WorldWideScience

Sample records for total ozone budget

  1. Estonian total ozone climatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Eerme

    Full Text Available The climatological characteristics of total ozone over Estonia based on the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS data are discussed. The mean annual cycle during 1979–2000 for the site at 58.3° N and 26.5° E is compiled. The available ground-level data interpolated before TOMS, have been used for trend detection. During the last two decades, the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO corrected systematic decrease of total ozone from February–April was 3 ± 2.6% per decade. Before 1980, a spring decrease was not detectable. No decreasing trend was found in either the late autumn ozone minimum or in the summer total ozone. The QBO related signal in the spring total ozone has an amplitude of ± 20 DU and phase lag of 20 months. Between 1987–1992, the lagged covariance between the Singapore wind and the studied total ozone was weak. The spring (April–May and summer (June–August total ozone have the best correlation (coefficient 0.7 in the yearly cycle. The correlation between the May and August total ozone is higher than the one between the other summer months. Seasonal power spectra of the total ozone variance show preferred periods with an over 95% significance level. Since 1986, during the winter/spring, the contribution period of 32 days prevails instead of the earlier dominating 26 days. The spectral densities of the periods from 4 days to 2 weeks exhibit high interannual variability.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (middle atmosphere – composition and chemistry; volcanic effects – Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (climatology

  2. Defense meteorological satellite measurements of total ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovill, J.E.; Ellis, J.S.; Luther, F.M.; Sullivan, R.J.; Weichel, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    A multichannel filter radiometer (MFR) on Defense Meteorological Satellites (DMS) that measured total ozone on a global-scale from March 1977 - February 1980 is described. The total ozone data measured by the MFR were compared with total ozone data taken by surfaced-based Dobson spectrophotometers. When comparisons were made for five months, the Dobson spectrophotometer measured 2-5% more total ozone than the MFR. Comparisons between the Dobson spectrophotometer and the MFR showed a reduced RMS difference as the comparisons were made at closer proximity. A Northern Hemisphere total ozone distribution obtained from MFR data is presented

  3. Total ozone changes in the 1987 Antarctic ozone hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Arlin J.; Schoeberl, Mark R.; Doiron, Scott D.; Sechrist, Frank; Galimore, Reginald

    1988-01-01

    The development of the Antarctic ozone minimum was observed in 1987 with the Nimbus 7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument. In the first half of August the near-polar (60 and 70 deg S) ozone levels were similar to those of recent years. By September, however, the ozone at 70 and 80 deg S was clearly lower than any previous year including 1985, the prior record low year. The levels continued to decrease throughout September until October 5 when a new record low of 109 DU was established at a point near the South Pole. This value is 29 DU less than the lowest observed in 1985 and 48 DU less than the 1986 low. The zonal mean total ozone at 60 deg S remained constant throughout the time of ozone hole formation. The ozone decline was punctuated by local minima formed away from the polar night boundary at about 75 deg S. The first of these, on August 15 to 17, formed just east of the Palmer Peninsula and appears to be a mountain wave. The second major minimum formed on September 5 to 7 again downwind of the Palmer Peninsula. This event was larger in scale than the August minimum and initiated the decline of ozone across the polar region. The 1987 ozone hole was nearly circular and pole centered for its entire life. In previous years the hole was perturbed by intrusions of the circumpolar maximum into the polar regions, thus causing the hole to be elliptical. The 1987 hole also remained in place until the end of November, a few days longer than in 1985, and this persistence resulted in the latest time for recovery to normal values yet observed.

  4. Multi sensor reanalysis of total ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. van der A

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A single coherent total ozone dataset, called the Multi Sensor Reanalysis (MSR, has been created from all available ozone column data measured by polar orbiting satellites in the near-ultraviolet Huggins band in the last thirty years. Fourteen total ozone satellite retrieval datasets from the instruments TOMS (on the satellites Nimbus-7 and Earth Probe, SBUV (Nimbus-7, NOAA-9, NOAA-11 and NOAA-16, GOME (ERS-2, SCIAMACHY (Envisat, OMI (EOS-Aura, and GOME-2 (Metop-A have been used in the MSR. As first step a bias correction scheme is applied to all satellite observations, based on independent ground-based total ozone data from the World Ozone and Ultraviolet Data Center. The correction is a function of solar zenith angle, viewing angle, time (trend, and effective ozone temperature. As second step data assimilation was applied to create a global dataset of total ozone analyses. The data assimilation method is a sub-optimal implementation of the Kalman filter technique, and is based on a chemical transport model driven by ECMWF meteorological fields. The chemical transport model provides a detailed description of (stratospheric transport and uses parameterisations for gas-phase and ozone hole chemistry. The MSR dataset results from a 30-year data assimilation run with the 14 corrected satellite datasets as input, and is available on a grid of 1× 1 1/2° with a sample frequency of 6 h for the complete time period (1978–2008. The Observation-minus-Analysis (OmA statistics show that the bias of the MSR analyses is less than 1% with an RMS standard deviation of about 2% as compared to the corrected satellite observations used.

  5. Reconciliation of Halogen-Induced Ozone Loss with the Total-Column Ozone Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, T. G.; Plummer, D. A.; Scinocca, J. F.; Hegglin, M. I.; Fioletov, V. E.; Reader, M. C.; Remsberg, E.; von Clarmann, T.; Wang, H. J.

    2014-01-01

    The observed depletion of the ozone layer from the 1980s onwards is attributed to halogen source gases emitted by human activities. However, the precision of this attribution is complicated by year-to-year variations in meteorology, that is, dynamical variability, and by changes in tropospheric ozone concentrations. As such, key aspects of the total-column ozone record, which combines changes in both tropospheric and stratospheric ozone, remain unexplained, such as the apparent absence of a decline in total-column ozone levels before 1980, and of any long-term decline in total-column ozone levels in the tropics. Here we use a chemistry-climate model to estimate changes in halogen-induced ozone loss between 1960 and 2010; the model is constrained by observed meteorology to remove the eects of dynamical variability, and driven by emissions of tropospheric ozone precursors to separate out changes in tropospheric ozone. We show that halogen-induced ozone loss closely followed stratospheric halogen loading over the studied period. Pronounced enhancements in ozone loss were apparent in both hemispheres following the volcanic eruptions of El Chichon and, in particular, Mount Pinatubo, which significantly enhanced stratospheric aerosol loads. We further show that approximately 40% of the long-term non-volcanic ozone loss occurred before 1980, and that long-term ozone loss also occurred in the tropical stratosphere. Finally, we show that halogeninduced ozone loss has declined by over 10% since stratospheric halogen loading peaked in the late 1990s, indicating that the recovery of the ozone layer is well underway.

  6. On the link between martian total ozone and potential vorticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, James A.; Lewis, Stephen R.; Patel, Manish R.

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate for the first time that total ozone in the martian atmosphere is highly correlated with the dynamical tracer, potential vorticity, under certain conditions. The degree of correlation is investigated using a Mars global circulation model including a photochemical model. Potential vorticity is the quantity of choice to explore the dynamical nature of polar vortices because it contains information on winds and temperature in a single scalar variable. The correlation is found to display a distinct seasonal variation, with a strong positive correlation in both northern and southern winter at poleward latitudes in the northern and southern hemisphere respectively. The identified strong correlation implies variations in polar total ozone during winter are predominantly controlled by dynamical processes in these spatio-temporal regions. The weak correlation in northern and southern summer is due to the dominance of photochemical reactions resulting from extended exposure to sunlight. The total ozone/potential vorticity correlation is slightly weaker in southern winter due to topographical variations and the preference for ozone to accumulate in Hellas basin. In northern winter, total ozone can be used to track the polar vortex edge. The ozone/potential vorticity ratio is calculated for both northern and southern winter on Mars for the first time. Using the strong correlation in total ozone and potential vorticity in northern winter inside the polar vortex, it is shown that potential vorticity can be used as a proxy to deduce the distribution of total ozone where satellites cannot observe for the majority of northern winter. Where total ozone observations are available on the fringes of northern winter at poleward latitudes, the strong relationship of total ozone and potential vorticity implies that total ozone anomalies in the surf zone of the northern polar vortex can potentially be used to determine the origin of potential vorticity filaments.

  7. Total ozone retrieval from satellite multichannel filter radiometer measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovill, J.E.; Sullivan, T.J.; Weichel, R.L.; Ellis, J.S.; Huebel, J.G.; Korver, J.; Weidhaas, P.P.; Phelps, F.A.

    1978-01-01

    A total ozone retrieval model has been developed to process radiance data gathered by a satellite-mounted multichannel filter radiometer (MFR). Extensive effort went into theoretical radiative transfer modeling, a retrieval scheme was developed, and the technique was applied to the MFR radiance measurements. The high quality of the total ozone retrieval results was determined through comparisons with Dobson measurements. Included in the report are global total ozone maps for 20 days between May 12 and July 5, 1977. A comparison of MFR results for 13 days in June 1977 with Dobson spectrophotometer measurements of ozone for the same period showed good agreement: there was a root-mean-square difference of 6.2% (equivalent to 20.2 m.atm.cm). The estimated global total ozone value for June 1977 (296 m.atm.cm) was in good agreement with satellite backscatter ultraviolet data for June 1970 (304 m.atm.cm) and June 1971

  8. Solar Backscatter UV (SBUV total ozone and profile algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Bhartia

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe the algorithm that has been applied to develop a 42 yr record of total ozone and ozone profiles from eight Solar Backscatter UV (SBUV instruments launched on NASA and NOAA satellites since April 1970. The Version 8 (V8 algorithm was released more than a decade ago and has been in use since then at NOAA to produce their operational ozone products. The current algorithm (V8.6 is basically the same as V8, except for updates to instrument calibration, incorporation of new ozone absorption cross-sections, and new ozone and cloud height climatologies. Since the V8 algorithm has been optimized for deriving monthly zonal mean (MZM anomalies for ozone assessment and model comparisons, our emphasis in this paper is primarily on characterizing the sources of errors that are relevant for such studies. When data are analyzed this way the effect of some errors, such as vertical smoothing of short-term variability, and noise due to clouds and aerosols diminish in importance, while the importance of others, such as errors due to vertical smoothing of the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO and other periodic and aperiodic variations, become more important. With V8.6 zonal mean data we now provide smoothing kernels that can be used to compare anomalies in SBUV profile and partial ozone columns with models. In this paper we show how to use these kernels to compare SBUV data with Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS ozone profiles. These kernels are particularly useful for comparisons in the lower stratosphere where SBUV profiles have poor vertical resolution but partial column ozone values have high accuracy. We also provide our best estimate of the smoothing errors associated with SBUV MZM profiles. Since smoothing errors are the largest source of uncertainty in these profiles, they can be treated as error bars in deriving interannual variability and trends using SBUV data and for comparing with other measurements. In the V8 and V8.6 algorithms we derive total

  9. Tropospheric Ozone Pollution from Space: New Views from the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Hudson, Robert D.; Frolov, Alexander D.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Kucsera, Tom L.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    New products from the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) >satellite instrument can resolve pollution events in tropical and mid-latitudes, Over the past several years, we have developed tropospheric ozone data sets by two methods. The modified-residual technique [Hudson and Thompson, 1998; Thompson and Hudson, 1999] uses v. 7 TOMS total ozone and is applicable to tropical regimes in which the wave-one pattern in total ozone is observed. The TOMSdirect method [Hudson et at., 2000] represents a new algorithm that uses TOMS radiances to extract tropospheric ozone in regions of constant stratospheric ozone and tropospheric ozone displaying high mixing ratios and variability characteristic of pollution, Absorbing aerosols (dust and smoke; Herman et at., 1997 Hsu et al., 1999), a standard TOMS product, provide transport and/or source marker information to interpret tropospheric ozone. For the Nimbus 7/TOMS observing period (1979-1992), modified-residual TTO (tropical tropospheric ozone) appears as two maps/month at I-degree latitude 2-degree longitude resolution at a homepage and digital data are available (20S to 20N) by ftp at http://metosrv2. umd.edu/tropo/ 14y_data.d. Preliminary modified-residual TTO data from the operational Earth-Probe/TOMS (1996- present) are posted in near-real-time at the same website. Analyses with the new tropospheric ozone and aerosol data are illustrated by the following (I)Signals in tropical tropospheric ozone column and smoke amount during ENSO (El Nino-Southern Oscillation) events, e.g. 1982-1983 and the intense ENSO induced biomass fires of 1997-1998 over the Indonesian region [Thompson et a[, 2000a, Thompson and Hudson, 1999]. (2) Trends in tropospheric ozone and smoke aerosols in various tropical regions (Atlantic, Pacific, Africa, Brazil). No significant trends were found for ozone from1980-1990 [Thompson and Hudson, 19991 although smoke aerosols increased during the period [Hsu et al.,1999]. (3) Temporal and spatial offsets

  10. Impact of climate change on tropospheric ozone and its global budgets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Zeng

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the chemistry-climate model UMCAM in which a relatively detailed tropospheric chemical module has been incorporated into the UK Met Office's Unified Model version 4.5. We obtain good agreements between the modelled ozone/nitrogen species and a range of observations including surface ozone measurements, ozone sonde data, and some aircraft campaigns.

    Four 2100 calculations assess model responses to projected changes of anthropogenic emissions (SRES A2, climate change (due to doubling CO2, and idealised climate change-associated changes in biogenic emissions (i.e. 50% increase of isoprene emission and doubling emissions of soil-NOx. The global tropospheric ozone burden increases significantly for all the 2100 A2 simulations, with the largest response caused by the increase of anthropogenic emissions. Climate change has diverse impacts on O3 and its budgets through changes in circulation and meteorological variables. Increased water vapour causes a substantial ozone reduction especially in the tropical lower troposphere (>10 ppbv reduction over the tropical ocean. On the other hand, an enhanced stratosphere-troposphere exchange of ozone, which increases by 80% due to doubling CO2, contributes to ozone increases in the extratropical free troposphere which subsequently propagate to the surface. Projected higher temperatures favour ozone chemical production and PAN decomposition which lead to high surface ozone levels in certain regions. Enhanced convection transports ozone precursors more rapidly out of the boundary layer resulting in an increase of ozone production in the free troposphere. Lightning-produced NOx increases by about 22% in the doubled CO2 climate and contributes to ozone production.

    The response to the increase of isoprene emissions shows that the change of ozone is largely determined by background NOx levels: high

  11. Ozone and carbon monoxide budgets over the Eastern Mediterranean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Myriokefalitakis, S.; Daskalakis, N.; Fanourgakis, G.S.; Voulgarakis, A.; Krol, M.C.; Brugh, Aan de J.M.J.; Kanakidou, M.

    2016-01-01

    The importance of the long-range transport (LRT) on O3 and CO budgets over the Eastern Mediterranean has been investigated using the state-of-the-art 3-dimensional global chemistry-transport model TM4-ECPL. A 3-D budget analysis has been performed separating the Eastern from the

  12. The DMSP/MFR total ozone and radiance data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.S.; Lovill, J.E.; Luther, F.M.; Sullivan, T.J.; Taylor, S.S.; Weichel, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    The radiance measurements by the multichannel filter radiometer (MFR), a scanning instrument carried on the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Block 5D series of satellites (flight models F1, F2, F3 and F4), were used to calculate the total column ozone globally for the period March 1977 through February 1980. These data were then calibrated and mapped to earth coordinates at LLNL. Total column ozone was derived from these calibrated radiance data and placed both the ozone and calibrated radiance data into a computer data base called SOAC (Satellite Ozone Analysis Center) using the FRAMIS database manager. The uncalibrated radiance data tapes were initially sent on to the National Climate Center, Asheville, North Carolina and then to the Satellite Data Services Branch /EDS/NOAA in Suitland, Maryland where they were archived. Copies of the data base containing the total ozone and the calibrated radiance data reside both at LLNL and at the National Space Science Data Center, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland. This report describes the entries into the data base in sufficient detail so that the data base might be useful to others. The characteristics of the MFR sensor are briefly discussed and a complete index to the data base tapes is given

  13. The Ozone Budget in the Upper Troposphere from Global Modeling Initiative (GMI)Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriquez, J.; Duncan, Bryan N.; Logan, Jennifer A.

    2006-01-01

    Ozone concentrations in the upper troposphere are influenced by in-situ production, long-range tropospheric transport, and influx of stratospheric ozone, as well as by photochemical removal. Since ozone is an important greenhouse gas in this region, it is particularly important to understand how it will respond to changes in anthropogenic emissions and changes in stratospheric ozone fluxes.. This response will be determined by the relative balance of the different production, loss and transport processes. Ozone concentrations calculated by models will differ depending on the adopted meteorological fields, their chemical scheme, anthropogenic emissions, and treatment of the stratospheric influx. We performed simulations using the chemical-transport model from the Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) with meteorological fields from (It)h e NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) general circulation model (GCM), (2) the atmospheric GCM from NASA's Global Modeling and Assimilation Office(GMAO), and (3) assimilated winds from GMAO . These simulations adopt the same chemical mechanism and emissions, and adopt the Synthetic Ozone (SYNOZ) approach for treating the influx of stratospheric ozone -. In addition, we also performed simulations for a coupled troposphere-stratosphere model with a subset of the same winds. Simulations were done for both 4degx5deg and 2degx2.5deg resolution. Model results are being tested through comparison with a suite of atmospheric observations. In this presentation, we diagnose the ozone budget in the upper troposphere utilizing the suite of GMI simulations, to address the sensitivity of this budget to: a) the different meteorological fields used; b) the adoption of the SYNOZ boundary condition versus inclusion of a full stratosphere; c) model horizontal resolution. Model results are compared to observations to determine biases in particular simulations; by examining these comparisons in conjunction with the derived budgets, we may pinpoint

  14. Highlights of TOMS Version 9 Total Ozone Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhartia, Pawan; Haffner, David

    2012-01-01

    The fundamental basis of TOMS total ozone algorithm was developed some 45 years ago by Dave and Mateer. It was designed to estimate total ozone from satellite measurements of the backscattered UV radiances at few discrete wavelengths in the Huggins ozone absorption band (310-340 nm). Over the years, as the need for higher accuracy in measuring total ozone from space has increased, several improvements to the basic algorithms have been made. They include: better correction for the effects of aerosols and clouds, an improved method to account for the variation in shape of ozone profiles with season, latitude, and total ozone, and a multi-wavelength correction for remaining profile shape errors. These improvements have made it possible to retrieve total ozone with just 3 spectral channels of moderate spectral resolution (approx. 1 nm) with accuracy comparable to state-of-the-art spectral fitting algorithms like DOAS that require high spectral resolution measurements at large number of wavelengths. One of the deficiencies of the TOMS algorithm has been that it doesn't provide an error estimate. This is a particular problem in high latitudes when the profile shape errors become significant and vary with latitude, season, total ozone, and instrument viewing geometry. The primary objective of the TOMS V9 algorithm is to account for these effects in estimating the error bars. This is done by a straightforward implementation of the Rodgers optimum estimation method using a priori ozone profiles and their error covariances matrices constructed using Aura MLS and ozonesonde data. The algorithm produces a vertical ozone profile that contains 1-2.5 pieces of information (degrees of freedom of signal) depending upon solar zenith angle (SZA). The profile is integrated to obtain the total column. We provide information that shows the altitude range in which the profile is best determined by the measurements. One can use this information in data assimilation and analysis. A side

  15. Budget calculations for ozone and its precursors: Seasonal and episodic features based on model simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Memmesheimer, M.; Ebel, A.; Roemer, M.

    1997-01-01

    Results from two air quality models (LOTOS, EURAD) have been used to analyse the contribution of the different terms in the continuity equation to the budget of ozone, NO(x) and PAN. Both models cover large parts of Europe and describe the processes relevant for tropospheric chemistry and dynamics.

  16. North American Tropospheric Ozone Profiles from IONS (INTEX Ozonesonde Network Study, 2004, 2006): Ozone Budgets, Polution Statistics, Satellite Retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, M.; Thompson, A. M.; Witte, J. C.; Miller, S. K.; Oltmans, S. J.; Cooper, O. R.; Tarasick, D. W.; Chatfield, R. B.; Taubman, B. F.; Joseph, E.; Baumgardner, D.; Merrill, J. T.; Morris, G. A.; Rappenglueck, B.; Lefer, B.; Forbes, G.; Newchurch, M. J.; Schmidlin, F. J.; Pierce, R. B.; Leblanc, T.; Dubey, M.; Minschwaner, K.

    2007-12-01

    During INTEX-B (both Milagro and IMPEX phases in Spring 2006) and during the summer TEXAQS- 2006/GOMACCS period, the INTEX Ozonesonde Network Study (IONS-06) coordinated ozonesonde launches over North America for Aura overpasses. IONS-06 supported aircraft operations and provided profiles for ozone budgets and pollution transport, satellite validation and evaluation of models. In contrast to IONS-04, IONS-06 had a greater range (all but one 2004 IONS site plus a dozen in California, New Mexico, Mexico City, Barbados and southwestern Canada), yielding more than 700 profiles. Tropospheric pollution statistics to guide Aura satellite retrievals and contrasts in UT-LS (upper tropospheric-lower stratospheric) ozone between 2004 and 2006 are presented. With IONS-04 dominated by low-pressure conditions over northeastern North America, UT ozone originated 25% from the stratosphere [Thompson et al., 2007a,b] with significant amounts from aged or relatively fresh pollution and lightning [Cooper et al., 2006; Morris et al., 2006]. Both IONS-04 and IONS-06 summer periods displayed a persistent UT ozone maximum [Cooper et al., 2007] over the south-central US. March 2006 IONS sondes over Mexico manifested persistent UT/LS gravity wave influence and more sporadic pollution. Regional and seasonal contrasts in IONS-06 ozone distributions are described. intexb/ions06.html

  17. Study of total column atmospheric aerosol optical depth, ozone and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Extensive observations of the columnar aerosol optical depth (AOD), total column ozone (TCO) and precipitable water content (PWC) have been carried out using the on-line, multi-band solar radiometers onboard ORV Sagar Kanya (Cruise#SK 147B) over Bay of Bengal during 11th-28th August 1999. Aerosol optical and ...

  18. Effect of some climatic parameters on tropospheric and total ozone ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Effect of some climatic parameters on tropospheric and total ozone column over Alipore (22.52°N, 88.33°E), India ... insolation obtained from Solar Geophysical Data Book and El-ñ index collected from National Climatic Data Center, US Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, USA.

  19. Determination of total ozone from DMSP multichannel filter radiometer measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luther, F.M.; Weichel, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    The multichannel filter radiometer (MFR) infrared sensor was first flown in 1977 on a Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Block 5D series satellite operated by the US Air Force. The first four satellites in this series carried MFR sensors from which total atmospheric column ozone amounts may be derived. The MFR sensor was the first cross-track scanning sensor capable of measuring ozone. MFR sensor infrared measurements are taken day and night. The satellites are in polar sun-synchronous orbits providing daily global coverage. The series of four sensors spans a data period of nearly three years. The MFR sensor measures infrared radiances for 16 channels. Total ozone amounts are determined from sets of radiance measurements using an empirical relationship that is developed using linear regression analysis. Total ozone is modeled as a linear combination of terms involving functions of the MFR radiances for four channels (1, 3, 7 and 16) and the secant of the zenith angle. The MFR scans side to side in discrete steps of 40. The MFR sensor takes infrared radiance measurements at 25 cross-track scanning locations every 32 seconds. The instrument could take a theoretical maximum of 67,500 measurements per day, although typically 35,000 - 45,000 measurements are taken per day

  20. Ozone production, nitrogen oxides, and radical budgets in Mexico City: observations from Pico de Tres Padres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, E. C.; Herndon, S. C.; Onasch, T. B.; Kroll, J. H.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Kolb, C. E.; Worsnop, D. R.; Neuman, J. A.; Seila, R.; Zavala, M.; Knighton, W. B.

    2008-08-01

    Observations at a mountain-top site within the Mexico City basin are used to characterize ozone production and destruction, the nitrogen oxide budget, and the radical budget during the MILAGRO campaign. An ozone production rate of ~50 ppbv/h was observed in a stagnant air mass during the afternoon of 12 March 2006, which is among the highest observed anywhere in the world. Approximately half of the ozone destruction was due to the oxidation of NO2. During this time period ozone production was VOC-limited, deduced by a comparison of the radical production rates and the formation rate of NOx oxidation products (NOz) For [NOx]/[NOy] values between 0.2 and 0.8, gas-phase HNO3 typically accounted for less than 10% of NOz and accumulation-mode particulate nitrate (NO3-(PM)) accounted for 20% 70% of NOz, consistent with high ambient NH3 concentrations. The fraction of NOz accounted for by the sum of HNO3(g) and NO3-(PM) decreased with photochemical processing. This decrease is apparent even when dry deposition of HNO3 is accounted for, and indicates that HNO3 formation decreased relative to other NOx "sink" processes during the first 12 h of photochemistry and/or a significant fraction of the nitrate was associated with the coarse aerosol size mode. The ozone production efficiency of NOx on 11 and 12 March 2006 was approximately 7 on a time scale of one day. A new metric for ozone production efficiency that relates the dilution-adjusted ozone mixing ratio to cumulative OH exposure is proposed.

  1. Ozone budgets from the Dynamics and Chemistry of Marine Stratocumulus experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawa, S. R.; Pearson, R., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Measurements from the Dynamics and Chemistry of marine Stratocumulus experiment have been used to study components of the regional ozone budget. The surface destruction rate is determined by eddy correlation of ozone and vertical velocity measured by a low-flying aircraft. Significant variability is found in the measured surface resistance; it is partially correlated with friction velocity but appears to have other controlling influences as well. The mean resistance is 4190 s/m which is higher (slower destruction) than most previous estimates for seawater. Flux and mean measurements throughout the marine boundary layer are used to estimate the net rate of in situ photochemical production/destruction of ozone. Averaged over the flights, ozone concentration is found to be near steady state, and a net of photochemical destruction of 0.02-0.07 ng/cu m per sec is diagnosed. This is an important confirmation of photochemical model results for the remote marine boundary layer. Ozone vertical distributions above the boundary layer show a strongly layered structure with very sharp gradients. These distributions are possibly related to the stratospheric ozone source.

  2. Ozone and carbon monoxide budgets over the Eastern Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myriokefalitakis, S; Daskalakis, N; Fanourgakis, G S; Voulgarakis, A; Krol, M C; Aan de Brugh, J M J; Kanakidou, M

    2016-09-01

    The importance of the long-range transport (LRT) on O3 and CO budgets over the Eastern Mediterranean has been investigated using the state-of-the-art 3-dimensional global chemistry-transport model TM4-ECPL. A 3-D budget analysis has been performed separating the Eastern from the Western basins and the boundary layer (BL) from the free troposphere (FT). The FT of the Eastern Mediterranean is shown to be a strong receptor of polluted air masses from the Western Mediterranean, and the most important source of polluted air masses for the Eastern Mediterranean BL, with about 40% of O3 and of CO in the BL to be transported from the FT aloft. Regional anthropogenic sources are found to have relatively small impact on regional air quality in the area, contributing by about 8% and 18% to surface levels of O3 and CO, respectively. Projections using anthropogenic emissions for the year 2050 but neglecting climate change calculate a surface O3 decrease of about 11% together with a surface CO increase of roughly 10% in the Eastern Mediterranean. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Photochemical ozone budget during the BIBLE A and B campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Malcolm; Hu, Wenjie; Rodríguez, José M.; Kondo, Yutaka; Koike, Makoto; Kita, Kazuyuki; Kawakami, Shuji; Blake, Donald; Liu, Shaw; Ogawa, Toshihiro

    2003-02-01

    Using the measured concentrations of NO, O3, H2O, CO, CH4, and NMHCs along the flight tracks, a photochemical box model is used to calculate the concentrations of the Ox radicals, the HOx radicals, and the nitrogen species at the sampling points. The calculations make use of the measurements from radiometers to scale clear sky photolysis rates to account for cloud cover and ground albedo at the sampling time/point. The concentrations of the nitrogen species in each of the sampled air parcels are computed assuming they are in instantaneous equilibrium with the measured NO and O3. The diurnally varying species concentrations are next calculated using the box model and used to estimate the diurnally averaged production and removal rates of ozone for the sampled air parcels. Clear sky photolysis rates are used in the diurnal calculations. The campaign also provided measured concentration of NOy. The observed NO/NOy ratio is usually larger than the model calculated equilibrium value. There are several possible explanations. It could be a result of recent injection of NO into the air parcel, recent removal of HNO3 from the parcel, recent rapid transport of an air parcel from another location, or a combination of all processes. Our analyses suggest that the local production rate of O3 can be used as another indicator of recent NO injection. However, more direct studies using air trajectory analyses and other collaborative evidences are needed to ascertain the roles played by individual process.

  4. Global distribution of total ozone and lower stratospheric temperature variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Steinbrecht

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This study gives an overview of interannual variations of total ozone and 50 hPa temperature. It is based on newer and longer records from the 1979 to 2001 Total Ozone Monitoring Spectrometer (TOMS and Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV instruments, and on US National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP reanalyses. Multiple linear least squares regression is used to attribute variations to various natural and anthropogenic explanatory variables. Usually, maps of total ozone and 50 hPa temperature variations look very similar, reflecting a very close coupling between the two. As a rule of thumb, a 10 Dobson Unit (DU change in total ozone corresponds to a 1 K change of 50 hPa temperature. Large variations come from the linear trend term, up to -30 DU or -1.5 K/decade, from terms related to polar vortex strength, up to 50 DU or 5 K (typical, minimum to maximum, from tropospheric meteorology, up to 30 DU or 3 K, or from the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO, up to 25 DU or 2.5 K. The 11-year solar cycle, up to 25 DU or 2.5 K, or El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO, up to 10 DU or 1 K, are contributing smaller variations. Stratospheric aerosol after the 1991 Pinatubo eruption lead to warming up to 3 K at low latitudes and to ozone depletion up to 40 DU at high latitudes. Variations attributed to QBO, polar vortex strength, and to a lesser degree to ENSO, exhibit an inverse correlation between low latitudes and higher latitudes. Variations related to the solar cycle or 400 hPa temperature, however, have the same sign over most of the globe. Variations are usually zonally symmetric at low and mid-latitudes, but asymmetric at high latitudes. There, position and strength of the stratospheric anti-cyclones over the Aleutians and south of Australia appear to vary with the phases of solar cycle, QBO or ENSO.

  5. Total Ozone Data From a European Network 1951-1957

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brönnimann, S.; Brönnimann, S.; Farmer, S.

    2001-12-01

    Soon after its foundation in 1948, the International Ozone Commission (IOC) established a total ozone network in Europe, together with the Gassiot Committee of the Royal Socitey, UNESCO, the London Meteorological Office and national services. The network was built-up in 1950 with Dobson spectrophotometers equipped with photomultipliers, which were calibrated in Oxford before shipping to the stations. In 1957, some of the stations became part of the network of the IGY, and these data can be found today at the WOUDC. The earlier data were compiled and archived in Oxford by the secretary of the IOC, Charles Normand, but have never been published and only rarely appeared in the scientific literature [Normand, QJRMS 67 (1951) 474 and QJRMS 69 (1953) 39]. The copies of the data sheets stored at UK Met Office [MO/19/3/9 Part I] comprise daily values from the following stations/time periods: Aarhus (DK, 6/52-12/59, Dobson #41), Aldergrove (UK, 6/52-4/57, #35?), Arosa (CH, 6/52-12/58 #15), Cagliari/Elmas (IT, 12/54-5/59, #48), Camborne (UK, 1/52-12/59, #32), Eskdalemuir (UK, 9/57-12/59, #35), Hemsby (UK, 6/52-9/55), Lerwick (UK, 6/52-12/59, #7), Magny les Hameaux (FR, 1/55-9/57, #49?), Messina (IT, 7/54-6/58, #46), Oxford (UK, 6/52-12/59, #1), Paris/Montsouris (FR, 10/57-8/58, #49), Reykjavik (IS, 6/52-10/59, #50), Rome/Vigna di Valle (IT, 4/54-12/59 #47), Santa Maria/Azores (ES, 2/53-7/56, #13), Spitzbergen (NO, 11/50-7/58, #8), Tromsoe (NO, 6/52-5/59, #14), Uccle (BE, 6/52-12/58, #40), and Uppsala (SE, 6/52-12/58, #30). These data could be useful to supplement the currently available total ozone measurement series. Together with existing meteorological data, they enable us to study the relation between atmospheric circulation and total ozone in a chemically largely unperturbed time period. The daily values from 1951 to 1957 have now been digitized. Using appropriate statistical methods, the quality of each series will be addressed. The data will be homogenized and re

  6. The Transition of Atmospheric Infrared Sounder Total Ozone Products to Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Emily; Zavodsky, Bradley; Jedlovec, Gary

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Short-term Prediction Research and Transition Center (NASA SPoRT) has transitioned a total column ozone product from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) retrievals to the Weather Prediction Center and Ocean Prediction Center. The total column ozone product is used to diagnose regions of warm, dry, ozone-rich, stratospheric air capable of descending to the surface to create high-impact non-convective winds. Over the past year, forecasters have analyzed the Red, Green, Blue (RGB) Air Mass imagery in conjunction with the AIRS total column ozone to aid high wind forecasts. One of the limitations of the total ozone product is that it is difficult for forecasters to determine whether elevated ozone concentrations are related to stratospheric air or climatologically high values of ozone in certain regions. During the summer of 2013, SPoRT created an AIRS ozone anomaly product which calculates the percent of normal ozone based on a global stratospheric ozone mean climatology. With the knowledge that ozone values 125 percent of normal and greater typically represent stratospheric air; the anomaly product can be used with the total column ozone product to confirm regions of stratospheric air. This paper describes the generation of these products along with forecaster feedback concerning the use of the AIRS ozone products in conjunction with the RGB Air Mass product to access the utility and transition of the products.

  7. Relationship between surface, free tropospheric and total column ozone in 2 contrasting areas in South-Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Combrink, J

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of surface ozone in two contrasting areas of South Africa are compared with free tropospheric and Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) total column ozone data. Cape Point is representative of a background monitoring station which...

  8. 1979-1999 satellite total ozone column measurements over West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Di Carlo

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS instruments have been flown on NASA/GSFC satellites for over 20 years. They provide near real-time ozone data for Atmospheric Science Research. As part of preliminary efforts aimed to develop a Lidar station in Nigeria for monitoring the atmospheric ozone and aerosol levels, the monthly mean TOMS total column ozone measurements between 1979 to 1999 have been analysed. The trends of the total column ozone showed a spatial and temporal variation with signs of the Quasi Biennial Oscillation (QBO during the 20-year study period. The values of the TOMS total ozone column, over Nigeria (4-14°N is within the range of 230-280 Dobson Units, this is consistent with total ozone column data, measured since April 1993 with a Dobson Spectrophotometer at Lagos (3°21¢E, 6°33¢N, Nigeria.

  9. The NOx Budget. Market-based control of tropospheric ozone in the northeastern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrell, Alex; Carter, Robert; Raufer, Roger

    1999-01-01

    The NOx Budget is a marketable emissions allowance system currently being adopted by states in the Northeastern US to reduce tropospheric ozone concentrations to healthful levels in a cost-effective manner. Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) are currently regulated within the existing Command and Control (CAC) framework. The introduction of a market-based approach will further reduce emissions, but will not resolve all regulatory uncertainties. These implementation concerns are identified and discussed. Cost savings and emissions reductions patterns which will arise under several different scenarios are determined through the use of a dynamic, relaxed mixed-integer linear programming model of the NOx allowance market. Like other market-based pollution control programs, the NOx Budget is found to be more efficient than CAC options. Restrictions on the market designed to address perceived flaws are found to be expensive but ineffectual

  10. A case study of ozone production, nitrogen oxides, and the radical budget in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. Wood

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Observations at a mountain-top site within the Mexico City basin are used to characterize ozone production and destruction, nitrogen oxide speciation and chemistry, and the radical budget, with an emphasis on a stagnant air mass observed on one afternoon. The observations compare well with the results of recent photochemical models. An ozone production rate of ~50 ppbv/h was observed in a stagnant air mass during the afternoon of 12 March 2006, which is among the highest observed anywhere in the world. Approximately half of the ozone destruction was due to the oxidation of NO2. During this time period ozone production was VOC-limited, deduced by a comparison of the radical production rates and the formation rate of NOx oxidation products (NOz. For [NOx]/[NOy] values between 0.2 and 0.8, gas-phase HNO3 typically accounted for less than 10% of NOz and accumulation-mode particulate nitrate (NO3(PM1 accounted for 20%–70% of NOz, consistent with high ambient NH3 concentrations. The fraction of NOz accounted for by the sum of HNO3(g and NO3(PM1 decreased with photochemical processing. This decrease is apparent even when dry deposition of HNO3 is accounted for, and indicates that HNO3 formation decreased relative to other NOx "sink" processes during the first 12 h of photochemistry and/or a significant fraction of the nitrate was associated with the coarse aerosol size mode. The ozone production efficiency of NOx on 11 and 12 March 2006 was approximately 7 on a time scale of one day. A new metric for ozone production efficiency that relates the dilution-adjusted ozone mixing ratio to cumulative OH exposure is proposed.

  11. NOAA JPSS Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) Nadir Total Column Sensor Data Record (SDR) from IDPS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) onboard the Suomi NPP satellite monitors ozone from space. OMPS will collect total column and vertical profile ozone data...

  12. Proposed standardized definitions for vertical resolution and uncertainty in the NDACC lidar ozone and temperature algorithms - Part 2: Ozone DIAL uncertainty budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, Thierry; Sica, Robert J.; van Gijsel, Joanna A. E.; Godin-Beekmann, Sophie; Haefele, Alexander; Trickl, Thomas; Payen, Guillaume; Liberti, Gianluigi

    2016-08-01

    A standardized approach for the definition, propagation, and reporting of uncertainty in the ozone differential absorption lidar data products contributing to the Network for the Detection for Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC) database is proposed. One essential aspect of the proposed approach is the propagation in parallel of all independent uncertainty components through the data processing chain before they are combined together to form the ozone combined standard uncertainty. The independent uncertainty components contributing to the overall budget include random noise associated with signal detection, uncertainty due to saturation correction, background noise extraction, the absorption cross sections of O3, NO2, SO2, and O2, the molecular extinction cross sections, and the number densities of the air, NO2, and SO2. The expression of the individual uncertainty components and their step-by-step propagation through the ozone differential absorption lidar (DIAL) processing chain are thoroughly estimated. All sources of uncertainty except detection noise imply correlated terms in the vertical dimension, which requires knowledge of the covariance matrix when the lidar signal is vertically filtered. In addition, the covariance terms must be taken into account if the same detection hardware is shared by the lidar receiver channels at the absorbed and non-absorbed wavelengths. The ozone uncertainty budget is presented as much as possible in a generic form (i.e., as a function of instrument performance and wavelength) so that all NDACC ozone DIAL investigators across the network can estimate, for their own instrument and in a straightforward manner, the expected impact of each reviewed uncertainty component. In addition, two actual examples of full uncertainty budget are provided, using nighttime measurements from the tropospheric ozone DIAL located at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Table Mountain Facility, California, and nighttime measurements from the JPL

  13. Influence of turbidity and clouds on satellite total ozone data over Madrid (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camacho, J.L. [Agencia Estatal de Meteorologia (AEMET), Madrid (Spain); Anton, M. [Granada Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Aplicada; Loyola, D. [German Aerospace Center (DLR), Wessling (DE). Remote Sensing Technology Inst. (IMF); Hernandez, E. [Madrid Univ. Complutense (Spain). Dept. Fisica de la Tierra II

    2010-07-01

    This article focuses on the comparison of the total ozone column data from three satellite instruments; Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometers (TOMS) on board the Earth Probe (EP), Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on board AURA and Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) on board ERS/2, with ground-based measurement recorded by a well calibrated Brewer spectrophotometer located in Madrid during the period 1996-2008. A cluster classification based on solar radiation (global, direct and diffuse), cloudiness and aerosol index allow selecting hazy, cloudy, very cloudy and clear days. Thus, the differences between Brewer and satellite total ozone data for each cluster have been analyzed. The accuracy of EP-TOMS total ozone data is affected by moderate cloudiness, showing a mean absolute bias error (MABE) of 2.0%. In addition, the turbidity also has a significant influence on EP-TOMS total ozone data with a MABE {proportional_to}1.6%. Those data are in contrast with clear days with MABE {proportional_to}1.2%. The total ozone data derived from the OMI instrument show clear bias at clear and hazy days with small uncertainties ({proportional_to}0.8%). Finally, the total ozone observations obtained with the GOME instrument show a very smooth dependence with respect to clouds and turbidity, showing a robust retrieval algorithm over these conditions. (orig.)

  14. Global budget of tropospheric ozone: Evaluating recent model advances with satellite (OMI), aircraft (IAGOS), and ozonesonde observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lu; Jacob, Daniel J.; Liu, Xiong; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Lin; Kim, Patrick S.; Sulprizio, Melissa P.; Yantosca, Robert M.

    2017-10-01

    The global budget of tropospheric ozone is governed by a complicated ensemble of coupled chemical and dynamical processes. Simulation of tropospheric ozone has been a major focus of the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model (CTM) over the past 20 years, and many developments over the years have affected the model representation of the ozone budget. Here we conduct a comprehensive evaluation of the standard version of GEOS-Chem (v10-01) with ozone observations from ozonesondes, the OMI satellite instrument, and MOZAIC-IAGOS commercial aircraft for 2012-2013. Global validation of the OMI 700-400 hPa data with ozonesondes shows that OMI maintained persistent high quality and no significant drift over the 2006-2013 period. GEOS-Chem shows no significant seasonal or latitudinal bias relative to OMI and strong correlations in all seasons on the 2° × 2.5° horizontal scale (r = 0.88-0.95), improving on previous model versions. The most pronounced model bias revealed by ozonesondes and MOZAIC-IAGOS is at high northern latitudes in winter-spring where the model is 10-20 ppbv too low. This appears to be due to insufficient stratosphere-troposphere exchange (STE). Model updates to lightning NOx, Asian anthropogenic emissions, bromine chemistry, isoprene chemistry, and meteorological fields over the past decade have overall led to gradual increase in the simulated global tropospheric ozone burden and more active ozone production and loss. From simulations with different versions of GEOS meteorological fields we find that tropospheric ozone in GEOS-Chem v10-01 has a global production rate of 4960-5530 Tg a-1, lifetime of 20.9-24.2 days, burden of 345-357 Tg, and STE of 325-492 Tg a-1. Change in the intensity of tropical deep convection between these different meteorological fields is a major factor driving differences in the ozone budget.

  15. Spatial regression analysis on 32 years of total column ozone data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knibbe, J.S.; van der A, J.R.; de Laat, A.T.J.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple-regression analyses have been performed on 32 years of total ozone column data that was spatially gridded with a 1 × 1.5° resolution. The total ozone data consist of the MSR (Multi Sensor Reanalysis; 1979-2008) and 2 years of assimilated SCIAMACHY (SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter

  16. NOAA JPSS Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) Version 8 Total Ozone (V8TOz) Environmental Data Record (EDR) from NDE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a high quality operational Environmental Data Record (EDR) of total column ozone from the Ozone Mapping and Profiling Suite (OMPS) instrument...

  17. Development of meteorological parameters and total ozone during the total solar eclipse of August 11, 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Winkler

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available During the total eclipse of August 11, 1999 frequent showers occurred due to a unstable stratification of the air mass. At different observation sites, meteorological effects from the eclipse (99.4% coverage at Hohenpeißenberg and from showers were superimposed making it partly difficult to unambiguously interpret the observations. The weather radar at Hohenpeißenberg observatory provided a general overview of the distribution of clouds and precipitation in this area (200 km diameter. From the Garching site in the zone of totality (100% temperature and wind data taken on a 50 m mast were evaluated. By selecting periods with relatively low cloud cover it was possible to approximately follow the development of the vertical temperature and wind profiles during the eclipse. The minimum temperature at Hohenpeißenberg (about 450 m above the altitude of Garching during the eclipse was comparable to that during the previous night, the corresponding value measured at Garching remained about 2 K above the minimum observed during clear sky conditions in the previous night. Showers before, during or after the eclipse may have induced vertical exchange of air parcels. Temperatures during a shower change towards the same direction at all altitudes, thus no inversion forms. Additionally, air parcels with relatively lower concentrations of trace constituents were transported down from aloft for time periods of 10–15 minutes. These mixing processes significantly determined the temporal variations of various trace substances measured during the eclipse. Total ozone measurements at Hohenpeißenberg were performed with both DOBSON and BREWER spectrophotometers and at another site within the zone of totality by using a portable Microtops II filter instrument. Different results were obtained for both sites. These differences can be to a large extend, but not exclusively, attributed to eclipse induced shifts (limb darkening and straylight effects in the atmosphere

  18. Extreme events in total ozone over Arosa – Part 1: Application of extreme value theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. E. Rieder

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study ideas from extreme value theory are for the first time applied in the field of stratospheric ozone research, because statistical analysis showed that previously used concepts assuming a Gaussian distribution (e.g. fixed deviations from mean values of total ozone data do not adequately address the structure of the extremes. We show that statistical extreme value methods are appropriate to identify ozone extremes and to describe the tails of the Arosa (Switzerland total ozone time series. In order to accommodate the seasonal cycle in total ozone, a daily moving threshold was determined and used, with tools from extreme value theory, to analyse the frequency of days with extreme low (termed ELOs and high (termed EHOs total ozone at Arosa. The analysis shows that the Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD provides an appropriate model for the frequency distribution of total ozone above or below a mathematically well-defined threshold, thus providing a statistical description of ELOs and EHOs. The results show an increase in ELOs and a decrease in EHOs during the last decades. The fitted model represents the tails of the total ozone data set with high accuracy over the entire range (including absolute monthly minima and maxima, and enables a precise computation of the frequency distribution of ozone mini-holes (using constant thresholds. Analyzing the tails instead of a small fraction of days below constant thresholds provides deeper insight into the time series properties. Fingerprints of dynamical (e.g. ENSO, NAO and chemical features (e.g. strong polar vortex ozone loss, and major volcanic eruptions, can be identified in the observed frequency of extreme events throughout the time series. Overall the new approach to analysis of extremes provides more information on time series properties and variability than previous approaches that use only monthly averages and/or mini-holes and mini-highs.

  19. Le budget total du CERN restera plus ou moins constant

    CERN Document Server

    Van der Boon, J E

    2002-01-01

    The Director of Administration at CERN has written to the paper following an article titled "Licenciements chez les sous-traitants du CERN" : dismissals amongst CERN sub-contractors. As the CERN budget will remain constant and a greater part will be devoted to building the LHC, changes will be made to staffing balances (0.5 page)

  20. Cosmic rays and total ozone at higher middle latitudes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laštovička, Jan; Križan, Peter; Kudela, K.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 9 (2003), s. 2139-2144 ISSN 0273-1177 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK3012103 Keywords : cosmic rays * ozone Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 0.483, year: 2003

  1. Improvements in Total Column Ozone in GEOSCCM and Comparisons with a New Ozone-Depleting Substances Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oman, Luke D.; Douglass, Anne R.

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of ozone is examined in the latest version of the Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry-Climate Model (GEOSCCM) using old and new ozone-depleting substances (ODS) scenarios. This version of GEOSCCM includes a representation of the quasi-biennial oscillation, a more realistic implementation of ozone chemistry at high solar zenith angles, an improved air/sea roughness parameterization, and an extra 5 parts per trillion of CH3Br to account for brominated very short-lived substances. Together these additions improve the representation of ozone compared to observations. This improved version of GEOSCCM was used to simulate the ozone evolution for the A1 2010 and the newStratosphere-troposphere Processes and their Role in Climate (SPARC) 2013 ODS scenario derived using the SPARC Lifetimes Report 2013. This new ODS scenario results in a maximum Cltot increase of 65 parts per trillion by volume (pptv), decreasing slightly to 60 pptv by 2100. Approximately 72% of the increase is due to the longer lifetime of CFC-11. The quasi-global (60degS-60degN) total column ozone difference is relatively small and less than 1Dobson unit on average and consistent with the 3-4% larger 2050-2080 average Cly in the new SPARC 2013 scenario. Over high latitudes, this small change in Cly compared to the relatively large natural variabilitymakes it not possible to discern a significant impact on ozone in the second half of the 21st century in a single set of simulations.

  2. Total ozone derived from UV spectrophotometer measurements on the NASA CV-990 aircraft for the fall 1976 latitude survey flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanser, F. A.

    1977-01-01

    An ultraviolet interference filter spectrophotometer was modified to use a photodiode and was flown on latitude survey flights in the fall of 1976. Comparison with Dobson station total ozone values shows agreement between UVS and Dobson total ozone of + or - 2 percent. The procedure used to convert UVS measured ozone above the aircraft altitude to total ozone above ground level introduces an additional 2 percent deviation for very high altitude UVS ozone data. Under stable aircraft operating conditions, the UVS derived ozone values have a variability, or reproducibility, of better than + or -1 percent. The UVS data from the latitude survey flights yield a detailed latitude profile of total ozone over the Pacific Ocean during November 1976. Significant latitudinal structure in total ozone is found at the middle latitudes (30 deg to 40 deg N and S).

  3. Stratospheric ozone profile and total ozone trends derived from the SAGE I and SAGE II data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccormick, M. P.; Veiga, Robert E.; Chu, William P.

    1992-01-01

    Global trends in both stratospheric column ozone and as a function of altitude are derived on the basis of SAGE I/II ozone data from the period 1979-1991. A statistical model containing quasi-biennial, seasonal, and semiannual oscillations, a linear component, and a first-order autoregressive noise process was fit to the time series of SAGE I/II monthly zonal mean data. The linear trend in column ozone above 17-km altitude, averaged between 65 deg S and 65 deg N, is -0.30 +/-0.19 percent/yr, or -3.6 percent over the time period February 1979 through April 1991. The data show that the column trend above 17 km is nearly zero in the tropics and increases towards the high latitudes with values of -0.6 percent/yr at 60 deg S and -0.35 percent/yr at 60 deg N. Both these results are in agreement with the recent TOMS results. The profile trend analyses show that the column ozone losses are occurring below 25 km, with most of the loss coming from the region between 17 and 20 km. Negative trend values on the order of -2 percent/yr are found at 17 km in midlatitudes.

  4. TOMS/Earth-Probe Total Ozone Aerosol Index UV-Reflectivity UV-B Erythemal Irradiance Daily L3 Global 1x1.25 deg V008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) version 8 daily global gridded data consist of total column ozone, aerosol index, Lambertian effective surface...

  5. OMI/Aura Ozone (O3) Total Column 1-Orbit L2 Swath 13x24 km V003 NRT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The OMI/Aura Level-2 Total Column Ozone Data Product OMTO3 Near Real Time data is made available from the OMI SIPS NASA for the public access. The Ozone Monitoring...

  6. 20 Years of Total and Tropical Ozone Time Series Based on European Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyola, D. G.; Heue, K. P.; Coldewey-Egbers, M.

    2016-12-01

    Ozone is an important trace gas in the atmosphere, while the stratospheric ozone layer protects the earth surface from the incident UV radiation, the tropospheric ozone acts as green house gas and causes health damages as well as crop loss. The total ozone column is dominated by the stratospheric column, the tropospheric columns only contributes about 10% to the total column.The ozone column data from the European satellite instruments GOME, SCIAMACHY, OMI, GOME-2A and GOME-2B are available within the ESA Climate Change Initiative project with a high degree of inter-sensor consistency. The tropospheric ozone columns are based on the convective cloud differential algorithm. The datasets encompass a period of more than 20 years between 1995 and 2015, for the trend analysis the data sets were harmonized relative to one of the instruments. For the tropics we found an increase in the tropospheric ozone column of 0.75 ± 0.12 DU decade^{-1} with local variations between 1.8 and -0.8. The largest trends were observed over southern Africa and the Atlantic Ocean. A seasonal trend analysis led to the assumption that the increase is caused by additional forest fires.The trend for the total column was not that certain, based on model predicted trend data and the measurement uncertainty we estimated that another 10 to 15 years of observations will be required to observe a statistical significant trend. In the mid latitudes the trends are currently hidden in the large variability and for the tropics the modelled trends are low. Also the possibility of diverging trends at different altitudes must be considered; an increase in the tropospheric ozone might be accompanied by decreasing stratospheric ozone.The European satellite data record will be extended over the next two decades with the atmospheric satellite missions Sentinel 5 Precursor (launch end of 2016), Sentinel 4 and Sentinel 5.

  7. Total ozone measurement: Intercomparison of prototype New Zealand filter instrument and Dobson spectrophotometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basher, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    A five month intercomparison showed that the total ozone amounts of a prototype narrowband interference filter instrument were 7% less than those of a Dobson instrument for an ozone range of 0.300 to 0.500 atm cm and for airmasses less than two. The 7% bias was within the intercomparison calibration uncertainty. An airmass dependence in the Dobson instrument made the bias relationship airmass-dependent but the filter instrument's ozone values were generally constant to 2% up to an airmass of four. Long term drift in the bias was negligible.

  8. Observed atmospheric total column ozone distribution from SCIAMACHY over Peninsular Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chooi, T K; San, L H; Jafri, M Z M

    2014-01-01

    The increase in atmospheric ozone has received great attention because it degrades air quality and brings hazard to human health and ecosystems. The aim of this study was to assess the seasonal variations of ozone concentrations in Peninsular Malaysia from January 2003 to December 2009 using Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Cartography (SCIAMACHY). Level-2 data of total column ozone WFMD version 1.0 with spatial resolution 1° × 1.25° were acquired through SCIAMACHY. Analysis for trend of five selected sites exhibit strong seasonal variation in atmospheric ozone concentrations, where there is a significant difference between northeast monsoon and southwest monsoon. The highest ozone values occurred over industrial and congested urban zones (280.97 DU) on August at Bayan Lepas. The lowest ozone values were observed during northeast monsoon on December at Subang (233.08 DU). In addition, the local meteorological factors also bring an impact on the atmospheric ozone. During northeast monsoon, with the higher rate of precipitation, higher relative humidity, low temperature, and less sunlight hours let to the lowest ozone concentrations. Inversely, the highest ozone concentrations observed during southwest monsoon, with the low precipitation rate, lower relative humidity, higher temperature, and more sunlight hours. Back trajectories analysis is carried out, in order to trace the path of the air parcels with high ozone concentration event, suggesting cluster of trajectory (from southwest of the study area) caused by the anthropogenic sources associated with biogenic emissions from large tropical forests, which can make important contribution to regional and global pollution

  9. Derivation of total ozone amounts over Japan from NOAA/TOVS data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, S; Taguchi, M; Okano, S; Fukunishi, H [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Upper Atmosphere and Space Research Laboratory; Kawamura, H [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Center for Atmospheric and Oceanic Studies

    1992-10-25

    A new method for the derivation of the horizontal distribution of total ozone amounts from the brightness temperature data obtained by the HIRS/2 sensor on board the NOAA satelites was developed. This method is based on the regression method considering a transmittance of the ozone layer, and also includes the second-order terms of the brightness temperatures and the transmittance of ozone layer into the regression calculation. The total ozone data obtained by TOMS were used as the true values in determinating the regression coefficients. The transmittance for the slantwise-looking condition was converted into that for the nadir-looking condition using the angle correction method. Subsequently, the angle correction was also made for the brightness temperature using the corrected transmittance. Horizontal distributions of total ozone amounts were derived by this method with around 4% of accuracy for the wide latitudinal region from 15[degree] to 60[degree], including Japan where total ozone varies largely with latitude. It was demonstrated that inclusion of the second-order terms into the regression improves the accuracy of retrieval, especially in the low-latitude regions. 15 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Comparison of GOME total ozone data with ground data from the Spanish Brewer spectroradiometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Antón

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares total ozone measurements from five Brewer spectroradiometers located at the Iberian Peninsula with satellite observations given by the GOME (Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment sensor. The analyzed period covers simultaneous ozone values from July 1995 until December 2004. The regression analysis shows an excellent agreement between Brewer-GOME values in the five locations; the coefficient of correlation is always higher than 0.92 and the root mean square error is about 3%. Moreover, the comparison shows that the satellite retrieval accuracy is within the uncertainty of current ground-based instruments. In addition, the effects of several variables, such as cloudiness, solar zenith angle (SZA, effective temperature and total ozone values in Brewer-GOME differences are analyzed. The results indicate that clouds induce a minor dependence of GOME values on the SZA. For example, during heavy cloudy conditions in Madrid station, GOME observations overestimate ground-based Brewer data for low AMF (low SZA values by 2% while for high AMF (high SZA values the satellite underestimates ground-based ozone values by 1%. Moreover, the dependence of Brewer-GOME differences with respect to SZA for cloud-free conditions may be due to the variability of effective temperature. This fact could indicate that the effective temperature estimated by GOME does not fully reflect the actual atmospheric temperature variability. Finally, GOME ozone observations slightly underestimate the highest values measured by the Brewer spectrophotometers and overestimates the lowest ground-based measurements.

  11. Experimental and modeling study of the impact of vertical transport processes from the boundary-layer on the variability and the budget of tropospheric ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colette, A.

    2005-12-01

    Closing the tropospheric ozone budget requires a better understanding of the role of transport processes from the major reservoirs: the planetary boundary layer and the stratosphere. Case studies lead to the identification of mechanisms involved as well as their efficiency. However, their global impact on the budget must be addressed on a climatological basis. This manuscript is thus divided in two parts. First, we present case studies based on ozone LIDAR measurements performed during the ESCOMPTE campaign. This work consists in a data analysis investigation by means of a hybrid - Lagrangian study involving: global meteorological analyses, Lagrangian particle dispersion computation, and mesoscale, chemistry - transport, and Lagrangian photochemistry modeling. Our aim is to document the amount of observed ozone variability related to transport processes and, when appropriate, to infer the role of tropospheric photochemical production. Second, we propose a climatological analysis of the respective impact of transport from the boundary-layer and from the tropopause region on the tropospheric ozone budget. A multivariate analysis is presented and compared to a trajectography approach. Once validated, this algorithm is applied to the whole database of ozone profiles collected above Europe during the past 30 years in order to discuss the seasonal, geographical and temporal variability of transport processes as well as their impact on the tropospheric ozone budget. The variability of turbulent mixing and its impact on the persistence of tropospheric layers will also be discussed. (author)

  12. The total ozone and UV solar radiation over Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendeva, B. D.; Gogosheva, Ts. N.; Petkov, B. H.; Krastev, D. G.

    The results from direct ground-based solar UV irradiance measurements and the total ozone content (TOC) over Stara Zagora (42° 25'N, 25° 37'E), Bulgaria are presented. During the period 1999-2003 the TOC data show seasonal variations, typical for the middle latitudes - maximum in the spring and minimum in the autumn. The comparison between TOC ground-based data and Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) satellite-borne ones shows a seasonal dependence of the differences between them. A strong negative relationship between the total ozone and the 305 nm wavelength irradiance was found. The dependence between the two variables is significant ( r = -0.62 ± 0.18) at 98% confidence level. The direct sun UV doses for some specific biological effects (erythema and eyes) are obtained. The estimation of the radiation amplification factor RAF shows that the ozone reduction by 1% increases the erythemal dose by 2.3%. The eye-damaging doses are more influenced by the TOC changes and in this case RAF = -2.7%. The amount of these biological doses depended on the solar altitude over the horizon. This dependence was not so strong when the total ozone content in the atmosphere was lower.

  13. Total ozone trends from 1979 to 2016 derived from five merged observational datasets - the emergence into ozone recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Mark; Coldewey-Egbers, Melanie; Fioletov, Vitali E.; Frith, Stacey M.; Wild, Jeannette D.; Burrows, John P.; Long, Craig S.; Loyola, Diego

    2018-02-01

    We report on updated trends using different merged datasets from satellite and ground-based observations for the period from 1979 to 2016. Trends were determined by applying a multiple linear regression (MLR) to annual mean zonal mean data. Merged datasets used here include NASA MOD v8.6 and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) merge v8.6, both based on data from the series of Solar Backscatter UltraViolet (SBUV) and SBUV-2 satellite instruments (1978-present) as well as the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME)-type Total Ozone (GTO) and GOME-SCIAMACHY-GOME-2 (GSG) merged datasets (1995-present), mainly comprising satellite data from GOME, the Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY), and GOME-2A. The fifth dataset consists of the monthly mean zonal mean data from ground-based measurements collected at World Ozone and UV Data Center (WOUDC). The addition of four more years of data since the last World Meteorological Organization (WMO) ozone assessment (2013-2016) shows that for most datasets and regions the trends since the stratospheric halogen reached its maximum (˜ 1996 globally and ˜ 2000 in polar regions) are mostly not significantly different from zero. However, for some latitudes, in particular the Southern Hemisphere extratropics and Northern Hemisphere subtropics, several datasets show small positive trends of slightly below +1 % decade-1 that are barely statistically significant at the 2σ uncertainty level. In the tropics, only two datasets show significant trends of +0.5 to +0.8 % decade-1, while the others show near-zero trends. Positive trends since 2000 have been observed over Antarctica in September, but near-zero trends are found in October as well as in March over the Arctic. Uncertainties due to possible drifts between the datasets, from the merging procedure used to combine satellite datasets and related to the low sampling of ground-based data, are not accounted for in the trend

  14. Demonstration of AIRS Total Ozone Products to Operations to Enhance User Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Emily; Zavodsky, Bradley; Jedlovec, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Cyclogenesis is a key forecast challenge at operational forecasting centers such as WPC and OPC, so these centers have a particular interest in unique products that can identify key storm features. In some cases, explosively developing extratropical cyclones can produce hurricane force, non-convective winds along the East Coast and north Atlantic as well as the Pacific Ocean, with the potential to cause significant damage to life and property. Therefore, anticipating cyclogenesis for these types of storms is crucial for furthering the NOAA goal of a "Weather Ready Nation". Over the last few years, multispectral imagery (i.e. RGB) products have gained popularity among forecasters. The GOES-R satellite champion at WPC/OPC has regularly evaluated the Air Mass RGB products from GOES Sounder, MODIS, and SEVIRI to aid in forecasting cyclogenesis as part of ongoing collaborations with SPoRT within the framework of the GOES-R Proving Ground. WPC/OPC has used these products to identify regions of stratospheric air associated with tropopause folds that can lead to cyclogenesis and hurricane force winds. RGB products combine multiple channels or channel differences into multi-color imagery in which different colors represent a particular cloud or air mass type. Initial interaction and feedback from forecasters evaluating the legacy Air Mass RGBs revealed some uncertainty regarding what physical processes the qualitative RGB products represent and color interpretation. To enhance forecaster confidence and interpretation of the Air Mass RGB, NASA SPoRT has transitioned a total column ozone product from AIRS retrievals to the WPC/OPC. The use of legacy AIRS demonstrates future JPSS capabilities possible with CrIS or OMPS. Since stratospheric air can be identified by anomalous potential vorticity and warm, dry, ozone-rich air, hyperspectral infrared sounder ozone products can be used in conjunction with the Air Mass RGB for identifying the role of stratospheric air in explosive

  15. Selective Sequential Zero-Base Budgeting Procedures Based on Total Factor Productivity Indicators

    OpenAIRE

    A. Ishikawa; E. F. Sudit

    1981-01-01

    The authors' purpose in this paper is to develop productivity-based sequential budgeting procedures designed to expedite identification of major problem areas in bugetary performance, as well as to reduce the costs associated with comprehensive zero-base analyses. The concept of total factor productivity is reviewed and its relations to ordinary and zero-based budgeting are discussed in detail. An outline for a selective sequential analysis based on monitoring of three key indicators of (a) i...

  16. Intercomparison of preliminary MFR, SBUV, TOMS, and TOVS total ozone data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luther, F.M.

    1992-01-01

    The High Altitude Pollution Program of the Federal Aviation Administration is sponsoring a comparative study of total ozone data derived from various satellite instruments. The instruments included in the study are the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's Multichannel Filter Radiometer (MFR), the NASA Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet Ozone Experiment (SBUV), the NASA Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), and the NOAA Tiros Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS). The two periods chosen for data intercomparison are January 1 - February 15, 1979 and June 1-30, 1979. These two data periods cover summer and winter regimes in both hemispheres. The January 1 - February 15, 1979 period includes a significant stratospheric warming event that began about January 15. Each of the satellite instruments has its own strengths and weaknesses. No instrument is universally better than or worse than any other in terms of accuracy, although they appear to have definite biases in certain geographical areas. The differences between the satellite systems is greatest at high latitudes where cloudiness and ozone variabilities are greatest. The Dobson data show a bias and differing degrees of ozone variability between nearby Dobson stations, which indicates there may be problems with using the Dobson data as a standard for comparison. The data used in this comparative study are preliminary in nature

  17. Drivers of the tropospheric ozone budget throughout the 21st century under the medium-high climate scenario RCP 6.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revell, L. E.; Tummon, F.; Stenke, A.; Sukhodolov, T.; Coulon, A.; Rozanov, E.; Garny, H.; Grewe, V.; Peter, T.

    2015-05-01

    Because tropospheric ozone is both a greenhouse gas and harmful air pollutant, it is important to understand how anthropogenic activities may influence its abundance and distribution through the 21st century. Here, we present model simulations performed with the chemistry-climate model SOCOL, in which spatially disaggregated chemistry and transport tracers have been implemented in order to better understand the distribution and projected changes in tropospheric ozone. We examine the influences of ozone precursor emissions (nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs)), climate change (including methane effects) and stratospheric ozone recovery on the tropospheric ozone budget, in a simulation following the climate scenario Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 6.0 (a medium-high, and reasonably realistic climate scenario). Changes in ozone precursor emissions have the largest effect, leading to a global-mean increase in tropospheric ozone which maximizes in the early 21st century at 23% compared to 1960. The increase is most pronounced at northern midlatitudes, due to regional emission patterns: between 1990 and 2060, northern midlatitude tropospheric ozone remains at constantly large abundances: 31% larger than in 1960. Over this 70-year period, attempts to reduce emissions in Europe and North America do not have an effect on zonally averaged northern midlatitude ozone because of increasing emissions from Asia, together with the long lifetime of ozone in the troposphere. A simulation with fixed anthropogenic ozone precursor emissions of NOx, CO and non-methane VOCs at 1960 conditions shows a 6% increase in global-mean tropospheric ozone by the end of the 21st century, with an 11 % increase at northern midlatitudes. This increase maximizes in the 2080s and is mostly caused by methane, which maximizes in the 2080s following RCP 6.0, and plays an important role in controlling ozone directly, and indirectly through its

  18. Extreme events in total ozone: Spatio-temporal analysis from local to global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, Harald E.; Staehelin, Johannes; Maeder, Jörg A.; Ribatet, Mathieu; di Rocco, Stefania; Jancso, Leonhardt M.; Peter, Thomas; Davison, Anthony C.

    2010-05-01

    Recently tools from extreme value theory (e.g. Coles, 2001; Ribatet, 2007) have been applied for the first time in the field of stratospheric ozone research, as statistical analysis showed that previously used concepts assuming a Gaussian distribution (e.g. fixed deviations from mean values) of total ozone data do not address the internal data structure concerning extremes adequately (Rieder et al., 2010a,b). A case study the world's longest total ozone record (Arosa, Switzerland - for details see Staehelin et al., 1998a,b) illustrates that tools based on extreme value theory are appropriate to identify ozone extremes and to describe the tails of the total ozone record. Excursions in the frequency of extreme events reveal "fingerprints" of dynamical factors such as ENSO or NAO, and chemical factors, such as cold Arctic vortex ozone losses, as well as major volcanic eruptions of the 20th century (e.g. Gunung Agung, El Chichón, Mt. Pinatubo). Furthermore, atmospheric loading in ozone depleting substances led to a continuous modification of column ozone in the northern hemisphere also with respect to extreme values (partly again in connection with polar vortex contributions). It is shown that application of extreme value theory allows the identification of many more such fingerprints than conventional time series analysis of annual and seasonal mean values. Especially, the extremal analysis shows the strong influence of dynamics, revealing that even moderate ENSO and NAO events have a discernible effect on total ozone (Rieder et al., 2010b). Overall the extremes concept provides new information on time series properties, variability, trends and the influence of dynamics and chemistry, complementing earlier analyses focusing only on monthly (or annual) mean values. Findings described above could be proven also for the total ozone records of 5 other long-term series (Belsk, Hohenpeissenberg, Hradec Kralove, Potsdam, Uccle) showing that strong influence of atmospheric

  19. SBUV/Nimbus-7 Ozone Profile, Ozone Total Column 1-Orbit L2 200x200 km V008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The version 8 SBUV Nimbus-7 ozone data were first released at the 2004 Quadrennial Ozone Symposium on DVD. The DVD contained all of the SBUV/2 data from NOAA-9,...

  20. SBUV2/NOAA-09 Ozone Profile, Ozone Total Column 1-Orbit L2 200x200 km V008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The version 8 SBUV/2 NOAA-9 ozone data were first released at the 2004 Quadrennial Ozone Symposium on DVD. The DVD contained all of the SBUV/2 data from NOAA-9,...

  1. SBUV2/NOAA-16 Ozone Profile, Ozone Total Column 1-Orbit L2 200x200 km V008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The version 8 SBUV/2 NOAA-16 ozone data were first released at the 2004 Quadrennial Ozone Symposium on DVD. The DVD contained all of the SBUV/2 data from NOAA-9,...

  2. Government's nuclear draft budget for fiscal 1995 totals 480 billion yen, up 5.2%

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Japanese government's nuclear draft budget for fiscal 1995 totals 480,756 million yen (excluding the nuclear-related budget for universities under the auspices of the Ministry of Education, Culture and Science), 5.2% increase from the last year. The figure can be broken down into 194,793 million yen general account mainly assigned to research and development projects, and 295,963 million yen special account for power resource development. The total nuclear-related draft budget can be broken down into 344,201 million yen (6.2% increase) for the Science and Technology Agency which governs the various projects on the research and utilization of nuclear energy, and 133,430 million yen (4.6% increase) for the Ministry of International Trade and Industry which controls the development of and the regulation concerning commercial nuclear power plants. As for other ministries, 3,909 million yen for the contribution to IAEA and 283 million yen for OECD/NEA are allocated to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The nuclear draft budget of other ministries and agencies than STA and MITI totals 5,443 million yen (3.8% increase over fiscal 1994). The details of the nuclear-related draft budget of STA and MITI are listed. (K.I.)

  3. Deriving an atmospheric budget of total organic bromine using airborne in-situ measurements from the Western Pacific during SHIVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, S.; Bönisch, H.; Keber, T.; Oram, D. E.; Mills, G.; Engel, A.

    2014-02-01

    During the SHIVA (Stratospheric Ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere) project an extensive dataset of all halogen species relevant for the atmospheric budget of total organic bromine has been collected in the West Pacific region using the FALCON aircraft operated by the German Aerospace agency DLR (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt) covering a vertical range from the planetary boundary layer up to the ceiling altitude of the aircraft of 13 km. In total, more than 700 measurements were performed with the newly developed fully-automated in-situ instrument GHOST-MS (Gas cHromatograph for the Observation of Tracers - coupled with a Mass Spectrometer) by the Goethe University of Frankfurt (GUF) and with the onboard whole-air sampler WASP with subsequent ground based state-of-the-art GC/MS analysis by the University of East Anglia (UEA). Both instruments yield good agreement for all major (CHBr3 and CH2Br2) and minor (CHBrCl, CHBrCl2 and CHBr2Cl) VSLS (very short-lived substances), at least at the level of their 2 σ measurement uncertainties. In contrast to the suggestion that the Western Pacific could be a major source region for VSLS (Pyle et al., 2011), we found only slightly enhanced mixing ratios of brominated halogen source gases relative to the levels reported in Montzka et al. (2011) for other tropical regions. A budget for total organic bromine, including all four halons,CH3Br and the VSLS, is derived for the upper troposphere, the input region for the TTL and thus also for the stratosphere, compiled from the SHIVA dataset. With exception of the two minor VSLS CHBrCl2 and CHBr2Cl, excellent agreement with the values reported in Montzka et al. (2011) is found, while being slightly higher than previous studies from our group based on balloon-borne measurements.

  4. Tropical intercontinental optical measurement network of aerosol, precipitable water and total column ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holben, B. N.; Tanre, D.; Reagan, J. A.; Eck, T. F.; Setzer, A.; Kaufman, Y. A.; Vermote, E.; Vassiliou, G. D.; Lavenu, F.

    1992-01-01

    A new generation of automatic sunphotometers is used to systematically monitor clear sky total column aerosol concentration and optical properties, precipitable water and total column ozone diurnally and annually in West Africa and South America. The instruments are designed to measure direct beam sun, solar aureole and sky radiances in nine narrow spectral bands from the UV to the near infrared on an hourly basis. The instrumentation and the algorithms required to reduce the data for subsequent analysis are described.

  5. Beginning of the ozone recovery over Europe? − Analysis of the total ozone data from the ground-based observations, 1964−2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Krzyścin

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The total ozone variations over Europe (~50° N in the period 1964–2004 are analyzed for detection of signals of ozone recovery. The ozone deviations from the long-term monthly means (1964–1980 for selected European stations, where the ozone observations (by the Dobson spectrophotometers have been carried out continuously for at least 3–4 decades, are averaged and examined by a regression model. A new method is proposed to disclose both the ozone trend variations and date of the trend turnaround. The regression model contains a piecewise linear trend component and the terms describing the ozone response to forcing by "natural" changes in the atmosphere. Standard proxies for the dynamically driven ozone variations are used. The Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS methodology and principal component analysis are used to find an optimal set of the explanatory variables and the trend pattern. The turnaround of the ozone trend in 1994 is suggested from the pattern of the piecewise linear trend component. Thus, the changes in the ozone mean level are calculated over the periods 1970–1994 and 1994–2003, for both the original time series and the time series having "natural" variations removed. Statistical significance of the changes are derived by bootstrapping. A first stage of recovery (according to the definition of the International Ozone Commission, i.e. lessening of a negative trend, is found over Europe. It seems possible that the increase in the ozone mean level since 1994 of about 1–2% is due to superposition of the "natural" processes. Comparison of the total ozone ground-based network (the Dobson and Brewer spectrophotometers and the satellite (TOMS, version 8 data over Europe shows the small bias in the mean values for the period 1996–2004, but the differences between the daily ozone values from these instruments are not trendless, and this may hamper an identification of the next stage of the ozone recovery over

  6. Total-ozone and nitrogen-dioxide measurements at the Molodezhnaya and Mirnyi Antarctic stations during spring 1987-autumn 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elokhov, A.S.; Gruzdev, A.N. (AN SSSR, Institut Fiziki Atmosfery, Moscow, (USSR))

    1991-09-01

    Results of measurements of the total-ozone and NO2 content during November-December (Molodezhnaya) and February-April 1988 (Mirnyi) are reported. During the November-December period an irregular total ozone increase was observed, which characterized the filling up of the ozone hole. Stratospheric warming and the total NO2 increase occurred simultaneously. During the summer-autumn period the total NO2 content decreased gradually. The evening total NO2 content was systematically greater than the morning one, which reflects changes in the NO2 abundance from day to night. 12 refs.

  7. Comparison of GOME-2/MetOp total ozone data with Brewer spectroradiometer data over the Iberian Peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anton, M.; Serrano, A. [Universidad de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain). Dept. de Fisica; Loyola, D.; Zimmer, W. [German Aerospace Center (DLR), Wessling (DE). Remote Sensing Technology Inst. (IMF); Lopez, M.; Banon, M. [Agencia Estatal de Meteorologia (AEMet), Madrid (Spain); Vilaplana, J.M. [Instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aeroespacial (INTA), Huelva (Spain). Estacion de Sondeos Atmosferico ' ' El Arenosillo' '

    2009-07-01

    The main objective of this article is to compare the total ozone data from the new Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment instrument (GOME-2/MetOp) with reliable ground-based measurement recorded by five Brewer spectroradiometers in the Iberian Peninsula. In addition, a similar comparison for the predecessor instrument GOME/ERS-2 is described. The period of study is a whole year from May 2007 to April 2008. The results show that GOME-2/MetOp ozone data already has a very good quality, total ozone columns are on average 3.05% lower than Brewer measurements. This underestimation is higher than that obtained for GOME/ERS-2 (1.46%). However, the relative differences between GOME-2/MetOp and Brewer measurements show significantly lower variability than the differences between GOME/ERS-2 and Brewer data. Dependencies of these relative differences with respect to the satellite solar zenith angle (SZA), the satellite scan angle, the satellite cloud cover fraction (CF), and the ground-based total ozone measurements are analyzed. For both GOME instruments, differences show no significant dependence on SZA. However, GOME-2/MetOp data show a significant dependence on the satellite scan angle (+1.5%). In addition, GOME/ERS-2 differences present a clear dependence with respect to the CF and ground-based total ozone; such differences are minimized for GOME-2/MetOp. The comparison between the daily total ozone values provided by both GOME instruments shows that GOME-2/MetOp ozone data are on average 1.46% lower than GOME/ERS-2 data without any seasonal dependence. Finally, deviations of a priori climatological ozone profile used by the satellite retrieval algorithm from the true ozone profile are analyzed. Although excellent agreement between a priori climatological and measured partial ozone values is found for the middle and high stratosphere, relative differences greater than 15% are common for the troposphere and lower stratosphere. (orig.)

  8. Analysis of NOx Budget Trading Program Units Brought into the CAIR NOx Ozone Season Trading Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA analyzed the effect of having the large non-EGU units in the NBP and the CAIR NOX ozone season trading program and evaluated whether or not emissions from this group of units were reduced as a result of their inclusion in those trading programs.

  9. FY1990 Nuclear-related budget demand totals 398 billion yen, up 2.7%

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    Funds needed to promote the development and utilization of nuclear energy in fiscal 1990 in a planned and integrated way total yen398,427 million on a cash basis, up 2.7% over fiscal 1989. The Science and Technology Agency, which has two major nuclear RandD organizations -- the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp. -- within its jurisdiction, has asked for a total of yen297,765 million (up 5.7%), about three-fourths of the total nuclear-related budget demand. The budget demand of the Ministry of International Trade and Industry aggregates yen96.375 million, down 5.1%. The budget demand of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs is yen2,962 million, including subscriptions and contributions to IAEA, and that of the Ministry of Transport, yen42 million, including research and analysis costs for setting safety standards for the transportation of radioactive materials. The budget demand of the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries is yen167 million, including costs for the prevention and elimination of melon-flies in the Amami Islands, and for the Tsukuba Agriculture and Forestry Research Exchange Center. (N.K.)

  10. An assessment of the stray light in 25 years of Dobson total ozone data at Athens, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodoulakis, J.; Varotsos, C.; Cracknell, A. P.; Tzanis, C.; Neofytos, A.

    2015-07-01

    In this study, we investigated the susceptibility of the Dobson spectrophotometer No. 118 to stray light interference. In this regard, a series of total ozone content measurements were carried out in Athens, Greece for air-mass values (μ) extending up to μ = 5. The monochromatic-heterochromatic stray light derived by Basher's model was used in order to evaluate the specific instrumental parameters which determine if this instrument suffers from this problem or not. The results obtained indicate that the measurements made by the Dobson instrument of the Athens station for air mass values up to 2.5, underestimates the total ozone content by 3.5 DU in average, or about 1 % of the station's mean total ozone content (TOC). The comparison of the values of the same parameters measured 15 years ago with the present ones indicates the good maintenance of the Dobson spectrophotometer No. 118. This fact is of crucial importance because the variability of the daily total ozone observations collected by the Athens Dobson Station since 1989 has proved to be representative to the variability of the mean total ozone observed over the whole mid-latitude zone of the Northern Hemisphere. This stresses the point that the Athens total ozone station, being the unique Dobson station in south-eastern Europe, may be assumed as a ground truth station for the reliable conversion of the satellite radiance observations to total ozone measurements.

  11. TOMS/Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Aerosol Index UV-Reflectivity UV-B Erythemal Irradiances Daily L3 Global 1x1.25 deg V008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) version 8 Daily Gridded Data consist of daily, global coverage of total column ozone, aerosol index, Lambertian effective...

  12. Total column ozone retrieval using INSAT-3D sounder in the tropics ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    important for ozone estimation and lower instrument noise results in better ozone ... the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) ... tivity of the sounder ozone band corresponding to .... NOAA Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Labo-.

  13. FY97 nuclear-related budgets total 493 billion yen (4.4 billion dollars)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    On September 13, the Atomic Energy Commission of Japan announced the estimated nuclear-related budget requests for FY1997 (April, 1997 - Mach, 1998), giving the breakdowns for eight ministries and agencies. The total amount requested by the government bodies was 493.3 billion yen, 0.8% increase as compared with FY96. this figure includes the budget requests of the Science and Technology Agency (STA), the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI), the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Transport, the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, the Okinawa Development Agency, and the Ministry of Home Affairs, but excludes the budget request made by the Ministry of Education. The budget requests of STA and MITI are 360 billion yen and 126 billion yen, respectively. On August 29, STA released its estimated FY97 budget request. The nuclear-related 360.4 billion yen is 0.9% more than that in year before. Of this sum, 199.9 billion yen is in the general account, and 160.6 billion yen is in the special account for power source development. The details of the nuclear-related amounts are explained. On August 26, MITI released its estimated budget request for FY97, and of the nuclear-related 125.7 billion yen (0.1% increase from FY96), 200 million yen is in the general account, and 98.9 billion yen and 26.6 billion yen are in the special accounts for power resource development and power source diversification, respectively. (K.I.)

  14. Metrology of ground-based satellite validation: co-location mismatch and smoothing issues of total ozone comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Verhoelst

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Comparisons with ground-based correlative measurements constitute a key component in the validation of satellite data on atmospheric composition. The error budget of these comparisons contains not only the measurement errors but also several terms related to differences in sampling and smoothing of the inhomogeneous and variable atmospheric field. A versatile system for Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs, named OSSSMOSE, is used here to quantify these terms. Based on the application of pragmatic observation operators onto high-resolution atmospheric fields, it allows a simulation of each individual measurement, and consequently, also of the differences to be expected from spatial and temporal field variations between both measurements making up a comparison pair. As a topical case study, the system is used to evaluate the error budget of total ozone column (TOC comparisons between GOME-type direct fitting (GODFITv3 satellite retrievals from GOME/ERS2, SCIAMACHY/Envisat, and GOME-2/MetOp-A, and ground-based direct-sun and zenith–sky reference measurements such as those from Dobsons, Brewers, and zenith-scattered light (ZSL-DOAS instruments, respectively. In particular, the focus is placed on the GODFITv3 reprocessed GOME-2A data record vs. the ground-based instruments contributing to the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC. The simulations are found to reproduce the actual measurements almost to within the measurement uncertainties, confirming that the OSSE approach and its technical implementation are appropriate. This work reveals that many features of the comparison spread and median difference can be understood as due to metrological differences, even when using strict co-location criteria. In particular, sampling difference errors exceed measurement uncertainties regularly at most mid- and high-latitude stations, with values up to 10 % and more in extreme cases. Smoothing difference errors only

  15. Measurements of total and tropospheric ozone from IASI: comparison with correlative satellite, ground-based and ozonesonde observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Boynard

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present measurements of total and tropospheric ozone, retrieved from infrared radiance spectra recorded by the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI, which was launched on board the MetOp-A European satellite in October 2006. We compare IASI total ozone columns to Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2 observations and ground-based measurements from the Dobson and Brewer network for one full year of observations (2008. The IASI total ozone columns are shown to be in good agreement with both GOME-2 and ground-based data, with correlation coefficients of about 0.9 and 0.85, respectively. On average, IASI ozone retrievals exhibit a positive bias of about 9 DU (3.3% compared to both GOME-2 and ground-based measurements. In addition to total ozone columns, the good spectral resolution of IASI enables the retrieval of tropospheric ozone concentrations. Comparisons of IASI tropospheric columns to 490 collocated ozone soundings available from several stations around the globe have been performed for the period of June 2007–August 2008. IASI tropospheric ozone columns compare well with sonde observations, with correlation coefficients of 0.95 and 0.77 for the [surface–6 km] and [surface–12 km] partial columns, respectively. IASI retrievals tend to overestimate the tropospheric ozone columns in comparison with ozonesonde measurements. Positive average biases of 0.15 DU (1.2% and 3 DU (11% are found for the [surface–6 km] and for the [surface–12 km] partial columns respectively.

  16. Deriving an atmospheric budget of total organic bromine using airborne in situ measurements from the western Pacific area during SHIVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, S.; Bönisch, H.; Keber, T.; Oram, D. E.; Mills, G.; Engel, A.

    2014-07-01

    During the recent SHIVA (Stratospheric Ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere) project an extensive data set of all halogen species relevant for the atmospheric budget of total organic bromine was collected in the western Pacific region using the Falcon aircraft operated by the German Aerospace agency DLR (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt) covering a vertical range from the planetary boundary layer up to the ceiling altitude of the aircraft of 13 km. In total, more than 700 measurements were performed with the newly developed fully automated in situ instrument GHOST-MS (Gas chromatograph for the Observation of Tracers - coupled with a Mass Spectrometer) by the Goethe University of Frankfurt (GUF) and with the onboard whole-air sampler WASP with subsequent ground-based state-of-the-art GC / MS analysis by the University of East Anglia (UEA). Both instruments yield good agreement for all major (CHBr3 and CH2Br2) and minor (CH2BrCl, CHBrCl2 and CHBr2Cl) VSLS (very short-lived substances), at least at the level of their 2σ measurement uncertainties. In contrast to the suggestion that the western Pacific could be a region of strongly increased atmospheric VSLS abundance (Pyle et al., 2011), we found only in the upper troposphere a slightly enhanced amount of total organic bromine from VSLS relative to the levels reported in Montzka and Reimann et al. (2011) for other tropical regions. From the SHIVA observations in the upper troposphere, a budget for total organic bromine, including four halons (H-1301, H-1211, H-1202, H-2402), CH3Br and the VSLS, is derived for the level of zero radiative heating (LZRH), the input region for the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) and thus also for the stratosphere. With the exception of the two minor VSLS CHBrCl2 and CHBr2Cl, excellent agreement with the values reported in Montzka and Reimann et al. (2011) is found, while being slightly higher than previous studies from our group based on balloon-borne measurements.

  17. OMI/Aura Ozone (O3) Total Column 1-Orbit L2 Swath 13x24 km V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The OMI/Aura Level-2 Total Column Ozone Data Product OMTO3 (Version 003) is made available (http://disc.gsfc.nasa.gov/Aura/OMI/omto3_v003.shtml) from the NASA...

  18. Deriving an atmospheric budget of total organic bromine using airborne in-situ measurements of brominated hydrocarbons in the Western Pacific during SHIVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Stephan; Bönisch, Harald; Keber, Timo; Oram, Dave; Mills, Graham; Engel, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Halogenated hydrocarbons play a major role as precursors for stratospheric ozone depletion. Released from the surface in the troposphere, the halocarbons reach the stratosphere via transport through the tropical tropopause layer. The contribution of the so called very short lived species (VSLS), having atmospheric lifetimes of less than half a year as sources gases for stratospheric bromine is significant. Source gas observations of long-lived bromine compounds and VSLS have so far not been able to explain the amount of bromine derived in the stratosphere from observations of BrO and modeling of the ratio of BrO to total bromine. Due to the short lifetimes and the high atmospheric variability, the representativeness of the available observations of VSLS source gases remains unclear, as these may vary with region and display seasonal variability. During the SHIVA (Stratospheric Ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere) project an extensive dataset with over 700 samples of ambient air of all halogen species relevant for the atmospheric budget of total organic bromine (long lived halocarbons: H-1301, H-1211, H-1202, H-2402 and CH3Br, very short lived substances: CHBr3, CH2Br2, CHBr2Cl, CHBrCl2 and CHBrCl) have been collected from onboard the FALCON aircraft in the West Pacific region. Measurements were performed with the newly developed fully-automated in-situ instrument GHOST-MS (Gas chromatograph for the Observation of Tracers - coupled with a Mass Spectrometer) by the Goethe University of Frankfurt and with the onboard whole-air sampler WASP with subsequent ground based state-of-the-art GC/MS analysis by the University of East Anglia. We will present the datasets, compare these to other observation, derive a bromine budget for the West Pacific and derive an estimate of the amount of bromine from VSLS reaching the stratosphere. Using the mean mixing ratios in the upper troposphere of the halocarbons mentioned above, the calculated budget of the total organic

  19. OMI/Aura Ozone(O3) Total Column 1-Orbit L2 Swath 13x24 km V003 (OMTO3) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) Level-2 Total Column Ozone Data Product OMTO3 (Version 003) is available from the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and...

  20. Six years of total ozone column measurements from SCIAMACHY nadir observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerot, C.; van Roozendael, M.; van Geffen, J.; van Gent, J.; Fayt, C.; Spurr, R.; Lichtenberg, G.; von Bargen, A.

    2009-04-01

    Total O3 columns have been retrieved from six years of SCIAMACHY nadir UV radiance measurements using SDOAS, an adaptation of the GDOAS algorithm previously developed at BIRA-IASB for the GOME instrument. GDOAS and SDOAS have been implemented by the German Aerospace Center (DLR) in the version 4 of the GOME Data Processor (GDP) and in version 3 of the SCIAMACHY Ground Processor (SGP), respectively. The processors are being run at the DLR processing centre on behalf of the European Space Agency (ESA). We first focus on the description of the SDOAS algorithm with particular attention to the impact of uncertainties on the reference O3 absorption cross-sections. Second, the resulting SCIAMACHY total ozone data set is globally evaluated through large-scale comparisons with results from GOME and OMI as well as with ground-based correlative measurements. The various total ozone data sets are found to agree within 2% on average. However, a negative trend of 0.2-0.4%/year has been identified in the SCIAMACHY O3 columns; this probably originates from instrumental degradation effects that have not yet been fully characterized.

  1. Six years of total ozone column measurements from SCIAMACHY nadir observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Lichtenberg

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Total O3 columns have been retrieved from six years of SCIAMACHY nadir UV radiance measurements using SDOAS, an adaptation of the GDOAS algorithm previously developed at BIRA-IASB for the GOME instrument. GDOAS and SDOAS have been implemented by the German Aerospace Center (DLR in the version 4 of the GOME Data Processor (GDP and in version 3 of the SCIAMACHY Ground Processor (SGP, respectively. The processors are being run at the DLR processing centre on behalf of the European Space Agency (ESA. We first focus on the description of the SDOAS algorithm with particular attention to the impact of uncertainties on the reference O3 absorption cross-sections. Second, the resulting SCIAMACHY total ozone data set is globally evaluated through large-scale comparisons with results from GOME and OMI as well as with ground-based correlative measurements. The various total ozone data sets are found to agree within 2% on average. However, a negative trend of 0.2–0.4%/year has been identified in the SCIAMACHY O3 columns; this probably originates from instrumental degradation effects that have not yet been fully characterized.

  2. Ozone and carbon monoxide budgets over the Mediterranean Basin using CTM MOCAGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaidan, Nizar; El Amraoui, Laaziz; Attié, Jean-Luc; Ricaud, Philippe

    2017-04-01

    The Mediterranean basin (MB), surrounded by three continents with diverse pollution sources is a strong receptor of pollutants and air pollution. This region is also particularly sensitive to climate change due to its location and diversity of ecosystems. In the framework of the ChArMEx (Chemistry and Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment project), we will particularly focus on O3 and CO budgets and their evolution over the MB. We will use the chemistry transport model (CTM) MOCAGE, in order to investigate the importance of the long-range transport (LRT) above the MB. MOCAGE is the Météo-France multi-scale Chemistry and Transport Model, that covers a range of applications, from the study of climate-chemistry interaction to chemical weather forecasting. In our study, two nested domains are used: a global scale domain 2°*2° and a regional one over Mediterranean area at 0.2°*0.2°. In a first step, we will evaluate the MOCAGE model outputs using: (1) surface O3 and CO observations from AirBase networks and (2) measurement obtained during the TRAQA airborne campaign in summer 2012. In the second step, we will analyze the O3 and CO budget terms over the MB and their evolution during the year 2012. The importance of regional emissions and the LRT are discussed.

  3. Constructing a coherent long-term global total ozone climatology from the BUV, MFR, and SBUV/TOMS data sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.S.; Luther, F.M.

    1986-02-01

    The backscatter ultraviolet spectrometer (BUV) aboard the NIMBUS 4 satellite provided global ozone data until mid-1977. The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and Solar Backscattered Ultraviolet (SBUV) instrument aboard the NIMBUS 7 satellite began providing global ozone in November 1978. The only satellite derived global total ozone data available between the termination of the BUV data and the startup of the SBUV/TOMS data is that from the Multichannel Filter Radiometer (MFR) instrument aboard the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) series of satellites. The MFR and the SBUV/TOMS data are compared during the data overlap period in order to determine how well the MFR data might be used to represent the SBUV/TOMS and BUV data during the data gap period. 5 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  4. First Reprocessing of Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes Profile Records: 3. Uncertainty in Ozone Profile and Total Column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Thompson, Anne M.; Smit, Herman G. J.; Vömel, Holger; Posny, Françoise; Stübi, Rene

    2018-03-01

    Reprocessed ozonesonde data from eight SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes) sites have been used to derive the first analysis of uncertainty estimates for both profile and total column ozone (TCO). The ozone uncertainty is a composite of the uncertainties of the individual terms in the ozone partial pressure (PO3) equation, those being the ozone sensor current, background current, internal pump temperature, pump efficiency factors, conversion efficiency, and flow rate. Overall, PO3 uncertainties (ΔPO3) are within 15% and peak around the tropopause (15 ± 3 km) where ozone is a minimum and ΔPO3 approaches the measured signal. The uncertainty in the background and sensor currents dominates the overall ΔPO3 in the troposphere including the tropopause region, while the uncertainties in the conversion efficiency and flow rate dominate in the stratosphere. Seasonally, ΔPO3 is generally a maximum in the March-May, with the exception of SHADOZ sites in Asia, for which the highest ΔPO3 occurs in September-February. As a first approach, we calculate sonde TCO uncertainty (ΔTCO) by integrating the profile ΔPO3 and adding the ozone residual uncertainty, derived from the McPeters and Labow (2012, doi:10.1029/2011JD017006) 1σ ozone mixing ratios. Overall, ΔTCO are within ±15 Dobson units (DU), representing 5-6% of the TCO. Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (TOMS and OMI) satellite overpasses are generally within the sonde ΔTCO. However, there is a discontinuity between TOMS v8.6 (1998 to September 2004) and OMI (October 2004-2016) TCO on the order of 10 DU that accounts for the significant 16 DU overall difference observed between sonde and TOMS. By comparison, the sonde-OMI absolute difference for the eight stations is only 4 DU.

  5. Variability of the total ozone trend over Europe for the period 1950─2004 derived from reconstructed data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Borkowski

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The total ozone data over Europe are available for only few ground-based stations in the pre-satellite era disallowing examination of the spatial trend variability over the whole continent. A need of having gridded ozone data for a trend analysis and input to radiative transfer models stimulated a reconstruction of the daily ozone values since January 1950. Description of the reconstruction model and its validation were a subject of our previous paper. The data base used was built within the objectives of the COST action 726 "Long-term changes and climatology of UV radiation over Europe". Here we focus on trend analyses. The long-term variability of total ozone is discussed using results of a flexible trend model applied to the reconstructed total ozone data for the period 1950–2004. The trend pattern, which comprises both anthropogenic and "natural" component, is not a priori assumed but it comes from a smooth curve fit to the zonal monthly means and monthly grid values. The ozone long-term changes are calculated separately for cold (October–next year April and warm (May–September seasons. The confidence intervals for the estimated ozone changes are derived by the block bootstrapping. The statistically significant negative trends are found almost over the whole Europe only in the period 1985–1994. Negative trends up to −3% per decade appeared over small areas in earlier periods when the anthropogenic forcing on the ozone layer was weak . The statistically positive trends are found only during warm seasons 1995–2004 over Svalbard archipelago. The reduction of ozone level in 2004 relative to that before the satellite era is not dramatic, i.e., up to ~−5% and ~−3.5% in the cold and warm subperiod, respectively. Present ozone level is still depleted over many popular resorts in southern Europe and northern Africa. For high latitude regions the trend overturning could be inferred in last decade (1995–2004 as the ozone depleted

  6. Trends in total column ozone over Australia and New Zealand and its influence on clear-sky surface erythemal irradiance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodeker, G. E.

    1995-01-01

    Australia and New Zealand are two of the countries closest to the Antarctic ozone depletion and may therefore be 'at risk' as a result of the associated increases in surface ultraviolet (UV) radiation. To investigate the possible impact of mid-latitude ozone decreases on surface erythemal irradiances, monthly mean total ozone has been calculated from daily total ozone mapping spectrometer data for 5 Australian cities (Canberra, Hobart, Melbourne, Perth and Sydney) and 3 New Zealand cities (Auckland, Christchurch and Wellington) from 1979 to 1992. These values have then been used as inputs to a single layer model to calculate noon clear-sky global UV irradiances and associated erythemal irradiances. In addition, the monthly mean ozone data have been modelled statistically for each location to reveal a long-term linear trend, an annual variation, a Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO), a solar cycle component and a semi-annual (6 month) signal. Coefficients from these statistical models have been used to estimate monthly mean ozone and noon clear-sky erythemal irradiances to the year 2000 for each city. It is assumed that the rate of increase of stratospheric chlorine over the remainder of the century will remain constant. Given that there is some evidence that the rate of increase is decreasing, the results present here should be regarded as an upper limit. 33 refs., 7 tabs., 4 figs

  7. Removal of total and antibiotic resistant bacteria in advanced wastewater treatment by ozonation in combination with different filtering techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüddeke, Frauke; Heß, Stefanie; Gallert, Claudia; Winter, Josef; Güde, Hans; Löffler, Herbert

    2015-02-01

    Elimination of bacteria by ozonation in combination with charcoal or slow sand filtration for advanced sewage treatment to improve the quality of treated sewage and to reduce the potential risk for human health of receiving surface waters was investigated in pilot scale at the sewage treatment plant Eriskirch, Baden-Wuerttemberg/Germany. To determine the elimination of sewage bacteria, inflowing and leaving wastewater of different treatment processes was analysed in a culture-based approach for its content of Escherichia coli, enterococci and staphylococci and their resistance against selected antibiotics over a period of 17 month. For enterococci, single species and their antibiotic resistances were identified. In comparison to the established flocculation filtration at Eriskirch, ozonation plus charcoal or sand filtration (pilot-scale) reduced the concentrations of total and antibiotic resistant E. coli, enterococci and staphylococci. However, antibiotic resistant E. coli and staphylococci apparently survived ozone treatment better than antibiotic sensitive strains. Neither vancomycin resistant enterococci nor methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were detected. The decreased percentage of antibiotic resistant enterococci after ozonation may be explained by a different ozone sensitivity of species: Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis, which determined the resistance-level, seemed to be more sensitive for ozone than other Enterococcus-species. Overall, ozonation followed by charcoal or sand filtration led to 0.8-1.1 log-units less total and antibiotic resistant E. coli, enterococci and staphylococci, as compared to the respective concentrations in treated sewage by only flocculation filtration. Thus, advanced wastewater treatment by ozonation plus charcoal or sand filtration after common sewage treatment is an effective tool for further elimination of microorganisms from sewage before discharge in surface waters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier

  8. Northern hemisphere total ozone values from 1989-1993 determined with the NOAA-11 Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV/2) instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planet, W. G.; Lienesch, J. H.; Miller, A. J.; Nagatani, R.; Mcpeters, R. D.; Hilsenrath, E.; Cebula, R. P.; Deland, M. T.; Wellemeyer, C. G.; Horvath, K.

    1994-01-01

    Determinations of global total ozone amounts have been made from recently reprocessed measurements with the SBUV/2 on the NOAA-11 environmental satellite since January 1989. This data set employs a new algorithm and an updated calibration. Comparisons with total ozone amounts derived from a significant subset of the global network of Dobson spectrophotometers shows a 0.3% bias between the satellite and ground measurements for the period January 1989-May 1993. Comparisons with the data from individual stations exhibit differing degrees of agreement which could be due to the matchup procedures and also to the uncertainties in the Dobson data. The SBUV/2 data set discussed here traces the Northern Hemisphere total ozone from 1989 to the present, showing a marked decrease from the average of those years starting in the summer of 1992 and continuing into 1993, with an apparent returning to more normal levels in late 1993.

  9. Latitudinal distribution of total ozone and NO[sub 2] over the Atlantic Ocean according to measurements in May 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elokhov, A.S; Gruzdev, A.N. (Inst. Fiziki Atmosfery, Moscow (Russian Federation))

    1992-07-01

    Measurements of the total ozone and NO[sub 2] content conducted on board a ship in the 40 deg S - 40 deg N latitudinal belt in the Atlantic Ocean in the second half of May 1988 are reported. The main features of the latitudinal distributions of total ozone and NO[sub 2] are similar. Both distributions have minima in the equatorial zone of the Southern Hemisphere, and both the ozone and NO[sub 2] contents increase from tropical to subtropical latitudes. This increase is the strongest in the subtropical jet stream zone. The fine structure of the studied distributions is also revealed, and its relationship to stratosphere-troposphere exchange processes in the tropopause folding region is discussed. The evening total NO[sub 2] content systematically exceeds that of the morning due to diurnal variations. 20 refs.

  10. Total ozone trends over the USA during 1979-1991 from Dobson spectrophotometer observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komhyr, Walter D.; Grass, Robert D.; Koenig, Gloria L.; Quincy, Dorothy M.; Evans, Robert D.; Leonard, R. Kent

    1994-01-01

    Ozone trends for 1979-1991, determined from Dobson spectrophotometer observations made at eight stations in the United States, are augmented with trend data from four foreign cooperative stations operated by NOAA/CMDL. Results are based on provisional data archived routinely throughout the years at the World Ozone Data Center in Toronto, Canada, with calibration corrections applied to some of the data. Trends through 1990 exhibit values of minus 0.3 percent to minus 0.5 percent yr(exp -1) at mid-to-high latitudes in the northern hemisphere. With the addition of 1991 data, however, the trends become less negative, indicating that ozone increased in many parts of the world during 1991. Stations located within the plus or minus 20 deg N-S latitude band exhibit no ozone trends. Early 1992 data show decreased ozone values at some of the stations. At South Pole, Antarctica, October ozone values have remained low during the past 3 years.

  11. Total ozone column derived from GOME and SCIAMACHY using KNMI retrieval algorithms: Validation against Brewer measurements at the Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antón, M.; Kroon, M.; López, M.; Vilaplana, J. M.; Bañón, M.; van der A, R.; Veefkind, J. P.; Stammes, P.; Alados-Arboledas, L.

    2011-11-01

    This article focuses on the validation of the total ozone column (TOC) data set acquired by the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) and the Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY) satellite remote sensing instruments using the Total Ozone Retrieval Scheme for the GOME Instrument Based on the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (TOGOMI) and Total Ozone Retrieval Scheme for the SCIAMACHY Instrument Based on the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (TOSOMI) retrieval algorithms developed by the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute. In this analysis, spatially colocated, daily averaged ground-based observations performed by five well-calibrated Brewer spectrophotometers at the Iberian Peninsula are used. The period of study runs from January 2004 to December 2009. The agreement between satellite and ground-based TOC data is excellent (R2 higher than 0.94). Nevertheless, the TOC data derived from both satellite instruments underestimate the ground-based data. On average, this underestimation is 1.1% for GOME and 1.3% for SCIAMACHY. The SCIAMACHY-Brewer TOC differences show a significant solar zenith angle (SZA) dependence which causes a systematic seasonal dependence. By contrast, GOME-Brewer TOC differences show no significant SZA dependence and hence no seasonality although processed with exactly the same algorithm. The satellite-Brewer TOC differences for the two satellite instruments show a clear and similar dependence on the viewing zenith angle under cloudy conditions. In addition, both the GOME-Brewer and SCIAMACHY-Brewer TOC differences reveal a very similar behavior with respect to the satellite cloud properties, being cloud fraction and cloud top pressure, which originate from the same cloud algorithm (Fast Retrieval Scheme for Clouds from the Oxygen A-Band (FRESCO+)) in both the TOSOMI and TOGOMI retrieval algorithms.

  12. A statistical model to predict total column ozone in Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, K. C.; Lim, H. S.; Mat Jafri, M. Z.

    2016-03-01

    This study aims to predict monthly columnar ozone in Peninsular Malaysia based on concentrations of several atmospheric gases. Data pertaining to five atmospheric gases (CO2, O3, CH4, NO2, and H2O vapor) were retrieved by satellite scanning imaging absorption spectrometry for atmospheric chartography from 2003 to 2008 and used to develop a model to predict columnar ozone in Peninsular Malaysia. Analyses of the northeast monsoon (NEM) and the southwest monsoon (SWM) seasons were conducted separately. Based on the Pearson correlation matrices, columnar ozone was negatively correlated with H2O vapor but positively correlated with CO2 and NO2 during both the NEM and SWM seasons from 2003 to 2008. This result was expected because NO2 is a precursor of ozone. Therefore, an increase in columnar ozone concentration is associated with an increase in NO2 but a decrease in H2O vapor. In the NEM season, columnar ozone was negatively correlated with H2O (-0.847), NO2 (0.754), and CO2 (0.477); columnar ozone was also negatively but weakly correlated with CH4 (-0.035). In the SWM season, columnar ozone was highly positively correlated with NO2 (0.855), CO2 (0.572), and CH4 (0.321) and also highly negatively correlated with H2O (-0.832). Both multiple regression and principal component analyses were used to predict the columnar ozone value in Peninsular Malaysia. We obtained the best-fitting regression equations for the columnar ozone data using four independent variables. Our results show approximately the same R value (≈ 0.83) for both the NEM and SWM seasons.

  13. Trend and recovery of the total ozone column in South America and Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro A., Richard; Araya, Consuelo; Labra O., Felipe; Morales, Luis; Morales, Raúl G. E.; Leiva G., Manuel A.

    2017-12-01

    South America is one of the most vulnerable areas to stratospheric ozone depletion; consequently, an increased amount of UV radiation reaches the Earth's surface in this region. In this study, we analyzed the long-term trend in the total ozone column (TOC) over the southern part of the South American continent from 1980 to 2009. The database used was obtained by combining several satellite measurements of the TOC on a 1° (latitude) × 1.25° (longitude) grid. Analysis of the long-term trend was performed by applying the Theil-Sen estimator and the Mann-Kendall significance test to the deseasonalized time series. The long-term trend was also analyzed over several highly populated urban zones in the study area. Finally, multiple linear regression (MLR) modeling was used to identify and quantify the drivers of interannual variability in the TOC over the study area with a pixel-by-pixel approach. The results showed a decrease in the TOC ranging from -0.3 to -4% dec-1 from 1980 to 2009. On a decadal timescale, there is significant variability in this trend, and a decrease of more than -10% dec-1 was found at high latitudes (1980-1989). However, the trends obtained over much of the study area were not statistically significant. Considering the period from 1980 to 1995, we found a decrease in the TOC of -2.0 ± 0.6% dec-1 at latitudes below 40° S and -6.9 ± 2.0% dec-1 at latitudes above 40° S, for a 99.9% confidence level over most of the study area. Analysis of the period from 1996 to 2009 showed a statistically significant increase of 2.3 ± 0.1% dec-1 at high latitudes (> 60° S), confirming the initial TOC recovery in the Antarctic. Despite evidence for initial recovery of the TOC in some parts of the study area between 1996 and 2009, the long-term increase from September to November is not yet statistically significant. In addition, large parts of the study area and most of the urban areas continue to show a decreasing trend in the TOC. The MLR results show that

  14. Temporal Variability of Total Ozone in the Asian Region Inferred from Ground-Based and Satellite Measurement Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visheratin, K. N.; Nerushev, A. F.; Orozaliev, M. D.; Zheng, Xiangdong; Sun, Shumen; Liu, Li

    2017-12-01

    This paper reports investigation data on the temporal variability of total ozone content (TOC) in the Central Asian and Tibet Plateau mountain regions obtained by conventional methods, as well as by spectral, cross-wavelet, and composite analyses. The data of ground-based observation stations located at Huang He, Kunming, and Lake Issyk-Kul, along with the satellite data obtained at SBUV/SBUV2 (SBUV merged total and profile ozone data, Version 8.6) for 1980-2013 and OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument) and TOU (Total Ozone Unit) for 2009-2013 have been used. The average relative deviation from the SBUV/SBUV2 data is less than 1% in Kunming and Issyk-Kul for the period of 1980-2013, while the Huang He Station is characterized by an excess of the satellite data over the ground-based information at an average deviation of 2%. According to the Fourier analysis results, the distribution of amplitudes and the periods of TOC oscillations within a range of over 14 months is similar for all series analyzed. Meanwhile, according to the cross-wavelet and composite analyses results, the phase relationships between the series may considerably differ, especially in the periods of 5-7 years. The phase of quasi-decennial oscillations in the Kunming Station is close to the 11-year oscillations of the solar cycle, while in the Huang He and Issyk-Kul stations the TOC variations go ahead of the solar cycle.

  15. TOMS/Nimbus-7 Total Column Ozone Monthly L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid V008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data product contains TOMS/Nimbus-7 Total Column Ozone Monthly L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid Version 8 data in ASCII format. The Total Ozone Mapping...

  16. TOMS/Nimbus-7 Total Column Ozone Daily L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid V008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data product contains TOMS/Nimbus-7 Total Column Ozone Daily L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid Version 8 data in ASCII format. The Total Ozone Mapping...

  17. Error analysis of Dobson spectrophotometer measurements of the total ozone content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, A. C.; Thomas, R. W. L.

    1975-01-01

    A study of techniques for measuring atmospheric ozone is reported. This study represents the second phase of a program designed to improve techniques for the measurement of atmospheric ozone. This phase of the program studied the sensitivity of Dobson direct sun measurements and the ozone amounts inferred from those measurements to variation in the atmospheric temperature profile. The study used the plane - parallel Monte-Carlo model developed and tested under the initial phase of this program, and a series of standard model atmospheres.

  18. Spatio-Temporal Variability of the Phase of Total Ozone Quasi-Decennial Oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visheratin, K. N.

    2017-12-01

    The SBUV/SBUV2 (65° S-65° N) and Bodeker Scientific (90° S-90° N) satellite databases have been used for composite and cross-wavelet analyses of the spatio-temporal variability of phase relations between a 11-year cycle of solar activity (SA) and quasi-decennial oscillations (QDOs) of total ozone content (TOC). For globally average TOC values, the QDO maxima coincide in phase with the solar-activity maxima, and amplitude variations of TOC correlate with those of the 11-year solar cycle. According to the analysis of amplitude and phase of QDOs for the zonal average TOC fields, a QDO amplitude is about 6-7 Dobson Units (DU) in the high northern and southern latitudes, and it does not exceed 2-3 DU in the tropic regions. The latitudinal TOC variations are distinguished by a delay of the quasi-decennial oscillation phase in the southern latitudes in comparison with the northern latitudes. The TOC maxima phase coincides with the SA maxima phase in the tropic regions; the TOC variations go ahead of the SA variations, on average, in moderate and high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere; the TOC variations are behind the SA variations in the Southern Hemisphere. The phase delay between TOC QDO maxima in the northern and southern latitudes appears to increase in the course of time, and the TOC quasi-decennial variations in the Arctic and Antarctic subpolar regions occur approximately in an antiphase over the last two decades.

  19. NESDIS Total Ozone from Analysis of Stratospheric and Tropospheric components (TOAST)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TOAST combines UV and IR ozone retrievals from an algorithm using the Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet Version 2 (SBUV/2) and the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS)...

  20. Experimental and modeling study of the impact of vertical transport processes from the boundary-layer on the variability and the budget of tropospheric ozone; Etude experimentale et numerique de l'influence des processus de transport depuis la couche-limite sur la variabilite et le bilan d'ozone tropospherique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colette, A

    2005-12-15

    Closing the tropospheric ozone budget requires a better understanding of the role of transport processes from the major reservoirs: the planetary boundary layer and the stratosphere. Case studies lead to the identification of mechanisms involved as well as their efficiency. However, their global impact on the budget must be addressed on a climatological basis. This manuscript is thus divided in two parts. First, we present case studies based on ozone LIDAR measurements performed during the ESCOMPTE campaign. This work consists in a data analysis investigation by means of a hybrid - Lagrangian study involving: global meteorological analyses, Lagrangian particle dispersion computation, and mesoscale, chemistry - transport, and Lagrangian photochemistry modeling. Our aim is to document the amount of observed ozone variability related to transport processes and, when appropriate, to infer the role of tropospheric photochemical production. Second, we propose a climatological analysis of the respective impact of transport from the boundary-layer and from the tropopause region on the tropospheric ozone budget. A multivariate analysis is presented and compared to a trajectography approach. Once validated, this algorithm is applied to the whole database of ozone profiles collected above Europe during the past 30 years in order to discuss the seasonal, geographical and temporal variability of transport processes as well as their impact on the tropospheric ozone budget. The variability of turbulent mixing and its impact on the persistence of tropospheric layers will also be discussed. (author)

  1. Experimental and modeling study of the impact of vertical transport processes from the boundary-layer on the variability and the budget of tropospheric ozone; Etude experimentale et numerique de l'influence des processus de transport depuis la couche-limite sur la variabilite et le bilan d'ozone tropospherique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colette, A

    2005-12-15

    Closing the tropospheric ozone budget requires a better understanding of the role of transport processes from the major reservoirs: the planetary boundary layer and the stratosphere. Case studies lead to the identification of mechanisms involved as well as their efficiency. However, their global impact on the budget must be addressed on a climatological basis. This manuscript is thus divided in two parts. First, we present case studies based on ozone LIDAR measurements performed during the ESCOMPTE campaign. This work consists in a data analysis investigation by means of a hybrid - Lagrangian study involving: global meteorological analyses, Lagrangian particle dispersion computation, and mesoscale, chemistry - transport, and Lagrangian photochemistry modeling. Our aim is to document the amount of observed ozone variability related to transport processes and, when appropriate, to infer the role of tropospheric photochemical production. Second, we propose a climatological analysis of the respective impact of transport from the boundary-layer and from the tropopause region on the tropospheric ozone budget. A multivariate analysis is presented and compared to a trajectography approach. Once validated, this algorithm is applied to the whole database of ozone profiles collected above Europe during the past 30 years in order to discuss the seasonal, geographical and temporal variability of transport processes as well as their impact on the tropospheric ozone budget. The variability of turbulent mixing and its impact on the persistence of tropospheric layers will also be discussed. (author)

  2. Extreme events in total ozone over the Northern mid-latitudes: an analysis based on long-term data sets from five European ground-based stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieder, Harald E. (Inst. for Atmospheric and Climate Science, ETH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland)), e-mail: hr2302@columbia.edu; Jancso, Leonhardt M. (Inst. for Atmospheric and Climate Science, ETH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Inst. for Meteorology and Geophysics, Univ. of Innsbruck, Innsbruck (Austria)); Di Rocco, Stefania (Inst. for Atmospheric and Climate Science, ETH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Dept. of Geography, Univ. of Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland)) (and others)

    2011-11-15

    We apply methods from extreme value theory to identify extreme events in high (termed EHOs) and low (termed ELOs) total ozone and to describe the distribution tails (i.e. very high and very low values) of five long-term European ground-based total ozone time series. The influence of these extreme events on observed mean values, long-term trends and changes is analysed. The results show a decrease in EHOs and an increase in ELOs during the last decades, and establish that the observed downward trend in column ozone during the 1970-1990s is strongly dominated by changes in the frequency of extreme events. Furthermore, it is shown that clear 'fingerprints' of atmospheric dynamics (NAO, ENSO) and chemistry [ozone depleting substances (ODSs), polar vortex ozone loss] can be found in the frequency distribution of ozone extremes, even if no attribution is possible from standard metrics (e.g. annual mean values). The analysis complements earlier analysis for the world's longest total ozone record at Arosa, Switzerland, confirming and revealing the strong influence of atmospheric dynamics on observed ozone changes. The results provide clear evidence that in addition to ODS, volcanic eruptions and strong/moderate ENSO and NAO events had significant influence on column ozone in the European sector

  3. Principal component analysis and neurocomputing-based models for total ozone concentration over different urban regions of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Goutami; Chattopadhyay, Surajit; Chakraborthy, Parthasarathi

    2012-07-01

    The present study deals with daily total ozone concentration time series over four metro cities of India namely Kolkata, Mumbai, Chennai, and New Delhi in the multivariate environment. Using the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure, it is established that the data set under consideration are suitable for principal component analysis. Subsequently, by introducing rotated component matrix for the principal components, the predictors suitable for generating artificial neural network (ANN) for daily total ozone prediction are identified. The multicollinearity is removed in this way. Models of ANN in the form of multilayer perceptron trained through backpropagation learning are generated for all of the study zones, and the model outcomes are assessed statistically. Measuring various statistics like Pearson correlation coefficients, Willmott's indices, percentage errors of prediction, and mean absolute errors, it is observed that for Mumbai and Kolkata the proposed ANN model generates very good predictions. The results are supported by the linearly distributed coordinates in the scatterplots.

  4. Quality assessment of the Ozone_cci Climate Research Data Package (release 2017 – Part 1: Ground-based validation of total ozone column data products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Garane

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The GOME-type Total Ozone Essential Climate Variable (GTO-ECV is a level-3 data record, which combines individual sensor products into one single cohesive record covering the 22-year period from 1995 to 2016, generated in the frame of the European Space Agency's Climate Change Initiative Phase II. It is based on level-2 total ozone data produced by the GODFIT (GOME-type Direct FITting v4 algorithm as applied to the GOME/ERS-2, OMI/Aura, SCIAMACHY/Envisat and GOME-2/Metop-A and Metop-B observations. In this paper we examine whether GTO-ECV meets the specific requirements set by the international climate–chemistry modelling community for decadal stability long-term and short-term accuracy. In the following, we present the validation of the 2017 release of the Climate Research Data Package Total Ozone Column (CRDP TOC at both level 2 and level 3. The inter-sensor consistency of the individual level-2 data sets has mean differences generally within 0.5 % at moderate latitudes (±50°, whereas the level-3 data sets show mean differences with respect to the OMI reference data record that span between −0.2 ± 0.9 % (for GOME-2B and 1.0 ± 1.4 % (for SCIAMACHY. Very similar findings are reported for the level-2 validation against independent ground-based TOC observations reported by Brewer, Dobson and SAOZ instruments: the mean bias between GODFIT v4 satellite TOC and the ground instrument is well within 1.0 ± 1.0 % for all sensors, the drift per decade spans between −0.5 % and 1.0 ± 1.0 % depending on the sensor, and the peak-to-peak seasonality of the differences ranges from ∼ 1 % for GOME and OMI to  ∼ 2 % for SCIAMACHY. For the level-3 validation, our first goal was to show that the level-3 CRDP produces findings consistent with the level-2 individual sensor comparisons. We show a very good agreement with 0.5 to 2 % peak-to-peak amplitude for the monthly mean difference time series and a

  5. Quality assessment of the Ozone_cci Climate Research Data Package (release 2017) - Part 1: Ground-based validation of total ozone column data products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garane, Katerina; Lerot, Christophe; Coldewey-Egbers, Melanie; Verhoelst, Tijl; Elissavet Koukouli, Maria; Zyrichidou, Irene; Balis, Dimitris S.; Danckaert, Thomas; Goutail, Florence; Granville, Jose; Hubert, Daan; Keppens, Arno; Lambert, Jean-Christopher; Loyola, Diego; Pommereau, Jean-Pierre; Van Roozendael, Michel; Zehner, Claus

    2018-03-01

    The GOME-type Total Ozone Essential Climate Variable (GTO-ECV) is a level-3 data record, which combines individual sensor products into one single cohesive record covering the 22-year period from 1995 to 2016, generated in the frame of the European Space Agency's Climate Change Initiative Phase II. It is based on level-2 total ozone data produced by the GODFIT (GOME-type Direct FITting) v4 algorithm as applied to the GOME/ERS-2, OMI/Aura, SCIAMACHY/Envisat and GOME-2/Metop-A and Metop-B observations. In this paper we examine whether GTO-ECV meets the specific requirements set by the international climate-chemistry modelling community for decadal stability long-term and short-term accuracy. In the following, we present the validation of the 2017 release of the Climate Research Data Package Total Ozone Column (CRDP TOC) at both level 2 and level 3. The inter-sensor consistency of the individual level-2 data sets has mean differences generally within 0.5 % at moderate latitudes (±50°), whereas the level-3 data sets show mean differences with respect to the OMI reference data record that span between -0.2 ± 0.9 % (for GOME-2B) and 1.0 ± 1.4 % (for SCIAMACHY). Very similar findings are reported for the level-2 validation against independent ground-based TOC observations reported by Brewer, Dobson and SAOZ instruments: the mean bias between GODFIT v4 satellite TOC and the ground instrument is well within 1.0 ± 1.0 % for all sensors, the drift per decade spans between -0.5 % and 1.0 ± 1.0 % depending on the sensor, and the peak-to-peak seasonality of the differences ranges from ˜ 1 % for GOME and OMI to ˜ 2 % for SCIAMACHY. For the level-3 validation, our first goal was to show that the level-3 CRDP produces findings consistent with the level-2 individual sensor comparisons. We show a very good agreement with 0.5 to 2 % peak-to-peak amplitude for the monthly mean difference time series and a negligible drift per decade of the differences in the Northern Hemisphere

  6. On the compatibility of Brewer total column ozone measurements in two adjacent valleys (Arosa and Davos in the Swiss Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Stübi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Arosa site is well known in the ozone community for its continuous total ozone column observations that have been recorded since 1926. Originally based on Dobson sun spectrophotometers, the site has been gradually complemented by three automatic Brewer instruments, in operation since 1998. To secure the long-term ozone monitoring in this Alpine region and to benefit from synergies with the World Radiation Center, the feasibility of moving this activity to the nearby site at Davos (aerial distance of 13 km has been explored. Concerns about a possible rupture of the 90-year-long record has motivated a careful comparison of the two sites, since great attention to the data continuity and quality has always been central to the operations of the observatory at Arosa. To this end, one element of the Arosa Brewer triad has been set up at the Davos site since November 2011 to realize a campaign of parallel measurements and to study the deviations between the three Brewer instruments. The analysis of the coincident measurement shows that the differences between Arosa and Davos remain within the range of the long-term stability of the Brewer instruments. A nonsignificant seasonal cycle is observed, which could possibly be induced by a stray-light bias and the altitude difference between the two sites. These differences are shown to be lower than the short-term variability of the time series and the overall uncertainty from individual Brewer instruments and therefore are not statistically significant. It is therefore concluded that the world's longest time series of the total ozone column obtained at Arosa site could be safely extended and continued with measurements taken from instruments located at the nearby Davos site without introducing a bias to this unique record.

  7. Proposed standardized definitions for vertical resolution and uncertainty in the NDACC lidar ozone and temperature algorithms - Part 3: Temperature uncertainty budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, Thierry; Sica, Robert J.; van Gijsel, Joanna A. E.; Haefele, Alexander; Payen, Guillaume; Liberti, Gianluigi

    2016-08-01

    A standardized approach for the definition, propagation, and reporting of uncertainty in the temperature lidar data products contributing to the Network for the Detection for Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC) database is proposed. One important aspect of the proposed approach is the ability to propagate all independent uncertainty components in parallel through the data processing chain. The individual uncertainty components are then combined together at the very last stage of processing to form the temperature combined standard uncertainty. The identified uncertainty sources comprise major components such as signal detection, saturation correction, background noise extraction, temperature tie-on at the top of the profile, and absorption by ozone if working in the visible spectrum, as well as other components such as molecular extinction, the acceleration of gravity, and the molecular mass of air, whose magnitudes depend on the instrument, data processing algorithm, and altitude range of interest. The expression of the individual uncertainty components and their step-by-step propagation through the temperature data processing chain are thoroughly estimated, taking into account the effect of vertical filtering and the merging of multiple channels. All sources of uncertainty except detection noise imply correlated terms in the vertical dimension, which means that covariance terms must be taken into account when vertical filtering is applied and when temperature is integrated from the top of the profile. Quantitatively, the uncertainty budget is presented in a generic form (i.e., as a function of instrument performance and wavelength), so that any NDACC temperature lidar investigator can easily estimate the expected impact of individual uncertainty components in the case of their own instrument. Using this standardized approach, an example of uncertainty budget is provided for the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) lidar at Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawai'i, which is

  8. Secondary maxima in ozone profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Lemoine

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Ozone profiles from balloon soundings as well as SAGEII ozone profiles were used to detect anomalous large ozone concentrations of ozone in the lower stratosphere. These secondary ozone maxima are found to be the result of differential advection of ozone-poor and ozone-rich air associated with Rossby wave breaking events. The frequency and intensity of secondary ozone maxima and their geographical distribution is presented. The occurrence and amplitude of ozone secondary maxima is connected to ozone variability and trend at Uccle and account for a large part of the total ozone and lower stratospheric ozone variability.

  9. Deriving a Linearised Ozone Chemistry Scheme for a 3-D Chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A simple but computer efficient parameterized ozone chemistry is developed to account for up-dates in reaction rate recommendations, and also completely assess the contributions of the indi-vidual catalytic cycles to the ozone budget in the entire stratosphere. Two conceptual ap-proaches, namely total time approach and ...

  10. Total electron count variability and stratospheric ozone effects on solar backscatter and LWIR emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-10

    heating occur. This method is achieved though measuring the intensity ratio of sky- scattered sunlight at a pair of UV wavelengths at solar zenith angles...cause impacts to direct-sun, UV, and zenith measurements . OOB light can affect the low intensity spectrum of solar light, which is not fully removed by...several key spectral properties that are pertinent to its measurement . Ozone is greenhouse gas that plays a primary role in the absorption of solar UV

  11. Impact of strong geomagnetic storms on total ozone at southern higher middle latitudes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laštovička, Jan; Križan, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 1 (2009), s. 151-156 ISSN 0039-3169 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1P05OC030 Grant - others:European Commission(XE) COST 724 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : ozone * Southern Hemisphere * geomagnetic storms * Forbush decreases of cosmic rays Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2009

  12. Comparison of ultraviolet Bi-directional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) measurements of diffusers used in the calibration of the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS)

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, J.J.; Park, H.; Barnes, P.Y.; Early, E.A.; Eijk-Olij, C. van; Zoutman, A.E.; Buller-Leeuwen, S. van; Groote Schaarsberg, J.

    2002-01-01

    The measurement and long-term monitoring of global total ozone by ultraviolet albedo measuring satellite instruments require accurate and precise determination of the Bi-directional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) of laboratory-based diffusers used in the pre-launch calibration of those instruments. To assess the ability of laboratories to provide accurate Ultra Violet (UV) diffuse BRDF measurements, a BRDF measurement comparison was initiated by the NASA Total Ozone Mapping Spectrom...

  13. An ozone budget for the UK: using measurements from the national ozone monitoring network; measured and modelled meteorological data, and a 'big-leaf' resistance analogy model of dry deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coyle, M.; Smith, R.; Fowler, D.

    2003-01-01

    A method of calculating a mass budget for O 3 in the UK boundary layer is presented which shows that the spatial scale of the UK is small relative to the footprint of the atmosphere influenced by UK emissions. - Data from the UK national air-quality monitoring network are used to calculate an annual mass budget for ozone (O 3 ) production and loss in the UK boundary layer during 1996. Monthly losses by dry deposition are quantified from 1 kmx1 km scale maps of O 3 concentration and O 3 deposition velocities based on a 'big-leaf' resistance analogy. The quantity of O 3 deposition varies from ∼50 Gg-O 3 month -1 in the winter to over 200 Gg-O 3 month -1 in the summer when vegetation is actively absorbing O 3 . The net O 3 production or loss in the UK boundary layer is found by selecting days when the UK is receiving 'clean' Atlantic air from the SW to NW. In these conditions, the difference in O 3 concentration observed at Mace Head and a rural site on the east coast of the UK indicates the net O 3 production or loss within the UK boundary layer. A simple box model is then used to convert the concentration difference into a mass. The final budget shows that for most of the year the UK is a net sink for O 3 (-25 to -800 Gg-O 3 month -1 ) with production only exceeding losses in the photochemically active summer months (+45 Gg-O 3 month -1 )

  14. An ozone budget for the UK: using measurements from the national ozone monitoring network; measured and modelled meteorological data, and a 'big-leaf' resistance analogy model of dry deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coyle, M.; Smith, R.; Fowler, D

    2003-05-01

    A method of calculating a mass budget for O{sub 3} in the UK boundary layer is presented which shows that the spatial scale of the UK is small relative to the footprint of the atmosphere influenced by UK emissions. - Data from the UK national air-quality monitoring network are used to calculate an annual mass budget for ozone (O{sub 3}) production and loss in the UK boundary layer during 1996. Monthly losses by dry deposition are quantified from 1 kmx1 km scale maps of O{sub 3} concentration and O{sub 3} deposition velocities based on a 'big-leaf' resistance analogy. The quantity of O{sub 3} deposition varies from {approx}50 Gg-O{sub 3} month{sup -1} in the winter to over 200 Gg-O{sub 3} month{sup -1} in the summer when vegetation is actively absorbing O{sub 3}. The net O{sub 3} production or loss in the UK boundary layer is found by selecting days when the UK is receiving 'clean' Atlantic air from the SW to NW. In these conditions, the difference in O{sub 3} concentration observed at Mace Head and a rural site on the east coast of the UK indicates the net O{sub 3} production or loss within the UK boundary layer. A simple box model is then used to convert the concentration difference into a mass. The final budget shows that for most of the year the UK is a net sink for O{sub 3} (-25 to -800 Gg-O{sub 3} month{sup -1}) with production only exceeding losses in the photochemically active summer months (+45 Gg-O{sub 3} month{sup -1})

  15. Total peroxy nitrates and ozone production : analysis of forest fire plumes during BORTAS campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busilacchio, Marcella; Di Carlo, Piero; Aruffo, Eleonora; Biancofiore, Fabio; Giammaria, Franco; Bauguitte, Stephane; Lee, James; Moller, Sarah; Lewis, Ally; Parrington, Mark; Palmer, Paul; Dari Salisburgo, Cesare

    2014-05-01

    The goal of this work is to investigate the connection between PNS and ozone within plumes emitted from boreal forest fires and the possible perturbation to oxidant chemistry in the troposphere. During the Aircraft campaign in Canada called BORTAS (summer 2011 ) were carried out several profiles from ground up to 10 km with the BAe-146 aircraft to observe the atmospheric composition inside and outside fire plumes. The BORTAS flights have been selected based on the preliminary studies of 'Plume identification', selecting those effected by Boreal forest fire emissions (CO > 200 ppbv). The FLAMBE fire counts were used concertedly with back trajectory calculations generated by the HYbrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model to locate the sources of Boreal biomass burning.Profiles measured on board the BAe-146 aircraft are used to calculate the productions of PNs and O3 within the biomass burning plume. By selecting the flights that intercept the biomass burning plume, we evaluate the ratio between the ozone production and the PNs production within the plume. Analyzing this ratio it is possible to determine whether O3 production or PNs production is the dominant process in the biomass burning boreal plume detected during BORTAS campaign.

  16. Evaluating a New Homogeneous Total Ozone Climate Data Record from GOME/ERS-2, SCIAMACHY/Envisat, and GOME-2/MetOp-A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukouli, M.E.; Lerot, C.; Granville, J.; Goutail, F.; Lambert, J.-C.; Pommereau, J.-P.; Balis, D.; Zyrichidou, I.; Van Roozendael, M.; Coldewey-Egbers, M.; hide

    2015-01-01

    The European Space Agency's Ozone Climate Change Initiative (O3-CCI) project aims at producing and validating a number of high-quality ozone data products generated from different satellite sensors. For total ozone, the O3-CCI approach consists of minimizing sources of bias and systematic uncertainties by applying a common retrieval algorithm to all level 1 data sets, in order to enhance the consistency between the level 2 data sets from individual sensors. Here we present the evaluation of the total ozone products from the European sensors Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME)/ERS-2, SCIAMACHY/Envisat, and GOME-2/MetOp-A produced with the GOME-type Direct FITting (GODFIT) algorithm v3. Measurements from the three sensors span more than 16 years, from 1996 to 2012. In this work, we present the latest O3-CCI total ozone validation results using as reference ground-based measurements from Brewer and Dobson spectrophotometers archived at the World Ozone and UV Data Centre of the World Meteorological Organization as well as from UV-visible differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS)/Système D'Analyse par Observations Zénithales (SAOZ) instruments from the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change. In particular, we investigate possible dependencies in these new GODFIT v3 total ozone data sets with respect to latitude, season, solar zenith angle, and different cloud parameters, using the most adequate type of ground-based instrument. We show that these three O3-CCI total ozone data products behave very similarly and are less sensitive to instrumental degradation, mainly as a result of the new reflectance soft-calibration scheme. The mean bias to the ground-based observations is found to be within the 1 plus or minus 1 percent level for all three sensors while the near-zero decadal stability of the total ozone columns (TOCs) provided by the three European instruments falls well within the 1-3 percent requirement of the European Space

  17. Adaption of an array spectroradiometer for total ozone column retrieval using direct solar irradiance measurements in the UV spectral range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuber, Ralf; Sperfeld, Peter; Riechelmann, Stefan; Nevas, Saulius; Sildoja, Meelis; Seckmeyer, Gunther

    2018-04-01

    A compact array spectroradiometer that enables precise and robust measurements of solar UV spectral direct irradiance is presented. We show that this instrument can retrieve total ozone column (TOC) accurately. The internal stray light, which is often the limiting factor for measurements in the UV spectral range and increases the uncertainty for TOC analysis, is physically reduced so that no other stray-light reduction methods, such as mathematical corrections, are necessary. The instrument has been extensively characterised at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in Germany. During an international total ozone measurement intercomparison at the Izaña Atmospheric Observatory in Tenerife, the high-quality applicability of the instrument was verified with measurements of the direct solar irradiance and subsequent TOC evaluations based on the spectral data measured between 12 and 30 September 2016. The results showed deviations of the TOC of less than 1.5 % from most other instruments in most situations and not exceeding 3 % from established TOC measurement systems such as Dobson or Brewer.

  18. Interrelation of changes in the total content of ozone in the northern hemisphere with the velocity of the stratosphere circumpolar vortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolyada, Maria N.; Kashkin, Valentin B.

    2004-12-01

    Considering the high significance of the ozone for preservation and maintenance of the biosphere and the temperature balance of the atmosphere the investigation of the ozone layer is a very important part of the investigation of the planet"s atmosphere. In this work results of investigations of TOC variability in the Northern Hemisphere and the influence of variability of the circumpolar vortex rotation velocity on the ozone layer are presented. Mean values of total ozone concentration in the Northern Hemisphere (by satellite data) and rotation velocities of the circumpolar vortex are calculated for each month from February to April during 1998-2004. Also in this work the mechanism of the influence of the natural factors on TOC variability solar activity during the spring is suggested.

  19. The TOMS V9 Algorithm for OMPS Nadir Mapper Total Ozone: An Enhanced Design That Ensures Data Continuity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haffner, D. P.; McPeters, R. D.; Bhartia, P. K.; Labow, G. J.

    2015-12-01

    The TOMS V9 total ozone algorithm will be applied to the OMPS Nadir Mapper instrument to supersede the exisiting V8.6 data product in operational processing and re-processing for public release. Becuase the quality of the V8.6 data is already quite high, enchancements in V9 are mainly with information provided by the retrieval and simplifcations to the algorithm. The design of the V9 algorithm has been influenced by improvements both in our knowledge of atmospheric effects, such as those of clouds made possible by studies with OMI, and also limitations in the V8 algorithms applied to both OMI and OMPS. But the namesake instruments of the TOMS algorithm are substantially more limited in their spectral and noise characterisitics, and a requirement of our algorithm is to also apply the algorithm to these discrete band spectrometers which date back to 1978. To achieve continuity for all these instruments, the TOMS V9 algorithm continues to use radiances in discrete bands, but now uses Rodgers optimal estimation to retrieve a coarse profile and provide uncertainties for each retrieval. The algorithm remains capable of achieving high accuracy results with a small number of discrete wavelengths, and in extreme cases, such as unusual profile shapes and high solar zenith angles, the quality of the retrievals is improved. Despite the intended design to use limited wavlenegths, the algorithm can also utilitze additional wavelengths from hyperspectral sensors like OMPS to augment the retreival's error detection and information content; for example SO2 detection and correction of Ring effect on atmospheric radiances. We discuss these and other aspects of the V9 algorithm as it will be applied to OMPS, and will mention potential improvements which aim to take advantage of a synergy with OMPS Limb Profiler and Nadir Mapper to further improve the quality of total ozone from the OMPS instrument.

  20. Interannual variations in the zonal asymmetry of the subpolar latitudes total ozone column during the austral spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo A. Agosta

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Southern Hemisphere midlatitude Total Ozone Column (TOC shows a horseshoe like structure with a minimum which appears to have two preferential extreme positions during October: one, near southern South America, the other, near the Greenwich Meridian approximately. The interannual zonal ozone asymmetry exists independently of the variations induced by the 11-year solar cycle, the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO and planetary wave activity inducing the Brewer-Dobson circulation. The classification and climatological composition of these two extreme ozone-minimum positions allows for the observations of statistically significant patterns in geopotential height and zonal winds associated with the quasi-stationary wave 1, extending throughout lower stratosphere. The changes in the quasi-stationary wave 1 associated with the extreme TOC positions appear to have sinks and sources determining transient interactions between troposphere and the stratosphere. Thus, distinct climate states in the troposphere seem to be dynamically linked with the state of the stratosphere and ozone layer. The migration of the TOC trough from southern South America to the east during the 1990s can be related to changes in the troposphere/stratosphere coupling through changes in the Southern Annular Mode variability in spring.La Columna Total de Ozono (CTO de las latitudes medias del Hemisferio Sur muestra una estructura de herradura con un mínimo que muestra tener dos posiciones preferenciales extremas durante octubre: uno, en las cercanías del sur de Sudamérica, y el otro, cerca del meridiano de Greenwich. La asimetría zonal de ozono existe independientemente de las variaciones inducidas por el ciclo solar de 11 años, la Oscilación Cuasi-Bianual (QBO y la actividad de onda planetaria asociada a la circulación de Brewer-Dobson. La clasificación y composición climatológica de estas dos situaciones longitudinalmente extremas de mínimo de ozono permite observar

  1. Radical budget and ozone chemistry during autumn in the atmosphere of an urban site in central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xingcheng; Chen, Nan; Wang, Yuhang; Cao, Wenxiang; Zhu, Bo; Yao, Teng; Fung, Jimmy C. H.; Lau, Alexis K. H.

    2017-03-01

    The ROx (=OH + HO2 + RO2) budget and O3 production at an urban site in central China (Wuhan) during autumn were simulated and analyzed for the first time using a UW Chemical Model 0-D box model constrained by in situ observational data. The daytime average OH, HO2, and RO2 concentrations were 2.2 × 106, 1.0 × 108, and 5.2 × 107 molecules cm-3, respectively. The average daytime O3 production rate was 8.8 ppbv h-1, and alkenes were the most important VOC species for O3 formation (contributing 45%) at this site. Our sensitivity test indicated that the atmospheric environment in Wuhan during autumn belongs to the VOC-limited regime. The daily average HONO concentration at this site during the study period reached 1.1 ppbv and played an important role in the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere. Without the source of excess HONO, the average daytime OH, HO2, RO2, and O3 production rates decreased by 36%, 26%, 27%, and 31% respectively. A correlation between the HONO to NO2 heterogeneous conversion efficiency and PM2.5 × SWR was found at this site; based on this relationship, if the PM2.5 concentration met the World Health Organization air quality standard (25 µg m-3), the O3 production rate in this city would decrease by 19% during late autumn. The burning of agricultural biomass severely affected the air quality in Wuhan during summer and autumn. Agricultural burning was found to account for 18% of the O3 formation during the study period. Our results suggest that VOC control and a ban on agricultural biomass burning should be considered as high-priority measures for improving the air quality in this region.

  2. Possible changes in the dose of biologically active ultraviolet radiation received by the biosphere in the summertime Arctic due to total ozone interannual variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruzdev, Aleksandr N. (Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation))

    1994-12-01

    Data for total ozone measurements since 1972 from the world ozone measuring network have been analyzed to study ozone interannual variability and estimate its possible effect on the UV-B dose received by the arctic biosphere. Possible interannual changes in the UV-B dose received by DNA associated with overall interannual ozone variability, as well as with the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) in total ozone were computed for different summer months. In general, the largest interannual variations in UV-B dose may occur in the Russian Arctic, whereas the possible variations in the Canadian Arctic are the smallest. Overall variations in the UV-B dose received by DNA can exceed 25% (2[sigma] criterion) in the Taimyr and Severnaya Zemlya for June and July, and 30% in the Laptev Sea for August. In the European sector of the Arctic, the possible variations are greater than 10%, and can exceed 15% in the north Norwegian Sea for July and 20% in Spitsbergen for August. Possible overall variations in the Canadian Arctic and Alaska are [<=]10%, reaching 15% in Alaska for August, however. The total ozone QBO can also cause essential and (statistically) predicted changes in UV-B radiation. In general, the UV-B dose received by DNA is found to be greater in the Arctic during the westerly phase of the QBO of the equatorial stratospheric wind at 50 mb level than during the easterly phase. The difference can reach or exceed 15% (relative to the mean value) in Taimyr for June and in Severnaya Zemlya for July and August. In northern Europe and Iceland, the difference can reach 10% for August. In the Canadian Arctic, the QBO-related effect is small. In Alaska, the appropriate difference in UV-B dose has an opposite sign for August, exceeding 5% in magnitude

  3. TOMS/Earth Probe Total Column Ozone Daily L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid V008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data product contains TOMS/Earth Probe Total Column Ozone Daily L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid Version 8 data in ASCII format. (The shortname for this...

  4. OMI/Aura Ozone (O3) DOAS Total Column Daily L2 Global 0.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The OMI/Aura Level-2G Total Column Ozone Data Product OMDOAO3G (Version 003) is now available ( http://disc.gsfc.nasa.gov/Aura/OMI/omdoao3g_v003.shtml ) from the...

  5. OMI/Aura Ozone (O3) Total Column Daily L2 Global 0.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The OMI/Aura Level-2G Total Column Ozone Data Product OMTO3G (Version 003) is made available ( http://disc.gsfc.nasa.gov/Aura/OMI/omto3g_v003.shtml ) from the NASA...

  6. Comparison of ultraviolet Bi-directional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) measurements of diffusers used in the calibration of the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butler, J.J.; Park, H.; Barnes, P.Y.; Early, E.A.; Eijk-Olij, C. van; Zoutman, A.E.; Buller-Leeuwen, S. van; Groote Schaarsberg, J.

    2002-01-01

    The measurement and long-term monitoring of global total ozone by ultraviolet albedo measuring satellite instruments require accurate and precise determination of the Bi-directional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) of laboratory-based diffusers used in the pre-launch calibration of those

  7. NILU-UV multi-filter radiometer total ozone columns: Comparison with satellite observations over Thessaloniki, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zempila, Melina Maria; Taylor, Michael; Koukouli, Maria Elissavet; Lerot, Christophe; Fragkos, Konstantinos; Fountoulakis, Ilias; Bais, Alkiviadis; Balis, Dimitrios; van Roozendael, Michel

    2017-07-15

    This study aims to construct and validate a neural network (NN) model for the production of high frequency (~1min) ground-based estimates of total ozone column (TOC) at a mid-latitude UV and ozone monitoring station in the Laboratory of Atmospheric Physics of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (LAP/AUTh) for the years 2005-2014. In the first stage of model development, ~30,000 records of coincident solar UV spectral irradiance measurements from a Norsk Institutt for Luftforskning (NILU)-UV multi-filter radiometer and TOC measurements from a co-located Brewer spectroradiometer are used to train a NN to learn the nonlinear functional relation between the irradiances and TOC. The model is then subjected to sensitivity analysis and validation. Close agreement is obtained (R 2 =0.94, RMSE=8.21 DU and bias=-0.15 DU relative to the Brewer) for the training data in the correlation of NN estimates on Brewer derived TOC with 95% of the coincident data differing by less than 13 DU. In the second stage of development, a long time series (≥1 million records) of high frequency (~1min) NILU-UV ground-based measurements are presented as inputs to the NN model to generate high frequency TOC estimates. The advantage of the NN model is that it is not site dependent and is applicable to any NILU input data lying within the range of the training data. GOME/ERS-2, SCIAMACHY/Envisat, OMI/Aura and GOME2/MetOp-A TOC records are then used to perform a precise cross-validation analysis and comparison with the NILU TOC estimates over Thessaloniki. All 4 satellite TOC dataset are retrieved using the GOME Direct Fitting algorithm, version 3 (GODFIT_v3), for reasons of consistency. The NILU TOC estimates within ±30min of the overpass times agree well with the satellite TOC retrievals with coefficient of determination in the range 0.88≤R 2 ≤0.90 for all sky conditions and 0.95≤R 2 ≤0.96 for clear sky conditions. The mean fractional differences are found to be -0.67%±2.15%, -1

  8. Think the way to measure the Earth Radiation Budget and the Total Solar Irradiance with a small satellites constellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meftah, M.; Keckhut, P.; Damé, L.; Bekki, S.; Sarkissian, A.; Hauchecorne, A.

    2018-05-01

    Within the past decade, satellites constellations have become possible and practical. One of the interest to use a satellites constellation is to measure the true Earth Radiation Imbalance, which is a crucial quantity for testing climate models and for predicting the future course of global warming. This measurement presents a high interest because the 2001-2010 decade has not shown the accelerating pace of global warming that most models predict, despite the fact that the greenhouse-gas radiative forcing continues to rise. All estimates (ocean heat content and top of atmosphere) show that over the past decade the Earth radiation imbalance ranges between 0.5 to 1W-2. Up to now, the Earth radiation imbalance has not been measured directly. The only way to measure the imbalance with sufficient accuracy is to measure both the incoming solar radiations (total solar irradiance) and the outgoing terrestrial radiations (top of atmosphere outgoing longwave radiations and shortwave radiations) onboard the same satellite, and ideally, with the same instrument. The incoming solar radiations and the outgoing terrestrial radiations are of nearly equal magnitude of the order of 340.5W-2. The objective is to measure these quantities over time by using differential Sun-Earth measurements (to counter calibration errors) with an accuracy better than 0.05Wm-2 at 1σ. It is also necessary to have redundant instruments to track aging in space in order to measure during a decade and to measure the global diurnal cycle with a dozen satellites. Solar irradiance and Earth Radiation Budget (SERB) is a potential first in orbit demonstration satellite. The SERB nano-satellite aims to measure on the same platform the different components of the Earth radiation budget and the total solar irradiance. Instrumental payloads (solar radiometer and Earth radiometers) can acquire the technical maturity for the future large missions (constellation that insure global measurement cover) by flying in a

  9. The budget between transportation and accumulation of organic carbon and total nitrogen in black soil at a sloping farmland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Huajun; Zhang Xiaoping; Liang Aizhen

    2006-01-01

    Based on the rate of soil redistribution at a sloping farmland using 137 Cs tracer technique and spatial variation of soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN), the spatial distribution of SOC and TN loss and the budget between transportation and accumulation for recently 50 years was calculated. The results showed that the rate of soil redistribution ranged from -24.61 t/hm 2 /a to 33.56 t/hm 2 /a, most of study area was in medium and weakly erosion phase and accounted for 83.66%; and the area of soil deposition accounted for 15.62%; The variation of the loss of SOC and TN was consistent with that of soil redistribution, shoulder-slope had the most serious loss with the rate of 407.57 kg/hm 2 /a for SOC and 39.94 kg/hm 2 /a for TN, back-slope and summit had the secondly loss with the average rate of 244.2 kg/hm 2 /a for SOC and -20.56 kg/hm 2 /a for TN. For the whole area, relative loss of SOC and TN more than 50% accounted for 10.45% and 11.21%, respectively; The net loss of sediment in the study area was 45.54 t/a for recent 48 years, among which SOC and TN were 612.62 kg/a and 47.20 kg/a, respectively, which was 52% more than that of without consideration of the enrichment of sediment on soil organic matter. (authors)

  10. Plan Your Advertising Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, Steuart-Henderson

    1979-01-01

    Methods for establishing an advertising budget are reviewed. They include methods based on percentage of sales or profits, unit of sales, and objective and task. Also discussed are ways to allocate a promotional budget. The most common breakdowns are: departmental budgets, total budget, calendar periods, media, and sales area. (JMD)

  11. Operational Use of the AIRS Total Column Ozone Retrievals Along with the RGB Air Mass Product as Part of the GOES-R Proving Ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folmer, Michael; Zavodsky, Bradley; Molthan, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Hydrometeorological Prediction Center (HPC) and Ocean Prediction Center (OPC) provide short-term and medium-range forecast guidance of heavy precipitation, strong winds, and other features often associated with mid-latitude cyclones over both land and ocean. As a result, detection of factors that lead to rapid cyclogenesis and high wind events is key to improving forecast skill. One phenomenon that has been identified with these events is the stratospheric intrusion that occurs near tropopause folds. This allows for deep mixing near the top of the atmosphere where dry air high in ozone concentrations and potential vorticity descends (sometimes rapidly) deep into the mid-troposphere. Observations from satellites can aid in detection of these stratospheric air intrusions (SAI) regions. Specifically, multispectral composite imagery assign a variety of satellite spectral bands to the red, green, and blue (RGB) color components of imagery pixels and result in color combinations that can assist in the detection of dry stratospheric air associated with PV advection, which in turn may alert forecasters to the possibility of a rapidly strengthening storm system. Single channel or RGB satellite imagery lacks quantitative information about atmospheric moisture unless the sampled brightness temperatures or other data are converted to estimates of moisture via a retrieval process. Thus, complementary satellite observations are needed to capture a complete picture of a developing storm system. Here, total column ozone retrievals derived from a hyperspectral sounder are used to confirm the extent and magnitude of SAIs. Total ozone is a good proxy for defining locations and intensity of SAIs and has been used in studies evaluating that phenomenon (e.g. Tian et al. 2007, Knox and Schmidt 2005). Steep gradients in values of total ozone seen by satellites have been linked

  12. OMI/Aura DOAS Total Column Ozone Zoomed 1-Orbit L2 Swath 13x12km V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The reprocessed OMI/Aura Level-2 Zoomed Ozone data product OMDOAO3Z at 13x12 km resolution is now available (http://disc.gsfc.nasa.gov/Aura/OMI/omdoao3z_v003.shtml )...

  13. Influence of corona discharge on the ozone budget in the tropical free troposphere: a case study of deep convection during GABRIEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozem, H.; Fischer, H.; Gurk, C.; Schiller, C. L.; Parchatka, U.; Koenigstedt, R.; Stickler, A.; Martinez, M.; Harder, H.; Kubistin, D.; Williams, J.; Eerdekens, G.; Lelieveld, J.

    2014-09-01

    Convective redistribution of ozone and its precursors between the boundary layer (BL) and the free troposphere (FT) influences photochemistry, in particular in the middle and upper troposphere (UT). We present a case study of convective transport during the GABRIEL campaign over the tropical rain forest in Suriname in October 2005. During one measurement flight the inflow and outflow regions of a cumulonimbus cloud (Cb) have been characterized. We identified a distinct layer between 9 and 11 km altitude with enhanced mixing ratios of CO, O3, HOx, acetone and acetonitrile. The elevated O3 contradicts the expectation that convective transport brings low-ozone air from the boundary layer to the outflow region. Entrainment of ozone-rich air is estimated to account for 62% (range: 33-91%) of the observed O3. Ozone is enhanced by only 5-6% by photochemical production in the outflow due to enhanced NO from lightning, based on model calculations using observations including the first reported HOx measurements over the tropical rainforest. The "excess" ozone in the outflow is most probably due to direct production by corona discharge associated with lightning. We deduce a production rate of 5.12 × 1028 molecules O3 flash-1 (range: 9.89 × 1026-9.82 × 1028 molecules O3 flash-1), which is at the upper limit of the range reported previously.

  14. Influence of corona discharge on the ozone budget in the tropical free troposphere: a case study of deep convection during GABRIEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozem, H.; Fischer, H.; Gurk, C.; Schiller, C. L.; Parchatka, U.; Koenigstedt, R.; Stickler, A.; Martinez, M.; Harder, H.; Kubistin, D.; Williams, J.; Eerdekens, G.; Lelieveld, J.

    2014-02-01

    Convective redistribution of ozone and its precursors between the boundary layer (BL) and the free troposphere (FT) influences photochemistry, in particular that of the middle and upper troposphere (UT). We present a case study of convective transport during the GABRIEL campaign over the tropical rain forest in Suriname in October 2005. During a measurement flight on 12 October the inflow and outflow regions of a cumulonimbus cloud (Cb) have been characterized, providing evidence of convective transport. We identified a distinct layer between 9 and 11 km altitude with enhanced mixing ratios of CO, O3, HOx, acetone and acetonitrile. The elevated O3 contradicts the expectation that convective transport brings low ozone air from the boundary layer to the outflow region. The enhanced mixing ratio of ozone in the outflow was mainly of dynamical origin. Entrainment of ozone rich air at the outflow level into the convective outflow accounts for 62% (range: 33-91%) of the observed O3. Ozone is enhanced by only 5-6% by photochemical production in the outflow due to enhanced NO from lightning, based on steady state model calculations, using in-situ observations including the first reported HOx measurements over the tropical rainforest. The "excess" ozone in the outflow is most probably due to direct production by corona discharge associated with lightning. We deduce a production rate of 5.12 × 1028 molecules O3 flash-1 (range: 9.89 × 1026-9.82 × 1028 molecules O3 flash-1), which is at the upper limit of the range of the values reported previously.

  15. High Precision, Absolute Total Column Ozone Measurements from the Pandora Spectrometer System: Comparisons with Data from a Brewer Double Monochromator and Aura OMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzortziou, Maria A.; Herman, Jay R.; Cede, Alexander; Abuhassan, Nader

    2012-01-01

    We present new, high precision, high temporal resolution measurements of total column ozone (TCO) amounts derived from ground-based direct-sun irradiance measurements using our recently deployed Pandora single-grating spectrometers. Pandora's small size and portability allow deployment at multiple sites within an urban air-shed and development of a ground-based monitoring network for studying small-scale atmospheric dynamics, spatial heterogeneities in trace gas distribution, local pollution conditions, photochemical processes and interdependencies of ozone and its major precursors. Results are shown for four mid- to high-latitude sites where different Pandora instruments were used. Comparisons with a well calibrated double-grating Brewer spectrometer over a period of more than a year in Greenbelt MD showed excellent agreement and a small bias of approximately 2 DU (or, 0.6%). This was constant with slant column ozone amount over the full range of observed solar zenith angles (15-80), indicating adequate Pandora stray light correction. A small (1-2%) seasonal difference was found, consistent with sensitivity studies showing that the Pandora spectral fitting TCO retrieval has a temperature dependence of 1% per 3K, with an underestimation in temperature (e.g., during summer) resulting in an underestimation of TCO. Pandora agreed well with Aura-OMI (Ozone Measuring Instrument) satellite data, with average residuals of <1% at the different sites when the OMI view was within 50 km from the Pandora location and OMI-measured cloud fraction was <0.2. The frequent and continuous measurements by Pandora revealed significant short-term (hourly) temporal changes in TCO, not possible to capture by sun-synchronous satellites, such as OMI, alone.

  16. Ozone flux of an urban orange grove: multiple scaled measurements and model comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alstad, K. P.; Grulke, N. E.; Jenerette, D. G.; Schilling, S.; Marrett, K.

    2009-12-01

    There is significant uncertainty about the ozone sink properties of the phytosphere due to a complexity of interactions and feedbacks with biotic and abiotic factors. Improved understanding of the controls on ozone fluxes is critical to estimating and regulating the total ozone budget. Ozone exchanges of an orange orchard within the city of Riverside, CA were examined using a multiple-scaled approach. We access the carbon, water, and energy budgets at the stand- to leaf- level to elucidate the mechanisms controlling the variability in ozone fluxes of this agro-ecosystem. The two initial goals of the study were 1. To consider variations and controls on the ozone fluxes within the canopy; and, 2. To examine different modeling and scaling approaches for totaling the ozone fluxes of this orchard. Current understanding of the total ozone flux between the atmosphere near ground and the phytosphere (F-total) include consideration of a fraction which is absorbed by vegetation through stomatal uptake (F-absorb), and fractional components of deposition on external, non-stomatal, surfaces of the vegetation (F-external) and soil (F-soil). Multiplicative stomatal-conductance models have been commonly used to estimate F-absorb, since this flux cannot be measured directly. We approach F-absorb estimates for this orange orchard using chamber measurement of leaf stomatal-conductance, as well as non-chamber sap-conductance collected on branches of varied aspect and sun/shade conditions within the canopy. We use two approaches to measure the F-total of this stand. Gradient flux profiles were measured using slow-response ozone sensors collecting within and above the canopy (4.6 m), and at the top of the tower (8.5 m). In addition, an eddy-covariance system fitted with a high-frequency chemiluminescence ozone system will be deployed (8.5 m). Preliminary ozone gradient flux profiles demonstrate a substantial ozone sink strength of this orchard, with diurnal concentration differentials

  17. Geophysical validation and long-term consistency between GOME-2/MetOp-A total ozone column and measurements from the sensors GOME/ERS-2, SCIAMACHY/ENVISAT and OMI/Aura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Koukouli

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the paper is to assess the consistency of five years of Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2/Metop-A [GOME-2] total ozone columns and the long-term total ozone satellite monitoring database already in existence through an extensive inter-comparison and validation exercise using as reference Brewer and Dobson ground-based measurements. The behaviour of the GOME-2 measurements is being weighed against that of GOME (1995–2011, Ozone Monitoring Experiment [OMI] (since 2004 and the Scanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CartograpHY [SCIAMACHY] (since 2002 total ozone column products. Over the background truth of the ground-based measurements, the total ozone columns are inter-evaluated using a suite of established validation techniques; the GOME-2 time series follow the same patterns as those observed by the other satellite sensors. In particular, on average, GOME-2 data underestimate GOME data by about 0.80%, and underestimate SCIAMACHY data by 0.37% with no seasonal dependence of the differences between GOME-2, GOME and SCIAMACHY. The latter is expected since the three datasets are based on similar DOAS algorithms. This underestimation of GOME-2 is within the uncertainty of the reference data used in the comparisons. Compared to the OMI sensor, on average GOME-2 data underestimate OMI_DOAS (collection 3 data by 1.28%, without any significant seasonal dependence of the differences between them. The lack of seasonality might be expected since both the GOME data processor [GDP] 4.4 and OMI_DOAS are DOAS-type algorithms and both consider the variability of the stratospheric temperatures in their retrievals. Compared to the OMI_TOMS (collection 3 data, no bias was found. We hence conclude that the GOME-2 total ozone columns are well suitable to continue the long-term global total ozone record with the accuracy needed for climate monitoring studies.

  18. Stratospheric ozone intrusion events and their impacts on tropospheric ozone in the Southern Hemisphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Greenslade

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Stratosphere-to-troposphere transport (STT provides an important natural source of ozone to the upper troposphere, but the characteristics of STT events in the Southern Hemisphere extratropics and their contribution to the regional tropospheric ozone budget remain poorly constrained. Here, we develop a quantitative method to identify STT events from ozonesonde profiles. Using this method we estimate the seasonality of STT events and quantify the ozone transported across the tropopause over Davis (69° S, 2006–2013, Macquarie Island (54° S, 2004–2013, and Melbourne (38° S, 2004–2013. STT seasonality is determined by two distinct methods: a Fourier bandpass filter of the vertical ozone profile and an analysis of the Brunt–Väisälä frequency. Using a bandpass filter on 7–9 years of ozone profiles from each site provides clear detection of STT events, with maximum occurrences during summer and minimum during winter for all three sites. The majority of tropospheric ozone enhancements owing to STT events occur within 2.5 and 3 km of the tropopause at Davis and Macquarie Island respectively. Events are more spread out at Melbourne, occurring frequently up to 6 km from the tropopause. The mean fraction of total tropospheric ozone attributed to STT during STT events is  ∼ 1. 0–3. 5 % at each site; however, during individual events, over 10 % of tropospheric ozone may be directly transported from the stratosphere. The cause of STTs is determined to be largely due to synoptic low-pressure frontal systems, determined using coincident ERA-Interim reanalysis meteorological data. Ozone enhancements can also be caused by biomass burning plumes transported from Africa and South America, which are apparent during austral winter and spring and are determined using satellite measurements of CO. To provide regional context for the ozonesonde observations, we use the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model, which is too coarsely

  19. The Feasibility of Tropospheric and Total Ozone Determination Using a Fabry-perot Interferometer as a Satellite-based Nadir-viewing Atmospheric Sensor. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larar, Allen Maurice

    1993-01-01

    Monitoring of the global distribution of tropospheric ozone (O3) is desirable for enhanced scientific understanding as well as to potentially lessen the ill-health impacts associated with exposure to elevated concentrations in the lower atmosphere. Such a capability can be achieved using a satellite-based device making high spectral resolution measurements with high signal-to-noise ratios; this would enable observation in the pressure-broadened wings of strong O3 lines while minimizing the impact of undesirable signal contributions associated with, for example, the terrestrial surface, interfering species, and clouds. The Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FPI) provides high spectral resolution and high throughput capabilities that are essential for this measurement task. Through proper selection of channel spectral regions, the FPI optimized for tropospheric O3 measurements can simultaneously observe a stratospheric component and thus the total O3 column abundance. Decreasing stratospheric O3 concentrations may lead to an increase in biologically harmful solar ultraviolet radiation reaching the earth's surface, which is detrimental to health. In this research, a conceptual instrument design to achieve the desired measurement has been formulated. This involves a double-etalon fixed-gap series configuration FPI along with an ultra-narrow bandpass filter to achieve single-order operation with an overall spectral resolution of approximately .068 cm(exp -1). A spectral region of about 1 cm(exp -1) wide centered at 1054.73 cm(exp -1) within the strong 9.6 micron ozone infrared band is sampled with 24 spectral channels. Other design characteristics include operation from a nadir-viewing satellite configuration utilizing a 9 inch (diameter) telescope and achieving horizontal spatial resolution with a 50 km nadir footprint. A retrieval technique has been implemented and is demonstrated for a tropical atmosphere possessing enhanced tropospheric ozone amounts. An error analysis

  20. Comparison of total column ozone obtained by the IASI-MetOp satellite with ground-based and OMI satellite observations in the southern tropics and subtropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Toihir

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents comparison results of the total column ozone (TCO data product over 13 southern tropical and subtropical sites recorded from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounder Interferometer (IASI onboard the EUMETSAT (European organization for the exploitation of METeorological SATellite MetOp (Meteorological Operational satellite program satellite. TCO monthly averages obtained from IASI between June 2008 and December 2012 are compared with collocated TCO measurements from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI on the OMI/Aura satellite and the Dobson and SAOZ (Système d'Analyse par Observation Zénithale ground-based instruments. The results show that IASI displays a positive bias with an average less than 2 % with respect to OMI and Dobson observations, but exhibits a negative bias compared to SAOZ over Bauru with a bias around 2.63 %. There is a good agreement between IASI and the other instruments, especially from 15° S southward where a correlation coefficient higher than 0.87 is found. IASI exhibits a seasonal dependence, with an upward trend in autumn and a downward trend during spring, especially before September 2010. After September 2010, the autumn seasonal bias is considerably reduced due to changes made to the retrieval algorithm of the IASI level 2 (L2 product. The L2 product released after August (L2 O3 version 5 (v5 matches TCO from the other instruments better compared to version 4 (v4, which was released between June 2008 and August 2010. IASI bias error recorded from September 2010 is estimated to be at 1.5 % with respect to OMI and less than ±1 % with respect to the other ground-based instruments. Thus, the improvement made by O3 L2 version 5 (v5 product compared with version 4 (v4, allows IASI TCO products to be used with confidence to study the distribution and interannual variability of total ozone in the southern tropics and subtropics.

  1. Correlative studies of satellite ozone sensor measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovill, J.E.; Ellis, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    Comparisons are made between total ozone measurements made by four satellite ozone sensors (TOMS, SBUV, TOVS and MFR). The comparisons were made during July 1979 when all sensors were operating simultaneously. The TOMS and SBUV sensors were observed to measure less total ozone than the MFR sensor, 10 and 15 Dobson units (DU) respectively. The MFR and TOMS sensors measured less ozone than the TOVS sensor, 19 an 28 DU, respectively. Latitudinal variability of the total ozone comparisons is discussed

  2. Long-term response of total ozone content at different latitudes of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres caused by solar activity during 1958-2006 (results of regression analysis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivolutsky, Alexei A.; Nazarova, Margarita; Knyazeva, Galina

    Solar activity influences on atmospheric photochemical system via its changebale electromag-netic flux with eleven-year period and also by energetic particles during solar proton event (SPE). Energetic particles penetrate mostly into polar regions and induce additional produc-tion of NOx and HOx chemical compounds, which can destroy ozone in photochemical catalytic cycles. Solar irradiance variations cause in-phase variability of ozone in accordance with photo-chemical theory. However, real ozone response caused by these two factors, which has different physical nature, is not so clear on long-term time scale. In order to understand the situation multiply linear regression statistical method was used. Three data series, which covered the period 1958-2006, have been used to realize such analysis: yearly averaged total ozone at dif-ferent latitudes (World Ozone Data Centre, Canada, WMO); yearly averaged proton fluxes with E¿ 10 MeV ( IMP, GOES, METEOR satellites); yearly averaged numbers of solar spots (Solar Data). Then, before the analysis, the data sets of ozone deviations from the mean values for whole period (1958-2006) at each latitudinal belt were prepared. The results of multiply regression analysis (two factors) revealed rather complicated time-dependent behavior of ozone response with clear negative peaks for the years of strong SPEs. The magnitudes of such peaks on annual mean basis are not greater than 10 DU. The unusual effect -positive response of ozone to solar proton activity near both poles-was discovered by statistical analysis. The pos-sible photochemical nature of found effect is discussed. This work was supported by Russian Science Foundation for Basic Research (grant 09-05-009949) and by the contract 1-6-08 under Russian Sub-Program "Research and Investigation of Antarctica".

  3. Budget Options

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    This volume-part of the Congressional Budget Office's (CBO's) annual report to the House and Senate Committees on the Budget-is intended to help inform policymakers about options for the federal budget...

  4. Tropospheric and total ozone columns over Paris (France measured using medium-resolution ground-based solar-absorption Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Viatte

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Ground-based Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR solar absorption spectroscopy is a powerful remote sensing technique providing information on the vertical distribution of various atmospheric constituents. This work presents the first evaluation of a mid-resolution ground-based FTIR to measure tropospheric ozone, independently of stratospheric ozone. This is demonstrated using a new atmospheric observatory (named OASIS for "Observations of the Atmosphere by Solar absorption Infrared Spectroscopy", installed in Créteil (France. The capacity of the technique to separate stratospheric and tropospheric ozone is demonstrated. Daily mean tropospheric ozone columns derived from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI and from OASIS measurements are compared for summer 2009 and a good agreement of −5.6 (±16.1 % is observed. Also, a qualitative comparison between in-situ surface ozone measurements and OASIS data reveals OASIS's capacity to monitor seasonal tropospheric ozone variations, as well as ozone pollution episodes in summer 2009 around Paris. Two extreme pollution events are identified (on the 1 July and 6 August 2009 for which ozone partial columns from OASIS and predictions from a regional air-quality model (CHIMERE are compared following strict criteria of temporal and spatial coincidence. An average bias of 0.2%, a mean square error deviation of 7.6%, and a correlation coefficient of 0.91 is found between CHIMERE and OASIS, demonstrating the potential of a mid-resolution FTIR instrument in ground-based solar absorption geometry for tropospheric ozone monitoring.

  5. Venous thrombo-embolism (VTE prevention of patients undergoing total hip and knee replacement: budget impact analysis of apixaban in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Giovanni Mantovani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism (VTE is a common and burdensome cardiovascular condition, frequently leading to severe complications and requiring high-cost healthcare interventions. New oral anticoagulants (nOACs have demonstrated to be efficacious and safe in VTE prevention of patients undergoing total hip replacement (THR and total knee replacement (TKR, a condition that is typically associated to cardiovascular disease. The Italian Healthcare Service (SSN has recently approved the latest nOAC, apixaban. The present article aims to evaluate its economic impact in the perspective of the Italian SSN.METHODS: We conducted a budget impact analysis to estimate clinical outcomes and economic consequences associated to the reimbursement of apixaban, in the prevention of VTE as a consequence of major orthopedic surgery, over a three-year time horizon. In our analysis we compared two alternative scenarios, with apixaban either reimbursed (Scenario B or not reimbursed (Scenario A by the Italian SSN, and estimated the difference of healthcare costs between the two scenarios. Only direct healthcare costs have been considered.RESULTS: According to market assumptions, it is estimated that 1.2%, 3.7%, and 6.5% of THR patients, and 1.2%, 3.8% and 6.7% of TKR patients, would be treated with apixaban over the first three years since launch. At the estimated daily cost of apixaban (€2.48/die, this would translate into a budget impact of €14.3 mln, €45.5 mln, and €81.4 mln at years 1, 2 and 3 since launch, respectively. This expenditure would be more than offset by savings, due to: i reduction of prescriptions of alternative treatment options (other nOACs, low-molecular weight heparins, fondaparinux; ii reduction of the economic burden attributable of CV complications of VTE. Finally, Scenario B resulted slightly favourable compared to Scenario A, leading to economic savings for about €50 thousands over three years. Sensitivity analyses confirmed

  6. Extreme events in total ozone over Arosa: Application of extreme value theory and fingerprints of atmospheric dynamics and chemistry and their effects on mean values and long-term changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, Harald E.; Staehelin, Johannes; Maeder, Jörg A.; Peter, Thomas; Ribatet, Mathieu; Davison, Anthony C.; Stübi, Rene; Weihs, Philipp; Holawe, Franz

    2010-05-01

    In this study tools from extreme value theory (e.g. Coles, 2001; Ribatet, 2007) are applied for the first time in the field of stratospheric ozone research, as statistical analysis showed that previously used concepts assuming a Gaussian distribution (e.g. fixed deviations from mean values) of total ozone data do not address the internal data structure concerning extremes adequately. The study illustrates that tools based on extreme value theory are appropriate to identify ozone extremes and to describe the tails of the world's longest total ozone record (Arosa, Switzerland - for details see Staehelin et al., 1998a,b) (Rieder et al., 2010a). A daily moving threshold was implemented for consideration of the seasonal cycle in total ozone. The frequency of days with extreme low (termed ELOs) and extreme high (termed EHOs) total ozone and the influence of those on mean values and trends is analyzed for Arosa total ozone time series. The results show (a) an increase in ELOs and (b) a decrease in EHOs during the last decades and (c) that the overall trend during the 1970s and 1980s in total ozone is strongly dominated by changes in these extreme events. After removing the extremes, the time series shows a strongly reduced trend (reduction by a factor of 2.5 for trend in annual mean). Furthermore, it is shown that the fitted model represents the tails of the total ozone data set with very high accuracy over the entire range (including absolute monthly minima and maxima). Also the frequency distribution of ozone mini-holes (using constant thresholds) can be calculated with high accuracy. Analyzing the tails instead of a small fraction of days below constant thresholds provides deeper insight in time series properties. Excursions in the frequency of extreme events reveal "fingerprints" of dynamical factors such as ENSO or NAO, and chemical factors, such as cold Arctic vortex ozone losses, as well as major volcanic eruptions of the 20th century (e.g. Gunung Agung, El Chich

  7. Observation of enhanced ozone in an electrically active storm over Socorro, NM: Implications for ozone production from corona discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minschwaner, K.; Kalnajs, L. E.; Dubey, M. K.; Avallone, L. M.; Sawaengphokai, P. C.; Edens, H. E.; Winn, W. P.

    2008-09-01

    Enhancements in ozone were observed between about 3 and 10 km altitude within an electrically active storm in central New Mexico. Measurements from satellite sensors and ground-based radar show cloud top pressures between 300 and 150 mb in the vicinity of an ozonesonde launched from Socorro, NM, and heavy precipitation with radar reflectivities exceeding 50 dBZ. Data from a lightning mapping array and a surface electric field mill show a large amount of electrical activity within this thunderstorm. The observed ozone enhancements are large (50% above the mean) and could have resulted from a number of possible processes, including the advection of polluted air from the urban environments of El Paso and Juarez, photochemical production by lightning-generated NOx from aged thunderstorm outflow, downward mixing of stratospheric air, or local production from within the thunderstorm. We find that a large fraction of the ozone enhancement is consistent with local production from corona discharges, either from cloud particles or by corona associated with lightning. The implied global source of ozone from thunderstorm corona discharge is estimated to be 110 Tg O3 a-1 with a range between 40 and 180 Tg O3 a-1. This value is about 21% as large as the estimated ozone production rate from lightning NOx, and about 3% as large as the total chemical production rate of tropospheric ozone. Thus while the estimated corona-induced production of ozone may be significant on local scales, it is unlikely to be as important to the global ozone budget as other sources.

  8. Unequivocal detection of ozone recovery in the Antarctic Ozone Hole through significant increases in atmospheric layers with minimum ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Laat, Jos; van Weele, Michiel; van der A, Ronald

    2015-04-01

    An important new landmark in present day ozone research is presented through MLS satellite observations of significant ozone increases during the ozone hole season that are attributed unequivocally to declining ozone depleting substances. For many decades the Antarctic ozone hole has been the prime example of both the detrimental effects of human activities on our environment as well as how to construct effective and successful environmental policies. Nowadays atmospheric concentrations of ozone depleting substances are on the decline and first signs of recovery of stratospheric ozone and ozone in the Antarctic ozone hole have been observed. The claimed detection of significant recovery, however, is still subject of debate. In this talk we will discuss first current uncertainties in the assessment of ozone recovery in the Antarctic ozone hole by using multi-variate regression methods, and, secondly present an alternative approach to identify ozone hole recovery unequivocally. Even though multi-variate regression methods help to reduce uncertainties in estimates of ozone recovery, great care has to be taken in their application due to the existence of uncertainties and degrees of freedom in the choice of independent variables. We show that taking all uncertainties into account in the regressions the formal recovery of ozone in the Antarctic ozone hole cannot be established yet, though is likely before the end of the decade (before 2020). Rather than focusing on time and area averages of total ozone columns or ozone profiles, we argue that the time evolution of the probability distribution of vertically resolved ozone in the Antarctic ozone hole contains a better fingerprint for the detection of ozone recovery in the Antarctic ozone hole. The advantages of this method over more tradition methods of trend analyses based on spatio-temporal average ozone are discussed. The 10-year record of MLS satellite measurements of ozone in the Antarctic ozone hole shows a

  9. 40 CFR 96.340 - State trading budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State trading budgets. 96.340 Section...) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 96.340 State trading budgets. (a) Except as provided in...

  10. 40 CFR 97.340 - State trading budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State trading budgets. 97.340 Section...) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 97.340 State trading budgets. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the State...

  11. 40 CFR 52.244 - Motor vehicle emissions budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle emissions budgets. 52.244... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.244 Motor vehicle emissions budgets. (a) Approval of the motor vehicle emissions budgets for the following ozone rate-of-progress and...

  12. New dynamic NNORSY ozone profile climatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaifel, A. K.; Felder, M.; Declercq, C.; Lambert, J.-C.

    2012-01-01

    Climatological ozone profile data are widely used as a-priori information for total ozone using DOAS type retrievals as well as for ozone profile retrieval using optimal estimation, for data assimilation or evaluation of 3-D chemistry-transport models and a lot of other applications in atmospheric sciences and remote sensing. For most applications it is important that the climatology represents not only long term mean values but also the links between ozone and dynamic input parameters. These dynamic input parameters should be easily accessible from auxiliary datasets or easily measureable, and obviously should have a high correlation with ozone. For ozone profile these parameters are mainly total ozone column and temperature profile data. This was the outcome of a user consultation carried out in the framework of developing a new, dynamic ozone profile climatology. The new ozone profile climatology is based on the Neural Network Ozone Retrieval System (NNORSY) widely used for ozone profile retrieval from UV and IR satellite sounder data. NNORSY allows implicit modelling of any non-linear correspondence between input parameters (predictors) and ozone profile target vector. This paper presents the approach, setup and validation of a new family of ozone profile climatologies with static as well as dynamic input parameters (total ozone and temperature profile). The neural network training relies on ozone profile measurement data of well known quality provided by ground based (ozonesondes) and satellite based (SAGE II, HALOE, and POAM-III) measurements over the years 1995-2007. In total, four different combinations (modes) for input parameters (date, geolocation, total ozone column and temperature profile) are available. The geophysical validation spans from pole to pole using independent ozonesonde, lidar and satellite data (ACE-FTS, AURA-MLS) for individual and time series comparisons as well as for analysing the vertical and meridian structure of different modes of

  13. Tropospheric Ozone from the TOMS TDOT (TOMS-Direct-Ozone-in-Troposphere) Technique During SAFARI-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, J. B.; Thompson, A. M.; Frolov, A. D.; Hudson, R. D.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    There are a number of published residual-type methods for deriving tropospheric ozone from TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer). The basic concept of these methods is that within a zone of constant stratospheric ozone, the tropospheric ozone column can be computed by subtracting stratospheric ozone from the TOMS Level 2 total ozone column, We used the modified-residual method for retrieving tropospheric ozone during SAFARI-2000 and found disagreements with in-situ ozone data over Africa in September 2000. Using the newly developed TDOT (TOMS-Direct-Ozone-in-Troposphere) method that uses TOMS radiances and a modified lookup table based on actual profiles during high ozone pollution periods, new maps were prepared and found to compare better to soundings over Lusaka, Zambia (15.5 S, 28 E), Nairobi and several African cities where MOZAIC aircraft operated in September 2000. The TDOT technique and comparisons are described in detail.

  14. Late Budgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Asger Lau; Lassen, David Dreyer; Nielsen, Lasse Holbøll Westh

    are negative rather than positive; and when there is divided government. We test the hypotheses of the model using a unique data set of late budgets for US state governments, based on dates of budget approval collected from news reports and a survey of state budget o¢ cers for the period 1988...

  15. Short- and long-term variability of spectral solar UV irradiance at Thessaloniki, Greece: effects of changes in aerosols, total ozone and clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Fountoulakis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we discuss the short- and the long-term variability of spectral UV irradiance at Thessaloniki, Greece, using a long, quality-controlled data set from two Brewer spectrophotometers. Long-term changes in spectral UV irradiance at 307.5, 324 and 350 nm for the period 1994–2014 are presented for different solar zenith angles and discussed in association with changes in total ozone column (TOC, aerosol optical depth (AOD and cloudiness observed in the same period. Positive changes in annual mean anomalies of UV irradiance, ranging from 2 to 6 % per decade, have been detected both for clear- and all-sky conditions. The changes are generally greater for larger solar zenith angles and for shorter wavelengths. For clear-skies, these changes are, in most cases, statistically significant at the 95 % confidence limit. Decreases in the aerosol load and weakening of the attenuation by clouds lead to increases in UV irradiance in the summer, of 7–9 % per decade for 64° solar zenith angle. The increasing TOC in winter counteracts the effect of decreasing AOD for this particular season, leading to small, statistically insignificant, negative long-term changes in irradiance at 307.5 nm. Annual mean UV irradiance levels are increasing from 1994 to 2006 and remain relatively stable thereafter, possibly due to the combined changes in the amount and optical properties of aerosols. However, no statistically significant corresponding turning point has been detected in the long-term changes of AOD. The absence of signatures of changes in AOD in the short-term variability of irradiance in the UV-A may have been caused by changes in the single scattering albedo of aerosols, which may counteract the effects of changes in AOD on irradiance. The anti-correlation between the year-to-year variability of the irradiance at 307.5 nm and TOC is clear and becomes clearer as the AOD decreases.

  16. Long term variability of total ozone yearly minima and maxima in the latitudinal belt from 20° N to 60° N derived from the merged satellite data in the period 1979-2008

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Križan, Peter; Mikšovský, J.; Kozubek, Michal; Wang, G. C.; Bai, J. H.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 48, - (2011), s. 2016-2022 ISSN 0273-1177 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ME10077; GA ČR GAP209/10/1792 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : annual cycle * total ozone * trends in annual cycle * long–term trends Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.178, year: 2011 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0273117711005436

  17. The Agency's budget

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1964-01-01

    A total Agency Budget of $10 406 000 for 1965 was approved by the General Conference at its session of September 1964; the Budget for the year 1964 amounted to $9 812 000. The consolidated Budget figures are shown in the table at the end of this article. The Budget falls into two parts - the Regular Budget and the Operational Budget. The Regular Budget provides for the ordinary administrative expenses of the Agency, and for expert panels, special missions, symposia and conferences, distribution of information, and scientific and technical services. In conformity with the Agency's Statute, these expenses are met by contributions made according to Voluntary contributions are paid initially into a General Fund established for this purpose, and money for operations is transferred to the respective Operating Funds as appropriate, and as approved by the Board of Governors. The scale of assessments for 1965 is based on the United Nations scale for 1964. The assessments are estimated to yield $7 713 000 - an increase of 6.8 per cent; however, more than three quarters of this increase will be offset by credits which Member States will receive as a result of a cash surplus brought forward. The Operational Budget is financed by voluntary contributions and is divided into two parts - Operating Fund I, devoted to certain laboratory and research projects, and Operating Fund II, for technical assistance, training and research contracts.

  18. System Budgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Palle

    1996-01-01

    The lecture note is aimed at introducing system budgets for optical communication systems. It treats optical fiber communication systems (six generations), system design, bandwidth effects, other system impairments and optical amplifiers.......The lecture note is aimed at introducing system budgets for optical communication systems. It treats optical fiber communication systems (six generations), system design, bandwidth effects, other system impairments and optical amplifiers....

  19. 24 CFR 968.225 - Budget revisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Budget revisions. 968.225 Section... Fewer Than 250 Units) § 968.225 Budget revisions. (a) A PHA shall not incur any modernization cost in excess of the total HUD-approved CIAP budget. A PHA shall submit a budget revision, in a form prescribed...

  20. DCS Budget Tracking System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — DCS Budget Tracking System database contains budget information for the Information Technology budget and the 'Other Objects' budget. This data allows for monitoring...

  1. A long term study of the relations between erythemal UV-B irradiance, total ozone column, and aerosol optical depth at central Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palancar, Gustavo G.; Olcese, Luis E.; Achad, Mariana; López, María Laura; Toselli, Beatriz M.

    2017-09-01

    Global ultraviolet-B irradiance (UV-B, 280-315 nm) measurements made at the campus of the University of Córdoba, Argentina were analyzed to quantify the effects of ozone and aerosols on surface UV-B erythemal irradiance (UVER). The measurements have been carried out with a YES Pyranometer during the period 2000-2013. The effect of ozone and aerosols has been quantified by means of the Radiation Amplification Factor (RAF) and by an aerosol factor (AF, analogous to RAF), respectively. The overall mean RAF under cloudless conditions was (1.2 ± 0.3) %, ranging from 0.67 to 2.10% depending on solar zenith angle (SZA) and on Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD). The RAF increased with the SZA with a clear trend. Similarly, the aerosol effect under almost-constant ozone and SZA showed that, on average, a 1% increase in AOD forced a decrease of (0.15 ± 0.04) % in the UVER, with a range of 0.06 to 0.27 and no defined trend as a function of the SZA. To analyze the effect of absorbing aerosols, an effective single scattering albedo (SSA) was determined by comparing the experimental UVER with calculations carried out with the TUV radiative transfer model.

  2. Use of an improved radiation amplification factor to estimate the effect of total ozone changes on action spectrum weighted irradiances and an instrument response function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Jay R.

    2010-12-01

    Multiple scattering radiative transfer results are used to calculate action spectrum weighted irradiances and fractional irradiance changes in terms of a power law in ozone Ω, U(Ω/200)-RAF, where the new radiation amplification factor (RAF) is just a function of solar zenith angle. Including Rayleigh scattering caused small differences in the estimated 30 year changes in action spectrum-weighted irradiances compared to estimates that neglect multiple scattering. The radiative transfer results are applied to several action spectra and to an instrument response function corresponding to the Solar Light 501 meter. The effect of changing ozone on two plant damage action spectra are shown for plants with high sensitivity to UVB (280-315 nm) and those with lower sensitivity, showing that the probability for plant damage for the latter has increased since 1979, especially at middle to high latitudes in the Southern Hemisphere. Similarly, there has been an increase in rates of erythemal skin damage and pre-vitamin D3 production corresponding to measured ozone decreases. An example conversion function is derived to obtain erythemal irradiances and the UV index from measurements with the Solar Light 501 instrument response function. An analytic expressions is given to convert changes in erythemal irradiances to changes in CIE vitamin-D action spectrum weighted irradiances.

  3. Ozone decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batakliev Todor

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic ozone decomposition is of great significance because ozone is a toxic substance commonly found or generated in human environments (aircraft cabins, offices with photocopiers, laser printers, sterilizers. Considerable work has been done on ozone decomposition reported in the literature. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the literature, concentrating on analysis of the physico-chemical properties, synthesis and catalytic decomposition of ozone. This is supplemented by a review on kinetics and catalyst characterization which ties together the previously reported results. Noble metals and oxides of transition metals have been found to be the most active substances for ozone decomposition. The high price of precious metals stimulated the use of metal oxide catalysts and particularly the catalysts based on manganese oxide. It has been determined that the kinetics of ozone decomposition is of first order importance. A mechanism of the reaction of catalytic ozone decomposition is discussed, based on detailed spectroscopic investigations of the catalytic surface, showing the existence of peroxide and superoxide surface intermediates

  4. Ozone modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIllvaine, C M

    1994-07-01

    Exhaust gases from power plants that burn fossil fuels contain concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitric oxide (NO), particulate matter, hydrocarbon compounds and trace metals. Estimated emissions from the operation of a hypothetical 500 MW coal-fired power plant are given. Ozone is considered a secondary pollutant, since it is not emitted directly into the atmosphere but is formed from other air pollutants, specifically, nitrogen oxides (NO), and non-methane organic compounds (NMOQ) in the presence of sunlight. (NMOC are sometimes referred to as hydrocarbons, HC, or volatile organic compounds, VOC, and they may or may not include methane). Additionally, ozone formation Alternative is a function of the ratio of NMOC concentrations to NO{sub x} concentrations. A typical ozone isopleth is shown, generated with the Empirical Kinetic Modeling Approach (EKMA) option of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Ozone Isopleth Plotting Mechanism (OZIPM-4) model. Ozone isopleth diagrams, originally generated with smog chamber data, are more commonly generated with photochemical reaction mechanisms and tested against smog chamber data. The shape of the isopleth curves is a function of the region (i.e. background conditions) where ozone concentrations are simulated. The location of an ozone concentration on the isopleth diagram is defined by the ratio of NMOC and NO{sub x} coordinates of the point, known as the NMOC/NO{sub x} ratio. Results obtained by the described model are presented.

  5. Ozone modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIllvaine, C.M.

    1994-01-01

    Exhaust gases from power plants that burn fossil fuels contain concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitric oxide (NO), particulate matter, hydrocarbon compounds and trace metals. Estimated emissions from the operation of a hypothetical 500 MW coal-fired power plant are given. Ozone is considered a secondary pollutant, since it is not emitted directly into the atmosphere but is formed from other air pollutants, specifically, nitrogen oxides (NO), and non-methane organic compounds (NMOQ) in the presence of sunlight. (NMOC are sometimes referred to as hydrocarbons, HC, or volatile organic compounds, VOC, and they may or may not include methane). Additionally, ozone formation Alternative is a function of the ratio of NMOC concentrations to NO x concentrations. A typical ozone isopleth is shown, generated with the Empirical Kinetic Modeling Approach (EKMA) option of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Ozone Isopleth Plotting Mechanism (OZIPM-4) model. Ozone isopleth diagrams, originally generated with smog chamber data, are more commonly generated with photochemical reaction mechanisms and tested against smog chamber data. The shape of the isopleth curves is a function of the region (i.e. background conditions) where ozone concentrations are simulated. The location of an ozone concentration on the isopleth diagram is defined by the ratio of NMOC and NO x coordinates of the point, known as the NMOC/NO x ratio. Results obtained by the described model are presented

  6. Ozone Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Known as tropospheric or ground-level ozone, this gas is harmful to human heath and the environment. Since it forms from emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx), these pollutants are regulated under air quality standards.

  7. Budget Options

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    ... (including the off-budget Social Security trust funds) to $281 billion. That surplus would be the largest in history in nominal dollars and the largest since 1948 as a percentage of gross domestic product (GDP...

  8. NCTN Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the budget for the National Clinical Trials Network (NCTN), a National Cancer Institute program that gives funds and other support to cancer research organizations to conduct cancer clinical trials.

  9. Disappearing threat to ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gribbin, J

    1979-02-15

    Concern that human activities might disturb the dynamic natural equilibrium of the ozone layer has stemmed from the fact that this layer plays a key part in the ecology of the earth by absorbing harmful ultraviolet radiation which would otherwise penetrate to the ground. Apparently, however, a decline of as much at 15% in total global ozone would have very little effect on climate. A 50% reduction would produce a marked cooling of the stratosphere at 40 km altitude over the tropics, but barely detectable changes in temperature and rainfall in the lower atmosphere. Therefore, biological effects of more uv light at ground level is the only hazard associated with ozone depletion on the scale which might take place.

  10. Dobson spectrophotometer ozone measurements during international ozone rocketsonde intercomparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, C. L.

    1980-01-01

    Measurements of the total ozone content of the atmosphere, made with seven ground based instruments at a site near Wallops Island, Virginia, are discussed in terms for serving as control values with which the rocketborne sensor data products can be compared. These products are profiles of O3 concentration with altitude. By integrating over the range of altitudes from the surface to the rocket apogee and by appropriately estimating the residual ozone amount from apogee to the top of the atmosphere, a total ozone amount can be computed from the profiles that can be directly compared with the ground based instrumentation results. Dobson spectrophotometers were used for two of the ground-based instruments. Preliminary data collected during the IORI from Dobson spectrophotometers 72 and 38 are presented. The agreement between the two and the variability of total ozone overburden through the experiment period are discussed.

  11. BEYOND BUDGETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edo Cvrkalj

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional budgeting principles, with strictly defined business goals, have been, since 1998, slowly growing into more sophisticated and organization-adjusted alternative budgeting concepts. One of those alternative concepts is the “Beyond budgeting” model with an implemented performance effects measuring process. In order for the model to be practicable, budget planning and control has to be reoriented to the “bottom up” planning and control approach. In today’s modern business surroundings one has to take both present and future opportunities and threats into consideration, by valorizing them in a budget which would allow a company to realize a whole pallet of advantages over the traditional budgeting principles which are presented later in the article. It is essential to emphasize the importance of successfully implementing the new budgeting principles within an organization. If the implementation has been lacking and done without a higher goal in mind, it is easily possible that the process has been implemented without coordination, planning and control framework within the organization itself. Further in the article we present an overview of managerial techniques and instruments within the “Beyond budgeting” model such as balanced scorecard, rolling forecast, dashboard, KPI and other supporting instruments. Lastly we define seven steps for implementing the “Beyond budgeting” model and offer a comparison of “Beyond budgeting” model against traditional budgeting principles which lists twelve reasons why “Beyond budgeting” is better suited to modern and market-oriented organizations. Each company faces those challenges in their own characteristic way but implementing new dynamic planning models will soon become essential for surviving in the market.

  12. Observing Tropospheric Ozone From Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Jack

    2000-01-01

    The importance of tropospheric ozone embraces a spectrum of relevant scientific issues ranging from local environmental concerns, such as damage to the biosphere and human health, to those that impact global change questions, Such is climate warming. From an observational perspective, the challenge is to determine the tropospheric ozone global distribution. Because its lifetime is short compared with other important greenhouse gases that have been monitored over the past several decades, the distribution of tropospheric ozone cannot be inferred from a relatively small set of monitoring stations. Therefore, the best way to obtain a true global picture is from the use of space-based instrumentation where important spatial gradients over vast ocean expanses and other uninhabited areas can be properly characterized. In this paper, the development of the capability to measure tropospheric ozone from space over the past 15 years is summarized. Research in the late 1980s successfully led to the determination of the climatology of tropospheric ozone as a function of season; more recently, the methodology has improved to the extent where regional air pollution episodes can be characterized. The most recent modifications now provide quasi-global (50 N) to 50 S) maps on a daily basis. Such a data set would allow for the study of long-range (intercontinental) transport of air pollution and the quantification of how regional emissions feed into the global tropospheric ozone budget. Future measurement capabilities within this decade promise to offer the ability to provide Concurrent maps of the precursors to the in situ formation of tropospheric ozone from which the scientific community will gain unprecedented insight into the processes that control global tropospheric chemistry

  13. Ozone depletion following future volcanic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric Klobas, J.; Wilmouth, David M.; Weisenstein, Debra K.; Anderson, James G.; Salawitch, Ross J.

    2017-07-01

    While explosive volcanic eruptions cause ozone loss in the current atmosphere due to an enhancement in the availability of reactive chlorine following the stratospheric injection of sulfur, future eruptions are expected to increase total column ozone as halogen loading approaches preindustrial levels. The timing of this shift in the impact of major volcanic eruptions on the thickness of the ozone layer is poorly known. Modeling four possible climate futures, we show that scenarios with the smallest increase in greenhouse gas concentrations lead to the greatest risk to ozone from heterogeneous chemical processing following future eruptions. We also show that the presence in the stratosphere of bromine from natural, very short-lived biogenic compounds is critically important for determining whether future eruptions will lead to ozone depletion. If volcanic eruptions inject hydrogen halides into the stratosphere, an effect not considered in current ozone assessments, potentially profound reductions in column ozone would result.

  14. Budget Pressures Churn Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2011-01-01

    When the budget-cutting ended this year in one rural North Texas school district, the people-moving began. Forced to chop its total staff to 55 employees from 64, the Perrin-Whitt Consolidated Independent school system went the route of many districts across the country: It made the majority of its reductions by encouraging early retirements and…

  15. OZONE CONCENTRATION ATTRIBUTABLE PREMATURE DEATH IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Skotak

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Ozone in the lower part of the atmosphere (troposphere, strong photochemical oxidant, is not directly emitted to the atmosphere but formed through a series of complex reactions. Ozone concentrations depends on ozone precursors air contamination (mainly nitrogen dioxide and non-methane volatile organic compounds and meteorological conditions (temperature and solar radiation. The main sectors emitted ozone precursors are road transport, power and heat generation plants, household (heating, industry, and petrol storage and distribution. Ozone and some of its precursors are also transported long distances in the atmosphere and are therefore considered a transboundary problem. As a result, the ozone concentrations are often low in busy urban areas and higher in suburban and rural areas. Nowadays, instead of particulate matter, ozone is one of the most widespread global air pollution problems. In and around urban areas, relatively large gradients of ozone can be observed. Because of its high reactivity in elevated concentrations ozone causes serious health problems and damage to ecosystems, agricultural crops and materials. Main ill-health endpoints as a results of ozone concentrations can be characterised as an effect of pulmonary and cardiovascular system, time morbidity and mortality series, development of atherosclerosis and asthma and finally reduction in life expectancy. The associations with increased daily mortality due to ozone concentrations are confirmed by many researches and epidemiological studies. Estimation of the level selected ill-health endpoints (mortality in total and due to cardiovascular and respiratory causes as a result of the short-term ozone exposure in Poland was the main aim of the project. Final results have been done based on estimation method elaborated by WHO, ozone measurements from National Air Quality Monitoring System and statistical information such as mortality rate and populations. All analysis have been done in

  16. "OZONE SOURCE APPORTIONMENT IN CMAQ' | Science ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozone source attribution has been used to support various policy purposes including interstate transport (Cross State Air Pollution Rule) by U.S. EPA and ozone nonattainment area designations by State agencies. Common scientific applications include tracking intercontinental transport of ozone and ozone precursors and delineating anthropogenic and non-anthropogenic contribution to ozone in North America. As in the public release due in September 2013, CMAQ’s Integrated Source Apportionment Method (ISAM) attributes PM EC/OC, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, ozone and its precursors NOx and VOC, to sectors/regions of users’ interest. Although the peroxide-to-nitric acid productions ratio has been the most common indicator to distinguish NOx-limited ozone production from VOC-limited one, other indicators are implemented in addition to allowing for an ensemble decision based on a total of 9 available indicator ratios. Moreover, an alternative approach of ozone attribution based on the idea of chemical sensitivity in a linearized system that has formed the basis of chemical treatment in forward DDM/backward adjoint tools has been implemented in CMAQ. This method does not require categorization into either ozone regime. In this study, ISAM will simulate the 2010 North America ozone using all of the above gas-phase attribution methods. The results are to be compared with zero-out difference out of those sectors in the host model runs. In addition, ozone contribution wil

  17. Climate Prediction Center (CPC)Stratospheric Monitoring Ozone Blended Analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 3-D global ozone mixing ratio (ppm) and total column ozone (DU) dataset analyzed from daily Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet Instrument(SBUV/2) and TIROS Operational...

  18. Ozone Layer Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Research Centers Contact Us Share Ozone Layer Protection The stratospheric ozone layer is Earth’s “sunscreen” – protecting ... GreenChill Partnership Responsible Appliance Disposal (RAD) Program Ozone Protection vs. Ozone Pollution This website addresses stratospheric ozone ...

  19. A revised global ozone dry deposition estimate based on a new two-layer parameterisation for air-sea exchange and the multi-year MACC composition reanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhar, Ashok K.; Woodhouse, Matthew T.; Galbally, Ian E.

    2018-03-01

    Dry deposition at the Earth's surface is an important sink of atmospheric ozone. Currently, dry deposition of ozone to the ocean surface in atmospheric chemistry models has the largest uncertainty compared to deposition to other surface types, with implications for global tropospheric ozone budget and associated radiative forcing. Most global models assume that the dominant term of surface resistance in the parameterisation of ozone dry deposition velocity at the oceanic surface is constant. There have been recent mechanistic parameterisations for air-sea exchange that account for the simultaneous waterside processes of ozone solubility, molecular diffusion, turbulent transfer, and first-order chemical reaction of ozone with dissolved iodide and other compounds, but there are questions about their performance and consistency. We present a new two-layer parameterisation scheme for the oceanic surface resistance by making the following realistic assumptions: (a) the thickness of the top water layer is of the order of a reaction-diffusion length scale (a few micrometres) within which ozone loss is dominated by chemical reaction and the influence of waterside turbulent transfer is negligible; (b) in the water layer below, both chemical reaction and waterside turbulent transfer act together and are accounted for; and (c) chemical reactivity is present through the depth of the oceanic mixing layer. The new parameterisation has been evaluated against dry deposition velocities from recent open-ocean measurements. It is found that the inclusion of only the aqueous iodide-ozone reaction satisfactorily describes the measurements. In order to better quantify the global dry deposition loss and its interannual variability, modelled 3-hourly ozone deposition velocities are combined with the 3-hourly MACC (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate) reanalysis ozone for the years 2003-2012. The resulting ozone dry deposition is found to be 98.4 ± 30.0 Tg O3 yr-1 for the ocean

  20. Pure Nash Equilibria in Restricted Budget Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drees, Maximilian Werner; Feldotto, Matthias; Riechers, Sören; Skopalik, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    In budget games, players compete over resources with finite budgets. For every resource, a player has a specific demand and as a strategy, he chooses a subset of resources. If the total demand on a resource does not exceed its budget, the utility of each player who chose that resource equals his

  1. Solar dynamics influence on the atmospheric ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gogosheva, T.; Grigorieva, V.; Mendeva, B.; Krastev, D.; Petkov, B.

    2007-01-01

    A response of the atmospheric ozone to the solar dynamics has been studied using the total ozone content data, taken from the satellite experiments GOME on ERS-2 and TOMS-EP together with data obtained from the ground-based spectrophotometer Photon operating in Stara Zagora, Bulgaria during the period 1999-2005. We also use data from surface ozone observations performed in Sofia, Bulgaria. The solar activity was characterized by the sunspot daily numbers W, the solar radio flux at 10.7 cm (F10.7) and the MgII wing-to-core ratio solar index. The impact of the solar activity on the total ozone has been investigated analysing the ozone response to sharp changes of these parameters. Some of the examined cases showed a positive correlation between the ozone and the solar parameters, however, a negative correlation in other cases was found. There were some cases when the sharp increases of the solar activity did not provoke any ozone changes. The solar radiation changes during an eclipse can be considered a particular case of the solar dynamics as this event causes a sharp change of irradiance within a comparatively short time interval. The results of both - the total and surface ozone measurements carried out during the eclipses on 11 August 1999, 31 May 2003 and 29 March 2006 are presented. It was found that the atmospheric ozone behavior shows strong response to the fast solar radiation changes which take place during solar eclipse. (authors)

  2. Home - House Budget Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Initiatives Hearings Full Menu About Toggle Links Members History Staff Rules & Budget Law News Toggle Links Press Releases Budget Digests HBC Publications Op-Eds Speeches & Statements Budgets Toggle Links FY 2018 Budget FY 2017 Budget FY 2017 Reconciliation FY 2016 Budget FY 2016 Reconciliation FY 2015

  3. NOAA JPSS Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) Nadir Profile Science Sensor Data Record (SDR) from IDPS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) onboard the Suomi-NPP satellite monitors ozone from space. OMPS will collect total column and vertical profile ozone data...

  4. A new numerical model of the middle atmosphere. 2: Ozone and related species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Rolando R.; Solomon, Susan

    1994-01-01

    A new two-dimensional model with detailed photochemistry is presented. The model includes descriptions of planetary wave and gravity wave propagation and dissipation to characterize the wave forcing and associated mixing in the stratosphere and mesosphere. Such a representation allows for explicit calculation of the regions of strong mixing in the middle atmosphere required for accurate simulation of trace gas transport. The new model also includes a detailed description of photochemical processes in the stratosphere and mesosphere. The downward transport of H2, H2O, and NO(y) from the mesosphere to the stratosphere is examined, and it is shown that mesospheric processes can influence the distributions of these chemical species in polar regions. For HNO3 we also find that small concentrations of liquid aerosols above 30 km could play a major role in determining the abundance in polar winter at high latitudes. The model is also used to examine the chemical budget of ozone in the midlatitude stratosphere and to set constraints on the effectiveness of bromine relative to chlorine for ozone loss and the role of the HO2 + BrO reaction. Recent laboratory data used in this modeling study suggest that this process greatly enhances the effectiveness of bromine for ozone destruction, making bromine-catalyzed chemistry second only to HO(x)-catalyzed ozone destruction in the contemporary stratosphere at midlatitudes below about 18 km. The calculated vertical distribution of ozone in the lower stratosphere agrees well with observations, as does the total column ozone during most seasons and latitudes, with the important exception of southern hemisphere winter and spring.

  5. Impact of climate variability on tropospheric ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grewe, Volker

    2007-01-01

    A simulation with the climate-chemistry model (CCM) E39/C is presented, which covers both the troposphere and stratosphere dynamics and chemistry during the period 1960 to 1999. Although the CCM, by its nature, is not exactly representing observed day-by-day meteorology, there is an overall model's tendency to correctly reproduce the variability pattern due to an inclusion of realistic external forcings, like observed sea surface temperatures (e.g. El Nino), major volcanic eruption, solar cycle, concentrations of greenhouse gases, and Quasi-Biennial Oscillation. Additionally, climate-chemistry interactions are included, like the impact of ozone, methane, and other species on radiation and dynamics, and the impact of dynamics on emissions (lightning). However, a number of important feedbacks are not yet included (e.g. feedbacks related to biogenic emissions and emissions due to biomass burning). The results show a good representation of the evolution of the stratospheric ozone layer, including the ozone hole, which plays an important role for the simulation of natural variability of tropospheric ozone. Anthropogenic NO x emissions are included with a step-wise linear trend for each sector, but no interannual variability is included. The application of a number of diagnostics (e.g. marked ozone tracers) allows the separation of the impact of various processes/emissions on tropospheric ozone and shows that the simulated Northern Hemisphere tropospheric ozone budget is not only dominated by nitrogen oxide emissions and other ozone pre-cursors, but also by changes of the stratospheric ozone budget and its flux into the troposphere, which tends to reduce the simulated positive trend in tropospheric ozone due to emissions from industry and traffic during the late 80s and early 90s. For tropical regions the variability in ozone is dominated by variability in lightning (related to ENSO) and stratosphere-troposphere exchange (related to Northern Hemisphere Stratospheric

  6. Eight years of stratospheric ozone observations at Marambio, Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damski, J; Taalas, P [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland). Section of Ozone and UV Research

    1996-12-31

    In this work behaviour of the stratospheric ozone using the total ozone and ozone sounding measurements from Marambio (64 deg 14`S, 56 deg 37`W) at Antarctic Peninsula has been studied. The effects of depleted stratospheric ozone to the UV-B-radiation are investigated employing a radiative transfer model, and the Marambio total ozone measurements. The levels of UV-B radiation have been studied from the point of the erythemal UV-B-doses on the horizontal human epidermis. The low values of total ozone at Marambio are also reflected to the received UV-doses which have increased roughly 20-80% (compared to long term average) during austral spring and summer. In respective to the total amount of ozone, the model calculations show that during October the UV-B-doses can be at the same level they should be during normal summer

  7. Eight years of stratospheric ozone observations at Marambio, Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damski, J.; Taalas, P. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland). Section of Ozone and UV Research

    1995-12-31

    In this work behaviour of the stratospheric ozone using the total ozone and ozone sounding measurements from Marambio (64 deg 14`S, 56 deg 37`W) at Antarctic Peninsula has been studied. The effects of depleted stratospheric ozone to the UV-B-radiation are investigated employing a radiative transfer model, and the Marambio total ozone measurements. The levels of UV-B radiation have been studied from the point of the erythemal UV-B-doses on the horizontal human epidermis. The low values of total ozone at Marambio are also reflected to the received UV-doses which have increased roughly 20-80% (compared to long term average) during austral spring and summer. In respective to the total amount of ozone, the model calculations show that during October the UV-B-doses can be at the same level they should be during normal summer

  8. Derivation of Tropospheric Ozone Climatology and Trends from TOMS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newchurch, Michael J.; McPeters, Rich; Logan, Jennifer; Kim, Jae-Hwan

    2002-01-01

    This research addresses the following three objectives: (1) Derive tropospheric ozone columns from the TOMS instruments by computing the difference between total-ozone columns over cloudy areas and over clear areas in the tropics; (2) Compute secular trends in Nimbus-7 derived tropospheric Ozone column amounts and associated potential trends in the decadal-scale tropical cloud climatology; (3) Explain the occurrence of anomalously high ozone retrievals over high ice clouds.

  9. Multi-model assessment of stratospheric ozone return dates and ozone recovery in CCMVal-2 models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Eyring

    2010-10-01

    return of total column ozone to its 1980 level. The latest return of total column ozone is projected to occur over Antarctica (~2045–2060 whereas it is not likely that full ozone recovery is reached by the end of the 21st century in this region. Arctic total column ozone is projected to return to 1980 levels well before polar stratospheric halogen loading does so (~2025–2030 for total column ozone, cf. 2050–2070 for Cly+60×Bry and it is likely that full recovery of total column ozone from the effects of ODSs has occurred by ~2035. In contrast to the Antarctic, by 2100 Arctic total column ozone is projected to be above 1960 levels, but not in the fixed GHG simulation, indicating that climate change plays a significant role.

  10. Evidence for a continuous decline in lower stratospheric ozone offsetting ozone layer recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, William T.; Alsing, Justin; Mortlock, Daniel J.; Staehelin, Johannes; Haigh, Joanna D.; Peter, Thomas; Tummon, Fiona; Stübi, Rene; Stenke, Andrea; Anderson, John; Bourassa, Adam; Davis, Sean M.; Degenstein, Doug; Frith, Stacey; Froidevaux, Lucien; Roth, Chris; Sofieva, Viktoria; Wang, Ray; Wild, Jeannette; Yu, Pengfei; Ziemke, Jerald R.; Rozanov, Eugene V.

    2018-02-01

    Ozone forms in the Earth's atmosphere from the photodissociation of molecular oxygen, primarily in the tropical stratosphere. It is then transported to the extratropics by the Brewer-Dobson circulation (BDC), forming a protective ozone layer around the globe. Human emissions of halogen-containing ozone-depleting substances (hODSs) led to a decline in stratospheric ozone until they were banned by the Montreal Protocol, and since 1998 ozone in the upper stratosphere is rising again, likely the recovery from halogen-induced losses. Total column measurements of ozone between the Earth's surface and the top of the atmosphere indicate that the ozone layer has stopped declining across the globe, but no clear increase has been observed at latitudes between 60° S and 60° N outside the polar regions (60-90°). Here we report evidence from multiple satellite measurements that ozone in the lower stratosphere between 60° S and 60° N has indeed continued to decline since 1998. We find that, even though upper stratospheric ozone is recovering, the continuing downward trend in the lower stratosphere prevails, resulting in a downward trend in stratospheric column ozone between 60° S and 60° N. We find that total column ozone between 60° S and 60° N appears not to have decreased only because of increases in tropospheric column ozone that compensate for the stratospheric decreases. The reasons for the continued reduction of lower stratospheric ozone are not clear; models do not reproduce these trends, and thus the causes now urgently need to be established.

  11. Evidence for a Continuous Decline in Lower Stratospheric Ozone Offsetting Ozone Layer Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, William T.; Alsing, Justin; Mortlock, Daniel J.; Staehelin, Johannes; Haigh, Joanna D.; Peter, Thomas; Tummon, Fiona; Stuebi, Rene; Stenke, Andrea; Anderson, John; hide

    2018-01-01

    Ozone forms in the Earth's atmosphere from the photodissociation of molecular oxygen, primarily in the tropical stratosphere. It is then transported to the extratropics by the Brewer-Dobson circulation (BDC), forming a protective "ozone layer" around the globe. Human emissions of halogen-containing ozone-depleting substances (hODSs) led to a decline in stratospheric ozone until they were banned by the Montreal Protocol, and since 1998 ozone in the upper stratosphere is rising again, likely the recovery from halogen-induced losses. Total column measurements of ozone between the Earth's surface and the top of the atmosphere indicate that the ozone layer has stopped declining across the globe, but no clear increase has been observed at latitudes between 60degS and 60degN outside the polar regions (60-90deg). Here we report evidence from multiple satellite measurements that ozone in the lower stratosphere between 60degS and 60degN has indeed continued to decline since 1998. We find that, even though upper stratospheric ozone is recovering, the continuing downward trend in the lower stratosphere prevails, resulting in a downward trend in stratospheric column ozone between 60degS and 60degN. We find that total column ozone between 60degS and 60degN appears not to have decreased only because of increases in tropospheric column ozone that compensate for the stratospheric decreases. The reasons for the continued reduction of lower stratospheric ozone are not clear; models do not reproduce these trends, and thus the causes now urgently need to be established.

  12. Importance of energetic solar protons in ozone depletion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephenson, J A.E.; Scourfield, M W.J. [Natal Univ., Durban (South Africa). Space Physics Research Inst.

    1991-07-11

    CHLORINE-catalysed depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer has commanded considerable attention since 1985, when Farman et al. observed a decrease of 50% in the total column ozone over Antarctica in the austral spring. Here we examine the depletion of stratospheric ozone caused by the reaction of ozone with nitric oxide generated by energetic solar protons, associated with solar flares. During large solar flares in March 1989, satellite observations indicated that total column ozone was depleted by {approx} 9% over {approx} 20% of the total area between the South Pole and latitude 70{sup o}S. Chlorine-catalysed ozone depletion takes place over a much larger area, but our results indicate that the influence of solar protons on atmospheric ozone concentrations should not be ignored. (author).

  13. Importance of energetic solar protons in ozone depletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephenson, J.A.E.; Scourfield, M.W.J.

    1991-01-01

    CHLORINE-catalysed depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer has commanded considerable attention since 1985, when Farman et al. observed a decrease of 50% in the total column ozone over Antarctica in the austral spring. Here we examine the depletion of stratospheric ozone caused by the reaction of ozone with nitric oxide generated by energetic solar protons, associated with solar flares. During large solar flares in March 1989, satellite observations indicated that total column ozone was depleted by ∼ 9% over ∼ 20% of the total area between the South Pole and latitude 70 o S. Chlorine-catalysed ozone depletion takes place over a much larger area, but our results indicate that the influence of solar protons on atmospheric ozone concentrations should not be ignored. (author)

  14. Budgeting for School Media Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drott, M. Carl

    1978-01-01

    Describes various forms of budgets and discusses concepts in budgeting useful to supervisors of school media centers: line item budgets, capital budgets, creating budgets, the budget calendar, innovations, PPBS (Planning, Programing, Budgeting System), zero-based budgeting, cost-benefit analysis, benefits, benefit guidelines, and budgeting for the…

  15. Size, Stability and Incremental Budgeting Outcomes in Public Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, Allen G.; Hills, Frederick S.

    1982-01-01

    Examined the influence of relative size in the analysis of total dollar and workforce budgets, and changes in total dollar and workforce budgets when correlational/regression methods are used. Data suggested that size dominates the analysis of total budgets, and is not a factor when discretionary dollar increments are analyzed. (JAC)

  16. Ozone kinetics in low-pressure discharges: vibrationally excited ozone and molecule formation on surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinov, Daniil; Guerra, Vasco; Guaitella, Olivier; Booth, Jean-Paul; Rousseau, Antoine

    2013-10-01

    A combined experimental and modeling investigation of the ozone kinetics in the afterglow of pulsed direct current discharges in oxygen is carried out. The discharge is generated in a cylindrical silica tube of radius 1 cm, with short pulse durations between 0.5 and 2 ms, pressures in the range 1-5 Torr and discharge currents ˜40-120 mA. Time-resolved absolute concentrations of ground-state atoms and ozone molecules were measured simultaneously in situ, by two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence and ultraviolet absorption, respectively. The experiments were complemented by a self-consistent model developed to interpret the results and, in particular, to evaluate the roles of vibrationally excited ozone and of ozone formation on surfaces. It is found that vibrationally excited ozone, O_3^{*} , plays an important role in the ozone kinetics, leading to a decrease in the ozone concentration and an increase in its formation time. In turn, the kinetics of O_3^{*} is strongly coupled with those of atomic oxygen and O2(a 1Δg) metastables. Ozone formation at the wall does not contribute significantly to the total ozone production under the present conditions. Upper limits for the effective heterogeneous recombination probability of O atoms into ozone are established.

  17. Ozone kinetics in low-pressure discharges: vibrationally excited ozone and molecule formation on surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinov, Daniil; Guaitella, Olivier; Booth, Jean-Paul; Rousseau, Antoine; Guerra, Vasco

    2013-01-01

    A combined experimental and modeling investigation of the ozone kinetics in the afterglow of pulsed direct current discharges in oxygen is carried out. The discharge is generated in a cylindrical silica tube of radius 1 cm, with short pulse durations between 0.5 and 2 ms, pressures in the range 1–5 Torr and discharge currents ∼40–120 mA. Time-resolved absolute concentrations of ground-state atoms and ozone molecules were measured simultaneously in situ, by two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence and ultraviolet absorption, respectively. The experiments were complemented by a self-consistent model developed to interpret the results and, in particular, to evaluate the roles of vibrationally excited ozone and of ozone formation on surfaces. It is found that vibrationally excited ozone, O 3 * , plays an important role in the ozone kinetics, leading to a decrease in the ozone concentration and an increase in its formation time. In turn, the kinetics of O 3 * is strongly coupled with those of atomic oxygen and O 2 (a 1 Δ g ) metastables. Ozone formation at the wall does not contribute significantly to the total ozone production under the present conditions. Upper limits for the effective heterogeneous recombination probability of O atoms into ozone are established. (paper)

  18. Automated Budget System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Automated Budget System (ABS) automates management and planning of the Mike Monroney Aeronautical Center (MMAC) budget by providing enhanced capability to plan,...

  19. Variability of the stratospheric ozone in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aristizabal, Gloria Leon

    2002-01-01

    In this study has been examined the causes of ozone variations and the sign that represent in the short-term, seasonal, interannual, decadal and long-term variability. The analysis of NASA satellite data sets, obtained with the total ozone mapping spectrometer toms, for the period 1979-1999, they permit to deduce to the total column ozone that in Colombia, varies among 255 and 267 U.D., and presents synchronous variations with the quasi biennial oscillation (QBO) and in the series not any tendency with the time is recognized

  20. Influence of the ozone profile above Madrid (Spain) on Brewer estimation of ozone air mass factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anton, M. [Univ. de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain). Dept. de Fisica; Evora Univ. (PT). Goephysics Centre of Evora (CGE); Lopez, M.; Banon, M. [Agenica Estatal de Meteorologia (AEMET), Madrid (Spain); Costa, M.J.; Silva, A.M. [Evora Univ. (PT). Goephysics Centre of Evora (CGE); Evora Univ. (Portugal). Dept. of Physics; Serrano, A. [Univ. de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain). Dept. de Fisica; Bortoli, D. [Evora Univ. (PT). Goephysics Centre of Evora (CGE); Vilaplana, J.M. [Instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aeroespacial (INTA), Huelva (Spain). Estacion de Sondeos Atmosferico ' ' El Arenosillo' '

    2009-07-01

    The methodology used by Brewer spectroradiometers to estimate the ozone column is based on differential absorption spectroscopy. This methodology employs the ozone air mass factor (AMF) to derive the total ozone column from the slant path ozone amount. For the calculating the ozone AMF, the Brewer algorithm assumes that the ozone layer is located at a fixed height of 22 km. However, for a real specific site the ozone presents a certain profile, which varies spatially and temporally depending on the latitude, altitude and dynamical conditions of the atmosphere above the site of measurements. In this sense, this work address the reliability of the mentioned assumption and analyses the influence of the ozone profiles measured above Madrid (Spain) in the ozone AMF calculations. The approximated ozone AMF used by the Brewer algorithm is compared with simulations obtained using the libRadtran radiative transfer model code. The results show an excellent agreement between the simulated and the approximated AMF values for solar zenith angle lower than 75 . In addition, the relative differences remain lower than 2% at 85 . These good results are mainly due to the fact that the altitude of the ozone layer assumed constant by the Brewer algorithm for all latitudes notably can be considered representative of the real profile of ozone above Madrid (average value of 21.7{+-}1.8 km). The operational ozone AMF calculations for Brewer instruments are limited, in general, to SZA below 80 . Extending the usable SZA range is especially relevant for Brewer instruments located at high mid-latitudes. (orig.)

  1. Multimodel ensemble simulations of of present-day and near-future tropospheric ozone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevenson, D.S.; Dentener, F.J.; van Noije, T.P.C.; Eskes, H.J.; Krol, M.C.

    2006-01-01

    Global tropospheric ozone distributions, budgets, and radiative forcings from an ensemble of 26 state-of-the-art atmospheric chemistry models have been intercompared and synthesized as part of a wider study into both the air quality and climate roles of ozone. Results from three 2030 emissions

  2. Multimodel ensemble simulations of present-day and near-future tropospheric ozone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevenson, D.S.; Dentener, F.J.; Schultz, M.G.; Ellingsen, K.; Noije, van T.P.C.; Wild, O.; Zeng, G.; Amann, M.; Atherton, C.S.; Bell, N.; Bergmann, D.J.; Bey, I.; Butler, T.; Cofala, J.; Collins, W.J.; Derwent, R.G.; Doherty, R.M.; Drevet, J.; Eskes, H.J.; Fiore, A.M.; Gauss, M.; Hauglustaine, D.A.; Horowitz, L.W.; Isaksen, I.S.A.; Krol, M.C.; Lamarque, J.F.; Lawrence, M.G.; Montanaro, V.; Muller, J.F.; Pitari, G.; Prather, M.J.; Pyle, J.A.; Rast, S.; Rodriguez, J.M.; Sanderson, M.G.; Savage, N.H.; Shindell, D.T.; Strahan, S.E.; Sudo, K.; Szopa, S.

    2006-01-01

    Global tropospheric ozone distributions, budgets, and radiative forcings from an ensemble of 26 state-of-the-art atmospheric chemistry models have been intercompared and synthesized as part of a wider study into both the air quality and climate roles of ozone. Results from three 2030 emissions

  3. 40 CFR 97.386 - Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Trading Program. 97.386 Section 97.386 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Opt-in Units § 97.386 Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program...

  4. Balance of the tropospheric ozone and its relation to stratospheric intrusions indicated by cosmogenic radionuclides. Part 14. Final technical report, 1 November 1977-31 January 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiter, R.; Kanter, H.J.; Jaeger, H.; Munzert, K.

    1985-01-01

    The objective was to clarify the effect of stratospheric intrusions on the tropospheric ozone budget. The correlation between stratospheric-tropospheric exchange and solar events was also investigated. Tropospheric ozone was recorded at three different levels. The radioisotopes 7 Be and radon daughter products 214 Pb and 214 Bi were used as tracers to identify the source of ozone

  5. The Antarctic ozone hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Anna E

    2008-01-01

    Since the mid 1970s, the ozone layer over Antarctica has experienced massive destruction during every spring. In this article, we will consider the atmosphere, and what ozone and the ozone layer actually are. We explore the chemistry responsible for the ozone destruction, and learn about why conditions favour ozone destruction over Antarctica. For the historical perspective, the events leading up to the discovery of the 'hole' are presented, as well as the response from the international community and the measures taken to protect the ozone layer now and into the future

  6. Quantitative analysis of SCIAMACHY carbon monoxide total column measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laat, de A.T.J.; Gloudemans, A.M.S.; Schrijver, H.; Broek, van den M.M.P.; Meirink, J.F.; Aben, I.; Krol, M.C.

    2006-01-01

    Global tropospheric ozone distributions, budgets, and radiative forcings from an ensemble of 26 state-of-the-art atmospheric chemistry models have been intercompared and synthesized as part of a wider study into both the air quality and climate roles of ozone. Results from three 2030 emissions

  7. CDO budgeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesladek, Pavel; Wiswesser, Andreas; Sass, Björn; Mauermann, Sebastian

    2008-04-01

    The Critical dimension off-target (CDO) is a key parameter for mask house customer, affecting directly the performance of the mask. The CDO is the difference between the feature size target and the measured feature size. The change of CD during the process is either compensated within the process or by data correction. These compensation methods are commonly called process bias and data bias, respectively. The difference between data bias and process bias in manufacturing results in systematic CDO error, however, this systematic error does not take into account the instability of the process bias. This instability is a result of minor variations - instabilities of manufacturing processes and changes in materials and/or logistics. Using several masks the CDO of the manufacturing line can be estimated. For systematic investigation of the unit process contribution to CDO and analysis of the factors influencing the CDO contributors, a solid understanding of each unit process and huge number of masks is necessary. Rough identification of contributing processes and splitting of the final CDO variation between processes can be done with approx. 50 masks with identical design, material and process. Such amount of data allows us to identify the main contributors and estimate the effect of them by means of Analysis of variance (ANOVA) combined with multivariate analysis. The analysis does not provide information about the root cause of the variation within the particular unit process, however, it provides a good estimate of the impact of the process on the stability of the manufacturing line. Additionally this analysis can be used to identify possible interaction between processes, which cannot be investigated if only single processes are considered. Goal of this work is to evaluate limits for CDO budgeting models given by the precision and the number of measurements as well as partitioning the variation within the manufacturing process. The CDO variation splits according to

  8. California Budget Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallinson, Daniel J.

    2018-01-01

    The California Budget Challenge produced by Next10 provides a useful and intuitive tool for instructors to introduce students to public budgeting. Students will reason through a series of budgeting decisions using information provided on the fiscal and practical implications of their choices. The Challenge is updated with each budget cycle, so it…

  9. The behaviour of stratospheric and upper tropospheric ozone in high and mid latitudes; the role of ozone as a climate gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyroe, M.; Rummukainen, M.; Kivi, R.; Turunen, T.; Karhu, J. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Sodankylae (Finland); Taalas, P. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    During the past few years, the dual role that ozone plays in climate change has been becoming increasingly obvious. First, continuous thinning of the ozone layer has been evident, even in the high and middle latitudes in the northern hemisphere. Secondly, ozone is also a greenhouse gas, affecting radiative transfer. Increases in tropospheric ozone have a positive forcing, whereas decreases in stratospheric ozone cause a negative forcing. During the last six years, measurements on total ozone and the vertical distribution of ozone have been performed at the Sodankylae Observatory. At Jokioinen Observatory, measurements on total ozone have been performed since 1990 and measurements on the vertical distribution of ozone since 1993. The overall project has focused on extending the national data series on total ozone and the vertical distribution of ozone. At the same time, the study has contributed to the study of interannual variability of the ozone layer. This SILMU project took part in the large-scale research activities, in addition to performing national studies. The results confirm that there has been fast chemical ozone destruction in the high latitudes in the northern hemisphere. This was particularly evident in the last two winters, 1994/95 and 1995/96. The new data also allows better trend analyses to be made on ozone in high and mid latitudes

  10. The behaviour of stratospheric and upper tropospheric ozone in high and mid latitudes; the role of ozone as a climate gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyroe, M; Rummukainen, M; Kivi, R; Turunen, T; Karhu, J [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Sodankylae (Finland); Taalas, P [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    During the past few years, the dual role that ozone plays in climate change has been becoming increasingly obvious. First, continuous thinning of the ozone layer has been evident, even in the high and middle latitudes in the northern hemisphere. Secondly, ozone is also a greenhouse gas, affecting radiative transfer. Increases in tropospheric ozone have a positive forcing, whereas decreases in stratospheric ozone cause a negative forcing. During the last six years, measurements on total ozone and the vertical distribution of ozone have been performed at the Sodankylae Observatory. At Jokioinen Observatory, measurements on total ozone have been performed since 1990 and measurements on the vertical distribution of ozone since 1993. The overall project has focused on extending the national data series on total ozone and the vertical distribution of ozone. At the same time, the study has contributed to the study of interannual variability of the ozone layer. This SILMU project took part in the large-scale research activities, in addition to performing national studies. The results confirm that there has been fast chemical ozone destruction in the high latitudes in the northern hemisphere. This was particularly evident in the last two winters, 1994/95 and 1995/96. The new data also allows better trend analyses to be made on ozone in high and mid latitudes

  11. Antarctic ozone loss in 1989-2010: evidence for ozone recovery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuttippurath, J.; Lefèvre, F.; Pommereau, J.-P.; Roscoe, H. K.; Goutail, F.; Pazmiño, A.; Shanklin, J. D.

    2012-04-01

    We present a detailed estimation of chemical ozone loss in the Antarctic polar vortex from 1989 to 2010. The analyses include ozone loss estimates for 12 Antarctic ground-based (GB) stations. All GB observations show minimum ozone in the late September-early October period. Among the stations, the lowest minimum ozone values are observed at South Pole and the highest at Dumont d'Urville. The ozone loss starts by mid-June at the vortex edge and then progresses towards the vortex core with time. The loss intensifies in August-September, peaks by the end of September-early October, and recovers thereafter. The average ozone loss in the Antarctic is revealed to be about 33-50% in 1989-1992 in agreement with the increase in halogens during this period, and then stayed at around 48% due to saturation of the loss. The ozone loss in the warmer winters (e.g. 2002, and 2004) is lower (37-46%) and in the colder winters (e.g. 2003, and 2006) is higher (52-55%). Because of small inter-annual variability, the correlation between ozone loss and the volume of polar stratospheric clouds yields ~0.51. The GB ozone and ozone loss values are in good agreement with those found from the space-based observations of the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer/Ozone Monitoring Instrument (TOMS/OMI), the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME), the Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY), and the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), where the differences are within ±5% and are mostly within the error bars of the measurements. The piece-wise linear trends computed from the September-November vortex average GB and TOMS/OMI ozone show about -4 to -5.6 DU (Dobson Unit) yr-1 in 1989-1996 and about +1 DU yr-1 in 1997-2010. The trend during the former period is significant at 95% confidence intervals, but the trend in 1997-2010 is significant only at 85% confidence intervals. Our analyses suggest a period of about 9-10 yr to get the first detectable ozone

  12. Effect of increased carbon dioxide concentrations on stratospheric ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boughner, R.E.

    1978-01-01

    During the past several years, much attention has been focused on the destruction of ozone by anthropogenic pollutants such as the nitrogen oxides and chlorofluoromethane. Little or no attention has been given to the influence on ozone of an increased carbon dioxide concentration for which a measurable growth has been observed. Increased carbon dioxide can directly affect ozone by perturbing atmospheric temperatures, which will alter ozone production, whose rate displays a fairly strong temperature dependence. This paper presents one-dimensional model results for the steady state ozone behavior when the CO 2 concentration is twice its ambient level which account for coupling between chemistry and temperature. When the CO 2 level doubled, the total ozone burden increased in relation to the ambient burden by 1.2--2.5%, depending on the vertical diffusion coefficient used. Above 30 km. In this region the relation variations were insensitive to the choice of diffusion coefficient. Below 30 km, ozone concentrations were smaller than the unperturbed values and were sensitive to the vertical diffusion profile in this region (10--30 km). Ozone decreases in the lower stratosphere because of a reduction in ozone-producing solar radiation, which results in smaller downward ozone fluxes from the region at 25--30 km relative to the flux values for the ambient atmosphere. These offsetting changes occurring in the upper and lower stratosphere act to minimize the variation in total ozone

  13. FY 1996 Congressional budget request: Budget highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-02-01

    The FY 1996 budget presentation is organized by the Department`s major business lines. An accompanying chart displays the request for new budget authority. The report compares the budget request for FY 1996 with the appropriated FY 1995 funding levels displayed on a comparable basis. The FY 1996 budget represents the first year of a five year plan in which the Department will reduce its spending by $15.8 billion in budget authority and by $14.1 billion in outlays. FY 1996 is a transition year as the Department embarks on its multiyear effort to do more with less. The Budget Highlights are presented by business line; however, the fifth business line, Economic Productivity, which is described in the Policy Overview section, cuts across multiple organizational missions, funding levels and activities and is therefore included in the discussion of the other four business lines.

  14. Ozone Antimicrobial Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozone is a potent germicide that has been used extensively for water purification. In Europe, 90 percent of the municipal water systems are treated with ozone, and in France, ozone has been used to treat drinking water since 1903. However, there is limited information on the bioc...

  15. Tunable Diode Laser Heterodyne Spectrophotometry of Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogal, P. F.; McElroy, C. T.; Goldman, A.; Murcray, D. G.

    1988-01-01

    Tunable diode laser heterodyne spectrophotometry (TDLHS) has been used to make extremely high resolution (less than 0.0005/ cm) solar spectra in the 9.6 micron ozone band. Observations have shown that a signal-to-noise ratio of 95 : 1 (35% of theoretical) for an integration time of 1/8 second can be achieved at a resolution of 0.0005 wavenumbers. The spectral data have been inverted to yield a total column amount of ozone, in good agreement with that. measured at the nearby National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) ozone monitoring facility in Boulder, Colorado.

  16. Lightweight ozonizer for field and airborne use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, E. J.; Caldwell, J. R.; de Waal, C.; Horvath, J. J.; Pearson, R., Jr.; Stedman, D. H.

    1982-12-01

    An efficient, lightweight apparatus for the production of ozone in flowing oxygen or air has been constructed and tested. The exciter is an automotive electronic ignition running from a 28-V dc power source. The discharge tube consists of coaxial conductive-coated flint glass tubing fitting into Teflon end pieces. A single such unit will produce 4% ozone in oxygen flowing at 0.2 l/min, or a maximum of 0.020 l of ozone per minute in a total flow of 1.0 l/min.

  17. Federal NOx Budget Trading Program and CAIR NOx and SO2 Trading Programs (40 CFR Part 97)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This part establishes general provisions and the applicability, permitting, allowance, excess emissions, monitoring, and opt-in provisions for the federal NOx Budget Trading Program as a means of mitigating interstate transport of ozone and nitrogen oxides

  18. Children's Budget 2016. 10th Anniversary Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsif, John, Ed.; Gluck, Elliott, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    Federal spending dedicated to children represents just 7.83 percent of the federal budget in fiscal year 2016, and total spending on children's programs has decreased by five percent in the last two years, according to "Children's Budget 2016." The federal government makes more than 200 distinct investments in children. These include…

  19. Ozone zonal asymmetry and planetary wave characterization during Antarctic spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Ialongo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A large zonal asymmetry of ozone has been observed over Antarctica during winter-spring, when the ozone hole develops. It is caused by a planetary wave-driven displacement of the polar vortex. The total ozone data by OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument and the ozone profiles by MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder and GOMOS (Global Ozone Monitoring by Occultation of Stars were analysed to characterize the ozone zonal asymmetry and the wave activity during Antarctic spring. Both total ozone and profile data have shown a persistent zonal asymmetry over the last years, which is usually observed from September to mid-December. The largest amplitudes of planetary waves at 65° S (the perturbations can achieve up to 50% of zonal mean values is observed in October. The wave activity is dominated by the quasi-stationary wave 1 component, while the wave 2 is mainly an eastward travelling wave. Wave numbers 1 and 2 generally explain more than the 90% of the ozone longitudinal variations. Both GOMOS and MLS ozone profile data show that ozone zonal asymmetry covers the whole stratosphere and extends up to the altitudes of 60–65 km. The wave amplitudes in ozone mixing ratio decay with altitude, with maxima (up to 50% below 30 km.

    The characterization of the ozone zonal asymmetry has become important in the climate research. The inclusion of the polar zonal asymmetry in the climate models is essential for an accurate estimation of the future temperature trends. This information might also be important for retrieval algorithms that rely on ozone a priori information.

  20. Earth's ozone layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasa, J.

    1991-01-01

    The paper contain the actual results of investigations of the influence of the human activity on the Earth's ozone layer. History of the ozone measurements and of the changes in its concentrations within the last few years are given. The influence of the trace gases on both local and global ozone concentrations are discussed. The probable changes of the ozone concentrations are presented on the basis of the modelling investigations. The effect of a decrease in global ozone concentration on human health and on biosphere are also presented. (author). 33 refs, 36 figs, 5 tabs

  1. Options to Accelerate Ozone Recovery: Ozone and Climate Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, E. L.; Daniel, J. S.; Portmann, R. W.; Velders, G. J. M.; Jackman, C. H.; Ravishankara, A. R.

    2010-01-01

    The humankind or anthropogenic influence on ozone primarily originated from the chlorofluorocarbons and halons (chlorine and bromine). Representatives from governments have met periodically over the years to establish international regulations starting with the Montreal Protocol in 1987, which greatly limited the release of these ozone-depleting substances (DDSs). Two global models have been used to investigate the impact of hypothetical reductions in future emissions of ODSs on total column ozone. The investigations primarily focused on chlorine- and bromine-containing gases, but some computations also included nitrous oxide (N2O). The Montreal Protocol with ODS controls have been so successful that further regulations of chlorine- and bromine-containing gases could have only a fraction of the impact that regulations already in force have had. if all anthropogenic ODS emissions were halted beginning in 2011, ozone is calculated to be higher by about 1-2% during the period 2030-2100 compared to a case of no additional ODS restrictions. Chlorine- and bromine-containing gases and nitrous oxide are also greenhouse gases and lead to warming of the troposphere. Elimination of N 20 emissions would result in a reduction of radiative forcing of 0.23 W/sq m in 2100 than presently computed and destruction of the CFC bank would produce a reduction in radiative forcing of 0.005 W/sq m in 2100. This paper provides a quantitative way to consider future regulations of the CFC bank and N 20 emissions

  2. SAFARI 2000 TOMS Tropospheric Ozone Data, Southern Africa Subset, Dry Season 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Tropical Tropospheric Ozone (TTO) data from Earth Probe (EP) Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) for the period of August 8-September 29, 2000 were processed and...

  3. When will the Antarctic Ozone Hole Recover?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Paul A.; Nash, Eric R.; Kawa, S. Randolph; Montzka, Steve

    2006-01-01

    The Antarctic ozone hole develops each year and culminates by early Spring. Antarctic ozone values have been monitored since 1979 using satellite observations from the .TOMS instrument. The severity of the hole has been assessed from TOMS using the minimum total ozone value from the October monthly mean (depth of the hole) and by calculating the average size during the September-October period. Ozone is mainly destroyed by halogen catalytic cycles, and these losses are modulated by temperature variations in the collar of the polar lower stratospheric vortex. In this presentation, we show the relationships of halogens and temperature to, both the size and depth of the hole. Because atmospheric halogen levels are responding to international agreements that limit or phase out production, the amount of halogens in the stratosphere should decrease over the next few decades. Using projections of halogen levels combined with age-of-air estimates, we find that the ozone hole is recovering at an extremely slow rate and that large ozone holes will regularly recur over the next 2 decades. The ozone hole will begin to show first signs of recovery in about 2023, and the hole will fully recover to pre-1980 levels in approximately 2070. This 2070 recovery is 20 years later than recent projections.

  4. Effect of coupled anthropogenic perturbations on stratospheric ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuebbles, D.J.; Luther, F.M.; Penner, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    Since 1976 the greatest concern about potential perturbations to stratospheric ozone has been in regard to the atmospheric release of chlorofluorocarbons. Consequently, atmospheric measurements of ozone have usually been compared with model calculations in which only chlorocarbon perturbations are considered. However, in order to compare theoretical calculations with recent measurements of ozone and to project expected changes to atmospheric ozone levels over the next few decades, one must consider the effect from other perturbations as well. In this paper, the authors consider the coupling between several possible anthropogenic atmospheric perturbations. Namely, they examine the effects of past and possible future increases of chlorocarbons, CO 2 , N 2 O, and NO x . The focus of these calculations is on the potential changes in ozone due to chlorocarbon emissions, how other anthropogenic perturbations may have influenced the actual change in ozone over the last decade, and how these perturbations may influence future changes in ozone. Although calculations including future chlorocarbon emissions alone result in significant reductions in ozone, there is very little change in total ozone over the coming decades when other anthropogenic sources are included. Increasing CO 2 concentrations have the largest offsetting effect on the change in total ozone due to chlorocarbons. Owing to the necessity of considering emissions from a number of trace gases simultaneously, determining expected global-scale chemical and climatic effects is more complex than was previously recognized

  5. Beyond Zero Based Budgeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Daniel M., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Suggests that the most practical budgeting system for most managers is a formalized combination of incremental and zero-based analysis because little can be learned about most programs from an annual zero-based budget. (Author/IRT)

  6. Fiscal Year 2015 Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This dataset includes the Fiscal Year 2015 Council-approved operating budget for Montgomery County. The dataset does not include revenues and detailed agency budget...

  7. Oxidation by UV and ozone of organic contaminants dissolved in deionized and raw mains water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, P.D.

    1987-01-01

    Organic contaminants dissolved in deionized pretreated and raw mains water were reacted with ultraviolet light and ozone. Ozone first was used for partial oxidation followed by ozone combined with ultraviolet radiation to produce total oxidation. The reduction of total organic carbon (TOC) level and direct oxidation of halogenated compounds were measured throughout the treatment process. The rate of TOC reduction was compared for ozone injected upstream and inside the reactor

  8. Budgeting and Beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Carsten

    Budgets and budget control has been known since the early 19th century1. However the use of budget control was until the beginning of the 1920ies in US primarily related to governmental units and states and to a minor extent to business units in practice. At that time James McKinsey describes...

  9. Between Bedside and Budget

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.L.T. Blank; E. Eggink

    1998-01-01

    Original title: Tussen bed en budget. The report Between bedside and budget (Tussen bed en budget) describes an extensive empirical study of the efficiency of general and university hospitals in the Netherlands. A policy summary recaps the main findings of the study. Those findings

  10. Library Budget Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Alice Sizer

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the advantages and disadvantages of six types of budgets commonly used by many different kinds of libraries. The budget types covered are lump-sum; formula; line or line-item; program; performance or function; and zero-based. Accompanying figures demonstrate the differences between four of the budget types. (three references) (KRN)

  11. The stratospheric ozone and the ozone layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zea Mazo, Jorge Anibal; Leon Aristizabal Gloria Esperanza; Eslava Ramirez Jesus Antonio

    2000-01-01

    An overview is presented of the principal characteristics of the stratospheric ozone in the Earth's atmosphere, with particular emphasis on the tropics and the ozone hole over the poles. Some effects produced in the atmosphere as a consequence of the different human activities will be described, and some data on stratospheric ozone will be shown. We point out the existence of a nucleus of least ozone in the tropics, stretching from South America to central Africa, with annual mean values less than 240 DU, a value lower than in the middle latitudes and close to the mean values at the South Pole. The existence of such a minimum is confirmed by mean values from measurements made on satellites or with earthbound instruments, for different sectors in Colombia, like Medellin, Bogota and Leticia

  12. Modulations of stratospheric ozone by volcanic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchette, Christian; Mcconnell, John C.

    1994-01-01

    We have used a time series of aerosol surface based on the measurements of Hofmann to investigate the modulation of total column ozone caused by the perturbation to gas phase chemistry by the reaction N2O5(gas) + H2O(aero) yields 2HNO3(gas) on the surface of stratospheric aerosols. We have tested a range of values for its reaction probability, gamma = 0.02, 0.13, and 0.26 which we compared to unperturbed homogeneous chemistry. Our analysis spans a period from Jan. 1974 to Oct. 1994. The results suggest that if lower values of gamma are the norm then we would expect larger ozone losses for highly enhanced aerosol content that for larger values of gamma. The ozone layer is more sensitive to the magnitude of the reaction probability under background conditions than during volcanically active periods. For most conditions, the conversion of NO2 to HNO3 is saturated for reaction probability in the range of laboratory measurements, but is only absolutely saturated following major volcanic eruptions when the heterogeneous loss dominates the losses of N2O5. The ozone loss due to this heterogeneous reaction increases with the increasing chlorine load. Total ozone losses calculated are comparable to ozone losses reported from TOMS and Dobson data.

  13. 7 CFR 3402.14 - Budget and budget narrative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget and budget narrative. 3402.14 Section 3402.14... GRADUATE AND POSTGRADUATE FELLOWSHIP GRANTS PROGRAM Preparation of an Application § 3402.14 Budget and budget narrative. Applicants must prepare the Budget, Form CSREES-2004, and a budget narrative...

  14. Ozone therapy in periodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, G; Mansi, B

    2012-02-22

    Gingival and Periodontal diseases represent a major concern both in dentistry and medicine. The majority of the contributing factors and causes in the etiology of these diseases are reduced or treated with ozone in all its application forms (gas, water, oil). The beneficial biological effects of ozone, its anti-microbial activity, oxidation of bio-molecules precursors and microbial toxins implicated in periodontal diseases and its healing and tissue regeneration properties, make the use of ozone well indicated in all stages of gingival and periodontal diseases. The primary objective of this article is to provide a general review about the clinical applications of ozone in periodontics. The secondary objective is to summarize the available in vitro and in vivo studies in Periodontics in which ozone has been used. This objective would be of importance to future researchers in terms of what has been tried and what the potentials are for the clinical application of ozone in Periodontics.

  15. Modeling the effects of ozone on soybean growth and yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, K; Miller, J E; Flagler, R B; Heck, W W

    1990-01-01

    A simple mechanistic model was developed based on an existing growth model in order to address the mechanisms of the effects of ozone on growth and yield of soybean [Glycine max. (L.) Merr. 'Davis'] and interacting effects of other environmental stresses. The model simulates daily growth of soybean plants using environmental data including shortwave radiation, temperature, precipitation, irrigation and ozone concentration. Leaf growth, dry matter accumulation, water budget, nitrogen input and seed growth linked to senescence and abscission of leaves are described in the model. The effects of ozone are modeled as reduced photosynthate production and accelerated senescence. The model was applied to the open-top chamber experiments in which soybean plants were exposed to ozone under two levels of soil moisture regimes. After calibrating the model to the growth data and seed yield, goodness-of-fit of the model was tested. The model fitted well for top dry weight in the vegetative growth phase and also at maturity. The effect of ozone on seen yield was also described satisfactorily by the model. The simulation showed apparent interaction between the effect of ozone and soil moisture stress on the seed yield. The model revealed that further work is needed concerning the effect of ozone on the senescence process and the consequences of alteration of canopy microclimate by the open-top chambers.

  16. Degradation of 4-chlorophenol by ozonation, γ radiation as well as ozonation combined with γ radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, J.; Wang, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    The radiolysis of aqueous 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) by gamma radiation in the presence of air and ozone was investigated. The 4-CP degradation, release of chloride ion, UV absorption spectrum, total organic carbon (TOC) and adsorbable organic halogens (AOX) was measured. Under the conditions of synergistic effect of ozone and radiation a complete degradation of 100 mg/L 4-CP was obtained at a dose of 6 kGy, without ozone the 4-chlorophenol was completely decomposed at 15 kGy. The total organic carbon (TOC) was reduced by 26% when ionizing radiation (at 15 kGy) combined with ozonation, and by 17% without ozone, respectively. Analysis of intermediate products resulting from synergistic effect of ozone and radiation of 4-CP was performed by using the GC/MS method. Some primary influencing factors such as irradiation time and initial 4-CP concentration were also discussed. The results showed that the degradation of 4-chlorophenol could described by first-order reaction kinetic model. There is potential for combination of irradiation with ozonation, which can remarkably reduce the irradiation dose increase the degradation efficiency of 4-CP.

  17. SMM mesospheric ozone measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikin, A. C.

    1990-01-01

    The main objective was to understand the secular and seasonal behavior of ozone in the lower mesosphere, 50 to 70 km. This altitude region is important in understanding the factors which determine ozone behavior. A secondary objective is the study of stratospheric ozone in the polar regions. Use is made of results from the SBUV satellite borne instrument. In the Arctic the interaction between chlorine compounds and low molecular weight hydrocarbons is studied. More than 30,000 profiles were obtained using the UVSP instrument on the SMM spacecraft. Several orbits of ozone data per day were obtained allowing study of the current rise in solar activity from the minimum until the present. Analysis of Nimbus 7 SBUV data in Antarctic spring indicates that ozone is depleted within the polar vortex relative to ozone outside the vortex. This depletion confirms the picture of ozone loss at altitudes where polar stratospheric clouds exist. In addition, there is ozone loss above the cloud level indicating that there is another mechanism in addition to ozone loss initiated by heterogeneous chlorine reactions on cloud particles.

  18. ROCOZ-A (improved rocket launched ozone sensor) for middle atmosphere ozone measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H.S.; Parsons, C.L.

    1987-01-01

    An improved interference filter based ultraviolet photometer (ROCOZ-A) for measuring stratospheric ozone is discussed. The payload is launched aboard a Super-Loki to a typical apogee of 70 km. The instrument measures the solar ultraviolet irradiance as it descends on a parachute. The total cumulative ozone is then calculated based on the Beer-Lambert law. The cumulative ozone precision measured in this way is 2.0% to 2.5% over an altitude range of 20 and 55 km. Results of the intercomparison with the SBUV overpass data and ROCOZ-A data are also discussed

  19. Global Carbon Budget 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Quéré, Corinne; Andrew, Robbie M.; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Sitch, Stephen; Pongratz, Julia; Manning, Andrew C.; Korsbakken, Jan Ivar; Peters, Glen P.; Canadell, Josep G.; Jackson, Robert B.; Boden, Thomas A.; Tans, Pieter P.; Andrews, Oliver D.; Arora, Vivek K.; Bakker, Dorothee C. E.; Barbero, Leticia; Becker, Meike; Betts, Richard A.; Bopp, Laurent; Chevallier, Frédéric; Chini, Louise P.; Ciais, Philippe; Cosca, Catherine E.; Cross, Jessica; Currie, Kim; Gasser, Thomas; Harris, Ian; Hauck, Judith; Haverd, Vanessa; Houghton, Richard A.; Hunt, Christopher W.; Hurtt, George; Ilyina, Tatiana; Jain, Atul K.; Kato, Etsushi; Kautz, Markus; Keeling, Ralph F.; Klein Goldewijk, Kees; Körtzinger, Arne; Landschützer, Peter; Lefèvre, Nathalie; Lenton, Andrew; Lienert, Sebastian; Lima, Ivan; Lombardozzi, Danica; Metzl, Nicolas; Millero, Frank; Monteiro, Pedro M. S.; Munro, David R.; Nabel, Julia E. M. S.; Nakaoka, Shin-ichiro; Nojiri, Yukihiro; Padin, X. Antonio; Peregon, Anna; Pfeil, Benjamin; Pierrot, Denis; Poulter, Benjamin; Rehder, Gregor; Reimer, Janet; Rödenbeck, Christian; Schwinger, Jörg; Séférian, Roland; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Stocker, Benjamin D.; Tian, Hanqin; Tilbrook, Bronte; Tubiello, Francesco N.; van der Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid T.; van der Werf, Guido R.; van Heuven, Steven; Viovy, Nicolas; Vuichard, Nicolas; Walker, Anthony P.; Watson, Andrew J.; Wiltshire, Andrew J.; Zaehle, Sönke; Zhu, Dan

    2018-03-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere - the global carbon budget - is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and methodology to quantify the five major components of the global carbon budget and their uncertainties. CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, respectively, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on land-cover change data and bookkeeping models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) and terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) are estimated with global process models constrained by observations. The resulting carbon budget imbalance (BIM), the difference between the estimated total emissions and the estimated changes in the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere, is a measure of imperfect data and understanding of the contemporary carbon cycle. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ. For the last decade available (2007-2016), EFF was 9.4 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, ELUC 1.3 ± 0.7 GtC yr-1, GATM 4.7 ± 0.1 GtC yr-1, SOCEAN 2.4 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, and SLAND 3.0 ± 0.8 GtC yr-1, with a budget imbalance BIM of 0.6 GtC yr-1 indicating overestimated emissions and/or underestimated sinks. For year 2016 alone, the growth in EFF was approximately zero and emissions remained at 9.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1. Also for 2016, ELUC was 1.3 ± 0.7 GtC yr-1, GATM was 6.1 ± 0.2 GtC yr-1, SOCEAN was 2.6 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, and SLAND was 2.7 ± 1.0 GtC yr-1, with a small BIM of -0.3 GtC. GATM continued to be higher in 2016 compared to the past decade (2007-2016), reflecting in part the high fossil emissions and the small SLAND

  20. Global Carbon Budget 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Le Quéré

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere – the global carbon budget – is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and methodology to quantify the five major components of the global carbon budget and their uncertainties. CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry (EFF are based on energy statistics and cement production data, respectively, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC, mainly deforestation, are based on land-cover change data and bookkeeping models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN and terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND are estimated with global process models constrained by observations. The resulting carbon budget imbalance (BIM, the difference between the estimated total emissions and the estimated changes in the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere, is a measure of imperfect data and understanding of the contemporary carbon cycle. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ. For the last decade available (2007–2016, EFF was 9.4 ± 0.5 GtC yr−1, ELUC 1.3 ± 0.7 GtC yr−1, GATM 4.7 ± 0.1 GtC yr−1, SOCEAN 2.4 ± 0.5 GtC yr−1, and SLAND 3.0 ± 0.8 GtC yr−1, with a budget imbalance BIM of 0.6 GtC yr−1 indicating overestimated emissions and/or underestimated sinks. For year 2016 alone, the growth in EFF was approximately zero and emissions remained at 9.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr−1. Also for 2016, ELUC was 1.3 ± 0.7 GtC yr−1, GATM was 6.1 ± 0.2 GtC yr−1, SOCEAN was 2.6 ± 0.5 GtC yr−1, and SLAND was 2.7 ± 1.0 GtC yr−1, with a small BIM of −0.3 GtC. GATM continued to be

  1. Understanding the Budget Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesut Yalvaç

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Many different budgeting techniques can be used in libraries, and some combination of these will be appropriate for almost any individual situation. Li-ne-item, program, performance, formula, variable, and zero-base budgets all have features that may prove beneficial in the preparation of a budget. Budgets also serve a variety of functions, providing for short-term and long-term financial planning as well as for cash management over a period of time. Short-term plans are reflected in the operating budget, while long-term plans are reflected in the capital budget. Since the time when cash is available to an organization does not usually coincide with the time that disbursements must be made, it is also important to carefully plan for the inflow and outflow of funds by means of a cash budget.      During the budget process an organization selects its programs and activities by providing the necessary funding; the library, along with others in the organization, must justify its requests. Because of the cyclical nature of the budget process, it is possible continually to gather information and evaluate alternatives for the next budget period so that the library may achieve its maximum potential for service to its patrons.

  2. The possible impact of fluorocarbons and halocarbons on ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-05-01

    Partial contents: Chemistry-(The production and atmospheric release of fluorocarbons and certain other chlorine compounds, Photochemistry of fluorocarbons); Measurement techniques-(Stratospheric sampling platforms, Methods for measuring fluorocarbons and other halocarbons); Measurements-(Halogenated organic compounds in the troposphere, Stratospheric measurement of oxides of nitrogen, Total ozone trends); Models-(Assessment of the accuracy of atmospheric transport, Model prediction of ozone depletion); Effects-

  3. Evaluation of The Surface Ozone Concentrations In Greater Cairo Area With Emphasis On Helwan, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, A.; Kandil, A.T.; Abd Elmaged, S.M.; Mubarak, I.

    2011-01-01

    Various biogenic and anthropogenic sources emit huge quantities of surface ozone. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the surface ozone levels present at Helwan area in order to improve the knowledge and understanding troposphere processes. Surface Ozone has been measured at 2 sites at Helwan; these sites cover the most populated area in Helwan. Ozone concentration is continuously monitored by UV absorption photometry using the equipment O 3 41 M UV Photometric Ozone Analyzer. The daily maximum values of the ozone concentration in the greater Cairo area have approached but did not exceeded the critical levels during the year 2008. Higher ozone concentrations at Helwan are mainly due to the transport of ozone from regions further to the north of greater Cairo and to a lesser extent of ozone locally generated by photochemical smog process. The summer season has the largest diurnal variation, with the tendency of the daily ozone maxima occur in the late afternoon. The night time concentration of ozone was significantly higher at Helwan because there are no fast acting sinks, destroying ozone since the average night time concentration of ozone is maintained at 40 ppb at the site. No correlation between the diurnal total suspended particulate (TSP) matter and the diurnal cumulative ozone concentration was observed during the Khamasin period

  4. The Ecophysiology Of A Pinus Ponderosa Ecosystem Exposed To High Tropospheric Ozone: Implications For Stomatal And Non-Stomatal Ozone Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fares, S.; McKay, M.; Goldstein, A.

    2008-12-01

    Ecosystems remove ozone from the troposphere through both stomatal and non-stomatal deposition. The portion of ozone taken up through stomata has an oxidative effect causing damage. We used a multi-year dataset to assess the physiological controls over ozone deposition. Environmental parameters, CO2 and ozone fluxes were measured continuously from January 2001 to December 2006 above a ponderosa pine plantation near Blodgett Forest, Georgetown, California. We studied the dynamic of NEE (Net Ecosystem Exchange, -838 g C m-2 yr-1) and water evapotranspiration on an annual and daily basis. These processes are tightly coupled to stomatal aperture which also controlled ozone fluxes. High levels of ozone concentrations (~ 100 ppb) were observed during the spring-summer period, with corresponding high levels of ozone fluxes (~ 30 μmol m-2 h-1). During the summer season, a large portion of the total ozone flux was due to non-stomatal processes, and we propose that a plant physiological control, releasing BVOC (Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds), is mainly responsible. We analyzed the correlations of common ozone exposure metrics based on accumulation of concentrations (AOT40 and SUM0) with ozone fluxes (total, stomatal and non-stomatal). Stomatal flux showed poorer correlation with ozone concentrations than non-stomatal flux during summer and fall seasons, which largely corresponded to the growing period. We therefore suggest that AOT40 and SUM0 are poor predictors of ozone damage and that a physiologically based metric would be more effective.

  5. Budget impact of vildagliptin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orietta Zaniolo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: to evaluate the impact on the Italian National Health Service (NHS budget of the recent introduction of the DPP-4 inhibitor vildagliptin in combination treatment for NIDDM patients. Methods: NIDDM patients eligible to vildagliptin treatment were identified and quantified based on approved indications and prevalence data review; adequate alternative strategies were identified; direct medical costs associated with competing strategies were calculated according to national practice and prices (drug acquisition, therapeutic monitoring, cost for managing severe adverse events – severe hypoglycemia events, fractures, new heart failure cases and the NHS budgetary impact was estimated according to market penetration assumptions (base-case: 5% and 10% for the first and second year, respectively. Results: patients estimated eligible for vildagliptin in Italy are about 237,500: pts inadequately controlled with metformin monotherapy (166,500, pts inadequately controlled with sulfonylurea monotherapy and intolerant/contraindicated to metformin (70,200, and those inadequately controlled with thiazolidinedione monotherapy (800. Costing and comparing of the vildagliptin-based and competing strategies revealed differences in both directions, depending on patient subgroup. Assuming uniform penetration among identified patient subgroups, vildagliptin introduction is expected to raise NHS costs by 2,750,000 Euro in the first and by 5,500,000 Euro in the second year, respectively representing 1,6% and 3,2% of the estimated total management cost of this patient population. Conclusions: the introduction of vildagliptin in the treatment of Italian NIDDM patients offers a new therapeutic option for three inadequately controlled NIDDM subpopulations; the financial impact on Italian NHS expenditures depends on patient selection and can be expected not to exceed 2-3% of the currently dedicated budget in the first two years.

  6. Pollution Control Using Ozone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    This invention relates to a method for cleaning air comprising one or more pollutants, the method comprising contacting the air with thermal decompositions products of ozone.......This invention relates to a method for cleaning air comprising one or more pollutants, the method comprising contacting the air with thermal decompositions products of ozone....

  7. The pollution by ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    Air pollution by ozone is increasing in spite of several points to reduce it. If the process of ozone formation are complex, the sources of this pollution are well known: first, mobile sources with automobiles (49%), boats , trains and planes (13%), then are following paints and solvents(18%), thermal power plants(11%), and finally industry processing with 5%. (N.C.)

  8. Ozone Sensitivity to Varying Greenhouse Gases and Ozone-Depleting Substances in CCMI-1 Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, Olaf; Stone, Kane A.; Schofield, Robyn; Akiyoshi, Hideharu; Yamashita, Yousuke; Kinnison, Douglas E.; Garcia, Rolando R.; Sudo, Kengo; Plummer, David A.; Scinocca, John; hide

    2018-01-01

    Ozone fields simulated for the first phase of the Chemistry-Climate Model Initiative (CCMI-1) will be used as forcing data in the 6th Coupled Model Intercomparison Project. Here we assess, using reference and sensitivity simulations produced for CCMI-1, the suitability of CCMI-1 model results for this process, investigating the degree of consistency amongst models regarding their responses to variations in individual forcings. We consider the influences of methane, nitrous oxide, a combination of chlorinated or brominated ozone-depleting substances, and a combination of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. We find varying degrees of consistency in the models' responses in ozone to these individual forcings, including some considerable disagreement. In particular, the response of total-column ozone to these forcings is less consistent across the multi-model ensemble than profile comparisons. We analyse how stratospheric age of air, a commonly used diagnostic of stratospheric transport, responds to the forcings. For this diagnostic we find some salient differences in model behaviour, which may explain some of the findings for ozone. The findings imply that the ozone fields derived from CCMI-1 are subject to considerable uncertainties regarding the impacts of these anthropogenic forcings. We offer some thoughts on how to best approach the problem of generating a consensus ozone database from a multi-model ensemble such as CCMI-1.

  9. Ozone sensitivity to varying greenhouse gases and ozone-depleting substances in CCMI-1 simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Morgenstern

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ozone fields simulated for the first phase of the Chemistry-Climate Model Initiative (CCMI-1 will be used as forcing data in the 6th Coupled Model Intercomparison Project. Here we assess, using reference and sensitivity simulations produced for CCMI-1, the suitability of CCMI-1 model results for this process, investigating the degree of consistency amongst models regarding their responses to variations in individual forcings. We consider the influences of methane, nitrous oxide, a combination of chlorinated or brominated ozone-depleting substances, and a combination of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. We find varying degrees of consistency in the models' responses in ozone to these individual forcings, including some considerable disagreement. In particular, the response of total-column ozone to these forcings is less consistent across the multi-model ensemble than profile comparisons. We analyse how stratospheric age of air, a commonly used diagnostic of stratospheric transport, responds to the forcings. For this diagnostic we find some salient differences in model behaviour, which may explain some of the findings for ozone. The findings imply that the ozone fields derived from CCMI-1 are subject to considerable uncertainties regarding the impacts of these anthropogenic forcings. We offer some thoughts on how to best approach the problem of generating a consensus ozone database from a multi-model ensemble such as CCMI-1.

  10. Global tropospheric ozone modeling: Quantifying errors due to grid resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Oliver; Prather, Michael J.

    2006-06-01

    Ozone production in global chemical models is dependent on model resolution because ozone chemistry is inherently nonlinear, the timescales for chemical production are short, and precursors are artificially distributed over the spatial scale of the model grid. In this study we examine the sensitivity of ozone, its precursors, and its production to resolution by running a global chemical transport model at four different resolutions between T21 (5.6° × 5.6°) and T106 (1.1° × 1.1°) and by quantifying the errors in regional and global budgets. The sensitivity to vertical mixing through the parameterization of boundary layer turbulence is also examined. We find less ozone production in the boundary layer at higher resolution, consistent with slower chemical production in polluted emission regions and greater export of precursors. Agreement with ozonesonde and aircraft measurements made during the NASA TRACE-P campaign over the western Pacific in spring 2001 is consistently better at higher resolution. We demonstrate that the numerical errors in transport processes on a given resolution converge geometrically for a tracer at successively higher resolutions. The convergence in ozone production on progressing from T21 to T42, T63, and T106 resolution is likewise monotonic but indicates that there are still large errors at 120 km scales, suggesting that T106 resolution is too coarse to resolve regional ozone production. Diagnosing the ozone production and precursor transport that follow a short pulse of emissions over east Asia in springtime allows us to quantify the impacts of resolution on both regional and global ozone. Production close to continental emission regions is overestimated by 27% at T21 resolution, by 13% at T42 resolution, and by 5% at T106 resolution. However, subsequent ozone production in the free troposphere is not greatly affected. We find that the export of short-lived precursors such as NOx by convection is overestimated at coarse resolution.

  11. Quantifying the contributions to stratospheric ozone changes from ozone depleting substances and greenhouse gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Plummer

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A state-of-the-art chemistry climate model coupled to a three-dimensional ocean model is used to produce three experiments, all seamlessly covering the period 1950–2100, forced by different combinations of long-lived Greenhouse Gases (GHGs and Ozone Depleting Substances (ODSs. The experiments are designed to quantify the separate effects of GHGs and ODSs on the evolution of ozone, as well as the extent to which these effects are independent of each other, by alternately holding one set of these two forcings constant in combination with a third experiment where both ODSs and GHGs vary. We estimate that up to the year 2000 the net decrease in the column amount of ozone above 20 hPa is approximately 75% of the decrease that can be attributed to ODSs due to the offsetting effects of cooling by increased CO2. Over the 21st century, as ODSs decrease, continued cooling from CO2 is projected to account for more than 50% of the projected increase in ozone above 20 hPa. Changes in ozone below 20 hPa show a redistribution of ozone from tropical to extra-tropical latitudes with an increase in the Brewer-Dobson circulation. In addition to a latitudinal redistribution of ozone, we find that the globally averaged column amount of ozone below 20 hPa decreases over the 21st century, which significantly mitigates the effect of upper stratospheric cooling on total column ozone. Analysis by linear regression shows that the recovery of ozone from the effects of ODSs generally follows the decline in reactive chlorine and bromine levels, with the exception of the lower polar stratosphere where recovery of ozone in the second half of the 21st century is slower than would be indicated by the decline in reactive chlorine and bromine concentrations. These results also reveal the degree to which GHG-related effects mute the chemical effects of N2O on ozone in the standard future scenario used for the WMO Ozone Assessment. Increases in the

  12. Understanding the Budget Process

    OpenAIRE

    Mesut Yalvaç

    2000-01-01

    Many different budgeting techniques can be used in libraries, and some combination of these will be appropriate for almost any individual situation. Li-ne-item, program, performance, formula, variable, and zero-base budgets all have features that may prove beneficial in the preparation of a budget. Budgets also serve a variety of functions, providing for short-term and long-term financial planning as well as for cash management over a period of time. Short-term plans are reflected in the oper...

  13. Ozone as an air pollutant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.

    1996-01-01

    A Danish new book on ozone as an air pollutant has been reviewed. The Book is "Ozon som luftforurening" by Jes Fenger, Published by "Danmarks Miljøundersøgelser, 1995.......A Danish new book on ozone as an air pollutant has been reviewed. The Book is "Ozon som luftforurening" by Jes Fenger, Published by "Danmarks Miljøundersøgelser, 1995....

  14. Adrenal-derived stress hormones modulate ozone-induced ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozone-induced systemic effects are modulated through activation of the neuro-hormonal stress response pathway. Adrenal demedullation (DEMED)or bilateral total adrenalectomy (ADREX) inhibits systemic and pulmonary effect of acute ozone exposure. To understand the influence of adrenal-derived stress hormones in mediating ozone-induced lung injury/inflammation, we assessed global gene expression (mRNA sequencing) and selected proteins in lung tissues from male Wistar-Kyoto rats that underwent DEMED, ADREX, or sham surgery (SHAM)prior to their exposure to air or ozone (1 ppm),4 h/day for 1 or 2days. Ozone exposure significantly changed the expression of over 2300 genes in lungs of SHAM rats, and these changes were markedly reduced in DEMED and ADREX rats. SHAM surgery but not DEMED or ADREX resulted in activation of multiple ozone-responsive pathways, including glucocorticoid, acute phase response, NRF2, and Pl3K-AKT.Predicted targets from sequencing data showed a similarity between transcriptional changes induced by ozone and adrenergic and steroidal modulation of effects in SHAM but not ADREX rats. Ozone-induced Increases in lung 116 in SHAM rats coincided with neutrophilic Inflammation, but were diminished in DEMED and ADREX rats. Although ozone exposure in SHAM rats did not significantly alter mRNA expression of lfny and 11-4, the IL-4 protein and ratio of IL-4 to IFNy (IL-4/IFNy) proteins increased suggesting a tendency for a Th2 response. This did not occur

  15. Vertical ozone characteristics in urban boundary layer in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhiqiang; Xu, Honghui; Meng, Wei; Zhang, Xiaoling; Xu, Jing; Liu, Quan; Wang, Yuesi

    2013-07-01

    Vertical ozone and meteorological parameters were measured by tethered balloon in the boundary layer in the summer of 2009 in Beijing, China. A total of 77 tethersonde soundings were taken during the 27-day campaign. The surface ozone concentrations measured by ozonesondes and TEI 49C showed good agreement, albeit with temporal difference between the two instruments. Two case studies of nocturnal secondary ozone maxima are discussed in detail. The development of the low-level jet played a critical role leading to the observed ozone peak concentrations in nocturnal boundary layer (NBL). The maximum of surface ozone was 161.7 ppbv during the campaign, which could be attributed to abundant precursors storage near surface layer at nighttime. Vertical distribution of ozone was also measured utilizing conventional continuous analyzers on 325-m meteorological observation tower. The results showed the NBL height was between 47 and 280 m, which were consistent with the balloon data. Southerly air flow could bring ozone-rich air to Beijing, and the ozone concentrations exceeded the China's hourly ozone standard (approximately 100 ppb) above 600 m for more than 12 h.

  16. Caffeine degradation in water by gamma irradiation, ozonation and ozonation/gamma irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torun Murat

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous solutions of caffeine were treated with ozone and gamma irradiation. The amounts of remaining caffeine were determined after solid phase extraction as a function of absorbed dose and ozonation time. In addition to this, some important parameters such as inorganic ions, chemical oxygen demand (COD dissolved oxygen and total acidity changes were followed. Caffeine (50 ppm is found to be completely decomposed at 3.0 kGy and 1.2 kGy doses in the absence of H2O2 and in 1.20 mM H2O2 solutions, respectively. In the case of gamma irradiation after ozonation, 50 ppm caffeine was removed at 0.2 kGy when the solution was ozonized for 100 s at a rate of 10 g O3 h-1 in 400 mL 50 ppm paracetamol solution.

  17. Budget performance reporting and construction work packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strong, M.G.; Weyers, L.L.

    1976-01-01

    A changing financial, technological, and regulatory environment has increased the complexity, costliness, and risk involved in constructing new generating facilities. A primary challenge facing utility executives is to hold down costs on these construction projects. New construction management techniques are required to accomplish this. Commonwealth Edison has responded by implementing a new Budget Performance Reporting System and a Construction Work Packaging System. The new systems are being used successfully on four major construction projects with budgets totaling over $4 billion

  18. Budgeting Approaches in Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, James C.

    2014-01-01

    Several budgeting approaches have been initiated as alternatives to the traditional, incremental process. These include formula budgeting; zero-base budgeting; planning, programming, and budgeting systems; and responsibility center budgeting. Each is premised on assumptions about how organizations might best make resource allocation decisions.…

  19. CEA budget in 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-12-01

    In 1982, the amount of the CEA budget will be 13.4 billions French Francs. The main characteristics are the priority for employment and investments. In this budget programs are adapted to fit R and D to the government policy: innovation, industrial valorization and fundamental research especially thermonuclear fusion and in the electronuclear field to safety, reprocessing and radioactive waste management.

  20. Budgeting in Nonprofit Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Lauren

    1985-01-01

    This description of the role of budgets in nonprofit organizations uses libraries as an example. Four types of budgets--legislative, management, cash, and capital--are critiqued in terms of cost effectiveness, implementation, and facilitation of organizational control and objectives. (CLB)

  1. Colorado Children's Budget 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The "Children's Budget 2010" is intended to be a resource guide for policymakers and advocates who are interested in better understanding how Colorado funds children's programs and services. It attempts to clarify often confusing budget information and describe where the state's investment trends are and where those trends will lead the…

  2. Colorado Children's Budget 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Beverly; Baker, Robin

    2013-01-01

    The "Colorado Children's Budget" presents and analyzes investments and spending trends during the past five state fiscal years on services that benefit children. The "Children's Budget" focuses mainly on state investment and spending, with some analysis of federal investments and spending to provide broader context of state…

  3. OZONE ABSORPTION IN RAW WATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LJILJANA TAKIĆ

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The ozone absorption in raw water entering the main ozonization step at the Belgrade drinking water supply plant was investigated in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR. A slow chemical reaction rate of dissolved ozone and pollutants present in raw water have been experimentally determined. The modified Hatta number was defined and calculated as a criterion which determines whether and to which extent the reactions of ozone and pollutants influence the rate of the pure physical ozone absorption.

  4. Ozone, greenhouse effect. Ozone, effet de serre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aviam, A.M.; Arthaut, R.

    1992-12-01

    This file is made of eight general papers on environment (climates under observation, research on photo-oxidizing pollution, scientific aspects of stratospheric ozone layer, urban engineering and environment, glory of public gardens, earths not very natural, darwinism and society, economical data on environment). (A.B.). refs., 3 tabs.

  5. Budget institutions and taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaskoven, Lasse

    2018-01-01

    While a number of different studies have explored the effects of budgetary procedures and the centralization of the budget process on government debt, deficits and spending, few of them have explored whether such fiscal institutions matter for public revenue. This article argues that centralizing...... the budget process raises the levels of taxation by limiting the ability of individual government officials to veto tax increases in line with common-pool-problem arguments regarding public finances. Using detailed data on budgetary procedures from 15 EU countries, the empirical analysis shows that greater...... centralization of the budget process increases taxation as a share of GDP and that both the type of budget centralization and level of government fractionalization matter for the size of this effect. The results suggest that further centralizing the budget process limits government debt and deficits...

  6. Preparing the operating budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R B

    1983-12-01

    The process of preparing a hospital pharmacy budget is presented. The desired characteristics of a budget and the process by which it is developed and approved are described. Fixed, flexible, and zero-based budget types are explained, as are the major components of a well-developed budget: expense, workload, productivity, revenue, and capital equipment and other expenditures. Specific methods for projecting expenses and revenues, based on historical data, are presented along with a discussion of variables that must be considered in order to achieve an accurate and useful budget. The current shift in emphasis away from revenue capture toward critical analysis of pharmacy costs underscores the importance of budgetary analysis for hospital pharmacy managers.

  7. Estimation of surface UV levels based on Meteor-3/TOMS ozone data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borisov, Y A [Central Aerological Observatory, Moscow (Russian Federation); Geogdzhaev, I V [Moscow Inst. of Physics and Technology, Moscow (Russian Federation); Khattatov, V U [Central Aerological Observatory, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1996-12-31

    The major consequence of ozone layer depletion for the environment is an increase of harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation on the Earth surface and in the upper ocean. This implies the importance of environmental UV monitoring. Since the direct global monitoring is not currently possible, indirect estimations of surface UV levels may be used based on satellite ozone data (Madronich, S. 1992). Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) on board the METEOR-3 satellite provided regular set of data for such estimates. During the time of its operation (August, 1991 - December, 1994) the instrument registered several ozone hole events over Antarctica, when ozone levels dropped by as much as 60 % from their unperturbed values. Probably even more alarming ozone depletions were observed over highly populated regions of middle latitudes of northern hemisphere. Radiative transfer modeling was used to convert METEOR-3/TOMS daily ozone values into regional and global maps of biologically active UV. Calculations demonstrate the effect on surface UV levels produced by ozone hole over Antarctica and ozone depletions over the territory of Russia (March, 1994). UV contour lines deviate from the normal appearance which is determined by growing southward solar elevation. UV contour lines are almost perpendicular to the ozone ones in the ozone depletions areas. The 30 % ozone depletion, over Siberia caused more than 30 % increase in noontime erythemal UV levels, which is equivalent to 10-15 degrees southward latitude displacement. Higher UV radiation increases were found in ozone hole over South America (October 1992) equivalent to about 20 degrees southward displacement

  8. Microbubble enhanced ozonation process for advanced treatment of wastewater produced in acrylic fiber manufacturing industry

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Tianlong

    2015-02-02

    This work investigated microbubble-ozonation for the treatment of a refractory wet-spun acrylic fiber wastewater in comparison to macrobubble-ozonation. CODcr, NH3-N, and UV254 of the wastewater were removed by 42%, 21%, and 42%, respectively in the microbubble-ozonation, being 25%, 9%, and 35% higher than the removal rates achieved by macrobubble-ozonation at the same ozone dose. The microbubbles (with average diameter of 45μm) had a high concentration of 3.9×105 counts/mL at a gas flow rate of 0.5L/min. The gas holdup, total ozone mass-transfer coefficient, and average ozone utilization efficiency in the microbubble-ozonation were 6.6, 2.2, and 1.5 times higher than those of the macrobubble-ozonation. Greater generation of hydroxyl radicals and a higher zeta potential of the bubbles were also observed in the microbubble ozonation process. The biodegradability of the wastewater was also significantly improved by microbubble-ozonation, which was ascribed to the enhanced degradation of alkanes, aromatic compounds, and the many other bio-refractory organic compounds in the wastewater. Microbubble-ozonation can thus be a more effective treatment process than traditional macrobubble-ozonation for refractory wastewater produced by the acrylic fiber manufacturing industry.

  9. Estimation of surface UV levels based on Meteor-3/TOMS ozone data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borisov, Y.A. [Central Aerological Observatory, Moscow (Russian Federation); Geogdzhaev, I.V. [Moscow Inst. of Physics and Technology, Moscow (Russian Federation); Khattatov, V.U. [Central Aerological Observatory, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    The major consequence of ozone layer depletion for the environment is an increase of harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation on the Earth surface and in the upper ocean. This implies the importance of environmental UV monitoring. Since the direct global monitoring is not currently possible, indirect estimations of surface UV levels may be used based on satellite ozone data (Madronich, S. 1992). Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) on board the METEOR-3 satellite provided regular set of data for such estimates. During the time of its operation (August, 1991 - December, 1994) the instrument registered several ozone hole events over Antarctica, when ozone levels dropped by as much as 60 % from their unperturbed values. Probably even more alarming ozone depletions were observed over highly populated regions of middle latitudes of northern hemisphere. Radiative transfer modeling was used to convert METEOR-3/TOMS daily ozone values into regional and global maps of biologically active UV. Calculations demonstrate the effect on surface UV levels produced by ozone hole over Antarctica and ozone depletions over the territory of Russia (March, 1994). UV contour lines deviate from the normal appearance which is determined by growing southward solar elevation. UV contour lines are almost perpendicular to the ozone ones in the ozone depletions areas. The 30 % ozone depletion, over Siberia caused more than 30 % increase in noontime erythemal UV levels, which is equivalent to 10-15 degrees southward latitude displacement. Higher UV radiation increases were found in ozone hole over South America (October 1992) equivalent to about 20 degrees southward displacement

  10. Automatic programmable air ozonizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubarev, S.P.; Klosovsky, A.V.; Opaleva, G.P.; Taran, V.S.; Zolototrubova, M.I.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we describe a compact, economical, easy to manage auto air ozonator developed at the Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT. It is designed for sanitation, disinfection of premises and cleaning the air from foreign odors. A distinctive feature of the developed device is the generation of a given concentration of ozone, approximately 0.7 maximum allowable concentration (MAC), and automatic maintenance of a specified level. This allows people to be inside the processed premises during operation. The microprocessor controller to control the operation of the ozonator was developed

  11. Stratospheric impact on tropospheric ozone variability and trends: 1990–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. Hess

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of stratospheric ozone on the interannual variability and trends in tropospheric ozone is evaluated between 30 and 90° N from 1990–2009 using ozone measurements and a global chemical transport model, the Community Atmospheric Model with chemistry (CAM-chem. Long-term measurements from ozonesondes, at 150 and 500 hPa, and the Measurements of OZone and water vapour by in-service Airbus aircraft programme (MOZAIC, at 500 hPa, are analyzed over Japan, Canada, the Eastern US and Northern and Central Europe. The measurements generally emphasize northern latitudes, although the simulation suggests that measurements over the Canadian, Northern and Central European regions are representative of the large-scale interannual ozone variability from 30 to 90° N at 500 hPa. CAM-chem is run with input meteorology from the National Center for Environmental Prediction; a tagging methodology is used to identify the stratospheric contribution to tropospheric ozone concentrations. A variant of the synthetic ozone tracer (synoz is used to represent stratospheric ozone. Both the model and measurements indicate that on large spatial scales stratospheric interannual ozone variability drives significant tropospheric variability at 500 hPa and the surface. In particular, the simulation and the measurements suggest large stratospheric influence at the surface sites of Mace Head (Ireland and Jungfraujoch (Switzerland as well as many 500 hPa measurement locations. Both the measurements and simulation suggest the stratosphere has contributed to tropospheric ozone trends. In many locations between 30–90° N 500 hPa ozone significantly increased from 1990–2000, but has leveled off since (from 2000–2009. The simulated global ozone budget suggests global stratosphere-troposphere exchange increased in 1998–1999 in association with a global ozone anomaly. Discrepancies between the simulated and measured ozone budget include a large underestimation of

  12. Comparative study of ozonized olive oil and ozonized sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz Maritza F.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the ozonized olive and sunflower oils are chemical and microbiologically compared. These oils were introduced into a reactor with bubbling ozone gas in a water bath at room temperature until they were solidified. The peroxide, acidity and iodine values along with antimicrobial activity were determined. Ozonization effects on the fatty acid composition of these oils were analyzed using Gas-Liquid Chromatographic Technique. An increase in peroxidation and acidity values was observed in both oils but they were higher in ozonized sunflower oil. Iodine value was zero in ozonized olive oil whereas in ozonized sunflower was 8.8 g Iodine per 100 g. The antimicrobial activity was similar for both ozonized oils except for Minimum Bactericidal Concentrations of Pseudomona aeruginosa. Composition of fatty acids in both ozonized oils showed gradual decrease in unsaturated fatty acids (C18:1, C18:2 with gradual increase in ozone doses.

  13. Impact of orphan drugs on Latvian budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logviss, Konstantins; Krievins, Dainis; Purvina, Santa

    2016-05-11

    Number of orphan medicinal products on the market and number of rare disease patients, taking these usually expensive products, are increasing. As a result, budget impact of orphan drugs is growing. This factor, along with the cost-effectiveness of orphan drugs, is often considered in the reimbursement decisions, directly affecting accessibility of rare disease therapies. The current study aims to assess the budget impact of orphan drugs in Latvia. Our study covered a 5-year period, from 2010 to 2014. Impact of orphan drugs on Latvian budget was estimated from the National Health Service's perspective. It was calculated in absolute values and relative to total pharmaceutical market and total drug reimbursement budget. A literature review was performed for comparison with other European countries. Orphan drug annual expenditure ranged between EUR 2.065 and 3.065 million, with total 5-year expenditure EUR 12.467 million. It constituted, on average, 0.84 % of total pharmaceutical market and 2.14 % of total drug reimbursement budget, respectively. Average annual per patient expenditures varied widely, from EUR 1 534 to EUR 580 952. The most costly treatment was enzyme replacement therapy (Elaprase) for MPS II. Glivec had the highest share (34 %) of the total orphan drug expenditure. Oncological drugs represented more than a half of the total orphan drug expenditure, followed by drugs for metabolic and endocrine conditions and medicines for cardiopulmonary diseases. Three indications: Ph+ CML, MPS II, and PAH accounted for nearly 90 % of the total orphan drug expenditure. Budget impact of orphan drugs in Latvia is very small. It increased slightly over a period of five years, due to the slight increase in the number of patients and the number of orphan drugs reimbursed. Current Latvian drug reimbursement system is not sufficient for most orphan drugs.

  14. Ozone autohaemotherapy protects against ketamine hydrochloride ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ozone is currently under scrutiny because of various claims of beneficial effect in disease. In order to shed some light on this we assessed the acute and chronic effect of O3 autohaemotherapy (AHT) on liver and muscle damage in baboons. Five percent of the total blood volume of a baboon was treated with O2 and O3.

  15. Secondary ozone peaks in the troposphere over the Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ojha

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Layers with strongly enhanced ozone concentrations in the middle–upper troposphere, referred to as secondary ozone peaks (SOPs, have been observed in different regions of the world. Here we use the global ECHAM5/MESSy atmospheric chemistry model (EMAC to (i investigate the processes causing SOPs, (ii explore both their frequency of occurrence and seasonality, and (iii assess their effects on the tropospheric ozone budget over the Himalayas. The vertical profiles of potential vorticity (PV and a stratospheric ozone tracer (O3s in EMAC simulations, in conjunction with the structure of SOPs, suggest that SOPs over the Himalayas are formed by stratosphere-to-troposphere transport (STT of ozone. The spatial distribution of O3s further shows that such effects are in general most pronounced in the northern part of India. Model simulated ozone distributions and backward air trajectories show that ozone rich air masses, associated with STT, originate as far as northern Africa and the North Atlantic Ocean, the Middle East, as well as in nearby regions in Afghanistan and Pakistan, and are rapidly (within 2–3 days transported to the Himalayas. Analysis of a 15-year (2000–2014 EMAC simulation shows that the frequency of SOPs is highest during the pre-monsoon season (e.g. 11 % of the time in May, while no intense SOP events are found during the July–October period. The SOPs are estimated to enhance the tropospheric column ozone (TCO over the central Himalayas by up to 21 %.

  16. Addressing Ozone Layer Depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Access information on EPA's efforts to address ozone layer depletion through regulations, collaborations with stakeholders, international treaties, partnerships with the private sector, and enforcement actions under Title VI of the Clean Air Act.

  17. Ozone Therapy in Dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domb, William C

    2014-01-01

    Summary The 21st century dental practice is quite dynamic. New treatment protocols and new materials are being developed at a rapid pace. Ozone dental therapy falls into the category of new treatment protocols in dentistry, yet ozone is not new at all. Ozone therapy is already a major treatment modality in Europe, South America and a number of other countries. What is provided here will not be an exhaustive scientific treatise so much as a brief general introduction into what dentists are now doing with ozone therapies and the numerous oral/systemic links that make this subject so important for physicians so that, ultimately, they may serve their patients more effectively and productively. PMID:25363268

  18. Ozone health effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easterly, C.

    1994-01-01

    Ozone is a principal component of photochemical air pollution endogenous to numerous metropolitan areas. It is primarily formed by the oxidation of NOx in the presence of sunlight and reactive organic compounds. Ozone is a highly active oxidizing agent capable of causing injury to the lung. Lung injury may take the form of irritant effects on the respiratory tract that impair pulmonary function and result in subjective symptoms of respiratory discomfort. These symptoms include, but are not limited to, cough and shortness of breath, and they can limit exercise performance. The effects of ozone observed in humans have been primarily limited to alterations in respiratory function, and a range of respiratory physiological parameters have been measured as a function of ozone exposure in adults and children. These affects have been observed under widely varying (clinical experimental and environmental settings) conditions

  19. 2001 Ozone Design Value

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Ozone is generated by a complex atmoshperic chemical process. Industrial and automobile pollutants in the form of oxides of nitrogen and hydrocarbons react in the...

  20. Occurrence of ozone anomalies over cloudy areas in TOMS version-7 level-2 data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Liu

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates anomalous ozone distributions over cloudy areas in Nimbus-7 (N7 and Earth-Probe (EP TOMS version-7 data and analyzes the causes for ozone anomaly formation. A 5°-longitude by 5°-latitude region is defined to contain a Positive Ozone Anomaly (POA or Negative Ozone Anomaly (NOA if the correlation coefficient between total ozone and reflectivity is > 0.5 or -0.5. The average fractions of ozone anomalies among all cloud fields are 31.8 ± 7.7% and 35.8 ± 7.7% in the N7 and EP TOMS data, respectively. Some ozone anomalies are caused by ozone retrieval errors, and others are caused by actual geophysical phenomena. Large cloud-height errors are found in the TOMS version-7 algorithm in comparison to the Temperature Humidity Infrared Radiometer (THIR cloud data. On average, cloud-top pressures are overestimated by ~200 hPa (THIR cloud-top pressure 200 hPa for high-altitude clouds and underestimated by ~150 hPa for low-altitude clouds (THIR cloud-top pressure > 750 hPa. Most tropical NOAs result from negative errors induced by large cloud-height errors, and most tropical POAs are caused by positive errors due to intra-cloud ozone absorption enhancement. However, positive and negative errors offset each other, reducing the ozone anomaly occurrence in TOMS data. Large ozone/reflectivity slopes for mid-latitude POAs show seasonal variation consistent with total ozone fluctuation, indicating that they result mainly from synoptic and planetary wave disturbances. POAs with an occurrence fraction of 30--60% occur in regions of marine stratocumulus off the west coast of South Africa and off the west coast of South America. Both fractions and ozone/reflectivity slopes of these POAs show seasonal variations consistent with that in the tropospheric ozone. About half the ozone/reflectivity slope can be explained by ozone retrieval errors over clear and cloudy areas. The remaining slope may result from there being more ozone production

  1. Verification of uncertainty budgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj; Madsen, B.S.

    2005-01-01

    , and therefore it is essential that the applicability of the overall uncertainty budget to actual measurement results be verified on the basis of current experimental data. This should be carried out by replicate analysis of samples taken in accordance with the definition of the measurand, but representing...... the full range of matrices and concentrations for which the budget is assumed to be valid. In this way the assumptions made in the uncertainty budget can be experimentally verified, both as regards sources of variability that are assumed negligible, and dominant uncertainty components. Agreement between...

  2. The ozone backlash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taubes, G.

    1993-01-01

    While evidence for the role of chlorofluorocarbons in ozone depletion grows stronger, researchers have recently been subjected to vocal public criticism of their theories-and their motives. Their understanding of the mechanisms of ozone destruction-especially the annual ozone hole that appears in the Antarctic-has grown stronger, yet everywhere they go these days, they seem to be confronted by critics attacking their theories as baseless. For instance, Rush Limbaugh, the conservative political talk-show host and now-best-selling author of The Way Things Ought to Be, regularly insists that the theory of ozone depletion by CFCs is a hoax: bladerdash and poppycock. Zoologist Dixy Lee Ray, former governor of the state of Washington and former head of the Atomic Energy Commission, makes the same argument in her book, Trashing the Planet. The Wall Street Journal and National Review have run commentaries by S. Fred Singer, a former chief scientists for the Department of Transportation, purporting to shoot holes in the theory of ozone depletion. Even the June issue of Omni, a magazine with a circulation of more than 1 million that publishes a mixture of science and science fiction, printed a feature article claiming to expose ozone research as a politically motivated scam

  3. Ozone depletion calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luther, F.M.; Chang, J.S.; Wuebbles, D.J.; Penner, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    Models of stratospheric chemistry have been primarily directed toward an understanding of the behavior of stratospheric ozone. Initially this interest reflected the diagnostic role of ozone in the understanding of atmospheric transport processes. More recently, interest in stratospheric ozone has arisen from concern that human activities might affect the amount of stratospheric ozone, thereby affecting the ultraviolet radiation reaching the earth's surface and perhaps also affecting the climate with various potentially severe consequences for human welfare. This concern has inspired a substantial effort to develop both diagnostic and prognostic models of stratospheric ozone. During the past decade, several chemical agents have been determined to have potentially significant impacts on stratospheric ozone if they are released to the atmosphere in large quantities. These include oxides of nitrogen, oxides of hydrogen, chlorofluorocarbons, bromine compounds, fluorine compounds and carbon dioxide. In order to assess the potential impact of the perturbations caused by these chemicals, mathematical models have been developed to handle the complex coupling between chemical, radiative, and dynamical processes. Basic concepts in stratospheric modeling are reviewed

  4. FY 1997 congressional budget request: Budget highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This is an overview of the 1997 budget request for the US DOE. The topics of the overview include a policy overview, the budget by business line, business lines by organization, crosswalk from business line to appropriation, summary by appropriation, energy supply research and development, uranium supply and enrichment activities, uranium enrichment decontamination and decommissioning fund, general science and research, weapons activities, defense environmental restoration and waste management, defense nuclear waste disposal, departmental administration, Office of the Inspector General, power marketing administrations, Federal Energy Regulatory commission, nuclear waste disposal fund, fossil energy research and development, naval petroleum and oil shale reserves, energy conservation, economic regulation, strategic petroleum reserve, energy information administration, clean coal technology and a Department of Energy Field Facilities map.

  5. USGS budget request up for 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, M. Catherine

    The president's U.S. Geological Survey budget request for fiscal year 1994 totals $598 million—up $20 million from the current budget. This would restore about half of the $42.46 million cut from its budget in fiscal 1993.In releasing the budget, Bruce Babbitt, Secretary of the Department of the Interior, said, “The USGS reflects the new administration's understanding that investing in America requires investing in a strong Earth science capability,” and that “we need high-quality scientific information on natural hazards and on our water, mineral, energy, and land resources to serve as the building blocks for making intelligent decisions and planning future growth.”

  6. Measurements of hydroxyl and hydroperoxy radicals during CalNex-LA: Model comparisons and radical budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, S. M.; Hansen, R. F.; Dusanter, S.; Michoud, V.; Gilman, J. B.; Kuster, W. C.; Veres, P. R.; Graus, M.; de Gouw, J. A.; Roberts, J.; Young, C.; Washenfelder, R.; Brown, S. S.; Thalman, R.; Waxman, E.; Volkamer, R.; Tsai, C.; Stutz, J.; Flynn, J. H.; Grossberg, N.; Lefer, B.; Alvarez, S. L.; Rappenglueck, B.; Mielke, L. H.; Osthoff, H. D.; Stevens, P. S.

    2016-04-01

    Measurements of hydroxyl (OH) and hydroperoxy (HO2*) radical concentrations were made at the Pasadena ground site during the CalNex-LA 2010 campaign using the laser-induced fluorescence-fluorescence assay by gas expansion technique. The measured concentrations of OH and HO2* exhibited a distinct weekend effect, with higher radical concentrations observed on the weekends corresponding to lower levels of nitrogen oxides (NOx). The radical measurements were compared to results from a zero-dimensional model using the Regional Atmospheric Chemical Mechanism-2 constrained by NOx and other measured trace gases. The chemical model overpredicted measured OH concentrations during the weekends by a factor of approximately 1.4 ± 0.3 (1σ), but the agreement was better during the weekdays (ratio of 1.0 ± 0.2). Model predicted HO2* concentrations underpredicted by a factor of 1.3 ± 0.2 on the weekends, while measured weekday concentrations were underpredicted by a factor of 3.0 ± 0.5. However, increasing the modeled OH reactivity to match the measured total OH reactivity improved the overall agreement for both OH and HO2* on all days. A radical budget analysis suggests that photolysis of carbonyls and formaldehyde together accounted for approximately 40% of radical initiation with photolysis of nitrous acid accounting for 30% at the measurement height and ozone photolysis contributing less than 20%. An analysis of the ozone production sensitivity reveals that during the week, ozone production was limited by volatile organic compounds throughout the day during the campaign but NOx limited during the afternoon on the weekends.

  7. Ozone decomposition kinetics on alumina: effects of ozone partial pressure, relative humidity and repeated oxidation cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Sullivan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The room temperature kinetics of gas-phase ozone loss via heterogeneous interactions with thin alumina films has been studied in real-time using 254nm absorption spectroscopy to monitor ozone concentrations. The films were prepared from dispersions of fine alumina powder in methanol and their surface areas were determined by an in situ procedure using adsorption of krypton at 77K. The alumina was found to lose reactivity with increasing ozone exposure. However, some of the lost reactivity could be recovered over timescales of days in an environment free of water, ozone and carbon dioxide. From multiple exposures of ozone to the same film, it was found that the number of active sites is large, greater than 1.4x1014 active sites per cm2 of surface area or comparable to the total number of surface sites. The films maintain some reactivity at this point, which is consistent with there being some degree of active site regeneration during the experiment and with ozone loss being catalytic to some degree. The initial uptake coefficients on fresh films were found to be inversely dependent on the ozone concentration, varying from roughly 10-6 for ozone concentrations of 1014 molecules/cm3 to 10-5 at 1013 molecules/cm3. The initial uptake coefficients were not dependent on the relative humidity, up to 75%, within the precision of the experiment. The reaction mechanism is discussed, as well as the implications these results have for assessing the effect of mineral dust on atmospheric oxidant levels.

  8. A case study to determine the efficacy of ozonation in purification ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was found that pre- and intermediate ozonation had no significant effect on pH, conductivity, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and total organic carbon (TOC). Chlorophyll-a, total chlorophyll, spectral absorbance coefficient (SAC 254) and total algal cells were not influenced by pre-ozonation (as desired) but were greatly ...

  9. Ozone: The secret greenhouse gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berntsen, Terje; Tjernshaugen, Andreas

    2001-01-01

    The atmospheric ozone not only protects against harmful ultraviolet radiation; it also contributes to the greenhouse effect. Ozone is one of the jokers to make it difficult to calculate the climatic effect of anthropogenic emissions. The greenhouse effect and the ozone layer should not be confused. The greenhouse effect creates problems when it becomes enhanced, so that the earth becomes warmer. The problem with the ozone layer, on the contrary, is that it becomes thinner and so more of the harmful ultraviolet radiation gets through to the earth. However, ozone is also a greenhouse gas and so the greenhouse effect and the ozone layer are connected

  10. Budget Automation System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — BAS is the central Agency system used to integrate strategic planning, annual planning, budgeting and financial management. BAS contains resource (dollars and FTE),...

  11. Water Budget Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you're designing a new landscape or rethinking your current one, the WaterSense Water Budget Tool will tell you if you have designed a landscape that will use an appropriate amount of water for your climate.

  12. Global Carbon Budget 2017

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Quere, Corinne; Andrew, Robbie M.; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Sitch, Stephen; Pongratz, Julia; Manning, Andrew C.; Korsbakken, Jan Ivar; Peters, Glen P.; Canadell, Josep G.; Jackson, Robert B.; Boden, Thomas A.; Tans, Pieter P.; Andrews, Oliver D.; Arora, Vivek K.; Bakker, Dorothee C. E.; Barbero, Leticia; Becker, Meike; Betts, Richard A.; Bopp, Laurent; Chevallier, Frederic; Chini, Louise P.; Ciais, Philippe; Cosca, Catherine E.; Cross, Jessica; Currie, Kim; Gasser, Thomas; Harris, Ian; Hauck, Judith; Haverd, Vanessa; Houghton, Richard A.; Hunt, Christopher W.; Hurtt, George; Ilyina, Tatiana; Jain, Atul K.; Kato, Etsushi; Kautz, Markus; Keeling, Ralph F.; Goldewijk, Kees Klein; Koertzinger, Arne; Landschuetzer, Peter; Lefevre, Nathalie; Lenton, Andrew; Lienert, Sebastian; Lima, Ivan; Lombardozzi, Danica; Metzl, Nicolas; Millero, Frank; Monteiro, Pedro M. S.; Munro, David R.; Nabel, Julia E. M. S.; Nakaoka, Shin-ichiro; Nojiri, Yukihiro; Padin, X. Antonio; Peregon, Anna; Pfeil, Benjamin; Pierrot, Denis; Poulter, Benjamin; Rehder, Gregor; Reimer, Janet; Roedenbeck, Christian; Schwinger, Jorg; Seferian, Roland; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Stocker, Benjamin D.; Tian, Hanqin; Tilbrook, Bronte; Tubiello, Francesco N.; van der Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid T.; van der Werf, Guido R.; van Heuven, Steven; Viovy, Nicolas; Vuichard, Nicolas; Walker, Anthony P.; Watson, Andrew J.; Wiltshire, Andrew J.; Zaehle, Soenke; Zhu, Dan

    2018-01-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere - the "global carbon budget" - is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project

  13. Jackson Revenue Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    City of Jackson, Mississippi — This dataset shows the City of Jackson's FY2017 revenue budget, revenue collected to date, and the balance remaining to be collected. The data can be broken down by...

  14. Budget and Actuals

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — This dataset contains the Town's Year-to-Date Budget and Actuals for Fiscal Years 2016, 2017, and 2018. Fiscal years run from July 1 to June 30. The data comes from...

  15. Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller) > Budget Materials > Budget1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    functionalStatements OUSD(C) History FMR Budget Materials Budget Execution Financial Management Improving Financial Performance Reports Regulations banner DoD Budget Request 2019 | 2018 | 2017 |2016 | 2015 | 2014 | 2013 | 2012 President's Budget request for the Department of Defense sustains the President's commitment to invest in

  16. A New Approach in Public Budgeting: Citizens' Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilge, Semih

    2015-01-01

    Change and transformation in the understanding and definition of citizenship has led to the emergence of citizen-oriented public service approach. This approach also raised a new term and concept in the field of public budgeting because of the transformation in the processes of public budgeting: citizens' budget. The citizens' budget which seeks…

  17. The Budget as a Management Tool: Zero Base Budgeting, Panacea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria has been experiencing difficulties in Budget implementation. The objective of this article is to present alternative forms of budgeting and after exposition on them, to recommend one that could mitigate budget implementation problem for Nigeria. Two types of budgeting addressed are incremental and zero-base.

  18. European Union Budget Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele

    2015-01-01

    The marginal involvement of the European Union (EU) in redistributive policies and its limited fiscal resources have led to a notable lack of attention by EU scholars towards the EU budget and its dynamics. Yet the nature of the budgetary data and their high usability for statistical analysis make...... to form winning coalitions in the Council, the ideological positioning of the co-legislators and the inclusion of the cohesion countries have played a significant role in driving budget change....

  19. Stratospheric ozone measurements at Arosa (Switzerland): history and scientific relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staehelin, Johannes; Viatte, Pierre; Stübi, Rene; Tummon, Fiona; Peter, Thomas

    2018-05-01

    Climatic Observatory (LKO) in Arosa (Switzerland), marking the beginning of the world's longest series of total (or column) ozone measurements. They were driven by the recognition that atmospheric ozone is important for human health, as well as by scientific curiosity about what was, at the time, an ill characterised atmospheric trace gas. From around the mid-1950s to the beginning of the 1970s studies of high atmosphere circulation patterns that could improve weather forecasting was justification for studying stratospheric ozone. In the mid-1970s, a paradigm shift occurred when it became clear that the damaging effects of anthropogenic ozone-depleting substances (ODSs), such as long-lived chlorofluorocarbons, needed to be documented. This justified continuing the ground-based measurements of stratospheric ozone. Levels of ODSs peaked around the mid-1990s as a result of a global environmental policy to protect the ozone layer, implemented through the 1987 Montreal Protocol and its subsequent amendments and adjustments. Consequently, chemical destruction of stratospheric ozone started to slow around the mid-1990s. To some extent, this raises the question as to whether continued ozone observation is indeed necessary. In the last decade there has been a tendency to reduce the costs associated with making ozone measurements globally including at Arosa. However, the large natural variability in ozone on diurnal, seasonal, and interannual scales complicates the capacity for demonstrating the success of the Montreal Protocol. Chemistry-climate models also predict a super-recovery of the ozone layer at mid-latitudes in the second half of this century, i.e. an increase of ozone concentrations beyond pre-1970 levels, as a consequence of ongoing climate change. These factors, and identifying potentially unexpected stratospheric responses to climate change, support the continued need to document stratospheric ozone changes. This is particularly valuable at the Arosa site, due

  20. On the Size of the Antarctic Ozone Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Paul A.; Nash, Eric R.; Kawa, S. Randolph

    2002-01-01

    The Antarctic ozone hole is a region of extremely large ozone depletion that is roughly centered over the South Pole. Since 1979, the area coverage of the ozone hole has grown from near zero size to over 24 Million sq km. In the 8-year period from 1981 to 1989, the area expanded by 18 Million sq km. During the last 5 years, the hole has been observed to exceed 25 Million sq km over brief periods. In the spring of 2002, the size of the ozone hole barely reached 20 Million sq km for only a couple of days. We will review these size observations, the size trends, and the interannual variability of the size. The area is derived from the area enclosed by the 220 DU total ozone contour. We will discuss the rationale for the choice of 220 DU: 1) it is located near the steep gradient between southern mid-latitudes and the polar region, and 2) 220 DU is a value that is lower than the pre-1979 ozone observations over Antarctica during the spring period. The phenomenal growth of the ozone hole was directly caused by the increases of chlorine and bromine compounds in the stratosphere. In this talk, we will show the relationship of the ozone hole's size to the interannual variability of Antarctic spring temperatures. In addition, we will show the relationship of these same temperatures to planetary-scale wave forcings.

  1. Fate of return activated sludge after ozonation: an optimization study for sludge disintegration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Ozlem; Filibeli, Ayse

    2012-09-01

    The effects of ozonation on sludge disintegration should be investigated before the application of ozone during biological treatment, in order to minimize excess sludge production. In this study, changes in sludge and supernatant after ozonation of return activated sludge were investigated for seven different ozone doses. The optimum ozone dose to avoid inhibition of ozonation and high ozone cost was determined in terms of disintegration degree as 0.05 g O3/gTS. Suspended solid and volatile suspended solid concentrations of sludge decreased by 77.8% and 71.6%, respectively, at the optimum ozone dose. Ozonation significantly decomposed sludge flocs. The release of cell contents was proved by the increase of supernatant total nitrogen (TN) and phosphorus (TP). While TN increased from 7 mg/L to 151 mg/L, TP increased from 8.8 to 33 mg/L at the optimum ozone dose. The dewaterability and filterability characteristics of the ozonated sludge were also examined. Capillary suction time increased with increasing ozone dosage, but specific resistance to filtration increased to a specific value and then decreased dramatically. The particle size distribution changed significantly as a result of floc disruption at an optimum dose of 0.05 gO3/gTS.

  2. Impact of parameterization choices on the restitution of ozone deposition over vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Morvan-Quéméner, Aurélie; Coll, Isabelle; Kammer, Julien; Lamaud, Eric; Loubet, Benjamin; Personne, Erwan; Stella, Patrick

    2018-04-01

    Ozone is a potentially phyto-toxic air pollutant, which can cause leaf damage and drastically alter crop yields, causing serious economic losses around the world. The VULNOZ (VULNerability to OZone in Anthropised Ecosystems) project is a biology and modeling project that aims to understand how plants respond to the stress of high ozone concentrations, then use a set of models to (i) predict the impact of ozone on plant growth, (ii) represent ozone deposition fluxes to vegetation, and finally (iii) estimate the economic consequences of an increasing ozone background the future. In this work, as part of the VULNOZ project, an innovative representation of ozone deposition to vegetation was developed and implemented in the CHIMERE regional chemistry-transport model. This type of model calculates the average amount of ozone deposited on a parcel each hour, as well as the integrated amount of ozone deposited to the surface at the regional or country level. Our new approach was based on a refinement of the representation of crop types in the model and the use of empirical parameters specific to each crop category. The results obtained were compared with a conventional ozone deposition modeling approach, and evaluated against observations from several agricultural areas in France. They showed that a better representation of the distribution between stomatal and non-stomatal ozone fluxes was obtained in the empirical approach, and they allowed us to produce a new estimate of the total amount of ozone deposited on the subtypes of vegetation at the national level.

  3. Enhanced effect of suction-cavitation on the ozonation of phenol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Zhilin; Franke, Marcus; Ondruschka, Bernd; Zhang, Yongchun; Ren Yanze; Braeutigam, Patrick; Wang, Weimin

    2011-01-01

    800 mL of 1.0 mM phenol-containing aqueous solution was circulated at 20 ° C for 30 min in a suction-reactor, while 3.2 mg min -1 ozone was introduced into the solution under the suction orifice. The removal rates of phenol vary polynomially with the orifice diameter as well as the suction pressure. The rate constant for the zero-order kinetics achieves the highest value at -0.070 MPa by using 5 mm orifice. Although the suction-cavitation alone cannot remove phenol in 30 min, it can considerably enhance the ozonation of phenol. The rate constants for the zero-order kinetics by the simple ozonation and the combined method are 0.018 and 0.028 min -1 , respectively. Furthermore, no ozone was observed in the tail gas during the first 15 min for the ozonation in the suction reactor, and then the concentration of unreacted ozone slowly increased, indicating that the utilization rate of ozone is significantly improved by the suction-cavitation. The increasing input concentration of ozone obviously accelerates the ozonation of phenol, but the total required quantities of ozone are very close by various ozone input concentrations to reach the same degradation rate, indicating the ozonation assisted by the suction-cavitation can be considered as a quantitative reaction.

  4. Reactor safety and radiation protection. Draft of the BMU deparmental budget 16 of the 1998 German federal budget

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    The expenditures earmarked for reactor safety and radiation protection in the 1998 budget of the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, and Reactor Safety (BMU) total DM 101 million. The expenditures of the German Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) are to amount to a total of DM 579 million. These are the figures included in departmental budget 16 of the 1998 federal budget, which was discussed by the Federal Parliament in September 1997. The atw compilation singles out a number of significant items of the departmental budget. (orig.) [de

  5. Ozone modeling within plasmas for ozone sensor applications

    OpenAIRE

    Arshak, Khalil; Forde, Edward; Guiney, Ivor

    2007-01-01

    peer-reviewed Ozone (03) is potentially hazardous to human health and accurate prediction and measurement of this gas is essential in addressing its associated health risks. This paper presents theory to predict the levels of ozone concentration emittedfrom a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma for ozone sensing applications. This is done by postulating the kinetic model for ozone generation, with a DBD plasma at atmospheric pressure in air, in the form of a set of rate equations....

  6. BUDGET AND PUBLIC DEBT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morar Ioan Dan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of public budgeting is an important issue for public policy of the state, for the simple reason that no money from the state budget can not promote public policy. Budgetary policy is official government Doctrine vision mirror and also represents a starting point for other public policies, which in turn are financed by the public budget. Fiscal policy instruments at its disposal handles the public sector in its structure, and the private sector. Tools such as grant, budgetary allocation, tax, welfare under various forms, direct investments and not least the state aid is used by the state through their budgetary policies to directly and indirectly infuence sector, and the private. Fiscal policies can be grouped according to the structure of the public sector in these components, namely fiscal policy, budgeting and resource allocation policies for financing the budget deficit. An important issue is the financing of the budget deficit budgetary policies. There are two funding possibilities, namely, the higher taxes or more axles site and enter the second call to public loans. Both options involve extra effort from taxpayers in the current fiscal year when they pay higher taxes or a future period when public loans will be repaid. We know that by virtue of "fiscal pact" structural deficits of the member countries of the EU are limited by the European Commission, according to the macro structural stability and budget of each Member State. This problem tempers to some extent the governments of the Member States budgetary appetite, but does not solve the problem of chronic budget deficits. Another issue addressed in this paper is related to the public debt, the absolute amount of its relative level of public datoriri, about the size of GDP, public debt financing and its repayment sources. Sources of public debt issuance and monetary impact on the budget and monetary stability are variables that must underpin the justification of budgetary

  7. CONTRIBUTION TO INDOOR OZONE LEVELS OF AN OZONE GENERATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report gives results of a study of a commonly used commercially available ozone generator, undertaken to determine its impact on indoor ozone levels. xperiment were conducted in a typical mechanically ventilated office and in a test house. he generated ozone and the in-room ...

  8. Ozone-depleting Substances (ODS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This site includes all of the ozone-depleting substances (ODS) recognized by the Montreal Protocol. The data include ozone depletion potentials (ODP), global warming...

  9. Air Quality Guide for Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    GO! Local Air Quality Conditions Zip Code: State : My Current Location Air Quality Guide for Ozone Ground-level ozone is one of our nation’s most common air pollutants. Use the chart below to help reduce ...

  10. Health Effects of Ozone Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhaling ozone can cause coughing, shortness of breath, worse asthma or bronchitis symptoms, and irritation and damage to airways.You can reduce your exposure to ozone pollution by checking air quality where you live.

  11. Distribution and urban-suburban differences in ground-level ozone and its precursors over Shenyang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ningwei; Ren, Wanhui; Li, Xiaolan; Ma, Xiaogang; Zhang, Yunhai; Li, Bingkun

    2018-03-01

    Hourly mixing ratio data of ground-level ozone and its main precursors at ambient air quality monitoring sites in Shenyang during 2013-2015 were used to survey spatiotemporal variations in ozone. Then, the transport of ozone and its precursors among urban, suburban, and rural sites was examined. The correlations between ozone and some key meteorological factors were also investigated. Ozone and O x mixing ratios in Shenyang were higher during warm seasons and lower during cold ones, while ozone precursors followed the opposite cycle. Ozone mixing ratios reached maximum and minimum values in the afternoon and morning, respectively, reflecting the significant influence of photochemical production during daytime and depletion via titration during nighttime. Compared to those in downtown Shenyang, ozone mixing ratios were higher and the occurrence of peak values were later in suburban and rural areas downwind of the prevailing wind. The differences were most significant in summer, when the ozone mixing ratios at one suburban downwind site reached a maximum value of 35.6 ppb higher than those at the downtown site. This suggests that photochemical production processes were significant during the transport of ozone precursors, particularly in warm seasons with sufficient sunlight. Temperature, total radiation, and wind speed all displayed positive correlations with ozone concentration, reflecting their important role in accelerating ozone formation. Generally, the correlations between ozone and meteorological factors were slightly stronger at suburban sites than in urban areas, indicating that ozone levels in suburban areas were more sensitive to these meteorological factors.

  12. Measurements of total OH reactivity during PROPHET-AMOS 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickly, P.; Sakowski, J.; Bottorff, B.; Lew, M.; Stevens, P. S.; Sklaveniti, S.; Locoge, N.; Dusanter, S.

    2017-12-01

    As one of the main oxidant in the atmosphere, the hydroxyl radical (OH) initiates the oxidation of volatile organic compounds that can lead to the formation of ozone and secondary organic aerosols. Understanding both the sources and sinks of OH is therefore important to address issues related to air quality and climate change. Measurements of total OH reactivity can provide an important test of our understanding of the OH radical budget. Recent measurements of total reactivity in many environments have been greater than calculated based on the measured concentration of VOCs, suggesting that important OH sinks in these environments are not well characterized. Measurements of total OH reactivity were performed in a forested environment during the PROPHET - AMOS field campaign (Program for Research on Oxidants: PHotochemisty, Emissions, and Transport - Atmospheric Measurements of Oxidants in Summer) using the Comparative Reactivity Method (CRM) and the Total OH Loss Rate Method (TOHLM). The site is characterized by large emissions of isoprene and monoterpenes and low anthropogenic influence. Measurements of total OH reactivity using these two techniques agree to within their respective uncertainties, giving confidence in the measured OH reactivity. In addition, measurements of trace gases (VOCs, NOx, O3) were used to perform a comprehensive apportionment of OH sinks. These measurements are used in a chemical model using the Master Chemical Mechanism to calculate the expected OH reactivity. The results will be compared to previous measurements of total OH reactivity at this site.

  13. Ozone bioindicator sampling and estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gretchen C, Smith; William D. Smith; John W. Coulston

    2007-01-01

    Ozone is an important forest stressor that has been measured at known phytotoxic levels at forest locations across the United States. The percent forest exhibiting negative impacts from ozone air pollution is one of the Montreal Process indicators of forest health and vitality. The ozone bioindicator data of the U.S. Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis Program...

  14. Ozonated Olive Oils and Troubles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulent Uysal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the commonly used methods for ozone therapy is ozonated oils. Most prominent type of used oils is extra virgin olive oil. But still, each type of unsaturated oils may be used for ozonation. There are a lot of wrong knowledge on the internet about ozonated oils and its use as well. Just like other ozone therapy studies, also the studies about ozone oils are inadequate to avoid incorrect knowledge. Current data about ozone oil and its benefits are produced by supplier who oversees financial interests and make misinformation. Despite the rapidly increasing ozone oil sales through the internet, its quality and efficacy is still controversial. Dozens of companies and web sites may be easily found to buy ozonated oil. But, very few of these products are reliable, and contain sufficiently ozonated oil. This article aimed to introduce the troubles about ozonated oils and so to inform ozonated oil users. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2014; 3(2.000: 49-50

  15. Ozonation for source treatment of pharmaceuticals in hospital wastewater - ozone lifetime and required ozone dose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kamilla Marie Speht; Spiliotopoulou, Aikaterini; Chhetri, Ravi Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Ozonation aimed at removing pharmaceuticals was studied in an effluent from an experimental pilot system using staged moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) tanks for the optimal biological treatment of wastewater from a medical care unit of Aarhus University Hospital. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC......) and pH in samples varied considerably, and the effect of these two parameters on ozone lifetime and the efficiency of ozone in removing pharmaceuticals were determined. The pH in the effluent varied from 5.0 to 9.0 resulting in approximately a doubling of the required ozone dose at the highest p......H for each pharmaceutical. DOC varied from 6 to 20 mg-DOC/L. The ozone required for removing each pharmaceutical, varied linearly with DOC and thus, ozone doses normalized to DOC (specific ozone dose) agreed between water samples (typically within 15%). At neutral pH the specific ozone dose required...

  16. Satellite spectrophotometer for research of the atmospheric ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Getzov, P.; Mardirossian, G.; Stoyanov, S.

    2014-01-01

    The measurement of atmospheric ozone and its influence upon climate and life on Earth is undoubtedly one of the most pressing issues of present time. A mathematical model of an optical tract of a spectrophotometer has been designed. The paper presents the functional scheme of a satellite optoelectronic spectrophotometer for measuring the total content of atmospheric ozone and other gas components of the atmosphere, which has increased precision, smaller weight and energy consumption, increased space and time resolution, quickness of reaction and increased volume of useful information. The object of the paper is the design of an appliance which ensures research of ozone content in atmosphere from the board of a satellite

  17. Tropospheric ozone and biomass burning in intertropical Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cros, B.; Nganga, D.; Delmas, R.A.; Fontan, J.

    1991-01-01

    To obtain a better understanding of tropospheric ozone's behavior in the equatorial belt of Africa, surface ozone measurements were made in the northern Congo (forest region) and on the other side of the equator in a savanna area. The data show a seasonal cycle with maximum values during the dry season: January and February in the northern tropics and June to October in the southern ones. Satellite data are needed to explain the eventual disappearance or non-appearance of a maximum of total tropospheric ozone during the northern dry season

  18. Ozone Technology for Pathogenic Bacteria of Shrimp (Vibrio sp.) Disinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulansarie, Ria; Dyah Pita Rengga, Wara; Rustamadji

    2018-03-01

    One of important marine commodities in Indonesia, shrimps are susceptible with Vibrio sp bacteria infection. That infection must be cleared. One of the technologies for disinfecting Vibrio sp. is ozone technology. In this research, Vibrio sp. is a pathogenic bacterium which infects Penaeus vannamei. Ozone technology is applied for threatening Vibrio sp. In this research, ozonation was performed in different pH. Those are neutral, acid (pH=4), and base (pH=9). The sample was water from shrimp embankment from Balai Besar Perikanan Budidaya Air Payau (BBPBAP) located in Jepara. That water was the habitat of Penaeus vannamei shrimp. The brand of ozonator used in this research was “AQUATIC”. The used ozonator in this research had 0,0325 g/hour concentration. The flow rate of sample used in this research was 2 L/minute. The ozonation process was performed in continuous system. A tank, pipe, pump, which was connected with microfilter, flowmeter and ozone generator were the main tools in this research. It used flowmeter and valve to set the flow rate scalable as desired. The first step was the insert of 5 L sample into the receptacle. Then, by using a pump, a sample supplied to the microfilter to be filtered and passed into the flow meter. The flow rate was set to 2 LPM. Furthermore, gas from ozonator passed to the flow for the disinfection of bacteria and then was recycled to the tank and the process run continuously. Samples of the results of ozonation were taken periodically from time 0, 3, 7, 12, 18, 24 to 30 minutes. The samples of the research were analyzed using Total Plate Count (TPC) test in BBPBAP Jepara to determine the number of Vibrio sp. bacteria. The result of this research was the optimal condition for pathogenic bacteria of shrimp (Vibrio sp.) ozonation was in neutral condition.

  19. Evaluation of the Ozone Fields in NASA's MERRA-2 Reanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wargan, Krzysztof; Labow, Gordon; Frith, Stacey; Pawson, Steven; Livesey, Nathaniel; Partyka, Gary

    2017-01-01

    We describe and assess the quality of the assimilated ozone product from the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications, Version 2 (MERRA-2) produced at NASAs Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) spanning the time period from 1980 to present. MERRA-2 assimilates partial column ozone retrievals from a series of Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV) radiometers on NASA and NOAA spacecraft between January 1980 and September 2004; starting in October 2004 retrieved ozone profiles from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) and total column ozone from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument on NASAs EOS Aura satellite are assimilated. We compare the MERRA-2 ozone with independent satellite and ozonesonde data focusing on the representation of the spatial and temporal variability of stratospheric and upper tropospheric ozone and on implications of the change in the observing system from SBUV to EOS Aura. The comparisons show agreement within 10 (standard deviation of the difference) between MERRA-2 profiles and independent satellite data in most of the stratosphere. The agreement improves after 2004 when EOS Aura data are assimilated. The standard deviation of the differences between the lower stratospheric and upper tropospheric MERRA-2 ozone and ozonesondes is 11.2 and 24.5, respectively, with correlations of 0.8 and above, indicative of a realistic representation of the near-tropopause ozone variability in MERRA-2. The agreement improves significantly in the EOS Aura period, however MERRA-2 is biased low in the upper troposphere with respect to the ozonesondes. Caution is recommended when using MERRA-2 ozone for decadal changes and trend studies.

  20. Budget estimates, fiscal year 1984/85. Appropriation: salaries and expenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This report contains the fiscal year budget justifications to Congress. The budget estimates for salaries and expenses for fiscal year 1984 to 1985 provide for obligations of $466,800,000 to be funded in total by a new appropriation

  1. Pollutant transport over complex terrain: Flux and budget calculations for the pollumet field campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehning, Michael; Richner, Hans; Kok, Gregory L.

    Especially over complex terrain, transport processes dominate the local pollutant concentrations observed. The data gathered during the POLLUMET measuring campaign in 1993 allow a quantitative analysis of the pollutant fluxes and the pollutant budgets. The data include airborne measurements by NCAR's King Air, radio soundings, radar wind profiles, and data from meteorological ground stations. The regions of interest were the rather densely populated Swiss Plateau, which is embedded between the Alps and the Jura Mountains, and a box south of the Alps covering the south Ticino region and parts of northern Italy. An interpolation scheme was developed to reconstruct the wind field from all available measurements. From the wind field and the reconstruction of the concentration field the fluxes into and out of a box with fixed boundaries are calculated. The pollutant budgets are obtained from the sum of the fluxes and considering a mean vertical velocity. To assess the uncertainties introduced through the interpolation of the measurements, an extensive sensitivity analysis is included. The Swiss Plateau exports ozone and nitrogen oxides. The export rates can be interpreted as an ozone accumulation or fraction of 'homemade pollution' between 3 and 10% and require a net production rate of 1-2 ppb h -1. Accumulation of nitrogen oxides amounts to 20-60%. The box south of the Alps imports polluted air from northern Italy. Thus, oxidized nitrogen is not exported but a net production of ozone still occurs at a rate of 1-2 ppb h -1. The interpolated flow and concentration fields are decomposed into the mean over a box-boundary and the deviation from that mean. This allows isolation of the contribution of local circulations and large-scale turbulence to the total flux. It is shown how the local thermotopographic circulations increasingly dominate the transport as typical Alpine topography is approached. Even over the Swiss Plateau, approximately 20 km away from Alpine topography

  2. Political Budget Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaskoven, Lasse; Lassen, David Dreyer

    2017-01-01

    The political budget cycle—how elections affect government fiscal policy—is one of the most studied subjects in political economy and political science. The key theoretical question is whether incumbent governments can time or structure public finances in ways that improve their chances of reelec......The political budget cycle—how elections affect government fiscal policy—is one of the most studied subjects in political economy and political science. The key theoretical question is whether incumbent governments can time or structure public finances in ways that improve their chances...... on political budget cycles have recently focused on conditions under which such cycles are likely to obtain. Much recent research focuses on subnational settings, allowing comparisons of governments in similar institutional environments, and a consensus on the presences of cycles in public finances...

  3. 40 CFR 96.386 - Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Trading Program. 96.386 Section 96.386 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR... Season Trading Program. Except as provided under paragraph (g) of this section, a CAIR NOX Ozone Season...

  4. Physicochemical patterns of ozone absorption by wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamleeva, N. A.; Lunin, V. V.

    2016-11-01

    Results from studying aspen and pine wood ozonation are presented. The effect the concentration of ozone, the reagent residence time, and the content of water in a sample of wood has on ozone consumption rate and ozone demand are analyzed. The residence time is shown to determine the degree of ozone conversion degree and the depth of substrate destruction. The main patterns of ozone absorption by wood with different moisture content are found. Ways of optimizing the ozonation of plant biomass are outlined.

  5. Measurement of Ozone Production Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cazorla

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A new ambient air monitor, the Measurement of Ozone Production Sensor (MOPS, measures directly the rate of ozone production in the atmosphere. The sensor consists of two 11.3 L environmental chambers made of UV-transmitting Teflon film, a unit to convert NO2 to O3, and a modified ozone monitor. In the sample chamber, flowing ambient air is exposed to the sunlight so that ozone is produced just as it is in the atmosphere. In the second chamber, called the reference chamber, a UV-blocking film over the Teflon film prevents ozone formation but allows other processes to occur as they do in the sample chamber. The air flows that exit the two chambers are sampled by an ozone monitor operating in differential mode so that the difference between the two ozone signals, divided by the exposure time in the chambers, gives the ozone production rate. High-efficiency conversion of NO2 to O3 prior to detection in the ozone monitor accounts for differences in the NOx photostationary state that can occur in the two chambers. The MOPS measures the ozone production rate, but with the addition of NO to the sampled air flow, the MOPS can be used to study the sensitivity of ozone production to NO. Preliminary studies with the MOPS on the campus of the Pennsylvania State University show the potential of this new technique.

  6. A reactive nitrogen budget for Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    The reactive nitrogen budget for Lake Michigan was reviewed and updated, making use of recent estimates of watershed and atmospheric nitrogen loads. The updated total N load to Lake Michigan was approximately double the previous estimate from the Lake Michigan Mass Balance study ...

  7. Our Shrinking Ozone Layer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Depletion of the ozone layer is therefore having significant effects on life on .... but there is always a net balance between the rate of formation and destruction ..... award of Commonwealth Fellowship during the present work and also being an ...

  8. Dobson ozone spectrophotometer modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komhyr, W. D.; Grass, R. D.

    1972-01-01

    Description of a modified version of the Dobson ozone spectrophotometer in which several outdated electronic design features have been replaced by circuitry embodying more modern design concepts. The resulting improvement in performance characteristics has been obtained without changing the principle of operation of the original instrument.

  9. The ozone monitoring instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levelt, P.F.; Oord, G.H.J. van den; Dobber, M.R.; Mälkki, A.; Visser, H.; Vries, J. de; Stammes, P.; Lundell, J.O.V.; Saari, H.

    2006-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) flies on the National Aeronautics and Space Adminsitration's Earth Observing System Aura satellite launched in July 2004. OMI is a ultraviolet/visible (UV/VIS) nadir solar backscatter spectrometer, which provides nearly global coverage in one day with a spatial

  10. Ozone, greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aviam, A.M.; Arthaut, R.

    1992-01-01

    This file is made of eight general papers on environment (climates under observation, research on photo-oxidizing pollution, scientific aspects of stratospheric ozone layer, urban engineering and environment, glory of public gardens, earths not very natural, darwinism and society, economical data on environment). (A.B.). refs., 3 tabs

  11. Revisiting Antarctic Ozone Depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grooß, Jens-Uwe; Tritscher, Ines; Müller, Rolf

    2015-04-01

    Antarctic ozone depletion is known for almost three decades and it has been well settled that it is caused by chlorine catalysed ozone depletion inside the polar vortex. However, there are still some details, which need to be clarified. In particular, there is a current debate on the relative importance of liquid aerosol and crystalline NAT and ice particles for chlorine activation. Particles have a threefold impact on polar chlorine chemistry, temporary removal of HNO3 from the gas-phase (uptake), permanent removal of HNO3 from the atmosphere (denitrification), and chlorine activation through heterogeneous reactions. We have performed simulations with the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS) employing a recently developed algorithm for saturation-dependent NAT nucleation for the Antarctic winters 2011 and 2012. The simulation results are compared with different satellite observations. With the help of these simulations, we investigate the role of the different processes responsible for chlorine activation and ozone depletion. Especially the sensitivity with respect to the particle type has been investigated. If temperatures are artificially forced to only allow cold binary liquid aerosol, the simulation still shows significant chlorine activation and ozone depletion. The results of the 3-D Chemical Transport Model CLaMS simulations differ from purely Lagrangian longtime trajectory box model simulations which indicates the importance of mixing processes.

  12. Global volcanic emissions: budgets, plume chemistry and impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, T. A.

    2012-12-01

    Over the past few decades our understanding of global volcanic degassing budgets, plume chemistry and the impacts of volcanic emissions on our atmosphere and environment has been revolutionized. Global volcanic emissions budgets are needed if we are to make effective use of regional and global atmospheric models in order to understand the consequences of volcanic degassing on global environmental evolution. Traditionally volcanic SO2 budgets have been the best constrained but recent efforts have seen improvements in the quantification of the budgets of other environmentally important chemical species such as CO2, the halogens (including Br and I) and trace metals (including measurements relevant to trace metal atmospheric lifetimes and bioavailability). Recent measurements of reactive trace gas species in volcanic plumes have offered intriguing hints at the chemistry occurring in the hot environment at volcanic vents and during electrical discharges in ash-rich volcanic plumes. These reactive trace species have important consequences for gas plume chemistry and impacts, for example, in terms of the global fixed nitrogen budget, volcanically induced ozone destruction and particle fluxes to the atmosphere. Volcanically initiated atmospheric chemistry was likely to have been particularly important before biological (and latterly anthropogenic) processes started to dominate many geochemical cycles, with important consequences in terms of the evolution of the nitrogen cycle and the role of particles in modulating the Earth's climate. There are still many challenges and open questions to be addressed in this fascinating area of science.

  13. A New ENSO Index Derived from Satellite Measurements of Column Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemke, J. R.; Chandra, S.; Oman, L. D.; Bhartia, P. K.

    2010-01-01

    Column Ozone measured in tropical latitudes from Nimbus 7 total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS), Earth Probe TOMS, solar backscatter ultraviolet (SBUV), and Aura ozone monitoring instrument (OMI) are used to derive an El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) index. This index, which covers a time period from 1979 to the present, is defined as the Ozone ENSO Index (OEI) and is the first developed from atmospheric trace gas measurements. The OEI is constructed by first averaging monthly mean column ozone over two broad regions in the western and eastern Pacific and then taking their difference. This differencing yields a self-calibrating ENSO index which is independent of individual instrument calibration offsets and drifts in measurements over the long record. The combined Aura OMI and MLS ozone data confirm that zonal variability in total column ozone in the tropics caused by ENSO events lies almost entirely in the troposphere. As a result, the OEI can be derived directly from total column ozone instead of tropospheric column ozone. For clear-sky ozone measurements a +1K change in Nino 3.4 index corresponds to +2.9 Dobson Unit (DU) change in the OEI, while a +1 hPa change in SOI coincides with a -1.7DU change in the OEI. For ozone measurements under all cloud conditions these numbers are +2.4DU and -1.4 DU, respectively. As an ENSO index based upon ozone, it is potentially useful in evaluating climate models predicting long term changes in ozone and other trace gases.

  14. Public Budget Database - Budget Authority and offsetting receipts 1976-Current

    Data.gov (United States)

    Executive Office of the President — This file contains historical budget authority and offsetting receipts for 1976 through the current budget year, as well as four years of projections. It can be used...

  15. Ozone, area social conditions, and mortality in Mexico City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neill, M.S.; Loomis, Dana; Borja-Aburto, V.H.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated whether the association of daily mortality and ambient ozone differs by age and area social conditions of the region of residence using a time-series analysis. The study setting was metropolitan Mexico City, a high altitude city situated in a valley, with an estimated 20 million inhabitants, large socioeconomic gradients, and ozone levels frequently exceeding international standards. We stratified daily deaths by six census-derived socioeconomic indicators, based on characteristics of the county where decedents lived. We used Poisson regression to model the association between daily mortality and ozone levels (on the day of death and the previous day) in separate models, stratified by area socioeconomic level and age, and controlling for time trends and temperature. Ozone was positively associated with total mortality [0.65% increase per 10 ppb increment, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.02%, 1.28%] and for mortality among those over age 65 [1.39% increase per 10 ppb increment, 95% CI: 0.51%, 2.28%]. Associations between ozone and all-age mortality did not show any consistent patterns according to socioeconomic gradients. We conclude that elderly people are at higher risk for ozone-associated mortality. Though county-level social indicators in Mexico City were not strong markers of vulnerability to ozone-associated acute mortality in this analysis, complex associations between individual and area-level factors may exist that would require additional data and further analyses to elucidate

  16. Creating a Satellite-Based Record of Tropospheric Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oetjen, Hilke; Payne, Vivienne H.; Kulawik, Susan S.; Eldering, Annmarie; Worden, John; Edwards, David P.; Francis, Gene L.; Worden, Helen M.

    2013-01-01

    The TES retrieval algorithm has been applied to IASI radiances. We compare the retrieved ozone profiles with ozone sonde profiles for mid-latitudes for the year 2008. We find a positive bias in the IASI ozone profiles in the UTLS region of up to 22 %. The spatial coverage of the IASI instrument allows sampling of effectively the same air mass with several IASI scenes simultaneously. Comparisons of the root-mean-square of an ensemble of IASI profiles to theoretical errors indicate that the measurement noise and the interference of temperature and water vapour on the retrieval together mostly explain the empirically derived random errors. The total degrees of freedom for signal of the retrieval for ozone are 3.1 +/- 0.2 and the tropospheric degrees of freedom are 1.0 +/- 0.2 for the described cases. IASI ozone profiles agree within the error bars with coincident ozone profiles derived from a TES stare sequence for the ozone sonde station at Bratt's Lake (50.2 deg N, 104.7 deg W).

  17. Activity of coals of different rank to ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Kaminskii

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Coals of different rank were studied in order to characterize their activity to ozone decomposition and changes of their properties at interaction with ozone. Effects of coal rank on their reactivity to ozone were described by means of kinetic modeling. To this end, a model was proposed for evaluation of kinetic parameters describing coals activity to ozone. This model considers a case when coals surface properties change during interaction with ozone (deactivation processes. Two types of active sites (zones at the surface that are able to decompose ozone were introduced in the model differing by their deactivation rates. Activity of sites that are being deactivated at relatively higher rate increases with rank from 2400 1/min for lignite to 4000 1/min for anthracite. Such dependence is related to increase of micropores share in coals structure that grows from lignites to anthracites. Parameter characterizing initial total activity of coals to ozone decomposition also depends on rank by linear trend and vary between 2.40 for lignites up to 4.98 for anthracite. The proposed model could further be used in studies of coals oxidation processes and tendency to destruction under the weathering and oxidation conditions.

  18. Detecting the Recovery of the Antarctic Ozone Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Paul A.; Nash, Eric R.; Kawa, S. Randolph; Montzka, Steve

    2004-01-01

    The Antarctic ozone hole develops each year and culminates by early Spring. Antarctic ozone values have been monitored since 1979 using satellite observations from the TOMS instrument. The severity of the hole has been assessed from TOMS using the minimum total ozone value from the October monthly mean (depth of the hole) and by calculating the average size during the September-October period. Ozone is mainly destroyed by halogen catalytic cycles, and these losses are modulated by temperature variations in the collar of the polar lower stratospheric vortex. In this presentation, we show the relationships of halogens and temperature to both the size and depth of the hole. Because atmospheric halogen levels are responding to international agreements that limit or phase out production, the amount of halogens in the stratosphere should decrease over the next few decades. Using projections of halogen levels combined with age-of-air estimates, we find that the ozone hole is recovering at an extremely slow rate and that large ozone holes will regularly recur over the next 2 decades. We will show estimates of both when the ozone hole will begin to show first signs of recovery, and when the hole will fully recover to pre-1980 levels.

  19. What Controls the Size of the Antarctic Ozone Hole?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor); Newman, Paul A.; Kawa, S. Randolph; Nash, Eric R.

    2002-01-01

    The Antarctic ozone hole is a region of extremely large ozone depletion that is roughly centered over the South Pole. Since 1979, the area coverage of the ozone hole has grown from near zero size to over 24 Million square kilometers. In the 8-year period from 1981 to 1989, the area expanded by 18 Million square kilometers. During the last 5 years, the hole has been observed to exceed 25 Million square kilometers over brief periods. We will review these size observations, the size trends, and the interannual variability of the size. The area is derived from the area enclosed by the 220 DU total ozone contour. We will discuss the rationale for the choice of 220 DU: 1) it is located near the steep gradient between southern mid-latitudes and the polar region, and 2) 220 DU is a value that is lower than the pre- 1979 ozone observations over Antarctica during the spring period. The phenomenal growth of the ozone hole was directly caused by the increases of chlorine and bromine compounds in the stratosphere. In this talk, we will show the relationship of the ozone hole's size to the interannual variability of Antarctic spring temperatures. In addition, we will show the relationship of these same temperatures to planetary-scale wave forcings.

  20. AGF program budget 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The present program budget of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Grossforschungseinrichtungen (AGF) (Cooperative of Major Research Establishments) describes its research and development objectives and the progress of work in the major research establishments involved and states the medium-term annual financial and personnel effort. (orig.) [de

  1. AGF program budget 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The program budget of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Grossforschungseinrichtungen (AGF) (Cooperative of Major Research Establishments) describes its research and development objectives and the progress of work in the major research establishments involved and states the medium-term annual financial and personnel effort. (orig.)

  2. Implementing Responsibility Centre Budgeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonasek, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Recently, institutes of higher education (universities) have shown a renewed interest in organisational structures and operating methodologies that generate productivity and innovation; responsibility centre budgeting (RCB) is one such process. This paper describes the underlying principles constituting RCB, its origin and structural elements, and…

  3. Budgeting Academic Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Watson

    2011-01-01

    There are many articles about space management, including those that discuss space calculations, metrics, and categories. Fewer articles discuss the space budgeting processes used by administrators to allocate space. The author attempts to fill this void by discussing her administrative experiences with Middle Tennessee State University's (MTSU)…

  4. Integrated Budget Office Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushing, Douglas A.; Blakeley, Chris; Chapman, Gerry; Robertson, Bill; Horton, Allison; Besser, Thomas; McCarthy, Debbie

    2010-01-01

    The Integrated Budget Office Toolbox (IBOT) combines budgeting, resource allocation, organizational funding, and reporting features in an automated, integrated tool that provides data from a single source for Johnson Space Center (JSC) personnel. Using a common interface, concurrent users can utilize the data without compromising its integrity. IBOT tracks planning changes and updates throughout the year using both phasing and POP-related (program-operating-plan-related) budget information for the current year, and up to six years out. Separating lump-sum funds received from HQ (Headquarters) into separate labor, travel, procurement, Center G&A (general & administrative), and servicepool categories, IBOT creates a script that significantly reduces manual input time. IBOT also manages the movement of travel and procurement funds down to the organizational level and, using its integrated funds management feature, helps better track funding at lower levels. Third-party software is used to create integrated reports in IBOT that can be generated for plans, actuals, funds received, and other combinations of data that are currently maintained in the centralized format. Based on Microsoft SQL, IBOT incorporates generic budget processes, is transportable, and is economical to deploy and support.

  5. Reforming the EU Budget

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele

    The marginal involvement of the EU in redistributive policies and its limited fiscal resources have led to a lack of attention to the EU budget and its determinants. In this paper I analyse an original dataset containing yearly data on the main macrocategories of expenditure and how they have...

  6. Zero-Based Budgeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichowski, Chester

    1979-01-01

    The zero-based budgeting approach is designed to achieve the greatest benefit with the fewest undesirable consequences. Seven basic steps make up the zero-based decision-making process: (1) identifying program goals, (2) classifying goals, (3) identifying resources, (4) reviewing consequences, (5) developing decision packages, (6) implementing a…

  7. Budgeting and Finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.K.M. van Nispen tot Pannerden (Frans)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe Call for a Budgetary Theory: The appeal of Valdimer Key for a budgetary theory marks the interest in public budgeting in modern history. He clearly referred to a normative theory, raising the question: ‘on what basis shall it be decided to allocate X dollars to activity A instead of

  8. Kinetic energy budget details

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. This paper presents the detailed turbulent kinetic energy budget and higher order statistics of flow behind a surface-mounted rib with and without superimposed acoustic excitation. Pattern recognition technique is used to determine the large-scale structure magnitude. It is observed that most of the turbulence ...

  9. A Better Budget Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dothan, Michael; Thompson, Fred

    2009-01-01

    Debt limits, interest coverage ratios, one-off balanced budget requirements, pay-as-you-go rules, and tax and expenditure limits are among the most important fiscal rules for constraining intertemporal transfers. There is considerable evidence that the least costly and most effective of such rules are those that focus directly on the rate of…

  10. Global Carbon Budget 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Quéré, Corinne; Andrew, Robbie M.; Canadell, Josep G.; Sitch, Stephen; Ivar Korsbakken, Jan; Peters, Glen P.; Manning, Andrew C.; Boden, Thomas A.; Tans, Pieter P.; Houghton, Richard A.; Keeling, Ralph F.; Alin, Simone; Andrews, Oliver D.; Anthoni, Peter; Barbero, Leticia; Bopp, Laurent; Chevallier, Frédéric; Chini, Louise P.; Ciais, Philippe; Currie, Kim; Delire, Christine; Doney, Scott C.; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Gkritzalis, Thanos; Harris, Ian A; Hauck, Judith; Haverd, Vanessa; Hoppema, Mario; Klein Goldewijk, Kees; Jain, Atul K.; Kato, Etsushi; Körtzinger, Arne; Landschützer, Peter; Lefèvre, Nathalie; Lenton, Andrew; Lienert, Sebastian; Lombardozzi, Danica; Melton, Joe R.; Metzl, Nicolas; Millero, Frank; Monteiro, Pedro M S; Munro, David R.; Nabel, Julia E M S; Nakaoka, Shin Ichiro; O'Brien, Kevin; Olsen, Are; Omar, Abdirahman M.; Ono, Tsuneo; Pierrot, Denis; Poulter, Benjamin; Rödenbeck, Christian; Salisbury, Joe; Schuster, Ute; Schwinger, Jörg; Séférian, Roland; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Stocker, Benjamin D.; Sutton, Adrienne J.; Takahashi, Taro; Tian, Hanqin; Tilbrook, Bronte; Van Der Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid T.; Van Der Werf, Guido R.; Viovy, Nicolas; Walker, Anthony P.; Wiltshire, Andrew J.; Zaehle, Sönke

    2016-01-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere-the "global carbon budget"-is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future

  11. Sabotage in Capital Budgeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunner, Markus; Ostermaier, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    for honesty inhibits sabotage. Moreover, honesty suppresses negative reciprocity and thus reduces sabotage not only directly but also indirectly. Our findings warn firms to consider the sabotage of investments as a hidden cost of control in budgeting. They show that honesty has a spill-over effect...

  12. OZONE BLEACHING AT NEUTRAL PH – A NEW CONCEPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando de Carvalho

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of medium consistency ozone stage pH was evaluated for brown and oxygen delignified eucalyptus kraft pulp samples obtained from VCP - Luiz Antônio pulp mill. These samples were used as such or previously treated with the hot acid stage (A. The main objective of this study was to determine the viability of increasing the ozone stage pH aiming at decreasing bleaching variable costs. The ozone stage was studied in the pH range of 2.5-9.0, taking into account some important variables which affect ozone bleaching: (1 pulp kappa number entering the ozone stage, (2 reactivity of ozone towards lignin versus hexenuronic acids (HexA´s, (3 pulp treatments prior to ozone stage (acid hydrolysis, and (4 pulp treatments after the ozone stage (extraction or a chlorine dioxide stage.  Therefore, the impact of ozone stage pH was investigated in bleaching process such as Z/DEop vs AZ/DEop, Z/DEopD vs AZ/DEopD, Z/E vs AZ/E. The results were interpreted based on ozone stage efficiency and selectivity, and overall bleaching performance measured by the total bleaching chemical consumption required to achieve full brightness, pulp quality and environmental impact. It was concluded that the increase of ozone stage pH from 2.5 to 7.0 has a slightly negative impact on the efficiency and selectivity, measured after Z/DEop sequence, but this effect is not expressive in the end of Z/DEopD bleaching sequence. The increase of ozone stage pH from 2.5 to 7.0 in the sequence Z/DEopD is cost-effective at industrial level because it represents expressive reduction of sulphuric acid and caustic soda demand for pH control in the bleaching plant. These gain areas achieved without any significant changes in pulp quality and effluent load discharge. Nevertheless, the increase of ozone stage pH from 2.5 to 7.0 has a very high negative impact on the efficiency and selectivity for the Z/E and AZ/E processes and it is not recommended in such cases.

  13. Exploration of the formation mechanism and source attribution of ambient ozone in Chongqing with an observation-based model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Rong; ZHAI ChongZhi; ZHANG YuanHang; LU KeDing; YU JiaYan; TAN ZhaoFeng; JIANG MeiQing; LI Jing; XIE ShaoDong; WU YuSheng; ZENG LiMin

    2018-01-01

    An intensive field campaign was conducted in Chongqing during the summer of 2015 to explore the formation mechanisms of ozone pollution.The sources of ozone,the local production rates,and the controlling factors,as well as key species of volatile organic compounds (VOCs),were quantified by integrating a local ozone budget analysis,calculations of the relative incremental reactivity,and an empirical kinetic model approach.It was found that the potential for rapid local ozone formation exists in Chongqing.During ozone pollution episodes,the ozone production rates were found to be high at the upwind station Nan Quan,the urban station Chao Zhan,and the downwind station Jin-Yun Shan.The average local ozone production rate was 30× 10-9 V/V h1 and the daily integration of the produced ozone was greater than 180× 10-9 V/V.High ozone concentrations were associated with urban and downwind air masses.At most sites,the local ozone production was VOC-limited and the key species were aromatics and alkene,which originated mainly from vehicles and solvent usage.In addition,the air masses at the northwestern rural sites were NOx-limited and the local ozone production rates were significantly higher during the pollution episodes due to the increased NOx concentrations.In summary,the ozone abatement strategies of Chongqing should be focused on the mitigation of VOCs.Nevertheless,a reduction in NOx is also beneficial for reducing the regional ozone peak values in Chongqing and the surrounding areas.

  14. [Ozone concentration distribution of urban].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yong-quan; Li, Chang-mei; Ma, Gui-xia; Cui, Zhao-jie

    2004-11-01

    The increase of ozone concentration in urban is one of the most important research topics on environmental science. With the increase of nitrogen oxides and hydrogen-carbon compounds which are exhausted from cars, the ozone concentration in urban is obviously increased on sunlight, and threat of photochemistry smog will be possible. Therefore, it is very important to monitor and study the ozone concentration distribution in urban. The frequency-distribution, diurnal variation and monthly variation of ozone concentration were studied on the campus of Shandong University during six months monitoring. The influence of solar radiation and weather conditions on ozone concentration were discussed. The frequency of ozone concentration less than 200 microg/m3 is 96.88%. The ozone concentration has an obvious diurnal variation. The ozone concentration in the afternoon is higher than in the morning and in the evening. The maximum appears in June, when it is the strong solar radiation and high air-temperature. The weather conditions also influence the ozone concentration. The ozone concentration in clear day is higher than in rainy and cloudy day.

  15. Screening agrochemicals as potential protectants of plants against ozone phytotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saitanis, Costas J.; Lekkas, Dimitrios V.; Agathokleous, Evgenios; Flouri, Fotini

    2015-01-01

    We tested seven contemporary agrochemicals as potential plant protectants against ozone phytotoxicity. In nine experiments, Bel-W3 tobacco plants were experienced weekly exposures to a) 80 nmol mol −1 of ozone-enriched or ozone-free air in controlled environment chambers, b) an urban air polluted area, and c) an agricultural-remote area. Ozone caused severe leaf injury, reduced chlorophylls' and total carotenoids' content, and negatively affected photosynthesis and stomatal conductance. Penconazole, (35% ± 8) hexaconazole (28% ± 5) and kresoxim-methyl (28% ± 15) showed higher plants’ protection (expressed as percentage; mean ± s.e.) against ozone, although the latter exhibited a high variability. Azoxystrobin (21% ± 15) showed lower protection efficacy and Benomyl (15% ± 9) even lower. Trifloxystrobin (7% ± 11) did not protect the plants at all. Acibenzolar-S-methyl + metalaxyl-M (Bion MX) (−6% ± 17) exhibited the higher variability and contrasting results: in some experiments it showed some protection while in others it intensified the ozone injury by causing phytotoxic symptoms on leaves, even in control plants. - Highlights: • Penconazole and hexaconazole offered some protection to plants against ozone. • Bion MX fungicide caused phytotoxic symptoms to Bel-W3 tobacco plants. • Stomatal conductance was reduced in ozone-fumigated plants. - Seven agrochemicals were assessed as potential protectants against ozone phytotoxicity – triazoles fungicides were the most effective

  16. Emissions lifetimes and ozone formation in power plant plumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryerson, T.B.; Buhr, M.P.; Frost, G.J.; Goldan, P.D.; Holloway, J.S.; Huebler, G.; Jobson, B.T.; Kuster, W.C.; McKeen, S.A.; Parrish, D.D.; Roberts, J.M.; Sueper, D.T.; Trainer, M.; Williams, J.; Fehsenfeld, F.C.

    1998-01-01

    The concept of ozone production efficiency (OPE) per unit NO x is based on photochemical models and provides a tool with which to assess potential regional tropospheric ozone control strategies involving NO x emissions reductions. An aircraft study provided data from which power plant emissions removal rates and measurement-based estimates of OPE are estimated. This study was performed as part of the Southern Oxidants Study - 1995 Nashville intensive and focuses on the evolution of NO x , SO 2 , and ozone concentrations in coal-fired power plant plumes during transport. Two approaches are examined. A mass balance approach accounts for mixing effects within the boundary layer and is used to calculate effective boundary layer removal rates for NO x and SO 2 and to estimate net OPE, Net OPE is more directly comparable to photochemical model results than previous measurement-based estimates. Derived net production efficiencies from mass balance range from 1 to 3 molecules of ozone produced per molecule of NO x emitted. A concentration ratio approach provides an estimate of removal rates of primary emissions relative to a tracer species. This approach can be combined with emissions ratio information to provide upper limit estimates of OPE that range from 2 to 7. Both approaches illustrate the dependence of ozone production on NO x source strength in these large point source plumes. The dependence of total ozone production, ozone production efficiency, and the rate of ozone production on NO x source strength is examined. These results are interpreted in light of potential ozone control strategies for the region. 42 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs

  17. Emissions lifetimes and ozone formation in power plant plumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryerson, T.B.; Buhr, M.P.; Frost, G.J.; Goldan, P.D.; Holloway, J.S.; Huebler, G.; Jobson, B.T.; Kuster, W.C.; McKeen, S.A.; Parrish, D.D.; Roberts, J.M.; Sueper, D.T.; Trainer, M.; Williams, J.; Fehsenfeld, F.C. [NOAA Aeronomy Laboratory, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1998-09-20

    The concept of ozone production efficiency (OPE) per unit NO{sub x} is based on photochemical models and provides a tool with which to assess potential regional tropospheric ozone control strategies involving NO{sub x} emissions reductions. An aircraft study provided data from which power plant emissions removal rates and measurement-based estimates of OPE are estimated. This study was performed as part of the Southern Oxidants Study - 1995 Nashville intensive and focuses on the evolution of NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, and ozone concentrations in coal-fired power plant plumes during transport. Two approaches are examined. A mass balance approach accounts for mixing effects within the boundary layer and is used to calculate effective boundary layer removal rates for NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} and to estimate net OPE, Net OPE is more directly comparable to photochemical model results than previous measurement-based estimates. Derived net production efficiencies from mass balance range from 1 to 3 molecules of ozone produced per molecule of NO{sub x} emitted. A concentration ratio approach provides an estimate of removal rates of primary emissions relative to a tracer species. This approach can be combined with emissions ratio information to provide upper limit estimates of OPE that range from 2 to 7. Both approaches illustrate the dependence of ozone production on NO{sub x} source strength in these large point source plumes. The dependence of total ozone production, ozone production efficiency, and the rate of ozone production on NO{sub x} source strength is examined. These results are interpreted in light of potential ozone control strategies for the region. 42 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. PUBLIC EXPENDITURE ON HEALTH IN LOCAL BUDGETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristinel ICHIM

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper entitled "Public expenditure on health in local budgets" aims analysing and deepening major spending categories that public authorities finance at local level, namely health expenditure. In the first part of the article we have specified the content and role of this category of expenditure in local budgets and also made some feedback on decentralization in health. In the second part of the work, based on data available in Statistical Yearbook of Romania, we have carried out an analysis of the dynamics of health spending from local budgets to emphasize their place and role in the health care expenses. The research carried out follows that the evolution and structure of health expenditure financed from local budgets is determined, along with the legislative framework in the field, by several variables that differ from one territorial administrative unit to another: the existence of sanitary units, their type, the involving of local public authorities in their development and modernization, the number and the social structure of the population. The research shows that over the period 1993-2015, the dynamics of the share of health spending in total expenditures of local budgets is sinusoidal, with a minimum threshold in 2000 of only 0.3%.

  19. EXPENSES FOR ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES FROM LOCAL BUDGETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTINEL ICHIM

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present article we propose to analyze and deepen significant categories of costs funded from the local budgets, namely the expenditure for economic activities. Our scientific approach begins with determining the place occupied by such expenses in local public expenditure by specifying their content and role. The center of gravity of the study is to treat and deepen the three subgroups of expenses that we consider representative: "The expenses for production, transportation, distribution and supply of heat in a centralized system", "Transport Costs" and Expenditure for agriculture and forestry ". The reaserch is based on the quantitative analysis of the expenses for economic actions, in local budgets, based on the existing data from the Statistical Yearbook of Romania, and highlights the structure of this type of expenses as well as the place they hold in the expediture of local budgets.The study includes an analysis of the dynamics of the share held by economic costs within total expenses from local budgets. From the reaserch carried out, it is shown that the evolution and structure of the expenditures for economic actions from local budgets is determined by the action of certain economical and social factors that vary from one administrative teritorial unit to another: the ray of economical develpoment of the administrative ter itorial unit, urbanization, the number and social structure of the population. The reaserch shows that in the field of expenses for economic actions, the largest share is held by expenditures for transportation (almost 80%, far away from the expenses for fuel and energy (13,66%. During the 1999-2013 the dynamic of expenses for economical actions in the total of expenditures of local budgets, is sinusoidal due to the intervention of certain legislative changes.

  20. Comparative study of ozonized olive oil and ozonized sunflower oil

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz,Maritza F.; Hernández,Rebeca; Martínez,Goitybell; Vidal,Genny; Gómez,Magali; Fernández,Harold; Garcés,Rafael

    2006-01-01

    In this study the ozonized olive and sunflower oils are chemical and microbiologically compared. These oils were introduced into a reactor with bubbling ozone gas in a water bath at room temperature until they were solidified. The peroxide, acidity and iodine values along with antimicrobial activity were determined. Ozonization effects on the fatty acid composition of these oils were analyzed using Gas-Liquid Chromatographic Technique. An increase in peroxidation and acidity values was observ...

  1. Effect of ozone oxidative preconditioning in preventing early radiation-induced lung injury in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakkal, B.H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, Bulent Ecevit University, Kozlu, Zonguldak (Turkey); Gultekin, F.A. [Department of General Surgery, School of Medicine, Bulent Ecevit University, Kozlu, Zonguldak (Turkey); Guven, B. [Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Bulent Ecevit University, Kozlu, Zonguldak (Turkey); Turkcu, U.O. [Mugla School of Health Sciences, Mugla Sitki Kocman University, Mugla (Turkey); Bektas, S. [Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Bulent Ecevit University, Kozlu, Zonguldak (Turkey); Can, M. [Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Bulent Ecevit University, Kozlu, Zonguldak (Turkey)

    2013-09-27

    Ionizing radiation causes its biological effects mainly through oxidative damage induced by reactive oxygen species. Previous studies showed that ozone oxidative preconditioning attenuated pathophysiological events mediated by reactive oxygen species. As inhalation of ozone induces lung injury, the aim of this study was to examine whether ozone oxidative preconditioning potentiates or attenuates the effects of irradiation on the lung. Rats were subjected to total body irradiation, with or without treatment with ozone oxidative preconditioning (0.72 mg/kg). Serum proinflammatory cytokine levels, oxidative damage markers, and histopathological analysis were compared at 6 and 72 h after total body irradiation. Irradiation significantly increased lung malondialdehyde levels as an end-product of lipoperoxidation. Irradiation also significantly decreased lung superoxide dismutase activity, which is an indicator of the generation of oxidative stress and an early protective response to oxidative damage. Ozone oxidative preconditioning plus irradiation significantly decreased malondialdehyde levels and increased the activity of superoxide dismutase, which might indicate protection of the lung from radiation-induced lung injury. Serum tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-1 beta levels, which increased significantly following total body irradiation, were decreased with ozone oxidative preconditioning. Moreover, ozone oxidative preconditioning was able to ameliorate radiation-induced lung injury assessed by histopathological evaluation. In conclusion, ozone oxidative preconditioning, repeated low-dose intraperitoneal administration of ozone, did not exacerbate radiation-induced lung injury, and, on the contrary, it provided protection against radiation-induced lung damage.

  2. Effect of ozone oxidative preconditioning in preventing early radiation-induced lung injury in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakkal, B.H.; Gultekin, F.A.; Guven, B.; Turkcu, U.O.; Bektas, S.; Can, M.

    2013-01-01

    Ionizing radiation causes its biological effects mainly through oxidative damage induced by reactive oxygen species. Previous studies showed that ozone oxidative preconditioning attenuated pathophysiological events mediated by reactive oxygen species. As inhalation of ozone induces lung injury, the aim of this study was to examine whether ozone oxidative preconditioning potentiates or attenuates the effects of irradiation on the lung. Rats were subjected to total body irradiation, with or without treatment with ozone oxidative preconditioning (0.72 mg/kg). Serum proinflammatory cytokine levels, oxidative damage markers, and histopathological analysis were compared at 6 and 72 h after total body irradiation. Irradiation significantly increased lung malondialdehyde levels as an end-product of lipoperoxidation. Irradiation also significantly decreased lung superoxide dismutase activity, which is an indicator of the generation of oxidative stress and an early protective response to oxidative damage. Ozone oxidative preconditioning plus irradiation significantly decreased malondialdehyde levels and increased the activity of superoxide dismutase, which might indicate protection of the lung from radiation-induced lung injury. Serum tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-1 beta levels, which increased significantly following total body irradiation, were decreased with ozone oxidative preconditioning. Moreover, ozone oxidative preconditioning was able to ameliorate radiation-induced lung injury assessed by histopathological evaluation. In conclusion, ozone oxidative preconditioning, repeated low-dose intraperitoneal administration of ozone, did not exacerbate radiation-induced lung injury, and, on the contrary, it provided protection against radiation-induced lung damage

  3. Measuring Earth's Radiation Budget from the Vicinity of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, W. H.; Lorentz, S. R.; Erlandson, R. E.; Cahalan, R. F.; Huang, P. M.

    2018-02-01

    We propose to measure Earth's radiation budget (integrated total and solar-reflected shortwave) using broadband radiometers and other technology demonstrated in space. The instrument is compact, autonomous, and has modest resource requirements.

  4. Bounded Rationality and Budgeting

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Mukdad

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the theory of bounded rationality which had been introduced by Herbert Simon in the 1950s. Simon introduced the notion of bounded rationality stating that while decision-makers strive for rationality, they are limited by the effect of the environment, their information process capacity and by the constraints on their information storage and retrieval capabilities. Moreover, this article tries to specifically blend this notion into budgeting, using the foundations of inc...

  5. Programme budget 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    There are 11 main fields of KfK R + D activities which are connected with one or more of the research goals of a) assurance of nuclear fuel supply, b) nuclear waste management, c) safety of nuclear facilities, d) basic research and research on new technologies. The scientific and technical tasks connected with these goals in 1981 and on a medium-term basis as well as the financial requirements are presented in the programme budget. (orig.) [de

  6. The Incredible Shrinking Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.H.E. Journal, 2013

    2013-01-01

    If district technology leaders had a nickel for every time they heard the phrase "the new normal," they'd have all the money they need to run their IT departments. In an effort to help readers think about their budgets in creative and practical ways, "T.H.E. Journal" and the Consortium for School Networking (CoSN) recently convened a panel of CTOs…

  7. Proposed NOAA Budget Includes Hefty Increase for Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2010-03-01

    The Obama administration's proposed fiscal year (FY) 2011 budget for the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) would provide the agency with $5.55 billion, which represents a total increase of $806.1 million, or 17% above the FY 2010 budget enacted by Congress. At a February briefing about the budget, NOAA administrator Jane Lubchenco said the budget is a very good package for the agency and that it reflects the administration's commitment to the environment, science, public safety, and job creation. Noting that the agency's budget remained essentially flat between FY 2005 and FY 2008 during the George W. Bush administration, Lubchenco said, “the increasing demand for NOAA's services, coupled with a static budget, created a major challenge for NOAA in delivering on expectations.” She said the funding picture for the agency improved with the FY 2009 and FY 2010 enacted budgets. Lubchenco noted that the proposed budget would include $949 million for research and development, an $82 million increase, adding, “Our 2011 request for each line office [within NOAA] is higher than it was in 2010, and we are better aligned with congressional funding levels than in previous budgets.”

  8. Strategic Ozone Sounding Networks: Review of Design and Accomplishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Oltmans, Samuel J.; Tarasick, David W.; von der Gathen, Peter; Smit, Herman G. J.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.

    2011-01-01

    Ozone soundings are used to integrate models, satellite, aircraft and ground-based measurements for better interpretation of ozone variability, including atmospheric losses (predominantly in the stratosphere) and pollution (troposphere). A well-designed network of ozonesonde stations gives information with high vertical and horizontal resolution on a number of dynamical and chemical processes, allowing us to answer questions not possible with aircraft campaigns or current satellite technology. Strategic ozonesonde networks are discussed for high, mid- and low latitude studies. The Match sounding network was designed specifically to follow ozone depletion within the polar vortex; the standard sites are at middle to high northern hemisphere latitudes and typically operate from December through mid-March. Three mid-latitude strategic networks (the IONS series) operated over North America in July-August 2004, March-May and August 2006, and April and June-July-2008. These were designed to address questions about tropospheric ozone budgets and sources, including stratosphere-troposphere transport, and to validate satellite instruments and models. A global network focusing on processes in the equatorial zone, SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes), has operated since 1998 in partnership with NOAA, NASA and the Meteorological Services of host countries. Examples of important findings from these networks are described,

  9. Health Effects of Ozone and Particle Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: Health Effects of Ozone and Particle Pollution Two types of air pollution dominate in the ... So what are ozone and particle pollution? Ozone Pollution It may be hard to imagine that pollution ...

  10. Budget Constraints Affect Male Rats’ Choices between Differently Priced Commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalenscher, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Demand theory can be applied to analyse how a human or animal consumer changes her selection of commodities within a certain budget in response to changes in price of those commodities. This change in consumption assessed over a range of prices is defined as demand elasticity. Previously, income-compensated and income-uncompensated price changes have been investigated using human and animal consumers, as demand theory predicts different elasticities for both conditions. However, in these studies, demand elasticity was only evaluated over the entirety of choices made from a budget. As compensating budgets changes the number of attainable commodities relative to uncompensated conditions, and thus the number of choices, it remained unclear whether budget compensation has a trivial effect on demand elasticity by simply sampling from a different total number of choices or has a direct effect on consumers’ sequential choice structure. If the budget context independently changes choices between commodities over and above price effects, this should become apparent when demand elasticity is assessed over choice sets of any reasonable size that are matched in choice opportunities between budget conditions. To gain more detailed insight in the sequential choice dynamics underlying differences in demand elasticity between budget conditions, we trained N=8 rat consumers to spend a daily budget by making a number of nosepokes to obtain two liquid commodities under different price regimes, in sessions with and without budget compensation. We confirmed that demand elasticity for both commodities differed between compensated and uncompensated budget conditions, also when the number of choices considered was matched, and showed that these elasticity differences emerge early in the sessions. These differences in demand elasticity were driven by a higher choice rate and an increased reselection bias for the preferred commodity in compensated compared to uncompensated budget

  11. Budget Constraints Affect Male Rats' Choices between Differently Priced Commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wingerden, Marijn; Marx, Christine; Kalenscher, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Demand theory can be applied to analyse how a human or animal consumer changes her selection of commodities within a certain budget in response to changes in price of those commodities. This change in consumption assessed over a range of prices is defined as demand elasticity. Previously, income-compensated and income-uncompensated price changes have been investigated using human and animal consumers, as demand theory predicts different elasticities for both conditions. However, in these studies, demand elasticity was only evaluated over the entirety of choices made from a budget. As compensating budgets changes the number of attainable commodities relative to uncompensated conditions, and thus the number of choices, it remained unclear whether budget compensation has a trivial effect on demand elasticity by simply sampling from a different total number of choices or has a direct effect on consumers' sequential choice structure. If the budget context independently changes choices between commodities over and above price effects, this should become apparent when demand elasticity is assessed over choice sets of any reasonable size that are matched in choice opportunities between budget conditions. To gain more detailed insight in the sequential choice dynamics underlying differences in demand elasticity between budget conditions, we trained N=8 rat consumers to spend a daily budget by making a number of nosepokes to obtain two liquid commodities under different price regimes, in sessions with and without budget compensation. We confirmed that demand elasticity for both commodities differed between compensated and uncompensated budget conditions, also when the number of choices considered was matched, and showed that these elasticity differences emerge early in the sessions. These differences in demand elasticity were driven by a higher choice rate and an increased reselection bias for the preferred commodity in compensated compared to uncompensated budget conditions

  12. Protecting the ozone layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munasinghe, M; King, K

    1992-06-01

    Stratospheric ozone layer depletion has been recognized as a problem by the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer and the 1987 Montreal Protocol (MP). The ozone layer shields the earth from harmful ultraviolet radiation (UV-B), which is more pronounced at the poles and around the equator. Industrialized countries have contributed significantly to the problem by releasing chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and halons into the atmosphere. The effect of these chemicals, which were known for their inertness, nonflammability, and nontoxicity, was discovered in 1874. Action to deal with the effects of CFCs and halons was initiated in 1985 in a 49-nation UN meeting. 21 nations signed a protocol limiting ozone depleting substances (ODS): CFCs and halons. Schedules were set based on each country's use in 1986; the target phaseout was set for the year 2000. The MP restricts trade in ODSs and weights the impact of substances to reflect the extent of damage; i.e., halons are 10 times more damaging than CFCs. ODS requirements for developing countries were eased to accommodate scarce resources and the small fraction of ODS emissions. An Interim Multilateral Fund under the Montreal Protocol (IMFMP) was established to provide loans to finance the costs to developing countries in meeting global environmental requirements. The IMFMP is administered by the World Bank, the UN Environmental Program, and the UN Development Program. Financing is available to eligible countries who use .3 kg of ODS/person/year. Rapid phaseout in developed countries has occurred due to strong support from industry and a lower than expected cost. Although there are clear advantages to rapid phaseout, there were no incentives included in the MP for rapid phaseout. Some of the difficulties occur because the schedules set minimum targets at the lowest possible cost. Also, costs cannot be minimized by a country-specific and ODS-specific process. The ways to improve implementation in scheduling and

  13. Monitoring of the ozone layer. Annual report 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braathen, Geir O.; Svenoee, Trond; Hansen, Georg H.; Dahlback, Arne

    1998-10-01

    The three stations in Oslo, Tromsoe and at Ny-Aalesund at Svalbard measure the total ozone levels and these show low monthly averages in 1997 compared to the long-term monthly averages. In Oslo the averages for January to April were 3-13 % below those from 1979 to 1989. Detailed measurements are presented. Analyses based on model calculations and measurements both in Norway and at other places are presented and show the low spring ozone values largely to be a result of chemical oxone decomposition. Particularly in 1997 the polar whirl lasted longer than usual. This lead to reduced ozone transport from the equator to the poles which normally is strongest in spring. At the same time the ozone was decomposed through natural processes where NO x is involved. The report concludes that the extremely low values registered are caused by a combination of chemical decomposition due to chlorofluorocarbons and halon and the particularly dynamic meteorological situation. A trend analysis for the period of 1979 to 1997 was carried out. The trend has been declining unevenly. In Oslo, Tromsoe and Ny-Aalesund the UV radiation from the sun is continually measured using GUV instrumentation. The measurements confirm that the main factors influencing the UV level are the height of the sun, the amount of clouds, the thickness of the ozone layer and the reflection properties at the earth surface. Monthly radiation doses are presented as well. Both at the Oslo and Tromsoe universities two ozone layer measuring instruments of the Dobson and Brewer types, are used. Instrumental comparisons are made. From the Bjoernoeya and the Gardermoen there are regularly lifted balloons which may reach a 35 km altitude carrying ozone probes. The ozone altitude distribution is registered. Similar measurements in the Antarctic show that the yearly ozone decomposition from September to November occurs at the heights of 14 to 24 km. Studies show there is extensive ozone decomposition in the Arctic as well

  14. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 97 - Final Section 126 Rule: Trading Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Final Section 126 Rule: Trading Budget... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS Pt. 97, App. C Appendix C to Part 97—Final Section 126 Rule: Trading Budget ST F126-EGU F126-NEGU Total DC 207 26...

  15. Use of Ozone to Treat Ileostomy Dermatitis in an Experimental Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biçer, Şenol; Sayar, İlyas; Gürsul, Cebrail; Işık, Arda; Aydın, Merve; Peker, Kemal; Demiryilmaz, İsmail

    2016-03-07

    Dermatitis associated with ileostomy is an important problem that affects many people, especially children. The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effects of ozone on dermatitis due to ileostomy, and to develop an alternative treatment option. A total of 28 rats were divided into 4 groups: control, ileostomy, ozone, and zinc oxide. Ileostomy was performed in all rats except the control group. After a 1-week waiting time, the ozone group was administered ozone therapy and the zinc oxide group was administered zinc oxide cream locally once a day for a total of 7 days. All rats were sacrificed at the end of this period. The efficacy of treatment was examined by biochemical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical parameters. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), total glutathione (tGSH), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and total oxidant status (TOS) were measured from tissue. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were examined immunohistochemically. Dermatitis occurred pathologically in all rats that underwent ileostomy surgery. The lowest dermatitis score was in the ozone treatment group (p<0.05). Ileostomy dermatitis caused increased levels of MDA and TOS. Ozone treatment resulted in reduced MDA and TOS levels, while the levels of tGSH and TAC were increased (p<0.05). Both VEGF and PCNA immunostaining were augmented in the ozone treatment group (p<0.05). Local ozone application may be a good alternative compared to the conventional treatment methods for the prevention of skin lesions that develop after ileostomy.

  16. Evaluation of ozone emissions and exposures from consumer products and home appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q; Jenkins, P L

    2017-03-01

    Ground-level ozone can cause serious adverse health effects and environmental impacts. This study measured ozone emissions and impacts on indoor ozone levels and associated exposures from 17 consumer products and home appliances that could emit ozone either intentionally or as a by-product of their functions. Nine products were found to emit measurable ozone, one up to 6230 ppb at a distance of 5 cm (2 inches). One use of these products increased room ozone concentrations by levels up to 106 ppb (mean, from an ozone laundry system) and personal exposure concentrations of the user by 12-424 ppb (mean). Multiple cycles of use of one fruit and vegetable washer increased personal exposure concentrations by an average of 2550 ppb, over 28 times higher than the level of the 1-h California Ambient Air Quality Standard for ozone (0.09 ppm). Ozone emission rates ranged from 1.6 mg/h for a refrigerator air purifier to 15.4 mg/h for a fruit and vegetable washer. The use of some products was estimated to contribute up to 87% of total daily exposures to ozone. The results show that the use of some products may result in potential health impacts. © 2016 The Authors. Indoor Air published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Geophysical validation of MIPAS-ENVISAT operational ozone data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Cortesi

    2007-09-01

    , using common criteria for the selection of individual validation data sets, and similar methods for the comparisons. This enabled merging the individual results from a variety of independent reference measurements of proven quality (i.e. well characterized error budget into an overall evaluation of MIPAS O3 data quality, having both statistical strength and the widest spatial and temporal coverage. Collocated measurements from ozone sondes and ground-based lidar and microwave radiometers of the Network for the Detection Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC were selected to carry out comparisons with time series of MIPAS O3 partial columns and to identify groups of stations and time periods with a uniform pattern of ozone differences, that were subsequently used for a vertically resolved statistical analysis. The results of the comparison are classified according to synoptic and regional systems and to altitude intervals, showing a generally good agreement within the comparison error bars in the upper and middle stratosphere. Significant differences emerge in the lower stratosphere and are only partly explained by the larger contributions of horizontal and vertical smoothing differences and of collocation errors to the total uncertainty. Further results obtained from a purely statistical analysis of the same data set from NDACC ground-based lidar stations, as well as from additional ozone soundings at middle latitudes and from NDACC ground-based FTIR measurements, confirm the validity of MIPAS O3 profiles down to the lower stratosphere, with evidence of larger discrepancies at the lowest altitudes. The validation against O3 VMR profiles using collocated observations performed by other satellite sensors (SAGE II, POAM III, ODIN-SMR, ACE-FTS, HALOE, GOME and ECMWF assimilated ozone fields leads to consistent results, that are to a great extent compatible with those obtained from the comparison with ground-based measurements

  18. Development of a climate record of tropospheric and stratospheric column ozone from satellite remote sensing: evidence of an early recovery of global stratospheric ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Ziemke

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Ozone data beginning October 2004 from the Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI and Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS are used to evaluate the accuracy of the Cloud Slicing technique in effort to develop long data records of tropospheric and stratospheric ozone and for studying their long-term changes. Using this technique, we have produced a 32-yr (1979–2010 long record of tropospheric and stratospheric column ozone from the combined Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS and OMI. Analyses of these time series suggest that the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO is the dominant source of inter-annual variability of stratospheric ozone and is clearest in the Southern Hemisphere during the Aura time record with related inter-annual changes of 30–40 Dobson Units. Tropospheric ozone for the long record also indicates a QBO signal in the tropics with peak-to-peak changes varying from 2 to 7 DU. The most important result from our study is that global stratospheric ozone indicates signature of a recovery occurring with ozone abundance now approaching the levels of year 1980 and earlier. The negative trends in stratospheric ozone in both hemispheres during the first 15 yr of the record are now positive over the last 15 yr and with nearly equal magnitudes. This turnaround in stratospheric ozone loss is occurring about 20 yr earlier than predicted by many chemistry climate models. This suggests that the Montreal Protocol which was first signed in 1987 as an international agreement to reduce ozone destroying substances is working well and perhaps better than anticipated.

  19. The carbon budget of California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    The carbon budget of a region can be defined as the sum of annual fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and methane (CH 4 ) greenhouse gases (GHGs) into and out of the regional surface coverage area. According to the state government's recent inventory, California's carbon budget is presently dominated by 115 MMTCE per year in fossil fuel emissions of CO 2 (>85% of total annual GHG emissions) to meet energy and transportation requirements. Other notable (non-ecosystem) sources of carbon GHG emissions in 2004 were from cement- and lime-making industries (7%), livestock-based agriculture (5%), and waste treatment activities (2%). The NASA-CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) simulation model based on satellite observations of monthly vegetation cover (including those from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, MODIS) was used to estimate net ecosystem fluxes and vegetation biomass production over the period 1990-2004. California's annual NPP for all ecosystems in the early 2000s (estimated by CASA at 120 MMTCE per year) was roughly equivalent to its annual fossil fuel emission rates for carbon. However, since natural ecosystems can accumulate only a small fraction of this annual NPP total in long-term storage pools, the net ecosystem sink flux for atmospheric carbon across the state was estimated at a maximum rate of about 24 MMTCE per year under favorable precipitation conditions. Under less favorable precipitation conditions, such as those experienced during the early 1990s, ecosystems statewide were estimated to have lost nearly 15 MMTCE per year to the atmosphere. Considering the large amounts of carbon estimated by CASA to be stored in forests, shrublands, and rangelands across the state, the importance of protection of the natural NPP capacity of California ecosystems cannot be overemphasized.

  20. Evaluation of the reactive nitrogen budget of the remote atmosphere in global models using airborne measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, L. T.; Strode, S. A.; Fiore, A. M.; Lamarque, J. F.; Prather, M. J.; Thompson, C. R.; Peischl, J.; Ryerson, T. B.; Allen, H.; Blake, D. R.; Crounse, J. D.; Brune, W. H.; Elkins, J. W.; Hall, S. R.; Hintsa, E. J.; Huey, L. G.; Kim, M. J.; Moore, F. L.; Ullmann, K.; Wennberg, P. O.; Wofsy, S. C.

    2017-12-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx ≡ NO + NO2) in the background atmosphere are critical precursors for the formation of tropospheric ozone and OH, thereby exerting strong influence on surface air quality, reactive greenhouse gases, and ecosystem health. The impact of NOx on atmospheric composition and climate is sensitive to the relative partitioning of reactive nitrogen between NOx and longer-lived reservoir species of the total reactive nitrogen family (NOy) such as HNO3, HNO4, PAN and organic nitrates (RONO2). Unfortunately, global chemistry-climate models (CCMs) and chemistry-transport models (CTMs) have historically disagreed in their reactive nitrogen budgets outside of polluted continental regions, and we have lacked in situ observations with which to evaluate them. Here, we compare and evaluate the NOy budget of six global models (GEOS-Chem CTM, GFDL AM3 CCM, GISS E2.1 CCM, GMI CTM, NCAR CAM CCM, and UCI CTM) using new observations of total reactive nitrogen and its member species from the NASA Atmospheric Tomography (ATom) mission. ATom has now completed two of its four planned deployments sampling the remote Pacific and Atlantic basins of both hemispheres with a comprehensive suite of measurements for constraining reactive photochemistry. All six models have simulated conditions climatologically similar to the deployments. The GMI and GEOS-Chem CTMs have in addition performed hindcast simulations using the MERRA-2 reanalysis, and have been sampled along the flight tracks. We evaluate the performance of the models relative to the observations, and identify factors contributing to their disparate behavior using known differences in model oxidation mechanisms, heterogeneous loss pathways, lightning and surface emissions, and physical loss processes.

  1. Modeling the regional impact of ship emissions on NOx and ozone levels over the Eastern Atlantic and Western Europe using ship plume parameterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pisoft

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In general, regional and global chemistry transport models apply instantaneous mixing of emissions into the model's finest resolved scale. In case of a concentrated source, this could result in erroneous calculation of the evolution of both primary and secondary chemical species. Several studies discussed this issue in connection with emissions from ships and aircraft. In this study, we present an approach to deal with the non-linear effects during dispersion of NOx emissions from ships. It represents an adaptation of the original approach developed for aircraft NOx emissions, which uses an exhaust tracer to trace the amount of the emitted species in the plume and applies an effective reaction rate for the ozone production/destruction during the plume's dilution into the background air. In accordance with previous studies examining the impact of international shipping on the composition of the troposphere, we found that the contribution of ship induced surface NOx to the total reaches 90% over remote ocean and makes 10–30% near coastal regions. Due to ship emissions, surface ozone increases by up to 4–6 ppbv making 10% contribution to the surface ozone budget. When applying the ship plume parameterization, we show that the large scale NOx decreases and the ship NOx contribution is reduced by up to 20–25%. A similar decrease was found in the case of O3. The plume parameterization suppressed the ship induced ozone production by 15–30% over large areas of the studied region. To evaluate the presented parameterization, nitrogen monoxide measurements over the English Channel were compared with modeled values and it was found that after activating the parameterization the model accuracy increases.

  2. National Plan for Stratospheric Ozone Monitoring and Early Detection of Change, 1981-1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-02-01

    A transition from reliance on a ground-based, geographically-biased ozone observing network operated by cooperating nations to a combined satellite and ground-based monitoring program that will provide global coverage of the vertical distribution of stratospheric ozone, as well as total ozone overburden is discussed. The strategy, instrumentation, and monitoring products to be prepared during this transition period are also discussed. Global atmospheric monitoring for protection of the ultraviolet shielding properties of atmospheric ozone is considered. The operational satellite ozone vertical profile monitoring system to be flown on the NOAA Tiros N operational satellite series to carry on ozone measurements initiated on the NASA R D satellites is also considered

  3. A two-dimensional model study of past trends in global ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuebbles, D.J.; Kinnison, D.E.

    1988-08-01

    Emissions and atmospheric concentrations of several trace gases important to atmospheric chemistry are known to have increased substantially over recent decades. Solar flux variations and the atmospheric nuclear test series are also likely to have affected stratospheric ozone. In this study, the LLNL two-dimensional chemical-radiative-transport model of the troposphere and stratosphere has been applied to an analysis of the effects that these natural and anthropogenic influences may have had on global ozone concentrations over the last three decades. In general, model determined species distributions and the derived ozone trends agree well with published analyses of land-based and satellite-based observations. Also, the total ozone and ozone distribution trends derived from CFC and other trace gas effects have a different response with latitude than the derived trends from solar flux variations, thus providing a ''signature'' for anthropogenic effects on ozone. 24 refs., 5 figs

  4. An investigation into the causes of stratospheric ozone loss in the southern Australasian region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, P.; Karoly, D. J.; Newmann, P. A.; Clarkson, T. S.; Matthews, W. A.

    1992-07-01

    Measurements of total ozone at Macquarie Island (55 deg S, 159 deg E) reveal statistically significant reductions of approximately twelve percent during July to September when comparing the mean levels for 1987-90 with those in the seventies. In order to investigate the possibility that these ozone changes may not be a result of dynamic variability of the stratosphere, a simple linear model of ozone was created from statistical analysis of tropopause height and isentropic transient eddy heat flux, which were assumed representative of the dominant dynamic influences. Comparison of measured and modeled ozone indicates that the recent downward trend in ozone at Macquarie Island is not related to stratospheric dynamic variability and therefore suggests another mechanism, possibly changes in photochemical destruction of ozone.

  5. The Effect of Representing Bromine from VSLS on the Simulation and Evolution of Antarctic Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oman, Luke D.; Douglass, Anne R.; Salawitch, Ross J.; Canty, Timothy P.; Ziemke, Jerald R.; Manyin, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We use the Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry Climate Model (GEOSCCM), a contributor to both the 2010 and 2014 WMO Ozone Assessment Reports, to show that inclusion of 5 parts per trillion (ppt) of stratospheric bromine(Br(sub y)) from very short lived substances (VSLS) is responsible for about a decade delay in ozone hole recovery. These results partially explain the significantly later recovery of Antarctic ozone noted in the 2014 report, as bromine from VSLS was not included in the 2010 Assessment. We show multiple lines of evidence that simulations that account for VSLS Br(sub y) are in better agreement with both total column BrO and the seasonal evolution of Antarctic ozone reported by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on NASAs Aura satellite. In addition, the near zero ozone levels observed in the deep Antarctic lower stratospheric polar vortex are only reproduced in a simulation that includes this Br(sub y) source from VSLS.

  6. The forgotten R and D budget

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, R.; Mohsberg, J.

    1992-01-01

    The research and development budget for hydropower has dwindled in recent years. Increased R and D funding could improve hydropower's effectiveness. Of the $1.5 trillion US budget for 1992, only $1 million was devoted to research and development (R and D) for hydroelectric generation. This is because hydropower has been branded a mature technology no longer in need of R and D. Nevertheless, as the source of nearly 10 percent of all US electricity, hydropower offers the nation's best opportunity for significant increased renewable energy production in the near future. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has estimated an additional 50,000 MW of hydropower capacity is potentially developable. Of the total $3 billion R and D budget for all DOE programs in 1992, the combined R and D amount for the other primary renewable energy resources was $161.3 million. Whether mature or not, all methods of producing electricity have attendant problems and development needs that must be addressed with sufficient R and D if the US is to remain energy independent, competitive and safe as a nation. In comparing R and D budget trends for electrical generating resources during the past 10 years there are several questions to be asked: Are other mature technologies, such as coal and nuclear power, receiving budget treatment similar to hydropower? What is the intended use of the R and D funds for these mature technologies? Is any technology - medical, communications, electrical generating or other - ever so mature as to be unable to benefit from R and D? What use could the hydropower industry make of additional R and D funding? What is the commitment of the administration and Congress to developing renewable energy resources when the source of 85 percent of current renewable energy receives only $1 million for R and D of the $3 billion DOE R and D budget? This article addresses these questions

  7. Stratospheric ozone reduction and its relation to natural and man made sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaksen, I S [Oslo Univ. (Norway). Dept. of Geophysics

    1996-12-31

    Approximately 90 % of the total ozone mass is in the stratosphere (between approximately 12 and 50 km), the rest is in the troposphere (below 12 km). The global distribution of ozone in the stratosphere and its variation over time have been studied extensively over several decades. These studies include observations by ground based instruments (e.g. Dobson instruments), instruments on airborne platforms (e.g. ozone sondes) and on satellites, and model studies which simulate the chemical and dynamical behaviour of the stratosphere. These studies have given good information about the processes which determine the ozone distribution, and how man made emissions affect the distribution. Observations have revealed that there are large year to year variations in stratospheric ozone above a particular location. These variations are difficult to predict as they are connected to irregular weather patterns. However, the observations have shown that there has been a long term decrease in stratospheric ozone on a global scale during the last two decades. The decrease has been most pronounced during the last five to six years and is seen both in the Northern and the Southern Hemispheres. The strong decrease in stratospheric ozone over the Antarctic continent, which has been observed since the mid 80s, and which has reduced the total ozone column with more than 50 % compared with earlier observations, is proven to be a result of increased man made emissions of CFCs. There are also mounting evidences that Northern Hemispheric ozone reductions observed since 1980 are connected to man made emissions of CFCs

  8. VOC reactivity and its effect on ozone production during the HaChi summer campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ran

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of ozone and its precursors conducted within the HaChi (Haze in China project in summer 2009 were analyzed to characterize volatile organic compounds (VOCs and their effects on ozone photochemical production at a suburban site in the North China Plain (NCP. Ozone episodes, during which running 8-h average ozone concentrations exceeding 80 ppbv lasted for more than 4 h, occurred on about two thirds of the observational days during the 5-week field campaign. This suggests continuous ozone exposure risks in this region in the summer. Average concentrations of nitrogen oxides (NOx and VOCs are about 20 ppbv and 650 ppbC, respectively. On average, total VOC reactivity is dominated by anthropogenic VOCs. The contribution of biogenic VOCs to total ozone-forming potential, however, is also considerable in the daytime. Key species associated with ozone photochemical production are 2-butenes (18 %, isoprene (15 %, trimethylbenzenes (11 %, xylenes (8.5 %, 3-methylhexane (6 %, n-hexane (5 % and toluene (4.5 %. Formation of ozone is found to be NOx-limited as indicated by measured VOCs/NOx ratios and further confirmed by a sensitivity study using a photochemical box model NCAR_MM. The Model simulation suggests that ozone production is also sensitive to changes in VOC reactivity under the NOx-limited regime, although this sensitivity depends strongly on how much NOx is present.

  9. Stratospheric ozone reduction and its relation to natural and man made sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaksen, I.S. [Oslo Univ. (Norway). Dept. of Geophysics

    1995-12-31

    Approximately 90 % of the total ozone mass is in the stratosphere (between approximately 12 and 50 km), the rest is in the troposphere (below 12 km). The global distribution of ozone in the stratosphere and its variation over time have been studied extensively over several decades. These studies include observations by ground based instruments (e.g. Dobson instruments), instruments on airborne platforms (e.g. ozone sondes) and on satellites, and model studies which simulate the chemical and dynamical behaviour of the stratosphere. These studies have given good information about the processes which determine the ozone distribution, and how man made emissions affect the distribution. Observations have revealed that there are large year to year variations in stratospheric ozone above a particular location. These variations are difficult to predict as they are connected to irregular weather patterns. However, the observations have shown that there has been a long term decrease in stratospheric ozone on a global scale during the last two decades. The decrease has been most pronounced during the last five to six years and is seen both in the Northern and the Southern Hemispheres. The strong decrease in stratospheric ozone over the Antarctic continent, which has been observed since the mid 80s, and which has reduced the total ozone column with more than 50 % compared with earlier observations, is proven to be a result of increased man made emissions of CFCs. There are also mounting evidences that Northern Hemispheric ozone reductions observed since 1980 are connected to man made emissions of CFCs

  10. Tropical Tropospheric Ozone from SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere ADditional Ozonesondes) Network: A Project for Satellite Research, Process Studies, Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Oltmans, Samuel J.; Schmidlin, Francis J.; Coetzee, G. J. R.; Hoegger, Bruno; Kirchhoff, V. W. J. H.; Ogawa, Toshihiro; Kawakami, Shuji; Posny, Francoise

    2002-01-01

    The first climatological overview of total, stratospheric and tropospheric ozone in the southern hemisphere tropical and subtropics is based on ozone sounding data from 10 sites comprising the Southern Hemisphere Additional OZonesondes (SHADOZ) network. The period covered is 1998-2000. Observations were made over: Ascension Island; Nairobi, Kenya; Irene, South Africa; Reunion Island; Watukosek, Java; Fiji; Tahiti; American Samoa; San Cristobal, Galapagos; Natal, Brazil. Campaign data were collected on a trans-Atlantic oceanographic cruise and during SAFARI-2000 in Zambia. The ozone data, with simultaneous temperature profiles to approx. 7 hPa and relative humidity to approx. 200 hPa, reside at: . SHADOZ ozone time-series and profiles give a perspective on tropical total, stratospheric and tropospheric ozone. Prominent features are highly variable tropospheric ozone and a zonal wave-one pattern in total (and tropospheric) column ozone. Total, stratospheric and tropospheric column ozone amounts peak between August and November and are lowest between March and May. Tropospheric ozone variability over the Indian and Pacific Ocean displays influences of the Indian Ocean Dipole and convective mixing. Pollution transport from Africa and South America is a seasonal feature. Tropospheric ozone seasonality over the Atlantic Basin shows effects of regional subsidence and recirculation as well as biomass burning. Dynamical and chemical influences appear to be of comparable magnitude though model studies are needed to quantify this.

  11. Formation and emissions of carbonyls during and following gas-phase ozonation of indoor materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poppendieck, D.G.; Hubbard, H.F.; Weschler, Charles J.

    2007-01-01

    at concentrations of 1000 ppm in the inlet stream of experimental chambers. Fifteen target carbonyls were selected and measured as building ozonation by-products (BOBPs). During the 36 h that include the 16 h ozonation and 20 h persistence phase, the total BOBP mass released from flooring and wall coverings ranged...

  12. Adrenal-derived stress hormones modulate ozone-induced lung injury and inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozone-induced systemic effects are modulated through activation of the neuro-hormonal stress response pathway. Adrenal demedullation (DEMED)or bilateral total adrenalectomy (ADREX) inhibits systemic and pulmonary effect of acute ozone exposure. To understand the influence of adre...

  13. Relationship between regions of anomalously low ozone content and the pressure situation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekoriukov, V I; Zakharov, G R; Kukoleva, A A; Fioletov, V E [Tsentral' naia Aerologicheskaia Observatoriia, Dolgoprudny (USSR)

    1990-12-01

    Data on total ozone content measured at various stations in the Northern Hemisphere in 1977, 1985, 1986, and 1987 are examined. It is shown that short-lived regions (i.e, with a life span of a few days) with anomalously low ozone content in the Northern Hemisphere are conditioned by circulation features in these regions.

  14. Global carbon budget 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Quere, C.; Moriarty, R.; Jones, S.D.; Boden, T.A.; Peters, G.P.; Andrew, R.M.; Andres, R.J.; Ciais, P.; Bopp, L.; Maignan, F.; Viovy, N.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates, consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO 2 emissions from fossil-fuel combustion and cement production (EFF) are based on energy statistics, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO 2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO 2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990's, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated for the first time in this budget with data products based on surveys of ocean CO 2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO 2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO 2 and land cover change (some including nitrogen-carbon interactions). All uncertainties are reported as ±1, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global carbon budget. For the last decade available (2003-2012), EFF was 8.6±0.4 GtC yr -1 , ELUC 0.9±0.5 GtC yr -1 , GATM 4.3±0

  15. Ozone therapy in postgraduate theses in Egypt: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlBedah, Abdullah M N; Khalil, Mohamed K M; Elolemy, Ahmed T; Alrasheid, Mohamed H S; Al Mudaiheem, Abdullah; Elolemy, Tawfik M B

    2013-08-01

    Systematic reviews of the studies published in the major medical data bases have not shown solid support for the use of ozone therapy. Unpublished or grey literature, including postgraduate theses, may solve this controversy. To review the postgraduate theses published in Egypt in order to assess the clinical safety and effectiveness of ozone therapy in specific medical conditions. The databases of the Egyptian Universities' Library Consortium and the databases of each university were searched for postgraduate theses that evaluated ozone therapy as an intervention for any disease or condition in any age group, compared with any or no other intervention and published before September 2010. A total of 28 quasi trials were included. The theses did not report any safety issues in terms of ozone therapy. With respect to its effectiveness, the studies suggested some benefits of ozone in the treatment of dental infection and recovery, musculoskeletal disorders, diabetes mellitus, chronic diseases, and obstetrics and gynaecology. However, the number of studies included was small and they were of limited quality. There is insufficient evidence to recommend the use of ozone in the treatment of dental infections, in facilitating faster dental recovery after extraction or implantation, in diabetes mellitus, musculoskeletal disorders, or obstetrics and gynaecology.

  16. Photochemical processes and ozone production in Finnish conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurila, T.; Hakola, H. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland). Air Quality Dept.

    1996-12-31

    Photochemical ozone production is observed in March-September. Highest ozone concentrations and production efficiencies are observed in spring in the northern parts and in summer in the southern parts of the country. VOC concentrations are relatively low compared to continental areas in general. During the growing season a substantial part of the total reactive mass of VOCs is of biogenic origin. Large forest areas absorb ozone substantially, decreasing the ambient ozone concentrations in central and northern parts of Finland where long-range transport of ozone is relatively important compared to local production. The aim of the work conducted at Finnish Meteorological Institute has been to characterise concentrations of photochemically active species in the boundary layer and their photochemical formation and deposition including the effects on vegetation. Also interactions between the boundary layer and free troposphere of ozone have been studied. In the future, fluxes of both biogenic species and air pollutants will be measured and the models will be further developed so that the photochemical and micrometeorological processes could be better understood

  17. Screening agrochemicals as potential protectants of plants against ozone phytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitanis, Costas J; Lekkas, Dimitrios V; Agathokleous, Evgenios; Flouri, Fotini

    2015-02-01

    We tested seven contemporary agrochemicals as potential plant protectants against ozone phytotoxicity. In nine experiments, Bel-W3 tobacco plants were experienced weekly exposures to a) 80 nmol mol(-1) of ozone-enriched or ozone-free air in controlled environment chambers, b) an urban air polluted area, and c) an agricultural-remote area. Ozone caused severe leaf injury, reduced chlorophylls' and total carotenoids' content, and negatively affected photosynthesis and stomatal conductance. Penconazole, (35% ± 8) hexaconazole (28% ± 5) and kresoxim-methyl (28% ± 15) showed higher plants' protection (expressed as percentage; mean ± s.e.) against ozone, although the latter exhibited a high variability. Azoxystrobin (21% ± 15) showed lower protection efficacy and Benomyl (15% ± 9) even lower. Trifloxystrobin (7% ± 11) did not protect the plants at all. Acibenzolar-S-methyl + metalaxyl-M (Bion MX) (-6% ± 17) exhibited the higher variability and contrasting results: in some experiments it showed some protection while in others it intensified the ozone injury by causing phytotoxic symptoms on leaves, even in control plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Photochemical processes and ozone production in Finnish conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurila, T; Hakola, H [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland). Air Quality Dept.

    1997-12-31

    Photochemical ozone production is observed in March-September. Highest ozone concentrations and production efficiencies are observed in spring in the northern parts and in summer in the southern parts of the country. VOC concentrations are relatively low compared to continental areas in general. During the growing season a substantial part of the total reactive mass of VOCs is of biogenic origin. Large forest areas absorb ozone substantially, decreasing the ambient ozone concentrations in central and northern parts of Finland where long-range transport of ozone is relatively important compared to local production. The aim of the work conducted at Finnish Meteorological Institute has been to characterise concentrations of photochemically active species in the boundary layer and their photochemical formation and deposition including the effects on vegetation. Also interactions between the boundary layer and free troposphere of ozone have been studied. In the future, fluxes of both biogenic species and air pollutants will be measured and the models will be further developed so that the photochemical and micrometeorological processes could be better understood

  19. Marketing with limited budget

    OpenAIRE

    Smirnova, Daria

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research-based thesis was to get an idea how managers of two small resembling hotels of a specific region deal with marketing process with a limited budget. In addition, the aim of the thesis was to examine if hotel managers who were interviewed perceive marketing only in the way of ‘promotion’ rather than marketing research, marketing mix and marketing environment theories. It was also found out if hotel managers of those hotels consider marketing as a key to successful h...

  20. Experimental study of ozone synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garamoon, A A; Elakshar, F F; Nossair, A M; Kotp, E F

    2002-01-01

    A silent discharge ozonizer has been constructed with a design that enables the study of ozone concentration behaviour as a function of different parameters when oxygen used as a working gas. The behaviour of ozone concentration as a function of discharge current density has four characteristic regions. The concentration is enhanced by more than threefold whenever gas pressure is reduced by a factor of two. The flow rate of the working gas is a more effective parameter on ozone concentration than the gas pressure. When the flow rate is kept constant, and the pressure is decreased by 100%, the ozone concentration increases by only 10%. On the other hand, when the flow rate is decreased by 13%, the ozone concentration increases by 200%, whenever the gas pressure is kept constant. The concentration is nearly doubled when the gap space is increased by four times under the same conditions. The length of the discharge region, the thickness and the dielectric constant of the insulating materials are found to have a considerable effect on the generated ozone concentration. Also, the ozone concentration is ten times less when air is used instead of oxygen as a working gas. A maximum efficiency of 185 g/kWh, is obtained for the present system

  1. The Australian terrestrial carbon budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Haverd

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a study of the full carbon (C-CO2 budget of the Australian continent, focussing on 1990–2011 in the context of estimates over two centuries. The work is a contribution to the RECCAP (REgional Carbon Cycle Assessment and Processes project, as one of numerous regional studies. In constructing the budget, we estimate the following component carbon fluxes: net primary production (NPP; net ecosystem production (NEP; fire; land use change (LUC; riverine export; dust export; harvest (wood, crop and livestock and fossil fuel emissions (both territorial and non-territorial. Major biospheric fluxes were derived using BIOS2 (Haverd et al., 2012, a fine-spatial-resolution (0.05° offline modelling environment in which predictions of CABLE (Wang et al., 2011, a sophisticated land surface model with carbon cycle, are constrained by multiple observation types. The mean NEP reveals that climate variability and rising CO2 contributed 12 ± 24 (1σ error on mean and 68 ± 15 TgC yr−1, respectively. However these gains were partially offset by fire and LUC (along with other minor fluxes, which caused net losses of 26 ± 4 TgC yr−1 and 18 ± 7 TgC yr−1, respectively. The resultant net biome production (NBP is 36 ± 29 TgC yr−1, in which the largest contributions to uncertainty are NEP, fire and LUC. This NBP offset fossil fuel emissions (95 ± 6 TgC yr−1 by 38 ± 30%. The interannual variability (IAV in the Australian carbon budget exceeds Australia's total carbon emissions by fossil fuel combustion and is dominated by IAV in NEP. Territorial fossil fuel emissions are significantly smaller than the rapidly growing fossil fuel exports: in 2009–2010, Australia exported 2.5 times more carbon in fossil fuels than it emitted by burning fossil fuels.

  2. On the origin of tropospheric ozone and NOx over the tropical South Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Schultz, Martin G.; Jacob, Daniel James; Wang, Yuhang; Logan, Jennifer A.; Atlas, Elliot L.; Blake, Donald R.; Blake, Nicola J.; Bradshaw, John D.; Browell, Edward V.; Fenn, Marta A.; Flocke, Frank; Gregory, Gerald L.; Heikes, Brian G.; Sachse, Glen W.; Sandholm, Scott T.

    1999-01-01

    The budgets of ozone and nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) in the tropical South Pacific troposphere are analyzed by photochemical point modeling of aircraft observations at 0–12 km altitude from the Pacific Exploratory Mission-Tropics A campaign flown in September-October 1996. The model reproduces the observed NO2/NO concentration ratio to within 30% and has similar success in simulating observed concentrations of peroxides ( H2O2, CH3OOH), lending confidence in its use to investigate ozone ...

  3. Stomatal and Non-Stomatal Turbulent Deposition Flux of Ozone to a Managed Peatland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek S. El-Madany

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ozone is a key trace gas in the troposphere; because it is a greenhouse gas, it is very reactive, and it is potentially toxic to humans, fauna, and vegetation. The main sink processes for ozone are chemical reactions and the turbulent deposition flux to the earth’s surface. The deposition process itself is rather complex: The interactions between co-varying drivers such as the tropospheric ozone concentration, turbulence, and chemical reactions are not well understood. In the case of ozone deposition to vegetation, another aspect that must be studied is the role of stomatal regulation for a wide range of conditions. Therefore, we measured turbulent deposition fluxes of ozone with the eddy covariance technique during the peak of the growing season in 2014 over a managed, rewetted peatland in NW Germany. The deposition flux was large during the day (up to −15 nmol m−2 s−1 and relatively small during the night (between −1 and −2 nmol m−2 s−1. Flux partitioning by applying the surface resistance analogy and further analysis showed that the stomatal uptake was smaller than non-stomatal deposition. The correction of stomatal conductance with the gross primary production (GPP improved the estimation of day- and nighttime stomatal deposition fluxes. Statistical analysis confirmed that the friction velocity (u* was the single most important driver of non-stomatal ozone deposition and that relationships with other environmental drivers are not linear and highly variable. Further research is needed to develop a better process understanding of non-stomatal ozone deposition, to quantify the role of surface deposition to the ozone budget of the atmospheric boundary layer, and to estimate uncertainties associated with the partitioning of ozone deposition into stomatal and non-stomatal fluxes.

  4. Ozone Production in Global Tropospheric Models: Quantifying Errors due to Grid Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, O.; Prather, M. J.

    2005-12-01

    Ozone production in global chemical models is dependent on model resolution because ozone chemistry is inherently nonlinear, the timescales for chemical production are short, and precursors are artificially distributed over the spatial scale of the model grid. In this study we examine the sensitivity of ozone, its precursors, and its production to resolution by running a global chemical transport model at four different resolutions between T21 (5.6° × 5.6°) and T106 (1.1° × 1.1°) and by quantifying the errors in regional and global budgets. The sensitivity to vertical mixing through the parameterization of boundary layer turbulence is also examined. We find less ozone production in the boundary layer at higher resolution, consistent with slower chemical production in polluted emission regions and greater export of precursors. Agreement with ozonesonde and aircraft measurements made during the NASA TRACE-P campaign over the Western Pacific in spring 2001 is consistently better at higher resolution. We demonstrate that the numerical errors in transport processes at a given resolution converge geometrically for a tracer at successively higher resolutions. The convergence in ozone production on progressing from T21 to T42, T63 and T106 resolution is likewise monotonic but still indicates large errors at 120~km scales, suggesting that T106 resolution is still too coarse to resolve regional ozone production. Diagnosing the ozone production and precursor transport that follow a short pulse of emissions over East Asia in springtime allows us to quantify the impacts of resolution on both regional and global ozone. Production close to continental emission regions is overestimated by 27% at T21 resolution, by 13% at T42 resolution, and by 5% at T106 resolution, but subsequent ozone production in the free troposphere is less significantly affected.

  5. Source attribution of tropospheric ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, T. M.

    2015-12-01

    Tropospheric ozone is a harmful pollutant with adverse effects on human health and ecosystems. As well as these effects, tropospheric ozone is also a powerful greenhouse gas, with an anthropogenic radiative forcing one quarter of that of CO2. Along with methane and atmospheric aerosol, tropospheric ozone belongs to the so-called Short Lived Climate forcing Pollutants, or SLCP. Recent work has shown that efforts to reduce concentrations of SLCP in the atmosphere have the potential to slow the rate of near-term climate change, while simultaneously improving public health and reducing crop losses. Unlike many other SLCP, tropospehric ozone is not directly emitted, but is instead influenced by two distinct sources: transport of air from the ozone-rich stratosphere; and photochemical production in the troposphere from the emitted precursors NOx (oxides of nitrogen), CO (Carbon Monoxide), and VOC (volatile organic compounds, including methane). Better understanding of the relationship between ozone production and the emissions of its precursors is essential for the development of targeted emission reduction strategies. Several modeling methods have been employed to relate the production of tropospheric ozone to emissions of its precursors; emissions perturbation, tagging, and adjoint sensitivity methods all deliver complementary information about modelled ozone production. Most studies using tagging methods have focused on attribution of tropospheric ozone production to emissions of NOx, even though perturbation methods have suggested that tropospheric ozone is also sensitive to VOC, particularly methane. In this study we describe the implementation into a global chemistry-climate model of a scheme for tagging emissions of NOx and VOC with an arbitrary number of labels, which are followed through the chemical reactions of tropospheric ozone production in order to perform attribution of tropospehric ozone to its emitted precursors. Attribution is performed to both

  6. Ozone's impact on public health: Contributions from indoor exposures to ozone and products of ozone-initiated chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weschler, Charles J.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The associations between ozone concentrations measured outdoors and both morbidity and mortality may be partially due to indoor exposures to ozone and ozone-initiated oxidation products. In this article I examine the contributions of such indoor exposures to overall ozone-related heal...

  7. Environmental budget and policy goal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Sang Hwan [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    The assigned budget for environmental sector is quite insufficient to meet enormous environmental demand. Under this circumstance, there is only one way to solve environmental problems efficiently, i.e. to use a given budget efficiently. Therefore, the study on efficient utilization of a given environmental invested finance is needed by customizing a diagnosis of present condition on the operation of environmental budget and environmental investment analysis. In this respect, an entire national budget of 1999 and environmental budget were analyzed in this study. By analyzing economic efficiency of sewage disposal program, integrated septic tank system, VOC regulation, incinerator construction program, food waste disposal program, and recycling program, an efficient budget policy was presented. 19 refs., 18 figs., 169 tabs.

  8. Baseline budgeting for continuous improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilty, G L

    1999-05-01

    This article is designed to introduce the techniques used to convert traditionally maintained department budgets to baseline budgets. This entails identifying key activities, evaluating for value-added, and implementing continuous improvement opportunities. Baseline Budgeting for Continuous Improvement was created as a result of a newly named company president's request to implement zero-based budgeting. The president was frustrated with the mind-set of the organization, namely, "Next year's budget should be 10 to 15 percent more than this year's spending." Zero-based budgeting was not the answer, but combining the principles of activity-based costing and the Just-in-Time philosophy of eliminating waste and continuous improvement did provide a solution to the problem.

  9. The evolving energy budget of accretionary wedges

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBeck, Jessica; Cooke, Michele; Maillot, Bertrand; Souloumiac, Pauline

    2017-04-01

    simulated increments of the physical experiments. The work budget components of the physical experiments are determined from backwall force measurements and incremental velocity fields calculated via digital image correlation. Comparison of the energy budget preceding and following the development of the first thrust pair quantifies the tradeoff of work done in distributed deformation and work expended in frictional slip due to the development of the first backthrust and forethrust. In both the numerical and physical experiments, after the pair develops internal work decreases at the expense of frictional work, which increases. Despite the increase in frictional work, the total external work of the system decreases, revealing that accretion faulting leads to gains in efficiency. Comparison of the energy budget of the accretion experiments and simulations with the strong and weak detachments indicate that when the detachment is strong, the total energy consumed in frictional sliding and internal deformation is larger than when the detachment is relatively weak.

  10. Retrieval of Surface Ozone from UV-MFRSR Irradiances using Deep Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M.; Sun, Z.; Davis, J.; Zempila, M.; Liu, C.; Gao, W.

    2017-12-01

    High concentration of surface ozone is harmful to humans and plants. USDA UV-B Monitoring and Research Program (UVMRP) uses Ultraviolet (UV) version of Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (UV-MFRSR) to measure direct, diffuse, and total irradiances every three minutes at seven UV channels (i.e. 300, 305, 311, 317, 325, 332, and 368 nm channels with 2 nm full width at half maximum). Based on the wavelength dependency of aerosol optical depths, there have been plenty of literatures exploring retrieval methods of total column ozone from UV-MFRSR measurements. However, few has explored the retrieval of surface ozone. The total column ozone is the integral of the multiplication of ozone concentration (varying by height and time) and cross section (varying by wavelength and temperature) over height. Because of the distinctive values of ozone cross section in the UV region, the irradiances at seven UV channels have the potential to resolve the ozone concentration at multiple vertical layers. If the UV irradiances at multiple time points are considered together, the uncertainty or the vertical resolution of ozone concentrations can be further improved. In this study, the surface ozone amounts at the UVMRP station located at Billings, Oklahoma are estimated from the adjacent (i.e. within 200 miles) US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) surface ozone observations using the spatial analysis technique. Then, the (direct normal) irradiances of UVMRP at one or more time points as inputs and the corresponding estimated surface ozone from EPA as outputs are fed into a pre-trained (dense) deep neural network (DNN) to explore the hidden non-linear relationship between them. This process could improve our understanding of their physical/mathematical relationship. Finally, the optimized DNN is tested with the preserved 5% of the dataset, which are not used during training, to verify the relationship.

  11. BUDGET PLANNING IN FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Nataliya Melnichuk

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to determine the nature, targets, functions, principles and methods of budget planning and development of classifications due to its types. The essence of budget planning presented by various authors, is own interpretation (the process of developing a plan of formation, distribution and redistribution of financial funds according to budget system units during the reporting period based on budgetary purposes and targets defined by socio-economic development strategy...

  12. Budget 2002: business taxation measures

    OpenAIRE

    Blow, L.; Hawkins, M.; Klemm, A.; McCrae, J.; Simpson, H.

    2002-01-01

    Following the 2002 Budget, this Briefing Note examines some of the Chancellor's changes to business taxation. A number of Budget measures, including the research and development tax credit for large companies and the exemption of capital gains on the sale of subsidiaries, are welcome and should improve the efficiency of the UK's tax system. All of these measures were subject to extensive prior consultation. A number of other measures were not foreshadowed in the Pre-Budget Report. Three of th...

  13. Collection assessment and acquisitions budgets

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Sul H

    2013-01-01

    This invaluable new book contains timely information about the assessment of academic library collections and the relationship of collection assessment to acquisition budgets. The rising cost of information significantly influences academic libraries'abilities to acquire the necessary materials for students and faculty, and public libraries'abilities to acquire material for their clientele. Collection Assessment and Acquisitions Budgets examines different aspects of the relationship between the assessment of academic library collections and the management of library acquisition budgets. Librar

  14. COST BUDGETING WITH THE ROMANIAN BAKERY UNITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RĂSCOLEAN ILIE

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A primary objective of management accounting is the possibility to estimate the total costs of a product or service works, which determines the development and implementation of specific managerial accounting systems that in addition to quantifying the immediate results aimed at achieving objectives such as customer orientation, labor productivity growth, the improvement of economic entities’ performance, establishing optimal outlets and prices and abandoning production-manufacture products that generate losses. Based on the progress of the investigations undertaken in the literature, the authors article demonstrates the need for achieving cost budgeting in the context of economic entities from the milling and bakeries industry, as mean of management control - by the example of S.C. AVANTI SRL Lupeni. The research in the field has led to the conduct of the study are awaited, being capable of demonstrating the viability of the management accounting organization at economic entities in the milling and bakery industry from Romania, in order to increase their performances. The results obtained by applying the costs budgeting allowed a rigorous cost control, which ultimately leads to an increase in the performance of the economic entity under study, as well as to the economic entities in the field that will apply the costs budgeting. At the end, the authors conclude regarding the importance of extending the framework for successfully implementing cost budgeting in the context of economic entities across the country.

  15. Dose budget for exposure control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, P.S.

    1999-01-01

    Dose budget is an important management tool to effectively control the collective dose incurred in a nuclear facility. The budget represents a set of yardsticks or guidelines for use in controlling the internal activities, involving radiation exposure in the organisation. The management, through budget can evaluate the radiation protection performance at every level of the organisation where a number of independent functional groups work on routine and non-routine jobs. The discrepancy between the plan and the actual performance is high lighted through the budgets. The organisation may have to change the course of its operation in a particular area or revise its plan with due focus on appropriate protective measures. (author)

  16. Near-ground ozone source attributions and outflow in central eastern China during MTX2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J.; Wang, Z.; Akimoto, H.; Yamaji, K.; Takigawa, M.; Pochanart, P.; Liu, Y.; Tanimoto, H.; Kanaya, Y.

    2008-12-01

    A 3-D regional chemical transport model, the Nested Air Quality Prediction Model System (NAQPMS), with an on-line tracer tagging module was used to study the source of the near-ground (pollutants, and it captured highly polluted and clean cases well. The simulated near-ground ozone level over CEC was 60-85 ppbv (parts per billion by volume), which was higher than values in Japan and over the North Pacific (20-50 ppbv). The simulated tagged tracer data indicated that the regional-scale transport of chemically produced ozone over other areas in CEC contributed to the greatest fraction (49%) of the near-ground mean ozone at Mt. Tai in June; in situ photochemistry contributed only 12%. Due to high anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions that occurred in the southern part of the CEC, the contribution to ground ozone levels from this area played the most important role (32.4 ppbv, 37.9% of total ozone) in the monthly mean ozone concentration at Mt. Tai; values reached 59 ppbv (62%) on 6-7 June 2006. The monthly mean horizontal distribution of chemically produced ozone from various ozone production regions indicated that photochemical reactions controlled the spatial distribution of O3 over CEC. The regional-scale transport of pollutants also played an important role in the spatial and temporal distribution of ozone over CEC. Chemically produced ozone from the southern part of the study region can be transported northeastwardly to the northern rim of CEC; the mean contribution was 5-10 ppbv, and it reached 25 ppbv during high ozone events. Studies of the outflow of CEC ozone and its precursors, as well as their influences and contributions to the ozone level over adjacent regions/countries, revealed that the contribution of CEC ozone to mean ozone mixing ratios over the Korean Peninsula and Japan was 5-15 ppbv, of which about half was due to the direct transport of ozone from CEC and half was produced locally by ozone precursors transported from CEC.

  17. Operational budgeting using fuzzy goal programming

    OpenAIRE

    Saeed Mohammadi; Kamran Feizi; Ali Khatami Firouz Abadi

    2013-01-01

    Having an efficient budget normally has different advantages such as measuring the performance of various organizations, setting appropriate targets and promoting managers based on their achievements. However, any budgeting planning requires prediction of different cost components. There are various methods for budgeting planning such as incremental budgeting, program budgeting, zero based budgeting and performance budgeting. In this paper, we present a fuzzy goal programming to estimate oper...

  18. Budgeting Time to Teach about the School Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Dale

    2011-01-01

    As a teacher in the Milwaukee Public Schools (MPS) for the past 16 years, the author has grown used to dismal budget cut news arriving each February. Although cuts are always frustrating and their results burdensome, the school has been able to "hang on" reasonably well. This year, however, the budget cuts were extreme. In this article,…

  19. The roles of ozone and zeolite on reactive dye degradation in electrical discharge reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peternel, L; Kusic, H; Koprivanac, N; Locke, B R

    2006-05-01

    In this study high voltage pulsed corona electrical discharge advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) were applied to bleach and degrade C.I. Reactive Green 8 and C.I. Reactive Red 45 organic dyes in water solutions. Two types of hybrid gas/liquid high voltage electrical discharge (corona) reactors, known as hybrid series and hybrid parallel were studied. The difference between these reactors relates to electrode configuration, which affects the amounts of ozone, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals produced. Experiments were conducted using dye concentrations of 20 mgl(-1) and 75 mgl(-1), with and without NH4ZSM5 zeolite addition in order to determine possible effects of added solid particles to total process efficiency. The role of ozone in combination with zeolites was assessed through comparative direct ozonation experiments with ozone supplied by an ozone generator. UV/VIS spectrophotometric measurements and measurements of total organic carbon (TOC) were used for the determination of decolorization and mineralization rates.

  20. The chemical and biological characteristics of coke-oven wastewater by ozonation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, E.-E.; Hsing, H.-J.; Chiang, P.-C.; Chen, M.-Y.; Shyng, J.-Y.

    2008-01-01

    A bench-scale bubble column reactor was used to investigate the biological and chemical characteristics of coke-oven wastewater after ozonation treatment through the examination of selected parameters. Color and thiocyanate could be removed almost entirely; however, organic matter and cyanide could not, due to the inadequate oxidation ability of ozone to remove ozonated byproducts under given experimental conditions. The removal of cyanide and total organic carbon were pH-dependent and were found to be efficient under neutral to alkaline conditions. The removal rate for thiocyanate was about five times that of cyanide. The ozone consumption ratio approached to about 1 at the early stage of ozonation (time TOC ) increased to 30%, indicating that easily degraded pollutants were degraded almost entirely. The effect of ozonation on the subsequent biological treatment unit (i.e., activated sludge process) was determined by observing the ratio of 5-day biological oxygen demand to chemical oxygen demand (BOD 5 /COD) and the specific oxygen utilization rate (SOUR). The results indicated that the contribution of ozonation to inhibition reduction was very significant but limited to the enhancement of biodegradation. The operation for ozonation of coke-oven wastewater was feasible under neutral condition and short ozone contact time in order to achieve better performance and cost savings

  1. Urban and Rural Ozone Pollution Over Lusaka (Zambia, 15.5S, 25E) During SAFARI-2000 (September 2000)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Herman, J. R.; Witte, J. C.; Phahlane, A.; Coetzee, G. J. R.; Mukula, C.; Hudson, R. D.; Frolov, A. D.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In early September, throughout south central Africa, seasonal clearing of dry vegetation and the production of charcoal for cooking leads to intense smoke haze and ozone formation. Ozone soundings made over Lusaka during a six-day period in early September 2000 recorded layers of high ozone (greater than 125 ppbv at 5 km) during two stagnant periods, interspersed by a frontal passage that reduced boundary layer ozone by 30 percent. Smoke aerosol column variations aloft and total ozone were monitored by a sun photometer. During the 6-day measurement period, surface ozone concentrations ranged from 50-95 ppbv and integrated tropospheric ozone from the soundings was 39- 54 Dobson Units (note 1.3 km elevation at the launch site). High ozone concentrations above the mixed and inversion layers were advected from rural burning regions in western Zambia where SAFARI aircraft and ground-based instruments observed intense biomass fires and elevated aerosol and trace gas amounts. TOMS tropospheric ozone and smoke aerosols products show the distribution of biomass burning and associated pollution throughout southern Africa in September 2000. Animations of satellite images and trajectories confirm pollutant recirculation over south central African fires, exit of ozone from Mozambique and Tanzania to the Indian Ocean and the characteristic buildup of tropospheric ozone over the Atlantic from western African outflow.

  2. BUDGET PLANNING IN FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya Melnichuk

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to determine the nature, targets, functions, principles and methods of budget planning and development of classifications due to its types. The essence of budget planning presented by various authors, is own interpretation (the process of developing a plan of formation, distribution and redistribution of financial funds according to budget system units during the reporting period based on budgetary purposes and targets defined by socio-economic development strategy is proposed. Methodology. The following methods such as cognition, induction, deduction, analysis and synthesis have been used in the process of survey. Results of the survey proves that budget planning plays an essential role in the financial management. On condition business environment changing even the best management system can become obsolete. The immediate reaction to the new trends in the financial system as a whole, in the industry is possible with budget planning as well. It also allows to make appropriate adjustments to the plans. Adjustment of long-term, medium-term and short-term plans makes it possible, without changing goals, to change ways of their achievement and thus to raise the level of efficiency of budget funds formation and use. It is necessary to revise the whole system plans, including their mission and goals in the case of global changes in the external and internal environment. Practical implications. The proposed approach to the classification of budget planning types allows to cope with the shortcomings of modern planning in the public sector (the development of the targets according to the state budget expenditures in Ukraine remains a formality and it rarely complies with realities. Value/originality is specified in the proposed interpretation which differs from existing ones that provides clarification of budget planning purpose in financial management; classification of budget planning principles, which differs from previous

  3. Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) Ozone Climatology (2005-2009): Tropospheric and Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) Profiles with Comparisons to Omi-based Ozone Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Miller, Sonya K.; Tilmes, Simone; Kollonige, Debra W.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Oltmans, Samuel J.; Johnson, Brian J.; Fujiwara, Masatomo; Schmidlin, F. J.; Coetzee, G. J. R.; hide

    2012-01-01

    We present a regional and seasonal climatology of SHADOZ ozone profiles in the troposphere and tropical tropopause layer (TTL) based on measurements taken during the first five years of Aura, 2005-2009, when new stations joined the network at Hanoi, Vietnam; Hilo, Hawaii; Alajuela Heredia, Costa Rica; Cotonou, Benin. In all, 15 stations operated during that period. A west-to-east progression of decreasing convective influence and increasing pollution leads to distinct tropospheric ozone profiles in three regions: (1) western Pacific eastern Indian Ocean; (2) equatorial Americas (San Cristobal, Alajuela, Paramaribo); (3) Atlantic and Africa. Comparisons in total ozone column from soundings, the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI, on Aura, 2004-) satellite and ground-based instrumentation are presented. Most stations show better agreement with OMI than they did for EPTOMS comparisons (1998-2004; Earth-ProbeTotal Ozone Mapping Spectrometer), partly due to a revised above-burst ozone climatology. Possible station biases in the stratospheric segment of the ozone measurement noted in the first 7 years of SHADOZ ozone profiles are re-examined. High stratospheric bias observed during the TOMS period appears to persist at one station. Comparisons of SHADOZ tropospheric ozone and the daily Trajectory-enhanced Tropospheric Ozone Residual (TTOR) product (based on OMIMLS) show that the satellite-derived column amount averages 25 low. Correlations between TTOR and the SHADOZ sondes are quite good (typical r2 0.5-0.8), however, which may account for why some published residual-based OMI products capture tropospheric interannual variability fairly realistically. On the other hand, no clear explanations emerge for why TTOR-sonde discrepancies vary over a wide range at most SHADOZ sites.

  4. Some observations on the role of planetary waves in determining the spring time ozone distribution in the Antarctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, S.; Mcpeters, R. D.

    1986-01-01

    Ozone measurements from 1970 to 1984 from the Nimbus 4 backscattered ultraviolet and the Nimbus 7 solar backscattered ultraviolet spectrometers show significant decrease in total ozone only after 1979. The downward trend is most apparent in October south of 70 deg S in the longitude zone 0 to 30 deg W where planetary wave activity is weak. Outside this longitude region, the trend in total ozone is much smaller due to strong interannual variability of wave activity. This paper gives a phenomenological description of ozone depletion in the Antarctic region based on vertical advection and transient planetary waves.

  5. Operational budgeting using fuzzy goal programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Mohammadi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Having an efficient budget normally has different advantages such as measuring the performance of various organizations, setting appropriate targets and promoting managers based on their achievements. However, any budgeting planning requires prediction of different cost components. There are various methods for budgeting planning such as incremental budgeting, program budgeting, zero based budgeting and performance budgeting. In this paper, we present a fuzzy goal programming to estimate operational budget. The proposed model uses fuzzy triangular as well as interval number to estimate budgeting expenses. The proposed study of this paper is implemented for a real-world case study in province of Qom, Iran and the results are analyzed.

  6. Motivation in Beyond Budgeting: A Motivational Paradox?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandalgaard, Niels; Bukh, Per Nikolaj

    In this paper we discuss the role of motivation in relation to budgeting and we analyse how the Beyond Budgeting model functions compared with traditional budgeting. In the paper we focus on budget related motivation (and motivation in general) and conclude that the Beyond Budgeting model...

  7. Zero-Base Budgeting:; An Institutional Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Donald L.; Anderson, Roger C.

    Zero-base budgeting as it is used at Allegany College is described. Zero-based budgeting is defined as a budgeting and planning approach that requires the examination of every item in a budget request as if the request were being proposed for the first time. Budgets (decision packages) are first made up for decision units (i.e., a course for the…

  8. Laboratory administration--capital budgeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butros, F

    1997-01-01

    The process of capital budgeting varies among different health-care institutions. Understanding the concept of present value of money, incremental cash flow statements, and the basic budgeting techniques will enable the laboratory manager to make the rational and logical decisions that are needed in today's competitive health-care environment.

  9. Implementing Site-based Budgeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sielke, Catherine C.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses five questions that must be answered before implementing site-based budgeting: Why are we doing this? What budgeting decisions will be devolved to the school site? How do dollars flow from the central office to the site? Who will be involved at the site? How will accountability be achieved? (Author/PKP)

  10. The CEA budget in 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    In 1982, the amount of the CEA budget will be 13.4 billions French Francs. The main characteristics are the priority for employment and investments. In this budget programs are adapted to fit R and D to the government policy: innovation, industrial valorization and fundamental research especially thermonuclear fusion and in the electronuclear field to safety, reprocessing and radioactive waste management [fr

  11. Budgeting for Efficiency and Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereus, Steven C.

    2012-01-01

    For most districts, budgeting has become a cost-cutting exercise designed to close the gap between revenues and expenses. During this process, decision makers inherently assume that existing operations are efficient and effective--an assumption that is rarely validated by facts. Cutting programs and services balances budgets but does not…

  12. Determination of the Optimum Ozone Product on the Plasma Ozonizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agus Purwadi; Widdi Usada; Suryadi; Isyuniarto; Sri Sukmajaya

    2002-01-01

    An experiment of the optimum ozone product determination on the cylindrical plasma ozonizer has been done. The experiment is carried out by using alternating high voltage power supply, oscilloscope CS-1577 A, flow meter and spectronik-20 instrument for the absorbance solution samples which produced by varying the physics parameter values of the discharge alternating high voltage and velocity of oxygen gas input. The plasma ozonizer is made of cylinder stainless steel as the electrode and cylinder glass as the dielectric with 1.00 mm of the discharge gap and 7.225 mm 3 of the discharge tube volume. The experiment results shows that the optimum ozone product is 0.360 mg/s obtained at the the discharge of alternating high voltage of 25.50 kV, the frequency of 1.00 kHz and the rate of oxygen gas input of 1.00 lpm. (author)

  13. Is the ozone climate penalty robust in Europe?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colette, Augustin; Bessagnet, Bertrand; Meleux, Frédérik; Rouïl, Laurence; Andersson, Camilla; Engardt, Magnuz; Langner, Joakim; Baklanov, Alexander; Brandt, Jørgen; Christensen, Jesper H; Geels, Camilla; Hedegaard, Gitte B; Doherty, Ruth; Giannakopoulos, Christos; Katragkou, Eleni; Lei, Hang; Manders, Astrid; Melas, Dimitris; Sofiev, Mikhail; Soares, Joana

    2015-01-01

    Ozone air pollution is identified as one of the main threats bearing upon human health and ecosystems, with 25 000 deaths in 2005 attributed to surface ozone in Europe (IIASA 2013 TSAP Report #10). In addition, there is a concern that climate change could negate ozone pollution mitigation strategies, making them insufficient over the long run and jeopardising chances to meet the long term objective set by the European Union Directive of 2008 (Directive 2008/50/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 May 2008) (60 ppbv, daily maximum). This effect has been termed the ozone climate penalty. One way of assessing this climate penalty is by driving chemistry-transport models with future climate projections while holding the ozone precursor emissions constant (although the climate penalty may also be influenced by changes in emission of precursors). Here we present an analysis of the robustness of the climate penalty in Europe across time periods and scenarios by analysing the databases underlying 11 articles published on the topic since 2007, i.e. a total of 25 model projections. This substantial body of literature has never been explored to assess the uncertainty and robustness of the climate ozone penalty because of the use of different scenarios, time periods and ozone metrics. Despite the variability of model design and setup in this database of 25 model projection, the present meta-analysis demonstrates the significance and robustness of the impact of climate change on European surface ozone with a latitudinal gradient from a penalty bearing upon large parts of continental Europe and a benefit over the North Atlantic region of the domain. Future climate scenarios present a penalty for summertime (JJA) surface ozone by the end of the century (2071–2100) of at most 5 ppbv. Over European land surfaces, the 95% confidence interval of JJA ozone change is [0.44; 0.64] and [0.99; 1.50] ppbv for the 2041–2070 and 2071–2100 time windows, respectively

  14. Is the ozone climate penalty robust in Europe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colette, Augustin; Andersson, Camilla; Baklanov, Alexander; Bessagnet, Bertrand; Brandt, Jørgen; Christensen, Jesper H.; Doherty, Ruth; Engardt, Magnuz; Geels, Camilla; Giannakopoulos, Christos; Hedegaard, Gitte B.; Katragkou, Eleni; Langner, Joakim; Lei, Hang; Manders, Astrid; Melas, Dimitris; Meleux, Frédérik; Rouïl, Laurence; Sofiev, Mikhail; Soares, Joana; Stevenson, David S.; Tombrou-Tzella, Maria; Varotsos, Konstantinos V.; Young, Paul

    2015-08-01

    Ozone air pollution is identified as one of the main threats bearing upon human health and ecosystems, with 25 000 deaths in 2005 attributed to surface ozone in Europe (IIASA 2013 TSAP Report #10). In addition, there is a concern that climate change could negate ozone pollution mitigation strategies, making them insufficient over the long run and jeopardising chances to meet the long term objective set by the European Union Directive of 2008 (Directive 2008/50/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 May 2008) (60 ppbv, daily maximum). This effect has been termed the ozone climate penalty. One way of assessing this climate penalty is by driving chemistry-transport models with future climate projections while holding the ozone precursor emissions constant (although the climate penalty may also be influenced by changes in emission of precursors). Here we present an analysis of the robustness of the climate penalty in Europe across time periods and scenarios by analysing the databases underlying 11 articles published on the topic since 2007, i.e. a total of 25 model projections. This substantial body of literature has never been explored to assess the uncertainty and robustness of the climate ozone penalty because of the use of different scenarios, time periods and ozone metrics. Despite the variability of model design and setup in this database of 25 model projection, the present meta-analysis demonstrates the significance and robustness of the impact of climate change on European surface ozone with a latitudinal gradient from a penalty bearing upon large parts of continental Europe and a benefit over the North Atlantic region of the domain. Future climate scenarios present a penalty for summertime (JJA) surface ozone by the end of the century (2071-2100) of at most 5 ppbv. Over European land surfaces, the 95% confidence interval of JJA ozone change is [0.44; 0.64] and [0.99; 1.50] ppbv for the 2041-2070 and 2071-2100 time windows, respectively.

  15. Building information modeling in budgeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strnad, Michal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Construction activity is one of the financially demanding and ever-changing locations of implementation. The basic idea of the budget is to determine all the possible costs that will arise during construction work. The budget must be a transparent and effective way of communication in the context of supplier-customer relationships. For this reason it is essential to give the budget the structure that is now represented by the price system. It is important to adhere to the principles of budgeting and technical standards. It is necessary to have good documentation for budgeting such as project documentation and much more. However, the construction product range is one of the most extensive, the product group can be changed several times in the investment phase not only materially but also cost-effectively because of the longest production cycle in the construction industry.

  16. THE BUDGETING PROCESS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TURCIN MARIUS CATALIN

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the stages of the budgeting process in Romania and the institutions involved in its carry out, having regard to the recent legislative amendments in the field. The study describes the importance of some state institutions in achieving the economic and social policy objectives. According to practice, the institution specializing in drafting the budget bill is the Government, who submits the budget bill annually to the Parliament for adopting the national budget, accompanied by the explanatory statement, annexes and interpretative calculations. The preparatory works are fulfilled by the Ministry of Public Finance and in parallel, by the ministries, authorities, local administrations or other public institutions to prepare their own drafts budget.

  17. FLEXIBLE BUDGET OF SPORT COMPETITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Vukasović

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Manager of sport competition has right to decide and also to take responsibility for costs, income and financial results. From economic point of wiev flexible budget and planning cost calculations is top management base for analyzing success level of sport competition. Flexible budget is made before sport competition with few output level, where one is always from static plan-master plan. At the end of competition when we have results, we make report of plan executing and we also analyzing plan variances. Results of comparation between achieved and planning level of static budget can be acceptable if achieved level is approximate to budget level or if we analyzing results from gross or net income. Flexible budget become very important in case of world eco- nomic crises

  18. Global Carbon Budget 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quéré, Corinne Le; Andrew, Robbie M.; Canadell, Josep G.; Sitch, Stephen; Korsbakken, Jan Ivar; Peters, Glen P.; Manning, Andrew C.; Boden, Thomas A.; Tans, Pieter P.; Houghton, Richard A.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere the global carbon budget is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates and consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, respectively, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models. We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as +/- 1(sigma), reflecting the current capacity to characterize the annual estimates of each component of the global carbon budget. For the last decade available (2006-2015), EFF was 9

  19. Global Carbon Budget 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Quéré, Corinne; Andrew, Robbie M.; Canadell, Josep G.; Sitch, Stephen; Korsbakken, Jan Ivar; Peters, Glen P.; Manning, Andrew C.; Boden, Thomas A.; Tans, Pieter P.; Houghton, Richard A.; Keeling, Ralph F.; Alin, Simone; Andrews, Oliver D.; Anthoni, Peter; Barbero, Leticia; Bopp, Laurent; Chevallier, Frédéric; Chini, Louise P.; Ciais, Philippe; Currie, Kim; Delire, Christine; Doney, Scott C.; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Gkritzalis, Thanos; Harris, Ian; Hauck, Judith; Haverd, Vanessa; Hoppema, Mario; Klein Goldewijk, Kees; Jain, Atul K.; Kato, Etsushi; Körtzinger, Arne; Landschützer, Peter; Lefèvre, Nathalie; Lenton, Andrew; Lienert, Sebastian; Lombardozzi, Danica; Melton, Joe R.; Metzl, Nicolas; Millero, Frank; Monteiro, Pedro M. S.; Munro, David R.; Nabel, Julia E. M. S.; Nakaoka, Shin-ichiro; O'Brien, Kevin; Olsen, Are; Omar, Abdirahman M.; Ono, Tsuneo; Pierrot, Denis; Poulter, Benjamin; Rödenbeck, Christian; Salisbury, Joe; Schuster, Ute; Schwinger, Jörg; Séférian, Roland; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Stocker, Benjamin D.; Sutton, Adrienne J.; Takahashi, Taro; Tian, Hanqin; Tilbrook, Bronte; van der Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid T.; van der Werf, Guido R.; Viovy, Nicolas; Walker, Anthony P.; Wiltshire, Andrew J.; Zaehle, Sönke

    2016-11-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere - the "global carbon budget" - is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates and consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, respectively, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models. We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global carbon budget. For the last decade available (2006-2015), EFF was 9

  20. SUMO: Solar Ultraviolet Monitor and Ozone Nanosatellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damé, L.; Meftah, M.; Irbah, A.; Hauchecorne, A.; Keckhut, P.; Sarkissian, A.; Godin-Beekman, S.; Rogers, D. J.; Bove, P.; Lagage, P. O.; DeWitte, S.

    2014-12-01

    SUMO is an innovative proof-of-concept nanosatellite aiming to measure on the same platform the different components of the Earth radiation budget (ERB), the solar energy input and the energy reemitted at the top of the Earth atmosphere, with a particular focus on the far UV (FUV) part of the spectrum and on the ozone layer. The FUV is the only wavelength band with energy absorbed in the high atmosphere (stratosphere), in the ozone (Herzberg continuum, 200-220 nm) and oxygen bands, and its high variability is most probably at the origin of a climate influence (UV affects stratospheric dynamics and temperatures, altering interplanetary waves and weather patterns both poleward and downward to the lower stratosphere and tropopause). A simultaneous observation of incoming FUV and ozone production would bring an invaluable information on this process of solar-climate forcing. Space instruments have already measured the different components of the ERB but this is the first time that all instruments will operate on the same platform. This characteristic by itself guarantees original scientific results. SUMO is a 3.6 kg, 3W, 10x10x30 cm3 nanosatellite ("3U"), with a "1U" payload of definition has been completed (platform and payload AIT are possible in 24 months). SUMO is proposed for the nanosatellite program of Polytechnic School and CNES (following QB50) for a flight in 2018. Follow-up is 2 fold: on one part more complete measurements using SUMO miniaturized instruments on a larger satellite; on the other part, increase of the coverage in local time and latitude using a constellation of SUMO nanosatellites around the Earth to further geolocalize the Sun influence on our planet. Nanosatellites, with cost and risk limited, are also excellent platforms to evaluate technologies for future missions, e.g. nanotechnology ZnO protection barriers to limit contamination from solar panels in the UV and reduce reflection losses in the visible, or MgZnO solar blind detectors (R

  1. Environmental sustainability of ozonating municipal waste water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Hansen, Peter Augusto

    The EU FP6 NEPTUNE project is related to the EU Water Framework Directive and the main goal is to develop new and optimize existing waste water treatment technologies (WWTT) and sludge handling methods for municipal waste water. Besides nutrients, a special focus area is micropollutants (e....... In total more that 20 different waste water and sludge treatment technologies are to be assessed. This paper will present the preliminary LCA results from running the induced versus avoided impact approach (mainly based on existing LCIA methodology) on one of the WWTTs, i.e. ozonation....

  2. Ozone reactions with indoor materials during building disinfection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poppendieck, D.; Hubbard, H.; Ward, M.

    2007-01-01

    , and particularly after several hours of disinfection, surface reaction resistance dominated the overall resistance to ozone deposition for nearly all materials. Total building disinfection by-products (all carbonyls) were quantified per unit area of each material for the experimental period. Paper, office...... partition, and medium density fiberboard each released greater than 38 mg m(-2) of by-products....

  3. Inactivation of E-coli O157 : H7 in apple cider by ozone at various temperatures and concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenstrup, Lotte Dock

    2004-01-01

    of dissolved ozone of about 5-6 mg/L at 20C, before the on-set of E. coli O157:H7 inactivation in the cider. Total processing times, based on lag time plus 5D, ranged from about 4 to 14 min depending on temperature and ozone concentration. Overall, inactivation of E. coli O157:H7by ozone was fast enough...

  4. Distribution of ozone and its precursors over Bay of Bengal during winter 2009: role of meteorology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. David

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of ozone and NO2 were carried out in the marine environment of the Bay of Bengal (BoB during the winter months, December 2008–January 2009, as part of the second Integrated Campaign for Aerosols, gases and Radiation Budget conducted under the Geosphere Biosphere Programme of the Indian Space Research Organization. The ozone mixing ratio was found to be high in the head and the southeast BoB with a mean value of 61 ± 7 ppb and 53 ± 6 ppb, respectively. The mixing ratios of NO2 and CO were also relatively high in these regions. The spatial patterns were examined in the light of airflow patterns, air mass back trajectories and other meteorological conditions and satellite retrieved maps of tropospheric ozone, NO2, CO, and fire count in and around the region. The distribution of these gases was strongly associated with the transport from the adjoining land mass. The anthropogenic activities and forest fires/biomass burning over the Indo Gangetic Plains and other East Asian regions contribute to ozone and its precursors over the BoB. Similarity in the spatial pattern suggests that their source regions could be more or less the same. Most of the diurnal patterns showed decrease of the ozone mixing ratio during noon/afternoon followed by a nighttime increase and a morning high. Over this oceanic region, photochemical production of ozone involving NO2 was not very active. Water vapour played a major role in controlling the variation of ozone. An attempt is made to simulate ozone level over the north and south BoB using the photochemical box model (NCAR-MM. The present observed features were compared with those measured during the earlier cruises conducted in different seasons.

  5. Ozone measurement using the Chappuis band in the visible spectral region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeBaron, B.A.; Michalsky, J.J.

    1988-08-01

    Our goal in this paper is to investigate methods of estimating total column ozone abundance using the Chappuis band especially in the presence of a severe perturbation to the stratospheric aerosol layer. 9 refs., 4 figs

  6. Errors resulting from assuming opaque Lambertian clouds in TOMS ozone retrieval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X.; Newchurch, M.J.; Loughman, R.; Bhartia, P.K.

    2004-01-01

    Accurate remote sensing retrieval of atmospheric constituents over cloudy areas is very challenging because of insufficient knowledge of cloud parameters. Cloud treatments are highly idealized in most retrieval algorithms. Using a radiative transfer model treating clouds as scattering media, we investigate the effects of assuming opaque Lambertian clouds and employing a Partial Cloud Model (PCM) on Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) ozone retrievals, especially for tropical high-reflectivity clouds. Assuming angularly independent cloud reflection is good because the Ozone Retrieval Errors (OREs) are within 1.5% of the total ozone (i.e., within TOMS retrieval precision) when Cloud Optical Depth (COD)≥20. Because of Intra-Cloud Ozone Absorption ENhancement (ICOAEN), assuming opaque clouds can introduce large OREs even for optically thick clouds. For a water cloud of COD 40 spanning 2-12 km with 20.8 Dobson Unit (DU) ozone homogeneously distributed in the cloud, the ORE is 17.8 DU in the nadir view. The ICOAEN effect depends greatly on solar zenith angle, view zenith angle, and intra-cloud ozone amount and distribution. The TOMS PCM is good because negative errors from the cloud fraction being underestimated partly cancel other positive errors. At COD≤5, the TOMS algorithm retrieves approximately the correct total ozone because of compensating errors. With increasing COD up to 20-40, the overall positive ORE increases and is finally dominated by the ICOAEN effect. The ICOAEN effect is typically 5-13 DU on average over the Atlantic and Africa and 1-7 DU over the Pacific for tropical high-altitude (cloud top pressure ≤300 hPa) and high-reflectivity (reflectivity ≥ 80%) clouds. Knowledge of TOMS ozone retrieval errors has important implications for remote sensing of ozone/trace gases from other satellite instruments

  7. Modeled population exposures to ozone

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Population exposures to ozone from APEX modeling for combinations of potential future air quality and demographic change scenarios. This dataset is not publicly...

  8. Ecosystem Effects of Ozone Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ground level ozone is absorbed by the leaves of plants, where it can reduce photosynthesis, damage leaves and slow growth. It can also make sensitive plants more susceptible to certain diseases, insects, harsh weather and other pollutants.

  9. Ozone - Current Air Quality Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    GO! Local Air Quality Conditions Zip Code: State : My Current Location Current AQI Forecast AQI Loop More Maps AQI: Good (0 - 50) ... resources for Hawaii residents and visitors more announcements Air Quality Basics Air Quality Index | Ozone | Particle Pollution | Smoke ...

  10. Ozone modelling in Eastern Austria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stohl, A.; Wotawa, G.; Kromp-Kolb, H. [Univ. of Agriculture, Vienna (Austria). Inst. of Meteorology and Physics; Winiwater, W. [Austrian Research Centre, Seibersdorf (Austria); Baumann, R.; Spangl, W. [Federal Environmental Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    1995-12-31

    High ozone concentrations are frequently observed in Eastern Austria, often exceeding local as well as international health standards, both for short-term as well as for long-term exposures. The maximum concentrations are produced in urban plumes, e.g. of the city of Vienna, whereas regional-scale transport and production of ozone is more important for the long-term concentrations. The Pannonian Ozone Project (POP) is an Austrian research initiative to model photochemical processes on a regional as well as on a local scale with a Lagrangian model to better understand the mechanisms leading to the high ozone concentrations and to develop abatement strategies. Up to now, focus has been on the regional scale. Aircraft, tethered balloon, tetroon and intensified ground measurements are carried out to validate the model. Although the major measurement campaign will be held in summer 1995, first results from a measurement campaign in summer 1994 are already available

  11. Ozone Nonattainment Areas - 1 Hour

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer identifies areas in the U.S. where air pollution levels have not met the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Ozone - 1hour (Legacy...

  12. Study of total column atmospheric aerosol optical depth, ozone and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    general circulation models. ... at all wavelengths from initial to later part of observation period due to cloud-scavenging and rain-washout effects as well as signature of coastal aerosol loading. ... important roles in the study of the Earth's climate.

  13. DMSP/MFR total ozone and radiance data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.S.; Lovill, J.E.; Luther, F.M.; Sullivan, T.J.; Taylor, S.S.; Weichel, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    This report describes the entries in sufficient detail so that the data base might be useful to others. The characteristics of the MFR sensor are briefly discussed and a complete index to the data base tapes is given

  14. The DMSP/MFR total ozone and radiance data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, J. S.; Lovill, J. E.; Luther, F. M.; Sullivan, T. J.; Taylor, S. S.; Weichel, R. L.

    1983-01-01

    This report describes the entries in sufficient detail so that the data base might be useful to others. The characteristics of the MFR sensor are briefly discussed and a complete index to the data base tapes is given.

  15. Effect of some climatic parameters on tropospheric and total ozone ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    carbon, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and sulphur dioxide) that are collected from India Meteo- rological Department .... and the upper troposphere is not only able to absorb ... lar traffic, thermal power plants, very busy ports, small and ...

  16. Ozone as an ecotoxicological problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortensen, L. [National Environmental Research Inst., Dept. of Atmospheric Environment, Roskilde (Denmark)

    1996-11-01

    Ozone is quantitatively the dominating oxidant in photochemical air pollution. Other compounds like hydrogen peroxide, aldehydes, formate, peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) and nitrogen dioxide are present too, and several of these are known to be phytotoxic, but under Danish conditions the concentration of these gases are without significance for direct effects on vegetation. Therefore, it is the effects of ozone on plant growth that will be described below. (EG) 65 refs.

  17. Solar Energy Deposition Rates in the Mesosphere Derived from Airglow Measurements: Implications for the Ozone Model Deficit Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlynczak, Martin G.; Garcia, Rolando R.; Roble, Raymond G.; Hagan, Maura

    2000-01-01

    We derive rates of energy deposition in the mesosphere due to the absorption of solar ultraviolet radiation by ozone. The rates are derived directly from measurements of the 1.27-microns oxygen dayglow emission, independent of knowledge of the ozone abundance, the ozone absorption cross sections, and the ultraviolet solar irradiance in the ozone Hartley band. Fifty-six months of airglow data taken between 1982 and 1986 by the near-infrared spectrometer on the Solar-Mesosphere Explorer satellite are analyzed. The energy deposition rates exhibit altitude-dependent annual and semi-annual variations. We also find a positive correlation between temperatures and energy deposition rates near 90 km at low latitudes. This correlation is largely due to the semiannual oscillation in temperature and ozone and is consistent with model calculations. There is also a suggestion of possible tidal enhancement of this correlation based on recent theoretical and observational analyses. The airglow-derived rates of energy deposition are then compared with those computed by multidimensional numerical models. The observed and modeled deposition rates typically agree to within 20%. This agreement in energy deposition rates implies the same agreement exists between measured and modeled ozone volume mixing ratios in the mesosphere. Only in the upper mesosphere at midlatitudes during winter do we derive energy deposition rates (and hence ozone mixing ratios) consistently and significantly larger than the model calculations. This result is contrary to previous studies that have shown a large model deficit in the ozone abundance throughout the mesosphere. The climatology of solar energy deposition and heating presented in this paper is available to the community at the Middle Atmosphere Energy Budget Project web site at http://heat-budget.gats-inc.com.

  18. Global Carbon Budget 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Canadell, J. G.; Sitch, S.; Korsbakken, J. I.; Friedlingstein, P.; Peters, G. P.; Andres, R. J.; Boden, T. A.; Houghton, R. A.; House, J. I.; Keeling, R. F.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; Bakker, D. C. E.; Barbero, L.; Bopp, L.; Chang, J.; Chevallier, F.; Chini, L. P.; Ciais, P.; Fader, M.; Feely, R. A.; Gkritzalis, T.; Harris, I.; Hauck, J.; Ilyina, T.; Jain, A. K.; Kato, E.; Kitidis, V.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Koven, C.; Landschützer, P.; Lauvset, S. K.; Lefèvre, N.; Lenton, A.; Lima, I. D.; Metzl, N.; Millero, F.; Munro, D. R.; Murata, A.; Nabel, J. E. M. S.; Nakaoka, S.; Nojiri, Y.; O'Brien, K.; Olsen, A.; Ono, T.; Pérez, F. F.; Pfeil, B.; Pierrot, D.; Poulter, B.; Rehder, G.; Rödenbeck, C.; Saito, S.; Schuster, U.; Schwinger, J.; Séférian, R.; Steinhoff, T.; Stocker, B. D.; Sutton, A. J.; Takahashi, T.; Tilbrook, B.; van der Laan-Luijkx, I. T.; van der Werf, G. R.; van Heuven, S.; Vandemark, D.; Viovy, N.; Wiltshire, A.; Zaehle, S.; Zeng, N.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates as well as consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover-change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO2, and land-cover change (some including nitrogen-carbon interactions). We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global

  19. The 2002 Antarctic Ozone Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, P. A.; Nash, E. R.; Douglass, A. R.; Kawa, S. R.

    2003-01-01

    Since 1979, the ozone hole has grown from near zero size to over 24 Million km2. This area is most strongly controlled by levels of inorganic chlorine and bromine oncentrations. In addition, dynamical variations modulate the size of the ozone hole by either cooling or warming the polar vortex collar region. We will review the size observations, the size trends, and the interannual variability of the size. Using a simple trajectory model, we will demonstrate the sensitivity of the ozone hole to dynamical forcing, and we will use these observations to discuss the size of the ozone hole during the 2002 Austral spring. We will further show how the Cly decreases in the stratosphere will cause the ozone hole to decrease by 1-1.5% per year. We will also show results from a 3-D chemical transport model (CTM) that has been continuously run since 1999. These CTM results directly show how strong dynamics acts to reduce the size of the ozone hole.

  20. Ozone Induced Premature Mortality and Crop Yield Loss in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y.; Jiang, F.; Wang, H.

    2017-12-01

    Exposure to ambient ozone is a major risk factor for health impacts such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cause damage to plant and agricultural crops. But these impacts were usually evaluated separately in earlier studies. We apply Community Multi-scale Air Quality model to simulate the ambient O3 concentration at a resolution of 36 km×36 km across China. Then, we follow Global Burden of Diseases approach and AOT40 (i.e., above a threshold of 40 ppb) metric to estimate the premature mortalities and yield losses of major grain crops (i.e., winter wheat, rice and corn) across China due to surface ozone exposure, respectively. Our results show that ozone exposure leads to nearly 67,700 premature mortalities and 145 billion USD losses in 2014. The ozone induced yield losses of all crop production totaled 78 (49.9-112.6)million metric tons, worth 5.3 (3.4-7.6)billion USD, in China. The relative yield losses ranged from 8.5-14% for winter wheat, 3.9-15% for rice, and 2.2-5.5% for maize. We can see that the top four health affected provinces (Sichuan, Henan, Shandong, Jiangsu) are also ranking on the winter wheat and rice crop yield loss. Our results provide further evidence that surface ozone pollution is becoming urgent air pollution in China, and have important policy implications for China to alleviate the impacts of air pollution.

  1. Ozone-UV-catalysis based advanced oxidation process for wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichonovas, Martynas; Krugly, Edvinas; Jankunaite, Dalia; Racys, Viktoras; Martuzevicius, Dainius

    2017-07-01

    A bench-scale advanced oxidation (AO) reactor was investigated for the degradation of six pollutants (2-naphthol, phenol, oxalic acid, phthalate, methylene blue, and D-glucose) in a model wastewater at with the aim to test opportunities for the further upscale to industrial applications. Six experimental conditions were designed to completely examine the experimental reactor, including photolysis, photocatalysis, ozonation, photolytic ozonation, catalytic ozonation, and photocatalytic ozonation. The stationary catalyst construction was made from commercially available TiO 2 nanopowder by mounting it on a glass support and subsequently characterized for morphology (X-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy) as well as durability. The ozone was generated in a dielectrical barrier discharge reactor using air as a source of oxygen. The degradation efficiency was estimated by the decrease in total organic carbon (TOC) concentration as well as toxicity using Daphnia magna, and degradation by-products by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The photocatalytic ozonation was the most effective for the treatment of all model wastewater. The photocatalytic ozonation was most effective against ozonation and photolytic ozonation at tested pH values. A complete toxicity loss was obtained after the treatment using photocatalytic ozonation. The possible degradation pathway of the phthalate by oxidation was suggested based on aromatic ring opening reactions. The catalyst used at this experiment confirmed as a durable for continuous use with almost no loss of activity over time. The design of the reactor was found to be very effective for water treatment using photocatalytic ozonation. Such design has a high potential and can be further upscaled to industrial applications due to the simplicity and versatility of manufacturing and maintenance.

  2. Ozone adsorption on carbon nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassard, Guillaume; Gosselin, Sylvie; Visez, Nicolas; Petitprez, Denis

    2014-05-01

    Carbonaceous particles produced by incomplete combustion or thermal decomposition of hydrocarbons are ubiquitous in the atmosphere. On these particles are adsorbed hundreds of chemical species. Those of great concern to health are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). During atmospheric transport, particulate PAHs react with gaseous oxidants. The induced chemical transformations may change toxicity and hygroscopicity of these potentially inhalable particles. The interaction between ozone and carbon particles has been extensively investigated in literature. However ozone adsorption and surface reaction mechanisms are still ambiguous. Some studies described a fast catalytic decomposition of ozone initiated by an atomic oxygen chemisorption followed by a molecular oxygen release [1-3]. Others suggested a reversible ozone adsorption according to Langmuir-type behaviour [4,5]. The aim of this present study is a better understanding of ozone interaction with carbon surfaces. An aerosol of carbon nanoparticles was generated by flowing synthetic air in a glass tube containing pure carbon (primary particles studied. Accordingly to literature, it has been observed that the number of gas-phase ozone molecules lost per unit particle surface area tends towards a plateau for high ozone concentration suggesting a reversible ozone adsorption according to a Langmuir mechanism. We calculated the initial reaction probability between O3 and carbon particles.An initial uptake coefficient of 1.10-4 was obtained. Similar experiments were realized by selecting the particles size with a differential mobility analyser. We observed a strong size-dependent increase in reactivity with the decrease of particles size. This result is relevant for the health issues. Indeed the smallest particles are most likely to penetrate deep into the lungs. Competitive reactions between ozone and other species like H2O or atomic oxygen were also considered. Oxygen atoms were generated by photolysis of O3

  3. Budgeting in an imaging Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyalla, A. M.

    2006-01-01

    budgeting form an integral part of an imaging department. It is a plan to cope with necessary expenses in the future. It involves identifying the needs and income sources required to cover the needs.Covers specific items and time-usually a year and is expressed in monetary terms. The micro budget is put in the macro budget of the hospital. defines financial support for the department. Considers: a fiscal year, projection of patients, types of examinations, type of equipment, monetary exchange, and inflation rate

  4. Effects of sulfur nutrition on phytotoxicity and growth responses of bean plants to ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adedipe, N O; Hofstra, G; Ormrod, D P

    1972-01-01

    Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Blue Lake plants were grown in sand culture at three temperatures, and fed with nutrient solution containing 1.3 or 32 mg/liter sulfur (S). Plants were fumigated twice with ozone at 50 parts per hundred million (pphm) for 2 h. Intensity of phytotoxicity was markedly lower in plants grown at the high S rate. Ozone reduced chlorophyll content of plants grown in low S at 25/20 and 30/25/sup 0/. With the high S treatment, however, ozone had no significant effect on chlorophyll content particularly at the lower temperatures. Irrespective of S nutrition, ozone had no effect on total soluble carbohydrate content. Ozone effects on plant growth depended on plant part, growth temperature, and S nutrition.

  5. Percutaneous treatment of lumbar disc herniation by oxygen-ozone injection -clinical study with indication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhuying; Jiang Caimei; Wang Zhimin

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical effect and the range of indications of oxygen-ozone treatment for lumber disc herniation. Methods: 6-15 ml of oxygen-ozone (35-45 μg/ml) were injected percutaneously into lumbar disc. In case of multiple disc herniations, the procedure could be taken with two discs for once. Results: 323 patients with 433 discs were treated by oxygen-ozone injection procedure. Total effective rate was 77.7%. Conclusions: The treatment of lumber disc herniation by oxygen-ozone injection is simple, safe and effective with mild trauma. Oxygen-ozone not only can oxidize the proteoglycan in the nucleus leading to the contraction of nucleus, but also provide anti-inflammation effect with pain relief and without complication yet. (authors)

  6. Ozone dose-response relationships for spring oilseed rape and broccoli

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bock, Maarten; Op de Beeck, Maarten; De Temmerman, Ludwig; Guisez, Yves; Ceulemans, Reinhart; Vandermeiren, Karine

    2011-03-01

    Tropospheric ozone is an important air pollutant with known detrimental effects for several crops. Ozone effects on seed yield, oil percentage, oil yield and 1000 seed weight were examined for spring oilseed rape ( Brassica napus cv. Ability). For broccoli ( Brassica oleracea L. cv. Italica cv. Monaco) the effects on fresh marketable weight and total dry weight were studied. Current ozone levels were compared with an increase of 20 and 40 ppb during 8 h per day, over the entire growing season. Oilseed rape seed yield was negatively correlated with ozone dose indices calculated from emergence until harvest. This resulted in an R2 of 0.24 and 0.26 ( p broccoli the applied ozone doses had no effect on yield.

  7. Refined global methyl halide budgets with respect to rapeseed (Brassica napus) by life-cycle measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Y.; Acdan, J.; Xu, R.; Deventer, M. J.; Rhew, R. C.

    2017-12-01

    A precise quantification of global methyl halide budgets is needed to evaluate the ozone depletion potential of these compounds and to predict future changes of stratospheric ozone. However, the global budgets of methyl halides are not balanced between currently identified and quantified sources and sinks. Our study re-evaluated the methyl bromide budget from global cultivated rapeseed (Brassica napus) through life-cycle flux measurements both in the greenhouse and in the field, yielding a methyl bromide emission rate that scales globally to 1.0 - 1.2 Gg yr-1. While this indicates a globally significant source, it is much smaller than the previously widely cited value of 5 - 6 Gg yr-1(Mead et al., 2008), even taking into account the near tripling of annual global yield of rapeseed since the previous evaluation was conducted. Our study also evaluated the methyl chloride and methyl iodide emission levels from rapeseed, yielding emission rates that scale to 5.4 Gg yr-1 for methyl chloride and 1.8 Gg yr-1 of methyl iodide. The concentrations of the methyl donor SAM (S-adenosyl methionine) and the resultant product SAH (S-Adenosyl-L-homocysteine) were also analyzed to explore their role in biogenic methyl halide formation. Halide gradient incubations showed that the magnitude of methyl halide emissions from rapeseed is highly correlated to soil halide levels, thus raising the concern that the heterogeneity of soil halide contents geographically should be considered when extrapolating to global budget.

  8. Nuclear budget up 9.6% for fiscal 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    After reviewing the overall governmental budgets for fiscal 1981 including energy budget, the nuclear budget for the Science and Technology Agency and the Ministry of International Trade and Industry is described. The 1981 nuclear budget amounts to 178,013 million yen in general account, 4.2% increase over the previous year; and 93,237 million yen, increase of 17.3%, in the special account for power source development. The total is 271,250 million yen. For the STA, budgetary allocations were made for researches on nuclear power safety, a multi-purpose high temperature gas-cooled reactor and nuclear fusion in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, developments of FBR and ATR and nuclear fuel cycle in Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation, and so on. For the MITI, allocations were made for nuclear plant safety, nuclear fuel cycle, and others. (Mori, K.)

  9. Nitrogen mediates above-ground effects of ozone but not below-ground effects in a rhizomatous sedge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, M.L.M.; Hodges, G.; Mills, G.

    2010-01-01

    Ozone and atmospheric nitrogen are co-occurring pollutants with adverse effects on natural grassland vegetation. Plants of the rhizomatous sedge Carex arenaria were exposed to four ozone regimes representing increasing background concentrations (background-peak): 10-30, 35-55, 60-80 and 85-105 ppb ozone at two nitrogen levels: 12 and 100 kg N ha -1 yr -1 . Ozone increased the number and proportion of senesced leaves, but not overall leaf number. There was a clear nitrogen x ozone interaction with high nitrogen reducing proportional senescence in each treatment and increasing the ozone dose (AOT40) at which enhanced senescence occurred. Ozone reduced total biomass due to significant effects on root biomass. There were no interactive effects on shoot:root ratio. Rhizome tissue N content was increased by both nitrogen and ozone. Results suggest that nitrogen mediates above-ground impacts of ozone but not impacts on below-ground resource translocation. This may lead to complex interactive effects between the two pollutants on natural vegetation. - Nitrogen alters threshold of ozone-induced senescence, but not below-ground resource allocation.

  10. First Reprocessing of Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) Ozone Profiles (1998-2016): 2. Comparisons With Satellites and Ground-Based Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Sterling, Chance; Jordan, Allen; Johnson, Bryan J.; Oltmans, Samuel J.; Fujiwara, Masatomo; Vömel, Holger; Allaart, Marc; Piters, Ankie; Coetzee, Gert J. R.; Posny, Françoise; Corrales, Ernesto; Diaz, Jorge Andres; Félix, Christian; Komala, Ninong; Lai, Nga; Ahn Nguyen, H. T.; Maata, Matakite; Mani, Francis; Zainal, Zamuna; Ogino, Shin-ya; Paredes, Francisco; Penha, Tercio Luiz Bezerra; da Silva, Francisco Raimundo; Sallons-Mitro, Sukarni; Selkirk, Henry B.; Schmidlin, F. J.; Stübi, Rene; Thiongo, Kennedy

    2017-12-01

    The Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesonde (SHADOZ) network was assembled to validate a new generation of ozone-monitoring satellites and to better characterize the vertical structure of tropical ozone in the troposphere and stratosphere. Beginning with nine stations in 1998, more than 7,000 ozone and P-T-U profiles are available from 14 SHADOZ sites that have operated continuously for at least a decade. We analyze ozone profiles from the recently reprocessed SHADOZ data set that is based on adjustments for inconsistencies caused by varying ozonesonde instruments and operating techniques. First, sonde-derived total ozone column amounts are compared to the overpasses from the Earth Probe/Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer, Ozone Monitoring Instrument, and Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite satellites that cover 1998-2016. Second, characteristics of the stratospheric and tropospheric columns are examined along with ozone structure in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL). We find that (1) relative to our earlier evaluations of SHADOZ data, in 2003, 2007, and 2012, sonde-satellite total ozone column offsets at 12 stations are 2% or less, a significant improvement; (2) as in prior studies, the 10 tropical SHADOZ stations, defined as within ±19° latitude, display statistically uniform stratospheric column ozone, 229 ± 3.9 DU (Dobson units), and a tropospheric zonal wave-one pattern with a 14 DU mean amplitude; (3) the TTL ozone column, which is also zonally uniform, masks complex vertical structure, and this argues against using satellites for lower stratospheric ozone trends; and (4) reprocessing has led to more uniform stratospheric column amounts across sites and reduced bias in stratospheric profiles. As a consequence, the uncertainty in total column ozone now averages 5%.

  11. The impact of using different ozone cross sections on ozone profile retrievals from OMI UV measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Cheng; Liu, Xiong; Chance, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    We compare three datasets of high-resolution O 3 cross sections and evaluate the effects of using these cross sections on O 3 profile retrievals from OMI UV (270–330 nm) measurements. These O 3 cross sections include Brion–Daumont–Malicet (BDM), Bass–Paur (BP) and a new dataset measured by Serdyuchenko et al. (SGWCB), which is made from measurements at more temperatures and in a wider temperature range than BDM and BP, 193–293 K. Relative to the BDM dataset, the SGWCB data have systematic biases of −2 to +4% for 260–340 nm, and the BP data have smaller biases of 1–2% below 315 nm but larger spiky biases of up to ±6% at longer wavelengths. These datasets show distinctly different temperature dependences. Using different cross sections can significantly affect atmospheric retrievals. Using SGWCB data leads to retrieval failure for almost half of the OMI spatial pixels, producing large negative ozone values that cannot be handled by radiative transfer models and using BP data leads to large fitting residuals over 310–330 nm. Relative to the BDM retrievals, total ozone retrieved using original SGWCB data (with linear temperature interpolation/extrapolation) typically shows negative biases of 5–10 DU; retrieved tropospheric ozone column generally shows negative biases of 5–10 DU and 5–20 DU for parameterized and original SGWCB data, respectively. Compared to BDM retrievals, ozone profiles retrieved with BP/SGWCB data on average show large altitude-dependent oscillating differences of up to ±20–40% biases below ∼20 km with almost opposite bias patterns. Validation with ozonesonde observations demonstrates that the BDM retrievals agree well with ozonesondes, to typically within 10%, while both BP and SGWCB retrievals consistently show large altitude-dependent biases of up to ±20–70% below 20 km. Therefore, we recommend using the BDM dataset for ozone profile retrievals from UV measurements. Its improved performance is likely due to its

  12. Temporal and Spatial Variation in, and Population Exposure to, Summertime Ground-Level Ozone in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui; Zheng, Youfei; Li, Ting; Wei, Li; Guan, Qing

    2018-03-29

    Ground-level ozone pollution in Beijing has been causing concern among the public due to the risks posed to human health. This study analyzed the temporal and spatial distribution of, and investigated population exposure to, ground-level ozone. We analyzed hourly ground-level ozone data from 35 ambient air quality monitoring sites, including urban, suburban, background, and traffic monitoring sites, during the summer in Beijing from 2014 to 2017. The results showed that the four-year mean ozone concentrations for urban, suburban, background, and traffic monitoring sites were 95.1, 99.8, 95.9, and 74.2 μg/m³, respectively. A total of 44, 43, 45, and 43 days exceeded the Chinese National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) threshold for ground-level ozone in 2014, 2015, 2016, and 2017, respectively. The mean ozone concentration was higher in suburban sites than in urban sites, and the traffic monitoring sites had the lowest concentration. The diurnal variation in ground-level ozone concentration at the four types of monitoring sites displayed a single-peak curve. The peak and valley values occurred at 3:00-4:00 p.m. and 7:00 a.m., respectively. Spatially, ground-level ozone concentrations decreased in gradient from the north to the south. Population exposure levels were calculated based on ground-level ozone concentrations and population data. Approximately 50.38%, 44.85%, and 48.49% of the total population of Beijing were exposed to ground-level ozone concentrations exceeding the Chinese NAAQS threshold in 2014, 2015, and 2016, respectively.

  13. Temporal and Spatial Variation in, and Population Exposure to, Summertime Ground-Level Ozone in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Youfei; Li, Ting; Wei, Li; Guan, Qing

    2018-01-01

    Ground-level ozone pollution in Beijing has been causing concern among the public due to the risks posed to human health. This study analyzed the temporal and spatial distribution of, and investigated population exposure to, ground-level ozone. We analyzed hourly ground-level ozone data from 35 ambient air quality monitoring sites, including urban, suburban, background, and traffic monitoring sites, during the summer in Beijing from 2014 to 2017. The results showed that the four-year mean ozone concentrations for urban, suburban, background, and traffic monitoring sites were 95.1, 99.8, 95.9, and 74.2 μg/m3, respectively. A total of 44, 43, 45, and 43 days exceeded the Chinese National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) threshold for ground-level ozone in 2014, 2015, 2016, and 2017, respectively. The mean ozone concentration was higher in suburban sites than in urban sites, and the traffic monitoring sites had the lowest concentration. The diurnal variation in ground-level ozone concentration at the four types of monitoring sites displayed a single-peak curve. The peak and valley values occurred at 3:00–4:00 p.m. and 7:00 a.m., respectively. Spatially, ground-level ozone concentrations decreased in gradient from the north to the south. Population exposure levels were calculated based on ground-level ozone concentrations and population data. Approximately 50.38%, 44.85%, and 48.49% of the total population of Beijing were exposed to ground-level ozone concentrations exceeding the Chinese NAAQS threshold in 2014, 2015, and 2016, respectively. PMID:29596366

  14. Temporal and Spatial Variation in, and Population Exposure to, Summertime Ground-Level Ozone in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Ground-level ozone pollution in Beijing has been causing concern among the public due to the risks posed to human health. This study analyzed the temporal and spatial distribution of, and investigated population exposure to, ground-level ozone. We analyzed hourly ground-level ozone data from 35 ambient air quality monitoring sites, including urban, suburban, background, and traffic monitoring sites, during the summer in Beijing from 2014 to 2017. The results showed that the four-year mean ozone concentrations for urban, suburban, background, and traffic monitoring sites were 95.1, 99.8, 95.9, and 74.2 μg/m3, respectively. A total of 44, 43, 45, and 43 days exceeded the Chinese National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS threshold for ground-level ozone in 2014, 2015, 2016, and 2017, respectively. The mean ozone concentration was higher in suburban sites than in urban sites, and the traffic monitoring sites had the lowest concentration. The diurnal variation in ground-level ozone concentration at the four types of monitoring sites displayed a single-peak curve. The peak and valley values occurred at 3:00–4:00 p.m. and 7:00 a.m., respectively. Spatially, ground-level ozone concentrations decreased in gradient from the north to the south. Population exposure levels were calculated based on ground-level ozone concentrations and population data. Approximately 50.38%, 44.85%, and 48.49% of the total population of Beijing were exposed to ground-level ozone concentrations exceeding the Chinese NAAQS threshold in 2014, 2015, and 2016, respectively.

  15. Modelling stomatal ozone flux and deposition to grassland communities across Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashmore, M.R.; Bueker, P.; Emberson, L.D.; Terry, A.C.; Toet, S.

    2007-01-01

    Regional scale modelling of both ozone deposition and the risk of ozone impacts is poorly developed for grassland communities. This paper presents new predictions of stomatal ozone flux to grasslands at five different locations in Europe, using a mechanistic model of canopy development for productive grasslands to generate time series of leaf area index and soil water potential as inputs to the stomatal component of the DO 3 SE ozone deposition model. The parameterisation of both models was based on Lolium perenne, a dominant species of productive pasture in Europe. The modelled seasonal time course of stomatal ozone flux to both the whole canopy and to upper leaves showed large differences between climatic zones, which depended on the timing of the start of the growing season, the effect of soil water potential, and the frequency of hay cuts. Values of modelled accumulated flux indices and the AOT40 index showed a five-fold difference between locations, but the locations with the highest flux differed depending on the index used; the period contributing to the accumulation of AOT40 did not always coincide with the modelled period of active ozone canopy uptake. Use of a fixed seasonal profile of leaf area index in the flux model produced very different estimates of annual accumulated total canopy and leaf ozone flux when compared with the flux model linked to a simulation of canopy growth. Regional scale model estimates of both the risks of ozone impacts and of total ozone deposition will be inaccurate unless the effects of climate and management in modifying grass canopy growth are incorporated. - Modelled stomatal flux of ozone to productive grasslands in Europe shows different spatial and temporal variation to AOT40, and is modified by management and soil water status

  16. Issues in Stratospheric Ozone Depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Steven Andrew

    Following the announcement of the discovery of the Antarctic ozone hole in 1985 there have arisen a multitude of questions pertaining to the nature and consequences of polar ozone depletion. This thesis addresses several of these specific questions, using both computer models of chemical kinetics and the Earth's radiation field as well as laboratory kinetic experiments. A coupled chemical kinetic-radiative numerical model was developed to assist in the analysis of in situ field measurements of several radical and neutral species in the polar and mid-latitude lower stratosphere. Modeling was used in the analysis of enhanced polar ClO, mid-latitude diurnal variation of ClO, and simultaneous measurements of OH, HO_2, H_2 O and O_3. Most importantly, such modeling was instrumental in establishing the link between the observed ClO and BrO concentrations in the Antarctic polar vortex and the observed rate of ozone depletion. The principal medical concern of stratospheric ozone depletion is that ozone loss will lead to the enhancement of ground-level UV-B radiation. Global ozone climatology (40^circS to 50^ circN latitude) was incorporated into a radiation field model to calculate the biologically accumulated dosage (BAD) of UV-B radiation, integrated over days, months, and years. The slope of the annual BAD as a function of latitude was found to correspond to epidemiological data for non-melanoma skin cancers for 30^circ -50^circN. Various ozone loss scenarios were investigated. It was found that a small ozone loss in the tropics can provide as much additional biologically effective UV-B as a much larger ozone loss at higher latitudes. Also, for ozone depletions of > 5%, the BAD of UV-B increases exponentially with decreasing ozone levels. An important key player in determining whether polar ozone depletion can propagate into the populated mid-latitudes is chlorine nitrate, ClONO_2 . As yet this molecule is only indirectly accounted for in computer models and field

  17. GEWEX Surface Radiation Budget (SRB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NASA/GEWEX Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) Release-3.0 data sets contains global 3-hourly, daily, monthly/3-hourly, and monthly averages of surface and top-of...

  18. US science spared budget axe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2017-06-01

    Despite initial fears of significant funding cuts, America’s 2017 budget largely maintains support for research. But as Peter Gwynne reports, the relief may only be temporary and funding for science may be slashed next year instead

  19. Congress smiles on research budgets

    CERN Multimedia

    Reichhardt, T

    1998-01-01

    Congress has agreed to match or exceed most of the funding requests for the major science agencies requested by President Clinton in February. Many of them will receive their largest budget increases for years (11 paragraphs).

  20. FINANCIAL EQUALIZATION TRANSFERS BETWEEN PUBLIC AUTHORITIES BUDGETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Cornelia STOICA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents financial balancing mechanisms that it is applied by the most of the states with competitive market economy, in order to ensure equity between local authorities, as well as the stability of the entire national tax and budgetary system. In this regard, it is described the concept of financial equalization and its structure according to two fundamental criteria: - equalization in accordance with the financial transfers orientation, distinguishing thus (1 horizontal equalization, which is carried out between local authorities and consists in assigning a part of the richest territorial collectivities resources to the disadvantaged ones; (2 vertical financial equalization, achieved through consolidated transfers the state / federal budget to the budgets by territorial administrative units, both for the operating budget section and for the development one; - financial equalization according to the regional or local disparities observed as a result of territorial-level analyzes: (1 financial equalization based on balancing public revenues of the administrative-territorial units, which tries to correct the differences between the financial resources of each local authority and (2 the financial balancing based on the costs, which aims to reduce differences between standard costs of public services per capita. Financial equalization mechanisms have as main objective the reduction as far as the total elimination of the regional or local disparities, which are also described in this article.

  1. Condition of The Stratospheric and Mesospheric Ozone Layer Over Bulgaria for the Period 1996-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleyna, Petya; Mukhtarov, Plamen; Miloshev, Nikolay

    2014-05-01

    A detailed analysis of the variations of the stratospheric and mesospheric ozone over Bulgaria, in the period 1996-2012, is presented in the article on the basis of ground and satellite measurements of the Total Ozone Content (TOC). The move of the most important components: yearly running mean values, amplitudes and phases of the first four harmonics of the seasonal cycle. Their mean values for the period and the existing long term trends have been found. An evaluation of the general characteristics of the short term variability of the Total Ozone Content (TOC) over Bulgaria also has been made in the article. The impact of the planetary wave activity of the stratosphere on the total ozone has been studied and the climatology of the oscillation amplitudes with periods of 4, 7, 11 and 25 days has been defined.

  2. Total protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003483.htm Total protein To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes ...

  3. Characterising the three-dimensional ozone distribution of a tidally locked Earth-like planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proedrou, Elisavet; Hocke, Klemens

    2016-06-01

    We simulate the 3D ozone distribution of a tidally locked Earth-like exoplanet using the high-resolution, 3D chemistry-climate model CESM1(WACCM) and study how the ozone layer of a tidally locked Earth (TLE) (Ω _{TLE}= 1/365 days) differs from that of our present-day Earth (PDE) (Ω _{PDE}= 1/1 day). The middle atmosphere reaches a steady state asymptotically within the first 80 days of the simulation. An upwelling, centred on the subsolar point, is present on the day side while a downwelling, centred on the antisolar point, is present on the night side. In the mesosphere, we find similar global ozone distributions for the TLE and the PDE, with decreased ozone on the day side and enhanced ozone on the night side. In the lower mesosphere, a jet stream transitions into a large-scale vortex around a low-pressure system, located at low latitudes of the TLE night side. In the middle stratosphere, the concentration of odd oxygen is approximately equal to that of the ozone [({O}x) ≈ ({O}3)]. At these altitudes, the lifetime of odd oxygen is ˜16 h and the transport processes significantly contribute to the global distribution of stratospheric ozone. Compared to the PDE, where the strong Coriolis force acts as a mixing barrier between low and high latitudes, the transport processes of the TLE are governed by jet streams variable in the zonal and meridional directions. In the middle stratosphere of the TLE, we find high ozone values on the day side, due to the increased production of atomic oxygen on the day side, where it immediately recombines with molecular oxygen to form ozone. In contrast, the ozone is depleted on the night side, due to changes in the solar radiation distribution and the presence of a downwelling. As a result of the reduced Coriolis force, the tropical and extratropical air masses are well mixed and the global temperature distribution of the TLE stratosphere has smaller horizontal gradients than the PDE. Compared to the PDE, the total ozone column

  4. Ozone flux over a Norway spruce forest and correlation with net ecosystem production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapletal, Milos; Cudlin, Pavel; Chroust, Petr; Urban, Otmar; Pokorny, Radek; Edwards-Jonasova, Magda; Czerny, Radek; Janous, Dalibor; Taufarova, Klara; Vecera, Zbynek; Mikuska, Pavel; Paoletti, Elena

    2011-01-01

    Daily ozone deposition flux to a Norway spruce forest in Czech Republic was measured using the gradient method in July and August 2008. Results were in good agreement with a deposition flux model. The mean daily stomatal uptake of ozone was around 47% of total deposition. Average deposition velocity was 0.39 cm s -1 and 0.36 cm s -1 by the gradient method and the deposition model, respectively. Measured and modelled non-stomatal uptake was around 0.2 cm s -1 . In addition, net ecosystem production (NEP) was measured by using Eddy Covariance and correlations with O 3 concentrations at 15 m a.g.l., total deposition and stomatal uptake were tested. Total deposition and stomatal uptake of ozone significantly decreased NEP, especially by high intensities of solar radiation. - Highlights: → We estimate ozone deposition flux to a Norway spruce forest using the gradient method and model. → The mean stomatal uptake of ozone is approximately 47% of the total deposition. → We measure net ecosystem production (NEP) using Eddy Covariance. → We test whether elevated total deposition and stomatal uptake of O 3 imply a reduction of NEP. → Deposition and stomatal uptake of O 3 decrease NEP, especially by high intensities of solar radiation. - Net ecosystem production of a Norway spruce forest decreases with increasing deposition and stomatal uptake of ozone.

  5. OZONE GENERATORS IN INDOOR AIR SETTINGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives information on home/office ozone generators. It discusses their current uses as amelioratives for environmental tobacco smoke, biocontaminants, volatile organic compounds, and odors and details the advantages and disadvantages of each. Ozone appears to work well ...

  6. Cryptosporidiosis associated with ozonated apple cider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Brian G; Mazurek, Jacek M; Hlavsa, Michele; Park, Jean; Tillapaw, Matt; Parrish, MaryKay; Salehi, Ellen; Franks, William; Koch, Elizabeth; Smith, Forrest; Xiao, Lihua; Arrowood, Michael; Hill, Vince; da Silva, Alex; Johnston, Stephanie; Jones, Jeffrey L

    2006-04-01

    We linked an outbreak of cryptosporidiosis to ozonated apple cider by using molecular and epidemiologic methods. Because ozonation was insufficient in preventing this outbreak, its use in rendering apple cider safe for drinking is questioned.

  7. Cryptosporidiosis Associated with Ozonated Apple Cider

    OpenAIRE

    Blackburn, Brian G.; Mazurek, Jacek M.; Hlavsa, Michele; Park, Jean; Tillapaw, Matt; Parrish, MaryKay; Salehi, Ellen; Franks, William; Koch, Elizabeth; Smith, Forrest; Xiao, Lihua; Arrowood, Michael; Hill, Vince; da Silva, Alex; Johnston, Stephanie

    2006-01-01

    We linked an outbreak of cryptosporidiosis to ozonated apple cider by using molecular and epidemiologic methods. Because ozonation was insufficient in preventing this outbreak, its use in rendering apple cider safe for drinking is questioned.

  8. Cycle-Based Budgeting Toolkit: A Primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Bo

    2016-01-01

    At the core, budgeting is about distributing and redistributing limited financial resources for continuous improvement. Incremental budgeting is limited in achieving the goal due to lack of connection between outcomes and budget decisions. Zero-based budgeting fills the gap, but is cumbersome to implement, especially for large urban school…

  9. 42 CFR 457.140 - Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Budget. 457.140 Section 457.140 Public Health... Child Health Insurance Programs and Outreach Strategies § 457.140 Budget. The State plan, or plan amendment that has a significant impact on the approved budget, must include a budget that describes the...

  10. Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller) > Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    functionalStatements OUSD(C) History FMR Budget Materials Budget Execution Financial Management Improving Financial Performance Reports Regulations Press Release | Budget Briefing | Transcripts: David L. Norquist, Under PDF document. Click on Excel icon for Excel document Overview - FY2019 Defense Budget Performance

  11. 7 CFR 1744.64 - Budget adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget adjustment. 1744.64 Section 1744.64... Disbursement of Funds § 1744.64 Budget adjustment. (a) If more funds are required than are available in a budget account, the borrower may request RUS's approval of a budget adjustment to use funds from another...

  12. The holes in the ozone scare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maduro, R.; Schauerhamer, R.

    1992-05-01

    For the authors, the ozone hole is more politic than scientific, and is caused by anthropogenic CFC, the ozone concentration reduction measured in the antarctic stratosphere is a natural phenomena: ozone destruction by chlorides and bromides coming from volcanos and oceans. The ozone hole was discovered in 1956 and not in 1985. For the greenhouse effect, the CO[sub 2] part is very small in comparison with the atmospheric water vapour part. (A.B.). refs., figs., tabs.

  13. Deposition velocities and impact of physical properties on ozone removal for building materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chi-Chi; Hsu, Shu-Chen

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to estimate the ozone deposition velocities of eight commonly used building materials (BMs) which include calcium silicate board (CSB), green calcium silicate board (GCSB), mineral fiber ceiling (MFC), green mineral fiber ceiling (GMFC), gypsum board (GB), green gypsum board (GGB), wooden flooring (WF) and green wooden flooring (GWF). In addition, the impact of physical properties (specific surface area and total pore volume of BM) on ozone removal ability was also explored and discussed. Studies were conducted in a small-scale environmental stainless steel chamber. CSB and GCSB showed the highest ozone deposition velocities, while WF and GWF showed the lowest ozone deposition velocities among test BMs materials. All reaction probabilities were estimated to fall within the order of magnitude of 10-6. Green BMs showed lower reaction probabilities with ozone comparing with non-green BMs except for GGB. Consistent with the trends for deposition velocity, fleecy and porous materials exhibit higher reaction probabilities than smooth, non-porous surfaces. Specific surface area of BM is more closely related to ozone removal than total pore volume of BM with R2 of 0.93 vs. R2 of 0.84. Discussion of Thiele modulus for all test BMs indicates surface reactions are occurring quickly relative to internal diffusion and ozone removal is internal diffusion-limited.

  14. A preliminary comparison between TOVS and GOME level 2 ozone data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathman, William; Monks, Paul S.; Llewellyn-Jones, David; Burrows, John P.

    1997-09-01

    A preliminary comparison between total column ozone concentration values derived from TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) and Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) has been carried out. Two comparisons of ozone datasets have been made: a) TOVS ozone analysis maps vs. GOME level 2 data; b) TOVS data located at Northern Hemisphere Ground Ozone Stations (NHGOS) vs. GOME data. Both analyses consistently showed an offset in the value of the total column ozone between the datasets [for analyses a) 35 Dobson Units (DU); and for analyses b) 10 DU], despite a good correlation between the spatial and temporal features of the datasets. A noticeably poor correlation in the latitudinal bands 10°/20° North and 10°/20° South was observed—the reasons for which are discussed. The smallest region which was statistically representative of the ozone value correlation dataset of TOVS data at NHGOS and GOME level-2 data was determined to be a region that was enclosed by effective radius of 0.75 arc-degrees (83.5km).

  15. Assimilation of stratospheric ozone in the chemical transport model STRATAQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Grassi

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe a sequential assimilation approach useful for assimilating tracer measurements into a three-dimensional chemical transport model (CTM of the stratosphere. The numerical code, developed largely according to Kha00, uses parameterizations and simplifications allowing assimilation of sparse observations and the simultaneous evaluation of analysis errors, with reasonable computational requirements. Assimilation parameters are set by using χ2 and OmF (Observation minus Forecast statistics. The CTM used here is a high resolution three-dimensional model. It includes a detailed chemical package and is driven by UKMO (United Kingdom Meteorological Office analyses. We illustrate the method using assimilation of Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite/Microwave Limb Sounder (UARS/MLS ozone observations for three weeks during the 1996 antarctic spring. The comparison of results from the simulations with TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer measurements shows improved total ozone fields due to assimilation of MLS observations. Moreover, the assimilation gives indications on a possible model weakness in reproducing polar ozone values during springtime.

  16. Ozone Production and Control Strategies for Southern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiu, C.; Liu, S.; Chang, C.; Chen, J.; Chou, C. C.; Lin, C.

    2006-12-01

    An observation-based modeling (OBM) approach is used to estimate the ozone production efficiency and production rate of O3 (P(O3)) in southern Taiwan. The approach can also provide an indirect estimate of the concentration of OH. Measured concentrations of two aromatic hydrocarbons, i.e. ethylbenzene/m,p-xylene, are used to estimate the degree of photochemical processing and the amounts of photochemically consumed NOx and NMHCs. In addition, a one-dimensional (1d) photochemical model is used to compare with the OBM results. The average ozone production efficiency during the field campaign in Kaohsiung-Pingtung area in Fall 2003 is found to be about 5, comparable to previous works. The relationship of P(O3) with NOx is examined in detail and compared to previous studies. The derived OH concentrations from this approach are in fair agreement with values calculated from the 1d photochemical model. The relationship of total oxidants (e.g. O3+NO2) versus initial NOx and NMHCs suggests that reducing NMHCs are more effective in controlling total oxidants than reducing NOx. For O3 control, reducing NMHC is even more effective than NOx due to the NO titration effect. This observation-based approach provides a good alternative for understanding the production of ozone and formulating ozone control strategy in urban and suburban environment without measurements of peroxy radicals.

  17. Assimilation of stratospheric ozone in the chemical transport model STRATAQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Grassi

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe a sequential assimilation approach useful for assimilating tracer measurements into a three-dimensional chemical transport model (CTM of the stratosphere. The numerical code, developed largely according to Kha00, uses parameterizations and simplifications allowing assimilation of sparse observations and the simultaneous evaluation of analysis errors, with reasonable computational requirements. Assimilation parameters are set by using χ2 and OmF (Observation minus Forecast statistics. The CTM used here is a high resolution three-dimensional model. It includes a detailed chemical package and is driven by UKMO (United Kingdom Meteorological Office analyses. We illustrate the method using assimilation of Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite/Microwave Limb Sounder (UARS/MLS ozone observations for three weeks during the 1996 antarctic spring. The comparison of results from the simulations with TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer measurements shows improved total ozone fields due to assimilation of MLS observations. Moreover, the assimilation gives indications on a possible model weakness in reproducing polar ozone values during springtime.

  18. [Health impact of ozone in 13 Italian cities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitis, Francesco; Iavarone, Ivano; Martuzzi, Marco

    2007-01-01

    to estimate the health impact of ozone in 13 Italian cities over 200,000 inhabitants and to produce basic elements to permit the reproducibility of the study in other urban locations. the following data have been used: population data (2001), health data (2001 or from scientific literature), environmental data (2002-2004), from urban background monitoring station and concentration/response risk coefficients derived from recent metanalyses. The indicators SOMO35 and SOMO0 have been used as a proxi of the average exposure to calcolate attributable deaths (and years of life lost) and several causes of morbility for ozone concentrations over 70 microg/m3. acute mortality for all causes and for cardiovascular mortality, respiratory-related hospital admissions in elderly, asthma exacerbation in children and adults, minor restricted activity days, lower respiratory symptoms in children. over 500 (1900) deaths, the 0.6% (2.1%) of total mortality, equivalent to about 6000 (22,000) years of life lost are attributable to ozone levels over 70 microg/m3 in the 13 Italian cities under study. Larger figures, in the order of thousands, are attributable to less severe morbidity outcomes. The health impact of ozone in Italian towns is relevant in terms of acute mortality and morbidity, although less severe than PM10 impact. Background ozone levels are increasing. Abatement strategies for ozone concentrations should consider the whole summer and not only "peak" days and look at policies limiting the concentration of precursors produced by traffic sources. Relevant health benefits can be obtained also under levels proposed as guidelines in the present environmental regulations.

  19. A Review of Atmospheric Ozone and Current Thinking on the Antarctic Ozone Hole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA 0 A Review of Atmospheric ozone and Current Thinking on the Antartic Ozone Hole A thesis submitted in partial satisfaction of the...4. TI TLE (Pit 5,1tlfie) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PFRIOO COVERED A Review of Atmospheric Ozone and Current THESIS/DA/;J.At1AAU00 Thinking on the Antartic ...THESIS A Review of Atmospheric Ozone and Current Thinking on the Antartic Ozone Hole by Randolph Antoine Fix Master of Science in Atmospheric Science

  20. The prevalence of Beyond Budgeting in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandalgaard, Niels

      The annual budget has been criticised in recent years. The critics claim, among other things, that the annual budget is not suitable for today's business environment, that annual budgets stimulate dysfunctional behaviour and furthermore that the use of budgets is too costly. This paper examines...... this critique as well as the current status of the traditional annual budget in a contingency perspective by using data from a survey among the largest Danish companies. The conclusion is that only 4% of the companies claim to have abandoned the traditional, annual budget, 2% have decided or are in the process...... of doing so and 11% are considering abandoning it. These "Beyond Budgeting" companies are more critical towards the traditional budget than other companies. The study also shows that the critical attitude towards annual budgets as well as the decision of abandoning the budget cannot be associated...