of noise annoyance induced by road traffic, trains and airplanes in relation to distance to transportation noise sources, and to total environmental noise levels in Montreal, Canada; annoyance was assessed as noise-induced disturbance. A telephone-based survey among 4336 persons aged >18 years was conducted. Exposure to total environmental noise (A-weighted outdoor noise levels—LAeq24h and day-evening-night equivalent noise levels—Lden) for each study participant was determined using a statistical noise model (land use regression—LUR) that is based on actual outdoor noise measurements. The proportion of the population annoyed by road traffic, airplane and train noise was 20.1%, 13.0% and 6.1%, respectively. As the distance to major roads, railways and the Montreal International Airport increased, the percentage of people disturbed and highly disturbed due to the corresponding traffic noise significantly decreased. When applying the statistical noise model we found a relationship between noise levels and disturbance from road traffic and total environmental noise, with Prevalence Proportion Ratios (PPR) for highly disturbed people of 1.10 (95% CI: 1.07–1.13) and 1.04 (1.02–1.06) per 1 dB(A) Lden, respectively. Our study provides the first comprehensive information on the relationship between transportation noise levels and disturbance in a Canadian city. LUR models are still in development and further studies on transportation noise induced annoyance are consequently needed, especially for sources other than road traffic. PMID:26729143

  8. COMPARISON OF PBDES IN CAT SERUM TO LEVELS IN CAT FOOD: EVIDENCE OF DECA DEBROMINATION?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract Since the introduction of brominated flame retardants (such as the PBDEs), increases in feline hyperthyroidism have been observed. We hypothesized that PBDE exposure was linked to the increased occurrence of hyperthyroidism in cats. Herein, PBDEs in serum of pet ...

  9. Maternal blood total oxypurines and erythrocyte 2,3-diphosphoglycerate levels during normal pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, S; Akiyama, H; Kurauchi, O; Taira, H; Yamada, R; Narita, O; Tomoda, Y

    1985-01-01

    The effects of pregnancy on the levels of maternal plasma total oxypurines (hypoxanthine, xanthine and uric acid) and erythrocyte 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) was investigated. With advancing gestation there was a slight increasing tendency in plasma total oxypurines as well as erythrocyte 2,3-DPG in pregnant women. When the ratio of 2,3-DPG to total oxypurines was calculated, the ratio was almost unchanged until week 34. After week 35, the ratio decreased to week 37; the ratios between week 37 and 40 had similar values to cord blood. The above data suggest that the changes of these metabolites in maternal peripheral blood may be indicative for hypoxia with fetoplacental tissue.

  10. Total serum homocysteine levels do not identify cognitive dysfunction in multimorbid elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengstermann, S; Laemmler, G; Hanemann, A; Schweter, A; Steinhagen-Thiessen, E; Lun, A; Schulz, R-J

    2009-02-01

    Total blood homocysteine (Hcys) and folate levels have been investigated in association with cognitive dysfunction in healthy but not in multimorbid elderly patients. We hypothesized that total serum Hcys is an adequate marker to identify multimorbid elderly patients with cognitive dysfunction assessed by the Short Cognitive Performance Test (SKT) and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Cross-sectional study. The study center was an acute geriatric hospital. A total of 189 multimorbid elderly patients were recruited. Cognitive dysfunction was determined according to the SKT and MMSE. Biochemical parameters (Hcys, folate, vitamin B12, hemoglobin), nutritional status (BMI, Mini Nutritional Assessment, nutritional intake), and activities of daily living were assessed. According to the SKT, 25.4% of patients showed no cerebral cognitive dysfunction, 21.2% had suspected incipient cognitive dysfunction, 12.7% showed mild cognitive dysfunction, 9.0% had moderate cognitive dysfunction, and 31.7% of patients were demented. The median plasma Hcys value was elevated by approximately 20% in multimorbid elderly patients, independent of cognitive dysfunction. Serum folate and vitamin B12 concentrations were within normal ranges. We did not find significant differences in nutritional status, activities of daily living, numbers of diseases or medications, or selected biochemical parameters between the SKT groups. Elevated serum Hcys levels with normal plasma folate and vitamin B12 concentrations were observed in multimorbid elderly patients. The plasma Hcys level did not appear to be an important biological risk factor for cognitive dysfunction in multimorbid geriatric patients.

  11. Drinking Level, Drinking Pattern, and Twenty-Year Total Mortality Among Late-Life Drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holahan, Charles J; Schutte, Kathleen K; Brennan, Penny L; Holahan, Carole K; Moos, Rudolf H

    2015-07-01

    Research on moderate drinking has focused on the average level of drinking. Recently, however, investigators have begun to consider the role of the pattern of drinking, particularly heavy episodic drinking, in mortality. The present study examined the combined roles of average drinking level (moderate vs. high) and drinking pattern (regular vs. heavy episodic) in 20-year total mortality among late-life drinkers. The sample comprised 1,121 adults ages 55-65 years. Alcohol consumption was assessed at baseline, and total mortality was indexed across 20 years. We used multiple logistic regression analyses controlling for a broad set of sociodemographic, behavioral, and health status covariates. Among individuals whose high level of drinking placed them at risk, a heavy episodic drinking pattern did not increase mortality odds compared with a regular drinking pattern. Conversely, among individuals who engage in a moderate level of drinking, prior findings showed that a heavy episodic drinking pattern did increase mortality risk compared with a regular drinking pattern. Correspondingly, a high compared with a moderate drinking level increased mortality risk among individuals maintaining a regular drinking pattern, but not among individuals engaging in a heavy episodic drinking pattern, whose pattern of consumption had already placed them at risk. Findings highlight that low-risk drinking requires that older adults drink low to moderate average levels of alcohol and avoid heavy episodic drinking. Heavy episodic drinking is frequent among late-middle-aged and older adults and needs to be addressed along with average consumption in understanding the health risks of late-life drinkers.

  12. Presence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in Spanish sewage sludges. Important contribution of deca-BDE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabrellas, B.; Larrazabal, D.; Martinez, M.A. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Eljarrat, E.; Barcelo, D. [I.I.Q.A.B., C.S.I.C, Barcelona (Spain)

    2004-09-15

    Introduction Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) are a family of synthetic chemicals widely used in industry to delay, inhibit or even suppress combustion process in manufactured items. Flame retardant products are frequently added into plastic, electronic, paint and textile materials to reduce the risk of ignition. During last years, increasing levels of PBDE have been detected in the environment, suggesting release from the treated surface as main pathway for environmental intake. Their physicochemical structure make them substances of highly lypophylic, bioaccumulative and persistent nature, with potential toxic effects observed onto wildlife and humans. Some European countries (Switzerland and Sweden) have promoted strategies to enlarge the knowledge of PBDE, in particular their occurrence and levels on sewage sludge. Observations point domestic washing of garment/clothes and industrial discharges from plastic and textile manufacture industry as major sources of contamination. First European results from 1988 revealed levels of about 20-30 {mu}g/kg dw of PBDEs (BDEs 47, 99 and 100) in sludge samples collected in Sweden. More recently, another Swedish survey conducted on three waste-water treatment facilities pointed levels of PBDE (BDE 47, 99 and 209) of about 200 ng/g dw, along with minor contribution of other contaminants such as TBBPA and HBCD iv. Few studies have been carried out in US. Hale et al. compared levels of Tetra-, PentaBDE (BDE 47, BDE 99 and BDE 100) and DecaBDE 209 congeners in sludge from different US locations. Values ranged from 1000 to 2290 {mu}g/kg dw (Tri- to HexaBDE) and from 84 to 4890 {mu}g/kg dw for DecaBDE 209, with mean values of about 1600 and 1000 {mu}g/kg dw, respectively. In general, concentrations of BDE 47, 99, 100 and 209 exceeded those of the major PCB congeners and other halogenated contaminants also found in the sludge. Following this trend, this work aims a preliminary assessment of selected PBDE congener levels on

  13. Total aflatoxins in complementary foods produced at community levels using locally available ingredients in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayelign, Abebe; Woldegiorgis, Ashagrie Zewdu; Adish, Abdulaziz; De Saeger, Sarah

    2018-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine the occurrence and levels of total aflatoxins in complementary foods (CFs) and their ingredients. A total of 126 samples collected from 20 Districts from Amhara, Tigray, Oromia, and Southern Nations Nationalities and Peoples (SNNP) regions were analysed for levels of total aflatoxins using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Aflatoxins were detected in 62 out of 66 pre-milling samples with mean range of 0.3-9.9 µg/kg. Aflatoxins were also detected in 19 out of 20 post-production CFs and in all of the one-month stored CFs at households and grain banks, with a mean range of 0.5-8.0, 3.6-11.3, and 0.2-12.4 µg/kg, respectively. Overall, 3 out of 126 samples exceeded the maximum limit (10 µg/kg). Although most aflatoxin levels were below the maximum limit and thus considered to be safe for consumption, more effort should be implemented to reduce contamination, as these CFs are intended for consumption by young children.

  14. Pollution of Lake Mjoesa by brominated flame retardants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlabach, M.; Gundersen, H.; Mariussen, E. [NILU, Kjeller (Norway); Fjeld, E.; Breivik, E. [NIVA, Oslo (Norway); Kjellberg, G. [NIVA, Hamar (Norway)

    2004-09-15

    The worldwide use of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) is extensive and there are significant release of these components to the environment. The last twenty years the levels of the polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) in biota have increased, and in some areas the levels are comparable or even higher to what is reported for the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). This study was focused on the pollution of PBDEs in Lake Mjoesa, where unusually high concentrations have been found in fish. The objective of this part of the survey was to make a broader documentation of the PBDE levels in sediments and fish, and to localize areas with point sources of PBDEs.

  15. Effects of polybrominated diphenyl ethers on steroidogenesis in rat Leydig cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai-Lee; Hsia, Shih-Min; Mao, I-Fang; Chen, Mei-Lien; Wang, Shyi-Wu; Wang, Paulus S

    2011-08-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are brominated flame retardants that have been defined as major environmental pollutants. While previous studies have found that PBDEs may enhance the levels of sex-steroid hormones, their effects on testosterone secretion from rat Leydig cells are unclear. This study investigated the effects and mechanisms of PBDE-710, a mixture of tetra- and penta-PBDEs, on testosterone biosynthesis in rat Leydig cells. Leydig cells from adult male rats were challenged with different concentrations of PBDE-710 (0.5-15 ng/ml) to evaluate the effects on testosterone steroidogenesis. Concentrations of testosterone and of cAMP and pregnenolone in medium were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Nuclear translocation of protein kinase A α (PKAα) was determined by immunofluorence assay and western blot assay, and the mRNA expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) was analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. In this in vitro study, PBDE-710 (5 or 15 ng/ml) increased basal testosterone secretion and cAMP production by 3- and 2-fold, respectively. The stimulatory effect was abolished by adenylyl cyclase inhibitor. Enzyme activity of CYP11A1, as determined by the pregnenolone concentration, was stimulated by PBDE-710 treatment. Furthermore, nuclear translocation of PKAα was increased by 20% and StAR gene expression was elevated by 4-fold after PBDE-710 treatment. These results suggest that low concentrations of PBDE-710 could stimulate testosterone secretion by acting directly on Leydig cells to activate the cAMP pathway and increase expression of StAR.

  16. Plasma oxidative stress and total thiol levels in Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadag-Oncel, Eda; Erel, Ozcan; Ozsurekci, Yasemin; Caglayik, Dilek Yagci; Kaya, Ali; Gozel, Mustafa Gokhan; Icagasioglu, Fusun Dilara; Engin, Aynur; Korukluoglu, Gulay; Uyar, Yavuz; Elaldi, Nazif; Ceyhan, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the pro- and antioxidant status of patients with a pathogenesis of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) in terms of their role in its pathogenesis. During the study period, 34 children and 41 adults were diagnosed with CCHF. The control group consisted of healthy age- and gender-matched children and adults. Serum levels of the total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidant status (TOS), oxidative stress index (OSI), and plasma total thiol (TTL) were evaluated and compared between groups. The difference in mean TAC values between CCHF patients and healthy controls was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Mean TOS, OSI, and TTL values were significantly lower in CCHF patients than in healthy controls (P 0.05). Our results suggest that TTL may play a more important role in CCHF pathogenesis than the other parameters investigated. The mean TOS and OSI values were higher in the control group than in CCHF patients.

  17. Effects of buddleja officinalis total flavonoids on serum testosterone level of castrated male rats with xeroma

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    Wen-Juan Li

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To observe buddleja officinalis total flavonoids' effect on the basal tear secretion amount, tear film stability, lacrimal gland histomorphology and serum testosterone level of castrated male rat model with xeroma, to study the mechanism of rat xeroma caused by buddleja officinalis total flavones' anti-sex hormones disorders.MEATHODS: A total of 150 Wistar male rats of 1 month old, weighted about 200g, were randomly divided into 5 groups with 30 rats in each group with A representing normal group; B representing sham operation group; C representing surgery control group; D representing group treated with androgen; E representing group treated with buddleja officinalis total flavonoids. For the groups C, D, E, the bilateral testicle and epididymis were excised; For group B, scrota were incised without removal of the testicles, as the sham operation group; For group A, nothing was done. One week after modeling when the wound was to be healed, drug was given to each group. Respectively at the 1st month, 3rd, and 5th months after treatment, 10 rats were randomly selected in each group, to receive Schirmer I test, tear breakup time measurement. Blood serum testosterone levels were tested in the fifth month. RESUITS: For groups D and E, the Schirmer I test measurements were significantly higher than that of group C(PPPCONCLUSION: Decreased androgen levels can lead to xeroma, and removal of bilateral testes and epididymis can successfully establish the animal models of xeroma in rats caused by decreased androgen levels. Buddleja officinalis total flavonoids have androgenic effect, which produces the similar treatment effect of xeroma with testosterone propionate. Buddleja officinalis total flavonoids may become a new treatment for xeroma.

  18. The levels of triglyceride and total cholesterol in methamphetamine dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meijuan; Lv, Dezhao; Zhou, Wu; Ji, Lili; Zhou, Beibei; Chen, Han; Gu, Yingying; Zhao, Jiyun; He, Jincai

    2017-04-01

    The serum triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) levels have been reported altered in the traditional drug-dependence (such as marijuana and heroin). However, studies assessing the relationships among serum TC, TG, and methamphetamine (MA)-dependence have not been described well. In this study, our aim is to explore the serum TG and TC levels in large sample of MA-dependent patients. A retrospective study was conducted in 938 MA-dependent patients who were recruited between February 2, 2008 and March 11, 2013, with social characteristics and drug-dependence history (duration of MA use, routes of drug administration, and daily dose were collected). Then, the serum levels of TC, TG, glucose (GLU), body mass index (BMI), and blood pressure were measured among the participants. Meanwhile, 985 age- and gender-matched healthy people in the physical examination center were selected as control group. Compared with the control group, significant decreases of TC, TG, GLU, and BMI were observed in MA-dependent patients (P < 0.05). Besides, we found that the daily dose of MA use was associated with TC (β = -0.079, P = 0.015) and the duration of MA use was independently related to BMI (β = -0.071, P = 0.031). This study demonstrated that the levels of TC, TG, GLU, and BMI factors altered in the MA-dependent patients. In addition, there is a negative association between MA dependence and TC and BMI.

  19. PBDEs in U.S. milk, blood, and food, and temporal trends for PBDEs, PCDDs, and PCBs in US blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schecter, A.; Tung, K.C. [Univ. of Texas School of Public Health at Dallas, TX (United States); Paepke, O. [ERGO Research Lab., Hamburg (Germany); Ryan, J.J. [Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Rosen, R. [Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States); Pavuk, M. [SpecPro, San Antonio (United States); Staskal, D. [Curriculum in Toxicology, UNC, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Birnbaum, L. [EPA, Office of Research and Development, NHEERL, RTP, NC (United States); Quynh, H.T. [Oncology Center, Ha Noi (Viet Nam); Constable, J.D. [Harvard Medical School, Boston (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Recent findings document elevated PBDE flame retardant in human tissues in the USA and lower levels in Europe with increasing levels in both areas over the last decades. Levels of PBDEs have also been reported in limited food surveys, and especially in fish. We report here on findings of PBDEs in samples of recently collected USA blood, milk, and a market basket survey of food as well as two samples of human milk from Vietnam, a developing country. Levels of PBDEs in samples from U.S. nursing mothers milk are 10 - 100 times higher than European milks. Milk intake estimates for the USA and Germany are presented for nursing infants. Archived blood from Dallas, Texas from 1973 was analyzed for PBDEs, PCDD/Fs and PCBs and compared with blood from the same location collected in 2003. Almost no PBDE was found in 1973 US blood whereas current blood levels are similar to the elevated U.S. milk levels. Dioxins, dibenzofurans and PCBs were relatively high in the 1973 samples and much lower in the 2003 blood samples. Food PBDE levels are highest in fish, followed by meat and then dairy products in our survey. Levels were found to be extremely low in the two Vietnamese samples. All samples analyzed to date were positive for some levels of PBDEs with the exception of the 1973 archived US serum.

  20. Effects of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers on DNA Damage and p53 Protein Expression in Carassius auratus Linn.%多溴联苯醚对鲫鱼组织DNA损伤及p53蛋白表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴伟; 瞿建宏; 陈家长; 聂凤琴

    2011-01-01

    以鲫鱼(Carawsius auratus)为试验材料,研究了经不同浓度的2,2’,4,4’-四溴联苯醚(PBDE-47)和十溴联苯醚(PBDE-209)暴露后,鲫鱼体内DNA损伤产物8-羟基脱氧鸟苷(8-OHdG)的含量及p53蛋白的水平.结果表明,采用浓度为0.10~5.00 mg·L-1的PBDE-47和10.0~50.0mg·L-1的PBDE-209处理鲫鱼20d,除了0.10 mg·L-1 PBDE-47和10.0 mg·L-1 PBDE-209浓度组的8-OHdG和p53蛋白含量与对照组相比无显著差异(P>0.05),其余各浓度组的8-OHdG和p53蛋白含量均随PBDE-47和PBDE-209浓度增加而逐渐上升,呈显著的相关关系(P<0.01),且8-OHdG和p53蛋白之间也呈显著的正相关.说明PBDE-47和PBDE-209对鲫鱼组织的DNA产生了损伤,具有遗传毒性影响.%Persistent organic pollutants(POPs) has a long-term threat to different biota, including aquatic animals, mammals, especially humans, due to their biomagnified effect in food chain, the study on the toxic effect of POPs to aquatic animals was evidently important and concerned. This paper discussed the variation of DNA-damage product 8-Hydroxy-desoxyguanosine(8-OHdG) and p53 protein to Carassius awatus in exposed to poly -brominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE-47 and PBDE-209), where the exposed dose of PBDE-47 and PBDE-209 ranged from 0.10 to 5.00 mg·L-1 and 10.0 to 50.0 mg·L-1, respectively. The results showed that, DNA-damage product 8-OHdC and p53 protein were generated extraordinary in all treatment lasted for 20 days, expectihe 0.1 mg·L-1 in PBDE-47 and 10.0 mg·L-1 in PBDE-209. The variation of 8-OHdC and p53 protein to Carassius awatus when exposed to PBDE-47 and PBDE-209 were significantly dose-depend (P<0.01), respectively, and the variation of 8-OHdC was significantly correlated with the variation of p53 protein as well. The results indicated that, the genotoxic effect, characterized by DNA-damage product, such as 8-OHdC and p53 protein in Carassius awatus when exposed to PBDE-47 and PBDE-209 were produced. The paper provided more

  1. Comparison of Total Calcium Level during General and Spinal Anesthesia in Gynecologic Abdominal Surgeries

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    Katayoun Haryalchi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available  Background: Calcium (Ca+2 plays an important role in many biophysiological mechanisms .The present study was carried out to assess alterations in total serum calcium level before and after operations in consider to the type of anesthesia. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was conducted on 74 women who candidate for gynecological abdominal operations during one year at Al-zahra maternity Hospital in Rasht, Iran. The patients underwent General Anesthesia (GA (N=37 or Spinal Anesthesia (SA (N=37 randomly. Blood samples (2 cc, were obtained an hour before the anesthesia and two hours after that. The blood samples had been sent to the laboratory for analyzing .Total serum calcium level, magnesium (Mg and albumin level were measured by photometric methods. Inferential statistic was analyzed with the Vilkson non-parametric and Pearson's correlation test. P-values less than 0.05 have been considered as significant different. Results: There was a significant trend to decrease in calcium levels after all gynecological abdominal operations, but there was a significant correlation between General anesthesia (GA and reduction of serum calcium level (p=0.026 . Therefore, General Anesthesia (GA is accompanied by more calcium reduction than Spinal Anesthesia (SA. Conclusion: Serum Calcium levels tend to decrease after all gynecological abdominal surgeries, but General Anesthesia (GA is accompanied by more calcium reduction than Spinal one. It needs to further specific studies, to illustrate association between different methods of anesthesia and Ca+2 changes.

  2. Survey of total mercury and methylmercury levels in edible fish from the Adriatic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storelli, M M; Giacominelli-Stuffler, R; Storelli, A; D'Addabbo, R; Palermo, C; Marcotrigiano, G O

    2003-12-01

    Total mercury and methylmercury concentrations were measured in the muscle tissue of different fish species from the Adriatic Sea to ascertain whether the concentrations exceeded the maximum level fixed by the European Commission. Large species-dependent variability was observed. The highest total mercury mean concentrations were in benthic (0.20-0.76 microg g(-1) wet wt) and demersal fish (0.22-0.73 microg g(-1) wet wt), while pelagic species showed the lowest levels (0.09-0.23 microg g(-1) wet wt). In 15% of frost fish, in 42% of skate and in 30% of angler fish samples total mercury concentrations exceeded the maximum level fixed by the European Commission (Hg = 1 microg g(-1) wet wt); for the species for which the maximum level was set to 0.5 microg g(-1) wet wt, concentrations exceeding the prescribed legal limit were observed in 6.4% of bokkem, in 6.6% of pandora, in 20% of megrin, in 12.5% of four-spotted megrim, in 16% of striped mullet, in 5.0% of forkbeard and in 5.3% of picarel samples. In all the different species, mercury was present almost completely in the methylated form, with mean percentages between 70 and 100%. Weekly intake was estimated and compared with the provisional tolerable weekly intake recommended by the FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. A high exposure was associated with the consumption of only skates, frost fish and angler fish, thought the consumption of the other species, such as, megrim, four spotted megrim, red fish striped mullet and forkbeard, resulted in a weekly intake slightly below the established provisional tolerable weekly intake.

  3. Immunoglobulin levels in dogs after total-body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vriesendorp, H.M.; Halliwell, R.E.; Johnson, P.M.; Fey, T.A.; McDonough, C.M.

    1985-01-01

    The influence of total-body irradiation (TBI) and autologous or allogeneic bone marrow transplantation on serum immunoglobulin subclasses was determined in a dog model. Only IgG1 levels decreased after low-dose (+/- 4.5 Gy) TBI, but levels of all immunoglobulin classes fell after high-dose TBI (8.5 GyX1 or 2X6.0 Gy). After autologous bone marrow transplantation IgM levels were the first and IgE levels were the last to return to normal. After successful allogeneic bone marrow transplantation prolonged low IgM and IgE levels were found but IgA levels increased rapidly to over 150% of pretreatment values. A comparison of dogs with or without clinical signs or graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), revealed no differences in IgM levels. Dogs with GVHD had higher IgA but lower IgE levels. Dogs that rejected their allogeneic bone marrow cells showed significant early rises in IgE and IgA levels in comparison with dogs with GVHD. These results differ from the observations made on Ig levels in human bone marrow transplant patients. No significant differences in phytohemagglutinin stimulation tests were found between dogs with or without GVHD or dogs receiving an autologous transplant for the first four months after TBI and transplantation. An early primary or secondary involvement of humoral immunity in GVHD and graft rejection in dogs is postulated

  4. Aloe vera extract reduces 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine levels and improves total antioxidants in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

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    Wulan Christijanti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease caused by lack of insulin production in the pancreas or by insulin resistance, the disease being characterized by elevated blood glucose levels. Hyperglycemia in diabetes could lead to oxidative stress due to the rise in 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG levels and the decrease in levels of total antioxidant status (TAS. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect Aloe vera extract on 8-oxo-dG level and total antioxidant status in diabetic rat testis.   Methods This was an experimental laboratory study with 20 rat samples which were divided into 4 groups (1 control group and 3 treatment groups. Diabetes was induced in the rats by streptozotocin (STZ at 65 mg/kgBW. The diabetic rats were then treated for 28 days with Aloe vera extract at 0 mg (P0, 200 mg rind (P1, 200 mg pulp (P2, respectively. The level of 8 -oxo-dG was measured by ELISA and total antioxidant status with 2,2' -azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS. Data were analyzed with ANOVA and Least Significant Difference Advanced Test at P<0.05.   Results 8-Oxo-dG levels were significantly different between the control group and both P0 and P2, but not between the control group and P1. Among the treatment groups the 8-oxo-dG levels were significantly different. Mean total antioxidant status was significantly different between control and treatment groups, and also between treatment groups (p<0.05.   Conclusions Aloe vera extract reduced free radicals (level of 8-oxo-dG and increased the total antioxidant status in diabetic rat testis.

  5. Effect of culture levels, ultrafiltered retentate addition, total solid levels and heat treatments on quality improvement of buffalo milk plain set yoghurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Vijesh; Gupta, Vijay Kumar; Meena, Ganga Sahay

    2018-05-01

    Studied the effect of culture (2, 2.5 and 3%), ultrafiltered (UF) retentate addition (0, 11, 18%), total milk solids (13, 13.50, 14%) and heat treatments (80 and 85 °C/30 min) on the change in pH and titratable acidity (TA), sensory scores and rheological parameters of yoghurt. With 3% culture levels, the required TA (0.90% LA) was achieved in minimum 6 h incubation. With an increase in UF retentate addition, there was observed a highly significant decrease in overall acceptability, body and texture and colour and appearance scores, but there was highly significant increase in rheological parameters of yoghurt samples. Yoghurt made from even 13.75% total solids containing nil UF retentate was observed to be sufficiently firm by the sensory panel. Most of the sensory attributes of yoghurt made with 13.50% total solids were significantly better than yoghurt prepared with either 13 or 14% total solids. Standardised milk heated to 85 °C/30 min resulted in significantly better overall acceptability in yoghurt. Overall acceptability of optimised yoghurt was significantly better than a branded market sample. UF retentate addition adversely affected yoghurt quality, whereas optimization of culture levels, totals milk solids and others process parameters noticeably improved the quality of plain set yoghurt with a shelf life of 15 days at 4 °C.

  6. Tear ascorbic acid levels and the total antioxidant status in contact lens wearers: A pilot study

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    Venkata Sai

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The tear ascorbate owing to its high concentration, functions as an effective antioxidant against the oxidative damage of cornea. Contact lens wearers (CLW are prone to oxidative stress due to the lens-induced hypoxic conditions. A pilot study was done to compare the tear ascorbic acid level and the total antioxidant capacity give as in normal and CLW. Materials and Methods: In this study 21 CLW (Mean age 23 ± 3 years ; M-2, F-19, who were daily wear users, with duration of wear not more than four years, along with age-matched 28 controls (Mean age 28 ± 3 ; M-15, F-13 were recruited in the study for collection of reflex tears using Schirmer′s strip. Ascorbic acid in tears was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, total antioxidant capacity (TAC and total protein assay by spectrophotometric analysis. Results: CLW showed no significant change in the tear ascorbic acid levels (0.4 ± 0.26 mM compared to the control subjects (0.61 ± 0.59 mM. The amount of ascorbic acid in tears did not correlate with the TAC or the total protein of the tears. The mean TAC in CLW was 0.69 ± 0.16 mM, with a total protein of 1.35 ± 0.46 mg/ml while in controls it was 0.7 ± 0.18 mM and 1.21 ± 0.47 mg/ml respectively . Conclusions: Soft contact lens wear did not show any significant change in tear ascorbic acid, TAC and total protein levels compared to controls.

  7. Gender differences in total cholesterol levels in patients with acute heart failure and its importance for short and long time prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinarova, Lenka; Spinar, Jindrich; Vitovec, Jiri; Linhart, Ales; Widimsky, Petr; Fedorco, Marian; Malek, Filip; Cihalik, Cestmir; Miklik, Roman; Dusek, Ladislav; Zidova, Klaudia; Jarkovsky, Jiri; Littnerova, Simona; Parenica, Jiri

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether there are gender differences in total cholesterol levels in patients with acute heart failure and if there is an association of this parameter with short and long time mortality. The AHEAD MAIN registry is a database conducted in 7 university hospitals, all with 24 h cath lab service, in 4 cities in the Czech Republic. The database included 4 153 patients hospitalised for acute heart failure in the period 2006-2009. 2 384 patients had a complete record of their total cholesterol levels. 946 females and 1437 males were included in this analysis. According to the admission total cholesterol levels, patients were divided into 5 groups: 6.0 mmol/l (group E). The median total cholesterol levels were 4.24 in males and 4.60 in females (Ppercentage of women with total cholesterol levels above 6 mmol/l and lower percentage in the group below 4.5 mmol/l than in men. In all, total cholesterol categories women were older than men. Total cholesterol levels are important for in- hospital mortality and long term survival of patients admitted for acute heart failure.

  8. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in sediments of the coastal East China Sea: Occurrence, distribution and mass inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yuanyuan; Lin Tian; Chen Yingjun; Hu Limin; Guo Zhigang; Zhang Gan

    2012-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) of sixty-three sediment samples from the coastal East China Sea (ECS), extending ∼1000 km from the Yangtze River Estuary to the south, were measured. The levels of BDE-209 and ∑PBDE 7 (sum of BDE-28, 47, 99, 100, 153, 154, 183) were 0.3–44.6 ng/g (dry weight) and nd-8.0 ng/g, respectively. BDE-209 was the predominant congener, followed by BDE-99/100. This was consistent with the historical and current usage of PBDE mixtures in China. The compositions and distribution of PBDEs suggest that the PBDEs in this area could be mainly from the coastal electronic waste dismantling/recycling and Yangtze River input. The poor correlations between TOC, grain size of sediments with PBDEs imply that the PBDE distribution is more related to their land-based inputs rather than the sediment characters in the area. The coastal ECS is an important sink of PBDEs (7.5 t/yr) in the world. - Highlights: ► First report on the levels, distribution and inventory of PBDEs in the inner shelf of the ECS. ► PBDEs were mainly from the coastal electronic waste dismantling/recycling and Yangtze River. ► PBDE distribution was related to the land-based inputs rather than the sediment characters. ► The coastal East China Sea is an important sink of the PBDEs in the world. - The levels, distribution, potential sources and mass inventory of PBDEs in sediments of the coastal East China Sea were revealed.

  9. Seminal plasma total antioxidant capacity and vitamin- C levels in asthenozoospermia: a case- control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Bidmeshkipour

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Defective sperm function is now recognized as one of the most important causes of male infertility. Seminal plasma possesses a rich source of different enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants such as vitamin C (ascorbic acid that protect spermatozoa against oxidative stress as one of the mediators of infertility causing sperm dysfunction and low sperm quality. The aim of this study was investigation of seminal total antioxidant capacity and determination of vitamin C effects on sperm motility. "n"nMethods: We designed a case-control study with a total subject of 62 males. Sperm parameters were analyzed according to World Health Organization guidelines (WHO, 1999. Total antioxidant capacity and vitamin C level of seminal plasma were measured in the 32 normozoospermic as the control group and 32 asthenospermic men as the case group using FRAP (Ferric Reducing of Antioxidants Powers and RP-HPLC (Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography methods, respectively. "n"nResults: Our results indicated that total antioxidant capacity levels in the seminal plasma of asthenospermic men were significantly lower than healthy men (p=0.002. In addition, we found a positive correlation between reduced total

  10. Occurrence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in brown trout bile and liver from Swiss rivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, Paul C. [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Ueberlandstrasse 133, P.O. Box 611, 8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia [Department of Environmental Science, University of Basel, Vesalgasse 1, 4051 Basel (Switzerland)]. E-mail: patricia.holm@unibas.ch; Giger, Walter [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Ueberlandstrasse 133, P.O. Box 611, 8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland)]. E-mail: giger@eawag.ch

    2007-03-15

    The ranges of total polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in fish from four Swiss rivers were 0.8-240 ng/g in the bile and 16-7400 ng/g lipid in the liver. PBDE concentrations varied within each river and among the various rivers. Female fish tended to have higher concentrations in the liver, while the male fish had higher concentrations in the bile. From the resulting PBDE concentrations in fish it could not be infered that these contaminants contribute to the causes of the observed fish catch decline in Swiss rivers. - PBDEs with the most abundant BDE-47 were determined in brown trout bile and liver from Swiss rivers.

  11. Occurrence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in brown trout bile and liver from Swiss rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, Paul C.; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia; Giger, Walter

    2007-01-01

    The ranges of total polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in fish from four Swiss rivers were 0.8-240 ng/g in the bile and 16-7400 ng/g lipid in the liver. PBDE concentrations varied within each river and among the various rivers. Female fish tended to have higher concentrations in the liver, while the male fish had higher concentrations in the bile. From the resulting PBDE concentrations in fish it could not be infered that these contaminants contribute to the causes of the observed fish catch decline in Swiss rivers. - PBDEs with the most abundant BDE-47 were determined in brown trout bile and liver from Swiss rivers

  12. The Effect of Systemic Amantadine Sulfate on Malondialdehyde and Total Thiol Levels in Rat Corneas

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    Züleyha Yalniz-Akkaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the malondialdehyde (MDA and total thiol (sulfhydryl, SH levels in rat corneas after intraperitoneal injection of amantadine sulfate. Methods: A total of 12 Wistar albino rats were divided into two groups: control group (n = 6 and amantadine group (n = 6. Balanced salt solution (1 mL, 0.9% NaCl, twice/day was injected into rats in control group. Amantadine sulfate (2 mg/1 mL, twice/day was injected into rats in amantadine group. In each group, two rats were injected for 1 week, two received injections for 1 month, and two rats received injections for 3 months. The corneas were homogenized and MDA and SH levels were measured spectroflourometrically. Results: In control group, median MDA and SH levels were 2.37 (range, 0.92-3.60 and 25.35 (range, 6.30-54.0 nmol/mg, respectively. In amantadine group, median MDA and SH levels were 3.57 (range, 1.25-5.92 and 32.65 (range, 3.30-48.3 nmol/mg, respectively. The difference between this two groups regarding MDA (P = 0.14 and SH (P = 1.0 levels was statistically insignificant. Conclusion: Systemically administered amantadine sulfate seems not to cause MDA and SH imbalance in rat corneas.

  13. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and their hydroxylated and methoxylated derivatives in seafood obtained from Puget Sound, WA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cade, Sara E.; Kuo, Li-Jung; Schultz, Irvin R.

    2018-03-07

    Synthetic polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants and known to occur in most food items. Consumer fish products have been identified as having some of the highest PBDE levels found in USA food sources. Natural formation of hydroxylated (OH-) and methoxylated (MeO-) PBDEs are also known to occur in simple marine organisms, which may be bioaccumulated by seafood. In this study, we report findings of an initial survey of PBDE, OH-PBDE and MeO-PBDE content in common seafood items available to residents living in the Puget Sound region of Washington State. Seafood samples were either purchased from local grocery stores or caught off the coast of SE Alaska and in Puget Sound. The edible portions of the seafood were analyzed, which for finfish was white muscle (skinless fillets) and for shellfish, either the entire soft tissue (bivalves) or processed meat (calamari, shrimp and scallops). Results indicated that finfish typically had higher levels of PBDEs compared to shellfish with BDE-47 and BDE-99 as the most common congeners detected. Among shellfish, bivalves (clams and mussels) were notable for having much higher levels of OH- and MeO-PBDEs compared to other types of seafood with 6'-OH-BDE-47 and 2'-MeO-BDE-68 being the more common OH- and MeO- congeners, respectively. Based on our results and recent updates to daily fish consumption rates, estimated intake rates for Washington State residents will be between 34 and 644 ng PBDEs/day, depending on species consumed. For the OH- and MeO- forms, daily exposure is much more variable but typically would range between 15 and 90 ng/day for most seafood types. If shellfish are primarily consumed, OH-PBDE intake could be as high as 350 ng/day. These daily intake rates for PBDEs are higher than most dietary intake rates calculated for populations in other world regions.

  14. Elevated levels of numerous cytokines in drainage fluid after primary total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heide, Huub J L; van der Kraan, Peter M; Rijnberg, Willard J; Buma, Pieter; Schreurs, B Willem

    2010-12-01

    As cytokines are involved in wound healing and other inflammatory processes, it could be valuable to measure their levels at the operative site. This study was conducted to investigate whether different cytokines are measurable in drainage fluid and, when measurable, whether we can find a difference in cytokine levels between one and six hours postoperatively. Samples from the drainage system in 30 consecutive patients undergoing primary total hip replacement were collected at one and six hours after closure of the wound. Levels of several cytokines were measured in the drainage fluids. A significant elevation of almost all cytokines was observed between the sample after one hour and six hours postoperatively. We found a strong correlation between the different pro-inflammatory cytokines. The IL-6 to IL-10 ratio were also raised, showing a pro-inflammatory predominance. Levels were much higher than those previously shown in serum.

  15. Determination of total mercury in nuts at ultratrace level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Maria José da, E-mail: maryquimica@yahoo.com.br [Departamento de Química – Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Rue Dom Manoel de Medeiros s/n. Dois irmãos, 52171-900 Recife, PE (Brazil); Paim, Ana Paula S. [Departamento de Química Fundamental – Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Cidade Universitária, 50740-550 Recife, PE (Brazil); Pimentel, Maria Fernanda [Departamento de Engenharia Química – Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Cervera, M. Luisa; Guardia, Miguel de la [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Research Building, University of Valencia, 50th Dr. Moliner Street, E-46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain)

    2014-08-01

    Highlights: • Direct analysis of Hg in nuts has been improved by a previous fat removal. • Comparison of cold vapour atomic fluorescence and direct analysis of Hg in nuts. • Mercury content in tree nuts was determined. - Abstract: Total mercury, at μg kg{sup −1} level, was determined in different types of nuts (cashew nut, Brazil nuts, almond, pistachio, peanut, walnut) using a direct mercury analyser after previous sample defatting and by cold vapour atomic fluorescence spectrometry. There is not enough sensitivity in the second approach to determine Hg in previously digested samples due to the strong matrix effect. Mercury levels in 25 edible nut samples from Brazil and Spain were found in the range from 0.6 to 2.7 μg kg{sup −1} by using the pyrolysis of sample after the extraction of the nut fat. The accuracy of the proposed method was confirmed by analysing certified reference materials of Coal Fly Ash-NIST SRM 1633b, Fucus-IAEA 140 and three unpolished Rice Flour NIES-10. The observed results were in good agreement with the certified values. The recoveries of different amounts of mercury added to nut samples ranged from 94 to 101%. RSD values corresponding to three measurements varied between 2.0 and 14% and the limit of detection and quantification of the method were 0.08 and 0.3 μg kg{sup −1}, respectively.

  16. Determination of total mercury in nuts at ultratrace level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Maria José da; Paim, Ana Paula S.; Pimentel, Maria Fernanda; Cervera, M. Luisa; Guardia, Miguel de la

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Direct analysis of Hg in nuts has been improved by a previous fat removal. • Comparison of cold vapour atomic fluorescence and direct analysis of Hg in nuts. • Mercury content in tree nuts was determined. - Abstract: Total mercury, at μg kg −1 level, was determined in different types of nuts (cashew nut, Brazil nuts, almond, pistachio, peanut, walnut) using a direct mercury analyser after previous sample defatting and by cold vapour atomic fluorescence spectrometry. There is not enough sensitivity in the second approach to determine Hg in previously digested samples due to the strong matrix effect. Mercury levels in 25 edible nut samples from Brazil and Spain were found in the range from 0.6 to 2.7 μg kg −1 by using the pyrolysis of sample after the extraction of the nut fat. The accuracy of the proposed method was confirmed by analysing certified reference materials of Coal Fly Ash-NIST SRM 1633b, Fucus-IAEA 140 and three unpolished Rice Flour NIES-10. The observed results were in good agreement with the certified values. The recoveries of different amounts of mercury added to nut samples ranged from 94 to 101%. RSD values corresponding to three measurements varied between 2.0 and 14% and the limit of detection and quantification of the method were 0.08 and 0.3 μg kg −1 , respectively

  17. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) contents in house and car dust of Portugal by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, S C; Kalachova, K; Pulkrabova, J; Fernandes, J O; Oliveira, M B P P; Alves, A; Hajslova, J

    2010-03-01

    Dust is the repository of various compounds including flame retardants. In this study an analytical method based on PLE extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was selected for the analysis of 16 PBDEs congeners in house and car dust samples collected in Portugal. The analytical performance of the method was validated using standard reference material (SRM); values from 90% to 109% and from 2% to 11% were obtained for recovery and precision, respectively. The PBDE congeners distribution in whole and sieved fractions of the dust samples, as well as influence of the source on the levels of these contaminants, were obtained. The wide range of PBDEs contents found in the dust samples indicates heterogeneous levels of contamination in these matrices. The clearest feature of the results obtained was that Deca-BDE was the main PBDE in both house and car dust samples. The total PBDEs measured in house dust (ranging from 34 to 1928 ng g(-1)) was lower than those found in car dust (ranging from 193 to 22955 ng g(-1)). However, house dust provides a major contribution to human exposure due to the time spent there, much higher than in cars. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Flame retardants in eggs of four gull species (Laridae) from breeding sites spanning Atlantic to Pacific Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Da; Letcher, Robert J.; Burgess, Neil M.; Champoux, Louise; Elliott, John E.; Hebert, Craig E.; Martin, Pamela; Wayland, Mark; Chip Weseloh, D.V.; Wilson, Laurie

    2012-01-01

    To compare legacy and emerging flame retardant (FR) contamination in Canadian marine and freshwater ecosystems, eggs of four gull species (Laridae) were collected from 26 colonies spanning Pacific to Atlantic Canada, including in the Great Lakes basin. Fourteen polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners and 20 non-PBDE FRs were analyzed, but BDE-47, -99, -100, -153, -154 and -209, hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and Dechlorane Plus (DP) syn- and anti-isomers were common, and where concentrations of ∑PBDEs (37–610 ng/g wet weight, ww) ≫ HBCD (0.5–12 ng/g ww) > ∑DP (not quantifiable-5.5 ng/g ww). All other FRs were generally not detectable. Stable nitrogen and carbon isotopes used as dietary tracers provided insights into the diet choice influences on the exposure sources and contamination patterns (e.g., PBDE congener compositions) for individual gulls from the same colony. Eggs from gulls breeding near metropolitan regions of higher human densities showed greater PBDE burdens than from other ecosystems. - Highlights: ► We investigated flame retardants in eggs of four gull species spanning Canada. ► Concentrations of ∑PBDE ≫ hexabromocyclododecane > ∑Dechlorane Plus in eggs. ► Stable nitrogen and carbon isotopes revealed diet sources of flame retardants. ► Human density near breeding sites influenced flame retardant burdens in eggs. - Various flame retardants were found in eggs of four gull species from sites across Canada, and levels were influenced by location, ecosystem, diet and proximity to human populations.

  19. Children's exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuurbier, Moniek; Leijs, Marike; Schoeters, Greet; ten Tusscher, Gavin; Koppe, Janna G

    2006-10-01

    Polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs), a class of brominated flame retardants, are frequently used in consumer products. PBDEs levels in environmental and human samples have increased in recent decades. Children are exposed to PBDEs through diet, mainly through fish, meat and milk. Total dietary exposure of children in Europe was calculated to be 2-3 ng/kg b.w./day. For nursing infants the main source of PBDE exposure is breast milk; exposure levels are around 15 ng/kg b.w./day. PBDE exposure levels in North America are 10 to a 100 times higher. Because of their persistence and their similarity to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), concern has been raised about the effects of PBDEs on human health. Exposure to penta- and octa-BDE led to learning impairment and impaired motor behaviour in rodents. Exposure to penta-, octa- and also deca-BDE caused effects on thyroid homeostasis in animals. The EU has banned the production and use of penta- and octa-BDE since 2004; however, exposure will continue during the coming decades. Based upon current toxicological evidence, human exposure to deca-BDEs is not expected to lead to health effects, but data on exposure to deca-BDE and data on toxicity of deca-BDE are scarce. Therefore, monitoring studies and toxicity studies on deca-BDEs and other BDEs should continue.

  20. Probabilistic risk assessment of the exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers via fish and seafood consumption in the Region of Valencia (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Olga; Beser, Maria Isabel; Yusà, Vicent

    2014-06-01

    The study was carried out to estimate the dietary intake of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the Region of Valencia (Spain) in order to evaluate the resultant risk. The PBDE levels in fish and seafood (a total of 206 samples) were determined. Dietary intake was estimated using results of PBDE analyses in fish and seafood marketed in the Region of Valencia over the period 2007-2012 and data of the first Valencian Food Consumption Survey, conducted in 2010. Two scenarios were assumed for left-censored results: the lower-bound (LB) scenario, in which unquantified results (below the limit of quantification (LOQ)) were set to zero and the upper-bound (UB) scenario, in which unquantified results were set to the LOQ and two approaches (deterministic and probabilistic) were compared. The mean PBDE concentration in fish and seafood from Valencian markets was between 0.97 and 3.87 ngg(-1) w.w. and was similar to that reported recently by European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Among the analysed congeners, BDE-47 showed the highest levels and salmon, mackerel and swordfish were the most contaminated species. The average estimated daily intake of the sum of PBDEs (upper bound scenario; probabilistic approach) for adults and children were 0.137 ngkg(-1) body weight (b.w.) day and 0.180 ngkgb.w.(-1)d(-1), respectively. In relation to risk analysis, calculated margins of exposure (MOEs) for the BDE-47, -99 and -153 congeners for children and do not indicate a health concern with respect to current dietary exposure in the Valencian Region and only 0.05% of the adult population and a 0.1% of children could be in risk derived by BDE-99 intake through fish. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. In vivo and in vitro anti-androgenic effects of DE-71, a commercial polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoker, T.E.; Cooper, R.L.; Lambright, C.S.; Wilson, V.S.; Furr, J.; Gray, L.E.

    2005-01-01

    PBDEs have been synthesized in large quantities as flame retardants for commercial products, such as electronic equipment and textiles. The rising in levels of PBDEs in tissues in wildlife species and in human milk and plasma samples over the past several years have raised concerns about possible health effects. Recently, we showed that the PBDE mixture, DE-71, delayed puberty and suppressed the growth of androgen-dependent tissues in male Wistar rat following a peri-pubertal exposure. These effects suggested that DE-71 may be either inducing steroid hormone metabolism or acting as an androgen receptor (AR) antagonist. To elucidate the potential anti-androgenic effects of this mixture, we evaluated DE-71 in several in vivo assays, which are responsive to alterations in androgen activity. In a pubertal exposure study designed to further evaluate the delay in preputial separation (PPS), we observed a dose-dependent delay in PPS with 60 and 120 mg/kg/day of DE-71 (4 and 5 days) and a corresponding suppression of ventral prostate (VP) and seminal vesicle growth at both doses. Adult males exposed to 60 mg/kg DE-71 for 3 days resulted in a significant increase in luteinizing hormone and a non-significant increase in testosterone, androstenedione and estrone. DE-71 also tested positive for anti-androgenic activity in an immature rat Hershberger assay, with decreases in mean VP and seminal vesicle weight following doses of 30-240 mg/kg. DE-71 and the individual BDE congeners which comprise the mixture (BDE-47, -99, -100, -153, -154) were also evaluated in vitro. First, AR binding was evaluated in a competitive binding assay using rat VP cytosol. In addition, we evaluated gene activation in a transcriptional activation assay using the MDA-kb2 cell line which contains an endogenous human AR and a transfected luciferase reporter. DE-71 and BDE-100 (2, 4, 6-pentaBDE) both inhibited AR binding, with IC50s of approximately 5 μM. In addition, DE-71 and two of the congeners (BDE

  2. Using population demographic parameters to assess impacts of two polybrominated diphenyl ethers (BDE-47, BDE-209) on the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Jingjing; Wang, You; Chen, Hongmei; Wang, Ming; Wang, Hong; Li, Xiaohong; Qi, Lei; Tang, Xuexi

    2015-09-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are highly persistent anthropogenic contaminants found in the environment, posing a risk to aquatic ecosystems, whereas there is a lack of data concerning their impacts on marine invertebrates. The objective of this study was to assess the relative lethal and sublethal aquatic toxicity effects of two PBDEs, BDE-47 and BDE-209 congeners, on marine zooplankton rotifer Brachionus plicatilis associated with PBDE concentrations and time of exposure. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses were performed to determine actual PBDE concentrations. Rotifer population demographic parameters from life tables, including age-specific survivorship (lx), age-specific fecundity (mx), net reproductive rate (R0), intrinsic rate of increase (rm), finite rate of increase (λ), life expectancy (E0) and generation time (T), were used as measures of treatment effects. Results from this study have revealed increasingly intense negative effects on many of the rotifer demographic parameters with elevated PBDE concentrations. The population growth curves of B. plicatilis showed almost no lag phase and reached peak abundances within 11 days, while B. plicatilis exposed to BDE-209 had a lag phase of about 5 days. In addition, increased PBDE levels reduced the population abundances and peak population densities of B. plicatilis. The two PBDEs have caused the carrying capacity (K) suppressed and the negative influence turned more serious as the concentration rose. Results also revealed that the time to reach growth curve inflection point (Tp) was shortened by PBDEs to different degrees. This study not only indicated that life table demography and population growth curve studies were two important aspects used to evaluate toxicant PBDE effects, but also compared the two PBDE disruptions to the population growth and reproduction of the rotifer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Levels of total mercury in marine organisms from Adriatic Sea, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perugini, Monia; Visciano, Pierina; Manera, Maurizio; Zaccaroni, Annalisa; Olivieri, Vincenzo; Amorena, Michele

    2009-08-01

    The presence of total mercury in fish, crustacean and cephalopod from Adriatic Sea, was investigated. The highest concentrations were observed in decreasing order in: Norway lobster (0.97 +/- 0.24 mg/kg; mean +/- SE), European hake (0.59 +/- 0.14 mg/kg), red mullet (0.48 +/- 0.09 mg/kg), blue whiting (0.38 +/- 0.09 mg/kg), Atlantic mackerel (0.36 +/- 0.08 mg/kg) and European flying squid (0.25 +/- 0.03 mg/kg). A significant difference (p fish and fishery products can exceed the maximum levels and stress the need of more information for consumers in particular for people that eat large amount of fish.

  4. Total Jamur, Jenis Kapang dan Khamir Pellet Ayam Kampung Super dengan Penambahan Berbagai Level Pollard Berprobiotik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nurdianto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available (Total fungi, type of mold and yeasts in super native chicken pelleted feed with various level of probiotic pollard ABSTRACT. The research objective is assessing the effect of adding various level of probiotic pollard on total fungi, type of mold and  yeast. The material used in this research were fermented vegetables waste , molasses, distilled water, pollard,  super native chicken’s feed, physiological NaCl (0.85% NaCl and sabaroud glucose agar (SGA.  Research using  completely randomized design with 4 treatments and 4 replications. The treatment used were T0 = 100% feed + 0% probiotic pollard, T1 = 90% feed + 10% probiotic pollard, T2 = 80% feed + 20% probiotic pollard and T3 = 70% feed + 30% probiotic pollard. The observed parameters were total fungi, type of molds and yeast. The average of total fungi are 0  CFU; 0,55 x 107 CFU; 0,55 x 107 CFU and 0 CFU. Type of mold is Aspergillus niger and none yeast have grown. The conclusion is the addition of 10% and 20%  probiotic pollard to super native chicken’s pellet  yield mold type Aspergillus niger as much 0,55 x 107 CFU.

  5. Total serum bilirubin levels and sensorineural hearing loss in the US adolescents: NHANES 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guoli; Fu, Wenjiang

    2018-02-01

    We aimed to investigate whether current levels of total serum bilirubin are associated with different subtypes of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in adolescents. A set of cross-sectional data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) (2007-2010) was used. A subset of 1404 adolescents was sampled for measurements of total serum bilirubin, tympanometry, and average pure tone threshold at low-frequencies (LPTA: 500, 1000, 2000 Hz) or high-frequencies (HPTA: 3000, 4000, 6000, and 8000 Hz). SNHL was defined as the hearing loss that had type A tympanograms with a peak admittance of 0.3 ml or greater. Associations between serum bilirubin (square-root transformed) and different subtypes of SNHL were evaluated using binary or multinomial logistic regression models with 4-year sampling weights. The bootstrap method was used for estimation of variance and 10-fold cross-validation for assessment of overfitting issue. Total serum bilirubin levels were found to be associated with any high-frequency (HPTA>15 dB in at least one ear, adjusted odds-ratio (OR a )(bootstrap 95% confidence interval) = 3.29(1.31-8.19), p = 0.011), but not with any low-frequency (LPTA>15 dB in at least one ear), SNHL in the US adolescents. Furthermore, high-frequency SNHL with HPTA>15 dB in both ears (bilateral) or HPTA≥25 dB in at least one ear, compared to that with HPTA>15 dB in one ear only (unilateral) or HPTA = 15-25 dB in at least one ear, had a stronger association with total serum bilirubin levels (OR a  = 5.37(1.27-22.65), p = 0.022 for bilateral; OR a  = 2.64(0.84-8.25), p = 0.094 for unilateral; OR a  = 5.00(0.95-26.58), p = 0.058 for HPTA≥25 dB in at least one ear; as well as OR a  = 3.06(1.15-8.25), p = 0.025 for HPTA = 15-25 dB in at least one ear). No severe overfitting problems were found. Our findings suggest that current levels of total serum bilirubin may be informative in predicting and/or targeting high-frequency SNHL

  6. A retrospective time trend study of PBDEs and PCBs in human milk from the Faroe Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faengstroem, B.; Strid, A.; Athanassiadis, I.; Bergman, Aa. [Dept. of Environmental Chemistry, Stockholm Univ. (Sweden); Grandjean, P. [Inst. of Public Health, Univ. of Southern Denmark, Odense (Denmark); Weihe, P. [Faroese Hospital System, Torshavn (Denmark)

    2004-09-15

    The Faroe Islands are located quite far from the European continent and from industrial sources of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). However, the Faroese population may be exposed to these substances through contaminated food, via goods and products in their homes, and in their work environment. High trophic level marine species, including pilot whale and seabirds, such as fulmars, have been shown to accumulate high concentrations of organohalogen substances (OHS) like PCBs and PBDEs. Possibly due to dietary differences, wide differences exist in regard to PCB exposures among the Faroese. In a birth cohort from 1987, milk pools contained relatively high PCB concentrations between 1.9-2.5 {mu}g/g lipid weight (l.w.). In another cohort from 1994, serum from pregnant Faroese women was analyzed for PCB and OH-PCBs, with results ranging from 0.15 to 22 {mu}g/g l.w. and 0.02 to 1.8 {mu}g/g l.w., respectively. In a time trend study for PBDEs and PCBs in human milk from Sweden from the early 1970s to 1997, the PBDE concentrations showed a significant increase while the PCB levels showed a decrease. Human milk samples from 1997 to 2000 indicate a decrease for the PBDEs, mainly due to reduced concentrations of BDE-47. A similar trend has been seen in human milk from Japan. In Norway, PBDE in human milk increased from 1986 to 2001, with similar concentration levels as reported in Sweden and Japan. In the United States the PBDE levels reported in human milk are about 4 times higher than those seen in Europe and Japan. The aim of the present study was to determine PBDE and PCB concentrations in a temporal trend study with samples from 1987-1999 in human milk samples from the Faroe Islands.

  7. Ethanol affects acylated and total ghrelin levels in peripheral blood of alcohol-dependent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szulc, Michal; Mikolajczak, Przemyslaw L; Geppert, Bogna; Wachowiak, Roman; Dyr, Wanda; Bobkiewicz-Kozlowska, Teresa

    2013-07-01

    There is a hypothesis that ghrelin could take part in the central effects of alcohol as well as function as a peripheral indicator of the changes which occur during long-term alcohol consumption. The aim of this study was to determine a correlation between alcohol concentration and acylated and total form of ghrelin after a single administration of alcohol (intraperitoneal, i.p.) (experiment 1) and prolonged ethanol consumption (experiment 2). The study was performed using Wistar alcohol preferring (PR) and non-preferring (NP) rats and rats from inbred line (Warsaw High Preferring, WHP; Warsaw Low Preferring, WLP). It was found that ghrelin in ethanol-naive WHP animals showed a significantly lower level when compared with the ethanol-naive WLP or Wistar rats. After acute ethanol administration in doses of 1.0; 2.0 and 4.0 g/kg, i.p., the simple (WHP) or inverse (WLP and Wistar) relationship between alcohol concentration and both form of ghrelin levels in plasma were found. Chronic alcohol intake in all groups of rats led to decrease of acylated ghrelin concentration. PR and WHP rats, after chronic alcohol drinking, had lower levels of both form of ghrelin in comparison with NP and WLP rats, respectively, and the observed differences in ghrelin levels were in inverse relationship with their alcohol intake. In conclusion, it is suggested that there is a strong relationship between alcohol administration or intake, ethanol concentration in blood and both active and total ghrelin level in the experimental animals, and that ghrelin plasma concentration can be a marker of alcohol drinking predisposition. © 2013 The Authors, Addiction Biology © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  8. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and thyroid hormones in cord blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Guodong; Yu, Jing; Chen, Limei; Wang, Caifeng; Zhou, Yijun; Hu, Yi; Shi, Rong; Zhang, Yan; Cui, Chang; Gao, Yu; Tian, Ying; Liu, Fang

    2017-01-01

    Human exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) has been increasing over the last three decades in China and around the world. Animal studies suggest that PBDEs could reduce blood levels of thyroid hormones, but it is unclear whether PBDEs disrupt thyroid function in humans. We used data from a prospective birth cohort of 123 pregnant women who were enrolled between September 2010 and March 2011 in Shandong, China. We measured the concentrations of eight PBDE congeners (n = 106) and five thyroid hormones (n = 107) in cord serum samples. We examined the relationship between prenatal exposure to PBDEs and thyroid function (n = 90). Median concentrations of BDEs 47, 99, 100, and 153 (detection frequencies > 75%) were 3.96, 8.27, 3.31, and 1.89 ng/g lipid, respectively. A 10-fold increase in BDE-99 and Σ 4 PBDEs (the sum of BDEs 47, 99, 100, and 153) concentrations was associated with a 0.41 μg/dL (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.10 to 0.72) and 0.37 μg/dL (95% CI: 0.06 to 0.68) increase in total thyroxine levels (TT 4 ), respectively. No associations were found between other individual congeners and any of the five thyroid hormones. Our study suggests that prenatal exposure to PBDEs may be associated with higher TT 4 in cord blood. Given the inconsistent findings across existing studies, our results need to be confirmed in additional studies. - Highlights: • Human exposure to PBDEs has been increased over recent decades in China. • PBDEs reduce thyroid hormones in animal studies, but it is unclear in humans. • We examined the relation of PBDE levels with thyroid hormones in cord blood. • Prenatal exposure to PBDEs is associated with higher total thyroxine levels. • The findings may have implications for fetal development. - Exposure to PBDEs is associated with higher total thyroxine levels in cord blood, and the findings may have implications for fetal development.

  9. Effect of polybrominated diphenyl ether congeners on placental cytokine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arita, Yuko; Yeh, Corinne; Thoma, Theodosia; Getahun, Darios; Menon, Ramkumar; Peltier, Morgan R

    2018-02-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are pollutants that may increase the risk of preterm birth. In previous studies, we found that a mixture of PBDEs altered the expression of biomarkers for preterm birth by the placenta. However, there are 209 different PBDE congeners with different tissue distributions. How these different congeners may alter the production of immunomodulators by the placenta that help to maintain the survival of the fetal allograft is unclear. Therefore, we compared the effects 5 common congeners on basal and bacteria-stimulated cytokine production by the placenta. Placental explant cultures were incubated with 20 μM of PBDE congeners 47, 99, 100, 153, 209 or vehicle in the presence and absence of Escherichia coli for 20 h. Conditioned medium was harvested and concentrations of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, sgp130, HO-1, IL-10, BDNF, and 8-IsoP quantified. For unstimulated cultures, all congeners, except for PBDE-47, reduced the production of IL-1β and IL-6 production was enhanced by PBDE-153. BDNF concentrations tended to be reduced by most PBDE congeners and IL-10 production was enhanced by PBDE-99, -153, and -209. 8-IsoP production was enhanced by PBDE-153, but not the other congeners. For bacteria-stimulated cultures, PBDE-47 increased IL-1β production and PBDE-47, -153, and -209 tended to reduce TNF-α production. IL-6 production was enhanced by all PBDEs except 153. IL-10 production was enhanced by all congeners except for PBDE-47. All congeners significantly enhanced BDNF and 8-IsoP. These results suggest that PBDEs can alter the expression of placental biomarkers in a congener and infection-dependent manner. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Current levels and composition profiles of PBDEs and alternative flame retardants in surface sediments from the Pearl River Delta, southern China: Comparison with historical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, She-Jun; Feng, An-Hong; He, Ming-Jing; Chen, Man-Ying; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2013-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and alternative flame retardants were measured in surface sediments collected during 2009–2010 from the Pearl River Delta, southern China (a large manufacturing base for electronics/electrical products), to evaluate the influence of China's RoHS directive (adopted in 2006) on their environmental occurrence. The concentrations in sediments from different water systems ranged from 3.67 to 2520 ng/g (average of 17.1–588 ng/g) for PBDEs and from 0.22 to 5270 ng/g (average of 11.3–454 ng/g) for the alternative retardants. Although the PBDE levels have decreased significantly compared with those in sediments collected in 2002 in this region, the levels of alternative decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) have exceeded those of BDE209 (two predominant halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) in China) in the majority of sediments. This finding suggests a different contaminant pattern of HFRs in current sediments due to the replacement of the deca-BDE mixture with DBDPE in this region. In addition, sediment concentrations of discontinued PBDEs in the rural area are clearly elevated due to e-waste dismantling. The congener profiles of PBDEs in the current sediments (with more abundant lower-brominated congeners) differed substantially from those in 2002 and from the technical products, suggesting that biological or photolytic debromination of PBDEs may have occurred in the environment. - Highlights: ► PBDE levels in sediments have decreased substantially since China's RoHS directive. ► Contamination of novel DBDPE has exceeded that of deca-BDE in the PRD sediments. ► The congener profiles of PBDEs in the sediments have changed significantly. ► Significant biological or photolytic degradation of PBDEs may occur in the environment

  11. Perinatal, sociodemographic and lifestyle correlates of increased total and visceral fat mass levels in schoolchildren in Greece: the Healthy Growth Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschonis, George; Kaliora, Adriana C; Karatzi, Kalliopi; Michaletos, Aggelos; Lambrinou, Christina-Paulina; Karachaliou, Alexandra K; Chrousos, George P; Lionis, Christos; Manios, Yannis

    2017-03-01

    To identify possibly independent associations of perinatal, sociodemographic and lifestyle factors with childhood total and visceral body fat. A representative sample of 2655 schoolchildren (9-13 years) participated in the Healthy Growth Study, a cross-sectional epidemiological study. Seventy-seven primary schools in four large regions in Greece. A sample of 1228 children having full data on total and visceral fat mass levels, as well as on anthropometric, dietary, physical activity, physical examination, socio-economic and perinatal indices, was examined. Maternal (OR=3·03 and 1·77) and paternal obesity (OR=1·62 and 1·78), maternal smoking during pregnancy (OR=1·72 and 1·93) and rapid infant weight gain (OR=1·42 and 1·96) were significantly and positively associated with children's increased total and visceral fat mass levels, respectively. Children's television watching for >2 h/d (OR=1·40) and maternal pre-pregnancy obesity (OR=2·46) were associated with children's increased total and visceral fat mass level, respectively. Furthermore, increased children's physical activity (OR=0·66 and 0·47) were significantly and negatively associated with children's total and visceral fat mass levels, respectively. Lastly, both father's age >46 years (OR=0·57) and higher maternal educational level (OR=0·45) were associated with children's increased total visceral fat mass level. Parental sociodemographic characteristics, perinatal indices and pre-adolescent lifestyle behaviours were associated with children's abnormal levels of total and visceral fat mass. Any future programme for childhood prevention either from the perinatal age or at late childhood should take these indices into consideration.

  12. Photolytic debromination pathway of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in hexane by sunlight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Hua; Zou, Yonghong; Li, An; Christensen, Erik R.; Rockne, Karl J.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work is to identify the photolytic debromination pathways of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Thirteen PBDEs (BDEs 209, 208, 207, 206, 196, 183, 154, 153, 100, 99, 85, 47 and 28) in hexane were individually exposed to sunlight for up to 64 h. A total of 180 PBDEs were screened and 74 BDE debromination products were detected. The disappearance rate constant increased exponentially with increasing number of bromines. While no evident difference in debromination preference among ortho, meta and para bromines was found for heavier congeners, the vulnerability rank order was meta ≥ ortho > para for the lighter congeners (≤8 Br). The total molar mass of PBDEs continuously decreased during sunlight exposure, indicating PBDEs were transformed to non-PBDE compounds. A stochastic least squares debromination pathway model was developed to simulate the reactions and determine the yields to extend the results beyond the experimental observations. -- Highlights: ► 74 PBDEs are identified as the products of debromination via photolysis. ► Debromination is more likely at meta than para positions for PBDEs with ≤8 bromines. ► The stochastic least squares model results agree with and expand the experimental observations. ► Mass imbalance indicates a significant loss of PBDE mass during sunlight exposure. -- The PBDE debromination products and pathways identified in this work will assist in future studies on their environmental fate

  13. Assessing adrenal insufficiency of corticosteroid secretion using free versus total cortisol levels in critical illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, N.; Groeneveld, A.B.J.; Dijstelbloem, H.M.; de Jong, M.F.C.; Girbes, A.R.J.; Heijboer, A.C.; Beishuizen, A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To study the value of free versus total cortisol levels in assessing relative adrenal insufficiency during critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency. Methods: A prospective study in a mixed intensive care unit from 2004 to 2007. We consecutively included 49 septic and 63

  14. Levels, fluxes and time trends of persistent organic pollutants in Lake Thun, Switzerland: Combining trace analysis and multimedia modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdal, Christian; Scheringer, Martin; Schmid, Peter; Blaeuenstein, Markus; Kohler, Martin; Hungerbuehler, Konrad

    2010-01-01

    Levels, mass fluxes, and time trends of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Lake Thun, a peri-Alpine lake, are investigated. We present measurements of PBDEs and PCBs in air, lake water, lake sediment, and tributary water. These measurements are combined with a multimedia fate model, based on site-specific environmental parameters from the lake catchment. Measured loadings of PBDEs and PCBs in air and tributaries were used to drive the model. The model satisfactorily reproduces PBDE and PCB congener patterns in water and sediment, but it tends to yield concentrations in water below the measurements and concentrations in sediment exceeding the measurements. A sensitivity analysis reveals that partitioning of PBDEs and PCBs between the aqueous dissolved phase and suspended particulate matter in the water column strongly affects the model results, in particular the concentrations in water and sediment. For lower-brominated PBDEs, approximately 70% and 30% of input into the lake stems from atmospheric deposition and from tributaries, respectively. For heavier PBDEs and all PCBs, rivers appear to deliver the major load (64-92%). Waste water effluents are of minor importance. 50-90% of the total input is buried in the permanent sediment. Sediment burial makes PBDEs and PCBs less available for recycling in the environment, and reduces concentrations in the outflowing river. If use of deca-BDE increases in the future, levels in Lake Thun will follow the same trend. If the use and resulting environmental emissions decrease, concentrations in water will rapidly decline, according to our calculations, while sediment levels will decrease at a considerably slower rate.

  15. Serum anti-Müllerian hormone, inhibin B, and total inhibin levels in women with hypothalamic amenorrhea and anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luisi, Stefano; Ciani, Valentina; Podfigurna-Stopa, Agnieszka; Lazzeri, Lucia; De Pascalis, Flavio; Meczekalski, Blazej; Petraglia, Felice

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate whether neuroendocrine forms of secondary amenorrhea (hypothalamic nervosa (HA) and anorexia nervosa (AN)) affect serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), inhibin B, and total inhibin levels. Amenorrheic women (n = 82) (aged between 16 and 35 years old) according to diagnosed with neuroendocrine forms of amenorrhea: HA (n = 64), AN (n = 18), and healthy women (n = 41) (control group) were enrolled. Serum AMH, inhibin B, and total inhibin levels were measured by specific ELISA. No statistically significant difference of AMH serum levels between women with HA, AN, and control group was observed. Serum inhibin B and total inhibin levels in women with HA (p < 0.0001), AN (p < 0.05) resulted significantly lower than in control healthy women. The present data showed that neuroendocrine forms of amenorrhea are associated with an impaired inhibin secretion while not AMH. These data indirectly support that AMH is an excellent marker of ovarian reserve and its secretion is not influenced by the hypothalamic-ovarian axis activity.

  16. Body burdens of polybrominated diphenyl ethers among urban anglers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morland, Kimberly B; Landrigan, Philip J; Sjödin, Andreas; Gobeille, Alayne K; Jones, Richard S; McGahee, Ernest E; Needham, Larry L; Patterson, Donald G

    2005-12-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been widely used in the United States and worldwide as flame retardants. Recent PBDE production figures show that worldwide use has increased. To determine whether fish consumption is a source of PBDE exposure for humans, a cross-sectional epidemiologic study of New York and New Jersey urban anglers was conducted during the summers of 2001-2003. Frequency of local fish consumption was assessed by questionnaire, and blood samples for PBDE analysis were collected from 94 anglers fishing from piers on the lower Hudson River and Newark Bay. We analyzed PBDEs by gas chromatography-isotope dilution-high-resolution mass spectrometry. The congeners found in anglers' serum at the highest concentrations were, by International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry numbers, BDE-47, BDE-153, and BDE-99. Anglers reporting consumption of local fish had higher, but nonstatistically significantly different, concentrations of PBDEs than did anglers who did not eat local fish. For some congeners (BDE-100 and BDE-153), we observed moderate dose-response relationships between serum PBDE levels and frequency of reported fish intake. These findings suggest that consumption of locally caught fish is not a major route of human exposure for this study population.

  17. Airborne concentrations of Polybrominated diethyl etherin residential homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rahimzadeh

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims   Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE have been widely applied to different home and offices' appliances as flame retardant additives to inhibit ignition and enhance  the fire safety. Their toxicity, health effects, and resistance to environmental degradation are  matters of great interested among scientists. Airborne concentrations of PBDE in residential  homes were determined in this study.   Methods   In a cross sectional study, 33 residential homes were selected and airborne concentrations of PBDEs were investigated using PUF disk passive air samplers. Also in two building the concentraction of PBDEs were monitored in two rooms of a department in each building for 12 months.   Results   Average airborne concentration of ?PBDE (sum of congener #s 17, 28, 47, 49, 66, 85, 99, 100, 153, and 154 for all locations monitored was 52 (4-245 pgm -3 . While in one of the buildings the contaminant level of bedroom was significantly higher than the living room, PBDE   concentrations remained relatively constant for whole monitoring period.   Conclusion   The range of concentrations results to a wide variation between inhalation intakes of dwellers of the lowest and the highest contaminated homes (~50 folds.  

  18. Assessing adrenal insufficiency of corticosteroid secretion using free versus total cortisol levels in critical illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, Nienke; Johan Groeneveld, A. B.; Dijstelbloem, Hilde M.; de Jong, Margriet F. C.; Girbes, Armand R. J.; Heijboer, Annemieke C.; Beishuizen, Albertus

    2011-01-01

    To study the value of free versus total cortisol levels in assessing relative adrenal insufficiency during critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency. A prospective study in a mixed intensive care unit from 2004 to 2007. We consecutively included 49 septic and 63 non-septic patients with

  19. Time-trends and congener profiles of PBDEs and PCBs in California peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, June-Soo; Holden, Arthur; Chu, Vivian; Kim, Michele; Rhee, Alexandra; Patel, Puja; Shi, Yating; Linthicum, Janet; Walton, Brian J; McKeown, Karen; Jewell, Nicholas P; Hooper, Kim

    2009-12-01

    High levels (microg/g lw) of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in peregrine falcon eggs from California (n = 90 eggs from 52 birds, 38 nest sites, collected 1986-2007, SigmaPBDEs median = 4.53, range = 0.08-53.1). Over the past 22 years, PBDE levels more than tripled each decade in the eggs, whereas PCB levels had no significant changes. PBDE levels were highest in eggs from major California cities ("Big Cities"), whereas PCBs showed no difference across the regions. For PBDEs, Big City eggs had markedly different patterns from Coastal eggs: BDE-209 and the higher brominated PBDEs (hexa-nona) were dominant congeners in Big City eggs, while BDE-47 and -99 were dominant in Coastal eggs. In many of the birds that gave multiple eggs over time ("time series"), PBDE patterns changed over time: the high proportions of BDE-209 and higher brominated PBDEs (short half-lives) in young birds contrasted with increasingly higher proportions of BDE-153 (long half-life) and other lower brominated PBDEs as the birds aged. These data are consistent with metabolic debromination of BDE-209 (t(1/2) = 1-2 weeks) to the lower brominated PBDEs, with accumulation over time of BDE-153 (t(1/2) = 3-4 years). In contrast, PCB patterns showed no differences by locations, and did not change over time. Diet (prey birds) may explain the urban PBDE pattern, as the patterns in urban pigeons and peregrines were similar, with high proportions of BDE-209 and the higher-brominated PBDEs. Also, our prey data (feathers from peregrine nests) showed urban peregrines having a higher proportion (>2 fold) of granivorous/opportunistic birds (e.g., "introduced feral" pigeons, mourning doves, starlings) in their diet than coastal peregrines. In summary, these data indicate that BDE-209 exits consumer products as an environmental contaminant to be taken up by wildlife (particularly in urban locations), and undergoes metabolic debromination to the banned lower

  20. Total Testosterone Levels and the Effect of Sildenafil on Type 2 Diabetics with Erectile Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabeel Najib Fadhil Hadeed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Hypotestosteronemia has been reported in approximately half of type 2 diabetic men in general. This study aims to assess serum total testosterone levels in type 2 diabetics with erectile dysfunction and to correlate the degree of improvement between sildenafil citrate and testosterone levels. Methods: A cross sectional and prospective comparative interventional study was conducted at the Diabetic Clinic of Assalam Teaching Hospital in Mosul, during the period from January 1, 2009 through to December 31, 2011. The study enrolled 120 type 2 diabetic males with erectile dysfunction who were analyzed with regard to age, duration of diabetes, duration and severity of erectile dysfunction, serum total testosteron levels and the degree of response to sildenafil citrate in terms of testosterone levels. The data were statistically analyzed using the independent two-sample Student t test, χ2 test and Pearson correlation test. A p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Thirty six percent of type 2 diabetic males with erectile dysfunction were found to have low serum testosterone levels. The hypotestosteronemic and normotestosteronemic subgroups were not significantly different in terms of mean age, duration of diabetes, reduction of libido, and reduction in erectile function. The rate and the degree of improvement of erection by sildenafil in the normo-and-hypotestosteronemic respondents were not significantly different, but the degree of improvement by sildenafil was significantly correlated to testosterone levels among the hypotestosteronemic group. Conclusion: Hypotestosteronemia was found in 36% of type 2 diabetic males with erectile dysfunction. The degree of improvement of erectile dysfunction by sildenafil was directly proportional to the serum testosterone levels among the hypotestosteronemic group. Therapeutic supplement with testosterone preparation in the hypotestosteronemic diabetics with erectile

  1. Brominated flame retardants in birds of prey from Flanders, Belgium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voorspoels, S.; Covaci, A.; Schepens, P. [Antwerp Univ., Wilrijk (Belgium). Toxicological Centre

    2004-09-15

    Since their introduction on the market, environmental levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are continuously increasing. This is caused by spillage and emission during production and use, but also by improper disposal at the end-of-life of the products in which they are used. These chemicals are highly persistent and lipophilic which results in bioaccumulation in fatty tissues of biota and biomagnification throughout the food chain. Because PBDEs have a high toxicological potential, this biomagnification can have serious health consequences for top-predators, such as birds of prey. Data about PBDE concentrations in terrestrial biota, especially in birds of prey, is scarce. A rapid increase of PBDE concentrations has been seen in pooled guillemot (Uria algae) eggs from the Baltic proper7 during the late 1970's and early 1980's, followed by a decrease during the 1990's8. In herring gull eggs from the Great Lakes, the PBDE concentrations increased exponentially from 1981 to 2000. Most of the studies look at concentrations in eggs, while less is known about tissue levels and distribution of these pollutants in birds of prey.

  2. [Serum total cholesterol levels and eligibility for long-term care insurance: a prospective cohort study of the Tsurugaya project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshi, Rena; Tomata, Yasutake; Kakizaki, Masako; Tsuboya, Toru; Nagai, Masato; Watanabe, Ikue; Hozawa, Atsushi; Tsuji, Ichiro

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between serum total cholesterol levels and certification eligibility for long-term care insurance in elderly Japanese individuals. The Tsurugaya Project was a comprehensive geriatric assessment conducted for community-dwelling elderly individuals aged ≥70 years in the Tsurugaya area, Sendai, Japan. Of the 2,925 inhabitants, 958 subjects participated in the Tsurugaya Project. For this analysis, we used 827 subjects who gave informed consent and were not qualified for long-term care insurance at the time of the baseline survey. Subjects were followed up for 6 years. We classified the subjects into 4 quintiles and used the fourth quintile (212-230 mg/dL) as a reference for statistical analysis. We used Cox proportional hazards model to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of certification eligibility for long-term care insurance according to total cholesterol levels in serum. During 6 years of follow-up, a total of 214 subjects were qualified for long-term care insurance certification. The lowest serum total cholesterol level (care insurance certification. Compared with the fourth quintile, multivariate HRs (95%CIs) of long-term care insurance certification were 1.91 (1.23-2.98), 1.36 (0.85-2.18), 0.99 (0.62-1.56), 1.38 (0.88-2.17), for total cholesterol levels were significantly associated with increased eligibility for long-term care insurance certification even after adjusting for a variety of confounding factors.

  3. SORCE Level 3 Total Solar Irradiance Daily Average V016

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) data set SOR3TSID contains the total solar irradiance (a.k.a solar constant) data collected by the Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM)...

  4. Determinations of total residue, total oxide and density of high-level liquid waste (HLLW) by gravimetric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yun; Gao Yueying; Yang Ming; Jin Liyun

    1992-01-01

    Gravimetric method for determination of total residue, total oxide and density of HLLW is developed. An aliquot of the original HLLW solution is piped on to the small quartz disc and put into the mini muffle furnace carefully. It is first heated to below 100 degree C (for 1.5 hours to remove the free water, and then heated to 180 degree C for 2 hours to remove the crystal water in a furnace. The total residue is weighed at room temperature. The precision is better than 3% for the determination of total residue and total oxide. An aliquot of the original HLLW solution is piped into the weighing bottle and weighed. The precision is better than 1%

  5. Millennial total sea-level commitments projected with the Earth system model of intermediate complexity LOVECLIM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goelzer, H; Huybrechts, P; Raper, S C B; Loutre, M-F; Goosse, H; Fichefet, T

    2012-01-01

    Sea-level is expected to rise for a long time to come, even after stabilization of human-induced climatic warming. Here we use simulations with the Earth system model of intermediate complexity LOVECLIM to project sea-level changes over the third millennium forced with atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations that stabilize by either 2000 or 2100 AD. The model includes 3D thermomechanical models of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets coupled to an atmosphere and an ocean model, a global glacier melt algorithm to account for the response of mountain glaciers and ice caps, and a procedure for assessing oceanic thermal expansion from oceanic heat uptake. Four climate change scenarios are considered to determine sea-level commitments. These assume a 21st century increase in greenhouse gases according to SRES scenarios B1, A1B and A2 with a stabilization of the atmospheric composition after the year 2100. One additional scenario assumes 1000 years of constant atmospheric composition from the year 2000 onwards. For our preferred model version, we find an already committed total sea-level rise of 1.1 m by 3000 AD. In experiments with greenhouse gas concentration stabilization at 2100 AD, the total sea-level rise ranges between 2.1 m (B1), 4.1 m (A1B) and 6.8 m (A2). In all scenarios, more than half of this amount arises from the Greenland ice sheet, thermal expansion is the second largest contributor, and the contribution of glaciers and ice caps is small as it is limited by the available ice volume of maximally 25 cm of sea-level equivalent. Additionally, we analysed the sensitivity of the sea-level contributions from an ensemble of nine different model versions that cover a large range of climate sensitivity realized by model parameter variations of the atmosphere–ocean model. Selected temperature indices are found to be good predictors for sea-level contributions from the different components of land ice and oceanic thermal expansion after 1000 years. (letter)

  6. Age and seasonal variability of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in free-ranging East Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietz, Rune; Riget, Frank F.; Sonne, Christian; Letcher, Robert J.; Backus, Sean; Born, Erik W.; Kirkegaard, Maja; Muir, Derek C.G.

    2007-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were analysed in adipose tissue from 92 East Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus) sampled during 1999-2001. Mean ΣPBDE concentrations were 70 ng/g lipid weight (lw) (range: 22-192 ng/g lw) and showed no relationship with age or sex. Of the 32 analysed PBDE congeners; BDE47, BDE153, BDE99 and BDE100 dominated, and comprised 99.6% of the ΣPBDE concentration. The ΣPBDE concentration had a highly significant correlation with ΣPCB, ΣCHL, dieldrin, HCB and ΣHCH concentrations. We found a seasonal pattern of median ΣPBDE concentration with 1.2 to 1.8 times higher concentrations in March to July than the rest of the year. The seasonal variation also provides a clue to the seasonal exposure, bio-availability, toxic exposure and degradation. We suggest that future geographical PBDE data comparisons may not need corrections for sex or age, but such data sets should be corrected for seasonal variability, using the presented correctional trigonometric regression. - Mean ΣPBDE concentrations of East Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus) were 69.5 ng/g lw (range: 21.7-192 ng/g lw) and showed a seasonal pattern with no relationship with age and sex

  7. Total and allergen-specific IgE levels during and after pregnancy in relation to maternal allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Martina; Frykman, Anne; Jonsson, Yvonne; Persson, Marie; Ernerudh, Jan; Berg, Göran; Matthiesen, Leif; Ekerfelt, Christina; Jenmalm, Maria C

    2009-07-01

    Type 2 T-helper cell (Th2)-skewed immunity is associated with successful pregnancy and the ability to easily direct immune responses to a Th2-polarised profile may be an evolutionary benefit. The Th2-like immunity associated with allergic disease might generate favourable effects for the maintenance of pregnancy, but could also promote development of Th2-like immune responses and allergic disease in the offspring. The aim of this study was to explore, by using IgE as a stable proxy for Th2, the Th1/Th2 balance in allergic and non-allergic women by measuring allergen-specific and total IgE antibody levels in plasma during pregnancy and after delivery. Specific and total IgE antibody levels were determined by ImmunoCAP technology at five occasions during pregnancy (gestational weeks 10-12, 15-16, 25, 35 and 39), as well as at 2 and 12 months after delivery. Thirty-six women without and 20 women with allergic symptoms were included, of whom 13 were sensitised with allergic symptoms and 30 were non-sensitised without allergic symptoms. The levels of total IgE, but not allergen-specific IgE, were increased during early pregnancy when compared to 12 months after delivery in the sensitised women with allergic symptoms, but not in the non-sensitised women without allergic symptoms (ppregnancy only in the sensitised women with allergic symptoms indicates that allergy is associated with an enhanced Th2 deviation during pregnancy.

  8. Special distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in brain tissues of free-range domestic hens and ducks from a village near an electronic waste recycling site in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhong-Zhi; Li, Yong-Fang; Fu, Shan; Zhao, Xing-Ru

    2011-03-01

    The rural village, Taizhou of Zhejiang Province, had been exposed to e-waste recycling for years, the polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) levels in hens and ducks were high. The concentration of ∑PBDEs in the brain was the lowest among tissues of individual hens and ducks after correction for the respective lipid content. Also, the concentration ratio of BDE-153 versus BDE-154 (153/154) of brain was the highest among tissues of individual hens and ducks. Our results indicate that the hindrance of blood-brain barrier to compounds, such as high molecular weight and non-planar conformation (steric hindrance), contributed to the low concentration of PBDEs in the brain tissue of hens and ducks, especially in cases exposed to high levels of PBDE.

  9. The relationship between serum total testosterone and free testosterone levels with serum hemoglobin and hematocrit levels: a study in 1221 men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yu Seob; You, Jae Hyung; Cha, Jai Seong; Park, Jong Kwan

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the relationship between serum total testosterone (TT) and free testosterone (FT) levels in men with anemia. We reviewed the records of 1221 subjects between March 2009 and December 2014. All the subjects' blood samples were drawn for TT and FT assays. Their serum hemoglobin (Hb) and serum hematocrit (Hct) levels were measured. The primary objective of our study was to investigate the association between TT and FT levels with Hb and Hct levels. The mean age was 59.82 ± 12.71 years. The mean TT and FT levels were 4.54 ± 2.02 ng/mL and 10.63 ± 3.69 pg/mL, respectively. The mean Hb and Hct levels were 14.72 ± 1.34 g/dL and 43.11 ± 3.75%, respectively. Subjects with low TT (<2.35 ng/mL) had low Hb and Hct levels (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, respectively). TT was positively associated with FT, Hb, and Hct. TT and FT levels were significantly lower in older men. Subjects with low TT and FT levels had low Hb and Hct levels. This suggests that TT and FT play a significant role in erythropoiesis. Testosterone replacement therapy may be effective in men with hypogonadism to reduce the incidence of anemia.

  10. Soil concentrations and source apportionment of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and trace elements around a heavily industrialized area in Kocaeli, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Banu

    2014-01-01

    Air pollutants are transported by dry deposition, wet deposition, and gas exchange accumulated in soil. Therefore, soil is an important environmental medium reflecting the level and the spatial distribution of air pollutants such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and heavy metals. Soil concentrations of seven PBDE congeners and 21 trace elements were determined in a heavily industrialized region (Dilovasi) in Kocaeli, Turkey. At all sites, Σ7PBDE concentrations ranged from 0.70 to 203 with a mean value of 26.3 μg kg(-1) (dry weight). The congener profiles and mass inventories of PBDEs and their interactions with soil organic matter (SOM) were also investigated. BDE-209 was the dominant congener at all sites, followed by BDE-99 and/or -47. The estimated inventory of PBDEs for the Dilovasi district was 310 kg. However, there are several additional industrial regions in Kocaeli city. Considering the total land area, the potential inventory would be much larger for this city. The relationship between the PBDE concentrations in soil and SOM content indicated that factors other than soil properties have a greater influence on soil concentrations. Crustal enrichment factors (EFs) were determined; correlation analysis and factor analysis (FA) were also applied to generated data set to identify and apportion the sources polluting the soil. Sn, Mn, Ca, As, Zn, Pb, and Cd had significantly high average EF values, indicating that their soil concentrations were mainly influenced by anthropogenic activities. In FA, six factors were extracted with a cumulative variance of 84.4 % and industrial activities and traffic were found to be the main factors affecting the soil profile.

  11. Elevated Serum Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers and Alteration of Thyroid Hormones in Children from Guiyu, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xijin; Liu, Junxiao; Zeng, Xiang; Lu, Fangfang; Chen, Aimin; Huo, Xia

    2014-01-01

    Informal electronic waste (e-waste) recycling results in serious environmental pollution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and heavy metals. This study explored whether there is an association between PBDEs, heavy metal and key growth- and development-related hormones in children from Guiyu, an e-waste area in southern China. We quantified eight PBDE congeners using gas chromatographic mass spectrometry, lead and cadmium utilizing graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, three thyroids with radioimmunoassay and two types of growth hormones by an enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA) in 162 children, 4 to 6 years old, from Guiyu. In blood, median total PBDE was 189.99 ng/g lipid. Lead and cadmium concentrations in blood averaged 14.53±4.85 µg dL−1 and 0.77±0.35 µg L−1, respectively. Spearman partial correlation analysis illustrated that lead was positively correlated with BDE153 and BDE183. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) was positively correlated with almost all PBDE congeners and negatively correlated with insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), whereas free triiodothyronine (FT3) and free thyroxine (FT4) were negatively correlated with BDE154. However, no correlation between the hormones and blood lead or cadmium levels was found in this study. Adjusted multiple linear regression analysis showed that total PBDEs was negatively associated with FT3 and positively associated with TSH. Notably, FT4 was positively correlated with FT3, house functions as a workshop, and father's work involved in e-waste recycling and negatively correlated with vitamin consumptions. TSH was negatively related with FT4, paternal residence time in Guiyu, working hours of mother, and child bean products intake. IGFBP-3 was positively correlated with IGF-1 and house close to an e-waste dump. These results suggest that elevated PBDEs and heavy metals related to e-waste in Guiyu may be important risk factors for hormone alterations in children

  12. Relationship between serum total bilirubin levels and mortality in uremia patients undergoing long-term hemodialysis: A nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hui-Hsien; Kao, Chia-Man; Lin, Yi-Chun; Lin, Yen-Chung; Kao, Chih-Chin; Chen, Hsi-Hsien; Hsu, Chih-Cheng; Chen, Kuan-Chou; Peng, Chiung-Chi; Wu, Mai-Szu

    2017-10-01

    Previous studies show that serum bilirubin has potent antioxidant effect and is associated with protection from kidney damage and reduce cardiovascular events. The aim of this study was to examine the association of serum total bilirubin level and mortality in uremia patients who underwent hemodialysis. This is a nationwide retrospective long-term cohort study. Patients were registered in the Taiwan Renal Registry Data System (TWRDS) from 2005 to 2012. A total of 115,535 hemodialysis patients were surveyed and those with valid baseline total bilirubin (TB) data were enrolled. All-cause mortality was the primary outcome. A total of 47,650 hemodialysis patients followed for 27.6 ± 12 months, were divided into 3 groups according to different baseline serum total bilirubin levels (0.1-0.3, 0.3-0.7, 0.7-1.2 mg/dL). Mean age was 61.4 ± 13.6 years, 50% were male, 13% were hepatitis B carriers, and 20% were hepatitis C carriers. Primary outcome was the 3-year mortality. The TB level 0.7-1.2 mg/dL group had high mortality, statistically significant hazard ratio of mortality was 1.14 (crude HR, 95% 1.07-1.20, p bilirubin on hemodialysis patients are needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Serum Levels Of Free And Total Insulin-Like Growth Factor (IGF)-1 And IGF Binding Protein-3 In Normal And Growth Hormone Deficient Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shousha, M.A.; Soliman, S.E.T.; Hafez, M.H.

    2006-01-01

    Serum levels of total insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) reflect the endogenous GH secretion in healthy children, which makes them good diagnostic markers for screening growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in short children, although some controversy still exists. Only a minor fraction of the total IGF-1 circulates in its free form, which is believed to be the biologically active form. Serum levels of free IGF-1, total IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were measured in 144 healthy children (72 boys and 72 girls, aged from 0 to 16 years) and in 12 pre-pubertal GH deficient (GHD) children to study the correlation between the age and free IGF-1, total IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels. In healthy subjects (both sexes), serum free IGF-1, total IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels were low in infancy, increasing during puberty and declining thereafter. Free IGF-1 in serum occupied about 0.97-1.45 % of the total IGF-1 values, and the ratios of free IGF-1 to total IGF-1 were significantly increased in the pubertal age groups than in the pre-pubertal age groups. Serum levels of free IGF-1 showed significant positive correlation with those of total IGF-I and IGFBP-3. Serum free IGF-1, total IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels in patients with GHD were decreased significantly with increasing the degree of hypopituitarism. These observations suggest that the increase in serum free IGF-1 level during puberty was caused by a dramatic increase in total IGF-1 rather than IGFBP-3. Also, high levels of these hormones may play an important role in pubertal growth spurt and may become a useful tool for diagnosing GHD and predicting growth response to long term GH therapy

  14. Serum levels of free and total insulin-link growth factor (IGF)-1 and (IGF) binding protein-3 in normal and growth hormone deficient children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shousha, M.A.; Soliman, S.E.T.; Hafez, H.M.

    2008-01-01

    Serum levels of total insulin-like growth factor- 1 (IGF-1) and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) reflect endogenous GH secretion in healthy children, which makes them good diagnostic markers for screening GH deficiency (GHD) in short children, although some controversy still exists. Only a minor fraction of the total IGF-1 circulates in its free form, which is believed to be the biologically active form. Serum levels of free IGF-1, total IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were measured in 144 healthy children (72 boys and 72 girls, aged from 0 to 16 years) and in 12 prepubertal GH. deficient (GHD) children to study correlation between the age and free IGF-1, total IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels. In healthy subjects (both sexes), serum free IGF-1, total IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels were low in infancy, increasing during puberty and declining thereafter. Free IGF-1 in serum occupied about 0.97. 1.45 % of the total IGF-1 values, and the ratios of free IGF-1 to total IGF-1 were significantly increased in the pubertal age groups than in the prepubertal age groups. Serum levels of free IGF-1 showed significant positive correlation with those of total IGF-I and IGFBP-3. Serum free IGF-1, total IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels in patients with GHD decreased significantly with increasing degree of hypopituitarism. These observations suggest that the increase in serum free IGF-1 level during puberty was caused by a dramatic increase in total IGF-1 rather than IGFBP-3. Also, high levels of these hormones may play an important role in pubertal growth spurt and may become a useful tool for diagnosing GHD and predicting growth response to long term GH therapy

  15. Total levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 in plasma yield high diagnostic sensitivity and specificity in patients with colon cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten-Andersen, Mads N; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen

    2002-01-01

    : Total TIMP-1 plasma levels were measured by ELISA in blood samples from two different blood donor populations from IBD patients, and preoperative samples from patients with primary colon cancer (CC), rectal cancer (RC), or breast cancer. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in plasma TIMP-1......PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to measure total levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP-1) by ELISA in plasma from blood donors, patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and patients with cancer and to correlate the results to patient diagnosis. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN...... levels between healthy donors and IBD or breast cancer patients, whereas patients with CC or RC had significantly elevated TIMP-1 levels. Total TIMP-1 levels identified patients with CC with a sensitivity of 63% at 98% specificity, patients with early CC (Dukes' A+B) with a sensitivity of 56% at 98...

  16. Industry-level total-factor energy efficiency in developed countries: A Japan-centered analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honma, Satoshi; Hu, Jin-Li

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • This study compares Japan with other developed countries for energy efficiency at the industry level. • We compute the total-factor energy efficiency (TFEE) for industries in 14 developed countries in 1995–2005. • Energy conservation can be further optimized in Japan’s industry sector. • Japan experienced a slight decrease in the weighted TFEE from 0.986 in 1995 to 0.927 in 2005. • Japan should adapt energy conservation technologies from the primary benchmark countries: Germany, UK, and USA. - Abstract: Japan’s energy security is more vulnerable today than it was before the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident in March 2011. To alleviate its energy vulnerability, Japan has no choice but to improve energy efficiency. To aid in this improvement, this study compares Japan’s energy efficiency at the industry level with that of other developed countries. We compute the total-factor energy efficiency (TFEE) of industries in 14 developed countries for 1995–2005 using data envelopment analysis. We use four inputs: labor, capital stock, energy, and non-energy intermediate inputs. Value added is the only relevant output. Results indicate that Japan can further optimize energy conservation because it experienced only a marginal decrease in the weighted TFEE, from 0.986 in 1995 to 0.927 in 2005. To improve inefficient industries, Japan should adapt energy conservation technologies from benchmark countries such as Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States

  17. Brominated flame retardant trends in aquatic birds from the Salish Sea region of the west coast of North America, including a mini-review of recent trends in marine and estuarine birds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Aroha [Department of Applied Biology, University of British Columbia, 2357 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Elliott, John E., E-mail: John.Elliott@ec.gc.ca [Science and Technology, Environment Canada, Delta, BC V4K 3N2 (Canada); Elliott, Kyle H.; Guigueno, Mélanie F. [Department of Biology, University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond Street, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada); Wilson, Laurie K. [Canadian Wildlife Service, Pacific Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, Delta, BC V4K 3N2 (Canada); Lee, Sandi [Science and Technology, Environment Canada, Delta, BC V4K 3N2 (Canada); Idrissi, Abde [Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3 (Canada)

    2015-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) increased in many matrices during the 1990s and early 2000s. Since voluntary restrictions and regulations on PBDEs were implemented in North America circa early 2000s, decreases in PBDEs have occurred in many of these same matrices. To examine temporal trends in the North Pacific, we retrospectively analysed PBDEs and eight non-PBDE flame retardants (FR) in eggs of two aquatic bird species, great blue herons, Ardea herodias, and double-crested cormorants, Phalacrocorax auritus, collected along the British Columbia coast, Canada from 1979 to 2012. Increasing PBDE concentrations were observed in both species followed by significant decreases post-2000 for all dominant congeners and ΣPBDE. Non-PBDE FRs were generally undetected in cormorant eggs, or detected at very low levels in heron eggs, except for hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD). HBCDD, currently unregulated in North America, was not detected in early sampling years; however low concentrations were observed in both species in recent sampling years (2003–2012). Dietary tracers (δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N) did not change significantly over time, indicating that temporal changes in PBDEs are likely caused by implemented regulations. A comparison with recently published temporal trends of ΣPBDE in marine birds from North America and Europe is given. - Highlights: • Seabird eggs have been used to monitor POPs on the west coast of Canada since 1979. • Samples of these eggs were analysed retrospectively for PBDEs and HBCDD. • Regulations exist in North America to control PBDEs, but not HBCDD. • PBDEs decreased significantly since regulations were applied. • HBCDD was not detected pre-2003, but is now found in low concentrations.

  18. Body burdens of brominated flame retardants and other persistent organo-halogenated compounds and their descriptors in US girls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Windham, Gayle C., E-mail: gayle.windham@cdph.ca.gov [CA Department of Public Health, DEODC, 850 Marina Bay Pkwy, Bldg. P, Richmond, CA 94804 (United States); Pinney, Susan M. [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Sjodin, Andreas [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Lum, Raymond [Impact Assessment Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Jones, Richard S.; Needham, Larry L. [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Biro, Frank M. [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Hiatt, Robert A. [University of California Medical School, San Francisco, CA (United States); Kushi, Lawrence H. [Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Oakland, CA 94612 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    Background: Levels of brominated flame retardants are increasing in US populations, yet little data are available on body burdens of these and other persistent hormonally active agents (HAAs) in school-aged children. Exposures to such chemicals may affect a number of health outcomes related to development and reproductive function. Objective: Determine the distribution of biomarkers of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organo-chlorinated pesticides (OCPs), such as DDT/DDE, in children, and their variation by key descriptor variables. Methods: Ethnically diverse cohorts of girls 6-8 y old at baseline are being followed for growth and pubertal development in a multi-site, longitudinal study. Nearly 600 serum samples from the California and Ohio sites were analyzed for lipids, 35 PCB congeners, 11 PBDE congeners, and 9 OCPs. The biomarker distributions were examined and geometric means compared for selected analytes across categories of age, race, site, body mass index (BMI), parental education, maternal age at delivery, and breast feeding in adjusted models. Results: Six PBDE congeners were detected among greater than 70% of samples, with BDE-47 having the highest concentration (median 42.2, range 4.9-855 ng/g lipid). Girls in California had adjusted geometric mean (GM) PBDE levels significantly higher than girls in Ohio. Furthermore, Blacks had significantly higher adjusted GMs of all six PBDE congeners than Whites, and Hispanics had intermediate values. GMs tended to be lower among more obese girls, while other variables were not strongly associated. In contrast, GMs of the six PCB congeners most frequently detected were significantly lower among Blacks and Hispanics than Whites. PCBs and the three pesticides most frequently detected were also consistently lower among girls with high BMI, who were not breast-fed, whose mothers were younger, or whose care-givers (usually parents) were less educated. Girls in California had

  19. Body burdens of brominated flame retardants and other persistent organo-halogenated compounds and their descriptors in US girls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Windham, Gayle C.; Pinney, Susan M.; Sjodin, Andreas; Lum, Raymond; Jones, Richard S.; Needham, Larry L.; Biro, Frank M.; Hiatt, Robert A.; Kushi, Lawrence H.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Levels of brominated flame retardants are increasing in US populations, yet little data are available on body burdens of these and other persistent hormonally active agents (HAAs) in school-aged children. Exposures to such chemicals may affect a number of health outcomes related to development and reproductive function. Objective: Determine the distribution of biomarkers of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organo-chlorinated pesticides (OCPs), such as DDT/DDE, in children, and their variation by key descriptor variables. Methods: Ethnically diverse cohorts of girls 6-8 y old at baseline are being followed for growth and pubertal development in a multi-site, longitudinal study. Nearly 600 serum samples from the California and Ohio sites were analyzed for lipids, 35 PCB congeners, 11 PBDE congeners, and 9 OCPs. The biomarker distributions were examined and geometric means compared for selected analytes across categories of age, race, site, body mass index (BMI), parental education, maternal age at delivery, and breast feeding in adjusted models. Results: Six PBDE congeners were detected among greater than 70% of samples, with BDE-47 having the highest concentration (median 42.2, range 4.9-855 ng/g lipid). Girls in California had adjusted geometric mean (GM) PBDE levels significantly higher than girls in Ohio. Furthermore, Blacks had significantly higher adjusted GMs of all six PBDE congeners than Whites, and Hispanics had intermediate values. GMs tended to be lower among more obese girls, while other variables were not strongly associated. In contrast, GMs of the six PCB congeners most frequently detected were significantly lower among Blacks and Hispanics than Whites. PCBs and the three pesticides most frequently detected were also consistently lower among girls with high BMI, who were not breast-fed, whose mothers were younger, or whose care-givers (usually parents) were less educated. Girls in California had

  20. Monitoring of PBDEs concentration in umbilical cord blood and breast milk from Korean population and estimating the effects of various parameters on accumulation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Un-Jung; Lee, In-Seok; Kim, Hyung Sik; Oh, Jeong-Eun

    2011-10-01

    In this study, we investigated concentration, congener distribution pattern, and effects of potential environmental factors that affect PBDE accumulation. We also estimated correlation between PBDE concentration and health status or thyroid function by analyzing 90 cord blood and 21 breast milk samples obtained from Korean population. Seven from tri- to hepta-BDEs were analyzed by solid phase extraction-high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (SPE-HRGC/HRMS). The total concentration of 7 PBDEs in cord blood was 2.786-94.64 ng g(-1) lipid and that in breast milk was 1.076-8.664 ng g(-1) lipid. Tetra-BDE (#47) was the predominant type of PBDE and was present at concentrations of over 40% in both sample types. A weak correlation was observed between the concentration of BDE28 and 153 and thyroid hormone concentration only in the breast milk samples. In children, a weak negative correlation was observed between free thyroxine (FT4) concentration and BDE28 concentration (0.302, pmilk during pregnancy and dietary habits such as green tea drinking (0.541, p=0.025) and Trichiuridae intake (0.565, p=0.015). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in sediments of the Pearl River Delta and adjacent South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Bixian; Chen, Shejun; Luo, Xiaojun; Chen, Laiguo; Yang, Qingshu; Sheng, Guoying; Peng, Pingan; Fu, Jiamo; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2005-05-15

    Spatial and temporal distributions of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in sediments of the Pearl River Delta (PRD) and adjacent South China Sea (SCS) of southern China were examined. A total of 66 surface sediment samples were collected and analyzed to determine the concentrations of 10 PBDE congeners (BDE-28, -47, -66, -100, -99, -154, -153, -138, -183, and -209). The concentrations of BDE-209 and SigmaPBDEs (defined as the sum of all targeted PBDE congeners except for BDE-209) ranged from 0.4 to 7340 and from 0.04 to 94.7 ng/g, respectively. The SigmaPBDEs concentrations were mostly transportation. The PBDE patterns in the SCS and Pearl River Estuary sediments were similar to those in sediments of the Zhujiang and Dongjiang Rivers, reflecting the widespread influence from local inputs. Analyses of two short sediment cores collected from the Pearl River Estuary showed that concentrations of BDE-209 rapidly increased in the upper layers of both cores, coincident with the growth of the electronics manufacturing capacities in the PRD region. The major sources of PBDEs were probably waste discharges from the cities of Guangzhou, Dongguan, and Shenzhen, the three fastest growing urban centers in the PRD.

  2. Estimation of Serum Triglycerides, Serum Cholesterol, Total Protein, IgG Levels in Chronic Periodontitis Affected Elderly Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, A V; Ravishankar, P L; Kumar, Pradeep; Rajapandian, K; Kalaivani, V; Rajula, M Prem Blaisie

    2017-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the serum triglycerides, serum cholesterol, total protein, and IgG levels in elderly patients who were affected by periodontal disease. This study was conducted at the Rajah Muthiah Dental College and Hospital in the periodontics division. The study was conducted for a period of 3 months. This study is a prospective analytical study. Sixty individuals who were systemically healthy in the age group of 50 and above were included in this study. Control and experimental groups of 30 participants each were included. Plaque index, gingival index, probing pocket depth, and clinical attachment loss were recorded. Biochemical parameters such as serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides, total protein, and IgG levels were also evaluated and correlated with the periodontal parameters. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 16.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY). The relationship between periodontal status and the biochemical parameters such as serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides, total protein, and IgG levels were evaluated by Student's t-test. There was no significant difference in the plaque and gingival scores between the experimental and control group. It was observed that serum cholesterol level and total protein level was lower in participants suffering from chronic periodontitis. Triglycerides level was significantly elevated in the experimental group. IgG, a level which is not significant, concluded that there is no difference in control and experimental group. It was concluded from the results obtained from the study that there is an association between serum triglycerides, serum cholesterol, total protein, and periodontal disease. However, further longitudinal and well-controlled studies are required to evaluate the relationship between these biochemical parameters and periodontal disease.

  3. Sources, emissions, and fate of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls indoors in Toronto, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xianming; Diamond, Miriam L; Robson, Matthew; Harrad, Stuart

    2011-04-15

    Indoor air concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) measured in 20 locations in Toronto ranged 0.008-16 ng·m(-3) (median 0.071 ng·m(-3)) and 0.8-130.5 ng·m(-3) (median 8.5 ng·m(-3)), respectively. PBDE and PCB air concentrations in homes tended to be lower than that in offices. Principal component analysis of congener profiles suggested that electrical equipment was the main source of PBDEs in locations with higher concentrations, whereas PUF furniture and carpets were likely sources to locations with lower concentrations. PCB profiles in indoor air were similar to Aroclors 1248, 1232, and 1242 and some exterior building sealant profiles. Individual PBDE and PCB congener concentrations in air were positively correlated with colocated dust concentrations, but total PBDE and total PCB concentrations in these two media were not correlated. Equilibrium partitioning between air and dust was further examined using log-transformed dust/air concentration ratios for which lower brominated PBDEs and all PCBs were correlated with K(OA). This was not the case for higher brominated BDEs for which the measured ratios fell below those based on K(OA) suggesting the air-dust partitioning process could be kinetically limited. Total emissions of PBDEs and PCBs to one intensively studied office were estimated at 87-550 ng·h(-1) and 280-5870 ng·h(-1), respectively, using the Multimedia Indoor Model of Zhang et al. Depending on the air exchange rate, up to 90% of total losses from the office could be to outdoors by means of ventilation. These results support the hypotheses that dominant sources of PBDEs differ according to location and that indoor concentrations and hence emissions contribute to outdoor concentrations due to higher indoor than outdoor concentrations along with estimates of losses via ventilation.

  4. Galectin-3 levels relate in children to total body fat, abdominal fat, body fat distribution, and cardiac size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dencker, Magnus; Arvidsson, Daniel; Karlsson, Magnus K; Wollmer, Per; Andersen, Lars B; Thorsson, Ola

    2018-03-01

    Galectin-3 has recently been proposed as a novel biomarker for cardiovascular disease in adults. The purpose of this investigation was to assess relationships between galectin-3 levels and total body fat, abdominal fat, body fat distribution, aerobic fitness, blood pressure, left ventricular mass, left atrial size, and increase in body fat over a 2-year period in a population-based sample of children. Our study included 170 children aged 8-11 years. Total fat mass and abdominal fat were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Body fat distribution was expressed as abdominal fat/total fat mass. Maximal oxygen uptake was assessed by indirect calorimetry during a maximal exercise test and scaled to body mass. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure and pulse pressure were measured. Left atrial size, left ventricular mass, and relative wall thickness were measured by echocardiography. Frozen serum samples were analyzed for galectin-3 by the Proximity Extension Assay technique. A follow-up DXA scan was performed in 152 children 2 years after the baseline exam. Partial correlations, with adjustment for sex and age, between galectin-3 versus body fat measurements indicated weak to moderate relationships. Moreover, left atrial size, left ventricular mass, and relative wall thickness and pulse pressure were also correlated with galectin-3. Neither systolic blood pressure nor maximal oxygen uptake was correlated with galectin-3. There was also a correlation between galectin-3 and increase in total body fat over 2 years, while no such correlations were found for the other fat measurements. More body fat and abdominal fat, more abdominal body fat distribution, more left ventricular mass, and increased left atrial size were all associated with higher levels of galectin-3. Increase in total body fat over 2 years was also associated with higher levels of galectin-3. What is Known: • Galectin-3 has been linked to obesity and been proposed to be a novel biomarker

  5. Human exposure to brominated flame retardants through dust in different indoor environments: Identifying the sources of concentration differences in hair from men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junqi; Dong, Zheng; Wang, Ying; Bao, Junsong; Yan, Yijun; Liu, Anming; Jin, Jun

    2018-08-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) can accumulate in humans and are associated with adverse health effects. The study was conducted to determine the differences in Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and alternative brominated flame retardant (Alt-BFR) concentrations between men and women. We analyzed hair samples from 14 male and 20 female university students, paired dust samples from their dormitories (10 for males and 8 for females), and six dust samples from university teaching buildings. The total PBDE concentrations in hair from females were significantly (three times) higher (p = 0.012) than that from males (means 372 and 109 ng/g, respectively). The mean total PBDE concentrations in classroom and dormitory dust were 36100 and 2012 ng/g, respectively. The PBDE patterns were different in the male and female hair samples, as were the patterns in the classroom and dormitory dust. There are no reports concerning human exposure to BFRs through dust that was assessed considering academic and residential environments simultaneously. The differences between BFR exposure for males and females and the differences between BFR concentrations in hair samples from males and females were consistent for 71.4% of the compounds. However, using only dormitory dust in the calculations gave consistent differences only for 28.6% of the compounds, suggesting that the BFR concentration differences in hair were mainly because females spent much more time than males in classrooms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. What Are Normal Metal Ion Levels After Total Hip Arthroplasty? A Serologic Analysis of Four Bearing Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Brian T; Ortiz, Philippe A; Boles, John W; Lee, Yuo-Yu; Padgett, Douglas E; Westrich, Geoffrey H

    2017-05-01

    The recent experiences with adverse local tissue reactions have highlighted the need to establish what are normal serum levels of cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), and titanium (Ti) after hip arthroplasty. Serum Co, Cr, and Ti levels were measured in 80 nonconsecutive patients with well-functioning unilateral total hip arthroplasty and compared among 4 bearing surfaces: ceramic-on-ceramic (CoC); ceramic-on-polyethylene (CoP); metal-on-polyethylene (MoP), and dual mobility (DM). The preoperative and most recent University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) scores were compared among the different bearing surfaces. No significant difference was found among serum Co and Cr levels between the 4 bearing surface groups (P = .0609 and P = .1577). Secondary analysis comparing metal and ceramic femoral heads demonstrated that the metal group (MoP, modular dual mobility (Stryker Orthopedics, Mahwah, NJ) [metal]) had significant higher serum Co levels compared with the ceramic group (CoC, CoP, MDM [ceramic]) (1.05 mg/L ± 1.25 vs 0.59 mg/L ± 0.24; P = .0411). Spearman coefficient identified no correlation between metal ion levels and patient-reported outcome scores. No serum metal ion level differences were found among well-functioning total hip arthroplasty with modern bearing couples. Significantly higher serum Co levels were seen when comparing metal vs ceramic femoral heads in this study and warrants further investigation. Metal ion levels did not correlate with patient-reported outcome measures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Lower levels of Persistent Organic Pollutants, metals and the marine omega 3-fatty acid DHA in farmed compared to wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundebye, Anne-Katrine; Lock, Erik-Jan; Rasinger, Josef D; Nøstbakken, Ole Jakob; Hannisdal, Rita; Karlsbakk, Egil; Wennevik, Vidar; Madhun, Abdullah S; Madsen, Lise; Graff, Ingvild Eide; Ørnsrud, Robin

    2017-05-01

    Contaminants and fatty acid levels in farmed- versus wild Atlantic salmon have been a hot topic of debate in terms of food safety. The present study determined dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), metals and fatty acids in wild and farmed Atlantic salmon. Contaminant levels of dioxins, PCBs, OCPs (DDT, dieldrin, lindane, chlordane, Mirex, and toxaphene), and mercury were higher in wild salmon than in farmed salmon, as were the concentrations of the essential elements selenium, copper, zinc and iron, and the marine omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). PBDE, endosulfan, pentachlorobenzene, hexachlorobenzene, cadmium and lead levels were low and comparable in both wild and farmed fish, and there was no significant difference in the marine omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) concentration. The total fat content was significantly higher in farmed than wild salmon due to a higher content of both saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, as well as a higher content of omega-6 fatty acids. The omega-3 to omega-6 fatty acid ratio was considerably lower in farmed than wild salmon due to the high level of omega-6 fatty acids. Contaminant concentrations in Atlantic salmon were well below maximum levels applicable in the European Union. Atlantic salmon, both farmed and wild, is a good source of EPA and DHA with a 200g portion per week contributing 3.2g or 2.8g respectively, being almost twice the intake considered adequate for adults by the European Food Safety Authority (i.e. 250mg/day or 1.75g/week). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Elevation in Total Homocysteine Levels in Chinese Patients With Essential Hypertension Treated With Antihypertensive Benazepril.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shanqun; Pan, Mingluo; Wu, Suwen; Venners, Scott A; Zhong, Guisheng; Hsu, Yi-Hsiang; Weinstock, Justin; Wang, Binyan; Tang, Genfu; Liu, Dahai; Xu, Xiping

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the effect of benazepril on plasma homocysteine (Hcy) levels and to analyze the correlation between the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism and changes in Hcy levels in response to benazepril. A total of 231 patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension were enrolled, and benazepril was orally administered at a dose of 10 mg/d for 2 weeks. Plasma Hcy levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography at baseline and after 2 weeks of treatment. Genotyping of the MTHFR C677T polymorphism was performed by TaqMan probe technique. There was no significant change in Hcy level after benazepril treatment for 2 weeks (P = .97). However, stratified by baseline Hcy levels, the patients with baseline Hcy benazepril treatment. There were also no statistically significant interactions of gene and environment factors (ie, gene smoking and drinking) on the changes in Hcy levels after benazepril treatment. Benazepril may cause an increase in plasma Hcy levels among patients with hypertension with low baseline Hcy levels, while effect modification by MTHFR C677T genotypes on the changes in Hcy levels in response to benazepril was not significant among patients with essential hypertension. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Estimation of Serum Triglycerides, Serum Cholesterol, Total Protein, IgG Levels in Chronic Periodontitis Affected Elderly Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, A. V.; Ravishankar, P. L.; Kumar, Pradeep; Rajapandian, K.; Kalaivani, V.; Rajula, M. Prem Blaisie

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the serum triglycerides, serum cholesterol, total protein, and IgG levels in elderly patients who were affected by periodontal disease. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted at the Rajah Muthiah Dental College and Hospital in the periodontics division. The study was conducted for a period of 3 months. This study is a prospective analytical study. Sixty individuals who were systemically healthy in the age group of 50 and above were included in this study. Control and experimental groups of 30 participants each were included. Plaque index, gingival index, probing pocket depth, and clinical attachment loss were recorded. Biochemical parameters such as serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides, total protein, and IgG levels were also evaluated and correlated with the periodontal parameters. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 16.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY). The relationship between periodontal status and the biochemical parameters such as serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides, total protein, and IgG levels were evaluated by Student's t-test. Results: There was no significant difference in the plaque and gingival scores between the experimental and control group. It was observed that serum cholesterol level and total protein level was lower in participants suffering from chronic periodontitis. Triglycerides level was significantly elevated in the experimental group. IgG, a level which is not significant, concluded that there is no difference in control and experimental group. Conclusion: It was concluded from the results obtained from the study that there is an association between serum triglycerides, serum cholesterol, total protein, and periodontal disease. However, further longitudinal and well-controlled studies are required to evaluate the relationship between these biochemical parameters and periodontal disease. PMID:28462181

  10. Técnicas de análisis de tendencias en mediciones espectrales y de nivel total de parámetros de diagnóstico // Trend analysis techniques in spectral and total level mensurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Penabad Sanz

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se muestra la implementación del análisis de tendencia, como tecnología predictiva, a través de laestadística matemática y su utilización en mediciones de parámetros de diagnóstico tanto espectral como de nivel total. Elempleo de esta tecnología resulta de gran importancia debido a que permite pronosticar el momento de fallo, según elcomportamiento de los niveles de los parámetros medidos, lo cual facilita la gestión del mantenimiento.Palabras claves: mantenimiento, análisis de tendencia, medición espectral, medición de nivel total, pronósticode fallo, vibraciones.______________________________________________________________________AbstractIn this article is shown the implementation of the trend analysis, as predictive technology, through the mathematical statisticand its use in spectral and total level mensurations of diagnosis parameters. The use of this technology has a great importancebecause it allows to predict the failure moment, according to the behavior of the levels of measured parameters, that whichfacilitates the administration of the maintenance.Key words: maintenance, tendency analysis, spectral mensuration, total level mensuration, failure presage,vibrations, diagnosis.

  11. TCTE Level 3 Total Solar Irradiance Daily Means V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) Calibration Transfer Experiment (TCTE) data set TCTE3TSID contains daily averaged total solar irradiance (a.k.a solar constant) data...

  12. Serum tree IGF-I, total IGF-I, IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-3 levels in an elderly population : relation to age and sex steroid levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, JAMJL; Stolk, RP; Pols, HAP; Grobbee, DE; de Jong, FH; Lamberts, SWJ

    BACKGROUND Most previous studies concerning the relationship between IGF-I and age used assays measuring total IGF-I, Although free IGF-I is considered of greater biological relevance, little is known about its relationship with sex steroids levels in elderly healthy subjects, MEASUREMENTS In a

  13. Polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorinated pesticides, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the cerebral cortex of wild river otters (Lontra canadensis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, Niladri; Scheuhammer, Anton M.; O'Brien, Mike

    2007-01-01

    We measured the levels of ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), organochlorinated pesticides (OCP), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) in the cerebral cortex of river otters (Lontra canadensis) trapped from Ontario and Nova Scotia between 2002 and 2004. The mean concentration of total PCBs was 70.9 ± 12.1 ng/g l.w., and congeners 153, 180 and 138 accounted for nearly 60% of the sum. The mean concentration of total OCPs was 21.2 ± 3.7 ng/g l.w., and hexachlorobenzene (32.6% of total) and DDE (28.1%) accounted for the majority. The mean concentration of total PBDEs was 3.2 ± 0.6 ng/g l.w., and congeners 99 (44.9%), 153 (30.5%), and 100 (24.7%) were measured at the indicated percentages. There was no relationship between these residue data and concentrations of brain mercury or neurochemical receptors and enzymes as determined in earlier studies on these same animals. - River otters accumulated PCBs, OCPs, and PBDEs, but at levels below thresholds for neurotoxic effects

  14. Polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorinated pesticides, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the cerebral cortex of wild river otters (Lontra canadensis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, Niladri [National Wildlife Research Center, Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0H3 (Canada)]. E-mail: nbasu@uottawa.ca; Scheuhammer, Anton M. [National Wildlife Research Center, Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0H3 (Canada); O' Brien, Mike [Furbearers and Upland Game, Nova Scotia Department of Natural Resources, Kentville, Nova Scotia, B4N 4E5 (Canada)

    2007-09-15

    We measured the levels of ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), organochlorinated pesticides (OCP), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) in the cerebral cortex of river otters (Lontra canadensis) trapped from Ontario and Nova Scotia between 2002 and 2004. The mean concentration of total PCBs was 70.9 {+-} 12.1 ng/g l.w., and congeners 153, 180 and 138 accounted for nearly 60% of the sum. The mean concentration of total OCPs was 21.2 {+-} 3.7 ng/g l.w., and hexachlorobenzene (32.6% of total) and DDE (28.1%) accounted for the majority. The mean concentration of total PBDEs was 3.2 {+-} 0.6 ng/g l.w., and congeners 99 (44.9%), 153 (30.5%), and 100 (24.7%) were measured at the indicated percentages. There was no relationship between these residue data and concentrations of brain mercury or neurochemical receptors and enzymes as determined in earlier studies on these same animals. - River otters accumulated PCBs, OCPs, and PBDEs, but at levels below thresholds for neurotoxic effects.

  15. Postmortem serum levels of tryptase and total and specific IgE in fatal asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salkie, M L; Mitchell, I; Revers, C W; Karkhanis, A; Butt, J; Tough, S; Green, F H

    1998-01-01

    Sera were obtained postmortem from 55 subjects classified into three groups; death due to asthma (FA, n = 21), asthmatic but death not due to asthma (NFA, n = 24) and a nonasthmatic control group (NAC, n = 10). A full autopsy was performed on all cases and a medical history, including details of allergies, was obtained by questionnaire from the next of kin. Grading of asthma severity by either questionnaire or autopsy was comparable (tP = 0.435, p > 0.05) and the mean pathology-grade was significantly higher for the FA group (3.375) compared to the NFA group (2.375), p 2.0 micrograms/L) in 21/55 sera (38%) and there was no significant difference between the groups. ROC plots showed that tryptase levels did not discriminate between the FA and NFA groups, even if specimens were collected within 24 hours after death. Total IgE was significantly elevated in the FA group (geometric mean 140.3 kU/L) compared to the other two groups (NFA 30.2 kU/L, NAC 9.4 kU/L), p = 0.05. Fatal asthmatics also had a greater positivity (67%) to a screen for common inhalant allergens than did the other groups (NFA 30%, NAC 20%). Sera with a positive screen were tested against a panel of 10 common aero-allergens. Each sample was then assigned a number (N) and a score (S), dependent on either the number of allergens positive (N) or the total sum of pluses for all allergens (S). Both the N and S values were higher for the FA group (N = 98, S = 264) than the NFA group (N = 52, S = 151) and NAC group (N = 4, S = 8). The ratio (S/N) which gives an index (I) was 2.69, 2.90, and 2.00, respectively. Tryptase was poorly correlated to the total IgE level (r = 0.036); however, mean values for N and S were significantly different (N 6.81, S 4.50, and N 19.25, S 11.5, p or = 2.0 micrograms/L, respectively. We conclude that total and specific IgE may be useful predictors of asthma severity but that postmortem tryptase is not useful in the diagnosis of a fatal asthmatic attack.

  16. Brominated diphenyl ether levels. A comparison of tributary sediments versus biosolid material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolic, T.M.; MacPherson, K.A.; Reiner, E.J. [Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Laboratory Services Branch, Toronto, ON (Canada); Ho, T.; Kleywegt, S. [Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Standards Development Branch, Toronto, ON (Canada); Dove, A.; Marvin, C. [Environment Canada, Burlington, ON (Canada)

    2004-09-15

    PBDEs are persistent in the environment, have low water solubility and are known to have a tendency to bioaccumulate in wildlife and humans. There are 209 possible PBDE congeners. There has been concern over the bioaccumulation of these compounds since they have been found in mother's milk. Some of the brominated diphenyl ethers are known to metabolize into hydroxylated compounds and these metabolites are known to compete with and reduce thyroxine (T4) from binding to the thyroxine binding protein, transthyretin. This disrupts the thyroid hormone system interaction that has recently been notable amongst women in the form of hypothyroidism that can affect the fetus development in the form of neurodevelopmental deficits. There have been reports of estrogenic activities regarding PBDEs and their hydroxylated counterparts. Information such as this is indicative that PBDEs are endocrine disruptors. Due to their lipophilic nature, PBDEs have a high binding affinity to particulates and accumulate in sediments. Various reports on sediments and sludge type matrices have been reported in Austria, Switzerland, Netherlands and Canada. The following paper is a presentation of levels of PBDEs found in Tributary sediments and their comparison of levels to nearby biosolid sampling locations along Lake Ontario.

  17. Effect of total lymphoid irradiation on levels of serum autoantibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus and in rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanay, A.; Schiffman, G.; Strober, S.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) on serum levels of autoantibodies, and of antibodies to diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, and pneumococcal polysaccharide in patients with lupus nephritis were compared with those previously observed in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Baseline levels of antibodies to diphtheria toxoid and tetanus toxoid decreased significantly after TLI in patients with lupus and RA, but antibody levels to pneumococcal polysaccharide remained unchanged. After TLI, the levels of antinuclear and anti-DNA antibodies were reduced significantly in lupus, but levels of rheumatoid factor, antinuclear, and antigranulocyte antibodies all tended to increase in RA

  18. Relationship Between Total and Bioaccessible Lead on Children’s Blood Lead Levels in Urban Residential Philadelphia Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relationships between total soil or bioaccessible lead (Pb), measured using an in vitro bioaccessibility assay, and children’s blood lead levels (BLL) were investigated in an urban neighborhood in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA, with a history of soil Pb contamination....

  19. Carvacrol attenuates serum levels of total protein, phospholipase A2 and histamine in asthmatic guinea pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Boskabady

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Pharmacological effects of carvacrol such as its anti-inflammatory activities have been shows. In this study the effects of carvacrol on serum levels of total protein (TP, phospholipase A2 (PLA2 and histamine in sensitized guinea pigs was evaluated. Materials and Methods: Sensitized guinea pigs were given drinking water alone (group S, drinking water containing three concentrations of carvacrol (40, 80 and 160 µg/ml or dexamethasone. Serum levels of TP, PLA2 and histamine were examined I all sensitized groups as well as a non-sensitized control group (n=6 for each group. Results: In sensitized animals, serum levels of TP, PLA2 and histamine were significantly increased compared to control animals (p

  20. Atmospheric polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birgul, Askin; Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Gioia, Rosalinda; Crosse, John; Earnshaw, Mark; Ratola, Nuno; Jones, Kevin C.; Sweetman, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence of PBDEs has been studied in the atmosphere of four sites in the United Kingdom over a period of ten years. The concentrations have exhibited a sharp decrease after 2001–2003. This is evident in the urban sites of Manchester and London and at the semi-rural site of Hazelrigg. The average ΣPBDE half-lives for these three sites were 3.4, 2.0 and 3.5 years respectively. ΣPBDEs concentrations in the UK (in 2010 ΣPBDEs −3 ) are among the lowest reported in literature. Comparison of concentrations to estimated emissions and employment of PBDE profiles suggest that PBDEs in the UK atmosphere originate from primary emissions from products that contain mainly the penta-BDE technical mixture. The detection of BDE-183 in the majority of samples hints that octa-bromodiphenylether has also been used extensively in the UK, however to a smaller extent than the penta- product. PBDE levels have declined in the United Kingdom since 2000 in a manner that broadly supports national atmospheric emissions inventories.

  1. Effect of dietary poly unsaturated fatty acids on total brain lipid concentration and anxiety levels of electron beam irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suchetha Kumari; Bekal, Mahesh

    2013-01-01

    The whole brain irradiation causes injury to the nervous system at various levels. Omega-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids are very much essential for the growth and development of nervous system. Dietary supplementation of these nutrients will promote the development of injured neuronal cells. Therefore this study was undertaken to establish the role of Omega-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids on total brain lipid concentration, lipid peroxidation and anxiety levels in the irradiated mice. The effect of Electron Beam Radiation (EBR) on total brain lipid concentration, lipid peroxidation and anxiety level were investigated in male Swiss albino mice. The study groups were subjected to a sub-lethal dose of EBR and also the flax seed extract and fish oil were given orally to the irradiated mice. Irradiated groups show significant elevation in anxiety levels when compared to control group, indicating the acute radiation effects on the central nervous system. But the oral supplementation of dietary PUFA source decrees the anxiety level in the irradiated group. The analysis of lipid peroxidation showed a significant level of changes when compared between control and radiation groups. Dietary PUFA supplementation showed a significant level of decrease in the lipid peroxidation in the irradiated groups. The observation of total lipids in brain shows decrease in concentration in the irradiated groups, the differences in the variables follow the similar patterns as of that the MDA levels. This study suggests that the dietary intake of PUFAs may help in prevention and recovery of the oxidative stress caused by radiation. (author)

  2. Total testosterone levels are often more than three times elevated in patients with androgen-secreting tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Dorte; Lambaa Altinok, Magda; Petersen, Kresten Rubeck

    2015-01-01

    surgery. Terminal hair growth on lip and chin gradually increases after menopause, which complicates distinction from normal physiological variation. Precise testosterone assays have just recently become available in the daily clinic. We present three women diagnosed with testosterone-producing tumours...... when total testosterone levels are above three times the upper reference limit....

  3. Quantitation of bilirubin conjugates with high-performance liquid chromatography in patients with low total serum bilirubin levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, P. L.; Cuypers, H. T.; Peters, W. H.

    1984-01-01

    Bilirubin mono- and diconjugates were determined by alkaline methanolysis and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in serum from patients with metastatic liver disease and liver cirrhosis. Conjugates could be detected and quantitated at normal or low total bilirubin levels. Comparison with

  4. False high level in total bilirubin estimation in nonicteric serum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    estimation of total bilirubin by DiaSys and Randox reagents along with simultaneous re-estimation by Roche reagents in ... been used mainly due to slightly lower cost in ... MATERIALS AND METHODS ... air-conditioned laboratory overnight. ..... Elevated IgG causing spurious elevation in serum total bilirubin assay. Asia.

  5. Effect of cold storage on total phenolics content, antioxidant activity and vitamin C level of selected potato clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Külen, Oktay; Stushnoff, Cecil; Holm, David G

    2013-08-15

    Twelve Colorado-grown specialty potato clones were evaluated for total phenolic content, antioxidant activity and ascorbic acid content at harvest and after 2, 4, 6 and 7 months cold storage at 4 °C. Potato clones were categorized as pigmented ('CO97226-2R/R', 'CO99364-3R/R', 'CO97215-2P/P', 'CO97216-3P/P', 'CO97227-2P/P', 'CO97222-1R/R', 'Purple Majesty', 'Mountain Rose' and 'All Blue'), yellow ('Yukon Gold') and white fleshed ('Russet Nugget', 'Russet Burbank'). Folin-Ciocalteu reagent was used to estimate total phenolic content, and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS(•+) ) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(•) ) radical scavenging assays were used to estimate antioxidant capacity. Pigmented potato genotypes had significantly higher total phenolic content and antioxidant activity at all data points than yellow- and white-fleshed cultivars. Vitamin C content was higher in 'Yukon Gold' than in the other clones. The highest level of vitamin C in all clones was at harvest and after 2 months in cold storage. Vitamin C content in all potato clones dropped rapidly with longer intervals of cold storage. Although total phenolic content and antioxidant activity fluctuated during cold storage, after 7 months of cold storage their levels were slightly higher than at harvest. Total phenolic content was better correlated with Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC)/ABTS(•+) than the TEAC/DPPH(•) radical scavenging assay. Pigmented potato clones had significantly higher total phenolic content and antioxidant activity, while the yellow-fleshed potato cultivar 'Yukon Gold' had significantly higher vitamin C content. Vitamin C content decreased in all potato clones during cold storage, while total phenolics increased in pigmented clones. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Concentration of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in sediment cores of Sundarban mangrove wetland, northeastern part of Bay of Bengal (India)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binelli, Andrea [Department of Biology, University of Milan, Via Celoria 26, 20133 Milan (Italy)]. E-mail: andrea.binelli@unimi.it; Sarkar, Santosh Kumar [Department of Marine Science, University of Calcutta, 35 Ballygunge Circular Road, Calcutta 700 019 (India); Chatterjee, Mousumi [Department of Marine Science, University of Calcutta, 35 Ballygunge Circular Road, Calcutta 700 019 (India); Riva, Consuelo [Department of Biology, University of Milan, Via Celoria 26, 20133 Milan (Italy); Parolini, Marco [Department of Biology, University of Milan, Via Celoria 26, 20133 Milan (Italy); Bhattacharya, Bhaskar deb [Department of Marine Science, University of Calcutta, 35 Ballygunge Circular Road, Calcutta 700 019 (India); Bhattacharya, Asok Kumar [Department of Marine Science, University of Calcutta, 35 Ballygunge Circular Road, Calcutta 700 019 (India); Satpathy, Kamala Kanta [Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research, Environmental and Industrial Safety Section, Safety Group, Kalpakkam 603 102, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2007-08-15

    The paper presents the first comprehensive survey of congener profiles (12 congeners) of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in core sediment samples (<63 {mu}m) covering seven sites in Sundarban mangrove wetland (India). Gas-chromatographic analyses were carried out in GC-Ms/Ms for tri- to hepta- brominated congeners. Results pointed out a non-homogenous contamination of the wetland with {sigma}{sub 12} PBDE values ranging from 0.08 to 29.03 ng g{sup -1}, reflecting moderate to low contamination closely in conformity to other Asian aquatic environments. The general order of decreasing congener contribution to the total load was: BDE 47 > 99 > 100 > 154, similar to the distribution pattern worldwide. Although tetrabromodiphenyl ether BDE 47 was found in all samples followed by hexabromodiphenyl ether BDE-154, they were not necessarily the dominant congeners. No uniform temporal trend on PBDE levels was recorded probably due to particular hydrological characteristics of the wetland and/on non-homologous inputs from point sources (untreated municipal wastewater and local industries, electronic wastes from the dump sites, etc.) of these compounds. Because of the propensity of PBDEs to accumulate in various compartments of wildlife and human food webs, evaluation of biological tissues should be undertaken as a high priority.

  7. Transrectal ultrasound in detecting prostate cancer compared with serum total prostate-specific antigen levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamsel, S.; Killi, R.; Demirpolat, G.; Hekimgil, M.; Soydan, S.; Altay, B.

    2008-01-01

    We carried out a retrospective study to review the efficiency of grey-scale transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) in detecting prostate cancer compared with the data in recent published work, including alternative imaging methods of the prostate gland. Our study group consisted of 830 patients who underwent TRUS-guided biopsy of the prostate between May 2000 and June 2004. The relation between abnormal TRUS findings and serum total prostate-specific antigen (tPSA) levels was evaluated in patients with prostate cancer who were divided into three different groups according to serum tPSA levels. Group I included patients with tPSA levels of 4-9.9 ng/mL, group II included tPSA levels of 10-19.9 ng/mL and group III included patients with tPSA levels of 20 ng/mL or more. In general, TRUS detected 185 (64%) of 291 cancers with a specificity of 89%, a PPV of 76% and an accuracy of 80%. TRUS findings enabled the correct identification of 22 (56%) of the 39 cancers in group I, 28 (30%) of the 93 cancers in group II and 135 (85%) of the 159 cancers in group III. In conclusion, TRUS alone has a limited potential to identify prostate cancer, especially in patients with tPSA levels lower than 20 ng/mL. Therefore, increased numbers of systematically placed biopsy cores must be taken or alternative imaging methods are required to direct TRUS-guided biopsy for improving prostate cancer detection.

  8. Dietary exposure of juvenile common sole (Solea solea L.) to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs): Part 1. Bioaccumulation and elimination kinetics of individual congeners and their debrominated metabolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munschy, C.; Heas-Moisan, K.; Tixier, C.; Olivier, N.; Gastineau, O.; Le Bayon, N.; Buchet, V.

    2011-01-01

    The uptake and elimination of six PBDE congeners (BDE-28, -47, -99, -100, -153, -209) were studied in juvenile common sole (Solea solea L.) exposed to spiked contaminated food over a three-month period, then depurated over a five-month period. The results show that all of the studied PBDEs accumulate in fish tissues, including the higher brominated congener BDE-209. Several additional PBDE congeners were identified in the tissues of exposed fish, revealing PBDE transformation, mainly via debromination. The identified congeners originating from PBDE debromination include BDE-49 and BDE-202 and a series of unidentified tetra-, penta-, and hepta- BDEs. Contaminant assimilation efficiencies (AEs) were related to their hydrophobicity (log K ow ) and influenced by PBDE biotransformation. Metabolism via debromination appears to be a major degradation route of PBDEs in juvenile sole in comparison to biotransformation into hydroxylated metabolites. - Juvenile sole exposed to artificially-contaminated food accumulate PBDEs, including the higher brominated congeners, and have a debromination capacity.

  9. Depositional characteristics of atmospheric polybrominated diphenyl ethers on tree barks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Man Young

    2014-07-17

    This study was conducted to determine the depositional characteristics of several tree barks, including Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba), Pine (Pinus densiflora), Platanus (Platanus), and Metasequoia (Metasequoia glyptostroboides). These were used as passive air sampler (PAS) of atmospheric polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Tree barks were sampled from the same site. PBDEs were analyzed by highresolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometer, and the lipid content was measured using the gravimetric method by n-hexane extraction. Gingko contained the highest lipid content (7.82 mg/g dry), whereas pine (4.85 mg/g dry), Platanus (3.61 mg/g dry), and Metasequoia (0.97 mg/g dry) had relatively lower content. The highest total PBDEs concentration was observed in Metasequoia (83,159.0 pg/g dry), followed by Ginkgo (53,538.4 pg/g dry), Pine (20,266.4 pg/g dry), and Platanus (12,572.0 pg/g dry). There were poor correlations between lipid content and total PBDE concentrations in tree barks (R(2)=0.1011, p =0.682). Among the PBDE congeners, BDE 206, 207 and 209 were highly brominated PBDEs that are sorbed to particulates in ambient air, which accounted for 90.5% (84.3-95.6%) of the concentration and were therefore identified as the main PBDE congener. The concentrations of particulate PBDEs deposited on tree barks were dependent on morphological characteristics such as surface area or roughness of barks. Therefore, when using the tree barks as the PAS of the atmospheric PBDEs, samples belonging to same tree species should be collected to reduce errors and to obtain reliable data.

  10. Effect of feeding level on ileal and total tract digestibility of nutrients and energy from soybean meal-based diets for piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerke, M; Mosenthin, R; Jezierny, D; Sauer, N; Piepho, H-P; Messerschmidt, U; Eklund, M

    2014-12-01

    A total of 36 piglets with an initial body weight (BW) of 5.6 ± 0.7 kg, fitted with simple T-cannulas at the distal ileum, were used to evaluate the effect of three graded feeding levels (50, 75 or 100 g/kg BW(0.75) day) on apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and total tract digestibility (ATTD) of dry matter (DM), nitrogen (N) and energy, and on ATTD of organic matter (OM), ether extracts (EE), neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF) and digestible (DE), metabolisable (ME) and net energy (NE) content in soybean meal (SBM)-casein-cornstarch-based diets. The AID of DM, N and energy and ATTD of NDF, ADF and EE in the diets were not affected (p > 0.05) by the feed intake (FI) level. There was a small decrease in ATTD of DM, N (CP), OM, ash and energy, and in DE, ME and NE content in the diets (p digestibility values, and for estimating urinary endogenous N loss. High variability in estimates of ileal endogenous N loss and total tract endogenous losses of N, EE and ash reflects great variation in individual endogenous losses between animals. Estimation of true total tract digestibility of N, EE and ash by regression analysis was affected by their decrease in ATTD with increasing FI level, as estimates for true digestibility were lower compared to their apparent values. The present results suggest that FI level can affect both apparent and true total tract nutrient digestibility in piglets. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. The Relationship Between Serum Levels of Total IgE, IL-18, IL-12, IFN- γ and Disease Severity in Children With Atopic Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies about the role of cytokines on the immunopathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD are generally based on in vitro observations and this role has not been completely clarified yet. Serum levels of total IgE, IL-18, IL-12, IFN- γ and the relationship between these parameters and disease severity, determined using the SCORAD index, in a group of atopic patients were investigated in this study. Serum levels of total IgE were measured by the nephelometric method and serum levels of IL-18, IL-12/p40 and IFN- γ were measured by ELISA method. Serum levels of total IgE and IL-18 were found significantly higher in study group than in controls ( p<.001 . There was no statistically significant difference between patients and controls in respect of serum levels of IL-12/p40 ( p=.227 . A statistically significant relationship between SCORAD values and serum levels of total IgE ( p<.001 , IL-18 ( p<.001 , and IL-12/p40 ( p<.001 was determined. These results show that serum levels of IL-18 can be a sensitive parameter that importantly correlates with clinical severity of AD, can play a role in the immunopathogenesis of AD, and furthermore may be used in the diagnosis and follow-up of the disease in addition to other parameters.

  12. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers enhance the production of proinflammatory cytokines by the placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, M R; Klimova, N G; Arita, Y; Gurzenda, E M; Murthy, A; Chawala, K; Lerner, V; Richardson, J; Hanna, N

    2012-09-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether(s) (PBDE) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants that bind and cross the placenta but their effects on pregnancy outcome are unclear. It is possible that environmental contaminants increase the risk of inflammation-mediated pregnancy complications such as preterm birth by promoting a proinflammatory environment at the maternal-fetal interface. We hypothesized that PBDE would reduce IL-10 production and enhance the production of proinflammatory cytokines associated with preterm labor/birth by placental explants. Second-trimester placental explants were cultured in either vehicle (control) or 2 μM PBDE mixture of congers 47, 99 and 100 for 72 h. Cultures were then stimulated with 10(6) CFU/ml heat-killed Escherichia coli for a final 24 h incubation and conditioned medium was harvested for quantification of cytokines and PGE(2). COX-2 content and viability of the treated tissues were then quantified by tissue ELISA and MTT reduction activity, respectively. PBDE pre-treatment reduced E. coli-stimulated IL-10 production and significantly increased E. coli-stimulated IL-1β secretion. PBDE exposure also increased basal and bacteria-stimulated COX-2 expression. Basal, but not bacteria-stimulated PGE(2), was also enhanced by PBDE exposure. No effect of PBDE on viability of the explants cultures was detected. In summary, pre-exposure of placental explants to congers 47, 99, and 100 enhanced the placental proinflammatory response to infection. This may increase the risk of infection-mediated preterm birth by lowering the threshold for bacteria to stimulate a proinflammatory response(s). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The relationship between debt levels and total shareholder return of JSE-listed platinum companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Jooste

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate empirically whether there is a positive correlation between debt levels and total shareholder return (TSR of platinum JSE-listed companies. The study field comprised annual analyses for 12 companies listed under the Platinum and Precious Metals sector on the JSE Ltd for the 14-year period 2000 to 2013. The results of the study were inconclusive as a statistically significant positive correlation between changes in debt levels and changes in TSR could only be found in two of these years. The core audience of the study will be the management of South African platinum companies considering changes in their capital structure, and investors considering investment in a listed platinum company. The contribution of the study is therefore to add to the body of literature on capital structure decisions from a South African platinum mine context

  14. Spatial analysis of polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) in fish collected from UK and proximate marine waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhihua, Li; Panton, S; Marshall, Lisa; Fernandes, A; Rose, M; Smith, F; Holmes, Mel

    2018-03-01

    Some commonly consumed marine fish species are considered to display a higher risk of bio-accumulating organic environmental contaminants such as PBDEs. As part of a study to investigate the spatial distribution of these contaminants, data on polybrominated diphenlyethers (PBDEs) and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) were collected and analysed by introducing a web-based resource which enables efficient spatial, species and concentration level representations. Furthermore, hierarchical cluster analyses permits correlations within the data to be predicted. The data provide current information on levels of PBDE and PBB occurrence, allowing identification of locations that show higher contaminant levels. 135 fish samples of various species were analysed from UK marine waters, but encompassing the waters around Norway in the North and to the Algarve in the South. PBDEs were observed in all samples with the majority of measured congeners being detected. The concentrations ranged from 0.087 μg/kg to 8.907 μg/kg whole weight (ww) for the sum of all measured PBDE congeners. PBBs occurred less frequently showing a corresponding range of <0.02 μg/kg to 0.97 μg/kg ww for the sum of seven PBB congeners. Concentrations vary depending on species and locations where landed, e.g. PBBs occurred more frequently and at higher levels in grey mullet from French waters. The high frequency of PBDE occurrence makes it prudent to continue the monitoring of these commonly consumed marine fish species. The web-based resource provides a flexible and efficient tool for assessors and policy-makers to monitor and evaluate levels within caught fish species improving evidenced-based decision processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Daily total physical activity level and total cancer risk in men and women: results from a large-scale population-based cohort study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Manami; Yamamoto, Seiichiro; Kurahashi, Norie; Iwasaki, Motoki; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2008-08-15

    The impact of total physical activity level on cancer risk has not been fully clarified, particularly in non-Western, relatively lean populations. The authors prospectively examined the association between daily total physical activity (using a metabolic equivalents/day score) and subsequent cancer risk in the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study. A total of 79,771 general-population Japanese men and women aged 45-74 years who responded to a questionnaire in 1995-1999 were followed for total cancer incidence (4,334 cases) through 2004. Compared with subjects in the lowest quartile, increased daily physical activity was associated with a significantly decreased risk of cancer in both sexes. In men, hazard ratios for the second, third, and highest quartiles were 1.00 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.90, 1.11), 0.96 (95% CI: 0.86, 1.07), and 0.87 (95% CI: 0.78, 0.96), respectively (p for trend = 0.005); in women, hazard ratios were 0.93 (95% CI: 0.82, 1.05), 0.84 (95% CI: 0.73, 0.96), and 0.84 (95% CI: 0.73, 0.97), respectively (p for trend = 0.007). The decreased risk was more clearly observed in women than in men, especially among the elderly and those who regularly engaged in leisure-time sports or physical exercise. By site, decreased risks were observed for cancers of the colon, liver, and pancreas in men and for cancer of the stomach in women. Increased daily physical activity may be beneficial in preventing cancer in a relatively lean population.

  16. Test-retest reliability at the item level and total score level of the Norwegian version of the Spinal Cord Injury Falls Concern Scale (SCI-FCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roaldsen, Kirsti Skavberg; Måøy, Åsa Blad; Jørgensen, Vivien; Stanghelle, Johan Kvalvik

    2016-05-01

    Translation of the Spinal Cord Injury Falls Concern Scale (SCI-FCS), and investigation of test-retest reliability on item-level and total-score-level. Translation, adaptation and test-retest study. A specialized rehabilitation setting in Norway. Fifty-four wheelchair users with a spinal cord injury. The median age of the cohort was 49 years, and the median number of years after injury was 13. Interventions/measurements: The SCI-FCS was translated and back-translated according to guidelines. Individuals answered the SCI-FCS twice over the course of one week. We investigated item-level test-retest reliability using Svensson's rank-based statistical method for disagreement analysis of paired ordinal data. For relative reliability, we analyzed the total-score-level test-retest reliability with intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC2.1), the standard error of measurement (SEM), and the smallest detectable change (SDC) for absolute reliability/measurement-error assessment and Cronbach's alpha for internal consistency. All items showed satisfactory percentage agreement (≥69%) between test and retest. There were small but non-negligible systematic disagreements among three items; we recovered an 11-13% higher chance for a lower second score. There was no disagreement due to random variance. The test-retest agreement (ICC2.1) was excellent (0.83). The SEM was 2.6 (12%), and the SDC was 7.1 (32%). The Cronbach's alpha was high (0.88). The Norwegian SCI-FCS is highly reliable for wheelchair users with chronic spinal cord injuries.

  17. A method comparison of total and HMW adiponectin: HMW/total adiponectin ratio varies versus total adiponectin, independent of clinical condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Andel, Merel; Drent, Madeleine L; van Herwaarden, Antonius E; Ackermans, Mariëtte T; Heijboer, Annemieke C

    2017-02-01

    Total and high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin have been associated with endocrine and cardiovascular pathology. As no gold standard is available, the discussion about biological relevance of isoforms is complicated. In our study we perform a method comparison between two commercially available assays measuring HMW and total adiponectin, in various patient groups, thus contributing further to this discussion. We determined levels of HMW and total adiponectin using assays by Lumipulse® and Millipore® respectively, in 126 patients with different clinical characteristics (n=29 healthy volunteers, n=22 dialysis patients, n=25 elderly with body mass index (BMI) LUMIPULSE ∗0.5-0.9=total adiponectin MILLIPORE , albeit with significant deviation from linearity (p<0.001). Pearson's correlation was R=0.987 (p=0.000). No significant differences between patient groups were observed (p=0.190). The HMW/total adiponectin ratio varies with total adiponectin concentration independent of clinical conditions studied. Our results imply that total and HMW adiponectin have similar utility when assessing adiponectin levels in blood, as the ratio is independent of clinical condition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The relationship between total testosterone levels and prostate cancer: a review of the continuing controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klap, Julia; Schmid, Marianne; Loughlin, Kevin R

    2015-02-01

    For many years it was believed that higher total testosterone contributed to prostate cancer and caused rapid cancer growth. International guidelines consider that adequate data are not available to determine whether there is additional risk of prostate cancer from testosterone replacement. Numerous studies with multiple designs and contradictory conclusions have investigated the relationship between total testosterone and prostate cancer development. To establish current knowledge in this field we reviewed the literature on total testosterone and the subsequent risk of prostate cancer as well as the safety of exogenous testosterone administration in patients with a history of prostate cancer. We searched the literature to identify articles from 1994 to 2014 related to the relationship between total testosterone and prostate cancer. Emphasis was given to prospective studies, series with observational data and randomized, controlled trials. Case reports were excluded. Articles on testosterone replacement safety were selected by patient population (under active surveillance or with a prostate cancer history). We organized our results according to the relationship between total testosterone and prostate cancer, including 1) the possible link between low total testosterone and prostate cancer, 2) the effect of high levels and 3) the absence of any link. Finally, we summarized studies of the risk of exogenous testosterone administration in patients already diagnosed with prostate cancer, treated or on active surveillance. We selected 45 articles of the relationship between total testosterone and prostate cancer, of which 18 and 17 showed a relationship to low and high total testosterone, respectively, and 10 showed no relation. Total testosterone was defined according to the definition in each article. Contradictory findings have been reported, largely due to the disparate methodologies used in many studies. Most studies did not adhere to professional society guidelines

  19. A cross-country analysis of total factor productivity using micro-level data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Şeker

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Total factor productivity (TFP is a crucial measure of efficiency and thus an important tool for policymakers. However, research on comparison of TFP performances using micro-level data across developing countries has been limited due to the unavailability of homogenous data sources. This study aims to fill this crucial gap by using a data set which has been collected through a large body of surveys conducted across 69 developing countries following the same methodology. The homogenous nature of the data and the diverse set of questions included in the surveys provide unique opportunity to compare average productivity performances of firms across a large set of characteristics and business environment factors. The analysis performed here provides the groundwork for testing various stylized facts about TFP and its related factors such as exporting, innovation, access to finance, foreign ownership, and regulations across developing countries.

  20. Levels and bioaccumulation of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in fishes from the Pearl River estuary and Daya Bay, South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Lingli; Qiu Yaowen; Zhang Gan; Zheng, Gene J.; Lam, Paul K.S.; Li Xiangdong

    2008-01-01

    Fifty fish samples were collected from the Pearl River estuary (PRE) and Daya Bay, South China and were analyzed for DDTs, HCHs, chlordanes and polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Except the high concentrations of DDT observed in fishes, the concentrations of HCHs, chlordanes and PBDEs were low when compared to other regions. BDE-47 was the predominant PBDE congener and the BDE-209 concentrations were relatively low, despite its high concentration in surface sediments. The absence of significant increase of DDT, HCH, chlordane and PBDE concentrations towards higher δ 15 N values, as well as the lack of a significant correlation (p 15 N, may indicate a weak biomagnification of these chemicals in the food webs. Good agreement was observed between their concentrations and lipid contents of the organisms. Bioconcentration was suggested to be responsible for the accumulation of OCPs and PBDEs in the lower trophic organisms in the studied subtropical waters. - Bioconcentration was suggested to be responsible for the accumulation of OCPs and PBDEs in the lower trophic organisms of subtropical waters

  1. [Levels of total lipids, cholesterol and progesterone during estrus synchronization and pregnancy in sheep].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajnicáková, M; Bekeová, E; Hendrichovský, V; Maracek, I

    1993-01-01

    Our investigations were concerned with dynamic changes in total lipids (CL), cholesterol (CHOL) and progesterone (P4) in blood serum of sheep in the period of oestrus synchronization treatment and during mating and gravidity. Our experiment was carried out using 10 animals housed under the conditions of productive rearing. Blood samples were taken from v. jugularis on day of swab application (day 0) and on days 3 and 7 of the action of Agelin vaginal swabs, on day of insemination, and on days 7, 14, 17 and in the 2nd, 3rd and 4th month of gravidity. Blood serum was used to determine total lipids and cholesterol by means of Bio-Lachema tests, and P4 concentrations employing RIA-test-Prog kits (URVJT, Kosice). A statistically significant decrease in concentrations of total lipids (Fig. 1, Tab. I) in sheep blood serum was recorded on day of insemination (P < 0.05) compared to day 0, with the value 1.59 +/- 0.31 g/l of serum, and in the 3rd month of gravidity (P < 0.01), at concentrations 1.36 +/- 0.38 g/l of serum. The determined decrease in their values in the mentioned period can be modulated by the mutually changing ratio of steroid hormones or by inhibition of synthesis of lipoproteins responsible for changes in total plasma lipids. Changes in cholesterol concentrations (Fig. 2, Tab. I) during the introduction of swabs were insignificant and ranged from 1.60 +/- 0.42 to 1.73 +/- 0.33 mmol/l of serum. An insignificant increase in cholesterol concentrations (P < 0.05), with its highest levels 1.98 +/- 0.43 mmol/l of serum, was recorded in the 3rd month of gravidity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Sex difference in polybrominated diphenyl ether concentrations of walleyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Trombka, Autumn W.; Rediske, Richard R.; Jude, David J.; O'Keefe, James P.

    2012-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) concentrations were determined for mature male and mature female walleyes (Sander vitreus) sampled from the Saginaw Bay population during 2007. PBDE concentrations in prey fish caught in the Saginaw River, the primary tributary to Saginaw Bay, and in Saginaw Bay during 2005 and 2007 also were determined. Mature male and mature female walleyes averaged 70.3 ng/g and 24.8 ng/g, respectively, in ΣPBDE, which was equal to the sum of concentrations of six PBDE congeners (BDE-28, BDE-47, BDE-99, BDE-100, BDE-153, and BDE-154). This sex difference was likely due to males spending more time in the Saginaw River system than females. Prey fish captured in the Saginaw River were roughly ten times higher in ΣPBDE than those caught in Saginaw Bay. BDE-47 was the predominant congener in both walleyes and prey fish, and this congener contributed about 50%, on average, to ΣPBDE. Congener profiles differed significantly between the two sexes of walleyes. In contrast, congener profiles of the prey fish did not differ significantly between the river-caught fish and the bay-caught fish. One plausible explanation for these congener profile results was that net trophic transfer efficiencies of PBDEs to walleyes from their prey were similar for all congeners except BDE-28, and that diet composition differed between the two sexes of walleyes.

  3. Posibilidad de identificar defectos en máquinas rotatorias utilizando la medición de nivel total de la señal vibratoria // Possibility of identification of defects in rotatory machinery by means of total level mesurations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Véliz Marrero

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Se expone una herramienta propuesta por el Dr. C. Cempel, poco difundida para identificar algunos defectos al realizar eldiagnóstico de máquinas rotatorias utilizando la medición de Nivel Total. Se ilustra a modo de ejemplo el diagnóstico de unreductor de velocidad.Palabras claves: Medición, vibraciones, nivel total, diagnóstico, engranaje, reductor de velocidad.________________________________________________________________________________AbstractIn this paper is exposed a not much divulged tool proposed by Dr. C. Cempel for the identification of some defects by meansof the measurement of Total Level of vibration in diagnosis of rotatory machinery. As example, a speed reducer diagnostic ispresented.Key words: Vibration measurement, total level, diagnostic, gears, speed reducer.

  4. Comparative seric TGF(β1, β2) levels and platelets count response in total body irradiated baboons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mestries, J.C.; Veyret, J.; Agay, D.; Van Uye, A.; Caterini, R.; Herodin, F.; Mathieu, J.; Chancerelle, Y.

    1994-01-01

    Total body irradiation associated or not with r-hIL-6 treatment a relation between TGF-β1 and TGF-β2 blood levels and platelets count. During radio-induced thrombocytopenia, by decreasing its ability to inhibit proliferation of stem cells and megakaryocytopoiesis, the TGF-β falling induced a favorable condition for hematopoietic recovery. (author)

  5. Quantification of the levels of tannins and total phenols and evaluation of the antioxidant activity of fruits of pepper tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Ribeiro Bernardes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The fruits of pepper tree (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi are widely used in the world cooking and its consumption has been encouraged since the late 80’s due to the presence of phenolic substances. Therefore, this study quantified the levels of tannins and total phenols in the fruits of pepper tree, aiming at establishing a possible correlation between these substances and their antioxidant activity. Phenolic compounds were extracted with acetone: water (7:3, and quantified by spectrophotometry. The antioxidant activity was measured by DPPH method. The results showed low levels of condensed tannins and total phenols in the peel of the fruit, not being detected hydrolysable tannins in them. Nevertheless, the methanolic extract showed high antioxidant potential, which indicates the absence of a correlation between antioxidant activity and the levels of phenolic compounds in these fruits.

  6. Changes in iron levels, total iron binding capacity, transferrin saturation in race horses, before and after of physical exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gláucia Abramovitc

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Abramovitc G., Parra A.C. & Fernandes W.R. [Changes in iron levels, total iron binding capacity, transferrin saturation in race horses, before and after of physical exercise]. Variação de níveis séricos de ferro, da capacidade total de ligação do ferro e da saturação da transferrina em equinos de corrida, antes e após exercício físico. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 36(3:289-293, 2014. Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua Prof. Dr. Orlando Marques de Paiva 87, Cidade Universitária, Butantã, São Paulo, SP 05508-270, Brasil. Email: wilsonrf@usp.br The preparation of the horse for physical activities in competition is directly related to important factors such as nutrition, muscle adaptation and blood profile, related to the concentration of serum iron, total capacity total iron binding capacity (TIBC and saturation of transferrin. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of exercise in iron levels, the total iron and transferrin saturation in race horses. One hundred and eleven samples of blood serum were collected from Thoroughbred horses, from the Jockey Club of São Paulo, aged between 3 and 4 years old, male and female, clinically healthy, practitioners turf competition, in sand or grass. The samples were obtained before exercise (control time and 30 minutes after exercise (post exercise. These animals were submitted to gallop training, of high intensity and short duration for this research. As a result, it was observed that the serum concentration of iron (Fe showed a statistically significant lowering post-exercise, due to organic re-balance of iron, while TIBC (total iron binding capacity showed a clear and significant increase in their serum levels due to increased needs of iron during and after exercise. The percentage of transferrin saturation in serum was shown to be lower post-exercise, probably due to the recruitment of

  7. Lower levels of Persistent Organic Pollutants, metals and the marine omega 3-fatty acid DHA in farmed compared to wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundebye, Anne-Katrine; Lock, Erik-Jan; Rasinger, Josef D.; Nøstbakken, Ole Jakob; Hannisdal, Rita; Karlsbakk, Egil; Wennevik, Vidar; Madhun, Abdullah S.; Madsen, Lise; Graff, Ingvild Eide; Ørnsrud, Robin

    2017-01-01

    Contaminants and fatty acid levels in farmed- versus wild Atlantic salmon have been a hot topic of debate in terms of food safety. The present study determined dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), metals and fatty acids in wild and farmed Atlantic salmon. Contaminant levels of dioxins, PCBs, OCPs (DDT, dieldrin, lindane, chlordane, Mirex, and toxaphene), and mercury were higher in wild salmon than in farmed salmon, as were the concentrations of the essential elements selenium, copper, zinc and iron, and the marine omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). PBDE, endosulfan, pentachlorobenzene, hexachlorobenzene, cadmium and lead levels were low and comparable in both wild and farmed fish, and there was no significant difference in the marine omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) concentration. The total fat content was significantly higher in farmed than wild salmon due to a higher content of both saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, as well as a higher content of omega-6 fatty acids. The omega-3 to omega-6 fatty acid ratio was considerably lower in farmed than wild salmon due to the high level of omega-6 fatty acids. Contaminant concentrations in Atlantic salmon were well below maximum levels applicable in the European Union. Atlantic salmon, both farmed and wild, is a good source of EPA and DHA with a 200 g portion per week contributing 3.2 g or 2.8 g respectively, being almost twice the intake considered adequate for adults by the European Food Safety Authority (i.e. 250 mg/day or 1.75 g/week). - Highlights: • A comprehensive study of contaminants and nutrients in farmed- and wild Atlantic salmon. • Wild salmon had higher levels of persistent organic pollutants and mercury than farmed salmon. • Farmed salmon had higher levels of omega-6 fatty acids than wild salmon. • Farmed- and wild salmon had comparable

  8. Lower levels of Persistent Organic Pollutants, metals and the marine omega 3-fatty acid DHA in farmed compared to wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundebye, Anne-Katrine, E-mail: aha@nifes.no [National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research (NIFES), PO Box 2029, Nordnes, 5817 Bergen (Norway); Lock, Erik-Jan; Rasinger, Josef D.; Nøstbakken, Ole Jakob; Hannisdal, Rita [National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research (NIFES), PO Box 2029, Nordnes, 5817 Bergen (Norway); Karlsbakk, Egil; Wennevik, Vidar; Madhun, Abdullah S. [Institute of Marine Research,, P.O. Box 1870 Nordnes, 5817 Bergen (Norway); Madsen, Lise; Graff, Ingvild Eide; Ørnsrud, Robin [National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research (NIFES), PO Box 2029, Nordnes, 5817 Bergen (Norway)

    2017-05-15

    Contaminants and fatty acid levels in farmed- versus wild Atlantic salmon have been a hot topic of debate in terms of food safety. The present study determined dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), metals and fatty acids in wild and farmed Atlantic salmon. Contaminant levels of dioxins, PCBs, OCPs (DDT, dieldrin, lindane, chlordane, Mirex, and toxaphene), and mercury were higher in wild salmon than in farmed salmon, as were the concentrations of the essential elements selenium, copper, zinc and iron, and the marine omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). PBDE, endosulfan, pentachlorobenzene, hexachlorobenzene, cadmium and lead levels were low and comparable in both wild and farmed fish, and there was no significant difference in the marine omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) concentration. The total fat content was significantly higher in farmed than wild salmon due to a higher content of both saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, as well as a higher content of omega-6 fatty acids. The omega-3 to omega-6 fatty acid ratio was considerably lower in farmed than wild salmon due to the high level of omega-6 fatty acids. Contaminant concentrations in Atlantic salmon were well below maximum levels applicable in the European Union. Atlantic salmon, both farmed and wild, is a good source of EPA and DHA with a 200 g portion per week contributing 3.2 g or 2.8 g respectively, being almost twice the intake considered adequate for adults by the European Food Safety Authority (i.e. 250 mg/day or 1.75 g/week). - Highlights: • A comprehensive study of contaminants and nutrients in farmed- and wild Atlantic salmon. • Wild salmon had higher levels of persistent organic pollutants and mercury than farmed salmon. • Farmed salmon had higher levels of omega-6 fatty acids than wild salmon. • Farmed- and wild salmon had comparable

  9. Serum total protein, albumin and globulin levels in Trypanosoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of orally administered Scoparia dulcis on Trypanosoma brucei-induced changes in serum total protein, albumin and globulin were investigated in rabbits over a period of twenty eight days. Results obtained show that infection resulted in hyperproteinaemia, hyperglobulinaemia and hypoalbuminaemia. However ...

  10. An exposure study with polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in female European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris): Toxicokinetics and reproductive effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steen, Evi van den; Eens, Marcel; Covaci, Adrian; Dirtu, Alin C.; Jaspers, Veerle L.B.; Neels, Hugo; Pinxten, Rianne

    2009-01-01

    We exposed female European starlings to a pentabromodiphenyl ether (Penta-BDE) mixture through subcutaneous implants, and examined levels and profiles of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) together with reproductive effects. Sum PBDE levels increased significantly in the serum of the exposed females from 218 ± 43 to 23,400 ± 2035 pg/ml. Sum PBDE concentrations in the eggs of the exposed group ranged from 130 ± 12 to 220 ± 37 ng/g wet weight (ww). The profile in serum after egg laying was very similar to that in eggs. There were no detectable levels of HO-PBDEs in both serum and eggs. Fewer females of the exposed group initiated egg laying compared to the control group, although the difference was not significant. In addition, egg weight and volume were significantly higher in the exposed group. These results suggest that, at the investigated exposure levels (150 μg sum PBDEs/bird), PBDEs may have a negative effect on reproductive performance. - Exposure to an environmentally relevant concentration of PBDEs may result in adverse reproductive effects in a terrestrial songbird species, the European starling

  11. Reductive debromination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in anaerobic sediment and a biomimetic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokarz, John A; Ahn, Mi-Youn; Leng, June; Filley, Timothy R; Nies, Loring

    2008-02-15

    Because of the bioaccumulation of penta- and tetrapolybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants in biota,the environmental biotransformation of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) is of interest. BDE-209 accounts for more than 80% by mass of PBDE production and is the dominant PBDE in sediments. Most sediments are anaerobic and reports of microbial reductive dehalogenation of hydrophobic persistent organohalogen pollutants are numerous. Reductive debromination of BDE-209 in the environment could provide a significant source of lesser-brominated PBDEs to biota. Moreover, a recent study showed that BDE-209 debrominates in sewage sludge, and another demonstrated that some halorespiring bacteria will debrominate BDE-209. To determine whether reductive debromination of BDE-209 occurs in sediments, parallel experiments were conducted using anaerobic sediment microcosms and a cosolvent-enhanced biomimetic system. In the biomimetic system, reductive debromination occurred at rates corresponding to bromine substitution levels with a BDE-209 half-life of only 18 s compared with a halflife of almost 60 days for 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether. In sediment, the measured debromination half-life of BDE-209 was well over a decade and was in good agreement with the predicted value obtained from the biomimetic experiment. Product congeners were predominantly double para-substituted. BDE-209 debrominated in sediment with a corresponding increase in nona-, octa-, hepta-, and hexa-PBDEs. Nine new PBDE congeners appeared in sediment from reductive debromination. Given the very large BDE-209 burden already in sediments globally, it is important to determine whether this transformation is a significant source of lesser-brominated PBDEs to the environment.

  12. Depositional characteristics of atmospheric polybrominated diphenyl ethers on tree barks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Young Chun

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives This study was conducted to determine the depositional characteristics of several tree barks, including Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba, Pine (Pinus densiflora, Platanus (Platanus, and Metasequoia (Metasequoia glyptostroboides. These were used as passive air sampler (PAS of atmospheric polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs. Methods Tree barks were sampled from the same site. PBDEs were analyzed by highresolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometer, and the lipid content was measured using the gravimetric method by n-hexane extraction. Results Gingko contained the highest lipid content (7.82 mg/g dry, whereas pine (4.85 mg/g dry, Platanus (3.61 mg/g dry, and Metasequoia (0.97 mg/g dry had relatively lower content. The highest total PBDEs concentration was observed in Metasequoia (83,159.0 pg/g dry, followed by Ginkgo (53,538.4 pg/g dry, Pine (20,266.4 pg/g dry, and Platanus (12,572.0 pg/g dry. There were poor correlations between lipid content and total PBDE concentrations in tree barks (R2=0.1011, p =0.682. Among the PBDE congeners, BDE 206, 207 and 209 were highly brominated PBDEs that are sorbed to particulates in ambient air, which accounted for 90.5% (84.3-95.6% of the concentration and were therefore identified as the main PBDE congener. The concentrations of particulate PBDEs deposited on tree barks were dependent on morphological characteristics such as surface area or roughness of barks. Conclusions Therefore, when using the tree barks as the PAS of the atmospheric PBDEs, samples belonging to same tree species should be collected to reduce errors and to obtain reliable data.

  13. A polymorphism in the IGF-I gene influences the age-related decline in circulating total IGF-I levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Rietveld (Ingrid); J.A.M.J.L. Janssen (Joseph); A. Hofman (Albert); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); S.W.J. Lamberts (Steven); H.A.P. Pols (Huib)

    2003-01-01

    markdownabstractOBJECTIVE: Recent studies have demonstrated an association between a 192 bp polymorphism of the IGF-I gene and total IGF-I serum levels, birth weight, body height and the risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular diseases later on in life. This IGF-I gene polymorphism in the

  14. Environmental pollution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers from industrial plants in China: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Chao; Chen, Yuan; Li, Jinhui; Li, Ying; Li, Huafen

    2016-04-01

    Although numerous studies have shown the presence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in various environmental media, attention to their distribution in the environmental media surrounding industrial facilities is limited. In this study, eight PBDEs congeners (BDE-28, -47, -99, -100, -153, -154, -183, -209) were investigated in surface soils and water samples collected from commercial PBDE manufacturers, flame-retardant plastic modification plants and waste electrical and electronic equipment recycling facilities in China. Analysis of target compounds was performed using the model NCI GC-MS in SIM mode. The concentrations of ∑8PBDEs varied from 193.1 to 22,004.3 ng/L in water samples and from 1209.3 to 226,906 ng/g dry wt in surface soils, respectively. More severe PBDE contamination, when compared with previously reported data, was found in industrial areas in this study. This indicates that these industrial areas are highly polluted with PBDEs. BDE-209 was the predominant congener, accounting for more than 94% in this study, except for a 68.75% portion at one site. Our results show that PBDE manufacturing and flame-retardant plastic modification plants, easily overlooked by the public, are two primary PBDE pollution sources although they affect surrounding areas. Further research is needed, aimed at managing industrial PBDE emissions and eliminating environmental PBDE pollution, to investigate the material flows and environmental fates of PBDEs in all stages of the life cycle.

  15. Substance Flow Analyses of Organic Pollutants in Stockholm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonsson, A.; Friden, U.; Thuresson, K.; Soerme, L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper summarizes substance flow analyses for four organic substances in the City of Stockholm, Sweden: diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), alkylphenolethoxylates (APEO), polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDE) and chlorinated paraffins (CP). The results indicate that the stocks of APEO, PBDE and CP all are approximately 200-250 tonnes, whereas the DEHP stock is two orders of magnitude larger. Emissions can be linked to imported consumer goods such as electronics (PBDE) and textiles (APEO), and to construction materials (DEHP, CP). For several of the substances considerable amounts remain in the technosphere for a long time, even after use of the substance in new products has been eliminated. For example, the use of DEHP as plasticizer for PVC plastics in cables and floorings has more or less been phased-out, but still these applications make up a stock of some 20,000 tonnes (85% of the total DEHP stock in Stockholm) and emit 28 tonnes of DEHP annually (93% of overall emissions). Likewise, the use of chlorinated paraffins in sealants has been radically reduced, but there are 170 tonnes of CP in sealants in Stockholm making up 75% of the stock, and causing half of the emissions to water and air. These emissions are likely to continue for decades, and the stocks therefore have to be considered when analysing and managing the impact of urban substance flows on the environment

  16. Dioxin, PCB and PBDE exposure in grey heron (ardea cinerea)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, A.; Thompson, H.; Dsilva, K.; White, S.; Rose, M. [Central Science Laboratory, York (United Kingdom)

    2004-09-15

    In the United Kingdom recent investigations have detected elevated levels of mortality and bone disease in grey herons at an established colony in Nottinghamshire along the course of the river Trent (4). The causes of mortality are unclear but deformities recorded in the other birds include multiple fracture of the tarsus, tibia and metacarpal bones. These findings have prompted a pilot study into assessing the level of environmental contaminants in the tissue and eggs of these birds. Two classes of contaminants have the potential to cause the deformities observed in the birds - heavy metals such as selenium, cadmium, arsenic mercury and lead, and halogenated organic contaminants such as dioxins, and PCBs. This paper discusses levels of these contaminants in the samples of eggs taken from the colony. Additional samples of eggs were also collected from a colony in Hertfordshire and from a site in the north of the country. The discussion will be limited to the halogenated organic contaminants as the levels of heavy metals were similar in all sites and were generally at or above background levels. Given the increased utilisation of brominated flame retardant chemicals over the last decade and the similarities in structure and environmental persistence of some of these compounds to the dioxins and PCBs, polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) were also measured in the samples.

  17. Serum total proteins and creatinine levels in experimental gambian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Attempt was therefore made to evaluate the effect of two strains of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense on total proteins and other serum biochemical parameters using vervet monkeys as a model. The outcome of both strains in vervet monkeys was traumatic as the monkeys died from infection 12 – 15 weeks post infection while ...

  18. Levels and congener profiles of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in primipara breast milk from Shenzhen and exposure risk for breast-fed infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian Gang; Sun, Xiao Wei; Ai, Hua

    2012-03-01

    This study aimed at revealing the levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in breast milk from primipara in Shenzhen (China), and estimating daily intake of PBDEs for breast-fed infants. Concentrations of 7 PBDEs were measured in 60 breast milk samples by isotope dilution HRGC/HRMS (high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry). The intake of PBDEs for breast-fed infants was estimated based on the infant's daily milk consumption. The range of total concentration of 7 PBDEs congeners in samples was 2.6-188.6 ng g(-1) lipid (mean: 14.8 ng g(-1) lipid; median: 7.2 ng g(-1) lipid). The mean estimated daily intake of PBDEs by breast-fed infants ranged from 9.9 to 335.9 ng kg(-1) body weight (bw) per day (mean: 52.5 ng kg(-1) bw per day; median: 28.6 ng kg(-1) bw per day). The levels of PBDEs body burden in the recruited mothers of Shenzhen were higher than those reported previously for the general population from other areas in China. No significant correlations were found between the body burden of PBDEs and the mothers' age, pre-pregnancy BMI, dietary habits, duration of residence in Shenzhen, weight and length of the newborns. BDE-47 and BDE-153 were major PBDE congeners in milk samples, while the congeners of BDE-183 and BDE-28 were also high in Shenzhen. The situation may be attributed to the special economic pattern including electronic production in Shenzhen in the past three decades. Continuous surveillance on PBDEs levels in human milk is needed in order to accurately evaluate the environmental impact of PBDEs to human health in Shenzhen. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  19. Total mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine among women free from occupational exposure and their relations to renal tubular function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Tomoko; Sakamoto, Mineshi; Kurosawa, Tomoko; Dakeishi, Miwako; Iwata, Toyoto; Murata, Katsuyuki

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the relations among total mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine, together with potential effects of methylmercury intake on renal tubular function, we determined their levels, and urinary N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase activity (NAG) and α 1 -microglobulin (AMG) in 59 women free from occupational exposures, and estimated daily mercury intakes from fish and other seafood using a food frequency questionnaire. Mercury levels (mean+/-SD) in the women were 1.51+/-0.91μg/g in hair, 0.59+/-0.32μg/g in toenail, and 0.86+/-0.66μg/g creatinine in urine; and, there were positive correlations among them (P<0.001). The daily mercury intake of 9.15+/-7.84μg/day was significantly correlated with total mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine (r=0.551, 0.537, and 0.604, P<0.001). Among the women, the NAG and AMG were positively correlated with both the daily mercury intake and mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine (P<0.01); and, these relations were almost similar when using multiple regression analysis to adjust for possible confounders such as urinary cadmium (0.47+/-0.28μg/g creatinine) and smoking status. In conclusion, mercury resulting from fish consumption can explain total mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine to some degree (about 30%), partly through the degradation into the inorganic form, and it may confound the renal tubular effect of other nephrotoxic agents. Also, the following equation may be applicable to the population neither with dental amalgam fillings nor with occupational exposures: [hair mercury (μg/g)]=2.44x[toenail mercury (μg/g)

  20. Biomonitoring of Lead, Cadmium, Total Mercury, and Methylmercury Levels in Maternal Blood and in Umbilical Cord Blood at Birth in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yu-Mi; Chung, Jin-Young; An, Hyun Sook; Park, Sung Yong; Kim, Byoung-Gwon; Bae, Jong Woon; Han, Myoungseok; Cho, Yeon Jean; Hong, Young-Seoub

    2015-01-01

    With rising concerns of heavy metal exposure in pregnancy and early childhood, this study was conducted to assess the relationship between the lead, cadmium, mercury, and methylmercury blood levels in pregnancy and neonatal period. The study population included 104 mothers and their children pairs who completed both baseline maternal blood sampling at the second trimester and umbilical cord blood sampling at birth. The geometric mean maternal blood levels of lead, cadmium, total mercury, and methylmercury at the second trimester were 1.02 ± 1.39 µg/dL, 0.61 ± 1.51 µg/L, 2.97 ± 1.45 µg/L, and 2.39 ± 1.45 µg/L, respectively, and in the newborns, these levels at birth were 0.71 ± 1.42 µg/dL, 0.01 ± 5.31 µg/L, 4.44 ± 1.49 µg/L, and 3.67 ± 1.51 µg/L, respectively. The mean ratios of lead, cadmium, total mercury, and methylmercury levels in the newborns to those in the mothers were 0.72, 0.04, 1.76, and 1.81, respectively. The levels of most heavy metals in pregnant women and infants were higher in this study than in studies from industrialized western countries. The placenta appears to protect fetuses from cadmium; however, total mercury and methylmercury were able to cross the placenta and accumulate in fetuses. PMID:26516876

  1. Sustained High Levels of Both Total and High Molecular Weight Adiponectin in Plasma during the Convalescent Phase of Haemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome Are Associated with Disease Severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Tang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS is characterised by an uncontrolled immune response that causes vascular leakage. Adiponectin (APN is an adipocytokine involved in prorevascularisation and immunomodulation. To investigate the possible effects of APN in the pathogenesis of HFRS, total and high molecular weight (HMW APN levels in the plasma of patients with HFRS were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Compared with those in healthy controls, the plasma total and HMW APN levels in patients were elevated to different degrees from the fever onset and remained high at the convalescent phase. Consistent with these results, western blot analysis additionally showed that low molecular weight (LMW, middle molecular weight (MMW, and HMW APN levels were all elevated and contributed to the elevation of the total APN level. Importantly, sustained high levels of total and HMW APN at the convalescent phase were significantly higher in patients with critical disease than those in patients with mild or moderate disease. Moreover, total and HMW APN levels negatively correlated with white blood cell count and positively correlated with platelet count and serum albumin level. These results may provide insights into understanding the roles of total and HMW APN in the pathogenesis of HFRS.

  2. Total and Bioaccessible Soil Arsenic and Lead Levels and Plant Uptake in Three Urban Community Gardens in Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Misenheimer

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic (As and lead (Pb are two contaminants of concern associated with urban gardening. In Puerto Rico, data currently is limited on As and Pb levels in urban garden soils, soil metal (loid bioaccessibility, and uptake of As and Pb in soil by edible plants grown in the region. This study examined total and bioaccessible soil As and Pb concentrations and accumulation in 10 commonly grown garden plants collected from three urban community gardens in Puerto Rico. Bioavailability values were predicted using bioaccessibility data to compare site-specific bioavailability estimates to commonly used default exposure assumptions. Total and bioaccessible As levels in study soils ranged from 2 to 55 mg/kg and 1 to 18 mg/kg, respectively. Total and bioaccessible Pb levels ranged from 19 to 172 mg/kg and 17 to 97 mg/kg, respectively. Measured bioaccessibility values corresponded to 19% to 42% bioaccessible As and 61% to 100% bioaccessible Pb when expressed as a percent of total As and Pb respectively. Predicted relative percent bioavailability of soil As and Pb based on measured bioaccessibility values ranged from 18% to 36% and 51% to 85% for As and Pb respectively. Transfer factors (TFs measuring uptake of As in plants from soil ranged from 0 to 0.073 in the edible flesh (fruit or vegetable of plant tissues analyzed and 0.073 to 0.444 in edible leaves. Pb TFs ranged from 0.002 to 0.012 in flesh and 0.023 to 0.204 in leaves. Consistent with TF values, leaves accumulated higher concentrations of As and Pb than the flesh, with the highest tissue concentrations observed in the culantro leaf (3.2 mg/kg dw of As and 8.9 mg/kg dw of Pb. Leaves showed a general but not statistically-significant (α = 0.05 trend of increased As and Pb concentration with increased soil levels, while no trend was observed for flesh tissues. These findings provide critical data that can improve accuracy and reduce uncertainty when conducting site-specific risk determination of

  3. Trophic transfer of naturally produced brominated aromatic compounds in a Baltic Sea food chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlgren, Elin; Lindqvist, Dennis; Dahlgren, Henrik; Asplund, Lillemor; Lehtilä, Kari

    2016-02-01

    Brominated aromatic compounds (BACs) are widely distributed in the marine environment. Some of these compounds are highly toxic, such as certain hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs). In addition to anthropogenic emissions through use of BACs as e.g. flame retardants, BACs are natural products formed by marine organisms such as algae, sponges, and cyanobacteria. Little is known of the transfer of BACs from natural producers and further up in the trophic food chain. In this study it was observed that total sum of methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) and OH-PBDEs increased in concentration from the filamentous red alga Ceramium tenuicorne, via Gammarus sp. and three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) to perch (Perca fluviatilis). The MeO-PBDEs, which were expected to bioaccumulate, increased in concentration accordingly up to perch, where the levels suddenly dropped dramatically. The opposite pattern was observed for OH-PBDEs, where the concentration exhibited a general trend of decline up the food web, but increased in perch, indicating metabolic demethylation of MeO-PBDEs. Debromination was also indicated to occur when progressing through the food chain resulting in high levels of tetra-brominated MeO-PBDE and OH-PBDE congeners in fish, while some penta- and hexa-brominated congeners were observed to be the dominant products in the alga. As it has been shown that OH-PBDEs are potent disruptors of oxidative phosphorylation and that mixtures of different congener may act synergistically in terms of this toxic mode of action, the high levels of OH-PBDEs detected in perch in this study warrants further investigation into potential effects of these compounds on Baltic wildlife, and monitoring of their levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Correlation between total vitamin D levels and psychotic psychopathology in patients with schizophrenia: therapeutic implications for add-on vitamin D augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksel, Rabia Nazik; Altunsoy, Neslihan; Tikir, Baise; Cingi Külük, Merve; Unal, Kubranur; Goka, Sema; Aydemir, Cigdem; Goka, Erol

    2014-12-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is one of the implicated factors in ethio-pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Low serum vitamin D levels have been reported in many schizophrenia studies. However, the question is still not answered: Is there a correlation between disease activity and serum vitamin D levels? This is the first study evaluating the relationship between serum total vitamin D levels and disease activity, by comparing total vitamin D levels in two schizophrenia groups abruptly different in terms of disease activity. 41 patients with schizophrenia in remission, 40 patients with schizophrenia those in an acute episode and 40 age- and sex -matched controls with no major psychopatology were recruited in this study. Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the Clinical Global Impression - Severety scale (CGI-S) were used to evaluate disease activity. A demographic data form that included entries on age, gender, ethnicity, weight, skin color, daily duration of sun exposure and nutritional assessment were used. Blood samples were taken from all patients and controls. Total vitamin D (D2+D3), calcium, phosphor, parathyroid hormone values were measured. Patients in an acute episode had significantly lower vitamin D levels compared to patients in remission and to healthy controls (in terms of median values respectively, 7.18, 15.03, 15.02, p vitamin D levels and CGI scores (r = -0.624, p vitamin D levels and PANNS scores (r = -0.508, p vitamin D levels. Even though important factors for vitamin D synthesis were similar, there was severe vitamin D deficiency in patients presenting with an acute episode, significantly different from those in remission. Is vitamin D deficiency the result or the cause of an acute episode? Our results contribute to the idea that vitamin D deficiency and schizophrenia may have interactions with an unknown pathway. Present data points out a possible influence at a genomic level. Future trials may investigate this association with longer follow up

  5. Prenatal exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers and child attention problems at 3–7 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowell, Whitney J.; Lederman, Sally A.; Sjödin, Andreas; Jones, Richard; Wang, Shuang; Perera, Frederica P.; Wang, Richard; Rauh, Virginia A.; Herbstman, Julie B.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) comprise a class of halogenated compounds used extensively as flame retardant chemicals in consumer products resulting in nearly ubiquitous human exposure. Mounting evidence suggests that PBDEs are developmental neurotoxicants; however, associations between early life exposure and child behavior have been largely limited to a single developmental time point. Methods The study population consists primarily of white, black and Chinese women who were pregnant on 11 September 2001 and delivered at 1 of 3 downtown New York City hospitals. Maternal–child pairs were followed through age 7 years. Cord blood was collected at delivery and PBDE plasma levels for 210 samples were analyzed by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The Child Behavior Checklist, a validated maternal-report instrument used for assessing child behavior, was administered annually between the ages of 3 and 7 years. We analyzed the association between natural log-transformed and dichotomized (low vs. high) PBDEs and attention problems using multivariable adjusted negative binomial regression. Results We detected 4 PBDE congeners in more than 50% of samples, with concentrations highest for BDE-47 (median ± IQR: 11.2 ± 19.6 ng/g). In adjusted analyses, we detected associations between BDE-47 (1.21, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.47), and BDE-153 (1.18, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.39) in cord plasma and increased attention problems among children at age 4 (n = 109) but not 6 (n = 107) years. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate a positive trend between prenatal PBDE exposure and early childhood attention problems, and are consistent with previous research reporting associations between prenatal PBDE exposure and disrupted child behaviors. PMID:26344673

  6. A study of the presence of brominated flame retardants in Australian fauna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Symons, R.; Burniston, D.; Piro, N.; Stevenson, G.; Yates, A. [Australian Government Analytical Laboratories, Sydney (Australia)

    2004-09-15

    Brominated flame retardants, in particular polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) gained prominence in the late nineties when Noren et al. reported an exponential increase in PBDE levels found in Swedish mothers milk over a quarter of a century period with an associated decrease in levels of dioxin-like compounds. PBDEs have since become exceptionally widely studied being detected in most environmental compartments and food as well as human tissues. Only limited information on the distribution if PBDEs is available for the Southern Hemisphere, however, elevated levels of PBDEs in pork fat were detected during the routine screening for organochlorine pesticide residues. More recently an investigation of breast milk for PBDE levels also demonstrated that levels were comparable with those in the Northern Hemisphere. BFRs are not manufactured in Australia but it has been estimated that over 500 tonnes are imported yearly of which 340 tonnes are PBDEs. In addition, the amount of PBDEs that are contained in imported articles used both in domestic and industrial applications is unknown. In this paper, we report levels of PBDEs in a range of different Australian fauna that show that these POPs have indeed become widely distributed both in terms of the types of the fauna but also the levels determined.

  7. Economical Appraisal of Total Aflatoxin Level in the Poultry Feeds by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherazai, S.T.H.; Shar, Z.; Iqbal, M.; Sumbal, G.A.

    2013-01-01

    Single-bounce attenuated total reflectance (SB-ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy has been used for the quantitative determination of total aflatoxins in the broiler poultry feed. An FTIR calibration spanning the range 1-70 micro g/L aflatoxin standards in (70:30, v/v) methanol-water solvent system based on partial least square (PLS) model, developed by relating mid IR region between 3755-950 cm/ sub -1/. The excellent coefficient of various (using 0.998) was achieved with 1.49 relative mean square error of calibration (RMSEC). Aflatoxins from each of eight poultry feeds was extracted and the determined by the widely used commercially available Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) procedure and the SB-ATR/FTIR method. The SB-ATR/FTIR aflatoxins predictions were related to those determined by the ELISA method by linear regression, producing an R value of 0.989 and a SD of +- 2.80 micro g/L. The result of the study clearly indicated that FT-IR spectroscopy due to its rapidity and simplicity along with data manipulation by advance computer software could be effectively used for routine determination of aflatoxins present in the poultry feeds at very low level. (author)

  8. Aerobic Stability and Effects of Yeasts during Deterioration of Non-fermented and Fermented Total Mixed Ration with Different Moisture Levels

    OpenAIRE

    W. Hao; H. L. Wang; T. T. Ning; F. Y. Yang; C. C. Xu

    2015-01-01

    The present experiment evaluated the influence of moisture level and anaerobic fermentation on aerobic stability of total mixed ration (TMR). The dynamic changes in chemical composition and microbial population that occur after air exposure were examined, and the species of yeast associated with the deterioration process were also identified in both non-fermented and fermented TMR to deepen the understanding of aerobic deterioration. The moisture levels of TMR in this experiment were adjusted...

  9. Brominated flame retardants in children's toys: concentration, composition, and children's exposure and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, She-Jun; Ma, Yun-Juan; Wang, Jing; Chen, Da; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2009-06-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs), including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE), decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE), and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) were found in children's toys purchased from South China. The median BFR concentrations in the hard plastic toys were 53,000, 5540 ng/g, 101.1 ng/g, and 27.9 ng/g, fortotal PBDEs, DBDPE, BTBPE, and PBBs, respectively,which were notably higher than values in other toys. The PBDE concentrations were below the threshold limit (1000 ppm) required bythe European Commission's Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) and Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) directives in all of the toys, except for one hard plastic toy with a total PBDE concentration of 5,344,000 ng/g. The BFR profiles in the toys were consistent with the patterns of their current production and consumption in China, where PBDEs, specifically decaBDE product, were the dominant BFR, followed by the emerging DBDPE. The relatively high concentrations of octa- and nonaBDEs in the foam toys and the results of principal component analysis (PCA) may suggest the decomposition of highly brominated BDEs during the manufacturing processes of the toys. Daily total PBDE exposures associated with toys via inhalation, mouthing, dermal contact, and oral ingestion ranged from 82.6 to 8992 pg/kg bw-day for children of 3 months to 14 years of age. Higher exposures, predominantly contributed through the mouthing pathway, were observed for infants and toddlers than for the other subgroups. In most cases, children's BFR exposure via the toys likely accounts for a small proportion of their daily BFR exposure, and the hazard quotients for noncancer risk evaluation were far below 1. To the author's knowledge, this is the first study to examine the concentrations of BFRs in toys, and the potential exposures to children.

  10. Determination of total hydrocarbons levels in some marine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pachyelina aurita), mussels (Mylitus edulis) and mangrove Oysters (Cassostrea gasar) from polluted and unpolluted (i.e. control) sampling stations in parts of the Niger Delta area has been assessed. Statistical results revealed that the THC levels ...

  11. Estonian total ozone climatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Eerme

    Full Text Available The climatological characteristics of total ozone over Estonia based on the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS data are discussed. The mean annual cycle during 1979–2000 for the site at 58.3° N and 26.5° E is compiled. The available ground-level data interpolated before TOMS, have been used for trend detection. During the last two decades, the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO corrected systematic decrease of total ozone from February–April was 3 ± 2.6% per decade. Before 1980, a spring decrease was not detectable. No decreasing trend was found in either the late autumn ozone minimum or in the summer total ozone. The QBO related signal in the spring total ozone has an amplitude of ± 20 DU and phase lag of 20 months. Between 1987–1992, the lagged covariance between the Singapore wind and the studied total ozone was weak. The spring (April–May and summer (June–August total ozone have the best correlation (coefficient 0.7 in the yearly cycle. The correlation between the May and August total ozone is higher than the one between the other summer months. Seasonal power spectra of the total ozone variance show preferred periods with an over 95% significance level. Since 1986, during the winter/spring, the contribution period of 32 days prevails instead of the earlier dominating 26 days. The spectral densities of the periods from 4 days to 2 weeks exhibit high interannual variability.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (middle atmosphere – composition and chemistry; volcanic effects – Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (climatology

  12. Automatic control of the NMB level in general anaesthesia with a switching total system mass control strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Miguel; Mendonça, Teresa; Rocha, Paula; Rabiço, Rui

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a model based switching control strategy to drive the neuromuscular blockade (NMB) level of patients undergoing general anesthesia to a predefined reference. A single-input single-output Wiener system with only two parameters is used to model the effect of two different muscle relaxants, atracurium and rocuronium, and a switching controller is designed based on a bank of total system mass control laws. Each of such laws is tuned for an individual model from a bank chosen to represent the behavior of the whole population. The control law to be applied at each instant corresponds to the model whose NMB response is closer to the patient's response. Moreover a scheme to improve the reference tracking quality based on the analysis of the patient's response, as well as, a comparison between the switching strategy and the Extended Kalman Kilter (EKF) technique are presented. The results are illustrated by means of several simulations, where switching shows to provide good results, both in theory and in practice, with a desirable reference tracking. The reference tracking improvement technique is able to produce a better reference tracking. Also, this technique showed a better performance than the (EKF). Based on these results, the switching control strategy with a bank of total system mass control laws proved to be robust enough to be used as an automatic control system for the NMB level.

  13. Are total, intensity- and domain-specific physical activity levels associated with life satisfaction among university students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedišić, Željko; Greblo, Zrinka; Phongsavan, Philayrath; Milton, Karen; Bauman, Adrian E

    2015-01-01

    Thorough information about the relationship between physical activity (PA) and life satisfaction is still lacking. Therefore, this study examined the cross-sectional relationships between life satisfaction and meeting the World Health Organization (WHO) moderate to vigorous-intensity PA recommendations, total volume and duration of PA, intensity-specific PA (walking, moderate- and vigorous-intensity), domain-specific PA (work, transport-related, domestic, and leisure-time), and 11 domain and intensity-specific PA types among university students. Additionally, we examined the associations between life satisfaction and gender, age, disposable income, community size, smoking, alcohol intake, body mass index (BMI), and self-rated health. The study included a random sample of 1750 university students in Zagreb, Croatia (response rate = 71.7%; 62.4% females; mean age 21.5 ± 1.8 years), using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-long form and the Satisfaction with Life Scale. Higher life satisfaction was associated with female gender (β = 0.13; p = leisure-time vigorous-intensity PA was significantly associated with life satisfaction after adjustments for socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle and self-rated general health (β = 0.06; p = 0.045). This study indicated a weak positive relationship between leisure-time vigorous-intensity PA and life satisfaction, whilst no such association was found for other PA variables. These findings underscore the importance of analyzing domain and intensity-specific PA levels in future studies among university students, as drawing conclusions about the relationship between PA and life satisfaction based on total PA levels only may be misleading.

  14. Using SPMDs for monitoring hydrophobic organic compounds in urban river water in Korea compared with using conventional water grab samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Un-Jung; Kim, Hee Young; Alvarez, David A.; Lee, In-Seok; Oh, Jeong-Eun

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to verify the effectiveness of semi-permeablemembrane devices (SPMDs) formonitoring hydrophobic organic compounds, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), that are not easy to detect using conventional grab samples (because of their low concentrations), in water.We used SPMDs and grab samples to monitor PCBs and PBDEs upstream and downstream of a sewage treatment plant (STP) in the Suyeong River in Busan, Korea. Concentrations in three different phases (freely dissolved, apparently dissolved, and particulate) were measured, to investigate the aquatic fate of PCBs and PBDEs. The freely dissolved (SPMD) concentrations were 2–3 times higher than the apparently dissolved and particulate phase (grab sample) concentrations. No meaningful relationships were found between the total PCB and PBDE concentrations of the grab sample and SPMD sample because of the different partitioning behaviors and detection frequencies of the individual chemicals. However, the summed concentrations of specific PCB and PBDE congeners (that were abundant in all samples) in the grab and SPMD samples correlated well (r2 = 0.7451 for PCBs 28 + 52 + 153, r2 = 0.9987 for PBDEs 28 + 47 + 99). The PBDE concentrations measured using SPMDs decreased with increasing distance from the STP, but no apparent dilution effect was found in the grab samples. Our results show that SPMDs could be used to support grab sampling for specific chemicals, or to trace chemical sources (such as STPs) to the aquatic environment.

  15. How much locomotive activity is needed for an active physical activity level: analysis of total step counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohkawara Kazunori

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although physical activity recommendations for public health have focused on locomotive activity such as walking and running, it is uncertain how much these activities contribute to overall physical activity level (PAL. The purpose of the present study was to determine the contribution of locomotive activity to PAL using total step counts measured in a calorimeter study. Methods PAL, calculated as total energy expenditure divided by basal metabolic rate, was evaluated in 11 adult men using three different conditions for 24-hour human calorimeter measurements: a low-activity day (L-day targeted at a low active level of PAL (1.45, and a high-frequency moderate activity day (M-day or a high-frequency vigorous activity day (V-day targeted at an active level of PAL (1.75. These subjects were permitted only light activities except prescribed activities. In a separate group of 41 adults, free-living PAL was evaluated using doubly-labeled water (DLW. In both experiments, step counts per day were also measured using an accelerometer. Results In the human calorimeter study, PAL and step counts were 1.42 ± 0.10 and 8,973 ± 543 steps/d (L-day, 1.82 ± 0.14 and 29,588 ± 1,126 steps/d (M-day, and 1.74 ± 0.15 and 23,755 ± 1,038 steps/d (V-day, respectively. In the DLW study, PAL and step counts were 1.73 ± 0.15 and 10,022 ± 2,605 steps/d, and there was no significant relationship between PAL and daily step counts. Conclusions These results indicate that an enormous number of steps are needed for an active level of PAL if individuals extend physical activity-induced energy expenditure by only locomotive activity. Therefore, non-locomotive activity such as household activity should also play a significant role in increasing PAL under free-living conditions.

  16. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs in fish collected from the urban tract of the river Tiber in Rome (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Miniero

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available European eel and chub samples were analyzed to determine the levels of non-dioxin-like polychlorobiphenyls (NDL-PCBs, polychlorodibenzodioxins (PCDDs and polychlorodibenzofurans (PCDFs, dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs, and brominated polybromodiphenyl ethers (PBDEs in order to evaluate the extent of contamination of the river Tiber along the urban tract through the city of Rome (Italy. All samples presented detectable levels of the chemicals analyzed, and exhibited species-specific differences in terms of congener composition and total concentrations. On average the European eel presented the highest values. In this species the dioxin-like compound sums (WHO-TEQs exceeded the pertinent maximum levels (MLs. Non-ortho PCBs constituted approximately 80% of WHO-TEQ toxicological potential whereas NDL-PCB and PBDE concentrations appeared to match values determined in other polluted aquatic ecosystems where non-point contamination sources were present. The contamination patterns determined in fish tissues seemed to reflect the impact of generic contamination source(s.

  17. The impact of polybrominated diphenyl ether prohibition: A case study on the atmospheric levels in China, Japan and South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qilu; Li, Jun; Chaemfa, Chakra; Zhang, Gan; Kobara, Yuso; Nam, Jae-Jak; Jones, Kevin C.

    2014-06-01

    The atmosphere is an important medium which could directly reflect the changes of pollutant sources. Worldwide, the commercial products of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been officially restricted and subsequently prohibited. For the purpose of evaluating their concentration after prohibition, passive air samplers (PASs) were therefore deployed again across the East Asia during two periods in 2008 after the initial deployment 4 years ago. When compared with the data in 2004, the atmospheric concentrations of PBDEs have declined significantly. Spatially, the PBDE level in China was still the highest, with a mean value of 15.4 pg m- 3, and in Japan was the lowest (2.47 ± 1.12 pg m- 3) in the East Asia. Moreover, the relatively high concentrations were observed at sites where there are electronic or e-waste recycling industries, and this is particularly true in China, suggesting that illegally imported e-waste is still a typical source of PBDEs in this region.

  18. First trimester serum levels of the soluble transcobalamin receptor, holo-transcobalamin, and total transcobalamin in relation to preeclampsia risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abuyaman, Omar; Torring, Niels; Obeid, Rima

    2016-01-01

    transcobalamin (TC) with the risk of subsequent preeclampsia using serum samples from asymptomatic first trimester pregnant women. Moreover, we aimed to establish reference intervals of the aforementioned biomarkers for first trimester pregnant women who remained healthy throughout pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN...... preeclampsia while the controls remained normotensive throughout pregnancy. We measured the serum concentration of sCD320, holoTC, and total TC by using in-house ELISA methods. RESULTS: First trimester median concentrations of sCD320, holoTC and total TC were not significantly different between cases...... and controls. The odd ratio for developing preeclampsia based on exposure to low or high levels of sCD320, holoTC or total TC at first trimester was not significant. The reference intervals (2.5-97.5% percentiles (median)) derived from the controls were 50-170 (90) pmol\\L for sCD320, 20-140 (70) pmol...

  19. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in soils, sediments, and human hair in a plastic waste recycling area: a neglected heavily polluted area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhenwu; Huang, Qifei; Cheng, Jiali; Yang, Yufei; Yang, Jun; Guo, Wei; Nie, Zhiqiang; Zeng, Ning; Jin, Lu

    2014-01-01

    The release of pollutants during the recycling of contaminated plastics is a problem which has drawn worldwide attention; however, little information on the transfer of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in these processes is available. We conducted a survey of PBDEs in soils, sediments, and human hair in a typical plastic waste recycling area in northern China. The total concentrations (ng/g) of 21 PBDEs were 1.25-5504 (average 600), 18.2-9889 (average 1619), and 1.50-861 (average 112) in soils, sediments, and hair, respectively. The PBDE concentrations were comparable to concentrations observed in e-waste recycling areas; however, the concentrations in soils and sediments were 1-3 orders of magnitude higher than in other areas, and the concentrations in hair were much higher than in other areas. This indicates that this area is highly polluted with PBDEs. BDE-209 was the dominant congener (representing 91.23%, 92.3%, and 91.5% of the total PBDEs observed in soils, sediments, and hair, respectively), indicating that the commercial deca-BDE product was dominant. The commercial penta- and octa-BDE products made small contributions to the total PBDE concentrations, unlike what has been found in some e-waste recycling areas. Our results show that crude plastic waste processing is a major contributor of PBDEs to the environment and humans, which should be of great concern.

  20. Serum total homocysteine and lipoprotein (a) levels in acute myocardial infarction and their response to treatment with vitamins serum total homocysteine and lipoprotein (a) levels in acute myocardial infarction and their response to treatment with vitamins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haq, A.M.M.; Huque, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    To assess the relationship of serum total homocysteine (tHcy) and lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] levels with systemic hypertension, Diabetes mellitus and smoking as risk factors in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and changes in the former levels with vitamins supplementation. Study Design: An interventional study. Place and Duration of Study: Medical College for Women and Hospital (MCW and H), Dhaka, Bangladesh, from July 2008 to December 2009. Methodology: Consecutive AMI patients were recruited from the Coronary Care Unit (CCU) at MCW and H, Dhaka. Blood samples were collected at inclusion (Patient-I0). They were given conventional treatments and prescribed vitamins (vitamins B6=25 mg, B12=2 mg and folic acid=2.5 mg) daily for 2 months. After follow-up, blood samples were taken again (Patient-II0). A group of 25 normal subjects were also included as controls. Serum tHcy and Lp(a) were measured by kinetic method and nephelometric method respectively. Results: Serum tHcy (macor mol/L) and Lp(a) (mg/dl) levels were elevated in Patient-I that reduced in Patient-II after vitamins supplementation, but not to the normal control level. tHcy of Patient-I0 was 25.1 +- 4.7 macro mol/L, of Patient-II0 was 20.1 +- 4.5 mu mol/L and of controls 12.1 +- 3.3, p 0.1). However, in a significant proportion of patients tHcy and Lp(a) levels were reduced to control levels (tHcy: p < 0.001, Lp(a): p < 0.01). Conclusion: These results indicated that tHcy and Lp(a) levels were possibly atherogenic risk factors independent of conventional risk factors. Since both tHcy and Lp(a) levels responded in a similar fashion, a common point of the metabolic and pathogenetic pathways of tHcy and Lp(a) may be influenced by the vitamins supplementation. (author)

  1. PET CATS IN THE U.S. HAVE HIGH POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHER (PBDE) SERUM LEVELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coincident with the introduction of bromi¬nated flame-retardants in consumer products nearly 30 years ago, hyperthyroidism in cats has increased substantially. We hypothesize that increasing exposure to PBDEs has, in some manner, contributed to the abrupt increase in and now com...

  2. Assessment of legacy and emerging persistent organic pollutants in Weddell seal tissue (Leptonychotes weddellii) near McMurdo Sound, Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trumble, Stephen J.; Robinson, Eleanor M. [Baylor University, One Bear Place 97388, Waco, TX 76798-7388 (United States); Noren, Shawn R. [Institute of Marine Science, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Usenko, Sascha, E-mail: Sascha_Usenko@baylor.edu [Baylor University, One Bear Place 97388, Waco, TX 76798-7388 (United States); Davis, Jay [U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Western Washington Fish and Wildlife Office, Lacey, WA 98503 (United States); Kanatous, Shane B. [Department of Biology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1878 (United States)

    2012-11-15

    Muscle samples were collected from pup, juvenile and adult Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) near McMurdo Sound, Antarctica during the austral summer of 2006. Blubber samples were collected from juvenile and adult seals. Samples were analyzed for emerging and legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including current and historic-use organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Of the 41 target analytes, 28 contaminants were recovered from the Weddell seal blubber, in this order of prevalence: p,p Prime -DDE, p,p Prime -DDT, trans-nonachlor, mirex, cis-nonachlor, PCB 153, PCB 138, dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, nonachlor III, PCB 187, oxychlordane, cis-chlordane, PCB 118, PBDE 47, PCB 156, PCB 149, PCB 180, PCB 101, PCB 170, PCB 105, o,p Prime -DDT, PCB 99, trans-chlordane, PCB 157, PCB 167, PCB 189, and PCB 114. Fewer POPs were found in the muscle samples, but were similar in the order of prevalence to that of the blubber: p,p Prime -DDE, o,p Prime -DDT, trans-nonachlor, nonachlor III, oxychlordane, p,p Prime -DDT, dieldrin, mirex, cis-nonachlor, PCB 138, and PCB 105. Besides differences in toxicant concentrations reported between the muscle and blubber, we found differences in POP levels according to age class and suggest that differences in blubber storage and/or mobilization of lipids result in age class differences in POPs. To our knowledge, such ontogenetic associations are novel. Importantly, data from this study suggest that p,p Prime -DDT is becoming less prevalent temporally, resulting in an increased proportion of its metabolite p,p Prime -DDE in the tissues of this top predator. In addition, this study is among the first to identify a PBDE congener in Weddell seals near the McMurdo Station. This may provide evidence of increased PBDE transport and encroachment in Antarctic wildlife. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PBDE measuring in Weddell seal blubber. Black

  3. Association of Seminal Plasma Total Antioxidant Capacity and Malondialdehyde Levels With Sperm Parameters in Infertile Men With Varicocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salimi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Varicocele is one of the most common reasons for male infertility and could impair spermatogenesis through mechanisms that are not well known. Recently, oxidative stress has been introduced as a major reason for male infertility caused by varicocele. Objectives In the current study, we aimed to assess the TAC (total antioxidant capacity and MDA (malondialdehyde as stress oxidative markers in infertile men with varicocele and fertile men, and moreover, their correlation with sperm parameters. Patients and Methods This case control study was performed on 43 infertile men with varicocele and 46 men with proven fertility. The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP and thiobarbituric acid (TBA reaction methods were used for seminal plasma TAC and MDA assay, respectively. Results Lower TAC levels (1.7 ± 0.2 vs. 1.3 ± 0.4 mmol/L, P = 0.0004 and higher MDA levels (2.5 ± 1.1 vs. 5.8 ± 1.9 mmol/L, P < 0.0001 were observed in infertile men with varicocele compared to fertile men. There was no correlation between TAC and MDA in fertile men (r = 0.02, P = 0.9, however, a negative correlation was found between TAC and MDA levels in varicocele infertile men (r = −0.44, P = 0.003. Moreover, a positive correlation was found between sperm count and sperm motility with TAC levels in varicocele infertile men (r = 0.4, P = 0.02 and r = 0.6, P < 0.0001, respectively. There was a correlation between sperm motility and TAC levels in fertile men (r = 0.5, P = 0.001, but other parameters did not correlate with TAC in this group. A negative correlation was shown between semen volume, sperm count, total sperm, sperm motility, and sperm morphology with MDA levels in varicocele infertile men (r = 0.3, P = 0.045; r = −0.4, P = 0.009; r = −0.5, P = 0.002; r = −0.5, P = 0.001 and r = −0.4, P = 0.008, respectively. There was no correlation between these parameters and MDA in fertile men. Conclusions Our findings indicated that oxidative stress could

  4. Association Between Baseline LDL-C Level and Total and Cardiovascular Mortality After LDL-C Lowering: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarese, Eliano P; Robinson, Jennifer G; Kowalewski, Mariusz; Kolodziejczak, Michalina; Andreotti, Felicita; Bliden, Kevin; Tantry, Udaya; Kubica, Jacek; Raggi, Paolo; Gurbel, Paul A

    2018-04-17

    Effects on specific fatal and nonfatal end points appear to vary for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)-lowering drug trials. To evaluate whether baseline LDL-C level is associated with total and cardiovascular mortality risk reductions. Electronic databases (Cochrane, MEDLINE, EMBASE, TCTMD, ClinicalTrials.gov, major congress proceedings) were searched through February 2, 2018, to identify randomized clinical trials of statins, ezetimibe, and PCSK9-inhibiting monoclonal antibodies. Two investigators abstracted data and appraised risks of bias. Intervention groups were categorized as "more intensive" (more potent pharmacologic intervention) or "less intensive" (less potent, placebo, or control group). The coprimary end points were total mortality and cardiovascular mortality. Random-effects meta-regression and meta-analyses evaluated associations between baseline LDL-C level and reductions in mortality end points and secondary end points including major adverse cardiac events (MACE). In 34 trials, 136 299 patients received more intensive and 133 989 received less intensive LDL-C lowering. All-cause mortality was lower for more vs less intensive therapy (7.08% vs 7.70%; rate ratio [RR], 0.92 [95% CI, 0.88 to 0.96]), but varied by baseline LDL-C level. Meta-regression showed more intensive LDL-C lowering was associated with greater reductions in all-cause mortality with higher baseline LDL-C levels (change in RRs per 40-mg/dL increase in baseline LDL-C, 0.91 [95% CI, 0.86 to 0.96]; P = .001; absolute risk difference [ARD], -1.05 incident cases per 1000 person-years [95% CI, -1.59 to -0.51]), but only when baseline LDL-C levels were 100 mg/dL or greater (P baseline LDL-C level. Meta-regression showed more intensive LDL-C lowering was associated with a greater reduction in cardiovascular mortality with higher baseline LDL-C levels (change in RRs per 40-mg/dL increase in baseline LDL-C, 0.86 [95% CI, 0.80 to 0.94]; P baseline LDL-C levels were 100

  5. Estimation of the source strength of polybrominated diphenyl ethers based on their diel variability in air in Zurich, Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeckel, Claudia; Gasic, Bojan; MacLeod, Matthew; Scheringer, Martin; Jones, Kevin C; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2010-06-01

    Diel (24-h) concentration variations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in air were measured in the center of Zurich, Switzerland, and on Uetliberg, a hill about 5 km from the city center. Air samples were collected simultaneously at both sites over 4 h time periods for 3 consecutive days during a stable high pressure system in August 2007. Higher PBDE concentrations in the city compared to the Uetliberg site indicate that Zurich is a likely source of PBDEs to the atmosphere. A multimedia mass balance model was used to (i) explain the diel cycling pattern of PBDE concentrations observed at both sites in terms of dominant processes and (ii) estimate emission rates of PBDEs from the city to the atmosphere. We estimate that Zurich emits 0.4, 6.2, 1.6, and 0.4 kg year(-1) of the PBDE congeners 28, 47, 99, and 100, respectively. On a per-capita basis, these estimates are within the range or somewhat above those obtained in other studies using approaches based on emission factors (EF) and PBDE production, usage, and disposal data, or concentration measurements. The present approach complements emission estimates based on the EF approach and can also be applied to source areas where EFs and PBDE material flows are poorly characterized or unknown, such as electronic waste processing plants.

  6. Filling the gap: Estimating physicochemical properties of the full array of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue, Chaoyang; Li, Loretta Y.

    2013-01-01

    Physicochemical properties of PBDE congeners are important for modeling their transport, but data are often missing. The quantitative structure–property relationship (QSPR) approach is utilized to fill this gap. Individual research groups often report piecemeal properties through experimental measurements or estimation techniques, but these data seldom satisfy fundamental thermodynamic relationships because of errors. The data then lack internal consistency and cannot be used directly in environmental modeling. This paper critically reviews published experimental data to select the best QSPR models, which are then extended to all 209 PBDE congeners. Properties include aqueous solubility, vapor pressure, Henry's law constant, octanol–water partition coefficient and octanol–air partition coefficient. Their values are next adjusted to satisfy fundamental thermodynamic equations. The resulting values then take advantage of all measurements and provide quick references for modeling and PBDE-contaminated site assessment and remediation. PCBs are also compared with respect to their properties and estimation methods. -- Highlights: •Property data of PBDEs and reported experimental and estimation methods were reviewed. •Missing data were estimated for all 209 PBDEs based on selected methods. •All data were adjusted to meet thermodynamic constrains using a VisualBasic program. •The established database provides a quick reference for PBDE environmental modeling. -- Through careful selection of literature data, structure–property estimation and adjustment, key properties of 209 PBDE congeners are estimated with internal consistency

  7. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers affect the reproduction and development, and alter the sex ratio of zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, X.B.; Yuen, Karen W.Y.; Wu, Rudolf S.S.

    2013-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been commonly used as flame retardants and now become ubiquitous in the global environment. Using zebrafish as a model, we tested the hypothesis that PBDEs may affect the reproduction and development of fish. Zebrafish were exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of DE-71 (a congener of PBDE commonly found in the environment) throughout their whole life cycle, and the effects of DE-71 on gonadal development, gamete quality, fertilization success, hatching success, embryonic development and sex ratio were investigated. Despite gonadal development was enhanced, reductions in spawning, fertilization success, hatching success and larval survival rate were evident, while significant increases in malformation and percentage of male were also observed in the F1 generation. Our laboratory results suggest that PBDEs may pose a risk to reproductive success and alter the sex ratio of fish in environments highly contaminated with PBDEs. -- Highlights: •Zebrafish were exposed to PBDE from eggs to adults. •An increase in Gonadal-Somatic Index and enhanced gonadal development was enhanced. •Fertilization and hatching successes were reduced, while malformation was increased. •PBDE alters sex differentiation, leading to a male biased F1 population. •Environmental relevant concentrations of PBDE threaten natural fish populations. -- PBDE reduces fertilization and hatching successes, causes malformation and leads to a male biased F1 generation in fish

  8. Daily total physical activity level and premature death in men and women: results from a large-scale population-based cohort study in Japan (JPHC study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Manami; Iso, Hiroyasu; Yamamoto, Seiichiro; Kurahashi, Norie; Iwasaki, Motoki; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2008-07-01

    The impact of daily total physical activity level on premature deaths has not been fully clarified in non-Western, relatively lean populations. We prospectively examined the association between daily total physical activity level (METs/day) and subsequent risk of all-cause mortality and mortalities from cancer, heart disease, and cerebrovascular disease. A total of 83,034 general Japanese citizens ages 45-74 years who responded to the questionnaire in 1995-1999 were followed for any cause of death through December 2005. Mutlivariate-adjusted hazard ratios were calculated with a Cox proportional hazards model controlling for potential confounding factors. During follow-up, a total of 4564 deaths were recorded. Compared with subjects in the lowest quartile, increased daily total physical activity was associated with a significantly decreased risk of all-cause mortality in both sexes (hazard ratios for the second, third, and highest quartiles were: men, 0.79, 0.82, 0.73 and women, 0.75, 0.64, 0.61, respectively). The decreased risk was observed regardless of age, frequency of leisure-time sports or physical exercise, or obesity status, albeit with a degree of risk attenuation among those with a high body mass index. A significantly decreased risk was similarly observed for death from cancer and heart disease in both sexes, and from cerebrovascular disease in women. Greater daily total physical activity level, either from occupation, daily life, or leisure time, may be of benefit in preventing premature death.

  9. Determination and assessment of total mercury levels in local, frozen and canned fish in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeid, Pierre J; El-Khoury, Bilal; Burger, Joanne; Aouad, Samer; Younis, Mira; Aoun, Amal; El-Nakat, John Hanna

    2011-01-01

    Fish is an important constituent of the Lebanese diet. However, very little attention in our area is given to bring awareness regarding the effect of the toxicity of mercury (Hg) mainly through fish consumption. This study aimed to report analytical data on total mercury levels in several fish species for the first time in thirty years and to also made individuals aware of the presence and danger from exposure to mercury through fish consumption. Fish samples were selected from local Lebanese markets and fisheries and included 94 samples of which were fresh, frozen, processed, and canned fish. All values were reported as microgram of mercury per gram of fish based on wet weight. The level of mercury ranged from 0.0190 to 0.5700 microg/g in fresh samples, 0.0059 to 0.0665 microg/g in frozen samples, and 0.0305 to 0.1190 microg/g in canned samples. The data clearly showed that higher levels of mercury were detected in local fresh fish as opposed to other types thus placing consumers at higher risk from mercury exposure. Moreover, the data revealed that Mallifa (yellowstripe barracuda/Sphyraena chrysotaenia), Sargous (white seabream/Diplodus sargus), Ghobbos (bogue/Boops boops), and shrimp (Penaeus sp.) were among the types containing the highest amounts of mercury. On the other hand, processed fish such as fish fillet, fish burger, small shrimp and crab are found to contain lower levels of mercury and are associated with lower exposure risks to mercury. Lebanese population should therefore, be aware to consume limited amounts of fresh local fish to minimize exposure to mercury.

  10. Uric Acid or 1-Methyl Uric Acid in the Urinary Bladder Increases Serum Glucose, Insulin, True Triglyceride, and Total Cholesterol Levels in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Balasubramanian

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In animals deprived of food for a long period, a drop in the fat mass below 5% of the total body mass results in an increase in blood glucocorticoids and uric acid levels, followed by foraging activity. Since the glucocorticoids increase the uric acid excretion, an increase in the level of uric acid in the bladder urine could be the signal for this feeding behaviour and subsequent fat storage. Accumulation of fat is associated with hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinaemia, hyperlipidaemia, and hypercholesterolaemia as seen in the metabolic syndrome or hibernation. It is hypothesized that uric acid or its structurally related compound, 1-methyl uric acid (one of the metabolites of the methyl xanthines namely caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine present in coffee, tea, cocoa, and some drugs, can act on the urinary bladder mucosa and increases the blood glucose, insulin, triglyceride, and cholesterol levels. In rats, perfusion of the urinary bladder with saturated aqueous solution of uric acid or 1-methyl uric acid results in a significant increase in the serum levels of glucose, insulin, true triglyceride, and total cholesterol in comparison with perfusion of the bladder with distilled water at 20, 40, and 80 min. The uric acid or the 1-methyl uric acid acts on the urinary bladder mucosa and increases the serum glucose, insulin, true triglyceride, and total cholesterol levels.

  11. Total Blood Mercury Levels and Depression among Adults in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Tsz Hin H.; Mossey, Jana M.; Lee, Brian K.

    2013-01-01

    Background Mercury is a neurotoxicant linked with psychiatric symptoms at high levels of exposure. However, it is unclear whether an association is present at the low exposure levels in the US adult population. Materials and Methods Cross-sectional associations of total blood mercury and depression were assessed in 6,911 adults age ≥20 in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2005–2008. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 was used to assess depression (high likelihood of a depressive spectrum disorder diagnosis; score 5–27). Results Unadjusted survey weighted logistic regression suggested that higher total blood mercury was associated with lower odds of depression (Odds Ratio  = 0.49, 95% Confidence Interval: 0.36–0.65, comparing the highest and lowest mercury quintiles). This association largely disappeared after adjustment for sociodemographic variables (income-poverty ratio, education, marital status). However, in age-stratified analyses, this inverse relationship remained in older adults (age ≥40) even after adjustment for sociodemographic variables. Simulation analyses adjusting for expected confounding effects of fish intake suggested that the inverse relationship among older adults may be plausibly attributed to residual confounding (Odds Ratio  = 0.75, 95% Confidence Interval: 0.50–1.12, comparing the highest and lowest mercury quintiles). Conclusions Higher total blood mercury was not associated with increased odds of depression. The lower odds of depression in older adults with higher total blood mercury may be due to residual confounding. PMID:24244482

  12. Novel Interactions between Gut Microbiome and Host Drug-Processing Genes Modify the Hepatic Metabolism of the Environmental Chemicals Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Cindy Yanfei; Lee, Soowan; Cade, Sara; Kuo, Li-Jung; Schultz, Irvin R.; Bhatt, Deepak K.; Prasad, Bhagwat; Bammler, Theo K.; Cui, Julia Yue

    2017-09-01

    The gut microbiome is a novel frontier in xenobiotic metabolism. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), especially BDE-47 and BDE-99, are among the most abundant and persistent environmental contaminants that produce a variety of toxicities. Little is known about how the gut microbiome affects the hepatic metabolism of PBDEs and the PBDE-mediated regulation of drug-processing genes (DPGs) in vivo. The goal of this study was to determine the role of gut microbiome in modulating the hepatic biotransformation of PBDEs. Nine-week-old male C57BL/6J conventional (CV) or germ free (GF) mice were treated with vehicle, BDE-47 or BDE-99 (100 μmol/kg) for four days. Following BDE-47 treatment, GF mice had higher level of 5-OH-BDE-47 but lower levels of 4 other metabolites in liver than CV mice; whereas following BDE-99 treatment, GF mice had lower levels of 4 minor metabolites in liver than CV mice. RNA- Seq demonstrated that the hepatic expression of DPGs was regulated by both PBDEs and enterotypes. Under basal condition, the lack of gut microbiome up-regulated the Cyp2c subfamily but down-regulated the Cyp3a subfamily. Following PBDE exposure, certain DPGs were differentially regulated by PBDEs in a gut microbiome-dependent manner. Interestingly, the lack of gut microbiome augmented PBDE-mediated up- regulation of many DPGs, such as Cyp1a2 and Cyp3a11 in mouse liver, which was further confirmed by targeted metabolomics. The lack of gut microbiome also augmented the Cyp3a enzyme activity in liver. In conclusion, our study has unveiled a novel interaction between gut microbiome and the hepatic biotransformation of PBDEs.

  13. Bioaccumulation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in sediment aged for 2 years to carps (Cyprinus carpio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, S. Y.; Li, J. Y.; Jia, X. M.

    2017-08-01

    In order to understand the risk of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) existing in sediment for years, the accumulation of PBDEs in sediment aged for 2 years to fish was investigated. Simulated aquatic system microcosms were conducted with PBDE contaminated sediment aged for 2 years and carps were cultured in the microcosms for 20 days. PBDE concentrations in carp tissues were analyzed to estimate the bioavailability of aged PBDEs in carps. The main spiked PBDE congeners were detected in sediment even though the contaminated sediment was aged for 2 years. Similarly, the five PBDE (BDE-28, 47, 100, 153 and 154) congeners which probably were bioaccumulated by carp were detected in fish tissues, indicating that PBDEs could be bioaccumulated after aging for 2 years. The PBDEs distribution revealed that the concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in tissues of Cyprinus carpio is in this order of magnitude: gut > liver > gill > fillet. The PBDEs concentrations in fillet were as high as 67.9 ng/g dry wt, in which BDE-47 contributed almost 50% in profile.

  14. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and organochlorines in melon-headed whales, Peponocephala electra, mass stranded along the Japanese coasts: Maternal transfer and temporal trend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajiwara, Natsuko; Kamikawa, Satoko; Amano, Masao; Hayano, Azusa; Yamada, Tadasu K.; Miyazaki, Nobuyuki; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2008-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and organochlorine compounds (OCs) were determined in the blubber of 55 melon-headed whales (Peponocephala electra) mass stranded along the Japanese coasts since 1982. DDTs and PCBs were predominant in all the specimens investigated. In whales that died during the latest event in 2006, concentrations of PBDEs (190-510 ng/g lipid wt) were approximately two orders of magnitude lower than DDTs and PCBs, but comparable with HCHs and HCB. Maternal transfer of PBDEs to offspring through the whole reproductive process was estimated to be 85% of the mother's body burden, while that occurring during gestation was much lower (2.6-3.5%). Concentrations of PCBs, DDTs, and HCB were lower in melon-headed whales stranded after the year 2000 than those stranded in 1982, whereas PBDE and CHL levels showed a temporal increase during the past 20 years, suggesting that the peak of their usage and contamination occurred after the year 1982. - PBDE levels in melon-headed whales increased during the past two decades

  15. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and organochlorines in melon-headed whales, Peponocephala electra, mass stranded along the Japanese coasts: Maternal transfer and temporal trend

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajiwara, Natsuko; Kamikawa, Satoko [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, 2-5 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Amano, Masao [Department of Animal Sciences, Teikyo University of Science and Technology, 2525 Yatsusawa, Uenohara, Yamanashi 409-0193 (Japan); Hayano, Azusa [Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Yamada, Tadasu K. [National Museum of Nature and Science, 3-23-1 Hyakunin-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-0073 (Japan); Miyazaki, Nobuyuki [Center for International Cooperation, Ocean Research Institute, University of Tokyo, Minamidai 1-15-1, Nakano-ku, Tokyo 164-8639 (Japan); Tanabe, Shinsuke [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, 2-5 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)], E-mail: shinsuke@agr.ehime-u.ac.jp

    2008-11-15

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and organochlorine compounds (OCs) were determined in the blubber of 55 melon-headed whales (Peponocephala electra) mass stranded along the Japanese coasts since 1982. DDTs and PCBs were predominant in all the specimens investigated. In whales that died during the latest event in 2006, concentrations of PBDEs (190-510 ng/g lipid wt) were approximately two orders of magnitude lower than DDTs and PCBs, but comparable with HCHs and HCB. Maternal transfer of PBDEs to offspring through the whole reproductive process was estimated to be 85% of the mother's body burden, while that occurring during gestation was much lower (2.6-3.5%). Concentrations of PCBs, DDTs, and HCB were lower in melon-headed whales stranded after the year 2000 than those stranded in 1982, whereas PBDE and CHL levels showed a temporal increase during the past 20 years, suggesting that the peak of their usage and contamination occurred after the year 1982. - PBDE levels in melon-headed whales increased during the past two decades.

  16. Plasma total antioxidant capacity is associated with dietary intake and plasma level of antioxidants in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Yang, Meng; Lee, Sang-Gil; Davis, Catherine G; Kenny, Anne; Koo, Sung I; Chun, Ock K

    2012-12-01

    Increased plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) has been associated with a high consumption of fruits and vegetables. However, limited information is available on whether plasma TAC reflects the dietary intake of antioxidants and the levels of individual antioxidants in plasma. By using three different assays, the study aimed to determine if plasma TAC can effectively predict dietary intake of antioxidants and plasma antioxidant status. Forty overweight and apparently healthy postmenopausal women were recruited. Seven-day food records and 12-h fasting blood samples were collected for dietary and plasma antioxidant assessments. Plasma TAC was determined by vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity (VCEAC), ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays. TAC values determined by VCEAC were highly correlated with FRAP (r=0.79, Pantioxidants and represents more closely the plasma antioxidant levels than ORAC and FRAP. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Total mercury and methylmercury levels in pregnant women, nursing women and preschool children resident in fishing villages in the eighth region of Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruhn, C.G.; Rodriguez, A.A.

    1992-01-01

    The main aim of this project is to perform a descriptive study about the levels of total mercury (Hg-T) and of methylmercury (Me-Hg) in scalp hair specimens of a selected human population of high risk in the Eighth Region of Chile, the group studied included pregnant women (PW), nursing women (NW) and preschool children residing in fishing villages distributed within the coastal zone of this region, the diets of the test group included fish and shellfish as main food components. The degree of Hg contamination of this population was compared to a control population (''core programme''). The methylmercury-to-total mercury ratio (Me-Hg/Hg-T) levels in scalp hair enabled interpretation of the results with respect to the degree of contamination by Hg, and the dietary habits of the sample donors of each fishing village under study. Furthermore, Se levels in scalp hair of the populations with relatively high Hg content were to be investigated for possible correlation with Me-Hg levels (''supplementary programme''). 5 refs, 2 figs, 9 tabs

  18. Spatial variability in levels of benzene, formaldehyde, and total benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes in New York City: a land-use regression study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheirbek, Iyad; Johnson, Sarah; Ross, Zev; Pezeshki, Grant; Ito, Kazuhiko; Eisl, Holger; Matte, Thomas

    2012-07-31

    Hazardous air pollutant exposures are common in urban areas contributing to increased risk of cancer and other adverse health outcomes. While recent analyses indicate that New York City residents experience significantly higher cancer risks attributable to hazardous air pollutant exposures than the United States as a whole, limited data exist to assess intra-urban variability in air toxics exposures. To assess intra-urban spatial variability in exposures to common hazardous air pollutants, street-level air sampling for volatile organic compounds and aldehydes was conducted at 70 sites throughout New York City during the spring of 2011. Land-use regression models were developed using a subset of 59 sites and validated against the remaining 11 sites to describe the relationship between concentrations of benzene, total BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes) and formaldehyde to indicators of local sources, adjusting for temporal variation. Total BTEX levels exhibited the most spatial variability, followed by benzene and formaldehyde (coefficient of variation of temporally adjusted measurements of 0.57, 0.35, 0.22, respectively). Total roadway length within 100 m, traffic signal density within 400 m of monitoring sites, and an indicator of temporal variation explained 65% of the total variability in benzene while 70% of the total variability in BTEX was accounted for by traffic signal density within 450 m, density of permitted solvent-use industries within 500 m, and an indicator of temporal variation. Measures of temporal variation, traffic signal density within 400 m, road length within 100 m, and interior building area within 100 m (indicator of heating fuel combustion) predicted 83% of the total variability of formaldehyde. The models built with the modeling subset were found to predict concentrations well, predicting 62% to 68% of monitored values at validation sites. Traffic and point source emissions cause substantial variation in street-level exposures

  19. Serum Total Tryptase Level Confirms Itself as a More Reliable Marker of Mast Cells Burden in Mast Cell Leukaemia (Aleukaemic Variant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Savini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mast cell leukemia (MCL is a very rare form of systemic mastocytosis (SM with a short median survival of 6 months. We describe a case of a 65-year-old woman with aleukaemic variant of MCL with a very high serum total tryptase level of 2255 μg/L at diagnosis, which occurred following an episode of hypotensive shock. She fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of SM, with a bone marrow smear infiltration of 50–60% of atypical mast cells (MCs. She tested negative for the KIT D816V mutation, without any sign of organ damage (no B- or C-findings and only few mediator-related symptoms. She was treated with antihistamine alone and then with imatinib for the appearance of anemia. She maintained stable tryptase level and a very indolent clinical course for twenty-two months; then, she suddenly progressed to acute MCL with a serum tryptase level up to 12960 μg/L. The patient died due to haemorrhagic diathesis twenty-four months after diagnosis. This clinical case maybe represents an example of the chronic form of mast cell leukemia, described as unpredictable disease, in which the serum total tryptase level has confirmed itself as a reliable marker of mast cells burden regardless of the presence of other signs or symptoms.

  20. Are Total, Intensity- and Domain-Specific Physical Activity Levels Associated with Life Satisfaction among University Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedišić, Željko; Greblo, Zrinka; Phongsavan, Philayrath; Milton, Karen; Bauman, Adrian E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Thorough information about the relationship between physical activity (PA) and life satisfaction is still lacking. Therefore, this study examined the cross-sectional relationships between life satisfaction and meeting the World Health Organization (WHO) moderate to vigorous-intensity PA recommendations, total volume and duration of PA, intensity-specific PA (walking, moderate- and vigorous-intensity), domain-specific PA (work, transport-related, domestic, and leisure-time), and 11 domain and intensity-specific PA types among university students. Additionally, we examined the associations between life satisfaction and gender, age, disposable income, community size, smoking, alcohol intake, body mass index (BMI), and self-rated health. Methods The study included a random sample of 1750 university students in Zagreb, Croatia (response rate = 71.7%; 62.4% females; mean age 21.5 ± 1.8 years), using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire — long form and the Satisfaction with Life Scale. Results Higher life satisfaction was associated with female gender (β = 0.13; p = life satisfaction and size of community (p = 0.567), smoking status (p = 0.056), alcohol consumption (p = 0.058), or BMI (p = 0.508). Among all PA variables, only leisure-time vigorous-intensity PA was significantly associated with life satisfaction after adjustments for socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle and self-rated general health (β = 0.06; p = 0.045). Conclusions This study indicated a weak positive relationship between leisure-time vigorous-intensity PA and life satisfaction, whilst no such association was found for other PA variables. These findings underscore the importance of analyzing domain and intensity-specific PA levels in future studies among university students, as drawing conclusions about the relationship between PA and life satisfaction based on total PA levels only may be misleading. PMID:25695492

  1. Level and distribution of employee exposures to total and respirable wood dust in two Canadian sawmills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschke, K; Hertzman, C; Morrison, B

    1994-03-01

    Personal respirable (N = 230) and total (N = 237) dust measurements were made in two coastal British Columbia sawmills using a sampling strategy that randomly selected workers from all jobs in the mills over two seasons. Information about job title, department, season, weather conditions, location of the job relative to wood-cutting machines, and control measures also was collected at the time of sampling. Only 16 respirable wood dust samples were above the detection limit of 0.08 mg/m3; all 16 had levels industry, but most sawmill investigations report mean wood dust concentrations lower than those measured in the furniture and cabinetmaking industries, where concerns about wood dust exposures initially were raised.

  2. Total Quality Management in the Classroom: Applications to University-Level Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Frank

    1995-01-01

    Describes a Total Quality Management-based system of instruction that is used in a variety of undergraduate mathematics courses. The courses that incorporate this approach include mathematics appreciation, introductory calculus, and advanced applied linear algebra. (DDR)

  3. Correlation of the concentration of the carbon-associated radiation damage levels with the total carbon concentration in silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferenczi, G.; Londos, C.A.; Pavelka, T.; Somogyi, M.; Mertens, A.

    1988-01-01

    The dominant carbon-related radiation damage center in silicon was studied in detail by deep level transient spectroscopy. Samples with different carbon and oxygen content were implanted with gradually increasing proton fluence. Two energetically closely spaced levels were revealed and tentative identities were assigned. One at E/sub T/+E/sub V/ = 0.344 eV (sigma/sub p/ = 1.1 x 10/sup -16/ cm/sup 2/) is assigned as the C+O/sub i/ complex, and that at E/sub T/+E/sub V/ = 0.370 eV (sigma/sub p/ = 8 x 10/sup -18/ cm/sup 2/) is assigned as the C/sub s/-Si/sub i/-C/sub s/ complex. It was shown that the concentration of these defects is correlated to the total concentration of carbon in the crystal.

  4. Relationship between circulating serum osteoprotegerin and total receptor activator of nuclear κ-B ligand levels, triglycerides, and coronary calcification in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poornima, Indu G; Mackey, Rachel H; Buhari, Alhaji M; Cauley, Jane A; Matthews, Karen A; Kuller, Lewis H

    2014-07-01

    This study evaluates the relationship of blood osteoprotegerin (OPG) and receptor activator of nuclear κ-B ligand (RANKL) levels with coronary artery calcium (CAC) and cardiovascular risk factors in two studies of postmenopausal women. OPG, a marker of bone turnover, and its ligand, RANKL, may contribute to cardiovascular disease risk. We tested the hypothesis that serum OPG and RANKL levels were associated with CAC and cardiovascular disease risk factors among postmenopausal women in the Women On the Move through Activity and Nutrition Study (WOMAN Study; n = 86; mean [SD], age 58 [2.9] y) and replicated our findings in the Healthy Women Study (HWS; n = 205; mean [SD] age, 61 [2.3] y). Serum OPG, total RANKL, and CAC were measured at baseline and 48 months in the WOMAN Study and on the eighth postmenopausal visit in the HWS. In the WOMAN Study, higher OPG was associated with higher CAC, and higher total RANKL was associated with lower CAC and triglycerides. In the HWS, higher total RANKL was also associated with lower CAC and triglycerides. In logistic regression models adjusted for body mass index and triglycerides, the odds ratios (95% CIs) for CAC per unit increase in OPG were 1.78 (1.17-2.73) for the WOMAN Study and 1.02 (0.84-1.24) for the HWS, and the odds ratios (95% CIs) for CAC per unit increase in log total RANKL were 0.86 (0.64-1.17) for the WOMAN Study and 0.83 (0.72-0.96) for the HWS. The inverse association of total RANKL with CAC and triglycerides is a new finding and may have important implications given the increasing use of drugs that modify total RANKL and its receptor, receptor activator of nuclear κ-B.

  5. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in sewage sludge and effluents of sewage plants from a central region of Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamm, S. [eurofins/GfA, Muenster (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) belong to the group of bromine-containing flame retardants. They are added to materials such as plastics, resins and textiles in percent concentrations to make them flameproof. While in former times also Penta and OctaBDE formulations were used, today mainly the technical DecaBDE is applied throughout Europe. Meanwhile PBDEs have been found in partly increasing concentrations in a number of aquatic environmental compartments such as river and marine sediments, river water, fishes and mussels. Here, mostly the same PBDE components which are present in the technical mixtures are found in the environment. PBDE emissions can punctually take place during the manufacture or processing of the flame retardants and during the disposal and recycling of flame-retarded materials. This, as a rule, should lead to local contamination but cannot explain the meanwhile wide spread of these flame retardants in the aquatic environment. Therefore, we have to have a closer look at possible further sources. Thus, the sewage sludges and suspended matter from the effluents of 8 municipal sewage treatment plants from a central region of Germany were examined for their PBDE content. The analyses included the quantitation of Tri to DecaBDE under congener-specific determination of components which are typically present in technical PBDE products. This paper reports on the applied method of analysis and presents the PBDE data for the sewage sludges and the respective sewage plant effluents.

  6. Immunohistochemically determined total epidermal growth factor receptor levels not of prognostic value in newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme: Report from the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakravarti, Arnab; Seiferheld, Wendy; Tu Xiaoyu; Wang Huijun; Zhang Huazhong; Ang, K. Kian; Hammond, Elizabeth; Curran, Walter; Mehta, Minesh

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) performed an analysis of patterns of immunohistochemically detected total epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) protein expression levels and their prognostic significance on archival tissue in newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients from prior prospective RTOG clinical trials. Methods and materials: Patients in this study had been treated on previous RTOG GBM trials (RTOG 7401, 7918, 8302, 8409, 9006, 9305, 9602, and 9806). Tissue microarrays were prepared from 155 patients enrolled in these trials. These specimens were stained using a mouse monoclonal antibody specific for the extracellular binding domain of EGFR to detect total EGFR (including both wild-type phosphorylated and wild-type unphosphorylated isoforms with some cross-reactivity with EGFRvIII). The intensity of total EGFR protein expression was measured by computerized quantitative image analysis using the SAMBA 4000 Cell Image Analysis System. The parameters measured were the mean optical densities over the labeled areas and the staining index, which represents the proportion of stained area relative to the mean stain concentration. Both parameters were correlated with the clinical outcome. Results: No differences in either overall or progression-free survival could be demonstrated by the mean optical density class or mean optical density quartile or the staining index of total EGFR immunostaining among the representative RTOG GBM cases. Conclusion: Total EGFR protein expression levels, as measured immunohistochemically, do not appear to be of prognostic value in newly diagnosed GBM patients. Given the accumulating clinical evidence of the activity of anti-EGFR agents in GBM and the preclinical data suggesting the important role of downstream mediators as effectors of EGFR signaling, the RTOG is conducting additional investigations into the prognostic value of activation patterns of EGFR signaling, both at the level of the receptor

  7. The prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism at different total plasma cholesterol levels in middle aged men and women : a need for case-finding?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bindels, A.J.; Westendorp, R.G.; Frölich, M.; Seidell, J C; Blokstra, A.; Smelt, A.H.M.

    OBJECTIVE: In order to determine whether screening of thyroid function is justified in patients with hypercholesterolaemia, we determined the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism at different levels of total plasma cholesterol in middle-aged men and women. DESIGN AND METHODS: 1200 participants

  8. Profiles and removal efficiency of polybrominated diphenyl ethers by two different types of sewage treatment work in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Yu Bon; Chow, Ka Lai; Man, Ming; Lam, James Chung Wah; Lau, Frankie Tat Kwong; Fung, Wing Cheong; Wong, Ming Hung

    2015-02-01

    This study was to investigate removal efficiencies and profiles of 14 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners by two different types of sewage treatment work (STW) in Hong Kong: Stonecutters Island STW (SCISTW) which uses chemically enhanced primary treatment (CEPT) process and Sha Tin STW (STSTW) which adopts biological treatment. The results indicated that both SCISTW and STSTW had a high total removal efficiency for BDE-47, BDE-99 BDE-209 and total PBDEs (SCISTW: 71.6 ± 15.8, 84.7 ± 12.3, 96.0 ± 2.62 and 87.4 ± 8.02%, respectively; STSTW: 74.8 ± 9.5, 90.7 ± 9.14, 96.2 ± 2.41 and 89.3 ± 2.62%, respectively) and PBDEs were chiefly removed by sorption. However, the profile of PBDEs demonstrated that the relative proportions of BDE-28 and BDE-47 in total PBDEs markedly increased, while that of BDE-209 decreased in the effluent samples of the two sewage treatment works, especially in STSTW. The percentage of BDE-209 in total PBDEs in effluent (49.3%) of SCISTW was 21.2% lower than that in influent (70.5%), and the percentage of BDE-209 in total PBDEs in effluent (13.8%) of STSTW was 34.1% reduced from influent (47.9%). Despite overall removal, the percentage of BDE-47 in total PBDEs in effluent (17.6%) of SCISTW was 6.85% higher than that in influent (10.7%), and the percentage of BDE-47 in total PBDEs in effluent (33.5%) of STSTW was 18.1% increased from influent (16.8%). The increase in proportion of BDE-47 in the effluent might raise environmental and public health concerns. Our study is a first attempt in reporting the PBDE congener profiles in different phases of sewage treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Extreme total solar irradiance due to cloud enhancement at sea level of the NE Atlantic coast of Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piacentini, Ruben D. [Instituto de Fisica Rosario (CONICET-Universidad Nacional de Rosario), 27 de Febrero 210bis, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Ingenieria y Agrimensura, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Pellegrini 250, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Salum, Graciela M. [Instituto de Fisica Rosario (CONICET-Universidad Nacional de Rosario), 27 de Febrero 210bis, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Facultad Regional Concepcion del Uruguay, Universidad Tecnologica Nacional, Concepcion del Uruguay (Argentina); Fraidenraich, Naum; Tiba, Chigueru [Grupo de Pesquisas em Fontes Alternativas de Energia, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Av. Prof. Luiz Freire, 1000 - 50.740-540, Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2011-01-15

    Extraterrestrial total solar irradiance, usually called Solar Constant, is attenuated by the atmosphere in different proportions, depending mainly on solar zenith angle and altitude of the measurement point. In this work, it is presented very high and extreme horizontal plane measurements of global solar irradiance that in some days overpassed the Solar Constant corrected by the actual Sun-Earth distance (CSC). They were obtained at sea level of the intertropical Atlantic coast, in the city of Recife, Brazil, in the period February 2008-January 2009. Extreme total solar irradiance values larger than CSC were measured during 3.4% of the days of the total registered period. This percentage increases to 7.4% for global solar irradiance within 95.1-100% of the CSC and to 15.3% within 90.1-95% of the CSC. The largest extreme total solar irradiance value, 1477 {+-} 30 W/m{sup 2}, was registered the 28th of March 2008 at 11:34 local time (UT - 3h). It overpassed by 7.9% the CSC value for this day (1369.4 W/m{sup 2}) and by 42.3% the estimated value of the clear sky Iqbal C radiation model (1037.7 W/m{sup 2}). The observation of extreme values should be taken into account in the study of solar radiation effects related to materials exposed to the outside, UV index and biological effects, among others. Also, the detailed knowledge of this interesting effect may contribute significantly to clarify physical aspects about the interaction of global solar radiation with the ecosystem and climate change. (author)

  10. Laparoscopic total pancreatectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Li, Yongbin; Cai, Yunqiang; Liu, Xubao; Peng, Bing

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Laparoscopic total pancreatectomy is a complicated surgical procedure and rarely been reported. This study was conducted to investigate the safety and feasibility of laparoscopic total pancreatectomy. Patients and Methods: Three patients underwent laparoscopic total pancreatectomy between May 2014 and August 2015. We reviewed their general demographic data, perioperative details, and short-term outcomes. General morbidity was assessed using Clavien–Dindo classification and delayed gastric emptying (DGE) was evaluated by International Study Group of Pancreatic Surgery (ISGPS) definition. Diagnosis and Outcomes: The indications for laparoscopic total pancreatectomy were intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) (n = 2) and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PNET) (n = 1). All patients underwent laparoscopic pylorus and spleen-preserving total pancreatectomy, the mean operative time was 490 minutes (range 450–540 minutes), the mean estimated blood loss was 266 mL (range 100–400 minutes); 2 patients suffered from postoperative complication. All the patients recovered uneventfully with conservative treatment and discharged with a mean hospital stay 18 days (range 8–24 days). The short-term (from 108 to 600 days) follow up demonstrated 3 patients had normal and consistent glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level with acceptable quality of life. Lessons: Laparoscopic total pancreatectomy is feasible and safe in selected patients and pylorus and spleen preserving technique should be considered. Further prospective randomized studies are needed to obtain a comprehensive understanding the role of laparoscopic technique in total pancreatectomy. PMID:28099344

  11. The total workload of male and female white collar workers as related to age, occupational level, and number of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, U; Mårdberg, B; Frankenhaeuser, M

    1994-12-01

    A questionnaire assessing various aspects of paid as well as unpaid forms of productive activity was mailed to stratified samples of male and female white collar workers, approximately matched for educational and occupational level. Data from 501 men and 679 women employed full time revealed traditional gender differences in terms of main responsibility for household duties, child care etc. In keeping with this, women reported higher levels of work overload, stress and conflict than men, which increased significantly with the number of children at home. The various stress indices reached a peak between the ages of 35 and 39. Men reported more autonomy in their paid work whereas women reported more control at home. Men and women at the upper managerial levels reported more control over their total work situation and less conflict between demands.

  12. Essential fatty acids for premenstrual syndrome and their effect on prolactin and total cholesterol levels: a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinho Neto João S

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of polyunsaturated fatty acids for the treatment of the premenstrual syndrome (PMS using a graded symptom scale and to assess the effect of this treatment on basal plasma levels of prolactin and total cholesterol. Methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted with 120 women with PMS divided into three groups and treated with 1 or 2 grams of the medication or placebo. Symptoms were recorded over a 6-month period using the Prospective Record of the Impact and Severity of Menstruation (PRISM calendar. Total cholesterol and prolactin levels were measured. Analysis of variance (ANOVA, Pearson's chi-square test, Wilcoxon's nonparametric signed-rank test for paired samples and the Mann-Whitney nonparametric test for independent samples were used in the statistical analysis. Results There were no differences in age, marital status, schooling or ethnicity between the groups. In the group treated with 1 gram of the medication, a significant reduction was found when the median PRISM score recorded in the luteal phase at baseline (99 was compared with the median score recorded in the 3rd month (58 and in the 6th month of evaluation (35. In the 2-gram group, these differences were even more significant (baseline score: 98; 3rd month: 48; 6th month: 28. In the placebo group, there was a significant reduction at the 3rd but not at the 6th month (baseline: 96.5; 3rd month: 63.5; 6th month: 62. The difference between the phases of the menstrual cycle was greater in the 2-gram group compared to the group treated with 1 gram of the medication. There were no statistically significant differences in prolactin or total cholesterol levels between baseline values and those recorded after six months of treatment. Conclusion The difference between the groups using the medication and the placebo group with respect to the improvement in symptomatology appears to indicate the

  13. Effect of varying levels of formaldehyde treatment of mustard oil cake on rumen fermentation, digestibility in wheat straw based total mixed diets in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahima; Kumar, Vinod; Tomar, S. K.; Roy, Debashis; Kumar, Muneendra

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the current study was to protect the protein in mustard cake by different levels of formaldehyde treatment with a view to optimize the level of formaldehyde. Materials and Methods: Different levels of formaldehyde treatment (0, 1, 1.5 and 2% of crude protein) containing concentrate and roughages diet in 40:60 ratio were tested for their effect on nutrients digestibility, in vitro ammonia release, in vitro gas production and change in protein fractions. Non-significant (p≤0.05) effect on pH, microbial biomass, partitioning factor, total gas production (TGP), TGP per g dry matter and TGP per g digestible dry matter (ml/g) was observed in almost all the treatments. Results: Total volatile fatty acids at 2% formaldehyde treatment level of mustard cake was lower (p<0.05) as compared to other groups, while in vitro dry matter digestibility and in vitro organic matter digestibility were reported to be low in 1% formaldehyde treated group. Conclusion: On a holistic view, it could be considered that formaldehyde treatment at 1.5% level was optimal for protection of mustard oil cake protein. PMID:27047133

  14. Effect of varying levels of formaldehyde treatment of mustard oil cake on rumen fermentation, digestibility in wheat straw based total mixed diets in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahima

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the current study was to protect the protein in mustard cake by different levels of formaldehyde treatment with a view to optimize the level of formaldehyde. Materials and Methods: Different levels of formaldehyde treatment (0, 1, 1.5 and 2% of crude protein containing concentrate and roughages diet in 40:60 ratio were tested for their effect on nutrients digestibility, in vitro ammonia release, in vitro gas production and change in protein fractions. Non-significant (p≤0.05 effect on pH, microbial biomass, partitioning factor, total gas production (TGP, TGP per g dry matter and TGP per g digestible dry matter (ml/g was observed in almost all the treatments. Results: Total volatile fatty acids at 2% formaldehyde treatment level of mustard cake was lower (p<0.05 as compared to other groups, while in vitro dry matter digestibility and in vitro organic matter digestibility were reported to be low in 1% formaldehyde treated group. Conclusion: On a holistic view, it could be considered that formaldehyde treatment at 1.5% level was optimal for protection of mustard oil cake protein.

  15. Spatial variability in levels of benzene, formaldehyde, and total benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes in New York City: a land-use regression study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kheirbek Iyad

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hazardous air pollutant exposures are common in urban areas contributing to increased risk of cancer and other adverse health outcomes. While recent analyses indicate that New York City residents experience significantly higher cancer risks attributable to hazardous air pollutant exposures than the United States as a whole, limited data exist to assess intra-urban variability in air toxics exposures. Methods To assess intra-urban spatial variability in exposures to common hazardous air pollutants, street-level air sampling for volatile organic compounds and aldehydes was conducted at 70 sites throughout New York City during the spring of 2011. Land-use regression models were developed using a subset of 59 sites and validated against the remaining 11 sites to describe the relationship between concentrations of benzene, total BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes and formaldehyde to indicators of local sources, adjusting for temporal variation. Results Total BTEX levels exhibited the most spatial variability, followed by benzene and formaldehyde (coefficient of variation of temporally adjusted measurements of 0.57, 0.35, 0.22, respectively. Total roadway length within 100 m, traffic signal density within 400 m of monitoring sites, and an indicator of temporal variation explained 65% of the total variability in benzene while 70% of the total variability in BTEX was accounted for by traffic signal density within 450 m, density of permitted solvent-use industries within 500 m, and an indicator of temporal variation. Measures of temporal variation, traffic signal density within 400 m, road length within 100 m, and interior building area within 100 m (indicator of heating fuel combustion predicted 83% of the total variability of formaldehyde. The models built with the modeling subset were found to predict concentrations well, predicting 62% to 68% of monitored values at validation sites. Conclusions Traffic and

  16. Significance analysis of the leachate level in a solid waste landfill in a coastal zone using total water balance and slope stability alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Ja-Kong; Do, Nam-Young [Korea Advanced Institute of Science & Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    The K site near Seoul began landfilling in 1992. The landfilled wastes include municipal solid waste (66.4%), construction residues (20.4%), water and wastewater sludges (trace levels), and hazardous waste (trace levels). The water content of the municipal solid waste is very high (47.3%); as a result, the leachate level (average E.L.) of the landfill, the design value of which is 7.0 m, was measured at 10.3 m in January 1995 and is increasing. The increase of leachate level in the landfill site causes a problem with slope stability. The leachate level at each disposal stage divided by the intermediate cover layer was calculated with the HELP (Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance) model and calibrated with the data measured from February 1993 to June 1995. Also, the hydraulic conductivities of the waste layer and the intermediate cover layer in each stage were calibrated continuously with HELP model analysis. To verify these results, the total water balance in the landfill site was calculated using the infiltration rate calculated from HELP modeling. The leachate level was E.L. 10.0 m, which was close to the measured leachate level. To estimate the change of the leachate level in the future, the total water balances with different leachate discharge rates of 3,000, 3,500, and 5,000 m{sup 3}/day were analyzed. When the leachate discharge rate was 5,000 ton/day and the initial water content was decreased below 25%, the average leachate level was 10.8 m. This result satisfies the safety factor requirements (=1.3) for landfill slope stability. 4 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Levels of b-carotene, ascorbic acid and total phenols in the pulp of five commercial varieties of mango (Mangifera indica L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Five varieties of mangoes from four countries were evaluated with multiple harvests over a year to compare the ß-carotene, total phenol, and ascorbic acid levels of the fruit pulp. Only soft fruit (0.5 to 1 N compression) with a minimum of 10% soluble solids were used for these measurements to minim...

  18. Nível sérico de IgE total em alergia respiratória: estudo em pacientes com alto risco de infecção por helmintos Total IgE level in respiratory allergy: study of patients at high risk for helminthic infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Décio Medeiros

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Eosinofilia e elevação de IgE sérica são expressões de atopia, contudo há fatores intervenientes como, por exemplo, as parasitoses intestinais. Esta pesquisa verifica a relação entre IgE sérica total, eosinófilos e IgE específica anti-áscaris em indivíduos portadores de asma e/ou rinite alérgica. MÉTODOS: Estudo do tipo transversal em adolescentes portadores de asma e/ou rinite alérgica que foram examinados quanto ao nível sérico de IgE total, de IgE anti-áscaris e de contagem dos eosinófilos sangüíneos. RESULTADOS: Foram analisados 101 pacientes com idade entre 12 e 21 anos. A mediana da IgE foi 660 UI/mL (P25-75 243,5-1500, e a dos eosinófilos foi 510 células/mm³ (P25-75 284-811. A IgE anti-áscaris foi positiva em 73% (74/101 da amostra, mas houve apenas 33,7% (34/101 de positividade ao parasitológico de fezes. Os coeficientes de correlação encontrados foram: 0,34 (p = 0,001 entre IgE total e eosinófilos, 0,52 (p OBJECTIVE: Eosinophilia and increased serum IgE levels are indicators of atopy; however, other factors can also play a key role, such as intestinal parasitic infections. This study assesses the relationship between total serum IgE, eosinophil count, and anti-Ascaris IgE in individuals with asthma and/or allergic rhinitis. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in adolescents with asthma and/or allergic rhinitis. The patients had their total serum IgE, anti-Ascaris IgE and eosinophil count measured. RESULTS: A total of 101 patients aged 12 to 21 years were assessed. Median IgE level was 660 IU/mL (P25-75 243.5-1500, and the eosinophil count corresponded to 510 cells/mm³ (P25-75 284-811. Anti-Ascaris IgE was positive in 73% (74/101 of the individuals, but parasitological stool examination yielded positive results in only 33.7% (34/101. The correlation coefficients were the following: 0.34 (p = 0.001 between total IgE level and eosinophil count, 0.52 (p < 0.001 between total IgE level

  19. Effect of isoflavone-enriched soybean flour, zinc (Zn and vitamin E in the ration on testosterone level and total permatogenic cell in seminiferous tubules of rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astuti

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment are to evaluate the effects of isoflavoneen-enriched soybean flour, zinc (Zn and vitamin E on testosterone level of male rats and total spermatogenic cells in the seminiferous tubules of rat testes as animal model. Diet was given as isonitrogen and isocaloric with 15% of dietary protein. Thirty male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into six groups and treated with isoflavoneen-riched soybean flour, Zn and vitamin E in different combination. Isoflavoneen-riched soybean flour (3mg/day was given by oral administration, whereas Zn and vitamin E were mixed wih the basic diet. The treatment was done for 2 month. Results indicated that complete treatment of isoflavoneen-riched soybean flour, Zn and vitamin E on male rats increased testosteron level and total spermatogenic cells in comparison with single treatment and the other combination. The best results showed in the group that given isoflavoneen-enriched soybean flour with diet containing both Zn and vitamin E i.e; testosteron level 3.49 ± 0.31 ng/ml; while the number of spermatogonia, spermatocytes, early spermatids, late spermatids, and total spermatogenic cells were 37.56 ± 4.48, 67 ± 4.72, 287.11 ± 31.75, 227.22 ± 29.78, and 618.89 ± 47.38, respectively. It was concluded that synergic interaction between isoflavoneen-enriched soybean flour, Zn and vitamin E increased testosteron level and total spermatogenic cells of rat testes.

  20. Distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) in municipal solid waste incinerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L.-C.; Hsi, H.-C.; Wang, Y.-F.; Lin, S.-L.; Guo-Ping Chang-Chien

    2010-01-01

    The stack flue gases and the ashes in different units of two municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) are sampled to investigate the characteristics of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs), and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). Bottom ashes (BA) exhibited much higher PBDD/F (8.11-52.2 pg TEQ/g) and PBDE contents (20.4-186 ng/g) than those of fly ashes (0.0932-2.02 pg TEQ/g and 0.332-25.5 ng/g), revealing that the PBDD/Fs and PBDEs in the feeding waste may not be completely destroyed. The PBDE concentrations/contents in the stack flue gases (26.1-109 ng/Nm 3 ) and in the BA (20.4-186 ng/g) of the MSWIs could reach three orders higher than those in the atmosphere and reference soils. PBDE contributions to the environment from the stack flue gases or the reutilization of BA of MSWIs should not be ignored from the developing PBDE inventory. - Municipal solid waste incinerators contributed PBDEs and PBDD/Fs to the environment through stack flue gases and reutilization of bottom ashes.

  1. Fate of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the environment of the Pearl River Estuary, South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Yufeng; Sojinu, O.S. Samuel; Li Shaomeng; Zeng, Eddy Y.

    2009-01-01

    Ninety-six riverine runoff samples collected at eight major outlets in the Pearl River Delta (PRD), South China, during 2005-2006 were analyzed for 17 brominated diphenyl ether (BDE) congeners (defined as Σ 17 PBDE). Fourteen and 15 congeners were detected, respectively, in the dissolved and particulate phases. These data were further used to elucidate the partitioning behavior of BDE congeners in riverine runoff. Several related fate processes, i.e. air-water exchange, dry and wet deposition, degradation, and sedimentation, within the Pearl River Estuary (PRE), were examined to estimate the inputs of Σ 10 PBDE (sum of the target BDE congeners, BDE-28, -47, -66, -85, -99, -100, -138, -153, -154, and -183) and BDE-209 from the PRD to the coastal ocean based on mass balance considerations. The results showed that annual outflows of Σ 10 PBDE and BDE-209 were estimated at 126 and 940 kg/year, respectively from the PRE to coastal ocean. Besides sedimentation and degradation, the majority of Σ 10 PBDE and BDE-209 discharged into the PRE via riverine runoff was transported to the coastal ocean. - Fate of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the environment the Pearl River Estuary, South China.

  2. Effect of sulfite treatment on total antioxidant capacity, total oxidant status, lipid hydroperoxide, and total free sulfydryl groups contents in normal and sulfite oxidase-deficient rat plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herken, Emine Nur; Kocamaz, Erdogan; Erel, Ozcan; Celik, Hakim; Kucukatay, Vural

    2009-08-01

    Sulfites, which are commonly used as preservatives, are continuously formed in the body during the metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids. Sulfite oxidase (SOX) is an essential enzyme in the pathway of the oxidative degradation of sulfite to sulfate protecting cells from sulfite toxicity. This article investigated the effect of sulfite on total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidant status, lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH), and total free sulfydryl groups (-SH) levels in normal and SOX-deficient male albino rat plasma. For this purpose, rats were divided into four groups: control, sulfite-treated, SOX-deficient, and sulfite-treated SOX-deficient groups. SOX deficiency was established by feeding rats a low molybdenum diet and adding to their drinking water 200 ppm tungsten. Sulfite (70 mg/kg) was administered to the animals via their drinking water. SOX deficiency together with sulfite treatment caused a significant increase in the plasma LOOH and total oxidant status levels. -SH content of rat plasma significantly decreased by both sulfite treatment and SOX deficiency compared to the control. There was also a significant decrease in plasma TAC level by sulfite treatment. In conclusion, sulfite treatment affects the antioxidant/oxidant balance of the plasma cells of the rats toward oxidants in SOX-deficient groups.

  3. Effect of Atorvastatin on Serum Levels of Total Cholesterol and High-Sensitivity C-reactive Protein in High-Risk Patients with Atrial Fibrillation in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ming Yu; Xue, Feng Hua; Teng, Shi Chao; Jiang, Li; Zhu, Jing; Yin, Feng; Gu, Hong Yue

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis was to investigate the effects of atorvastatin on serum levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and total cholesterol in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients in Asia. By searching English and Chinese language-based electronic databases (ie, PubMed, EBSCO, Ovid, SpringerLink, Wiley, Web of Science, Wanfang database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and VIP database), we identified 13 studies relevant to our topic of interest. Data were collected from the 13 studies and analyzed with Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software (version 2.0, Biostat Inc., Englewood, New Jersey). Initially, our database searches retrieved 356 studies (45 in English, 311 in Chinese). Thirteen studies were selected for the meta-analysis following stringent criteria. The data included 1239 patients with AF, of whom 634 were treated with atorvastatin and included in the treatment group, and 605 patients were treated with conventional treatment and included in the control group. The results of our meta-analysis suggested that the serum levels of hs-CRP (mg/L) and total cholesterol (mmol/L) in the treatment group were significantly lower than those of the control group (hs-CRP: standardized mean difference = 0.962; 95% CI, 0.629-1.295, P < 0.001; total cholesterol: standardized mean difference = 1.400; 95% CI, 0.653-2.146, P < 0.001). The findings of this study suggest that atorvastatin may be very effective in decreasing serum levels of hs-CRP and total cholesterol to prevent cardiovascular events. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Correlation of Seminal Plasma Total Antioxidant Capacity and Malondialdehyde Levels With Sperm Parameters in Men With Idiopathic Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazeli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Oxidative stress is the result of an imbalance between the production and scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Recently, oxidative stress has been introduced as a major cause of male infertility. Objectives The aim of the present study was to determine the correlation between total antioxidant capacity (TAC and malondialdehyde (MDA as markers of oxidative stress in relation to idiopathic male infertility and sperm parameters. Patients and Methods This case control study was conducted using 35 men with idiopathic infertility and 34 men with proven fertility. Seminal plasma TAC and MDA were measured by ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP and thiobarbituric acid (TBA reaction methods, respectively. Results Seminal TAC levels were significantly lower and seminal MDA levels were significantly higher in men with idiopathic infertility than in fertile men (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.004, respectively. A positive correlation was shown between sperm motility, sperm morphology, and TAC levels in men with idiopathic infertility (P = 0.002 and P = 0.002, respectively. In addition, there was a correlation between sperm motility and TAC levels in fertile men (P = 0.005. There was no correlation between sperm count and TAC levels in either men with idiopathic infertility or in fertile men. Negative correlations were observed between MDA levels and sperm motility, morphology, and sperm count only in men with idiopathic infertility (P = 0.003, P = 0.001, and P = 0.006, respectively. Conclusions Our results show that oxidative stress could play an important role in male infertility as well as in sperm motility and sperm morphology.

  5. Are total, intensity- and domain-specific physical activity levels associated with life satisfaction among university students?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Pedišić

    Full Text Available Thorough information about the relationship between physical activity (PA and life satisfaction is still lacking. Therefore, this study examined the cross-sectional relationships between life satisfaction and meeting the World Health Organization (WHO moderate to vigorous-intensity PA recommendations, total volume and duration of PA, intensity-specific PA (walking, moderate- and vigorous-intensity, domain-specific PA (work, transport-related, domestic, and leisure-time, and 11 domain and intensity-specific PA types among university students. Additionally, we examined the associations between life satisfaction and gender, age, disposable income, community size, smoking, alcohol intake, body mass index (BMI, and self-rated health.The study included a random sample of 1750 university students in Zagreb, Croatia (response rate = 71.7%; 62.4% females; mean age 21.5 ± 1.8 years, using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-long form and the Satisfaction with Life Scale.Higher life satisfaction was associated with female gender (β = 0.13; p = <0.001, younger age (β = -0.07; p = 0.024, higher disposable income (β = 0.10; p = 0.001, and better self-rated health (β = 0.30; p = <0.001. No significant association was found between life satisfaction and size of community (p = 0.567, smoking status (p = 0.056, alcohol consumption (p = 0.058, or BMI (p = 0.508. Among all PA variables, only leisure-time vigorous-intensity PA was significantly associated with life satisfaction after adjustments for socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle and self-rated general health (β = 0.06; p = 0.045.This study indicated a weak positive relationship between leisure-time vigorous-intensity PA and life satisfaction, whilst no such association was found for other PA variables. These findings underscore the importance of analyzing domain and intensity-specific PA levels in future studies among university students, as drawing conclusions about the

  6. Separation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in fish for compound-specific stable carbon isotope analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Yan-Hong [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049 (China); Luo, Xiao-Jun, E-mail: luoxiaoj@gig.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Chen, Hua-Shan; Wu, Jiang-Ping; Chen, She-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2012-05-15

    A separation and isotopic analysis method was developed to accurately measure the stable carbon isotope ratios of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) with three to six substituted bromine atoms in fish samples. Sample extracts were treated with concentrated sulfuric acid to remove lipids, purified using complex silica gel column chromatography, and finally processed using alumina/silica (Al/Si) gel column chromatography. The purities of extracts were verified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in the full-scan mode. The average recoveries of all compounds across the purification method were between 60% and 110%, with the exception of BDE-154. The stable carbon isotopic compositions of PBDEs can be measured with a standard deviation of less than 0.5 Per-Mille-Sign . No significant isotopic fraction was found during the purification of the main PBDE congeners. A significant change in the stable carbon isotope ratio of BDE-47 was observed in fish carcasses compared to the original isotopic signatures, implying that PBDE stable carbon isotopic compositions can be used to trace the biotransformation of PBDEs in biota. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A method for the purification of PBDEs for CSIA was developed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The {delta}{sup 13}C of PBDE congeners can be measured with a standard deviation of less than 0.5 Per-Mille-Sign . Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Common carp were exposed to a PBDE mixture to investigate debromination. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ratios of the {delta}{sup 13}C values can be used to trace the debromination of PBDE in fish.

  7. Mildly elevated serum total bilirubin levels are negatively associated with carotid atherosclerosis among elderly persons with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Ryuichi; Ninomiya, Daisuke; Hasegawa, Yoichi; Kasai, Yoshihisa; Kusunoki, Tomo; Ohtsuka, Nobuyuki; Kumagi, Teru; Abe, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is strongly associated with several mechanisms of tissue damage such as oxidative stress. Serum bilirubin may have a beneficial role in preventing oxidative changes in cardiovascular disease (CVD). Limited information is available on whether serum bilirubin is an independent confounding factor for carotid atherosclerosis among elderly persons with type 2 diabetes. The study subjects were 169 men aged 79 ± 8 (mean ± SD) years and 205 women aged 81 ± 8 years that were enrolled consecutively from patients in the medical department. Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaque were derived via B-mode ultrasonography. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that serum total bilirubin (β = -0.160) was significantly associated with carotid IMT. Compared to subjects with a serum total bilirubin of tertile-1 (0.13-0.58 mg/dL), the multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of carotid IMT ≥1.0 mm including plaque and carotid plaque was 0.46 (0.23-0.93) and 0.32 (0.17-0.60) in the Tertile-3 group (0.87-1.93 mg/dL), respectively. Next, data were further stratified by gender, age, smoking status, medication and prevalence of CVD. There were no significant differences in serum total bilirubin levels between selected subgroups. Our data demonstrated a negative association between serum total bilirubin and carotid atherosclerosis among elderly persons with type 2 diabetes.

  8. Dioxin, furan, PCB, and PBDE levels in U.S. foods: Survey trends and consumer exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) and Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA-FSIS) have conducted statistical surveys for dioxins (PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers every 5 years since the mid-1990s (mid-1990s, 2002-3, 2007-8). I...

  9. Serum iron and total iron binding capacity levels among the abo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Iron deficiency anaemia is a common tropical disease. Iron plays a very important role in the human body. The understanding of the different blood groups ability to retain iron in their system can give an insight into their ability to handle the disease Iron deficiency anaemia. Serum Iron, Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC) and ...

  10. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Human Milk and Serum from the U.S. EPA MAMA Study: Modeled Predictions of Infant Exposure and Considerations for Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchitti, Satori A.; Fenton, Suzanne E.; Mendola, Pauline; Kenneke, John F.; Hines, Erin P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Serum concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in U.S. women are believed to be among the world’s highest; however, little information exists on the partitioning of PBDEs between serum and breast milk and how this may affect infant exposure. Objectives: Paired milk and serum samples were measured for PBDE concentrations in 34 women who participated in the U.S. EPA MAMA Study. Computational models for predicting milk PBDE concentrations from serum were evaluated. Methods: Samples were analyzed using gas chromatography isotope-dilution high-resolution mass spectrometry. Observed milk PBDE concentrations were compared with model predictions, and models were applied to NHANES serum data to predict milk PBDE concentrations and infant intakes for the U.S. population. Results: Serum and milk samples had detectable concentrations of most PBDEs. BDE-47 was found in the highest concentrations (median serum: 18.6; milk: 31.5 ng/g lipid) and BDE-28 had the highest milk:serum partitioning ratio (2.1 ± 0.2). No evidence of depuration was found. Models demonstrated high reliability and, as of 2007–2008, predicted U.S. milk concentrations of BDE-47, BDE-99, and BDE-100 appear to be declining but BDE-153 may be rising. Predicted infant intakes (ng/kg/day) were below threshold reference doses (RfDs) for BDE-99 and BDE-153 but above the suggested RfD for BDE-47. Conclusions: Concentrations and partitioning ratios of PBDEs in milk and serum from women in the U.S. EPA MAMA Study are presented for the first time; modeled predictions of milk PBDE concentrations using serum concentrations appear to be a valid method for estimating PBDE exposure in U.S. infants. Citation: Marchitti SA, Fenton SE, Mendola P, Kenneke JF, Hines EP. 2017. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in human milk and serum from the U.S. EPA MAMA Study: modeled predictions of infant exposure and considerations for risk assessment. Environ Health Perspect 125:706–713; http://dx.doi.org/10

  11. Brominated flame retardant emissions from the open burning of five plastic wastes and implications for environmental exposure in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni, Hong-Gang; Lu, Shao-You; Mo, Ting; Zeng, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Based on the most widely used plastics in China, five plastic wastes were selected for investigation of brominated flame retardant (BFR) emission behaviors during open burning. Considerable variations were observed in the emission factors (EF) of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) from the combustion of different plastic wastes. Distribution of BFR output mass showed that ΣPBDE was emitted mainly by the airborne particle (51%), followed by residual ash (44%) and the gas phase (5.1%); these values for ΣHBCD were 62%, 24%, and 14%, respectively. A lack of mass balance after the burning of the plastic wastes for some congeners (output/input mass ratios > 1) suggested that formation and survival exceeded PBDE decomposition during the burns. However, that was not the case for HBCD. A comparison with literature data showed that the open burning of plastic waste is major source of PBDE compared to regulated combustion activities. Even for state-of-the-art waste incinerators equipped with sophisticated complex air pollution control technologies, BFRs are released on a small scale to the environment. According to our estimate, ΣPBDE release to the air and land from municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration plants in China in 2015 were 105 kg/year and 7124 kg/year. These data for ΣHBCD were 25.5 and 71.7 kg/year, respectively. Considering the fact that a growing number of cities in China are switching to incineration as the preferred method for MSW treatment, our estimate is especially important. This study provides the first data on the environmental exposure of BFRs emitted from MSW incineration in China. - Highlights: • Airborne particle and residue ash are two major emissions from burns of plastic waste. • Mass unbalance showed formation of PBDE occurred during burning process. • Open burning of plastic waste is major source of PBDE compared to industrial sources. • BFRs in residual ash of waste combustion would be

  12. BAG3 regulates total MAP1LC3B protein levels through a translational but not transcriptional mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Andrea E; López-Crisosto, Camila; Peña-Oyarzún, Daniel; Salas, Daniela; Parra, Valentina; Quiroga, Clara; Morawe, Tobias; Chiong, Mario; Behl, Christian; Lavandero, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy is mainly regulated by post-translational and lipid modifications of ATG proteins. In some scenarios, the induction of autophagy is accompanied by increased levels of certain ATG mRNAs such as MAP1LC3B/LC3B, ATG5 or ATG12. However, little is known about the regulation of ATG protein synthesis at the translational level. The cochaperone of the HSP70 system BAG3 (BCL2-associated athanogene 3) has been associated to LC3B lipidation through an unknown mechanism. In the present work, we studied how BAG3 controls autophagy in HeLa and HEK293 cells. Our results showed that BAG3 regulates the basal amount of total cellular LC3B protein by controlling its mRNA translation. This effect was apparently specific to LC3B because other ATG protein levels were not affected. BAG3 knockdown did not affect LC3B lipidation induced by nutrient deprivation or proteasome inhibition. We concluded that BAG3 maintains the basal amount of LC3B protein by controlling the translation of its mRNA in HeLa and HEK293 cells.

  13. Modulation of total IgE levels in serum of normal and athymic nude BALB/c mice by cells and exogenous antigenic stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Akker, van den T.W.; Soeting, P.W.C.; Oudenaren, van A.; Benner, R.

    1989-01-01

    Several different grades of T-system impairment were studied for their effects on the total serum IgE concentration in BALB/c mice. Homozygous athymic nu/nu mice and their heterozygous nu/ littermates were compared for serum IgE levels while kept under either barrier-maintained or conventional

  14. The Association of Increased Total Glycosylated Hemoglobin Levels with Delayed Age at Menarche in Young Women with Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, Kirstie K.; Palta, Mari; Allen, Catherine; D’Alessio, Donn J.

    2005-01-01

    Context: Delayed menarche is associated with subsequent reproductive and skeletal complications. Previous research has found delayed growth and pubertal maturation with type 1 diabetes and with poor glycemic control. The effect of diabetes management on menarche is important to clarify because tighter control might prevent these complications. Objective: To investigate age at menarche in young women with type 1 diabetes, and examine the effect of diabetes management (e.g. total glycosylated hemoglobin (GHb) level, number of blood glucose checks, insulin therapy intensity, insulin dose) on age at menarche in those diagnosed before menarche. Design: The Wisconsin Diabetes Registry Project is a follow-up study of a type 1 diabetes population-based incident cohort initially enrolled 1987 – 1992. Setting: Twenty-eight counties in south-central Wisconsin. Patients or Other Participants: Recruited through referrals, self-report, and hospital/clinic ascertainment. Individuals with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes, <30 years old, were invited to participate. Of 288 young women enrolled, 188 reported menarche by 2002; 105 were diagnosed before menarche. Interventions: Not applicable. Main Outcome Measure: Age at menarche. Results: Mean age at menarche was 12.78 years, compared to 12.54 years in the United States (p = 0.01). Ages at menarche and diagnosis were not associated. For those diagnosed before menarche, age at menarche was delayed 1.3 months with each one percent increase in mean total GHb level in the three years prior to menarche. Conclusions: Age at menarche was moderately delayed in young women with type 1 diabetes. Delayed menarche could potentially be minimized with improved GHb levels. PMID:16204372

  15. Leadership and Total Quality Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-15

    leadership and management skills yields increased productivity. This paper will focus on the skills required of senior level leaders (leaders at the...publication until it has been cleared by the appropriate mii..-, service or government agency. Leadership and Total Quality Management An Individual Study...llty Codes fAvti1 and/or DltISpecial Abstract AUTHOR: Harry D. Gatanas, LTC, USA TITLE: Leadership and Total Quality Management FORMAT- Individual

  16. Combined effects of DNA methyltransferase 1 and 3A polymorphisms and urinary total arsenic levels on the risk for clear cell renal cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Shu-Mei [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Huang, Chao-Yuan [Department of Urology, National Taiwan University Hospital, College of Medicine National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Shiue, Horng-Sheng [Department of Chinese Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Pu, Yeong-Shiau [Department of Urology, National Taiwan University Hospital, College of Medicine National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Yi-Hsun; Chen, Wei-Jen [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lin, Ying-Chin [Department of Family Medicine, Shung Ho Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Health Examination, Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Division of Family Medicine, School of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hsueh, Yu-Mei, E-mail: ymhsueh@tmu.edu.tw [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2016-08-15

    Our previous study showed that high urinary total arsenic levels were associated with higher odds ratio (OR) for renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) might influence DNMT enzyme activity associated with tumorigenesis. In this study, we investigated the association of five SNPs from DNMT1 (rs8101626 and rs2228611), DNMT3A (rs34048824 and rs1550117), and DNMT3B (rs1569686) with the risk of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). We also examined the combined effects of DNMT genotypes and urinary arsenic levels on ccRCC risk. We conducted a hospital-based case-control study, which included 293 subjects with ccRCC and 293 age- and gender-matched controls. The urinary arsenic species were determined by a high performance liquid chromatography-linked hydride generator and atomic absorption spectrometry. Genotypes were investigated using polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses. We observed that the DNMT1 rs8101626 G/G genotype was significantly associated with reduced odds ratio (OR) of ccRCC [OR = 0.38, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.14–0.99]. Subjects with concurrent DNMT1 rs8101626 A/A + A/G and DNMT3A rs34048824 T/T + T/C genotypes had significantly higher OR for ccRCC [OR = 2.88, 95% CI 1.44–5.77]. Participants with the high-risk genotype of DNMT1 rs8101626 and DNMT3A rs34048824 with concurrently high urinary total arsenic levels had even higher OR of ccRCC in a dose-response manner. This is the first study to evaluate variant DNMT1 rs8101626 and DNMT3A rs34048824 genotypes that modify the arsenic-related ccRCC risk in a geographic area without significant arsenic exposure in Taiwan. - Highlights: • High urinary total arsenic level or polymorphism of DNMT1 increased the OR of ccRCC. • High risk genotypes of combination of DNMT1 and DNMT3A increased the OR of ccRCC. • A joint effect of urinary total arsenic level and DNMTs genotypes may affect ccRCC.

  17. Radiation induced changes in plasma total protein nitrogen and urinary total nitrogen in desert rodent and albino rats subjected to dietary protein deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roushdy, H.; El-Husseini, M.; Saleh, F.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of gamma-irradiation on plasma total protein nitrogen and urinary total nitrogen was studied in the desert rodent, psammomy obesus obesus and albino rats subjected to dietary protein deficiency. In albino rats kept on high protein diet, the radiation syndrome resulted in urine retention, while in those kept on non-protein diet, such phenomenon was recorded only with the high radiation level of 1170r. Radiation exposure to 780 and 1170r caused remarkable diuresis in psammomys obesus obesus whereas they induced significant urine retention in albino rats. The levels of plasma total protein nitrogen and urinary total nitrogen were higher in albino rats maintained on high protein diet than in those kept on non-protein diet. Radiation exposure caused an initial drop in plasma total protein nitrogen concentration, concomitant with an initial rise in total urinary nitrogen, radiation exposure of psammomys obesus obesus caused significant increase in the levels of plasma protein nitrogen and urinary total nitrogen. Psammomys obesus obesus seemed to be more affected by radiation exposure than did the albino rats

  18. Comparison of Transcutaneous Bilirubin Measurement With Total Serum Bilirubin Levels in Preterm Neonates Receiving Phototherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendse, Amruta; Jasani, Bonny; Nanavati, Ruchi; Kabra, Nandkishor

    2017-08-15

    To compare transcutaneous bilirubin with total serum bilirubin in preterm neonates after initiation of phototherapy. Jaundice was assessed in 30 preterm neonates with transcutaneous bilirubin and total serum bilirubin before initiation of phototherapy and at 12 hr after initiation of phototherapy. A photo-occlusive patch was applied over the sternum. Transcutaneous bilirubin has a good correlation with total serum bilirubin after initiation of phototherapy. (r=0.918, Pbilirubin at 28-32 weeks of gestation (r = 0.97) was better correlated with total serum bilirubin than those at 32-37 weeks (r =0.88). The correlation was better for neonates 72 hours of age (r = 0.82). Transcutaneous bilirubin correlates significantly with total serum bilirubin at the patched sternal site after initiation of phototherapy in preterm neonates.

  19. Environmental contaminants in arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) in Svalbard: Relationships with feeding ecology and body condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuglei, E. [Norwegian Polar Institute, Polar Environmental Centre, N-9296 Tromso (Norway)]. E-mail: eva.fuglei@npolar.no; Bustnes, J.O. [Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, Division of Arctic Ecology, Polar Environmental Centre, N-9296 Tromso (Norway); Hop, H. [Norwegian Polar Institute, The Polar Environmental Centre, N-9296 Tromso (Norway); Mork, T. [National Veterinary Institute, Regional Laboratory, N-9292 Tromso (Norway); Bjoernfoth, H. [MTM Research Centre, Department of Natural Sciences, Orebro University, 701 82 Orebro (Sweden); Bavel, B. van [MTM Research Centre, Department of Natural Sciences, Orebro University, 701 82 Orebro (Sweden)

    2007-03-15

    Adipose tissues from 20 arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) of both sexes from Svalbard were analysed for polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDE), chlordane, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) concentrations. Gender (0.43 < p < 0.97) and age (0.15 < p < 0.95) were not significantly related to any of the organohalogen groups. Body condition showed a significant inverse relationship with {sigma}PBDE, {sigma}Chlordane and HCB, suggesting that increased tissue contaminant concentrations are associated with depletion of adipose tissue. The seasonal cyclic storage and mobilisation of adipose tissue, characteristic in Arctic wildlife, may then provide increased input of contaminants to sensitive, vital effect organs. Trophic position was estimated by {delta} {sup 15}N from muscle samples and showed significantly positive relationship with all contaminants, with the exception of HCB concentrations. This indicates that foxes feeding at high trophic levels had higher tissue contaminant levels as a result of bioaccumulation in the food chain. - High contaminant concentrations in the coastal ecotype of arctic fox may cause toxic health effects due to huge annual cyclic variation in storage and mobilisation of adipose tissue.

  20. Silencing of beta-carotene hydroxylase increases total carotenoid and beta-carotene levels in potato tubers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pizzichini Daniele

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Beta-carotene is the main dietary precursor of vitamin A. Potato tubers contain low levels of carotenoids, composed mainly of the xanthophylls lutein (in the beta-epsilon branch and violaxanthin (in the beta-beta branch. None of these carotenoids have provitamin A activity. We have previously shown that tuber-specific silencing of the first step in the epsilon-beta branch, LCY-e, redirects metabolic flux towards beta-beta carotenoids, increases total carotenoids up to 2.5-fold and beta-carotene up to 14-fold. Results In this work, we silenced the non-heme beta-carotene hydroxylases CHY1 and CHY2 in the tuber. Real Time RT-PCR measurements confirmed the tuber-specific silencing of both genes . CHY silenced tubers showed more dramatic changes in carotenoid content than LCY-e silenced tubers, with beta-carotene increasing up to 38-fold and total carotenoids up to 4.5-fold. These changes were accompanied by a decrease in the immediate product of beta-carotene hydroxylation, zeaxanthin, but not of the downstream xanthophylls, viola- and neoxanthin. Changes in endogenous gene expression were extensive and partially overlapping with those of LCY-e silenced tubers: CrtISO, LCY-b and ZEP were induced in both cases, indicating that they may respond to the balance between individual carotenoid species. Conclusion Together with epsilon-cyclization of lycopene, beta-carotene hydroxylation is another regulatory step in potato tuber carotenogenesis. The data are consistent with a prevalent role of CHY2, which is highly expressed in tubers, in the control of this step. Combination of different engineering strategies holds good promise for the manipulation of tuber carotenoid content.

  1. Characterization, treatment and releases of PBDEs and PAHs in a typical municipal sewage treatment plant situated beside an urban river, East China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaowei; Xi, Beidou; Huo, Shouliang; Sun, Wenjun; Pan, Hongwei; Zhang, Jingtian; Ren, Yuqing; Liu, Hongliang

    2013-07-01

    Characterization, treatment and releases of eight polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) congeners and sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in wastewater were evaluated along the treatment processes of a typical secondary treatment municipal sewage treatment plant (STP) (in Hefei City) situated the beside Nanfei River, East China. The findings showed that the average concentrations of the total PBDEs in raw wastewater and treated effluent were 188.578 and 36.884 ng/L respectively. Brominated diphenyl ether (BDE) 209 congener, the predominant PBDE in the STP and Nanfei River, could be related to the discharge of car-industry-derived wastes. For PAHs, the average concentrations in raw wastewater and treated effluent were 5758.8 and 2240.4 ng/L respectively, with naphthalene, benzo[a]pyrene and indeno[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene being detected at the highest concentrations. PAHs mainly originate from the combustion of biomass/coal and petroleum. The STP reduced about 80% of the PBDEs and 61% of the PAHs, which were eliminated mainly by sedimentation processes. The removal rates of PBDEs/PAHs increased with the increase of their solid-water partitioning coefficients. Accordingly, the STP's effluent, containing some PBDE congeners (e.g., BDE 47, 99 and 209, etc.) and low-molecular-weight PAHs, could be an important contributor of these contaminants' input to Nanfei River. It resulted in a significant increase of PBDE/PAH concentrations and PAH toxicological risk in the river water downstream. About 4.040 kg/yr of PBDEs and 245.324 kg/yr of PAHs could be released into the Nanfei River. The current conventional wastewater treatment processes should be improved to remove the relatively low-molecular-weight PBDEs/PAHs more effectively.

  2. Efeito do período experimental sobre a digestão parcial e total em bovinos alimentados com dois níveis de volumosos Effect of experimental periods on the parcial and total digestion in cattle fed two levels of forage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Cylene Guimarães

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar os efeitos de dois períodos experimentais e dois níveis de volumosos na dieta sobre a digestibilidade total e parcial da matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO, proteína bruta (PB, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, energia bruta (EB e amido. Foram utilizados quatro novilhos da raça Holandês Preto e Branco, com dois anos de idade e 340 kg de peso vivo e canulados no rúmen e duodeno. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o quadrado latino 4 x 4, em que os animais receberam quatro tratamentos, que consistiram de dois níveis de volumosos (30 e 70% e dois períodos experimentais (14 e 21 dias. Houve efeito significativo do nível de volumoso sobre a digestibilidade ruminal de FDA e FDN, a digestibilidade intestinal e total da MS, MO, PB e amido e a digestibilidade total da EB. Não houve efeito do período experimental sobre os coeficientes de digestibilidade dos nutrientes avaliados. Conclui-se que a utilização de período experimental de 14 dias, em experimentos de digestão, é viável, quando se utiliza feno como fonte de volumoso.The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of two experimental periods and two forage levels in the diet on the total and parcial apparent digestibility of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, acid detergent fiber (ADF, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, gross energy (GE and starch. Four Holstein steers, averaging two years old and 340 kg of body weight, ruminally and duodenally cannulated, were used. The experimental design was a 4 x 4 latin square and the animals received four treatments as following: two forage levels (30 and 70% and two experimental periods (14 and 21 days. There was effect of forage level on intestinal and total digestibility of DM, OM, CP and starch and on total digestibility of GE. There was effect of forage level on ruminal digestibility of ADF and NDF. There was no effect of

  3. [Studies on the relationship between beta-adrenergic receptor density on cell wall lymphocytes, total serum catecholamine level and heart rate in patients with hyperthyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajek, J; Zieba, I; Zyśko, D

    2000-08-01

    Hyperthyreosis mimics the hyperadrenergic state and its symptoms were though to be dependent on increased level of catecholamines. Another reason for the symptoms could be the increased density or affinity of beta-adrenergic receptors to catecholamines. The aim of the study was to examine the elements of sympathetic nervous system, thyroid hormones level and their influence on heart rate control in patients with hyperthyreosis. The study was carried out in 18 women, mean age 48.9 +/- 8.7 yrs and 6 men, mean age 54.2 +/- 8.7 yrs. The control group consisted of 30 healthy persons matched for age and sex. We examined the density of beta-adrenergic receptors using radioligand labelling method with 125I-cyanopindolol, serum total catecholamines level with radioenzymatic assay kit, the levels of free thyroid hormones using radioimmunoassays and thyreotropine level with immunoradiometric assay. Maximal, minimal and mean heart rate were studied using Holter monitoring system. The density of beta-adrenergic receptors in hyperthyreosis was 37.3 +/- 21.7 vs 37.2 +/- 18.1 fmol/mg in the control group (p = NS). Total catecholamines level was significantly decreased in hyperthyreosis group: 1.5 +/- 0.89 vs 1.9 +/- 0.73 pmol/ml (p < 0.05). There was significantly higher minimal, maximal and mean heart rate in hyperthyreosis group (p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001 and p < 0.05 respectively). There was a weak inverse correlation between minimum heart rate and triiodothyronine level (r = -0.38, p < 0.05). An inverse correlation between triiodothyronine and catecholamines level (r = -0.49, p < 0.05) was observed. Beta-adrenergic receptors density is unchanged and catecholamines level is decreased in hyperthyreosis when compared to normal subjects. There is no correlation between minimal heart rate and adrenergic receptors density or catecholamines level in hyperthyreosis.

  4. Polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants in Virginia freshwater fishes (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, R C; La Guardia, M J; Harvey, E P; Mainor, T M; Duff, W H; Gaylor, M O

    2001-12-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were examined in fish fillets collected from two large Virginia watersheds. Emphasis was on the tetra- to hexabrominated congeners since these exhibit the greatest bioaccumulation and toxicological potentials. These congeners are dominant constituents of Penta-, a commercial PBDE product used to flame retard polyurethane foam. In 1999, North America accounted for98% of global Penta-demand. Concentrations of total tetra- to hexabrominated congeners in fillets ranged from furniture and textile manufacturing, although polyurethane foam production here has been limited.

  5. Organic persistent toxic substances in soils, waters and sediments along an altitudinal gradient at Mt. Sagarmatha, Himalayas, Nepal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzzella, Licia; Poma, Giulia; De Paolis, Adolfo; Roscioli, Claudio; Viviano, Gaetano

    2011-01-01

    Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are important classes of compounds of serious environmental concern. These compounds were measured in waters, sediments and soils from several high altitude sites in the Sagarmatha National Park (Nepal) and included in the Himalayan ridge. In water samples, low-level substituted PCBs and PBDEs, along with more volatile PAHs, were the most common contaminants. In sediment and soil samples, the PCB profile was mainly composed of medium-level chlorinated congeners and significantly correlated with altitude. The PAH profile for water and soil samples showed the main contribution of pyrogenic PAHs due to emissions of solid combustion, whereas the profile for sediments indicated the main contribution of pyrogenic PAHs from gasoline emissions. The PAH levels measured in Himalayan samples must be considered as low to medium contaminated, whereas the regarded Himalayan stations can be considered undisturbed remote areas concerning PCB, PBDE and OC compounds. - Highlights: → POPs were measured in environmental samples from remote lakes in the Himalaya ridge. → It was confirmed the hypothesis of Long-Range Atmospheric Transport for lighter POPs. → PAH levels in Himalayan samples must be considered as low to medium contaminated. → The stations can be considered undisturbed remote areas concerning PCB, PBDE and OCC. - Organic PTSs in environmental matrices in remote regions of the Himalayan ridge.

  6. Impact of levels of total digestible nutrients on microbiome, enzyme profile and degradation of feeds in buffalo rumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kala, Anju; Kamra, D N; Kumar, Avinash; Agarwal, Neeta; Chaudhary, L C; Joshi, C G

    2017-01-01

    The present study was aimed at understanding a shift in rumen microbiome of buffaloes fed various levels of total digestible nutrients. To understand the process, the metagenomics of rumen microbes, in vivo and in vitro rumen fermentation studies were carried out. Three rumen fistulated adult male Murrah buffaloes were fed three isonitrogenous diets varying in total digestible nutrients (70, 85 and 100% of TDN requirement) in 3X3 switch over design. On dry matter basis, wheat straw/ roughage content were 81, 63 and 51% and that of maize grain was 8, 16 and 21% in three diets respectively. After 20 d of feeding, rumen liquor and rumen contents were sampled just before (0h) and 4h post feeding. Ruminococcus flavefaciens and R. albus (estimated with real time PCR) were higher in high roughage diets. The predominant phyla in all the three groups were Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes followed by Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Fibrobacteres. A core group of more than fifty rumen bacteria was present in all the animals with very little variations due to level of TDN. The most predominant bacterial genera reported in order of decreasing abundance were: Prevotella, Bacteroides, Clostridium, Ruminococcus, Eubacterium, Parabacteroides, Fibrobacter, Butyrivibrio etc. The higher diversity of the enyzmes families GH 23, GH 28, GH 39, GH 97, GH 106, and GH 127 (the enzymes active in fibre and starch degradation) were significantly higher on 100%TDN diet while CE 14 (required for the hydrolysis of bond between carbohydrate and lignin) was higher on low TDN (70%) diet, indicating ester bond cleavage was better in animals fed high roughage (wheat straw) diet.

  7. The relative contribution of waves, tides, and nontidal residuals to extreme total water levels on U.S. West Coast sandy beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, Katherine A.; Ruggiero, Peter; Stockdon, Hilary F.

    2017-01-01

    To better understand how individual processes combine to cause flooding and erosion events, we investigate the relative contribution of tides, waves, and nontidal residuals to extreme total water levels (TWLs) at the shoreline of U.S. West Coast sandy beaches. Extreme TWLs, defined as the observed annual maximum event and the simulated 100 year return level event, peak in Washington, and are on average larger in Washington and Oregon than in California. The relative contribution of wave-induced and still water levels (SWL) to the 100 year TWL event is similar to that of the annual maximum event; however, the contribution of storm surge to the SWL doubles across events. Understanding the regional variability of TWLs will lead to a better understanding of how sea level rise, changes in storminess, and possible changes in the frequency of major El Niños may impact future coastal flooding and erosion along the U.S. West Coast and elsewhere.

  8. The balance of kinetic and total energy simulated by the OSU two-level atmospheric general circulation model for January and July

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.-T.; Gates, W. L.; Kim, J.-W.

    1984-01-01

    A three-year simulation which prescribes seasonally varying solar radiation and sea surface temperature is the basis of the present study of the horizontal structure of the balances of kinetic and total energy simulated by Oregon State University's two-level atmospheric general circulation model. Mechanisms responsible for the local energy changes are identified, and the energy balance requirement's fulfilment is examined. In January, the vertical integral of the total energy shows large amounts of external heating over the North Pacific and Atlantic, together with cooling over most of the land area of the Northern Hemisphere. In July, an overall seasonal reversal is found. Both seasons are also characterized by strong energy flux divergence in the tropics, in association with the poleward transport of heat and momentum.

  9. Levels of trace elements, methylmercury and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in foraging green turtles in the South China region and their conservation implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Connie Ka Yan; Lam, James Chung Wah; Zhang, Xiao Hua; Gu, He Xiang; Li, Tsung Hsien; Ye, Min Bin; Xia, Zhong Rong; Zhang, Fei Yan; Duan, Jin Xia; Wang, Wen Xiong; Lam, Isaac Kam Sum; Balazs, George H; Lam, Paul K S; Murphy, Margaret B

    2018-03-01

    Sea turtles are globally endangered and face daily anthropogenic threats, including pollution. However, there is a lack of ecotoxicological information on sea turtles, especially in the Asia-Pacific region. This study aims to determine pollutant levels of foraging green turtles (Chelonia mydas) in South China, including Hong Kong, Guangdong and Taiwan, as a basis for their conservation. Scute, liver and muscle tissues of stranded green turtles were analysed for levels of 17 trace elements and methylmercury (MeHg) (n = 86 for scute and n = 14 for liver) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) (n = 11 for muscle and n = 13 for liver). Ten-fold higher levels of Pb, Ba, V and Tl and 40-fold greater Cd levels were measured in green turtle livers in South China relative to other studies conducted over 10 years ago. Measured PBDE levels were also 27-fold and 50-fold greater than those reported in Australia and Japan. These results warrant further investigation of potential toxicological risks to green turtles in South China and their source rookeries in Malaysia, Micronesia, Indonesia, Marshall Islands, Japan and Taiwan. Research should target monitoring pollutant levels in sea turtles within the West Pacific/Southeast Asia regional management unit spanning East Asia to Southeast Asia to fill in knowledge gaps, in particular in areas such as Thailand, Vietnam, Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines where less or no data is available and where foraging grounds of sea turtles have been identified. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of graded levels of tannin-containing tropical tree leaves on in vitro rumen fermentation, total protozoa and methane production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatta, R; Saravanan, M; Baruah, L; Prasad, C S

    2015-03-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effect of graded levels of tannin-containing tropical tree leaves, Autocarpus integrifolis, Azardirachta indica and Ficus bengalensis, on the in vitro rumen fermentation pattern, total protozoa and methane suppression in order to establish the optimum dose of these leaves for inclusion in the ruminant diets. The air-dried and ground samples of Au. integrifolis, Az. indica and Ficus bengalensis were subjected to in vitro incubation using 30 ml buffered rumen fluid at 0, 2.5, 5.0, 10.0, 15.0, 20.0, 25.0 and 30.0% (dry matter refers to moisture-free basis) of a total mixed ration (TMR: refers to mixture of roughage and concentrate containing cereals and oil cakes) devoid of tannin. The TMR for the experimental incubation was prepared by mixing 40 parts of ground Elusine coracana straw as roughage source with 60 parts of concentrate mixture. The leaves contained an average 130 g kg(-1) CP with 7·0 MJ of ME kg(-1) DM. The average neutral detergent fibre (NDF) content was content also showed similar trend. However, condensed tannin (CT) was highest in F. bengalensis (260) followed by Au. integrifolis (186) and Az. indica (138). There was significant (P 5.0%) reduced TVFA concentration. Protozoa (cells per mL) were similar at all levels of inclusion with Au. integrifolis, but reduced in case of F. bengalensis and Az. indica. As the level of tannin increased in the incubation medium, there was a linear reduction in methane concentration. Highest methane reduction (%) was recorded in incubations supplemented with Az. indica (61.5) followed by F. bengalensis (46.8) and Au. integrifolis (30.3). It was established from this study that tropical leaves of F. bengalensis, Au. integrifolis and Az. indica suppress methanogenesis. Ficus bengalensis, Au. integrifolis and Az. indica leaves are of interest in the enteric methane ameliorative strategies. Total mixed ration containing 10-15% ground F. bengalensis or Au. integrifolis or Az

  11. A comparison of post-op haemoglobin levels and allogeneic blood transfusion rates following total knee arthroplasty without drainage or with reinfusion drains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Shariff; Bhattacharya, Rajarshi; Bhavikatti, Mainudden; Dawson, Matthew

    2010-02-01

    The effects of re-infusion drains on the rate of allogeneic blood transfusion and post-op haemoglobin levels in Total Knee Arthroplasty were examined. A group of 22 patients undergoing primary Total Knee Arthroplasty using a CBCII Constavac Stryker re-infusion drainage system were compared with a group of 30 patients, matched for age, sex and type of prosthesis but without any drain usage. The re-infusion drain.group had a significantly lower day 1 and day 3 post-operative haemoglobin compared to the non-drainage group. The re-infusion drain group had a higher allogenic transfusion rate compared to the non-drainage group. There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding the rate of wound and transfusion related complications and mean length of post-operative stay. We found that reinfusion drains were ineffective in reducing allogeneic transfusion requirements as compared with non-drainage in total knee arthroplasty.

  12. Emission factors of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) from plastics processing and recycling facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Shin-ichi; Hirai, Yasuhiro [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan); Ota, Shizuko; Sudo, Kinichi [Ministry of Environment (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    With regard to polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE), there is few scientific knowledge on the emission patterns into the environment and exposure pathways to humans, and basic information is insufficient to consider what measures effective are. For the purpose of promoting risk reduction of target substances more effectively and efficiently, it is desirable to comprehend accurately the causal chain from the target substances utilization to the risk intake, and to evaluate the measures covering the whole applications of target substances. As the existing researches on the PBDE emission inventory, there are EU risk assessment report (European Chemical Bureau 2000, 2002, 2003), Danish EPA (1999), Palm et al.(2002) and Alcock et al. (2003). In addition, emissions of DecaBDE are published in TRI (Toxic Release Inventory) of US EPA. However, the primary information of the previous inventories is often the same and estimations based on the measured values are few. In light of the situation, PBDE emission concentrations from processing facilities of flame retardant plastics and recycling facilities of home electric appliances are measured in practice to presume material flow of PBDE and to estimate emission factors and inventories from each phase of life cycles. The validities of emission factors are examined in comparison to measured values of atmospheric depositions surroundings, which are close to sources.

  13. Evidence of immunomodulation in nestling American kestrels (Falco sparverius) exposed to environmentally relevant PBDEs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernie, Kim J. [Canadian Wildlife Service, PO Box 5050, 867 Lakeshore Rd., Burlington, Ontario, L7R 4A6 (Canada)]. E-mail: kim.fernie@ec.gc.ca; Mayne, Greg [Canadian Wildlife Service, PO Box 5050, 867 Lakeshore Rd., Burlington, Ontario, L7R 4A6 (Canada); Shutt, J. Laird [National Wildlife Research Centre, Canadian Wildlife Service, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, Ontario, K1S 5B6 (Canada); Pekarik, Cynthia [Canadian Wildlife Service, PO Box 5050, 867 Lakeshore Rd., Burlington, Ontario, L7R 4A6 (Canada); Grasman, Keith A. [Department of Biological Sciences, Wright State University, 3640 Colonel Glenn Highway, Dayton, OH 45435 (United States); Letcher, Robert J. [National Wildlife Research Centre, Canadian Wildlife Service, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, Ontario, K1S 5B6 (Canada); Great Lakes Institute for Environmental Research, University of Windsor, 401 Sunset Avenue, Windsor, Ontario, N9B 3P4 (Canada); Drouillard, Ken [Great Lakes Institute for Environmental Research, University of Windsor, 401 Sunset Avenue, Windsor, Ontario, N9B 3P4 (Canada)

    2005-12-15

    We investigated whether exposure to environmentally relevant polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) causes immunomodulation in captive nestling American kestrels (Falco sparverius). Eggs within each clutch, divided by laying sequence, were injected with safflower oil or penta-BDE congeners-47, -99, -100, and -153 dissolved in safflower oil (18.7 {mu}g {sigma}PBDEs/egg) approximating Great Lakes birds. For 29 days, nestlings consumed the same PBDE mixture (15.6{+-}0.3 ng/g body weight per day), reaching {sigma}PBDE body burden concentrations that were 120x higher in the treatment birds (86.1{+-}29.1 ng/g ww) than controls (0.73{+-}0.5 ng/g ww). PBDE-exposed birds had a greater PHA response (T-cell-mediated immunity), which was negatively associated with increasing BDE-47 concentrations, but a reduced antibody-mediated response that was positively associated with increasing BDE-183 concentrations. There were also structural changes in the spleen (fewer germinal centers), bursa (reduced apoptosis) and thymus (increased macrophages), and negative associations between the spleen somatic index and {sigma}PBDEs, and the bursa somatic index and BDE-47. Immunomodulation from PBDE exposure may be exacerbated in wild birds experiencing greater environmental stresses. - Exposure to environmentally relevant polybrominated diphenyl ethers (congeners and concentrations) resulted in the immunomodulation of nestling American kestrels.

  14. Evidence of immunomodulation in nestling American kestrels (Falco sparverius) exposed to environmentally relevant PBDEs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernie, Kim J.; Mayne, Greg; Shutt, J. Laird; Pekarik, Cynthia; Grasman, Keith A.; Letcher, Robert J.; Drouillard, Ken

    2005-01-01

    We investigated whether exposure to environmentally relevant polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) causes immunomodulation in captive nestling American kestrels (Falco sparverius). Eggs within each clutch, divided by laying sequence, were injected with safflower oil or penta-BDE congeners-47, -99, -100, and -153 dissolved in safflower oil (18.7 μg ΣPBDEs/egg) approximating Great Lakes birds. For 29 days, nestlings consumed the same PBDE mixture (15.6±0.3 ng/g body weight per day), reaching ΣPBDE body burden concentrations that were 120x higher in the treatment birds (86.1±29.1 ng/g ww) than controls (0.73±0.5 ng/g ww). PBDE-exposed birds had a greater PHA response (T-cell-mediated immunity), which was negatively associated with increasing BDE-47 concentrations, but a reduced antibody-mediated response that was positively associated with increasing BDE-183 concentrations. There were also structural changes in the spleen (fewer germinal centers), bursa (reduced apoptosis) and thymus (increased macrophages), and negative associations between the spleen somatic index and ΣPBDEs, and the bursa somatic index and BDE-47. Immunomodulation from PBDE exposure may be exacerbated in wild birds experiencing greater environmental stresses. - Exposure to environmentally relevant polybrominated diphenyl ethers (congeners and concentrations) resulted in the immunomodulation of nestling American kestrels

  15. Determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in environmental standard reference materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stapleton, Heather M.; Schantz, Michele M.; Wise, Stephen A. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Analytical Chemistry Division, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Keller, Jennifer M.; Kucklick, John R. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Analytical Chemistry Division, Hollings Marine Laboratory, Charleston, SC (United States); Leigh, Stefan D. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Statistical Engineering Division, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    2007-04-15

    Standard reference materials (SRMs) are valuable tools in developing and validating analytical methods to improve quality assurance standards. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has a long history of providing environmental SRMs with certified concentrations of organic and inorganic contaminants. Here we report on new certified and reference concentrations for 27 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners in seven different SRMs: cod-liver oil, whale blubber, fish tissue (two materials), mussel tissue and sediment (two materials). PBDEs were measured in these SRMs, with the lowest concentrations measured in mussel tissue (SRM 1974b) and the highest in sediment collected from the New York/New Jersey Waterway (SRM 1944). Comparing the relative PBDE congener concentrations within the samples, we found the biota SRMs contained primarily tetrabrominated and pentabrominated diphenyl ethers, whereas the sediment SRMs contained primarily decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE 209). The cod-liver oil (SRM 1588b) and whale blubber (SRM 1945) materials were also found to contain measurable concentrations of two methoxylated PBDEs (MeO-BDEs). Certified and reference concentrations are reported for 12 PBDE congeners measured in the biota SRMs and reference values are available for two MeO-BDEs. Results from a sediment interlaboratory comparison PBDE exercise are available for the two sediment SRMs (1941b and 1944). (orig.)

  16. Effects of background noise on total noise annoyance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willshire, K. F.

    1987-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to assess the effects of combined community noise sources on annoyance. The first experiment baseline relationships between annoyance and noise level for three community noise sources (jet aircraft flyovers, traffic and air conditioners) presented individually. Forty eight subjects evaluated the annoyance of each noise source presented at four different noise levels. Results indicated the slope of the linear relationship between annoyance and noise level for the traffic noise was significantly different from that of aircraft and of air conditioner noise, which had equal slopes. The second experiment investigated annoyance response to combined noise sources, with aircraft noise defined as the major noise source and traffic and air conditioner noise as background noise sources. Effects on annoyance of noise level differences between aircraft and background noise for three total noise levels and for both background noise sources were determined. A total of 216 subjects were required to make either total or source specific annoyance judgements, or a combination of the two, for a wide range of combined noise conditions.

  17. TUW at the First Total Recall Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-20

    TUW AT THE FIRST TOTAL RECALL TRACK MIHAI LUPU Abstract. For the first participation in the TREC Total Recall track, we set out to try some basic...significantly and consistently outperformed it. 1. Introduction As the organizers point out, the focus of the Total Recall Track is to evaluate methods to...TUW AT THE FIRST TOTAL RECALL TRACK 3 The only change we made was at a higher level. The Sofia ML library provides 5 more ML algorithms. The following

  18. Effect of variable power levels on the yield of total aerosol mass and formation of aldehydes in e-cigarette aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillman, I G; Kistler, K A; Stewart, E W; Paolantonio, A R

    2016-03-01

    The study objective was to determine the effect of variable power applied to the atomizer of refillable tank based e-cigarette (EC) devices. Five different devices were evaluated, each at four power levels. Aerosol yield results are reported for each set of 25 EC puffs, as mass/puff, and normalized for the power applied to the coil, in mass/watt. The range of aerosol produced on a per puff basis ranged from 1.5 to 28 mg, and, normalized for power applied to the coil, ranged from 0.27 to 1.1 mg/watt. Aerosol samples were also analyzed for the production of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein, as DNPH derivatives, at each power level. When reported on mass basis, three of the devices showed an increase in total aldehyde yield with increasing power applied to the coil, while two of the devices showed the opposite trend. The mass of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein produced per gram of total aerosol produced ranged from 0.01 to 7.3 mg/g, 0.006 to 5.8 mg/g, and acrolein from EC aerosols from specific devices, and were compared to estimated exposure from consumption of cigarettes, to occupational and workplace limits, and to previously reported results from other researchers. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The impact of hypoxemia on serum total and free prostate-specific antigen levels in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozge, Cengiz; Bozlu, Murat; Ozgur, Eylem Sercan; Tek, Mesut; Tunckiran, Ahmet; Muslu, Necati; Ilvan, Ahmet

    2015-05-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is the most important biochemical marker in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with prostate cancer. In recent years, a relationship between PSA levels and hypoxic conditions has been described. However, no study has investigated the PSA levels in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of hypoxemia on serum total (tPSA) and free PSA (fPSA) levels in patients with COPD. Between January 2010 and January 2014, 95 male patients who hospitalized for acute exacerbations of COPD and 80 control subjects were enrolled in the study. Serum tPSA and fPSA levels and f/tPSA ratios were determined in all patients on the first day of hospitalization (exacerbation) and 7 days after the treatment (stable state). Statistical analysis included paired t test and Mann-Whitney U test. No statistically significant differences were found between COPD and control groups with regard to the baseline characteristics, except for smoking status. The levels of serum tPSA and fPSA during exacerbation of COPD were significantly higher than the levels of the stable period (p 0.05). Hypoxemia during acute exacerbation of COPD can cause a rise in serum tPSA and fPSA levels, but f/tPSA ratio is not affected. Acute exacerbation of COPD may be added to list of the events in which PSA measurements must be interpreted with caution.

  20. A transient increase in total head phosphotyrosine levels is observed upon the emergence of Aedes aegypti from the pupal stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willy Jablonka

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of protein tyrosine residues constitutes a major biochemical regulatory mechanism for the cell. We report a transient increase in the total tyrosine phosphorylation of the Aedes aegypti head during the first days after emergence from the pupal stage. This correlates with an initial reduction in total head protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP activity. Similarly, phosphotyrosine (pTyr-containing bands are seen in extracts prepared from both male and female heads and are spread among a variety of structures including the antennae, proboscis and the maxillary palps combined with the proboscis. Also, mosquitoes treated with sodium orthovanadate, a classical PTP inhibitor, show reduced blood-feeding activity and higher head tyrosine phosphorylation levels. These results suggest that pTyr-mediated signalling pathways may play a role in the initial days following the emergence of the adult mosquito from the pupal stage.

  1. Association of obstructive sleep apnea with homocystein, nitric oxide and total antioxidant capacity levels in patients with or without coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortaç Ersoy, Ebru; Fırat, Hikmet; Akaydın, Sevgi; Özkan, Yeşim; Durusu, Mine; Darılmaz Yüce, Gülbahar; Ergün, Recai; Topeli, Arzu; Ardıç, Sadık

    2014-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Deficiency of nitric oxide (NO) and plasma levels of homocystein have been implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. OSA results in oxygen desaturation and arousal from sleep. Free oxygen radicals can be produced by hypoxia-reoxygenation. To test for the hypothesis that OSA is associated with cardiovascular morbidity, we investigated levels of homocystein, NO and total antioxidant capacity in OSA patients with and without coronary artery disease (CAD) in comparison with normal subjects and patients with CAD without OSA. Polysomnography was performed in 27 patients who had a myocardial infarction and in 25 patients without evidence of CAD. Patients were grouped according their polysomnography results as OSA with CAD (group 1), OSA without CAD (group 2), CAD (group 3), and normal (group 4) . Levels of homocystein, NO and total antioxidant capacity were determined after an overnight fasting. Data were analysed with parametric and non parametric statistical tests. According to apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) 44.4% of CAD patients were OSA. After polysomnographic evaluation, the patients were re-distributed as follows: OSA with CAD (n= 12), OSA without CAD (n= 14), CAD (n= 15), and normal (n= 11). Homocystein levels were higher in 3 groups compared to controls. AHI, MDI and desaturation time was higher in three -vessel disease compared to one and two- vessel diseases (p< 0.05). NO levels were correlated with the period of oxygen desaturation (r: -0.45, p= 0.031). The antioxidant capacity did not differ between OSA and healthy groups. OSA is frequent in CAD. AHI, MDI and desaturation time are higher in patients with severe CAD. It is important to evaluate OSA patients for CAD.

  2. Comparative evaluation of serum and salivary immunoglobulin G and A levels with total serum protein in oral submucous fibrosis patients: A case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Kandasamy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim and Objective: The objective of this study is to estimate and compare the serum and salivary immunoglobulin G and A (IgG, IgA levels in various stages of oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF patients and relate it to total serum protein (TSP and hemoglobin (Hb levels. Materials and Methods: The sample for the present study comprised a total of 20 healthy controls, 20 OSMF patients. About 5 ml of blood and 2 ml of saliva were collected. Quantitative analysis of serum and salivary IgG, IgA was done by turbidometric immunoassay. TSP and Hb were estimated by Biuret and cyanmethemoglobin methods, respectively. Results: Serum and salivary IgA and IgG levels were statistically significantly increased (P < 0.001 in OSMF patients when compared to controls. Also serum and salivary IgG and IgA levels showed significantly increased (P < 0.01 in all the three staging of OSMF when compared to control group. Hb levels and TSP levels were significantly decreased (P < 0.001 in OSMF patients when compared to controls. One-way ANOVA, Pearson's correlation, and unpaired t -test were used for statistical analysis. Conclusion: The elevated levels of IgG and IgA are also in favor of polygammapathy, which are nonspecific and nondiagnostic objective reflections of an underlying disease. Decreased TSP is a result of host response and Hb, acts as an indicator of nutritional status plays an important role. It is also observed from the present study that the severity of OSMF was directly proportional to the estimated elevated levels of the major IgG and IgA. A need is also felt for the knowledge of immunoprofile estimation in etiology and pathogenesis that would prove a great asset in the proper assessment of this condition.

  3. Comparative evaluation of serum and salivary immunoglobulin G and A levels with total serum protein in oral submucous fibrosis patients: A case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, M; Jaisanghar, N; Austin, Ravi David; Srivastava, Kumar Chandan; Anusuya, G Sai; Anisa, N

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study is to estimate and compare the serum and salivary immunoglobulin G and A (IgG, IgA) levels in various stages of oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) patients and relate it to total serum protein (TSP) and hemoglobin (Hb) levels. The sample for the present study comprised a total of 20 healthy controls, 20 OSMF patients. About 5 ml of blood and 2 ml of saliva were collected. Quantitative analysis of serum and salivary IgG, IgA was done by turbidometric immunoassay. TSP and Hb were estimated by Biuret and cyanmethemoglobin methods, respectively. Serum and salivary IgA and IgG levels were statistically significantly increased ( P < 0.001) in OSMF patients when compared to controls. Also serum and salivary IgG and IgA levels showed significantly increased ( P < 0.01) in all the three staging of OSMF when compared to control group. Hb levels and TSP levels were significantly decreased ( P < 0.001) in OSMF patients when compared to controls. One-way ANOVA, Pearson's correlation, and unpaired t -test were used for statistical analysis. The elevated levels of IgG and IgA are also in favor of polygammapathy, which are nonspecific and nondiagnostic objective reflections of an underlying disease. Decreased TSP is a result of host response and Hb, acts as an indicator of nutritional status plays an important role. It is also observed from the present study that the severity of OSMF was directly proportional to the estimated elevated levels of the major IgG and IgA. A need is also felt for the knowledge of immunoprofile estimation in etiology and pathogenesis that would prove a great asset in the proper assessment of this condition.

  4. Measurement and human exposure assessment of brominated flame retardants in household products from South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, She-Jun; Ma, Yun-Juan; Wang, Jing; Tian, Mi; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Chen, Da; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2010-04-15

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) were examined in household products in the Pearl River Delta, South China, including electronic appliances, furniture and upholstery, car interiors, and raw materials for electronics. The concentrations of PBDEs derived from penta-BDE mixture were much lower (electronic products and their reuse might be also a potential important source of discontinued PBDEs to the environment. DBDPE was found in 20.0% of all the samples, ranging from 311 to 268,230 ng/g. PBDE congener profiles in both the household products and raw materials suggest that some less brominated BDEs in the environment may be derived from the decomposition of higher brominated PBDEs in PBDE-containing products in process of the manufacturing, use and/or recycling. Human exposure to PBDEs from household products via inhalation ranged from 175 to 612 pg/kg bw day, accounting for a small proportion of the total daily exposure via indoor inhalation. Despite the low deleterious risk associated with household products with regard to PBDEs, they are of special concern because of the relatively higher exposures observed for young children and further work is required. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Pollen types and levels of total phenolic compounds in propolis produced by Apis mellifera L. (Apidae in an area of the Semiarid Region of Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VANESSA R. MATOS

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-two propolis samples produced by Apis mellifera L. in an area of the Semiarid region the the State of Bahia (Agreste of Alagoinhas, Brazil, were palynologically analyzed and quantified regarding their levels of total phenolic compounds. These samples were processed using the acetolysis technique with the changes suggested for use with propolis. We found 59 pollen types belonging to 19 families and 36 genera. The family Fabaceae was the most representative in this study with nine pollen types, followed by the family Asteraceae with seven types. The types Mikania and Mimosa pudica occurred in all samples analyzed. The types Mimosa pudica and Eucalyptus had frequency of occurrence above 50% in at least one sample. The highest similarity index (c. 72% occurred between the samples ER1 and ER2, belonging to the municipality of Entre Rios. Samples from the municipality of Inhambupe displayed the highest (36.78±1.52 mg/g EqAG and lowest (7.68 ± 2.58 mg/g EqAG levels of total phenolic compounds. Through the Spearman Correlation Coefficient we noticed that there was a negative linear correlation between the types Mimosa pudica (rs = -0.0419 and Eucalyptus (rs = -0.7090 with the profile of the levels of total phenolic compounds of the samples.

  6. Qualità totale e mobilità totale Total Quality and Total Mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Trieste

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available FIABA ONLUS (Italian Fund for Elimination of Architectural Barriers was founded in 2000 with the aim of promoting a culture of equal opportunities and, above all, it has as its main goal to involve public and private institutions to create a really accessible and usable environment for everyone. Total accessibility, Total usability and Total mobility are key indicators to define quality of life within cities. A supportive environment that is free of architectural, cultural and psychological barriers allows everyone to live with ease and universality. In fact, people who access to goods and services in the urban context can use to their advantage time and space, so they can do their activities and can maintain relationships that are deemed significant for their social life. The main aim of urban accessibility is to raise the comfort of space for citizens, eliminating all barriers that discriminate people, and prevent from an equality of opportunity. “FIABA FUND - City of ... for the removal of architectural barriers” is an idea of FIABA that has already affected many regions of Italy as Lazio, Lombardy, Campania, Abruzzi and Calabria. It is a National project which provides for opening a bank account in the cities of referring, in which for the first time, all together, individuals and private and public institutions can make a donation to fund initiatives for the removal of architectural barriers within its own territory for a real and effective total accessibility. Last February the fund was launched in Rome with the aim of achieving a Capital without barriers and a Town European model of accessibility and usability. Urban mobility is a prerequisite to access to goods and services, and to organize activities related to daily life. FIABA promotes the concept of sustainable mobility for all, supported by the European Commission’s White Paper. We need a cultural change in management and organization of public means, which might focus on

  7. Levels of lead in foods from the first French total diet study on infants and toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guérin, Thierry; Le Calvez, Emilie; Zinck, Julie; Bemrah, Nawel; Sirot, Véronique; Leblanc, Jean-Charles; Chekri, Rachida; Hulin, Marion; Noël, Laurent

    2017-12-15

    Infants and toddlers are highly vulnerable to exposure to lead due to its higher absorption in small children than in adults. This study describes the optimisation and validation of a very sensitive method for the determination of low levels of lead in foods mostly consumed by infants and toddlers. This method, based on inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry with a programmable temperature cyclonic spray chamber, attained a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.6 or 0.9µgPbkg -1 for a liquid or a solid sample, that was improved by a factor 5.6-8.3 compared to the previous method (LOQ: 5µgkg -1 ). The analytical method was then applied to 291 food samples from the first French total diet study on infants and toddlers. Lead was detected in most samples at relatively low concentrations (range 0.0-16µgkg -1 ). The highest lead concentrations were mainly found in processed food products (e.g. products containing chocolate). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers: a case study for using biomonitoring data to address risk assessment questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnbaum, Linda S; Cohen Hubal, Elaine A

    2006-11-01

    The use of biomonitoring data holds promise for characterizing exposure and informing risk assessment. Biomonitoring data have been used successfully to track population trends, identify susceptible populations, and provide indications of emerging environmental health issues. However, there remain challenges associated with interpreting biomonitoring data for risk assessment. An international biomonitoring workshop was convened in September 2004 to explore the use of biomonitoring data in the context of risk assessment. Six compounds were examined as case studies for this workshop, including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The PBDE case study was developed to provide an example of a persistent compound for which relatively few data are available for human exposure, biomonitoring, and health outcomes. PBDEs are used in hard plastics, electronics, textiles, and polyurethane foam products. The congener pattern downstream of production facilities often resembles the commercial mixture. However, because these compounds persist in the environment and in biota, the patterns of congeners evolve. PBDEs partition into body lipids, and direct measurement of bromodiphenyl ether congeners in biologic specimens provides a good marker of exposure. Data indicate significant variability (> 100-fold range) in lipid-adjusted levels for PBDEs in the general population. It is hypothesized that both exposure and pharmacokinetics may play a role in observed congener profiles. Significant gaps in our ability to interpret PBDE biomonitoring data to address public health and risk assessment questions include limited knowledge of environmental fate and transport of PBDE congeners, limited population-based data for adults, and lack of data for potentially vulnerable populations such as children.