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Sample records for total pah concentration

  1. Influence of PAHs among other coastal environmental variables on total and PAH-degrading bacterial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauret, Caroline; Tedetti, Marc; Guigue, Catherine; Dumas, Chloé; Lami, Raphaël; Pujo-Pay, Mireille; Conan, Pascal; Goutx, Madeleine; Ghiglione, Jean-François

    2016-03-01

    We evaluated the relative impact of anthropogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) among biogeochemical variables on total, metabolically active, and PAH bacterial communities in summer and winter in surface microlayer (SML) and subsurface seawaters (SSW) across short transects along the NW Mediterranean coast from three harbors, one wastewater effluent, and one nearshore observatory reference site. At both seasons, significant correlations were found between dissolved total PAH concentrations and PAH-degrading bacteria that formed a gradient from the shore to nearshore waters. Accumulation of PAH degraders was particularly high in the SML, where PAHs accumulated. Harbors and wastewater outfalls influenced drastically and in a different way the total and active bacterial community structure, but they only impacted the communities from the nearshore zone (PAH concentrations on the spatial and temporal dynamic of total and active communities in this area, but this effect was putted in perspective by the importance of other biogeochemical variables.

  2. Distributions and Concentrations of PAHs in Hong Kong Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H.B.; Luo, Y.M.; Wong, M.H.; Zhao, Q.G.; Zhang, G.L.

    2006-01-01

    Surface soil (0-10 cm) samples from 53 sampling sites including rural and urban areas of Hong Kong were collected and analyzed for 16 EPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Total PAH concentrations were in the range of 7.0-410 μg kg -1 (dry wt), with higher concentrations in urban soils than that in rural soils. The three predominant PAHs were Fluoranthene, Naphthalene and Pyrene in rural soils, while Fluoranthene, Naphthalene and Benzo(b + k)fluoranthene dominated the PAHs of urban soils. The values of PAHs isomer indicated that biomass burning might be the major origin of PAHs in rural soils, but vehicular emission around the heavy traffic roads might contribute to the soil PAHs in urban areas. A cluster analysis was performed and grouped the detectable PAHs under 4 clusters, which could be indicative of the PAHs with different origins and PAHs affected by soil organic carbon contents respectively. - Baseline information is provided on levels, distributions and possible sources of PAHs in Hong Kong soils

  3. Spatial Distribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Concentrations in Soils from Bursa, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, Gizem

    2016-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify regional variations in soil polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in Bursa, Turkey, and to determine the distributions and sources of various PAH species and their possible sources. Surface soil samples were collected from 20 different locations. The PAH concentrations in soil samples were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The total PAH concentrations (∑12 PAH) varied spatially between 8 and 4970 ng/g dry matter (DM). The highest concentrations were measured in soils taken from traffic+barbecue+ residential areas (4970 ng/g DM) and areas with cement (4382 ng/g DM) and iron-steel (4000 ng/g DM) factories. In addition, the amounts of ∑7 carcinogenic PAH ranged from 1 to 3684 ng/g DM, and between 5 and 74 % of the total PAHs consisted of such compounds. Overall, 4-ring PAH compounds (Fl, Pyr, BaA and Chr) were dominant in the soil samples, with 29-82 % of the ∑12 PAH consisting of 4-ring PAH compounds. The ∑12 BaPeq values ranged from 0.1 to 381.8 ng/g DM. Following an evaluation of the molecular diagnostic ratios, it was concluded that the PAH pollution in Bursa soil was related to pyrolytic sources; however, the impact of petrogenic sources should not be ignored.

  4. Source characterization and exposure modeling of gas-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masri, Shahir; Li, Lianfa; Dang, Andy; Chung, Judith H.; Chen, Jiu-Chiuan; Fan, Zhi-Hua (Tina); Wu, Jun

    2018-03-01

    Airborne exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are associated with adverse health outcomes. Because personal air measurements of PAHs are labor intensive and costly, spatial PAH exposure models are useful for epidemiological studies. However, few studies provide adequate spatial coverage to reflect intra-urban variability of ambient PAHs. In this study, we collected 39-40 weekly gas-phase PAH samples in southern California twice in summer and twice in winter, 2009, in order to characterize PAH source contributions and develop spatial models that can estimate gas-phase PAH concentrations at a high resolution. A spatial mixed regression model was constructed, including such variables as roadway, traffic, land-use, vegetation index, commercial cooking facilities, meteorology, and population density. Cross validation of the model resulted in an R2 of 0.66 for summer and 0.77 for winter. Results showed higher total PAH concentrations in winter. Pyrogenic sources, such as fossil fuels and diesel exhaust, were the most dominant contributors to total PAHs. PAH sources varied by season, with a higher fossil fuel and wood burning contribution in winter. Spatial autocorrelation accounted for a substantial amount of the variance in total PAH concentrations for both winter (56%) and summer (19%). In summer, other key variables explaining the variance included meteorological factors (9%), population density (15%), and roadway length (21%). In winter, the variance was also explained by traffic density (16%). In this study, source characterization confirmed the dominance of traffic and other fossil fuel sources to total measured gas-phase PAH concentrations while a spatial exposure model identified key predictors of PAH concentrations. Gas-phase PAH source characterization and exposure estimation is of high utility to epidemiologist and policy makers interested in understanding the health impacts of gas-phase PAHs and strategies to reduce emissions.

  5. Increased zooplankton PAH concentrations across hydrographic fronts in the East China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chin-Chang; Ko, Fung-Chi; Gong, Gwo-Ching; Chen, Kuo-Shu; Wu, Jian-Ming; Chiang, Hsin-Lun; Peng, Sen-Chueh; Santschi, Peter H

    2014-06-15

    The Changjiang has transported large quantities of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to the East China Sea (ECS), but information of these pollutants in zooplankton is limited. To understand PAHs pollution in zooplankton in the ECS, total concentrations of PAHs in zooplankton from surface waters were measured. Values of PAHs ranged from 2 to 3500 ng m(-3) in the ECS, with highest PAHs levels located at the salinity front between the Changjiang Diluted Water (CDW) and the mid-shelf waters. In contrast, concentrations of zooplankton PAHs in the mid-shelf and outer-shelf waters were significantly lower (2-23 ng m(-3)) than those in the CDW. These results demonstrate that PAHs are conspicuously accumulated in zooplankton at the salinity front between the CDW and the mid-shelf waters. These higher levels of PAHs in zooplankton at the salinity front may be further biomagnified in marine organisms of higher trophic levels through their feeding activities. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of biomass open burning on particulate matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentration levels and PAH dry deposition in ambient air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Jui C; Shen, Yun H; Li, Hsing W; Chang, Shun S; Wang, Lin C; Chang-Chien, Guo P

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to investigate particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in ambient air during rice straw open burning and non-open burning periods. In the ambient air of a rice field, the mean PM concentration during and after an open burning event were 1828 and 102 μg m⁻³, respectively, which demonstrates that during a rice field open burning event, the PM concentration in the ambient air of rice field is over 17 times higher than that of the non-open burning period. During an open burning event, the mean total PAH and total toxic equivalence (BaP(eq)) concentrations in the ambient air of a rice field were 7206 ng m⁻³ and 10.3 ng m⁻³, respectively, whereas after the open burning event, they were 376 ng m⁻³ and 1.50 ng m⁻³, respectively. Open burning thus increases total PAH and total BaP(eq) concentrations by 19-fold and 6.8-fold, respectively. During a rice straw open burning event, in the ambient air of a rice field, the mean dry deposition fluxes of total PAHs and total BaP(eq) were 1222 μg m⁻² day⁻¹ and 4.80 μg m⁻² day⁻¹, respectively, which are approximately 60- and 3-fold higher than those during the non-open burning period, respectively. During the non-open burning period, particle-bound PAHs contributed 79.2-84.2% of total dry deposition fluxes (gas + particle) of total PAHs. However, an open burning event increases the contribution to total PAH dry deposition by particle-bound PAHs by up to 85.9-95.5%. The results show that due to the increased amount of PM in the ambient air resulting from rice straw open burning, particle-bound PAHs contributed more to dry deposition fluxes of total PAHs than they do during non-open burning periods. The results show that biomass (rice straw) open burning is an important PAH emission source that significantly increases both PM and PAH concentration levels and PAH dry deposition in ambient air.

  7. Concentrations of PAHs (Polycyclicaromatic Hydrocarbons Pollutant in Sediment of The Banten Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khozanah Munawir

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Banten Bay is end of stream for a few rivers from Banten mainland where many manufactures and petrochemical industries are built. This may give environmental pressure of water quality of the bay due to pollutant input, such as Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs. This study is to identify those pollutants and determine their total concentration and distribution in sediments. Surface sediment samples were collected in four zones: inner coastline within the bay, middle bay, coastline off the bay and outer of the Bay in April 2016. PAH components were extracted and measured using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Levels of total PAHs in sediments in inner coastline within the bay ranged between 0.381-2.654 ppm with an average of 1.288 ppm, middle of the bay ranged between 0.747-1.762 ppm with an average of 1.198 ppm, outer of the bay ranged between 0.192-1.394 ppm with an average of 0.921 ppm, and east coast of the bay ranged between 0.191-1.394 ppm and an average of 0.778 ppm. The levels of total PAH contamination is apparently lower than those of PAH threshold in sediments (i.e. 4.5 ppm. Keywords: PAHs (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Banten Bay

  8. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentration levels, pattern, source identification and soil toxicity assessment in urban traffic soil of Dhanbad, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suman, Swapnil; Sinha, Alok; Tarafdar, Abhrajyoti

    2016-03-01

    Present study was carried out to assess and understand potential health risk and to examine the impact of vehicular traffic on the contamination status of urban traffic soils in Dhanbad City with respect to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Eight urban traffic sites and two control/rural site surface soils were analyzed and the contents of 13 priority PAHs was determined. Total PAH concentration at traffic sites ranged from 1.019 μg g(-1) to 10.856 μg g(-1) with an average value of 3.488 μg g(-1). At control/rural site, average concentration of total PAHs was found to be 0.640 μg g(-1). PAH pattern was dominated by four- and five-ring PAHs (contributing >50% to the total PAHs) at all the eight traffic sites. On the other hand, rural soil showed a predominance of low molecular weight three-ring PAHs (contributing >30% to the total PAHs). Indeno[123-cd]pyrene/benz[ghi]perylene (IP/BgP) ratio indicated that PAH load at the traffic sites is predominated by the gasoline-driven vehicles. The ratio of Ant/(Ant+Phe) varied from 0.03 to 0.44, averaging 0.10; Fla/(Fla+Pyr) from 0.39 to 0.954, averaging 0.52; BaA/(BaA+Chry) from 0.156 to 0.60, averaging 0.44; and IP/(IP+BgP) from 0.176 to 0.811, averaging 0.286. The results indicated that vehicular emission was the major source for PAHs contamination with moderate effect of coal combustion and biomass combustion. Carcinogenic potency of PAH load in traffic soil was nearly 6.15 times higher as compared to the control/rural soil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of low concentration biodiesel blends application on modern passenger cars. Part 3: Impact on PAH, nitro-PAH, and oxy-PAH emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karavalakis, Georgios; Fontaras, Georgios; Ampatzoglou, Dimitrios; Kousoulidou, Marina; Stournas, Stamoulis; Samaras, Zissis; Bakeas, Evangelos

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the impact of five different types of methyl esters on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), nitrated-PAH and oxygenated PAH emissions. The measurements were conducted on a chassis dynamometer, according to the European regulation. Each of the five different biodiesels was blended with EN590 diesel at a proportion of 10-90% v/v (10% biodiesel concentration). The vehicle was a Euro 3 compliant common-rail diesel passenger car. Emission measurements were performed over the NEDC and compared with those of the real traffic-based Artemis driving cycles. The experimental results showed that the addition of biodiesel led to some important increases in low molecular-weight PAHs (phenanthrene and anthracene) and to both increases and reductions in large PAHs which are characterised by their carcinogenic and mutagenic properties. Nitro-PAHs were found to reduce with biodiesel whereas oxy-PAH emissions presented important increases with the biodiesel blends. The impact of biodiesel source material was particularly clear on the formation of PAH compounds. It was found that most PAH emissions decreased as the average load and speed of the driving cycle increased. Cold-start conditions negatively influenced the formation of most PAH compounds. A similar trend was observed with particulate alkane emissions. - This investigation is a contribution to the understanding the impact of different biodiesels on the formation of PAHs, nitro-PAHs and oxy-PAHs over different driving conditions.

  10. Concentration, composition and sources of PAHs in the coastal sediments of the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of Qatar, Arabian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Y S; Al Ansari, E M S; Wade, T L

    2014-08-30

    Surface sediments were collected from sixteen locations in order to assess levels and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments of Qatar exclusive economic zone (EEZ). Samples were analyzed for 16 parent PAHs, 18 alkyl homologs and for dibenzothiophenes. Total PAHs concentration (∑PAHs) ranged from 2.6 ng g(-1) to 1025 ng g(-1). The highest PAHs concentrations were in sediments in and adjacent to harbors. Alkylated PAHs predominated most of the sampling locations reaching up to 80% in offshore locations. Parent PAHs and parent high molecular weight PAHs dominated location adjacent to industrial activities and urban areas. The origin of PAHs sources to the sediments was elucidated using ternary plot, indices, and molecular ratios of specific compounds such as (Ant/Phe+Ant), (Flt/Flt+Pyr). PAHs inputs to most coastal sites consisted of mixture of petroleum and combustion derived sources. However, inputs to the offshore sediments were mainly of petroleum origin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Atmospheric concentrations and air–soil gas exchange of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in remote, rural village and urban areas of Beijing–Tianjin region, North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wentao; Simonich, Staci; Giri, Basant; Chang, Ying; Zhang, Yuguang; Jia, Yuling; Tao, Shu; Wang, Rong; Wang, Bin; Li, Wei; Cao, Jun; Lu, Xiaoxia

    2013-01-01

    Forty passive air samplers were deployed to study the occurrence of gas and particulate phase PAHs in remote, rural village and urban areas of Beijing–Tianjin region, North China for four seasons (spring, summer, fall and winter) from 2007 to 2008. The influence of emissions on the spatial distribution pattern of air PAH concentrations was addressed. In addition, the air–soil gas exchange of PAHs was studied using fugacity calculations. The median gaseous and particulate phase PAH concentrations were 222 ng/m3 and 114 ng/m3, respectively, with a median total PAH concentration of 349 ng/m3. Higher PAH concentrations were measured in winter than in other seasons. Air PAH concentrations measured at the rural villages and urban sites in the northern mountain region were significantly lower than those measured at sites in the southern plain during all seasons. However, there was no significant difference in PAH concentrations between the rural villages and urban sites in the northern and southern areas. This urban–rural PAH distribution pattern was related to the location of PAH emission sources and the population distribution. The location of PAH emission sources explained 56%–77% of the spatial variation in ambient air PAH concentrations. The annual median air–soil gas exchange flux of PAHs was 42.2 ng/m2/day from soil to air. Among the 15 PAHs measured, acenaphthylene (ACY) and acenaphthene (ACE) contributed to more than half of the total exchange flux. Furthermore, the air–soil gas exchange fluxes of PAHs at the urban sites were higher than those at the remote and rural sites. In summer, more gaseous PAHs volatilized from soil to air because of higher temperatures and increased rainfall. However, in winter, more gaseous PAHs deposited from air to soil due to higher PAH emissions and lower temperatures. The soil TOC concentration had no significant influence on the air–soil gas exchange of PAHs. PMID:21669328

  12. Atmospheric concentrations and air-soil gas exchange of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in remote, rural village and urban areas of Beijing-Tianjin region, North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wentao; Simonich, Staci; Giri, Basant; Chang, Ying; Zhang, Yuguang; Jia, Yuling; Tao, Shu; Wang, Rong; Wang, Bin; Li, Wei; Cao, Jun; Lu, Xiaoxia

    2011-07-01

    Forty passive air samplers were deployed to study the occurrence of gas and particulate phase PAHs in remote, rural village and urban areas of Beijing-Tianjin region, North China for four seasons (spring, summer, fall and winter) from 2007 to 2008. The influence of emissions on the spatial distribution pattern of air PAH concentrations was addressed. In addition, the air-soil gas exchange of PAHs was studied using fugacity calculations. The median gaseous and particulate phase PAH concentrations were 222 ng/m³ and 114 ng/m³, respectively, with a median total PAH concentration of 349 ng/m³. Higher PAH concentrations were measured in winter than in other seasons. Air PAH concentrations measured at the rural villages and urban sites in the northern mountain region were significantly lower than those measured at sites in the southern plain during all seasons. However, there was no significant difference in PAH concentrations between the rural villages and urban sites in the northern and southern areas. This urban-rural PAH distribution pattern was related to the location of PAH emission sources and the population distribution. The location of PAH emission sources explained 56%-77% of the spatial variation in ambient air PAH concentrations. The annual median air-soil gas exchange flux of PAHs was 42.2 ng/m²/day from soil to air. Among the 15 PAHs measured, acenaphthylene (ACY) and acenaphthene (ACE) contributed to more than half of the total exchange flux. Furthermore, the air-soil gas exchange fluxes of PAHs at the urban sites were higher than those at the remote and rural sites. In summer, more gaseous PAHs volatilized from soil to air because of higher temperatures and increased rainfall. However, in winter, more gaseous PAHs deposited from air to soil due to higher PAH emissions and lower temperatures. The soil TOC concentration had no significant influence on the air-soil gas exchange of PAHs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Mosses as an integrating tool for monitoring PAH atmospheric deposition: comparison with total deposition and evaluation of bioconcentration factors. A year-long case-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foan, Louise; Domercq, Maria; Bermejo, Raúl; Santamaría, Jesús Miguel; Simon, Valérie

    2015-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) atmospheric deposition was evaluated at a remote site in Northern Spain using moss biomonitoring with Hylocomium splendens (Hedw.) Schimp., and by measuring the total deposition fluxes of PAHs. The year-long study allowed seasonal variations of PAH content in mosses to be observed, and these followed a similar trend to those of PAH fluxes in total deposition. Generally, atmospheric deposition of PAHs is greater in winter than in summer, due to more PAH emissions from domestic heating, less photoreactivity of the compounds, and intense leaching of the atmosphere by wet deposition. However, fractionation of these molecules between the environmental compartments occurs: PAH fluxes in total deposition and PAH concentrations in mosses are correlated with their solubility (r=0.852, pPAH fluxes can be estimated with moss biomonitoring data if the bioconcentration or 'enriching' factors are known. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Concentrations and Component Profiles PAHs in Surface Soils and Wheat Grains from the Cornfields Close to the Steel Smelting Industry in Handan, Hebei Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Di; Wang, Yi-long; Liu, Wei-jian; Chen, Yuan-chen; Fu, Xiao-fang; Tao, Shu; Liu, Wen-xin

    2016-02-15

    In this study, paired surface soil and mature wheat grain samples were collected in the cornfields near the large Handan Steel Manufacturer; and the total concentrations and compositional profiles of the parent PAHs were measured, then the spatial distribution characteristics and correlation with total organic carbon fractions in soil were determined. Accordingly, a preliminary source identification was performed, and the association between PAHs in surface soil and wheat grain was briefly discussed. The median concentration of total PAHs in surface soils from the cornfields of Handan was 398.9 ng x g(-1) (ranged from 123.4 ng x g(-1) to 1626.4 ng x g(-1), where around 18% and 10% of all the studied soil samples were over the corresponding quality criteria for total PAHs and B [a] P in soils, respectively. The MMW and HMW species were the main components in the compositional profiles of surface soils. Based on the specific isomeric ratios of PAHs species, coal/biomass combustion and transportation fuel (tail gas) were the dominant mixed sources for the local PAHs emission. The fractions of surface soil TOC had significant positive correlations with the total PAHs and also with the individual components with different rings. In addition, the median concentration of total PAHs in wheat grains collected in the cornfields near the Handan Steel Manufacture was 27.0 ng x g(-1) (ranged from 19.0-34.0 ng x g(-1)). The levels in wheat grains were not high, and lower than the related hygienic standards of food proposed by EU and China. The LMW and MMW PAHs with 2 to 4 rings occupied a larger proportion, more than 84% of the total PAHs, which was largely different from the component profiles in surface soils. This situation suggested that the local sources of PAHs in wheat grains may originate not only from surface soil via root absorption and internal transportation, but also from ambient air through dry and wet deposition on the leaf surface (stoma).

  15. Cloud deposition of PAHs at Mount Lushan in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruixia; Wang, Yan; Li, Hongli; Yang, Minmin; Sun, Lei; Wang, Tao; Wang, Wenxing

    2015-09-01

    Cloud water samples were collected from Mount Lushan, a high alpine area of southern China, and analyzed using GC-MS to investigate the concentration levels, seasonal variations, particle-dissolved phase partitioning, ecological risk of PAHs and its relationship to the atmosphere and rainwater. The average concentration of total (dissolved+particle) PAHs in cloud water was 819.90 ng/L, which ranged from 2.30 ng/L for DbA to 295.38 ng/L for PhA. PhA (33.11%) contributed the most individual PAHs, followed by Flu (28.24%). Distinct seasonal variations in the total PAHs measured in this research had a higher concentration during the spring and a lower concentration during the summer. When cloud events occurred, the concentration of the atmospheric PAHs of the two phases decreased. The contribution from the gaseous phase of total PAHs in the air to the dissolved phase in cloud water was up to 60.43%, but the particulate phase in the air only contributed 39.57% to the total scavenging. The contribution of total PAHs from the atmosphere to clouds is higher in the gaseous phase than in the particulate phase. A comparative study of the concentrations of cloud water and the closest rain water revealed that the PAH concentration in rainwater was 1.80 times less than that of cloud water and that the dominant individual compounds in cloud water and rainwater were PhA and Flu. A total of 81.27% of the PAHs in cloud samples and 72.21% of the PAHs in rain samples remained in the dissolved phase. Ecological risk assessment indicated that PAHs in cloud water in spring and summer caused a certain degree of ecosystem risk and the mean ecosystem risk in spring was higher than that in summer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Cloud deposition of PAHs at Mount Lushan in southern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ruixia [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100 (China); Wang, Yan, E-mail: wangyan405@gmail.com [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100 (China); Li, Hongli, E-mail: lihongli1225@163.com [Environmental Monitoring Central Station of Shandong Province, Jinan, 250101 (China); Yang, Minmin; Sun, Lei [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100 (China); Wang, Tao [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China); Wang, Wenxing [Environment Research Institute, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100 (China)

    2015-09-01

    Cloud water samples were collected from Mount Lushan, a high alpine area of southern China, and analyzed using GC–MS to investigate the concentration levels, seasonal variations, particle-dissolved phase partitioning, ecological risk of PAHs and its relationship to the atmosphere and rainwater. The average concentration of total (dissolved + particle) PAHs in cloud water was 819.90 ng/L, which ranged from 2.30 ng/L for DbA to 295.38 ng/L for PhA. PhA (33.11%) contributed the most individual PAHs, followed by Flu (28.24%). Distinct seasonal variations in the total PAHs measured in this research had a higher concentration during the spring and a lower concentration during the summer. When cloud events occurred, the concentration of the atmospheric PAHs of the two phases decreased. The contribution from the gaseous phase of total PAHs in the air to the dissolved phase in cloud water was up to 60.43%, but the particulate phase in the air only contributed 39.57% to the total scavenging. The contribution of total PAHs from the atmosphere to clouds is higher in the gaseous phase than in the particulate phase. A comparative study of the concentrations of cloud water and the closest rain water revealed that the PAH concentration in rainwater was 1.80 times less than that of cloud water and that the dominant individual compounds in cloud water and rainwater were PhA and Flu. A total of 81.27% of the PAHs in cloud samples and 72.21% of the PAHs in rain samples remained in the dissolved phase. Ecological risk assessment indicated that PAHs in cloud water in spring and summer caused a certain degree of ecosystem risk and the mean ecosystem risk in spring was higher than that in summer. - Highlights: • The site is in the high pollution emission area, having many sources of PAHs around. • Mount Lushan is a unique site for cloud chemistry monitoring. • Atmospheric PAHs mostly deposited and transferred into cloud water. • Special case showed PAHs are more concentrated in

  17. Cloud deposition of PAHs at Mount Lushan in southern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ruixia; Wang, Yan; Li, Hongli; Yang, Minmin; Sun, Lei; Wang, Tao; Wang, Wenxing

    2015-01-01

    Cloud water samples were collected from Mount Lushan, a high alpine area of southern China, and analyzed using GC–MS to investigate the concentration levels, seasonal variations, particle-dissolved phase partitioning, ecological risk of PAHs and its relationship to the atmosphere and rainwater. The average concentration of total (dissolved + particle) PAHs in cloud water was 819.90 ng/L, which ranged from 2.30 ng/L for DbA to 295.38 ng/L for PhA. PhA (33.11%) contributed the most individual PAHs, followed by Flu (28.24%). Distinct seasonal variations in the total PAHs measured in this research had a higher concentration during the spring and a lower concentration during the summer. When cloud events occurred, the concentration of the atmospheric PAHs of the two phases decreased. The contribution from the gaseous phase of total PAHs in the air to the dissolved phase in cloud water was up to 60.43%, but the particulate phase in the air only contributed 39.57% to the total scavenging. The contribution of total PAHs from the atmosphere to clouds is higher in the gaseous phase than in the particulate phase. A comparative study of the concentrations of cloud water and the closest rain water revealed that the PAH concentration in rainwater was 1.80 times less than that of cloud water and that the dominant individual compounds in cloud water and rainwater were PhA and Flu. A total of 81.27% of the PAHs in cloud samples and 72.21% of the PAHs in rain samples remained in the dissolved phase. Ecological risk assessment indicated that PAHs in cloud water in spring and summer caused a certain degree of ecosystem risk and the mean ecosystem risk in spring was higher than that in summer. - Highlights: • The site is in the high pollution emission area, having many sources of PAHs around. • Mount Lushan is a unique site for cloud chemistry monitoring. • Atmospheric PAHs mostly deposited and transferred into cloud water. • Special case showed PAHs are more concentrated in

  18. Concentration and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in surface soil near a municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnyk, A; Dettlaff, A; Kuklińska, K; Namieśnik, J; Wolska, L

    2015-10-15

    Due to a continuous demand of land for infrastructural and residential development there is a public concern about the condition of surface soil near municipal solid waste landfills. A total of 12 surface (0-20 cm) soil samples from a territory near a landfill were collected and the concentration of 16 PAHs and 7 PCB congeners were investigated in these samples. Limits of detection were in the range of 0.038-1.2 μg/kg for PAHs and 0.025-0.041 μg/kg for PCBs. The total concentration of ∑ PAHs ranged from 892 to 3514 μg/kg with a mean of 1974 μg/kg. The total concentration of ∑ PCBs ranged from 2.5 to 12 μg/kg with a mean of 4.5 μg/kg. Data analyses allowed to state that the PAHs in surface soils near a landfill were principally from pyrogenic sources. Due to air transport, PAHs forming at the landfill are transported outside the landfill. PCB origin is not connected with the landfill. Aroclor 1242 can be the source of PCBs in several samples. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Characteristics of particulate PAHs during a typical haze episode in Guangzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jihua; Guo, Songjun; Ma, Yongliang; Duan, Jingchun; Cheng, Yuan; He, Kebin; Yang, Fumo

    2011-10-01

    The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in PM 2.5 and TSP were measured in Guangzhou during a typical haze episode. This episode included NH (non-haze, 3 days), HFN (haze when air masses from north and northeast, 6 days) and HFS (haze when air masses from south, 4 days). The air quality in HFN was much worse than that in NH and HFS. The total average concentrations of PAHs in PM 2.5 were 13.25 ng m -3, 59.82 ng m -3 and 13.09 ng m -3 in NH, HFN and HFS, respectively. It indicated PAH pollution had been substantially aggravated by HFN. PAHs(5 + 6) were the most abundant compounds in HFN and HFS, which accounted for 55-75% of total concentration of PAHs, while PAHs(3 + 4) were the most abundant compounds in NH, which accounted for 54-67% of total concentration of PAHs. TEF (Toxic Equivalency Factors)-adjusted concentrations of 13 particulate PAHs were very high in HFN, indicating high health risks to humans for PAH exposure in HFN. The characteristic ratios of PAHs indicated coal combustion and traffic emission were the major contributors to PAHs in HFN and HFS. The concentrations of particulate PAHs in haze episode were strongly affected by wind speed and wind direction. PAHs in NH could be from long-range transport with high north wind speed, while local emission could be the main contributor of particle-associated PAHs in HFN. The transport speed of air masses was found to play an important role on PAH concentrations.

  20. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and azaarenes in runoff from coal-tar- and asphalt-sealcoated pavement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahler, Barbara J.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Foreman, William T.

    2014-01-01

    Coal-tar-based sealcoat, used extensively on parking lots and driveways in North America, is a potent source of PAHs. We investigated how concentrations and assemblages of PAHs and azaarenes in runoff from pavement newly sealed with coal-tar-based (CT) or asphalt-based (AS) sealcoat changed over time. Samples of simulated runoff were collected from pavement 5 h to 111 d following application of AS or CT sealcoat. Concentrations of the sum of 16 PAHs (median concentrations of 328 and 35 μg/L for CT and AS runoff, respectively) in runoff varied relatively little, but rapid decreases in concentrations of azaarenes and low molecular weight PAHs were offset by increases in high molecular weight PAHs. The results demonstrate that runoff from CT-sealcoated pavement, in particular, continues to contain elevated concentrations of PAHs long after a 24-h curing time, with implications for the fate, transport, and ecotoxicological effects of contaminants in runoff from CT-sealcoated pavement. - Highlights: • We compare PAH and azaarene concentrations in runoff from coal-tar- and asphalt-sealed pavement. • Concentrations in coal-tar-sealcoat runoff greatly exceeded those in asphalt-sealcoat runoff. • Decreases in azaarenes and LMW PAHs were offset by increases in HMW PAHs. • PAH concentrations in coal-tar-sealcoat runoff remained high for months after application. - Concentrations of PAHs in runoff from pavement with coal-tar-based sealcoat continue to be elevated for at least 3 months following sealcoat application

  1. Photochemistry of PAHs in cosmic water ice. The effect of concentration on UV-VIS spectroscopy and ionization efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuylle, Steven H.; Allamandola, Louis J.; Linnartz, Harold

    2014-02-01

    Context. Observations and models show that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous in the interstellar medium. Like other molecules in dense clouds, PAHs accrete onto interstellar dust grains, where they are embedded in an ice matrix dominated by water. In the laboratory, mixed molecular ices (not containing PAHs) have been extensively studied using Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy. Experiments including PAHs in ices have started, however, the concentrations used are typically much higher than the concentrations expected for interstellar ices. Optical spectroscopy offers a sensitive alternative. Aims: We report an experimental study of the effect PAH concentration has on the electronic spectra and the vacuum UV (VUV) driven processes of PAHs in water-rich ices. The goal is to apply the outcome to cosmic ices. Methods: Optical spectroscopic studies allow us to obtain in-situ and quasi real-time electronic solid state spectra of two prototypical PAHs (pyrene and coronene) embedded in water ice under VUV photoprocessing. The study is carried out on PAH:H2O concentrations in the range of 1:30 000 to pure PAH, covering the temperature range from 12 to 125 K. Results: PAH concentration strongly influences the efficiency of PAH cation formation. At low concentrations, ionization efficiencies are over 60% dropping to about 15% at 1:1000. Increasing the PAH concentration reveals spectral broadening in neutral and cation PAH spectra attributed to PAH clustering inside the ice. At the PAH concentrations expected for interstellar ices, some 10 to 20% may be present as cations. The presence of PAHs in neutral and ion form will add distinctive absorption bands to cosmic ice optical spectra and this may serve as a tool to determine PAH concentrations.

  2. Spatial uncoupling of biodegradation, soil respiration, and PAH concentration in a creosote contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengtsson, Goeran; Toerneman, Niklas; Yang Xiuhong

    2010-01-01

    Hotspots and coldspots of concentration and biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) marginally overlapped at the 0.5-100 m scale in a creosote contaminated soil in southern Sweden, suggesting that concentration and biodegradation had little spatial co-variation. Biodegradation was substantial and its spatial variability considerable and highly irregular, but it had no spatial autocorrelation. The soil concentration of PAHs explained only 20-30% of the variance of their biodegradation. Soil respiration was spatially autocorrelated. The spatial uncoupling between biodegradation and soil respiration seemed to be governed by the aging of PAHs in the soil, since biodegradation of added 13 C phenanthrene covaried with both soil respiration and microbial biomass. The latter two were also correlated with high concentrations of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) that are common in gram-negative bacteria. However, several of the hotspots of biodegradation coincided with hotspots for the distribution of a PLFA indicative of fungal biomass. - Hotspots of PAH biodegradation in a creosote contaminated soil do not coincide with hotspots of PAH concentration, microbial biomass and respiration.

  3. Ambient concentrations and personal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in an urban community with mixed sources of air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHU, XIANLEI; FAN, ZHIHUA (TINA); WU, XIANGMEI; JUNG, KYUNG HWA; OHMAN-STRICKLAND, PAMELA; BONANNO, LINDA J.; LIOY, PAUL J.

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of the health risks resulting from exposure to ambient polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) is limited by a lack of environmental exposure data among the general population. This study characterized personal exposure and ambient concentrations of PAH in the Village of Waterfront South (WFS), an urban community with many mixed sources of air toxics in Camden, New Jersey, and CopeWood/Davis Streets (CDS), an urban reference area located ~1 mile east of WFS. A total of 54 and 53 participants were recruited from non-smoking households in WFS and CDS, respectively. In all, 24-h personal and ambient air samples were collected simultaneously in both areas on weekdays and weekends during summer and winter. The ambient PAH concentrations in WFS were either significantly higher than or comparable to those in CDS, indicating the significant impact of local sources on PAH pollution in WFS. Analysis of diagnostic ratios and correlation suggested that diesel truck traffic, municipal waste combustion and industrial combustion were the major sources in WFS. In such an area, ambient air pollution contributed significantly to personal PAH exposure, explaining 44–96% of variability in personal concentrations. This study provides valuable data for examining the impact of local ambient PAH pollution on personal exposure and therefore potential health risks associated with environmental PAH pollution. PMID:21364704

  4. PAHs concentration and toxicity in organic solvent extracts of atmospheric particulate matter and sea sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Noriatsu; Takeuchi, Shin-ya; Kojima, Keisuke; Kindaichi, Tomonori; Komatsu, Toshiko; Fukushima, Takehiko

    2012-01-01

    The concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the toxicity to marine bacteria (Vibrio fischeri) were measured for the organic solvent extracts of sea sediments collected from an urban watershed area (Hiroshima Bay) of Japan and compared with the concentrations and toxicity of atmospheric particulate matter (PM). In atmospheric PM, the PAHs concentration was highest in fine particulate matter (FPM) collected during cold seasons. The concentrations of sea sediments were 0.01-0.001 times those of atmospheric PM. 1/EC50 was 1-10 L g(-1) PM for atmospheric PM and 0.1-1 L g(-1) dry solids for sea sediments. These results imply that toxic substances from atmospheric PM are diluted several tens or hundreds of times in sea sediments. The ratio of the 1/EC50 to PAHs concentration ((1/EC50)/16PAHs) was stable for all sea sediments (0.1-1 L μg(-1) 16PAHs) and was the same order of magnitude as that of FPM and coarse particulate matter (CPM). The ratio of sediments collected from the west was more similar to that of CPM while that from the east was more similar to FPM, possibly because of hydraulic differences among water bodies. The PAHs concentration pattern analyses (principal component analysis and isomer ratio analysis) were conducted and the results showed that the PAHs pattern in sea sediments was quite different to that of FPM and CPM. Comparison with previously conducted PAHs analyses suggested that biomass burning residues comprised a major portion of these other sources.

  5. MULTIMEDIA CONCENTRATIONS OF PAH IN SEVERAL DAY CARE CENTERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were measured in nine day care centers in the spring of 1997. Indoor and outdoor air, food and beverages, indoor dust, and outdoor play area soil were sampled. The mean sums of 20 target PAH concentrations were 265 and 199 ng...

  6. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediments of Pulau Tinggi, Johor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, Ezzati Sulhi Abdul; Halim, Izzyan Syazwani Abdul; Ali, Masni Mohd

    2016-11-01

    Surface sediments samples were collected at 11 stations around the Pulau Tinggi, Johor in September 2015. A total of 15 PAHs were determined and quantified by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The total PAH concentrations of surface sediments from Pulau Tinggi ranged from 39.61 ng/g to 149.2 ng/g and they were classified as being in low to moderate pollution range. Individual PAH analysis showed that two and three rings PAHs were the most frequently detected isomers and accounted for 22 - 46% of the total PAH concentrations. The sources of PAHs were evaluated by employing diagnostic ratiosof specific PAH compounds.PAH ratios analysis showed a prevalence of pyrogenic PAH origin at most of the stations with exception of only a few stations.

  7. Diurnal variations of ambient particulate wood burning emissions and their contribution to the concentration of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Seiffen, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulain, L.; Iinuma, Y.; Müller, K.; Birmili, W.; Weinhold, K.; Brüggemann, E.; Gnauk, T.; Hausmann, A.; Löschau, G.; Wiedensohler, A.; Herrmann, H.

    2011-12-01

    Residential wood burning is becoming an increasingly important cause of air quality problems since it has become a popular source of alternative energy to fossil fuel. In order to characterize the contribution of residential wood burning to local particle pollution, a field campaign was organized at the village of Seiffen (Saxony, Germany). During this campaign, an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) was deployed in parallel to a PM1 high volume filter sampler. The AMS mass spectra were analyzed using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) to obtain detailed information about the organic aerosol (OA). Biomass-burning organic aerosol (BBOA), Hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA), and Oxygenated Organic Aerosol (OOA) were identified and represented 20%, 17% and 62% of total OA, respectively. Additionally, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) were measured by the AMS with an average concentration of 10 ng m-3 and short term events of extremely high PAH concentration (up to 500 ng m-3) compared to the mean PAH value were observed during the whole measurement period. A comparison with the results from PM1 filter samples showed that the BBOA factor and the AMS PAH are good indicators of the total concentration of the different monosaccharide anhydrides and PAH measured on the filter samples. Based on its low correlation with CO and the low car traffic, the HOA factor was considered to be related to residential heating using liquid fuel. An influence of the time of the week (week vs. weekend) on the diurnal profiles of the different OA components was observed. The weekdays were characterized by two maxima; a first one early in the morning and a stronger one in the evening. During the weekend days, the different OA components principally reached only one maximum in the afternoon. Finally, the PAH emitted directly from residential wood combustion was estimated to represent 1.5% of the total mass of the BBOA factor and around 62% of the total PAH concentration measured at

  8. Seasonal trends in vegetation and atmospheric concentrations of PAHs and PBDEs near a sanitary landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Amand, Annick D.; Mayer, Paul M.; Blais, Jules M.

    Spruce needle and atmospheric (gaseous and particulate-bound) concentrations were surveyed near a sanitary landfill from February 2004 to June 2005. The influence of several parameters such as temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, as well as increased domestic heating during the winter was assessed. In general, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) concentrations in spruce needles increased over time and decreased following snowmelt with a minimum coinciding with bud burst of deciduous trees. Atmospheric concentrations of PBDE and PAH, both particulate-bound and gaseous phase, were linked to daily weather events and thus showed more variability than those in spruce needles. Highest PAH concentrations were encountered during the winter, likely reflecting increased emission from heating homes. Pseudo Clausius-Clapeyron plots revealed higher PBDE gaseous concentrations with increasing temperature, but showed no correlation between PAH gaseous concentrations and temperature as this effect was obscured by seasonal emission patterns. Finally, air mass back trajectories and local wind directions revealed that particulate-bound PBDEs, along with both gaseous and particulate-bound PAHs were from local sources, whereas gaseous PBDEs were likely from distant sources.

  9. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and azaarenes in runoff from coal-tar- and asphalt-sealcoated pavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Barbara J; Van Metre, Peter C; Foreman, William T

    2014-05-01

    Coal-tar-based sealcoat, used extensively on parking lots and driveways in North America, is a potent source of PAHs. We investigated how concentrations and assemblages of PAHs and azaarenes in runoff from pavement newly sealed with coal-tar-based (CT) or asphalt-based (AS) sealcoat changed over time. Samples of simulated runoff were collected from pavement 5 h to 111 d following application of AS or CT sealcoat. Concentrations of the sum of 16 PAHs (median concentrations of 328 and 35 μg/L for CT and AS runoff, respectively) in runoff varied relatively little, but rapid decreases in concentrations of azaarenes and low molecular weight PAHs were offset by increases in high molecular weight PAHs. The results demonstrate that runoff from CT-sealcoated pavement, in particular, continues to contain elevated concentrations of PAHs long after a 24-h curing time, with implications for the fate, transport, and ecotoxicological effects of contaminants in runoff from CT-sealcoated pavement. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and azaarenes in runoff from coal-tar- and asphalt-sealcoated pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Barbara J.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Foreman, William T.

    2014-01-01

    Coal-tar-based sealcoat, used extensively on parking lots and driveways in North America, is a potent source of PAHs. We investigated how concentrations and assemblages of PAHs and azaarenes in runoff from pavement newly sealed with coal-tar-based (CT) or asphalt-based (AS) sealcoat changed over time. Samples of simulated runoff were collected from pavement 5 h to 111 d following application of AS or CT sealcoat. Concentrations of the sum of 16 PAHs (median concentrations of 328 and 35 μg/L for CT and AS runoff, respectively) in runoff varied relatively little, but rapid decreases in concentrations of azaarenes and low molecular weight PAHs were offset by increases in high molecular weight PAHs. The results demonstrate that runoff from CT-sealcoated pavement, in particular, continues to contain elevated concentrations of PAHs long after a 24-h curing time, with implications for the fate, transport, and ecotoxicological effects of contaminants in runoff from CT-sealcoated pavement.

  11. Heavy Metal and PAH Concentrations in Highway Runoff Deposits Fractionated on Settling Velocities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Larsen, Torben

    2009-01-01

    The correlation between settling velocity and associated pollutant concentrations is of major importance for best management practice in designing, redesigning, or evaluation of the efficiency of existing pond facilities for retaining unwanted pollutants. The prospect of this note is to state...... the relationship between the settling velocity of the runoff particles and the corresponding metal and polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentration directly instead of dealing with two unknowns-the density and the shape of a single particle fraction in a settling velocity calculations. The measurements show...... and copper and there is no significant correlation between PAH concentration and settling velocity. The largest mass of metals and PAH within each pond can be found on the particle fraction with a settling velocity of 5.5-2.5 mm/s....

  12. Diurnal variations of ambient particulate wood burning emissions and their contribution to the concentration of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs in Seiffen, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Poulain

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Residential wood burning is becoming an increasingly important cause of air quality problems since it has become a popular source of alternative energy to fossil fuel. In order to characterize the contribution of residential wood burning to local particle pollution, a field campaign was organized at the village of Seiffen (Saxony, Germany. During this campaign, an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS was deployed in parallel to a PM1 high volume filter sampler. The AMS mass spectra were analyzed using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF to obtain detailed information about the organic aerosol (OA. Biomass-burning organic aerosol (BBOA, Hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA, and Oxygenated Organic Aerosol (OOA were identified and represented 20%, 17% and 62% of total OA, respectively. Additionally, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH were measured by the AMS with an average concentration of 10 ng m−3 and short term events of extremely high PAH concentration (up to 500 ng m−3 compared to the mean PAH value were observed during the whole measurement period. A comparison with the results from PM1 filter samples showed that the BBOA factor and the AMS PAH are good indicators of the total concentration of the different monosaccharide anhydrides and PAH measured on the filter samples. Based on its low correlation with CO and the low car traffic, the HOA factor was considered to be related to residential heating using liquid fuel. An influence of the time of the week (week vs. weekend on the diurnal profiles of the different OA components was observed. The weekdays were characterized by two maxima; a first one early in the morning and a stronger one in the evening. During the weekend days, the different OA components principally reached only one maximum in the afternoon. Finally, the PAH emitted directly from residential wood combustion was estimated to represent 1.5% of the total mass of the BBOA factor and

  13. Biomonitoring seasonal variation of urban air polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using Ficus benghalensis leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prajapati, Santosh Kumar; Tripathi, B.D.

    2008-01-01

    Temporal and seasonal variations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentrations in leaves of Ficus benghalensis were investigated in Varanasi city (India). Leaf samples were collected from six sites from urban area of Varanasi and from a control site. PAH extraction was done by sonication in dichloromethane-acetone and quantification by GC-MS. In January total leaf PAHs concentrations at all the urban sites were twice higher as compared to other season's viz. summer and rainy. In contrast, at the control site leaf PAHs concentrations showed lower values than urban sites. The maximum concentrations of total PAHs in winter were due to the medium molecular weight PAHs which increases with respect to both low and high molecular weight PAHs. The temporal variation of medium molecular weight PAHs was similar both at the urban and remote sites. These results support biomonitoring ability of Ficus benghalensis leaves to temporal variations in PAHs contamination. - Biomonitoring PAHs in atmosphere using F. benghalensis leaves for its temporal and seasonal variation is cost effective as well as easier

  14. Concentrations, input prediction and probabilistic biological risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) along Gujarat coastline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosai, Haren B; Sachaniya, Bhumi K; Dudhagara, Dushyant R; Rajpara, Rahul K; Dave, Bharti P

    2018-04-01

    A comprehensive investigation was conducted in order to assess the levels of PAHs, their input prediction and potential risks to bacterial abundance and human health along Gujarat coastline. A total of 40 sediment samples were collected at quarterly intervals within a year from two contaminated sites-Alang-Sosiya Shipbreaking Yard (ASSBRY) and Navlakhi Port (NAV), situated at Gulf of Khambhat and Gulf of Kutch, respectively. The concentration of ΣPAHs ranged from 408.00 to 54240.45 ng g -1  dw, indicating heavy pollution of PAHs at both the contaminated sites. Furthermore, isomeric ratios and principal component analysis have revealed that inputs of PAHs at both contaminated sites were mixed-pyrogenic and petrogenic. Pearson co-relation test and regression analysis have disclosed Nap, Acel and Phe as major predictors for bacterial abundance at both contaminated sites. Significantly, cancer risk assessment of the PAHs has been exercised based on incremental lifetime cancer risks. Overall, index of cancer risk of PAHs for ASSBRY and NAV ranged from 4.11 × 10 -6 -2.11 × 10 -5 and 9.08 × 10 -6 -4.50 × 10 -3 indicating higher cancer risk at NAV compared to ASSBRY. The present findings provide baseline information that may help in developing advanced bioremediation and bioleaching strategies to minimize biological risk.

  15. Remarkably constant PAH concentrations in Swiss soils over the last 30 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubler, Andreas; Wächter, Daniel; Blum, Franziska; Bucheli, Thomas D

    2015-10-01

    Although polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are of concern due to their carcinogenic, mutagenic, and teratogenic properties and their ubiquitous occurrence in environmental compartments, only few studies assessed the temporal evolutions of PAH contents of soils over extended time periods. The Swiss Soil Monitoring Network NABO runs long-term monitoring sites resampled every five years since the 1980s. In the present study, soil (0-20 cm) samples collected from 1985 through 2013 at 25 selected monitoring sites were analysed for the 16 priority PAH according to the U.S. EPA and five PAH marker substances. We observed divergent trends for light PAH, such as naphthalene and phenanthrene, compared with heavy PAH, such as benzo[a]pyrene and benzo[ghi]perylene. Whereas the former showed decreasing concentrations since the late 1980s, no significant trends were found for the latter. Furthermore, the analyses showed that naphthalene contents decreased most strongly at rural sites featuring low population densities, while phenanthrene contents generally decreased most strongly at semi-rural sites. The deviating evolutions of light and heavy PAH were mainly attributed to their differing physico-chemical properties. Temporal evolutions in soils contradict emission inventory data suggesting PAH emissions to decline since the 1980s.

  16. Concentration and source identification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in PM10 of urban, industrial and semi-urban areas in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamhari, Anas Ahmad; Sahani, Mazrura; Latif, Mohd Talib; Chan, Kok Meng; Tan, Hock Seng; Khan, Md Firoz; Mohd Tahir, Norhayati

    2014-04-01

    Particulate matter (PM10) associated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ambient air were determined at two sites within the Klang Valley, Kuala Lumpur (urban, KL) and Petaling Jaya (industrial, PJ), and one site outside the Klang Valley, Bangi (semi-urban, BG). This study aimed to determine the concentration and distribution of PAHs in PM10 and the source of origin through principal component analysis (PCA) and diagnostic ratio analysis. This study also assessed the health risk from exposure to airborne BaPeq. PM10 samples were collected on glass fiber filter paper using a High Volume Sampler (HVS) for 24 h between September 2010 and April 2011. The filter papers with PM10 were extracted using dichloromethane-methanol (3:1), and analysis of 16 USEPA priority PAHs was determined using gas chromatography with mass spectra (GC-MS). Health risk assessment was estimated using toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) and incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) which quantitatively estimate the exposure risk for age specific group. The results showed that the total PAHs concentrations throughout seasonal monsoons for KL, PJ and BG ranged from 1.33 ng m-3 to 2.97 ng m-3, 2.24 ng m-3 to 4.84 ng m-3 and 1.64 ng m-3 to 3.45 ng m-3 respectively. More than 80% of total PAHs consisted of 5-ring and 6-ring PAHs such as benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene (IcP), benzo[b]fluoranthene (BbF), benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkF) and benzo[g,h,i]perylene (BgP). The presence of benzo[g,h,i]perylene (BgP) with high concentration at all locations suggested a source indicator for traffic emission. PCA and diagnostic ratio analysis also suggested substantial contributions from traffic emission with minimal influence from coal combustion and natural gas emissions. The use of total BaPeq concentration provide a better estimation of carcinogenicity activities, where they contributed to more than 50% of the potential health risk. Health risk assessment showed that the estimated incremental

  17. PAH concentrations in lake sediment decline following ban on coal-tar-based pavement sealants in Austin, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Mahler, Barbara J.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have concluded that coal-tar-based pavement sealants are a major source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban settings in large parts of the United States. In 2006, Austin, TX, became the first jurisdiction in the U.S. to ban the use of coal-tar sealants. We evaluated the effect of Austin’s ban by analyzing PAHs in sediment cores and bottom-sediment samples collected in 1998, 2000, 2001, 2012, and 2014 from Lady Bird Lake, the principal receiving water body for Austin urban runoff. The sum concentration of the 16 EPA Priority Pollutant PAHs (∑PAH16) in dated core intervals and surficial bottom-sediment samples collected from sites in the lower lake declined about 44% from 1998–2005 to 2006–2014 (means of 7980 and 4500 μg kg–1, respectively), and by 2012–2014, the decline was about 58% (mean of 3320 μg kg–1). Concentrations of ∑PAH16 in bottom sediment from two of three mid-lake sites decreased by about 71 and 35% from 2001 to 2014. Concentrations at a third site increased by about 14% from 2001 to 2014. The decreases since 2006 reverse a 40-year (1959–1998) upward trend. Despite declines in PAH concentrations, PAH profiles and source-receptor modeling results indicate that coal-tar sealants remain the largest PAH source to the lake, implying that PAH concentrations likely will continue to decline as stocks of previously applied sealant gradually become depleted.

  18. Regional variability in bed-sediment concentrations of wastewater compounds, hormones and PAHs for portions of coastal New York and New Jersey impacted by hurricane Sandy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Patrick J.; Gibson, Cathy A; Fisher, Shawn C.; Fisher, Irene; Reilly, Timothy J.; Smalling, Kelly L.; Romanok, Kristin M.; Foreman, William T.; ReVello, Rhiannon C.; Focazio, Michael J.; Jones, Daniel K.

    2016-01-01

    Bed sediment samples from 79 coastal New York and New Jersey, USA sites were analyzed for 75 compounds including wastewater associated contaminants, PAHs, and other organic compounds to assess the post-Hurricane Sandy distribution of organic contaminants among six regions. These results provide the first assessment of wastewater compounds, hormones, and PAHs in bed sediment for this region. Concentrations of most wastewater contaminants and PAHs were highest in the most developed region (Upper Harbor/Newark Bay, UHNB) and reflected the wastewater inputs to this area. Although the lack of pre-Hurricane Sandy data for most of these compounds make it impossible to assess the effect of the storm on wastewater contaminant concentrations, PAH concentrations in the UHNB region reflect pre-Hurricane Sandy conditions in this region. Lower hormone concentrations than predicted by the total organic carbon relation occurred in UHNB samples, suggesting that hormones are being degraded in the UHNB region.

  19. PAH in Some Brands of Tea and Coffee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Navaratnam, Marin Arosha; Jewula, J.

    2015-01-01

    The presence of 25 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in tea and coffee were investigated with focus on four PAHs (PAH4), classified by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) as suitable indicators; benz[a]anthracene (BaA), chrysene (CHR), benzo[b]fluoranthene (BbF) and benzo[a]pyrene (Ba......P). PAH4 from samples of 18 brands of tea leaves and 13 brands of coffee were extracted by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) followed by highly automated clean up steps for gel permeation chromatography (SX-3) and solid phase extraction (500mg silica). GC-MS were applied for detection of PAH4. The limit...... of detection (LOD) ranged from 0.1–0.3 μg/kg with recoveries from 94–106% for PAH4. Concentrations of PAH4 followed the pattern of the total sum of 25 PAHs with higher concentrations with a maximum of 115 μg/kg in tea leaves compared to 5.1 μg/kg in coffee. The highest PAH4 levels were found in black tea...

  20. Phytoremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) by cv. Crioula: A Brazilian alfalfa cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Wilber S; Manoel, Evelin A; Santos, Noemi S; Nunes, Rosane O; Domiciano, Giselli C; Soares, Marcia R

    2018-07-03

    This work aimed to evaluate the phytoremediation capacity of the alfalfa cultivar Crioula in soils contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), primary pollutants with mutagenic and carcinogenic potential. Alfalfa was grown from seed for 40 days on soil amended with anthracene, pyrene, and phenanthrene. Soil and plant tissue was collected for biometric assay, dry mass analysis, and PAH analysis by liquid chromatography. Increased total PAH concentration was associated with decreases in plant biomass, height, and internode length. The Crioula cultivar had a satisfactory phytoremediation effect, reducing total PAH concentration (300 ppm) in the experimental soil by 85% in 20 days, and by more than 95% in 40 days. The PAH showed a tendency to be removed in the temporal order: phenanthrene before pyrene before anthracene, and the removal ratio was influenced by the initial soil concentration of each PAH.

  1. Indoor PAHs at schools, homes and offices in Rome, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romagnoli, P.; Balducci, C.; Perilli, M.; Gherardi, M.; Gordiani, A.; Gariazzo, C.; Gatto, M. P.; Cecinato, A.

    2014-08-01

    Indoor and outdoor concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) associated with PM2.5 particles were monitored in three microenvironments (schools, homes and offices) in the city of Rome, Italy, between winter 2011 and summer 2012. Molecular signatures and indoor/outdoor concentration ratios of PAHs were investigated, with special emphasis on carcinogenic congeners. At indoor locations, total PAHs ranged, on average, from 1.8 to 8.4 ng/m3 in winter and from 0.30 to 1.35 ng/m3 in spring/summer. Outdoors, total PAH concentrations were found to reach 6.3-17.9 ng/m3 in winter and 0.42-1.74 ng/m3 in spring-summer. Indoors, the concentration of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) was as high as 1.1 ng/m3 in winter and below 0.1 ng/m3 in the warm season, independently of site type; the yearly average remained below the European guideline value. The indoor/outdoor concentration ratios of individual compounds were lower than one for most of congeners, suggesting that outdoor sources were predominant. Nonetheless, the percentages of PAH compounds changed with sites and seasons; in particular, in spring/summer, the concentration of BaP at our sites was more than twice that recorded at the regional network stations.

  2. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in rivers and estuaries in Malaysia: a widespread input of petrogenic PAHs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Takada, Hideshige; Tsutsumi, Shinobu; Ohno, Kei; Yamada, Junya; Kouno, Eriko; Kumata, Hidetoshi

    2002-05-01

    This is the first publication on the distribution and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in riverine and coastal sediments in South East Asia where the rapid transfer of land-based pollutants into aquatic environments by heavy rainfall and runoff waters is of great concern. Twenty-nine Malaysian riverine and coastal sediments were analyzed for PAHs (3-7 rings) by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Total PAHs concentrations in the sediment ranged from 4 to 924 ng/g. Alkylated homologues were abundant for all sediment samples. The ratio of the sum of methylphenanthrenes to phenanthrene (MP/P), an index of petrogenic PAHs contribution, was more than unity for 26 sediment samples and more than 3 for seven samples for urban rivers covering a broad range of locations. The MP/P ratio showed a strong correlation with the total PAHs concentrations, with an r2 value of 0.74. This ratio and all other compositional features indicated that Malaysian urban sediments are heavily impacted by petrogenic PAHs. This finding is in contrast to other studies reported in many industrialized countries where PAHs are mostly of pyrogenic origin. The MP/P ratio was also significantly correlated with higher molecular weight PAHs such as benzo[a]pyrene, suggesting unique PAHs source in Malaysia which contains both petrogenic PAHs and pyrogenic PAHs. PAHs and hopanes fingerprints indicated that used crankcase oil is one of the major contributors of the sedimentary PAHs. Two major routes of inputs to aquatic environments have been identified: (1) spillage and dumping of waste crankcase oil and (2) leakage of crankcase oils from vehicles onto road surfaces, with the subsequent washout by street runoff. N-Cyclohexyl-2-benzothiazolamine (NCBA), a molecular marker of street dust, was detected in the polluted sediments. NCBA and other biomarker profiles confirmed our hypothesis of the input from street dust contained the leaked crankcase oil. The fingerprints excluded crude oil

  3. Distribution of PAHs and the PAH-degrading bacteria in the deep-sea sediments of the high-latitude Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, C.; Bai, X.; Sheng, H.; Jiao, L.; Zhou, H.; Shao, Z.

    2015-04-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are common organic pollutants that can be transferred long distances and tend to accumulate in marine sediments. However, less is known regarding the distribution of PAHs and their natural bioattenuation in the open sea, especially the Arctic Ocean. In this report, sediment samples were collected at four sites from the Chukchi Plateau to the Makarov Basin in the summer of 2010. PAH compositions and total concentrations were examined with GC-MS. The concentrations of 16 EPA-priority PAHs varied from 2.0 to 41.6 ng g-1 dry weight and decreased with sediment depth and movement from the southern to the northern sites. Among the targeted PAHs, phenanthrene was relatively abundant in all sediments. The 16S rRNA gene of the total environmental DNA was analyzed with Illumina high-throughput sequencing (IHTS) to determine the diversity of bacteria involved in PAH degradation in situ. The potential degraders including Cycloclasticus, Pseudomonas, Halomonas, Pseudoalteromonas, Marinomonas, Bacillus, Dietzia, Colwellia, Acinetobacter, Alcanivorax, Salinisphaera and Shewanella, with Dietzia as the most abundant, occurred in all sediment samples. Meanwhile, enrichment with PAHs was initiated onboard and transferred to the laboratory for further enrichment and to obtain the degrading consortia. Most of the abovementioned bacteria in addition to Hahella, Oleispira, Oceanobacter and Hyphomonas occurred alternately as predominant members in the enrichment cultures from different sediments based on IHTS and PCR-DGGE analysis. To reconfirm their role in PAH degradation, 40 different bacteria were isolated and characterized, among which Cycloclasticus Pseudomonas showed the best degradation capability under low temperatures. Taken together, PAHs and PAH-degrading bacteria were widespread in the deep-sea sediments of the Arctic Ocean. We propose that bacteria of Cycloclasticus, Pseudomonas, Pseudoalteromonas, Halomonas, Marinomonas and Dietzia may

  4. Senyawa polisiklik aromatik hidrokarbon (PAH dalam air laut di Teluk Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward .

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pahs compound at Jakarta Bay seawater were carried out on July 2011. The objectives of this research were to measure the concentration of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH compound, concentration of individual PAH compound, and to identify sources of PAH compound in seawater. PAH compound concentration was measured by Gas Chromatography (Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detector and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons compound were identified by diagnostic ratio analysis. The results show that the concentration of PAH compound in the middle of Jakarta Bay was higher compared to the west and the east. In the west and middle of Jakarta Bay, it is found that 11 PAH types, and 10 types in the east. Individual PAH compound dominated by high moleculer weight of PAH Benzo(aAnthracene, Chrysene, Benzo(bFluoranthene, Benzo(aPyrene, dan Indeno(123-cd Pyrene. The results of PAH compound ratio individual analysis showed that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons compound at Jakarta Bay seawater came from oil spill and incomplete combustion mixture of organic material such as wood, grass, fuel oil, and fuel industry combustion activity.

  5. Concentrations, sources and health effects of parent, oxygenated- and nitrated- polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in middle-school air in Xi'an, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingzhi; Xu, Hongmei; Guinot, Benjamin; Li, Lijuan; Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Liu, Suixin; Li, Xiaoping; Cao, Junji

    2017-08-01

    Indoor and outdoor concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), oxygenated-PAHs (OPAHs), and nitro-PAHs (NPAHs) associated with PM2.5 particles were monitored in a middle-school classroom from 8 to 22 March 2012 in Xi'an, China. The total PAHs ranged from 49.6 to 140.0 ng/m3 in outdoors and 50.3 to 111.6 ng/m3 in indoors, while OPAHs and NPAHs showed averages of 19.1 and 16.4 ng/m3, 0.1039 and 0.0785 ng/m3 for outdoor and indoor air, respectively. Strong correlations were found between indoor (I) and outdoor (O), and the I/O ratios were school in Xi'an. Indoor pollutants were mostly influenced by outdoor air. Biomass burning, coal combustion, and vehicle emission were main sources for PAHs. Secondary formation was the main source for OPAHs and NPAHs. Inhalation cancer risks assessment of PAHs showed there were potential health risks for students during sampling time.

  6. Source identification of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs in the urban environment of İstanbul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günay Kural

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, İstanbul-Tuzla Region atmosphere is selected as the working area because of this region contains shipyards and shipyard-related side product industries. To examine the PAHs as atmospheric inputs, 46 ambient air samples were collected in Tuzla region of Istanbul, Turkey at 2010. The sample collection was carried out as monthly. Additionally, the volume of the air was drawn and meteorological data recorded. The PAH concentrations were classified as hot and cold season samples. Due to the particle-bond character of PAHs and condensation in cold, the high concentrations were encountered in winter months. Monthly average total PAH concentrations fluctuated between 7.4 ng m-3 (in March-0.05 ng m-3 (in August. The concentrations of total PAHs in cold season were almost hundred times higher than those in hot season. The fossil fuel (gasoline and diesel fuel combustion was found to be the main source of PAHs.

  7. Urinary concentrations of PAH and VOC metabolites in marijuana users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Binnian; Alwis, K Udeni; Li, Zheng; Wang, Lanqing; Valentin-Blasini, Liza; Sosnoff, Connie S; Xia, Yang; Conway, Kevin P; Blount, Benjamin C

    2016-03-01

    Marijuana is seeing increased therapeutic use, and is the world's third most-popular recreational drug following alcohol and tobacco. This widening use poses increased exposure to potentially toxic combustion by-products from marijuana smoke and the potential for public health concerns. To compare urinary metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) among self-reported recent marijuana users and nonusers, while accounting for tobacco smoke exposure. Measurements of PAH and VOC metabolites in urine samples were combined with questionnaire data collected from participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) from 2005 to 2012 in order to categorize participants (≥18years) into exclusive recent marijuana users and nonusers. Adjusted geometric means (GMs) of urinary concentrations were computed for these groups using multiple regression analyses to adjust for potential confounders. Adjusted GMs of many individual monohydroxy PAHs (OH-PAHs) were significantly higher in recent marijuana users than in nonusers (pmarijuana users than in nonusers. We found elevated levels of biomarkers for potentially harmful chemicals among self-identified, recent marijuana users compared with nonusers. These findings suggest that further studies are needed to evaluate the potential health risks to humans from the exposure to these agents when smoking marijuana. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Uptake of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) by Oryza sativa L. Grown in Soil Contaminated with Crude Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patowary, Rupshikha; Patowary, Kaustuvmani; Devi, Arundhuti; Kalita, Mohan Chandra; Deka, Suresh

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in crude oil contaminated sites are transferred to roots, shoots and finally the grains of rice crops (Oryza sativa L.) grown in those sites. Soil was artificially contaminated with crude oil at concentrations of 0, 1000, 5000, 10,000, and 15,000 mg/kg, followed by planting of rice seedlings. After harvest, TPH in plant samples were measured, and it was determined that the uptake of TPH by the plants gradually increased as the concentration of oil in soil increased. Further, from GC-MS analysis, it was observed that PAHs including naphthalene and phenanthrene bioaccumulated in rice plant parts. Vital physico-chemical properties of soil were also altered due to crude oil contamination. Our study revealed that rice plants grown in crude oil polluted sites can uptake TPH including PAHs, thus emphasising the importance of prior investigation of soil condition before cultivation of crops.

  9. Concentration and photochemistry of PAHs, NPAHs, and OPAHs and toxicity of PM2.5 during the Beijing Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wentao; Jariyasopit, Narumol; Schrlau, Jill; Jia, Yuling; Tao, Shu; Yu, Tian-Wei; Dashwood, Roderick H; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Xuejun; Simonich, Staci L Massey

    2011-08-15

    Atmospheric particulate matter with diameter cells were also measured. Significant reductions in BC (45%), OC (31%), MW< 300 PAH (26-73%), MW 302 PAH (22-77%), NPAH (15-68%), and OPAH (25-53%) concentrations were measured during the source control and Olympic periods. However, the mutagenicity of the PM(2.5) was significantly reduced only during the Olympic period. The PAH, NPAH, and OPAH composition of the PM(2.5) was similar throughout the study, suggesting similar sources during the different periods. During the source control period, the parent PAH concentrations were correlated with NO, CO, and SO(2) concentrations, indicating that these PAHs were associated with both local and regional emissions. However, the NPAH and OPAH concentrations were only correlated with the NO concentrations, indicating that the NPAH and OPAH were primarily associated with local emissions. The relatively high 2-nitrofluoranthene/1-nitropyrene ratio (25-46) and 2-nitrofluoranthene/2-nitropyrene ratio (3.4-4.8), suggested a predominance of photochemical formation of NPAHs through OH-radical-initiated reactions in the atmosphere. On average, the ∑NPAH and ∑OPAH concentrations were 8% of the parent PAH concentrations, while the direct-acting mutagenicity (due to the NPAH and OPAH) was 200% higher than the indirect-acting mutagenicity (due to the PAH). This suggests that NPAH and OPAH make up a significant portion of the overall mutagenicity of PM(2.5) in Beijing.

  10. Characteristics of PAHs from deep-frying and frying cooking fumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhiliang; Li, Jing; Wu, Bobo; Hao, Xuewei; Yin, Yong; Jiang, Xi

    2015-10-01

    Cooking fumes are an important indoor source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Because indoor pollution has a more substantial impact on human health than outdoor pollution, PAHs from cooking fumes have drawn considerable attention. In this study, 16 PAHs emitted through deep-frying and frying methods using rapeseed, soybean, peanut, and olive oil were examined under a laboratory fume hood. Controlled experiments were conducted to collect gas- and particulate-phase PAHs emitted from the cooking oil fumes, and PAH concentrations were quantified via high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results show that deep-frying methods generate more PAHs and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) (1.3 and 10.9 times, respectively) because they consume greater volumes of edible oil and involve higher oil temperatures relative to those of frying methods. In addition, the total B[a]Peq concentration of deep-frying is 2.2-fold larger than that of frying. Regarding the four types of edible oils studied, rapeseed oil produced more PAH emission than the other three oil varieties. For all of the cooking tests, three- and four-ringed PAHs were the main PAH components regardless of the food and oil used. Concerning the PAH partition between gas and particulate phase, the gaseous compounds accounted for 59-96 % of the total. Meanwhile, the particulate fraction was richer of high molecular weight PAHs (five-six rings). Deep-frying and frying were confirmed as important sources of PAH pollution in internal environments. The results of this study provide additional insights into the polluting features of PAHs produced via cooking activities in indoor environments.

  11. Relation between PAH and black carbon contents in size fractions of Norwegian harbor sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oen, Amy M.P.; Cornelissen, Gerard; Breedveld, Gijs D.

    2006-01-01

    Distributions of total organic carbon (TOC), black carbon (BC), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were investigated in different particle size fractions for four Norwegian harbor sediments. The total PAH (16-EPA) concentrations ranged from 2 to 113 mg/kg dry weight with the greatest fraction of PAH mass in the sand fraction for three of the four sediments. TOC contents ranged from 0.84% to 14.2% and BC contents from 0.085% to 1.7%. This corresponds to organic carbon (OC = TOC - BC) contents in the range of 0.81-14% and BC:TOC ratios of 1.3-18.1%. PAH isomer ratios suggested that the PAH in all four sediments were of pyrogenic origin. Furthermore, stronger correlations between PAH versus BC (r 2 = 0.85) than versus OC (r 2 = 0.15) were found. For all size fractions and bulk sediments, the PAH-to-BC ratios for the total PAHs were on average 6 ± 3 mg PAH/g BC. These results suggest that PAH distributions were dominated by the presence of BC, rather than OC. As sorption to BC is much stronger than sorption to OC, this may result in significantly lower dissolved concentrations of PAH than expected on the basis of organic carbon partitioning alone. - PAH contents correlated better with black carbon than organic carbon for four Norwegian harbor sediments

  12. Application of PAH concentration profiles in lake sediments as indicators for smelting activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Wiebke; Ruppert, Hans; Licha, Tobias

    2016-09-01

    The ability of lake sediment cores to store long-term anthropogenic pollution establishes them as natural archives. In this study, we focus on the influence of copper shale mining and smelting in the Mansfeld area of Germany, using the depth profiles of two sediment cores from Lake Süßer See. The sediment cores provide a detailed chronological deposition history of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals in the studied area. Theisen sludge, a fine-grained residue from copper shale smelting, reaches the lake via deflation by wind or through riverine input; it is assumed to be the main source of pollution. To achieve the comparability of absolute contaminant concentrations, we calculated the influx of contaminants based on the sedimentation rate. Compared to the natural background concentrations, PAHs are significantly more enriched than heavy metals. They are therefore more sensitive and selective for source apportionment. We suggest two diagnostic ratios of PAHs to distinguish between Theisen sludge and its leachate: the ratio fluoranthene to pyrene ~2 and the ratio of PAH with logKOW5.7 converging to an even lower value than 2.3 (the characteristic of Theisen sludge) to identify the particulate input in lake environments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Austin sediments after a ban on pavement sealers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeMott, R.P.; Gauthier, T.D.; Wiersema, J.M.; Crenson, G. [ENVIRON International, Tampa, FL (USA)

    2010-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations were measured in stream sediments collected before and after a municipal ban on the use of coal-tar-based pavement sealers in Austin, Texas. Samples were collected in October 2005, prior to the ban, and again in April, 2008, approximately 2 years after the ban. Differences in total PAH concentrations between samples collected before and after the ban show no net change in PAH levels in Austin stream sediments. Results of hydrocarbon fingerprinting reveal subtle differences in PAH profiles that appear to reflect the effects of weathering rather than a change in PAH sources.

  14. Influence of smoking parameters on the concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Danish smoked fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Christensen, J. H.; Højgård, A.

    2010-01-01

    were also tested in a pilot plant study with smoked trout as a model fish. In addition to confirming that increased combustion temperatures and usage of common alder in comparison with beech increased Sigma PAH25, it was also revealed that the PAH concentration decreased in the order fish skin >> outer......A new method for the analysis of 25 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds in fish was developed, validated, and used for the quantification of PAHs in 180 industrially smoked fish products. The method included pressurized liquid extraction, gel-permeation chromatography (Bio-beads S-X3...... smoking, and for other fish species direct smoking leads to higher sigma PAH25 than indirect smoking. Also, the usage of common alder increases the PAH contamination compared with beech. The effects of smoking time, combustion temperatures, and two types of smoke-generating material on the Sigma PAH25...

  15. [Comparison of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS) contents in bakery products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciemniak, Artur; Witczak, Agata

    2010-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are a group of well-known chemical carcinogens with a wide distribution in the environment and formed by the incomplete combustion of organic substances. PAHs have attracted most attention because of their carcinogenic potential. PAHs have been found as contaminants in different food categories such as dairy products, smoked and barbecued meat, vegetables, fruits, oils, coffee, tea, and cereals. Processing of food at high temperatures increases the amount of PAHs in the food Diet is the major source of human exposure to PAHs. The major dietary source of PAH are oils and fats, cereals products and vegetables. The aims of this study were to determine the content levels of 23 PAHs in various sorts of bread. The analytical procedure was based Soxhlet extraction with n--hexane and cleaned up in aflorisil cartridge. Chromatographic separation was performed using gas chromatography (HP 6890) coupled to mass spectrometry (HP 5973). The total concentration of PAHs was low end varied between 2.61 microg/kg to 43.4 microg/kg. Furthermore, the results revealed differences in concentrations of PAHs between rind and bread-crumb.

  16. Biomonitoring of PAHs by using Quercus ilex leaves: Source diagnostic and toxicity assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nicola, Flavia; Claudia, Lancellotti; MariaVittoria, Prati; Giulia, Maisto; Anna, Alfani

    2011-03-01

    Quercus ilex L. leaves were sampled at nineteen urban sites and two remote sites in order to evaluate PAH contamination degree. One-, two- and three-year-old leaves were collected and leaf lipid content was measured to investigate the influence of leaf age and lipids in PAH accumulation. Some PAH diagnostic ratios, such as Ant/Ant + Phen, Flt/Flt + Pyr, B[a]A/B[a]A + Crys and IP/IP + B[g,h,i]P, were calculated. The results suggest that Q. ilex leaves are effective biomonitors of PAH air contamination: in fact, a great PAH accumulation in leaves from the urban areas, until 30-time higher compared to those from the remote sites, has been observed. At each site, the similar total PAH concentrations in leaves of different age, probably due to a canopy effect, indicate an ability of all leaf age classes to monitor local PAH concentrations in air, remarking practical implications for air biomonitoring. The findings suggest that PAH adsorption in Q. ilex leaves does not result limited by leaf lipid content. Moreover, this study demonstrates the source-diagnostic potential of Q. ilex leaves, because, in particular, the Flt/Flt + Pyr and IP/IP + B[g,h,i]P ratios indicate vehicular traffic as the main source of PAHs in the urban areas and wood combustion in the remote areas. Moreover, to distinguish biomass combustion source, a promising tracer PAH as DB[a,h]A could be used. The high contribution of DB[a,h]A to total PAH concentrations at the remote sites determines a high carcinogenic potential in this area, similar to that calculated for the urban area where the carcinogenic PAH concentrations in absolute values are often higher.

  17. Assessing the relation between anthropogenic pressure and PAH concentrations in surface water in the Seine River basin using multivariate analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uher, Emmanuelle, E-mail: emmanuelle.uher@irstea.fr [Irstea, UR HBAN Hydrosystèmes et bioprocédés, 1 rue Pierre-Gilles de Gennes, CS 10030, 92761 Antony cedex (France); FIRE, FR-30204 place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); Mirande-Bret, Cécile [LISA, 61 avenue du général de Gaulle, 94010 Créteil (France); Gourlay-Francé, Catherine [Anses, 14 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 94701 Maisons-Alfort Cedex (France)

    2016-07-01

    Understanding the relation between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in freshwater and anthropogenic pressure is fundamental to finding a solution to reduce the presence of PAHs in water, and thus their potential impact on aquatic life. In this paper we propose to gain greater insight into the variability, sources and partitioning of PAHs in labile (or freely dissolved = not associated to the organic matter), dissolved and particulate phases in freshwater. This study was conducted using land use data as a marker of anthropogenic pressure and coupling it with chemical measurements. This study was conducted on 30 sites in the Seine River basin, which is subjected to a strong human impact and exhibits a wide range of land uses. Half of the sites were studied twice. Labile PAHs were measured by semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs), and dissolved and particulate phases by grab samples. Partial least squares regressions were performed between chemical measurements and data of anthropogenic pressure. The results indicate different sources for the dissolved phase and particles. Dissolved and labile phases were more related to the population density of the watershed, while particles were more related to a local pressure. Season and land use data are necessary information to correctly interpret and compare PAH concentrations from different sites. Furthermore, the whole data set of the 45 field deployments comprising labile, dissolved, total and particulate PAH concentrations as well as the physico-chemical parameters is available in the supplementary information. - Highlights: • A large-scale deployment of semi-permeable membrane devices was performed at the Seine Catchment scale • Partial least squares regressions were performed between chemical measurements and data of anthropogenic pressure • The results seem to show a PAHs release from particles to dissolved phase slower than in laboratory work • Dissolved and labile phases were related to a pressure at

  18. Coal-tar-based sealcoated pavement: A major PAH source to urban stream sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witter, Amy E.; Nguyen, Minh H.; Baidar, Sunil; Sak, Peter B.

    2014-01-01

    We used land-use analysis, PAH concentrations and assemblages, and multivariate statistics to identify sediment PAH sources in a small (∼1303 km 2 ) urbanizing watershed located in South-Central, Pennsylvania, USA. A geographic information system (GIS) was employed to quantify land-use features that may serve as PAH sources. Urban PAH concentrations were three times higher than rural levels, and were significantly and highly correlated with combined residential/commercial/industrial land use. Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to group sediments with similar PAH assemblages, and correlation analysis compared PAH sediment assemblages to common PAH sources. The strongest correlations were observed between rural sediments (n = 7) and coke-oven emissions sources (r = 0.69–0.78, n = 5), and between urban sediments (n = 22) and coal-tar-based sealcoat dust (r = 0.94, n = 47) suggesting that coal-tar-based sealcoat is an important urban PAH source in this watershed linked to residential and commercial/industrial land use. -- Highlights: • Total PAH concentrations were measured at 35 sites along an urbanizing land-use gradient. • PAH concentrations increased with increasing urban land-use. • Urban land-use metrics were measured at three spatial scales using GIS. • PAH assemblages indicate coal-tar-based sealcoat is a major urban PAH source. • PAH assemblages indicate coke-oven emissions are an important rural PAH source. -- Coal-tar-based sealcoated pavement is a major PAH source to urban freshwater stream sediments in south-central Pennsylvania, USA

  19. Concentration of PAHs in Municipal Wastewater in Selected Sewer Collectors of the Upper Silesian Urban Area, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pistelok Franciszek

    2014-12-01

    (GC-MS. The concentrations of 16 PAHs sum (EPA list ranged between 1.025 and 3.056 μg/L. Phenanthrene dominated in nearly all the analysed samples. The contents of PAHs, which are priority hazardous substances according to the directive, were high in the analysed samples. The obtained results and the analysis of diagnostic ratios for the emissions of PAHs into the air helped to reach the conclusion that traffic emissions were the main source of PAHs in the examined wastewater.

  20. Source seasonality of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a subtropical city, Guangzhou, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J; Zhang, G; Li, X D; Qi, S H; Liu, G Q; Peng, X Z

    2006-02-15

    Mega-cities are large sources of air pollution on a regional base. Differences in energy structures, geographical settings and regional climate features lead to a large variety of air pollution sources from place to place. To understand the seasonality of air pollution sources is critical to precise emission inventories and a sound protection of human health. Based on a year-round dataset, the sources of PAHs in the air of Guangzhou were drawn by principal factor analysis (PCA) in combination with diagnostic ratios, and the seasonality of these sources were analyzed by PCA/MLR (multiple linear regressions) and discussed. The average total gaseous and particulate PAHs concentrations were 313 and 23.7 ng m(-3), respectively, with a higher concentration of vapor PAHs in summer and particulate PAHs in winter. In addition to vehicle exhaust, which contributed 69% of the particulate PAHs, coal combustion was still an important source and contributed 31% of the particulate PAHs. Relatively constant contribution from coal combustion was found through the year, implying that coal combustion in power plants was not a seasonally dependent source. Evaporation from contaminated ground may be an important source of light PAHs in summer, providing an average contribution of 68% to the total PAHs in this study. By comparing the PAH concentrations and meteorological parameters, we found that higher concentrations of particulate PAHs in winter resulted from enhanced vehicle exhaust under low temperature and accumulation of pollutants under decreased boundary layer, slower wind speed, and long-term dryness conditions. It is suggested that the typical subtropical monsoon climate in South China, cool and dry in winter, hot and humid in summer, may play a key role in controlling the source seasonality (by enhancing vehicle exhaust in winter, ground evaporation in summer), and hence the ambient concentrations of PAHs in the air.

  1. Do 16 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Represent PAH Air Toxicity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samburova, Vera; Zielinska, Barbara; Khlystov, Andrey

    2017-08-15

    Estimation of carcinogenic potency based on analysis of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) ranked by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is the most popular approach within scientific and environmental air quality management communities. The majority of PAH monitoring projects have been focused on particle-bound PAHs, ignoring the contribution of gas-phase PAHs to the toxicity of PAH mixtures in air samples. In this study, we analyzed the results of 13 projects in which 88 PAHs in both gas and particle phases were collected from different sources (biomass burning, mining operation, and vehicle emissions), as well as in urban air. The aim was to investigate whether 16 particle-bound U.S. EPA priority PAHs adequately represented health risks of inhalation exposure to atmospheric PAH mixtures. PAH concentrations were converted to benzo(a)pyrene-equivalent (BaPeq) toxicity using the toxic equivalency factor (TEF) approach. TEFs of PAH compounds for which such data is not available were estimated using TEFs of close isomers. Total BaPeq toxicities (∑ 88 BaPeq) of gas- and particle-phase PAHs were compared with BaPeq toxicities calculated for the 16 particle-phase EPA PAH (∑ 16EPA BaPeq). The results showed that 16 EPA particle-bound PAHs underrepresented the carcinogenic potency on average by 85.6% relative to the total (gas and particle) BaPeq toxicity of 88 PAHs. Gas-phase PAHs, like methylnaphthalenes, may contribute up to 30% of ∑ 88 BaPeq. Accounting for other individual non-EPA PAHs (i.e., benzo(e)pyrene) and gas-phase PAHs (i.e., naphthalene, 1- and 2-methylnaphthalene) will make the risk assessment of PAH-containing air samples significantly more accurate.

  2. Origin and Distribution of PAHs in Ambient Particulate Samples at High Mountain Region in Southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng-hui Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To understand the deposition and transport of PAHs in southern China, a measurement campaign was conducted at a high-elevation site (the summit of Mount Heng, 1269 m A.S.L. from April 4 to May 31, 2009, and a total of 39 total suspended particulate samples were collected for measurement of PAH concentrations. The observed particulate-bound PAHs concentrations ranged from 1.63 to 29.83 ng/m3, with a mean concentration of 6.03 ng/m3. BbF, FLA, and PYR were the predominant compounds. Good correlations were found between individual PAHs and meteorological parameters such as atmospheric pressure, relative humidity, and ambient temperature. The backward trajectory analysis suggested that particulate samples measured at the Mount Heng region were predominantly associated with the air masses from southern China, while the air masses transported over northern and northwestern China had relative higher PAHs concentrations. Based on the diagnostic ratios and factor analysis, vehicular emission, coal combustion, industry emission, and unburned fossil fuels were suggested to be the PAHs sources at Mount Heng site. However, the reactivity and degradation of individual PAHs could influence the results of PAH source profiles, which deserves further investigations in the future.

  3. Biodegradation, bioaccessibility, and genotoxicity of diffuse polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollution at a motorway site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, A.R.; de Lipthay, J.R.; Reichenberg, F.

    2006-01-01

    the asphalt pavement and tested for total amounts of PAHs, amounts of bioaccessible PAHs, total bacterial populations, PAH degrader populations, the potential for mineralization of C-14-PAHs, and mutagenicity. Elevated PAH concentrations were found in the samples taken 1-8 m from the pavement. Soil sampled...... in the most polluted samples close to the pavement. Hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin extraction of soil PAHs, as a direct estimate of the bioaccessibility, indicated that only 1-5% of the PAHs were accessible to soil bacteria. This low bioaccessibility is suggested to be due to sorption to traffic soot...... particles. The increased PAH level close to the pavement was reflected in slightly increased mutagenic activity (1 m, 0.32 +/- 0.08 revertants g(-1) soil; background/24 m: 0.08 +/- 0.04), determined by the Salmonella/microsome assay of total extractable PAHs activated by liver enzymes. The potential...

  4. Development of a screening method for the determination of total polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in water and wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riggin, R.; Strup, P.; Billets, S.

    1983-01-01

    Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) represent an important class of organic compounds from an environmental standpoint, due to known human carcinogenicity of some members. Consequently, there is a great need for monitoring the PAH concentration of a variety of media, including water and industrial wastewater. Recently, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) developed a sensitive analytical method, designated Test Method 610, for the determination of priority pollutant PAHs in aqueous industrial discharges. This method employs reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet (UV) and fluorescence detection to determine all sixteen priority pollutant PAHs in a single chromatographic separation

  5. Microorganism selection and performance in bioslurry reactors treating PAH-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, D P; Hudak, A J

    2002-09-01

    A continuous-flow reactor (CSTR) and a soil slurry-sequencing batch reactor (SS-SBR) were operated in 81 vessels for 200 days to treat a soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Filtered slurry samples were used to quantify bulk biosurfactant concentrations and PAH emulsification. Concentrations of Corynebacterium aquaticum, Flavobacterium mizutaii, Mycobacterium gastri, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Pseudomonas putida were determined using fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis. The CSTR and SS-SBR selected microbial consortia with markedly different surfactant-producing and PAH-degrading abilities. Biosurfactant levels in the SS-SBR reached 4 times the critical micelle concentration (CMC) that resulted in considerable emulsification of PAH. In contrast, CSTR operation resulted in nomeasurable biosurfactant production. Total PAH removal efficiency was 93% in the SS-SBR, compared with only 66% in the CSTR, and stripping of PAH was 3 times less in the SS-SBR. Reversing the mode of operation on day 100 caused a complete reversal in microbial consortia and in reactor performance by day 140. These results show that bioslurry reactor operation can be manipulated to control overall reactor performance.

  6. Distribution and origin sources of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) pollution in sediment of Sarawak coastal area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Shuhaimi Elias; Abdul Khalik Wood; Zaleha Hashim; Mohd Suhaimi Hamzah; Shamsiah Abdul Rahman; Nazaratul Ashifa Abdullah Salim

    2010-01-01

    Alkyl and parent Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) compounds in marine sediment sample collected from ten locations along Sarawak coastal areas were extracted and analyzed by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The source identification of PAH pollution in marine sediment of Sarawak coastal areas were identify by ratios technique of An/ An+phen, Fl/ Fl +Py, B[a]A/ (B[a]A+Chry) and total Methyl Phen/ Phen. The total alkyl and parent PAHs concentration varies from 36.5 - 277.4 ng/ g dry weight (d.w.) with a mean concentration of 138.2 ng/ g d.w. The ratio values of PAHs pollution in marine sediment of Sarawak coastal areas are clearly indicating the PAHs pollutions are originated from petroleum (petrogenic) and petroleum combustion (pyrolytic). However, the origin sources of PAHs pollution in a few stations were uncertain due to mixing sources of PAHs. (author)

  7. Vertical distributions of PAHs in the sediments of four lakes in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukushima, Takehiko; Watanabe, Seigo; Kamiya, Koichi [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Graduate School of Life and Environment; Ozaki, Noriatsu [Hiroshima Univ., Higashihiroshima (Japan). Graduate School of Engineering

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to elucidate historical trends, spatial variations, and the sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pollution in several Japanese lakes. Materials and methods: The vertical distributions of PAHs in the core samples of sediments taken at several points in lakes Kasumigaura, Suwa, Kizaki, and Shinji were determined using a gas chromatograph equipped with a mass selective detector and combined with chronological information and the physical/elemental properties of the sediment. Results and discussion: Seventeen related compounds (congeners) typically had concentration peaks at sediment depths corresponding to the 1960s to 1970s. In Lake Shinji and one bay of Lake Kasumigaura, there was a tendency for PAH concentrations to increase downstream; in contrast, another bay of Lake Kasumigaura showed the reverse trend. During big flood events, the fluxes of PAHs increased due to large inputs of particulate matter, although PAH concentrations were reduced. For the four study lakes and other similar lakes, PAH concentrations of surface sediments were approximately proportional to population densities in the respective watersheds, while the total input of PAHs to the lakes were correlated with their population and watershed area. The source apportionment analysis using isomer ratios for the congener profiles indicated that the principal sources of the PAHs in the lake sediments were gasoline and/or diesel engine exhausts and biomass burning. Conclusions: The observed concentration peaks showed a deterioration of the chemical quality of atmospheric conditions around 1960-1970 and a recent tendency for their amelioration. Between-lake differences suggest that the influence of human activity in the watersheds influences sediment PAH concentrations. The PAH sources were identified to be of pyrogenic origin. (orig.)

  8. PHOTOCHEMISTRY OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN COSMIC WATER ICE: THE ROLE OF PAH IONIZATION AND CONCENTRATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, Amanda M.; Mattioda, Andrew L.; Roser, Joseph; Bregman, Jonathan; Ricca, Alessandra; Allamandola, Louis J.; Bouwman, Jordy; Linnartz, Harold

    2015-01-01

    Infrared spectroscopic studies of ultraviolet (UV) irradiated, water-rich, cosmic ice analogs containing small polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are described. The irradiation studies of anthracene:H 2 O, pyrene:H 2 O, and benzo[ghi]perylene:H 2 O ices (14 K) at various concentrations reported by Bouwman et al. are extended. While aromatic alcohols and ketones have been reported in residues after irradiated PAH:H 2 O ices were warmed to 270 K, it was not known if they formed during ice irradiation or during warm-up when reactants interact as H 2 O sublimes. Recent work has shown that they form in low temperature ice. Using DFT computed IR spectra to identify photoproducts and PAH cations, we tentatively identify the production of specific alcohols [PAH(OH) n ] and quinones [PAH(O) n ] for all PAH:H 2 O ices considered here. Little evidence is found for hydrogenation at 14 K, consistent with the findings of Gudipati and Yang. Addition of O and OH to the parent PAH is the dominant photochemical reaction, but PAH erosion to smaller PAHs (producing CO 2 and H 2 CO) is also important. DFT spectra are used to assess the contribution of PAH-related species to interstellar absorption features from 5 to 9 μm. The case is made that PAH cations are important contributors to the C2 component and PAH(OH) n and PAH(O) n to the C5 component described by Boogert et al. Thus, interstellar ices should contain neutral and ionized PAHs, alcohols, ketones and quinones at the ∼2%-4% level relative to H 2 O. PAHs, their photoproducts, and ion-mediated processes should therefore be considered when modeling interstellar ice processes

  9. PHOTOCHEMISTRY OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN COSMIC WATER ICE: THE ROLE OF PAH IONIZATION AND CONCENTRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Amanda M.; Mattioda, Andrew L.; Roser, Joseph; Bregman, Jonathan [NASA Ames Research Center, PO Box 1, M/S 245-6, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Ricca, Alessandra; Allamandola, Louis J. [SETI Institute, 189 North Bernardo Avenue, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Bouwman, Jordy [Radboud University Nijmegen, Institute for Molecules and Materials, Toernooiveld 5, 6525 ED Nijmegen (Netherlands); Linnartz, Harold [Sackler Laboratory for Astrophysics, Leiden Observatory, University of Leiden, PO Box 9513, NL2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2015-01-20

    Infrared spectroscopic studies of ultraviolet (UV) irradiated, water-rich, cosmic ice analogs containing small polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are described. The irradiation studies of anthracene:H{sub 2}O, pyrene:H{sub 2}O, and benzo[ghi]perylene:H{sub 2}O ices (14 K) at various concentrations reported by Bouwman et al. are extended. While aromatic alcohols and ketones have been reported in residues after irradiated PAH:H{sub 2}O ices were warmed to 270 K, it was not known if they formed during ice irradiation or during warm-up when reactants interact as H{sub 2}O sublimes. Recent work has shown that they form in low temperature ice. Using DFT computed IR spectra to identify photoproducts and PAH cations, we tentatively identify the production of specific alcohols [PAH(OH) {sub n} ] and quinones [PAH(O) {sub n} ] for all PAH:H{sub 2}O ices considered here. Little evidence is found for hydrogenation at 14 K, consistent with the findings of Gudipati and Yang. Addition of O and OH to the parent PAH is the dominant photochemical reaction, but PAH erosion to smaller PAHs (producing CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}CO) is also important. DFT spectra are used to assess the contribution of PAH-related species to interstellar absorption features from 5 to 9 μm. The case is made that PAH cations are important contributors to the C2 component and PAH(OH) {sub n} and PAH(O) {sub n} to the C5 component described by Boogert et al. Thus, interstellar ices should contain neutral and ionized PAHs, alcohols, ketones and quinones at the ∼2%-4% level relative to H{sub 2}O. PAHs, their photoproducts, and ion-mediated processes should therefore be considered when modeling interstellar ice processes.

  10. A source mixing model to apportion PAHs from coal tar and asphalt binders in street pavements and urban aquatic sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahrens, M.J.; Depree, C.V. [National Institute of Water & Atmospheric Research, Hamilton (New Zealand)

    2010-12-15

    Present-day and more than 30 years old road and footpath pavements from Auckland, New Zealand were analysed for PAHs to test the hypothesis that coal tar based pavement binders contribute to unusually high PAH concentrations in adjacent stream and estuarine sediments Total PAH ({Sigma}{sub 28}PAH) concentrations in the dichloromethane-soluble fraction ('binder'), comprising 5-10% of pavement mass, were as high as 200 000 mg kg{sup -1}(10 000 mg kg{sup -1} in binder + aggregate) Older and deeper pavement layers were strongly pyrogenic, whereas pavement layers from recently sealed roads had a more petrogenic composition and more than 1000 times lower Sigma(28)PAH concentrations. Source identification analysis using three PAH isomer ratio pairs (benz(a)anthracene/(benz(a)anthracene + chrysene), benzo(a)pyrene/(benzo(a)pyrene + benzo(e)pyrene)), and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene/(indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene + benzo(g,h,i)perylene) revealed low PAH (bitumen) pavements to have consistently lower isomer ratios than high PAH (coal tar) samples. A concentration-weighted mixing model, with coal tar and bitumen as source materials, explained more than 80% of the variance in isomer ratios and enveloped the entire PAH compositional and concentration range encountered PAH composition and concentrations in adjacent stream sediments ({gt} 15 mg kg{sup -1} dry weight) were consistent with diluted coal tar material as a principal PAH source. Due to the very high PAH concentrations of coal tar, a coal tar content of as little as 0.01% of total sediment mass can account for more than 90% of PAH concentrations in adjacent stream sediments.

  11. Response of microbial activities and diversity to PAHs contamination at coal tar contaminated land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaohui; Sun, Yujiao; Ding, Aizhong; Zhang, Dan; Zhang, Dayi

    2015-04-01

    Coal tar is one of the most hazardous and concerned organic pollutants and the main hazards are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The indigenous microorganisms in soils are capable to degrade PAHs, with essential roles in biochemical process for PAHs natural attenuation. This study investigated 48 soil samples (from 8 depths of 6 boreholes) in Beijing coking and chemistry plant (China) and revealed the correlation between PAHs contamination, soil enzyme activities and microbial community structure, by 16S rRNA denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). At the site, the key contaminants were identified as naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene and anthracene, and the total PAHs concentration ranged from 0.1 to 923.9 mg/kg dry soil. The total PAHs contamination level was positively correlated (pcatalase activities (0.554-6.230 mL 0.02 M KMnO4/g•h) and dehydrogenase activities (1.9-30.4 TF μg/g•h soil), showing the significant response of microbial population and degrading functions to the organic contamination in soils. The PAHs contamination stimulated the PAHs degrading microbes and promoted their biochemical roles in situ. The positive relationship between bacteria count and dehydrogenase activities (p<0.05) suggested the dominancy of PAHs degrading bacteria in the microbial community. More interestingly, the microbial community deterioration was uncovered via the decline of microbial biodiversity (richness from 16S rRNA DGGE) against total PAHs concentration (p<0.05). Our research described the spatial profiles of PAHs contamination and soil microbial functions at the PAHs heavily contaminated sites, offering deeper understanding on the roles of indigenous microbial community in natural attenuation process.

  12. Relating Bioavailability Parameters to the Sorbent Characteristics of PAH Polluted Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartolome, N.; Hilber, I.; Schulin, R.

    2015-01-01

    Regulation of Hydrophobic Organic Contaminants (HOC) such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil is still based on total concentrations. However, many studies have demonstrated that not all of a pollutant’s content in soil is equally available to organisms (Reichenberg & Mayer 2006...... to several sorbent characteristics including organic and black carbon content. The results will provide a better understanding of bioavailability of PAHs in soils. Moreover, the outcomes will be discussed regarding to the potential application of chemical proxies in soil pollution risk assessment......). Over the last decade, intensive effort has been made to incorporate bioavailability into risk assessment (Cachada et al. 2014). Here, we compare total concentrations of PAH with two bioavailability parameters in 30 different soil samples from the archive of the standardized National and Zurich Cantonal...

  13. Mass balance-based regression modeling of PAHs accumulation in urban soils, role of urban development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Chi; Wang, Meie; Chen, Weiping; Chang, Andrew C.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contents in 68 soils samples collected at housing developments that represent different length of development periods across Beijing. Based on the data, we derived a mass balanced mathematical model to simulate the dynamics of PAH accumulations in urban soils as affected by the urban developments. The key parameters were estimated by fitting the modified mass balance model to the data of PAH concentrations vs. building age of the sampling green area. The total PAH concentrations would increase from the baseline of 267 ng g −1 to 3631 ng g −1 during the period of 1978–2048. It showed that the dynamic changes in the rates of accumulations of light and heavy PAH species were related to the shifting of sources of fuels, combustion efficiencies, and amounts of energy consumed during the course of development. - Highlights: • Introduced a mass balance model for soil PAHs accumulation with urbanization. • Reconstructed the historical data of PAH accumulation in soil of Beijing, China. • The soil PAH concentrations would be doubled in the following 40 years. • The composition of PAH emissions were shifting to light PAH species. - Introduced a regression modeling approach to predict the changes of PAH concentrations in urban soil

  14. Activated carbon amendment to sequester PAHs in contaminated soil: a lysimeter field trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Sarah E; Elmquist, Marie; Brändli, Rahel; Hartnik, Thomas; Jakob, Lena; Henriksen, Thomas; Werner, David; Cornelissen, Gerard

    2012-04-01

    Activated carbon (AC) amendment is an innovative method for the in situ remediation of contaminated soils. A field-scale AC amendment of either 2% powder or granular AC (PAC and GAC) to a PAH contaminated soil was carried out in Norway. The PAH concentration in drainage water from the field plot was measured with a direct solvent extraction and by deploying polyoxymethylene (POM) passive samplers. In addition, POM samplers were dug directly in the AC amended and unamended soil in order to monitor the reduction in free aqueous PAH concentrations in the soil pore water. The total PAH concentration in the drainage water, measured by direct solvent extraction of the water, was reduced by 14% for the PAC amendment and by 59% for GAC, 12 months after amendment. Measurements carried out with POM showed a reduction of 93% for PAC and 56% for GAC. The free aqueous PAH concentration in soil pore water was reduced 93% and 76%, 17 and 28 months after PAC amendment, compared to 84% and 69% for GAC. PAC, in contrast to GAC, was more effective for reducing freely dissolved concentrations than total dissolved ones. This could tentatively be explained by leaching of microscopic AC particles from PAC. Secondary chemical effects of the AC amendment were monitored by considering concentration changes in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nutrients. DOC was bound by AC, while the concentrations of nutrients (NO(3), NO(2), NH(4), PO(4), P-total, K, Ca and Mg) were variable and likely affected by external environmental factors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Generation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH during woodworking operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evin Danisman Bruschweiler

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Occupational exposures to wood dust have been associated with an elevated risk of sinonasal cancer (SNC. Wood dust is recognized as a human carcinogen but the specific cancer causative agent remains unknown. One possible explanation is a co-exposure to; wood dust and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. PAHs could be generated during incomplete combustion of wood due to heat created by use of power tools.To determine if PAHs are generated from wood during common woodworking operations, PAHs concentrations in wood dust samples collected in an experimental chamber operated under controlled conditions were analyzed. In addition, personal air samples from workers exposed to wood dust (n=30 were collected.Wood dust was generated using tree different power tools: vibrating sander, belt sander, and saw; and six wood materials: fir, Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF, beech, mahogany, oak and wood melamine. Monitoring of wood workers was carried out by means of personnel sampler device during wood working operations. We measured 21 PAHs concentrations in wood dust samples by capillary gas chromatographic-ion trap mass spectrometric analysis (GC-MS.Total PAH concentrations in wood dust varied greatly (0.24 – 7.95 ppm with the lowest being in MDF dust and the highest in wood melamine dust. Personal exposures to PAHs observed were between 37.5-119.8 ng m-3 among workers during wood working operations.Our results suggest that PAH exposures during woodworking operation are present and hence could play a role in the mechanism of cancer induction related to wood dust exposure.

  16. Evaluation of the boundary condition influence on PAH concentrations in the water column during the sediment dredging of a port.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutroneo, L; Castellano, M; Carbone, C; Consani, S; Gaino, F; Tucci, S; Magrì, S; Povero, P; Bertolotto, R M; Canepa, G; Capello, M

    2015-12-30

    The mobilisation of sediments and related contaminants connected to dredging activities is one of the most critical issues to the environmental risk and exposure assessment of a dredging project. The aim of this paper was an investigation of the mobilisation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) due to the dredging of the Port of Genoa (Italy) to identify the temporal and spatial extent of the contaminant transport, and the influence of the dredging and the boundary conditions on it. The results showed relatively low background PAH concentrations in the water column and confirmed the dredging as the primary rising factor of concentrations in the water column, but also showed a complex scenario in which the different environmental and dredging factors forced the concentrations at different levels and moments. The post dredging phase showed PAH values close to the background conditions and the concentrations remained relatively high only for a few PAHs.

  17. Migration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban treatment sludge to the air during PAH removal applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, Gizem; Cindoruk, S Siddik; Tasdemir, Yücel

    2014-05-01

    In the present study, the amounts of polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) penetrating into air during PAH removal applications from the urban treatment sludge were investigated. The effects of the temperature, photocatalyst type, and dose on the PAH removal efficiencies and PAH evaporation were explained. The sludge samples were taken from an urban wastewater treatment plant located in the city of Bursa, with 585,000 equivalent population. The ultraviolet C (UV-C) light of 254 nm wavelength was used within the UV applications performed on a specially designed setup. Internal air of the setup was vacuumed through polyurethane foam (PUF) columns in order to collect the evaporated PAHs from the sludge during the PAH removal applications. All experiments were performed with three repetitions. The PAH concentrations were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). It was observed that the amounts of PAHs penetrating into the air were increased with increase of temperature, and more than 80% of PAHs migrated to the air consisted of 3-ring compounds during the UV and UV-diethylamine (DEA) experiments at 38 and 53 degrees C. It was determined that 40% decrease was ensured in sigma12 (total of 12) PAH amounts with UV application and 13% of PAHs in sludge penetrated into the air. In the UV-TiO2 applications, a maximum 80% of sigma12 PAH removal was obtained by adding 0.5% TiO2 of dry weight of sludge. The quantity of PAH penetrating into air did not exceed 15%. UV-TiO2 applications ensured high levels of PAH removal in the sludge and also reduced the quantity of PAH penetrating into the air. Within the scope of the samples added with DEA, there was no increase in PAH removal efficiencies and the penetration of PAHs into air was not decreased. In light of these data, it was concluded that UV-TiO2 application is the most suitable PAH removal alternative that restricts the convection of PAH pollution.

  18. Biodegradation, bioaccessibility, and genotoxicity of diffuse polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollution at a motorway site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, A.R.; de Lipthay, J.R.; Reichenberg, F.

    2006-01-01

    Diffuse pollution of surface soil with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is problematic in terms of the large areas and volumes of polluted soil. The levels and effects of diffuse PAH pollution at a motorway site were investigated. Surface soil was sampled with increasing distance from...... in the most polluted samples close to the pavement. Hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin extraction of soil PAHs, as a direct estimate of the bioaccessibility, indicated that only 1-5% of the PAHs were accessible to soil bacteria. This low bioaccessibility is suggested to be due to sorption to traffic soot...... the asphalt pavement and tested for total amounts of PAHs, amounts of bioaccessible PAHs, total bacterial populations, PAH degrader populations, the potential for mineralization of C-14-PAHs, and mutagenicity. Elevated PAH concentrations were found in the samples taken 1-8 m from the pavement. Soil sampled...

  19. PAH partitioning in a toxicity exposure chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterling, M.C. Jr.; Autenrieth, R.L.; Bonner, J.S.; Page, C.A.; Fuller, C.B.; Ernest, A.N.S.

    2003-01-01

    The hypothesis that observed petroleum aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in an aqueous system are equal to the sum of the organic phase and the soluble phase molar concentrations was examined. Raoult's law was used to estimate the soluble phase molar concentrations. The organic phase concentrations were proportional to the PAH mole fraction in the oil. The experiment involved initially loading a batch laboratory mixing vessel with a scalable mixing energy at various oil layer thicknesses corresponding to oil surface loadings. The vessel was then agitated at a constant mean shear rate. Periodical total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) samples were taken in order to estimate the entrainment rate as a function of initial oil layer thickness. In-situ measurements of TPH concentrations were performed with the use of a laser scattering instrument while ex-situ measurements were effected using gravimetric analysis. Additional samples were analyzed for PAH concentration at a steady state TPH concentration using gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) analysis. The results obtained were in agreement with a first order kinetic model (TPH concentrations increased over time). It was noted that in general, the first order rate constant and steady state concentration increased with increased oil loading and increased mean shear rates. There was good correlation between the measurements and the concentrations predicted using the hypothesized model. 8 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  20. Monitoring PAH contamination in water: Comparison of biological and physico-chemical tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourgeault, A.; Gourlay-Francé, C.

    2013-01-01

    The suitability of biological methods and chemical-based passive samplers to determine exposure to PAHs was tested by deploying zebra mussels and SPMDs along the Seine River over 11 months. The concentration of 13 PAHs was analyzed every month in both water and mussels. The sum of the PAH concentrations in mussels, initially at 299 ng g dry wt −1 , reached 2654, 3972 and 3727 ng g −1 at the end of exposure in the three sampling points taken through the river. The respective SPMD-available concentrations of TPAHs reached 9, 52 and 34 ng L −1 . Results showed seasonal variations of total PAH concentrations in the mussels, characterized by a decrease during spawning. The non-achievement of steady state concentration that was observed in mussels may be accounted for by the temporal variation of environmental concentrations. Thus, a bioaccumulation model based on kinetic rather than simple equilibrium partitioning was found to be more appropriate to describe PAH content in mussels. Moreover, biodynamic kinetic modeling proved useful to better understand the uptake and loss processes of pyrene. It clearly shows that these processes are markedly influenced by the biological state of the zebra mussels. The most realistic hypothesis is that the temporal variation of the biodynamic parameters may originate from a decrease of the mussels' metabolization of PAHs during spawning. Since SPMD passive samplers cannot integrate such biological factors, they are poor predictors of PAH bioavailability in mussels. - Highlights: • PAH contamination was monitored by deploying mussels and SPMDs over 11 months along the Seine River. • 5–6 ring PAHs which could not be quantified in spot samples, were measured in SPMDs. • PAH concentrations in the mussels decreased during spawning. • Temporal variation of bioaccumulated PAH may originate from a decrease of the mussels' metabolism during spawning. • Biodynamic model was allowed to explain the bioaccumulation

  1. Monitoring PAH contamination in water: Comparison of biological and physico-chemical tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgeault, A., E-mail: bourgeault@ensil.unilim.fr; Gourlay-Francé, C.

    2013-06-01

    The suitability of biological methods and chemical-based passive samplers to determine exposure to PAHs was tested by deploying zebra mussels and SPMDs along the Seine River over 11 months. The concentration of 13 PAHs was analyzed every month in both water and mussels. The sum of the PAH concentrations in mussels, initially at 299 ng g{sub dry} {sub wt}{sup −1}, reached 2654, 3972 and 3727 ng g{sup −1} at the end of exposure in the three sampling points taken through the river. The respective SPMD-available concentrations of TPAHs reached 9, 52 and 34 ng L{sup −1}. Results showed seasonal variations of total PAH concentrations in the mussels, characterized by a decrease during spawning. The non-achievement of steady state concentration that was observed in mussels may be accounted for by the temporal variation of environmental concentrations. Thus, a bioaccumulation model based on kinetic rather than simple equilibrium partitioning was found to be more appropriate to describe PAH content in mussels. Moreover, biodynamic kinetic modeling proved useful to better understand the uptake and loss processes of pyrene. It clearly shows that these processes are markedly influenced by the biological state of the zebra mussels. The most realistic hypothesis is that the temporal variation of the biodynamic parameters may originate from a decrease of the mussels' metabolization of PAHs during spawning. Since SPMD passive samplers cannot integrate such biological factors, they are poor predictors of PAH bioavailability in mussels. - Highlights: • PAH contamination was monitored by deploying mussels and SPMDs over 11 months along the Seine River. • 5–6 ring PAHs which could not be quantified in spot samples, were measured in SPMDs. • PAH concentrations in the mussels decreased during spawning. • Temporal variation of bioaccumulated PAH may originate from a decrease of the mussels' metabolism during spawning. • Biodynamic model was allowed to explain

  2. Kandungan Senyawa Polisiklik Aromatik Hidrokarbon (PAH di Teluk Jakarta (Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds Hydrocarbons (PAH Content in Jakarta Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fasmi Ahmad

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Perairan Teluk Jakarta menerima limbah yang berasal dari darat maupun perairan itu sendiri. Salah satu limbah tersebut adalah senyawa organik Polisiklik Aromatik Hidrokarbon (PAH yang merupakan senyawa organik bersifat toksik terhadap biota laut. Penelitian dilakukan untuk mengetahui kandungan PAH air laut dan sedimen dalam kaitannya dengan kehidupan biota laut serta mengetahui sumber senyawa tersebut. Pengukuran dilakukan bulan Maret 2011. Contoh air laut diambil dengan water sampler dan contoh sedimen dengan grab pada 15 stasiun. Kadar PAH dianalisa dengan Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detector. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan kadar PAH air laut di Teluk Jakarta Bagian Barat > Bagian Tengah > Bagian Timur. Kandungan PAH di Teluk Jakarta Bagian Barat berkisar 201,57-474,68 ppb dengan total PAH 1404,68 ppb, di Bagian Tengah 104,61-337,07 ppb dengan total 825,63 ppb, dan di Bagian Timur 112,91-370,79 ppb dengan total 806,73 ppb. Data ini menunjukkan Teluk Jakarta Bagian Barat lebih banyak menerima masukan limbah yang mengandung PAH. Sedangkan Kadar PAH sedimen di Teluk Jakarta Bagian Timur > Bagian Tengah > Bagian Barat. Kadar PAH di Teluk Jakarta Bagian Barat berkisar 1,92-64,241 ppm dengan total 107,931 ppm, di Bagian Tengah 16,14-77,71 ppm dengan total 170,61 ppm, dan di Bagian Timur 8,72-115,39 ppm dengan total 252,25 ppm. Data ini menunjukkan sedimen di Teluk Jakarta Bagian Timur lebih banyak mengakumulasi limbah yang mengandung PAH. Sumber PAH dalam air laut dan sedimen ini berasal dari berbagai sumber yakni pembakaran bahan organik, pembakaran minyak bumi, dan tumpahan minyak. Kadar PAH dalam air laut di Teluk Jakarta ini telah melebihi Nilai Ambang Batas yang ditetapkan oleh KMNLH untuk biota laut, dan Nilai Ambang Batas untuk sedimen yang ditetapkan oleh Handbook for Sediment Quality Assessment. Kata kunci: Teluk Jakarta, Polisiklik Aromatik Hidrokarbon, PAH, polusi Jakarta Bay receives various kinds of waste both from land and waters

  3. Occupational PAH Exposures during Prescribed Pile Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, M. S.; Anthony, T. R.; Littau, S. R.; Herckes, P.; Nelson, X.; Poplin, G. S.; Burgess, J. L.

    2008-01-01

    Wildland firefighters are exposed to particulate matter and gases containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), many of which are known carcinogens. Our objective was to evaluate the extent of firefighter exposure to particulate and PAHs during prescribed pile burns of mainly ponderosa pine slash and determine whether these exposures were correlated with changes in urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HP), a PAH metabolite. Personal and area sampling for particulate and PAH exposures were conducted on the White Mountain Apache Tribe reservation, working with 21 Bureau of Indian Affairs/Fort Apache Agency wildland firefighters during the fall of 2006. Urine samples were collected pre- and post-exposure and pulmonary function was measured. Personal PAH exposures were detectable for only 3 of 16 PAHs analyzed: naphthalene, phenanthrene, and fluorene, all of which were identified only in vapor-phase samples. Condensed-phase PAHs were detected in PM2.5 area samples (20 of 21 PAHs analyzed were detected, all but naphthalene) at concentrations below 1 μg m−3. The total PAH/PM2.5 mass fractions were roughly a factor of two higher during smoldering (1.06 ± 0.15) than ignition (0.55 ± 0.04 μg mg−1). There were no significant changes in urinary 1-HP or pulmonary function following exposure to pile burning. In summary, PAH exposures were low in pile burns, and urinary testing for a PAH metabolite failed to show a significant difference between baseline and post-exposure measurements. PMID:18515848

  4. A PAH growth mechanism and synergistic effect on PAH formation in counterflow diffusion flames

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yu

    2013-09-01

    A reaction mechanism having molecular growth up to benzene for hydrocarbon fuels with up to four carbon-atoms was extended to include the formation and growth of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) up to coronene (C24H12). The new mechanism was tested for ethylene premixed flames at low (20torr) and atmospheric pressures by comparing experimentally observed species concentrations with those of the computed ones for small chemical species and PAHs. As compared to several existing mechanisms in the literature, the newly developed mechanism showed an appreciable improvement in the predicted profiles of PAHs. The new mechanism was also used to simulate PAH formation in counterflow diffusion flames of ethylene to study the effects of mixing propane and benzene in the fuel stream. In the ethylene-propane flames, existing experimental results showed a synergistic effect in PAH concentrations, i.e. PAH concentrations first increased and then decreased with increasing propane mixing. This PAH behavior was successfully captured by the new mechanism. The synergistic effect was predicted to be more pronounced for larger PAH molecules as compared to the smaller ones, which is in agreement with experimental observations. In the experimental study in which the fuel stream of ethylene-propane flames was doped with benzene, a synergistic effect was mitigated for benzene, but was observed for large PAHs. This effect was also predicted in the computed PAH profiles for these flames. To explain these responses of PAHs in the flames of mixture fuels, a pathway analysis has been conducted, which show that several resonantly stabilized species as well as C4H4 and H atom contribute to the enhanced synergistic behaviors of larger PAHs as compared to the small ones in the flames of mixture fuels. © 2013 The Combustion Institute.

  5. Urban sprawl leaves its PAH signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, P.C.; Mahler, B.J.; Furlong, E.T.

    2000-01-01

    The increasing vehicle traffic associated with urban sprawl in the United States is frequently linked to degradation of air quality, but its effect on aquatic sediment is less well-recognized. This study evaluates trends in PAHs, a group of contaminants with multiple urban sources, in sediment cores from 10 reservoirs and lakes in six U.S. metropolitan areas. The watersheds chosen represent a range in degree and age of urbanization. Concentrations of PAHs in all 10 reservoirs and lakes increased during the past 20-40 years. PAH contamination of the most recently deposited sediment at all sites exceeded sediment-quality guidelines established by Environment Canada, in some cases by several orders of magnitude. These results add a new chapter to the story told by previous coring studies that reported decreasing concentrations of PAHs after reaching highs in the 1950s. Concurrent with the increase in concentrations is a change in the assemblage of PAHs that indicates the increasing trends are driven by combustion sources. The increase in PAH concentrations tracks closely with increases in automobile use, even in watersheds that have not undergone substantial changes in urban land-use levels since the 1970s.The increasing vehicle traffic associated with urban sprawl in the United States is frequently linked to degradation of air quality, but its effect on aquatic sediment is less well-recognized. This study evaluates trends in PAHs, a group of contaminants with multiple urban sources, in sediment cores from 10 reservoirs and lakes in six U.S. metropolitan areas. The watersheds chosen represent a range in degree and age of urbanization. Concentrations of PAHs in all 10 reservoirs and lakes increased during the past 20-40 years. PAH contamination of the most recently deposited sediment at all sites exceeded sediment-quality guidelines established by Environment Canada, in some cases by several orders of magnitude. These results add a new chapter to the story told by

  6. Source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments from Khuzestan province, Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lübeck, Josephine; Poulsen, Kristoffer Gulmark; Knudsen, Sofie B.

    2016-01-01

    of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollution. A four-component principal component analysis (PCA) model was obtained. While principal component 1 (PC1) was related to the total concentration of PAHs, the remaining PCs described three distinct sources: PC2 and PC3 collectively differentiate between...

  7. Influence of the sunflower rhizosphere on the biodegradation of PAHs in soil

    OpenAIRE

    Tejeda Agredano, M. C.; Gallego, Sara; Vila, Joaquim; Ortega Calvo, J. J.; Cantos, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Reduced bioavailability to soil microorganisms is probably the most limiting factor in the bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAH-polluted soils. We used sunflowers planted in pots containing soil to determine the influence of the rhizosphere on the ability of soil microbiota to reduce PAH levels. The concentration of total PAHs decreased by 93% in 90 days when the contaminated soil was cultivated with sunflowers, representing an improvement of 16% compared to contaminated soi...

  8. Dietary risk evaluation for 28 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in tea preparations made of teas available on the Polish retail market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roszko, Marek; Kamińska, Marta; Szymczyk, Krystyna; Jędrzejczak, Renata

    2018-01-02

    The aim of this work was to assess dietary risk resulting from consumption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with tea infusions. To this end, levels of 28 PAHs in black, green, red and white teas available on the Polish retail market have been assessed. Profiles and correlation between concentrations of individual PAHs have been identified. A model study on transfer of PAHs from tea leaves into tea preparations has been conducted. Relatively high concentrations of 28 evaluated PAHs have been found in 58 tested samples of black, green, red and white teas sampled on the Polish retail market. Total concentration ∑28PAH ranged from 57 to 696 µg kg -1 with mean 258 µg kg -1 (dry tea leaves). The most mature tea leaves fermented to a small degree contained relatively the highest PAH levels among all four tested tea types. Relatively low PAH transfer rates into tea infusions and limited volumes of the consumed tea keep the risks associated with PAH dietary intake at a safely low level. The worst-case scenario dietary intake values were 7.62/0.82/0.097 ng kg -1 b.w. day -1 (estimated on the basis of the maximum found concentrations 696/113/23 µg kg -1 and maximum observed transfer rates 24/16/9%) for ∑28PAH/∑PAH4/B[a]P, respectively. MOE values calculated using the above worst case estimates exceeded 700,000 and 400,000 (BMDL 10 0.07 and 0.34 mg kg -1 b.w. day -1 ) for B[a]P and PAH4, respectively. Both B[a]P and PAH4 concentrations may be used as indicators of total PAH concentration in tea leaves; PAH4 slightly better fits low molecular weight PAHs. Several correlations between various PAHs/groups of PAHs have been identified, the strongest one (R 2 = 0.92) between PAH4 and EU PAH 15+1.

  9. PAHs levels in gas and particle-bound phase in schools at different locations in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Marija

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated seasonal variation of PAHs and their partition between gas and particulate-bounded phases in indoor and outdoor air in 4 schools in Serbia located at different locations. The sampling campaigns were conducted during one workweek at each school successively. Campaigns were conducted in schools during heating and non-heating seasons in December 2011 and June 2012. Seasonal variations of gas and particle-bounded PAHs concentrations were observed with higher levels during heating season. The highest total PAH values were associated with the gas phase in both sampling periods. The total PAHs concentration at indoor and at the outdoor sites, during heating season, ranged from 88.45 to 447.72 ng/m3 and 201.69 to 1017.15 ng/m3, respectively. During non-heating season, the total PAHs concentration ranged from 36.91 to 271.57 ng/m3 in indoor environment and 27.00 to 132.32 ng/m3 in outdoor environment. Most of the I/O ratios were less than 1, which indicated that the indoor PAHs were mostly from outdoor sources. The use of diagnostic ratio showed that traffic emission and coal combustion are the major sources of PAHs. Only the diagnostic ratios for the school, located near the industrial area, showed significant deviation compared to other schools. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR33036: Development of new meteorological mast for turbulence parameters characterization and br. III42008: Evaluation of Energy Performances and Indoor Environment Quality of Educational Buildings in Serbia with Impact to Health

  10. Impacts of urbanization on surface sediment quality: evidence from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contaminations in the Grand Canal of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Youwei; Yu, Shen; Yu, Guangbin; Liu, Yi; Li, Guilin; Wang, Min

    2012-06-01

    Organic pollutants, especially synthetic organic compounds, can indicate paces of anthropogenic activities. Effects of urbanization on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) distributions in surface sediment were conducted in urban sections of the Grand Canal, China, consisting of a four-level urbanization gradient. The four-level urbanization gradients include three countryside towns, two small-size cities, three medium-size cities, and a large-size city. Diagnostic ratio analysis and factor analysis-multiple linear regression model were used for source apportionment of PAHs. Sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) of USA and Canada were employed to assess ecological risks of PAHs and PCBs in surface sediments of the Canal. Ranges of PAH and PCB concentrations in surface sediments were 0.66-22 mg/kg and 0.5-93 μg/kg, respectively. Coal-related sources were primary PAH sources and followed by vehicular emission. Total concentration, composition, and source apportionment of PAHs exhibited urbanization gradient effects. Total PCB concentrations increased with the urbanization gradient, while total PAHs concentration in surface sediments presented an inverted U Kuznets curve with the urbanization gradient. Elevated concentrations of both PAHs and PCBs ranged at effect range low levels or interim SQG, assessed by USA and Canadian SQGs. PAHs and PCBs in surface sediments of the Grand Canal showed urbanization gradient effects and low ecological risks.

  11. Micellar Enhanced Ultrafiltration for the Removal of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs Mixtures in Underground Contaminated Water in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Aoudia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to analyze polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in diesel contaminated underground water in Oman (Rustaq, Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry was first used to determine the different concentrations in a standard mixture containing 16 PAHs. Retention time and calibration curves were obtained for all aromatic compounds and were used to identify a given analyte as well as its concentration in the contaminated underground water. Micellar enhanced ultrafiltration (MEUF was then used to treat standard aqueous solution of PAHs at low concentration (~ 1 ppb using an edible nonionic surfactant (Tween 80. The totality of the mixture components was completely rejected. Within the experimental detection limit (± 0.01 ppb, the residual PAH concentrations were less than 0.01 ppb in accord with the allowed concentrations in drinking water. Likewise, excellent rejections of PAHs in MEUF treatment of diesel contaminated underground water at an Omani site (Rustaq were observed. The concentration of PAHs was reduced to less than 0.01 ppb, the accepted limit for the most toxic member of the PAH group (benzo(apyrene.

  12. Atmospheric concentrations, distributions and air-soil exchange tendencies of PAHs and PCBs in a heavily industrialized area in Kocaeli, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Banu; Yurdakul, Sema; Keles, Melek; Celik, Isil; Ozturk, Fatma; Dogan, Cevdet

    2017-09-01

    Dilovasi is one of the heavily industrialized areas in Turkey with serious environmental problems. In this study, the atmospheric concentration of PAHs and PCBs were measured for a whole year at 23 sites. The average ambient air Σ 15 PAH and Σ 41 PCB concentrations were found as 285 ± 431 ng m -3 and 4152 ± 6072 pg m -3 , respectively. PAH concentrations increased with decreasing temperature especially in urban areas, indicating the impact of residential heating. However, PCB concentrations mostly increased with temperature probably due to enhanced volatilization from their sources. The gradient obtained for PCBs, rural air were higher in industrial-urban areas than rural sites, showing that soil was a secondary source for PAHs. Fugacity ratios of PCBs were mostly <1.0 for the whole sampling period. Although the source/sink tendency of soil for some PCBs depends on their volatility, considering the whole data, PCBs were generally deposited to soil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Response of PAH-degrading genes to PAH bioavailability in the overlying water, suspended sediment, and deposited sediment of the Yangtze River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xinghui; Xia, Na; Lai, Yunjia; Dong, Jianwei; Zhao, Pujun; Zhu, Baotong; Li, Zhihuang; Ye, Wan; Yuan, Yue; Huang, Junxiong

    2015-06-01

    The degrading genes of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) serve as indicators of in situ HOC degradation potential, and the existing forms and bioavailability of HOCs might influence the distribution of HOC-degrading genes in natural waters. However, little research has been conducted to study the relationship between them. In the present study, nahAc and nidA genes, which act as biomarkers for naphthalene- and pyrene-degrading bacteria, were selected as model genotypes to investigate the response of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading genes to PAH bioavailability in the overlying water, suspended sediment (SPS), and deposited sediment of the Yangtze River. The freely dissolved concentration, typically used to reflect HOC bioavailability, and total dissolved, as well as sorbed concentrations of PAHs were determined. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all the PAH-ring hydroxylating dioxygenase gene sequences of Gram-negative bacteria (PAH-RHD[GN]) were closely related to nahAc, nagAc, nidA, and uncultured PAH-RHD genes. The PAH-RHD[GN] gene diversity as well as nahAc and nidA gene copy numbers decreased in the following order: deposited sediment>SPS>overlying water. The nahAc and nidA gene abundance was not significantly correlated with environmental parameters but was significantly correlated with the bioavailable existing forms of naphthalene and pyrene in the three phases. The nahAc gene copy numbers in the overlying water and deposited sediment were positively correlated with freely dissolved naphthalene concentrations in the overlying and pore water phases, respectively, and so were nidA gene copy numbers. This study suggests that the distribution and abundance of HOC-degrading bacterial population depend on the HOC bioavailability in aquatic environments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Atmospheric concentrations, sources and gas-particle partitioning of PAHs in Beijing after the 29th Olympic Games

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Wanli [International Joint Research Center for Persistent Toxic Substances (IJRC-PTS), State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Sun Dezhi [International Joint Research Center for Persistent Toxic Substances (IJRC-PTS), State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083 (China); Shen Weiguo [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083 (China); Yang Meng [IJRC-PTS, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian (China); Qi Hong; Liu Liyan; Shen Jimin [International Joint Research Center for Persistent Toxic Substances (IJRC-PTS), State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Li Yifan, E-mail: ijrc_pts_paper@yahoo.com [International Joint Research Center for Persistent Toxic Substances (IJRC-PTS), State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Science and Technology Branch, Environment Canada, Toronto, Ontario M3H5T4 (Canada)

    2011-07-15

    A comprehensive sampling campaign was carried out to study atmospheric concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Beijing and to evaluate the effectiveness of source control strategies in reducing PAHs pollution after the 29th Olympic Games. The sub-cooled liquid vapor pressure (logP{sub L}{sup o})-based model and octanol-air partition coefficient (K{sub oa})-based model were applied based on each seasonal dateset. Regression analysis among log K{sub P}, logP{sub L}{sup o} and log K{sub oa} exhibited high significant correlations for four seasons. Source factors were identified by principle component analysis and contributions were further estimated by multiple linear regression. Pyrogenic sources and coke oven emission were identified as major sources for both the non-heating and heating seasons. As compared with literatures, the mean PAH concentrations before and after the 29th Olympic Games were reduced by more than 60%, indicating that the source control measures were effective for reducing PAHs pollution in Beijing. - Highlights: > This is the first comprehensive study of PAHs in atmosphere after the 29th Olympics in Beijing, China. > The air quality before and after 29th Olympics has attracted much attention worldwide. > The study was helpful for other countries to understand how the Olympics affected PAHs emissions. > The study would act as a case study to know the effects that big events can impose on the host cities. - The source control measures implemented before and during the 29th Olympic Games were effective for reducing the emissions of air pollutants in Beijing.

  15. Bimonthly assessment of PAH content in wild mussels from the Spanish Atlantic Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Campillo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available During 2013-14 wild mussels were bimonthly sampled in five stations along the Spanish Atlantic coast in order to assess any temporal variation in the concentration of parent PAHs. The sampling stations selected (Oia, Raxó, Mera, Avilés and Pedreña included both polluted and unpolluted sites and tried to reflect the different situations in the area (coastal and more estuarine waters. The samples were shipped to the lab and three homogenates from each site were prepared and frozen until analysis. 13 parent PAHs were quantified using HPLC with fluorescence detection. In general, the highest concentrations were found in the January-March sampling, during the pre-spawning period. PAHs contents were related to mussel biochemical composition, mainly carbohydrates and lipids, and to mussel reproductive stage. In general the 4-ring PAHs is the most abundant group of PAHs. The input of the HMW PAHs (4-5 rings to the total PAH burden generally increases in the winter months probably due to both different sources in that season (building heatings and the remobilization of sediments.

  16. Temporal variability in sediment PAHs accumulation in the northern Gulf of Mexico Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bam, W.; Maiti, K.; Adhikari, P. L.

    2017-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous group of organic pollutants, some of which are known to be toxic, and/or carcinogenic to humans. The major source of these PAHs into the northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM) are Mississippi River discharge, coastal erosion, atmospheric deposition, and numerous natural oil seeps and spills. In addition to these background source of PAHs, the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill in 2010 added 21,000 tons of PAHs into the NGOM water. In this study, we measured PAHs distribution and accumulation rates in coastal sediments near the Mississippi River mouth in 2011 and 2015 to understand the effect of DWH oil spill in PAHs accumulation in coastal sediments. Sediment cores were collected and sliced at 1 cm interval to measure PAHs concentration, and to estimate 210Pb-based sedimentation and the PAHs' accumulation rates. The results showed that the sediment deposition rates in this region varied between 0.5 to 0.9 cm/yr. The results also showed that the concentration of total PAHsPAH43) and their accumulation rates vary between 68 - 100 ng g-1 and 7 - 160 ng cm-2 yr-1, respectively. While the PAHs accumulation rate in coastal sediment varied over the years, there is no significant variation in PAHs accumulation rate before and after the DWH oil spill.

  17. PAH effects on meio- and microbial benthic communities strongly depend on bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, J Fredrik; Hassellöv, Ida-Maja; Dahllöf, Ingela

    2014-01-01

    The effects of anthropogenic pollutants in dissimilar habitats can vary depending on differences in bioavailability. The factors determining bioavailability are not yet fully understood. This study was performed to evaluate whether analysis of total PAH concentrations in sediments is a satisfactory measurement to indicate environmental effects or if bioavailability is needed to be taken into account. We have here performed a 60-day experiment, where nominal PAH concentrations of 1,300 μg/kg sediment were added to three different marine sediments. Meiofaunal and microbial communities were analyzed for alterations in community response at 30 and 60 days. Results showed that bioavailability of PAHs varied between the three different sediments. Nonetheless, the petroleum addition gave rise to significant negative effects on all three sediments at both time points. The two direct measurements of toxicity on the microbial community, potential nitrification and denitrification, displayed a lower effect of the PAH addition in the muddy sediment at both time points, compared to the other two sediment types. No effects were seen in the analysis of meiofaunal community structure. Measurements of PAH bioavailability in the three sediment types concurred with the results from the microbial community, revealing a lower bioavailability in the muddy sediment compared to the other two sediment types, 34% compared to sandy and 18% compared to organic at day 0. At day 60 it was 61% lower compared to sandy and 20% lower compared to organic. The negative effects of the PAH addition on the microbial nitrogen cycle were in six out of eight cases best correlated to the amount of alkylated bioavailable PAH in the sediments, and thus microbial nitrogen cycle is a possible good indicator for assessing PAH-induced stress. The results presented here have implications for risk analysis studies of petroleum-contaminated marine sediments; consequently, sediment characteristics and its effects on

  18. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) and Oxygenated PAH (OPAH) Air–Water Exchange during the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Passive sampling devices were used to measure air vapor and water dissolved phase concentrations of 33 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 22 oxygenated PAHs (OPAHs) at four Gulf of Mexico coastal sites prior to, during, and after shoreline oiling from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill (DWH). Measurements were taken at each site over a 13 month period, and flux across the water–air boundary was determined. This is the first report of vapor phase and flux of both PAHs and OPAHs during the DWH. Vapor phase sum PAH and OPAH concentrations ranged between 1 and 24 ng/m3 and 0.3 and 27 ng/m3, respectively. PAH and OPAH concentrations in air exhibited different spatial and temporal trends than in water, and air–water flux of 13 individual PAHs were strongly associated with the DWH incident. The largest PAH volatilizations occurred at the sites in Alabama and Mississippi in the summer, each nominally 10 000 ng/m2/day. Acenaphthene was the PAH with the highest observed volatilization rate of 6800 ng/m2/day in September 2010. This work represents additional evidence of the DWH incident contributing to air contamination, and provides one of the first quantitative air–water chemical flux determinations with passive sampling technology. PMID:25412353

  19. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and oxygenated PAH (OPAH) air-water exchange during the deepwater horizon oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidwell, Lane G; Allan, Sarah E; O'Connell, Steven G; Hobbie, Kevin A; Smith, Brian W; Anderson, Kim A

    2015-01-06

    Passive sampling devices were used to measure air vapor and water dissolved phase concentrations of 33 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 22 oxygenated PAHs (OPAHs) at four Gulf of Mexico coastal sites prior to, during, and after shoreline oiling from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill (DWH). Measurements were taken at each site over a 13 month period, and flux across the water-air boundary was determined. This is the first report of vapor phase and flux of both PAHs and OPAHs during the DWH. Vapor phase sum PAH and OPAH concentrations ranged between 1 and 24 ng/m(3) and 0.3 and 27 ng/m(3), respectively. PAH and OPAH concentrations in air exhibited different spatial and temporal trends than in water, and air-water flux of 13 individual PAHs were strongly associated with the DWH incident. The largest PAH volatilizations occurred at the sites in Alabama and Mississippi in the summer, each nominally 10,000 ng/m(2)/day. Acenaphthene was the PAH with the highest observed volatilization rate of 6800 ng/m(2)/day in September 2010. This work represents additional evidence of the DWH incident contributing to air contamination, and provides one of the first quantitative air-water chemical flux determinations with passive sampling technology.

  20. Accumulation, allocation, and risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in soil-Brassica chinensis system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Zhang

    Full Text Available Farmland soil and leafy vegetables accumulate more polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in suburban sites. In this study, 13 sampling areas were selected from vegetable fields in the outskirts of Xi'an, the largest city in northwestern China. The similarity of PAH composition in soil and vegetation was investigated through principal components analysis and redundancy analysis (RDA, rather than discrimination of PAH congeners from various sources. The toxic equivalent quantity of PAHs in soil ranged from 7 to 202 μg/kg d.w., with an average of 41 μg/kg d.w., which exceeded the agricultural/horticultural soil acceptance criteria for New Zealand. However, the cancer risk level posed by combined direct ingestion, dermal contact, inhalation of soil particles, and inhalation of surface soil vapor met the rigorous international criteria (1 × 10(-6. The concentration of total PAHs was (1052 ± 73 μg/kg d.w. in vegetation (mean ± standard error. The cancer risks posed by ingestion of vegetation ranged from 2×10-5 to 2 × 10(-4 with an average of 1.66 × 10(-4, which was higher than international excess lifetime risk limits for carcinogens (1 × 10(-4. The geochemical indices indicated that the PAHs in soil and vegetables were mainly from vehicle and crude oil combustion. Both the total PAHs in vegetation and bioconcentration factor for total PAHs (the ratio of total PAHs in vegetation to total PAHs in soil increased with increasing pH as well as decreasing sand in soil. The total variation in distribution of PAHs in vegetation explained by those in soil reached 98% in RDA, which was statistically significant based on Monte Carlo permutation. Common pollution source and notable effects of soil contamination on vegetation would result in highly similar distribution of PAHs in soil and vegetation.

  1. Evolution of bacterial community during bioremediation of PAHs in a coal tar contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lors, C.; Ryngaert, A.; Perie, F.; Diels, L.; Damidot, D. [University of Lille, Lille (France)

    2010-11-15

    The monitoring of a windrow treatment applied to soil contaminated by mostly 2, 3- and 4-ring PAHs produced by coal tar distillation was performed by following the evolution of both PAH concentration and the bacterial community. Total and PAH-degrading bacterial community structures were followed by 165 rRNA PCR-DGGE in parallel with quantification by bacterial counts and 16 PAH measurements. Six months of biological treatment led to a strong decrease in 2-, 3- and 4-ring PAH concentrations (98, 97 and 82%, respectively). This result was associated with the activity of bacterial PAH-degraders belonging mainly to the Gamma proteobacteria, in particular the Enterobacteria and Pseudomonas genera which were detected over the course of the treatment. This group was considered to be a good bioindicator to determine the potential PAH biodegradation of contaminated soil. Conversely other species like the Beta proteobacteria were detected after 3 months when 2-, 3- and 4-ring PAHs were almost completely degraded. Thus presence of the Beta proteobacteria group could be considered a good candidate indicator to estimate the endpoint of biotreatment of this type of PAH contaminated soil.

  2. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) associated with PM2.5 within boundary layer: Cloud/fog and regional transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Minmin; Wang, Yan; Li, Hongli; Li, Tao; Nie, Xiaoling; Cao, Fangfang; Yang, Fengchun; Wang, Zhe; Wang, Tao; Qie, Guanghao; Jin, Tong; Du, Lili; Wang, Wenxing

    2018-06-15

    A study of PM 2.5 -associated PAHs analysis at Mount Lushan (1165m) was conducted to investigate the distributions of PAHs in PM 2.5 and influences of cloud/fog. The main purpose was to quantify the main emission sources of PAHs and estimate regional transport effects within the boundary layer. Mount Lushan is located between the boundary layer and troposphere, which is an ideal site for atmosphere transport investigation. The concentrations of PAHs in PM 2.5 were analyzed with GC-MS. The results showed that the volume concentration was 6.98ng/m 3 with a range from 1.47 to 25.17ng/m 3 and PAHs mass were 160.24μg/g (from 63.86 to 427.97μg/g) during the sampling time at Mount Lushan. The dominant compounds are BbF, Pyr and BP. In terms of aromatic-ring PAHs distributions, 4-6-ring PAHs are predominant, indicating that the high-ring PAHs tend to contribute more than low-ring PAHs in particulates. Due to frequent cloud/fog days at Mount Lushan, PAHs concentrations in the PM 2.5 were determined before and after cloud/fog weather. The results demonstrated that the cloud/fog and rain conditions cause lower PAHs levels. Regression analysis was used for studying the relationship of PAHs distributions with meteorological conditions like temperature, humidity and wind. The results showed that the temperature and wind speed were inversely related with PAHs concentration but humidity had no significant relationship. Furthermore, backward trajectories and PCA combined with DR (diagnostic ratio analysis) were employed to identify the influences of regional transport and main emission sources. The results revealed that PAHs in PM 2.5 were mainly affected by regional transport with the main emissions by mobile vehicle and steel industry, which contributed about 56.0% to the total PAHs in the area of Mount Lushan. In addition, backward trajectories revealed that the dominant air masses were from the northwest accounting for about one third of total PAHs. Copyright © 2018

  3. Concentrations, Trends, and Air-Water Exchange of PAHs and PBDEs Derived from Passive Samplers in Lake Superior in 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruge, Zoe; Muir, Derek; Helm, Paul; Lohmann, Rainer

    2015-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) are both currently released into the environment from anthropogenic activity. Both are hence primarily associated with populated or industrial areas, although wildfires can be an important source of PAHs, as well. Polyethylene passive samplers (PEs) were simultaneously deployed in surface water and near surface atmosphere to determine spatial trends and air-water gaseous exchange of 21 PAHs and 11 PBDEs at 19 sites across Lake Superior in 2011. Surface water and atmospheric PAH concentrations were greatest at urban sites (up to 65 ng L(-1) and 140 ng m(-3), respectively, averaged from June to October). Near populated regions, PAHs displayed net air-to-water deposition, but were near equilibrium off-shore. Retene, probably depositing following major wildfires in the region, dominated dissolved PAH concentrations at most Lake Superior sites. Atmospheric and dissolved PBDEs were greatest near urban and populated sites (up to 6.8 pg L(-1) and 15 pg m(-3), respectively, averaged from June to October), dominated by BDE-47. At most coastal sites, there was net gaseous deposition of BDE-47, with less brominated congeners contributing to Sault Ste. Marie and eastern open lake fluxes. Conversely, the central open lake and Eagle Harbor sites generally displayed volatilization of PBDEs into the atmosphere, mainly BDE-47.

  4. Biological treatment of PAH-contaminated sediments in a Sequencing Batch Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiavola, Agostina; Baciocchi, Renato; Gavasci, Renato

    2010-01-01

    The technical feasibility of a sequential batch process for the biological treatment of sediments contaminated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was evaluated through an experimental study. A bench-scale Sediment Slurry Sequencing Batch Reactor (SS-SBR) was fed with river sediments contaminated by a PAH mixture made by fluorene, anthracene, pyrene and crysene. The process performance was evaluated under different operating conditions, obtained by modifying the influent organic load, the feed composition and the hydraulic residence time. Measurements of the Oxygen Uptake Rates (OURs) provided useful insights on the biological kinetics occurring in the SS-SBR, suggesting the minimum applied cycle time-length of 7 days could be eventually halved, as also confirmed by the trend observed in the volatile solid and total organic carbon data. The removal efficiencies gradually improved during the SS-SBR operation, achieving at the end of the study rather constant removal rates above 80% for both 3-rings PAHs (fluorene and anthracene) and 4-ring PAHs (pyrene and crysene) for an inlet total PAH concentration of 70 mg/kg as dry weight (dw).

  5. Coal-tar-based parking lot sealcoat: An unrecognized source of PAH to settled house dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, B.J.; Van Metre, P.C.; Wilson, J.T.; Musgrove, M.; Burbank, T.L.; Ennis, T.E.; Bashara, T.J.

    2010-01-01

    Despite much speculation, the principal factors controlling concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in settled house dust (SHD) have not yet been identified. In response to recent reports that dust from pavement with coaltar-based sealcoat contains extremely high concentrations of PAH, we measured PAH in SHD from 23 apartments and in dust from their associated parking lots, one-half of which had coal-tar-based sealcoat (CT). The median concentration of total PAH (T-PAH) in dust from CT parking lots (4760 ??g/g, n = 11) was 530 times higher than that from parking lots with other pavement surface types (asphalt-based sealcoat, unsealed asphalt, concrete [median 9.0 ??g/g, n = 12]). T-PAH in SHD from apartments with CT parking lots (median 129 ??g/g) was 25 times higher than that in SHD from apartments with parking lots with other pavement surface types (median 5.1 ??g/g). Presence or absence of CT on a parking lot explained 48% of the variance in log-transformed T-PAH in SHD. Urban land-use intensity near the residence also had a significant but weaker relation to T-PAH. No other variables tested, including carpeting, frequency of vacuuming, and indoor burning, were significant. ?? 2010 American Chemical Society.

  6. PAH distribution and mass fluxes in the Three Gorges Reservoir after impoundment of the Three Gorges Dam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyerling, Dominik; Wang, Jingxian; Hu, Wei; Westrich, Bernhard; Peng, Chengrong; Bi, Yonghong; Henkelmann, Bernhard; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2014-09-01

    Mass fluxes of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were calculated for the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) in China, based on concentration and discharge data from the Yangtze River. Virtual Organisms (VOs) have been applied during four campaigns in 2008, 2009 (twice) and 2011 at sampling sites distributed from Chongqing to Maoping. The total PAH mass fluxes ranged from 110 to 2,160 mg s(-1). Highest loads were determined at Chongqing with a decreasing trend towards Maoping in all four sampling campaigns. PAH remediation capacity of the TGR was found to be high as the mass flux reduced by more than half from upstream to downstream. Responsible processes are thought to be adsorption of PAH to suspended particles, dilution and degradation. Furthermore, the dependence of PAH concentration upon water depth was investigated at Maoping in front of the Three Gorges Dam. Although considerable differences could be revealed, there was no trend observable. Sampling of water with self-packed filter cartridges confirmed more homogenous PAH depth distribution. Moreover, PAH content of suspended particles was estimated from water concentrations gathered by VOs based on a water-particle separation model and subsequently compared to PAH concentration measured in water and in filter cartridges. It could be shown that the modeled data predicts the concentration caused by particle-bound PAHs to be about 6 times lower than PAHs dissolved in water. Besides, the model estimates the proportions of 5- and 6-ring PAHs being higher than in water phase. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. An experimental investigation of PAH emissions from a heavy duty diesel engine fuelled with biodiesel and its blend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, A. N.; Shan, G.E.Y.; Wei, T.J.; Hua, L.Z.

    2008-01-01

    For the comparison of emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from diesel biodiesel and its 20% blend with diesel, and their carcinogenic potencies, an experimental study has been conducted on a turbocharged, intercooled and direct injection diesel engine. Total PAHs (solid and gas) from diesel, B20 and B100 at low load were more than those at high loads. Total PAH emissions from the test fuels at the rated speed were more than those at maximum torque speed. Benzo[a] pyrene (BaP) brake specific emission of biodiesel is less than that of diesel. LMW-PAH emissions for the test fuels are all higher than those of MMW and HMW PAH. Biodiesel and B20 reduce both the total Benzo[a] pyrene equivalent concentration (BaP/sub eq/) and the total mean-PAHs as compared to commercial diesel fuel. BSFC of the engine increased but its brake power decreased in the cases of B20 and biodiesel. (author)

  8. Occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in beached plastic pellets from Mumbai coast, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HB Jayasiri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available PAHs are a class of ubiquitous pollutants which consist of two or more fused benzene rings in various arrangements. A number of PAH compounds are known carcinogens and bioaccumulate and biomagnify. These compounds originate naturally as well as anthropogenically through oil spills, incineration of waste and combustion of fossil fuels and wood. The environmental consequence of Plastic pellets is the sorption organic pollutants on their surface from the sea surface microlayer (SML where the hydrophobic contaminants are known to be enriched. The plastic pellets were collected along the recent high tide line from four beaches of Mumbai coast bimonthly during May 2011 - March 2012. A total of 72 pools of plastic pellets were extracted, fractionated and analysed by Gas Chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer to evaluate the extent and sources of 16 PAHs. The mean ΣPAH concentration in pellets was 9202.30±114.89 ng g-1 with a wide range (35.4-46191.58 ng g-1. The concentration of fluorene was found to be the highest (1606.30±251.54 ng g-1 followed by anthracene, chrysene and phenanthrene. The ΣPAH concentration was significantly varied among months and there was no significant difference among sites at  p=0.05. The 2-3 aromatic ring compounds accounted for 60% of the total PAHs in pellets of Mumbai coast while 4 rings and 5-6 rings compounds accounted for 26 and 14%, respectively. The ratio of low and high molecular weight PAHs indicated that the contamination by petrogenic sources was predominant over the pyrogenic ones in plastic pellets suggesting oil pollution in coastal area of Mumbai.Keywords: plastic pellets, PAHs, Mumbai, sources

  9. Estimation of PAHs dry deposition and BaP toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) study at Urban, Industry Park and rural sampling sites in central Taiwan, Taichung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Guor-Cheng; Chang, Kuan-Foo; Lu, Chungsying; Bai, Hsunling

    2004-05-01

    The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in gas phase and particle bound were measured simultaneously at industrial (INDUSTRY), urban (URBAN), and rural areas (RURAL) in Taichung, Taiwan. And the PAH concentrations, size distributions, estimated PAHs dry deposition fluxes and health risk study of PAHs in the ambient air of central Taiwan were discussed in this study. Total PAH concentrations at INDUSTRY, URBAN, and RURAL sampling sites were found to be 1650 +/- 1240, 1220 +/- 520, and 831 +/- 427 ng/m3, respectively. The results indicated that PAH concentrations were higher at INDUSTRY and URBAN sampling sites than the RURAL sampling sites because of the more industrial processes, traffic exhausts and human activities. The estimation dry deposition and size distribution of PAHs were also studied. The results indicated that the estimated dry deposition fluxes of total PAHs were 58.5, 48.8, and 38.6 microg/m2/day at INDUSTRY, URBAN, and RURAL, respectively. The BaP equivalency results indicated that the health risk of gas phase PAHs were higher than the particle phase at three sampling sites of central Taiwan. However, compared with the BaP equivalency results to other studies conducted in factory, this study indicated the health risk of PAHs was acceptable in the ambient air of central Taiwan.

  10. Grafted cellulose for PAHs removal present in industrial discharge waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euvrard, Elise; Druart, Coline; Poupeney, Amandine; Crini, Nadia; Vismara, Elena; Lanza, Tommaso; Torri, Giangiacomo; Gavoille, Sophie; Crini, Gregorio

    2014-05-01

    Keywords: cellulose; biosorbent; PAHs; polycontaminated wastewaters; trace levels. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), chemicals essentially formed during incomplete combustion of organic materials from anthropogenic activities, were present in all compartments of the ecosystem, air, water and soil. Notably, a part of PAHs found in aquatic system was introduced through industrial discharge waters. Since the Water Framework Directive has classified certain PAHs as priority hazardous substances, industrials are called to take account this kind of organic pollutants in their global environmental concern. Conventional materials such as activated carbons definitively proved their worth as finishing treatment systems but remained costly. In this study, we proposed to use cellulose grafted with glycidyl methacrylate [1] for the removal of PAHs present in discharge waters of surface treatment industries. Firstly, to develop the device, we worked with synthetic solutions containing 16 PAHs at 500 ng/L. Two types of grafted cellulose were tested over a closed-loop column with a concentration of 4g cellulose/L: cellulose C2 with a hydroxide group and cellulose C4 with an amine group. No PAH was retained by the raw cellulose whereas abatement percentages of PAHs were similar between C2 and C4 (94% and 98%, respectively, for the sum of the 16 PAHs) with an experiment duration of 400 min (corresponding to about 20 cycles through grafted cellulose). Secondly, to determine the shorter time to abate the amount maximum of PAHs through the system, a kinetic was realized from 20 min (one cycle) to 400 min with C4. The steady state (corresponding to about 95% of abatement of the total PAHs) was reached at 160 min. Finally, the system was then tested with real industrial discharge waters containing both mineral and organic compounds. The results indicated that the abatement percentage of PAHs was similar between C2 and C4, corroborating the tests with synthetic solution. In return

  11. PM, carbon, and PAH emissions from a diesel generator fuelled with soy-biodiesel blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Jen-Hsiung; Chen, Shui-Jen; Huang, Kuo-Lin; Lin, Yuan-Chung; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Lin, Chih-Chung; Lin, Wen-Yinn

    2010-01-01

    Biodiesels have received increasing attention as alternative fuels for diesel engines and generators. This study investigates the emissions of particulate matter (PM), total carbon (TC), e.g., organic/elemental carbons, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from a diesel generator fuelled with soy-biodiesel blends. Among the tested diesel blends (B0, B10 (10 vol% soy-biodiesel), B20, and B50), B20 exhibited the lowest PM emission concentration despite the loads (except the 5 kW case), whereas B10 displayed lower PM emission factors when operating at 0 and 10 kW than the other fuel blends. The emission concentrations or factors of EC, OC, and TC were the lowest when B10 or B20 was used regardless of the loading. Under all tested loads, the average concentrations of total-PAHs emitted from the generator using the B10 and B20 were lower (by 38% and 28%, respectively) than those using pure petroleum diesel fuel (B0), while the emission factors of total-PAHs decreased with an increasing ratio of biodiesel to premium diesel. With an increasing loading, although the brake specific fuel consumption decreased, the energy efficiency increased despite the bio/petroleum diesel ratio. Therefore, soy-biodiesel is promising for use as an alternative fuel for diesel generators to increase energy efficiency and reduce the PM, carbon, and PAH emissions.

  12. Bioremediation of soils and sediments containing PAHs and PCP using Daramend trademark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seech, A.; Burwell, S.; Marvan, I.

    1994-01-01

    A full-scale demonstration of Grace Dearborn's Daramend trademark for bioremediation of soil containing chlorinated phenols, PAHs and petroleum hydrocarbons is being conducted at an industrial wood treatment site in Ontario. A pilot-scale demonstration of Daramend for the clean-up of sediments contaminated with PAHs was also conducted. The full-scale demonstration, which includes bioremediation of approximately 4,500 m 3 of soil, was initiated at a wood preserving facility in Ontario, in the summer of 1993. The soil contains chlorinated phenols, PAHs and total petroleum hydrocarbons at concentrations of up to 700, 1,400 and 6,300 mg/kg respectively. Full-scale bioremediation at this site employs the same Daramend protocols and organic amendment treatments that were used at the pilot-scale phase where the PAH, total petroleum hydrocarbon, and pentachlorophenol concentrations were reduced to below the Canadian clean-up guidelines for industrial soils. In addition, the toxicity of the soil to earthworms was eliminated while the rate of seed germination was increased to that of an agricultural soil during the pilot scale demonstration phase. The ex-situ portion of the full-scale demonstration is currently being audited by the EPA under the SITE program. This paper will focus on the ex-situ work. The pilot-scale demonstration of sediment remediation consisted of ex-situ bioremediation of approximately 90 tonnes of PAH-contaminated sediment in a confined treatment area

  13. The influence of PAH concentration and distribution on real-time in situ measurements of petroleum products in soils using laser induced fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, G.S.; Lieberman, S.H.; McGinnis, W.C.; Knowles, D.; Peven, C.

    1995-01-01

    Real-time laser induced fluorescence (LIF) in situ measurements of soil samples provide a reliable and cost-effective screening tool for hydrocarbon site assessments. The site characterization and analysis penetrometer system (SCAPS), is a truck-mounted cone penetrometer probe modified with a sapphire window and connected to a laser by fiber optics. The pulsed nitrogen laser 337-nm excitation source induces fluorescence in polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are present in petroleum products. The fluorescence response of these compounds is measured with a fluorometer. The SCAPS can provide continuous hydrocarbon screening measurements to soil depths greater than 100 feet. Discrete soil samples collected from the SCAPS boreholes were extracted and analyzed for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC/FID), and 16 parent and over 100 alkyl substituted PAH compounds by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection (GC/MS). This method provides a basis for evaluating the relationship between TPH and PAH concentrations in the soil samples and laser induced fluorescence measurements from the soil borings

  14. PAH emissions from coal combustion and waste incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wei Ting; Liu, Mei Chen; Hung, Pao Chen; Chang, Shu Hao; Chang, Moo Been

    2016-11-15

    The characteristics of PAHs that are emitted by a municipal waste incinerator (MWI) and coal-fired power plant are examined via intensive sampling. Results of flue gas sampling reveal the potential for PAH formation within the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system of a coal-fired power plant. In the large-scale MWI, the removal efficiency of PAHs achieved with the pilot-scaled catalytic filter (CF) exceeds that achieved by activated carbon injection with a bag filter (ACI+BF) owing to the effective destruction of gas-phase contaminants by a catalyst. A significantly lower PAH concentration (1640ng/g) was measured in fly ash from a CF module than from an ACI+BF system (5650ng/g). Replacing the ACI+BF system with CF technology would significantly reduce the discharge factor (including emission and fly ash) of PAHs from 251.6 to 77.8mg/ton-waste. The emission factors of PAHs that are obtained using ACI+BF and the CF system in the MWI are 8.05 and 7.13mg/ton, respectively. However, the emission factor of MWI is significantly higher than that of coal-fired power plant (1.56mg/ton). From the perspective of total environmental management to reduce PAH emissions, replacing the original ACI+BF process with a CF system is expected to reduce environmental impact thereof. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. [Internal Exposure Levels of PAHs of Primary School Students in Guangzhou].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hui; Zhao, Bo; Zhang, Su-kun; Liu, Shan; Ren, Ming-zhong; Li, Jie; Shi, Xiao-xia

    2015-12-01

    In order to investigate the internal exposure levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in primary school students of Guangzhou, the research collected urine of 78 and 86 primary school students from two primary schools in the summer of 2014, one school located in the ordinary residential area and the other in the industrial area. The contents of 10 kinds of OH-PAHs were tested by the rapid liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadruple tandem mass spectrometry. The results showed that the concentrations of total OH-PAHs in primary school students in the residential zone ranged from 0.83 µmol · mol⁻¹ to 80.63 µmol · mol⁻¹, while those in industrial area ranged from 1.06 µmol · mol⁻¹ to 72.47 µmol · mol⁻¹. The geometric average concentrations were 6.18 µmol · mol⁻¹ and 6.47 µmol · mol⁻¹, respectively, and there was no statistical significance between them (P > 0.05). Comparison of the exposure levels of different components of PAHs in the two areas found that all the OH-PAHs had no significant difference except for the levels of 1- OHP (P transportation emissions.

  16. Source characterisation and distribution of selected PCBs, PAHs and alkyl PAHs in sediments from the Klip and Jukskei Rivers, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimayi, Cornelius; Chimuka, Luke; Odusanya, David; de Boer, Jacob; Weiss, Jana M

    2017-07-01

    A study of the distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) utilising 16 priority PAHs, benzo(e)pyrene, perylene, 19 alkylated PAHs and 31 ortho substituted PCBs in South Africa is presented. It was aimed to (a) deduce characteristic contamination patterns for both PCBs and PAHs and (b) provide the first comprehensive dataset for establishment of source characterisation of PCBs and PAHs. This is in line with new South African legislation on mandatory monitoring of PCB and PAH emissions. Bar charts, principal component analysis (PCA) and biplots were utilised to identify signature contamination patterns and distribution of PCBs and PAHs within the Jukskei and Klip Rivers. Sediments from the Jukskei and Klip River catchments both showed distinct contamination signatures for hexa to nonachlorinated PCBs, characteristic of contamination by Aroclor 1254 and 1260 technical mixtures. PCB signature patterns in order of abundance were 138 > 180 > 206 > 153 > 187 > 149 and 138 > 153 > 180 > 149 > 187 > 110 > 170 for the Jukskei and Klip River sediments, respectively. The upstream Alberton point had the highest Σ31 PCB and Σ (parent+alkyl) PAH concentrations in the Klip River of 61 and 6000 μg kg -1 dry weight (dw), respectively. In the Jukskei River, the upstream Marlboro point had the highest Σ31 PCB concentration of 19 μg kg -1 dw and the N14 site recorded the highest Σ (parent+alkyl) PAH concentration of 2750 μg kg -1 dw. PAH concentrations in both the Jukskei and Klip Rivers were significantly higher than the PCB concentrations. Fluoranthene, phenanthrene and pyrene were found in the highest concentrations in both the Jukskei and Klip River sediments. Both the Jukskei and Klip River sediments showed trends of a mixed pyrogenic-petrogenic PAH source contamination.

  17. Heavy metals (HMs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils of different land uses in Erbil metropolis, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amjadian, Keyvan; Sacchi, Elisa; Rastegari Mehr, Meisam

    2016-11-01

    Urban soil contamination is a growing concern for the potential health impact on the increasing number of people living in these areas. In this study, the concentration, the distribution, the contamination levels, and the role of land use were investigated in Erbil metropolis, the capital of Iraqi Kurdistan. A total of 74 soil samples were collected, treated, and analyzed for their physicochemical properties, and for 7 heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, and Zn) and 16 PAH contents. High concentrations, especially of Cd, Cu Pb, and Zn, were found. The Geoaccumulation index (I geo ), along with correlation coefficients and principal component analysis (PCA) showed that Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn have similar behaviors and spatial distribution patterns. Heavy traffic density mainly contributed to the high concentrations of these metals. The total concentration of ∑PAHs ranged from 24.26 to 6129.14 ng/g with a mean of 2296.1 ng/g. The PAH pattern was dominated by 4- and 5-ring PAHs, while diagnostic ratios and PCA indicated that the main sources of PAHs were pyrogenic. The toxic equivalent (TEQ) values ranged from 3.26 to 362.84 ng/g, with higher values in central parts of the city. A statistically significant difference in As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, and ∑PAH concentrations between different land uses was observed. The highest As concentrations were found in agricultural areas while roadside, commercial, and industrial areas had the highest Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, and ∑PAH contents.

  18. Exposure Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAHs) in Childcare Centers of Muang, Nakhon Ratchasima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jitlada, C.; Pentamwa, P.

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to characterize airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as of particulate and vapor phases variation. The samples were collected from the childcare centers where divided into urban and rural areas in Nakhon Ratchasima Province of Thailand. The airborne samples were collected from five childcare centers during the dry season in the year 2017. The PAHs species were determined by the gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy (GS/MS) method. Results show that the total concentrations of PAHs were higher than vapor phase that both similar in urban area and rural area. The dominant PAHs compounds of both urban and rural areas were benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(a,h)anthracene and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene, respectively. Furthermore, the concentrations of PAHs in municipality (urban) childcare centers were higher than rural childcare centers area of Nakhon Ratchasima province. The risks associated with exposure to PAHs were evaluated using the TEF approach. The estimated value of lifetime lung cancer risks children in urban were significantly (p < 0.05) 2 times of children in rural, thus demonstrating that exposure to PAHs at levels found at urban site may be cause potential health risks.

  19. Preliminary assessment of Miramar Petrochemical Harbor as PAH source to Guajará bay (Belém-PA-Brazil surface sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana do Socorro Veloso Sodré

    Full Text Available Abstract A preliminary study on a petrochemical harbor as a potential source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH to surface sediments of Guajará bay, located in Belém City, Pará State, Brazil, over the last 10 years is presented here. The 16 priority USEPA PAH were identified and quantified. Surface sediment samples, collected at 5 sites in the bay, near Miramar Petrochemical Harbor (TEMIR, were extracted and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector. Total PAH concentration ranged from 533.0 to 3123.3 ng g-1 dry weight with a mean concentration of 1091.9 ng g-1. The most contaminated places were those where muddy sediments were found with highest concentrations of organic matter. The priority PAH with low molecular weight represented 54.4% of the total abundance and indicate that the main source of contamination of the sediments was petrogenic, indicative of the relevant contribution of the petrochemical harbor activity to the input of PAH to Guajará bay. However, pyrolytic PAH coming from fuel combustion, household waste combustion and untreated sewage discharge are also potential contamination sources to this environment.

  20. Metal and PAH concentrations in fruit of Vaccinium angustifolium Ait. (Lowbush Blueberry) : a comparison among Whitney Pier, North Sydney and supermarket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, B. [Guelph Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Land Resource Science

    2004-07-01

    The concentration of various metals in the fruit harvested from Lowbush blueberry plants in Whitney Pier, Sydney, Nova Scotia (NS), North Sydney (NS) and supermarket were quantified in this report. The concentrations were compared among the 3 sources to determine whether the metal and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentrations in the blueberries from Whitney Pier were higher or lower compared to the reference blueberries from North Sydney and the supermarket. Mean values for each of the analytes were compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA). The study determined whether washed berries have lower concentrations of contaminants than unwashed berries. The risk to human health of exposure to metals and PAHs through consumption of blueberry samples was also calculated. It was concluded that concentrations of selenium and zinc are elevated in blueberries from Whitney Pier compared to berries from North Sydney and the supermarket, but are well within safe levels. Other elements such as arsenic, titanium, vanadium, lead, copper and molybdenum were similar, and only thallium was elevated in supermarket berries relative to those from Whitney Pier and North Sydney. Chromium was not detected in any samples. It was determined that there was no risk to human health from exposure to any of the metals analyzed, regardless of whether they were Whitney Pier samples or reference samples. Only 2 PAHs were detected in one of the unwashed samples from Whitney Pier. No PAHs were found in washed berries or unwashed berries from the supermarket or North Sydney. It was concluded that there was no risk to human health from exposure to any of the PAHs. Washed and unwashed samples had similar metal concentrations, indicating that surface contamination did not occur. A full methodology of the testing program was provided. 11 refs., 7 tabs., 2 figs.

  1. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in superficial water from a tropical estuarine system: Distribution, seasonal variations, sources and ecological risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Ewerton; Souza, Michel R R; Vilela Junior, Antônio R; Soares, Laiane S; Frena, Morgana; Alexandre, Marcelo R

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the PAH distribution, sources, seasonal variations and ecological risk assessment in superficial water from the Japaratuba River, Brazil. PAH concentrations ranged from 4 to 119ngL -1 . It was observed that the PAH total concentrations and profiles showed significant differences when comparing the dry season (summer) with the rainy season (winter). Furthermore, most of the PAH originated from pyrogenic sources in the winter, whereas a mixture of sources was observed in the summer. PAH concentration levels found in this study were considered lower than those obtained in other estuarine systems. Ecological risk assessment was determined for individual PAH, based on the risk quotient (RQ) to evaluate the risk of aquatic biota's exposure to PAH. Results suggested that the Japaratuba River has achieved a moderate degree of ecological risk for high molecular weight, showing the importance of identifying these carcinogenic and mutagenic compounds in aquatic systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Quantification of PAHs and oxy-PAHs on airborne particulate matter in Chiang Mai, Thailand, using gas chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walgraeve, Christophe; Chantara, Somporn; Sopajaree, Khajornsak; De Wispelaere, Patrick; Demeestere, Kristof; Van Langenhove, Herman

    2015-04-01

    An analytical method using gas chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry was developed for the determination of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 12 oxygenated PAHs (of which 4 diketones, 3 ketones, 4 aldehydes and one anhydride) on atmospheric particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm (PM10). The magnetic sector mass spectrometer was run in multiple ion detection mode (MID) with a mass resolution above 10 000 (10% valley definition) and allows for a selective accurate mass detection of the characteristic ions of the target analytes. Instrumental detection limits between 0.04 pg and 1.34 pg were obtained for the PAHs, whereas for the oxy-PAHs they ranged between 0.08 pg and 2.13 pg. Pressurized liquid extraction using dichloromethane was evaluated and excellent recoveries ranging between 87% and 98% for the PAHs and between 74% and 110% for 10 oxy-PAHs were obtained, when the optimum extraction temperature of 150 °C was applied. The developed method was finally used to determine PAHs and oxy-PAHs concentration levels from particulate matter samples collected in the wet season at 4 different locations in Chiang Mai, Thailand (n = 72). This study brings forward the first concentration levels of oxy-PAHs in Thailand. The median of the sum of the PAHs and oxy-PAHs concentrations was 3.4 ng/m3 and 1.1 ng/m3 respectively, which shows the importance of the group of the oxy-PAHs as PM10 constituents. High molecular weight PAHs contributed the most to the ∑PAHs. For example, benzo[ghi]perylene was responsible for 30-44% of the ∑PAHs. The highest contribution to ∑oxy-PAHs came from 1,8-napthalic anhydride (26-78%), followed by anthracene-9,10-dione (4-27%) and 7H-benzo[de]anthracene-7-one (6-26%). Indications of the degradation of PAHs and/or formation of oxy-PAHs were observed.

  3. Occurrence and distribution of Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in seawater, sediments and corals from Hainan Island, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Nan; Jiang, Chunxia; Yang, Tinghan; Li, Ping; Wang, Haihua; Xie, Yanli; Li, Sennan; Zhou, Hailong; Diao, Xiaoping

    2018-05-15

    The levels of 16 US EPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in corals, ambient seawater and sediments of Hainan Island, China, using gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The total PAHs (∑PAHs) concentrations ranged from 273.79 to 407.82ng/L in seawater. Besides, the concentrations of ∑PAHs in corals 333.88-727.03ng/g dw) were markedly (P corals. The highest concentration of ∑PAHs was detected at site S2 in Pavona decussate, which also bore the highest ∑PAHs levels in both seawater and sediments. The massive corals were more enriched with PAHs than the branching corals. Although 2 and 3-ring PAHs were predominant and accounted for 69.27-80.46% of the ∑PAHs in corals and ambient environment, the levels of high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs (4-6 ring) in corals also demonstrated their potential dangers for corals and organisms around coral reefs. Biota-sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) refers to an index of the pollutant absorbed by aquatic organisms from the surrounding sediments. The poor correlation between log BSAF and log K ow (hydrophobicity) indicated that PAHs in corals maybe not bioaccumulate from the ambient sediments but through pathways like absorbing from seawater, symbiosis, and feeding. Based on our data, long-term ecological monitoring in typical coral reef ecosystems combined with ecotoxicological tests of PAHs on corals is necessary to determine the impacts of PAHs on coral reefs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Source identification and ecological impact evaluation of PAHs in urban river sediments: A case study in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Y T; Ou, J H; Tsang, D C W; Dong, C D; Chen, C W; Kao, C M

    2018-03-01

    The Love River and Ho-Jin River, two major urban rivers in Kaohsiung City, Taiwan, are moderately to heavily polluted because different types of improperly treated wastewaters are discharged into the rivers. In this study, sediment and river water samples were collected from two rivers to investigate the river water quality and accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments. The spatial distribution, composition, and source appointment of PAHs of the sediments were examined. The impacts of PAHs on ecological system were assessed using toxic equivalence quotient (TEQ) of potentially carcinogenic PAHs (TEQ carc ) and sediment quality guidelines. The average PAHs concentrations ranged from 2161 ng/g in Love River sediment to 160 ng/g in Ho-Jin River sediment. This could be due to the fact that Love River Basin had much higher population density and pyrolytic activities. High-ring PAHs (4-6 rings) contributed to 59-90% of the total PAHs concentrations. Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) had the highest toxic equivalence quotient (up to 188 ng TEQ/g). Moreover, the downstream sediments contained higher TEQ of total TPHs than midstream and upstream sediment samples. The PAHs were adsorbed onto the fine particles with high organic content. Results from diagnostic ratio analyses indicate that the PAHs in two urban river sediments might originate from oil/coal combustion, traffic-related emissions, and waste combustion (pyrogenic activities). Future pollution prevention and management should target the various industries, incinerators, and transportation emission in this region to reduce the PAHs pollution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) of Prince Islands, Marmara Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcıoğlu, Esra Billur

    2016-08-15

    In this study, PAH analyses have been conducted on indigenous mussels. Mussel samples (Mytilus galloprovincialis) have been collected from seven stations of Prince Islands during September 2015. Concentrations of total determined PAHs (sum of 16 compounds) ranged between 664 and 9083ngg(-1). The origin of PAHs has been found to be pyrolytic according to the PHE/ANT and FA/PYR ratios in Büyükada. For other islands, PAH origins have been observed as pyrolytic and petrogenic together according to the PHE/ANT, FA/PYR and BaA/CHR ratios. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Relationship between atmospheric pollution in the residential area and concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in human breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulkrabova, Jana; Stupak, Michal; Svarcova, Andrea; Rossner, Pavel; Rossnerova, Andrea; Ambroz, Antonin; Sram, Radim; Hajslova, Jana

    2016-08-15

    Human milk is an important source of beneficial nutrients and antibodies for newborns and infants and, under certain circumstances, its analysis may provide information on mothers' and infants' exposure to various contaminants. In the presented study, we have introduced the new analytical approach for analysis of 24 highly occurring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in this indicator matrix. The sample preparation procedure is based on an ethyl acetate extraction of milk; the transfer of analytes into an organic layer is enhanced by addition of inorganic salts, i.e. sodium chloride and magnesium sulphate. Following the clean-up of a crude extract on silica SPE columns, gas chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry is used for PAH identification and quantitation. The average recoveries of targeted PAHs from spiked samples were in the range of 68-110% with repeatabilities below 30% and method quantitation limits ranging from 0.03 to 0.3ng/g lipid weight. This newly validated method was successfully applied for analyses of 324 human milk samples collected from nonsmoking women during two sampling periods (summer and winter) in two residential areas in the Czech Republic differing in atmospheric pollution by PAHs. From 24 targeted analytes 17 were detected at least in one sample. Phenantherene, fluoranthrene, pyrene and fluorene were the most abundant compounds found at average concentration of 13.81, 1.80, 0.86, and 2.01ng/g lipid weight respectively. Comparing the data from two sampling periods, in both areas higher concentrations were measured in samples collected during winter. Also in the highly industrialized locality with heavily contaminated air PAH amounts in milk were higher than in the control locality. These first data on PAH concentrations in human milk collected in the Czech Republic are comparable with measurements for nonsmoking women reported earlier in the United States but significantly lower than results from China, Turkey

  7. Characteristic and Source of Atmospheric PM10- and PM2.5-bound PAHs in a Typical Metallurgic City Near Yangtze River in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Wang, Ruwei; Xue, Huaqin; Hu, Ruoyu; Liu, Guijian

    2018-02-01

    The characteristics of atmospheric PM 10 - and PM 2.5 -bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in Tongling city, China. Results showed that the total concentrations of PM 10 - and PM 2.5 -bound PAHs exhibited distinct seasonal and spatial variability. The metallurgic sites showed the highest PAH concentrations, which is mainly attributed to the metallurgic activities (mainly copper ore smelting) and coal combustion as the smelting fuel. The rural area showed the lowest concentrations, but exhibited significant increase from summer to autumn. This seasonal fluctuation is mainly caused by the biomass burning at the sites in the harvest season. The diagnostic ratio indicated that the main PAHs sources were vehicle exhausts, coal combustion and biomass burning. The total BaP equivalent concentration (BAP-TEQ) was found to be maximum at DGS site in winter, whereas it was minimum at BGC site in summer. Risk assessment indicates that residential exposure to PAHs in the industrial area, especially in the winter season, may pose a greater inhalation cancer risk than people living in living area and rural area.

  8. Treatment of PAH-contaminated soil using cement-activated persulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fujun; Zhang, Qian; Wu, Bin; Peng, Changsheng; Li, Ning; Li, Fasheng; Gu, Qingbao

    2018-01-01

    In this study, a novel method for the treatment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon -contaminated soil using cement-activated persulfate was developed. The removal of PAHs in soil rose with increasing initial persulfate concentration, initial Portland cement (PC) concentration, and oxidation reaction time. At an initial persulfate and PC concentration of 19.20 mmol/kg and 10% of soil weight and a reaction time of 2 h, the removal rate of PAHs reached 57.3%. Residual PAHs were mainly adsorbed within the soil granules and thus became less available. The mechanism of PC facilitating the oxidation reaction was that PC addition can increase the pH and temperature of the system. When the soil was stabilized/solidified by 10% of PC, the leaching concentration of PAHs and TOC was significantly higher than that leached from untreated soil. Persulfate oxidation decreased the leaching concentration of PAHs but increased the leaching concentration of TOC in solidification/stabilization products. The addition of activated carbon can decrease the leaching concentrations of both PAHs and TOC. Freeze-thaw durability tests revealed that the leachability of PAHs was not affected by freeze-thaw cycles. The unconfined compressive strength (UCS) of treated soil samples after 12 freeze-thaw cycles was only 49.0% of that curing for 52 days, but the UCS was still > 1 MPa. The treated soil samples can resist disintegration during the process of freeze-thaw cycles.

  9. Effect of rhamnolipids on the uptake of PAHs by ryegrass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Lizhong; Zhang Ming

    2008-01-01

    A hydroponic experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of rhamnolipids, a biosurfactant, on the uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by ryegrass. Results showed that rhamnolipids could enhance the uptake of PAHs by ryegrass roots. With increasing concentration of rhamnolipids, the PAH content in ryegrass roots initially increased and then decreased, while the PAH content in ryegrass shoots did not change. Batch studies also showed that the sorption of phenanthrene by fresh ryegrass roots was dependent on rhamnolipid concentration and showed the same trends as the uptake experiment. The increase of permeability of ryegrass root cells with the increase of rhamnolipid concentration may lead to the initial enhancement of PAH content in ryegrass roots, and the decrease of PAH adsorption onto the root surface with further increase of rhamnolipids led to the decrease of PAH content in ryegrass roots. - Rhamnolipids, a biosurfactant, can promote the uptake of PAHs by ryegrass, which indicates a potential application of surfactant-enhanced phytoremediation

  10. Effect of rhamnolipids on the uptake of PAHs by ryegrass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Lizhong [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China); Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecological Health, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310029 (China)], E-mail: zlz@zju.edu.cn; Zhang Ming [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China)], E-mail: zhangming@zju.edu.cn

    2008-11-15

    A hydroponic experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of rhamnolipids, a biosurfactant, on the uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by ryegrass. Results showed that rhamnolipids could enhance the uptake of PAHs by ryegrass roots. With increasing concentration of rhamnolipids, the PAH content in ryegrass roots initially increased and then decreased, while the PAH content in ryegrass shoots did not change. Batch studies also showed that the sorption of phenanthrene by fresh ryegrass roots was dependent on rhamnolipid concentration and showed the same trends as the uptake experiment. The increase of permeability of ryegrass root cells with the increase of rhamnolipid concentration may lead to the initial enhancement of PAH content in ryegrass roots, and the decrease of PAH adsorption onto the root surface with further increase of rhamnolipids led to the decrease of PAH content in ryegrass roots. - Rhamnolipids, a biosurfactant, can promote the uptake of PAHs by ryegrass, which indicates a potential application of surfactant-enhanced phytoremediation.

  11. Exposure to dust-bound PAHs and associated carcinogenic risk in primitive and traditional cooking practices in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Atif; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Martellini, Tania; Cincinelli, Alessandra

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the abundance and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in dust samples collected from the selected professional cooking workplaces (WCs) and residential household cooking areas (WRs), where traditional and primitive cooking practices are still prevelent. Another aim of this study was to investigate the carcinogenic risk for Pakistani human exposure to dust-bound PAHs via the routes of inhalation, ingestion, and dermal contact. Generally, the concentration of individual congeners of PAHs in surface dust samples of WC sites was higher than those measured in WR sites (p < 0.05). The benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P), a very high carcinogenic compound, was present in the dust samples from WC sites in the highest mean concentration (630 ng g(-1) dry weight (d.w.)). The BaP mean concentration in WC workplaces was almost eight times higher than the mean value found in WR exposure sites. Moreover, the average concentration of ∑PAHs, combustion origin PAHs (∑COMB) and sum total of 7-carcinogenic PAHs (∑7-carcinogens) were also significantly higher in WC dusts samples than that in WR workplaces. Principal component analysis (PCA) and diagnostic ratios suggested coal/wood combustion as major PAH emission sources in both exposure sites. The average incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) suggested a moderate to potential high cancer risk for adults and children exposed to dust-bound PAHs in both exposure sites, in particular via both dermal and ingestion contact pathways.

  12. PAH in tea and coffee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Navarantem, Marin; Adamska, Joanna

    For food regulation in the European Union maximum limits on other foods than tea and coffee includes benzo[a]pyrene and the sum of PAH4 (sum of benzo[a]pyrene, chrysene, benz[a]anthracene and benzo[b]fluoranthene). This study includes analysis of the above mentioned PAH in both, tea leaves, coffee...... beans and ready-to-drink preparations. Compared to other food matrices (e.g. fish), the analytical methods were challenged by the hot water extracts. Preparation of tea includes roasting and drying of the tea leaves using combustion gases from burning wood, oil, or coal. These are responsible...... for accumulation of PAH in tea leaves. Different varieties of tea leaves were analyzed and highest concentrations were found in leaves from mate and black tea with maximum concentrations of 32 μg/kg for benzo[a]pyrene and 115 μg/kg for the sum of PAH4. Also, coffee beans are roasted during processing. However...

  13. Using deuterated PAH amendments to validate chemical extraction methods to predict PAH bioavailability in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez-Eyles, Jose L.; Collins, Chris D.; Hodson, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    Validating chemical methods to predict bioavailable fractions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by comparison with accumulation bioassays is problematic. Concentrations accumulated in soil organisms not only depend on the bioavailable fraction but also on contaminant properties. A historically contaminated soil was freshly spiked with deuterated PAHs (dPAHs). dPAHs have a similar fate to their respective undeuterated analogues, so chemical methods that give good indications of bioavailability should extract the fresh more readily available dPAHs and historic more recalcitrant PAHs in similar proportions to those in which they are accumulated in the tissues of test organisms. Cyclodextrin and butanol extractions predicted the bioavailable fraction for earthworms (Eisenia fetida) and plants (Lolium multiflorum) better than the exhaustive extraction. The PAHs accumulated by earthworms had a larger dPAH:PAH ratio than that predicted by chemical methods. The isotope ratio method described here provides an effective way of evaluating other chemical methods to predict bioavailability. - Research highlights: → Isotope ratios can be used to evaluate chemical methods to predict bioavailability. → Chemical methods predicted bioavailability better than exhaustive extractions. → Bioavailability to earthworms was still far from that predicted by chemical methods. - A novel method using isotope ratios to assess the ability of chemical methods to predict PAH bioavailability to soil biota.

  14. Using deuterated PAH amendments to validate chemical extraction methods to predict PAH bioavailability in soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Eyles, Jose L., E-mail: j.l.gomezeyles@reading.ac.uk [University of Reading, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, Soil Research Centre, Reading, RG6 6DW Berkshire (United Kingdom); Collins, Chris D.; Hodson, Mark E. [University of Reading, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, Soil Research Centre, Reading, RG6 6DW Berkshire (United Kingdom)

    2011-04-15

    Validating chemical methods to predict bioavailable fractions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by comparison with accumulation bioassays is problematic. Concentrations accumulated in soil organisms not only depend on the bioavailable fraction but also on contaminant properties. A historically contaminated soil was freshly spiked with deuterated PAHs (dPAHs). dPAHs have a similar fate to their respective undeuterated analogues, so chemical methods that give good indications of bioavailability should extract the fresh more readily available dPAHs and historic more recalcitrant PAHs in similar proportions to those in which they are accumulated in the tissues of test organisms. Cyclodextrin and butanol extractions predicted the bioavailable fraction for earthworms (Eisenia fetida) and plants (Lolium multiflorum) better than the exhaustive extraction. The PAHs accumulated by earthworms had a larger dPAH:PAH ratio than that predicted by chemical methods. The isotope ratio method described here provides an effective way of evaluating other chemical methods to predict bioavailability. - Research highlights: > Isotope ratios can be used to evaluate chemical methods to predict bioavailability. > Chemical methods predicted bioavailability better than exhaustive extractions. > Bioavailability to earthworms was still far from that predicted by chemical methods. - A novel method using isotope ratios to assess the ability of chemical methods to predict PAH bioavailability to soil biota.

  15. PAH volatilization following application of coal-tar-based pavement sealant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Majewski, Michael S.; Mahler, Barbara J.; Foreman, William T.; Braun, Christopher L.; Wilson, Jennifer T.; Burbank, Teresa L.

    2012-01-01

    Coal-tar-based pavement sealants, a major source of PAHs to urban water bodies, have recently been identified as a source of volatile PAHs to the atmosphere. We tracked the volatilization of PAHs for 1 year after application of a coal-tar-based pavement sealant by measuring gas-phase PAH concentrations above the pavement surface and solid-phase PAH concentrations in sealant scraped from the surface. Gas-phase concentrations at two heights (0.03 and 1.28 m) and wind speed were used to estimate volatilization flux. The sum of the concentrations of eight frequently detected PAHsPAH8) in the 0.03-m sample 1.6 h after application (297,000 ng m-3) was about 5000 times greater than that previously reported for the same height above unsealed parking lots (66 ng m-3). Flux at 1.6 h after application was estimated at 45,000 μg m-2 h-1 and decreased rapidly during the 45 days after application to 160 μg m-2 h-1. Loss of PAHs from the adhered sealant also was rapid, with about a 50% decrease in solid-phase ΣPAH8 concentration over the 45 days after application. There was general agreement, given the uncertainties, in the estimated mass of ΣPAH8 lost to the atmosphere on the basis of air sampling (2–3 g m-2) and adhered sealant sampling (6 g m-2) during the first 16 days after application, translating to a loss to the atmosphere of one-quarter to one-half of the PAHs in the sealcoat product. Combining the estimated mass of ΣPAH8 released to the atmosphere with a national-use estimate of coal-tar-based sealant suggests that PAH emissions from new coal-tar-based sealcoat applications each year (~1000 Mg) are larger than annual vehicle emissions of PAHs for the United States.

  16. PAH plant uptake prediction: Evaluation of combined availability tools and modeling approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ouvrard, Stéphanie; DUPUY, Joan; Leglize, Pierre; Sterckeman, Thibault

    2015-01-01

    Transfer to plant is one of the main human exposure pathways of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from contaminated soils. However existing models implemented in risk assessment tools mostly rely on i) total contaminant concentration and ii) plant uptake models based on hydroponics experiments established with pesticides (Briggs et al., 1982, 1983). Total concentrations of soil contaminants are useful to indicate pollution, however they do not necessarily indicate risk. Me...

  17. Heavy metals, PAHs and toxicity in stormwater wet detention ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Tove; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild

    2011-01-01

    Concentrations of 6 different heavy metals and total Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) were determined in stormwater runoff and in the pond water of two Danish wet detention ponds. The pond water samples were analyzed for toxic effects, using the algae Selenastrum capricornutum as a test...... organism. Stormwater and pond water from a catchment with light industry showed high levels of heavy metals, especially zinc and copper. The pond water showed high toxic effects and copper were found to be the main toxicant. Additionally, a large part of the copper was suspected to be complex bound......, reducing the potential toxicity of the metal. Another catchment (residential) produced stormwater and pond water with moderate concentration of heavy metals. The pond water occasionally showed toxic effects but no correlation between heavy metals and toxicity was identified. PAHs concentrations were...

  18. Chemical and bioanalytical characterisation of PAHs in risk assessment of remediated PAH-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Maria; Hagberg, Jessika; Rotander, Anna; van Bavel, Bert; Engwall, Magnus

    2013-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are common contaminants in soil at former industrial areas; and in Sweden, some of the most contaminated sites are being remediated. Generic guideline values for soil use after so-called successful remediation actions of PAH-contaminated soil are based on the 16 EPA priority pollutants, which only constitute a small part of the complex cocktail of toxicants in many contaminated soils. The aim of the study was to elucidate if the actual toxicological risks of soil samples from successful remediation projects could be reflected by chemical determination of these PAHs. We compared chemical analysis (GC-MS) and bioassay analysis (H4IIE-luc) of a number of remediated PAH-contaminated soils. The H4IIE-luc bioassay is an aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor-based assay that detects compounds that activate the Ah receptor, one important mechanism for PAH toxicity. Comparison of the results showed that the bioassay-determined toxicity in the remediated soil samples could only be explained to a minor extent by the concentrations of the 16 priority PAHs. The current risk assessment method for PAH-contaminated soil in use in Sweden along with other countries, based on chemical analysis of selected PAHs, is missing toxicologically relevant PAHs and other similar substances. It is therefore reasonable to include bioassays in risk assessment and in the classification of remediated PAH-contaminated soils. This could minimise environmental and human health risks and enable greater safety in subsequent reuse of remediated soils.

  19. Low accessibility and chemical activity of PAHs restrict bioremediation and risk of exposure in a manufactured gas plant soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichenberg, Fredrik; Karlson, Ulrich Gosewinkel; Gustafsson, Orjan; Long, Sara M.; Pritchard, Parmely H.; Mayer, Philipp

    2010-01-01

    Composting of manufactured gas plant soil by a commercial enterprise had removed most of its polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), but concentrations remained above regulatory threshold levels. Several amendments and treatments were first tested to restart the PAH degradation, albeit with little success. The working hypothesis was then that PAHs were 'stuck' due to strong sorption to black carbon. Accessibility was measured with cyclodextrin extractions and on average only 4% of the PAHs were accessible. Chemical activity of the PAHs was measured by equilibrium sampling, which confirmed a low exposure level. These results are consistent with strong sorption to black carbon (BC), which constituted 59% of the total organic carbon. Composting failed to remove the PAHs, but it succeeded to minimize PAH accessibility and chemical activity. This adds to accumulating evidence that current regulatory thresholds based on bulk concentrations are questionable and alternative approaches probing actual risk should be considered. - Bioremediation of MGP soil failed to eliminate PAHs but it succeeded to limit their accessibility, chemical activity and the remaining risk of biological exposure.

  20. Variations of emission characterization of PAHs emitted from different utility boilers of coal-fired power plants and risk assessment related to atmospheric PAHs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ruwei; Liu, Guijian; Zhang, Jiamei

    2015-01-01

    Coal-fired power plants (CFPPs) represent important source of atmospheric PAHs, however, their emission characterization are still largely unknown. In this work, the concentration, distribution and gas-particle partitioning of PM_1_0- and gas-phase PAHs in flue gas emitted from different coal-fired utility boilers were investigated. Moreover, concentration and distribution in airborne PAHs from different functional areas of power plants were studied. People's inhalatory and dermal exposures to airborne PAHs at these sites were estimated and their resultant lung cancer and skin cancer risks were assessed. Results indicated that the boiler capacity and operation conditions have significant effect on PAH concentrations in both PM_1_0 and gas phases due to the variation of combustion efficiency, whereas they take neglected effect on PAH distributions. The wet flue gas desulphurization (WFGD) takes significant effect on the scavenging of PAH in both PM_1_0 and gas phases, higher scavenging efficiency were found for less volatile PAHs. PAH partitioning is dominated by absorption into organic matter and accompanied by adsorption onto PM_1_0 surface. In addition, different partitioning mechanism is observed for individual PAHs, which is assumed arising from their chemical affinity and vapor pressure. Risk assessment indicates that both inhalation and dermal contact greatly contribute to the cancer risk for CFPP workers and nearby residents. People working in workshop are exposed to greater inhalation and dermal exposure risk than people living in nearby vicinity and working office. - Highlights: • PAH distribution in PM_1_0 and gas phases primarily depend on the vapor pressure. • Combustion conditions and WFGD show typical effects on PAH level and profile. • PAH partitioning is dominated by absorption and also accompanied by adsorption. • Individual PAHs show different partitioning mechanisms in PM_1_0- and gas-phases. • People in workshop suffer greater cancer

  1. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their Bioaccessibility in Meat: a Tool for Assessing Human Cancer Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidi, Elliyana Nadia; Hajeb, Parvaneh; Selamat, Jinap; Abdull Razis, Ahmad Faizal

    2016-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are primarily formed as a result of thermal treatment of food, especially barbecuing or grilling. Contamination by PAHs is due to generation by direct pyrolysis of food nutrients and deposition from smoke produced through incomplete combustion of thermal agents. PAHs are ubiquitous compounds, well-known to be carcinogenic, which can reach the food in different ways. As an important human exposure pathway of contaminants, dietary intake of PAHs is of increasing concern for assessing cancer risk in the human body. In addition, the risks associated with consumption of barbecued meat may increase if consumers use cooking practices that enhance the concentrations of contaminants and their bioaccessibility. Since total PAHs always overestimate the actual amount that is available for absorption by the body, bioaccessibility of PAHs is to be preferred. Bioaccessibility of PAHs in food is the fraction of PAHs mobilized from food matrices during gastrointestinal digestion. An in vitro human digestion model was chosen for assessing the bioaccessibility of PAHs in food as it offers a simple, rapid, low cost alternative to human and animal studies; providing insights which may not be achievable in in vivo studies. Thus, this review aimed not only to provide an overview of general aspects of PAHs such as the formation, carcinogenicity, sources, occurrence, and factors affecting PAH concentrations, but also to enhance understanding of bioaccessibility assessment using an in vitro digestion model.

  2. Interactions between selected PAHs and the microbial community in rhizosphere of a paddy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yu H; Yang, Xue Y

    2009-01-15

    This study investigated the interaction of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), i.e., naphthalene (NAP), phenanthrene (PHN), and pyrene (PYR), with the microbial community in the rhizosphere of a paddy soil and the influence of the rice (Oryza sativa) rhizosphere on the microbial community structure. A range of initial NAP, PHN and PYR levels in soil (50-200, 18-72, and 6.6-26.6 mg kg(-1), respectively) were prepared and the soil samples were then aged for 4 months (to yield PAH concentrations at 1.02-1.42, 1.32-4.77, and 2.98-18.5 mg kg(-)(1), respectively) before the soil samples were planted with rice seedlings. The microbial phospholipid-fatty-acid (PLFA) patterns in PAH-contaminated soils were analyzed to elucidate the changes of the microbial biomass and community composition. Results indicated that at the applied concentrations the PAHs were not toxic to rice seedlings, as evidenced by no growth inhibition during the 8-week planting period. However, the microbial biomass, as revealed by PLFAs, decreased significantly with increasing PAH concentration in both rhizospheric and non-rhizospheric soils. The PAHs in soils were obviously toxic to microorganisms, and the toxicity of PHN was greater than PYR due likely to the higher PHN bioavailability. Total PLFAs in rhizospheric soils were profoundly higher than those in non-rhizospheric soils, suggesting that the inhibitive effect of PAHs on microbial activities was alleviated by the rice roots. The principal component analysis (PCA) of the PLFA signatures revealed pronounced changes in PLFA pattern in rhizospheric and non-rhizospheric soils with or without spiked PAHs. Using the PLFA patterns as a biomarker, it was found that Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive to PAHs than Gram-negative bacteria, and the rhizosphere of rice roots stimulated the growth of aerobic bacteria.

  3. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in wetland soils under different land uses in a coastal estuary: toxic levels, sources and relationships with soil organic matter and water-stable aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Rong; Bai, Junhong; Wang, Junjing; Lu, Qiongqiong; Zhao, Qingqing; Cui, Baoshan; Liu, Xinhui

    2014-09-01

    The concentrations of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in the soils from industrial, wharf, cropland, milldam and natural wetland sites to characterize their distributions, toxic levels and possible sources in the Pearl River Estuary and identify their relationships with soil organic matter (SOM) and water-stable aggregates (WSAs). Our results indicate that the average concentration of total PAHs in this region reached a moderate pollution level, which was higher than that in other larger estuaries in Asia. The average level of total PAHs in industrial soils was 1.2, 1.5, 1.6 and 2.3 times higher than those in soils from wharf, cropland, milldam and natural wetland sites, respectively. Greater accumulation of PAHs occurred in the middle and/or bottom soil layers where 3-ring PAHs were dominant. Industrial soils also exhibited the highest toxic levels with the highest toxic equivalent concentrations of PAHs, followed by wharf and milldam soils, and the cropland and wetland soils had the lowest toxicity. The diagnostic ratios suggested that PAHs primarily originated from biomass and coal combustion at industrial and milldam sites, and petroleum combustion was determined to be the primary source of PAHs at the wharf, cropland and wetland sites. Both 3-ring and 4-ring PAHs in the milldam and wharf soils were significantly positively correlated with the SOM, whereas the 4,5,6-ring PAHs and total PAHs in industrial soils and the 2-ring PAHs in cropland soils were significantly negatively correlated with the SOM. In addition, large WSAs also exhibited a significant positive correlation with PAHs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Variations of emission characterization of PAHs emitted from different utility boilers of coal-fired power plants and risk assessment related to atmospheric PAHs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruwei; Liu, Guijian; Zhang, Jiamei

    2015-12-15

    Coal-fired power plants (CFPPs) represent important source of atmospheric PAHs, however, their emission characterization are still largely unknown. In this work, the concentration, distribution and gas-particle partitioning of PM10- and gas-phase PAHs in flue gas emitted from different coal-fired utility boilers were investigated. Moreover, concentration and distribution in airborne PAHs from different functional areas of power plants were studied. People's inhalatory and dermal exposures to airborne PAHs at these sites were estimated and their resultant lung cancer and skin cancer risks were assessed. Results indicated that the boiler capacity and operation conditions have significant effect on PAH concentrations in both PM10 and gas phases due to the variation of combustion efficiency, whereas they take neglected effect on PAH distributions. The wet flue gas desulphurization (WFGD) takes significant effect on the scavenging of PAH in both PM10 and gas phases, higher scavenging efficiency were found for less volatile PAHs. PAH partitioning is dominated by absorption into organic matter and accompanied by adsorption onto PM10 surface. In addition, different partitioning mechanism is observed for individual PAHs, which is assumed arising from their chemical affinity and vapor pressure. Risk assessment indicates that both inhalation and dermal contact greatly contribute to the cancer risk for CFPP workers and nearby residents. People working in workshop are exposed to greater inhalation and dermal exposure risk than people living in nearby vicinity and working office. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. PAH contamination in soils adjacent to a coal-transporting facility in Tapin district, south Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizwar, Andy; Trihadiningrum, Yulinah

    2015-07-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the level of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), listed as priority pollutants by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), in surface soils around a coal-transporting facility in the western part of South Kalimantan, Indonesia. Three composite soil samples were collected from a coal stockpile, coal-hauling road, and coal port. Identification and quantification of PAH was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The total content of 16 USEPA-PAH ranged from 11.79 to 55.30 mg/kg with arithmetic mean value of 33.14 mg/kg and median of 32.33 mg/kg. The 16 USEPA-PAH measured levels were found to be greater compared with most of the literature values. The levels of high molecular-weight PAH (5- and 6-ring) were dominant and formed 67.77-80.69 % of the total 16 USEPA-PAH The most abundant of individual PAH are indeno[1,2,3-cd] pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene with concentration ranges of 2.11-20.56 and 1.59-17.84 mg/kg, respectively. The degree of PAH contamination and subsequent toxicity assessment suggest that the soils of the study area are highly contaminated and pose a potential health risk to humans.

  6. Developmental toxicity of PAH mixtures in fish early life stages. Part II: adverse effects in Japanese medaka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bihanic, Florane; Clérandeau, Christelle; Le Menach, Karyn; Morin, Bénédicte; Budzinski, Hélène; Cousin, Xavier; Cachot, Jérôme

    2014-12-01

    In aquatic environments, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) mostly occur as complex mixtures, for which risk assessment remains problematic. To better understand the effects of PAH mixture toxicity on fish early life stages, this study compared the developmental toxicity of three PAH complex mixtures. These mixtures were extracted from a PAH-contaminated sediment (Seine estuary, France) and two oils (Arabian Light and Erika). For each fraction, artificial sediment was spiked at three different environmental concentrations roughly equivalent to 0.5, 4, and 10 μg total PAH g(-1) dw. Japanese medaka embryos were incubated on these PAH-spiked sediments throughout their development, right up until hatching. Several endpoints were recorded at different developmental stages, including acute endpoints, morphological abnormalities, larvae locomotion, and genotoxicity (comet and micronucleus assays). The three PAH fractions delayed hatching, induced developmental abnormalities, disrupted larvae swimming activity, and damaged DNA at environmental concentrations. Differences in toxicity levels, likely related to differences in PAH proportions, were highlighted between fractions. The Arabian Light and Erika petrogenic fractions, containing a high proportion of alkylated PAHs and low molecular weight PAHs, were more toxic to Japanese medaka early life stages than the pyrolytic fraction. This was not supported by the toxic equivalency approach, which appeared unsuitable for assessing the toxicity of the three PAH fractions to fish early life stages. This study highlights the potential risks posed by environmental mixtures of alkylated and low molecular weight PAHs to early stages of fish development.

  7. Contamination from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the soil of a botanic garden localized next to a former manufacturing gas plant in Palermo (Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orecchio, Santino

    2010-01-01

    The Botanical Garden lies within the city of Palermo, a few meters away from one of the largest unused Manufacturing Gas Plant in Sicily. The total concentrations of PAHs (23 compounds) in the soil of Botanical Garden ranged from 947 to 18,072 μg/kg. The wide range of PAH concentrations (RSD = 84%) found in the soil samples indicates heterogeneous levels of contamination in the area and this can be explained by considering the different tree distributions which prevents the homogeneous deposition of pollutants on the soil. Soils collected in the Botanical Garden generally showed the highest PAH concentrations, being almost 2-3 times higher than the concentration samples obtained in the urban reference sites and about 20 times higher than those in the rural stations. The total PAH concentrations, in the Botanical Garden soil, resulted higher than the maximum concentrations allowed by the Italian legislation for the green areas. Perylene, was found in all the stations. From a careful study of the isomeric ratios, we can hypothesize that the soils of the Botanical Garden are mainly affected by localized MGP particulate deposition, suggesting that the partitioning between organic matter and PAHs is not the dominant process in the soils with higher organic matter content.

  8. Environmental assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediments of the Santander Bay, Northern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viguri, J; Verde, J; Irabien, A

    2002-07-01

    Samples of intertidal surface sediments (0-2 cm) were collected in 17 stations of the Santander Bay, Cantabric Sea, Northern Spain. The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 16, were analysed by HPLC and MS detection. Surface sediments show a good linear correlation among the parameters of the experimental organic matter evaluation, where total carbon (TC) and loss on ignition (LOI) are approximately 2.5 and 5 times total organic carbon (TOC). A wide range of TOC from 0.08% to 4.1%, and a broad distribution of the sum of sigma16PAHs, from 0.02 to 344.6 microg/g d.w., which can be correlated by an exponential equation to the TOC, has been identified. A qualitative relationship may be established between the industrial input along the rivers and the concentration of sigma6PAHs in the sediments of the estuaries: Boo estuary (8404-4631 microg/g OC), Solia-San Salvador estuaries (305-113 microg/g OC) and Cubas estuary (31-32 microg/g OC). This work shows a dramatic change in the spatial distribution in the concentration of PAHs of intertidal surface sediments. The left edge of the Bay has the main traffic around the city and the major source of PAHs is from combustion processes and estuarine inputs, leading to medium values of PAHs in the sediments; the right edge of the Bay has much lesser anthropogenic activities leading to lower values of PAHs in sediments. The distribution of individual PAHs in sediments varies widely depending on their structure and molecular weight; the 4-6 ring aromatics predominate in polluted sediments due to their higher persistence. The isomer ratio does not allow any clear identification of the PAHs origin. Environmental evaluation according to Dutch guidelines and consensus sediment quality guidelines based on ecotoxicological data leads to the same conclusion, sediments in the Santander Bay show a very different environmental quality depending on the spatial position from heavily polluted/medium effects to non

  9. Addition of biochar to sewage sludge decreases freely dissolved PAHs content and toxicity of sewage sludge-amended soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefaniuk, Magdalena; Oleszczuk, Patryk

    2016-11-01

    Due to an increased content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) frequently found in sewage sludges, it is necessary to find solutions that will reduce the environmental hazard associated with their presence. The aim of this study was to determine changes of total and freely dissolved concentration of PAHs in sewage sludge-biochar-amended soil. Two different sewage sludges and biochars with varying properties were tested. Biochars (BC) were produced from biogas residues at 400 °C or 600 °C and from willow at 600 °C. The freely dissolved PAH concentration was determined by means of passive sampling using polyoxymethylene (POM). Total and freely dissolved PAH concentration was monitored at the beginning of the experiment and after 90 days of aging of the sewage sludge with the biochar and soil. Apart from chemical evaluation, the effect of biochar addition on the toxicity of the tested materials on bacteria - Vibrio fischeri (Microtox ® ), plants - Lepidium sativum (Phytotestkit F, Phytotoxkit F), and Collembola - Folsomia candida (Collembolan test) was evaluated. The addition of biochar to the sewage sludges decreased the content of C free PAHs. A reduction from 11 to 43% of sewage sludge toxicity or positive effects on plants expressed by root growth stimulation from 6 to 25% to the control was also found. The range of reduction of C free PAHs and toxicity was dependent on the type of biochar. After 90 days of incubation of the biochars with the sewage sludge in the soil, C free PAHs and toxicity were found to further decrease compared to the soil with sewage sludge alone. The obtained results show that the addition of biochar to sewage sludges may significantly reduce the risk associated with their environmental use both in terms of PAH content and toxicity of the materials tested. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. PAHs contamination in urban soils from Lisbon: spatial variability and potential risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cachada, Anabela; Pereira, Ruth; Ferreira da Silva, Eduardo; Duarte, Armando

    2015-04-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can become major contaminants in urban and industrial areas, due to the existence of a plethora of diffuse and point sources. Particularly diffuse pollution, which is normally characterized by continuous and long-term emission of contaminants below risk levels, can be a major problem in urban areas. Since PAHs are persistent and tend to accumulate in soils, levels are often above the recommended guidelines indicating that ecological functions of soils may be affected. Moreover, due to the lipophilic nature, hydrophobicity and low chemical and biological degradation rates of PAHs, which leads to their bioconcentration and bioamplification, they may reach toxicological relevant concentrations in organisms. The importance and interest of studying this group of contaminants is magnified due to their carcinogenic, mutagenic and endocrine disrupting effects. In this study, a risk assessment framework has been followed in order to evaluate the potential hazards posed by the presence of PAHs in Lisbon urban soils. Hence, the first step consisted in screening the total concentrations of PAHs followed by the calculation of risks based on existing models. Considering these models several samples were identified as representing a potential risk when comparing with the guidelines for soil protection. Moreover, it was found that for 38% of samples more than 50% of species can be potentially affected by the mixture of PAHs. The use of geostatistical methods allowed to visualize the predicted distribution of PAHs in Lisbon area and identify the areas where possible risk to the environment are likely occurring However, it is known that total concentration may not allow a direct prediction of environmental risk, since in general only a fraction of total concentration is available for partitioning between soil and solution and thus to be uptake or transformed by organisms (bioacessible or bioavailable) or to be leached to groundwater. The

  11. A highly sensitive monoclonal antibody based biosensor for quantifying 3–5 ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in aqueous environmental samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Immunoassays based on monoclonal antibodies (mAbs are highly sensitive for the detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and can be employed to determine concentrations in near real-time. A sensitive generic mAb against PAHs, named as 2G8, was developed by a three-step screening procedure. It exhibited nearly uniformly high sensitivity against 3-ring to 5-ring unsubstituted PAHs and their common environmental methylated PAHs, with IC50 values between 1.68 and 31 μg/L (ppb. 2G8 has been successfully applied on the KinExA Inline Biosensor system for quantifying 3–5 ring PAHs in aqueous environmental samples. PAHs were detected at a concentration as low as 0.2 μg/L. Furthermore, the analyses only required 10 min for each sample. To evaluate the accuracy of the 2G8-based biosensor, the total PAH concentrations in a series of environmental samples analyzed by biosensor and GC–MS were compared. In most cases, the results yielded a good correlation between methods. This indicates that generic antibody 2G8 based biosensor possesses significant promise for a low cost, rapid method for PAH determination in aqueous samples. Keywords: Monoclonal antibody, PAH, Pore water, Biosensor, Pyrene

  12. Sediment-porewater partition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from Lanzhou Reach of Yellow River, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Yong [Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Xu Jian, E-mail: xujian@nankai.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Wang Ping; Sun Hongwen; Dai Shugui [Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2009-06-15

    Pollution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the aquatic environment has drawn much attention around the world. The occurrence of 16 priority PAHs in the sediments and corresponding porewaters in Lanzhou Reach of Yellow River, China, and their partitioning behavior between the two phases were investigated. The results demonstrated that the total PAH levels in the sediments were positively correlated with the sediment clay contents (R{sup 2} = 0.756). Concentrations of total PAHs in porewaters ranged from 48.2 to 206 {mu}g/L, and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene (InP) was the most abundant compound measured in the porewater samples with a mean value of 42.9 {mu}g/L. The compositions of PAHs in porewaters were dominated by their compositions in the sediment samples. The in situ organic carbon normalized partition coefficients (logK{sub oc}{sup '}) of the PAHs between sediments and porewaters were significantly correlated with their octanol-water partition coefficients (log K{sub ow}) when log K{sub ow} values were less than 5.5 (naphthalene (Nap) excluded). logK{sub oc}{sup '} values of 14 PAHs were lower than those predicted by the Karickhoff relationship. This discrepancy was largest for InP, dibenzo[a,h]anthracene (DBA), and benzo[ghi]perylene (BgP). The results in present study showed the tendency of PAHs release from sediment to porewater, indicating that PAHs sequestered in the sediments may be a pollution source to aquatic ecosystem.

  13. Seasonal Variations and Sources of Airborne Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs in Chengdu, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Yang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in the air of Chengdu, a southwest city of China, were determined from March 2015 to February 2016. Here, two diagnostic ratios (DR were determined and a principal component analysis/multiple linear regression (PCA/MLR analysis was performed to identify the sources of PAHs during the four seasons. The gaseous and particle phase samples were analyzed separately. The sampled air had a gas-to particle ratio of 4.21, and between 18.7% and 31.3% of the total detected PAHs were found in the particulate phase. The total concentration of all 16-PAHs combined (gas + particles varied from 176.94 in summer to 458.95 ng·m−3 in winter, with a mean of 300.35 ± 176.6 ng·m−3. In the gas phase, phenanthrene(Phe was found at the highest concentrations in all four seasons, while benzo[b]fluoranthene(BbF and (in winter chrysene(Chr were the highest in the particle phase. The DR of Fluroanthene (Flua/(Flua + Pyrene (Pyr was higher in the gas phase than in the particle phase, while the Indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene(IcdP/(IcdP + Benzo[ghi]perylene (BghiP ratio was more variable in the gas than that in the particle phase. The main sources for both phases were a mixture of liquid fossil fuel combustion and the burning of biomass and coal, with clear seasonal variation. Principal Component Analysis/Multiple Linear Regression (PCA/MLR analysis identified the main PAH sources as coal burning (52% with motor vehicle exhaust and coke (48% in spring; coal (52%, coke (21%, and motor vehicle exhaust (27% in summer; coal (47%, vehicle exhaust (34%, and coke (19% in autumn; and coal (58% and vehicle exhaust (42% in winter.

  14. Coal-tar pavement sealants might substantially increase children's PAH exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, E. Spencer; Mahler, Barbara J.; Van Metre, Peter C.

    2012-01-01

    Dietary ingestion has been identified repeatedly as the primary route of human exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), seven of which are classified as probable human carcinogens (B2 PAHs) by the U.S. EPA. Humans are exposed to PAHs through ingestion of cooked and uncooked foods, incidental ingestion of soil and dust, inhalation of ambient air, and absorption through skin. Although PAH sources are ubiquitous in the environment, one recently identified PAH source stands out: Coal-tar-based pavement sealant—a product applied to many parking lots, driveways, and even playgrounds primarily in the central, southern, and eastern U.S.—has PAH concentrations 100–1000 times greater than most other PAH sources. It was reported recently that PAH concentrations in house dust in residences adjacent to parking lots with coal-tar-based sealant were 25 times higher than in residences adjacent to unsealed asphalt parking lots.

  15. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in the atmospheres of two French alpine valleys: sources and temporal patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Marchand

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Alpine valleys represent some of the most important crossroads for international heavy-duty traffic in Europe, but the full impact of this traffic on air quality is not known due to a lack of data concerning these complex systems. As part of the program "Pollution des Vallées Alpines" (POVA, we performed two sampling surveys of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in two sensitive valleys: the Chamonix and Maurienne Valleys, between France and Italy. Sampling campaigns were performed during the summer of 2000 and the winter of 2001, with both periods taking place during the closure of the "Tunnel du Mont-Blanc". The first objective of this paper is to describe the relations between PAH concentrations, external parameters (sampling site localization, meteorological parameters, sources, and aerosol characteristics, including its carbonaceous fraction (OC and EC. The second objective is to study the capacity of PAH profiles to accurately distinguish the different emission sources. Temporal evolution of the relative concentration of an individual PAH (CHR and the PAH groups BghiP+COR and BbF+BkF is studied in order to differentiate wood combustion, gasoline, and diesel emissions, respectively. The results show that the total particulate PAH concentrations were higher in the Chamonix valley during both seasons, despite the cessation of international traffic. Seasonal cycles, with higher concentrations in winter, are also stronger in this valley. During winter, particulate PAH concentration can reach very high levels (up to 155 ng.m-3 in this valley during cold anticyclonic periods. The examination of sources shows the impact during summer of heavy-duty traffic in the Maurienne valley and of gasoline vehicles in the Chamonix valley. During winter, Chamonix is characterized by the strong influence of wood combustion in residential fireplaces, even if the temporal evolution of specific PAH ratios are difficult to interpret. Information on sources

  16. Variations of emission characterization of PAHs emitted from different utility boilers of coal-fired power plants and risk assessment related to atmospheric PAHs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ruwei [CAS Key Laboratory of Crust-Mantle and the Environment, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui (China); State Key Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology, Institute of Earth Environment, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an 710075, Shanxi (China); Liu, Guijian, E-mail: lgj@ustc.edu.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Crust-Mantle and the Environment, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui (China); State Key Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology, Institute of Earth Environment, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an 710075, Shanxi (China); Zhang, Jiamei [CAS Key Laboratory of Crust-Mantle and the Environment, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui (China)

    2015-12-15

    Coal-fired power plants (CFPPs) represent important source of atmospheric PAHs, however, their emission characterization are still largely unknown. In this work, the concentration, distribution and gas-particle partitioning of PM{sub 10}- and gas-phase PAHs in flue gas emitted from different coal-fired utility boilers were investigated. Moreover, concentration and distribution in airborne PAHs from different functional areas of power plants were studied. People's inhalatory and dermal exposures to airborne PAHs at these sites were estimated and their resultant lung cancer and skin cancer risks were assessed. Results indicated that the boiler capacity and operation conditions have significant effect on PAH concentrations in both PM{sub 10} and gas phases due to the variation of combustion efficiency, whereas they take neglected effect on PAH distributions. The wet flue gas desulphurization (WFGD) takes significant effect on the scavenging of PAH in both PM{sub 10} and gas phases, higher scavenging efficiency were found for less volatile PAHs. PAH partitioning is dominated by absorption into organic matter and accompanied by adsorption onto PM{sub 10} surface. In addition, different partitioning mechanism is observed for individual PAHs, which is assumed arising from their chemical affinity and vapor pressure. Risk assessment indicates that both inhalation and dermal contact greatly contribute to the cancer risk for CFPP workers and nearby residents. People working in workshop are exposed to greater inhalation and dermal exposure risk than people living in nearby vicinity and working office. - Highlights: • PAH distribution in PM{sub 10} and gas phases primarily depend on the vapor pressure. • Combustion conditions and WFGD show typical effects on PAH level and profile. • PAH partitioning is dominated by absorption and also accompanied by adsorption. • Individual PAHs show different partitioning mechanisms in PM{sub 10}- and gas-phases. • People in

  17. Atmospheric concentrations and phase partitioning of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Izmir, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demircioglu, Eylem; Odabasi, Mustafa [Faculty of Engineering, Department of Environmental Engineering, Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir (Turkey); Sofuoglu, Aysun [Faculty of Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, Izmir Institute of Technology, Gulbahce-Urla (Turkey)

    2011-04-15

    Ambient air polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) samples were collected at a suburban (n = 63) and at an urban site (n = 14) in Izmir, Turkey. Average gas-phase total PAH (sum {sub 14}PAH) concentrations were 23.5 ng m{sup -3} for suburban and 109.7 ng m{sup -3} for urban sites while average particle-phase total PAH concentrations were 12.3 and 34.5 ng m{sup -3} for suburban and urban sites, respectively. Higher ambient PAH concentrations were measured in the gas-phase and sum {sub 14}PAH concentrations were dominated by lower molecular weight PAHs. Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that the meteorological parameters were effective on ambient PAH concentrations. Emission sources of particle-phase PAHs were investigated using a diagnostic plot of fluorene (FLN)/(fluorine + pyrene; PY) versus indeno[1,2,3-cd]PY/(indeno[1,2,3-cd]PY + benzo[g,h,i]perylene) and several diagnostic ratios. These approaches have indicated that traffic emissions (petroleum combustion) were the dominant PAH sources at both sites for summer and winter seasons. Experimental gas-particle partition coefficients (K{sub P}) were compared to the predictions of octanol-air (K{sub OA}) and soot-air (K{sub SA}) partition coefficient models. The correlations between experimental and modeled K{sub P} values were significant (r{sup 2} = 0.79 and 0.94 for suburban and urban sites, respectively, p < 0.01). Octanol-based absorptive partitioning model predicted lower partition coefficients especially for relatively volatile PAHs. However, overall there was a relatively good agreement between the measured K{sub P} and soot-based model predictions. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Polysykliske aromatiske hydrokarboner (PAH) i fisk

    OpenAIRE

    Knutzen, J.

    1987-01-01

    Det er sammenstilt litteraturdata om polysykliske aromatiske hydrokarboner (PAH, tjærestoffer) i fisk fra et lite påvirkede og fra forurensede områder og sammenlignet med utvalgte data for PAH i røkt fisk. På grunn av sparsomt og delvis tvilsomt materiale, har det bare latt seg gjøre å antyde øvre grense for et "diffust bakgrunnsnivå" av benzo(a)pyren i fiskefilet: 1 µg/kg frisk vekt. Ofte har ikke total-PAH eller utvalgte PAH-forbindelser latt seg påvise, selv i områder som vites å være mark...

  19. Concentrations, sources and spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils from Beijing, Tianjin and surrounding areas, North China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wentao; Massey Simonich, Staci L.; Xue Miao; Zhao Jingyu; Zhang Na; Wang Rong; Cao Jun; Tao Shu

    2010-01-01

    The concentrations, profiles, sources and spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in 40 surface soil samples collected from Beijing, Tianjin and surrounding areas, North China in 2007, and all sampling sites were far from industrial areas, roadsides and other pollution sources, and across a range of soil types in remote, rural villages and urban areas. The total concentrations of 16 PAHs ranged from 31.6 to 1475.0 ng/g, with an arithmetic average of 336.4 ng/g. The highest PAH concentrations were measured in urban soils, followed by rural village soils and soils from remote locations. The remote-rural village-urban PAH concentration gradient was related to population density, gross domestic product (GDP), long-range atmospheric transport and different types of land use. In addition, the PAH concentration was well correlated with the total organic carbon (TOC) concentration of the soil. The PAH profile suggested that coal combustion and biomass burning were primary PAH sources. - The concentration, profiles and possible sources of PAHs in Beijing, Tianjin and surrounding area soils were studied and related to population density and gross domestic product (GDP).

  20. Phthalate and PAH concentrations in dust collected from Danish homes and daycare centers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, Sarka; Weschler, Charles J.; Fischer, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    (diethyl phthalate (DEP), di(n-butyl) phthalate (DnBP), di(isobutyl) phthalate (DiBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP)) and three PAHs (pyrene, benz[a]anthracene (B[a]A) and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P)). The three PAHs and DEHP were detected in dust samples from all sites, while...... DEP. DnBP, DiBP and BBzP were detected in more than 75% of the bedrooms and more than 90% of the daycare centers. The dust mass-fractions of both phthalates and PAHs were log-normally distributed. With the exception of DEP, the mass-fractions of phthalates in dust were higher in daycare centers than...... homes: PAH mass-fractions in dust were similar in the two locations. There was no correlation among the different phthalates in either homes or daycare centers. In contrast, the PAH were correlated with one another more strongly so in homes (R-2 = 0.80-0.90) than in daycare centers (R-2 = 0...

  1. Atmospheric deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Shanghai: the spatio-temporal variation and source identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chen; Bi, Chunjuan; Wang, Dongqi; Yu, Zhongjie; Chen, Zhenlou

    2018-03-01

    This study investigated the dry and wet deposition fluxes of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Shanghai, China. The flux sources were traced based on composition and spatio-temporal variation. The results show that wet deposition concentrations of PAHs ranged from 0.07 to 0.67 mg·L-1 and were correlated with temperature ( P<0.05). Dry deposition of PAHs concentrations ranged from 3.60-92.15 mg·L-1 and were higher in winter and spring than in summer and autumn. The annual PAH average fluxes were 0.631 mg·m-2·d-1 and 4.06 mg·m-2·d-1 for wet and dry deposition, respectively. The highest wet deposition of PAH fluxes was observed in summer, while dry deposition fluxes were higher in winter and spring. Atmospheric PAHs were deposited as dry deposition in spring and winter, yet wet deposition was the dominant pathway during summer. Total atmospheric PAH fluxes were higher in the northern areas than in the southern areas of Shanghai, and were also observed to be higher in winter and spring. Annual deposition of atmospheric PAHs was about 10.8 t in across all of Shanghai. Wet deposition of PAHs was primarily composed of two, three, or four rings, while dry deposition of PAHs was composed of four, five, or six rings. The atmospheric PAHs, composed of four, five, or six rings, primarily existed in the form of particulates. Coal combustion and vehicle emissions were the dominant sources of PAH in the observed area of downtown Shanghai. In suburban areas, industrial pollution, from sources such as coke oven, incinerator, and oil fired power plant, was as significant as vehicle emissions in contributing to the deposition of PAHs.

  2. Rapid collection, detection, and assessment of environmental polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, T.; Huckins, J.; Petty, J.; Butorin, A.

    1995-01-01

    PAHs, an important class of environmental chemical contaminants found primarily in petroleum and coal products, frequently are the most numerous and ubiquitous organic pollutants recovered in sediment residues. PAHs are considered hazardous in water and soil because many are acutely toxic and have the potential for genotoxic activity. Selected EPA priority pollutants (2, 3, 4, and 5-ring PAHs) and complex PAH mixtures (crude oil, gasoline, and recycled motor oil) were collected and concentrated from water and sediment with semipermeable polymeric membrane devices (SPMDs) that contain a thin film of triolein. Analytes were extracted from the SPMDs by dialysis in hexane or directly by rinsing with acetone DMSO, concentrated in the carrier solvent DMSO, and detected with the luminescent bacterial assays Microtox reg-sign and Mutatox reg-sign. High SPMD-water concentration factors of PAHs appeared to correspond closely to the occurrence of PAHs in sediments previously reported in the literature; for example, pyrene had the highest SPMD concentration factor and was the most commonly found PAH in sediment residues. Mutatox reg-sign with rat hepatic S9 activation detected all PAHs tested. The PAH's molecular weight and number of rings appeared to directly influence acute toxicity (EC50, microg/mL); for example, two-ring naphthalene had an EC50 value of 0.78 whereas five-ring benzo(a)pyrene had an EC50 value of 15.0, about a twenty-fold difference, Microtox reg-sign and Mutatox reg-sign, in combination with SPMDs were able to rapidly (< 24h) assess the bioavailability, toxicity, and genotoxicity of these environmental PAHs

  3. Comparison of techniques for estimating PAH bioavailability: Uptake in Eisenia fetida, passive samplers and leaching using various solvents and additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergknut, Magnus; Sehlin, Emma; Lundstedt, Staffan; Andersson, Patrik L.; Haglund, Peter; Tysklind, Mats

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate different techniques for assessing the availability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil. This was done by comparing the amounts (total and relative) taken up by the earthworm Eisenia fetida with the amounts extracted by solid-phase microextraction (SPME), semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs), leaching with various solvent mixtures, leaching using additives, and sequential leaching. Bioconcentration factors of PAHs in the earthworms based on equilibrium partitioning theory resulted in poor correlations to observed values. This was most notable for PAHs with high concentrations in the studied soil. Evaluation by principal component analysis (PCA) showed distinct differences between the evaluated techniques and, generally, there were larger proportions of carcinogenic PAHs (4-6 fused rings) in the earthworms. These results suggest that it may be difficult to develop a chemical method that is capable of mimicking biological uptake, and thus estimating the bioavailability of PAHs. - The total and relative amounts of PAHs extracted by abiotic techniques for assessing the bioavailability of PAHs was found to differ from the amounts taken up by Eisenia fetida

  4. Comparison of techniques for estimating PAH bioavailability: Uptake in Eisenia fetida, passive samplers and leaching using various solvents and additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergknut, Magnus [Department of Chemistry, Environmental Chemistry, Umeaa University, SE-90187 Umeaa (Sweden)]. E-mail: magnus.bergknut@chem.umu.se; Sehlin, Emma [Department of Chemistry, Environmental Chemistry, Umeaa University, SE-90187 Umeaa (Sweden); Lundstedt, Staffan [Department of Chemistry, Environmental Chemistry, Umeaa University, SE-90187 Umeaa (Sweden); Andersson, Patrik L. [Department of Chemistry, Environmental Chemistry, Umeaa University, SE-90187 Umeaa (Sweden); Haglund, Peter [Department of Chemistry, Environmental Chemistry, Umeaa University, SE-90187 Umeaa (Sweden); Tysklind, Mats [Department of Chemistry, Environmental Chemistry, Umeaa University, SE-90187 Umeaa (Sweden)

    2007-01-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate different techniques for assessing the availability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil. This was done by comparing the amounts (total and relative) taken up by the earthworm Eisenia fetida with the amounts extracted by solid-phase microextraction (SPME), semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs), leaching with various solvent mixtures, leaching using additives, and sequential leaching. Bioconcentration factors of PAHs in the earthworms based on equilibrium partitioning theory resulted in poor correlations to observed values. This was most notable for PAHs with high concentrations in the studied soil. Evaluation by principal component analysis (PCA) showed distinct differences between the evaluated techniques and, generally, there were larger proportions of carcinogenic PAHs (4-6 fused rings) in the earthworms. These results suggest that it may be difficult to develop a chemical method that is capable of mimicking biological uptake, and thus estimating the bioavailability of PAHs. - The total and relative amounts of PAHs extracted by abiotic techniques for assessing the bioavailability of PAHs was found to differ from the amounts taken up by Eisenia fetida.

  5. PAH related effects on fish in sedimentation ponds for road runoff and potential transfer of PAHs from sediment to biota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grung, Merete; Petersen, Karina; Fjeld, Eirik; Allan, Ian; Christensen, Jan H; Malmqvist, Linus M V; Meland, Sondre; Ranneklev, Sissel

    2016-10-01

    Road runoff is an important source of pollution to the aquatic environment, and sedimentation ponds have been installed to mitigate effects on the aquatic environment. The purpose of this study was to investigate if a) fish from sedimentation ponds were affected by road pollution and; b) the transfer of PAHs from road runoff material to aquatic organisms was substantial. Minnow from a sedimentation pond (Skullerud) near Oslo (Norway) had higher levels of CYP1A enzyme and DNA stand breaks than minnow from the nearby river, but high concentrations of PAH-metabolites in bile revealed that both populations were highly exposed. Principal component analysis revealed that CYP1A and age of fish were correlated, while levels of PAH-metabolites were not correlated to CYP1A or DNA damage. Minnow from a lake un-affected by traffic had much lower levels of PAH-metabolites than the exposed fish, and also an improved condition. The latter results indicate that fish health was affected by road runoff. A closer investigation of PAH levels of the ecosystems of two sedimentation ponds (Skullerud and Vassum) and nearby environments were conducted. The concentration of the 16 EPA PAHs in sediments of the sedimentation ponds were high (1900-4200ngg(-1)), and even higher levels were observed in plants. Principal component analysis of selected ion chromatograms of PAHs showed a clear separation of plants vs. sediments. The plants preferentially accumulated the high molecular PAHs, both from sedimentation ponds with a petrogenic PAH isomer ratio in sediments; and from a lake with pyrogenic PAH isomer ratio in sediments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Summertime PAH assembly in Mediterranean air: the Herceg Novi sampling station as an example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLADIMIR Z. JOVANOVIC

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The results of an analysis of the total suspended particles (TSP, total solvent organic extracts (TSOE, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in aerosol samples collected from the atmosphere of Herceg Novi from 17th June to 15th September in 1998 and 1999 are presented. The TSP and TSOE concentrations were determined by the standard gravimetric method, whereas the PAHs from the organic part of the aerosol were analysed by the GC-MS method. The difference found in the TSP and TSOE contents between the two consecutive years (before and after the bombing of Yugoslavia was attributed to changes in the intensity and origin of emissions from dominant sources, specific to the summer period of this region. The content and nature of the PAHs identified in the samples of 1998 and 1999 were also different, indicating the significance of traffic as the source of PAHs, which was of significantly lower intensity in 1999 (immediately after the war due to the lower influx of tourists. Factor analysis showed that the PAH distribution at the measuring site in 1999 was largely determined by meteorological parameters, mainly by the average daily temperature and wind direction. In 1998, the dominant impact on the PAH distribution was attributed to traffic, both local and from a wider region, without an explicit impact of meteorological parameters.

  7. Possible impacts of Hg and PAH contamination on benthic foraminiferal assemblages: An example from the Sicilian coast, central Mediterranean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Leonardo, Rossella [Dipartimento di Chimica e Fisica della Terra ed Applicazioni alle Georisorse e ai Rischi Naturali (CFTA), Universita di Palermo, Via Archirafi 36, 90123 Palermo (Italy); Bellanca, Adriana [Dipartimento di Chimica e Fisica della Terra ed Applicazioni alle Georisorse e ai Rischi Naturali (CFTA), Universita di Palermo, Via Archirafi 36, 90123 Palermo (Italy)], E-mail: bellanca@unipa.it; Capotondi, Lucilla [ISMAR-CNR, Marine Geology Section, Via Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Cundy, Andrew [School of the Environment, University of Brighton, Moulsecoomb, Brighton, BN2 4GJ (United Kingdom); Neri, Rodolfo [Dipartimento di Chimica e Fisica della Terra ed Applicazioni alle Georisorse e ai Rischi Naturali (CFTA), Universita di Palermo, Via Archirafi 36, 90123 Palermo (Italy)

    2007-12-15

    The Palermo and Augusta urban/industrial areas (Sicily) are examples of contaminated coastal environments with a relatively high influx of unregulated industrial and domestic effluents. Three sediment box-cores were collected offshore of these urban/industrial areas in water depths of 60-150 m during two cruises (summers 2003/2004), dated by {sup 210}Pb and {sup 137}Cs, and analysed for total mercury concentration and total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentration. Benthic foraminiferal assemblages were also examined (in terms of their distribution and morphology) to assess the potential use of benthic foraminifera as bioindicators of pollutant input and environmental change in these Mediterranean shelf environments. The Hg and PAHs vs depth profiles show a clear increase in concentration with decreasing depth. Most of the sediments are highly enriched in mercury and show concentrations more than 20 times the background mercury value estimated for sediments from the Sicily Strait. The Hg and PAH concentrations appear to be potentially hazardous, grossly exceeding national and international regulatory guidelines. A reduction in abundance of benthic foraminifera, increasing percentages of tests with various morphological deformities, and the dominance of opportunistic species in more recent sediments can be correlated to anthropogenic impact.

  8. Possible impacts of Hg and PAH contamination on benthic foraminiferal assemblages: An example from the Sicilian coast, central Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Leonardo, Rossella; Bellanca, Adriana; Capotondi, Lucilla; Cundy, Andrew; Neri, Rodolfo

    2007-01-01

    The Palermo and Augusta urban/industrial areas (Sicily) are examples of contaminated coastal environments with a relatively high influx of unregulated industrial and domestic effluents. Three sediment box-cores were collected offshore of these urban/industrial areas in water depths of 60-150 m during two cruises (summers 2003/2004), dated by 210 Pb and 137 Cs, and analysed for total mercury concentration and total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentration. Benthic foraminiferal assemblages were also examined (in terms of their distribution and morphology) to assess the potential use of benthic foraminifera as bioindicators of pollutant input and environmental change in these Mediterranean shelf environments. The Hg and PAHs vs depth profiles show a clear increase in concentration with decreasing depth. Most of the sediments are highly enriched in mercury and show concentrations more than 20 times the background mercury value estimated for sediments from the Sicily Strait. The Hg and PAH concentrations appear to be potentially hazardous, grossly exceeding national and international regulatory guidelines. A reduction in abundance of benthic foraminifera, increasing percentages of tests with various morphological deformities, and the dominance of opportunistic species in more recent sediments can be correlated to anthropogenic impact

  9. Distribution, sources and ecological risk assessment of PAHs in surface sediments from the Luan River Estuary, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Daolai; Liu, Jinqing; Jiang, Xuejun; Cao, Ke; Yin, Ping; Zhang, Xunhua

    2016-01-15

    The distribution, sources and risk assessment of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of surface sediments in the Luan River Estuary, China, have been investigated in the research. The results indicated that the total concentrations of 16 PAHs in surface sediments of the Luan River Estuary ranged from 5.1 to 545.1 ng g(-1)dw with a mean value of 120.8 ng g(-1)dw, which is relatively low in comparison with other estuaries around the world. The PAHs in the study area were mainly originated from pyrogenic sources. Besides, PAHs may be contaminated by petrogenic PAHs as indicated by the selected ratios of PAHs, the 2-tailed Pearson correlation analysis and principal components analysis at different sites. The result of the ecological risk assessment shows little negative effect for most individual PAHs in surface sediments of the Luan River Estuary, China. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Aromatization of oils from coal-tyre cothermolysis. Part 2. PAH content study as a function of the process variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mastral, A.M.; Callen, S.; Garcia, T.; Navarro, M.V. [Department of Energy and Environmental, Instituto de Carboquimica CSIC, P.O. Box 589, C/Maria de Luna, 12, 50015, Zaragoza (Spain)

    2000-10-01

    In this work, the PAH content in the oils obtained from hydro-cothermolysis have been analysed. The influence of the process variables (H{sub 2} pressure, 1 and 10 MPa, different feed materials: coal, tyre and a blend of coal-tyre (1:1 in organic matter) in two reactors, tubing bomb and autoclave reactors (TBR, AR)), on PAH formation has been studied.Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) is used as the main analytical technique after fractionation into four chemical fractions using neutral alumina column chromatography (CC). As the complementary technique, thin layer chromatography with flame ionisation detector (TLC/FID) was used to compare the analytical tool on the total aromatic compounds, leading to the conclusion that the nature of synthetic oils is also dependent on the analytical technique.In relation to the variables studied, the lower the pressure the higher the concentration of PAH detected. The hydrogen abundance reduces the PAH content. The hydropyrolysis of tyre, coal, and a blend of coal-tyre at the same conditions show that coal produces higher concentrations of PAH at hydrogenating conditions. PAHs that contain three and four cycles are the main PAHs detected regardless of the feed.

  11. Assessment of DDT, HCH and PAH contamination and associated ecotoxicological risks in surface sediments of coastal Tema Harbour (Ghana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botwe, Benjamin O; Kelderman, Peter; Nyarko, Elvis; Lens, Piet N L

    2017-02-15

    This study assessed DDTs, HCHs and PAHs contamination in sediments from the Tema Harbour (Ghana) and the associated ecotoxicological risks. The results showed widespread DDTs, HCHs and PAHs contamination in the harbour sediments with mean concentrations ranging from 6.0-12.8, 2.8-12.7 and 2750-5130μg·kg -1 d·w, respectively. The silt-clay and total organic carbon contents of the sediments poorly correlated with the pollutant concentrations. DDTs and HCHs contamination relate to past use of DDT and lindane, which under the anoxic harbour conditions resulted in disproportionately higher concentrations of p,p'-DDD and γ-HCH in the sediments. No conclusion could be drawn on the sources of PAHs as either petrogenic or pyrogenic. The pollutant concentrations in the harbour sediments, particularly γ-HCH, may pose high ecotoxicological risks. In comparison to a previous study, this study indicates there has been a considerable reduction in PAH contamination in the Tema Harbour since the last major oil spill in 2007. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Relationship between total polar components and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in fried edible oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ke-Jing; Liu, Yu-Lan; Liu, Hai-Lan

    2017-09-01

    Deep-fried dough sticks (a Chinese traditional breakfast) were fried individually in peanut, sunflower, rapeseed, rice bran, soybean and palm oil without any time lag for 32 h (64 batches fried, each for 30 min) and fried oil samples were obtained every 2 h. The frying-induced changes in the levels of total polar compounds (TPC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated by edible oil polar compounds (EOPC) fast separation chromatographic system and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), respectively. The correlations were analysed of TPC with benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), TPC and PAH4 (benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene and benzo[a]pyrene) as well as TPC with PAH16 (USEPA 16 PAHs). The results revealed that the levels of TPC and PAHs in fried oil considerably increased with frying time, and the type of oil affected their formation, which could inform the choice of oil for frying. The total BaP equivalents (∑BaPeq) concentrations in fresh oil and in oil whose TPC exceeded 27% were 2.14-13.48 and 5.78-10.80 μg kg -1 , respectively, which means that the carcinogenic potency of frying oil was more pronounced than that of fresh oil. In addition, the TPC concentration was significantly correlated with the concentrations of the sum of the 16 PAHs, PAH4 and BaP, so that the levels of PAHs could be predicted according to the levels of TPC in fried oil. In European standards, the rejection point for TPC in frying oil should be recalculated when considered PAHs. In all, the concentration of PAHs is a vital factor for ensuring the safety of frying oil.

  13. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) deposition to and exchange at the air-water interface of Luhu, an urban lake in Guangzhou, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jun; Cheng Hairong; Zhang Gan; Qi Shihua; Li Xiangdong

    2009-01-01

    Urban lakes are vulnerable to the accumulation of semivolatile organic compounds, such as PAHs from wet and dry atmospheric deposition. Little was reported on the seasonal patterns of atmospheric deposition of PAHs under Asian monsoon climate. Bulk (dry + wet) particle deposition, air-water diffusion exchange, and vapour wet deposition of PAHs in a small urban lake in Guangzhou were estimated based on a year-round monitoring. The total PAH particle deposition fluxes observed were 0.44-3.46 μg m -2 day -1 . The mean air-water diffusive exchange flux was 20.7 μg m -2 day -1 . The vapour deposition fluxes of PAHs ranged 0.15-8.26 μg m -2 day -1 . Remarkable seasonal variations of particulate PAH deposition, air-water exchange fluxes and vapour wet deposition were influenced by seasonal changes in meteorological parameters. The deposition fluxes were predominantly controlled by the precipitation intensity in wet season whereas by atmospheric concentration in dry season. - The PAH deposition fluxes were predominantly controlled by the precipitation intensity in wet season whereas by atmospheric concentration in dry season

  14. Contamination levels, toxicity profiles, and emission sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the soils of an emerging industrial town and its environs in the Southeastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofomatah, Anthony C; Okoye, Chukwuma O B

    2017-11-09

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in Nnewi and its environs were determined. Soil samples were extracted by sonication using hexane:dichloromethane (3:1) mixture and determined by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection. The total PAHs concentrations (μg/kg) were 16.681 to 46.815, being three orders of magnitude lower than the maximum permissible level recommended by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). These concentrations followed this order: industrial ˃ farmlands ˃ commercial ˃ residential. Industrialized areas showed higher concentrations (p ˂ 0.05) than the other areas. Diagnostic ratios show that the major source of PAHs was the open burning of industrial and agricultural wastes, as shown by the occurrence of highest concentrations in the industrial areas, followed by agricultural areas. Benzo[a]pyrene equivalent values showed non-pollution and very low toxicity. Nevertheless, it was clear that industrialization has had some impact on the PAHs levels in soils and the total environment in this area and could be problematic with time, except with proper environmental management.

  15. Application of radiocarbon analysis and receptor modeling to the source apportionment of PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffield, A.E.

    1988-01-01

    The radiocarbon tracer technique was used to demonstrate that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can be used for quantitative receptor modeling of air pollution. Fine-particle samples were collected during December, 1985, in Albuquerque, NM. Motor vehicles (fossil) and residential wood combustion (RWC, modern) were the major PAH-sources. For each sample, the PAH-fraction was solvent-extracted, isolated by liquid chromatography, and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. The PAH-fractions from sixteen samples were analyzed for 14 C by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry. Radiocarbon data were used to calculate the relative RWC contribution (f RWC ) for samples analyzed for 14 C. Normalized concentrations of a prospective motor vehicle tracer, benzo(ghi)perylene (BGP) had a strong, negative correlation with f RWC . Normalized BGP concentrations were used to apportion sources for samples not analyzed for 14 C. Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) vs. ADCS and BGP was used to estimate source profiles for use in Target Factor Analysis (TFA). Profiles predicted by TFA were used in Chemical Mass Balances (CMBs). For non-volatile, stable PAHs, agreement between observed and predicted concentrations was excellent. The worst fits were observed for the most volatile PAHs and for coronene. The total RWC contributions predicted by CMBs correlated well with the radiocarbon data

  16. Levels of PAHs in the Waters, Sediments, and Shrimps of Estero de Urias, an Estuary in Mexico, and Their Toxicological Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foday M. Jaward

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available PAHs were measured in water, sediment, and shrimps of Estero de Urias, an estuary in Sinaloa, Mexico, during the rainy and dry seasons, and analyzed for eleven PAHs routinely detected in samples. Phenanthrene was the most dominant congener in the water, sediment, and shrimp samples comprising about 38, 24, and 25%, respectively, of the eleven PAHs detected, followed by pyrene and naphthalene in water and sediment samples, and pyrene and fluorine in the shrimp samples. Total PAH concentrations ranged from 9 to 347 ng/L in water, 27 to 418 ng/g in sediments, and 36 to 498 ng/g in shrimps. The sources of contamination are closely related to human activities such as domestic and industrial discharge, automobile exhausts, and street runoff. High concentrations were also measured during the rainy season and during the first quarter of the year. Toxicity tests were also carried out, exposing fish embryos and juvenile shrimps to some of these PAHs. Fish embryos exposed to PAHs showed exogastrulation, while juvenile shrimps showed significantly lower growth rates than controls. DNA and protein alterations were also observed. These toxicity tests indicate that PAH concentrations measured could be dangerous to some aquatic organisms, particularly during early stages of development.

  17. Mitigation of PAH and nitro-PAH emissions from nonroad diesel engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z Gerald; Wall, John C; Ottinger, Nathan A; McGuffin, Dana

    2015-03-17

    More stringent emission requirements for nonroad diesel engines introduced with U.S. Tier 4 Final and Euro Stage IV and V regulations have spurred the development of exhaust aftertreatment technologies. In this study, several aftertreatment configurations consisting of diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC), diesel particulate filters (DPF), Cu zeolite-, and vanadium-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts, and ammonia oxidation (AMOX) catalysts are evaluated using both Nonroad Transient (NRTC) and Steady (8-mode NRSC) Cycles in order to understand both component and system-level effects of diesel aftertreatment on emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and their nitrated derivatives (nitro-PAH). Emissions are reported for four configurations including engine-out, DOC+CuZ-SCR+AMOX, V-SCR+AMOX, and DOC+DPF+CuZ-SCR+AMOX. Mechanisms responsible for the reduction, and, in some cases, the formation of PAH and nitro-PAH compounds are discussed in detail, and suggestions are provided to minimize the formation of nitro-PAH compounds through aftertreatment design optimizations. Potency equivalency factors (PEFs) developed by the California Environmental Protection Agency are then applied to determine the impact of aftertreatment on PAH-derived exhaust toxicity. Finally, a comprehensive set of exhaust emissions including criteria pollutants, NO2, total hydrocarbons (THC), n-alkanes, branched alkanes, saturated cycloalkanes, aromatics, aldehydes, hopanes and steranes, and metals is provided, and the overall efficacy of the aftertreatment configurations is described. This detailed summary of emissions from a current nonroad diesel engine equipped with advanced aftertreatment can be used to more accurately model the impact of anthropogenic emissions on the atmosphere.

  18. Identification and quantification of phthalates, PAHs, amines, phenols, and metals in tattoo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Ho Sang; Lim, Hyun Hee [Kongju National University, Kongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    The determination methods of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phthalates, primary amines, phenols, and metals in tattoo dyes have been optimized and validated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Twelve PAHs, 3 phthalates, 4 amines, and 15 metals were identified and quantified in 16 different tattoo dyes purchased from shops in the Republic of Korea. Phenols were not detected in any sample. The total PAHs in six inks and benzo(a)pyrene in one tattoo ink exceeded the legal limit set by the Council of Europe, and their maximum detected concentrations were about 10 and 5 times the limits of the compounds, respectively. 3,3′-Dichlorobenzidine and o-anisidine, which should not be present in tattoo inks by Resolution ResAP (2008) of the Council of Europe, were detected in tattoo inks. Also, Cd, Pb, Cu, Ba, Ni, Sb, Zn, and As exceeded the limits. These hazardous compounds should be controlled to the lowest possible concentrations in the raw materials and the production procedure of tattoo ink.

  19. Identification and quantification of phthalates, PAHs, amines, phenols, and metals in tattoo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Ho Sang; Lim, Hyun Hee

    2015-01-01

    The determination methods of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phthalates, primary amines, phenols, and metals in tattoo dyes have been optimized and validated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Twelve PAHs, 3 phthalates, 4 amines, and 15 metals were identified and quantified in 16 different tattoo dyes purchased from shops in the Republic of Korea. Phenols were not detected in any sample. The total PAHs in six inks and benzo(a)pyrene in one tattoo ink exceeded the legal limit set by the Council of Europe, and their maximum detected concentrations were about 10 and 5 times the limits of the compounds, respectively. 3,3′-Dichlorobenzidine and o-anisidine, which should not be present in tattoo inks by Resolution ResAP (2008) of the Council of Europe, were detected in tattoo inks. Also, Cd, Pb, Cu, Ba, Ni, Sb, Zn, and As exceeded the limits. These hazardous compounds should be controlled to the lowest possible concentrations in the raw materials and the production procedure of tattoo ink

  20. Study of remobilization polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in contaminated matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belkessam, L.; Vessigaud, S.; Laboudigue, A.; Vessigaud, S.; Perrin-Ganier, C.; Schiavon, M.; Denys, S.

    2005-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) originate from many pyrolysis processes. They are widespread environmental pollutants because some of them present toxic and genotoxic properties. In coal pyrolysis sites such as former manufactured gas plants and coke production plants, coal tar is a major source of PAHs. The management of such sites requires better understanding of the mechanisms that control release of PAHs to the biosphere. Determining total PAH concentrations is not sufficient since it does not inform about the pollutants availability to environmental processes. The fate and transport of PAHs in soil are governed by sorption and microbial processes which are well documented. Globally, enhancing retention of the compounds by a solid matrix reduces the risk of pollutant dispersion, but decreases their accessibility to microbial microflora. Conversely, the remobilization of organics from contaminated solid matrices represents a potential hazard since these pollutants can reach groundwater resources. However the available data are often obtained from laboratory experiments in which many field parameters can not be taken into account (long term, temperature, co-pollution, ageing phenomenon, heterogenous distribution of pollution). The present work focuses on the influence assessment and understanding of some of these parameters on PAHs remobilization from heavily polluted matrices in near-field conditions (industrial contaminated matrices, high contact time, ..). Results concerning effects of temperature and physical state of pollution (dispersed among the soil or condensed in small clusters or in coal tar) are presented. (authors)

  1. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination of surface sediments and oysters from the inter-tidal areas of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaspare, Lydia; Machiwa, John F.; Mdachi, S.J.M.; Streck, Georg; Brack, Werner

    2009-01-01

    Surface sediment and oyster samples from the inter-tidal areas of Dar es Salaam were analyzed for 23 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) including the 16 compounds prioritized by US-EPA using GC/MS. The total concentration of PAHs in the sediment ranged from 78 to 25,000 ng/g dry weight, while oyster concentrations ranged from 170 to 650 ng/g dry weight. Hazards due to sediment contamination were assessed using Equilibrium Partitioning Sediment Benchmarks and Threshold Effect Levels. Diagnostic indices and principle component analysis were used to identify possible sources. Interestingly, no correlation between sediment and oyster concentrations at the same sites was found. This is supported by completely different contamination patterns, suggesting different sources for both matrices. Hazard assessment revealed possible effects at six out of eight sites on the benthic communities and oyster populations. The contribution of PAH intake via oyster consumption to carcinogenic risks in humans seems to be low. - PAH contamination may pose hazards to benthos but limited risks to humans

  2. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination of surface sediments and oysters from the inter-tidal areas of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaspare, Lydia; Machiwa, John F. [Department of Aquatic Environment and Conservation, University of Dar es Salaam, P.O. Box 60091, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of); Mdachi, S.J.M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Dar es Salaam, P.O. Box 35062, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of); Streck, Georg [UFZ Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig-Halle, Department of Effect-Directed Analysis, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Brack, Werner [UFZ Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig-Halle, Department of Effect-Directed Analysis, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany)], E-mail: werner.brack@ufz.de

    2009-01-15

    Surface sediment and oyster samples from the inter-tidal areas of Dar es Salaam were analyzed for 23 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) including the 16 compounds prioritized by US-EPA using GC/MS. The total concentration of PAHs in the sediment ranged from 78 to 25,000 ng/g dry weight, while oyster concentrations ranged from 170 to 650 ng/g dry weight. Hazards due to sediment contamination were assessed using Equilibrium Partitioning Sediment Benchmarks and Threshold Effect Levels. Diagnostic indices and principle component analysis were used to identify possible sources. Interestingly, no correlation between sediment and oyster concentrations at the same sites was found. This is supported by completely different contamination patterns, suggesting different sources for both matrices. Hazard assessment revealed possible effects at six out of eight sites on the benthic communities and oyster populations. The contribution of PAH intake via oyster consumption to carcinogenic risks in humans seems to be low. - PAH contamination may pose hazards to benthos but limited risks to humans.

  3. Impacts of a large boreal wildfire on ground level atmospheric concentrations of PAHs, VOCs and ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentworth, Gregory R.; Aklilu, Yayne-abeba; Landis, Matthew S.; Hsu, Yu-Mei

    2018-04-01

    During May 2016 a very large boreal wildfire burned throughout the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) in central Canada, and in close proximity to an extensive air quality monitoring network. This study examines speciated 24-h integrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and volatile organic compound (VOC) measurements collected every sixth day at four and seven sites, respectively, from May to August 2016. The sum of PAHsPAH) was on average 17 times higher in fire-influenced samples (852 ng m-3, n = 8), relative to non-fire influenced samples (50 ng m-3, n = 64). Diagnostic PAH ratios in fire-influenced samples were indicative of a biomass burning source, whereas ratios in June to August samples showed additional influence from petrogenic and fossil fuel combustion. The average increase in the sum of VOCs (ΣVOC) was minor by comparison: 63 ppbv for fire-influenced samples (n = 16) versus 46 ppbv for non-fire samples (n = 90). The samples collected on August 16th and 22nd had large ΣVOC concentrations at all sites (average of 123 ppbv) that were unrelated to wildfire emissions, and composed primarily of acetaldehyde and methanol suggesting a photochemically aged air mass. Normalized excess enhancement ratios (ERs) were calculated for 20 VOCs and 23 PAHs for three fire influenced samples, and the former were generally consistent with previous observations. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report ER measurements for a number of VOCs and PAHs in fresh North American boreal wildfire plumes. During May the aged wildfire plume intercepted the cities of Edmonton (∼380 km south) or Lethbridge (∼790 km south) on four separate occasions. No enhancement in ground-level ozone (O3) was observed in these aged plumes despite an assumed increase in O3 precursors. In the AOSR, the only daily-averaged VOCs which approached or exceeded the hourly Alberta Ambient Air Quality Objectives (AAAQOs) were benzene (during the fire) and acetaldehyde (on August 16th

  4. Watershed-scale modeling on the fate and transport of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ligaray, Mayzonee; Baek, Sang Soo; Kwon, Hye-Ok; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Cho, Kyung Hwa

    2016-01-01

    PAHs are potentially carcinogenic substances that are persistent in the environment. Increasing concentrations of PAHs were observed due to rapid urbanization, thus; monitoring PAHs concentrations is necessary. However, it is expensive to conduct intensive monitoring activities of a large number of PAHs. This study addressed this issue by developing a multimedia model coupled with a hydrological model (i.e., Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT)) for Taehwa River (TR) watershed in Ulsan, the industrial capital of South Korea. The hydrologic module of the SWAT was calibrated, and further used to simulate the fate and transport of PAHs in soil and waterbody. The model demonstrated that the temporal or seasonal variation of PAHs in soil and waterbody can be well reproduced. Meanwhile, the spatial distribution of PAHs showed that urban areas in TR watershed have the highest PAH loadings compared to rural areas. Sensitivity analyses of the PAH soil and PAH water parameters were also able to determine the critical processes in TR watershed: degradation, deposition, volatilization, and wash off mechanism. We hope that this model will be able to aid the stakeholders in: regulating PAH concentrations emitted by various sources; and also apply the model to other Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs).

  5. Watershed-scale modeling on the fate and transport of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ligaray, Mayzonee; Baek, Sang Soo [School of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, UNIST-gil 50, Ulsan 44919 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Hye-Ok [Disaster Scientific Investigation Division, National Disaster Management Research Institute, 365 Jongga-ro Jung-gu, Ulsan 44538 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Sung-Deuk, E-mail: sdchoi@unist.ac.kr [School of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, UNIST-gil 50, Ulsan 44919 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kyung Hwa, E-mail: khcho@unist.ac.kr [School of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, UNIST-gil 50, Ulsan 44919 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    PAHs are potentially carcinogenic substances that are persistent in the environment. Increasing concentrations of PAHs were observed due to rapid urbanization, thus; monitoring PAHs concentrations is necessary. However, it is expensive to conduct intensive monitoring activities of a large number of PAHs. This study addressed this issue by developing a multimedia model coupled with a hydrological model (i.e., Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT)) for Taehwa River (TR) watershed in Ulsan, the industrial capital of South Korea. The hydrologic module of the SWAT was calibrated, and further used to simulate the fate and transport of PAHs in soil and waterbody. The model demonstrated that the temporal or seasonal variation of PAHs in soil and waterbody can be well reproduced. Meanwhile, the spatial distribution of PAHs showed that urban areas in TR watershed have the highest PAH loadings compared to rural areas. Sensitivity analyses of the PAH soil and PAH water parameters were also able to determine the critical processes in TR watershed: degradation, deposition, volatilization, and wash off mechanism. We hope that this model will be able to aid the stakeholders in: regulating PAH concentrations emitted by various sources; and also apply the model to other Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs).

  6. Spatial Variability of PAHs and Microbial Community Structure in Surrounding Surficial Soil of Coal-Fired Power Plants in Xuzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jing; Zhang, Wangyuan; Chen, Yi; Zhang, Shaoliang; Feng, Qiyan; Hou, Huping; Chen, Fu

    2016-09-02

    This work investigated the spatial profile and source analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil that surrounds coal-fired power plants in Xuzhou, China. High-throughput sequencing was employed to investigate the composition and structure of soil bacterial communities. The total concentration of 15 PAHs in the surface soils ranged from 164.87 to 3494.81 μg/kg dry weight. The spatial profile of PAHs was site-specific with a concentration of 1400.09-3494.81 μg/kg in Yaozhuang. Based on the qualitative and principal component analysis results, coal burning and vehicle emission were found to be the main sources of PAHs in the surface soils. The phylogenetic analysis revealed differences in bacterial community compositions among different sampling sites. Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum, while Acidobacteria was the second most abundant. The orders of Campylobacterales, Desulfobacterales and Hydrogenophilales had the most significant differences in relative abundance among the sampling sites. The redundancy analysis revealed that the differences in bacterial communities could be explained by the organic matter content. They could also be explicated by the acenaphthene concentration with longer arrows. Furthermore, OTUs of Proteobacteria phylum plotted around particular samples were confirmed to have a different composition of Proteobacteria phylum among the sample sites. Evaluating the relationship between soil PAHs concentration and bacterial community composition may provide useful information for the remediation of PAH contaminated sites.

  7. Characterization, treatment and releases of PBDEs and PAHs in a typical municipal sewage treatment plant situated beside an urban river, East China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaowei; Xi, Beidou; Huo, Shouliang; Sun, Wenjun; Pan, Hongwei; Zhang, Jingtian; Ren, Yuqing; Liu, Hongliang

    2013-07-01

    Characterization, treatment and releases of eight polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) congeners and sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in wastewater were evaluated along the treatment processes of a typical secondary treatment municipal sewage treatment plant (STP) (in Hefei City) situated the beside Nanfei River, East China. The findings showed that the average concentrations of the total PBDEs in raw wastewater and treated effluent were 188.578 and 36.884 ng/L respectively. Brominated diphenyl ether (BDE) 209 congener, the predominant PBDE in the STP and Nanfei River, could be related to the discharge of car-industry-derived wastes. For PAHs, the average concentrations in raw wastewater and treated effluent were 5758.8 and 2240.4 ng/L respectively, with naphthalene, benzo[a]pyrene and indeno[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene being detected at the highest concentrations. PAHs mainly originate from the combustion of biomass/coal and petroleum. The STP reduced about 80% of the PBDEs and 61% of the PAHs, which were eliminated mainly by sedimentation processes. The removal rates of PBDEs/PAHs increased with the increase of their solid-water partitioning coefficients. Accordingly, the STP's effluent, containing some PBDE congeners (e.g., BDE 47, 99 and 209, etc.) and low-molecular-weight PAHs, could be an important contributor of these contaminants' input to Nanfei River. It resulted in a significant increase of PBDE/PAH concentrations and PAH toxicological risk in the river water downstream. About 4.040 kg/yr of PBDEs and 245.324 kg/yr of PAHs could be released into the Nanfei River. The current conventional wastewater treatment processes should be improved to remove the relatively low-molecular-weight PBDEs/PAHs more effectively.

  8. Analysis of PAHs Associated with Particulate Matter PM2.5 in Two Places at the City of Cuernavaca, Morelos, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Saldarriaga-Noreña

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out between January and February 2013, at two sites in the city of Cuernavaca, México, using low-volume equipment. Fifteen Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, were identified by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The total average concentration observed for PAHs was 24.0 ng·m−3, with the high molecular weight compounds being the most abundant. The estimated equivalent concentration for Benzo (a P (BaPE was 4.05 ng·m−3. Diagnostic ratios together with the principal components analysis (PCA allowed for establishing coal burning and vehicle emissions as being the main sources of these compounds in the area. The PAHs used to calculate this index account for 51% of the 15 PAHs identified, which probably involves a risk to the exposed population.

  9. Water-Sediment Partition of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Nansi Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guizhai; Diao, Youjiang

    2018-06-01

    Based on field data of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water and sediment in Nansi Lake. The concentrations and the partitioning characteristic of PAHs in the water and sediment were studied. The lgKd of high molecular weight PAHs were higher than the low molecular weight PAHs. The most of PAHs Kd values were negligible correlated with TOC, soluble salt, clay and pH of the sediment in Nansi Lake.

  10. Atmospheric versus biological sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a tropical rain forest environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Martin; Wilcke, Wolfgang; Martius, Christopher; Bandeira, Adelmar G; Garcia, Marcos V B; Amelung, Wulf

    2005-05-01

    To distinguish between pyrogenic and biological sources of PAHs in a tropical rain forest near Manaus, Brazil, we determined the concentrations of 21 PAHs in leaves, bark, twigs, and stem wood of forest trees, dead wood, mineral topsoil, litter layer, air, and Nasutitermes termite nest compartments. Naphthalene (NAPH) was the most abundant PAH with concentrations of 35 ng m(-3) in air (>85% of the sum of 21PAHs concentration), up to 1000 microg kg(-1) in plants (>90%), 477 microg kg(-1) in litter (>90%), 32 microg kg(-1) in topsoil (>90%), and 160 microg kg(-1) (>55%) in termite nests. In plants, the concentrations of PAHs in general decreased in the order leaves > bark > twigs > stem wood. The concentrations of most low-molecular weight PAHs in leaves and bark were near equilibrium with air, but those of NAPH were up to 50 times higher. Thus, the atmosphere seemed to be the major source of all PAHs in plants except for NAPH. Additionally, phenanthrene (PHEN) had elevated concentrations in bark and twigs of Vismia cayennensis trees (12-60 microg kg(-1)), which might have produced PHEN. In the mineral soil, perylene (PERY) was more abundant than in the litter layer, probably because of in situ biological production. Nasutitermes nests had the highest concentrations of most PAHs in exterior compartments (on average 8 and 15 microg kg(-1) compared to atmosphere controls the concentrations of most PAHs. However, the occurrence of NAPH, PHEN, and PERY in plants, termite nests, and soils at elevated concentrations supports the assumption of their biological origin.

  11. Surfactant-enhanced bioremediation of PAH- and PCB-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, M.M.; Yeom, I.T.; Shi, Z.; Cox, C.D.; Robinson, K.G.

    1995-01-01

    The role of surfactants in the desorption of soil-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was investigated. The solubilization of individual PAHs in an extract of a weathered, coal tar-contaminated soil containing a mixture of PAHs and other petroleum derivatives was found to be significantly less than that for pure compounds. Batch soil washing with Triton X-100 (a commercial, nonionic alkyl phenol ethoxylate) was found to increase the effective diffusion rate of PAHs from the contaminated soil by four orders of magnitude compared to that obtained by gas purging when the results were analyzed using a radial diffusion model. At concentrations of up to 24 times its critical micelle concentration (CMC), Triton X-100 did not seem to enhance hydrocarbon degradation in the coal tar-contaminated soil; however, the biosurfactant rhamnolipid R1, at a concentration of 50x CMC, increased the rate of mineralization of 4,4'-chlorinated biphenyl mobilized from a laboratory-contaminated soil by more than 60 times

  12. Generation and distribution of PAHs in the process of medical waste incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Ying, E-mail: echochen327@163.com [School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); National Center of Solid Waste Management, Ministry of Environmental Protection, Beijing 100029 (China); Zhao, Rongzhi [Civil and Environmental Engineering School, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Xue, Jun [National Center of Solid Waste Management, Ministry of Environmental Protection, Beijing 100029 (China); Li, Jinhui, E-mail: jinhui@tsinghua.edu.cn [State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► PAHs generation and distribution features of medical waste incineration are studied. ► More PAHs were found in fly ash than that in bottom ash. ► The highest proportion of PAHs consisted of the seven most carcinogenic ones. ► Increase of free oxygen molecule and burning temperature promote PAHs degradation. ► There is a moderate positive correlation between total PCDD/Fs and total PAHs. - Abstract: After the deadly earthquake on May 12, 2008 in Wenchuan county of China, several different incineration approaches were used for medical waste disposal. This paper investigates the generation properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during the incineration. Samples were collected from the bottom ash in an open burning slash site, surface soil at the open burning site, bottom ash from a simple incinerator, bottom ash generated from the municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerator used for medical waste disposal, and bottom ash and fly ash from an incinerator exclusively used for medical waste. The species of PAHs were analyzed, and the toxicity equivalency quantities (TEQs) of samples calculated. Analysis results indicate that the content of total PAHs in fly ash was 1.8 × 10{sup 3} times higher than that in bottom ash, and that the strongly carcinogenic PAHs with four or more rings accumulated sensitively in fly ash. The test results of samples gathered from open burning site demonstrate that Acenaphthylene (ACY), Acenaphthene (ACE), Fluorene (FLU), Phenanthrene (PHE), Anthracene (ANT) and other PAHs were inclined to migrate into surrounding environment along air and surface watershed corridors, while 4- to 6-ring PAHs accumulated more likely in soil. Being consistent with other studies, it has also been confirmed that increases in both free oxygen molecules and combustion temperatures could promote the decomposition of polycyclic PAHs. In addition, without the influence of combustion conditions, there is a positive correlation between

  13. Generation and distribution of PAHs in the process of medical waste incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Ying; Zhao, Rongzhi; Xue, Jun; Li, Jinhui

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► PAHs generation and distribution features of medical waste incineration are studied. ► More PAHs were found in fly ash than that in bottom ash. ► The highest proportion of PAHs consisted of the seven most carcinogenic ones. ► Increase of free oxygen molecule and burning temperature promote PAHs degradation. ► There is a moderate positive correlation between total PCDD/Fs and total PAHs. - Abstract: After the deadly earthquake on May 12, 2008 in Wenchuan county of China, several different incineration approaches were used for medical waste disposal. This paper investigates the generation properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during the incineration. Samples were collected from the bottom ash in an open burning slash site, surface soil at the open burning site, bottom ash from a simple incinerator, bottom ash generated from the municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerator used for medical waste disposal, and bottom ash and fly ash from an incinerator exclusively used for medical waste. The species of PAHs were analyzed, and the toxicity equivalency quantities (TEQs) of samples calculated. Analysis results indicate that the content of total PAHs in fly ash was 1.8 × 10 3 times higher than that in bottom ash, and that the strongly carcinogenic PAHs with four or more rings accumulated sensitively in fly ash. The test results of samples gathered from open burning site demonstrate that Acenaphthylene (ACY), Acenaphthene (ACE), Fluorene (FLU), Phenanthrene (PHE), Anthracene (ANT) and other PAHs were inclined to migrate into surrounding environment along air and surface watershed corridors, while 4- to 6-ring PAHs accumulated more likely in soil. Being consistent with other studies, it has also been confirmed that increases in both free oxygen molecules and combustion temperatures could promote the decomposition of polycyclic PAHs. In addition, without the influence of combustion conditions, there is a positive correlation between total

  14. PAHs distribution in sediments associated with gas hydrate and oil seepage from the Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cuiping; Sun, Hongwen; Chang, Ying; Song, Zhiguang; Qin, Xuebo

    2011-12-01

    Six sediment samples collected from the Gulf of Mexico were analyzed. Total concentrations of the PAHs ranged from 52 to 403 ng g(-1) dry weight. The lowest PAH concentration without 5-6 rings PAHs appeared in S-1 sample associated with gas hydrate or gas venting. Moreover, S-1 sample had the lowest organic carbon content with 0.85% and highest reduced sulfur level with 1.21% relative to other samples. And, analysis of the sources of PAHs in S-1 sample indicated that both pyrogenic and petrogenic sources, converserly, while S-8, S-10 and S-11 sample suggested petrogenic origin. The distribution of dibenzothiophene, fluorine and dibenzofuran and the maturity parameters of triaromatic steranes suggested that organic matters in S-1 sample were different from that in S-8, S-10 and S-11 sample. This study suggested that organic geochemical data could help in distinguish the characteristic of sediment associated with gas hydrate or with oil seepage. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterization of Intrinsic PAH Biodegradation in Groundwater During Tidal Cycles at the Naval Station Norfolk: Interim Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boyd, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    .... Groundwater at the site is impacted by subsurface fuel spill(s). Groundwater was assessed for fuel hydrocarbon concentrations, stable carbon isotope fingerprints, temperature, salinity, total microbial carbon demand, and PAH mineralization rates...

  16. [Aging Law of PAHs in Contaminated Soil and Their Enrichment in Earthworms Characterized by Chemical Extraction Techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ya-nan; Yang, Xing-lun; Bian, Yong-rong; Gu, Cheng-gang; Liu, Zong-tang; Li, Jiao; Wang, Dai-zhang; Jiang, Xin

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of aging on the availability of PAHs, chemical extraction by exhaustive ( ASE extraction) and nonexhaustive techniques (Tenax-TA extraction, hydroxypropyl-p-cyclodextrin ( HPCD ) extraction, n-butyl alcohol ( BuOH) extraction) as well as PAHs accumulation in earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were conducted in yellow soil from Baguazhou, Nanjing, China, and red soil from Hainan, China, spiked with phenanthrene, pryene and benzo(a) pyrene and aged 0, 7, 15, 30 and 60 days. The results showed that the concentration of PAHs extracted by ASE and three nonexhaustive techniques and accumulated by earthworms significantly decreased with aging time, except the ASE extracted concentration between 30-and 60-day aging time. Furthermore, the relationships were studied in this experiment between chemical extracted PAHs concentration and accumulated concentration in earthworms. PAHs accumulated concentration in earthworms was not significantly correlated with the exhaustive extracted concentration of PAHs in soil (R² 0.44-0.56), which indicated that ASE extraction techniques could not predict PAHs bioavailability to earthworms because it overestimated the risk of PAHs. However, the PAHs accumulated concentration in earthworms was significantly correlated with the three nonexhaustive extracted concentrations of PAHs in soil, which indicated that all the three nonexhaustive techniques could predict PAHs bioavailability to earthworm to some extent, among which, HPCD extraction (R² 0.94-0.99) was better than Tenax-TA extraction (R² 0.62-0.87) and BuOH extraction (R² 0.69-0.94). So HPCD extraction was a more appropriate and reliable technique to predict bioavailability of PAHs in soil.

  17. Study of poly hydrocarbons compounds (PAH) in air particulates and their variations in several periods of the year in Damascus city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M. S.; Al-Kharfan, K.; Mahzia, Y.; Ibrahim, S.

    2012-01-01

    A study of poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) associated with suspended particulate and their variations in several periods of the year in several sites locations in Damascus City during the period of 2008-2009 was carried out. The studied sites were Zablatani (Ahdaasharea), Mohafaza square, Roken Eddin (Shamdine square) and Mezh (near AlAkram mosque), in addition to Soja as a reference site. The average concentrations of PAH associated with total particulates ranged between 0.97-70.11 ng/m3, which are higher than the average concentrations in the reference site (0.0013-0.75 ng/m3). Also, results have showed that the concentrations were maximal in the dry period comparing with the wet period, while they increased in the day period by 42% in comparison with the night period and decreased in the holidays, which indicates the impact of the traffic. In addition, the highest concentrations were recorded in Zablatani location in all study stages. On the other hand, the results of distribution study of the PAHs according to particle size showed that 81.65-93.51% of the total concentration of these compounds were associated with respiratory particulates (PM10). (author)

  18. Atmospheric versus biological sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a tropical rain forest environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krauss, Martin; Wilcke, Wolfgang; Martius, Christopher; Bandeira, Adelmar G.; Garcia, Marcos V.B.; Amelung, Wulf

    2005-01-01

    To distinguish between pyrogenic and biological sources of PAHs in a tropical rain forest near Manaus, Brazil, we determined the concentrations of 21 PAHs in leaves, bark, twigs, and stem wood of forest trees, dead wood, mineral topsoil, litter layer, air, and Nasutitermes termite nest compartments. Naphthalene (NAPH) was the most abundant PAH with concentrations of 35 ng m -3 in air (>85% of the Σ21PAHs concentration), up to 1000 μg kg -1 in plants (>90%), 477 μg kg -1 in litter (>90%), 32 μg kg -1 in topsoil (>90%), and 160 μg kg -1 (>55%) in termite nests. In plants, the concentrations of PAHs in general decreased in the order leaves > bark > twigs > stem wood. The concentrations of most low-molecular weight PAHs in leaves and bark were near equilibrium with air, but those of NAPH were up to 50 times higher. Thus, the atmosphere seemed to be the major source of all PAHs in plants except for NAPH. Additionally, phenanthrene (PHEN) had elevated concentrations in bark and twigs of Vismia cayennensis trees (12-60 μg kg -1 ), which might have produced PHEN. In the mineral soil, perylene (PERY) was more abundant than in the litter layer, probably because of in situ biological production. Nasutitermes nests had the highest concentrations of most PAHs in exterior compartments (on average 8 and 15 μg kg -1 compared to -1 in interior parts) and high PERY concentrations in all compartments (12-86 μg kg -1 ), indicating an in situ production of PERY in the nests. Our results demonstrate that the deposition of pyrolytic PAHs from the atmosphere controls the concentrations of most PAHs. However, the occurrence of NAPH, PHEN, and PERY in plants, termite nests, and soils at elevated concentrations supports the assumption of their biological origin. - Evidence of non-pyrolytic, biogenic production of PAHs is provided

  19. Characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions from a UH-1H helicopter engine and its impact on the ambient environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Cheng; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Uang, Shi-Nian; Lee, Su-Hsing; Tsai, Perng-Jy

    The objective of this study is to characterize the emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from a UH-1H helicopter turboshaft engine and its impact on the ambient environment. Five power settings of the ground idle (GI), fly idle (FI), beed band check (BBC), inlet guide vane (IGV), and take off (TO) were selected and samples were collected from the exhaust by using an isokinetic sampling system. Twenty-two PAH compounds were analyzed by gas chromatograph (GC)/MS. We found the mean total PAH concentration in the exhaust of the UH-1H engine (843 μg m -3) is 1.05-51.7 times in magnitude higher than those of the heavy-duty diesel (HDD) engine, motor vehicle engine, and F101 aircraft engine. Two- and three-ringed PAHs account for 97.5% of total PAH emissions from the UH-1H engine. The mean total PAH and total BaP eq emission factors for the UH-1H engine (63.4 and 0.309 mg L -1·fuel) is 1.65-23.4 and 1.30-7.54 times in magnitude higher than those for the motor vehicle engine, HDD engine, and F101 aircraft engine. The total emission level of the single PAH compound, BaP, for the UH-1H engine (EL BaP) during one landing and take off (LTO) cycle (2.19 mg LTO -1) was higher than the European Commission standard (1.24 mg LTO -1) suggesting that appropriate measures should be taken to reduce PAH emissions from UH-1H engines in the future.

  20. Effect of a cationic surfactant on the volatilization of PAHs from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Li; Zhu, Lizhong

    2012-06-01

    Cationic surfactants are common in soils because of their use in daily cosmetic and cleaning products, and their use as a soil amendment for the mitigation and remediation of organic contaminated soils has been proposed. Such surfactant may affect the transfer and fate of organic contaminants in the environment. This study investigated the effect of a cationic surfactant, dodecylpyridinium bromide (DDPB), on the volatilization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from a paddy soil. The volatilization of PAHs from moist soil amended with different concentrations of DDPB was tested in an open system. The specific effects of DDPB on the liquid-vapor and solid-vapor equilibriums of PAHs were separately investigated in closed systems by headspace analysis. DDPB affects both liquid-vapor and solid-vapor processes of PAHs in soil. At DDPB concentrations below the critical micelle concentration (CMC), movement of PAHs from the bulk solution to the gas-liquid interface appeared to be facilitated by interaction between PAHs and the surfactant monomers adsorbed at the gas-liquid interface, promoting the volatilization of PAHs from solution. However, when DDPB was greater than the CMC, volatilization was inhibited due to the solubilization of PAHs by micelles. On the other hand, the formation of sorbed surfactant significantly inhibited the solid-vapor volatilization of PAHs. The overall effect of the two simultaneous effects of DDPB on liquid-vapor and solid-vapor processes was a decreased volatilization loss of PAHs from soil. Inhibition of PAH volatilization was more significant for the soil with a lower moisture content.

  1. Bioremediation of a PAH-contaminated gasworks site with the Ebiox vacuum heap system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eiermann, D.R.; Bolliger, R.

    1995-01-01

    A former gasworks site in the industrial city of Winterthur, Switzerland, was extremely contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX); phenols; ammonia; and mineral oils. Three vacuum heaps, with a total volume of 10,500 m 3 of contaminated soil, were bioremediated during 1993/94. Separating excavated soil material into different soil qualities was of particular importance because of the pathway definition of the specific soil material. Excavation of contamination took longer than 10 months, delivering continuously different contaminated soil-type material for bioremediation. Conditioning and subsequent biostimulation of the large soil volumes were the prerequisites for most advanced milieu optimization. The degradation results demonstrated the potential for successful application of bioremediation on former industrial sites. PAH-concentration reductions ranged from 75 to 83% for the soil values and from 87 to 98% for the elution values. Soil and elution target qualities were met within 6 to 12 months, depending on initial PAH-concentration and soil structure. The achieved target quality for the bioremediated soil allowed subsequent reuse as high-value backfill material for the ongoing building project

  2. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), their transfer into and dislocation within soil; Eintraege von polyzyklischen aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen (PAH) und ihre Verlagerung im Boden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duerbeck, H W; Niehaus, R; Mueller, U; Bueker, I [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Physikalische Chemie

    1998-12-31

    In order to assess the terrestrial hazard potential of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), it is vital to investigate their nuisance concentrations and deposition to soil and plants as well as their dislocation in soil. This was the object of the first part of the research programme ``Locational evaluation of chemical soil pollution``, conducted by the national research institutions. It was headed ``Analysis of exposure`` and comprised the following individual contributions: 1. Integrated long-term measurements of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil air at ground level (FZJ), 2. Determination of PAH nuisance concentrations at the Scheyern experimental station as well as at the motorway by-passing Munich to the east (A 99), near Kirchheim (GSF), 3. Investigations regarding PAH exposure via the air pathway and inclusion of acquired data in substance flows made up for the east-German dry zone (Bad Lauchstaedt), (UFZ), 4. Simulation of PAH concentration and deposition in south-western Germany (FZK). (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Zur Abschaetzung des Gefaehrdungspotentials von Polycyclischen Aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen (PAK) im terrestrischen Bereich sind daher Untersuchungen ueber die Immissionskonzentrationen und die Deposition auf Boeden und Pflanzen sowie ueber ihre Verlagerung im Boden von essentieller Bedeutung. Die Bearbeitung dieser Thematik erfolgte im Teilbereich I `Eintragsanalyse` des AGF-Programms `Standortgerechte Bewertung chemischer Bodenbelastungen` mit folgenden Einzelbeitraegen: 1. Integrierende Langzeitmessung von Polycyclischen Aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen in bodennaher Luft, (FZJ) 2. Bestimmung der PAH-Immissionskonzentrationen am Versuchsgut Scheyern sowie an der oestlichen Autobahnumgehung von Muenchen (A 99) bei Kirchheim, (GSF) 3. Untersuchungen zum Eintrag von PAH ueber den Luftpfad und Einbeziehung der Daten in Stoffkreislaeufe im Mitteldeutschen Trockengebiet (Bad Lauchstaedt), (UFZ) 4. Simulation der PAH-Konzentration und

  3. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), their transfer into and dislocation within soil; Eintraege von polyzyklischen aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen (PAH) und ihre Verlagerung im Boden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duerbeck, H.W.; Niehaus, R.; Mueller, U.; Bueker, I. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Physikalische Chemie

    1997-12-31

    In order to assess the terrestrial hazard potential of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), it is vital to investigate their nuisance concentrations and deposition to soil and plants as well as their dislocation in soil. This was the object of the first part of the research programme ``Locational evaluation of chemical soil pollution``, conducted by the national research institutions. It was headed ``Analysis of exposure`` and comprised the following individual contributions: 1. Integrated long-term measurements of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil air at ground level (FZJ), 2. Determination of PAH nuisance concentrations at the Scheyern experimental station as well as at the motorway by-passing Munich to the east (A 99), near Kirchheim (GSF), 3. Investigations regarding PAH exposure via the air pathway and inclusion of acquired data in substance flows made up for the east-German dry zone (Bad Lauchstaedt), (UFZ), 4. Simulation of PAH concentration and deposition in south-western Germany (FZK). (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Zur Abschaetzung des Gefaehrdungspotentials von Polycyclischen Aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen (PAK) im terrestrischen Bereich sind daher Untersuchungen ueber die Immissionskonzentrationen und die Deposition auf Boeden und Pflanzen sowie ueber ihre Verlagerung im Boden von essentieller Bedeutung. Die Bearbeitung dieser Thematik erfolgte im Teilbereich I `Eintragsanalyse` des AGF-Programms `Standortgerechte Bewertung chemischer Bodenbelastungen` mit folgenden Einzelbeitraegen: 1. Integrierende Langzeitmessung von Polycyclischen Aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen in bodennaher Luft, (FZJ) 2. Bestimmung der PAH-Immissionskonzentrationen am Versuchsgut Scheyern sowie an der oestlichen Autobahnumgehung von Muenchen (A 99) bei Kirchheim, (GSF) 3. Untersuchungen zum Eintrag von PAH ueber den Luftpfad und Einbeziehung der Daten in Stoffkreislaeufe im Mitteldeutschen Trockengebiet (Bad Lauchstaedt), (UFZ) 4. Simulation der PAH-Konzentration und

  4. Concentrations of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Major and Trace Elements in Simulated Rainfall Runoff from Parking Lots, Austin, Texas, 2003

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mahler, Barbara J; Van Metre, Peter C; Wilson, Jennifer T

    2004-01-01

    Samples of creek bed sediment collected near seal-coated parking lots in Austin, Texas, by the City of Austin during 2001-02 had unusually elevated concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs...

  5. Lung cancer risk in relation to traffic-related nano/ultrafine particle-bound PAHs exposure: a preliminary probabilistic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chung-Min; Chio, Chia-Pin; Chen, Wei-Yu; Ju, Yun-Ru; Li, Wen-Hsuan; Cheng, Yi-Hsien; Liao, Vivian Hsiu-Chuan; Chen, Szu-Chieh; Ling, Min-Pei

    2011-06-15

    Exposures to carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been linked to human lung cancer. The purpose of this study was to assess lung cancer risk caused by inhalation exposure to nano/ultrafine particle-bound PAHs at the population level in Taiwan appraised with recent published data. A human respiratory tract model was linked with a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model to estimate deposition fraction and internal organic-specific PAHs doses. A probabilistic risk assessment framework was developed to estimate potential lung cancer risk. We reanalyzed particle size distribution, total-PAHs, particle-bound benzo(a)pyrene (B[a]P) and PM concentrations. A dose-response profile describing the relationships between external B[a]P concentration and lung cancer risk response was constructed based on population attributable fraction (PAF). We found that 90% probability lung cancer risks ranged from 10(-5) to 10(-4) for traffic-related nano and ultrafine particle-bound PAHs, indicating a potential lung cancer risk. The particle size-specific PAF-based excess annual lung cancer incidence rate due to PAHs exposure was estimated to be less than 1 per 100,000 population, indicating a mild risk factor for lung cancer. We concluded that probabilistic risk assessment linked PAF for limiting cumulative PAHs emissions to reduce lung cancer risk plays a prominent role in future government risk assessment program. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Spatial Variability of PAHs and Microbial Community Structure in Surrounding Surficial Soil of Coal-Fired Power Plants in Xuzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Ma

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This work investigated the spatial profile and source analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in soil that surrounds coal-fired power plants in Xuzhou, China. High-throughput sequencing was employed to investigate the composition and structure of soil bacterial communities. The total concentration of 15 PAHs in the surface soils ranged from 164.87 to 3494.81 μg/kg dry weight. The spatial profile of PAHs was site-specific with a concentration of 1400.09–3494.81 μg/kg in Yaozhuang. Based on the qualitative and principal component analysis results, coal burning and vehicle emission were found to be the main sources of PAHs in the surface soils. The phylogenetic analysis revealed differences in bacterial community compositions among different sampling sites. Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum, while Acidobacteria was the second most abundant. The orders of Campylobacterales, Desulfobacterales and Hydrogenophilales had the most significant differences in relative abundance among the sampling sites. The redundancy analysis revealed that the differences in bacterial communities could be explained by the organic matter content. They could also be explicated by the acenaphthene concentration with longer arrows. Furthermore, OTUs of Proteobacteria phylum plotted around particular samples were confirmed to have a different composition of Proteobacteria phylum among the sample sites. Evaluating the relationship between soil PAHs concentration and bacterial community composition may provide useful information for the remediation of PAH contaminated sites.

  7. Distribution and Source of Sedimentary Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAHs in River Sediment of Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinawati Rinawati

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the distribution and source identification of sedimentary PAHs from 13 rivers running through Jakarta City were investigated. Freeze-dried sediment samples were extracted by pressurized fluid extraction and purified by two-step of column chromatography. PAHs were identified and quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. High concentrations of PAHs, ranging from 1992 to 17635 ng/g-dw, were observed at all sampling locations. Ratios of alkylated PAHs to parent PAHs exhibited both petrogenic and pyrogenic signatures with predominantly petrogenic inputs. High hopanne concentrations (4238-40375 ng/g dry sediment supported the petrogenic input to Jakarta’s rivers. The high concentration of PAHs is indicator for organic micropollutant in the aquatic urban environment in Jakarta that may have the potential to cause adverse effect to the environment.

  8. Ensemble empirical mode decomposition based fluorescence spectral noise reduction for low concentration PAHs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu-tao; Yang, Xue-ying; Kong, De-ming; Wang, Yu-tian

    2017-11-01

    A new noise reduction method based on ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) is proposed to improve the detection effect for fluorescence spectra. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pollutants, as a kind of important current environmental pollution source, are highly oncogenic. Using the fluorescence spectroscopy method, the PAHs pollutants can be detected. However, instrument will produce noise in the experiment. Weak fluorescent signals can be affected by noise, so we propose a way to denoise and improve the detection effect. Firstly, we use fluorescence spectrometer to detect PAHs to obtain fluorescence spectra. Subsequently, noises are reduced by EEMD algorithm. Finally, the experiment results show the proposed method is feasible.

  9. ASSESSMENT OF PAHS AND SELECTED PESTICIDES IN SHALLOW GROUNDWATER IN THE HIGHEST PROTECTED AREAS IN THE OPOLE REGION, POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Głowacki

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The ground water quality was determined after the analyses of water samples from 18 wells. The wells were in the Groundwater Area with the Highest Protection (Triassic water, Opole region, Poland, rural build up. The water table level was low: 0.5 – 18.0 m below the ground surface level (except for one artesian well. The following parameters were determined: pH, EC, colour, ammonium, nitrite, nitrate, dissolved orthophosphate, total phosphorus, dissolved oxygen, BOD, COD-Mn, COD-Cr, humic substances, chloride, sulphate, total hardness, alkalinity, dry residue PAHs (16 compounds, pesticides (6 compounds, however, only selected data were presented in this paper. In all the analysed water samples chloro-organic pesticides were observed. The analysed water contained heptachlor in the highest concentrations of 15.97 mg/dm3. Good quality water must not include concentrations higher than 0.5 mg/dm3 of heptachlor. However, the concentration was circa 32 times higher than this value. The second pesticide determining poor water quality is dieldrin. This compound in the investigated groundwater was 1.94 mg/dm3 – 4 times higher than the limit for acceptable quality ground water. The concentration of pesticides also changed over the course of the research; the concentration in the analysed groundwater in the same well changed quite dramatically over a period of 1 year. Although PAHs and pesticides are potentially toxic for biological organisms they do exist in the environment as a product of the natural biological transformation of organic matter. The noted concentrations and compositions of PAH compounds were different to natural PAHs. It confirms the fact that agricultural activity influences groundwater quality.

  10. PAH related effects on fish in sedimentation ponds for road runoff and potential transfer of PAHs from sediment to biota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grung, Merete; Petersen, Karina; Fjeld, Eirik

    2016-01-01

    of the sedimentation ponds were high (1900-4200ngg(-1)), and even higher levels were observed in plants. Principal component analysis of selected ion chromatograms of PAHs showed a clear separation of plants vs. sediments. The plants preferentially accumulated the high molecular PAHs, both from sedimentation ponds......) the transfer of PAHs from road runoff material to aquatic organisms was substantial. Minnow from a sedimentation pond (Skullerud) near Oslo (Norway) had higher levels of CYP1A enzyme and DNA stand breaks than minnow from the nearby river, but high concentrations of PAH-metabolites in bile revealed that both...... populations were highly exposed. Principal component analysis revealed that CYP1A and age of fish were correlated, while levels of PAH-metabolites were not correlated to CYP1A or DNA damage. Minnow from a lake un-affected by traffic had much lower levels of PAH-metabolites than the exposed fish, and also...

  11. Spatial and temporal distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the atmosphere of Xiamen, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Jinping [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Guangdong Environmental Monitoring Centre, Guangzhou 510308 (China); Zhang, Fuwang; Xu, Lingling [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Chen, Jinsheng, E-mail: jschen@iue.ac.cn [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Xu, Ya [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2011-11-15

    An intensive sampling program was conducted from October 2008 to September 2009 at the five different environmental sites in Xiamen, Fujian Province, to study the spatial and temporal characteristics of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the gaseous and particulate phase, respectively. The PAHs concentrations at different sites were quite distinct during four seasons. The average concentrations of PAHs in winter were about 8.4 times higher than those in spring, and the concentrations of background were 0.56 times lower than those of industrial area. In addition, the higher temperature in summer affected the particle/gas partitioning of PAHs and led to the higher concentrations of gaseous PAHs. Diagnostic ratios of PAHs, which were employed to indicate the primary sources of PAHs in Xiamen, showed that the traffic vehicle exhaust was the largest contributor and the primary source for PAHs in Xiamen, especially in urban area; while the stationary combustion processes, such as petrochemical factories and power plants, were mainly responsible for PAHs sources in the industrial areas. The health risk of PAHs in the particulate phase was higher than those of the gaseous phase at the five sampling sites. The average toxic equivalent (BaP{sub eq}) of the benzo[a]pyrene values for PAHs were 0.14, 0.32, 1.38 and 3.59 ng m{sup -3} in spring, summer, autumn and winter, respectively. Furthermore, the results of average BaP{sub eq} in all four seasons indicated that the health risks of particulate PAHs were higher than those of the gaseous PAHs at different sampling sites.

  12. Lichens as an integrating tool for monitoring PAH atmospheric deposition: A comparison with soil, air and pine needles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augusto, Sofia; Maguas, Cristina; Matos, Joao; Pereira, Maria Joao; Branquinho, Cristina

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate lichens as biomonitors of PAH atmospheric deposition; for that, an inter-comparison between the PAH profile and concentrations intercepted in lichens with those of air, soil and pine needles was performed. The study was conducted in a petro-industrial area and the results showed that PAH profiles in lichens were similar to those of the air and pine needles, but completely different from those of soils. Lichens accumulated higher PAH concentrations when compared to the other environmental compartments and its concentrations were significantly and linearly correlated with concentrations of PAHs in soil; we showed that a translation of the lichen PAHs concentrations into regulatory standards is possible, fulfilling one of the most important requirements of using lichens as biomonitors. With lichens we were then able to characterize the air PAHs profile of urban, petro-industrial and background areas. - Lichen PAH concentrations can identify geographic areas that may be out of compliance with regulatory standards.

  13. PAH Metabolites in Bile of European Eel (Anguilla anguilla) from Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wariaghli, Fatima; Kammann, Ulrike; Hanel, Reinhold; Yahyaoui, Ahmed

    2015-12-01

    Environmental pollution of fish with organic contaminants is a topic of rising attention in Morocco. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are prominent organic contaminants which are rapidly metabolized in fish. Their metabolites are accumulated in the bile fluid and can be used to assess PAH exposure. The two PAH metabolites 1-hydroxypyrene and 1-hydroxyphenanthrene were quantified in European eels (Anguilla anguilla) from two Moroccan river systems by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Mean values ranged from 52 to 210 ng/mL 1-hydroxypyrene and from 61 to 73 ng/mL 1-hydroxyphenanthrene. The overall concentrations of PAH metabolites in eel from Morocco appeared moderate compared to eel from European rivers and coastal sites. The present study provides first information on concentrations of PAH metabolites in fish from Morocco.

  14. Effect of pyrolysis temperatures on freely dissolved polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in sewage sludge-derived biochars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielińska, Anna; Oleszczuk, Patryk

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of sewage sludge pyrolysis on freely dissolved (Cfree) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contents in biochars. Four sewage sludges with varying properties and PAH contents were pyrolysed at temperatures of 500 °C, 600 °C or 700 °C. Cfree PAH contents were determined using polyoxymethylene (POM). The contents of Cfree PAHs in the sludges ranged from 262 to 294 ng L(-1). Sewage sludge-derived biochars have from 2.3- to 3.4-times lower Cfree PAH contents comparing to corresponding sewage sludges. The Cfree PAH contents in the biochars ranged between 81 ng L(-1) and 126 ng L(-1). As regards agricultural use of biochar, the lower contents of Cfree PAHs in the biochars compared to the sewage sludges makes biochar a safer material than sewage sludge in terms of PAH contents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediments of two lakes of the Dongting Lake district in Hunan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiang; Yang, Yajing; Zhang, Lugang; Luo, Yushuang; Liu, Fei; Yang, Pinhong

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, 18 and 12 surface sediment samples were collected from Datong Lake and Shanpo Lake, respectively, and the 16 USEPA priority Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in these samples were detected. The result indicated that the Σ16PAHs ranged from 206.56 to 1058.98 ng.g-1 with an average concentration of 667.22 ng.g-1 in sediments from Datong Lake, whereas it ranged from 90.62 to 900.70 ng.g-1 with an average concentration of 364.97 ng.g-1 in sediments from Shanpo Lake. The concentrations of individual PAHs in sediments ranged from 5.50 to 85.23 and from 4.39 to 52.74 ng.g-1 in Datong Lake and Shanpo Lake, respectively. According to the indexes such as HMW/LMW, Ant/(Ant+Phe), Flua/(Flua+Pyr), IcdP/(IcdP+BghiP), and BaA/(BaA+Chr), the PAHs in sediments from both lakes are mainly of pyrogenic origin. The total BaP equivalent in the surface sediment samples from Datong Lake and Shanpo Lake is 42.77 and 33.35 ng.g-1, respectively.

  16. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in New York City community garden soils: Potential sources and influential factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez-Bravo, Lydia G; Briggs, Dean; Shayler, Hannah; McBride, Murray; Lopp, Donna; Stone, Edie; Ferenz, Gretchen; Bogdan, Kenneth G; Mitchell, Rebecca G; Spliethoff, Henry M

    2016-02-01

    A total of 69 soil samples from 20 community gardens in New York City (New York, USA) were collected and analyzed for 23 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and black carbon. For each garden, samples were collected from nongrowing areas (non-bed) and from vegetable-growing beds, including beds with and without visible sources of PAHs. The sum of the US Environmental Protection Agency's 16 priority PAHs ranged up to 150 mg/kg, and the median (5.4 mg/kg) and mean (14.2 mg/kg) were similar to those previously reported for urban areas in the northeast United States. Isomer ratios indicated that the main sources of PAHs were petroleum, coal, and wood combustion. The PAH concentrations were significantly and positively associated with black carbon and with modeled air PAH concentrations, suggesting a consistent relationship between historical deposition of atmospheric carbon-adsorbed PAHs and current PAH soil concentrations. Median PAH soil concentration from non-bed areas was higher (7.4 mg/kg) than median concentration from beds in the same garden (4.0 mg/kg), and significantly higher than the median from beds without visible sources of PAHs (3.5 mg/kg). Median PAH concentration in beds from gardens with records of soil amendments was 58% lower compared with beds from gardens without those records. These results suggest that gardening practices in garden beds without visible sources of PAHs contribute to reduce PAH soil concentrations. © 2015 SETAC.

  17. Levels and sources of heavy metals and PAHs in sediment of Djibouti-city (Republic of Djibouti).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdi Ahmed, Moussa; Doumenq, Pierre; Awaleh, Mohamed Osman; Syakti, Agung Dhamar; Asia, Laurence; Chiron, Serge

    2017-07-15

    Selected heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in marine sediment from 28 sites Djibouti city. The concentrations of trace elements varied from 0 to 288.1mg/kg with relative abundance of trace metals in sediments was in the order of Zn>Cu>Ni>Cr>Co>Pb>Cd. Zn, Cu and Ni exceeded consensus based sediment quality guideline values 7, 14, 15 sites respectively. Enrichment factor and pollution load index showed relatively low to moderate contamination. The concentrations of total 16 PAHs varied widely depending on the sample location and ranged from 2.65 to 3760.11ng·g -1 , with the mean concentration value of 387.87ng·g -1 . Compositions and relative abundance of individual PAH using molecular diagnostic ratio using congener's m/z 178 and 202 indicated pyrolytic origin and reflecting a petroleum combustion, grass/wood and coal combustion and a petrogenic source. This study represents the first pollution baseline and a reference for future studies in Djibouti. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Potential of vetiver (vetiveria zizanioides l.) grass in removing selected pahs from diesel contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisa, W.U.; Rashid, A.

    2015-01-01

    Phytoremediation has been renowned as an encouraging technology for the remediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soils, little is known about how plant species behave during the process of PAH phytoremediation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides L.) plant in PAH phytoremediation and extraction potential of Vetiveria zizanioides for selected PAHs from the diesel contaminated soil. The field soil samples were spiked with varying concentrations (0.5% and 1%) of diesel and used for pot experiment which was conducted in greenhouse. Vetiver grass was used as experimental plant. Physico-chemical analysis of soil was performed before and after the experiment. Concentration of selected PAHs i.e. phenanthrene, pyrene and benzo(a)pyrene in soil was determined using HPLC. Plant parameters such as root/shoot length and dry mass were compared after harvest. Concentrations of PAHs were also determined in plant material and in soils after harvesting. Result showed that initial concentration of phenanthrene was significantly different from final concentration in treatments in which soil was spiked with diesel. Initial and final concentration of pyrene in soil was also significantly different from each other in two treatments in which soil was spiked with 1% diesel. Pyrene concentration was significantly different in roots and shoots of plants while benzo(a)pyrene concentration in treatments in which soil was spiked with diesel was also significantly different from roots and shoots. Phenanthrene was less extracted by the plant in all the treatments and it was present in higher concentration in soil as compared to plant. Our results indicate that vetiver grass has effectively removed PAHs from soil consequently a significantly higher root and shoot uptake of PAHs was observed than control treatments. Study concludes Vetiveria zizanioides as potentially promising plant specie for the removal

  19. Nature and sources of particle associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the atmospheric environment of an urban area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callén, M.S.; López, J.M.; Iturmendi, A.; Mastral, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    The total PAH associated to the airborne particulate matter (PM10) was apportioned by one receptor model based on positive matrix factorization (PMF) in an urban environment (Zaragoza city, Spain) during February 2010–January 2011. Four sources associated with coal combustion, gasoline, vehicular and stationary emissions were identified, allowing a good modelling of the total PAH (R 2 = 0.99). A seasonal behaviour of the four factors was obtained with higher concentrations in the cold season. The NE direction was one of the predominant directions showing the negative impact of industrial parks, a paper factory and a highway located in that direction. Samples were classified according to hierarchical cluster analysis obtaining that, episodes with the most negative impact on human health (the highest lifetime cancer risk concentrations), were produced by a higher contribution of stationary and vehicular emissions in winter season favoured by high relative humidity, low temperature and low wind speed. -- Highlights: ► PMF receptor model apportioned four sources associated to the total PAH in Zaragoza. ► The sources were: vehicular, coal combustion, gasoline and stationary emissions. ► Samples were additionally classified according to hierarchical cluster analysis. ► The stationary and vehicular emissions factors showed higher risk for human health. ► Low temperature, wind speed and high relative humidity favoured this negative impact. -- Episodes with the most negative impact on human health regarding PAH were produced by a higher contribution of stationary and vehicular emissions in winter season

  20. Major gaseous and PAH emissions from a fluidized-bed combustor firing rice husk with high combustion efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janvijitsakul, Kasama; Kuprianov, Vladimir I.

    2008-01-01

    This experimental work investigated major gaseous (CO and NO x ) and PAH emissions from a 400 kW th fluidized-bed combustor with a cone-shaped bed (referred to as 'conical FBC') firing rice husk with high, over 99%, combustion efficiency. Experimental tests were carried out at the fuel feed rate of 80 kg/h for different values of excess air (EA). As revealed by the experimental results, EA had substantial effects on the axial CO and NO x concentration profiles and corresponding emissions from the combustor. The concentration (mg/kg-ash) and specific emission (μg/kW h) of twelve polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), acenaphthylene, fluorene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, were quantified in this work for different size fractions of ash emitted from the conical FBC firing rice husk at EA = 20.9%. The total PAHs emission was found to be predominant for the coarsest ash particles, due to the effects of a highly developed internal surface in a particle volume. The highest emission was shown by acenaphthylene, 4.1 μg/kW h, when the total yield of PAHs via fly ash was about 10 μg/kW h. (author)

  1. Coal-tar-based sealcoated pavement: a major PAH source to urban stream sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witter, Amy E; Nguyen, Minh H; Baidar, Sunil; Sak, Peter B

    2014-02-01

    We used land-use analysis, PAH concentrations and assemblages, and multivariate statistics to identify sediment PAH sources in a small (~1303 km(2)) urbanizing watershed located in South-Central, Pennsylvania, USA. A geographic information system (GIS) was employed to quantify land-use features that may serve as PAH sources. Urban PAH concentrations were three times higher than rural levels, and were significantly and highly correlated with combined residential/commercial/industrial land use. Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to group sediments with similar PAH assemblages, and correlation analysis compared PAH sediment assemblages to common PAH sources. The strongest correlations were observed between rural sediments (n = 7) and coke-oven emissions sources (r = 0.69-0.78, n = 5), and between urban sediments (n = 22) and coal-tar-based sealcoat dust (r = 0.94, n = 47) suggesting that coal-tar-based sealcoat is an important urban PAH source in this watershed linked to residential and commercial/industrial land use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Phyto remediation of PAH contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petruzzelli, G.; Pedron, F.; Barbafieri, M.; Cervelli, St.; Vigna Guidi, G.

    2005-01-01

    Phyto-remediation may enhance degradation of organic compounds promoting an adequate substrate for microbial growth. The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of two plant species, Lupinus albus and Zea mais, in the bio-remediation of a PAH contaminated soil. This soil has been collected in a contaminated industrial area in Italy characterized by PAH concentrations up to 16000 mg/Kg. Microcosms experiments were carried out by planting Lupinus albus and Zea mais in the polluted soil; controls without plants were run separately. Growing period lasted by three months. Plants favoured PAH biodegradation by percentages of 32% with Lupinus albus and 22% with Zea mais, with respect to non vegetated microcosms. (authors)

  3. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (pah) In The Bulk Precipitation of The Seine Estuary, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motelay-Massei, A.; Ollivon, D.; Garban, B.; Chevreuil, M.

    F), benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), dibenz(a,h)anthracene (DahA), benzo(g,h,i)perylene (BghiP) and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene (IcdP). 130 precipitation samples were analyzed from March to October 2001. Analytical results indicated that PAHs were present in pre- cipitation in frequent basis. In spring the concentration of the PAHs varied between 4 ng.L-1 (Rouen, 14-21 May 2001) and 493 ng.L-1 (Le Havre, 14-21 May 2001) and were normally distributed. These values show good agreement with those measured in other sites in Europe. In addition the profile of the compounds was also similar. PHE 1 (18 to 24 %), FTH (18 to 22 %), PYR (10 to 13 %) were find in the highest concen- tration again. NAP contributed as much as 8 % to the total deposition at Le Havre, Rouen and Evreux and as 15 % at Notre-Dame de Gravenchon. This is probably due to relatively high solubility in water of NAP. Clouds arriving at our sites may contain NAP from distant as well as from local sources. The PAHs considered as carcinogenic (BaA, BbF, BkF, BaP, DahA, IcdP) by the International Association for Research on Cancer represent 14 to 25% of total PAHs. Wet deposition rates are also estimated: total fluxes ranged from 11 (Notre-Dame de Gravenchon) to 40 µg.m-2 (Le Havre) quarterly. This study assesses the seasonal and spatial variability in atmospheric de- position fluxes of these contaminants in the Seine Estuary. Spatial influences were observed and indicate both localized and long-range atmospheric source inputs and, indirectly, influence of direction and speed of winds. In addition, fluxes of PAHs seem to follow seasonal patterns, with increasing concentrations during the colder months of the year. These results highlighted the non-negligible contribution of atmospheric deposition to micropollutants supply to the watershed and consequently groundwater. Moreover, these chemical compounds, due to their high stability and residence times, could be used as tracers in the environment. 2

  4. Organic sources in the Egyptian seawater around Alexandria coastal area as integrated from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omayma E. Ahmed

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents the first comprehensive survey and provides important data on PAHs concentration and composition in Alexandria coastal seawater. The compositions of PAHs determined in all samples are to be used as chemical markers for identifying different sources of PAH pollution in the surface seawater of Alexandria coastal area. The quantitative analysis of PAHs showed a concentration ranging from 8970.939 to 1254756.00 ng/L, which exceeds the maximum admissible concentrations of PAHs (200 ng/L for the water standard of European Union. The calculated diagnostic ratios suggested that the sources of PAHs at the majority of the studied area are derived primarily from pyrogenic sources from incomplete fuel combustion of the boats and vehicle engines with lesser amounts of PAHs contributed from petrogenic sources. Some stations displayed mixed sources in comparison to many other studied marine systems, the PAH concentrations detected at Alexandria area were considered to be higher and pose health risks to aquatic bodies.

  5. Ability of natural attenuation and phytoremediation using maize (Zea mays L.) to decrease soil contents of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) derived from biomass fly ash in comparison with PAHs-spiked soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Košnář, Zdeněk; Mercl, Filip; Tlustoš, Pavel

    2018-05-30

    A 120-day pot experiment was conducted to compare the ability of natural attenuation and phytoremediation approaches to remove polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from soil amended with PAHs-contaminated biomass fly ash. The PAH removal from ash-treated soil was compared with PAHs-spiked soil. The removal of 16 individual PAHs from soil ranged between 4.8% and 87.8% within the experiment. The natural attenuation approach led to a negligible total PAH removal. The phytoremediation was the most efficient approach for PAH removal, while the highest removal was observed in the case of ash-treated soil. The content of low molecular weight (LMW) PAHs and the total PAHs in this treatment significantly decreased (P <.05) over the whole experiment by 47.6% and 29.4%, respectively. The tested level of PAH soil contamination (~1600 µg PAH/kg soil dry weight) had no adverse effects on maize growth as well on the biomass yield. In addition, the PAHs were detected only in maize roots and their bioaccumulation factors were significantly lower than 1 suggesting negligible PAH uptake from soil by maize roots. The results showed that PAHs of ash origin were similarly susceptible to removal as spiked PAHs. The presence of maize significantly boosted the PAH removal from soil and its aboveground biomass did not represent any environmental risk. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) mediate cadmium toxicity to an emergent wetland species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhenhua; Rengel, Zed; Meney, Kathy; Pantelic, Ljiljana; Tomanovic, Radmila

    2011-01-01

    Growth and pollutant removal by emergent wetland plants may be influenced by interactions among mixed pollutants in constructed wetlands. A glasshouse experiment was conducted to investigate interactive effects of cadmium (Cd) x polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) x plant treatments on growth of Juncus subsecundus, Cd and PAH removal from soil and the total number of microorganisms in soil. Growth and biomass of J. subsecundus were significantly influenced by interaction of Cd and PAHs, significantly decreasing with either Cd or PAH additions, but with the effect of Cd on plant growth being stronger than that of PAHs. The mixture of low Cd and low PAH lessened Cd toxicity to plants, resulting in improved plant growth and increased Cd accumulation in plant tissues, thus enhancing Cd removal by plants. The dissipation of PAHs in soils was significantly influenced by interactions of Cd, PAH and plant presence or absence. The total number of microorganisms in soils was significantly increased by the PAH additions. The interactive effect of Cd and PAHs on plant growth may be linked to the changes in the abundance of microorganisms in the rhizosphere, probably via a positive effect of PAH metabolites and/or phytohormones produced by microorganisms on plant growth.

  7. Long-Term Monitoring of PAH Contamination in Sediment and Recovery After the Hebei Spirit Oil Spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Moonkoo; Jung, Jee-Hyun; Ha, Sung Yong; An, Joon Geon; Shim, Won Joon; Yim, Un Hyuk

    2017-07-01

    Approximately 10,900 t of crude oil was released 10 km off the west coast of Korea after the collision between the oil tanker Hebei Spirit and a barge carrying a crane in December 2007. To assess the areal extent and temporal trends of PAH contamination, 428 sediment samples were collected from December 2007 through May 2015 for PAH analysis. Sedimentary PAH concentrations measured immediately after the spill ranged from 3.2 to 71,200 ng g -1 , with a mean of 3800 ng g -1 . Increases in PAH concentrations were observed at stations 7-23, which were heavily oiled due to tidal currents and northwesterly wind that transported the spilled oil to these locations. Mean and maximum PAH concentrations decreased drastically from 3800 to 88.5 and 71,200 to 1700 ng g -1 , respectively, 4 months after the spill. PAH concentrations highly fluctuated until September 2008 and then decreased slowly to background levels. Reduction rate was much faster at the sandy beaches (k = 0.016) than in the muddy sites (k = 0.001). In muddy sediments, low attenuation due to low flushing rate in the mostly anaerobic sediment possibly contributed the persistence of PAHs. By May 2015 (~7.5 years after the spill), mean and maximum PAH concentrations decreased by 54 and 481 times, respectively, compared with the peak concentrations. The sedimentary PAH concentrations in the monitoring area have returned to regional background levels.

  8. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and diesel engine emission (elemental carbon) inside a car and a subway train.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromme, H; Oddoy, A; Piloty, M; Krause, M; Lahrz, T

    1998-06-30

    Significant concentrations of potentially harmful substances can be present in the interior of vehicles. The main sources of PAHs and elemental carbon (EC) inside a car are likely to be combustion emissions, especially from coal and traffic. The same sources can also be important for the interior of a subway train for which there are specific sources in the tunnel system, for example diesel engines. Twice, in summer 1995 and winter 1996 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and diesel motor emission (estimated as elemental carbon) were determined in the interior of a car (a 2-year-old VW Golf with a three-way catalytic converter) and in the passenger compartment of a subway train (below ground). On each sampling day (in total 16 daily measurements in the car and 16 in the subway) the substances were determined in the breathing zone of the passengers from 07:00 h to 16:00 h under different meteorologic conditions (winter- and summertime). The car followed the route of the subway from the western Berlin borough of Spandau to the south-eastern borough of Neukölln, and back. The sampling represented a realistic exposure model for driving in a high traffic and polluted urban area. The electric subway train (also 2 years in use) connected the same parts of Berlin (31 km underground). The mean values obtained during the two measurement periods (summer/winter) inside the car were 1.0 and 3.2 ng/m3 for benzo[a]pyrene, 10.2 and 28.7 ng/m3 for total-measured-PAHs, 14.1 and 8.2 micrograms/m3 for EC and in the subway 0.7 and 4.0 ng/m3 for benzol[a]pyrene, 30.2 and 67.5 ng/m3 for total PAHs, 109 and 6.9 micrograms/m3 for EC. A comparison between subway and car exposures shows significantly higher concentrations of PAHs in the subway train, which can be explained by relatively high concentrations of fluoranthene and pyrene in the subway. So far a satisfactory explanation has not been found, but one source might be the wooden railway ties which were formerly preserved with tar

  9. A PAH growth mechanism and synergistic effect on PAH formation in counterflow diffusion flames

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yu; Raj, Abhijeet Dhayal; Chung, Suk-Ho

    2013-01-01

    was tested for ethylene premixed flames at low (20torr) and atmospheric pressures by comparing experimentally observed species concentrations with those of the computed ones for small chemical species and PAHs. As compared to several existing mechanisms

  10. PAH biomarkers in common eelpout (Zoarces viviparus) from Danish waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tairova, Zhanna; Strand, Jakob; Chevalier, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Eelpouts (Zoarces viviparus) sampled at surveillance stations during the fall of 2007 and spring 2008 in different Danish coastal areas, were studied for biomarkers of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) exposure and effects. Two analytical techniques, synchronous fluorescence spectrometry (SFS......) and high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC/F), were applied for detecting PAH metabolites in bile and urine. CYP1A activity, in this study regarded as potential biomarker of effect, was measured as 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity in liver of eelpouts from...... different stations. Biliary PAH metabolite measurements were used for monitoring the environmental PAH load at the surveillance stations. There was found significant difference in biliary PAH metabolite content between sexes with male fish containing higher concentrations of PAH metabolites than females...

  11. Estimation of the emission factors of PAHs by traffic with the model of atmospheric dispersion and deposition from heavy traffic road.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, N; Tokumitsu, H; Kojima, K; Kindaichi, T

    2007-01-01

    In order to consider the total atmospheric loadings of the PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) from traffic activities, the emission factors of PAHs were estimated and from the obtained emission factors and vehicle transportation statistics, total atmospheric loadings were integrated and the loadings into the water body were estimated on a regional scale. The atmospheric concentration of PAHs was measured at the roadside of a road with heavy traffic in the Hiroshima area in Japan. The samplings were conducted in summer and winter. Atmospheric particulate matters (fine particle, 0.6-7 microm; coarse particle, over 7 microm) and their PAH concentration were measured. Also, four major emission sources (gasoline and diesel vehicle emissions, tire and asphalt debris) were assumed for vehicle transportation activities, the chemical mass balance method was applied and the source partitioning at the roadside was estimated. Furthermore, the dispersion of atmospheric particles from the vehicles was modelled and the emission factors of the sources were determined by the comparison to the chemical mass balance results. Based on emission factors derived from the modelling, an atmospheric dispersion model of nationwide scale (National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology - Atmospheric Dispersion Model for Exposure and Risk assessment) was applied, and the atmospheric concentration and loading to the ground were calculated for the Hiroshima Bay watershed area.

  12. Biodegradation of Mixed PAHs by PAH-Degrading Endophytic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuezhu Zhu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic bacteria can promote plant growth, induce plant defence mechanisms, and increase plant resistance to organic contaminants. The aims of the present study were to isolate highly PAH-degrading endophytic bacteria from plants growing at PAH-contaminated sites and to evaluate the capabilities of these bacteria to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in vitro, which will be beneficial for re-colonizing target plants and reducing plant PAH residues through the inoculation of plants with endophytic bacteria. Two endophytic bacterial strains P1 (Stenotrophomonas sp. and P3 (Pseudomonas sp., which degraded more than 90% of phenanthrene (PHE within 7 days, were isolated from Conyza canadensis and Trifolium pretense L., respectively. Both strains could use naphthalene (NAP, PHE, fluorene (FLR, pyrene (PYR, and benzo(apyrene (B(aP as the sole sources of carbon and energy. Moreover, these bacteria reduced the contamination of mixed PAHs at high levels after inoculation for 7 days; strain P1 degraded 98.0% NAP, 83.1% FLR, 87.8% PHE, 14.4% PYR, and 1.6% B(aP, and strain P3 degraded 95.3% NAP, 87.9% FLR, 90.4% PHE, 6.9% PYR, and negligible B(aP. Notably, the biodegradation of PAHs could be promoted through additional carbon and nitrogen nutrients; therein, beef extract was suggested as the optimal co-substrate for the degradation of PAHs by these two strains (99.1% PHE was degraded within 7 days. Compared with strain P1, strain P3 has more potential for the use in the removal of PAHs from plant tissues. These results provide a novel perspective in the reduction of plant PAH residues in PAH-contaminated sites through inoculating plants with highly PAH-degrading endophytic bacteria.

  13. Oxygen-containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OPAHs) in urban soils of Bratislava, Slovakia: Patterns, relation to PAHs and vertical distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musa Bandowe, Benjamin A.; Sobocka, Jaroslava; Wilcke, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    We determined concentrations, sources, and vertical distribution of OPAHs and PAHs in soils of Bratislava. The Σ14 OPAHs concentrations in surface soil horizons ranged 88-2692 ng g -1 and those of Σ34 PAHs 842-244,870 ng g -1 . The concentrations of the Σ9 carbonyl-OPAHs (r = 0.92, p = 0.0001) and the Σ5 hydroxyl-OPAHs (r = 0.73, p = 0.01) correlated significantly with Σ34 PAHs concentrations indicating the close association of OPAHs with parent-PAHs. OPAHs were quantitatively dominated by 9-fluorenone, 9,10-anthraquinone, 1-indanone and benzo[a]anthracene-7,12-dione. At several sites, individual carbonyl-OPAHs had higher concentrations than parent PAHs. The concentration ratios of several OPAHs to their parent-PAHs and contribution of the more soluble OPAHs (1-indanone and 9-fluorenone) to Σ14 OPAHs concentrations increased with soil depth suggesting that OPAHs were faster vertically transported in the study soils by leaching than PAHs which was supported by the correlation of subsoil:surface soil ratios of OPAH concentrations at several sites with K OW . - Research highlights: → Oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OPAHs) are closely associated with PAHs in all studied urban soils. → The concentrations of OPAHs in urban soils of Bratislava are similar as in other European and North American cities. → Concentrations of OPAHs are frequently higher than those of the corresponding parent-PAHs. → For 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde, 1-naphthaldehyde, 2-biphenylcarboxaldehyde and 1,8-naphthalic anhydride there are indications for abiotic or biological production. → The OPAHs are faster vertically transported in soils than their parent-PAHs. - OPAHs and PAHs in urban soils are closely associated but OPAHs are faster translocated than PAHs.

  14. PAH EMISSION AT THE BRIGHT LOCATIONS OF PDRs: THE grandPAH HYPOTHESIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, H.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Boersma, C.; Allamandola, L. J.; Werner, M. W.; Livingston, J.

    2015-01-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission observed in the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph spectra of bright mid-IR locations of NGC 7023, NGC 2023, and NGC 1333 was analyzed. These objects show large variations in PAH band ratios when studied through spectral mapping. Nevertheless, the mid-IR spectra at these bright spots show a remarkably similar PAH emission. We used the NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database to fit the observations and analyze the derived PAH populations. Our results show that PAH emission in the 5–15 μm range appears to be rather insensitive to variations of the radiation field. Similar PAH populations of neutral small to medium-sized PAHs (∼50%), with ionized species contributing in slightly less than 50%, provide very good fits. Analyzing the degeneracy of the results shows that subtle (but intrinsic) variations in the emission properties of individual PAHs lead to observable differences in the resulting spectra. On top of this, we found that variations of <30% in the PAH abundances would lead to noticeable spectral differences between the three photodissociation regions (PDRs). Therefore, PAH populations must be remarkably similar at these different lines of sight. To account for this, we suggest the concept of grandPAHs as a unique mixture of the most stable PAHs emitting at these spots. Using NGC 7023 as an example, the grandPAHs refer to the robust PAH population that results from the intense processing of PAHs at the border limit between the PDR and the molecular cloud, where, due to the UV radiation that destroys the PAH population, the abundance of PAHs starts decreasing as we move toward the star

  15. PAH EMISSION AT THE BRIGHT LOCATIONS OF PDRs: THE grandPAH HYPOTHESIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, H.; Tielens, A. G. G. M. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Boersma, C.; Allamandola, L. J. [NASA Ames Research Center, MS 245-6, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Werner, M. W.; Livingston, J., E-mail: heandrew@strw.leidenuniv.nl, E-mail: Christiaan.Boersma@nasa.gov [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, MC 264-767, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission observed in the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph spectra of bright mid-IR locations of NGC 7023, NGC 2023, and NGC 1333 was analyzed. These objects show large variations in PAH band ratios when studied through spectral mapping. Nevertheless, the mid-IR spectra at these bright spots show a remarkably similar PAH emission. We used the NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database to fit the observations and analyze the derived PAH populations. Our results show that PAH emission in the 5–15 μm range appears to be rather insensitive to variations of the radiation field. Similar PAH populations of neutral small to medium-sized PAHs (∼50%), with ionized species contributing in slightly less than 50%, provide very good fits. Analyzing the degeneracy of the results shows that subtle (but intrinsic) variations in the emission properties of individual PAHs lead to observable differences in the resulting spectra. On top of this, we found that variations of <30% in the PAH abundances would lead to noticeable spectral differences between the three photodissociation regions (PDRs). Therefore, PAH populations must be remarkably similar at these different lines of sight. To account for this, we suggest the concept of grandPAHs as a unique mixture of the most stable PAHs emitting at these spots. Using NGC 7023 as an example, the grandPAHs refer to the robust PAH population that results from the intense processing of PAHs at the border limit between the PDR and the molecular cloud, where, due to the UV radiation that destroys the PAH population, the abundance of PAHs starts decreasing as we move toward the star.

  16. Development of a novel kinetic model for the analysis of PAH biodegradation in the presence of lead and cadmium co-contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deary, Michael E., E-mail: michael.deary@northumbria.ac.uk [Department of Geography,Faculty of Engineering and Environment, Northumbria University, Ellison Building, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 8ST (United Kingdom); Ekumankama, Chinedu C. [Department of Geography,Faculty of Engineering and Environment, Northumbria University, Ellison Building, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 8ST (United Kingdom); Cummings, Stephen P. [Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Northumbria University, Ellison Building, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 8ST (United Kingdom)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • 40 week study of the biodegradation of 16 US EPA priority PAHs in a soil with high organic matter. • Effects of cadmium, lead and mercury co-contaminants studied. • Novel kinetic approach developed. • Biodegradation of lower molecular weight PAHs relatively unaffected by Cd or Pb. • Soil organic matter plays a key role in the PAH removal mechanism. - Abstract: We report on the results of a 40 week study in which the biodegradation of 16 US EPA polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was followed in microcosms containing soil of high organic carbon content (11%) in the presence and absence of lead and cadmium co-contaminants. The total spiked PAH concentration was 2166 mg/kg. Mercury amendment was also made to give an abiotic control. A novel kinetic model has been developed to explain the observed biphasic nature of PAH degradation. The model assumes that PAHs are distributed across soil phases of varying degrees of bioaccessibility. The results of the analysis suggest that overall percentage PAH loss is dependent on the respective rates at which the PAHs (a) are biodegraded by soil microorganisms in pore water and bioaccessible soil phases and (b) migrate from bioaccessible to non-bioaccessible soil phases. In addition, migration of PAHs to non-bioaccessible and non-Soxhlet-extractable soil phases associated with the humin pores gives rise to an apparent removal process. The presence of metal co-contaminants shows a concentration dependent inhibition of the biological degradation processes that results in a reduction in overall degradation. Lead appears to have a marginally greater inhibitory effect than cadmium.

  17. Atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Asia: A review from 1999 to 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, K.-F.; Fang, G.-C.; Chen, J.-C.; Wu, Y.-S.

    2006-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are present in both gaseous and particulate phases. These compounds are considered to be atmospheric contaminants and are human carcinogens. Many studies have monitored atmospheric particulate and gaseous phases of PAH in Asia over the past 5 years. This work compares and discusses different sample collection, pretreatment and analytical methods. The main PAH sources are traffic exhausts (AcPy, FL, Flu, PA, Pyr, CHR, BeP) and industrial emissions (BaP, BaA, PER, BeP, COR, CYC). PAH concentrations are highest in areas of traffic, followed by the urban sites, and lowest in rural sites. Meteorological conditions, such as temperature, wind speed and humidity, strongly affect PAH concentrations at all sampling sites. This work elucidates the characteristics, sources and distribution, and the healthy impacts of atmospheric PAH species in Asia. - This work summarizes the characteristics, sources and distribution, and the healthy impacts of atmospheric PAH species in Asia

  18. Incidence of real-world automotive parent and halogenated PAH in urban atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Pan-Pan; Zhao, Yi-Bo; Ni, Hong-Gang

    2018-06-01

    This study reports results from a tunnel experiment impact of real-world traffic-related particle and gas parent and halogenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and HPAHs) on urban air. The traffic related emission characteristics and subsequent environmental behavior of these compounds were investigated. To understand the significance of real-world transport emissions to the urban air, traffic-related mass emissions of PAHs and HPAHs were estimated based on measured emission factors. According to our results, PAHs and HPAHs emissions via particulate phase were greater than those via gaseous phase; particles in 2.1-3.3 μm size fraction, have the major contribution to particulate PAHs and HPAHs emissions. Over all, contribution of traffic-related emission of PAHs (only ∼3% of the total PAHs emission in China) is an overstated source of PAHs pollution in China. Actually, exhaust pipe emission contributed much less than the total traffic-related emission of pollutants. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Chemometric techniques in distribution, characterisation and source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS) in aquaculture sediments in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retnam, Ananthy; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Juahir, Hafizan; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin; Zali, Munirah Abdul; Kasim, Mohd Fadhil

    2013-04-15

    This study investigated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pollution in surface sediments within aquaculture areas in Peninsular Malaysia using chemometric techniques, forensics and univariate methods. The samples were analysed using soxhlet extraction, silica gel column clean-up and gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The total PAH concentrations ranged from 20 to 1841 ng/g with a mean of 363 ng/g dw. The application of chemometric techniques enabled clustering and discrimination of the aquaculture sediments into four groups according to the contamination levels. A combination of chemometric and molecular indices was used to identify the sources of PAHs, which could be attributed to vehicle emissions, oil combustion and biomass combustion. Source apportionment using absolute principle component scores-multiple linear regression showed that the main sources of PAHs are vehicle emissions 54%, oil 37% and biomass combustion 9%. Land-based pollution from vehicle emissions is the predominant contributor of PAHs in the aquaculture sediments of Peninsular Malaysia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Prenatal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure, antioxidant levels and behavioral development of children ages 6-9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genkinger, Jeanine M; Stigter, Laura; Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Huang, Tzu-Jung; Wang, Shuang; Roen, Emily L; Majewska, Renata; Kieltyka, Agnieszka; Mroz, Elzbieta; Perera, Frederica P

    2015-07-01

    Prenatal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure has been shown to increase DNA adduct levels and to affect neurodevelopment. Micronutrients may modify the adverse effect of PAH on neurodevelopment. Thus, we examined if micronutrient concentrations modified the association between PAH exposure and neurodevelopmental outcomes. 151 children from a birth cohort who had micronutrient concentrations measured in cord blood and completed the Child Behavioral Checklist (CBCL), between the ages of 6 and 9 years, were evaluated. Prenatal airborne PAH exposure was measured by personal air monitoring. The betas and 95% CI for the associations of antioxidant concentrations and PAH exposure with each of the outcomes of CBCL raw score and dichotomized standardized T-score (based on clinical cutpoints) were estimated, respectively, by multivariable poisson and logistic models. Children below the median for alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol concentrations, compared to those above, were more likely to have thought problems, aggressive behavior and externalizing problems (pPAH in relation to CBCL symptoms (e.g., internalizing and externalizing problems, pPAH exposure. Future research to confirm these findings are warranted given the importance of identifying modifiable factors for reducing harmful PAH effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Level, potential sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in particulate matter (PM10) in Naples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Vaio, Paola; Cocozziello, Beatrice; Corvino, Angela; Fiorino, Ferdinando; Frecentese, Francesco; Magli, Elisa; Onorati, Giuseppe; Saccone, Irene; Santagada, Vincenzo; Settimo, Gaetano; Severino, Beatrice; Perissutti, Elisa

    2016-03-01

    In Naples, particulate matter PM10 associated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ambient air were determined in urban background (NA01) and urban traffic (NA02) sites. The principal objective of the study was to determine the concentration and distribution of PAHs in PM10 for identification of their possible sources (through diagnostic ratio - DR and principal component analysis - PCA) and an estimation of the human health risk (from exposure to airborne TEQ). Airborne PM10 samples were collected on quartz filters using a Low Volume Sampler (LVS) for 24 h with seasonal samples (autumn, winter, spring and summer) of about 15 days each between October 2012 and July 2013. The PM10 mass was gravimetrically determined. The PM10 levels, in all seasons, were significantly higher (P gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) analysis. The concentration of Benzo[a]Pyrene, BaP (EU and National limit value: 1 ng m-3 in PM10), varied from 0.065 ng m-3 during autumn time to 0.872 ng m-3 in spring time (NA01) and from 0.120 ng m-3 during autumn time to 1.48 ng m-3 of winter time (NA02) with four overshoots. In NA02 the trend of Σ12 PAHs was comparable to NA01 but were observed higher values than NA01. In fact, the mean concentration of Σ12 PAHs, in urban-traffic site was generally 2 times greater than in urban-background site in all the campaigns. PAHs with 5 and 6 ring, many of which are suspected carcinogens or genotoxic agents, (i.e Benzo[a]Pyrene, Indeno[1,2,3-cd]Pyrene, Benzo[b]Fluoranthene, Benzo[k]Fluoranthene and Benzo[g,h,i]Perylene), had a large contribution (∼50-55%) of total PAHs concentration in PM10 in two sites and in each of the campaigns. Diagnostic ratio analysis and PCA suggested a substantial contributions from traffic emission with minimal influence from coal combustion and natural gas emissions. In particular diesel vehicular emissions were the major source of PAHs at the studied sites. The use of Toxicity Equivalence Quantity (TEQ

  2. Effect of Smoking on Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Manage. Vol. 22 (2) 293 - 297. February 2018. Full-text Available Online at ... aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were studied in raw and smoked samples of catfish (Clarias ... inferred that the smoking process generally increased the mean total PAH levels in the fish .... with 5 g of anhydrous sodium sulphate in a laboratory.

  3. Supported manganese oxide on TiO{sub 2} for total oxidation of toluene and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs): Characterization and catalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aboukaïs, Antoine, E-mail: aboukais@univ-littoral.fr [Univ Lille Nord de France, 59000 Lille (France); Equipe Catalyse, UCEIV, EA 4492, MREI, ULCO, 59140 Dunkerque (France); Abi-Aad, Edmond [Univ Lille Nord de France, 59000 Lille (France); Equipe Catalyse, UCEIV, EA 4492, MREI, ULCO, 59140 Dunkerque (France); Taouk, Bechara [Laboratoire de Sécurité des procédés Chimiques (LSPC), EA 4704, INSA Rouen, Avenue de l' Université, 76801 Saint Etienne du Rouvray (France)

    2013-11-01

    Manganese oxide catalysts supported on titania (TiO{sub 2}) were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation method in order to elaborate catalysts for total oxidation of toluene and PAHs. These catalysts have been characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), temperature programmed reduction (TPR) and temperature programmed desorption (TPD). It has been shown that for the 5%Mn/TiO{sub 2} catalyst the reducibility and the mobility of oxygen are higher compared, in one side, to other x%Mn/TiO{sub 2} samples and, in another side, to catalysts where TiO{sub 2} support was replaced by γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} or SiO{sub 2}. It has been shown that the content of manganese loading on TiO{sub 2} has an effect on the catalytic activity in the toluene oxidation. A maximum of activity was obtained for the 5%Mn/TiO{sub 2} catalyst where the total conversion of toluene was reached at 340 °C. This activity seems to be correlated to the presence of the Mn{sup 3+}/Mn{sup 4+} redox couple in the catalyst. When the Mn content increases, large particles of Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} appear leading then to the decrease in the corresponding activity. In addition, compared to both other supports, TiO{sub 2} seems to be the best to give the best catalytic activity for the oxidation of toluene when it is loaded with 5% of manganese. For this reason, the latter catalyst was tested for the abatement of some PAHs. The light off temperature of PAHs compounds increases with increasing of benzene rings number and with decreasing of H/C ratio. All of PAHs are almost completely oxidized and converted at temperatures lower than 500 °C. - Highlights: • Preparation of x%MnO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} catalysts. • Catalytic oxidation tests of toluene and PAHs. • EPR, TPR and TPD characterizations of Mn(II) and Mn(IV) ions.

  4. Distribution and fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in recent sediments from the Gulf of Gdańsk (SE Baltic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludwik Lubecki

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were determined in recent (0-10 cm sediments from the Gulf of Gdańsk during 2003-07 andcorrelated with environmental parameters. Located in the south-eastern part of the Baltic and receiving the waters of the River Wisła(Vistula, this area of negligible tides and strong anthropogenic stress, highly eutrophic as a consequence, is an exceptionalmodel basin for studying the fate of hydrophobic organic contaminants introduced to the sea. Environmental conditions determine thedistribution and composition patterns of parent PAHs in Gulf of Gdańsk sediments. PAHs were associated mainly with fine particlesediments, rich in organic carbon, with hypoxia/anoxia near the bottom. The highest PAH contents were found in the Gdańsk Deep(ca 110 m, where the mean concentration of Σ12PAHs was ~3600 ng g-1, and no distinct temporal trend was observed.Lighter PAHs were found to be depleted in deeper regions. It was estimated that the Wisła discharges ~50% of the total PAH load deposited in recent Gulf sediments.

  5. Comparing PAH availability from manufactured gas plant soils and sediments with chemical and biological tests. 1. PAH release during water desorption and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne, Steven B; Poppendieck, Dustin G; Grabanski, Carol B; Loehr, Raymond C

    2002-11-15

    Soil and sediment samples from oil gas (OG) and coal gas (CG) manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites were selected to represent a range of PAH concentrations (150-40,000 mg/kg) and sample matrix compositions. Samples varied from vegetated soils to lampblack soot and had carbon contents from 3 to 87 wt %. SFE desorption (120 min) and water/XAD2 desorption (120 days) curves were determined and fit with a simple two-site model to determine the rapid-released fraction (F) for PAHs ranging from naphthalene to benzo[ghi]perylene. F values varied greatly among the samples, from ca. 10% to >90% for the two- and three-ring PAHs and from <1% to ca. 50% for the five- and six-ring PAHs. Release rates did not correlate with sample matrix characteristics including PAH concentrations, elemental composition (C, H, N, S), or "hard" and "softs" organic carbon, indicating that PAH release cannot easily be estimated on the basis of sample matrix composition. Fvalues for CG site samples obtained with SFE and water desorption agreed well (linear correlation coefficient, r2 = 0.87, slope = 0.93), but SFE yielded higher F values for the OG samples. These behaviors were attributed to the stronger ability of carbon dioxide than water to desorb PAHs from the highly aromatic (hard) carbon of the OG matrixes, while carbon dioxide and water showed similar abilities to desorb PAHs from the more polar (soft) carbon of the CG samples. The combined SFE and water desorption approaches should improve the understanding of PAH sequestration and release from contaminated soils and sediments and provide the basis for subsequent studies using the same samples to compare PAH release with PAH availability to earthworms.

  6. A method to simultaneously determining the reduction in PAH dissolved concentrations and bioaccessibility in carbon amended soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchal, Geoffrey; Smith, Kilian E. C.; Rein, Arno

    In order to investigate the potential of different soil amendments (activated charcoal (AC), charcoal (biochar), compost) to sorb PAHs and their effect on bioaccessibility and biodegradation of PAHs in soil, a method was developed that can determine simultaneously the changes in PAH dissolved...

  7. Comparing PAH availability from manufactured gas plant soils and sediments with chemical and biological tests. 1. PAH release during water desorption and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawthorne, S.B.; Poppendieck, D.G.; Grabanski, C.B.; Loehr, R.C. [University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (US). Energy and Environmental Research Center

    2002-11-15

    Soil and sediment samples from OG (oil gas) and CG (coal gas) manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites in the United States that had been closed for about 50 years were selected to represent a range of PAH concentrations and sample matrix compositions. Samples varied from vegetated soils to lampblack soot and had carbon contents from 3 to 87 wt%. Supercritical carbon dioxide, SFE desorption and water/XAD{sub 2} desorption curves were determined and fit with a simple two-site model to determine the rapid-released fraction (F) for PAHs ranging from naphthalene to benzo-(ghi)perylene. F values varied greatly among the samples. Release rates did not correlate with sample matrix characteristics including PAH concentrations, elemental composition or 'hard' and 'soft' organic carbon, indicating that PAH release cannot easily be estimated on the basis of sample matrix composition. F values for CG site samples obtained with SFE and water desorption agreed well but SFE yielded higher F values for the OG samples. These behaviors were attributed to the stronger ability of carbon dioxide than water to desorb PAHs from the highly aromatic (hard) carbon of the OG matrixes, while carbon dioxide and water showed similar abilities to desorb PAHs from the more polar (soft) carbon of the CG samples. The combined SFE and water desorption approaches should improve the understanding of PAH sequestration and release from contaminated soils and sediments and provide the basis for subsequent studies, using the same samples to compare PAH release with PAH availability to earthworms. 46 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. A complete re-assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments of the Saguenay Fjord (Quebec)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelletier, E.; Cote, N.; Curtosi, A.; St-Louis, R. [Quebec Univ., Rimouski, PQ (Canada). Institut des Sciences de la Mer de Rimouski

    2003-07-01

    The sediments in the Saguenay Fjord and the Baie des HaHa were contaminated during the 1960s and 1970s. A study was conducted in the Spring of 2002 to obtain new data on the spatio-temporal distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the sediments. Five sediment cores were sampled from different areas of the Fjord and analyzed for their PAH content by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Total PAHs were reported for the first 28 cm of each core. The mean concentration in the surface layer was 310 ng/g with a maximum value of 460 ng/g found in the North Arm of the Fjord. The lowest value of 227 ng/g was found in the Baie des HaHa. Surface values were between 10 and 30 times lower than those reported in samples from a 1982 study. The maximum PAH values were found in layers between 15 and 28 cm in depth, suggesting a slow burying process of the highly contaminated sediments.

  9. Effects of profession on urinary PAH metabolite levels in the US population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bian; Jia, Chunrong

    2016-01-01

    Although exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is common in both environmental and occupational settings, few studies have compared PAH exposure among people with different professions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the variations in recent PAH exposure among different occupational groups over time using national representative samples. The study population consisted of 4162 participants from the 2001 to 2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, who had both urinary PAH metabolites and occupational information. Four corresponding monohydroxy-PAH urine metabolites: naphthalene (NAP), fluorene (FLUO), phenanthrene (PHEN), and pyrene (PYR) among seven broad occupational groups were analyzed using weighted linear regression models, adjusting for creatinine levels, sociodemographic factors, smoking status, and sampling season. The overall geometric mean concentrations of NAP, FLUO, PHEN, and PYR were 6927, 477, 335, and 87 ng/L, respectively. All four PAH metabolites were elevated in the "extractive, construction, and repair (ECR)" group, with 21-42 % higher concentrations than those in the reference group of "management." Similar trends were seen in the "operators, fabricators, and laborers (OFL)" group for FLUO, PHEN, and PYR. In addition, both "service" and "support" groups had elevated FLUO. Significant (p PAH exposure. Heterogeneous distributions of urinary PAH metabolites among people with different job categories exist at the population level. The upward temporal trends in NAP and PYR warrant reduction in PAH exposure, especially among those with OFL and ECR occupations.

  10. Rapid persulfate oxidation predicts PAH bioavailability in soils and sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuypers, M.P.; Grotenhuis, J.T.C.; Joziasse, J.; Rulkens, W.H.

    2000-01-01

    Persulfate oxidation was validated as a method to predict polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) bioavailability in soils and sediments. It was demonstrated for 14 field contaminated soils and sediments that residual PAH concentrations after a short (3 h) persulfate oxidation correspond well to

  11. PAHs underfoot: Contaminated dust from coal-tar sealcoated pavement is widespread in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, P.C.; Mahler, B.J.; Wilson, J.T.

    2009-01-01

    We reported in 2005 that runoff from parking lots treated with coal-tar-based sealcoat was a major source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to streams in Austin, Texas. Here we present new data from nine U. S. cities that show nationwide patterns in concentrations of PAHs associated with sealcoat Dust was swept from parking lots in six cities in the central and eastern U. S., where coal-tar-based sealcoat dominates use, and three cities in the western U. S., where asphalt-based sealcoat dominates use. For six central and eastern cities, median ?? PAH concentrations in dust from sealcoated and unsealcoated pavement are 2200 and 27 mg/kg, respectively. For three western cities, median ?? PAH concentrations in dust from sealcoated and unsealcoated pavement are similar and very low (2. 1 and 0. 8 mg/kg, respectively). Lakes in the central and eastern cities where pavement was sampled have bottom sediments with higher PAH concentrations than do those in the western cities relative to degree of urbanization. Bottom-sediment PAH assemblages are similar to those of sealcoated pavement dust regionally, implicating coal-tar-based sealcoat as a PAH source to the central and eastern lakes. Concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene in dust from coal-tar sealcoated pavement and adjacent soils greatly exceed generic soil screening levels, suggesting that research on human-health risk is warranted.

  12. Ecotoxicological and Health Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Short-Neck Clam (Paphia undulata) and Contaminated Sediments in Malacca Strait, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarzifard, Mehrzad; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Sharifi, Reza

    2017-10-01

    The distribution, sources, and human health risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediment and the edible tissue of short-neck clam (Paphia undulata) from mudflat ecosystem in the west coast of Malaysia were investigated. The concentrations of ∑ 16 PAHs varied from 347.05 to 6207.5 and 179.32 to 1657.5 ng g -1 in sediment and short-neck clam samples, respectively. The calculations of mean PEL quotients (mean-PELQs) showed that the ecological risk of PAHs in the sediment samples was low to moderate-high level, whereas the total health risk through ingestion and dermal contact was considerably high. The PAHs biota sediment accumulation factors data for short-neck clam were obtained in this study, indicating a preferential accumulation of lower molecular weight PAHs. The source apportionment of PAHs in sediment using positive matrix factorization model indicated that the highest contribution to the PAHs was from diesel emissions (30.38%) followed by oil and oil derivate and incomplete coal combustion (23.06%), vehicular emissions (16.43%), wood combustion (15.93%), and natural gas combustion (14.2%). A preliminary evaluation of human health risk using chronic daily intake, hazard index, benzo[a]pyrene-equivalent (BaP eq ) concentration, and the incremental lifetime cancer risk indicated that PAHs in short-neck clam would induce potential carcinogenic effects in the consumers.

  13. The levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in human milk and exposure risk to breastfed infants in petrochemical industrialized Lanzhou Valley, Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Liu, Aiping; Zhao, Yuan; Mu, Xi; Huang, Tao; Gao, Hong; Ma, Jianmin

    2018-04-03

    We investigated in this paper the presence of PAHs in human milk from lactating women residing in Lanzhou, a petrochemical industrialized valley city in Northwest China. The PAH concentration levels in human milk samples from 98 healthy women were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The associations between the lifestyle factors and the PAHs levels of human milk were analyzed. Moreover, we applied principal component analysis (PCA) method to gain a better insight into the similarities or dissimilarities of the human milk PAH loads and different pathways of source exposure. In addition, the exposure risks of breastfed infants due to PAH ingestion via breast milk were assessed and the relative breast-feeding risk to the total intake dose of infants was addressed. The results showed that the average fat-normalized human milk ∑ 15 PAHs concentrations for the lactating women residing in four districts of Lanzhou, namely, Xigu, Anning, Qilihe, and Chengguan were 320.40, 270.36, 374.04, and 259.84 ng/g of fat, respectively. The ∑ 15 PAHs of human milk from the lactating women of Qilihe District exhibited the highest concentration level, while the concentration level for women from Xigu District is the second highest for the observed human milk ∑ 15 PAHs. And the corresponding BaPeq concentrations for women in Xigu, Anning, Qilihe, and Chengguan districts were 58.29, 47.95, 65.13, and 45.60 ng/g of fat, respectively. A significant correlation was only found between human milk and living district environment (p milk PAHs, we confirmed that consuming barbecue food could elevate PAHs levels in human milk: the barbecue intake frequency caused 10% fluctuation of ∑ 15 PAHs concentration between high frequency and low frequency group in our study. Furthermore, the exposure to second-hand smoke can also increase the ∑ 15 PAHs levels in human milk by 4 to 11% here. Ingestion doses of PAHs by infants (19.37-77.75 ng kg -1  day -1 ) were much

  14. Change of PAHs with evolution of paddy soils from prehistoric to present over the last six millennia in the Yangtze River Delta region, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jin [School of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang Agricultural and Forestry University, 88 North Huancheng Rd. of Lin' an, Hangzhou 311300 (China); Institute of Geosciences, Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel, Ludewig-Meyn-Str. 10, 24118 Kiel (Germany); Cornelia, Mueller-Niggemann [Institute of Geosciences, Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel, Ludewig-Meyn-Str. 10, 24118 Kiel (Germany); Wang, Minyan, E-mail: jz.zafu@gmail.com [Tianmu College of Zhejiang Agricultural and Forestry University, 252 Yijin Str.of Lin' an, Hangzhou 311300 (China); Cao, Zhihong [Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 71 East Beijing Rd., Nanjing 210008 (China); Luo, Xiping, E-mail: luoxpzj@yahoo.com.cn [School of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang Agricultural and Forestry University, 88 North Huancheng Rd. of Lin' an, Hangzhou 311300 (China); Wong, Minghung [School of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang Agricultural and Forestry University, 88 North Huancheng Rd. of Lin' an, Hangzhou 311300 (China); Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, 224 Waterloo Rd., Kln., Hong Kong (China); Chen, Wei [Department of Ecology and Evolution, Frankfurt University, Max-Von-Laue Str. 13, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate the influence of hydroponics management on soil organic components with evolution of paddy soil over the last six millennia, PAHs, as a biomarker, as well as total organic carbon content were used to explore changes of paddy soil organic carbon in two entirely buried ancient paddy soil profiles. The results showed that hydroponics management can cause organic carbon deposition in rice paddy. The changing of total PAH concentrations was not always in accordance with the changing of total organic carbon contents in layers of the buried ancient paddy soils. The PAHs in 6280 BP prehistoric paddy soil layer was 3-ring > 5-ring > 4-ring > 6-ring, while in layers of the present paddy soil and the prehistoric upland were 3-ring > 4-ring > 5-ring > 6-ring. The contribution of phenanthrene to total PAHs in two profiles and the increasing ratio of phenanthrene to alkylated PAHs from parent material/6280 BP prehistoric upland to 6280 BP paddy suggested substantial increase of the anthropogenic influence of hydroponics management on rice paddy soil. And in view of the {sup 14}C age and bioremains in the two profiles, it was only possible for PAHs to be derived from hydroponics management with evolution of the paddy soils form the Neolithic age. Cadalene could be used as an indicator for biological sources of PAHs released by rice plant residues, and benzo[g,h,i]fluoranthene and benzo[g,h,i]perylene for pyrogenic sources released by field vegetation fires. - Highlights: ► Soil hydroponics management can cause SOC deposition in rice paddy. ► PAHs in buried ancient paddy soil profiles were mainly derived from anthropogenic hydroponics management. ► PAH, as a biomarker, was not suitable for tracing SOC change with evolution of paddy soil from the Neolithic age.

  15. Change of PAHs with evolution of paddy soils from prehistoric to present over the last six millennia in the Yangtze River Delta region, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jin; Cornelia, Mueller-Niggemann; Wang, Minyan; Cao, Zhihong; Luo, Xiping; Wong, Minghung; Chen, Wei

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of hydroponics management on soil organic components with evolution of paddy soil over the last six millennia, PAHs, as a biomarker, as well as total organic carbon content were used to explore changes of paddy soil organic carbon in two entirely buried ancient paddy soil profiles. The results showed that hydroponics management can cause organic carbon deposition in rice paddy. The changing of total PAH concentrations was not always in accordance with the changing of total organic carbon contents in layers of the buried ancient paddy soils. The PAHs in 6280 BP prehistoric paddy soil layer was 3-ring > 5-ring > 4-ring > 6-ring, while in layers of the present paddy soil and the prehistoric upland were 3-ring > 4-ring > 5-ring > 6-ring. The contribution of phenanthrene to total PAHs in two profiles and the increasing ratio of phenanthrene to alkylated PAHs from parent material/6280 BP prehistoric upland to 6280 BP paddy suggested substantial increase of the anthropogenic influence of hydroponics management on rice paddy soil. And in view of the 14 C age and bioremains in the two profiles, it was only possible for PAHs to be derived from hydroponics management with evolution of the paddy soils form the Neolithic age. Cadalene could be used as an indicator for biological sources of PAHs released by rice plant residues, and benzo[g,h,i]fluoranthene and benzo[g,h,i]perylene for pyrogenic sources released by field vegetation fires. - Highlights: ► Soil hydroponics management can cause SOC deposition in rice paddy. ► PAHs in buried ancient paddy soil profiles were mainly derived from anthropogenic hydroponics management. ► PAH, as a biomarker, was not suitable for tracing SOC change with evolution of paddy soil from the Neolithic age

  16. Biological risk and pollution history of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Nansha mangrove, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qihang; Leung, Jonathan Y S; Tam, Nora F Y; Chen, Shejun; Mai, Bixian; Zhou, Xizhen; Xia, Lihua; Geng, Xinhua

    2014-08-15

    Chinese government has taken various measures to alleviate pollution caused by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the region of Pearl River Delta since the economic reform in 1978, but the effectiveness of these measures remains largely unknown. This study aimed to elucidate the biological risk and pollution history of PAHs by measuring the concentrations of 28 PAHs in the surface and core sediments, respectively, in Nansha mangrove. Results found that the biological risk of PAHs was low without obvious spatial variation. The PAH concentration along the depth gradient indicated that PAH pollution was stabilized since the early 1990s while the source of PAHs has gradually changed from combustion of coal to petroleum products. This implied that the mitigation measures taken by the Chinese government were effective. Compared to marine bottom sediment, we propose that using mangrove sediment can provide a more accurate and precise estimate of pollution history of PAHs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Source apportionment of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Palm Beach County, Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshar-Mohajer, Nima; Wilson, Christina; Wu, Chang-Yu; Stormer, James E

    2016-04-01

    Due to concerns about adverse health effects associated with inhalation of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 30 ambient air samples were obtained at an air quality monitoring station in Palm Beach County, Florida, from March 2013 to March 2014. The ambient PAH concentration measurements and fractional emission rates of known sources were incorporated into a chemical mass balance model, CMB8.2, developed by EPA, to apportion contributions of three major PAH sources including preharvest sugarcane burning, mobile vehicles, and wildland fires. Strong association between the number of benzene rings and source contribution was found, and mobile vehicles were identified to be the prevailing source (contribution≥56%) for the observed PAHs concentration with lower molecular weights (four or fewer benzene rings) throughout the year. Preharvest sugarcane burning was the primary contributing source for PAHs with relatively higher molecular weights (five or more benzene rings) during the sugarcane burning season (from October to May of the next year). Source contribution of wildland fires varied among PAH compounds but was consistently lower than for sugarcane burning during the sugarcane harvest season. Determining the major sources responsible for ground-level PAHs serves as a tool to improving management strategies for PAH emitting sources and a step toward better protection of the health of residents in terms of exposure to PAHs. The results obtain insight into temporal dominance of PAH polluting sources for those residential areas located near sugarcane burning facilities and have implications beyond Palm Beach County, in areas with high concerns of PAHs and their linked sources. Source apportionment of atmospheric polycyclic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Palm Beach County, Florida, meant to estimate contributions of major sources in PAH concentrations measured at Belle Glade City of Palm Beach County. Number of benzene rings was found to be the key parameter

  18. Predicting bioavailability of PAHs in field-contaminated soils by passive sampling with triolein embedded cellulose acetate membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao Yuqiang [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Zhang Shuzhen [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China)], E-mail: szzhang@rcees.ac.cn; Wang Zijian [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Christie, Peter [Queen' s University Belfast, Agricultural and Environmental Science Department, Newforge Lane, Belfast BT9 5PX (United Kingdom)

    2009-02-15

    Triolein embedded cellulose acetate membrane (TECAM) was used for passive sampling of the fraction of naphthalene, phenanthrene, pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene in 18 field-contaminated soils. The sampling process of PAHs by TECAM fitted well with a first-order kinetics model and PAHs reached 95% of equilibrium in TECAM within 20 h. Concentrations of PAHs in TECAM (C{sub TECAM}) correlated well with the concentrations in soils (r{sup 2} = 0.693-0.962, p < 0.001). Furthermore, concentrations of PAHs determined in the soil solution were very close to the values estimated by C{sub TECAM} and the partition coefficient between TECAM and water (K{sub TECAM-w}). After lipid normalization nearly 1:1 relationships were observed between PAH concentrations in TECAMs and earthworms exposed to the soils (r{sup 2} = 0.591-0.824, n = 18, p < 0.01). These results suggest that TECAM can be a useful tool to predict bioavailability of PAHs in field-contaminated soils. - Triolein embedded cellulose acetate membranes can be a useful tool to predict bioavailability of PAHs in field-contaminated soils.

  19. Local and systemic RAGE axis changes in pulmonary hypertension: CTEPH and iPAH.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Moser

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The molecular determinants of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH and idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (iPAH remain poorly understood. The receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE and its ligands: HMGB1 and S100A9 are involved in inflammatory disorders. We sought to investigate the role of the RAGE axis in patients with CTEPH undergoing pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA, iPAH undergoing lung transplantation (LuTX. The high pulmonary vascular resistance in CTEPH/iPAH results in pressure overload of the right ventricle. We compared sRAGE measurements to that of patients with aortic valve stenosis (AVS - pressure overload of the left ventricle. METHODS: We enrolled patients with CTEPH(26, iPAH(15, AVS(15 and volunteers(33. Immunohistochemistry with antibodies to RAGE and HMGB1 was performed on PEA specimens and lung tissues. We employed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to determine the concentrations of sRAGE, esRAGE, HMGB1 and S100A9 in serum of volunteers and patients with CTEPH, iPAH, AVS before and after PEA, LuTX and aortic valve replacement (AVR. RESULTS: In endarterectomised tissues from patients with CTEPH RAGE and HMGB1 were identified in myofibroblasts (α-SMA+vimentin+CD34-, recanalizing vessel-like structures of distal myofibrotic tissues and endothelium of neointima. RAGE was differentially expressed in prototypical Heath Edwards lesions in iPAH. We found significantly increased serum concentrations of sRAGE, esRAGE and HMGB1 in CTEPH. In iPAH, sRAGE and esRAGE were significantly higher than in controls. Serum concentrations of sRAGE were significantly elevated in iPAH(p<0.001 and CTEPH(p = 0.001 compared to AVS. Serum sRAGE was significantly higher in iPAH compared to CTEPH(p = 0.042 and significantly reduced in AVS compared to controls(p = 0.001. There were no significant differences in sRAGE serum concentrations before and after surgical therapy for CTEPH, iPAH or AVS. CONCLUSIONS: Our

  20. Natural organic matter to enhance electrokinetic transport of PAH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suer, P.; Joensson, S.; Allard, B. [Man-Technology-Environment Research Centre, Oerebro Univ. (Sweden)

    2001-07-01

    The remediation of contaminated soil can be enhanced with natural organic matter (NOM) as a complexing agent for pollutants. NOM has both hydrophobic and acidic properties, so that it is charged and thus subject to electroremediation. At the same time many contaminants have a high affinity for organic matter. Organic matter was produced in situ in an electric field or added in solute form. The resulting dissolved organic matter was transported towards the cathode, probably by cationic colloids. Produced dissolved organic matter included high molecular weight molecules near the cathode, at the site of pH buffering. Pyrene and phenanthrene were likewise transported towards the cathode. Movement was small but distinctive in 2-day experiments. Clay influence the soil/water distribution of the PAH but no effect on the total transport could be discerned. The presence of solid organic matter in the soil removed all PAH from the water phase, even though the concentration of organic matter in the water phase was high as well. (orig.)

  1. Polycyclic aromatic acids are primary metabolites of alkyl-PAHs - a case study with Nereis diversicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmquist, Linus Mattias Valdemar; Selck, Henriette; Jørgensen, Kåre Bredeli

    2015-01-01

    Although concentrations of alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (alkyl-PAHs) in oil-contaminated sediments are higher than those of unsubstituted PAHs, only little attention has been given to metabolism and ecotoxicity of alkyl-PAHs. In this study we demonstrated that metabolism of alkyl-PA...... that carboxylic acid metabolites of alkyl-PAHs have the potential of constituting a new class of contaminants in marine waters that needs attention in relation to ecological risk assessments.......Although concentrations of alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (alkyl-PAHs) in oil-contaminated sediments are higher than those of unsubstituted PAHs, only little attention has been given to metabolism and ecotoxicity of alkyl-PAHs. In this study we demonstrated that metabolism of alkyl...

  2. The use of mussel PAH burdens to assess bioavailability and long-term risk to wildlife following the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankiewicz, P.J.; Boehm, P.D.; Neff, J.

    1993-01-01

    Mussels (Mytilus edulis) were collected as part of shoreline studies following the Exxon Valdez oil spill and analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Data from sites monitored through 1991 in Prince William Sound indicate tissue PAH burdens decreasing over an order of magnitude per year and near levels observed at control sites by the summer of 1991. The distribution of PAH analyses in the tissue shows extensive weathering of the oil and is similar to the pattern observed in adjacent sediments. This similarity in PAH fingerprints suggests mussel accumulation of oil particulates rather than dissolved aromatics. Analyses indicate that the highest PAH concentrations in mussels are at least an order of magnitude below levels known to cause reproductive effects in wildlife. Evaluation of the abundance of mussels in Prince William Sound indicate that the impacted mussels are a small fraction of the total mussel population. Considering the above and that mussels generally comprise a small fraction of total diet, there is little long-term risk to wildlife from the consumption of mussels. These results will be placed in context to a 1993 survey of mussel tissue burdens in Prince William Sound

  3. Occurrence of PAH in the seasonal snowpack of the Eastern Italian Alps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabrieli, Jacopo [Chemical Science Department, University of Padova, via Marzolo 1/A, 35100 Padua (Italy); Environmental Protection Agency of Veneto (ARPAV), Department of Belluno, via Tomea 5, 32100 Belluno (Italy); Department of Environmental Sciences, University Ca' Foscari of Venice, Dorsoduro 2137, 30123 Venice (Italy); Decet, Fabio [Environmental Protection Agency of Veneto (ARPAV), Department of Belluno, via Tomea 5, 32100 Belluno (Italy); Luchetta, Alberto [Environmental Protection Agency of Veneto (ARPAV), Department of Belluno, via Tomea 5, 32100 Belluno (Italy); Arabba Avalanche Center, Environmental Protection Agency of Veneto (ARPAV), via Pradat 5, 32020 Livinallongo del Col di Lana, Belluno (Italy); Valt, Mauro [Arabba Avalanche Center, Environmental Protection Agency of Veneto (ARPAV), via Pradat 5, 32020 Livinallongo del Col di Lana, Belluno (Italy); Pastore, Paolo [Chemical Science Department, University of Padova, via Marzolo 1/A, 35100 Padua (Italy); Barbante, Carlo, E-mail: barbante@unive.i [Department of Environmental Sciences, University Ca' Foscari of Venice, Dorsoduro 2137, 30123 Venice (Italy); Institute for the Dynamics of Environmental Processes - CNR, University of Venice, Dorsoduro 2137, 30123 Venice (Italy)

    2010-10-15

    PAH concentrations have been determined in 47 seasonal snowpack samples collected in the Valbelluna valley and in the Bellunesi Dolomites National Park, in the Italian North-Eastern Alps, during the winter of 2005. The {Sigma}PAH concentration in high-altitude alpine sites (above 1700 m) was 32 {+-} 20 ng/kg while in valley bottom urban areas it was 165 {+-} 54 ng/kg with maximum values of 290 ng/kg. The GIS mapping technique was employed to produce a PAH spatial distribution. The urbanized Valbelluna valley, and in particular the SW part, had the highest accumulation of all PAH, with values an order of magnitude more than those in rural and alpine areas. This behaviour is consistent with urban air quality data, and is due to geo-morphological and meteorological factors such as the deeper shape of the valley at the position of the town of Feltre and the low altitude of the boundary layer during the winter season. - PAH concentrations determined in seasonal snow represent an integration of the winter depositions and can be used to evaluate the pollution levels in an Alpine region.

  4. Occurrence of PAH in the seasonal snowpack of the Eastern Italian Alps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabrieli, Jacopo; Decet, Fabio; Luchetta, Alberto; Valt, Mauro; Pastore, Paolo; Barbante, Carlo

    2010-01-01

    PAH concentrations have been determined in 47 seasonal snowpack samples collected in the Valbelluna valley and in the Bellunesi Dolomites National Park, in the Italian North-Eastern Alps, during the winter of 2005. The ΣPAH concentration in high-altitude alpine sites (above 1700 m) was 32 ± 20 ng/kg while in valley bottom urban areas it was 165 ± 54 ng/kg with maximum values of 290 ng/kg. The GIS mapping technique was employed to produce a PAH spatial distribution. The urbanized Valbelluna valley, and in particular the SW part, had the highest accumulation of all PAH, with values an order of magnitude more than those in rural and alpine areas. This behaviour is consistent with urban air quality data, and is due to geo-morphological and meteorological factors such as the deeper shape of the valley at the position of the town of Feltre and the low altitude of the boundary layer during the winter season. - PAH concentrations determined in seasonal snow represent an integration of the winter depositions and can be used to evaluate the pollution levels in an Alpine region.

  5. Health risk assessment and dietary exposure of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), lead and cadmium from bread consumed in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udowelle, Nnaemeka Arinze; Igweze, Zelinjo Nkeiruka; Asomugha, Rose Ngozi; Orisakwe, Orish Ebere

    A risk assessment and dietary exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), lead and cadmium from bread, a common food consumed in Nigeria. Sixty samples of bread were collected from different types of bakeries where the heat is generated by wood (42 samples) or by electricity (18 samples) from twenty bakeries located in Gusau Zamfara (B1- B14) and Port Harcourt Rivers States (B15-B20) in Nigeria. PAHs in bread were determined by gas chromatography. Lead and cadmium were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Non-carcinogenic PAHs pyrene (13.72 μg/kg) and genotoxic PAHs (PAH8), benzo[a]anthracene (9.13 μg/ kg) were at the highest concentrations. Total benzo[a]pyrene concentration of 6.7 μg/kg was detected in 100% of tested samples. Dietary intake of total PAHs ranged between 0.004-0.063 μg/kg bw. day-1 (children), 0.002-0.028 μg/kg day-1 (adolescents), 0.01-0.017 μg/kg day-1 (male), 0.002-0.027 μg/kg day-1 (female), and 0.002-0.025 μg/kg day-1 (seniors). The Target Hazard Quotient (THQ) for Pb and Cd were below 1. Lead ranged from 0.01-0.071 mg/kg with 10.85 and 100% of bread samples violating the permissible limit set by USEPA, WHO and EU respectively. Cadmium ranged from 0.01-0.03 mg/kg, with all bread samples below the permissible limits as set by US EPA, JECFA and EU. The daily intake of Pb and Cd ranged from 0.03-0.23 μg/kg bw day-1 and 0.033-0.36 μg/kg bw day-1 respectively. Incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) was 3.8 x 10-7. The levels of these contaminants in bread if not controlled might present a possible route of exposure to heavy metals and PAHs additional to the body burden from other sources.

  6. Concentrations and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface coastal sediments of the northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Coastal sediments in the northern Gulf of Mexico have a high potential of being contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), due to extensive petroleum exploration and transportation activities. In this study we evaluated the spatial distribution and contamination sources of PAHs, as well as the bioavailable fraction in the bulk PAH pool, in surface marsh and shelf sediments (top 5 cm) of the northern Gulf of Mexico. Results PAH concentrations in this region ranged from 100 to 856 ng g−1, with the highest concentrations in Mississippi River mouth sediments followed by marsh sediments and then the lowest concentrations in shelf sediments. The PAH concentrations correlated positively with atomic C/N ratios of sedimentary organic matter (OM), suggesting that terrestrial OM preferentially sorbs PAHs relative to marine OM. PAHs with 2 rings were more abundant than those with 5–6 rings in continental shelf sediments, while the opposite was found in marsh sediments. This distribution pattern suggests different contamination sources between shelf and marsh sediments. Based on diagnostic ratios of PAH isomers and principal component analysis, shelf sediment PAHs were petrogenic and those from marsh sediments were pyrogenic. The proportions of bioavailable PAHs in total PAHs were low, ranging from 0.02% to 0.06%, with higher fractions found in marsh than shelf sediments. Conclusion PAH distribution and composition differences between marsh and shelf sediments were influenced by grain size, contamination sources, and the types of organic matter associated with PAHs. Concentrations of PAHs in the study area were below effects low-range, suggesting a low risk to organisms and limited transfer of PAHs into food web. From the source analysis, PAHs in shelf sediments mainly originated from direct petroleum contamination, while those in marsh sediments were from combustion of fossil fuels. PMID:24641695

  7. Study of PAH emission from the solid fuels combustion in residential furnaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakareka, Sergey V.; Kukharchyk, Tamara I.; Khomich, Valery S.

    2005-01-01

    The procedure for and results of a test study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission from a few types of solid fuels combustion in residential furnaces of various designs typical for Belarus are discussed. Greatest levels of PAH emission were detected from domestic wastes and wood waste combustion. Lowest levels of PAH emission are from peat briquette combustion. It was found that PAH concentration in off-gases from firewood combustion also varies significantly depending on the type of wood: the highest values of PAH are typical for waste gases from birch firewood combustion in comparison with pine firewood combustion. Draft PAH emission factors are proposed with intended application for emission inventory of such installations

  8. Levels of PAHs in shrimps, Penaeus monodon from Jones Creek ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High concentrations were recorded during the rainy season and during the first quarter of the year. The investigated samples were classified as minimally contaminated when compared with FDA levels of PAHs in shrimp samples. Distribution patterns showed that PAHs with 3 and 4 rings dominated confirming the pyrogenic ...

  9. Contaminants as habitat disturbers: PAH-driven drift by Andean paramo stream insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Cristiano V M; Moreira-Santos, Matilde; Sousa, José P; Ochoa-Herrera, Valeria; Encalada, Andrea C; Ribeiro, Rui

    2014-10-01

    Contaminants can behave as toxicants, when toxic effects are observed in organisms, as well as habitat disturbers and fragmentors, by triggering avoidance responses and generating less- or uninhabited zones. Drift by stream insects has long been considered a mechanism to avoid contamination by moving to most favorable habitats. Given that exploration and transportation of crude oil represent a threat for surrounding ecosystems, the key goal of the present study was to assess the ability of autochthonous groups of aquatic insects from the Ecuadorian paramo streams to avoid by drift different concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) contained in the soluble fraction of locally transported crude oil. In the laboratory, different groups of insects were exposed to PAH for 12h. Three different assays, which varied in taxa and origin of the organisms, concentrations of PAH (0.6-38.8µgL(-1)), and environment settings (different levels of refuge and flow) were performed. For Anomalocosmoecus palugillensis (Limnephilidae), drift was a major cause of population decline in low concentration treatments but at higher concentrations mortality dominated. PAH was highly lethal, even at lower concentrations, for Chironomidae, Grypopterygidae (Claudioperla sp.) and Hydrobiosidae (Atopsyche sp.), and, therefore, no conclusion about drift can be drawn for these insects. Contamination by PAH showed to be a threat for benthic aquatic insects from Ecuadorian paramo streams as it can cause a population decline due to avoidance by drift and mortality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Bioremediation of PAHs contaminated river sediment by an integrated approach with sequential injection of co-substrate and electron acceptor: Lab-scale study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tongzhou; Zhang, Zhen; Dong, Wenyi; Wu, Xiaojing; Wang, Hongjie

    2017-11-01

    In this study, the feasibility of employing an integrated bioremediation approach in contaminated river sediment was evaluated. Sequential addition of co-substrate (acetate) and electron acceptor (NO 3 - ) in a two-phase treatment was capable of effectively removing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in river sediment. The residual concentration of total PAHs decreased to far below effect range low (ERL) value within 91 days of incubation, at which concentration it could rarely pose biological impairment. The biodegradation of high molecular weight PAHs were found to be mainly occurred in the sediment treated with co-substrates (i.e. acetate or methanol), in which acetate was found to be more suitable for PAHs degradation. The role of co-substrates in influencing PAHs biodegradation was tentatively discussed herein. Additionally, the sediment odorous problem and blackish appearance were intensively addressed by NO 3 - injection. The results of this study demonstrated that integrating two or more approaches/processes would be a helpful option in sediment remediation. It can lead to a more effective remediation performance, handle multiple contamination issues, as well as mitigate environmental risks caused by one of the single methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Aerobic Bioremediation of PAH Contaminated Soil Results in Increased Genotoxicity and Developmental Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibwe, Leah; Geier, Mitra C.; Nakamura, Jun; Tanguay, Robert L.; Aitken, Michael D.; Simonich, Staci L. Massey

    2015-01-01

    The formation of more polar and toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) transformation products is one of the concerns associated with the bioremediation of PAH-contaminated soils. Soil contaminated with coal tar (pre-bioremediation) from a former manufactured gas plant (MGP) site was treated in a laboratory scale bioreactor (post-bioremediation) and extracted using pressurized liquid extraction. The soil extracts were fractionated, based on polarity, and analyzed for 88 PAHs (unsubstituted, oxygenated, nitrated, and heterocyclic PAHs). The PAH concentrations in the soil tested, post-bioremediation, were lower than their regulatory maximum allowable concentrations (MACs), with the exception of the higher molecular weight PAHs (BaA, BkF, BbF, BaP, and IcdP), most of which did not undergo significant biodegradation. The soil extract fractions were tested for genotoxicity using the DT40 chicken lymphocyte bioassay and developmental to xicity using the embryonic zebrafish (Danio rerio) bioassay. A statistically significant increase in genotoxicity was measured in the unfractionated soil extract, as well as in four polar soil extract fractions, post-bioremediation (p bioremediation (p bioremediation. The increased toxicity measured post-bioremediation is not likely due to the 88 PAHs measured in this study (including quinones), because most were not present in the toxic polar fractions and/or because their concentrations did not increase post-bioremediation. However, the increased toxicity measured post-bioremediation is likely due to hydroxylated and carboxylated transformation products of the 3- and 4-ring PAHs (PHE, 1MPHE, 2MPHE, PRY, BaA, and FLA) that were most degraded. PMID:26200254

  12. Aerobic Bioremediation of PAH Contaminated Soil Results in Increased Genotoxicity and Developmental Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibwe, Leah; Geier, Mitra C; Nakamura, Jun; Tanguay, Robert L; Aitken, Michael D; Simonich, Staci L Massey

    2015-12-01

    The formation of more polar and toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) transformation products is one of the concerns associated with the bioremediation of PAH-contaminated soils. Soil contaminated with coal tar (prebioremediation) from a former manufactured gas plant (MGP) site was treated in a laboratory scale bioreactor (postbioremediation) and extracted using pressurized liquid extraction. The soil extracts were fractionated, based on polarity, and analyzed for 88 PAHs (unsubstituted, oxygenated, nitrated, and heterocyclic PAHs). The PAH concentrations in the soil tested, postbioremediation, were lower than their regulatory maximum allowable concentrations (MACs), with the exception of the higher molecular weight PAHs (BaA, BkF, BbF, BaP, and IcdP), most of which did not undergo significant biodegradation. The soil extract fractions were tested for genotoxicity using the DT40 chicken lymphocyte bioassay and developmental toxicity using the embryonic zebrafish (Danio rerio) bioassay. A statistically significant increase in genotoxicity was measured in the unfractionated soil extract, as well as in four polar soil extract fractions, postbioremediation (p toxicity was measured in one polar soil extract fraction, postbioremediation (p soil extract fractions in embryonic zebrafish, both pre- and postbioremediation. The increased toxicity measured postbioremediation is not likely due to the 88 PAHs measured in this study (including quinones), because most were not present in the toxic polar fractions and/or because their concentrations did not increase postbioremediation. However, the increased toxicity measured postbioremediation is likely due to hydroxylated and carboxylated transformation products of the 3- and 4-ring PAHs (PHE, 1MPHE, 2MPHE, PRY, BaA, and FLA) that were most degraded.

  13. Generation and distribution of PAHs in the process of medical waste incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Zhao, Rongzhi; Xue, Jun; Li, Jinhui

    2013-05-01

    After the deadly earthquake on May 12, 2008 in Wenchuan county of China, several different incineration approaches were used for medical waste disposal. This paper investigates the generation properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during the incineration. Samples were collected from the bottom ash in an open burning slash site, surface soil at the open burning site, bottom ash from a simple incinerator, bottom ash generated from the municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerator used for medical waste disposal, and bottom ash and fly ash from an incinerator exclusively used for medical waste. The species of PAHs were analyzed, and the toxicity equivalency quantities (TEQs) of samples calculated. Analysis results indicate that the content of total PAHs in fly ash was 1.8×10(3) times higher than that in bottom ash, and that the strongly carcinogenic PAHs with four or more rings accumulated sensitively in fly ash. The test results of samples gathered from open burning site demonstrate that Acenaphthylene (ACY), Acenaphthene (ACE), Fluorene (FLU), Phenanthrene (PHE), Anthracene (ANT) and other PAHs were inclined to migrate into surrounding environment along air and surface watershed corridors, while 4- to 6-ring PAHs accumulated more likely in soil. Being consistent with other studies, it has also been confirmed that increases in both free oxygen molecules and combustion temperatures could promote the decomposition of polycyclic PAHs. In addition, without the influence of combustion conditions, there is a positive correlation between total PCDD/Fs and total PAHs, although no such relationship has been found for TEQ. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Impact of fresh organic matter incorporation on PAH fate in a contaminated industrial soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pernot, Audrey; Ouvrard, Stéphanie; Leglize, Pierre; Watteau, Françoise; Derrien, Delphine

    2014-01-01

    The impacts of fresh organic matter (OM) incorporation in an industrial PAH-contaminated soil on its structure and contaminant concentrations (available and total) were monitored. A control soil and a soil amended with the equivalent of 10 years maize residue input were incubated in laboratory-controlled conditions over 15 months. The structure of the amended soil showed an aggregation process trend which is attributable to (i) the enhanced microbial activity resulting from fresh OM input itself and (ii) the fresh OM and its degradation products. Initially the added organic matter was evenly distributed among all granulodensimetric fractions, and then rapidly degraded in the sand fraction, while stabilizing and accumulating in the silts. PAH degradation remained slight, despite the enhanced microbial biomass activity, which was similar to kinetics of the turnover rate of OM in an uncontaminated soil. The silts stabilized the anthropogenic OM and associated PAH. The addition of fresh OM tended to contribute to this stabilization process. Thus, in a context of plant growth on this soil two opposing processes might occur: rhizodegradation of the available contaminant and enhanced stabilization of the less available fraction due to carbon input. - Highlights: • Fresh OM input in an industrial soil leads to aggregation. • TC and δ 13 C increase in fine silts. • Fine silts store both the natural and anthropogenic OM. • PAH concentration and availability are not impacted by an addition of OM

  15. Impact of fresh organic matter incorporation on PAH fate in a contaminated industrial soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pernot, Audrey [Université de Lorraine, LSE, UMR 1120, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, F-54518 (France); INRA, LSE, UMR 1120, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, F-54518 (France); Université de Lorraine, LIEC, UMR 7360, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, F-54506 (France); CNRS, LIEC, UMR 7360, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, F-54506 (France); Ouvrard, Stéphanie, E-mail: stephanie.ouvrard@univ-lorraine.fr [Université de Lorraine, LSE, UMR 1120, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, F-54518 (France); INRA, LSE, UMR 1120, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, F-54518 (France); Leglize, Pierre [Université de Lorraine, LSE, UMR 1120, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, F-54518 (France); INRA, LSE, UMR 1120, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, F-54518 (France); Watteau, Françoise [Université de Lorraine, LSE, UMR 1120, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, F-54518 (France); INRA, LSE, UMR 1120, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, F-54518 (France); CNRS, UMS 3562, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, F-54501 (France); Derrien, Delphine [INRA, BEF, UR 1138, Centre Nancy-Lorraine, Champenoux, F-54280 (France); and others

    2014-11-01

    The impacts of fresh organic matter (OM) incorporation in an industrial PAH-contaminated soil on its structure and contaminant concentrations (available and total) were monitored. A control soil and a soil amended with the equivalent of 10 years maize residue input were incubated in laboratory-controlled conditions over 15 months. The structure of the amended soil showed an aggregation process trend which is attributable to (i) the enhanced microbial activity resulting from fresh OM input itself and (ii) the fresh OM and its degradation products. Initially the added organic matter was evenly distributed among all granulodensimetric fractions, and then rapidly degraded in the sand fraction, while stabilizing and accumulating in the silts. PAH degradation remained slight, despite the enhanced microbial biomass activity, which was similar to kinetics of the turnover rate of OM in an uncontaminated soil. The silts stabilized the anthropogenic OM and associated PAH. The addition of fresh OM tended to contribute to this stabilization process. Thus, in a context of plant growth on this soil two opposing processes might occur: rhizodegradation of the available contaminant and enhanced stabilization of the less available fraction due to carbon input. - Highlights: • Fresh OM input in an industrial soil leads to aggregation. • TC and δ{sup 13}C increase in fine silts. • Fine silts store both the natural and anthropogenic OM. • PAH concentration and availability are not impacted by an addition of OM.

  16. Distribution and Source Apportionment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Forest Soils from Urban to Rural Areas in the Pearl River Delta of Southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yihua; Tong, Fuchun; Kuang, Yuanwen; Chen, Bufeng

    2014-01-01

    The upper layer of forest soils (0–20 cm depth) were collected from urban, suburban, and rural areas in the Pearl River Delta of Southern China to estimate the distribution and the possible sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Total concentrations of PAHs in the forest soils decreased significantly along the urban–suburban–rural gradient, indicating the influence of anthropogenic emissions on the PAH distribution in forest soils. High and low molecular weight PAHs dominated in the urban and rural forest soils, respectively, implying the difference in emission sources between the areas. The values of PAH isomeric diagnostic ratios indicated that forest soil PAHs were mainly originated from traffic emissions, mixed sources and coal/wood combustion in the urban, suburban and rural areas, respectively. Principal component analysis revealed that traffic emissions, coal burning and residential biomass combustion were the three primary contributors to forest soil PAHs in the Pearl River Delta. Long range transportation of PAHs via atmosphere from urban area might also impact the PAHs distribution in the forest soils of rural area. PMID:24599040

  17. Estimation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in the water column based on tissue residues in mussels and salmon: An equilibrium partitioning approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neff, J.M.; Burns, W.A.

    1996-01-01

    Equilibrium partitioning was used to estimate concentrations of dissolved polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the water column from PAH residues in tissues of mussels and juvenile pink salmon collected from coastal marine waters affected by the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Estimated concentrations were within factors of 2 to 5 for fish and 5 to 10 for mussels of average total dissolved and particulate PAHs measured in concurrent water samples. Temporal trends of estimated and measured water-column PAH concentrations were comparable. Water-column PAH concentrations estimated from residues in tissues of mussels (Mytilus trossulus) were higher than estimates based on residues in tissues of juvenile pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha). Possible reasons for this difference include seasonal variations in mussel lipid content, differences in PAH uptake and depuration rates between fish and mussels, differences in how fish and mussels interact with particulate oil, and possible short exposure times for juvenile pink salmon. All of these factors may play a role. In any event, estimates of dissolved PAHs in the water column, based on PAH residues in either fish or mussel tissue, confirm that PAH concentrations generally did not exceed water quality standards for protection of marine life

  18. Levels, fingerprint and daily intake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in bread baked using wood as fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orecchio, Santino; Papuzza, Vera

    2009-05-30

    Concentrations, fingerprint and daily intake of 16 PAHs in 15 bread samples baked using wood as fuel are examined in this work. Analysis was performed by GC/MS after saponification of the samples and clean up of the extract. The total concentration of the 16 analytes varies from 6 to 230 microg/kg on dry weight (d.w.). The better extraction procedure was estimated by analyzing test-samples and using different extraction methods. Additionally, for every analyzed sample, the extraction yield has been determined by the use of surrogate standards. Extraction yields were never less than 77% and in most cases almost 100%. The profiles of PAHs (percentage) are similar for all the analyzed samples but are different from those reported when other types of fuels are taken in consideration. The daily intake of PAHs was found to range between 1.6 and 68 microg day(-1), while the intake of B[a]P ranges from 0.33 to 8.0 microg day(-1). These results are considerably lower than the slope factor for 14 of the 15 analyzed samples.

  19. Concentration and Risk Evaluation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Urban Soil in the Typical Semi-Arid City of Xi’an in Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are ubiquitous environmental pollutants, presenting potential threats to the ecological environment and human health. Sixty-two urban soil samples were collected in the typical semi-arid city of Xi’an in Northwest China. They were analyzed for concentration, pollution, and ecological and health risk of sixteen U.S. Environmental Protection Agency priority PAHs. The total concentrations of the sixteen PAHs (Σ16PAHs in the urban soil ranged from 390.6 to 10,652.8 µg/kg with an average of 2052.6 µg/kg. The concentrations of some individual PAHs in the urban soil exceeded Dutch Target Values of Soil Quality and the Σ16PAHs represented heavy pollution. Pyrene and dibenz[a,h]anthracene had high ecological risk to aquatic/soil organisms, while other individual PAHs showed low ecological risk. The total ecological risk of PAHs to aquatic/soil organisms is classified as moderate. Toxic equivalency quantities (TEQs of the sixteen PAHs varied between 21.16 and 1625.78 µg/kg, with an average of 423.86 µg/kg, indicating a relatively high toxicity potential. Ingestion and dermal adsorption of soil dust were major pathways of human exposure to PAHs from urban soil. Incremental lifetime cancer risks (ILCRs of human exposure to PAHs were 2.86 × 10−5 for children and 2.53 × 10−5 for adults, suggesting that the cancer risk of human exposure to PAHs from urban soil is acceptable.

  20. Concentration and Risk Evaluation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Urban Soil in the Typical Semi-Arid City of Xi’an in Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijun; Zhang, Shengwei; Wang, Li; Zhang, Wenjuan; Shi, Xingmin; Lu, Xinwei; Li, Xiaoping; Li, Xiaoyun

    2018-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants, presenting potential threats to the ecological environment and human health. Sixty-two urban soil samples were collected in the typical semi-arid city of Xi’an in Northwest China. They were analyzed for concentration, pollution, and ecological and health risk of sixteen U.S. Environmental Protection Agency priority PAHs. The total concentrations of the sixteen PAHs (Σ16PAHs) in the urban soil ranged from 390.6 to 10,652.8 µg/kg with an average of 2052.6 µg/kg. The concentrations of some individual PAHs in the urban soil exceeded Dutch Target Values of Soil Quality and the Σ16PAHs represented heavy pollution. Pyrene and dibenz[a,h]anthracene had high ecological risk to aquatic/soil organisms, while other individual PAHs showed low ecological risk. The total ecological risk of PAHs to aquatic/soil organisms is classified as moderate. Toxic equivalency quantities (TEQs) of the sixteen PAHs varied between 21.16 and 1625.78 µg/kg, with an average of 423.86 µg/kg, indicating a relatively high toxicity potential. Ingestion and dermal adsorption of soil dust were major pathways of human exposure to PAHs from urban soil. Incremental lifetime cancer risks (ILCRs) of human exposure to PAHs were 2.86 × 10−5 for children and 2.53 × 10−5 for adults, suggesting that the cancer risk of human exposure to PAHs from urban soil is acceptable. PMID:29584654

  1. Research on the influence of anaerobic stabilization of various dairy sewage sludge on biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAHs with the use of effective microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boruszko, Dariusz, E-mail: d.boruszko@pb.edu.pl

    2017-05-15

    Sewage sludge was taken from a dairy WWTP belonging to Mlekovita Cooperative in Wysokie Mazowieckie. There were excess sludge, flotation sludge and a mixture of excess and flotation sludge from pre-treatment of dairy sewage. The initial content of 16 PAHs in excess sludge before fermentation was approximately 689 µg·kg{sup −1} in dry mass, whereas in post-flotation sludge (which constituted around 30% of raw sludge) it was approximately 95 µg·kg{sup −1} in dry mass. A mixture of excess and flotation sludge had the content of 497,7 µg·kg{sup −1} in dry mass. Through comparison of particular hydrocarbons content in raw sewage sludge to the total PAHs content, it was shown that tricyclic compounds, which constituted 46,3% of the PAHs sum (excess sludge), and tetracyclic compounds, which constituted 60,0% of the PAHs sum (flotation sludge), were the dominating fractions. In the sludge subjected to fermentation in reactors with mixed sludge and surplus activated sludge, the general trend of the course of changes in concentrations of PAHs was similar. Both in the sludge inoculated with EM and in that not inoculated with EM, a significant increase in the total PAHs contents was observed in the first fermentation phase (acidic fermentation) after 7 days of the process. Addition of EM into the sludge did not prevent the PAHs release, and therefore higher concentrations of PAHs sum were recorded during the hydrolysis stage than in sludge before fermentation. A decrease in the sum of PAHs was observed after 2 weeks of fermentation in relation to the quantity observed after 1 week of fermentation (except from post-flotation sludge). In the following weeks, there was further decrease in the concentration of the 16 PAHs sum in all sludge types. However, in sludge without EM inoculation, it was lower than in sludge with EM inoculation. The loss of the majority of tested hydrocarbons was reported in the final phase of fermentation. - Highlights: • The influence of

  2. Research on the influence of anaerobic stabilization of various dairy sewage sludge on biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAHs with the use of effective microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boruszko, Dariusz

    2017-01-01

    Sewage sludge was taken from a dairy WWTP belonging to Mlekovita Cooperative in Wysokie Mazowieckie. There were excess sludge, flotation sludge and a mixture of excess and flotation sludge from pre-treatment of dairy sewage. The initial content of 16 PAHs in excess sludge before fermentation was approximately 689 µg·kg −1 in dry mass, whereas in post-flotation sludge (which constituted around 30% of raw sludge) it was approximately 95 µg·kg −1 in dry mass. A mixture of excess and flotation sludge had the content of 497,7 µg·kg −1 in dry mass. Through comparison of particular hydrocarbons content in raw sewage sludge to the total PAHs content, it was shown that tricyclic compounds, which constituted 46,3% of the PAHs sum (excess sludge), and tetracyclic compounds, which constituted 60,0% of the PAHs sum (flotation sludge), were the dominating fractions. In the sludge subjected to fermentation in reactors with mixed sludge and surplus activated sludge, the general trend of the course of changes in concentrations of PAHs was similar. Both in the sludge inoculated with EM and in that not inoculated with EM, a significant increase in the total PAHs contents was observed in the first fermentation phase (acidic fermentation) after 7 days of the process. Addition of EM into the sludge did not prevent the PAHs release, and therefore higher concentrations of PAHs sum were recorded during the hydrolysis stage than in sludge before fermentation. A decrease in the sum of PAHs was observed after 2 weeks of fermentation in relation to the quantity observed after 1 week of fermentation (except from post-flotation sludge). In the following weeks, there was further decrease in the concentration of the 16 PAHs sum in all sludge types. However, in sludge without EM inoculation, it was lower than in sludge with EM inoculation. The loss of the majority of tested hydrocarbons was reported in the final phase of fermentation. - Highlights: • The influence of applying

  3. Biodegradation of PAHs in petroleum-contaminated soil using tamarind leaves as microbial inoculums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanchana Juntongjin

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum-contaminated soil contains various hazardous materials such as aromatic hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. This study focused on PAHs since they are potentially toxic,mutagenic, and carcinogenic. Bioremediation of PAHs was carried out by adding tamarind leaf inoculums into petroleum-contaminated soil. Tamarind and other leguminous leaves have been reported to containedseveral PAH-degrading microorganisms. To minimize the amount of leaves added, the preparation of tamarind leaf inoculums was developed by incubating tamarind leaves with a sub-sample of contaminated soil for 49 days. After that, the efficiency of tamarind leaf inoculums was tested with two soil samplescollected from a navy dockyard and railway station in Samutprakarn and Bangkok, respectively. These soil samples had different levels of petroleum contamination. Bioaugmentation treatment was carried out bymixing contaminated soil with the inoculum at the ratio of 9:1. For navy dockyard soil, the concentration of phenanthrene was decreased gradually and reached the undetectable concentration within 56 days in theinoculated soil; meanwhile 70-80% of fluoranthene and pyrene were remained at the end of treatment. For railway station soil, which had lower petroleum contamination, PAH degradation was more rapid, forexample, the concentration of phenanthrene was below detection limit after 28 days. Besides PAHs, the amounts of several hydrocarbons were also reduced after treatment. At the same time, numerousphenanthrene-degrading bacteria, which were used as representatives of PAH degraders, could be observed in both inoculated soils. However, higher numbers of bacteria were found in railway station soil, whichcorresponded with the lower amount of PAHs and higher amount of soil nutrients. The results showed that inoculum prepared from tamarind leaves could be used to degrade PAHs as well as clean-up petroleum contaminated soil.

  4. Emission characterization and δ{sup 13}C values of parent PAHs and nitro-PAHs in size-segregated particulate matters from coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ruwei [CAS Key Laboratory of Crust-Mantle Materials and the Environments, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); State Key Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology, Institute of Earth Environment, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi’an 710075 Shaanxi (China); Yousaf, Balal; Sun, Ruoyu [CAS Key Laboratory of Crust-Mantle Materials and the Environments, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Zhang, Hong [Anhui Department of Environmental Protection, Anhui Academy of Environmental Science, Hefei 230071 (China); Zhang, Jiamei [CAS Key Laboratory of Crust-Mantle Materials and the Environments, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Liu, Guijian, E-mail: lgj@ustc.edu.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Crust-Mantle Materials and the Environments, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); State Key Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology, Institute of Earth Environment, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi’an 710075 Shaanxi (China)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • pPAHs and NPAHs were strongly associated with PM{sub 1–2.5} and PM{sub 1} compared with PM{sub 2.5–10}. • Combustion conditions and WFGD showed typical effects on PAH level and profile. • Diagnostic ratio of PAH was to indicative of emission sources to a certain degree. • δ{sup 13}C values of PAHs were useful for differentiating coal combustion source. • δ{sup 13}C values of PAHs were unable to differentiate coal-processing sources. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to characterize parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pPAHs) and their nitrated derivatives (NPAHs) in coarse (PM{sub 2.5–10}), intermediate (PM{sub 1–2.5}) and fine (PM{sub 1}) particulate matters emitted from coal-fired power plants (CFPPs) in Huainan, China. The diagnostic ratios and the stable carbon isotopic approaches to characterize individual PAHs were applied in order to develop robust tools for tracing the origins of PAHs in different size-segregated particular matters (PMs) emitted CFPP coal combustion. The concentrations of PAH compounds in flue gas emissions varied greatly, depending on boiler types, operation and air pollution control device (APCD) conditions. Both pPAHs and NPAHs were strongly enriched in PM{sub 1–2.5} and PM{sub 1}. In contrary to low molecular weight (LMW) PAHs, high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs were more enriched in finer PMs. The PAH diagnostic ratios in size-segregated PMs are small at most cases, highlighting their potential application in tracing CFPP emitted PAHs attached to different sizes of PMs. Yet, substantial uncertainty still exists to directly apply PAH diagnostic ratios as emission tracers. Although the stable carbon isotopic composition of PAH molecular was useful in differentiating coal combustion emissions from other sources such as biomass combustion and vehicular exhausts, it was not feasible to differentiate isotopic fractionation processes such as low-temperature carbonization, high

  5. Emission characterization and δ"1"3C values of parent PAHs and nitro-PAHs in size-segregated particulate matters from coal-fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ruwei; Yousaf, Balal; Sun, Ruoyu; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Jiamei; Liu, Guijian

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • pPAHs and NPAHs were strongly associated with PM_1_–_2_._5 and PM_1 compared with PM_2_._5_–_1_0. • Combustion conditions and WFGD showed typical effects on PAH level and profile. • Diagnostic ratio of PAH was to indicative of emission sources to a certain degree. • δ"1"3C values of PAHs were useful for differentiating coal combustion source. • δ"1"3C values of PAHs were unable to differentiate coal-processing sources. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to characterize parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pPAHs) and their nitrated derivatives (NPAHs) in coarse (PM_2_._5_–_1_0), intermediate (PM_1_–_2_._5) and fine (PM_1) particulate matters emitted from coal-fired power plants (CFPPs) in Huainan, China. The diagnostic ratios and the stable carbon isotopic approaches to characterize individual PAHs were applied in order to develop robust tools for tracing the origins of PAHs in different size-segregated particular matters (PMs) emitted CFPP coal combustion. The concentrations of PAH compounds in flue gas emissions varied greatly, depending on boiler types, operation and air pollution control device (APCD) conditions. Both pPAHs and NPAHs were strongly enriched in PM_1_–_2_._5 and PM_1. In contrary to low molecular weight (LMW) PAHs, high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs were more enriched in finer PMs. The PAH diagnostic ratios in size-segregated PMs are small at most cases, highlighting their potential application in tracing CFPP emitted PAHs attached to different sizes of PMs. Yet, substantial uncertainty still exists to directly apply PAH diagnostic ratios as emission tracers. Although the stable carbon isotopic composition of PAH molecular was useful in differentiating coal combustion emissions from other sources such as biomass combustion and vehicular exhausts, it was not feasible to differentiate isotopic fractionation processes such as low-temperature carbonization, high-temperature carbonization, gasification and

  6. Remediation of PAH-contaminated soil by the combination of tall fescue, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus and epigeic earthworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yan-Fei; Lu, Mang

    2015-03-21

    A 120-day experiment was performed to investigate the effect of a multi-component bioremediation system consisting of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea), arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) (Glomus caledoniun L.), and epigeic earthworms (Eisenia foetida) for cleaning up polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)-contaminated soil. Inoculation with AMF and/or earthworms increased plant yield and PAH accumulation in plants. However, PAH uptake by tall fescue accounted for a negligible portion of soil PAH removal. Mycorrhizal tall fescue significantly enhanced PAH dissipation, PAH degrader density and polyphenol oxidase activity in soil. The highest PAH dissipation (93.4%) was observed in the combination treatment: i.e., AMF+earthworms+tall fescue, in which the soil PAH concentration decreased from an initial value of 620 to 41 mg kg(-1) in 120 days. This concentration is below the threshold level required for Chinese soil PAH quality (45 mg kg(-1) dry weight) for residential use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Lichens biomonitoring as feasible methodology to assess air pollution in natural ecosystems: combined study of quantitative PAHs analyses and lichen biodiversity in the Pyrenees Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco, María; Domeño, Celia; Nerín, Cristina

    2008-06-01

    The air quality in the Aragón valley, in the central Pyrenees, has been assessed by evaluation of lichen biodiversity and mapped by elaboration of the Index of Air Purity (IAP) based on observations of the presence and abundance of eight kinds of lichen with different sensitivity to air pollution. The IAP values obtained have been compared with quantitative analytical measures of 16 PAHs in the lichen Evernia prunastri, because this species was associated with a wide range of traffic exposure and levels of urbanization. Analyses of PAHs were carried out by the DSASE method followed by an SPE clean-up step and GC-MS analysis. The concentration of total PAHs found in lichen samples from the Aragón valley ranged from 692 to 6420 ng g(-1) and the PAHs profile showed predominance of compounds with three aromatic rings. The influence of the road traffic in the area has been shown because values over the median concentration of PAHs (>1092 ng g(-1)), percentage of combustion PAHs (>50%), and equivalent toxicity (>169) were found in lichens collected at places exposed to the influence of traffic. The combination of both methods suggests IAP as a general method for evaluating the air pollution referenced to PAHs because it can be correlated with the content of combustion PAHs and poor lichen biodiversity can be partly explained by the air pollution caused by specific PAHs.

  8. Characterization and source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pahs) in the sediments of gulf of Pozzuoli (Campania, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arienzo, Michele; Donadio, Carlo; Mangoni, Olga; Bolinesi, Francesco; Stanislao, Corrado; Trifuoggi, Marco; Toscanesi, Maria; Di Natale, Gabriella; Ferrara, Luciano

    2017-11-15

    Most of the literature reports on the impact of the former Bagnoli brownfield on the pollution of Bagnoli Bay, embedded in the Gulf of Pozzuoli (GoP). Thus, we studied concentrations, types and sources of sixteen PAHs (EPA) in sediments at 22 sites along 5 transects covering the entire area of GoP. Outstanding levels of PAHs were found, varying from 7.1μgg -1 to 2.5 E+3μgg -1 . Sediments collected at sites far away from Bagnoli were found to be polluted to a similar extent than those facing the brownfield site, with values>100μgg -1 . Total PAHs levels in the sediments of GoP were higher by thirty-eleven thousand fold than those reported by other studies from various marine sites in the world. Transit axes of fine and very fine sands and diagnostic indexes revealed a common pyrolytic PAHs pollution spreading from the Bagnoli plant to all GoP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Variation in PAH inputs and microbial community in surface sediments of Hamilton Harbour: Implications to remediation and monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slater, G.F.; Cowie, B.R.; Harper, N.; Droppo, I.G.

    2008-01-01

    Variations in concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and microbial community indicators were investigated in representative highly contaminated and less contaminated surface sediment sites of Hamilton Harbour. Inputs of PAH to the upper 3 cm of sediments up to four times the average upper sediment concentrations were observed. Associated PAH fingerprint profiles indicated that the source was consistent with the PAH source to the industrial region of the harbour. Increased PAH loadings were associated with decreased bacterial populations as indicated by phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) concentrations. However, relatively minor impacts on overall community composition were indicated. Porewater methane concentrations and isotopic data indicated a difference in the occurrence of methane oxidation between the two sites. This study confirms temporally limited transport of contaminants from highly impacted regions as a vector for contaminants within the harbour and the impact on microbial carbon cycling and bed stability. - Variations in PAH inputs to harbour sediments have implications to implementation and monitoring of mitigation/remediation efforts

  10. Long-term assessment of natural attenuation: statistical approach on soils with aged PAH contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouvrard, Stéphanie; Chenot, Elodie-Denise; Masfaraud, Jean-François; Schwartz, Christophe

    2013-07-01

    Natural attenuation processes valorization for PAH-contaminated soil remediation has gained increasing interest from site owners. A misunderstanding of this method and a small amount of data available does not encourage its development. However, monitored natural attenuation (MNA) offers a valuable, cheaper and environmentally friendly alternative to more classical options such as physico-chemical treatments (e.g., chemical oxidation, thermal desorption). The present work proposes the results obtained during a long-term natural attenuation assessment of historically contaminated industrial soils under real climatic conditions. This study was performed after a 10 year natural attenuation period on 60 off-ground lysimeters filled with contaminated soils from different former industrial sites (coking industry, manufactured gas plants) whose initial concentration of PAH varied between 380 and 2,077 mg kg(-1). The analysed parameters included leached water characterization, soil PAH concentrations, evaluation of vegetation cover quality and quantity. Results showed a good efficiency of the PAH dissipation and limited transfer of contaminants to the environment. It also highlighted the importance of the fine soil fractions in controlling PAH reactivity. PAH dissipation through water leaching was limited and did not present a significant risk for the environment. This PAH water concentration appeared however as a good indicator of overall dissipation rate, thereby illustrating the importance of pollutant availability in predicting its degradation potential.

  11. Electrochemical Oxidation of PAHs in Water from Harbor Sediment Purification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muff, Jens; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen

    2010-01-01

    generated oxidant solution with a free chlorine concentration of 2 gL-1. Both strategies resulted in a successful degradation of 5 PAHs to fulfil the discharge limit on 0.010 µgL-1. The intermixing-with-oxidant approach can also be applied as a method to address the actual sediment matrix....... of the discharge water addressing primarily polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). PAHs are by-products of incomplete combustion of organic materials with recalcitrant and strong mutagenic/carcinogenic properties, due to their benzene analogue structures. PAHs are hydrophobic compounds and their persistence...... evidence for the importance of the indirect oxidation mechanism in the degradation of the PAHs. The proof-of-concept study was conducted both by a direct treatment approach and an intermixing-with-oxidant approach, where the contaminated water was intermixed in different ratios with an electrochemically...

  12. Regional modelling of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: WRF-Chem-PAH model development and East Asia case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Qing; Lammel, Gerhard; Gencarelli, Christian N.; Hedgecock, Ian M.; Chen, Ying; Přibylová, Petra; Teich, Monique; Zhang, Yuxuan; Zheng, Guangjie; van Pinxteren, Dominik; Zhang, Qiang; Herrmann, Hartmut; Shiraiwa, Manabu; Spichtinger, Peter; Su, Hang; Pöschl, Ulrich; Cheng, Yafang

    2017-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are hazardous pollutants, with increasing emissions in pace with economic development in East Asia, but their distribution and fate in the atmosphere are not yet well understood. We extended the regional atmospheric chemistry model WRF-Chem (Weather Research Forecast model with Chemistry module) to comprehensively study the atmospheric distribution and the fate of low-concentration, slowly degrading semivolatile compounds. The WRF-Chem-PAH model reflects the state-of-the-art understanding of current PAHs studies with several new or updated features. It was applied for PAHs covering a wide range of volatility and hydrophobicity, i.e. phenanthrene, chrysene and benzo[a]pyrene, in East Asia. Temporally highly resolved PAH concentrations and particulate mass fractions were evaluated against observations. The WRF-Chem-PAH model is able to reasonably well simulate the concentration levels and particulate mass fractions of PAHs near the sources and at a remote outflow region of East Asia, in high spatial and temporal resolutions. Sensitivity study shows that the heterogeneous reaction with ozone and the homogeneous reaction with the nitrate radical significantly influence the fate and distributions of PAHs. The methods to implement new species and to correct the transport problems can be applied to other newly implemented species in WRF-Chem.

  13. Comparative survey of PAHs incidence in Portuguese traditional meat and blood sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseiro, L C; Gomes, A; Patarata, L; Santos, C

    2012-06-01

    Sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in representative traditional sausages produced in "Trás-os-Montes" and "Alentejo", were determined. Light PAHs represented similar overall contents in both regions and showed close decreasing order patterns (ACY, PHE, FLR and NAP), irrespective of the product type considered. Amongst the carcinogenic/mutagenic PAHs analyzed (PAH8), both regions also had greater contents associated to BaA and CHR, with slightly higher values for the former compound in "Alentejo" and, oppositely, for the later in "Trás-os-Montes". However, their quantitative comparison showed that the general mean total PAH content found in "Trás-os-Montes" was almost 3-fold higher than in similar products from "Alentejo" and this factor was about 8-fold superior when the PAH8 and PAH4 indicators were compared, expressing benzo[a]pyrene toxic equivalencies (BaPE), 15 times (total mean toxicity), 34 times (PAH8) and 9 times (PAH4) higher. In general terms, the mean BaP content of all analyzed samples from "Alentejo" was 0.41 μg kg(-1). Differently that value in "Trás-os-Montes" reached 3.57 μg kg(-1), expressing concerning average contents of 5.35, 5.87 and 4.51 μg kg(-1) in Chouriço de Carne, Moura and Salpicão sausages, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in yogurt samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battisti, Chiara; Girelli, Anna Maria; Tarola, Anna Maria

    2015-01-01

    The concentrations and distributions of major polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in 20 kinds of yogurt specimens collected from Italian supermarkets using reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with fluorescence detection. The method was validated by determination of recovery percentages, precision (repeatability) and sensitivity (limits of detection) with yogurt samples fortified at 0.25, 0.5 and 1 µg/kg concentration levels. The recovery of 13 PAHs, with the exception of naphthalene and acenaphthene, ranged from 61% to 130% and from 60% to 97% at all the levels for yogurts with low (0.1%) and high (3.9%) fat content, respectively. The method is repeatable with relative standard deviation values yogurts with low and high fats were compared.

  15. Phenylacetylene and PAH

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    During the last decades, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other related aromatic compounds, such as ionized PAHs, have received considerable attention from astronomers, astrobiologists, environmentalists, and the combustion community. In the interstellar medium, PAH like species account for up to 10% of ...

  16. Leaching of PAHs from agricultural soils treated with oil shale combustion ash: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefimova, Jekaterina; Adamson, Jasper; Reinik, Janek; Irha, Natalya

    2016-10-01

    The present study focuses on the fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils amended with oil shale ash (OSA). Leachability studies to assess the release of PAHs to the environment are essential before the application of OSA in agriculture. A quantitative estimation of the leaching of PAHs from two types of soil and two types of OSA was undertaken in this study. Two leaching approaches were chosen: (1) a traditional one step leaching scheme and (2) a leaching scheme with pretreatment, i.e.., incubation of the material in wet conditions imitating the field conditions, followed by a traditional leaching procedure keeping the total amount of water constant. The total amount of PAHs leached from soil/OSA mixtures was in the range of 15 to 48 μg/kg. The amount of total PAHs leached was higher for the incubation method, compared to the traditional leaching method, particularly for Podzolic Gleysols soil. This suggests that for the incubation method, the content of organic matter and clay minerals of the soil influence the fate of PAHs more strongly compared to the traditional leaching scheme. The amount of PAHs leached from OSA samples is higher than from soil/OSA mixtures, which suggests soils to inhibit the release of PAHs. Calculated amount of PAHs from experimental soil and OSA leaching experiments differed considerably from real values. Thus, it is not possible to estimate the amount of PAHs leached from soil/OSA mixtures based on the knowledge of the amount of PAHs leached from soil and OSA samples separately.

  17. Concentration, distribution and source apportionment of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the southeast suburb of Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shucai; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Kaiyan; Shen, Yating; Hu, Lianwu; Wang, Xuejun

    2009-04-01

    Total suspended particle samples and gas phase samples were collected at three representative sampling sites in the southeastern suburb of Beijing from March 2005 to January 2006. The samples were analyzed for 16 US EPA priority PAHs using GC/MS. Concentrations of Sigma PAHs in particle and gas phases were 0.21-1.18 x 10(3) ng m(-3) and 9.5 x 10(2) ng-1.03 x 10(5) ng m(-3), respectively. PAH concentrations displayed seasonal variation in the order of winter>spring>autumn>summer for particle phase, and winter>autumn>summer>spring for gas phase. Partial correlation analysis indicates that PAH concentrations in particle phase are negatively correlated with temperature and positively correlated with air pollution index of SO(2). No significant correlation is observed between gas phase PAHs and the auxiliary parameters. Sources of PAH are identified through principal component analysis, and source contributions are estimated through multiple linear regression. Major sources of atmospheric PAHs in the study area include coal combustion, coke industry, vehicular emission and natural gas combustion.

  18. Adsorption and transformation of PAHs from water by a laccase-loading spider-type reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, Junfeng, E-mail: junfengn@bnu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Dai, Yunrong, E-mail: daiyunrong@mail.bnu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Guo, Huiyuan, E-mail: hyguo0216@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Xu, Jiangjie, E-mail: 1993120hb@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Shen, Zhenyao, E-mail: zyshen@bnu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► Laccase-loading spider-type reactor (LSTR) is got by emulsion electrospinning. ► LSTR consists of beads-in-string fibers with more laccase and higher activity. ► LSTR can achieve the rapid and efficient removal of PAHs from water. ► Aquatic environmental factors have little influence on the PAH removal by LSTR. ► A synergetic mechanism includes adsorption, directional migration and degradation. -- Abstract: The remediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) polluted waters has become a concern as a result of the widespread use of PAHs and their adverse impacts on water ecosystems and human health. To remove PAHs rapidly and efficiently in situ, an active fibrous membrane, laccase-loading spider-type reactor (LSTR) was fabricated by electrospinning a poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PDLGA)/laccase emulsion. The LSTR is composed of beads-in-string structural core–shell fibers, with active laccase encapsulated inside the beads and nanoscale pores on the surface of the beads. This structure can load more laccase and retains higher activity than do linear structural core–shell fibers. The LSTR achieves the efficient removal/degradation of PAHs in water, which is attributed to not only the protection of the laccase activity by the core–shell structure but also the pre-concentration (adsorption) of PAHs on the surface of the LSTR and the concentration of laccase in the beads. Moreover, the effects of pH, temperature and dissolved organic matter (DOM) concentration on the removal of PAHs by the LSTR, in comparison with that by free laccase, have been taken into account. A synergetic mechanism including adsorption, directional migration and degradation for PAH removal is proposed.

  19. Significance of population centers as sources of gaseous and dissolved PAHs in the lower Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Carrie A; Khairy, Mohammed A; Muir, Derek C G; Lohmann, Rainer

    2014-07-15

    Polyethylene passive samplers (PEs) were used to measure concentrations of gaseous and dissolved polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the air and water throughout the lower Great Lakes during summer and fall of 2011. Atmospheric Σ15PAH concentrations ranged from 2.1 ng/m3 in Cape Vincent (NY) to 76.4 ng/m3 in downtown Cleveland (OH). Aqueous Σ18PAH concentrations ranged from 2.4 ng/L at an offshore Lake Erie site to 30.4 ng/L in Sheffield Lake (OH). Gaseous PAH concentrations correlated strongly with population within 3-40 km of the sampling site depending on the compound considered, suggesting that urban centers are a primary source of gaseous PAHs (except retene) in the lower Great Lakes region. The significance of distant population (within 20 km) versus local population (within 3 km) increased with subcooled liquid vapor pressure. Most dissolved aqueous PAHs did not correlate significantly with population, nor were they consistently related to river discharge, wastewater effluents, or precipitation. Air-water exchange calculations implied that diffusive exchange was a source of phenanthrene to surface waters, while acenaphthylene volatilized out of the lakes. Comparison of air-water fluxes with temperature suggested that the significance of urban centers as sources of dissolved PAHs via diffusive exchange may decrease in warmer months.

  20. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides in water columns from the Pearl River and the Macao harbor in the Pearl River Delta in South China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, X.J.; Mai, B.X.; Yang, Q.S.; Fu, J.M.; Sheng, G.Y.; Wang, Z.S. [Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou (China)

    2004-06-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were measured in suspended particles and dissolved phase from the Baiertang water column and the Macao water column samples as collected from the Guangzhou channel of the Pearl River and the Macao harbor, where the sediments were heavily contaminated with organic pollutants. Total OCPs concentration varies from 23.4 to 61.7 ng/l in Baiertang water column and from 25.2 to 67.8 ng/l in Macao column, while total PAHs concentration varies from 987.1 to 2878.5 ng/l in the Baiertang water column and from 944.0 to 6654.6 ng/l in the Macao column. The vertical distribution profiles of pollutants and the partition of pollutants between particles and dissolved phases indicate that the sediments in Baiertang act as an important source of selected pollutants, and the pollutants in water of this region were mainly originated from the release and re-suspension of contaminants residing in the sediments. The sediments in Macao harbor act as a reservoir for organochlorine pesticides, such as DDTs mainly introduced by river inflow from Xijiang and PAHs input by brackish water from the Lingdingyang estuary. Combustion of fossil fuels and petroleum input are the main sources of PAHs in the Macao water column, while combustion of fossil fuels and coal is responsible for the PAHs in the Baiertang water column.

  1. Household air pollution and personal exposure to nitrated and oxygenated polycyclic aromatics (PAHs) in rural households: Influence of household cooking energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y; Du, W; Shen, G; Zhuo, S; Zhu, X; Shen, H; Huang, Y; Su, S; Lin, N; Pei, L; Zheng, X; Wu, J; Duan, Y; Wang, X; Liu, W; Wong, M; Tao, S

    2017-01-01

    Residential solid fuels are widely consumed in rural China, contributing to severe household air pollution for many products of incomplete combustion, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their polar derivatives. In this study, concentrations of nitrated and oxygenated PAH derivatives (nPAHs and oPAHs) for household and personal air were measured and analyzed for influencing factors like smoking and cooking energy type. Concentrations of nPAHs and oPAHs in kitchens were higher than those in living rooms and in outdoor air. Exposure levels measured by personal samplers were lower than levels in indoor air, but higher than outdoor air levels. With increasing molecular weight, individual compounds tended to be more commonly partitioned to particulate matter (PM); moreover, higher molecular weight nPAHs and oPAHs were preferentially found in finer particles, suggesting a potential for increased health risks. Smoking behavior raised the concentrations of nPAHs and oPAHs in personal air significantly. People who cooked food also had higher personal exposures. Cooking and smoking have a significant interaction effect on personal exposure. Concentrations in kitchens and personal exposure to nPAHs and oPAHs for households using wood and peat were significantly higher than for those using electricity and liquid petroleum gas (LPG). © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. PAHs content of sewage sludge in Europe and its use as soil fertilizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suciu, Nicoleta A., E-mail: nicoleta.suciu@unicatt.it; Lamastra, Lucrezia; Trevisan, Marco

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Sewage sludge contamination by PAHs may restrict its use as soil fertilizer. • Long term data concerning sewage sludge contamination by PAHs is lacking. • Literature review for EU countries and monitoring data for Italy is presented. • Focus PEARL model was used to simulate B(a)Pyr, the most toxic PAH, fate in soil. • The simulated B(a)Pyr soil concentration was much lower than its LOEC for soil organisms. - Abstract: The European Commission has been planning limits for organic pollutants in sewage sludge for 14 years; however no legislation has been implemented. This is mainly due to lack of data on sewage sludge contamination by organic pollutants, and possible negative effects to the environment. However, waste management has become an acute problem in many countries. Management options require extensive waste characterization, since many of them may contain compounds which could be harmful to the ecosystem, such as heavy metals, organic pollutants. The present study aims to show the true European position, regarding the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) content of sewage sludge, by comparing the Italian PAHs content with European Union countries, and at assessing the suitability of sewage sludge as soil fertilizer. The FOCUS Pearl model was used to estimate the concentration of benzo [a] pyrene (B(a)Pyr), the most toxic PAH in soil, and its exposure to organisms was then evaluated. The simulated B(a)Pyr and PAHs, expressed as B(a)Pyr, concentrations in soil were much lower than the B(a)Pyr’s most conservative lowest observable effect concentration (LOEC) for soil organisms. Furthermore, the results obtained indicate that it is more appropriate to apply 5 t ha{sup −1} sewage sludge annually than 15 t ha{sup −1} triennially. Results suggest, the EU maximum recommended limit of 6 mg kg{sup −1} PAHs in sewage sludge, should be conservative enough to avoid groundwater contamination and negative effects on soil organisms.

  3. PAHs content of sewage sludge in Europe and its use as soil fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suciu, Nicoleta A.; Lamastra, Lucrezia; Trevisan, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Sewage sludge contamination by PAHs may restrict its use as soil fertilizer. • Long term data concerning sewage sludge contamination by PAHs is lacking. • Literature review for EU countries and monitoring data for Italy is presented. • Focus PEARL model was used to simulate B(a)Pyr, the most toxic PAH, fate in soil. • The simulated B(a)Pyr soil concentration was much lower than its LOEC for soil organisms. - Abstract: The European Commission has been planning limits for organic pollutants in sewage sludge for 14 years; however no legislation has been implemented. This is mainly due to lack of data on sewage sludge contamination by organic pollutants, and possible negative effects to the environment. However, waste management has become an acute problem in many countries. Management options require extensive waste characterization, since many of them may contain compounds which could be harmful to the ecosystem, such as heavy metals, organic pollutants. The present study aims to show the true European position, regarding the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) content of sewage sludge, by comparing the Italian PAHs content with European Union countries, and at assessing the suitability of sewage sludge as soil fertilizer. The FOCUS Pearl model was used to estimate the concentration of benzo [a] pyrene (B(a)Pyr), the most toxic PAH in soil, and its exposure to organisms was then evaluated. The simulated B(a)Pyr and PAHs, expressed as B(a)Pyr, concentrations in soil were much lower than the B(a)Pyr’s most conservative lowest observable effect concentration (LOEC) for soil organisms. Furthermore, the results obtained indicate that it is more appropriate to apply 5 t ha −1 sewage sludge annually than 15 t ha −1 triennially. Results suggest, the EU maximum recommended limit of 6 mg kg −1 PAHs in sewage sludge, should be conservative enough to avoid groundwater contamination and negative effects on soil organisms

  4. Enhanced PM10 bounded PAHs from shipping emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongpiachan, S.; Hattayanone, M.; Choochuay, C.; Mekmok, R.; Wuttijak, N.; Ketratanakul, A.

    2015-05-01

    Earlier studies have highlighted the importance of maritime transport as a main contributor of air pollutants in port area. The authors intended to investigate the effects of shipping emissions on the enhancement of PM10 bounded polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and mutagenic substances in an industrial area of Rayong province, Thailand. Daily PM10 speciation data across two air quality observatory sites in Thailand during 2010-2013 were collected. Diagnostic binary ratios of PAH congeners, analysis of variances (ANOVA), and principal component analysis (PCA) were employed to evaluate the enhanced genotoxicity of PM10 during the docking period. Significant increase of PAHs and mutagenic index (MI) of PM10 were observed during the docking period in both sampling sites. Although stationary sources like coal combustions from power plants and vehicular exhausts from motorway can play a great role in enhancing PAH concentrations, regulating shipping emissions from diesel engine in the port area like Rayong is predominantly crucial.

  5. Influence of Air Pollution and Soil Contamination on the Contents of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs in Vegetables Grown in Urban Gardens of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís F. Amato-Lourenco

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Urban community gardens (UCGs have become prevalent worldwide and play a significant role in strengthening the sustainability of urban food systems. Although UCGs provide multiple benefits to society, the extent to which vegetables grown in them are contaminated by chemical compounds derived from airborne fallout or soil contamination is unclear. We evaluated the influence of both air pollution and the contamination of garden soil beds on the contents of 16 PAHs in the edible tissues of spinach and collard green. The PAH contents were quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS-EI. The concentrations of PAHs in both the vegetables grown in the vessels and in the soil of the UCGs were <0.1 μg kg−1. The total concentrations of the 16 priority PAHs in the soil beds ranged from 132.94 to 410.50 μg kg−1. These levels were lower than those that have been reported from other urban areas. Principal Component Analysis resulted in two components indicating that traffic-derived emissions are the main sources of PAHs in the soil. The first component represented the compounds with higher molecular weights and had a moderate loading for the fine fraction of the soil (clay (0.63. The second component showed a high loading for silt (0.97, including those PAHs with lower molecular weights. Our data show that spinach and collard greens do not accumulate significant PAH concentrations on their leaves over 45-day periods, whether they are raised in controlled soil or in local beds.

  6. In situ treatment of soil contaminated with PAHs and phenols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sresty, G.; Dev, H.; Chang, J.; Houthoofd, J.

    1992-01-01

    The wood preserving industry uses more pesticides than any other industry worldwide. The major chemicals used are creosote, pentachlorophenol, and CCA (copper, chrome and arsenate). It is reported that between 415 to 550 creosoting operations within the United States consume approximately 454,000 metric tons of creosote annually. When properly used and disposed off, creosote does not appear to significantly threaten human health. However, due to improper disposal and spillage at old facilities, creosote and other wood preserving chemicals have found their way into surface soils. Active wood preserving sites generate an estimated 840 to 1530 dry metric tons of hazardous contaminated sludge annually, which is classified as KOOL. Creosote, obtained from coal tar, contains a large number of chemical components. The three main families of compounds represented in creosote are: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), phenolic, and heterocyclic compounds. Creosote is composed of approximately 85% PAHs, 10% phenolic compounds and 5% heterocyclic compounds. There are approximately a total of 17 PAHs present in creosote. The four most prominent compounds belonging to the PAH family are naphthalene, 2-methylnaphthalene, phenanthrene, and anthracene. These four compounds represent approximately 52% of the total PAHs present in creosote. There are approximately 12 different phenolic compounds present in creosote among which phenol is the most abundant, representing 20% of the total phenolics. In addition, the various isomers of cresol represent about 20% and pentachlorophenol (PCP) represents 10% of the total phenolics. There are approximately 13 different heterocyclic compounds are the most abundant, representing approximately 70% of the total heterocyclics. All of these compounds possess toxic properties and some of them, for example, PCP, when subjected to high temperature environments are suspected precursors in the formation of dioxins

  7. Water quality concerns due to forest fires: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) contamination of groundwater from mountain areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansilha, C; Carvalho, A; Guimarães, P; Espinha Marques, J

    2014-01-01

    Water quality alterations due to forest fires may considerably affect aquatic organisms and water resources. These impacts are cumulative as a result of pollutants mobilized from fires, chemicals used to fight fire, and postfire responses. Few studies have examined postfire transport into water resources of trace elements, including the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), which are organic pollutants produced during combustion and are considered carcinogenic and harmful to humans. PAH are also known to adversely affect survival, growth, and reproduction of many aquatic species. This study assessed the effects of forest wildfires on groundwater from two mountain regions located in protected areas from north and central Portugal. Two campaigns to collect water samples were performed in order to measure PAH levels. Fifteen of 16 studied PAH were found in groundwater samples collected at burned areas, most of them at concentrations significantly higher than those found in control regions, indicating aquifer contamination. The total sum of PAH in burned areas ranged from 23.1to 95.1 ng/L with a median of 62.9 ng/L, which is one- to sixfold higher than the average level measured in controls (16.2 ng/L). In addition, in control samples, the levels of light PAH with two to four rings were at higher levels than heavy PAH with five or six rings, thus showing a different profile between control and burned sites. The contribution of wildfires to groundwater contamination by PAH was demonstrated, enabling a reliable assessment of the impacts on water quality and preparation of scientifically based decision criteria for postfire forest management practices.

  8. Effect of water flux and sediment discharge of the Yangtze River on PAHs sedimentation in the estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rufeng; Feng, Chenghong; Wang, Dongxin; He, Maozhi; Hu, Lijuan; Shen, Zhenyao

    2016-12-01

    Historical distribution characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their carriers (i.e., organic matter and mineral particles) in the sediment cores of the Yangtze Estuary were investigated, with emphasis laid on the role of the Yangtze River. Grain size component of sediments (clay, silt, and sand) and organic carbon (black carbon and total organic carbon) in the sediment cores were markedly affected by water flux and sediment discharge of the Yangtze River. Qualitative and quantitative analysis results showed that sands and black carbon acted as the main carriers of PAHs. The sedimentation of two-ring to three-ring PAHs in the estuary had significant correlations with water flux and sediment discharge of the Yangtze River. The relative lower level of the four-ring and five-ring to six-ring PAHs concentrations appeared around the year 2003 and remained for the following several years. This time period accorded well with the water impoundment time of the Three Gorges Reservoir. The decreased level of two-ring to three-ring PAHs occurred in the year 1994, and the peak points around the year 2009 indicated that PAHs sedimentation in the estuary also had close relationship to severe drought and flood in the catchments. The findings presented in this paper could provide references for assessing the impacts of water flux and sediment discharge on the historical deposition of PAHs and their carriers in the Yangtze Estuary.

  9. Source characterization using compound composition and stable carbon isotope ratio of PAHs in sediments from lakes, harbor, and shipping waterway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Moonkoo; Kennicutt, Mahlon C.; Qian, Yaorong

    2008-01-01

    Molecular compositions and compound specific stable carbon isotope ratios of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) isolated from sediments were used to characterize possible sources of contamination at an urban lake, a harbor, a shipping waterway, and a relatively undisturbed remote lake in the northwest United States. Total PAH concentrations in urban lake sediments ranged from 66.0 to 16,500 μg g -1 dry wt. with an average of 2600 μg g -1 , which is ∼ 50, 100, and 400 times higher on average than PAH in harbor (48 μg g -1 on average), shipping waterway (26 μg g -1 ), and remote lake (7 μg g -1 ) sediments, respectively. The PAH distribution patterns, methyl phenanthrene/phenanthrene ratios, and a pyrogenic index at the sites suggest a pyrogenic origin for PAHs. Source characterization using principal component analysis and various molecular indices including C2-dibenzothiophenes/C2-phenanthrenes, C3-dibenzothiophenes/C3-phenanthrenes, and C2-chrysenes/C2-phenanthrenes ratios, was able to differentiate PAH deposited in sediments from the four sites. The uniqueness of the source of the sediment PAHs from urban lake was also illustrated by compound specific stable carbon isotope analysis. It was concluded that urban lake sediments are accumulating PAH from sources that are unique from contamination detected at nearby sites in the same watershed

  10. Effect of prenatal PAH exposure on birth outcomes and neurocognitive development in a cohort of newborns in Poland. Study design and preliminary ambient data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jedrychowski, W.; Whyatt, R.M.; Camann, D.E.; Bawle, U.V.; Peki, K.; Spengler, J.D.; Dumyahn, T.S.; Penar, A.; Perera, F.F. [Jagiellonian University, Krakow (Poland). Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Collegium Medicum

    2003-07-01

    Preliminary data suggest an association between infant mortality rates and several measures of ambient air pollution, including dustfall and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The effects of airborne PAH components on fetal growth and early childhood development are of primary interest since we have previously demonstrated that these pollutants were associated with significant decrements in birth weight, length and head circumference in Polish newborn babies. The undertaken research combines a state-of-the-art environmental monitoring and molecular approaches with comprehensive neurodevelopment assessments. A further innovation is the incorporation of biomarkers (lead and antioxidants in cord blood) to control for potential confounding of exposure-effect. The mean overall concentrations of specific PAH compounds in Krakow, Poland were highest for benzo(b)fluoranthene (23 ng/m{sup 3}), benzo(a)anthracene, indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene, chyresene and benzo(a)pyrene. Concentrations of the PAH compounds measured by personal monitoring were higher in residents of the higher polluted area of the city. Comparison between the Krakow and New York City ambient data demonstrates that the concentrations and proportions of specific compounds in the total PAH mixture differ widely across these cities. Thus, one may expect that the PAH-related health risks would differ between the two areas not only because exposures are different, but also because the PAH profile differs. Presumably, this different profile is a consequence of variations in the sources of fossil and solid fuels used to produce energy. In Poland, more coal is used than in New York City. Auto emissions for example, are low in benzo(a)pyrene, whereas such emissions from refuse burning are high. 31 refs.

  11. Bioremediation of PAHs contaminated river sediment by an integrated approach with sequential injection of co-substrate and electron acceptor: Lab-scale study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Tongzhou; Zhang, Zhen; Dong, Wenyi; Wu, Xiaojing; Wang, Hongjie

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the feasibility of employing an integrated bioremediation approach in contaminated river sediment was evaluated. Sequential addition of co-substrate (acetate) and electron acceptor (NO 3 − ) in a two-phase treatment was capable of effectively removing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in river sediment. The residual concentration of total PAHs decreased to far below effect range low (ERL) value within 91 days of incubation, at which concentration it could rarely pose biological impairment. The biodegradation of high molecular weight PAHs were found to be mainly occurred in the sediment treated with co-substrates (i.e. acetate or methanol), in which acetate was found to be more suitable for PAHs degradation. The role of co-substrates in influencing PAHs biodegradation was tentatively discussed herein. Additionally, the sediment odorous problem and blackish appearance were intensively addressed by NO 3 − injection. The results of this study demonstrated that integrating two or more approaches/processes would be a helpful option in sediment remediation. It can lead to a more effective remediation performance, handle multiple contamination issues, as well as mitigate environmental risks caused by one of the single methods. - Highlights: • Sequential addition of acetate and NO 3 − removed PAHs and mitigated sediment odor. • Acetate is a suitable co-substrate used for PAHs degradation in river sediment. • NO 3 − Injection was effective for sediment odor and blackish appearance mitigation. • Integrated method is suggested in complicated real case with multi-remedial target. - Sequential addition of co-substrate and electron acceptor was capable of effectively removing PAHs and addressing sediment odorous problem and blackish appearance.

  12. Gas-particle distributions, sources and health effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in Venice aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoris, Elena; Argiriadis, Elena; Vecchiato, Marco; Zambon, Stefano; De Pieri, Silvia; Donateo, Antonio; Contini, Daniele; Piazza, Rossano; Barbante, Carlo; Gambaro, Andrea

    2014-04-01

    Air samples were collected in Venice during summer 2009 and 2012 to measure gas and particulate concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs). PCB-11, considered a marker for non-Aroclor contamination of the environment, was found for the first time in the Venetian lagoon and in Europe. An investigation on sources has been conducted, evidencing traffic as the major source of PAHs, whereas PCBs have a similar composition to Aroclor 1248 and 1254; in 2009 a release of PCN-42 has been hypothesized. Toxicological evaluation by TCA and TEQ methods, conducted for the first time in Venice air samples, identified BaP, PCB-126 and PCB-169 as the most important contributors to the total carcinogenic activity of PAHs and the total dioxin-like activity of PCBs and PCNs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of central ventilation and air conditioner system on the concentration and health risk from airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Jinze; Zhu, Lizhong

    2013-03-01

    Central ventilation and air conditioner systems are widely utilized nowadays in public places for air exchange and temperature control, which significantly influences the transfer of pollutants between indoors and outdoors. To study the effect of central ventilation and air conditioner systems on the concentration and health risk from airborne pollutants, a spatial and temporal survey was carried out using polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as agent pollutants. During the period when the central ventilation system operated without air conditioning (AC-off period), concentrations of 2-4 ring PAHs in the model supermarket were dominated by outdoor levels, due to the good linearity between indoor air and outdoor air (r(p) > 0.769, p air conditioner systems were working simultaneously (AC-on period), although the total levels of PAHs were increased, the concentrations and percentage of the particulate PAHs indoors declined significantly. The BaP equivalency (BaPeq) concentration indicated that utilization of air conditioning reduced the health risks from PAHs in the model supermarket.

  14. Correlations between physicochemical properties of PAHs and their distribution in soil, moss and reindeer dung at Ny-Alesund of the Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Zhen; Ma Xindong; Na Guangshui; Lin Zhongsheng [National Marine Environmental Monitoring Center, Dalian 116023 (China); Ding Qian [Environmental Science and Engineering College, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian 116026 (China); Yao Ziwei, E-mail: zwyao@nmemc.gov.c [National Marine Environmental Monitoring Center, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2009-11-15

    Concentrations of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil, moss and reindeer dung collected at Ny-Alesund of the Arctic were measured to investigate their accumulation trends and distribution in the three compartments. Compared with the other regions, the proportions of 2 + 3 ring PAHs to the total PAHs were higher, whereas the proportions of 5 + 6 ring PAHs were lower in the three compartments at Ny-Alesund. Significant log/log-linear relationship was observed between the sub-cooled liquid vapor pressure (p{sub L}{sup o}) and the soil/moss quotient (Q{sub SM}). The relation was similar to the relationship between the gas/particle partition coefficient (K{sub P}) and p{sub L}{sup o} of PAHs, implying Q{sub SM} would be a 'mirror image' of K{sub P}. Excellent log/log-linear relationships were observed between Q{sub SM} and K{sub OA} as well as between the moss/dung quotient (Q{sub MD}) and K{sub OW}. The results presented here indicate the physicochemical properties are suitable for characterizing the distribution of PAHs in soil, moss and reindeer dung. - The physicochemical properties of PAHs are suitable for characterizing their distribution in soil, moss and reindeer dung.

  15. TPH and PAH concentrations in the subsoil of polyduct segments, oil pipeline pumping stations, and right-of-way pipelines from Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturbe, Rosario; Castro, Alejandrina; Perez, Guillermina; Flores, Carlos; Torres, Luis G.

    2008-10-01

    For the year 1996, 366 incidents related with clandestine poaching of oil-products were reported in Mexico, 159 in 1997, and 240 in 1998. For the year 2003 (the most recently reported figure), there were 136 events. Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX), very concerned with the environmental agenda, has developed programs oriented to diminish contamination levels in all of its oil facilities. This work was aimed at characterizing zones around polyduct segments, pipelines, pumping stations, and right-of-way pipelines located in the center of Mexico. The TPH contaminated sites were, in decreasing order, polyduct km 39 + 150 > polyduct km 25 + 020 > Zoquital > Tepetitlan > Catalina > Venta Prieta > Ceiba. Most of the sampled points showed the presence of more than one of the 16 PAHs considered by USEPA as priority pollutants. Except point TEPE 2A, where no PAHs were detected, all the sampled points showed values from low to medium concentrations; however, values found at the sites did not exceed the limits according to the Mexican or the American legislation. The place with the largest contaminated area corresponded to the polyduct km 39 + 150, with 130 m2 and 260 m3 to be treated. The least contaminated area was that around the JUAN 4 point at Juandho station, with 20 m2 and 22 m3 of contaminated soil. The total area to be treated is about 230 m2 and 497 m3.

  16. A multimedia fate model to evaluate the fate of PAHs in Songhua River, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ce; Feng Yujie; Sun Qingfang; Zhao Shanshan; Gao Peng; Li Bailian

    2012-01-01

    A multimedia fate model coupling dynamic water flow with a level IV fugacity model has been developed and applied to simulate the temporal and spatial fate of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Songhua River, China. The model has two components: in the first, the one-dimensional network kinematic wave equation is used to calculate varying water flow and depth. In the second, Fugacity IV equations are implemented to predict contaminant distributions in four environmental media. The estimated concentrations of eight PAHs in Songhua River are obtained, and all simulated results are in acceptable agreement with monitoring data, as verified with the Theil’s inequality coefficient test. The sensitivity of PAH concentration in each environmental phase to input parameters are also evaluated. Our results show the model predicts reasonably accurate contaminant concentrations in natural rivers, and that it can be used to supply necessary information for control and management of water pollution. - Highlights: ► The model used was developed based on kinematic wave equation and level IV fugacity principle. ► The model was applied to describe the fate and transport of organic chemicals in natural river. ► The concentrations of PAHs in water column were satisfactorily simulated when compared with monitoring data. ► Temporal and spatial variability of PAHs concentration among multimedia environmental phases was illustrated. - A dynamic water flow based multimedia fate model is developed to characterize the fate and transport of organic contaminant in natural rivers.

  17. Contribution of PAHs from coal-tar pavement sealcoat and other sources to 40 U.S. lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Mahler, Barbara J.

    2010-01-01

    Contamination of urban lakes and streams by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has increased in the United States during the past 40 years. We evaluated sources of PAHs in post-1990 sediments in cores from 40 lakes in urban areas across the United States using a contaminant mass-balance receptor model and including as a potential source coal-tar-based (CT) sealcoat, a recently recognized source of urban PAH. Other PAH sources considered included several coal- and vehicle-related sources, wood combustion, and fuel-oil combustion. The four best modeling scenarios all indicate CT sealcoat is the largest PAH source when averaged across all 40 lakes, contributing about one-half of PAH in sediment, followed by vehicle-related sources and coal combustion. PAH concentrations in the lakes were highly correlated with PAH loading from CT sealcoat (Spearman's rho=0.98), and the mean proportional PAH profile for the 40 lakes was highly correlated with the PAH profile for dust from CT-sealed pavement (r=0.95). PAH concentrations and mass and fractional loading from CT sealcoat were significantly greater in the central and eastern United States than in the western United States, reflecting regional differences in use of different sealcoat product types. The model was used to calculate temporal trends in PAH source contributions during the last 40 to 100 years to eight of the 40 lakes. In seven of the lakes, CT sealcoat has been the largest source of PAHs since the 1960s, and in six of those lakes PAH trends are upward. Traffic is the largest source to the eighth lake, located in southern California where use of CT sealcoat is rare.

  18. Impact of soil amendments and the plant rhizosphere on PAH behaviour in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchal, Geoffrey; Smith, Kilian E.C.; Mayer, Philipp

    2014-01-01

    Carbonaceous amendments reduce PAH dissolved concentrations (Cfree), limiting their uptake and toxicity. A soil contaminated with PAHs was mixed with activated carbon (AC), charcoal or compost and planted with radish (Raphanus sativus L.), and Cfree, chemical activities and diffusive uptake...

  19. Effects of Co-Processing Sewage Sludge in the Cement Kiln on PAHs, Heavy Metals Emissions and the Surrounding Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Dong; Zhu, Tianle; Liu, Runwei; Li, Xinghua; Zhao, Yuan; Sun, Ye; Wang, Hongmei; Zhang, Fan; Zhao, Qinglin

    2018-04-08

    To understand the effects of co-processing sewage sludge in the cement kiln on non-criterion pollutants emissions and its surrounding environment, the flue gas from a cement kiln stack, ambient air and soil from the background/downwind sites were collected in the cement plant. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals of the samples were analyzed. The results show that PAHs in flue gas mainly exist in the gas phase and the low molecular weight PAHs are the predominant congener. The co-processing sewage sludge results in the increase in PAHs and heavy metals emissions, especially high molecular weight PAHs and low-volatile heavy metals such as Cd and Pb in the particle phase, while it does not change their compositions and distribution patterns significantly. The concentrations and their distributions of the PAHs and heavy metals between the emissions and ambient air have a positive correlation and the co-processing sewage sludge results in the increase of PAHs and heavy metals concentrations in the ambient air. The PAHs concentration level and their distribution in soil are proportional to those in the particle phase of flue gas, and the co-processing sewage sludge can accelerate the accumulation of the PAHs and heavy metals in the surrounding soil, especially high/middle molecular weight PAHs and low-volatile heavy metals.

  20. Biomonitoring, status and source risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using honeybees, pine tree leaves, and propolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargar, Navid; Matin, Golnar; Matin, Amir Abbas; Buyukisik, Hasan Baha

    2017-11-01

    In this study, to identify and quantify the sources of airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), we gathered honeybee, pine tree leaf, and propolis samples to serve as bioindicators from five stations in the village of "Bozkoy" in the Aliaga industrial district of Izmir (Turkey) during April-May 2014. The PAH concentrations which measured by gas chromatography (GC) varied from 261.18 to 553.33 μg kg -1 dry weight (dw) in honeybee samples, 138.57-853.67 μg kg -1 dw in pine leaf samples, and 798.61-2905.53 μg kg -1 dw in propolis samples. The total PAH concentrations can be ranked as follows: propolis > pine leaves > honeybees. The ring sequence pattern was 5 > 3 > 6 > 4 > 2 for honeybees, 5 > 3 > 4 > 6 > 2 for pine leaves, and 5 > 4 > 6 > 3 > 2 for propolis. The diagnostic ratios [fluoranthene/fluoranthene + pyrene], [indeno(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene/indeno(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene + benzo(g,h,i)perylene], and [benzo(a)anthracene/benzo(a)anthracene + chrysene] indicate coal and biomass combustion to be the dominant PAH source in the study area. In biomonitoring studies of airborne PAHs based on honeybees, fluoranthene is considered to be a characteristic PAH compound. Distribution maps with different numbers of PAH rings among the sampling sites show the advantages of honeybee samples as indicators due to the honeybee's provision of a broader range of information with respect to heavier pollutants that are typically not in the gas or suspended phase for long periods of time. Our correlation, factor analysis, and principal components analysis (PCA) results indicate potential sources of PAH pollution in pine leaves and honeybees from airborne emissions, but we found propolis to be contaminated by PAHs due to the replacement of herbal sources of resins with synthetic gummy substances from paving materials (e.g., asphalt and tar leaks). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Levels and sources of PAHs in selected sites from Portugal: biomonitoring with Pinus pinea and Pinus pinaster needles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratola, Nuno; Amigo, José Manuel; Alves, Arminda

    2010-04-01

    Pine needle samples from two pine species (Pinus pinaster Ait. and Pinus pinea L.) were collected at 29 sites scattered throughout Portugal, in order to biomonitor the levels and trends of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The values obtained for the sum of all PAHs ranged from 76 to 1944 ng/g [dry weight (dw)]. Despite the apparent matrix similarities between both pine species, P. pinaster needles revealed higher mean entrapment levels than P. pinea (748 and 399 ng/g (dw) per site, respectively). The urban and industrial sites have the highest average of PAH incidence [for P. pinea, 465 and 433 ng/g (dw) per site, respectively, and for P. pinaster, 1147 and 915 ng/g (dw)], followed by the rural sites [233 ng/g and 711 ng/g (dw) per site, for P. pinea and P. pinaster, respectively]. The remote sites, both from P. pinaster needles, show the least contamination, with 77 ng/g (dw) per site. A predominance of 3-ring and 4-ring PAHs was observed in most samples, with phenanthrene having 30.1% of the total. Naphthalene prevailed in remote sites. Rainfall had no influence on the PAHs levels, but there was a relationship between higher wind speeds and lower concentrations. PAH molecular ratios revealed the influence of both petrogenic and pyrogenic sources.

  2. Toxic assessment of urban atmospheric particle-bound PAHs: Relevance of composition and particle size in Barcelona (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesquita, Sofia Raquel; Drooge, Barend L. van; Reche, Cristina; Guimarães, Laura; Grimalt, Joan O.; Barata, Carlos; Piña, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Zebrafish embryotoxicity and dioxin-like activity levels were tested for particulate air samples from an urban background site in Barcelona (Spain). Samples were collected during 14 months, and maximal values for both biological activities corresponded to samples collected during late autumn months, correlating with elevated PAH levels. Vehicle and combustion emissions appeared as the potentially most toxic sources, whereas total PM mass and mineral content appeared to be poor predictors of the biological activity of the samples. Samples simultaneously collected at different particle size cut-offs (10, 2.5, and 1 μm) did not differ significantly in dioxin-like PAH levels and biological activity, indicating that the sub-micron particle fraction (PM 1 ) concentrated essentially all observed toxicity. Our results support the need for a tighter control on sub-micron particle emissions and show that total PM mass and, particularly, PM 10 , may not fully characterize the toxic potential of air samples. Highlights: • Dioxin-like activity was found in all air particle samples collected in Barcelona. • 50% of the samples showed different levels of fish embryotoxicity. • Toxic effects associated to PAHs and linked to vehicle and combustion emissions. • The toxicity was not correlated to PM mass or mineral content. • The sub-micron particle fraction PM 1 concentrated essentially all observed toxicity. -- In vivo toxic effects associated to sub-micron urban air particles from combustion and vehicle emissions

  3. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in resuspendable fraction of settled bus dust and its implications for human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peng; Liu, Sa; Feng, Yujie; Lin, Nan; Lu, Binyu; Zhang, Zhaohan; Cui, Fuyi; Xing, Baoshan; Hammond, S Katharine

    2015-03-01

    This preliminary study measured Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentrations in the resuspendable fraction of settled dust on 39 bus lines, to evaluate the impact of engine type (gasoline and compressed natural gas) on exposure for commuters and drivers. Benzo(b)fluoranthene(BbF) was the predominant PAH in resuspendable fraction of settled bus dust. The concentration of total PAHs was 92.90 ± 116.00 μg/g (range: 0.57-410) in gasoline buses and 3.97 ± 1.81 (range: 2.01-9.47) in compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. Based on Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) equivalent concentrations for the sum of 16 PAHs, the average daily dose (ADD) via dust ingestion and dermal contact was calculated. The ADD of PAHs was higher for commuters and drivers in gasoline-powered buses than in buses using CNG buses. For both short and long duration journeys, young commuters were exposed to higher levels of PAHs via dust ingestion and dermal contact than adult commuters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. An Optimised Method to Determine PAHs in a Contaminated Soil; Metodo Optimizado para la Determinacion de PAHs en un Suelo Contaminado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Alonso, S.; Perez Pastor, R. M.; Sevillano castano, M. L.; Escolano Segovia, O.; Garcia Frutos, F. J.

    2007-07-20

    An analytical study is presented based on an optimised method to determine selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection. The work was focused to obtain reliable measurements of PAH in a gas work contaminated soil and was performed in the frame of the project 'Assessment of natural remediation technologies for PAHs in contaminated soils' (Spanish Plan Nacional l+D+i, CTM 2004-05832-CO2-01): First assays were focused to evaluate an initial proposed procedure by sonication extraction in the contaminated soil. Afterwards to extend the efficiency and reduce solvent and time consuming of extraction procedures, the more relevant parameters that affect the extraction step were investigated. A comparison between sonication and microwave procedures was done, and the influence of sample grinding was studied. In general, both extraction techniques led on comparable results, although sonication procedure needs to be more carefully optimised. Finally, as a final application of the optimised method, the effect of particle size on relative distribution of selected PAHs in the contaminated soil was investigated. Relative abundance of more volatile PAHs showed a decreasing according to lower grain size, while relative abundance of less volatile compounds indicated an increasing of concentration levels for lower grain size. (Author) 10 refs.

  5. Bio-concentration of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the grey Mangrove (Avicennia marina along eastern coast of the Red Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Amin Bashir M.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous sources of chemical pollutants which can impact the mangrove ecosystem through adjacent waters, industrial and sewage discharges and air depositions. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are semi volatile ubiquitous anthropogenic pollutants detected in all environmental compartments. In the monitoring framework for the mangrove ecosystem along the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia, nine mangrove stands were examined for the accumulation of PAHs. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were measured using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS. The mean values detected for total PAHs in sediments, roots and leaf were 2.98, 8.57 and 23.43 ng/g respectively. The trend of the total PAHs concentration in all sites showed the descending order: leaf > roots > sediments. Beside the sandy nature of the sediments, the presences of all stands in remote areas fare from the direct anthropogenic effects lead to these relative low values. PAH bio-concentration factors for leaf are two to three magnitudes higher than that in roots, suggesting atmosphere deposition /leaf uptake mechanism in addition to the sediment/root mechanism. The diagnostic ratios revealed that the sources of PAHs are mainly pyrogenic.

  6. Relationship between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and particle size in dated core sediments in Lake Lianhuan, Northeast China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Li; Zang, Shuying

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric particle associated with pyrogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) poses serious threats to human health by inhalation exposure, especially in semiarid areas. Hence, the distributions of PAHs and particle size in two core sediments collected from Lake Lianhuan, Northeast China were studied. The sediments were dated radiometrically, and particle size distribution and PAH concentration were evaluated and potential human health risk was assessed. From 1980 to 2007, the dominant PAHs in the two cores were 2- and 3-ring PAHs, and the concentrations of 3–6 ring PAHs gradually increased from the early 1990s. Diagnostic ratios indicated that pyrogenic PAHs were the main sources of PAHs which changed over time from combustions of wood and coal to liquid fossil fuel sources. Fine particles ( 125 μm were found. Future research should focus on the seven carcinogenic pyrogenic PAHs due to a rapidly increasing trend since 1995 based on the assessment of toxic equivalency factors. - Highlights: • PAHs and particle size in core sediments were used to evaluate the role of eolian particles in delivering pyrogenic PAHs. • Changes of PAH sources closely followed local historical socioeconomic development since 1980s. • Changes of particulate sources from eolian to lacustrine reflected the evolving history of the lake. • Significant correlations between pyrogenic PAHs and eolian particles indicated potential risk from inhalation exposure. • Petroleum source PAHs are likely to stick to coarse particles and accumulate in lake sediments by surface runoff

  7. Supplementary measurements for air monitoring under NOVANA - Benzene and PAH; Supplerende maalinger til luftovervaagning under NOVANA - benzen og PAH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellermann, T.; Klenoe Noejgaard, J.; Bossi, R.

    2011-10-15

    The report presents results from a project carried out for the Danish Environmental Protection Agency. The aim of the project was to carry out several measuring campaigns in order to be able to better assess the monitoring needs for PAH and benzene in relation to EU's air quality directives. The results show that the mean concentrations of benzene are almost at the same level in Denmark's four largest cities, and that the concentrations are both below the threshold value (5mug/m3) as well as below the lower assessment threshold (2mug/m3). The report presents a method for objectively estimation the benzene concentration based on measurements of CO. The method can be applied to fulfil the monitoring need for benzene in those zones where no measurements of benzene are made. Measurements of PAH, especially benzo(a)pyrene, have been made during 12 months in the period 2010-2011 in an area with many wood burning furnaces are used (the town Jyllinge). The concentrations of benzo(a)pyrene in Jyllinge is almost three times higher than in the street H.C. Andersens Boulevard in Copenhagen. The concentrations of benzo(a)pyrene in Jylllinge are 0,6 ng/m3, which corresponds to the upper assessment threshold (0,6 ng/m3) and is 40% below the measuring value (1 ng/m3). On this basis, there is a need for re-evaluating the monitoring of PAH in the sub-programme for air under NOVANA. Measurements of PM{sub 10} showed that the levels in the towns Jyllinge, Lille Valby/Risoe and at the H.C. Oersted Institute in Copenhagen are all at about 20-22 mug/m3. (LN)

  8. The formation of aromatics and PAH's in laminar flames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinov, N M; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

    1999-01-01

    The formation of aromatics and PAH's is an important problem in combustion. These compounds are believed to contribute to the formation of soot whose emission from diesel engines is regulated widely throughout the industrial world. Additionally, the United States Environmental Protection Agency regulates the emission of many aromatics and PAH species from stationary industrial burners, under the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. The above emission regulations have created much interest in understanding how these species are formed in combustion systems. Much previous work has been done on aromatics and PAH's. The work is too extensive to review here, but is reviewed in Reference 1. A few recent developments are highlighted here. McEnally, Pfefferle and coworkers have studied aromatic, PAH and soot formation in a variety of non-premixed flames with hydrocarbon additives[2-4]. They found additives that contain a C5 ring increase the concentration of aromatics and soot[4]. Howard and coworkers have studied the formation of aromatic and PAH's in low pressure, premixed, laminar hydrocarbon flames. They found the cyclopentadienyl radical to be a key species in naphthalene formation in a fuel-rich, benzene/Ar/O2 flame[5

  9. The North Cape oil spill assessment: PAHs in oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.; Boehm, P. D.; Hardestine, J. H.; Douglas, G. S.

    1997-01-01

    The North Cape oil spill in January 1996 resulted in the release of an estimated 827,000 gallons of No. 2 home heating oil into the nearshore turbulent waters of coastal Rhode Island. The oil was mixed into the water column and was transported on the surface as well as below the surface. Some of the spilled oil entered the coastal ponds behind the beaches. Sampling and chemical analysis for detailed suites of petroleum saturated and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was undertaken as part of the assessment of the fate of the oil spill and of the exposure to the marine environment. The ponds were found to contain significant quantities of background petroleum hydrocarbons, including petrogenic PAHs and combustion PAHs. Initial assessment pointed (incorrectly as it turned out) to widespread contamination due only to the North Cape spill. Application of advanced chemical fingerprinting approaches, and geochemical biomarker data illustrated that many of the PAHs consisted of combustion-related 4- and 5-ringed PAHs, attributable to diesel fuel used routinely by boats in the area. The analysis demonstrated that the use of non-specific total PAH data and insufficient fingerprinting and allocation of petrogenic residues has the potential to overestimate contamination and hence injury to the environment in similar oil spill situations

  10. A directional passive air sampler for monitoring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in air mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, S.; Liu, Y.N.; Lang, C.; Wang, W.T.; Yuan, H.S.; Zhang, D.Y.; Qiu, W.X.; Liu, J.M.; Liu, Z.G.; Liu, S.Z.; Yi, R.; Ji, M.; Liu, X.X.

    2008-01-01

    A passive air sampler was developed for collecting polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in air mass from various directions. The airflow velocity within the sampler was assessed for its responses to ambient wind speed and direction. The sampler was examined for trapped particles, evaluated quantitatively for influence of airflow velocity and temperature on PAH uptake, examined for PAH uptake kinetics, calibrated against active sampling, and finally tested in the field. The airflow volume passing the sampler was linearly proportional to ambient wind speed and sensitive to wind direction. The uptake rate for an individual PAH was a function of airflow velocity, temperature and the octanol-air partitioning coefficient of the PAH. For all PAHs with more than two rings, the passive sampler operated in a linear uptake phase for three weeks. Different PAH concentrations were obtained in air masses from different directions in the field test. - A novel directional passive air sampler was developed and tested for monitoring PAHs in air masses from different directions

  11. Impact of clay mineral, wood sawdust or root organic matter on the bacterial and fungal community structures in two aged PAH-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cébron, Aurélie; Beguiristain, Thierry; Bongoua-Devisme, Jeanne; Denonfoux, Jérémie; Faure, Pierre; Lorgeoux, Catherine; Ouvrard, Stéphanie; Parisot, Nicolas; Peyret, Pierre; Leyval, Corinne

    2015-09-01

    The high organic pollutant concentration of aged polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated wasteland soils is highly recalcitrant to biodegradation due to its very low bioavailability. In such soils, the microbial community is well adapted to the pollution, but the microbial activity is limited by nutrient availability. Management strategies could be applied to modify the soil microbial functioning as well as the PAH contamination through various amendment types. The impact of amendment with clay minerals (montmorillonite), wood sawdust and organic matter plant roots on microbial community structure was investigated on two aged PAH-contaminated soils both in laboratory and 1-year on-site pot experiments. Total PAH content (sum of 16 PAHs of the US-EPA list) and polar polycyclic aromatic compounds (pPAC) were monitored as well as the available PAH fraction using the Tenax method. The bacterial and fungal community structures were monitored using fingerprinting thermal gradient gel electrophoresis (TTGE) method. The abundance of bacteria (16S rRNA genes), fungi (18S rRNA genes) and PAH degraders (PAH-ring hydroxylating dioxygenase and catechol dioxygenase genes) was followed through qPCR assays. Although the treatments did not modify the total and available PAH content, the microbial community density, structure and the PAH degradation potential changed when fresh organic matter was provided as sawdust and under rhizosphere influence, while the clay mineral only increased the percentage of catechol-1,2-dioxygenase genes. The abundance of bacteria and fungi and the percentage of fungi relative to bacteria were enhanced in soil samples supplemented with wood sawdust and in the plant rhizospheric soils. Two distinct fungal populations developed in the two soils supplemented with sawdust, i.e. fungi related to Chaetomium and Neurospora genera and Brachyconidiellopsis and Pseudallescheria genera, in H and NM soils respectively. Wood sawdust amendment favoured the

  12. Particulate matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a selected athletic hall: ambient concentrations, origin and effects on human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuskowska, Karolina; Rogula-Kozłowska, Wioletta; Rogula-Kopiec, Patrycja

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents the results of research on the concentration of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) associated with total suspended particles (TSP) and their respirable fraction (PM4) in one of the Warsaw sports halls. Samples of dust were collected for 15 days simultaneously inside and outside (atmospheric air) of the sports hall. The obtained data allowed calculating diagnostic ratios indicating the origin of the PAHs and selected indicators of cumulative exposure to the PAH mixture. Both PM and PAH in the surveyed area were derived from the combustion of solid fuels; this involved pollution both in the atmospheric air and in the air inside the sports hall. It has been shown that the exposure of sports hall users to PAHs is significantly higher than the exposure resulting from concentrations recorded in the atmospheric air.

  13. Cell size dependence of additive versus synergetic effects of UV radiation and PAHs on oceanic phytoplankton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echeveste, Pedro; Agusti, Susana; Dachs, Jordi

    2011-01-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons' (PAHs) toxicity is enhanced by the presence of ultraviolet radiation (UVR), which levels have arisen due to the thinning of the ozone layer. In this study, PAHs' phototoxicity for natural marine phytoplankton was tested. Different concentrations of a mixture of 16 PAHs were added to natural phytoplankton communities from the Mediterranean Sea, Atlantic, Arctic and Southern Oceans and exposed to natural sunlight received in situ, including treatments where the UVR bands were removed. PAHs' toxicity was observed for all the phytoplankton groups studied in all the waters and treatments tested, but only for the pico-sized group a synergetic effect of the mixture and UVR was observed (p = 0.009). When comparing phototoxicity in phytoplankton from oligotrophic and eutrophic waters, synergy was only observed at the oligotrophic communities (p = 0.02) where pico-sized phytoplankton dominated. The degree of sensitivity was related to the trophic degree, decreasing as Chlorophyll a concentration increased. - Highlights: → The smallest picocyanobacteria were the most sensitive to PAHs and UVR. → PAHs-UVR synergism for the picophytoplankton and the oligotrophic communities. → PAHs-UVR additivity for the nanophytoplankton and the eutrophic communities. → An irradiance threshold is suggested to determine the joint action of UVR and PAHs. - Cell size and UVR levels determine additive/synergetic effects of PAHs and UVR to oceanic phytoplankton.

  14. PAH growth initiated by propargyl addition: Mechanism development and computational kinetics

    KAUST Repository

    Raj, Abhijeet Dhayal

    2014-04-24

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) growth is known to be the principal pathway to soot formation during fuel combustion, as such, a physical understanding of the PAH growth mechanism is needed to effectively assess, predict, and control soot formation in flames. Although the hydrogen abstraction C2H2 addition (HACA) mechanism is believed to be the main contributor to PAH growth, it has been shown to under-predict some of the experimental data on PAHs and soot concentrations in flames. This article presents a submechanism of PAH growth that is initiated by propargyl (C 3H3) addition onto naphthalene (A2) and the naphthyl radical. C3H3 has been chosen since it is known to be a precursor of benzene in combustion and has appreciable concentrations in flames. This mechanism has been developed up to the formation of pyrene (A4), and the temperature-dependent kinetics of each elementary reaction has been determined using density functional theory (DFT) computations at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory and transition state theory (TST). H-abstraction, H-addition, H-migration, β-scission, and intramolecular addition reactions have been taken into account. The energy barriers of the two main pathways (H-abstraction and H-addition) were found to be relatively small if not negative, whereas the energy barriers of the other pathways were in the range of (6-89 kcal·mol-1). The rates reported in this study may be extrapolated to larger PAH molecules that have a zigzag site similar to that in naphthalene, and the mechanism presented herein may be used as a complement to the HACA mechanism to improve prediction of PAH and soot formation. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  15. Temporal variability of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a receptor site of the Puebla-Tlaxcala Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Z. V.; Torres, R.; Ruiz Suarez, L.; Molina, L. T.

    2013-05-01

    This contribution documents the presence and possible origin of PAHs, their temporal concentration patterns and correlations with other air pollutants in the so-called Puebla-Tlaxcala valley. This valley is located to the east of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area and is a very populated region which suffers of air pollution problems. Emission sources of PAHs include open burning, industrial boilers, automobiles and trucks, but vehicle emissions vary significantly depending on the use of: fuel, engine type and catalytic converter. An important emission source in the Puebla-Tlaxcala region is wood burning for cooking. Therefore, it is expected to have contributions of PAHS from this type of sources. PAHs measurements were performed in an air pollution semi-rural receptor site (Chipilo) southwest the City of Puebla, using an aerosol photoelectric sensor (PAS 2000 CE) to measure the concentration of PAHs and a diffuser charger (DC 2000 CE) to evaluate the active surface (DC) of the particles. The measuring period included March and April of 2012 during the ozne season in central Mexico. The use of these two sensors in parallel has been identified as a fingerprint technique to identify different types of particles from several combustion processes and is a useful tool to identify quantitatively the major source of emissions, as well as to describe thephysical and chemical characteristics of the particles. Correlations between PAHs and DC, with NOx and CO, together with an analysis of atmospheric transport may approximate the possible origin of these particles. The coefficient PAHs / DC associated with backward trajectory analysis represents a tool to identify potential areas of emission. The correlation between PAHs and NOx emissions reflects association with diesel combustion, while the correlation between PAHs and CO, the combustion of gasoline. The results show that vehicle emissions are the major source of PAHs with an associated increase in the concentration of

  16. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Levels in Two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentrations were measured by gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC/FID) in two fish species, Sardinella maderensis (Flat sardinella) and Galeoides decadactylus (Lesser African threadfin or Shine-nose or Common threadfin) from Ghanaian coastal waters and ...

  17. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in indoor dusts of Guizhou, southwest of China: status, sources and potential human health risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Yang

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were analyzed for 136 indoor dust samples collected from Guizhou province, southwest of China. The ∑18PAHs concentrations ranged from 2.18 μg•g-1 to 14.20 μg•g-1 with the mean value of 6.78 μg•g-1. The highest Σ18PAHs concentration was found in dust samples from orefields, followed by city, town and village. Moreover, the mean concentration of Σ18PAHs in indoor dust was at least 10% higher than that of outdoors. The 4-6 rings PAHs, contributing more than 70% of ∑18PAHs, were the dominant species. PAHs ratios, principal component analysis with multiple linear regression (PCA-MLR and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA were applied to evaluate the possible sources. Two major origins of PAHs in indoor dust were identified as vehicle emissions and coal combustion. The mean incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR due to human exposure to indoor dust PAHs in city, town, village and orefield of Guizhou province, China was 6.14×10-6, 5.00×10-6, 3.08×10-6, 6.02×10-6 for children and 5.92×10-6, 4.83×10-6, 2.97×10-6, 5.81×10-6 for adults, respectively.

  18. Priming effects on PAH degradation and ecotoxicity during a phytoremediation experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joner, Erik J.; Hirmann, Doris; Szolar, Oliver H.J.; Todorovic, Dragana; Leyval, Corinne; Loibner, Andreas P.

    2004-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to distinguish priming effects from the effects of phytoremediation of a creosote-polluted soil. The concentration of 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and their combined soil toxicity (using four bioassays), was determined on recently excavated, homogenized soil and on such soil subjected to a time-course phytoremediation experiment with lucerne. The results showed a high priming effect, with minor positive and synergistic effects of planting and fertilization on PAH degradation rates. At the end of the experiment, PAH degradation reached 86% of the initial 519 mg PAHs kg -1 . Two of the four toxicity tests (bioluminescence inhibition and ostracod growth inhibition) corroborated the chemical data for residual PAHs, and indicated a significant reduction in soil toxicity. We conclude that priming effects can easily surpass treatment effects, and that an unintentional pre-incubation that ignores these effects can jeopardize the full quantitative assessment of in situ bioremediation of contaminated soil. - Priming effects during set-up of bioremediation laboratory experiments may largely surpass treatment effects

  19. Pristine Arctic: Background mapping of PAHs, PAH metabolites and inorganic trace elements in the North-Atlantic Arctic and sub-Arctic coastal environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jörundsdóttir, Hrönn Ólína, E-mail: hronn.o.jorundsdottir@matis.is [Matis Ltd., Icelandic Food and Biotech R and D, Vinlandsleid 12, 113 Reykjavik (Iceland); Jensen, Sophie [Matis Ltd., Icelandic Food and Biotech R and D, Vinlandsleid 12, 113 Reykjavik (Iceland); Hylland, Ketil; Holth, Tor Fredrik [Department of Biosciences, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1066 Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); Gunnlaugsdóttir, Helga [Matis Ltd., Icelandic Food and Biotech R and D, Vinlandsleid 12, 113 Reykjavik (Iceland); Svavarsson, Jörundur [University of Iceland, Department of Life and Environmental Sciences, Askja - Natural Science Building, Sturlugata 7, 101 Reykjavík (Iceland); Ólafsdóttir, Ásdís [The University of Iceland´s Research Centre in Sudurnes, Gardvegi 1, 245 Sandgerdi (Iceland); El-Taliawy, Haitham [Matis Ltd., Icelandic Food and Biotech R and D, Vinlandsleid 12, 113 Reykjavik (Iceland); Rigét, Frank; Strand, Jakob [Department of Bioscience, Arctic Research Centre, Aarhus University, Frederiksborgvej 399, PO Box 358, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Nyberg, Elisabeth; Bignert, Anders [Swedish Museum of Natural History, P.O. Box 50007, 104 05 Stockholm (Sweden); Hoydal, Katrin S. [The Faroese Environment Agency, Traðagøta 38, P.O. Box 2048, FO-165 Argir, the Faroe Islands (Faroe Islands); Halldórsson, Halldór Pálmar [The University of Iceland´s Research Centre in Sudurnes, Gardvegi 1, 245 Sandgerdi (Iceland)

    2014-09-15

    As the ice cap of the Arctic diminishes due to global warming, the polar sailing route will be open larger parts of the year. These changes are likely to increase the pollution load on the pristine Arctic due to large vessel traffic from specific contaminant groups, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). A well-documented baseline for PAH concentrations in the biota in the remote regions of the Nordic Seas and the sub-Arctic is currently limited, but will be vital in order to assess future changes in PAH contamination in the region. Blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) were collected from remote sites in Greenland, Iceland, the Faroe Islands, Norway and Sweden as well as from urban sites in the same countries for comparison. Cod (Gadus morhua) was caught north of Iceland and along the Norwegian coast. Sixteen priority PAH congeners and the inorganic trace elements arsenic, cadmium, mercury and lead were analysed in the blue mussel samples as well as PAH metabolites in cod bile. Σ{sub 16}PAHs ranged from 28 ng/g dry weight (d.w.) (Álftafjörður, NW Iceland) to 480 ng/g d.w. (Ísafjörður, NW Iceland). Mussel samples from Mjóifjörður, East Iceland and Maarmorilik, West Greenland, contained elevated levels of Σ{sub 16}PAHs, 370 and 280 ng/g d.w., respectively. Levels of inorganic trace elements varied with highest levels of arsenic in mussels from Ísafjörður, Iceland (79 ng/g d.w.), cadmium in mussels from Mjóifjörður, Iceland (4.3 ng/g d.w.), mercury in mussels from Sørenfjorden, Norway (0.23 ng/g d.w.) and lead in mussels from Maarmorilik, Greenland (21 ng/g d.w.). 1-OH-pyrene was only found above limits of quantification (0.5 ng/mL) in samples from the Norwegian coast, ranging between 44 and 140 ng/ml bile. Generally, PAH levels were low in mussels from the remote sites investigated in the study, which indicates limited current effect on the environment. - Highlights: • Low levels of PAHs in blue mussels from remote areas of the Arctic. • Low

  20. Contamination characteristics and source apportionment of methylated PAHs in agricultural soils from Yangtze River Delta, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Weixiao; Wu, Xinyi; Zhang, Haiyun; Sun, Jianteng; Liu, Wenxin; Zhu, Lizhong; Li, Xiangdong; Tsang, Daniel C.W.; Tao, Shu; Wang, Xilong

    2017-01-01

    Alkylated PAHs (APAHs) have been shown to be more toxic and persistent than their non-alkylated parent compounds. However, little is known about the extent of soil contamination by these pollutants. To help understand agricultural soil pollution by these compounds at a regional scale, a total of 18 methylated PAHs (MPAHs, a major class of APAHs) in 243 soil samples were analyzed. These soil samples were collected from 11 sites in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region, a representative fast developing area in China. The total concentration of MPAHs (∑18MPAHs) ranged from 5.5 to 696.2 ng/g dry soil, with methylnaphthalenes (M-NAPs) and methylphenanthrenes (M-PHEs) accounting for more than 70% of the compositional profile. Relatively high concentrations of ∑18MPAHs were found in Jiaxing and Huzhou areas of Zhejiang province, as well as on the border between the cities of Wuxi and Suzhou. Different MPAH groups showed dissimilar spatial distribution patterns. The spatial distribution of lower molecular weight MPAHs was related to agricultural straw burning and emissions/depositions from industrial activities, whereas that of higher molecular weight MPAHs was much more a function of the total organic carbon (TOC) content of soil. Although coal, biomass (crop straw and wood), and petroleum combustion were identified to be the major emission sources for most of the sampling sites, the areas with relatively severe pollution with ∑18MPAHs resulted from the localized hotspots of petroleum leakage. Isomeric MPAHs with methyl group substituted at 2- (β) position exhibited significantly higher concentrations than those substituted at 1- (α) position. Results of this work help to understand soil pollution by MPAHs, and are useful for designing effective strategies for pollution control so as to ensure food safety in areas with fast economic growth. - Highlights: • Several 2–4 rings methyl-PAHs were investigated in soils from Yangtze River Delta. • Higher levels of

  1. PAHs underfoot: contaminated dust from coal-tar sealcoated pavement is widespread in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter C. Van Metre; Barbara J. Mahler; Jennifer T. Wilson [U.S. Geological Survey, Austin, TX (USA)

    2009-01-15

    We reported in 2005 that runoff from parking lots treated with coal-tar-based sealcoat was a major source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to streams in Austin, Texas. Here we present new data from nine U.S. cities that show nationwide patterns in concentrations of {Sigma}PAHs associated with sealcoat. Dust was swept from parking lots in six cities in the central and eastern U.S., where coal-tar-based sealcoat dominates use, and three cities in the western U.S., where asphalt-based sealcoat dominates use. For six central and eastern cities, median SPAH concentrations in dust from sealcoated and unsealcoated pavement are 2200 and 27 mg/kg, respectively. For three western cities, median SPAH concentrations in dust from sealcoated and unsealcoated pavement are similar and very low (2.1 and 0.8 mg/kg, respectively). Lakes in the central and eastern cities where pavement was sampled have bottom sediments with higher PAH concentrations than do those in the western cities relative to degree of urbanization. Bottom-sediment PAH assemblages are similar to those of sealcoated pavement dust regionally, implicating coal-tar-based sealcoat as a PAH source to the central and eastern lakes. Concentrations of benzo(a)pyrene in dust from coal-tar sealcoated pavement and adjacent soils greatly exceed generic soil screening levels, suggesting that research on human-health risk is warranted. 30 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Hot gas cleaning in power stations by using electron beam technology. Influence on PAH emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callen, M.S.; de la Cruz, M.T.; Mastral, A.M.; Murillo, R.; Marinov, S.; Stefanova, M.

    2007-01-01

    The Electron Beam Technology (EBT), proven treatment for SO 2 and NO x removal, is applied to different power stations as a hot gas cleaning system. In this paper, an assessment of this technique installed in a Bulgarian power station on organic emissions is analyzed. The Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) content, not only emitted in the gas phase but also trapped in the solid phase, has been carried out before and after the irradiation. The main aim has been to know whether the EBT affects organic emissions, like PAH, as it happens with inorganic pollutants, like SO 2 and NO x , studying EBT effects from an organic environmental point of view. The PAH quantification was performed by using a very sensitive analytical technique, gas chromatography with mass spectrometry mass spectrometry detection (GC-MS-MS). Results showed that PAH are influenced by the EBT showing a reduction of the most volatile PAH in the gas phase. With regard to the solid by-products obtained after the irradiation, fertilizers, similar PAH concentration to the fly ashes produced when no irradiation is applied were found. These fertilizers were considered like unpolluted soils being adequate for agriculture applications with PAH concentrations below the target value set up by the Dutch government. (author)

  3. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediment samples of Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) installation area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Juliana C.; Martins, Elâine A.J.; Cotrim, Marycel E.B.; Pires, Maria A.F., E-mail: elaine@ipen.br, E-mail: mecotrim@ipen.br, E-mail: mapires@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    RMB will be a nuclear reactor for research and production of radioisotopes. Its applications extend to agriculture, industry and the environment. With the changes that will occur in the study area by its construction, the flow of vehicles will increase. It is known that one of the largest anthropogenic sources of PAHs is from the burning of fossil fuels and biomass. The aim of this research was to identify and quantify 14 of the 16 majorities PAHs in the sediment samples at RMB installations area in a period before the enterprise construction, June 2017, using the methodology developed and validated by Brito, 2009. It was observed individual concentrations from 0.05 to 1.11 μg g{sup -1} in this first evaluation indicating that, although were found some PAHs concentrations above the established values by CONAMA and CETESB, this area still remains preserved. Pyrene was the compound that had the highest concentrations at different collecting points (1.11±0.03 and 1.09±0.02 μg g{sup -1}). Although were observed some PAHs concentrations above the established values by CONAMA and CETESB, the area is preserved. The study will provide previous information on PAHs concentrations in the area of the enterprise, providing information for the environmental impact study after the construction of the enterprise. (author)

  4. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediment samples of Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) installation area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Juliana C.; Martins, Elâine A.J.; Cotrim, Marycel E.B.; Pires, Maria A.F.

    2017-01-01

    RMB will be a nuclear reactor for research and production of radioisotopes. Its applications extend to agriculture, industry and the environment. With the changes that will occur in the study area by its construction, the flow of vehicles will increase. It is known that one of the largest anthropogenic sources of PAHs is from the burning of fossil fuels and biomass. The aim of this research was to identify and quantify 14 of the 16 majorities PAHs in the sediment samples at RMB installations area in a period before the enterprise construction, June 2017, using the methodology developed and validated by Brito, 2009. It was observed individual concentrations from 0.05 to 1.11 μg g -1 in this first evaluation indicating that, although were found some PAHs concentrations above the established values by CONAMA and CETESB, this area still remains preserved. Pyrene was the compound that had the highest concentrations at different collecting points (1.11±0.03 and 1.09±0.02 μg g -1 ). Although were observed some PAHs concentrations above the established values by CONAMA and CETESB, the area is preserved. The study will provide previous information on PAHs concentrations in the area of the enterprise, providing information for the environmental impact study after the construction of the enterprise. (author)

  5. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Hopanes in Plastic Resin Pellets as Markers of Oil Pollution via International Pellet Watch Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Bee Geok; Takada, Hideshige; Hosoda, Junki; Kondo, Atsuko; Yamashita, Rei; Saha, Mahua; Maes, Thomas

    2017-08-01

    Oil pollution in the marine environment is an unavoidable problem due to chronic input from local sources, particularly in urban areas and oil spills. Oil pollution not only causes immediate physical damages to surrounding wildlife but also some components, including higher molecular weight PAHs, can persist in the environment for many years and pose insidious threats to the ecosystem. Long-term and nontargeted monitoring of oil pollution is important. This paper examines the ability of International Pellet Watch (IPW) for initial identification and monitoring of oil pollution by analysing PAHs and hopanes in plastic pellet samples collected globally by volunteers. PAH concentrations with the sum of 28 parent and methyl PAHs vary geographically, ranging from 0.035 to 24.4 µg/g-pellet, in line with the presence or absence of local oil pollution sources, such as oil refineries or oil spill sites. This suggests that PAHs can be used to monitor petroleum pollution in IPW. A colour-coded categorization for PAH concentrations within IPW monitoring also is established to facilitate data presentation and understanding. PAH concentrations are generally higher in Western Europe, especially around the North Sea shorelines, moderate in East Asia and North America, and lower in South East Asia, Oceania, South America, and Africa. Hopane concentrations, with a smaller spatial variation (1.7-101 µg/g-pellet), showed no spatial pattern. This result and the poor correlation between hopanes and PAHs suggest that hopane concentrations alone are unsuited to identify petroleum pollution. However, hopane compositions can be used for fingerprinting sources of oil pollution. Thus, both PAHs and hopanes in IPW allow for low cost, remote monitoring of global oil pollution.

  6. Fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the rhizosphere and myco-rhizosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leyval, C.; Beguiristain, T.; Corgie, S.; Joner, E.

    2005-01-01

    Organic pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) can reach high concentrations in soils due to man-made pollution related to industrial, agricultural or urban activities. Such concentrations can reach toxic values and create major environmental and health problems. One of the first entry point of pollutants in plant ecosystems is the rhizosphere, defined as the soil under the influence of roots. In the rhizosphere, the plant release root exudates, feeding soil microorganisms, and take up water and nutrients. Among the rhizosphere inhabitants, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are ubiquitous root symbiotic fungi, contributing to plant growth and plant nutrition. In PAH-polluted soils, biodegradation of PAH increases, which is attributed to increased microbial activity in the rhizosphere..We studied the contribution of the rhizosphere of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants to the biodegradation of PAH in the rhizosphere, taking into account microbial community structure. Different experiments were performed with industrial contaminated soils and PAH-spiked soils, in pot cultures as well as compartmented devices allowing to analyze rhizosphere processes in consecutive sections as a function of distance to roots. Clover and ryegrass, inoculated or not with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae were used.. After different time periods, plants were harvested, biomass and mycorrhizal root colonization were estimated. Microbial Density of microbial heterotrophs and of degrading bacteria was estimated by MPN techniques in micro-plates. Microbial community structure was estimated by DNA extraction from the rhizosphere, amplification by PCR and analysed by TGGE (temperature gradient gel electrophoresis), or by PLFA (phospholipid fatty acid analysis). PAH in soil were extracted by Soxhlet and analysed by GC-MS. We showed that the concentration of PAH increased with the distance to roots (Corgie et al, 2003) and was lower in the myco

  7. Time trends in the levels and patterns of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in pine bark, litter, and soil after a forest fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung-Deuk

    2014-02-01

    Forest fires are known as an important natural source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), but time trends of PAH levels and patterns in various environmental compartments after forest fires have not been thoroughly studied yet. In this study, 16 US-EPA priority PAHs were analyzed for pine bark, litter, and soil samples collected one, three, five, and seven months after a forest fire in Pohang, South Korea. At the first sampling event, the highest levels of ∑16 PAHs were measured for the three types of samples (pine bark: 5,920 ng/g, litter: 1,540 ng/g, and soil: 133 ng/g). Thereafter, there were apparent decreasing trends in PAH levels; the control samples showed the lowest levels (pine bark: 124 ng/g, litter: 75 ng/g, and soil: 26 ng/g). The levels of PAHs in the litter and soil samples normalized by organic carbon (OC) fractions also showed decreasing trends, indicating a direct influence of the forest fire. Among the 16 target PAHs, naphthalene was a dominant compound for all types of samples. Light PAHs with 2-4 rings significantly contributed to the total concentration, and their contribution decreased in the course of time. Runoff by heavy precipitation, evaporation, and degradation of PAHs in the summer were probably the main reasons for the observed time trends. The results of principal component analysis (PCA) and diagnostic ratio also supported that the forest fire was indeed an important source of PAHs in the study area. © 2013.

  8. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH Exposure and DNA Adduct Semi-Quantitation in Archived Human Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Margaret Pratt

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are combustion products of organic materials, mixtures of which contain multiple known and probable human carcinogens. PAHs occur in indoor and outdoor air, as well as in char-broiled meats and fish. Human exposure to PAHs occurs by inhalation, ingestion and topical absorption, and subsequently formed metabolites are either rendered hydrophilic and excreted, or bioactivated and bound to cellular macromolecules. The formation of PAH-DNA adducts (DNA binding products, considered a necessary step in PAH-initiated carcinogenesis, has been widely studied in experimental models and has been documented in human tissues. This review describes immunohistochemistry (IHC studies, which reveal localization of PAH-DNA adducts in human tissues, and semi-quantify PAH-DNA adduct levels using the Automated Cellular Imaging System (ACIS. These studies have shown that PAH-DNA adducts concentrate in: basal and supra-basal epithelium of the esophagus, cervix and vulva; glandular epithelium of the prostate; and cytotrophoblast cells and syncitiotrophoblast knots of the placenta. The IHC photomicrographs reveal the ubiquitous nature of PAH-DNA adduct formation in human tissues as well as PAH-DNA adduct accumulation in specific, vulnerable, cell types. This semi-quantative method for PAH-DNA adduct measurement could potentially see widespread use in molecular epidemiology studies.

  9. Interstellar dehydrogenated PAH anions: vibrational spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buragohain, Mridusmita; Pathak, Amit; Sarre, Peter; Gour, Nand Kishor

    2018-03-01

    Interstellar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules exist in diverse forms depending on the local physical environment. Formation of ionized PAHs (anions and cations) is favourable in the extreme conditions of the interstellar medium (ISM). Besides in their pure form, PAHs are also likely to exist in substituted forms; for example, PAHs with functional groups, dehydrogenated PAHs etc. A dehydrogenated PAH molecule might subsequently form fullerenes in the ISM as a result of ongoing chemical processes. This work presents a density functional theory (DFT) calculation on dehydrogenated PAH anions to explore the infrared emission spectra of these molecules and discuss any possible contribution towards observed IR features in the ISM. The results suggest that dehydrogenated PAH anions might be significantly contributing to the 3.3 μm region. Spectroscopic features unique to dehydrogenated PAH anions are highlighted that may be used for their possible identification in the ISM. A comparison has also been made to see the size effect on spectra of these PAHs.

  10. 1-hydroxypyrene as a biomarker of PAH exposure in the marine invertebrates N. diversicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tairova, Zhanna; Giessing, Anders; Hansen, Rikke

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous, persistent and toxic contaminants in the marine environment. Uptake of PAHs by marine deposit-feeding invertebrates can be determined by screening for PAH-derived metabolites. Methods for detection and quantification of PAH metabolites may...... invertebrates is on the other hand practically non-existing. The present study investigated formation of pyrene metabolites in the marine polychaete Nereis diversicolor, with special attention given to the detection of 1-hydroxypyrene. 1-hydroxypyrene was identified in tissues of Nereis diversicolor exposed...... this context the usefulness of SFS for identification and quantification was explored. Considering the complex composition of environmental PAH pollution, before the 1-hydoxypyrene in tissues of exposed marine invertebrates can be regarded as a suitable biomarker for assessing total PAH exposure...

  11. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides in water columns from the Pearl River and the Macao harbor in the Pearl River Delta in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiaojun; Mai, Bixian; Yang, Qingshu; Fu, Jiamo; Sheng, Guoying; Wang, Zhishi

    2004-06-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were measured in suspended particles and dissolved phase from the Baiertang water column and the Macao water column samples as collected from the Guangzhou channel of the Pearl River and the Macao harbor, where the sediments were heavily contaminated with organic pollutants. Total OCPs concentration varies from 23.4 to 61.7 ng/l in Baiertang water column and from 25.2 to 67.8 ng/l in Macao column, while total PAHs concentration varies from 987.1 to 2878.5 ng/l in the Baiertang water column and from 944.0 to 6654.6 ng/l in the Macao column. The vertical distribution profiles of pollutants and the partition of pollutants between particles and dissolved phases indicate that the sediments in Baiertang act as an important source of selected pollutants, and the pollutants in water of this region were mainly originated from the release and re-suspension of contaminants residing in the sediments. The sediments in Macao harbor act as a reservoir for organochlorine pesticides, such as DDTs mainly introduced by river inflow from Xijiang and PAHs input by brackish water from the Lingdingyang estuary. Combustion of fossil fuels and petroleum input are the main sources of PAHs in the Macao water column, while combustion of fossil fuels and coal is responsible for the PAHs in the Baiertang water column. The ratios of DDT/(DDD+DDE) for the Macao water column samples demonstrate that such chemicals were input into this region in recent times.

  12. Genetic study of the PAH locus in the Iranian population: familial gene mutations and minihaplotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razipour, Masoumeh; Alavinejad, Elaheh; Sajedi, Seyede Zahra; Talebi, Saeed; Entezam, Mona; Mohajer, Neda; Kazemi-Sefat, Golnaz-Ensieh; Gharesouran, Jalal; Setoodeh, Aria; Mohaddes Ardebili, Seyyed Mojtaba; Keramatipour, Mohammad

    2017-10-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU), one of the most common inborn errors of amino acid metabolism, is caused by mutations in the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene (PAH). PKU has wide allelic heterogeneity, and over 600 different disease-causing mutations in PAH have been detected to date. Up to now, there have been no reports on the minihaplotype (VNTR/STR) analysis of PAH locus in the Iranian population. The aims of the present study were to determine PAH mutations and minihaplotypes in Iranian families with PAH deficiency and to investigate the correlation between them. A total of 81 Iranian families with PAH deficiency were examined using PCR-sequencing of all 13 PAH exons and their flanking intron regions to identify sequence variations. Fragment analysis of the PAH minihaplotypes was performed by capillary electrophoresis for 59 families. In our study, 33 different mutations were found accounting for 95% of the total mutant alleles. The majority of these mutations (72%) were distributed across exons 7, 11, 2 and their flanking intronic regions. Mutation c.1066-11G > A was the most common with a frequency of 20.37%. The less frequent mutations, p.Arg261Gln (8%), p.Arg243Ter (7.4%), p.Leu48Ser (7.4%), p.Lys363Asnfs*37 (6.79%), c.969 + 5G > A (6.17%), p.Pro281Leu (5.56), c.168 + 5G > C (5.56), and p.Arg261Ter (4.94) together comprised about 52% of all mutant alleles. In this study, a total of seventeen PAH gene minihaplotypes were detected, six of which associated exclusively with particular mutations. Our findings indicate a broad PAH mutation spectrum in the Iranian population, which is consistent with previous studies reporting a wide range of PAH mutations, most likely due to ethnic heterogeneity. High prevalence of c.1066-11G > A mutation linked to minihaplotype 7/250 among both Iranian and Mediterranean populations is indicative of historical and geographical links between them. Also, strong association between particular mutations and minihaplotypes

  13. PAHs in leachates from thermal power plant wastes and ash-based construction materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irha, Natalya; Reinik, Janek; Jefimova, Jekaterina; Koroljova, Arina; Raado, Lembi-Merike; Hain, Tiina; Uibu, Mai; Kuusik, Rein

    2015-08-01

    The focus of the current study is to characterise the leaching behaviour of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from oil shale ashes (OSAs) of pulverised firing (PF) and circulating fluidised-bed (CFB) boilers from Estonian Thermal Power Plant (Estonia) as well as from mortars and concrete based on OSAs. The target substances were 16 PAHs from the EPA priority pollutant list. OSA samples and OSA-based mortars were tested for leaching, according to European standard EN 12457-2 (2002). European standard CEN/TC 15862(2012) for monolithic matter was used for OSA-based concrete. Water extracts were analysed by GC-MS for the concentration of PAHs. Naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene and pyrene were detected. Still, the release of PAHs was below the threshold limit value for inert waste. The amount of the finest fraction (particle size materials did not lead to the immobilisation of soluble PAHs. Release of PAHs from the monolith samples did not exceed 0.5 μg/m(2). In terms of leaching of PAHs, OSA is safe to be used for construction purposes.

  14. Characterization of PAHs and metals in indoor/outdoor PM10/PM2.5/PM1 in a retirement home and a school dormitory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanvand, Mohammad Sadegh; Naddafi, Kazem; Faridi, Sasan; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Sowlat, Mohammad Hossein; Momeniha, Fatemeh; Gholampour, Akbar; Arhami, Mohammad; Kashani, Homa; Zare, Ahad; Niazi, Sadegh; Rastkari, Noushin; Nazmara, Shahrokh; Ghani, Maryam; Yunesian, Masud

    2015-09-15

    In the present work, we investigated the characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and metal(loid)s in indoor/outdoor PM10, PM2.5, and PM1 in a retirement home and a school dormitory in Tehran from May 2012 to May 2013. The results indicated that the annual levels of indoor and outdoor PM10 and PM2.5 were much higher than the guidelines issued by the World Health Organization (WHO). The most abundant detected metal(loid)s in PM were Si, Fe, Zn, Al, and Pb. We found higher percentages of metal(loid)s in smaller size fractions of PM. Additionally, the results showed that the total PAHsPAHs) bound to PM were predominantly (83-88%) found in PM2.5, which can penetrate deep into the alveolar regions of the lungs. In general, carcinogenic PAHs accounted for 40-47% of the total PAHs concentrations; furthermore, the smaller the particle size, the higher the percentage of carcinogenic PAHs. The percentages of trace metal(loid)s and carcinogenic PAHs in PM2.5 mass were almost twice as high as those in PM10. This can most likely be responsible for the fact that PM2.5 can cause more adverse health effects than PM10 can. The average BaP-equivalent carcinogenic (BaP-TEQ) levels both indoors and outdoors considerably exceeded the maximum permissible risk level of 1 ng/m(3) of BaP. The enrichment factors and diagnostic ratios indicated that combustion-related anthropogenic sources, such as gasoline- and diesel-fueled vehicles as well as natural gas combustion, were the major sources of PAHs and trace metal(loid)s bound to PM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Seasonal variation, risk assessment and source estimation of PM 10 and PM10-bound PAHs in the ambient air of Chiang Mai and Lamphun, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengchai, Petch; Chantara, Somporn; Sopajaree, Khajornsak; Wangkarn, Sunanta; Tengcharoenkul, Urai; Rayanakorn, Mongkon

    2009-07-01

    Daily PM10 concentrations were measured at four sampling stations located in Chiang Mai and Lamphun provinces, Thailand. The sampling scheme was conducted during June 2005 to June 2006; every 3 days for 24 h in each sampling period. The result revealed that all stations shared the same pattern, in which the PM10 (particulate matters with diameter of less than 10 microm) concentration increased at the beginning of dry season (December) and reached its peak in March before decreasing by the end of April. The maximum PM10 concentration for each sampling station was in the range of 140-182 microg/m(3) which was 1.1-1.5 times higher than the Thai ambient air quality standard of 120 microg/m(3). This distinctly high concentration of PM10 in the dry season (Dec. 05-Mar. 06) was recognized as a unique seasonal pattern for the northern part of Thailand. PM10 concentration had a medium level of negative correlation (r = -0.696 to -0.635) with the visibility data. Comparing the maximum PM10 concentration detected at each sampling station to the permitted PM10 level of the national air quality standard, the warning visibility values for the PM10 pollution-watch system were determined as 10 km for Chiang Mai Province and 5 km for Lamphun Province. From the analysis of PM10 constituents, no component exceeded the national air quality standard. The total concentrations of PM10-bond polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are calculated in terms of total toxicity equivalent concentrations (TTECs) using the toxicity equivalent factors (TEFs) method. TTECs in Chiang Mai and Lamphun ambient air was found at a level comparable to those observed in Nagasaki, Bangkok and Rome and at a lower level than those reported at Copenhagen. The annual number of lung cancer cases for Chiang Mai and Lamphun Provinces was estimated at two cases/year which was lower than the number of cases in Bangkok (27 cases/year). The principal component analysis/absolute principal component scores (PCA

  16. Reduction of Ferrrihydrite and Akaganeite by Shewanella alga (PAH93)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, M.; Kim, Y.; Lee, Y.; Kwon, K.; Roh, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Shewanella species are capable of oxidizing diverse organic acids coupled to reducing Fe(III) (oxy)hydroxides to crystalline Fe(II)-containing phases such as magnetite, siderite, and vivianite. The objective of this study was to examine reduction of ferrihydrite and akaganeite as the electron acceptors using various organic acids as the electron donors by Shewanella alga (PAH93) isolated from Yeosu, South Korea. Microbial reduction of akaganeite (40 mM) and ferrihydrite (40 mM) was examined using acetate (10 mM), glucose (10 mM), and lactate (10 mM) as electron donors at room temperature. Ferrozine method was used to analyze both water soluble and HCl soluble Fe(II) concentrations during the microbial Fe(III) reduction. XRD and TEM-EDX analyses were used to characterize biominerals formed by PAH93. PAH93 was completely reduced ferrihydrite to Fe(II), which transformed as siderite (FeCO3). PAH93 was oxidized acetate, glucose, and lactate coupled to reducing akaganeite to magnetite or green rust. Microbial reduction of ferrihydrite resulted in higher soluble Fe(II) concentration (446 - 498 mg/L) than the reduction of akaganeite (255 - 284 mg/L) within 6 days of incubation. For 21 days of incubation, souble Fe(II) concentration during akaganeite reduction (945 - 1316 mg/L) was higher than ferrihydrite reduction (120 - 738 mg/L). It may be attributed to the differences of crystallinity of the iron minerals used for microbial iron reduction. This study indicates types of the electron acceptors, ferrihydrite and akaganeite, affect Fe(II) reduction rate and types of the biotransformed minerals.

  17. Particulate matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a selected athletic hall: ambient concentrations, origin and effects on human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuskowska Karolina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of research on the concentration of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs associated with total suspended particles (TSP and their respirable fraction (PM4 in one of the Warsaw sports halls. Samples of dust were collected for 15 days simultaneously inside and outside (atmospheric air of the sports hall. The obtained data allowed calculating diagnostic ratios indicating the origin of the PAHs and selected indicators of cumulative exposure to the PAH mixture. Both PM and PAH in the surveyed area were derived from the combustion of solid fuels; this involved pollution both in the atmospheric air and in the air inside the sports hall. It has been shown that the exposure of sports hall users to PAHs is significantly higher than the exposure resulting from concentrations recorded in the atmospheric air.

  18. Refractometric total protein concentrations in icteric serum from dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Aradhana; Stockham, Steven L

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether high serum bilirubin concentrations interfere with the measurement of serum total protein concentration by refractometry and to assess potential biases among refractometer measurements. Evaluation study. Sera from 2 healthy Greyhounds. Bilirubin was dissolved in 0.1M NaOH, and the resulting solution was mixed with sera from 2 dogs from which food had been withheld to achieve various bilirubin concentrations up to 40 mg/dL. Refractometric total protein concentrations were estimated with 3 clinical refractometers. A biochemical analyzer was used to measure biuret assay-based total protein and bilirubin concentrations with spectrophotometric assays. No interference with refractometric measurement of total protein concentrations was detected with bilirubin concentrations up to 41.5 mg/dL. Biases in refractometric total protein concentrations were detected and were related to the conversion of refractive index values to total protein concentrations. Hyperbilirubinemia did not interfere with the refractometric estimation of serum total protein concentration. The agreement among total protein concentrations estimated by 3 refractometers was dependent on the method of conversion of refractive index to total protein concentration and was independent of hyperbilirubinemia.

  19. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in the sediments of east coast peninsular Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Suhaimi Elias; Abdul Khalik Wood; Zaleha Hashim; Wee Boon Siong; Mohd Suhaimi Hamzah; Shamsiah Abdul Rahman; Nazaratul Ashifa Abdullah Salim; Ariffin Talib

    2007-01-01

    The polycyclic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are pollutants of concern due to their persistent in the marine ecosystem, thus its can cause long-term adverse effect to the marine life. In this study the concentrations of PAHs in east coast Peninsular Malaysia sediments were determined. About ten stations along the east coast of the coastal area were selected to collect sediments sample using grab sampler. The PAHs from the sediment samples were soxhlet extracted using mixture of hexane and dichloromethane (DCM). Fractionation was done using the silica-alumina column. About 17 compounds of the PAHs were determined using the Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer (GCMS model QP5050A). The Σ PAHs was found in the range between 0.26 μg/ g to 0.59 μg/ g dry weight. The data from the study signified that the main source of PAHs in the sediment of the east coast peninsular Malaysia is originated from the pyrolytic source. (author)

  20. DNA damage in marine rock oyster (Saccostrea Cucullata) exposed to environmentally available PAHs and heavy metals along the Arabian Sea coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarker, Subhodeep; Vashistha, Deepti; Saha Sarker, Munmun; Sarkar, A

    2018-04-30

    Molecular biomarkers are used world wide for quick assessment of the immediate effect of environmental pollution on marine ecosystems. Recently, we evaluated oxidative stress responses of marine rock oyster, Saccostrea cucullata impacted due to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) accumulated in their tissues at a few sampling sites along the coast of Goa around the region of the Arabian sea coast, India (Sarkar et al., 2017). Using a combination of partial alkaline unwinding and comet assays, we now report a comprehensive study on the impairment of DNA integrity (DI) in S. cucullata due to exposure to environmentally available PAHs and also heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cu, Fe and Mn) along the Arabian Sea coast, Goa, India exclusively around the entire coast of Goa. First, we determined significant correlation between DI in S. cucullata and the extent of exposure to and bioaccumulation of different PAH compounds including 2-3 aromatic ring PAHs (R 2 , 0.95), 4-6 aromatic ring PAHs (R 2 , 0.85), oxygenated-PAHs (oxy-PAHs, R 2 , 0.84) and total PAHs (t-PAHs, R 2 , 0.98). Second, we observed dose-dependent decrease in DI in S. cucullata with increasing concentrations of different PAH components in oyster tissues. We substantiated our field observations with appropriate laboratory controls using benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). Third, we performed stepwise multiple regression analyses of different water quality parameters including pH, salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), nitrite (NO 2 ), nitrate (NO 3 ), phosphate (PO 4 ), turbidity and also t-PAH-biota, t-PAH-water with DI as the dependent variable. Among all these parameters, only four parameters such as t-PAH-biota in combination with DO, BOD and NO 2 showed significant correlation (R¯ 2 = 0.95) with loss in DI in S. cucullata. Based on these results, we created a map indicating the percentage of DNA damage in S. cucullata exposed to PAHs and heavy metals at each sampling location along

  1. PAH exposure levels in mudpuppy (amphibian)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trudeau, F; Maisonneuve, F [Environment Canada, Canadian Wildlife Service, Hull, PQ (Canada); Gendron, A D [Quebec Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada); Bishop, C A [Environment Canada, Canada Centre for Inland Waters, Burlington, ON (Canada)

    1999-12-31

    The presence of PAHs in the environment is of great concern because of the mutagenic, teratogenic and carcinogenic properties of the metabolites produced in exposed organisms. In recent years, exposure of fish to PAHs was demonstrated by the detection of pyrene-type metabolites in bile, using synchronous fluorescence spectrometry (SFS), which offers a rapid screening tool to estimate recent exposure to PAHs. In this experiment, the SFS technique was applied to mudpuppy (Necturus maculosus), a benthic carnivorous salamander found in the lakes and rivers of northeastern America, susceptible to the chronic effects of contaminants accumulated through its diet and through its contact with the contaminated sediment. Samples were taken from a variety of locations (Akwesasne River, Batiscan River, in the St.-Lawrence River System, Des Prairies River and Quesnel Bay in the Ottawa River System, Wolfe Island, Long Point and the Detroit River in the Great Lakes Basin). Results of the examination showed that mud puppies collected from the Detroit River had, by far, the highest concentrations of biliary 1-hydroxy pyrene (798 ng/ml), compared to 84 ng/ml, or less, in other animals in the sample.

  2. Impact of soil organic matter on the distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Y.; Zhang, N.; Xue, M.; Tao, S.

    2010-01-01

    The knowledge on the distribution of hydrophobic organic contaminants in soils can provide better understanding for their fate in the environment. In the present study, the n-butanol extraction and humic fractionation were applied to investigate the impact of SOM on the distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The results indicated that 80.5%-94.8% of the target PAHs could be extracted by n-butanol and 63.1%-94.6% of PAHs were associated with fulvic acid (FA). Concentrations of un-extracted PAHs increased significantly with the increasing soil organic matter (SOM), however, such an association was absent for the extractable fractions. The results suggested that the sequestration played a critical role in the accumulation of PAHs in soils. SOM also retarded the diffusion of PAHs into the humin fractions. It implied that sequestration in SOM was critical for PAH distribution in soils, while the properties of PAH compounds also had great influences. - Soil organic matter played an important role in the distribution of PAHs in soils through sequestration.

  3. PAH (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon) bioaccumulation and PAHs/shell weight index in Ruditapes philippinarum (Adams & Reeve, 1850) from the Vallona lagoon (northern Adriatic Sea, NE Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciatore, Federica; Bernarello, Valentina; Boscolo Brusà, Rossella; Sesta, Giulio; Franceschini, Gianluca; Maggi, Chiara; Gabellini, Massimo; Lamberti, Clauda Virno

    2018-02-01

    The Vallona lagoon is a transitional area located in the Po River delta (NE, ITALY) traditionally exploited for Manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum) farming. During 2007-2008, a pipeline was buried in the middle of the lagoon to connect an off-shore structure to facilities on land. PAH levels were monitored in Manila clams and sediments before, during and after the pipeline construction to assess the impact of the activities through the pattern of distribution of the PAH compounds. PAH bioaccumulation in clams displayed seasonal fluctuations with higher levels in autumnal and wintry surveys than in spring-summer. Principal component analysis applied to PAHs in clams highlighted a petrogenic input during ante operam period and a pyrolytic origin during the burying activities. On the contrary, sediment PAH concentrations resulted quite similar both among sites and periods. Biota-Sediment-Accumulation-Factor values also confirmed that sediments were not the major source of PAH pollution for clams in this study. The welfare of clams was examined through two physiological indices (condition index and survival in air) to check the effects of the activities on a commercial resource. Both physiological indices exhibited seasonal variations connected to natural endogenous and exogenous factors; however survival in air was the most sensitive index in highlighting the effects of the pipeline burying activities. Finally, to ensure that PAH bioavailability assessment was not affected by seasonal variation of soft tissues of molluscs, PAHs/shell weight index was applied. Higher levels of this index were observed before and during the burying activities, whilst, after that, values significantly lowered. Moreover, the normalization enabled us to highlight the PAH uptake from clams in some particular periods and to compare different populations in a long-term biomonitoring program with data obtained from different periods of the year. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  4. Characterization and concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in emissions from different heating systems in Damascus, Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkurdi, Farouk; Karabet, François; Dimashki, Marwan

    2014-04-01

    Traffic has long been recognized as the major contributor to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions to the urban atmosphere. Stationary combustion sources, including residential space heating systems, are also a major contributor to PAH emissions. The aim of this study was to determine the profile and concentration of PAHs in stack flue gas emissions from different kinds of space heaters in order to increase the understanding of the scale of the PAH pollution problem caused by this source. This study set out to first assess the characteristics of PAHs and their corresponding benzo[a]pyrene equivalent emissions from a few types of domestic heaters and central heating systems to the urban atmosphere. The study, enabled for the first time, the characterization of PAHs in stationary combustion sources in the city of Damascus, Syria. Nine different types of heating systems were selected with respect to age, design, and type of fuel burned. The concentrations of 15 individual PAH compounds in the stack flue gas were determined in the extracts of the collected samples using high-performance liquid chromatography system (HPLC) equipped with ultraviolet-visible and fluorescence detectors. In general, older domestic wood stoves caused considerably higher PAH emissions than modern domestic heaters burning diesel oil. The average concentration of ΣPAH (sum of 15 compounds) in emissions from all types of studied heating systems ranged between 43 ± 0.4 and 316 ± 1.4 μg/m(3). Values of total benzo[a]pyrene equivalent ranged between 0.61 and 15.41 μg/m(3).

  5. Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from industrial sludges in the ambient air conditions: automotive industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, Gizem; Tasdemir, Yucel

    2013-01-01

    Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) existed in automotive industry treatment sludge was examined by considering the effects of temperature, UV, titanium dioxide (TiO2) and diethyl amine (DEA) in different dosages (i.e., 5% and 20%) in this study. Application of TiO2 and DEA to the sludge samples in ambient environment was studied. Ten PAH (Σ10 PAH) compounds were targeted and their average value in the sludge was found to be 4480 ± 1450 ng/g dry matter (DM). Total PAH content of the sludge was reduced by 25% in the ambient air environment. Meteorological conditions, atmospheric deposition, evaporation and sunlight irradiation played an effective role in the variations in PAH levels during the tests carried out in ambient air environment. Moreover, it was observed that when the ring numbers of PAHs increased, their removal rates also increased. Total PAH level did not change with the addition of 5% DEA and only 10% decreased with 5% TiO2 addition. PAH removal ratios were 8% and 32% when DEA (20%) and TiO2 (20%) were added, respectively. It was concluded that DEA was a weak photo-sensitizer yet TiO2 was effective only at 20% dosage.

  6. Inhalation exposure and risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) among the rural population adopting wood gasifier stoves compared to different fuel-stove users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Nan; Chen, Yuanchen; Du, Wei; Shen, Guofeng; Zhu, Xi; Huang, Tianbo; Wang, Xilong; Cheng, Hefa; Liu, Junfeng; Xue, Chunyu; Liu, Guangqing; Zeng, Eddy Y.; Xing, Baoshan; Tao, Shu

    2016-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatica hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of compounds with carcinogenic potentials and residential solid fuel combustion is one major source of PAHs in most developing countries. Replacement of traditional stoves with improved ones is believed to be a practical approach to reduce pollutant emissions, however, field assessments on the performance and consequent impacts on air quality and human health after adopting improved stoves are rare. The study is the first time to quantify inhalation exposure to PAHs among the residents who adopted wood gasifier stoves. The results were compared to those still burning coals in the region and compared to exposure levels for different fuel/stove users in literature. The results showed that the PAHs exposure levels for the wood gasifier stove users were significantly lower than the values for those using traditional wood stoves reported in literature, and the daily exposure concentrations of BaPeq (Benzo[a]pyrene equivalent concentration) can be reduced by 48%-91% if traditional wood stoves were replaced by wood gasifier stoves. The corresponding Incremental Lifetime Cancer Risk (ILCR) decreased approximately four times from 1.94 × 10-4 to 5.17 × 10-5. The average concentration of the total 26 PAHs for the wood users was 1091 ± 722 ng/m3, which was comparable to 1060 ± 927 ng/m3 for those using anthracite coals, but the composition profiles were considerably different. The average BaPeq were 116 and 25.8 ng/m3 for the wood and coal users, respectively, and the corresponding ILCR of the anthracite coal users was 1.69 × 10-5, which was nearly one third of those using the wood gasifier stoves. The wood users exposed to not only high levels of high molecular weight PAHs, but relatively high fractions of particulate phase PAHs in small particles compared to the coal users, resulting in high exposure risks.

  7. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a coal tar standard reference material - SRM 1597a updated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, Stephen A.; Poster, Dianne L.; Rimmer, Catherine A.; Schubert, Patricia; Sander, Lane C.; Schantz, Michele M. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Analytical Chemistry Division, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Leigh, Stefan D. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Statistical Engineering Division, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Moessner, Stephanie [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Analytical Chemistry Division, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); GMP/Comparator Labs, Werthenstein Chemie AG, Industrie Nord, Schachen (Switzerland)

    2010-09-15

    SRM 1597 Complex Mixture of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons from Coal Tar, originally issued in 1987, was recently reanalyzed and reissued as SRM 1597a with 34 certified, 46 reference, and 12 information concentrations (as mass fractions) for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polycyclic aromatic sulfur heterocycles (PASHs) including methyl-substituted PAHs and PASHs. The certified and reference concentrations (as mass fractions) were based on results of analyses of the coal tar material using multiple analytical techniques including gas chromatography/mass spectrometry on four different stationary phases and reversed-phase liquid chromatography. SRM 1597a is currently the most extensively characterized SRM for PAHs and PASHs. (orig.)

  8. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in resuspendable fraction of settled bus dust and its implications for human exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Peng; Liu, Sa; Feng, Yujie; Lin, Nan; Lu, Binyu; Zhang, Zhaohan; Cui, Fuyi; Xing, Baoshan; Hammond, S. Katharine

    2015-01-01

    This preliminary study measured Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentrations in the resuspendable fraction of settled dust on 39 bus lines, to evaluate the impact of engine type (gasoline and compressed natural gas) on exposure for commuters and drivers. Benzo(b)fluoranthene(BbF) was the predominant PAH in resuspendable fraction of settled bus dust. The concentration of total PAHs was 92.90 ± 116.00 μg/g (range: 0.57–410) in gasoline buses and 3.97 ± 1.81 (range: 2.01–9.47) in compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. Based on Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) equivalent concentrations for the sum of 16 PAHs, the average daily dose (ADD) via dust ingestion and dermal contact was calculated. The ADD of PAHs was higher for commuters and drivers in gasoline-powered buses than in buses using CNG buses. For both short and long duration journeys, young commuters were exposed to higher levels of PAHs via dust ingestion and dermal contact than adult commuters. - Highlights: • Resuspendable fraction of settled dust from microenvironment of buses in Harbin monitored for PAHs exposure assessment. • Higher levels of PAHs pollutants at gasoline-powered buses than at compressed natural gas-powered buses. • Non-occupational and occupational exposures in the microenvironment of buses are assessed. - Occupational and non-occupational exposure to PAHs from the microenvironment of bus

  9. Further validation of the HPCD-technique for the evaluation of PAH microbial availability in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doick, Kieron J.; Clasper, Paula J.; Urmann, Karina; Semple, Kirk T.

    2006-01-01

    There is currently considerable scientific interest in finding a chemical technique capable of predicting bioavailability; non-exhaustive extraction techniques (NEETs) offer such potential. Hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPCD), a NEET, is further validated through the investigation of concentration ranges, differing soil types, and the presence of co-contaminants. This is the first study to demonstrate the utility of the HPCD-extraction technique to predict the microbial availability to phenanthrene across a wide concentration range and independent of soil-contaminant contact time (123 d). The efficacy of the HPCD-extraction technique for the estimation of PAH microbial availability in soil is demonstrated in the presence of co-contaminants that have been aged for the duration of the experiment together in the soil. Desorption dynamics are compared in co-contaminant and single-PAH contaminated spiked soils to demonstrate the occurrence of competitive displacement. Overall, a single HPCD-extraction technique proved accurate and reproducible for the estimation of PAH bioavailability from soil. - HPCD extractions can determine the microbial availability of PAHs in mixtures and over a range of concentrations

  10. High concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in water and sediments of car wash and Kisat areas of Winam Gulf, Lake Victoria-Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwach, B O; Lalah, J O

    2009-11-01

    Mean concentrations of selected USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediments and water samples from Car Wash and Kisat areas of Winam Gulf, Lake Victoria in Kenya have been determined using GC-FID and GC-MS. Sampling was done during the rainy season in April 2006. The PAH concentrations in sediment and water ranged from 0.04 to 31.95 microg/g dry weight and 3.32 to 55.8 microg/L, respectively, depending upon the sampling location. The total concentration levels of PAHs in both the sediment and water phase in this study were found to be much higher compared with those reported from other regions worldwide, revealing significant PAH pollution of Car Wash and Kisat areas of Kisumu city bay as a consequent of anthropogenic activities as described in the text. The GC-detected PAHs were confirmed by GC-MS.

  11. Is black carbon a better predictor of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon distribution in soils than total organic carbon?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, Tripti; Bucheli, Thomas D.

    2011-01-01

    Black carbon (BC) and total organic carbon (TOC) were quantified in the surface soils of Switzerland (N = 105) and Delhi (N = 36), India, to examine their relationships with contents of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). BC content in Swiss (background) soils (N = 104) varied from 0.41 to 4.75 mg/g (median: 1.13 mg/g) and constituted 1-9% (median: 3%) of TOC. Indian (urban) soils had similar BC concentrations (0.37-2.05 mg/g, median: 1.19 mg/g), with relatively higher BC/TOC (6-23%, median: 13%). Similar to TOC, BC showed significant positive correlation with lighter PAH, but no correlation with heavier PAH in Swiss soils. In contrast, heavier PAH were significantly correlated only with BC in Delhi soils. It seems that TOC governs the distribution of PAH in organic matter rich background soils, while the proximity to emission sources is reflected by BC-PAH association in urban soils. - Light PAH correlated with TOC in background soils, whereas heavy PAH were associated with BC close to emission sources.

  12. Evaluation of polyurethane foam passive air sampler (PUF) as a tool for occupational PAH measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandberg, Bo; Julander, Anneli; Sjöström, Mattias; Lewné, Marie; Koca Akdeva, Hatice; Bigert, Carolina

    2018-01-01

    Routine monitoring of workplace exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is performed mainly via active sampling. However, active samplers have several drawbacks and, in some cases, may even be unusable. Polyurethane foam (PUF) as personal passive air samplers constitute good alternatives for PAH monitoring in occupational air (8 h). However, PUFs must be further tested to reliably yield detectable levels of PAHs in short exposure times (1-3 h) and under extreme occupational conditions. Therefore, we compared the personal exposure monitoring performance of a passive PUF sampler with that of an active air sampler and determined the corresponding uptake rates (Rs). These rates were then used to estimate the occupational exposure of firefighters and police forensic specialists to 32 PAHs. The work environments studied were heavily contaminated by PAHs with (for example) benzo(a)pyrene ranging from 0.2 to 56 ng m -3 , as measured via active sampling. We show that, even after short exposure times, PUF can reliably accumulate both gaseous and particle-bound PAHs. The Rs-values are almost independent of variables such as the concentration and the wind speed. Therefore, by using the Rs-values (2.0-20 m 3 day -1 ), the air concentrations can be estimated within a factor of two for gaseous PAHs and a factor of 10 for particulate PAHs. With very short sampling times (1 h), our method can serve as a (i) simple and user-friendly semi-quantitative screening tool for estimating and tracking point sources of PAH in micro-environments and (ii) complement to the traditional active pumping methods. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) formation from the pyrolysis of different municipal solid waste fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Hui; Wu, Chunfei; Onwudili, Jude A.; Meng, Aihong; Zhang, Yanguo; Williams, Paul T.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • PAH from pyrolysis of 9 MSW fractions was investigated. • Pyrolysis of plastics released more PAH than that of biomass. • Naphthalene was the most abundant PAH in the tar. • The mechanism of PAH release from biomass and plastics was proposed. - Abstract: The formation of 2–4 ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from the pyrolysis of nine different municipal solid waste fractions (xylan, cellulose, lignin, pectin, starch, polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET)) were investigated in a fixed bed furnace at 800 °C. The mass distribution of pyrolysis was also reported. The results showed that PS generated the most total PAH, followed by PVC, PET, and lignin. More PAH were detected from the pyrolysis of plastics than the pyrolysis of biomass. In the biomass group, lignin generated more PAH than others. Naphthalene was the most abundant PAH, and the amount of 1-methynaphthalene and 2-methynaphthalene was also notable. Phenanthrene and fluorene were the most abundant 3-ring PAH, while benzo[a]anthracene and chrysene were notable in the tar of PS, PVC, and PET. 2-ring PAH dominated all tar samples, and varied from 40 wt.% to 70 wt.%. For PS, PET and lignin, PAH may be generated directly from the aromatic structure of the feedstock

  14. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) formation from the pyrolysis of different municipal solid waste fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Hui [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Energy Research Institute, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Wu, Chunfei, E-mail: c.wu@leeds.ac.uk [Energy Research Institute, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Onwudili, Jude A. [Energy Research Institute, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Meng, Aihong [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang, Yanguo, E-mail: zhangyg@tsinghua.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Williams, Paul T., E-mail: p.t.williams@leeds.ac.uk [Energy Research Institute, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • PAH from pyrolysis of 9 MSW fractions was investigated. • Pyrolysis of plastics released more PAH than that of biomass. • Naphthalene was the most abundant PAH in the tar. • The mechanism of PAH release from biomass and plastics was proposed. - Abstract: The formation of 2–4 ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from the pyrolysis of nine different municipal solid waste fractions (xylan, cellulose, lignin, pectin, starch, polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET)) were investigated in a fixed bed furnace at 800 °C. The mass distribution of pyrolysis was also reported. The results showed that PS generated the most total PAH, followed by PVC, PET, and lignin. More PAH were detected from the pyrolysis of plastics than the pyrolysis of biomass. In the biomass group, lignin generated more PAH than others. Naphthalene was the most abundant PAH, and the amount of 1-methynaphthalene and 2-methynaphthalene was also notable. Phenanthrene and fluorene were the most abundant 3-ring PAH, while benzo[a]anthracene and chrysene were notable in the tar of PS, PVC, and PET. 2-ring PAH dominated all tar samples, and varied from 40 wt.% to 70 wt.%. For PS, PET and lignin, PAH may be generated directly from the aromatic structure of the feedstock.

  15. Analyses of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and chiral-PAH analogues-methyl-β-cyclodextrin guest-host inclusion complexes by fluorescence spectrophotometry and multivariate regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, LaVana; Elzey, Brianda; Franklin, Mariah; Fakayode, Sayo O

    2017-03-05

    The negative health impact of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and differences in pharmacological activity of enantiomers of chiral molecules in humans highlights the need for analysis of PAHs and their chiral analogue molecules in humans. Herein, the first use of cyclodextrin guest-host inclusion complexation, fluorescence spectrophotometry, and chemometric approach to PAH (anthracene) and chiral-PAH analogue derivatives (1-(9-anthryl)-2,2,2-triflouroethanol (TFE)) analyses are reported. The binding constants (K b ), stoichiometry (n), and thermodynamic properties (Gibbs free energy (ΔG), enthalpy (ΔH), and entropy (ΔS)) of anthracene and enantiomers of TFE-methyl-β-cyclodextrin (Me-β-CD) guest-host complexes were also determined. Chemometric partial-least-square (PLS) regression analysis of emission spectra data of Me-β-CD-guest-host inclusion complexes was used for the determination of anthracene and TFE enantiomer concentrations in Me-β-CD-guest-host inclusion complex samples. The values of calculated K b and negative ΔG suggest the thermodynamic favorability of anthracene-Me-β-CD and enantiomeric of TFE-Me-β-CD inclusion complexation reactions. However, anthracene-Me-β-CD and enantiomer TFE-Me-β-CD inclusion complexations showed notable differences in the binding affinity behaviors and thermodynamic properties. The PLS regression analysis resulted in square-correlation-coefficients of 0.997530 or better and a low LOD of 3.81×10 -7 M for anthracene and 3.48×10 -8 M for TFE enantiomers at physiological conditions. Most importantly, PLS regression accurately determined the anthracene and TFE enantiomer concentrations with an average low error of 2.31% for anthracene, 4.44% for R-TFE and 3.60% for S-TFE. The results of the study are highly significant because of its high sensitivity and accuracy for analysis of PAH and chiral PAH analogue derivatives without the need of an expensive chiral column, enantiomeric resolution, or use of a polarized

  16. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and PAH-related DNA adducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewa, Błaszczyk; Danuta, Mielżyńska-Švach

    2017-08-01

    Investigations on the impact of chemicals on the environment and human health have led to the development of an exposome concept. The exposome refers to the totality of exposures received by a person during life, including exposures to life-style factors, from the prenatal period to death. The exposure to genotoxic chemicals and their reactive metabolites can induce chemical modifications of DNA, such as, for example, DNA adducts, which have been extensively studied and which play a key role in chemically induced carcinogenesis. Development of different methods for the identification of DNA adducts has led to adopting DNA adductomic approaches. The ability to simultaneously detect multiple PAH-derived DNA adducts may allow for the improved assessment of exposure, and offer a mechanistic insight into the carcinogenic process following exposure to PAH mixtures. The major advantage of measuring chemical-specific DNA adducts is the assessment of a biologically effective dose. This review provides information about the occurrence of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their influence on human exposure and biological effects, including PAH-derived DNA adduct formation and repair processes. Selected methods used for determination of DNA adducts have been presented.

  17. [The mutation analysis of PAH gene and prenatal diagnosis in classical phenylketonuria family].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yousheng; Hao, Shengju; Yao, Fengxia; Sun, Qingmei; Zheng, Lei; Zhang, Qinghua; Zhang, Chuan; Yang, Tao; Huang, Shangzhi

    2014-12-01

    To characterize the mutation spectrum of phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene and perform prenatal diagnosis for families with classical phenylketonuria. By stratified sequencing, mutations were detected in the exons and flaking introns of PAH gene of 44 families with classical phenylketonuria. 47 fetuses were diagnosed by combined sequencing with linkage analysis of three common short tandem repeats (STR) (PAH-STR, PAH-26 and PAH-32) in the PAH gene. Thirty-one types of mutations were identified. A total of 84 mutations were identified in 88 alleles (95.45%), in which the most common mutation have been R243Q (21.59%), EX6-96A>G (6.82%), IVS4-1G>A (5.86%) and IVS7+2T>A (5.86%). Most mutations were found in exons 3, 5, 6, 7, 11 and 12. The polymorphism information content (PIC) of these three STR markers was 0.71 (PAH-STR), 0.48 (PAH-26) and 0.40 (PAH-32), respectively. Prenatal diagnosis was performed successfully with the combined method in 47 fetuses of 44 classical phenylketonuria families. Among them, 11 (23.4%) were diagnosed as affected, 24 (51.1%) as carriers, and 12 (25.5%) as unaffected. Prenatal diagnosis can be achieved efficiently and accurately by stratified sequencing of PAH gene and linkage analysis of STR for classical phenylketonuria families.

  18. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) formation from the pyrolysis of different municipal solid waste fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hui; Wu, Chunfei; Onwudili, Jude A; Meng, Aihong; Zhang, Yanguo; Williams, Paul T

    2015-02-01

    The formation of 2-4 ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from the pyrolysis of nine different municipal solid waste fractions (xylan, cellulose, lignin, pectin, starch, polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET)) were investigated in a fixed bed furnace at 800 °C. The mass distribution of pyrolysis was also reported. The results showed that PS generated the most total PAH, followed by PVC, PET, and lignin. More PAH were detected from the pyrolysis of plastics than the pyrolysis of biomass. In the biomass group, lignin generated more PAH than others. Naphthalene was the most abundant PAH, and the amount of 1-methynaphthalene and 2-methynaphthalene was also notable. Phenanthrene and fluorene were the most abundant 3-ring PAH, while benzo[a]anthracene and chrysene were notable in the tar of PS, PVC, and PET. 2-ring PAH dominated all tar samples, and varied from 40 wt.% to 70 wt.%. For PS, PET and lignin, PAH may be generated directly from the aromatic structure of the feedstock. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. PAHs, OCPs and PCBs in sediments from three catchments in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on the comparison of chemical concentrations to international sediment quality guidelines, PAH, OCP and PCB concentrations in most sediment samples posed a low risk to sediment-dwelling organisms. However, in some instances the risk was moderate or high. It is recommended that these compounds be ...

  20. Black tattoos entail substantial uptake of genotoxicpolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in human skin and regional lymph nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehner, Karin; Santarelli, Francesco; Vasold, Rudolf; Penning, Randolph; Sidoroff, Alexis; König, Burkhard; Landthaler, Michael; Bäumler, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Hundreds of millions of people worldwide have tattoos, which predominantly contain black inks consisting of soot products like Carbon Black or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). We recently found up to 200 μg/g of PAH in commercial black inks. After skin tattooing, a substantial part of the ink and PAH should be transported to other anatomical sites like the regional lymph nodes. To allow a first estimation of health risk, we aimed to extract and quantify the amount of PAH in black tattooed skin and the regional lymph nodes of pre-existing tattoos. Firstly, we established an extraction method by using HPLC-DAD technology that enables the quantification of PAH concentrations in human tissue. After that, 16 specimens of human tattooed skin and corresponding regional lymph nodes were included in the study. All skin specimen and lymph nodes appeared deep black. The specimens were digested and tested for 20 different PAH at the same time.PAH were found in twelve of the 16 tattooed skin specimens and in eleven regional lymph nodes. The PAH concentration ranged from 0.1-0.6 μg/cm2 in the tattooed skin and 0.1-11.8 μg/g in the lymph nodes. Two major conclusions can be drawn from the present results. Firstly, PAH in black inks stay partially in skin or can be found in the regional lymph nodes. Secondly, the major part of tattooed PAH had disappeared from skin or might be found in other organs than skin and lymph nodes. Thus, beside inhalation and ingestion, tattooing has proven to be an additional, direct and effective route of PAH uptake into the human body.

  1. Black tattoos entail substantial uptake of genotoxicpolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH in human skin and regional lymph nodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Lehner

    Full Text Available Hundreds of millions of people worldwide have tattoos, which predominantly contain black inks consisting of soot products like Carbon Black or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH. We recently found up to 200 μg/g of PAH in commercial black inks. After skin tattooing, a substantial part of the ink and PAH should be transported to other anatomical sites like the regional lymph nodes. To allow a first estimation of health risk, we aimed to extract and quantify the amount of PAH in black tattooed skin and the regional lymph nodes of pre-existing tattoos. Firstly, we established an extraction method by using HPLC-DAD technology that enables the quantification of PAH concentrations in human tissue. After that, 16 specimens of human tattooed skin and corresponding regional lymph nodes were included in the study. All skin specimen and lymph nodes appeared deep black. The specimens were digested and tested for 20 different PAH at the same time.PAH were found in twelve of the 16 tattooed skin specimens and in eleven regional lymph nodes. The PAH concentration ranged from 0.1-0.6 μg/cm2 in the tattooed skin and 0.1-11.8 μg/g in the lymph nodes. Two major conclusions can be drawn from the present results. Firstly, PAH in black inks stay partially in skin or can be found in the regional lymph nodes. Secondly, the major part of tattooed PAH had disappeared from skin or might be found in other organs than skin and lymph nodes. Thus, beside inhalation and ingestion, tattooing has proven to be an additional, direct and effective route of PAH uptake into the human body.

  2. Bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to short-neck clam (Paphia undulata) from sediment matrices in mudflat ecosystem of the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarzifard, Mehrzad; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Hwai, Tan Shau

    2017-06-01

    The bioaccumulation and bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were characterized in sediment and Paphia undulata (short-neck clam) from six mudflat areas in the west coasts of Peninsular Malaysia. The concentrations of total PAHs varied from 357.1 to 6257.1 and 179.9 ± 7.6 to 1657.5 ± 53.9 ng g -1 dry weight in sediment and short-neck clam samples, respectively. PAHs can be classified as moderate to very high level of pollution in sediments and moderate to high level of pollution in short-neck clams. The diagnostic ratios of individual PAHs and principal component analysis indicate both petrogenic and pyrogenic sources with significant dominance of pyrogenic source. The first PAHs biota-sediment accumulation factors and relative biota-sediment accumulation factors data for short-neck clam were obtained in this study, indicating a preferential accumulation of lower molecular weight PAHs. Evaluation of PAH levels in sediments and short-neck clams indicates that short-neck clam could be introduced as a good biomonitor in mudflats. The results also demonstrated that under environmental conditions, the sedimentary load of hydrocarbons appears to be one of the factors controlling their bioavailability to biota.

  3. Spectrum of PAH gene variants among a population of Han Chinese patients with phenylketonuria from northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Huang, Qiuying; Li, Qingge; Zhao, Dehua; Li, Xiaole; Cui, Lixia; Bai, Ying; Feng, Yin; Kong, Xiangdong

    2017-10-05

    Phenylketonuria (PKU), which primarily results from a deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH), is one of the most common inherited inborn errors of metabolism that impairs postnatal cognitive development. The incidence of various PAH variations differs by race and ethnicity. The aim of the present study was to characterize the PAH gene variants of a Han population from Northern China. In total, 655 PKU patients and their families were recruited for this study; each proband was diagnosed both clinically and biochemically with phenylketonuria. Subjects were sequentially screened for single-base variants and exon deletions or duplications within PAH via direct Sanger sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). A spectrum of 174 distinct PAH variants was identified: 152 previously documented variants and 22 novel variants. While single-base variants were distributed throughout the 13 exons, they were particularly concentrated in exons 7 (33.3%), 11 (14.2%), 6 (13.2%), 12 (11.0%), 3 (10.4%), and 5 (4.4%). The predominant variant was p.Arg243Gln (17.7%), followed by Ex6-96A > G (8.3%), p.Val399 = (6.4%), p.Arg53His (4.7%), p.Tyr356* (4.7%), p.Arg241Cys (4.6%), p.Arg413Pro (4.6%), p.Arg111* (4.4%), and c.442-1G > A (3.4%). Notably, two patients were also identified as carrying de novo variants. The composition of PAH gene variants in this Han population from Northern China was distinct from those of other ethnic groups. As such, the construction of a PAH gene variant database for Northern China is necessary to lay a foundation for genetic-based diagnoses, prenatal diagnoses, and population screening.

  4. Determination of parent and hydroxy PAHs in personal PM{sub 2.5} and urine samples collected during Native American fish smoking activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motorykin, Oleksii [Department of Chemistry, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Schrlau, Jill; Jia, Yuling [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Harper, Barbara; Harris, Stuart [Department of Science and Engineering, Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, Pendleton, OR 97801 (United States); Harding, Anna [School of Biological and Population Health Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Stone, David [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Kile, Molly [School of Biological and Population Health Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Sudakin, Daniel [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Massey Simonich, Staci L., E-mail: staci.simonich@orst.edu [Department of Chemistry, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    A method was developed for the measurement of 19 parent PAHs (PAHs) and 34 hydroxylated PAHs (OH-PAHs) in urine and personal air samples of particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM{sub 2.5}) using GC–MS and validated using NIST SRM 3672 (Organic Contaminants in Smoker's Urine) and SRM 3673 (Organic Contaminants in Nonsmoker's Urine). The method was used to measure PAHs and OH-PAHs in urine and personal PM{sub 2.5} samples collected from the operators of two different fish smoking facilities (tipi and smoke shed) burning two different wood types (alder and apple) on the Confederated Tribes of Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) while they smoked salmon. Urine samples were spiked with β-glucuronidase/arylsulfatase to hydrolyze the conjugates of OH-PAHs and the PAHs and OH-PAHs were extracted using Plexa and C18 solid phases, in series. The 34 OH-PAHs were derivatized using MTBSTFA, and the mixture was measured by GC–MS. The personal PM{sub 2.5} samples were extracted using pressurized liquid extraction, derivatized with MTBSTFA and analyzed by GC–MS for PAHs and OH-PAHs. Fourteen isotopically labeled surrogates were added to accurately quantify PAHs and OH-PAHs in the urine and PM{sub 2.5} samples and three isotopically labeled internal standards were used to calculate the recovery of the surrogates. Estimated detection limits in urine ranged from 6.0 to 181 pg/ml for OH-PAHs and from 3.0 to 90 pg/ml for PAHs, and, in PM{sub 2.5}, they ranged from 5.2 to 155 pg/m{sup 3} for OH-PAHs and from 2.5 to 77 pg/m{sup 3} for PAHs. The results showed an increase in OH-PAH concentrations in urine after 6 h of fish smoking and an increase in PAH concentrations in air within each smoking facility. In general, the PAH exposure in the smoke shed was higher than in the tipi and the PAH exposure from burning apple wood was higher than burning alder. - Highlights: • An analytical method was developed for the measurement of 19 PAHs and 34 OH-PAHs.

  5. Source apportionment of the particulate PAHs at Seoul, Korea: impact of long range transport to a megacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Y. Lee

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Northeast Asia including China, Korea, and Japan is one of the world's largest fossil fuel consumption regions. Seoul, Korea, is a megacity in Northeast Asia. Its emissions of air pollutants can affect the region, and in turn it is also affected by regional emissions. To understand the extent of these influences, major sources of ambient particulate PAHs in Seoul were identified and quantified based on measurements made between August 2002 and December 2003. The chemical mass balance (CMB model was applied. Seven major emission sources were identified based on the emission data in Seoul and Northeast Asia: Gasoline and diesel vehicles, residential coal use, coke ovens, coal power plants, biomass burning, and natural gas (NG combustion. The major sources of particulate PAHs in Seoul during the whole measurement period were gasoline and diesel vehicles, together accounted for 31% of the measured particulate PAHs levels. However, the source contributions showed distinct daily and seasonal variations. High contributions of biomass burning and coal (residential and coke oven were observed in fall and winter, accounting for 63% and 82% of the total concentration of PAHs, respectively. Since these sources were not strong in and around Seoul, they are likely to be related to transport from outside of Seoul, from China and/or North Korea. This implies that the air quality in a mega-city such as Seoul can be influenced by the long range transport of air pollutants such as PAHs.

  6. Mapping the Centimeter-Scale Spatial Variability of PAHs and Microbial Populations in the Rhizosphere of Two Plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amélia Bourceret

    Full Text Available Rhizoremediation uses root development and exudation to favor microbial activity. Thus it can enhance polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH biodegradation in contaminated soils. Spatial heterogeneity of rhizosphere processes, mainly linked to the root development stage and to the plant species, could explain the contrasted rhizoremediation efficiency levels reported in the literature. Aim of the present study was to test if spatial variability in the whole plant rhizosphere, explored at the centimetre-scale, would influence the abundance of microorganisms (bacteria and fungi, and the abundance and activity of PAH-degrading bacteria, leading to spatial variability in PAH concentrations. Two contrasted rhizospheres were compared after 37 days of alfalfa or ryegrass growth in independent rhizotron devices. Almost all spiked PAHs were degraded, and the density of the PAH-degrading bacterial populations increased in both rhizospheres during the incubation period. Mapping of multiparametric data through geostatistical estimation (kriging revealed that although root biomass was spatially structured, PAH distribution was not. However a greater variability of the PAH content was observed in the rhizosphere of alfalfa. Yet, in the ryegrass-planted rhizotron, the Gram-positive PAH-degraders followed a reverse depth gradient to root biomass, but were positively correlated to the soil pH and carbohydrate concentrations. The two rhizospheres structured the microbial community differently: a fungus-to-bacterium depth gradient similar to the root biomass gradient only formed in the alfalfa rhizotron.

  7. Passive dosing of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) mixtures to terrestrial springtails: Linking mixture toxicity to chemical activities, equilibrium lipid concentrations, and toxic units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Stine Nørgaard; Holmstrup, Martin; Smith, Kilian E. C.

    2013-01-01

    treatments, containing the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene. Springtail lethality was then linked to sum chemical activities (∑a), sum equilibrium lipid concentrations (∑Clipid eq.), and sum toxic units (∑TU). In each case, the effects of all 12 mixture treatments...... could be fitted to one sigmoidal exposure-response relationship. The effective lethal chemical activity (La50) of 0.027 was well within the expected range for baseline toxicity of 0.01-0.1. Linking the effects to the lipid-based exposure parameter yielded an effective lethal concentration (LClipid eq...

  8. NOx and PAHs removal from industrial flue gas by using electron beam technology in the alcohol addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Y.X.; Chmielewski, A.G.; Bulka, S.; Zimek, Z.; Licki, J.; Kubica, K.

    2002-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The preliminary test of NO x and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) removal from flue gas were investigated in the alcohol addition by using electron beam irradiation in EPS Kaweczyn. Experimental conditions were as follows: flue gas flow rate 5000 nM 3 /hr; humidity 4-5%; inlet concentrations of SO 2 and NO x , which were emitted from power station, were 192 ppm and 106 ppm, respectively; ammonia addition is 2.75 m 3 /hr; alcohol addition is 600 l/hr. It was found that NO x removal efficiency in the presence of alcohol was increased by 10% than without alcohol addition when the absorbed dose was below 6 kGy. The NO x removal efficiency was decreased when the absorbed dose was higher than 10 kGy. In order to understand PAHs' behavior under EB irradiation, inlet PAHs (emitted from coal combustion process) sample and outlet PAHs (after irradiation) sample were collected by using a condensed bottle connected with XAD-2 adsorbent and active carbon adsorbent and were analyzed by a GC-MS. It is found that: at the 8 kGy adsorbed dose, concentrations of PAHs with small aromatic rings (≤3, except Acenaphthylene) are reduced and concentrations of PAHs with large aromatic rings (≤4) are increased. A possible mechanism is proposed

  9. Risk assessment of metals and PAHs for receptor organisms in differently polluted areas in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Sayegh Petkovšek, Samar; Kopušar, Nataša; Tome, Davorin; Kryštufek, Boris

    2015-11-01

    Samples from receptor organisms (small mammals, passerine birds) and their food sources (herbaceous plants, leaves and fruits of wood plants, earthworms) were collected during 2011-2014 from the vicinity of a former lead smelter, from the vicinity of the largest Slovenian thermal power plant, from along a state road and also from a reference area. The samples were then analysed to determine the degree of contamination with the metals (Pb, Cd, Zn, Hg, Cu, Mo) and with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This study provides the first data on metal and PAH exposure to small mammals and passerine birds in southeast Europe, focussing on the transfer of metals and PAHs through the food chain and on risk assessment for differently polluted areas in Slovenia. The results indicate that: (i) earthworms and herbaceous plants (especially roots) can be a source of metal exposure for organisms higher in the food chain; (ii) a risk from Pb and Cd (HQ > 1) in the vicinity of the former lead smelter exists for Myodes glareolus feeding in part on roots and for Apodemus flavicollis and Parus major feeding in part on earthworms; and (iii) mean Pb and Cd concentrations in the liver of small mammal species inhabiting the vicinity of the lead smelter reach effect concentrations in a significant proportion of the specimens (Pb: 40%, Cd: 67%); (iv) the results for P. major confirm that the study area is exposed to Pb, Cd, Hg; (v) metals contribute the major part of the total risk for receptor organisms from vicinity of lead smelter. On the contrary, the risk of PAHs for small mammals trapped close to the state road is insignificant. We can summarize, that the hazards experienced by the local ecosystem due to metal exposure may persist for decades in the vicinity of large emission sources (especially smelters). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Relationship between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and particle size in dated core sediments in Lake Lianhuan, Northeast China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Li; Zang, Shuying, E-mail: zsy6311@163.com

    2013-09-01

    Atmospheric particle associated with pyrogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) poses serious threats to human health by inhalation exposure, especially in semiarid areas. Hence, the distributions of PAHs and particle size in two core sediments collected from Lake Lianhuan, Northeast China were studied. The sediments were dated radiometrically, and particle size distribution and PAH concentration were evaluated and potential human health risk was assessed. From 1980 to 2007, the dominant PAHs in the two cores were 2- and 3-ring PAHs, and the concentrations of 3–6 ring PAHs gradually increased from the early 1990s. Diagnostic ratios indicated that pyrogenic PAHs were the main sources of PAHs which changed over time from combustions of wood and coal to liquid fossil fuel sources. Fine particles (< 65 μm) were the predominant particle size (56–97%). Lacustrine source (with the peak towards 200–400 μm) and eolian sources derived from short (2.0–10 and 30–65 μm) and long (0.4–1.0 μm) distance suspension were indentified from frequency distribution pattern of particle size. Significant correlations between 3–6 ring PAHs (especially carcinogenic 5–6 ring PAHs) and 10–35 μm particulate fractions indicated that eolian particles played an important role in adsorbing pyrogenic PAHs. Petroleum source of PAHs was only identified during the 1980s in one core sediments, in which positive correlations between 2-ring PAHs and particulate fractions of > 125 μm were found. Future research should focus on the seven carcinogenic pyrogenic PAHs due to a rapidly increasing trend since 1995 based on the assessment of toxic equivalency factors. - Highlights: • PAHs and particle size in core sediments were used to evaluate the role of eolian particles in delivering pyrogenic PAHs. • Changes of PAH sources closely followed local historical socioeconomic development since 1980s. • Changes of particulate sources from eolian to lacustrine reflected the

  11. Comparison of Serum Concentrations of Total Cholesterol and Total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most dangerous tropical diseases that complicates HIV infection in Nigeria to date. Over two million Nigerians are known to be infected with TB and many more are at risk of the infection. Serum concentrations of total cholesterol and total lipid of 117 female TB patients attending chest clinic at ...

  12. Distribution of particle-phase hydrocarbons, PAHs and OCPs in Tianjin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shui-Ping; Tao, Shu; Zhang, Zhi-Huan; Lan, Tian; Zuo, Qian

    Aliphatic hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in the total suspended particles (TSP) collected from 13 different locations in Tianjin, China, where intensive coal burning for domestic heating in winter takes place and a large quantity of pesticides had been produced and applied. Carbon preference index (CPI), carbon number maximum (C max) of n-alkane and plant wax index (%wax C n) indicate that n-alkanes come from both biogenic and petrogenic sources, and biogenic source contributes more n-alkanes in autumn than in winter. Petroleum biomarkers as indicators of petrogenic source such as hopanes and steranes were also detected in both seasons' samples. The sum of 16 PAH concentrations (∑PAH) ranged from 69.3 to 2170 ng m -3 in winter and from 7.01 to 40.0 ng m -3 in autumn. Seasonal variations were mainly attributed to the difference in coal combustion emission and meteorological conditions. The results of a source diagnostic analysis suggest that PAHs in TSP mainly come from coal combustion. Seven OCPs (four hexachlorohexanes (HCHs) and three dichlorodipheny-trichloroethane and metabolites (DDTs)) were detected in most samples. Concentrations of the sum of α-, β-, δ- and γ-HCH (∑HCH) and the sum of p, p'-DDT, p, p'-DDD and p, p'-DDE (∑DDT) in autumn varied in the ranges of 0.002-0.9 ng m -3 and 0.025-2.21 ng m -3 with the average±standard deviation values of 0.127±0.241 ng m -3 and 0.239±0.546 ng m -3, respectively. In winter, ∑HCH and ∑DDT in TSP ranged from 0.071 to 5.35 ng m -3 and from 0.416 to 3.14 ng m -3 with the average±standard deviation values 1.05±1.88 ng m -3 and 0.839±0.713 ng m -3, respectively. Both of the illegal application of technical HCH and DDT and the volatilization from topsoil contributed to the particle-phase contents of HCHs and DDTs in the atmosphere.

  13. Effect of smoking on Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of smoking on proximate composition, energy values and concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were studied in raw and smoked samples of catfish (Clarias gariepinus) and tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Crude protein was higher in the tilapia sample for both raw and smoked samples.

  14. Determination of the deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to soil at Scheyern and Kirchheim near Munich; Bestimmung der Eintraege von polyzyklischen aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen (PAHs) an den Standorten Scheyern und Kirchheim bei Muenchen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krainz, A; Wiedenmann, M; Maguhn, J [GSF-Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Oekologische Chemie

    1998-12-31

    Task force 1, ``Analysis of the exposure of soils``, carried out comprehensive and site-specific measurements of the transfer of environmental chemicals into soil by means of the example of s-triazines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This work was in four parts: a: Determination of PAH nuisance concentrations in selected sites (Juelich, Scheyern, Bad Lauchstaedt); b: Measurement of wet deposition, development and use of methods for the determination of dry deposition; c: Statements regarding large-area PAH transfer into soil in Germany; d: Modelling of the rates of dry deposition. (orig.) [Deutsch] Aufgabe der Arbeitsgruppe 1 `Belastungsanalyse von Boeden`: Flaechendeckende sowie standortbezogene Erfassung der Eintraege von Umweltchemikalien am Beispiel der s-Triazine und PAHs. a: Bestimmung der Immissionskonzentrationen von PAHs an den Schwerpunktstandorten (Juelich, Scheyern, Bad Lauchstaedt) b: Messung der Nassen Deposition, Entwicklung und Anwendung von Methoden zur Bestimmung der Trockenen Deposition c: Aussagen ueber flaechendeckende Eintraege von PAHs in der Bundesrepublik d: Modellierung der Trockendepositionsraten. (orig.)

  15. Determination of the deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to soil at Scheyern and Kirchheim near Munich; Bestimmung der Eintraege von polyzyklischen aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen (PAHs) an den Standorten Scheyern und Kirchheim bei Muenchen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krainz, A.; Wiedenmann, M.; Maguhn, J. [GSF-Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Oekologische Chemie

    1997-12-31

    Task force 1, ``Analysis of the exposure of soils``, carried out comprehensive and site-specific measurements of the transfer of environmental chemicals into soil by means of the example of s-triazines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This work was in four parts: a: Determination of PAH nuisance concentrations in selected sites (Juelich, Scheyern, Bad Lauchstaedt); b: Measurement of wet deposition, development and use of methods for the determination of dry deposition; c: Statements regarding large-area PAH transfer into soil in Germany; d: Modelling of the rates of dry deposition. (orig.) [Deutsch] Aufgabe der Arbeitsgruppe 1 `Belastungsanalyse von Boeden`: Flaechendeckende sowie standortbezogene Erfassung der Eintraege von Umweltchemikalien am Beispiel der s-Triazine und PAHs. a: Bestimmung der Immissionskonzentrationen von PAHs an den Schwerpunktstandorten (Juelich, Scheyern, Bad Lauchstaedt) b: Messung der Nassen Deposition, Entwicklung und Anwendung von Methoden zur Bestimmung der Trockenen Deposition c: Aussagen ueber flaechendeckende Eintraege von PAHs in der Bundesrepublik d: Modellierung der Trockendepositionsraten. (orig.)

  16. Sedimentary organic biomarkers suggest detrimental effects of PAHs on estuarine microbial biomass during the 20th century in San Francisco Bay, CA, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Elena B.; Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Fuller, Christopher C.; Jaffe, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrocarbon contaminants are ubiquitous in urban aquatic ecosystems, and the ability of some microbial strains to degrade certain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is well established. However, detrimental effects of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination on nondegrader microbial populations and photosynthetic organisms have not often been considered. In the current study, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) biomarkers in the sediment record were used to assess historical impacts of petroleum contamination on microbial and/or algal biomass in South San Francisco Bay, CA, USA. Profiles of saturated, branched, and monounsaturated fatty acids had similar concentrations and patterns downcore. Total PAHs in a sediment core were on average greater than 20× higher above ∼200 cm than below, which corresponds roughly to the year 1900. Isomer ratios were consistent with a predominant petroleum combustion source for PAHs. Several individual PAHs exceeded sediment quality screening values. Negative correlations between petroleum contaminants and microbial and algal biomarkers – along with high trans/cis ratios of unsaturated FA, and principle component analysis of the PAH and fatty acid records – suggest a negative impacts of petroleum contamination, appearing early in the 20th century, on microbial and/or algal ecology at the site.

  17. Native oxy-PAHs, N-PACs, and PAHs in historically contaminated soils from Sweden, Belgium, and France: their soil-porewater partitioning behavior, bioaccumulation in Enchytraeus crypticus, and bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arp, Hans Peter H; Lundstedt, Staffan; Josefsson, Sarah; Cornelissen, Gerard; Enell, Anja; Allard, Ann-Sofie; Kleja, Dan Berggren

    2014-10-07

    Soil quality standards are based on partitioning and toxicity data for laboratory-spiked reference soils, instead of real world, historically contaminated soils, which would be more representative. Here 21 diverse historically contaminated soils from Sweden, Belgium, and France were obtained, and the soil-porewater partitioning along with the bioaccumulation in exposed worms (Enchytraeus crypticus) of native polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) were quantified. The native PACs investigated were polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and, for the first time to be included in such a study, oxygenated-PAHs (oxy-PAHs) and nitrogen containing heterocyclic PACs (N-PACs). The passive sampler polyoxymethylene (POM) was used to measure the equilibrium freely dissolved porewater concentration, Cpw, of all PACs. The obtained organic carbon normalized partitioning coefficients, KTOC, show that sorption of these native PACs is much stronger than observed in laboratory-spiked soils (typically by factors 10 to 100), which has been reported previously for PAHs but here for the first time for oxy-PAHs and N-PACs. A recently developed KTOC model for historically contaminated sediments predicted the 597 unique, native KTOC values in this study within a factor 30 for 100% of the data and a factor 3 for 58% of the data, without calibration. This model assumes that TOC in pyrogenic-impacted areas sorbs similarly to coal tar, rather than octanol as typically assumed. Black carbon (BC) inclusive partitioning models exhibited substantially poorer performance. Regarding bioaccumulation, Cpw combined with liposome-water partition coefficients corresponded better with measured worm lipid concentrations, Clipid (within a factor 10 for 85% of all PACs and soils), than Cpw combined with octanol-water partition coefficients (within a factor 10 for 76% of all PACs and soils). E. crypticus mortality and reproducibility were also quantified. No enhanced mortality was observed in the 21 historically

  18. Chemical-assisted phytoremediation of CD-PAHs contaminated soils using Solanum nigrum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chuanjie; Zhou, Qixing; Wei, Shuhe; Hu, Yahu; Bao, Yanyu

    2011-09-01

    A well-characterized cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulating plant Solanum nigrum was grown in Cd and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) co-contaminated soil that was repeatedly amended with chemicals, including EDTA, cysteine (CY), salicylic acid (Sa), and Tween 80 (TW80), to test individual and combined treatment effects on phytoremediation of Cd-PAHs contaminated soils. Plant growth was negatively affected by exogenous chemicals except for EDTA. S. nigrum could accumulate Cd in tissues without assistant chemicals, while there was no visible effect on the degradation of PAHs. Cysteine had significant effects on phytoextraction of Cd and the highest metal extraction ratio (1.27%) was observed in 0.9 mmol/kg CY treatment. Both salicylic acid and Tween 80 had stimulative effects on the degradation of PAHs and there was the maximal degradation rate (52.6%) of total PAHs while 0.9 mmol/kg Sa was applied. Furthermore, the combined treatment T(0.1EDTA+0.9CY+0.5TW80) and T(0.5EDTA+0.9CY+03Sa) could not only increase the accumulation of Cd in plant tissues, but also promote the degradation of PAHs. These results indicated that S. nigrum might be effective in phytoextracting Cd and enhancing the biodegradation of PAHs in the co-contaminated soils with assistant chemicals.

  19. Black Tattoos Entail Substantial Uptake of Genotoxicpolycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) in Human Skin and Regional Lymph Nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehner, Karin; Santarelli, Francesco; Vasold, Rudolf; Penning, Randolph; Sidoroff, Alexis; König, Burkhard; Landthaler, Michael; Bäumler, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Hundreds of millions of people worldwide have tattoos, which predominantly contain black inks consisting of soot products like Carbon Black or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). We recently found up to 200 μg/g of PAH in commercial black inks. After skin tattooing, a substantial part of the ink and PAH should be transported to other anatomical sites like the regional lymph nodes. To allow a first estimation of health risk, we aimed to extract and quantify the amount of PAH in black tattooed skin and the regional lymph nodes of pre-existing tattoos. Firstly, we established an extraction method by using HPLC – DAD technology that enables the quantification of PAH concentrations in human tissue. After that, 16 specimens of human tattooed skin and corresponding regional lymph nodes were included in the study. All skin specimen and lymph nodes appeared deep black. The specimens were digested and tested for 20 different PAH at the same time.PAH were found in twelve of the 16 tattooed skin specimens and in eleven regional lymph nodes. The PAH concentration ranged from 0.1–0.6 μg/cm2 in the tattooed skin and 0.1–11.8 μg/g in the lymph nodes. Two major conclusions can be drawn from the present results. Firstly, PAH in black inks stay partially in skin or can be found in the regional lymph nodes. Secondly, the major part of tattooed PAH had disappeared from skin or might be found in other organs than skin and lymph nodes. Thus, beside inhalation and ingestion, tattooing has proven to be an additional, direct and effective route of PAH uptake into the human body. PMID:24670978

  20. Biomonitoring airborne parent and alkylated three-ring PAHs in the Greater Cologne Conurbation I: Temporal accumulation patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehndorff, E.; Schwark, L.

    2009-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) comprise an important group of air pollutants, with three-ring components (PAH-3) often dominating. Spatiotemporal variation in atmospheric PAH-3 can be analyzed by biomonitoring but high vapour pressure and low octanol-air-partitioning of PAH-3 cause dynamic accumulation on plant surfaces. This study for the first time shows that PAH-3 exhibit systematic accumulation trends on pine needles of 3-48 months of exposure time at six sites in Germany. Correlation of needle exposure time with PAH-3 concentration was r 2 = 0.83 for phenanthrene and methylphenanthrenes, r 2 = 0.77 for cyclopenta[def]phenanthrene, r 2 = 0.60 for dibenzothiophene, r 2 = 0.57 for dimethylphenanthrenes and r 2 = 0.32 for retene. Variations in PAH-3 for summer and winter collected needles emphasize vegetation-air-partitioning influence on cumulative PAH-3 loads. PAH-3 ratios calculated for needle cohorts indicate persistence of original PAH patterns thus demonstrating the source-diagnostic potential of pine needle biomonitoring, which is utilized in part II of this study where spatial distribution of PAH-3 is investigated and related to emission sources. - Accumulation of volatile three-ring PAHs on pine needles was found to be systematic over a period of 50 months thus qualifying PAHs for regional air quality studies

  1. Association of plasma IL-6 and Hsp70 with HRV at different levels of PAHs metabolites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Ye

    Full Text Available Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs is associated with reduced heart rate variability (HRV, a strong predictor of cardiovascular diseases, but the mechanism is not well understood.We hypothesized that PAHs might induce systemic inflammation and stress response, contributing to altered cardiac autonomic function.HRV indices were measured using a 3-channel digital Holter monitor in 800 coke oven workers. Plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6 and heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70 were determined using ELISA. Twelve urinary PAHs metabolites (OH-PAHs were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.We found that significant dose-dependent relationships between four urinary OH-PAHs and IL-6 (all Ptrend<0.05; and an increase in quartiles of IL-6 was significantly associated with a decrease in total power (TP and low frequency (LF (Ptrend = 0.014 and 0.006, respectively. In particular, elevated IL-6 was associated in a dose-dependent manner with decreased TP and LF in the high-PAHs metabolites groups (all Ptrend<0.05, but not in the low-PAHs metabolites groups. No significant association between Hsp70 and HRV in total population was found after multivariate adjustment. However, increased Hsp70 was significantly associated with elevated standard deviation of NN intervals (SDNN, TP and LF in the low-PAHs metabolites groups (all Ptrend<0.05. We also observed that both IL-6 and Hsp70 significantly interacted with multiple PAHs metabolites in relation to HRV.In coke oven workers, increased IL-6 was associated with a dose-response decreased HRV in the high-PAHs metabolites groups, whereas increase of Hsp70 can result in significant dose-related increase in HRV in the low-PAHs metabolites groups.

  2. Spatial correlation analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in sediments between Taihu Lake and its tributary rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhonghua; Jiang, Yu; Li, Qianyu; Cai, Yongjiu; Yin, Hongbin; Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Jin

    2017-08-01

    The residues of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in surface sediments from Taihu Lake basin (THB) and Taihu Lake body (THL) were investigated. Higher concentrations of both PAHs and OCPs were observed for THB than THL. The concentrations of PAHs ranged from 12.1 to 2281.1ngg -1 dw for THB and from 11.4 to 209.9ngg -1 dw for THL, while OCPs ranged from 16.3 to 96.9ngg -1 dw and from 16.8 to 61.9ngg -1 dw for THB and THL, respectively. Spatial distribution of PAHs and OCPs showed a high correspondence with the land use of THB and surrounding anthropogenic activity. Additionally, the Kriging interpolation plots demonstrated that the major upper reaches were more polluted than the lower reaches, indicating the transport of pollutants with the water flow direction. The organic matter contents were responsible for OCP distribution other than PAHs due to the biodegradation capacity difference of chemicals. Similar compositions of pollutants were observed with 3- and 4-ringed PAHs accounting for a total of 78.3% for THB and 85.8% for THL, respectively. HCHs and DDTs were predominant OCPs, which contributed to 31.8% and 21.7% for THB, and 33.6% and 21.9% for THL, respectively. The isomeric and parent substance/metabolite ratios implied fresh inputs of DDTs and chlordanes, while HCHs and endosulfans were mainly from old usage. PAH source identification performed by diagnostic ratios demonstrated the mixed sources of petrogenic and pyrogenic ones dominated by grass, wood and coal combustion. Furthermore, the hazard quotient (HQ) based on the consensus-based sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) was used to evaluate the ecological risks of sediments. Although no frequently adverse effects were observed, potential ecological risks induced by Ant, BaA, γ-HCH, dieldrin, p,p'-DDT and chlordanes should also be paid attention to considering the continuous inputs of such pollutants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Spatial variation of PAHs and PCBs in coastal air, seawater, and sediments in a heavily industrialized region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odabasi, Mustafa; Dumanoglu, Yetkin; Kara, Melik; Altiok, Hasan; Elbir, Tolga; Bayram, Abdurrahman

    2017-05-01

    Concurrent coastal seawater (n = 22), sediment (n = 22), and atmospheric samples (n = 10) were collected in the Aliaga industrial region, Turkey, to explore the spatial variation, sources, and air-seawater exchange of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Seawater Σ 16 PAH concentrations (particle + dissolved) ranged between 5107 and 294,624 pg L -1 , while Σ 41 PCB concentrations were in the range of 880-50,829 pg L -1 . Levels in sediments were highly variable ranging between 35.5-49,682 and 2.7-2450 μg kg -1 in dry weight for Σ 16 PAHs and Σ 41 PCBs, respectively. Atmospheric concentrations varied between 1791-274,974 and 104-20,083 pg m -3 for Σ 16 PAHs and Σ 41 PCBs, respectively. Sediment organic matter (OM) content and levels of Σ 16 PAHs and Σ 41 PCBs correlated weakly (r 2  = 0.19-0.23, p seawater, and sediment and factor analysis on the sediment levels pointed out that the major sources in the region are steel plants, petroleum refinery, petrochemical complex, ship breaking, loading/unloading activities at the ports, vehicular emissions, and fossil fuel combustion emissions. The direction of the air-seawater exchange was also explored by estimating seawater fugacity fractions of PAHs and PCBs. For PAHs, the number of cases implying deposition (43.0%) and volatilization (39.5%) was similar, while for PCBs, the number of cases implying volatilization (60.4%) was much higher compared to deposition (21.6%). Fugacity fractions were generally seawater and sediment levels were measured, implying that atmospheric deposition is an important mechanism affecting seawater and sediment PAH and PCB levels.

  4. Characteristics of PAHs in farmland soil and rainfall runoff in Tianjin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Rongguang; Xu, Mengmeng; Liu, Aifeng; Tian, Yong; Zhao, Zongshan

    2017-10-14

    Rainfall runoff can remove certain amounts of pollutants from contaminated farmland soil and result in a decline in water quality. However, the leaching behaviors of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with rainfall have been rarely reported due to wide variations in the soil compositions, rainfall conditions, and sources of soil PAHs in complex farmland ecosystems. In this paper, the levels, spatial distributions, and composition profiles of PAHs in 30 farmland soil samples and 49 rainfall-runoff samples from the Tianjin region in 2012 were studied to investigate their leaching behaviors caused by rainfall runoff. The contents of the Σ 16 PAHs ranged from 58.53 to 3137.90 μg/kg in the soil and 146.58 to 3636.59 μg/L in the runoff. In total, most of the soil sampling sites (23 of 30) were contaminated, and biomass and petroleum combustion were proposed as the main sources of the soil PAHs. Both the spatial distributions of the soil and the runoff PAHs show a decreasing trend moving away from the downtown, which suggested that the leaching behaviors of PAHs in a larger region during rainfall may be mainly affected by the compounds themselves. In addition, 4- and 5-ring PAHs are the dominant components in farmland soil and 3- and 4-ring PAHs dominate the runoff. Comparisons of the PAH pairs and enrichment ratios showed that acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, and fluoranthene were more easily transferred into water systems from soil than benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[ghi]perylene, and indeno[123-cd]pyrene, which indicated that PAHs with low molecular weight are preferentially dissolved due to their higher solubility compared to those with high molecular weight.

  5. Laboratory investigations on the distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) under watersaturated conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbert, M.

    1993-01-01

    With static batch-sorption experiments the sorption behaviour of Fluoranthene and Acenaphthelene was analysed. It showed that the sorption of PAH depends on the concentration and does not show a linear relationship throughout the concentration ranges. The sorption of PAH is for the most part dependent on the amount of organic material. The type of organic matter has an influence on the sorption behaviour, so that young organic material adsorbs less than older organic material. The desorption behaviour of Fluoranthene was analysed with batch-desorption experiments. In order to determine the influence of the time needed to adjust the previous sorption equilibrium, long-term experiments in batch-vessels were made in addition. The desorption is mainly determined by the time needed for adjusting sorption equilibrium and less determined by the type of the isothermes. A part of the PAH is delivered very slowly and in very low concentrations according to the speed of the reverse diffusion in the coarser sample material. If the desorption is purely controlled by diffusive processes, this can lead to a very fast reduction of the contaminant's concentration in water to a very small amount, without a decisive reduction of the contaminant's concentration in the solid phase. (orig.) [de

  6. Presence of PAHs in water and sediments of the Colombian Cauca River during heavy rain episodes, and implications for risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarria-Villa, Rodrigo; Ocampo-Duque, William; Páez, Martha; Schuhmacher, Marta

    2016-01-01

    In Colombia little attention has been paid to river pollution with Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs). Low environmental control and legislation in such emerging region could significantly contribute to high PAHs releases. In this study, we report the presence of PAHs in water and sediments of the Cauca River (Colombia). Three sampling campaigns were carried out between May 2010 and June 2011, and the samples were collected at eight relevant sites. The sampling time included measuring before, during, and after a season of heavy rains, which were influenced by the global coupled ocean-atmospheric phenomenon, which affected tropical countries with huge flooding, commonly called "La Niña", and/or "El Niño" Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The highest mean ∑PAH concentrations were 4476.5 ng/l and 1582.7 ng/g in water and sediments, respectively. The PAHs most detected were Benzo[b]fluoranthene, Benzo[k]fluoranthene, and Pyrene in sediments; and Fluorene, Acenaphtylene, and Anthracene in water. After the season of rains statistically significant higher PAH concentrations were detected. The results of the study were compared to other rivers worldwide at both environmental compartments, and did not show concentrations of special concern. In some sites, concentrations detected of PAHs were higher than screening benchmarks for ecological protection. Estimation of human health risks was carried out, and the results suggested some likely carcinogenic effects due to PAHs especially in children exposed during current recreational swimming and adults working in low technology sand extraction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.