WorldWideScience

Sample records for total output energy

  1. Evaluation of the total magnetospheric energy output parameter, U/sub T/

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwickl, R.D.; Bargatze, L.F.; Baker, D.N.; Clauer, C.R.; McPherron, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    Over the last few years the relationship between U/sub T/, the magnetospheric energy consumption or output rate, and epsilon, a commonly used solar wind-magnetosphere energy input function, has been explored in some detail. Very high correlations between U/sub T/ and epsilon are found during periods of strong activity, and by using linear prediction filtering techniques a ''delta-function'' impulse response was found for filter elements representing essentially zero delay. In light of these remarkable results, the derivation of U/sub T/ for these intervals is re-examined. We find that U/sub T/ is dominated in each event interval by the term containing tau/sub R/, the ring current decay time, and that when tau/sub R/ is defined as a function of epsilon the ''delta-function'' impulse response is present. If a constant tau/sub R/ is assumed, the delta-function part of the filter disappears completely. Thus, this delta-function, which has been taken as being indicative of the directly driven component is an artifact of the earlier analysis, and it is due to the dependence of U/sub T/ on epsilon. Our results imply that until U/sub T/ can be derived independently from epsilon, these two quantities cannot be compared in a meaningful way, and that results obtained in previous studies are not valid

  2. Energy and output dynamics in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, Biru Paksha; Uddin, Gazi Salah

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between energy consumption and output is still ambiguous in the existing literature. The economy of Bangladesh, having spectacular output growth and rising energy demand as well as energy efficiency in recent decades, can be an ideal case for examining energy-output dynamics. We find that while fluctuations in energy consumption do not affect output fluctuations, movements in output inversely affect movements in energy use. The results of Granger causality tests in this respect are consistent with those of innovative accounting that includes variance decompositions and impulse responses. Autoregressive distributed lag models also suggest a role of output in Bangladesh's energy use. Hence, the findings of this study have policy implications for other developing nations where measures for energy conservation and efficiency can be relevant in policymaking.

  3. The multi-factor energy input–output model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guevara, Zeus; Domingos, Tiago

    2017-01-01

    Energy input–output analysis (EIO analysis) is a noteworthy tool for the analysis of the role of energy in the economy. However, it has relied on models that provide a limited description of energy flows in the economic system and do not allow an adequate analysis of energy efficiency. This paper introduces a novel energy input–output model, the multi-factor energy input–output model (MF-EIO model), which is obtained from a partitioning of a hybrid-unit input–output system of the economy. This model improves on current models by describing the energy flows according to the processes of energy conversion and the levels of energy use in the economy. It characterizes the vector of total energy output as a function of seven factors: two energy efficiency indicators; two characteristics of end-use energy consumption; and three economic features of the rest of the economy. Moreover, it is consistent with the standard model for EIO analysis, i.e., the hybrid-unit model. This paper also introduces an approximate version of the MF-EIO model, which is equivalent to the former under equal energy prices for industries and final consumers, but requires less data processing. The latter is composed by two linked models: a model of the energy sector in physical units, and a model of the rest of the economy in monetary units. In conclusion, the proposed modelling framework improves EIO analysis and extends EIO applications to the accounting for energy efficiency of the economy. - Highlights: • A novel energy input–output model is introduced. • It allows a more adequate analysis of energy flows than current models. • It describes energy flows according to processes of energy conversion and use. • It can be used for other environmental applications (material use and emissions). • An approximate version of the model is introduced, simpler and less data intensive.

  4. Reliability and Energy Output of Bifacial Modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Aken, B.B.; Jansen, M.J.; Dekker, N.J.J. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-06-15

    Although flash tests under standard test conditions yields lower power due to transmittance of the back sheet, bifacial modules are expected to outperform their monofacial equivalents in terms of yearly energy output in the field. We compare flash tests for bifacial modules with and without a light scattering panel directly behind the modules: 3% more power output is obtained. We also report on the damp-heat reliability of modules with transparent back sheet. Finally we will present the results of an outdoor study comparing modules with transparent back sheet and modules with state-of-the-art AR coating on the front glass.

  5. Cooled solar PV panels for output energy efficiency optimisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Zhijun; Herfatmanesh, Mohammad R.; Liu, Yiming

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Effects of cooling on solar PV performance have been experimentally investigated. • As a solar panel is cooled down, the electric output can have significant increase. • A cooled solar PV system has been proposed for resident application. • Life cycle assessment suggests the cost payback time of cooled PV can be reduced. - Abstract: As working temperature plays a critical role in influencing solar PV’s electrical output and efficacy, it is necessary to examine possible way for maintaining the appropriate temperature for solar panels. This research is aiming to investigate practical effects of solar PV surface temperature on output performance, in particular efficiency. Experimental works were carried out under different radiation condition for exploring the variation of the output voltage, current, output power and efficiency. After that, the cooling test was conducted to find how much efficiency improvement can be achieved with the cooling condition. As test results show the efficiency of solar PV can have an increasing rate of 47% with the cooled condition, a cooling system is proposed for possible system setup of residential solar PV application. The system performance and life cycle assessment suggest that the annual PV electric output efficiencies can increase up to 35%, and the annual total system energy efficiency including electric output and hot water energy output can increase up to 107%. The cost payback time can be reduced to 12.1 years, compared to 15 years of the baseline of a similar system without cooling sub-system.

  6. The causal link between energy and output growth: Evidence from Markov switching Granger causality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandemir Kocaaslan, Ozge

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we empirically investigate the causal link between energy consumption and economic growth employing a Markov switching Granger causality analysis. We carry out our investigation using annual U.S. real GDP, total final energy consumption and total primary energy consumption data which cover the period between 1968 and 2010. We find that there are significant changes in the causal relation between energy consumption and economic growth over the sample period under investigation. Our results show that total final energy consumption and total primary energy consumption have significant predictive content for real economic activity in the U.S. economy. Furthermore, the causality running from energy consumption to output growth seems to be strongly apparent particularly during the periods of economic downturn and energy crisis. We also document that output growth has predictive power in explaining total energy consumption. Furthermore, the power of output growth in predicting total energy consumption is found to diminish after the mid of 1980s. - Highlights: • Total energy consumption has predictive content for real economic activity. • The causality from energy to output growth is apparent in the periods of recession. • The causality from energy to output growth is strong in the periods of energy crisis. • Output growth has predictive power in explaining total energy consumption. • The power of output growth in explaining energy diminishes after the mid of 1980s

  7. Estimation of international output-energy relation. Effects of alternative output measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrestha, R.M.

    2000-01-01

    This paper analyzes the output-energy relationship with alternative measures of output and energy. Our analysis rejects the hypothesis of non-diminishing returns to energy consumption when GDP at purchasing power parities is used as the output measure unlike the case with GNP at market exchange rates. This finding also holds when energy input includes the usage of both commercial and traditional fuels. 13 refs

  8. Maximization of energy in the output of a linear system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudley, D.G.

    1976-01-01

    A time-limited signal which, when passed through a linear system, maximizes the total output energy is considered. Previous work has shown that the solution is given by the eigenfunction associated with the maximum eigenvalue in a Hilbert-Schmidt integral equation. Analytical results are available for the case where the transfer function is a low-pass filter. This work is extended by obtaining a numerical solution to the integral equation which allows results for reasonably general transfer functions

  9. Correlation between renew able energy source's energy output and load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, G.H.M.; El-Zeftawy, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    The common problem to all renew energy sources (RESs) is the mismatch between their energy output and load demand. In remote areas, the solution of this problem is in general employing a small diesel-generator or a storage battery. But, the storage battery is a major cost element of RESs and small diesel-generator is unreliable and costly. Therefore, a proposed technique has been introduced in this work to determine correlation between the energy output of wind energy systems (WES) and isolated loads. solar photovoltaic power system (PVS) and two of energy storage facilities are used here for this correlation. The proposed technique includes also two models for optimizing the generation and costs of WES accompanied with PVS, storage battery and water storage (reservoir) to accommodate an isolated load. The proposed technique is applied with the dynamic programming to coordinate the energy output of a WES with residential and pumping load in remote area of egypt. The results of this application reveal that minimization of both capacity of the storage battery and the whole power system cost are obtained. 4 figs

  10. Output, renewable energy consumption and trade in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Aïssa, Mohamed Safouane; Ben Jebli, Mehdi; Ben Youssef, Slim

    2014-01-01

    We use panel cointegration techniques to examine the relationship between renewable energy consumption, trade and output in a sample of 11 African countries covering the period 1980–2008. The results from panel error correction model reveal that there is evidence of a bidirectional causality between output and exports and between output and imports in both the short and long-run. However, in the short-run, there is no evidence of causality between output and renewable energy consumption and between trade (exports or imports) and renewable energy consumption. Also, in the long-run, there is no causality running from output or trade to renewable energy. In the long-run, our estimations show that renewable energy consumption and trade have a statistically significant and positive impact on output. Our energy policy recommendations are that national authorities should design appropriate fiscal incentives to encourage the use of renewable energies, create more regional economic integration for renewable energy technologies, and encourage trade openness because of its positive impact on technology transfer and on output. - Highlights: • We examine the relationship between renewable energy consumption, trade and output in African countries. • There is a bidirectional causality between output and trade in both the short and long-run. • In the short-run, there is no causality between renewable energy consumption and trade or output. • In the long-run, renewable energy consumption and trade have a statistically significant positive impact on output. • African authorities should encourage trade openness because of its positive impact on technology transfer and on output

  11. CO2 emissions, energy usage, and output in Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apergis, Nicholas; Payne, James E.

    2009-01-01

    This study extends the recent work of Ang (2007) [Ang, J.B., 2007. CO 2 emissions, energy consumption, and output in France. Energy Policy 35, 4772-4778] in examining the causal relationship between carbon dioxide emissions, energy consumption, and output within a panel vector error correction model for six Central American countries over the period 1971-2004. In long-run equilibrium energy consumption has a positive and statistically significant impact on emissions while real output exhibits the inverted U-shape pattern associated with the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis. The short-run dynamics indicate unidirectional causality from energy consumption and real output, respectively, to emissions along with bidirectional causality between energy consumption and real output. In the long-run there appears to be bidirectional causality between energy consumption and emissions.

  12. Disaggregate energy consumption and industrial output in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewing, Bradley T.; Sari, Ramazan; Soytas, Ugur

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of disaggregate energy consumption on industrial output in the United States. Most of the related research utilizes aggregate data which may not indicate the relative strength or explanatory power of various energy inputs on output. We use monthly data and employ the generalized variance decomposition approach to assess the relative impacts of energy and employment on real output. Our results suggest that unexpected shocks to coal, natural gas and fossil fuel energy sources have the highest impacts on the variation of output, while several renewable sources exhibit considerable explanatory power as well. However, none of the energy sources explain more of the forecast error variance of industrial output than employment

  13. Long-term energy output estimation for photovoltaic energy systems using synthetic solar irradiation data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celik, A.N.

    2003-01-01

    A general methodology is presented to estimate the monthly average daily energy output from photovoltaic energy systems. Energy output is estimated from synthetically generated solar radiation data. The synthetic solar radiation data are generated based on the cumulative frequency distribution of the daily clearness index, given as a function of the monthly clearness index. Two sets of synthetic solar irradiation data are generated: 3- and 4-day months. In the 3-day month, each month is represented by 3 days and in the 4-day month, by 4 days. The 3- and 4-day solar irradiation data are synthetically generated for each month and the corresponding energy outputs are calculated. A total of 8-year long measured hourly solar irradiation data, from five different locations in the world, is used to validate the new model. The monthly energy output values calculated from the synthetic solar irradiation data are compared to those calculated from the measured hour-by-hour data. It is shown that when the measured solar radiation data do not exist for a particular location or reduced data set is advantageous, the energy output from photovoltaic converters could be correctly calculated

  14. Using net energy output as the base to develop renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw Daigee; Hung Mingfeng; Lin Yihao

    2010-01-01

    In order to increase energy security, production of renewable energies has been highly promoted by governments around the world in recent years. The typical base of various policy instruments used for this purpose is gross energy output of renewable energy. However, we show that basing policy instruments on gross energy output will result in problems associated with energy waste, economic inefficiency, and negative environmental effects. We recommend using net energy output as the base to apply price or quantity measures because it is net energy output, not gross energy output, which contributes to energy security. The promotion of gross energy output does not guarantee a positive amount of net energy output. By basing policy instruments on net energy output, energy security can be enhanced and the above mentioned problems can be avoided.

  15. Total output operation chart optimization of cascade reservoirs and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Zhiqiang; Ji, Changming; Sun, Ping; Wang, Liping; Zhang, Yanke

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We propose a new double nested model for cascade reservoirs operation optimization. • We use two methods to extract the output distribution ratio. • The adopted two methods perform better than the widely used methods at present. • Stepwise regression method performs better than mean value method on the whole. - Abstract: With the rapid development of cascade hydropower stations in recent decades, the cascade system composed of multiple reservoirs needs unified operation and management. However, the output distribution problem has not yet been solved reasonably when the total output of cascade system obtained, which makes the full utilization of hydropower resources in cascade reservoirs very difficult. Discriminant criterion method is a traditional and common method to solve the output distribution problem at present, but some shortcomings cannot be ignored in the practical application. In response to the above concern, this paper proposes a new total output operation chart optimization model and a new optimal output distribution model, the two models constitute to a double nested model with the goal of maximizing power generation. This paper takes the cascade reservoirs of Li Xianjiang River in China as an instance to obtain the optimal total output operation chart by the proposed double nested model and the 43 years historical runoff data, progressive searching method and progressive optimality algorithm are used in solving the model. In order to take the obtained total output operation chart into practical operation, mean value method and stepwise regression method are adopted to extract the output distribution ratios on the basis of the optimal simulation intermediate data. By comparing with discriminant criterion method and conventional method, the combined utilization of total output operation chart and output distribution ratios presents better performance in terms of power generation and assurance rate, which proves it is an effective

  16. The Assessment of Biofuel Utilization Policy on the Total Output and CO2 Emissions in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suthathip Suanmali

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The transport sector is the largest energy-consuming sector in Thailand. Its primary energy supply is heavily depended on imported oil. Since 2005, world crude oil price has been rising and had reached a record of 147 $/barrel. Therefore the policy on promotion of biofuel utilization was initiated in 2005 by the Ministry of Energy; however, the economy-wide impacts have been rarely assessed. This paper presents the energy Input-Output Analysis (IO of the economy-wide impacts on the promotion policy, in particular, the change in Greenhouse Gas (GHG emissions. In order to measure the total GHG emission from different economic sectors, the contribution of emissions has to be considered. In this paper, the focus is placed on CO2 emissions. To calculate the amount of CO2 emissions, the emission amount of various final consumptions in the economy evaluated by the IO must be applied. The direct CO2 emissions in final energy consumptions in Thailand are evaluated by using conversion factors from Guidelines to Defra's GHG conversion factors, Annexes updated in June 2007. The CO2 emissions in various economic sectors will be calculated and compared with the figures in 2015 when the policy is fully implemented.

  17. Institutional total energy case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wulfinghoff, D.

    1979-07-01

    Profiles of three total energy systems in institutional settings are provided in this report. The plants are those of Franciscan Hospital, a 384-bed facility in Rock Island, Illinois; Franklin Foundation Hospital, a 100-bed hospital in Franklin, Louisiana; and the North American Air Defense Command Cheyenne Mountain Complex, a military installation near Colorado Springs, Colorado. The case studies include descriptions of plant components and configurations, operation and maintenance procedures, reliability, relationships to public utilities, staffing, economic efficiency, and factors contributing to success.

  18. The nonlinear light output of NaI(Tl) detectors in the Modular Total Absorption Spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasco, B.C., E-mail: crasco@lsu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Fijałkowska, A.; Karny, M. [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, Pasteura 5, PL-02093 Warszawa (Poland); Rykaczewski, K.P. [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Wolińska-Cichocka, M. [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Heavy Ion Laboratory, University of Warsaw, Warsaw PL-02-093 (Poland); Grzywacz, R.; Goetz, K.C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37966 (United States)

    2015-07-11

    A new detector array, the Modular Total Absorption Spectrometer (MTAS), was commissioned at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) at Oak Ridge National Lab (ORNL). Total absorption gamma spectra measured with MTAS are expected to improve beta-feeding patterns and beta strength functions in fission products. MTAS is constructed out of hexagonal NaI(Tl) detectors with a unique central module surrounded by 18 identical crystals assembled in three rings. The total NaI(Tl) mass of MTAS is over 1000 kg. The response of the central and other 18 MTAS modules to γ-radiation was simulated using the GEANT4 toolkit modified to analyze the nonlinear light output of NaI(Tl). A detailed description of the GEANT4 modifications made is discussed. Simulated energy resolution of MTAS modules is found to agree well with the measurements for single γ transitions of 662 keV ({sup 137}Cs) with 8.2% full width half maximum (FWHM), 835 keV ({sup 54}Mn) with FWHM of 7.5% FWHM, and 1115 keV ({sup 65}Zn) with FWHM of 6.5%. Simulations of single and multiple γ-rays from {sup 60}Co are also discussed.

  19. Quantum energy duplication using super high output pulse laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugisaki, Kiwamu; Koyama, Kazuyoshi; Tanimoto, Mitsumori; Saito, Naoaki

    2000-01-01

    This study aims at elucidation on phenomena induced by strong electric field of super high output ultra short laser pulse to carry out development of basic technology required for promotion of a study on generation of high energy particle and photon using them, in order to contribute to application of super high output ultra short laser pulse and high energy plasma formed by it. In 1998 fiscal year of the last fiscal year in this study, by intending to increase the output by narrowing pulse width of the super high output laser, some basic experiments such as verification due to experiment on relativity theoretical self-convergence, generation of high energy particles, and so forth were carried out to establish a forecasting on future application. And, by conducting plasma generation experiment, self-guide and high energy particle formation experiment in plasma of super high intensity laser pulse important for its applications, and so forth, various technologies constituting foundation of future developments were developed, and more results could be obtained than those at proposal of this study. (G.K.)

  20. Magnetospheric storm dynamics in terms of energy output rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prigancova, A.; Feldstein, Ya.I.

    1992-01-01

    Using hourly values of both the global magnetospheric disturbance characteristic DR, and AE index of auroral ionospheric currents during magnetic storm intervals, the energy output rate dynamics is evaluated for a magnetic storm main/recovery phase and a whole storm interval. The magnetospheric response to the solar wind energy input rate under varying interplanetary and magnetospheric conditions is considered from the temporal variability point of view. The peculiarities of the response are traced separately. As far as quantitative characteristics of energy output rate are concerned, the time dependence pattern of the ring current decay parameter is emphasized to be fairly important. It is pointed out that more insight into the plasma processes, especially at L = 3 - 5, is needed for adequate evidence of the dependence. (Author)

  1. Output Current Ripple Reduction Algorithms for Home Energy Storage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Hyuk Park

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an output current ripple reduction algorithm using a proportional-integral (PI controller for an energy storage system (ESS. In single-phase systems, the DC/AC inverter has a second-order harmonic at twice the grid frequency of a DC-link voltage caused by pulsation of the DC-link voltage. The output current of a DC/DC converter has a ripple component because of the ripple of the DC-link voltage. The second-order harmonic adversely affects the battery lifetime. The proposed algorithm has an advantage of reducing the second-order harmonic of the output current in the variable frequency system. The proposed algorithm is verified from the PSIM simulation and experiment with the 3 kW ESS model.

  2. Auxetic piezoelectric energy harvesters for increased electric power output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This letter presents a piezoelectric bimorph with auxetic (negative Poisson’s ratio behaviors for increased power output in vibration energy harvesting. The piezoelectric bimorph comprises a 2D auxetic substrate sandwiched between two piezoelectric layers. The auxetic substrate is capable of introducing auxetic behaviors and thus increasing the transverse stress in the piezoelectric layers when the bimorph is subjected to a longitudinal stretching load. As a result, both 31- and 32-modes are simultaneously exploited to generate electric power, leading to an increased power output. The increasing power output principle was theoretically analyzed and verified by finite element (FE modelling. The FE modelling results showed that the auxetic substrate can increase the transverse stress of a bimorph by 16.7 times. The average power generated by the auxetic bimorph is 2.76 times of that generated by a conventional bimorph.

  3. Predicting Output Power for Nearshore Wave Energy Harvesting

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    Henock Mamo Deberneh

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Energy harvested from a Wave Energy Converter (WEC varies greatly with the location of its installation. Determining an optimal location that can result in maximum output power is therefore critical. In this paper, we present a novel approach to predicting the output power of a nearshore WEC by characterizing ocean waves using floating buoys. We monitored the movement of the buoys using an Arduino-based data collection module, including a gyro-accelerometer sensor and a wireless transceiver. The collected data were utilized to train and test prediction models. The models were developed using machine learning algorithms: SVM, RF and ANN. The results of the experiments showed that measurements from the data collection module can yield a reliable predictor of output power. Furthermore, we found that the predictors work better when the regressors are combined with a classifier. The accuracy of the proposed prediction model suggests that it could be extremely useful in both locating optimal placement for wave energy harvesting plants and designing the shape of the buoys used by them.

  4. Input-output analysis for installing renewable energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Y.; Nakata, T.

    2004-01-01

    Renewable energy facilities have been installed in many regions, because of their possibility to be an alternative to fossil fuels for mitigating global warming. Besides the profitability of renewable energy businesses, indirect economic effects of installing renewable energy facilities should be clarified. This study examines the possibility that the renewable energy facilities give renewed impetus to regional economic progress. The economic effects are analysed with input-output techniques in a rural area in Japan. As a consequence, both positive and negative effects on the rural economy are derived. In addition, we will focus on the changes in sectors such as construction, business services, banking, etc. as a result of economic activities for renewable systems. The business benefits of renewable energy system are discussed. (author)

  5. Energy embodied in the international trade of China. An energy input-output analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hongtao; Xi, Youmin; Guo, Ju'e; Li, Xia

    2010-01-01

    Growing international trade has not only positively affected the People's Republic of China's (China's) economic development, but also expanded the exportation of energy embodied in goods during their production. This energy flow out will pose risks to China's rational utilization of natural resources as well as environmental protection. In this paper, we evaluate the energy embodied in goods produced in China during 1992-2005 and use input-output structural decomposition analysis to identify five key factors causing the changes of energy embodied in exports. (Direct primary energy efficiency, primary energy consumption structure, structure of intermediate inputs, structure of exports, and scale of exports.) For the three sub-periods of 1992-1997, 1997-2002, and 2002-2005, results show that China is a net exporter of energy, and the energy embodied in exports tends to increase over time. The expanding total volume of exports and increasing exports of energy-intensive goods tend to enlarge the energy embodied in exports within all three sub-periods, but these driving forces were offset by a considerable improvement of energy efficiency and changes in primary energy consumption structure from 1992 to 2002 and the effects of structure of intermediate input only in the sub-period from 1992 to 1997. From 2002 to 2005, the sharp augmentation of energy embodied in exports was driven by all the five factors. Our research has practical implications for the Chinese economy. Results of this study suggest that the energy embodied in trade should receive special attentions in energy policies design to limit the energy resource out-flow and pollution generation. (author)

  6. Maximum Power Output of Quantum Heat Engine with Energy Bath

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    Shengnan Liu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The difference between quantum isoenergetic process and quantum isothermal process comes from the violation of the law of equipartition of energy in the quantum regime. To reveal an important physical meaning of this fact, here we study a special type of quantum heat engine consisting of three processes: isoenergetic, isothermal and adiabatic processes. Therefore, this engine works between the energy and heat baths. Combining two engines of this kind, it is possible to realize the quantum Carnot engine. Furthermore, considering finite velocity of change of the potential shape, here an infinite square well with moving walls, the power output of the engine is discussed. It is found that the efficiency and power output are both closely dependent on the initial and final states of the quantum isothermal process. The performance of the engine cycle is shown to be optimized by control of the occupation probability of the ground state, which is determined by the temperature and the potential width. The relation between the efficiency and power output is also discussed.

  7. The energy rebound effects across China’s industrial sectors: An output distance function approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ke; Zhang, Ning; Liu, Yanchu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Output distance function for the energy rebound effect is developed. • The aggregate energy rebound effect of China is 88.42%. • Investment-driven economic growth is not conducive to energy-saving. - Abstract: Improving energy efficiency sustainability is a target of the Chinese government. However, the effectiveness of energy conservation policy is affected by the energy rebound effect under which energy efficiency improvement reduces the effective price of energy services, thereby completely or partially offsetting the energy saved by efficiency improvement. Based on the output distance function, this paper develops an improved estimation model of the energy rebound effect, which is logically consistent with the quantities of energy savings and energy rebounds induced by technological progress. Results show that the aggregate energy rebound effect of 36 industrial sectors in China over 1998–2011 is 88.42%, which implies that most of the expected energy savings are mitigated. Investment-driven economic growth is not conducive to energy-saving and results in a strong energy rebound effect in the following year. The equipment and high-end manufacturing sectors have low levels of rebound effect, indicating that increasing the proportion of such firms in the total manufacturing sector can improve the performance of energy conservation. The high level and heterogeneity in rebound effects strongly suggest that varies strategies are necessary for energy conservation among China’s industrial sectors.

  8. Forecasted Changes in West Africa Photovoltaic Energy Output by 2045

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    Serge Dimitri Yikwe Buri Bazyomo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of climate change on photovoltaic (PV output in the fifteen countries of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS was analyzed in this paper. Using a set of eight climate models, the trends of solar radiation and temperature between 2006–2100 were examined. Assuming a lifetime of 40 years, the future changes of photovoltaic energy output for the tilted plane receptor compared to 2006–2015 were computed for the whole region. The results show that the trends of solar irradiation are negative except for the Irish Centre for High-End Computing model which predicts a positive trend with a maximum value of 0.17 W/m2/year for Cape Verde and the minimum of −0.06 W/m2/year for Liberia. The minimum of the negative trend is −0.18 W/m2/year predicted by the Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate (MIROC, developed at the University of Tokyo Center for Climate System Research for Cape Verde. Furthermore, temperature trends are positive with a maximum of 0.08 K/year predicted by MIROC for Niger and minimum of 0.03 K/year predicted by Nature Conservancy of Canada (NCC, Max Planck Institute (MPI for Climate Meteorology at Hamburg, French National Meteorological Research Center (CNRM and Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis (CCCMA for Cape Verde. Photovolataic energy output changes show increasing trends in Sierra Leone with 0.013%/year as the maximum. Climate change will lead to a decreasing trend of PV output in the rest of the countries with a minimum of 0.032%/year in Niger.

  9. Output calibration in solid water for high energy photon beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reft, C.S.

    1989-01-01

    The AAPM Protocol recommends the use of water, polystyrene or acrylic media for measuring the output of high energy photon beams. It provides the appropriate restricted mass stopping powers and mass energy absorption coefficients for converting the dose to these media to dose to water. A water-equivalent solid has been developed for dosimetric applications. [C. Constantinou, F. Attix, and B. Paliwal, Med. Phys. 9, 436 (1982)]. Calculated values for the restricted mass stopping powers and mass energy absorption coefficients have been published for this material. [A. Ho and B. Paliwal, Med. Phys. 13, 403 (1986)]. The accuracy of these calculations was investigated by making output measurements, following the Protocol, with a Farmer type chamber in four materials for Co-60, 4, 6, 10, 18, and 24 MV photon beams. The results show that the scaled dose to water for the different media agree to better than 1%, and the analysis supports the methodology of the Protocol for obtaining the dose to water from the different media

  10. China's regional disparities in energy consumption: An input–output analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zheng; Pan, Lingying; Fu, Feng; Liu, Pei; Ma, Linwei; Amorelli, Angelo

    2014-01-01

    While most of previous studies on China's energy conservation took the huge country as a whole, this manuscript revealed the obvious regional disparities in energy consumption of China's 30 provinces. Based on a hybrid energy input–output model, the total energy consumption of different regions was decomposed and compared using three measurements of embodied energy in inter-regional trade: 1) only considered inter-regional energy trade; 2) considered embodied energy in flow-out of final goods and services; 3) considered embodied energy in flow-in of final goods and services. Based on the second and third measurements, the 30 regions were categorized into four groups by their energy intensity and per capita GDP (gross domestic production). Common characteristics of decomposed regional energy intensity are discussed, and policy implication for regional energy conservation is provided. For developed regions with low energy intensities, such as Shanghai, energy conservation should focus on promoting low energy-consuming life style. For under-developed regions with low energy intensities, such as Guangxi, economic development is more urgent than energy conservation. For developing and energy absorbing regions, improving energy efficiency in industries is significant. For developing and energy exporting regions, transforming primary energy into high value-added products would be beneficial for economic development and energy conservation. - Highlights: • A hybrid input–output model for the decomposition of regional energy consumption. • A discussion of China's regional disparities in energy consumption by model results. • Regional energy consumption was compared by three measurements of embodied energy. • 30 regions of China were categorized into four groups by energy intensity and GDP

  11. The total energy policy in Flanders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouma, J.W.J.

    1994-01-01

    The policy of the Flemish region (Belgium) with regard to the total energy principle are presented. An overview of the main policy instruments to support energy saving and environmental-friendly investments as well as the development of new technologies is given. The total energy policy of the Flanders Region forms part of the general Flemish (energy) policy. (A.S.)

  12. An updated h-index measures both the primary and total scientific output of a researcher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucur, Octavian; Almasan, Alex; Zubarev, Roman; Friedman, Mark; Nicolson, Garth L; Sumazin, Pavel; Leabu, Mircea; Nikolajczyk, Barbara S; Avram, Dorina; Kunej, Tanja; Calin, George A; Godwin, Andrew K; Adami, Hans-Olov; Zaphiropoulos, Peter G; Richardson, Des R; Schmitt-Ulms, Gerold; Westerblad, Håkan; Keniry, Megan; Grau, Georges E R; Carbonetto, Salvatore; Stan, Radu V; Popa-Wagner, Aurel; Takhar, Kasumov; Baron, Beverly W; Galardy, Paul J; Yang, Feng; Data, Dipak; Fadare, Oluwole; Yeo, Kt Jerry; Gabreanu, Georgiana R; Andrei, Stefan; Soare, Georgiana R; Nelson, Mark A; Liehn, Elisa A

    2015-01-01

    The growing interest in scientometry stems from ethical concerns related to the proper evaluation of scientific contributions of an author working in a hard science. In the absence of a consensus, institutions may use arbitrary methods for evaluating scientists for employment and promotion. There are several indices in use that attempt to establish the most appropriate and suggestive position of any scientist in the field he/she works in. A scientist's Hirsch-index (h-index) quantifies their total effective published output, but h-index summarizes the total value of their published work without regard to their contribution to each publication. Consequently, articles where the author was a primary contributor carry the same weight as articles where the author played a minor role. Thus, we propose an updated h-index named Hirsch(p,t)-index that informs about both total scientific output and output where the author played a primary role. Our measure, h(p,t) = h(p),h(t), is composed of the h-index h(t) and the h-index calculated for articles where the author was a key contributor; i.e. first/shared first or senior or corresponding author. Thus, a h(p,t) = 5,10 would mean that the author has 5 articles as first, shared first, senior or corresponding author with at least 5 citations each, and 10 total articles with at least 10 citations each. This index can be applied in biomedical disciplines and in all areas where the first and last position on an article are the most important. Although other indexes, such as r- and w-indexes, were proposed for measuring the authors output based on the position of researchers within the published articles, our simpler strategy uses the already established algorithms for h-index calculation and may be more practical to implement.

  13. Total energy system in the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hijikata, K.

    1994-01-01

    The possibility of improving the thermal efficiency of energy systems from an exergy point of view is discussed. In total energy systems, we should employ multi-pass recycling consisting of thermal and chemical energies. The recycling system is supported by electrical energy, which is provided by a renewable energy source or by excess commercial electric power. This total energy system should be considered not only in one country, but all around the globe. (author). 6 figs., 4 tabs., 8 refs

  14. Buffering PV output during cloud transients with energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moumouni, Yacouba

    Consideration of the use of the major types of energy storage is attempted in this thesis in order to mitigate the effects of power output transients associated with grid-tied CPV systems due to fast-moving cloud coverage. The approach presented here is to buffer intermittency of CPV output power with an energy storage device (used batteries) purchased cheaply from EV owners or battery leasers. When the CPV is connected to the grid with the proper energy storage, the main goal is to smooth out the intermittent solar power and fluctuant load of the grid with a convenient control strategy. This thesis provides a detailed analysis with appropriate Matlab codes to put onto the grid during the day time a constant amount of power on one hand and on the other, shift the less valuable off-peak electricity to the on-peak time, i.e. between 1pm to 7pm, where the electricity price is much better. In this study, a range of base constant power levels were assumed including 15kW, 20kW, 21kW, 22kW, 23kW, 24kW and 25kW. The hypothesis based on an iterative solution was that the capacity of the battery was increased by steps of 5 while the base supply was decreased by the same step size until satisfactorily results were achieved. Hence, it turned out with the chosen battery capacity of 54kWh coupled to the data from the Amonix CPV 7700 unit for Las Vegas for a 3-month period, it was found that 20kW was the largest constant load the system can supply uninterruptedly to the utility company. Simulated results are presented to show the feasibility of the proposed scheme.

  15. EROI of crystalline silicon photovoltaics : Variations under different assumptions regarding manufacturing energy inputs and energy output

    OpenAIRE

    Lundin, Johan

    2013-01-01

    Installed photovoltaic nameplate power have been growing rapidly around the worldin the last few years. But how much energy is returned to society (i.e. net energy) by this technology, and which factors contribute the most to the amount of energy returned? The objective of this thesis was to examine the importance of certain inputs and outputs along the solar panel production chain and their effect on the energy return on (energy) investment (EROI) for crystalline wafer-based photovoltaics. A...

  16. A coupled piezoelectric–electromagnetic energy harvesting technique for achieving increased power output through damping matching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Challa, Vinod R; Prasad, M G; Fisher, Frank T

    2009-01-01

    Vibration energy harvesting is being pursued as a means to power wireless sensors and ultra-low power autonomous devices. From a design standpoint, matching the electrical damping induced by the energy harvesting mechanism to the mechanical damping in the system is necessary for maximum efficiency. In this work two independent energy harvesting techniques are coupled to provide higher electrical damping within the system. Here the coupled energy harvesting device consists of a primary piezoelectric energy harvesting device to which an electromagnetic component is added to better match the total electrical damping to the mechanical damping in the system. The first coupled device has a resonance frequency of 21.6 Hz and generates a peak power output of ∼332 µW, compared to 257 and 244 µW obtained from the optimized, stand-alone piezoelectric and electromagnetic energy harvesting devices, respectively, resulting in a 30% increase in power output. A theoretical model has been developed which closely agrees with the experimental results. A second coupled device, which utilizes the d 33 piezoelectric mode, shows a 65% increase in power output in comparison to the corresponding stand-alone, single harvesting mode devices. This work illustrates the design considerations and limitations that one must consider to enhance device performance through the coupling of multiple harvesting mechanisms within a single energy harvesting device

  17. Total-factor energy efficiency of regions in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, J.-L.; Wang, S.-C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes energy efficiencies of 29 administrative regions in China for the period 1995-2002 with a newly introduced index. Most existing studies of regional productivity and efficiency neglect energy inputs. We use the data envelopment analysis (DEA) to find the target energy input of each region in China at each particular year. The index of total-factor energy efficiency (TFEE) then divides the target energy input by the actual energy input. In our DEA model, labor, capital stock, energy consumption, and total sown area of farm crops used as a proxy of biomass energy are the four inputs and real GDP is the single output. The conventional energy productivity ratio regarded as a partial-factor energy efficiency index is computed for comparison in contrast to TFEE; our index is found fitting better to the real case. According to the TFEE index rankings, the central area of China has the worst energy efficiency and its total adjustmentof energy consumption amount is over half of China's total. Regional TFEE in China generally improved during the research period except for the western area. A U-shape relation between the area's TFEE and per capita income in the areas of China is found, confirming the scenario that energy efficiency eventually improves with economic growth

  18. Ecological total-factor energy efficiency of regions in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Lanbing; Hu Jinli

    2012-01-01

    Most existing energy efficiency indices are computed without taking into account undesirable outputs such as CO 2 and SO 2 emissions. This paper computes the ecological total-factor energy efficiency (ETFEE) of 30 regions in China for the period 2005–2009 through the slack-based model (SBM) with undesirable outputs. We calculate the ETFEE index by comparing the target energy input obtained from SBM with undesirable outputs to the actual energy input. Findings show that China's regional ETFEE still remains a low level of around 0.600 and regional energy efficiency is overestimated by more than 0.100 when not looking at environmental impacts. China's regional energy efficiency is extremely unbalanced: the east area ranks first with the highest ETFEE of above 0.700, the northeast and central areas follow, and the west area has the lowest ETFEE of less than 0.500. A monotone increasing relation exists between the area's ETFEE and China's per capita GDP. The truncated regression model shows that the ratio of R and D expenditure to GDP and the degree of foreign dependence have positive impacts, whereas the ratio of the secondary industry to GDP and the ratio of government subsidies for industrial pollution treatment to GDP have negative effects, on the ETFEE. - Highlights: ► Most energy efficiency indices ignore undesirable outputs such as CO 2 and SO 2 emissions. ► The ecological total-factor energy efficiency (ETFEE) is computed by slack-based model (SBM). ► The datasets contains 30 regions in China for the period 2005–2009. ► China's regional energy efficiency is extremely unbalanced. ► A monotone increasing relation exists between ETFEE and per capita GDP.

  19. Output and substitution elasticities of energy and implications for renewable energy expansion in the ECOWAS region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesseh, Presley K.; Lin, Boqiang

    2016-01-01

    This study estimates output and substitution elasticities of renewable energy and nonrenewable energy for the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and discusses implications for expanding the former. The results show that nonrenewable energy promises greater benefits for ECOWAS economic transition, with output elasticities averaging between 0.052–0.579 and −0.055 to 0.223 for nonrenewable energy and renewable energy respectively. Overall estimated technological progress is low (−0.5% to 2.6%); the bulk coming from input efficiency. Substitution elasticities (0.02–0.94) suggest potential for switching towards renewable energy. Notwithstanding, scale, economics and sitting problems inherent in renewable power generation challenge the opportunities for energy substitution. A sustainable policy solution, therefore, appears to be one favoring scaled and efficient electricity generation from fossil energy in the short-run with a gradual switch towards renewable power in the long-run. In general, the applied model provides insights that energy efficiency enhances sustainable growth by propelling technological advancement especially when technical change is scale-biased and factor-augmenting. The study also provides insights that impacts of exogenous shocks to inputs are temporary, and hence, do not jeopardize efforts aimed at scaling output through increased and efficient use of labor, capital and energy; especially nonrenewable energy. - Highlights: • Output and substitution elasticities of energy are estimated for the ECOWAS region. • Nonrenewable energy promises greater opportunities for economic growth. • Technical progress is low and driven mainly by the efficiency of inputs. • Energy efficiency drives technological innovation. • Potential of switching towards renewable energy is high but suffers feasibility gaps.

  20. Reference values for total blood volume and cardiac output in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, L.R. [Indiana Univ., South Bend, IN (United States). Division of Liberal Arts and Sciences

    1994-09-01

    Much research has been devoted to measurement of total blood volume (TBV) and cardiac output (CO) in humans but not enough effort has been devoted to collection and reduction of results for the purpose of deriving typical or {open_quotes}reference{close_quotes} values. Identification of normal values for TBV and CO is needed not only for clinical evaluations but also for the development of biokinetic models for ultra-short-lived radionuclides used in nuclear medicine (Leggett and Williams 1989). The purpose of this report is to offer reference values for TBV and CO, along with estimates of the associated uncertainties that arise from intra- and inter-subject variation, errors in measurement techniques, and other sources. Reference values are derived for basal supine CO and TBV in reference adult humans, and differences associated with age, sex, body size, body position, exercise, and other circumstances are discussed.

  1. Analyzing the impacts of final demand changes on total output using input-output approach: The case of Japanese ICT sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuhdi, Ubaidillah

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the impacts of final demand changes on total output of Japanese Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) sectors in future time. This study employs one of analysis tool in Input-Output (IO) analysis, demand-pull IO quantity model, in achieving the purpose. There are three final demand changes used in this study, namely (1) export, (2) import, and (3) outside households consumption changes. This study focuses on "pure change" condition, the condition that final demand changes only appear in analyzed sectors. The results show that export and outside households consumption modifications give positive impact while opposite impact could be seen in import change.

  2. Energy and carbon embodied in the international trade of Brazil. An input-output approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, G; Schaeffer, R.; Worrell, E.

    2001-01-01

    All goods and services produced in an economy are directly and/or indirectly associated with energy use and, according to the type of fuel utilized, with CO2 emissions as well. International trade is an important factor in shaping the industrial structure of a country and, consequently, in affecting a country's energy use and CO2 emissions. This study applies input-output techniques to the Brazilian economy to evaluate the total impacts of international trade on its energy use and CO2 emissions. A commodity-by-industry IO model in hybrid units (energy commodities in physical units and non-energy commodities in monetary units) is applied to the Brazilian economy in 1995. Results show that total energy embodied in the exports of non-energy goods of Brazil equals 831 PJ, while total carbon embodied is 13.5 MtC. These amounts are larger than the relevant amounts embodied in the imports of non-energy goods, respectively 679 PJ and 9.9 MtC. These figures are better understood by contrasting them with the total energy use and the corresponding total carbon emissions of the Brazilian economy in 1995 estimated by this work: 6781 PJ and 99.4 MtC, respectively. This means that international inflows and outflows of energy embodied in non-energy goods are in the order of 10 and 12% of the total energy use, while inflows and outflows of carbon embodied in non-energy goods are approximately 10 and 14% of the corresponding total carbon emissions of the Brazilian economy in 1995. The general picture is that Brazil is not only a net exporter of energy (153 PJ) and of carbon (3.6 MtC) embodied in the non-energy goods internationally traded by the country in 1995, but also that each dollar earned with exports embodied 40% more energy and 56% more carbon than each dollar spent on imports. These findings suggest that Brazilian policy-makers should be concerned about the extra impacts international trade policy may have on energy use and carbon emissions of the country. 71 refs

  3. Aggregate Energy Consumption and Sectoral Output in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First Lady

    2012-10-27

    Oct 27, 2012 ... 2005); or from economic growth to aggregate energy consumption (Binh,. 2011; Yoo and Kim, ... in order identify sectors of the economy that are energy dependent and also to avoid energy ..... in Indonesia. Energy Policy ...

  4. Disaggregated Energy Consumption and Sectoral Outputs in Thailand: ARDL Bound Testing Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Thurai Murugan Nathan; Venus Khim-Sen Liew; Wing-Keung Wong

    2016-01-01

    From an economic perspective, energy-output relationship studies have become increasingly popular in recent times, partly fuelled by a need to understand the effect of energy on production outputs rather than overall GDP. This study dealt with disaggregated energy consumption and outputs of some major economic sectors in Thailand. ARDL bound testing approach was employed to examine the co-integration relationship. The Granger causality test of the aforementioned ARDL framework was done to inv...

  5. Comparative risk assessment of total energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soerensen, B.

    1982-01-01

    The paper discusses a methodology for total impact assessment of energy systems, ideally evaluating all the impacts that a given energy system has on the society in which it is imbedded or into which its introduction is being considered. Impacts from the entire energy conversion chain ('fuel cycle' if the system is fuel-based), including energy storage, transport and transmission, as well as the institutions formed in order to manage the system, should be compared on the basis of the energy service provided. A number of impacts are considered, broadly classified as impacts on satisfaction of biological needs, on health, on environment, on social relations and on the structure of society. Further considerations include impacts related to cost and resilience, and, last but not least, impacts on global relations. The paper discusses a number of published energy studies in the light of the comparative impact assessment methodology outlined above. (author)

  6. The structures of energy consumption and emissions into air in Finnish economy in 1990. An input-output analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeenpaeae, I.; Tervo, H.

    1994-01-01

    The structures of utilization of primary energy, final consumption of electricity, and the main emissions into the air in Finnish economy in 1990 have been derived in this report on the basis of input-output analysis. By using an input-output model it is possible to calculate what is the productional content of different products, i.e. how much in total, directly or indirectly, work of different fields of production is needed for production of commodities. Energy and emissions into air can be assumed as basic inputs of the production. By using input-output analysis it is possible to follow up how the energy inputs and emissions of different branches are bound into commodity flows of economy. Hence a systematic and expiring figure is obtained of energy and emission contents of different branches. The basic matrix for calculation of primary energy and emission coefficients of different branches are made in the chapter no. 2. The formulae for calculation of the energy and emission contents of commodities are derived from common basic formulae of input-output analysis in the chapter no. 3. The branch-based energy and emission coefficients of commodities are presented in the chapter no. 4. The energies bound into household commodities and emissions into the air are presented in the chapter no. 5. The total presentation of the Finnish national product, the gross national product and the energy and emission contents of the main commodities is made in the chapter no. 6. (11 refs.)

  7. Research into the Energy Output of Asymmetric Cylindrical Structure under Internal Explosion Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangliang Ding

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The energy output characteristic of an asymmetric cylindrical structure under internal explosion loading has significant research value in the field of the national defense industry. This paper took the D-shaped structure as the research object. Three groups of experiments (D-90°, D-120°, D-150° were carried out. The D-shaped structure showed that fragments are concentrated in the middle and are sparse on both sides. Moreover, the fragment density decreased with the increase of the azimuth angle. The fragment velocities, which were measured from high-speed photography and an oscilloscope, coincided well with each other, and decreased with an increase in the central angle. Compared with the cylindrical structure, the fragment energy gain of the D-shaped structure is significant; the total energy and energy density of the three D-shaped structures were very close to each other. This indicates that D-120° is the optimal solution among the three D-shaped structures and it can provide guidance for the future design of D-shaped structures to achieve higher energy output.

  8. CO{sub 2} emissions, energy usage, and output in Central America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apergis, Nicholas [Department of Banking and Financial Management, University of Piraeus, Karaoli and Dimitriou 80, Piraeus, ATTIKI 18534 (Greece); Payne, James E. [College of Arts and Sciences, Illinois State University, Campus Box 4100, Normal, IL 61790-4100 (United States)

    2009-08-15

    This study extends the recent work of Ang (2007) [Ang, J.B., 2007. CO{sub 2} emissions, energy consumption, and output in France. Energy Policy 35, 4772-4778] in examining the causal relationship between carbon dioxide emissions, energy consumption, and output within a panel vector error correction model for six Central American countries over the period 1971-2004. In long-run equilibrium energy consumption has a positive and statistically significant impact on emissions while real output exhibits the inverted U-shape pattern associated with the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis. The short-run dynamics indicate unidirectional causality from energy consumption and real output, respectively, to emissions along with bidirectional causality between energy consumption and real output. In the long-run there appears to be bidirectional causality between energy consumption and emissions. (author)

  9. Energy-analysis of the total nuclear energy cycle based on light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kistemaker, J.

    1975-01-01

    The energy economy of the total nuclear energy cycle is investigated. Attention is paid to the importance of fossil fuel saving by using nuclear energy. The energy analysis is based on the construction and operation of power plants with an electric output of 1000MWe. Light water moderated reactors with a 2.7 - 3.2% enriched uranium core are considered. Additionally, the whole fuel cycle including ore winning and refining, enrichment and fuel element manufacturing and reprocessing has been taken into account. Neither radioactive waste storage problems nor safety problems related to the nuclear energy cycle and safeguarding have been dealt with, as exhaustive treatments can be found elswhere

  10. Calculating economy-wide energy intensity decline rate: The role of sectoral output and energy shares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baksi, Soham; Green, Chris

    2007-01-01

    We specify formulas for computing the rate of decline in economy-wide energy intensity by aggregating its two determinants-technical efficiency improvements in the various sectors of the economy, and shifts in economic activity among these sectors. The formulas incorporate the interdependence between sectoral shares, and establish a one-to-one relation between sectoral output and energy shares. This helps to eliminate future energy intensity decline scenarios which involve implausible values of either sectoral share. An illustrative application of the formulas is provided, using within-sector efficiency improvement estimates suggested by Lightfoot-Green and Harvey

  11. Modeling the power output of piezoelectric energy harvesters

    KAUST Repository

    Al Ahmad, Mahmoud

    2011-04-30

    Design of experiments and multiphysics analyses were used to develop a parametric model for a d 33-based cantilever. The analysis revealed that the most significant parameters influencing the resonant frequency are the supporting layer thickness, piezoelectric layer thickness, and cantilever length. On the other hand, the most important factors affecting the charge output arethe piezoelectric thickness and the interdigitated electrode dimensions. The accuracy of the developed model was confirmed and showed less than 1% estimation error compared with a commercial simulation package. To estimate the power delivered to a load, the electric current output from the piezoelectric generator was calculated. A circuit model was built and used to estimate the power delivered to a load, which compared favorably to experimentally published power data on actual cantilevers of similar dimensions. © 2011 TMS.

  12. Modeling the power output of piezoelectric energy harvesters

    KAUST Repository

    Al Ahmad, Mahmoud; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2011-01-01

    Design of experiments and multiphysics analyses were used to develop a parametric model for a d 33-based cantilever. The analysis revealed that the most significant parameters influencing the resonant frequency are the supporting layer thickness, piezoelectric layer thickness, and cantilever length. On the other hand, the most important factors affecting the charge output arethe piezoelectric thickness and the interdigitated electrode dimensions. The accuracy of the developed model was confirmed and showed less than 1% estimation error compared with a commercial simulation package. To estimate the power delivered to a load, the electric current output from the piezoelectric generator was calculated. A circuit model was built and used to estimate the power delivered to a load, which compared favorably to experimentally published power data on actual cantilevers of similar dimensions. © 2011 TMS.

  13. Energy-dominated local carbon emissions in Beijing 2007: inventory and input-output analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shan; Liu, J B; Shao, Ling; Li, J S; An, Y R

    2012-01-01

    For greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by Beijing economy 2007, a concrete emission inventory covering carbon dioxide (CO(2)), methane (CH(4)), and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) is presented and associated with an input-output analysis to reveal the local GHG embodiment in final demand and trade without regard to imported emissions. The total direct GHG emissions amount to 1.06E + 08 t CO(2)-eq, of which energy-related CO(2) emissions comprise 90.49%, non-energy-related CO(2) emissions 6.35%, CH(4) emissions 2.33%, and N(2)O emissions 0.83%, respectively. In terms of energy-related CO(2) emissions, the largest source is coal with a percentage of 53.08%, followed by coke with 10.75% and kerosene with 8.44%. Sector 26 (Construction Industry) holds the top local emissions embodied in final demand of 1.86E + 07 t CO(2)-eq due to its considerable capital, followed by energy-intensive Sectors 27 (Transport and Storage) and 14 (Smelting and Pressing of Ferrous and Nonferrous Metals). The GHG emissions embodied in Beijing's exports are 4.90E + 07 t CO(2)-eq, accounting for 46.01% of the total emissions embodied in final demand. The sound scientific database totally based on local emissions is an important basis to make effective environment and energy policies for local decision makers.

  14. Energy-Dominated Local Carbon Emissions in Beijing 2007: Inventory and Input-Output Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Guo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available For greenhouse gas (GHG emissions by Beijing economy 2007, a concrete emission inventory covering carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4, and nitrous oxide (N2O is presented and associated with an input-output analysis to reveal the local GHG embodiment in final demand and trade without regard to imported emissions. The total direct GHG emissions amount to 1.06E + 08 t CO2-eq, of which energy-related CO2 emissions comprise 90.49%, non-energy-related CO2 emissions 6.35%, CH4 emissions 2.33%, and N2O emissions 0.83%, respectively. In terms of energy-related CO2 emissions, the largest source is coal with a percentage of 53.08%, followed by coke with 10.75% and kerosene with 8.44%. Sector 26 (Construction Industry holds the top local emissions embodied in final demand of 1.86E + 07 t CO2-eq due to its considerable capital, followed by energy-intensive Sectors 27 (Transport and Storage and 14 (Smelting and Pressing of Ferrous and Nonferrous Metals. The GHG emissions embodied in Beijing's exports are 4.90E + 07 t CO2-eq, accounting for 46.01% of the total emissions embodied in final demand. The sound scientific database totally based on local emissions is an important basis to make effective environment and energy policies for local decision makers.

  15. Total energy calculations and bonding at interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louie, S.G.

    1984-08-01

    Some of the concepts and theoretical techniques employed in recent ab initio studies of the electronic and structural properties of surfaces and interfaces are discussed. Results of total energy calculations for the 2 x 1 reconstructed diamond (111) surface and for stacking faults in Si are reviewed. 30 refs., 8 figs

  16. Atomic resonances above the total ionization energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doolen, G.

    1975-01-01

    A rigorous result obtained using the theory associated with dilatation analytic potentials is that by performing a complex coordinate rotation, r/subj/ → r/subj/e/subi//sup theta/, on a Hamiltonian whose potential involves only pairwise Coulombic interactions, one can show that when theta = π/2, no complex eigenvalues (resonances) appear whose energies have a real part greater than the total ionization energy of the atomic system. This appears to conflict with experimental results of Walton, Peart, and Dolder, who find resonance behavior above the total ionization energy of the H -- system and also the theoretical stabilization results of Taylor and Thomas for the same system. A possible resolution of this apparent conflict is discussed and a calculation to check its validity is proposed

  17. Analyzing the impacts of final demand changes on total output using input-output approach: The case of Japanese ICT sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuhdi, Ubaidillah

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the impacts of final demand changes on total output of Japanese Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) sectors in future time. This study employs one of analysis tool in Input-Output (IO) analysis, demand-pull IO quantity model, in achieving the purpose. There are three final demand changes used in this study, namely (1) export, (2) import, and (3) outside households consumption changes. This study focuses on ''pure change'' condition, the condition that final demand changes only appear in analyzed sectors. The results show that export and outside households consumption modifications give positive impact while opposite impact could be seen in import change

  18. Designing and Testing Composite Energy Storage Systems for Regulating the Outputs of Linear Wave Energy Converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanxiang Nie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Linear wave energy converters generate intrinsically intermittent power with variable frequency and amplitude. A composite energy storage system consisting of batteries and super capacitors has been developed and controlled by buck-boost converters. The purpose of the composite energy storage system is to handle the fluctuations and intermittent characteristics of the renewable source, and hence provide a steady output power. Linear wave energy converters working in conjunction with a system composed of various energy storage devices, is considered as a microsystem, which can function in a stand-alone or a grid connected mode. Simulation results have shown that by applying a boost H-bridge and a composite energy storage system more power could be extracted from linear wave energy converters. Simulation results have shown that the super capacitors charge and discharge often to handle the frequent power fluctuations, and the batteries charge and discharge slowly for handling the intermittent power of wave energy converters. Hardware systems have been constructed to control the linear wave energy converter and the composite energy storage system. The performance of the composite energy storage system has been verified in experiments by using electronics-based wave energy emulators.

  19. Sizing of Energy Storage Systems for Output Smoothing of Renewable Energy Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Renewable energy sources (RESs), such as photovoltaic (PV) and wind power generation, have the characteristics of random fluctuation and intermittence. The output of RESs should be smoothed to inhibit the adverse effects of RESs fluctuations on the power grid. The energy storage system (ESS) is playing a more and more important role in the application of RESs due to its discharge/charge characteristic. Therefore, the optimal planning and design of ESS is of vital importance because of the expensive cost of ESS.

  20. Association of Total Fluid Intake and Output with Duration of Hospital Stay in Patients with Acute Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andree H. Koop

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of fluid balance with outcomes in patients hospitalized with acute pancreatitis (AP. Methods. This was a retrospective study of patients hospitalized between May 2008 and June 2016 with AP and a clinical order for strict recording of intake and output. Data collected included various types of fluid intake and output at 24 and 48 hours after admission. The primary outcome was length of stay (LOS. Analysis was performed using single-variable and multivariable negative binomial regression models. Results. Of 1256 patients hospitalized for AP during the study period, only 71 patients (5.6% had a clinical order for strict recording of intake and output. Increased urine output was associated with a decreased LOS at 24 and 48 hours in univariable analysis. An increasingly positive fluid balance (total intake minus urine output at 24 hours was associated with a longer LOS in multivariable analysis. Conclusions. Few patients hospitalized for AP had a documented order for strict monitoring of fluid intake and output, despite the importance of monitoring fluid balance in these patients. Our study suggests an association between urine output and fluid balance with LOS in AP.

  1. Total (fumarolic?+?diffuse soil) CO2 output from Furnas volcano

    OpenAIRE

    Pedone, M.; Viveiros, F.; Aiuppa, A.; Giudice, G.; Grassa, F.; Gagliano, A. L.; Francofonte, V.; Ferreira, T.

    2015-01-01

    Furnas volcano, in S?o Miguel island (Azores), being the surface expression of rising hydrothermal steam, is the site of intense carbon dioxide (CO2) release by diffuse degassing and fumaroles. While the diffusive CO2 output has long (since the early 1990s) been characterized by soil CO2 surveys, no information is presently available on the fumarolic CO2 output. Here, we performed (in August 2014) a study in which soil CO2 degassing survey was combined for the first time with the measurement ...

  2. Carbon dioxide emissions, output, and energy consumption categories in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amri, Fethi

    2017-06-01

    This study examines the relation between CO 2 emissions, income, non-renewable, and renewable energy consumption in Algeria during the period extending from 1980 to 2011. Our work gives particular attention to the validity of environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis. The autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) with break point method outcome demonstrates the positive effect of non-renewable type of energy on CO 2 emissions consumption. On the contrary, the results reveal an insignificant effect of renewable energy on environment improvement. Moreover, the results accept the existence of EKC hypothesis but the highest gross domestic product value in logarithm scale of our data is inferior to the estimated turning point. Consequently, policy-makers in Algeria should expand the ratio of renewable energy and should decrease the quota of non-renewable energy consumption.

  3. Impact of energy efficiency gains on output and energy use with Cobb-Douglas production function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Taoyuan

    2007-01-01

    A special issue of Energy Policy-28 (2000)-was devoted to a collection of papers, edited by Dr. Lee Schipper. The collection included a paper entitled 'A view from the macro side: rebound, backfire, and Khazzoom-Brookes' in which it was argued that the impact of fuel efficiency gains on output (roughly, GDP) is likely to be relatively small by Cobb-Douglas production function. However, an error in the analysis leads to under-estimation of the long-term impact. This paper first provides a partial equilibrium analysis by an alternative method for the same case and then proceeds to an analysis on the issue in a two-sector general equilibrium system. In the latter analysis, energy price is internalized. Both energy use efficiency and energy production efficiency are involved

  4. Energy Harvesting by Subcutaneous Solar Cells: A Long-Term Study on Achievable Energy Output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereuter, L; Williner, S; Pianezzi, F; Bissig, B; Buecheler, S; Burger, J; Vogel, R; Zurbuchen, A; Haeberlin, A

    2017-05-01

    Active electronic implants are powered by primary batteries, which induces the necessity of implant replacement after battery depletion. This causes repeated interventions in a patients' life, which bears the risk of complications and is costly. By using energy harvesting devices to power the implant, device replacements may be avoided and the device size may be reduced dramatically. Recently, several groups presented prototypes of implants powered by subcutaneous solar cells. However, data about the expected real-life power output of subcutaneously implanted solar cells was lacking so far. In this study, we report the first real-life validation data of energy harvesting by subcutaneous solar cells. Portable light measurement devices that feature solar cells (cell area = 3.6 cm 2 ) and continuously measure a subcutaneous solar cell's output power were built. The measurement devices were worn by volunteers in their daily routine in summer, autumn and winter. In addition to the measured output power, influences such as season, weather and human activity were analyzed. The obtained mean power over the whole study period was 67 µW (=19 µW cm -2 ), which is sufficient to power e.g. a cardiac pacemaker.

  5. Input-output energy analysis in dry apricot production of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esengun, Kemal; Guenduez, Orhan; Erdal, Guelistan

    2007-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the amount of input-output energy used in dry apricot production, to investigate the efficiency of energy consumption and to make an economic analysis of dry apricot production in Malatya, Turkey. Data used in this study were obtained from 97 farmers using a face to face questionnaire method. The sample farms were selected through a stratified random sampling technique. The population investigated was divided into two strata based on the size of apricot farms as 0.1-3.0 ha (66 farms) and larger than 3.1 ha (31 farms). The results revealed that 28647.03 MJ ha -1 energy were consumed by the first group and 17884.72 MJ ha -1 by the second group of farmers. The input-output ratio and productivities were 1.24 and 0.24 in the first strata and 1.31 and 0.25 in the second strata, respectively. Results further indicated that in both types of farms, 3/4 of the total energy cost was in non-renewable energy forms, and only 1/4 was in renewable forms. The economic analyses showed that the profit-cost ratios of the farms were 1.11 and 1.19, respectively. Net returns calculated were 414.51 $ ha -1 and 495.59 $ ha -1 in the farms investigated. It was concluded that extension activities are needed to improve the efficiency of energy consumption in dry apricot production and to employ environmentally friendly agricultural management practices and production methods

  6. Optimization of the Energy Output of Osmotic Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Dinger

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available On the way to a completely renewable energy supply, additional alternatives to hydroelectric, wind, and solar power have to be investigated. Osmotic power is such an alternative with a theoretical global annual potential of up to 14400 TWh (70% of the global electricity consumption of 2008 per year. It utilizes the phenomenon that upon the mixing of fresh water and oceanic salt water (e.g., at a river mouth, around 2.88 MJ of energy per 1 m3 of fresh water is released. Here, we describe a new approach to derive operational parameter settings for osmotic power plants using a pressure exchanger for optimal performance, either with respect to maximum generated power or maximum extracted energy. Up to now, only power optimization is discussed in the literature, but when considering the fresh water supply as a limiting factor, the energy optimization appears as the challenging task.

  7. Renewable energy project in Armenia:main results and outputs

    OpenAIRE

    ARA H. MARJANYAN

    2011-01-01

    The Republic of Armenia is a small landlocked country with limited energy resourcesto satisfy its needs. Armenia has no proven oil and natural gas reserves,and imports nearly all of its all primary energy resources (oil and oil products,natural gas, nuclear fuel). Given the regional geopolitical instability and Armenia’sclosed borders with two of its neighbors, the high reliance of electricitygeneration on imported fuels (more than 70% is generated by imported naturalgas and nuclear) makes th...

  8. Energy inputs and outputs in a chickpea production system in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is one of the most important grain legumes which traditionally cultivated in marginal areas and saline soils. In this study, chickpea production in Kurdistan, Iran and the energy equivalences of input used in production were investigated. The aims of this study were to determine the amount of ...

  9. Energy prices and the post oil/energy crisis Brazilian inflation: an input-output study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lara-Resende, M.deM.

    1982-01-01

    This study is an attempt to understand the implications of the OPEC-induced severalfold increase in the international price of oil for average and sectoral domestic prices in Brazil, a large oil-importing open developing economy. Rather than using a Keynesian model (focusing on the universal characteristics of an economy), the study makes use of an open-price input-output model (capturing the structural characteristics of the Brazilian economy). The first three chapters, descriptive in nature, place in perspective the following three, which detail the model and the empirical results. The main conclusion is that, despite the significant increase observed in the post-crisis period, the relative percentage contribution of primary energy to wholesale inflation in Brazil is still relatively minor. A conservative estimate suggests that, in the years of substantial acceleration (1974 and 1979), approximately 15% of the wholesale inflation was due to energy (basically crude oil and oil derivatives). Though such low estimates are partly due to the limitations and assumptions underlying input-output analysis, it seems that the acceleration of inflation is related to more than cost increases originating in energy prices. It also seems to be related to agricultural and labor prices, as well as to the government's decision to abruptly and inopportunely raise several important product prices.

  10. No effect of fibrin sealant on drain output or functional recovery following simultaneous bilateral total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Christian; Holm, Bente; Troelsen, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose Blood loss after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) may lead to anemia, blood transfusions, and increased total costs. Also, bleeding into the periarticular tissue may cause swelling and a reduction in quadriceps strength, thus impairing early functional recovery. In this random...... in TKA showed no benefit in reducing drain output or in facilitating early functional recovery when used with a tourniquet, tranexamic acid, and a femoral bone plug....

  11. Perubahan Struktur Ekonomi, Dekomposisi Sumber Pertumbuhan Output, dan Pertumbuhan Total Factor Productivity (TFP: Analisis Lanjutan Tabel Input-Output Provinsi Kalimantan Selatan, 2000-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Fajri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available High economic growth is the target of economic development in each area. Economic development should be prioritized in sectors that can be a major driver of the economy so that the economy can grow faster. Economic growth can be seen from the aggregate demand side, namely consumption, investment, government spending, exports and imports, and the aggregate supply side namely labor growth, capital growth and the growth of TFP (Total Factor Productivity. This study uses South Kalimantan’s Input-Output Tables of 2000, 2005 and 2010. The results showed that although the structure of the value-added of the mining sector remains the main economic pillar, but this sector has low linkages with other sectors. The prime mover and driving economic growth sector are manufacturing sector i.e chemical industry, food, beverages and tobacco industry, rubber and plastics industry, paper, printing and publishing industry and industry of metal, machinery, transport equipment and other manufacturing industries. Based Multiplier Product Matrix, manufacturing industry suggest a leading role in the economy so that it can be said that the province of South Kalimantan are heading toward a change in the economic structure. Decomposition of sources of growth based on the Chenery’s model (1960 showed that the main source of economic growth in South Kalimantan is exports by 67 percent in the period 2000-2005 and 73.72 percent in the period 2005-2010, especially the export of coal. Decomposition of productivity growth made by Namura and Kuroda’s model (2004 and suggests that TFP growth and capital have a strong linear relationship and significant Output growth, while labor productivity have no significant correlation with Output growth. Finally, the wealth of the abundant natural resources, industry-oriented economic growth and sustainable development in South Kalimantan Province is agriculture-based industries and mining-based industries with the main strategy is to

  12. Choice of theoretical model for beam scattering at accelerator output foil for particle energy determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balagyra, V.S.; Ryabka, P.M.

    1999-01-01

    For measuring the charged particle energy calculations of mean square angles of electron beam multiple Coulomb scattering at output combined accelerator target were undertaken according to seven theoretical models. Mollier method showed the best agreement with experiments

  13. Study on light output and energy resolution of PbWO4 crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Guanghui; Yue Ke; Sun Zhiyu

    2010-01-01

    The light output and energy resolution of PbWO 4 crystal are studied with different wrapping materials and methods. The Wrapping condition was optimized by analyzing the experimental data to gain higher light output and better energy resolution. A GEANT4-based package has been developed to simulate the corresponding features of PbWO 4 crystal, and the simulation results are consistent with the experimental data. (authors)

  14. A grey neural network and input-output combined forecasting model. Primary energy consumption forecasts in Spanish economic sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xiuli; Moreno, Blanca; García, Ana Salomé

    2016-01-01

    A combined forecast of Grey forecasting method and neural network back propagation model, which is called Grey Neural Network and Input-Output Combined Forecasting Model (GNF-IO model), is proposed. A real case of energy consumption forecast is used to validate the effectiveness of the proposed model. The GNF-IO model predicts coal, crude oil, natural gas, renewable and nuclear primary energy consumption volumes by Spain's 36 sub-sectors from 2010 to 2015 according to three different GDP growth scenarios (optimistic, baseline and pessimistic). Model test shows that the proposed model has higher simulation and forecasting accuracy on energy consumption than Grey models separately and other combination methods. The forecasts indicate that the primary energies as coal, crude oil and natural gas will represent on average the 83.6% percent of the total of primary energy consumption, raising concerns about security of supply and energy cost and adding risk for some industrial production processes. Thus, Spanish industry must speed up its transition to an energy-efficiency economy, achieving a cost reduction and increase in the level of self-supply. - Highlights: • Forecasting System Using Grey Models combined with Input-Output Models is proposed. • Primary energy consumption in Spain is used to validate the model. • The grey-based combined model has good forecasting performance. • Natural gas will represent the majority of the total of primary energy consumption. • Concerns about security of supply, energy cost and industry competitiveness are raised.

  15. Evaluation of the potential to upgrade the Sandia Atomic Iodine Laser SAIL-1 to higher output energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riley, M.E.; Palmer, R.E.

    1977-05-01

    The predicted output energy of the Sandia Atomic Iodine Laser SAIL-1 is given for various numbers of preamplifier stages and for various small signal gains in each stage. Additional possibilities for further increasing the output energy are given

  16. Total energy calculations from self-energy models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Friera, P.

    2001-06-01

    Density-functional theory is a powerful method to calculate total energies of large systems of interacting electrons. The usefulness of this method, however, is limited by the fact that an approximation is required for the exchange-correlation energy. Currently used approximations (LDA and GGA) are not sufficiently accurate in many physical problems, as for instance the study of chemical reactions. It has been shown that exchange-correlation effects can be accurately described via the self-energy operator in the context of many-body perturbation theory. This is, however, a computationally very demanding approach. In this thesis a new scheme for calculating total energies is proposed, which combines elements from many-body perturbation theory and density-functional theory. The exchange-correlation energy functional is built from a simplified model of the self-energy, that nevertheless retains the main features of the exact operator. The model is built in such way that the computational effort is not significantly increased with respect to that required in a typical density-functional theory calculation. (author)

  17. Total-factor energy efficiency of regions in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honma, Satoshi; Hu, Jin-Li

    2008-01-01

    This study computes the regional total-factor energy efficiency (TFEE) in Japan by employing the data envelopment analysis (DEA). A dataset of 47 prefectures in Japan for the period 1993-2003 is constructed. There are 14 inputs, including three production factors (labor employment, private, and public capital stocks) and 11 energy sources (electric power for commercial and industrial use, electric power for residential use, gasoline, kerosene, heavy oil, light oil, city gas, butane gas, propane gas, coal, and coke). GDP is the sole output. Following Fukao and Yue [2000. Regional factor inputs and convergence in Japan-how much can we apply closed economy neoclassical growth models? Economic Review 51, 136-151 (in Japanese)], data on private and public capital stocks are extended. All the nominal variables are transformed into real variables, taking into consideration the 1995 price level. For kerosene, gas oil, heavy oil, butane gas, coal, and coke, there are a few prefectures with TFEEs less than 0.7. The five most inefficient prefectures are Niigata, Wakayama, Hyogo, Chiba, and Yamaguchi. Inland regions and most regions along the Sea of Japan are efficient in energy use. Most of the inefficient prefectures that are developing mainly upon energy-intensive industries are located along the Pacific Belt Zone. A U-shaped relation similar to the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) is discovered between energy efficiency and per capita income for the regions in Japan

  18. Total-factor energy efficiency of regions in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honma, Satoshi [Faculty of Economics, Kyushu Sangyo University, 2-3-1 Matsukadai, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 813-8503 (Japan); Hu, Jin-Li [Institute of Business and Management, National Chiao Tung University (China)

    2008-02-15

    This study computes the regional total-factor energy efficiency (TFEE) in Japan by employing the data envelopment analysis (DEA). A dataset of 47 prefectures in Japan for the period 1993-2003 is constructed. There are 14 inputs, including three production factors (labor employment, private, and public capital stocks) and 11 energy sources (electric power for commercial and industrial use, electric power for residential use, gasoline, kerosene, heavy oil, light oil, city gas, butane gas, propane gas, coal, and coke). GDP is the sole output. Following Fukao and Yue [2000. Regional factor inputs and convergence in Japan - how much can we apply closed economy neoclassical growth models? Economic Review 51, 136-151 (in Japanese)], data on private and public capital stocks are extended. All the nominal variables are transformed into real variables, taking into consideration the 1995 price level. For kerosene, gas oil, heavy oil, butane gas, coal, and coke, there are a few prefectures with TFEEs less than 0.7. The five most inefficient prefectures are Niigata, Wakayama, Hyogo, Chiba, and Yamaguchi. Inland regions and most regions along the Sea of Japan are efficient in energy use. Most of the inefficient prefectures that are developing mainly upon energy-intensive industries are located along the Pacific Belt Zone. A U-shaped relation similar to the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) is discovered between energy efficiency and per capita income for the regions in Japan. (author)

  19. Total energy consumption in Finland increased by one percent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timonen, L.

    2000-01-01

    The total energy consumption in Finland increased by less than a percent in 1999. The total energy consumption in 1999 was 1310 PJ corresponding to about 31 million toe. The electric power consumption increased moderately by 1.6%, which is less than the growth of the gross national product (3.5%). The final consumption of energy grew even less, only by 0.5%. Import of electric power increased by 19% in 1999. The import of electric power was due to the availability of low-priced electric power on the Nordic electricity markets. Nuclear power generation increased by 5% and the consumption of wood-based fuels by 3%. The increment of the nuclear power generation increased because of the increased output capacity and good operability of the power plants. Wind power production doubles, but the share of it in the total energy consumption is only about 0.01%. The peat consumption decreased by 12% and the consumption of hydroelectric power by 15%. The decrease in production of hydroelectric power was compensated by an increase import of electric power. The consumption of fossil fuels, coal, oil and natural gas remained nearly the same as in 1998. The gasoline consumption, however, decreased, but the consumption of diesel oil increased due to the increased road transport. The share of the fossil fuels was nearly half of the total energy consumption. The consumption of renewable energy sources remained nearly the same, in 23% if the share of peat is excluded, and in 30% if the share of peat is included. Wood-based fuels are the most significant type of renewable fuels. The share of them in 1999 was over 80% of the total usage of the renewable energy sources. The carbon dioxide emissions in Finland decreased in 1999 by 1.0 million tons. The total carbon dioxide emissions were 56 million tons. The decrease was mainly due to the decrease of the peat consumption. The final consumption of energy increased by 0.5%, being hence about 1019 PJ. Industry is the main consumer of energy

  20. A comment on the calculation of the total-factor energy efficiency (TFEE) index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Ming-Chung

    2013-01-01

    This study provides a no-output growth model to conveniently calculate the total-factor energy efficiency (TFEE) index originally proposed by Hu and Wang (2006). The TFEE index serves as a very well-known and popular means of estimating overall energy efficiency. While many previous studies have used the indicator of energy inefficiency, including the indicator of energy intensity (i.e., Energy input/Gross Domestic Product (GDP)) to measure energy efficiency, Hu and Kao (2007) point out that the indicator of energy intensity is not only a partial-factor energy efficiency indicator, but that this partial-factor ratio is also quite inappropriate for analyzing the impact of changing energy use over time. The TFEE index overcomes the disadvantage of the indicator of energy intensity as mentioned above, but five steps are needed to calculate the TFEE score. In this study, we provide a no-output growth model to conveniently calculate the TFEE score. Furthermore, we extend this no-output growth model to an output growth model. This study concludes that the output growth model not only makes it easier to calculate the TFEE index than the model proposed by Hu and Wang (2006) and Hu and Kao (2007), but that it can also obtain better TFEE scores. - Highlights: ► The comment is on the total-factor energy efficiency (TFEE) index. ► Two extension models are no-output growth model and output growth model. ► The model in this study makes it easier to calculate the TFEE index.

  1. Discovering the energy, economic and environmental potentials of urban wastes: An input–output model for a metropolis case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Junnian; Yang, Wei; Li, Zhaoling; Higano, Yoshiro; Wang, Xian’en

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A waste-to-energy system is constructed incorporating various urban wastes and technologies. • Waste-to-energy industries are formed and introduced into current socioeconomic system. • A novel input–output simulation model is developed and applied to a metropolis. • Complete energy, economic and environmental potentials of urban wastes are discovered. - Abstract: Tremendous amounts of wastes are generated in urban areas due to accelerating industrialization and urbanization. The current unreasonable waste disposal patterns and potential energy value of urban wastes necessitates the promotion of waste-to-energy implementation. This study is intent on discovering the complete energy, economic and environmental potentials of urban wastes taking municipal solid wastes, waste oil, organic wastewater and livestock manure into consideration. A waste-to-energy system is constructed incorporating these wastes and five waste-to-energy technologies. A novel input–output simulation model is developed and applied to a metropolis to introduce the waste-to-energy system into the current socioeconomic system and form five waste-to-energy industries. The trends in waste generation and energy recovery potential, economic benefits and greenhouse gas mitigation contribution for the study area are estimated and explored from 2011 to 2025. By 2025, biodiesel production and power generation could amount to 72.11 thousand t and 1.59 billion kW h respectively. Due to the highest energy recovery and the most subsidies, the organic wastewater biogas industry has the highest output and net profit, followed by the waste incineration power generation industry. In total 17.97 million t (carbon dioxide-equivalent) accumulative greenhouse gas emission could be mitigated. The organic wastewater biogas industry and waste incineration power generation industry are more advantageous for the study area in terms of better energy, economic and environmental performances. The

  2. Optimization of voltage output of energy harvesters with continuous mechanical rotation extracted from human motion (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Evan; Hamidi, Armita; Tadesse, Yonas

    2017-04-01

    With increasing popularity of portable devices for outdoor activities, portable energy harvesting devices are coming into spot light. The next generation energy harvester which is called hybrid energy harvester can employ more than one mechanism in a single device to optimize portion of the energy that can be harvested from any source of waste energy namely motion, vibration, heat and etc. In spite of few recent attempts for creating hybrid portable devices, the level of output energy still needs to be improved with the intention of employing them in commercial electronic systems or further applications. Moreover, implementing a practical hybrid energy harvester in different application for further investigation is still challenging. This proposal is projected to incorporate a novel approach to maximize and optimize the voltage output of hybrid energy harvesters to achieve a greater conversion efficiency normalized by the total mass of the hybrid device than the simple arithmetic sum of the individual harvesting mechanisms. The energy harvester model previously proposed by Larkin and Tadesse [1] is used as a baseline and a continuous unidirectional rotation is incorporated to maximize and optimize the output. The device harvest mechanical energy from oscillatory motion and convert it to electrical energy through electromagnetic and piezoelectric systems. The new designed mechanism upgrades the device in a way that can harvest energy from both rotational and linear motions by using magnets. Likewise, the piezoelectric section optimized to harvest at least 10% more energy. To the end, the device scaled down for tested with different sources of vibrations in the immediate environment, including machinery operation, bicycle, door motion while opening and closing and finally, human motions. Comparing the results from literature proved that current device has capability to be employed in commercial small electronic devices for enhancement of battery usage or as a backup

  3. The embodied energy and environmental emissions of construction projects in China: An economic input-output LCA model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Yuan; Ries, Robert J.; Wang Yaowu

    2010-01-01

    A complete understanding of the resource consumption, embodied energy, and environmental emissions of civil projects in China is difficult due to the lack of comprehensive national statistics. To quantitatively assess the energy and environmental impacts of civil construction at a macro-level, this study developed a 24 sector environmental input-output life-cycle assessment model (I-O LCA) based on 2002 Chinese national economic and environmental data. The model generates an economy-wide inventory of energy use and environmental emissions. Estimates based on the level of economic activity related to planned future civil works in 2015 are made. Results indicate that the embodied energy of construction projects accounts for nearly one-sixth of the total economy's energy consumption in 2007, and may account for approximately one-fifth of the total energy use by 2015. This energy consumption is dominated by coal and oil consumptions. Energy-related emissions are the main polluters of the country's atmosphere and environment. If the industry's energy use and manufacturing techniques remain the same as in 2002, challenges to the goals for total energy consumption in China will appear in the next decade. Thus, effective implementation of efficient energy technologies and regulations are indispensable for achieving China's energy and environmental quality goals.

  4. Foldover effect and energy output from a nonlinear pseudo-maglev harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kecik, Krzysztof; Mitura, Andrzej; Warminski, Jerzy; Lenci, Stefano

    2018-01-01

    Dynamics analysis and energy harvesting of a nonlinear magnetic pseudo-levitation (pseudo-maglev) harvester under harmonic excitation is presented in this paper. The system, for selected parameters, has two stable possible solutions with different corresponding energy outputs. The main goal is to analyse the influence of resistance load on the multi-stability zones and energy recovery which can help to tune the system to improve the energy harvesting efficiency.

  5. Does debt predict growth? An empirical analysis of the relationship between total debt and economic output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem Vanlaer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the recent global financial crisis has stimulated a vast amount of research on the impact of public debt on economic growth and also increasingly on the role of private credit, the total levels of indebtedness of an economy have largely been ignored. This paper studies the impact of the total level of and increases in debt-to-GDP on economic growth for 26 developed countries in the short, medium and longer term. We analyse whether we can predict the future level of growth, simply by looking at the total level of debt, or increases in that debt level. We find that there is a negative correlation between high levels of debt and short term economic growth, but that this effect tapers in the medium and long term. Similarly, we find that rapid debt accumulation is negatively related to economic growth over the short term, the impact is less pronounced over the medium term and is non-existent over the long term.

  6. An input-output energy analysis in pistachio nut production: A case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research examined the energy use pattern and energy input/output analysis of pistachio nut widely grown in the South-eastern Anatolia, Turkey. For this purpose, data from pistachio nut production were collected in 61 farms from ten villages by a questionnaire which was selected according to their regional properties.

  7. Recommended methods for evaluating the benefits of ECUT Program outputs. [Energy Conversion and Utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, L.O.; Winter, C.

    1986-03-01

    This study was conducted to define and develop techniques that could be used to assess the complete spectrum of positive effects resulting from the Energy Conversion and Utilization Technologies (ECUT) Program activities. These techniques could then be applied to measure the benefits from past ECUT outputs. In addition, the impact of future ECUT outputs could be assessed as part of an ongoing monitoring process, after sufficient time has elapsed to allow their impacts to develop.

  8. LD-pumped erbium and neodymium lasers with high energy and output beam quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabanov, Vladimir V.; Bezyazychnaya, Tatiana V.; Bogdanovich, Maxim V.; Grigor'ev, Alexandr V.; Lebiadok, Yahor V.; Lepchenkov, Kirill V.; Ryabtsev, Andrew G.; Ryabtsev, Gennadii I.; Shchemelev, Maxim A.

    2013-05-01

    Physical and fabrication peculiarities which provide the high output energy and beam quality for the diode pumped erbium glass and Nd:YAG lasers are considered. Developed design approach allow to make passively Q-switched erbium glass eye-safe portable laser sources with output energy 8 - 12 mJ (output pulse duration is less than 25 ns, pulse repetition rate up to 5 Hz) and beam quality M2 less than 1.3. To reach these values the erbium laser pump unit parameters were optimized also. Namely, for the powerful laser diode arrays the optimal near-field fill-factor, output mirror reflectivity and heterostructure properties were determined. Construction of advanced diode and solid-state lasers as well as the optical properties of the active element and the pump unit make possible the lasing within a rather wide temperature interval (e.g. from minus forty till plus sixty Celsius degree) without application of water-based chillers. The transversally pumped Nd:YAG laser output beam uniformity was investigated depending on the active element (AE) pump conditions. In particular, to enhance the pump uniformity within AE volume, a special layer which practically doesn't absorb the pump radiation but effectively scatters the pump and lasing beams, was used. Application of such layer results in amplified spontaneous emission suppression and improvement of the laser output beam uniformity. The carried out investigations allow us to fabricate the solid-state Nd:YAG lasers (1064 nm) with the output energy up to 420 mJ at the pulse repetition rate up to 30 Hz and the output energy up to 100 mJ at the pulse repetition rate of of 100 Hz. Also the laser sources with following characteristics: 35 mJ, 30 Hz (266 nm); 60 mJ, 30 Hz (355 nm); 100 mJ, 30 Hz (532 nm) were manufactured on the base of the developed Nd:YAG quantrons.

  9. The Influence of Output Variability from Renewable Electricity Generation on Net Energy Calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes Kunz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One key approach to analyzing the feasibility of energy extraction and generation technologies is to understand the net energy they contribute to society. These analyses most commonly focus on a simple comparison of a source’s expected energy outputs to the required energy inputs, measured in the form of energy return on investment (EROI. What is not typically factored into net energy analysis is the influence of output variability. This omission ignores a key attribute of biological organisms and societies alike: the preference for stable returns with low dispersion versus equivalent returns that are intermittent or variable. This biologic predilection for stability, observed and refined in academic financial literature, has a direct relationship to many new energy technologies whose outputs are much more variable than traditional energy sources. We investigate the impact of variability on net energy metrics and develop a theoretical framework to evaluate energy systems based on existing financial and biological risk models. We then illustrate the impact of variability on nominal energy return using representative technologies in electricity generation, with a more detailed analysis on wind power, where intermittence and stochastic availability of hard-to-store electricity will be factored into theoretical returns.

  10. Estimate of total CO2 output from desertified sandy land in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Zhenghu; Lanzhou University; Xiao Honglang; Dong Zhibao; He Xingdong; Wang Gang

    2001-01-01

    Soil is an important factor in regional and global carbon budgets because it serves as a reservoir of large amount of organic carbon. In our study, using remote sensing data of different periods we analyzed the development and reversion of desertification in China, calculated the variations of organic carbon contents of the desertified lands in China. The results showed that the total storage of organic carbon in 0-50cm soil layer of the desertified lands is 855Mt. In recent 40yr, the total CO 2 amount released by land desertification processes to the atmosphere was 150Mt, while the CO 2 amount sequestered by desertification reversing processes corresponded to 59MtC. Hence, the net CO 2 amount released from desertified lands of China corresponded to 91MtC, about 68.42% of the 133MtC of annual CO 2 release in the global temperate and frigid zones. Simultaneously, it indicated that CO 2 amount sequestered by desertification reversing processes in desertified land had greater potential than the other soils. (Author)

  11. Blood volume, blood pressure and total body sodium: internal signalling and output control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bie, P

    2009-01-01

    Total body sodium and arterial blood pressure (ABP) are mutually dependent variables regulated by complex control systems. This review addresses the role of ABP in the normal control of sodium excretion (NaEx), and the physiological control of renin secretion. NaEx is a pivotal determinant of ABP......, and under experimental conditions, ABP is a powerful, independent controller of NaEx. Blood volume is a function of dietary salt intake; however, ABP is not, at least not in steady states. A transient increase in ABP after a step-up in sodium intake could provide a causal relationship between ABP...... and the regulation of NaEx via a hypothetical integrative control system. However, recent data show that subtle sodium loading (simulating salty meals) causes robust natriuresis without changes in ABP. Changes in ABP are not necessary for natriuresis. Normal sodium excretion is not regulated by pressure. Plasma...

  12. Control strategies to optimise power output in heave buoy energy convertors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu Zarim, M A U A; Sharip, R M

    2013-01-01

    Wave energy converter (WEC) designs are always discussed in order to obtain an optimum design to generate the power from the wave. Output power from wave energy converter can be improved by controlling the oscillation in order to acquire the interaction between the WEC and the incident wave.The purpose of this research is to study the heave buoys in the interest to generate an optimum power output by optimising the phase control and amplitude in order to maximise the active power. In line with the real aims of this study which investigate the theory and function and hence optimise the power generation of heave buoys as renewable energy sources, the condition that influence the heave buoy must be understand in which to propose the control strategies that can be use to control parameters to obtain optimum power output. However, this research is in an early stage, and further analysis and technical development is require

  13. Effects of energy consumption on per worker output: A study of Kenya and South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Ronald Ravinesh; Kumar, Radika

    2013-01-01

    The paper investigates the long-run cointegration relationship and energy elasticities for Kenya and South Africa over the periods 1978–2009 and 1971–2009, respectively, using the ARDL procedure developed by Pesaran et al. (2001) with recomputed critical bounds from Narayan (2005) and the Solow (1956) framework extended by Rao (2010). We also conduct the (Toda and Yamamoto (1995) test for Granger non-causality. The regression results show that short-run and long-run energy elasticities are 0.50 and 1.71, respectively for Kenya and 0.17 and 0.34, respectively for South Africa. The causality results indicate a unidirectional Granger causality running from capital per worker and energy per capita to output per worker for both countries. Moreover, in Kenya, we detect a strong unidirectional causality: (a) on output from joint consideration of capital stock and energy; and (b) on capital stock from joint consideration of energy and output. In South Africa, the joint causations are neutral. Hence, while energy and capital stock spurs growth in both countries, Kenya has a greater potential to harness growth and capital productivity via joint consideration of energy with capital and output, respectively. - Highlights: • The ARDL approach and Solow (1965) model extended by Rao (2010) is used, with critical bounds from Narayan (2005). • The Toda and Yamamoto (1995) procedure is used to investigate direction of causality. • Long-run energy elasticities for Kenya and South Africa are 1.71 and 0.34. • For South Africa, the elasticities are 0.17 and 0.34, respectively. • A unidirectional causality is detected from energy and capital to output

  14. Energy analysis handbook. CAC document 214. [Combining process analysis with input-output analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bullard, C. W.; Penner, P. S.; Pilati, D. A.

    1976-10-01

    Methods are presented for calculating the energy required, directly and indirectly, to produce all types of goods and services. Procedures for combining process analysis with input-output analysis are described. This enables the analyst to focus data acquisition cost-effectively, and to achieve a specified degree of accuracy in the results. The report presents sample calculations and provides the tables and charts needed to perform most energy cost calculations, including the cost of systems for producing or conserving energy.

  15. Modelling and study on the output flow characteristics of expansion energy used hydropneumatic transformer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Yan; Wu, Tiecheng; Cai, Maolin; Liu, Chong [Beihang University, Beijing (China)

    2016-03-15

    Hydropneumatic transformer (short for HP transformer) is used to pump pressurized hydraulic oil. Whereas, due to its insufficient usage of energy and low efficiency, a new kind of HP transformer: EEUHP transformer (Expansion energy used hydropneumatic transformer) was proposed. To illustrate the characteristics of the EEUHP transformer, a mathematical model was built. To verify the mathematical model, an experimental prototype was setup and studied. Through simulation and experimental study on the EEUHP transformer, the influence of five key parameters on the output flow of the EEUHP transformer were obtained, and some conclusions can be drawn. Firstly, the mathematical model was proved to be valid. Furthermore, the EEUHP transformer costs fewer of compressed air than the normal HP transformer when the output flow of the two kinds of transformers are almost same. Moreover, with an increase in the output pressure, the output flow decreases sharply. Finally, with an increase in the effective area of hydraulic output port, the output flow increases distinctly. This research can be referred to in the performance and design optimization of the EEUHP transformers.

  16. Improving power output of inertial energy harvesters by employing principal component analysis of input acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smilek, Jan; Hadas, Zdenek

    2017-02-01

    In this paper we propose the use of principal component analysis to process the measured acceleration data in order to determine the direction of acceleration with the highest variance on given frequency of interest. This method can be used for improving the power generated by inertial energy harvesters. Their power output is highly dependent on the excitation acceleration magnitude and frequency, but the axes of acceleration measurements might not always be perfectly aligned with the directions of movement, and therefore the generated power output might be severely underestimated in simulations, possibly leading to false conclusions about the feasibility of using the inertial energy harvester for the examined application.

  17. Primary energy and greenhouse gases embodied in Australian final consumption: an input-output analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenzen, M.

    1998-01-01

    Input-output modeling of primary energy and greenhouse gas embodiments in goods and services is a useful technique for designing greenhouse gas abatement policies. The present paper describes direct and indirect primary energy and greenhouse gas requirements for a given set of Australian final consumption. It considers sectoral disparities in energy prices, capital formation and international trade flows and it accounts for embodiments in the Gross National Expenditure as well as the Gross Domestic Product. Primary energy and greenhouse gas intensities in terms of MJ/$ and kg CO 2 -e/$ are reported, as well as national balance of primary energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. (author)

  18. Comparative energy input–output and financial analyses of greenhouse and open field vegetables production in West Java, Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuswardhani, Nita; Soni, Peeyush; Shivakoti, Ganesh P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper estimates energy consumption per unit floor area of greenhouse and open field for tomato, chili and lettuce production. Primary data were collected from 530 vegetable farmers during Jan–Dec, 2010 in West Java, Indonesia. Energy estimates were calculated from actual amount of inputs and outputs and corresponding conversion factors. Results reveal that the total input energy used in greenhouse (GH) production of tomato, chili (medium and high land) and lettuce were 47.62, 41.55, 58.84, and 24.54 GJ/ha respectively. Whereas, the requirement of total input energy for open field (OF) production of tomato, chili (medium and high land) and lettuce were 49.01, 41.04, 57.94 and 23.87 GJ/ha, respectively. The ratio of output to input energy was higher in greenhouse production (0.85, 0.45 and 0.49) than open field vegetable production (0.52, 0.175 and 0.186) for tomato, chili medium land and chili highland, respectively, but output–input ratio of lettuce open field production was twice as that of greenhouse vegetable production. Financial analysis revealed higher mean net returns from greenhouse vegetable production as 7043 $/ha (922–15,299 $/ha) when compared to 571 $/ha (44–1172 $/ha) from open field vegetable production. Among the greenhouse vegetables, tomato cultivation was the most profitable in terms of energy efficiency and financial productivity. - Highlights: ► Energy input–output analysis is carried out to compare vegetables production in greenhouse and open field. ► Tomato, Chili and Lettuce production in West Java, Indonesia. ► Economic analysis is conducted to compare the two production systems

  19. Extending the input–output energy balance methodology in agriculture through cluster analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bojacá, Carlos Ricardo; Casilimas, Héctor Albeiro; Gil, Rodrigo; Schrevens, Eddie

    2012-01-01

    The input–output balance methodology has been applied to characterize the energy balance of agricultural systems. This study proposes to extend this methodology with the inclusion of multivariate analysis to reveal particular patterns in the energy use of a system. The objective was to demonstrate the usefulness of multivariate exploratory techniques to analyze the variability found in a farming system and, establish efficiency categories that can be used to improve the energy balance of the system. To this purpose an input–output analysis was applied to the major greenhouse tomato production area in Colombia. Individual energy profiles were built and the k-means clustering method was applied to the production factors. On average, the production system in the study zone consumes 141.8 GJ ha −1 to produce 96.4 GJ ha −1 , resulting in an energy efficiency of 0.68. With the k-means clustering analysis, three clusters of farmers were identified with energy efficiencies of 0.54, 0.67 and 0.78. The most energy efficient cluster grouped 56.3% of the farmers. It is possible to optimize the production system by improving the management practices of those with the lowest energy use efficiencies. Multivariate analysis techniques demonstrated to be a complementary pathway to improve the energy efficiency of a system. -- Highlights: ► An input–output energy balance was estimated for greenhouse tomatoes in Colombia. ► We used the k-means clustering method to classify growers based on their energy use. ► Three clusters of growers were found with energy efficiencies of 0.54, 0.67 and 0.78. ► Overall system optimization is possible by improving the energy use of the less efficient.

  20. Design of an all-optical switch and arbitrary proportion of energy output beam splitter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Qing-Hua, E-mail: lqhua@ncu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China); Zhang, Xuan; Chen, Shu-Wen; Hu, Ping; Yu, Tian-Bao [Department of Physics, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China); Huang, Yong-Zhen [The State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, Institute of Semiconductors, CAS, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2013-11-15

    Based on the Kerr effect of photonic crystal, we design a simple structure of all-optical switch, which can be controlled by the pump intensity. At the same time, the structure can also realize the free control of energy output. It has low insertion loss and crosstalk. Numerical simulation results embody its high efficiency.

  1. Total energy calculations for structural phase transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Y.Y.; Chan, C.T.; Ho, K.M.; Harmon, B.N.

    1990-01-01

    The structural integrity and physical properties of crystalline solids are frequently limited or enhanced by the occurrence of phase transformations. Martensitic transformations involve the collective displacement of atoms from one ordered state to another. Modern methods to determine the microscopic electronic changes as the atoms move are now accurate enough to evaluate the very small energy differences involved. Extensive first principles calculations for the prototypical martensitic transformation from body-centered cubic (bcc) to closepacked 9R structure in sodium metal are described. The minimum energy coordinate or configuration path between the bcc and 9R structures is determined as well as paths to other competing close-packed structures. The energy barriers and important anharmonic interactions are identified and general conclusions drawn. The calculational methods used to solve the Schrodinger equation include pseudopotentials, fast Fourier transforms, efficient matrix diagnonalization, and supercells with many atoms

  2. 'Key' sectors in final energy consumption: an input-output application to the Spanish case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcantara, Vicent; Padilla, Emilio

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the determination of 'key' sectors in the final energy consumption. We approach this issue from an input-output perspective and we design a methodology based on the elasticities of the demands of final energy consumption. As an exercise, we apply the proposed methodology to the Spanish economy. The analysis allows us to indicate the greater or lesser relevance of the different sectors in the consumption of final energy, pointing out which sectors deserve greater attention in the Spanish case and showing the implications for energy policy

  3. Potential role of motion for enhancing maximum output energy of triboelectric nanogenerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Kyung-Eun; Lee, Min-Hyun; Cho, Yeonchoo; Nam, Seung-Geol; Shin, Hyeon-Jin; Park, Seongjun

    2017-07-01

    Although triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) has been explored as one of the possible candidates for the auxiliary power source of portable and wearable devices, the output energy of a TENG is still insufficient to charge the devices with daily motion. Moreover, the fundamental aspects of the maximum possible energy of a TENG related with human motion are not understood systematically. Here, we confirmed the possibility of charging commercialized portable and wearable devices such as smart phones and smart watches by utilizing the mechanical energy generated by human motion. We confirmed by theoretical extraction that the maximum possible energy is related with specific form factors of a TENG. Furthermore, we experimentally demonstrated the effect of human motion in an aspect of the kinetic energy and impulse using varying velocity and elasticity, and clarified how to improve the maximum possible energy of a TENG. This study gives insight into design of a TENG to obtain a large amount of energy in a limited space.

  4. Optimization of cascade hydropower system operation by genetic algorithm to maximize clean energy output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Tayebiyan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several reservoir systems have been constructed for hydropower generation around the world. Hydropower offers an economical source of electricity with reduce carbon emissions. Therefore, it is such a clean and renewable source of energy. Reservoirs that generate hydropower are typically operated with the goal of maximizing energy revenue. Yet, reservoir systems are inefficiently operated and manage according to policies determined at the construction time. It is worth noting that with little enhancement in operation of reservoir system, there could be an increase in efficiency of the scheme for many consumers. Methods: This research develops simulation-optimization models that reflect discrete hedging policy (DHP to manage and operate hydropower reservoir system and analyse it in both single and multireservoir system. Accordingly, three operational models (2 single reservoir systems and 1 multi-reservoir system were constructed and optimized by genetic algorithm (GA. Maximizing the total power generation in horizontal time is chosen as an objective function in order to improve the functional efficiency in hydropower production with consideration to operational and physical limitations. The constructed models, which is a cascade hydropower reservoirs system have been tested and evaluated in the Cameron Highland and Batang Padang in Malaysia. Results: According to the given results, usage of DHP for hydropower reservoir system operation could increase the power generation output to nearly 13% in the studied reservoir system compared to present operating policy (TNB operation. This substantial increase in power production will enhance economic development. Moreover, the given results of single and multi-reservoir systems affirmed that hedging policy could manage the single system much better than operation of the multi-reservoir system. Conclusion: It can be summarized that DHP is an efficient and feasible policy, which could be used

  5. Output characteristics of piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate detector using high-energy heavy-ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takechi, Seiji; Sekiguchi, Masahiro; Miyachi, Takashi; Kobayashi, Masanori; Hattori, Maki; Okudaira, Osamu; Shibata, Hiromi; Fujii, Masayuki; Okada, Nagaya; Murakami, Takeshi; Uchihori, Yukio

    2014-01-01

    A radiation detector fabricated using piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) has been studied by irradiating it with a 400 MeV/n xenon (Xe) beam. The beam diameter was controlled to change the irradiation conditions. It was found that the magnitude of the output observed from the PZT detector may be related to the number of Xe ions per unit area per unit time within the limits of the experimental conditions. -- Highlights: • The performance of PZT detector was studied by irradiation of a 400 MeV/n Xe beam. • The beam diameter was controlled to change the irradiation conditions. • By the control, the number of Xe ions per one pulse was changed from ∼500 to ∼1500. • The output of the PZT detector was not always larger with more intense beam. • The energy of Xe ions per unit area per unit time may determine the output

  6. Input-output analysis of alternative policies implemented on the energy activities: An application for Catalonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llop, Maria; Pie, Laia

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the economic impact of alternative policies implemented on the energy activities of the Catalan production system. Specifically, we analyze the effects of a tax on intermediate energy uses, a reduction in intermediate energy demand, and a tax on intermediate uses combined with a reduction in intermediate energy demand. The methodology involves two versions of the input-output price model: a competitive price formulation and a mark-up price formulation. The input-output price framework will make it possible to evaluate how the alternative measures modify production prices, consumption prices, private real income, and intermediate energy uses. The empirical application is for the Catalan economy and uses economic data for the year 2001. The combination of a tax on energy uses and an improvement in the energy efficiency of the production system is a measure that accomplishes both economic and environmental goals, since it has no effects on prices, it has a positive effect on private real income and, finally, energy consumption is considerably reduced. (author)

  7. An automated procedure for the quality assurance of electron beam output and energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, M.K.; Videla, N.G.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, we report on the development of a simple and accurate method for quality assurance of electron beam output and energy. Aluminum disks of thicknesses d max or d 50 of the particular electron energy are positioned sequentially over a parallel-plate ion chamber and the ratio of the two signals is compared to the standard. The positioning of the aluminum disks is carried out remotely and automatically to eliminate the necessity of multiple setups. One method utilizes the remote control feature of the treatment couch and another employs a motor-driven carousel. The superior sensitivity over a commercially available energy monitor is illustrated

  8. Totally implantable total artificial heart and ventricular assist device with multipurpose miniature electromechanical energy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takatani, S; Orime, Y; Tasai, K; Ohara, Y; Naito, K; Mizuguchi, K; Makinouchi, K; Damm, G; Glueck, J; Ling, J

    1994-01-01

    A multipurpose miniature electromechanical energy system has been developed to yield a compact, efficient, durable, and biocompatible total artificial heart (TAH) and ventricular assist device (VAD). Associated controller-driver electronics were recently miniaturized and converted into hybrid circuits. The hybrid controller consists of a microprocessor and controller, motor driver, Hall sensor, and commutation circuit hybrids. The sizing study demonstrated that all these components can be incorporated in the pumping unit of the TAH and VAD, particularly in the centerpiece of the TAH and the motor housing of the VAD. Both TAH and VAD pumping units will start when their power line is connected to either the internal power pack or the external battery unit. As a redundant driving and diagnostic port, an emergency port was newly added and will be placed in subcutaneous location. In case of system failure, the skin will be cut down, and an external motor drive or a pneumatic driver will be connected to this port to run the TAH. This will minimize the circulatory arrest time. Overall efficiency of the TAH without the transcutaneous energy transmission system was 14-18% to deliver pump outputs of 4-9 L/min against the right and left afterload pressures of 25 and 100 mm Hg. The internal power requirement ranged from 6 to 13 W. The rechargeable batteries such as NiCd or NiMH with 1 AH capacity can run the TAH for 30-45 min. The external power requirement, when TETS efficiency of 75% was assumed, ranged from 8 to 18 W. The accelerated endurance test in the 42 degrees C saline bath demonstrated stable performance over 4 months. Long-term endurance and chronic animal studies will continue toward a system with 5 years durability by the year 2000.

  9. An input-output energy analysis in greenhouse vegetable production: a case study for Antalya region of Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozkan, Burhan; Akcaoz, Handan [Akdeniz Univ., Dept. of Agricultural Economics, Antalya (Turkey); Kurklu, Ahmet [Akdeniz Univ., Dept. of Agricultural Machinery, Antalya (Turkey)

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this research was to examine the energy equivalents of inputs and output in greenhouse vegetable production in the Antalya province of Turkey. For this purpose, the data for the production of four greenhouse crops (tomato, cucumber, eggplant and pepper) were collected in eighty-eight greenhouse farms by questionnaire. The results revealed that cucumber production was the most energy intensive of among the four crops investigated. Cucumber production consumed a total of 134.77 GJha{sup -1} followed by tomato with 127.32 GJha{sup -1}. The consumption of energy by eggplants and pepper were 98.68 and 80.25 GJha{sup -1}, respectively. The output-input energy ratio for greenhouse tomato, pepper, cucumber and eggplant were estimated to be 1.26, 0.99, 0.76 and 0.61, respectively. This indicated an intensive use of inputs in greenhouse vegetable production not accompanied by increase in the final product. This can lead to problems associated with these inputs such as global warming, nutrient loading and pesticide pollution. Therefore, there is a need to pursue a new policy to force producers to undertake energy efficient practices to increase the yield without diminishing natural resources. (Author)

  10. Direct and indirect energy requirements of output of the New Zealand economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peet, N.J.

    1985-10-01

    Data on energy supply in New Zealand for the year of the survey are reviewed critically. Results are tabulated as the direct and indirect energy intensities of output for each of the energy supply industries: coal mining and natural gas production; petroleum refining, oil and coal products; electricity, state supply; electricity, local body supply; and gas manufacture and distribution. Two types of sector tabulations are presented; at the 178-sector level (the maximum detail available) and the 29-sector level, corresponding to the usual GDP sectors and the energy industries. Energy requirements of gross fixed capital formation are also tabulated, at the 29-sector level. While the data from the survey are now eight years old, changes in the energy supply industries, and in industry as a whole, are believed to have been sufficiently slow for the results to be generally applicable until data from the 1981-82 survey become available. 33 references, 4 tables.

  11. Measurements of effective total macroscopic cross sections and effective energy of continuum beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Hisao [Rikkyo Univ., Yokosuka, Kanagawa (Japan). Inst. for Atomic Energy

    1998-03-01

    Two practically useful quantities are introduced in this study to characterize a continuum neutron beam and to describe transmission phenomena of the beam in field of quantitative neutron radiography: an effective energy instead of a peak energy or a mean energy of the spectrum and an effective total macroscopic (ETM) cross section instead of a total macroscopic (TM) cross section defined at the monochromatic energy. The effective energy was evaluated by means of energy dependence of ETM cross section. To realize the method a beam quality indicator (BQI) has been proposed recently. Several effective energies were measured for non-filtered, filtered neutron beams, and outputs of neutron guide tubes in world by the BQI. A thermal neutron beam and three beams modulated by Pb filters with different thicknesses are studied to measure ETM cross sections for various materials and summarized in a table. Validity of the effective energy determined by the BQI is discussed relating with ETM cross sections of materials. (author)

  12. Research on Power Output Characteristics of Magnetic Core in Energy Harvesting Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-Ping GUO

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic core is the dominant factor in the performance of current transformer energy harvesting devices. The power output model of the magnetic core is established and verified through experiments. According to the actual application requirements, the concept of power density is proposed. The relationships of power density to air gap, material and dimension of the magnetic core are analyzed and verified through experiments.

  13. Input-output relation and energy efficiency in the neuron with different spike threshold dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Guo-Sheng; Wang, Jiang; Tsang, Kai-Ming; Wei, Xi-Le; Deng, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Neuron encodes and transmits information through generating sequences of output spikes, which is a high energy-consuming process. The spike is initiated when membrane depolarization reaches a threshold voltage. In many neurons, threshold is dynamic and depends on the rate of membrane depolarization (dV/dt) preceding a spike. Identifying the metabolic energy involved in neural coding and their relationship to threshold dynamic is critical to understanding neuronal function and evolution. Here, we use a modified Morris-Lecar model to investigate neuronal input-output property and energy efficiency associated with different spike threshold dynamics. We find that the neurons with dynamic threshold sensitive to dV/dt generate discontinuous frequency-current curve and type II phase response curve (PRC) through Hopf bifurcation, and weak noise could prohibit spiking when bifurcation just occurs. The threshold that is insensitive to dV/dt, instead, results in a continuous frequency-current curve, a type I PRC and a saddle-node on invariant circle bifurcation, and simultaneously weak noise cannot inhibit spiking. It is also shown that the bifurcation, frequency-current curve and PRC type associated with different threshold dynamics arise from the distinct subthreshold interactions of membrane currents. Further, we observe that the energy consumption of the neuron is related to its firing characteristics. The depolarization of spike threshold improves neuronal energy efficiency by reducing the overlap of Na(+) and K(+) currents during an action potential. The high energy efficiency is achieved at more depolarized spike threshold and high stimulus current. These results provide a fundamental biophysical connection that links spike threshold dynamics, input-output relation, energetics and spike initiation, which could contribute to uncover neural encoding mechanism.

  14. Combining total energy and energy industrial center concepts to increase utilization efficiency of geothermal energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, B. P.

    1974-01-01

    Integrating energy production and energy consumption to produce a total energy system within an energy industrial center which would result in more power production from a given energy source and less pollution of the environment is discussed. Strong governmental support would be required for the crash drilling program necessary to implement these concepts. Cooperation among the federal agencies, power producers, and private industry would be essential in avoiding redundant and fruitless projects, and in exploiting most efficiently our geothermal resources.

  15. Estimation of PV output power in moving and rocking hybrid energy marine ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hongda; Zhang, Qing; Qi, Xiaoxia; Han, Yang; Lu, Fang

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •A mathematical model for characterizing the ship PV output power is developed. •The impacts of the sea condition and ship type on the PV output power are analyzed. •The hybrid energy storage system is used to stabilize the PV fluctuation powers. •A SC configuration method based on maximum half period is applied. -- Abstract: In recent years, the application of solar energy and energy storage to ship power systems has shown promise as a method for both reducing annual carbon and nitrogen oxide emissions and improving ship energy efficiency in the maritime shipping industry. When a ship navigates at sea, it encounters a constant rocking motion that is affected by both the surrounding sea conditions and the ship’s navigation parameters. This motion increases the uncertainty involved in using solar energy and accelerates the aging of the ship’s energy storage battery to some extent. In this study, a universal mathematical model is established for the power generation by photovoltaic (PV) modules in which both the sea conditions and the ship’s integrated motion, including its basic movement along with the motion caused by rocking, are taken into account. Based on this model, the fluctuation characteristics of a ship’s PV output power are studied and determined using three different simulation scenarios. A binary energy storage scheme based on a decoupled PV output power is proposed in order to both stabilize the small-period PV power fluctuations and slow the aging of the actual battery caused by rocking. In addition, a super-capacitor (SC) configuration is constructed based on a maximum half cycle. Finally, the optimal energy storage capacities for this green ship are compared under both rocking and moving motion. In the case of rocking motion, the SCs are able to achieve an approximately 24.8–35.0% reduction in battery replacement. A shipping route between Shanghai, China and Sydney, Australia is considered to validate the practicality

  16. Total-factor energy efficiency in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xingping; Cheng Xiaomei; Yuan Jiahai; Gao Xiaojun

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses a total-factor framework to investigate energy efficiency in 23 developing countries during the period of 1980-2005. We explore the total-factor energy efficiency and change trends by applying data envelopment analysis (DEA) window, which is capable of measuring efficiency in cross-sectional and time-varying data. The empirical results indicate that Botswana, Mexico and Panama perform the best in terms of energy efficiency, whereas Kenya, Sri Lanka, Syria and the Philippines perform the worst during the entire research period. Seven countries show little change in energy efficiency over time. Eleven countries experienced continuous decreases in energy efficiency. Among five countries witnessing continuous increase in total-factor energy efficiency, China experienced the most rapid rise. Practice in China indicates that effective energy policies play a crucial role in improving energy efficiency. Tobit regression analysis indicates that a U-shaped relationship exists between total-factor energy efficiency and income per capita. - Research Highlights: → To measure the total-factor energy efficiency using DEA window analysis. → Focus on an application area of developing countries in the period of 1980-2005. → A U-shaped relationship was found between total-factor energy efficiency and income.

  17. Urban energy consumption: Different insights from energy flow analysis, input–output analysis and ecological network analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Shaoqing; Chen, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Urban energy consumption was assessed from three different perspectives. • A new concept called controlled energy was developed from network analysis. • Embodied energy and controlled energy consumption of Beijing were compared. • The integration of all three perspectives will elucidate sustainable energy use. - Abstract: Energy consumption has always been a central issue for sustainable urban assessment and planning. Different forms of energy analysis can provide various insights for energy policy making. This paper brought together three approaches for energy consumption accounting, i.e., energy flow analysis (EFA), input–output analysis (IOA) and ecological network analysis (ENA), and compared their different perspectives and the policy implications for urban energy use. Beijing was used to exemplify the different energy analysis processes, and the 42 economic sectors of the city were aggregated into seven components. It was determined that EFA quantifies both the primary and final energy consumption of the urban components by tracking the different types of fuel used by the urban economy. IOA accounts for the embodied energy consumption (direct and indirect) used to produce goods and services in the city, whereas the control analysis of ENA quantifies the specific embodied energy that is regulated by the activities within the city’s boundary. The network control analysis can also be applied to determining which economic sectors drive the energy consumption and to what extent these sectors are dependent on each other for energy. So-called “controlled energy” is a new concept that adds to the analysis of urban energy consumption, indicating the adjustable energy consumed by sectors. The integration of insights from all three accounting perspectives further our understanding of sustainable energy use in cities

  18. A comparative analysis of China’s regional energy and emission performance: Which is the better way to deal with undesirable outputs?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ke; Wei Yiming; Zhang Xian

    2012-01-01

    Measuring and improving the energy performance with considering emission constraints is an important issue for China’s energy conservation, pollutant emissions reduction and environment protection. This study utilizes several data envelopment analysis (DEA) based models to evaluate the total-factor energy and emission performance of China’s 30 regions within a joint production framework of considering desirable and undesirable outputs as well as separated energy and non-energy inputs. DEA window analysis is applied in this study to deal with cross-sectional and time-varying data, so as to measure the performance during the period of 2000–2009. Two treatments for undesirable outputs are combined with DEA models and the associated indicators for simplex energy performance and unified energy and emission performance measurement are proposed and compared. The evaluation results indicate that the treatment of undesirable outputs transformation is more appropriate for China’s regional energy and emission performance evaluation because it has stronger discriminating power and can provide more reasonable evaluation results that characterize China’s regions. The empirical result shows that east China has the highest and the most balanced energy and emission performance. The energy and emission performance of China remained stable during 2000–2003, decreased slightly during 2004–2006, and has continuously increased since 2007. - Highlights: ► We evaluate China’s regional energy and emission performance using DEA based models. ► We compare two undesirable outputs treatments according to the evaluation results. ► To treat undesirable outputs as inputs has weaker discriminating power in evaluation. ► Simplex energy performance, without environmental factors, is a biased evaluation. ► China’s energy and emission performance is approximately stable during study period.

  19. Public opinion and environmental policy output: a cross-national analysis of energy policies in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Brilé; Böhmelt, Tobias; Ward, Hugh

    2017-11-01

    This article studies how public opinion is associated with the introduction of renewable energy policies in Europe. While research increasingly seeks to model the link between public opinion and environmental policies, the empirical evidence is largely based on a single case: the US. This limits the generalizability of findings and we argue accordingly for a systematic, quantitative study of how public opinion drives environmental policies in another context. Theoretically, we combine arguments behind the political survival of democratic leaders with electoral success and environmental politics. Ultimately, we suggest that office-seeking leaders introduce policies that seem favorable to the domestic audience; if the public prefers environmental protection, the government introduces such policies in turn. The main contribution of this research is the cross-country empirical analysis, where we combine data on the public’s environmental attitudes and renewable energy policy outputs in a European context between 1974 and 2015. We show that as public opinion shifts towards prioritizing the environment, there is a significant and positive effect on the rate of renewable energy policy outputs by governments in Europe. To our knowledge, this is the first systematic, quantitative study of public opinion and environmental policies across a large set of countries, and we demonstrate that the mechanisms behind the introduction of renewable energy policies follow major trends across European states.

  20. Oxidation and waste-to-energy output of aluminium waste packaging during incineration: A laboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Félix A; Román, Carlos Pérez; García-Díaz, Irene; Alguacil, Francisco J

    2015-09-01

    This work reports the oxidation behaviour and waste-to-energy output of different semi-rigid and flexible aluminium packagings when incinerated at 850°C in an air atmosphere enriched with 6% oxygen, in the laboratory setting. The physical properties of the different packagings were determined, including their metallic aluminium contents. The ash contents of their combustion products were determined according to standard BS ISO 1171:2010. The net calorific value, the required energy, and the calorific gain associated with each packaging type were determined following standard BS EN 13431:2004. Packagings with an aluminium lamina thickness of >50μm did not fully oxidise. During incineration, the weight-for-weight waste-to-energy output of the packagings with thick aluminium lamina was lower than that of packagings with thin lamina. The calorific gain depended on the degree of oxidation of the metallic aluminium, but was greater than zero for all the packagings studied. Waste aluminium may therefore be said to act as an energy source in municipal solid waste incineration systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Review of wireless energy transmission system for total artificial heart].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chi; Yang, Ming

    2009-11-01

    This paper sums up the fundamental structure of wireless energy transmission system for total artificial heart, and compares the key parameters and performance of some representative systems. After that, it is discussed that the future development trend of wireless energy transmission system for total artificial heart.

  2. Environment-adjusted total-factor energy efficiency of Taiwan's service sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Chin-Yi; Hu, Jin-Li; Lou, Tze-Kai

    2013-01-01

    This study computes the pure technical efficiency (PTE) and energy-saving target of Taiwan's service sectors during 2001–2008 by using the input-oriented data envelopment analysis (DEA) approach with the assumption of a variable returns-to-scale (VRS) situation. This paper further investigates the effects of industry characteristics on the energy-saving target by applying the four-stage DEA proposed by Fried et al. (1999). We also calculate the pre-adjusted and environment-adjusted total-factor energy efficiency (TFEE) scores in these service sectors. There are three inputs (labor, capital stock, and energy consumption) and a single output (real GDP) in the DEA model. The most energy efficient service sector is finance, insurance and real estate, which has an average TFEE of 0.994 and an environment-adjusted TFEE (EATFEE) of 0.807. The study utilizes the panel-data, random-effects Tobit regression model with the energy-saving target (EST) as the dependent variable. Those service industries with a larger GDP output have greater excess use of energy. The capital–labor ratio has a significantly positive effect while the time trend variable has a significantly negative impact on the EST, suggesting that future new capital investment should also be accompanied with energy-saving technology in the service sectors. - Highlights: • The technical efficiency and energy-saving target of service sectors are assessed. • The pre-adjusted and environment-adjusted total-factor energy efficiency scores in services are assessed. • The industrial characteristic differences are examined by the panel-data, random-effects Tobit regression model. • Labor, capital, and energy and an output (GDP) are included in the DEA model. • Future new capital investment should also be accompanied with energy-saving technology in the service sectors

  3. Assessment of nuclear energy embodied in international trade following a world multi-regional input–output approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortés-Borda, D.; Guillén-Gosálbez, G.; Jiménez, L.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear power can contribute to cover the increasing demand of energy while keeping the carbon emissions within the desired limits. Many countries are reluctant to implement nuclear technologies in their territories, but might still use them through imports of products that embody nuclear energy in their life cycle. This work quantifies the difference between the production-based (territorial) and consumption-based (global) nuclear energy use in the main 40 economies of the world (85% of the world's GDP) through the application of a multi-regional environmentally extended input–output model. The mismatch between the direct (territorial) and total (global) use of nuclear energy varies from −237% to 44% in the top economies. From a consumption-based viewpoint, 10 out of the 40 countries reduced the per-capita use of nuclear energy in the period 1995–2009, and 7 when following a production-based approach. The per-capita nuclear energy use could differ in up to 26.2 GJ/inhabitant·year, depending on whether the assessment is consumption or production based. It was also found that around 3.5% of the world's nuclear energy production is trade-embodied and that this amount is growing along with the global production of nuclear energy. Our findings might help to develop more effective environmental regulations worldwide. - Highlights: • Global and territorial nuclear energy could differ up to 237% in the main economies. • Trade-embodied nuclear energy has increased from 1.4% to 2.5% in 15 years. • Nuclear energy production has rised in tandem with trade-embodied nuclear energy. • Nuclear production decrease in 7 countries does not counteract the increase in others.

  4. Regional total factor energy efficiency: An empirical analysis of industrial sector in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhao-Hua; Zeng, Hua-Lin; Wei, Yi-Ming; Zhang, Yi-Xiang

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We evaluate energy efficiency under framework of total factor energy efficiency. ► We focus on industry sector of China. ► We use statistical data of industrial enterprises above designated size. ► Energy efficiencies among regions in China are obvious because of technological differences. ► Large scale of investment should be stopped especially in central and western regions. -- Abstract: The rapid growth of the Chinese economy has resulted in great pressure on energy consumption, especially the energy intensive sector – the industrial sector. To achieve sustainable development, China has to consider how to promote energy efficiency to meet the demand of Chinese rapid economic growth, as the energy efficiency of China is relatively low. Meanwhile, the appeal of energy saving and emission reduction has been made by the Chinese central government. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the energy efficiency of industrial sector in China and to assess efficiency development probabilities. The framework of total factor energy efficiency index is adopted to determine the discrepancy of energy efficiency in Chinese industrial sector based on the provincial statistical data of industrial enterprises above designated size in 30 provinces from 2005 to 2009, with gross industrial output as the output value and energy consumption, average remaining balance of capital assets and average amount of working force as the input values. Besides, in considerate of the regional divide of China, namely eastern, central, and western, and economic development differences in each region, energy efficiency of each region is also analysed in this paper. The results show that there is room for China to improve its energy efficiency, especially western provinces which have large amount of energy input excess. Generally speaking, insufficient technological investment and fail of reaching best scale of manufacture are two factors preventing China from energy

  5. Energy consumption across European Union farms: Efficiency in terms of farming output and utilized agricultural area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinho, Vítor João Pereira Domingues

    2016-01-01

    Energy consumption is a global concern, namely due to the limited availability of energy sources and the consequences in terms of gas emissions, with its implications upon greenhouse gas emissions. In the agricultural sector this question bears an additional concern, considering that it is an economic activity which is sensitive to the dimension of the costs associated with production factors. In this way, the objective of the study presented here is to analyze, the efficiency of energy consumption, for the twelve former European Union countries, at farm level, in terms of farming output and utilized agricultural area, over the period 1989–2009 and for the years 2004–2012, with data available in the Farm Accountancy Data Network. On the other hand, the implications of energy consumption in farms' economic performance were analyzed, through econometric techniques (time series, panel data and generalized method of moments) and models based on the Kaldor developments. As a main conclusion, to stress the decrease in efficiency related with energy consumption by farms in the twelve former European Union countries. - Highlights: • It was analyzed the efficiency of energy consumption. • It was considered data for the twelve former European Union states at farm level. • They were evaluated the implications of energy consumption in farms performance. • The conclusions stress the decrease in efficiency of the farms energy consumption.

  6. Transferring of components and energy output in industrial sewage sludge disposal by thermal pretreatment and two-phase anaerobic process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoyi; Wang, Xin; Wang, Lei

    2010-04-01

    For a better sewage sludge disposal and more efficient energy reclamation, transforming of components and energy in sludge by thermal and WAO pretreatment followed by two-phase anaerobic UASB process were studied in the pilot scale. Biogas outputs and the qualities and quantities of the effluent and solid residue were compared with a traditional anaerobic sludge digestion. Sludge components, including carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulphur, were observed and mass balances were discussed throughout the process. The input and output energy balance was also studied. Results showed different trait to compare with biogas outputs in terms of COD added and raw sludge added. Pretreatment improved the transformation of carbon substances into biogas production with higher carbon removal and higher VSS removal. Comparing the energy obtained from biogas production with energy inputs required for pretreatment, energy output in the whole process decreased with higher pretreatment temperature. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Characterizing the energy output generated by a standard electric detonator using shadowgraph imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petr, V.; Lozano, E.

    2017-09-01

    This paper overviews a complete method for the characterization of the explosive energy output from a standard detonator. Measurements of the output of explosives are commonly based upon the detonation parameters of the chemical energy content of the explosive. These quantities provide a correct understanding of the energy stored in an explosive, but they do not provide a direct measure of the different modes in which the energy is released. This optically based technique combines high-speed and ultra-high-speed imaging to characterize the casing fragmentation and the detonator-driven shock load. The procedure presented here could be used as an alternative to current indirect methods—such as the Trauzl lead block test—because of its simplicity, high data accuracy, and minimum demand for test repetition. This technique was applied to experimentally measure air shock expansion versus time and calculating the blast wave energy from the detonation of the high explosive charge inside the detonator. Direct measurements of the shock front geometry provide insight into the physics of the initiation buildup. Because of their geometry, standard detonators show an initial ellipsoidal shock expansion that degenerates into a final spherical wave. This non-uniform shape creates variable blast parameters along the primary blast wave. Additionally, optical measurements are validated using piezoelectric pressure transducers. The energy fraction spent in the acceleration of the metal shell is experimentally measured and correlated with the Gurney model, as well as to several empirical formulations for blasts from fragmenting munitions. The fragment area distribution is also studied using digital particle imaging analysis and correlated with the Mott distribution. Understanding the fragmentation distribution plays a critical role when performing hazard evaluation from these types of devices. In general, this technique allows for characterization of the detonator within 6-8% error

  8. The influence of mineral dust particles on the energy output of photovoltaic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesch, C.; Eltahir, E. A. B.; Al-awwad, Z.; Alqatari, S.; Cziczo, D. J.; Roesch, M.

    2016-12-01

    The city of Al Khafji in Saudi Arabia plans to provide a regular supply of desalinated water from the Persian Gulf while simultaneously cutting back on the usage of fossil fuels. The power for the high energy-consuming reverse osmosis (RO) process will be derived from photovoltaic (PV) cells as a cleaner and resource-conserving means of energy production. Numerous sun hours (yearly 3000) makes the Persian Gulf region's geographical location appropriate for applying PV techniques at this scale. A major concern for PV power generation is mineral dust from desert regions accumulating on surfaces and thereby reducing the energy output. This study aims to show the impact of dust particles on the PV energy reduction by examining dust samples from various Persian Gulf regions. Bulk samples were collected at the surface. The experimental setup involved a sealed container with a solar panel unit (SPU), including an adjustable mounting plate, solar cells (amorphous and monocrystalline), and a pyranometer (SMP3, Kipp & Zonen Inc.). A Tungsten Halogen lamp was used as the light source. Dust particles were aerosolized with a shaker (Multi-Wrist shaker, Lab line). Different techniques were applied to characterize each sample: the particle size distributions were measured using an Optical Particle Sizer (OPS, TSI Inc.), the chemical composition was analyzed using the Particle Analysis by Mass Spectrometry (PALMS) instrument, and Transmission Electron Microscope Energy-Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (TEM-EDX) was used to define morphology, size and structure. Preliminary results show that the energy output is affected by aerosol morphology (monodisperse, polydisperse), composition and solar cell type.

  9. Potential role of motion for enhancing maximum output energy of triboelectric nanogenerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Eun Byun

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Although triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG has been explored as one of the possible candidates for the auxiliary power source of portable and wearable devices, the output energy of a TENG is still insufficient to charge the devices with daily motion. Moreover, the fundamental aspects of the maximum possible energy of a TENG related with human motion are not understood systematically. Here, we confirmed the possibility of charging commercialized portable and wearable devices such as smart phones and smart watches by utilizing the mechanical energy generated by human motion. We confirmed by theoretical extraction that the maximum possible energy is related with specific form factors of a TENG. Furthermore, we experimentally demonstrated the effect of human motion in an aspect of the kinetic energy and impulse using varying velocity and elasticity, and clarified how to improve the maximum possible energy of a TENG. This study gives insight into design of a TENG to obtain a large amount of energy in a limited space.

  10. Smoothing Control of Wind Farm Output by Using Kinetic Energy of Variable Speed Wind Power Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Daiki; Saitoh, Hiroumi

    This paper proposes a new control method for reducing fluctuation of power system frequency through smoothing active power output of wind farm. The proposal is based on the modulation of rotaional kinetic energy of variable speed wind power generators through power converters between permanent magnet synchronous generators (PMSG) and transmission lines. In this paper, the proposed control is called Fluctuation Absorption by Flywheel Characteristics control (FAFC). The FAFC can be easily implemented by adding wind farm output signal to Maximum Power Point Tracking control signal through a feedback control loop. In order to verify the effectiveness of the FAFC control, a simulation study was carried out. In the study, it was assumed that the wind farm consisting of PMSG type wind power generator and induction machine type wind power generaotors is connected with a power sysem. The results of the study show that the FAFC control is a useful method for reducing the impacts of wind farm output fluctuation on system frequency without additional devices such as secondary battery.

  11. A hybrid method for forecasting the energy output of photovoltaic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsami, Pamela; Oree, Vishwamitra

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We propose a novel hybrid technique for predicting the daily PV energy output. • Multiple linear regression, FFNN and GRNN artificial neural networks are used. • Stepwise regression is used to select the most relevant meteorological parameters. • SR-FFNN reduces the average dispersion and overall bias in prediction errors. • Accuracy metrics of hybrid models are better than those of single-stage models. - Abstract: The intermittent nature of solar energy poses many challenges to renewable energy system operators in terms of operational planning and scheduling. Predicting the output of photovoltaic systems is therefore essential for managing the operation and assessing the economic performance of power systems. This paper presents a new technique for forecasting the 24-h ahead stochastic energy output of photovoltaic systems based on the daily weather forecasts. A comparison of the performances of the hybrid technique with conventional linear regression and artificial neural network models has also been reported. Initially, three single-stage models were designed, namely the generalized regression neural network, feedforward neural network and multiple linear regression. Subsequently, a hybrid-modeling approach was adopted by applying stepwise regression to select input variables of greater importance. These variables were then fed to the single-stage models resulting in three hybrid models. They were then validated by comparing the forecasts of the models with measured dataset from an operational photovoltaic system. The accuracy of the each model was evaluated based on the correlation coefficient, mean absolute error, mean bias error and root mean square error values. Simulation results revealed that the hybrid models perform better than their corresponding single-stage models. Stepwise regression-feedforward neural network hybrid model outperformed the other models with root mean square error, mean absolute error, mean bias error and

  12. Photon and electron collimator effects on electron output and abutting segments in energy modulated electron therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olofsson, Lennart; Karlsson, Magnus G.; Karlsson, Mikael

    2005-01-01

    In energy modulated electron therapy a large fraction of the segments will be arranged as abutting segments where inhomogeneities in segment matching regions must be kept as small as possible. Furthermore, the output variation between different segments should be minimized and must in all cases be well predicted. For electron therapy with add-on collimators, both the electron MLC (eMLC) and the photon MLC (xMLC) contribute to these effects when an xMLC tracking technique is utilized to reduce the x-ray induced leakage. Two add-on electron collimator geometries have been analyzed using Monte Carlo simulations: One isocentric eMLC geometry with an isocentric clearance of 35 cm and air or helium in the treatment head, and one conventional proximity geometry with a clearance of 5 cm and air in the treatment head. The electron fluence output for 22.5 MeV electrons is not significantly affected by the xMLC if the shielding margins are larger than 2-3 cm. For small field sizes and 9.6 MeV electrons, the isocentric design with helium in the treatment head or shielding margins larger than 3 cm is needed to avoid a reduced electron output. Dose inhomogeneity in the matching region of electron segments is, in general, small when collimator positions are adjusted to account for divergence in the field. The effect of xMLC tracking on the electron output can be made negligible while still obtaining a substantially reduced x-ray leakage contribution. Collimator scattering effects do not interfere significantly when abutting beam techniques are properly applied

  13. A utility piezoelectric energy harvester with low frequency and high-output voltage: Theoretical model, experimental verification and energy storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangyi Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a utility piezoelectric energy harvester with low frequency and high-output voltage is presented. Firstly, the harvester’s three theoretical models are presented, namely the static model, the quasi static model and the dynamic vibration model. By analyzing the influence of the mass ratio of the mass block to the beam on output characteristics of the harvester, we compare the quasi static model and the dynamic vibration model and then define their applicable ranges. Secondly, simulation and experiments are done to verify the models, using the harvester with PZT-5H piezoelectric material, which are proved to be consistent with each other. The experimental results show that the output open-circuit voltage and the output power can reach up to 86.36V and 27.5mW respectively. The experiments are conducted when this harvester system is excited by the first modal frequency (58.90Hz with the acceleration 10m/s2. In this low frequency vibration case, it is easy to capture the energy in the daily environment. In addition, LTC 3588-1 chip (Linear Technology Corporation is used as the medium energy circuit to transfer charges from the PZT-5H electrode to the 0.22F 5V super capacitor and ML621 rechargeable button battery. For this super-capacitor, it takes about 100min for the capacitor voltage to rise from 0V to 3.6V. For this button battery, it takes about 200min to increase the battery voltage from 2.5V to 3.48V.

  14. Optimized design of total energy systems: The RETE project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alia, P.; Dallavalle, F.; Denard, C.; Sanson, F.; Veneziani, S.; Spagni, G.

    1980-05-01

    The RETE (Reggio Emilia Total Energy) project is discussed. The total energy system (TES) was developed to achieve the maximum quality matching on the thermal energy side between plant and user and perform an open scheme on the electrical energy side by connection with the Italian electrical network. The most significant qualitative considerations at the basis of the plant economic energy optimization and the selection of the operating criterion most fitting the user consumption characteristics and the external system constraints are reported. The design methodology described results in a TES that: in energy terms achieves a total efficiency evaluated on a yearly basis to be equal to about 78 percent and a fuel saving of about 28 percent and in economic terms allows a recovery of the investment required as to conventional solutions, in about seven years.

  15. Technological change in energy systems. Learning curves, logistic curves and input-output coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Haoran; Koehler, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    Learning curves have recently been widely adopted in climate-economy models to incorporate endogenous change of energy technologies, replacing the conventional assumption of an autonomous energy efficiency improvement. However, there has been little consideration of the credibility of the learning curve. The current trend that many important energy and climate change policy analyses rely on the learning curve means that it is of great importance to critically examine the basis for learning curves. Here, we analyse the use of learning curves in energy technology, usually implemented as a simple power function. We find that the learning curve cannot separate the effects of price and technological change, cannot reflect continuous and qualitative change of both conventional and emerging energy technologies, cannot help to determine the time paths of technological investment, and misses the central role of R and D activity in driving technological change. We argue that a logistic curve of improving performance modified to include R and D activity as a driving variable can better describe the cost reductions in energy technologies. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the top-down Leontief technology can incorporate the bottom-up technologies that improve along either the learning curve or the logistic curve, through changing input-output coefficients. An application to UK wind power illustrates that the logistic curve fits the observed data better and implies greater potential for cost reduction than the learning curve does. (author)

  16. Control Strategies for Smoothing of Output Power of Wind Energy Conversion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratap, Alok; Urasaki, Naomitsu; Senju, Tomonobu

    2013-10-01

    This article presents a control method for output power smoothing of a wind energy conversion system (WECS) with a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) using the inertia of wind turbine and the pitch control. The WECS used in this article adopts an AC-DC-AC converter system. The generator-side converter controls the torque of the PMSG, while the grid-side inverter controls the DC-link and grid voltages. For the generator-side converter, the torque command is determined by using the fuzzy logic. The inputs of the fuzzy logic are the operating point of the rotational speed of the PMSG and the difference between the wind turbine torque and the generator torque. By means of the proposed method, the generator torque is smoothed, and the kinetic energy stored by the inertia of the wind turbine can be utilized to smooth the output power fluctuations of the PMSG. In addition, the wind turbines shaft stress is mitigated compared to a conventional maximum power point tracking control. Effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by the numerical simulations.

  17. Maximized Effective Energy Output of Contact-Separation-Triggered Triboelectric Nanogenerators as Limited by Air Breakdown

    KAUST Repository

    Zi, Yunlong; Wu, Changsheng; Ding, Wenbo; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2017-01-01

    Recent progress in triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) has demonstrated their promising potential as a high-efficiency mechanical energy harvesting technology, and plenty of effort has been devoted to improving the power output by maximizing the triboelectric surface charge density. However, due to high-voltage air breakdown, most of the enhanced surface charge density brought by material/surface optimization or external ion injection is not retainable or usable for electricity generation during the operation of contact-separation-triggered TENGs. Here, the existence of the air breakdown effect in a contact-separation mode TENG with a low threshold surface charge density of ≈40–50 µC m−2 is first validated under the high impedance external load, and then followed by the theoretical study of the maximized effective energy output as limited by air breakdown for contact-separation-triggered TENGs. The effects of air pressure and gas composition are also studied and propose promising solutions for reducing the air breakdown effect. This research provides a crucial fundamental study for TENG technology and its further development and applications.

  18. Maximized Effective Energy Output of Contact-Separation-Triggered Triboelectric Nanogenerators as Limited by Air Breakdown

    KAUST Repository

    Zi, Yunlong

    2017-05-02

    Recent progress in triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) has demonstrated their promising potential as a high-efficiency mechanical energy harvesting technology, and plenty of effort has been devoted to improving the power output by maximizing the triboelectric surface charge density. However, due to high-voltage air breakdown, most of the enhanced surface charge density brought by material/surface optimization or external ion injection is not retainable or usable for electricity generation during the operation of contact-separation-triggered TENGs. Here, the existence of the air breakdown effect in a contact-separation mode TENG with a low threshold surface charge density of ≈40–50 µC m−2 is first validated under the high impedance external load, and then followed by the theoretical study of the maximized effective energy output as limited by air breakdown for contact-separation-triggered TENGs. The effects of air pressure and gas composition are also studied and propose promising solutions for reducing the air breakdown effect. This research provides a crucial fundamental study for TENG technology and its further development and applications.

  19. A novel method for predicting the power outputs of wave energy converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingguang

    2018-03-01

    This paper focuses on realistically predicting the power outputs of wave energy converters operating in shallow water nonlinear waves. A heaving two-body point absorber is utilized as a specific calculation example, and the generated power of the point absorber has been predicted by using a novel method (a nonlinear simulation method) that incorporates a second order random wave model into a nonlinear dynamic filter. It is demonstrated that the second order random wave model in this article can be utilized to generate irregular waves with realistic crest-trough asymmetries, and consequently, more accurate generated power can be predicted by subsequently solving the nonlinear dynamic filter equation with the nonlinearly simulated second order waves as inputs. The research findings demonstrate that the novel nonlinear simulation method in this article can be utilized as a robust tool for ocean engineers in their design, analysis and optimization of wave energy converters.

  20. Technical Note: Output and energy fluctuations of the tomotherapy Hi-Art helical tomotherapy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahan, Stephen L.; Chase, Daniel J.; Ramsey, Chester R.

    2004-01-01

    The output and energy calibrations for the first clinical Hi-Art 2.0 helical tomotherapy system have been reviewed. Fixed-gantry/fixed-couch and rotational-gantry/fixed-couch measurements were made on a daily basis over a period of 20 weeks to investigate system stability. Static gantry measurements were taken at 10 cm depth in a rectangular stack of Virtual Water at an SSD distance of 90 cm and a field size of 5x40 cm. Rotational gantry measurements were taken in a cylindrical phantom Virtual Water phantom for a field size of 5x40 cm. The Hi-Art 2.0 system has maintained its calibration to within ±2% and energy to within ±1.5% over the initial 20 week period

  1. Industry-level total-factor energy efficiency in developed countries: A Japan-centered analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honma, Satoshi; Hu, Jin-Li

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • This study compares Japan with other developed countries for energy efficiency at the industry level. • We compute the total-factor energy efficiency (TFEE) for industries in 14 developed countries in 1995–2005. • Energy conservation can be further optimized in Japan’s industry sector. • Japan experienced a slight decrease in the weighted TFEE from 0.986 in 1995 to 0.927 in 2005. • Japan should adapt energy conservation technologies from the primary benchmark countries: Germany, UK, and USA. - Abstract: Japan’s energy security is more vulnerable today than it was before the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident in March 2011. To alleviate its energy vulnerability, Japan has no choice but to improve energy efficiency. To aid in this improvement, this study compares Japan’s energy efficiency at the industry level with that of other developed countries. We compute the total-factor energy efficiency (TFEE) of industries in 14 developed countries for 1995–2005 using data envelopment analysis. We use four inputs: labor, capital stock, energy, and non-energy intermediate inputs. Value added is the only relevant output. Results indicate that Japan can further optimize energy conservation because it experienced only a marginal decrease in the weighted TFEE, from 0.986 in 1995 to 0.927 in 2005. To improve inefficient industries, Japan should adapt energy conservation technologies from benchmark countries such as Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States

  2. Power Output Stability Research for Harvesting Automobile Exhaust Energy with Heat Capacity Material as Intermediate Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Longjie; He, Tianming; Mei, Binyu; Wang, Yiping; Wang, Zongsong; Tan, Gangfeng

    2018-06-01

    Automobile exhaust energy thermoelectric utilization can promote energy-saving and emission-reduction. Unexpected urban traffic conditions lead to the hot-end temperature instability of the exhaust pipe-mounted thermoelectric generator (TEG), and influence the TEG power generation efficiency. The heat conduction oil circulation located at the hot-end could smooth the temperature fluctuation, at the expense of larger system size and additional energy supply. This research improves the TEG hot-end temperature stability by installing solid heat capacity material (SHCM) to the area between the outer wall of the exhaust pipe and the TEG, which has the merits of simple structure, light weight and no additional energy consumption. The exhaust temperature and flow rate characteristics with various driving conditions are firstly studied for the target engine. Then the convective heat transfer models of SHCM's hot-end and thermoelectric material's cold-end are established. Meanwhile, SHCM thermal properties' effects on the amplitude and response speed of the TEG hot-end temperature are studied. The candidate SHCM with the characteristics of low thermal resistance and high heat capacity is determined. And the heat transfer model going through from TEG's hot-end to the cold-end is established. The results show that the SHCM significantly improves the TEG hot-end temperature stability but slightly reduces the average power output. When the engine working conditions change a lot, the SHCM's improvement on the TEG hot-end temperature stability is more significant, but the reduction of the average power output becomes more remarkable.

  3. Energy efficiency of selected OECD countries: A slacks based model with undesirable outputs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apergis, Nicholas; Aye, Goodness C.; Barros, Carlos Pestana; Gupta, Rangan; Wanke, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an efficiency assessment of selected OECD countries using a Slacks Based Model with undesirable or bad outputs (SBM-Undesirable). In this research, SBM-Undesirable is used first in a two-stage approach to assess the relative efficiency of OECD countries using the most frequent indicators adopted by the literature on energy efficiency. Besides, in the second stage, GLMM–MCMC methods are combined with SBM-Undesirable results as part of an attempt to produce a model for energy performance with effective predictive ability. The results reveal different impacts of contextual variables, such as economic blocks and capital–labor ratio, on energy efficiency levels. - Highlights: • We analyze the energy efficiency of selected OECD countries. • SBM-Undesirable and MCMC–GLMM are combined for this purpose. • Find that efficiency levels are high but declining over time. • Analysis with contextual variables shows varying efficiency levels across groups. • Capital-intensive countries are more energy efficient than labor-intensive countries.

  4. Investigations on the improvement of the energy output of a Closed Loop Geothermal System (CLGS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, Sven-Uwe

    2008-08-04

    The scope of this study are the development of an integrated simulation model for the estimation of the energy output of a deep Closed Loop Geothermal System (CLGS) and the discussion of several approaches to the enhancement of this output. Due to its closed character this kind of geothermal installation provides the opportunity of heat utilization even in dry and impermeable geological zones without any stimulation effort and the usage of external fluids. After a short introduction of the system itself and the limitations of other geothermal systems that are available, the investigations start with the description of the state-of-the-art with regard to the energy output analyses of the CLGS that have been done in the past. These are evaluated and their shortcomings are identified. The newly developed and introduced 3-dimensional approach of this study is a capable tool for the pre-feasibility phase of the project development of a CLGS. A geological/geothermal model summarizes selected relevant data and information about the project area in the form of a spatial data distribution. Thereby the formation boundaries are modelled as well as local in-homogeneities. The lithology can be modelled as well as the distribution of the thermal and physical properties of the rocks. The temperature distribution can be modelled using map or drill log data and be interpolated using geostatistical methods. After the combination of the geological/geothermal model and the technical model of the CLGS containing all relevant data with regard to the drill hole design, dimensions, casings and thermal properties of the installed materials, incl. the annuli, the thermal behaviour of the heat bearing fluid (HBF) flowing within the pipe system is simulated over time in connection with the simulation of the thermal behaviour of the surrounding rock mass. This core simulation is added by the afterwards processed scenario based energy supply simulation that calculates the amounts of energy

  5. Energy Inputs Uncertainty: Total Amount, Distribution and Correlation Between Different Forms of Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yue

    2014-01-01

    Describes solar energy inputs contributing to ionospheric and thermospheric weather processes, including total energy amounts, distributions and the correlation between particle precipitation and Poynting flux.

  6. Low carbon energy scenarios for sub-Saharan Africa: An input-output analysis on the effects of universal energy access and economic growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, Thomas Gerard Adam; Kelly, Scott

    2017-01-01

    Meeting Sub-Saharan African (SSA) human development goals will require economic development to be the priority over the coming decades, but economic development ‘at all cost’ may not be acceptable across these goals. This paper aims to explore five development scenarios for the five largest economies in SSA to understand the implications to CO_2-equivalent emissions (CO_2-e) and off-grid energy modernisation in 2030. Within this scope GDP growth; economic structure; availability of energy resources; international trade; and, the development of distributed generation for remote locations are considered. Regional CO_2 emissions were studied using a Multi-Regional Input-Output Model for Africa. Under the scenarios analysed all five nations will be unable to reduce 2030 CO_2-e emissions below 2012 levels, whilst simultaneously achieving forecast GDP growth and universal access to modernised energy services. 100% off-grid modernisation is estimated to require a three-fold increase in Primary Energy Supply and a 26% (1317 Mt) increase in 2030 CO_2-e emissions. Total regional CO_2-e emissions could be reduced from 45% to 35% by meeting a 50% renewable energy supply target by 2030. Climate Change policy would need to focus on multi-sector reform to reduce regional emissions as the agricultural sector is the largest emitter in Nigeria, Ethiopia and Kenya. - Highlights: • GHG"1 emissions were studied with a Multi-Regional Input-Output Model for Africa. • SSA"2 GDP growth is inextricably linked with access to additional energy supply. • SSA will not attain universal energy access and low carbon growth in parallel. • GHG emissions decline needs both renewable energy adoption and agriculture reform. • SSA Climate Change policy would need to target multiple GHG emitting sector reform.

  7. Integration of artificial intelligence methods and life cycle assessment to predict energy output and environmental impacts of paddy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabavi-Pelesaraei, Ashkan; Rafiee, Shahin; Mohtasebi, Seyed Saeid; Hosseinzadeh-Bandbafha, Homa; Chau, Kwok-Wing

    2018-08-01

    Prediction of agricultural energy output and environmental impacts play important role in energy management and conservation of environment as it can help us to evaluate agricultural energy efficiency, conduct crops production system commissioning, and detect and diagnose faults of crop production system. Agricultural energy output and environmental impacts can be readily predicted by artificial intelligence (AI), owing to the ease of use and adaptability to seek optimal solutions in a rapid manner as well as the use of historical data to predict future agricultural energy use pattern under constraints. This paper conducts energy output and environmental impact prediction of paddy production in Guilan province, Iran based on two AI methods, artificial neural networks (ANNs), and adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). The amounts of energy input and output are 51,585.61MJkg -1 and 66,112.94MJkg -1 , respectively, in paddy production. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is used to evaluate environmental impacts of paddy production. Results show that, in paddy production, in-farm emission is a hotspot in global warming, acidification and eutrophication impact categories. ANN model with 12-6-8-1 structure is selected as the best one for predicting energy output. The correlation coefficient (R) varies from 0.524 to 0.999 in training for energy input and environmental impacts in ANN models. ANFIS model is developed based on a hybrid learning algorithm, with R for predicting output energy being 0.860 and, for environmental impacts, varying from 0.944 to 0.997. Results indicate that the multi-level ANFIS is a useful tool to managers for large-scale planning in forecasting energy output and environmental indices of agricultural production systems owing to its higher speed of computation processes compared to ANN model, despite ANN's higher accuracy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Total Cross Sections at High Energies An update

    CERN Document Server

    Fazal-e-Aleem, M; Alam, Saeed; Qadee-Afzal, M

    2002-01-01

    Current and Future measurements for the total cross sections at E-811, PP2PP, CSM, FELIX and TOTEM have been analyzed using various models. In the light of this study an attempt has been made to focus on the behavior of total cross section at very high energies.

  9. Total Energy. Sustainable cooling and heating in supermarkets; Total Energy. Duurzame koeling en verwarming supermarkten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-03-15

    In 8 articles attention is paid to different aspects of cooling and heating in supermarkets: new coolants in the food retail sector, the climate plan of the Dutch Food Retail Association (CBL), he Round Table discussion with between CBL and supermarket chains about research results, approach and targets, the use of CO2 refrigeration in supermarkets, leakage of coolants from refrigerators and freezers in Dutch supermarkets, the energy efficient and environment-friendly refrigerator and freezer equipment of the distribution centre of supermarket chain C1000 in Raalte, Netherlands, changes for cooling techniques in the EIA energy list (Energy investment deduction scheme) and finally education options for the refrigeration industry in the Netherlands. [Dutch] In 8 artikelen wordt aandacht geschonken aan verschillende aspecten m.b.t. koeling en verwarming in supermarkten: nieuwe koelmiddelen in de 'food retail sector, het klimaatplan van de brancheorganisatie Centraal Bureau Levensmiddelenhandel (CBL), het Rondetafel overleg met de CBL en supermarktketens over onderzoeksresultaten, aanpak en doelen, de toepassing van CO2 koeling in supermarkten, lekkage van koelmiddelen uit koel- en vriesinstallaties in Nederlandse supermarkten, de energiezuinige en milieuvriendelijke koel-vriesinstallatie van het distributiecentrum van de supermarktketen C1000 in Raalte, wijzigingen voor koeltechniek in de EIA energielijst (Energie Investeringsaftrek subsidieregeling), en tenslotte opleidingsmogelijkheden voor de koeltechnische sector in Nederland.

  10. Applying physical input-output tables of energy to estimate the energy ecological footprint (EEF) of Galicia (NW Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carballo Penela, Adolfo; Sebastian Villasante, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    Nowadays, the achievement of sustainable development constitutes an important constraint in the design of energy policies, being necessary the development of reliable indicators to obtain helpful information about the use of energy resources. The ecological footprint (EF) provides a referential framework for the analysis of human demand for bioproductivity, including energy issues. In this article, the theoretical bases of the footprint analysis are described by applying input-output tables of energy to estimate the Galician energy ecological footprint (EEF). It is concluded that the location of highly polluting industries in Galicia makes the Galician EEF quite higher than more developed regions of Spain. The relevance of the outer component of the Galician EEF is also studied. First, available information seems to indicate that the energy incorporated to the trading of manufactured goods would notably increase the Galician consumption of energy. On the other hand, the inclusion of electricity trade in the EEF analysis, including an adjustment, following the same philosophy as with manufactured goods is proposed. This adjustment would substantially reduce the Galician EEF, as the exported electricity widely exceeds the imported one

  11. Time-varying output performances of piezoelectric vibration energy harvesting under nonstationary random vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Heonjun; Kim, Miso; Park, Choon-Su; Youn, Byeng D.

    2018-01-01

    Piezoelectric vibration energy harvesting (PVEH) has received much attention as a potential solution that could ultimately realize self-powered wireless sensor networks. Since most ambient vibrations in nature are inherently random and nonstationary, the output performances of PVEH devices also randomly change with time. However, little attention has been paid to investigating the randomly time-varying electroelastic behaviors of PVEH systems both analytically and experimentally. The objective of this study is thus to make a step forward towards a deep understanding of the time-varying performances of PVEH devices under nonstationary random vibrations. Two typical cases of nonstationary random vibration signals are considered: (1) randomly-varying amplitude (amplitude modulation; AM) and (2) randomly-varying amplitude with randomly-varying instantaneous frequency (amplitude and frequency modulation; AM-FM). In both cases, this study pursues well-balanced correlations of analytical predictions and experimental observations to deduce the relationships between the time-varying output performances of the PVEH device and two primary input parameters, such as a central frequency and an external electrical resistance. We introduce three correlation metrics to quantitatively compare analytical prediction and experimental observation, including the normalized root mean square error, the correlation coefficient, and the weighted integrated factor. Analytical predictions are in an excellent agreement with experimental observations both mechanically and electrically. This study provides insightful guidelines for designing PVEH devices to reliably generate electric power under nonstationary random vibrations.

  12. Smoothing of Grid-connected Wind-Diesel Power Output Using Energy Capacitor System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel A. Elbaset

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a small hybrid power system consists of two types of power generation; wind turbine and diesel generation, DG connected to power distribution system. The fluctuations like random nature of wind power, turbulent wind, and sudden changes in load demand create imbalances in power distribution that can affect the frequency and the voltage in the power system. So, addition of Energy capacitor System, ECS is useful for compensation of fluctuating power, since it is capable of controlling both active and reactive power simultaneously and can smooth the output power flow. Hence, this paper proposes herein a dynamic model and simulation of a grid connected wind/DG based-ECS with power flow controllers between load and generation. Moreover, the paper presents a study to analyze the leveling of output fluctuation of wind power with the installation of ECS. To control the power exchanged between the ECS system and the AC grid, a load Following Control, LFC based supervisor is proposed with the aim to minimize variations of the power generated by the diesel generator. The interesting performance of the proposed supervisor is shown with the help of simulations. The computer simulation program is confirmed on a realistic circuit model which implemented in the Simulink environment of Matlab and works as if on line.

  13. Medium properties and total energy coupling in underground explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurtz, S.R.

    1975-01-01

    A phenomenological model is presented that allows the direct calculation of the effects of variations in medium properties on the total energy coupling between the medium and an underground explosion. The model presented is based upon the assumption that the shock wave generated in the medium can be described as a spherical blast wave at early times. The total energy coupled to the medium is then simply the sum of the kinetic and internal energies of this blast wave. Results obtained by use of this model indicate that the energy coupling is more strongly affected by the medium's porosity than by its water content. These results agree well with those obtained by summing the energy deposited by the blast wave as a function of range

  14. Investigating output and energy variations and their relationship to delivery QA results using Statistical Process Control for helical tomotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binny, Diana; Mezzenga, Emilio; Lancaster, Craig M; Trapp, Jamie V; Kairn, Tanya; Crowe, Scott B

    2017-06-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate machine beam parameters using the TomoTherapy quality assurance (TQA) tool, establish a correlation to patient delivery quality assurance results and to evaluate the relationship between energy variations detected using different TQA modules. TQA daily measurement results from two treatment machines for periods of up to 4years were acquired. Analyses of beam quality, helical and static output variations were made. Variations from planned dose were also analysed using Statistical Process Control (SPC) technique and their relationship to output trends were studied. Energy variations appeared to be one of the contributing factors to delivery output dose seen in the analysis. Ion chamber measurements were reliable indicators of energy and output variations and were linear with patient dose verifications. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Economic analysis model for total energy and economic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoji, Katsuhiko; Yasukawa, Shigeru; Sato, Osamu

    1980-09-01

    This report describes framing an economic analysis model developed as a tool of total energy systems. To prospect and analyze future energy systems, it is important to analyze the relation between energy system and economic structure. We prepared an economic analysis model which was suited for this purpose. Our model marks that we can analyze in more detail energy related matters than other economic ones, and can forecast long-term economic progress rather than short-term economic fluctuation. From view point of economics, our model is longterm multi-sectoral economic analysis model of open Leontief type. Our model gave us appropriate results for fitting test and forecasting estimation. (author)

  16. Balancing Power Output and Structural Fatigue of Wave Energy Converters by Means of Control Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Ferri

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce the cost of electricity produced by wave energy converters (WECs, the benefit of selling electricity as well as the investment costs of the structure has to be considered. This paper presents a methodology for assessing the control strategy for a WEC with respect to both energy output and structural fatigue loads. Different active and passive control strategies are implemented (proportional (P controller, proportional-integral (PI controller, proportional-integral-derivative with memory compensation (PID controller, model predictive control (MPC and maximum energy controller (MEC, and load time-series resulting from numerical simulations are used to design structural parts based on fatigue analysis using rain-flow counting, Stress-Number (SN curves and Miner’s rule. The objective of the methodology is to obtain a cost-effective WEC with a more comprehensive analysis of a WEC based on a combination of well known control strategies and standardised fatigue methods. The presented method is then applied to a particular case study, the Wavestar WEC, for a specific location in the North Sea. Results, which are based on numerical simulations, show the importance of balancing the gained power against structural fatigue. Based on a simple cost model, the PI controller is shown as a viable solution.

  17. Enhancing output power of a piezoelectric cantilever energy harvester using an oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Haili; Huang, Zhenyu; Xu, Tianzhu; Chen, Dayue

    2012-01-01

    The piezoelectric cantilever with a tip mass (Mass-PC), as a conventional vibration energy harvester, usually works at its fundamental frequency matching ambient excitation. By attaching an oscillator to a piezoelectric cantilever (Osc-PC), a double-mode energy harvester is developed to harvest more power from two matched ambient driving frequencies. Meanwhile, it allows the first operating frequency of the Osc-PC to be adjusted to be very low with only a limited mass attached. A distributed-parameter model of this harvester and the explicit expressions of its operating frequencies are derived to analyze and design the Osc-PC. Numerical investigations reveal that a heaver oscillator placed near the clamped end of the piezoelectric cantilever has better performance at the given exciting frequencies. Following the specified design criteria, an Osc-PC whose operating frequencies match two given exciting frequencies was constructed for the purpose of experimental testing. The results show that, compared to that of a corresponding Mass-PC whose operating frequency matches the lower exciting frequency, the energy harvesting efficiency of the Osc-PC increases by almost four times at the first operating frequency, while the output power at the second operating frequency of the Osc-PC accounts for 68% of that of the Mass-PC. (paper)

  18. The direct and indirect household energy requirements in the Republic of Korea from 1980 to 2000 - An input-output analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hi-Chun; Heo, Eunnyeong

    2007-01-01

    As energy conservation can be realized through changes in the composition of goods and services consumed, there is a need to assess indirect and total household energy requirements. The Korean household sector was responsible for about 52% of the national primary energy requirement in the period from 1980 to 2000. Of this total, more than 60% of household energy requirement was indirect. Thus, not only direct but also indirect household energy requirement should be the target of energy conservation policies. Electricity became the main fuel in household energy use in 2000. Households consume more and more electricity intensive goods and services, a sign of increasing living standards. Increases in household consumption expenditure were responsible for a relatively high growth of energy consumption. Switching to consumption of less energy intensive products and decrease in energy intensities of products in 1990s contributed substantially to reduce the increase in the total household energy requirement. A future Korean study should apply a hybrid method as to reduce errors occurred by using uniform (average) prices in constructing energy input-output tables and as to make energy intensities of different years more comparable. (author)

  19. Multi-regional input–output model and ecological network analysis for regional embodied energy accounting in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yan; Zheng, Hongmei; Yang, Zhifeng; Su, Meirong; Liu, Gengyuan; Li, Yanxian

    2015-01-01

    Chinese regions frequently exchange materials, but regional differences in economic development create unbalanced flows of these resources. In this study, we examined energy by assessing embodied energy consumption to describe the energy-flow structure in China's seven regions. Based on multi-regional monetary input–output tables and energy statistical yearbooks for Chinese provinces in 2002 and 2007, we accounted for both direct and indirect energy consumption, respectively, and the integral input and output of the provinces. Most integral inputs of energy flowed from north to south or from east to west, whereas integral output flows were mainly from northeast to southwest. This differed from the direct flows, which were predominantly from north to south and west to east. This demonstrates the importance of calculating both direct and indirect energy flows. Analysis of the distance and direction traveled by the energy consumption centers of gravity showed that the centers for embodied energy consumption and inputs moved southeast because of the movements of the centers of the Eastern region. However, the center for outputs moved northeast because the movement of the Central region. These analyses provide a basis for identifying how regional economic development policies influence the embodied energy consumption and its flows among regions. - Highlights: • We integrated multi-regional input–output analysis with ecological network analysis. • We accounted for both direct and indirect energy consumption. • The centers of gravity for embodied energy flows moved southeast from 2002 to 2007. • The results support planning of energy consumption and energy flows among regions.

  20. An extended environmental input-output lifecycle assessment model to study the urban food-energy-water nexus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, John; Clabeaux, Raeanne; Carbajales-Dale, Michael

    2017-10-01

    We developed a physically-based environmental account of US food production systems and integrated these data into the environmental-input-output life cycle assessment (EIO-LCA) model. The extended model was used to characterize the food, energy, and water (FEW) intensities of every US economic sector. The model was then applied to every Bureau of Economic Analysis metropolitan statistical area (MSA) to determine their FEW usages. The extended EIO-LCA model can determine the water resource use (kGal), energy resource use (TJ), and food resource use in units of mass (kg) or energy content (kcal) of any economic activity within the United States. We analyzed every economic sector to determine its FEW intensities per dollar of economic output. This data was applied to each of the 382 MSAs to determine their total and per dollar of GDP FEW usages by allocating MSA economic production to the corresponding FEW intensities of US economic sectors. Additionally, a longitudinal study was performed for the Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA, metropolitan statistical area to examine trends from this singular MSA and compare it to the overall results. Results show a strong correlation between GDP and energy use, and between food and water use across MSAs. There is also a correlation between GDP and greenhouse gas emissions. The longitudinal study indicates that these correlations can shift alongside a shifting industrial composition. Comparing MSAs on a per GDP basis reveals that central and southern California tend to be more resource intensive than many other parts of the country, while much of Florida has abnormally low resource requirements. Results of this study enable a more complete understanding of food, energy, and water as key ingredients to a functioning economy. With the addition of the food data to the EIO-LCA framework, researchers will be able to better study the food-energy-water nexus and gain insight into how these three vital resources are interconnected

  1. Exploring the effects of energy consumption on output per worker: A study of Albania, Bulgaria, Hungary and Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Ronald Ravinesh; Stauvermann, Peter Josef; Patel, Arvind; Kumar, Radika Devi

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we explore the long-run cointegration between output, capital and energy consumption, in per worker terms, for Albania, Bulgaria, Hungary and Romania. We use the augmented Solow (1956) model and the ARDL bounds procedure (Pesaran et al., 2001) to examine the short-run and long-run effects of energy and capital on output (in per worker terms). We also conduct causality test using the Toda and Yamamoto (1995) non-causality procedure. Our results show the existence of long-run cointegration between output per worker and energy per worker for all the four countries. We find that energy per worker have a dynamic short-run positive effect in Albania (0.37%), Bulgaria (0.25%), Hungary (0.36%) and Romania (0.68%), and a long-run positive effect in Bulgaria (0.32%) and Romania (0.63%) which duly indicate that energy consumption has a momentous long-run effect in these two countries. The causality results indicate a unidirectional causation from output per worker to energy per worker for all the four countries, and from capital per worker to energy per worker for Albania and Romania. Consequently, a balance between effective energy consumption and sound energy conservation policies are likely to support economic growth in the four countries. - Highlights: • Energy has a short-run positive effect in Albania, Bulgaria, Hungary and Romania. • A long-run positive elasticity is noted in Bulgaria and Romania. • Output per worker cause energy per worker in the four countries. • A unidirectional causality from capital to energy is noted for Albania and Romania

  2. Output power maximization of low-power wind energy conversion systems revisited: Possible control solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlad, Ciprian; Munteanu, Iulian; Bratcu, Antoneta Iuliana; Ceanga, Emil [' ' Dunarea de Jos' ' University of Galati, 47, Domneasca, 800008-Galati (Romania)

    2010-02-15

    This paper discusses the problem of output power maximization for low-power wind energy conversion systems operated in partial load. These systems are generally based on multi-polar permanent-magnet synchronous generators, who exhibit significant efficiency variations over the operating range. Unlike the high-power systems, whose mechanical-to-electrical conversion efficiency is high and practically does not modify the global optimum, the low-power systems global conversion efficiency is affected by the generator behavior and the electrical power optimization is no longer equivalent with the mechanical power optimization. The system efficiency has been analyzed by using both the maxima locus of the mechanical power versus the rotational speed characteristics, and the maxima locus of the electrical power delivered versus the rotational speed characteristics. The experimental investigation has been carried out by using a torque-controlled generator taken from a real-world wind turbine coupled to a physically simulated wind turbine rotor. The experimental results indeed show that the steady-state performance of the conversion system is strongly determined by the generator behavior. Some control solutions aiming at maximizing the energy efficiency are envisaged and thoroughly compared through experimental results. (author)

  3. Enhancement of power output by a new stress-applied mode on circular piezoelectric energy harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Fangming; Yang, Tongqing; Liu, Yaoze

    2018-04-01

    A new stress-applied mode is proposed on piezoelectric circular diaphragm energy harvester. Differing from the usual mode used in previous researches, the mass stick at the center of the diaphragm (PZT-51) is designed into an annular hollow shape. In this case, stress of the mass is applied along the edge of the copper sheet. A screw bonded with the undersurface of the diaphragm transfers force from the vibrator to the diaphragm. This device has a cylindrical shape and its volume is ˜7.9 cm3. With this new stress-applied mode, the piezoelectric energy harvester (with an optimal load of 18 kΩ, a mass of 30 g) could generate a maximum power output of ˜20.8 mW under 9.8 m.s-2 at its resonant frequency of ˜237 Hz. Meanwhile, the greater the hardness ratio between the ceramic and the copper sheet, the greater the advantages of the new structure.

  4. Output power maximization of low-power wind energy conversion systems revisited: Possible control solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlad, Ciprian; Munteanu, Iulian; Bratcu, Antoneta Iuliana; Ceanga, Emil

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the problem of output power maximization for low-power wind energy conversion systems operated in partial load. These systems are generally based on multi-polar permanent-magnet synchronous generators, who exhibit significant efficiency variations over the operating range. Unlike the high-power systems, whose mechanical-to-electrical conversion efficiency is high and practically does not modify the global optimum, the low-power systems global conversion efficiency is affected by the generator behavior and the electrical power optimization is no longer equivalent with the mechanical power optimization. The system efficiency has been analyzed by using both the maxima locus of the mechanical power versus the rotational speed characteristics, and the maxima locus of the electrical power delivered versus the rotational speed characteristics. The experimental investigation has been carried out by using a torque-controlled generator taken from a real-world wind turbine coupled to a physically simulated wind turbine rotor. The experimental results indeed show that the steady-state performance of the conversion system is strongly determined by the generator behavior. Some control solutions aiming at maximizing the energy efficiency are envisaged and thoroughly compared through experimental results.

  5. Energy consumption and total factor productivity growth in Iranian agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Moghaddasi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated the relation between energy consumption and growth of total factor productivity (TFP of agriculture in Iran from 1974 to 2012 using Solow residual method. The results from estimated aggregate Cobb–Douglas production function showed that one percent change in the value of labor, capital and energy will lead to 4.07, 0.09 and 0.49 percent change in agriculture value added, respectively. Also in a long term, based on the Johansen cointegration test, there is a negative relation between TFP growth and energy consumption in Iranian agriculture which might be due to cheap and inefficient energy use in this sector. Gradual liberalization of energy price and use of so called green box support policies is recommended.

  6. CO2 emissions, real output, energy consumption, trade, urbanization and financial development: testing the EKC hypothesis for the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Eyup; Turkekul, Berna

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the relationship between carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, energy consumption, real output (GDP), the square of real output (GDP(2)), trade openness, urbanization, and financial development in the USA for the period 1960-2010. The bounds testing for cointegration indicates that the analyzed variables are cointegrated. In the long run, energy consumption and urbanization increase environmental degradation while financial development has no effect on it, and trade leads to environmental improvements. In addition, this study does not support the validity of the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis for the USA because real output leads to environmental improvements while GDP(2) increases the levels of gas emissions. The results from the Granger causality test show that there is bidirectional causality between CO2 and GDP, CO2 and energy consumption, CO2 and urbanization, GDP and urbanization, and GDP and trade openness while no causality is determined between CO2 and trade openness, and gas emissions and financial development. In addition, we have enough evidence to support one-way causality running from GDP to energy consumption, from financial development to output, and from urbanization to financial development. In light of the long-run estimates and the Granger causality analysis, the US government should take into account the importance of trade openness, urbanization, and financial development in controlling for the levels of GDP and pollution. Moreover, it should be noted that the development of efficient energy policies likely contributes to lower CO2 emissions without harming real output.

  7. A multisite interaction expansion of the total energy in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sowa, E.C.; Gonis, A.

    1994-01-01

    The local-density approximation provides a proper setting for the decomposition of total energy into many-body (many-atom) contributions. Multiple scattering theory in turn provides a convenient framework for carrying out this process. We illustrate this concept with calculations on a linear chain of atoms in bulk copper

  8. Lowest of AC-DC power output for electrostrictive polymers energy harvesting systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meddad, Mounir; Eddiai, Adil; Hajjaji, Abdelowahed; Guyomar, Daniel; Belkhiat, Saad; Boughaleb, Yahia; Chérif, Aida

    2013-11-01

    Advances in technology led to the development of electronic circuits and sensors with extremely low electricity consumption. At the same time, structural health monitoring, technology and intelligent integrated systems created a need for wireless sensors in hard to reach places in aerospace vehicles and large civil engineering structures. Powering sensors with energy harvesters eliminates the need to replace batteries on a regular basis. Scientists have been forced to search for new power source that are able to harvested energy from their surrounding environment (sunlight, temperature gradients etc.). Electrostrictive polymer belonging to the family of electro-active polymers, offer unique properties for the electromechanical transducer technology has been of particular interest over the last few years in order to replace conventional techniques such as those based on piezoelectric or electromagnetic, these materials are highly attractive for their low-density, with large strain capability that can be as high as two orders of magnitude greater than the striction-limited, rigid and fragile electroactive ceramics. Electrostrictive polymers sensors respond to vibration with an ac output signal, one of the most important objectives of the electronic interface is to realize the required AC-DC conversion. The goal of this paper is to design an active, high efficiency power doubler converter for electrostrictive polymers exclusively uses a fraction of the harvested energy to supply its active devices. The simulation results show that it is possible to obtain a maximum efficiency of the AC-DC converter equal to 80%. Premiliminary experimental measurements were performed and the results obtained are in good agreement with simulations.

  9. Input-output analysis of energy requirements for short rotation, intensive culture, woody biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, C.H.; Grado, S.C.

    1992-01-01

    A production model for short rotation, intensive culture (SRIC) plantations was developed to determine the energy and financial cost of woody biomass. The model was based on hybrid poplars planted on good quality agricultural sites at a density of 2100 cuttings ha -1 , with average annual growth forecast at 16 metric tonne, oven dry (mg(OD)). Energy and financial analyses showed preharvest cost 4381 megajoules (MJ) Mg -1 (OD) and $16 (US) Mg -1 (OD). Harvesting and transportation requirements increased the total costs 6130 MJ Mg -1 (OD) and $39 Mg -1 (OD) for the delivered material. On an energy cost basis, the principal input was land, whereas on a financial basis, costs were more uniformly distributed among equipment, land, labor, and materials and fuel

  10. Optimizing production with energy and GHG emission constraints in Greece: An input-output analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hristu-Varsakelis, D.; Karagianni, S.; Pempetzoglou, M.; Sfetsos, A.

    2010-01-01

    Under its Kyoto and EU obligations, Greece has committed to a greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions increase of at most 25% compared to 1990 levels, to be achieved during the period 2008-2012. Although this restriction was initially regarded as being realistic, information derived from GHG emissions inventories shows that an increase of approximately 28% has already taken place between 1990 and 2005, highlighting the need for immediate action. This paper explores the reallocation of production in Greece, on a sector-by-sector basis, in order to meet overall demand constraints and GHG emissions targets. We pose a constrained optimization problem, taking into account the Greek environmental input-output matrix for 2005, the amount of utilized energy and pollution reduction options. We examine two scenarios, limiting fluctuations in sectoral production to at most 10% and 15%, respectively, compared to baseline (2005) values. Our results indicate that (i) GHG emissions can be reduced significantly with relatively limited effects on GVP growth rates, and that (ii) greater cutbacks in GHG emissions can be achieved as more flexible production scenarios are allowed.

  11. Inverter Output Filter Effect on PWM Motor Drives of a Flywheel Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Walter

    2004-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has been involved in the research and development of high speed flywheel systems for small satellite energy storage and attitude control applications. One research and development area has been the minimization of the switching noise produced by the pulsed width modulated (PWM) inverter that drives the flywheel permanent magnet motor/generator (PM M/G). This noise can interfere with the flywheel M/G hardware and the system avionics hampering the full speed performance of the flywheel system. One way to attenuate the inverter switching noise is by placing an AC filter at the three phase output terminals of the inverter with the filter neutral point connected to the DC link (DC bus) midpoint capacitors. The main benefit of using an AC filter in this fashion is the significant reduction of the inverter s high dv/dt switching and its harmonics components. Additionally, common mode (CM) and differential mode (DM) voltages caused by the inverter s high dv/dt switching are also reduced. Several topologies of AC filters have been implemented and compared. One AC filter topology consists of a two-stage R-L-C low pass filter. The other topology consists of the same two-stage R-L-C low pass filter with a series connected trap filter (an inductor and capacitor connected in parallel). This paper presents the analysis, design and experimental results of these AC filter topologies and the comparison between the no filter case and conventional AC filter.

  12. Reliability of LCI considering the uncertainties of energy consumptions in input-output analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Y.; Ishitani, H.; Kudoh, Y.; Okuma, H.; Kobayashi, O.

    2002-01-01

    The dispersion of input-coefficients in input-output (I-O) tables and the effect on LCA results are evaluated, utilizing the data for compiling the I-O tables. CO 2 emission intensity and its variance with each commodity and service categorized in the I-O tables are estimated and applied to the LCA of a specific passenger car. Calculated results show that coefficients of variation (CV) of CO 2 -emission intensity are about 0.8 for the intermediate commodities which are frequently assessed in LCA. CO 2 emissions induced by the production of the passenger car and the CV of the emissions are estimated at 1.3 Mg-C and 0.14, respectively. The value of CV is smaller than that of the most intermediate commodities since the CV of total emissions decreases as the number of components of the passenger car increases. Although emissions intensity itself given by I-O tables has large variance, I-O tables are still useful tools for LCA if the number of components of a product is large enough. (author)

  13. An Input–Output Energy and Economical Analysis of Pistachio (Pistacia vera L. Production Systems in County of Zarand, Kerman Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R Amiri Deh Ahmadi

    2017-08-01

    rates, energy use efficiency, and other energy-related factors in the production of pistachio in Zarand county of Kerman province. Materials and methods This research was conducted in the spring of 2011 in the county of Zarand. Zarand is located in the northwestern province of Kerman. In this study, some producers were selected and primary information was collected using questionnaire directly. All data (input and output were converted to energy equivalent quantities and then energy efficiency was calculated. Random sampling was done in gardens within whole population and sample size was determined by Ozkan et al. (2004: Where n is the required sample size, N is the number of holdings in target population, s: standard deviation, t is the reliability coefficient (1.96 which represents the 95% reliability and d is permissible error (5%. Basic information on energy inputs and pistachio production were transferred into Excel spreadsheets, and analyzed. Based on the energy equivalents of the inputs and output (Table 1, the energy ratio or energy use efficiency, energy productivity and net energy were calculated: Energy efficiency= Energy input (MJ. ha-1 / energy output (MJ. ha-1 Energy productivity= Energy input (MJ. ha-1 / pistachio production (kg. ha-1 Net energy= Energy input (MJ. ha-1 - Power output (MJ. ha-1 Results and discussion The results showed that total input energy for Pistacia vera L. production was 119423 MJ. ha-1, whereas total output energy was 40950 MJ. ha-1. Energy efficiency, energy productivity, and net energy were 0.34, 0.012 kg.MJ-1 and -78474 MJ.ha-1, respectively. The highest input energies were related to electricity (45% and fossil fuels (20% which had the highest effect on decreasing energy efficiency. Economically, the total cost of Pistacia vera L. production per hectare was 57469600 and the net benefit was 6253040 Rials. Conclusion It was concluded that extending proper agricultural management and sustainable exploration of natural resources

  14. Phase change thermal storage for a solar total energy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, R. E.; Cohen, B. M.

    1978-01-01

    An analytical and experimental program is being conducted on a one-tenth scale model of a high-temperature (584 K) phase-change thermal energy storage system for installation in a solar total energy test facility at Albuquerque, New Mexico, U.S.A. The thermal storage medium is anhydrous sodium hydroxide with 8% sodium nitrate. The program will produce data on the dynamic response of the system to repeated cycles of charging and discharging simulating those of the test facility. Data will be correlated with a mathematical model which will then be used in the design of the full-scale system.

  15. Total Corporate social responsibility report 2004. Sharing our energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-05-01

    This document presents the social and environmental activities of the group Total for the year 2004. It provides information on the ethical aspects of the governance, the industrial security, the environmental policy, the public health and the occupational safety, the social liability and the economical and social impact of the group activities in the local development, the contribution to the climatic change fight and the development of other energy sources. (A.L.B.)

  16. Elastic scattering and total cross section at very high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaldi, R.; Sanguinetti, G.

    1985-01-01

    The aim of this review is to summarize the recent progress in the field of elastic scattering and total cross section in this new energy domain. In Section 2 a survey of the experimental situation is outlined. The most significant data are presented, with emphasis on the interpretation, not the specific details or technicalities. This section is therefore intended to give a self-contained look at the field, especially for the nonspecialist. In Section 3, hadron scattering at high energy is described in an impact parameter picture, which provides a model-independent intuitive geometrical representation. The diffractive character of elastic scattering, seen as the shadow of inelastic absorption, is presented as a consequence of unitarity in the s-channel. Spins are neglected throughout this review, inasmuch as the asymptotic behavior in the very high-energy limit is the main concern here. In Section 4 some relevant theorems are recalled on the limiting behavior of hadron-scattering amplitudes at infinite energy. There is also a brief discussion on how asymptotically rising total cross sections imply scaling properties in the elastic differential cross sections. A quick survey of eikonal models is presented and their predictions are compared with ISR and SPS Collider data

  17. Dedicated algorithm and software for the integrated analysis of AC and DC electrical outputs of piezoelectric vibration energy harvesters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Eum

    2014-01-01

    DC electrical outputs of a piezoelectric vibration energy harvester by nonlinear rectifying circuitry can hardly be obtained either by any mathematical models developed so far or by finite element analysis. To address the issue, this work used an equivalent electrical circuit model and newly developed an algorithm to efficiently identify relevant circuit parameters of arbitrarily-shaped cantilevered piezoelectric energy harvesters. The developed algorithm was then realized as a dedicated software module by adopting ANSYS finite element analysis software for the parameters identification and the Tcl/Tk programming language for a graphical user interface and linkage with ANSYS. For verifications, various AC electrical outputs by the developed software were compared with those by traditional finite element analysis. DC electrical outputs through rectifying circuitry were also examined for varying values of the smoothing capacitance and load resistance.

  18. Dedicated algorithm and software for the integrated analysis of AC and DC electrical outputs of piezoelectric vibration energy harvesters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Eum [Catholic University of Daegu, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    DC electrical outputs of a piezoelectric vibration energy harvester by nonlinear rectifying circuitry can hardly be obtained either by any mathematical models developed so far or by finite element analysis. To address the issue, this work used an equivalent electrical circuit model and newly developed an algorithm to efficiently identify relevant circuit parameters of arbitrarily-shaped cantilevered piezoelectric energy harvesters. The developed algorithm was then realized as a dedicated software module by adopting ANSYS finite element analysis software for the parameters identification and the Tcl/Tk programming language for a graphical user interface and linkage with ANSYS. For verifications, various AC electrical outputs by the developed software were compared with those by traditional finite element analysis. DC electrical outputs through rectifying circuitry were also examined for varying values of the smoothing capacitance and load resistance.

  19. Total Corporate social responsibility report 2004. Sharing our energy; TOTAL rapport societal and environnemental 2004. Notre energie en partage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-05-15

    This document presents the social and environmental activities of the group Total for the year 2004. It provides information on the ethical aspects of the governance, the industrial security, the environmental policy, the public health and the occupational safety, the social liability and the economical and social impact of the group activities in the local development, the contribution to the climatic change fight and the development of other energy sources. (A.L.B.)

  20. The total flow concept for geothermal energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, A. L.

    1974-01-01

    A geothermal development project has been initiated at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) to emphasize development of methods for recovery and conversion of the energy in geothermal deposits of hot brines. Temperatures of these waters vary from 150 C to more than 300 C with dissolved solids content ranging from less than 0.1% to over 25% by weight. Of particular interest are the deposits of high-temperature/high-salinity brines, as well as less saline brines, known to occur in the Salton Trough of California. Development of this resource will depend on resolution of the technical problems of brine handling, scale and precipitation control, and corrosion/erosion resistant systems for efficient conversion of thermal to electrical energy. Research experience to date has shown these problems to be severe. Hence, the LLL program emphasizes development of an entirely different approach called the Total Flow concept.

  1. Managing total corporate electricity/energy market risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henney, A.; Keers, G.

    1998-01-01

    The banking industry has developed a tool kit of very useful value at risk techniques for hedging risk, but these techniques must be adapted to the special complexities of the electricity market. This paper starts with a short history of the use of value-at-risk (VAR) techniques in banking risk management and then examines the specific and, in many instances, complex risk management challenges faced by electric companies from the behavior of prices in electricity markets and from the character of generation and electric retailing risks. The third section describes the main methods for making VAR calculations along with an analysis of their suitability for analyzing the risks of electricity portfolios and the case for using profit at risk and downside risk as measures of risk. The final section draws the threads together and explains how to look at managing total corporate electricity market risk, which is a big step toward managing total corporate energy market risk

  2. Simulation of the effects of coated material SEY property on output electron energy distribution and gain of microchannel plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Lin [Key Laboratory of Ultra-fast Photoelectric Diagnostics Technology, Xi' an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics (XIOPM), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Xi' an 710119 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing 100049 (China); Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Wang, Xingchao [North Night Vision Technology (NNVT) Co., Ltd., Nanjing 210110 (China); Tian, Jinshou, E-mail: tianjs@opt.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Ultra-fast Photoelectric Diagnostics Technology, Xi' an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics (XIOPM), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Xi' an 710119 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Extreme Optics, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006 (China); Liu, Chunliang [Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Liu, Hulin [Key Laboratory of Ultra-fast Photoelectric Diagnostics Technology, Xi' an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics (XIOPM), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Xi' an 710119 (China); Chen, Ping [Key Laboratory of Ultra-fast Photoelectric Diagnostics Technology, Xi' an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics (XIOPM), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Xi' an 710119 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing 100049 (China); Wei, Yonglin; Sai, Xiaofeng [Key Laboratory of Ultra-fast Photoelectric Diagnostics Technology, Xi' an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics (XIOPM), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Xi' an 710119 (China); Sun, Jianning; Si, Shuguang [North Night Vision Technology (NNVT) Co., Ltd., Nanjing 210110 (China); Wang, Xing; Lu, Yu [Key Laboratory of Ultra-fast Photoelectric Diagnostics Technology, Xi' an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics (XIOPM), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Xi' an 710119 (China); and others

    2016-12-21

    To obtain a high spatial resolution of a image intensifier based on microchannel plate (MCP), the long tail in the exit energy distribution of the output electrons (EDOE) is undesirable. The existing solution is increasing the penetration depth of the MCP output electrode, which will result in a serious gain reduction. Coating the MCP output electrode with efficient secondary electron yield (SEY) materials is supposed to be an effective approach to suppress the unfavorable tail component in the EDOE without negative effects on the gain. In our work, a three-dimensional MCP single channel model is developed in CST STUDIO SUITE to systematically investigate the dependences of the EDOE and the gain on the SEY property of the coated material, based on the Finite Integral Technique and Monte Carlo method. The results show that besides the high SEY of the coated material, the low incident energy corresponding to the peak SEY is another essential element affecting the electron yield in the final stage of multiplication and suppressing the output energy spread.

  3. Total, accessible and reserve wind energy resources in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, P.; Trifonova, L.

    1996-01-01

    The article is a part of the international project 'Bulgaria Country Study to Address Climate Change Inventory of the Greenhouse Gases Emission and Sinks Alternative Energy Balance and Technology Programs' sponsored by the Department of Energy, US. The 'total' average annual wind resources in Bulgaria determined on the basis wind velocity density for more than 100 meteorological stations are estimated on 125 000 TWh. For the whole territory the theoretical wind power potential is about 14200 GW. The 'accessible' wind resources are estimated on about 62000 TWh. The 'reserve' (or usable) wind resources are determined using 8 velocity intervals for WECS (Wind Energy Conversion Systems) operation, number and disposition of turbines, and the usable (3%) part of the territory. The annual reserve resources are estimated at about 21 - 33 TWh. The 'economically beneficial' wind resources (EBWR) are those part of the reserve resources which could be included in the country energy balance using specific technologies in specific time period. It is foreseen that at year 2010 the EBWR could reach 0.028 TWh. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  4. Resonance capture reactions with a total energy detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macklin, R.L.

    1978-01-01

    The determination of nuclear reaction rates is considered; the Moxon--Rae detector and pulse height weighting are reviewed. This method has been especially useful in measuring (n,γ) cross sections. Strength functions and level spacing can be derived from (n,γ) yields. The relevance of neutron capture data to astrophysical nucleosynthesis is pointed out. The total gamma energy detection method has been applied successfully to radiative neutron capture cross section measurements. A bibliography of most of the published papers reporting neutron capture cross sections measured by the pulse height weighting technique is included. 55 references

  5. About total kinetic energy distribution between fragments of binary fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khugaev, A.V.; Koblik, Yu.N.; Pikul, V.P.; Ioannou, P.; Dimovasili, E.

    2002-01-01

    At the investigation of binary fission reactions one of the main characteristic of process is total kinetic energy (TKE) of fission fragments and it distribution between them. From the values of these characteristics it is possible to extract the information about structure of fission fragments in the break up point of initial fissionable nuclear system. In our work TKE dependence from the deformation parameters of shape and density distribution of charge in the fission fragments are investigated. In the end of paper some generalizations of obtaining results are carried out and presented in the form of tables and figures

  6. The impacts of removing energy subsidies on economy-wide rebound effects in China: An input-output analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ke; Jiang, Zhujun

    2016-01-01

    Facing with the increasing contradiction of economic growth, energy scarcity and environmental deterioration, energy conservation and emissions abatement have been ambitious targets for the Chinese government. Improving energy efficiency through technological advancement is a primary measure to achieve these targets. However, the existence of energy rebound effects may completely or partially offset energy savings associated with technological advancement. This paper adopted a modified input-output model to estimate the economy-wide energy rebound effects across China's economic sectors with the consideration of energy subsidies. The empirical results show that the aggregate rebound effect of China is about 1.9% in 2007–2010, thus technological advancement significantly restrains energy consumption increasing. Removing energy subsidies will cause the aggregate rebound effect declines to 1.53%. Specifically, removing subsidies for coal and nature gas can reduce the rebound effects signifcantly, while removing the subsidies for oil products has a small impact on rebound effect. The existence of rebound effects implies that technological advancement should be cooperated with energy price reform so as to achieve the energy saving target. In addition, the government should consider the diversity of economic sectors and energy types when design the reform schedule. - Highlights: • Rebound effects with the consideration of energy subsidies are estimated in China. • When considering the interactions among sectors, the aggregate rebound effect become small. • Removing subsidies will reduce energy consumption, thereby declining the rebound effects. • Removing subsidies for different energy types has varies effects on rebound effect.

  7. In adolescence a higher 'eveningness in energy intake' is associated with higher total daily energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diederichs, Tanja; Perrar, Ines; Roßbach, Sarah; Alexy, Ute; Buyken, Anette E

    2018-05-26

    The present manuscript addressed two hypotheses: (i) As children age, energy intake is shifted from morning (energy intake energy intake >6pm) (ii) A higher 'eveningness in energy intake' (i.e. evening minus morning energy intake) is associated with a higher total daily energy intake. Data were analyzed from 262 DONALD cohort study participants, who had completed at least one 3-day weighed dietary record in the age groups 3/4, 5/6, 7/8, 9/10, 11/12, 13/14, 15/16 and 17/18 years (y). 'Eveningness in energy intake' was compared across age groups and related to total daily energy intake for each age group (multiple cross-sectional analyses). 'Eveningness' increased progressively from age group 3/4y to age group 17/18y. A median surplus of evening energy intake (i.e. when evening intake exceeded morning intake) was firstly observed for age group 11/12y. From age group 11/12y onwards, a higher 'eveningness' was associated with a higher total daily energy intake (all p energy intake between the highest and the lowest tertile of 'eveningness' was largest for age group 17/18y, amounting to an 11% higher intake among adolescents in the highest as compared to those in the lowest tertile. In conclusion, energy intake progressively shifts from morning to evening hours as children age. Once evening energy intake exceeds morning energy intake, a higher 'eveningness in energy intake' is associated with higher total daily energy intake. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Impact of Energy taxes on Competitiveness and Output: A Panel Regression Study of 56 European Industry Sectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Martin K.; Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2008-01-01

    The focus of this paper is the extent to which energy taxes - via the resulting increase in real energy prices, or in their own right - reduce or enhance industrial competitiveness. From a panel data set covering 56 industry sectors throughout Europe over the period 1990-2003, we estimate how cha...... changes in real energy taxes and real energy prices affect, on the one hand, competitiveness measured in terms unit energy costs and unit wage costs and, on the other hand, economic performance expressed in terms of output (value added)......The focus of this paper is the extent to which energy taxes - via the resulting increase in real energy prices, or in their own right - reduce or enhance industrial competitiveness. From a panel data set covering 56 industry sectors throughout Europe over the period 1990-2003, we estimate how...

  9. Multi input-output fuzzy logic smart controller for a residential hybrid solar-wind-storage energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derrouazin, A.; Aillerie, M.; Mekkakia-Maaza, N.; Charles, J.-P.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • We present a fuzzy smart controller for hybrid renewable and conventional energy system. • The rules are based on human intelligence and implemented in the smart controller. • Efficient tracking capability of the proposed controller is proofed in this paper by an example. • Excess produced renewable energy is converted to hydrogen for household use . • Considerable electric grid energy saving is highlighted in the proposed controller system. - Abstract: This study concerns the conception and development of an efficient multi input-output fuzzy logic smart controller, to manage the energy flux of a sustainable hybrid power system, based on renewable power sources, integrating solar panels and a wind turbine associated with storage, applied to a typical residential habitat. In the suggested topology, the energy surplus is redirected to an electrolysis system to produce hydrogen suitable for household utilities. To assume a constant access to electricity in case of consumption peak, connection to the grid is also considered as an exceptional rescue resource. The objective of the presented controller is to exploit instantaneously the produced renewable electric energy and insure savings of electric grid energy. The proposed multi input-output fuzzy logic smart controller has been achieved and verified, outcome switches command signals are discussed and the renewable energy system integration ratio is highlighted.

  10. Series asymmetric supercapacitors based on free-standing inner-connection electrodes for high energy density and high output voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jiayou; Liu, Nishuang; Rao, Jiangyu; Ding, Longwei; Al Bahrani, Majid Raissan; Li, Luying; Su, Jun; Gao, Yihua

    2014-11-01

    Asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs) based on free-standing membranes with high energy density and high output voltage are reported. MnO2 nanowire/carbon nanotube (CNT) composites and MoO3 nanobelt/CNT composites are selected as the anode and the cathode materials of the devices, respectively. The ASC has a high volumetric capacitance of 50.2 F cm-3 at a scan rate of 2 mV s-1 and a high operation voltage window of 2.0 V. Especially, after a middle layer with an inner-connection structure was inserted between the anode and the cathode, the output voltage of the whole device can achieve 4.0 V. The full cell of series ASCs (SASC) with an inner-connection middle layer has a high energy density of 28.6 mW h cm-3 at a power density of 261.4 mW cm-3, and exhibits excellent cycling performance of 99.6% capacitance retention over 10 000 cycles. This strategy of designing the hybridized structure for SASCs provides a promising route for next-generation SCs with high energy density and high output voltage.Asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs) based on free-standing membranes with high energy density and high output voltage are reported. MnO2 nanowire/carbon nanotube (CNT) composites and MoO3 nanobelt/CNT composites are selected as the anode and the cathode materials of the devices, respectively. The ASC has a high volumetric capacitance of 50.2 F cm-3 at a scan rate of 2 mV s-1 and a high operation voltage window of 2.0 V. Especially, after a middle layer with an inner-connection structure was inserted between the anode and the cathode, the output voltage of the whole device can achieve 4.0 V. The full cell of series ASCs (SASC) with an inner-connection middle layer has a high energy density of 28.6 mW h cm-3 at a power density of 261.4 mW cm-3, and exhibits excellent cycling performance of 99.6% capacitance retention over 10 000 cycles. This strategy of designing the hybridized structure for SASCs provides a promising route for next-generation SCs with high energy density and high

  11. DEFINITION OF OUTPUT ENERGY PARAMETERS OF A VEHICLE WITH AIR MOTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voronkov, A.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available It was made trailer-speed motion analysis of minibus GAZ-2217 with air motor instead of the internal combustion engine and recommendations allowing to determine the output power of the power plant parameters for vehicle movement at low speed in urban cycle.

  12. Input-output and energy demand models for Ireland: Data collection report. Part 1: EXPLOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, E W; Scott, S

    1981-01-01

    Data are presented in support of EXPLOR, an input-output economic model for Ireland. The data follow the listing of exogenous data-sets used by Batelle in document X11/515/77. Data are given for 1974, 1980, and 1985 and consist of household consumption, final demand-production, and commodity prices. (ACR)

  13. A theoretical study of the energy output of two magnetohydrodynamic generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergnes, Jean

    1975-01-01

    The outputs of two alternating-current generators consisting of rectangular conduits which contain an electroconducting viscous fluid and are subjected to a uniform magnetic induction field are compared. This study supposes that the electric circuit is closed by a resistance R [fr

  14. Energy output estimation for a small wind turbine positioned on a rooftop in the urban environment with and without a duct

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beller, C.

    2011-05-15

    Nowadays, wind turbines in general, but also urban wind turbines attained acceptance to a certain extend. Conceptual designs and some examples in reality exist, where small-scale wind turbines have been implemented close to buildings or even integrated in the building structure. This work is aiming to estimate how much energy a wind turbine could produce in the built environment, depending on its integration and configuration. On the basis of measurements taken on the rooftop of H.C. Orsted Institut in Copenhagen, which is located in an urban area, a comparison of fictive free standing turbines with ducted turbines of the same type was carried out. First, a prevailing wind energy direction was detected with rough mean velocity and frequency calculations. Next, a duct was aligned with the direction, where the highest energy potential was found. Further calculations were conducted with more detailed wind velocity distributions, depending on the wind direction sectors. The duct's wind velocity amplification capability was set to 14%, while a total opening angle of 30. was assumed to be accessible from both sides. With the simplifying assumptions and the uncertainties at the location of measurement, the free standing turbines had an energy potential of 300kWh/m2/a for the horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) and for the vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) 180kWh/m2/a. For the ducted turbines an energy output of 180kWh/m2/a was found for the HAWT configuration, while the VAWT configuration reached an output of 110kWh/m2/a. The available wind had an energy potential of 730kWh/m2/a. Evaluating these results it seems a free standing turbine is preferable, when only considering the power output, whereas the ducted version comprises properties, which are important considering the requirements needed in the inhabited area such as safety and noise issues. (Author)

  15. Total integrated energy system (TIES) feasibility analysis for the downtown redevelopment project, Pasadena, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the most desirable method of serving the energy needs of a commercial development to be constructed in Pasadena, California. The factors that determine maximum desirability consist of the following: (1) maximum economic benefit to the energy user and to the surrounding community; (2) minimum usage of energy by both the energy user and the surrounding community; and (3) minimum introduction of pollutants into the community. The methods studied were the Total Integrated Energy System (TIES) concept in several configurations. The TIES concept differs from the ''total energy concept'' in the respect that the electric power output of the local power generation plant goes into the utility company distribution grid, rather than to the user. The user is served power from the grid, as with a conventional system, but also receives heating and cooling media produced from power generation by-product heat from the TIES plant. The effect of this concept is that a very large source-sink for electric energy is provided by the utility company grid. This, in turn, permits the plant to operate in response to instantaneous thermal demand, rather than instantaneous power demand. No auxiliary firing is ever required. No waste of unneeded by-product energy to atmosphere ever occurs. Balance is achieved by either delivering excess power into the grid or by withdrawing power production deficiency from the grid. Near-optimum efficiency is achieved during all operating conditions. There is no need whatsoever for the power-generating plant to be sized to meet the power demand, since it seldom, if ever, tracks the power demand. Sizing of the electric generation is solely a function of economics and the demand for waste heat.

  16. Employment impacts of energy conservation schemes in the residential sector. Calculation of direct and indirect employment effects using a dedicated input/output simulation approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeeninga, H.; Weber, C.; Maeenpaeae, I.; Rivero Garcia, F.; Wiltshire, V.; Wade, J.

    1999-10-01

    The relationship between investments in energy efficiency and employment is investigated. The employment effects of several energy conservation schemes implemented in the residential sector are determined by means of a dedicated input/output simulation approach. The employment effects of energy conservation schemes were determined for France, Germany, the Netherlands, Spain and the United Kingdom. Within the time frame of the project, it was not feasible to perform a comparable analysis for Greece, Ireland and Austria. For Finland, the employment effects of energy auditing schemes were investigated by means of a macro economic simulation model. The main driving force behind the positive employment effect of investment in energy efficiency in the residential sector is the fact that the energy sector has a rather low labour intensity. The resulting shift of expenditures from the energy sector to other sectors with higher labour intensity leads to increased employment. The main mechanisms that determine the net shift in employment resulting from investments in energy conservation are: 1. The employment effect related to the initial investment in energy efficiency; 2. The energy saving effect. Due to lower energy bill, a shift in expenditure pattern will occur from the labour extensive energy sector towards sectors with higher labour intensity, thus inducing a net positive effect on employment; 3. The effects of money transfers between sectors. For example, when the investment is subsidised by the government, money is transferred from the governmental sector to the residential sector; 4. Changes in the total government budget as a result of changes in total tax revenue and expenditures on unemployment benefits. Different financing methods for the investment in energy efficiency are analysed. The initial investment can be financed from the general household consumption budget, by means of a loan, using a subsidy or using private savings. The following input parameters

  17. Optimization of power output and study of electron beam energy spread in a Free Electron Laser oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramovich, A.; Pinhasi, Y.; Yahalom, A.; Bar-Lev, D.; Efimov, S.; Gover, A.

    2001-01-01

    Design of a multi-stage depressed collector for efficient operation of a Free Electron Laser (FEL) oscillator requires knowledge of the electron beam energy distribution. This knowledge is necessary to determine the voltages of the depressed collector electrodes that optimize the collection efficiency and overall energy conversion efficiency of the FEL. The energy spread in the electron beam is due to interaction in the wiggler region, as electrons enter the interaction region at different phases relative to the EM wave. This interaction can be simulated well by a three-dimensional simulation code such as FEL3D. The main adjustable parameters that determine the electron beam energy spread after interaction are the e-beam current, the initial beam energy, and the quality factor of the resonator out-coupling coefficient. Using FEL3D, we study the influence of these parameters on the available radiation power and on the electron beam energy distribution at the undulator exit. Simulations performed for I=1.5 A, E=1.4 MeV, L=20% (Internal loss factor) showed that the highest radiated output power and smallest energy spread are attained for an output coupler transmission coefficient T m congruent with 30%

  18. Thermodynamic performance analysis and optimization of DMC (Dual Miller Cycle) cogeneration system by considering exergetic performance coefficient and total exergy output criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ust, Yasin; Arslan, Feyyaz; Ozsari, Ibrahim; Cakir, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Miller cycle engines are one of the popular engine concepts that are available for improving performance, reducing fuel consumption and NO x emissions. There are many research studies that investigated the modification of existing conventional engines for operation on a Miller cycle. In this context, a comparative performance analysis and optimization based on exergetic performance criterion, total exergy output and exergy efficiency has been carried out for an irreversible Dual–Miller Cycle cogeneration system having finite-rate of heat transfer, heat leak and internal irreversibilities. The EPC (Exergetic Performance Coefficient) criterion defined as the ratio of total exergy output to the loss rate of availability. Performance analysis has been also extended to the Otto–Miller and Diesel-Miller cogeneration cycles which may be considered as two special cases of the Dual–Miller cycle. The effect of the design parameters such as compression ratio, pressure ratio, cut-off ratio, Miller cycle ratio, heat consumer temperature ratio, allocation ratio and the ratio of power to heat consumed have also been investigated. The results obtained from this paper will provide guidance for the design of Dual–Miller Cycle cogeneration system and can be used for selection of optimal design parameters. - Highlights: • A thermodynamic performance estimation tool for DM cogeneration cycle is presented. • Using the model two special cases OM and dM cogeneration cycles can be analyzed. • The effects of r M , ψ, χ 2 and R have been investigated. • The results evaluate exergy output and environmental aspects together.

  19. Has energy conservation been an effective policy for Thailand? An input–output structural decomposition analysis from 1995 to 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supasa, Tharinya; Hsiau, Shu-San; Lin, Shih-Mo; Wongsapai, Wongkot; Wu, Jiunn-Chi

    2016-01-01

    Thailand has depended heavily on imported fossil fuels since the 1990s, which hindered the nation's economic development because it created uncertainty in the nation's fuel supply. An energy conservation policy was implemented in 1995 to require industries to reduce their energy intensity (EI) and consumption immediately. This study investigates the effectiveness of the policy between 1995 and 2010 using the hybrid input–output approach. Surprisingly, EI improvement was observed in only a few sectors, such as transportation, non-metallic, paper, and textile. An embodied energy decomposition analysis revealed that while households were the largest energy consumer in 1995, energy consumption in exports exceeded that of households in 2000, 2005 and 2010. In addition, structural decomposition analysis revealed the final demand effect was the strongest factor in determining the efficacy of energy conservation, whereas the energy efficiency effect was not an effective factor as expected for decreasing energy consumption. Policy barriers and conflicting economic plans were factors that affected the outcome of these energy policies. - Highlights: • The hybrid IO technique was employed to analyse energy intensity of Thailand. • No clear evident of EI improvement in most of industries, thus fail to achieve the policy target. • Household and export sector had played a crucial role in energy consumption increase. • IO SDA method found that energy efficiency was not an offset factor for consumption increase. • Policy barriers were conflicting economic plans, fuel subsidy policies and inefficient process.

  20. Dynamic integrated assessment of bioenergy technologies for energy production utilizing agricultural residues: An input–output approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Junnian; Yang, Wei; Higano, Yoshiro; Wang, Xian’en

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A dynamic input–output model is developed with bioenergy technologies complemented. • Availability of agricultural residues for bioenergy technologies is evaluated. • Trends in electricity and biofuel production are simulated dynamically. • Net profit and GHG mitigation contribution of bioenergy technologies are assessed. • Combustion power generation and briquette fuel are more advantageous. - Abstract: In order to facilitate regional agricultural residue utilization for energy production through bioenergy technologies, a dynamic input–output model is developed to estimate and assess the energy, economic and environmental performances of industrialization of five bioenergy technologies within a 15-year time horizon. Electricity and solid, gaseous and liquid biofuels are energy products of bioenergy technologies. Bioenergy technologies are complemented into regional input–output framework and combined with socioeconomic activities aided by their bottom-up economic and energy parameters. The simulation results for the target area indicate that the agricultural residues available for bioenergy technologies could amount to 55.16 million t, facilitating to 8.38 million t coal-equivalent bioenergy production by 2025. A 3.1% net reduction in accumulative greenhouse gas emission compared with the “business as usual” case could be achieved owing to substitution of fossil energy with electricity and biofuels produced by bioenergy technologies. From energy production, economic benefits and greenhouse gas mitigation three aspects integratedly, direct-combustion power generation and briquette fuel are more advantageous in the target area. The quantified energy, economic and environmental performances of bioenergy technologies are expected to give recommendations for their industrial development.

  1. Study on an optimum ratio of PV output energy to WG output energy in PV/WG hybrid system; Taiyoko/furyoku hybrid hatsuden system no saiteki yoryohi ni kansuru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishikawa, S [Kandenko Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    A photovoltaic power (PV) and wind generated power (WG) are an unlimited clean energy source, yet their output is unstable depending on the fluctuation of weather conditions such as solar radiation and wind velocity. Consequently, a large-scale power storage equipment is necessitated leading to a high cost especially in an independent system. As a solution, a method is available in which PV and WG are combined so that the effect may be utilized for stabilizing the output of a system as a whole, at a site where a fluctuation pattern is different between photovoltaic energy and wind energy. In building a hybrid system by PV and WG, sites with such supplementary effect existing were selected from the viewpoint of stabilizing the fluctuation of the power generation in the long run; and then, an examination was made on the optimum PV capacity ratio (%Ppo) in each site. As a result, it revealed that the %Ppo had great bearing on a ratio of PV energy fluctuation to WG, which was converted to a numerical formula. A comparatively simple examination by means of meteorological data also indicated that the share ratio was possibly optimized between the quantities of PV and WG energy. 4 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. The significance of renewable energy use for economic output and environmental protection: evidence from the Next 11 developing economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramati, Sudharshan Reddy; Sinha, Avik; Dogan, Eyup

    2017-05-01

    Increasing economic activities in developing economies raise demand for energy mainly sourced from conventional sources. The consumption of more conventional energy will have a significant negative impact on the environment. Therefore, attention of policy makers has recently shifted towards the promotion of renewable energy generation and uses across economic activities to ensure low carbon economy. Given the recent scenario, in this paper, we aim to examine the role of renewable energy consumption on the economic output and CO 2 emissions of the next fastest developing economies of the world. The study employs several robust panel econometric models by using annual data from 1990 to 2012. Empirical findings confirm the significant long-run association among the variables. Similarly, results show that renewable energy consumption positively contributes to economic output and has an adverse effect on CO 2 emissions. Given our findings, we suggest policy makers of those economies to initiate further effective policies to promote more renewable energy generation and uses across economic activities to ensure sustainable economic development.

  3. Biomass energy in Jordan, and its potential contribution towards the total energy mix of the Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Dabbas, Moh'd A. F.

    1994-04-01

    An evaluation of Jordan's bio-energy status was carried out. Available sources and the viability of exploitation were studied in order to identify the size of contribution that bio-energy could provide to the total energy mix of the Kingdom. The advantages of biogas technology were discussed, and a general description of Jordan's experience in this field was presented. Data on Jordan' animal, municipal, and agricultural wastes that are available as a potential source of bio-energy was tabulated. The report ascertained the economic feasibility of biogas utilization in Jordan, and concluded that the annual energy production potential from biogas, with only animal wastes being utilized, would amount to 80,000 ton oil equivalent. This amount of energy is equivalent to 2% of Jordan's total energy consumption in 1992. The utilization of biogas from municipal wastes would produce an additional 2.5% of the total energy consumption of Jordan. The annual value of utilizing animal and municipal wastes would reach 23 million Jordanian Dinars (JD). This value would increase to 61.5 million JD with the utilization of human wastes. The investment required for the utilization of bio-energy sources in Amman and its suburbs on the scale of family unit fermenters was estimated to be in the order of a million JD. The size of investment for industrial scale utilization for power generation with an electricity feed to the national grid, would range from 3 to 4 million JD. (A.M.H.). 8 refs., 4 tabs

  4. The impact of domestic trade on China's regional energy uses: A multi-regional input–output modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Bo; Chen, Z.M.; Xia, X.H.; Xu, X.Y.; Chen, Y.B.

    2013-01-01

    To systematically reveal how domestic trade impacts on China's regional energy uses, an interprovincial input–output modeling is carried out to address demand-derived energy requirements for the regional economies in 2007 based on the recently available data. Both the energy uses embodied in final demand and interregional trade are investigated from the regional and sectoral insights. Significant net transfers of embodied energy flows are identified from the central and western areas to the eastern area via interregional trade. Shanxi is the largest energy producer and interregional embodied energy deficit receiver, in contrast to Guangdong as the largest energy user and surplus receiver. By considering the impacts of interregional trade, the energy uses of most eastern regions increase remarkably. For instance, Shanghai, Hainan, Zhejiang, Beijing, Jiangsu and Guangdong have their embodied energy requirements 87.49, 19.97, 13.64, 12.60, 6.46 and 6.38 times of their direct energy inputs, respectively. In contrast, the embodied energy uses of some central and western regions such as Inner Mongolia, Shanxi, Xinjiang, Shaanxi and Guizhou decrease largely. The results help understand the hidden network linkages of interregional embodied energy flows and provide critical insight to amend China's current end-reduction-oriented energy policies by addressing the problem of regional responsibility transfer. - Highlights: • Demand-derived energy requirements for China's regional economies are addressed. • Significant interregional transfers of embodied energy flows are identified. • Energy surpluses are obtained by 19 regions and deficits by the other 11 regions. • The eastern regions should take more responsibility for reducing China's energy uses

  5. Energy management for cost reduction in the production. TEEM - Total Energy Efficiency Management; Energiemanagement zur Kostensenkung in der Produktion. TEEM - Total Energy Efficiency Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westkaemper, Engelbert; Verl, Alexander (eds.)

    2009-07-01

    Within the workshop of the Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Engineering and Automation IPA (Stuttgart, Federal Republic of Germany) at 6th October, 2009, in Stuttgart the following lectures were held: (1) Presentation of Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Engineering and Automation IPA (Engelbert Westkaemper); (2) TEEM - Total Energy Efficiency Management - ''With energy management to an energy efficient production'' (Alexander Schloske); (3) DIN EN 16001 Introduction of an energy management system - utilization and advantages for companies (Sylvia Wahren); (4) Analysis of the energy efficiency with power flow - Support and implementation at factory planning and optimization of production (Klaus Erlach); (5) Total Energy Efficiency Management - Approaches at the company Kaercher in injection moulding for example (Axel Leschtar); (6) Modelling the embodied product energy (Shahin Rahimifard); (7) Acquisition of energy data in the production - Technologies and possibilities (Joachim Neher); (8) Active energy management by means of an ''energy control centre'' - Analysis of the real situation and upgrading measures in the production using coating plants as an example (Wolfgang Klein); (9) Visualisation and simulation of energy values in the digital factory (Carmen Constantinescu, Axel Bruns).

  6. Evaluating the water footprint of the energy supply of Liaoning Province, China: A regional input–output analysis approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okadera, Tomohiro; Geng, Yong; Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Dong, Huijuan; Liu, Zhu; Yoshida, Noboru; Kanazawa, Takaaki

    2015-01-01

    Water and energy are important resources for regional economies and are inextricably and reciprocally linked. Global water and energy demand will increase significantly by 2030 while climate change will worsen water availability. Thus, it is important to ensure a sustainable energy supply despite the increasing severity of water resource constraints. Numerous studies have analyzed water requirements to produce energy from production perspectives. However, energy is generally supplied by both internal and external producers. Thus, it is necessary to consider the availability of water to produce energy from consumption perspectives also. We evaluate the water footprint of the energy supply of Liaoning Province, China. We apply the standard top-down approach using an input–output framework. We estimate the water footprint of the energy supply of Liaoning Province at 854 million m 3 in 2002, with 47% of water used for electricity and heating. Our results reveal that energy supply could depend on water resources in neighboring provinces; external producers met 80% of the water footprint of energy supply, although only 35% of energy supply was imported. If Liaoning Province decreased its external dependency, withdrawal of available water resources within the province would increase from 86% to 91%. To guarantee future regional energy security, it is important to manage water resources effectively through water-efficient electricity generation and by allocating water resources among sectors. - Highlights: • We assess the water footprint of energy supply (WFES) for Liaoning Province, China. • The WFES for 2002 was 854 million m 3 , with 47% used for electricity and heating. • External sources accounted for 80% of the WFES and 47% of the energy supply. • Without energy imports, water resource withdrawal would increase from 86% to 91%. • Effective water resource management is important for regional energy security

  7. Energy inputs and outputs in organic and conventional corn production systems; Balanco de energia em sistemas organico e convencional de producao de milho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Alessandro Torres; Greco, Marcelo [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Marechal Candido Rondon, PR (Brazil). Grupo de Pesquisas em Ambiencia do Oeste do Parana; Zonin, Wilson J; Silva, Nardel L.S.; Gouvea, Alfredo [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Marechal Candido Rondon, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias

    2004-07-01

    corn production systems. The experimental delineating was in casual blocks with arrangement in subdivided parcels, with the production systems as main parcels and the cultivate crops as sub parcels. The seeding was accomplished directly in oat and azevem straws. In the chemical system the vegetable covering was wiped with glyphosate (2 L/ha), while in the organic system it was used roll machinery to handle the straw. All the inputs, in products or operations form, and the outputs, in grain form, were transformed in energy to estimate the energy balance. The energy coefficients were obtained in research travails. The employed energy was divided in three categories, according to its origin, as biological, fossil and industrial. In the category of biological energy the items human work, seeds, bio fertilizer and humus were inserted. The oil products and by-products, such as chemical fertilizer, pesticides, diesel were grouped in fossil energy category. Industrial energy was considered one that was used in the manufacture of machinery used in the products process. Are included in this categories: tractor and tools. The energy consumption in the organic corn production system was of 2,047.42 MJ ha{sup -1} and the energy conversion was of 78,235.33 MJ ha{sup -1}, and the biological energy was the energy form more consumed, 65,77% of total consumed, while in the conventional system the consumption was of 3,764.66 MJ ha{sup -1} and the energy conversion of 82,653.29 MJ ha{sup -1}, and the fossil was energy form more consumed, representing 79.57% of the energy consumed in this production system. The organic production system presented an efficiency of 38.21 significantly larger than the chemical system with 21.95. (author)

  8. Evaluation of total energy-rate feedback for glidescope tracking in wind shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcastro, C. M.; Ostroff, A. J.

    1986-01-01

    Low-altitude wind shear is recognized as an infrequent but significant hazard to all aircraft during take-off and landing. A total energy-rate sensor, which is potentially applicable to this problem, has been developed for measuring specific total energy-rate of an airplane with respect to the air mass. This paper presents control system designs, with and without energy-rate feedback, for the approach to landing of a transport airplane through severe wind shear and gusts to evaluate application of this sensor. A system model is developed which incorporates wind shear dynamics equations with the airplance equations of motion, thus allowing the control systems to be analyzed under various wind shears. The control systems are designed using optimal output feedback and are analyzed using frequency domain control theory techniques. Control system performance is evaluated using a complete nonlinear simulation of the airplane and a severe wind shear and gust data package. The analysis and simulation results indicate very similar stability and performance characteristics for the two designs. An implementation technique for distributing the velocity gains between airspeed and ground speed in the simulation is also presented, and this technique is shown to improve the performance characteristics of both designs.

  9. Energy inputs and outputs and sustainability of corn silage production; Balanco energetico e sutentabilidade na producao de silagem de milho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Alessandro Torres; Daga, Jacir [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Marechal Candido Rondon, PR (Brazil). Grupo de Pesquisas em Ambiencia do Oeste do Parana], e-mail: atcampos3@yahoo.com.br; Zanini, Agostinho; Prestes, Tania Maria Vicentini; Dalmolin, Maria Fatima da Silva [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica do Parana (CEFET-PR), Medianeira, PR (Brazil); Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Marechal Candido Rondon, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias; Campos, Aloisio Torres de [EMBRAPA Gado de Leite, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil); Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Marechal Candido Rondon, PR (Brazil). Grupo de Pesquisas em Ambiencia do Oeste do Parana

    2004-07-01

    The agricultural ecosystem as way of converting solar energy in products, needs several energy sources, among that sources stand out fertilizers, agricultural defensives and others. These inputs are derived from fossils. In the present paper, it was studied the energy flows involved in corn silage production in a no tillage crop system, in Sao Miguel of Iguacu-Parana State/Brazil. In the direct energy flow, the fuels and lubricants were the largest consumers, representing 45.90% of the total, the agricultural defensives were responsible for the consumption of 24.12% of the total, while the fertilizers for 10.53% of the total consumption. By computing the fossil origin components, fuels, lubricants, defensive and fertilizers, the participation of the total consumption of energy was of 84.07%. (author)

  10. The effect of output-input isolation on the scaling and energy consumption of all-spin logic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Jiaxi; Haratipour, Nazila; Koester, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    All-spin logic (ASL) is a novel approach for digital logic applications wherein spin is used as the state variable instead of charge. One of the challenges in realizing a practical ASL system is the need to ensure non-reciprocity, meaning the information flows from input to output, not vice versa. One approach described previously, is to introduce an asymmetric ground contact, and while this approach was shown to be effective, it remains unclear as to the optimal approach for achieving non-reciprocity in ASL. In this study, we quantitatively analyze techniques to achieve non-reciprocity in ASL devices, and we specifically compare the effect of using asymmetric ground position and dipole-coupled output/input isolation. For this analysis, we simulate the switching dynamics of multiple-stage logic devices with FePt and FePd perpendicular magnetic anisotropy materials using a combination of a matrix-based spin circuit model coupled to the Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert equation. The dipole field is included in this model and can act as both a desirable means of coupling magnets and a source of noise. The dynamic energy consumption has been calculated for these schemes, as a function of input/output magnet separation, and the results show that using a scheme that electrically isolates logic stages produces superior non-reciprocity, thus allowing both improved scaling and reduced energy consumption

  11. The effect of output-input isolation on the scaling and energy consumption of all-spin logic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Jiaxi; Haratipour, Nazila; Koester, Steven J., E-mail: skoester@umn.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Minnesota-Twin Cities, 200 Union St. SE, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)

    2015-05-07

    All-spin logic (ASL) is a novel approach for digital logic applications wherein spin is used as the state variable instead of charge. One of the challenges in realizing a practical ASL system is the need to ensure non-reciprocity, meaning the information flows from input to output, not vice versa. One approach described previously, is to introduce an asymmetric ground contact, and while this approach was shown to be effective, it remains unclear as to the optimal approach for achieving non-reciprocity in ASL. In this study, we quantitatively analyze techniques to achieve non-reciprocity in ASL devices, and we specifically compare the effect of using asymmetric ground position and dipole-coupled output/input isolation. For this analysis, we simulate the switching dynamics of multiple-stage logic devices with FePt and FePd perpendicular magnetic anisotropy materials using a combination of a matrix-based spin circuit model coupled to the Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert equation. The dipole field is included in this model and can act as both a desirable means of coupling magnets and a source of noise. The dynamic energy consumption has been calculated for these schemes, as a function of input/output magnet separation, and the results show that using a scheme that electrically isolates logic stages produces superior non-reciprocity, thus allowing both improved scaling and reduced energy consumption.

  12. The impact of clean energy investments on the Greek economy: An input–output analysis (2010–2020)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markaki, M.; Belegri-Roboli, A.; Michaelides, P.; Mirasgedis, S.; 3TS S.A., Ag. Isidorou 1, 11471 Athens (Greece))" data-affiliation=" (FACE3TS S.A., Ag. Isidorou 1, 11471 Athens (Greece))" >Lalas, D.P.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is twofold: first, to calculate the “green” energy investments, by industrial sector, that Greece would need in order to satisfy a number of energy and environmental targets adopted in the context of the European Commission’s energy and climate change package; and second, to calculate the macro-economic impacts of these “green” investments on production and employment in the Greek economy. To this end, the input–output analysis has been exploited for estimating the direct, indirect and induced macroeconomic effects associated with the implementation of selected energy conservation measures, the promotion of renewable energy technologies, etc. Our findings show that the required investments would reach the amount of €47.9 billion, over the period 2010–2020. These investments will result in an average annual increase of the national product by €9.4 billion, creating simultaneously 108,000 full-time equivalent jobs for the entire period under consideration. The employment generated per €1 million investment is relatively higher in energy saving projects in buildings and transport in comparison with the development of RES in power generation sector. - Highlights: ► Development of clean energy technologies results in net macroeconomic benefits. ► Green investments examined will create yearly an average of 108,000 jobs in Greece. ► Energy efficiency investments are more labor intensive compared to RES projects. ► The imports of the necessary equipment reduce the output and employment effects

  13. Impurities in semiconductors: total energy and infrared absorption calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yndurain, F.

    1987-01-01

    A new method to calculate the electronic structure of infinite nonperiodic system is discussed. The calculations are performed using atomic pseudopotentials and a basis of atomic Gaussiam wave functions. The Hartree-Fock self consistent equations are solved in the cluster-Bethe lattice system. Electron correlation is partially included in second order pertubation approximation. The formalism is applied to hydrogenated amorphous silicon. Total energy calculations of finite clusters of silicon atom in the presence of impurities, are also presented. The results show how atomic oxygen breaks the covalent silicon silicon bond forming a local configuration similar to that of SiO 2 . Calculations of the infrared absorption due to the presence of atomic oxygen in cristalline silicon are presented. The Born Hamiltonian to calculate the vibrational modes of the system and a simplied model to describe the infrared absorption mechanism are used. The interstitial and the the substitutional cases are considered and analysed. The position of the main infrared absorption peak, their intensities and their isotope shifts are calculated. The results are satisfactory agreement with the available data. (author) [pt

  14. Conceptual net energy output for biofuel production from lignocellulosic biomass through biorefining

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.Y. Zhu; X.S. Zhuang

    2012-01-01

    There is a lack of comprehensive information in the retrievable literature on pilot scale process and energy data using promising process technologies and commercially scalable and available capital equipment for lignocellulosic biomass biorefining. This study conducted a comprehensive review of the energy efficiency of selected sugar platform biorefinery process...

  15. How the removal of energy subsidy affects general price in China: A study based on input–output model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Zhujun; Tan, Jijun

    2013-01-01

    In China, most energy prices are controlled by the government and are under-priced, which means energy subsidies existing. Reforming energy subsidies have important implications for sustainable development through their effects on energy price, energy use and CO 2 emission. This paper applies a price-gap approach to estimate China's fossil-fuel related subsidies with the consideration of the external cost. Results indicate that the magnitude of subsidies amounted to CNY 1214.24 billion in 2008, equivalent to 4.04% of GDP of that year. Subsidies for oil products are the largest, followed by subsidies for the coal and electricity. Furthermore, an input–output model is used to analyze the impacts of energy subsidies reform on different industries and general price indexes. The findings show that removal of energy subsidies will have significant impact on energy-intensive industry, and consequently push up the general price level, yet with a small variation. Removing oil products subsidies will have the largest impact, followed by electricity, coal and natural gas. However, no matter which energy price increases, PPI is always the most affected, then GDP deflator, with CPI being the least. Corresponding compensation measures should be accordingly designed to offset the negative impact caused by energy subsidies reform. - Highlights: • China's fossil-fuel subsidies were CNY 1214.24 billion in 2008 including external cost. • Removing energy subsidies will have the largest impact on energy-intensity industry. • Removal of oil products subsidies will have the largest impact. • The effect of removing energy subsidies on general price is: PPI>GDP deflator>CPI

  16. Inventory of CO2 emissions driven by energy consumption in Hubei Province: a time-series energy input-output analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiashuo; Luo, Ran; Yang, Qing; Yang, Haiping

    2016-12-01

    Based on an input-output analysis, this paper compiles inventories of fuel-related CO2 emissions of Hubei economy in the years of 2002, 2005, and 2007. Results show that calculated total direct CO2 emissions rose from 114,462.69 kt (2002) to 196,650.31 kt (2005), reaching 210,419.93 kt in 2007, with an average 22.50% rate of increase. Raw coal was the dominant source of the direct emissions throughout the three years. The sector of Electric Power, Heat Production, and Supply was the main direct emissions contributor, with the largest intensities observed from 2002 (1192.97 g/CNY) to 2007 (1739.15 g/ CNY). From the industrial perspective, the secondary industry, which is characterized as manufacture of finished products, was still the pillar of the Hubei economy during this period concerned, contributing more than 80% of the total direct emissions. As a net exporter of embodied CO2 emissions in 2002 and 2007, Hubei reported net-exported emissions of 4109.00 kt and 17,871.77 kt respectively; however, Hubei was once a net importer of CO2 emissions in 2005 (2511.93 kt). The CO2 emissions embodied in export and fixed capital formation had the two leading fractions of emissions embodied in the final use. The corresponding countermeasures, such as promoting renewable and clean energy and properly reducing the exports of low value added and carbon-intensive products are suggestions for reducing CO2 emissions in Hubei.

  17. Analysis of Upper Bound Power Output for a Wrist-Worn Rotational Energy Harvester from Real-World Measured Inputs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, T; Roundy, S; Ma, X; Rahn, C

    2014-01-01

    Energy harvesting from human motion addresses the growing need for battery-free health and wellness sensors in wearable applications. The major obstacles to harvesting energy in such applications are low and random frequencies due to the nature of human motion. This paper presents a generalized rotational harvester model in 3 dimensions to determine the upper bound of power output from real world measured data. Simulation results indicate much space for improvement on power generation comparing to existing devices. We have developed a rotational energy harvester for human motion that attempts to close the gap between theoretical possibility and demonstrated devices. Like previous work, it makes use of magnetically plucked piezoelectric beams. However, it more fully utilizes the space available and has many degrees of freedom available for optimization. Finally we present a prototype harvester based on the coupled harvester model with preliminary experimental validation

  18. Review and Extension of Suitability Assessment Indicators of Weather Model Output for Analyzing Decentralized Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Schermeyer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Electricity from renewable energy sources (RES-E is gaining more and more influence in traditional energy and electricity markets in Europe and around the world. When modeling RES-E feed-in on a high temporal and spatial resolution, energy systems analysts frequently use data generated by numerical weather models as input since there is no spatial inclusive and comprehensive measurement data available. However, the suitability of such model data depends on the research questions at hand and should be inspected individually. This paper focuses on new methodologies to carry out a performance evaluation of solar irradiation data provided by a numerical weather model when investigating photovoltaic feed-in and effects on the electricity grid. Suitable approaches of time series analysis are researched from literature and applied to both model and measurement data. The findings and limits of these approaches are illustrated and a new set of validation indicators is presented. These novel indicators complement the assessment by measuring relevant key figures in energy systems analysis: e.g., gradients in energy supply, maximum values and volatility. Thus, the results of this paper contribute to the scientific community of energy systems analysts and researchers who aim at modeling RES-E feed-in on a high temporal and spatial resolution using weather model data.

  19. Energy transition, carbon dioxide reduction and output growth in the Swedish pulp and paper industry: 1973-2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindmark, Magnus; Bergquist, Ann-Kristin; Andersson, Lars Fredrik

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the historical relation between carbon dioxide emission and output growth in the Swedish pulp and paper industry from 1973 to 2006. We find that the industry achieved an 80 percent reduction in carbon dioxide emission, where most of the reduction took place before the implementation of active climate policy in 1991. Foremost energy substitution and also efficiency improvements contributed to the reduction. Growing prices of fossil fuel due to market price change and taxes and subsidies, explains most of the efficiency improvements and substitution. The study finds that energy transformation was coinciding with ongoing structural change in the industry during the 1970s and 1980s as well as a strong period of environmental adaption. We therefore suggest that the oil reduction was reinforced through the dynamics between the energy issue and an overall renewing process of the industry. This suggests a need to coordinate climate and environmental policy measures with the long-term industrial dynamics of structural change. - Highlights: → We find that the energy mix changed substantially in the wake of the oil price crises during the 1970s. → Large price changes were needed to motivate the energy transformation and subsequent reductions of CO 2 emissions. → Energy prices represent an ultimate driver for the reduction of CO 2 emissions. → The energy transformation coincided with the environmental adaptation of the industry.

  20. Tangible and fungible energy: Hybrid energy market and currency system for total energy management. A Masdar City case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sgouridis, Sgouris; Kennedy, Scott

    2010-01-01

    We propose the introduction of an energy-based parallel currency as a means to ease the transition to energy-conscious living. Abundant fossil energy resources mask the internal and external energy costs for casual energy consumers. This situation is challenging communities that draw a significant fraction of their primary energy consumption from renewable energy sources. The Masdar Energy Credit (MEC) system is a way of translating the fundamental aspects behind energy generation and usage into a tangible reality for all users with built-in fungibility to incentivize collectively sustainable behavior. The energy credit currency (ergo) corresponds with a chosen unit of energy so that the total amount of ergos issued equals the energy supply of the community. Ergos are distributed to users (residents, commercial entities, employees, and visitors) on a subscription basis and can be surrendered in exchange for the energy content of a service. A spot market pricing mechanism is introduced to relate ergos to 'fiat' currency using a continuously variable exchange rate to prevent depletion of the sustainable energy resource. The MEC system is intended to: (i) meet the sustainable energy balance targets of a community (ii) support peak shaving or load shifting goals, and (iii) raise energy awareness.

  1. Decoupling factors on the energy-output linkage: The Spanish case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climent, Francisco; Pardo, Angel

    2007-01-01

    The recent increase of energy intensity in Spain and the ratification of the Kyoto protocol call for the implementation of energy policies in Spain. In this paper, we investigate the relationship between Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and Energy Consumption (EC) by taking into account several decoupling factors that can affect this linkage. Specifically, we have considered the temporal aggregation of data and its seasonal adjustments, the multivariate methodology, the substitution between EC and other inputs and the technological changes. Empirical tests reveal a long-run relationship between EC and GDP that can only be established in a complete way with a multivariate cointegration analysis. Furthermore, a short-run unidirectional causality from EC to economic growth is found. Therefore, primary EC plays an important role as a limiting factor for economic growth in Spain in the short-run

  2. Economics of total energy schemes in the liberalised European energy market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampret, Peter

    This thesis is concerned with the liberalisation of the European Energy markets and the affects this has had on total energy systems. The work concentrates on a number of case studies all of which are located in the area surrounding Gelsenkirchen - Bottrop - Gladbeck, the centre of the Ruhr region of Germany.The thesis describes briefly how the legislation of the parliament of the extended European Union has been interpreted and enacted into German legislation and its affects on production, transport, sales and customers. Primarily the legislation has been enacted to reduce energy costs by having a competitive market while enabling security of supply. The legislation whose development has accelerated since 1999 can lead to negative effects and these have been highlighted for the case studies chosen.The legislation and technological advances, each of them successful by themselves, do not provide the expected reduction of carbon dioxide emissions when applied to total energy system. The introduction of human behaviour as a missing link makes the problems evident and gives a theoretical basis to overcome these problems. The hypothesis is proven by eight detailed research projects and four concisely described ones.The base of the research is the experience gained on approximately 1,000 operation years of the simplest total energy system, that of centralised heating. This experience is transferred to different solutions for total energy systems and their economics in combination with the changing legislation and observation of human behaviour.The variety of topics of the case studies includes the production of heat by boiler, solar or combined heat and power and the use of fuel cells. Additionally the transfer of heat, at the place of demand is considered, either as an individual boiler in a building or as de-centralised district heating.The various results of these projects come together in a final project which covers four different heating systems in identical

  3. Near-term Forecasting of Solar Total and Direct Irradiance for Solar Energy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, C. N.; Riihimaki, L. D.; Berg, L. K.

    2012-12-01

    Integration of solar renewable energy into the power grid, like wind energy, is hindered by the variable nature of the solar resource. One challenge of the integration problem for shorter time periods is the phenomenon of "ramping events" where the electrical output of the solar power system increases or decreases significantly and rapidly over periods of minutes or less. Advance warning, of even just a few minutes, allows power system operators to compensate for the ramping. However, the ability for short-term prediction on such local "point" scales is beyond the abilities of typical model-based weather forecasting. Use of surface-based solar radiation measurements has been recognized as a likely solution for providing input for near-term (5 to 30 minute) forecasts of solar energy availability and variability. However, it must be noted that while fixed-orientation photovoltaic panel systems use the total (global) downwelling solar radiation, tracking photovoltaic and solar concentrator systems use only the direct normal component of the solar radiation. Thus even accurate near-term forecasts of total solar radiation will under many circumstances include inherent inaccuracies with respect to tracking systems due to lack of information of the direct component of the solar radiation. We will present examples and statistical analyses of solar radiation partitioning showing the differences in the behavior of the total/direct radiation with respect to the near-term forecast issue. We will present an overview of the possibility of using a network of unique new commercially available total/diffuse radiometers in conjunction with a near-real-time adaptation of the Shortwave Radiative Flux Analysis methodology (Long and Ackerman, 2000; Long et al., 2006). The results are used, in conjunction with persistence and tendency forecast techniques, to provide more accurate near-term forecasts of cloudiness, and both total and direct normal solar irradiance availability and

  4. Vulnerability of solar energy infrastructure and output to extreme events: Climate change implications (Conference paper)

    OpenAIRE

    Patt, A.; Pfenninger, S.; Lilliestam, J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the potential vulnerability of solar energy systems to future extreme event risks as a consequence of climate change. We describe the three main technologies likely to be used to harness sunlight -- thermal heating, photovoltaic (PV), and concentrating solar power (CSP) -- and identify critical extreme event vulnerabilities for each one. We then compare these vulnerabilities with assessments of future changes in extreme event risk levels. We do not identify any vulnerabili...

  5. Real-Time Wavelet-Based Coordinated Control of Hybrid Energy Storage Systems for Denoising and Flattening Wind Power Output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Thai Trung

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the penetration level of wind energy is continuously increasing, the negative impact caused by the fluctuation of wind power output needs to be carefully managed. This paper proposes a novel real-time coordinated control algorithm based on a wavelet transform to mitigate both short-term and long-term fluctuations by using a hybrid energy storage system (HESS. The short-term fluctuation is eliminated by using an electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC, while the wind-HESS system output is kept constant during each 10-min period by a Ni-MH battery (NB. State-of-charge (SOC control strategies for both EDLC and NB are proposed to maintain the SOC level of storage within safe operating limits. A ramp rate limitation (RRL requirement is also considered in the proposed algorithm. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm has been tested by using real time simulation. The simulation model of the wind-HESS system is developed in the real-time digital simulator (RTDS/RSCAD environment. The proposed algorithm is also implemented as a user defined model of the RSCAD. The simulation results demonstrate that the HESS with the proposed control algorithm can indeed assist in dealing with the variation of wind power generation. Moreover, the proposed method shows better performance in smoothing out the fluctuation and managing the SOC of battery and EDLC than the simple moving average (SMA based method.

  6. The Total Energy Efficiency Index for machine tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schudeleit, Timo; Züst, Simon; Weiss, Lukas; Wegener, Konrad

    2016-01-01

    Energy efficiency in industries is one of the dominating challenges of the 21st century. Since the release of the eco-design directive 2005/32/EC in 2005, great research effort has been spent on the energy efficiency assessment for energy using products. The ISO (International Organization for Standardization) standardization body (ISO/TC 39 WG 12) currently works on the ISO 14955 series in order to enable the assessment of energy efficient design of machine tools. A missing piece for completion of the ISO 14955 series is a metric to quantify the design of machine tools regarding energy efficiency based on the respective assembly of components. The metric needs to take into account each machine tool components' efficiency and the need-oriented utilization in combination with the other components while referring to efficiency limits. However, a state of the art review reveals that none of the existing metrics is feasible to adequately match this goal. This paper presents a metric that matches all these criteria to promote the development of the ISO 14955 series. The applicability of the metric is proven in a practical case study on a turning machine. - Highlights: • Study for pushing forward the standardization work on the ISO 14955 series. • Review of existing energy efficiency indicators regarding three basic strategies to foster sustainability. • Development of a metric comprising the three basic strategies to foster sustainability. • Metric application for quantifying the energy efficiency of a turning machine.

  7. Monte Carlo and Lambertian light guide models of the light output from scintillation crystals at megavoltage energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Philip M.; Mosleh-Shirazi, M. Amin; Harris, Emma J.; Seco, Joao

    2006-01-01

    A new model of the light output from single-crystal scintillators in megavoltage energy x-ray beams has been developed, based on the concept of a Lambertian light guide model (LLG). This was evaluated in comparison with a Monte Carlo (MC) model of optical photon transport, previously developed and reported in the literature, which was used as a gold standard. The LLG model was developed to enable optimization of scintillator detector design. In both models the dose deposition and light propagation were decoupled, the scintillators were cuboids, split into a series of cells as a function of depth, with Lambertian side and entrance faces, and a specular exit face. The signal in a sensor placed 1 and 1000 mm beyond the exit face was calculated. Cesium iodide (CSI) crystals of 1.5 and 3 mm square cross section and 1, 5, and 10 mm depth were modeled. Both models were also used to determine detector signal and optical gain factor as a function of CsI scintillator thickness, from 2 to 10 mm. Results showed a variation in light output with position of dose deposition of a factor of up to approximately 5, for long, thin scintillators (such as 10x1.5x1.5 mm 3 ). For short, fat scintillators (such as 1x3x3 mm 3 ) the light output was more uniform with depth. MC and LLG generally agreed to within 5%. Results for a sensor distance of 1 mm showed an increase in light output the closer the light originates to the exit face, while a distance of 1000 mm showed a decrease in light output the closer the light originates to the exit face. For a sensor distance of 1 mm, the ratio of signal for a 10 mm scintillator to that for a 2 mm scintillator was 1.98, whereas for the 1000 mm distance the ratio was 3.00. The ratio of quantum efficiency (QE) between 10 and 2 mm thicknesses was 4.62. We conclude that these models may be used for detector optimization, with the light guide model suitable for parametric study

  8. An Input and Output Analysis of the Quaternity-Dominating Energy Engineering Model from China’s Countryside

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xing Long; Xian Xue, Wei

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study is to qualitatively and quantitatively explore an energy engineering model termed quaternity-dominating pattern emerging in North China’s countryside. This study finds methane produced in this model serves household activities such as cooking, inducing reduction of coal or biomass spending, which otherwise would provoke air pollution, water loss and land erosion, and ultimately leading to ecological environment betterment. Additionally, this project generates byproducts, biogas liquids and residuals, which can, as a category of fertilizer, can promote straightening of fertility preservation capacity and improvement in the chemical and physical quality of land as well as increasing crop output and quality. This study also finds this engineering could encourage social stability via efficiently allocating bucolic surplus labor during winter and successful running this engineering project would trigger an increase of scientific and technological qualifications for rural citizens. Moreover, cost-profit analysis indicates this pattern can allow one rural home to obtain access to a hygienic energy resource of biogas in the yearly volume of 375m3, generate annual net earnings of US3458.82 and make investment return in about 2.73 years. Especially for poverty-stricken areas, this energy engineering project enjoys high values and great significance, which can lift these impoverished areas from poverty both in economics and energy. The paper concludes with pointing out practical proposals on launching and operating this energy engineering project.

  9. Carbon emissions, energy consumption and output: A threshold analysis on the causal dynamics in emerging African economies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mensah, Justice Tei

    2014-01-01

    Following the recent global economic downturn, attention has gradually shifted towards emerging economies which have experienced robust growth amidst sluggish growth of the world economy. A significant number of these emerging economies are in Africa. Rising growth in these economies is associated with surging demand for energy to propel the engines of growth, with direct implications on emissions into the atmosphere. Further, these economies are constantly being shaped by series of structural reforms with direct and indirect effects on growth, demand for energy, etc. To this end, this paper examines the causal dynamics among energy use, real GDP and CO 2 emissions in the presence of regime shifts in six emerging African economies using the Gregory and Hansen (1996a). J. Econ. 70, 99–126 threshold cointegration and the Toda and Yamamoto (1995). J. Econometrics. 66, 225–250 Granger causality techniques. Results confirm the presence of regime shift effects in the long run inter-linkages among energy use, real GDP and CO 2 emissions in the countries considered, thus indicating that structural changes have both economic and environmental effects. Hence, integration of energy and environmental policies into development plans is imperative towards attaining sustainable growth and development. - Highlights: • The paper examines the causal dynamics among output, energy demand and carbon emissions in the presence of regime shifts. • Regime shift have significant effects on the nexus among energy use, real GDP and CO 2 emissions. • Results suggest that structural changes in selected countries have both economic and environmental effects. • Integration of energy and environmental policies into development plans is desirable

  10. Secondary radiation dose during high-energy total body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janiszewska, M.; Raczkowski, M. [Lower Silesian Oncology Center, Medical Physics Department, Wroclaw (Poland); Polaczek-Grelik, K. [University of Silesia, Medical Physics Department, Katowice (Poland); Szafron, B.; Konefal, A.; Zipper, W. [University of Silesia, Department of Nuclear Physics and Its Applications, Katowice (Poland)

    2014-05-15

    The goal of this work was to assess the additional dose from secondary neutrons and γ-rays generated during total body irradiation (TBI) using a medical linac X-ray beam. Nuclear reactions that occur in the accelerator construction during emission of high-energy beams in teleradiotherapy are the source of secondary radiation. Induced activity is dependent on the half-lives of the generated radionuclides, whereas neutron flux accompanies the treatment process only. The TBI procedure using a 18 MV beam (Clinac 2100) was considered. Lateral and anterior-posterior/posterior-anterior fractions were investigated during delivery of 2 Gy of therapeutic dose. Neutron and photon flux densities were measured using neutron activation analysis (NAA) and semiconductor spectrometry. The secondary dose was estimated applying the fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients. The main contribution to the secondary dose is associated with fast neutrons. The main sources of γ-radiation are the following: {sup 56}Mn in the stainless steel and {sup 187}W of the collimation system as well as positron emitters, activated via (n,γ) and (γ,n) processes, respectively. In addition to 12 Gy of therapeutic dose, the patient could receive 57.43 mSv in the studied conditions, including 4.63 μSv from activated radionuclides. Neutron dose is mainly influenced by the time of beam emission. However, it is moderated by long source-surface distances (SSD) and application of plexiglass plates covering the patient body during treatment. Secondary radiation gives the whole body a dose, which should be taken into consideration especially when one fraction of irradiation does not cover the whole body at once. (orig.) [German] Die zusaetzliche Dosis durch sekundaere Neutronen- und γ-Strahlung waehrend der Ganzkoerperbestrahlung mit Roentgenstrahlung aus medizinischen Linearbeschleunigern wurde abgeschaetzt. Bei der Emission hochenergetischer Strahlen zur Teletherapie finden hauptsaechlich im Beschleuniger

  11. Output energy of a photovoltaic module mounted on a single-axis tracking system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Tian Pau

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the electric energy from a photovoltaic module was calculated theoretically at different azimuths and tilt angles in Taiwan. The gain of the module mounted on a single-axis tracking panel relative to a traditional fixed panel was analyzed. To simulate different operation environments, both types of radiation will be considered in addition to observed radiation, i.e. the extraterrestrial radiation and the global radiation predicted by an empirical model. The results show that the optimal tilt angle obtained from the observed data is flatter than those from other two radiation types and becomes flatter while the panel deviates from due south. The yearly gains obtained from the extraterrestrial, predicted and observed radiations are 51.4%, 28.5% and 18.7%, respectively, if a single-axis tracked panel is installed with the yearly optimal tilt angle; the similar gains are 45.3%, 25.9% and 17.5%, respectively, while the panel is adjusted to its monthly optimal angle each month. The amount of yearly energy in due west (or east) is less than its maximum in due south by about 11%, 10% and 5% for the extraterrestrial, predicted and observed radiation respectively. The yearly conversion efficiency of a fixed module is 10.2%, 9.2% and 8.3% for the extraterrestrial, predicted and observed radiation, respectively.

  12. Hydropower developments in Canada: greenhouse gas emissions, energy outputs and review of environmental impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Peter G.; Cheng, Ryan; Scheelar, Catherine [Global Forest Watch Canada (Canada)

    2011-11-15

    Hydropower is an important source of energy for Canada, accounting for 60% of the electricity generation mix. It is therefore important to understand the environmental performance of such developments in terms of greenhouse gas emissions and environmental impacts. From study of the Eastmain-1 reservoir, it has been extrapolated that hydropower facilities emit between 20 and 36 kilograms of CO2 per megawatt-hour. Hydropower facilities emissions are thus significantly lower than those of fossil fuel facilities, which can emit up to 1,000 kg of CO2 per MW/h. However, hydro projects have several other environmental impacts, such as habitat degradation, bio-accumulation of methyl mercury, and important sediment flow changes. The 271 large hydropower facilities affect 130,000 km of rivers and tens of thousands square kilometres of adjacent habitat. This study pointed out that despite being a low emitter of carbon dioxide, the hydropower sector has significant environmental impacts which require further assessment.

  13. ANALISIS ENERGI MASUKAN-KELUARAN PADA PROSES PRODUKSI KELAPA SAWIT (Elaesis guineensis jacq. Input-Output Energy Analyisis in Oil Palm Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Haryanto

    2012-03-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis energi masukan-keluaran dan mengidentifikasi kemungkinan penghematan energi pada proses budidaya kelapa sawit. Penelitian dilakukan di PTPN VII Unit Usaha Rejosari, Lampung Selatan dengan mengamati semua energi yang digunakan dan dihasilkan. Energi masukan terdiri dari tenaga manusia, bahan bakar, energi tidak langsung dari pupuk, pestisida, dan alat-mesin pertanian. Energi keluaran berasal dari tandan buah segar (TBS dengan komponen minyak sawit, minyak inti sawit, serat, cangkang, dan tandan kosong, serta pelepah. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa budidaya kelapa sawit memerlukan energi masukan sebesar 57,63 GJ.ha-1  dan menghasilkan energi 339,14 GJ.ha-1. Sebagian besar energi masukan adalah penggunaan pupuk yang mencapai 31,22 GJ.ha-1  (54,18 % dari total energi masukan. Berdasarkan tahapan budidaya, maka pemeliharaan tanaman produktif memerlukan energi yang paling besar yaitu 33,06 GJ.ha-1  (57,37 %. Budidaya kelapa sawit menghasilkan energi neto 281,51 GJ.ha-1 dengan rasio energi 5,88, produktivitas energi 0,258 kg TBS/MJ, dan intensitas energi 3,87 MJ/kg TBS.   Kata kunci: Analisis energi, energi masukan, energi keluaran, indikator energi

  14. Targeting for energy efficiency and improved energy collaboration between different companies using total site analysis (TSA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackl, Roman; Andersson, Eva; Harvey, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Rising fuel prices, increasing costs associated with emissions of green house gases and the threat of global warming make efficient use of energy more and more important. Industrial clusters have the potential to significantly increase energy efficiency by energy collaboration. In this paper Sweden's largest chemical cluster is analysed using the total site analysis (TSA) method. TSA delivers targets for the amount of utility consumed and generated through excess energy recovery by the different processes. The method enables investigation of opportunities to deliver waste heat from one process to another using a common utility system. The cluster consists of 5 chemical companies producing a variety of products, including polyethylene (PE), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), amines, ethylene, oxygen/nitrogen and plasticisers. The companies already work together by exchanging material streams. In this study the potential for energy collaboration is analysed in order to reach an industrial symbiosis. The overall heating and cooling demands of the site are around 442 MW and 953 MW, respectively. 122 MW of heat is produced in boilers and delivered to the processes. TSA is used to stepwise design a site-wide utility system which improves energy efficiency. It is shown that heat recovery in the cluster can be increased by 129 MW, i.e. the current utility demand could be completely eliminated and further 7 MW excess steam can be made available. The proposed retrofitted utility system involves the introduction of a site-wide hot water circuit, increased recovery of low pressure steam and shifting of heating steam pressure to lower levels in a number heat exchangers when possible. Qualitative evaluation of the suggested measures shows that 60 MW of the savings potential could to be achieved with moderate changes to the process utility system corresponding to 50% of the heat produced from purchased fuel in the boilers of the cluster. Further analysis showed that after implementation

  15. Total energy analysis of nuclear and fossil fueled power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, W.D.; Mutsakis, M.; Ort, R.G.

    1971-01-01

    The overall thermal efficiencies of electrical power generation were determined for Liquid Metal Fast Breeder, High Temperature Gas Cooled, Boiling Water, and Pressurized Water Reactors and for coal-, oil-, and gas-fired systems. All important energy consuming steps from mining through processing, transporting, and reprocessing the fuels were included in the energy balance along with electrical transmission and thermal losses and energy expenditures for pollution abatement. The results of these studies show that the overall fuel cycle efficiency of the light water nuclear fueled reactors is less than the efficiency of modern fossil fuel cycles. However, the nuclear fuel cycle based on the fast breeder reactors should produce power more efficiently than the most modern supercritical fossil fuel cycles. The high temperature gas cooled reactor has a cycle efficiency comparable to the supercritical coal fuel cycle

  16. Poynting Theorem, Relativistic Transformation of Total Energy-Momentum and Electromagnetic Energy-Momentum Tensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholmetskii, Alexander; Missevitch, Oleg; Yarman, Tolga

    2016-02-01

    We address to the Poynting theorem for the bound (velocity-dependent) electromagnetic field, and demonstrate that the standard expressions for the electromagnetic energy flux and related field momentum, in general, come into the contradiction with the relativistic transformation of four-vector of total energy-momentum. We show that this inconsistency stems from the incorrect application of Poynting theorem to a system of discrete point-like charges, when the terms of self-interaction in the product {\\varvec{j}} \\cdot {\\varvec{E}} (where the current density {\\varvec{j}} and bound electric field {\\varvec{E}} are generated by the same source charge) are exogenously omitted. Implementing a transformation of the Poynting theorem to the form, where the terms of self-interaction are eliminated via Maxwell equations and vector calculus in a mathematically rigorous way (Kholmetskii et al., Phys Scr 83:055406, 2011), we obtained a novel expression for field momentum, which is fully compatible with the Lorentz transformation for total energy-momentum. The results obtained are discussed along with the novel expression for the electromagnetic energy-momentum tensor.

  17. On total cross sections and slopes at superhigh energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eremyan, Sh.S.; Zhamkochyan, V.M.

    1985-01-01

    A comparative analysis of hadron-hadron interactions in theories with critical and supercritical pomerons is carried out. The main characteristics of binary interactions in both theories are shown practically to coincide to each other in the whole range of accessible energies. Also an analysis of characteristics of hadron-nuclei interactions is given in the framework of Reggeon field theory with critical and supercritical pomerons and multiple scattering theory. The results obtained agree with available experimental data on proton-nuclei interactions at superhigh energies

  18. Accelerometer output and its association with energy expenditure during manual wheelchair propulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learmonth, Y C; Kinnett-Hopkins, D; Rice, I M; Dysterheft, J L; Motl, R W

    2016-02-01

    This is an experimental design. This study examined the association between rates of energy expenditure (that is, oxygen consumption (VO2)) and accelerometer counts (that is, vector magnitude (VM)) across a range of speeds during manual wheelchair propulsion on a motor-driven treadmill. Such an association allows for the generation of cutoff points for quantifying the time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) during manual wheelchair propulsion. The study was conducted in the University Laboratory. Twenty-four manual wheelchair users completed a 6-min period of seated rest and three 6-min periods of manual wheelchair propulsion on a motor-driven wheelchair treadmill. The 6-min periods of wheelchair propulsion corresponded with three treadmill speeds (1.5, 3.0 and 4.5 mph) that elicited a range of physical activity intensities. Participants wore a portable metabolic unit and accelerometers on both wrists. Primary outcome measures included steady-state VO2 and VM, and the strength of association between VO2 and VM was based on the multiple correlation and squared multiple correlation coefficients from linear regression analyses. Strong linear associations were established between VO2 and VM for the left (R=0.93±0.44; R2=0.87±0.19), right (R=0.95±0.37; R2=0.90±0.14) and combined (R=0.94±0.38; R2=0.88±0.15) accelerometers. The linear relationship between VO2 and VM for the left, right and combined wrists yielded cutoff points for MVPA of 3659 ±1302, 3630±1403 and 3644±1339 counts min(-1), respectively. We provide cutoff points based on the linear association between energy expenditure and accelerometer counts for estimating time spent in MVPA during manual wheelchair propulsion using wrist-worn accelerometry. The similarity across wrist location permits flexibility in selecting a location for wrist accelerometry placement.

  19. The impact on chinese economic growth and energy consumption of the Global Financial Crisis: An input-output analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Chaoqing; Liu, Sifeng; Xie, Naiming

    2010-01-01

    The dependence on foreign trade increased sharply in China, and therefore Chinese economy is obviously export-oriented. The Global Financial Crisis will impact the Chinese economic growth violently. Chinese government has recently adopted some effective measures to fight against the Global Financial Crisis. The most important measure is the 4 trillion Yuan ($586 billion) stimulus plan which was announced on November 9, 2008. This paper discusses the influence on energy consumption and economic growth of Global Financial Crisis and the stimulus plan against it by input-output analysis. The results show that the fall of exports caused by the Global Financial Crisis will lead to a decrease of 7.33% in GDP (Gross Domestic Production) and a reduction of 9.21% in energy consumption; the stimulus plan against the Global Financial Crisis will lead to an increase of 4.43% in economic growth and an increase of 1.83% in energy consumption; In the Global Financial Crisis, energy consumption per unit GDP will fall in China. (author)

  20. Total-energy global optimizations using nonorthogonal localized orbitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.; Mauri, F.; Galli, G.

    1995-01-01

    An energy functional for orbital-based O(N) calculations is proposed, which depends on a number of nonorthogonal, localized orbitals larger than the number of occupied states in the system, and on a parameter, the electronic chemical potential, determining the number of electrons. We show that the minimization of the functional with respect to overlapping localized orbitals can be performed so as to attain directly the ground-state energy, without being trapped at local minima. The present approach overcomes the multiple-minima problem present within the original formulation of orbital-based O(N) methods; it therefore makes it possible to perform O(N) calculations for an arbitrary system, without including any information about the system bonding properties in the construction of the input wave functions. Furthermore, while retaining the same computational cost as the original approach, our formulation allows one to improve the variational estimate of the ground-state energy, and the energy conservation during a molecular dynamics run. Several numerical examples for surfaces, bulk systems, and clusters are presented and discussed

  1. Analysis of influence mechanism of energy-related carbon emissions in Guangdong: evidence from regional China based on the input-output and structural decomposition analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changjian; Wang, Fei; Zhang, Xinlin; Deng, Haijun

    2017-11-01

    It is important to analyze the influence mechanism of energy-related carbon emissions from a regional perspective to effectively achieve reductions in energy consumption and carbon emissions in China. Based on the "energy-economy-carbon emissions" hybrid input-output analysis framework, this study conducted structural decomposition analysis (SDA) on carbon emissions influencing factors in Guangdong Province. Systems-based examination of direct and indirect drivers for regional emission is presented. (1) Direct effects analysis of influencing factors indicated that the main driving factors of increasing carbon emissions were economic and population growth. Carbon emission intensity was the main contributing factor restraining carbon emissions growth. (2) Indirect effects analysis of influencing factors showed that international and interprovincial trades significantly affected the total carbon emissions. (3) Analysis of the effects of different final demands on the carbon emissions of industrial sector indicated that the increase in carbon emission arising from international and interprovincial trades is mainly concentrated in energy- and carbon-intensive industries. (4) Guangdong had to compromise a certain amount of carbon emissions during the development of its export-oriented economy because of industry transfer arising from the economic globalization, thereby pointing to the existence of the "carbon leakage" problem. At the same time, interprovincial export and import resulted in Guangdong transferring a part of its carbon emissions to other provinces, thereby leading to the occurrence of "carbon transfer."

  2. Total environmental impacts of biofuels from corn stover using a hybrid life cycle assessment model combining process life cycle assessment and economic input-output life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changqi; Huang, Yaji; Wang, Xinye; Tai, Yang; Liu, Lingqin; Liu, Hao

    2018-01-01

    Studies on the environmental analysis of biofuels by fast pyrolysis and hydroprocessing (BFPH) have so far focused only on the environmental impacts from direct emissions and have included few indirect emissions. The influence of ignoring some indirect emissions on the environmental performance of BFPH has not been well investigated and hence is not really understood. In addition, in order to avoid shifting environmental problems from one medium to another, a comprehensive assessment of environmental impacts caused by the processes must quantify the environmental emissions to all media (air, water, and land) in relation to each life cycle stage. A well-to-wheels assessment of the total environmental impacts resulting from direct emissions and indirect emissions of a BFPH system with corn stover is conducted using a hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA) model combining the economic input-output LCA and the process LCA. The Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and other environmental Impacts (TRACI) has been used to estimate the environmental impacts in terms of acidification, eutrophication, global climate change, ozone depletion, human health criteria, photochemical smog formation, ecotoxicity, human health cancer, and human health noncancer caused by 1 MJ biofuel production. Taking account of all the indirect greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the net GHG emissions (81.8 g CO 2 eq/MJ) of the biofuels are still less than those of petroleum-based fuels (94 g CO 2 eq/MJ). Maize production and pyrolysis and hydroprocessing make major contributions to all impact categories except the human health criteria. All impact categories resulting from indirect emissions except eutrophication and smog air make more than 24% contribution to the total environmental impacts. Therefore, the indirect emissions are important and cannot be ignored. Sensitivity analysis has shown that corn stover yield and bio-oil yield affect the total environmental impacts of the biofuels

  3. The net employment impact of energy transition in France: An input-output analysis of the 'negaWatt' scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quirion, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    We study the impact on employment in France of the implementation of the energy transition scenario built by negaWatt (2011), which provides a massive development of energy savings (through measures of sufficiency and energy efficiency) and renewable energy between 2012 and 2050. Compared to 2010, this scenario results in a halving of CO 2 emissions from energy sources in France in 2030 and a division by 16 in 2050, without capture and storage of CO 2 , without implementation of new nuclear power plant and closing existing plants after 40 years of operation at maximum. We calculate the effect on employment of the implementation of this scenario compared to a baseline scenario that extends recent developments and considers the policies already decided. The method used to calculate the effect on employment of each scenario is to calculate the cost of the main technical and organizational options used, to allocate these costs among the 118 branches of the French economy and multiply these costs by the employment content of each branch. The latter is estimated by input-output analysis, which enables the recording of jobs generated by the production of all inputs. One of two scenarios being more expensive than the other, one must take into account the negative effect on employment of funding such costs. For this, it is assumed that this additional cost is borne by households and that they decrease their consumption accordingly by the same amount. This avoids biasing the results in favour of the most expensive scenario. The implementation of negaWatt scenario leads to a positive effect on employment, on the order of 240 000 full-time equivalent jobs in 2020 and 630,000 in 2030. We study the sensitivity of results to assumptions on prices of imported energy, the evolution of labour productivity, the distribution of costs between households and governments, and finally the consumption-savings decision. The effect on employment is largely positive in all cases. (author)

  4. Low energy total cross section of 36Ar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mughabghab, S.F.; Magurno, B.A.

    1975-01-01

    To compare the predictions of the valence model with measured partial radiative widths of 36 Ar an accurate knowledge of the bound-level parameters is required. This is achieved by carrying out a Breit-Wigner parameter fit to the total cross section of 36 Ar measured by Chrien et al and renormalized to the recommended values of the thermal capture and scattering cross sections. (1 figure, 1 table) (U.S.)

  5. Use of Bayesian networks classifiers for long-term mean wind turbine energy output estimation at a potential wind energy conversion site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carta, Jose A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Campus de Tafira s/n, 35017 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain); Velazquez, Sergio [Department of Electronics and Automatics Engineering, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Campus de Tafira s/n, 35017 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain); Matias, J.M. [Department of Statistics, University of Vigo, Lagoas Marcosende, 36200 Vigo (Spain)

    2011-02-15

    Due to the interannual variability of wind speed a feasibility analysis for the installation of a Wind Energy Conversion System at a particular site requires estimation of the long-term mean wind turbine energy output. A method is proposed in this paper which, based on probabilistic Bayesian networks (BNs), enables estimation of the long-term mean wind speed histogram for a site where few measurements of the wind resource are available. For this purpose, the proposed method allows the use of multiple reference stations with a long history of wind speed and wind direction measurements. That is to say, the model that is proposed in this paper is able to involve and make use of regional information about the wind resource. With the estimated long-term wind speed histogram and the power curve of a wind turbine it is possible to use the method of bins to determine the long-term mean energy output for that wind turbine. The intelligent system employed, the knowledgebase of which is a joint probability function of all the model variables, uses efficient calculation techniques for conditional probabilities to perform the reasoning. This enables automatic model learning and inference to be performed efficiently based on the available evidence. The proposed model is applied in this paper to wind speeds and wind directions recorded at four weather stations located in the Canary Islands (Spain). Ten years of mean hourly wind speed and direction data are available for these stations. One of the conclusions reached is that the BN with three reference stations gave fewer errors between the real and estimated long-term mean wind turbine energy output than when using two measure-correlate-predict algorithms which were evaluated and which use a linear regression between the candidate station and one reference station. (author)

  6. Use of Bayesian networks classifiers for long-term mean wind turbine energy output estimation at a potential wind energy conversion site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carta, Jose A.; Velazquez, Sergio; Matias, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Due to the interannual variability of wind speed a feasibility analysis for the installation of a Wind Energy Conversion System at a particular site requires estimation of the long-term mean wind turbine energy output. A method is proposed in this paper which, based on probabilistic Bayesian networks (BNs), enables estimation of the long-term mean wind speed histogram for a site where few measurements of the wind resource are available. For this purpose, the proposed method allows the use of multiple reference stations with a long history of wind speed and wind direction measurements. That is to say, the model that is proposed in this paper is able to involve and make use of regional information about the wind resource. With the estimated long-term wind speed histogram and the power curve of a wind turbine it is possible to use the method of bins to determine the long-term mean energy output for that wind turbine. The intelligent system employed, the knowledgebase of which is a joint probability function of all the model variables, uses efficient calculation techniques for conditional probabilities to perform the reasoning. This enables automatic model learning and inference to be performed efficiently based on the available evidence. The proposed model is applied in this paper to wind speeds and wind directions recorded at four weather stations located in the Canary Islands (Spain). Ten years of mean hourly wind speed and direction data are available for these stations. One of the conclusions reached is that the BN with three reference stations gave fewer errors between the real and estimated long-term mean wind turbine energy output than when using two measure-correlate-predict algorithms which were evaluated and which use a linear regression between the candidate station and one reference station.

  7. Evaluation of the annual electric energy output of an a-Si:H solar cellin various regions of the CIS countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryuchenko, Yu.V.; Sachenko, A.V.; Bobyl, A.V.; Kostylyov, V.P.; Sokolovskyi, I.O.; Terukov, E.I.; Tokmoldin, N.; Tokmoldin, S. Zh.; Smirnov, A.V.

    2014-01-01

    We have calculated annual (i.e., for each day of the year) daytime dependences of the electric power output per unit area of an a-Si:H solar cell (SC) at latitudes 45°N, 50°N, 55°N, 60°N and at certain geographical points of Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine and Belarus. The calculations were based on a rigorous theoretical model, which allows to determine photoconversion efficiency, optimal electric power output and other photovoltaic electrical characteristics at arbitrary angles of solar irradiance incidence on an a-Si:H-based SC. Parameters of the a-Si:H SC under consideration provide photoconversion efficiency of 10% at 12:00 noon on equinox day at the 45°N latitude despite small total thickness of 0.7 µm of the a-Si:H SC structure up to the rear contact. Normalization of the obtained results by maximal values enables one to infer respective time dependencies for other types of SCs. In combination with the data on average numbers of sunny days per year (or average annual sunshine hours) for certain geographical regions, this provides a way for understanding the feasibility of solar electricity generation in these regions. Based on this study, we identify regions of Russia, Kazakhstan and Ukraine, for which electricity generation exceeds the average values by over 30%. - Highlights: • We model solar power generation from an amorphous silicon solar cell at moderate latitudes from 45°N to 60°N. • We model solar power generation from an amorphous silicon solar cell as applied to Belarus, Kazakhstan, Russia and Ukraine. • The calculations are based on our rigorous model taking into account atmospheric conditions at a given location. • Annual time-dependency of power output and optimal values of solar energy generated at the various locations are determined

  8. A stock-flow consistent input-output model with applications to energy price shocks, interest rates, and heat emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Matthew; Hartley, Brian; Richters, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    By synthesizing stock-flow consistent models, input-output models, and aspects of ecological macroeconomics, a method is developed to simultaneously model monetary flows through the financial system, flows of produced goods and services through the real economy, and flows of physical materials through the natural environment. This paper highlights the linkages between the physical environment and the economic system by emphasizing the role of the energy industry. A conceptual model is developed in general form with an arbitrary number of sectors, while emphasizing connections with the agent-based, econophysics, and complexity economics literature. First, we use the model to challenge claims that 0% interest rates are a necessary condition for a stationary economy and conduct a stability analysis within the parameter space of interest rates and consumption parameters of an economy in stock-flow equilibrium. Second, we analyze the role of energy price shocks in contributing to recessions, incorporating several propagation and amplification mechanisms. Third, implied heat emissions from energy conversion and the effect of anthropogenic heat flux on climate change are considered in light of a minimal single-layer atmosphere climate model, although the model is only implicitly, not explicitly, linked to the economic model.

  9. Method for enhancing low frequency output of impulsive type seismic energy sources and its application to a seismic energy source for use while drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Robert P; Stokes, Robert H; Glowka, David A

    2014-12-02

    A method for operating an impulsive type seismic energy source in a firing sequence having at least two actuations for each seismic impulse to be generated by the source. The actuations have a time delay between them related to a selected energy frequency peak of the source output. One example of the method is used for generating seismic signals in a wellbore and includes discharging electric current through a spark gap disposed in the wellbore in at least one firing sequence. The sequence includes at least two actuations of the spark gap separated by an amount of time selected to cause acoustic energy resulting from the actuations to have peak amplitude at a selected frequency.

  10. Solar total energy-large scale experiment, Shenandoah, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, W. R.

    1980-01-01

    The design and development of a 7 meter diameter parabolic dish solar collector are discussed. Each of the four main subsystems of the collector: (1) reflector, (2) mount and drives, (3) receiver and (4) the controls, is discussed briefly with the major emphasis on the receiver design. To minimize development risks and production costs, a dish design based on use of stamped aluminum petals (sectors) was chosen. This design is similar to the design of a communication antenna already commercially produced. The reflective surface of the petals has a total reflectance of .86 and a specularity (dispersion) of 8 mrd. This performance is obtained by mechanical polishing and chemical brightening of the petal surface, followed by application of a clear RTV silicone protective coating. Selection of the material and weather proofing coated are discussed. Results from performance tests on an engineering development dish collector are presented and compared with pretest predictions.

  11. A constrained optimization algorithm for total energy minimization in electronic structure calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Chao; Meza, Juan C.; Wang Linwang

    2006-01-01

    A new direct constrained optimization algorithm for minimizing the Kohn-Sham (KS) total energy functional is presented in this paper. The key ingredients of this algorithm involve projecting the total energy functional into a sequence of subspaces of small dimensions and seeking the minimizer of total energy functional within each subspace. The minimizer of a subspace energy functional not only provides a search direction along which the KS total energy functional decreases but also gives an optimal 'step-length' to move along this search direction. Numerical examples are provided to demonstrate that this new direct constrained optimization algorithm can be more efficient than the self-consistent field (SCF) iteration

  12. The Status and Evolution of Energy Supply and Use in Mexico Prior to the 2014 Energy Reform: An Input-Output Approach †

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeus Guevara

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2014, the Mexican government approved a bold energy reform that allows private energy companies to freely participate in the energy market (something prohibited during the previous eight decades. This reform is expected to significantly restructure the energy sector and boost and diversify the energy production. Moreover, changes in the energy sector and production might lead to structural changes in the rest of the economy and ultimately generate significant economic benefits for the country. Nevertheless, the fundamental role of the energy sector in this oil producing country makes the potential impacts of the reform complex to forecast. The objective of the study is to analyze the current state, evolution, and driving factors of the total primary energy use in Mexico in 2003–2012 (prior to the implementation of the reform as a precedent for future analyses of impacts of the energy reform. The results show three driving factors of the evolution of primary energy use: final non-energy demand, direct energy intensity, and economic structure. Also, it was found that the energy sector has been in a precarious situation regarding its structure and efficiency. However, this situation had a small effect on the evolution of primary energy use.

  13. Statistical properties of kinetic and total energy densities in reverberant spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Finn; Molares, Alfonso Rodriguez

    2010-01-01

    Many acoustical measurements, e.g., measurement of sound power and transmission loss, rely on determining the total sound energy in a reverberation room. The total energy is usually approximated by measuring the mean-square pressure (i.e., the potential energy density) at a number of discrete....... With the advent of a three-dimensional particle velocity transducer, it has become somewhat easier to measure total rather than only potential energy density in a sound field. This paper examines the ensemble statistics of kinetic and total sound energy densities in reverberant enclosures theoretically...... positions. The idea of measuring the total energy density instead of the potential energy density on the assumption that the former quantity varies less with position than the latter goes back to the 1930s. However, the phenomenon was not analyzed until the late 1970s and then only for the region of high...

  14. Global warming agreements, international trade and energy/carbon embodiments: an input-output approach to the Italian case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mongelli, I.; Tassielli, G.; Notarnicola, B.

    2006-01-01

    In the Kyoto Protocol the absence of Green House Gases (GHGs) commitments of developing countries (non-Annex I) and the more flexible terms of implementation which are allowed to countries shifting toward a market economy (transition economies) naturally lead to the absence or to less constraining national measures and policies of reduction of the GHGs emissions which, in turn, may determine a comparative advantage in the production of the highest energy/carbon intensive commodities for these countries. These arguments are valid also considering the future implementation of the European Emission Allowance Trading Scheme (EATS). Thus, developing countries may become a haven for the production of not environmental-friendly commodities; in this case, the so-called Pollution Haven Hypothesis, stating that due to freer international trade the comparative advantage may change the economic structure and consequently the trade patterns of the countries linked by trade relationships, could occur. This would lead to the increase of the transfers of energy and carbon embodied in traded commodities from developing countries and transition economies toward Kyoto or EATS constrained countries. The aim of this paper is to verify if for Italy, as a Kyoto and EATS complying country, evidence of a change in the trade patterns, occurred on the basis of the Pollution Haven Hypothesis, does exist and to estimate the magnitude of the under-estimation of the carbon actually emitted: the carbon leakage. The Input-Output model has been used to calculate the intensities of energy consumption and the related Green House Gases emission, for each Italian economic sector

  15. Assessment and Decomposition of Total Factor Energy Efficiency: An Evidence Based on Energy Shadow Price in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peihao Lai

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available By adopting an energy-input based directional distance function, we calculated the shadow price of four types of energy (i.e., coal, oil, gas and electricity among 30 areas in China from 1998 to 2012. Moreover, a macro-energy efficiency index in China was estimated and divided into intra-provincial technical efficiency, allocation efficiency of energy input structure and inter-provincial energy allocation efficiency. It shows that total energy efficiency has decreased in recent years, where intra-provincial energy technical efficiency drops markedly and extensive mode of energy consumption rises. However, energy structure and allocation improves slowly. Meanwhile, lacking an integrated energy market leads to the loss of energy efficiency. Further improvement of market allocation and structure adjustment play a pivotal role in the increase of energy efficiency.

  16. Input/output Buffer based Vedic Multiplier Design for Thermal Aware Energy Efficient Digital Signal Processing on 28nm FPGA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goswami, Kavita; Pandey, Bishwajeet; Hussain, Dil muhammed Akbar

    2016-01-01

    Multiplier is used for multiplication of a signal and a constant in digital signal processing (DSP). 28nm technology based Vedic multiplier is implemented with use of VHDL HDL, Xilinx ISE, Kintex-7 FPGA and XPower Analyzer. Vedic multiplier gain speed improvements by parallelizing the generation...... Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) in order to reduce the development cost. The development cost for Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) are high in compare to FPGA. Selection of the most energy efficient IO standards in place of signal gating is the main design methodology for design of energy...... efficient Vedic multiplier.There is 68.51%, 69.86%, 74.65%, and 78.39% contraction in total power of Vedic multiplier on 28nm Kintex-7 FPGA, when we use HSTL_II in place of HSTL_II_DCI_18 at 56.7oC, 53.5oC, 40oC and 21oC respectively....

  17. Research on the decomposition model for China’s National Renewable Energy total target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Zhen; Shi, Yuren; Yan, Jianming; Ou, Xunmin; Lieu, Jenny

    2012-01-01

    It is crucial that China’s renewable energy national target in 2020 is effectively decomposed into respective period targets at the provincial level. In order to resolve problems arising from combining the national and local renewable energy development plan, a total target and period target decomposition model of renewable energy is proposed which considers the resource distribution and energy consumption of different provinces as well as the development characteristics of various renewable energy industries. In the model, the total proposed target is comprised of three shares: basic share, fixed share and floating share target. The target distributed for each province is then determined by the preference relation. That is, when total renewable energy target is distributed, the central government is more concerned about resources potential or energy consumption. Additionally, the growth models for various renewable energy industries are presented, and the period targets of renewable energy in various provinces are proposed in line with regional economic development targets. In order to verify whether the energy target can be achieved, only wind power, solar power, and hydropower are considered in this study. To convenient to assess the performance of local government, the two year period is chosen as an evaluation cycle in the paper. The renewable energy targets per two-year period for each province are calculated based on the overall national renewable energy target, energy requirements and resources distribution. Setting provincial period targets will help policy makers to better implement and supervise the overall renewable energy plan. - Highlights: It is very importance that the national target of renewable energy in 2020 can be effectively decomposed into the stages target of various province. In order to resolve the relation the plan between the national and local renewable energy development planning, a total target and phase target decomposition model

  18. The Use of Trust Regions in Kohn-Sham Total Energy Minimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Chao; Meza, Juan C.; Wang, Lin-wang

    2006-01-01

    The Self Consistent Field (SCF) iteration, widely used for computing the ground state energy and the corresponding single particle wave functions associated with a many-electron atomistic system, is viewed in this paper as an optimization procedure that minimizes the Kohn-Sham total energy indirectly by minimizing a sequence of quadratic surrogate functions. We point out the similarity and difference between the total energy and the surrogate, and show how the SCF iteration can fail when the minimizer of the surrogate produces an increase in the KS total energy. A trust region technique is introduced as a way to restrict the update of the wave functions within a small neighborhood of an approximate solution at which the gradient of the total energy agrees with that of the surrogate. The use of trust region in SCF is not new. However, it has been observed that directly applying a trust region based SCF(TRSCF) to the Kohn-Sham total energy often leads to slow convergence. We propose to use TRSCF within a direct constrained minimization(DCM) algorithm we developed in dcm. The key ingredients of the DCM algorithm involve projecting the total energy function into a sequence of subspaces of small dimensions and seeking the minimizer of the total energy function within each subspace. The minimizer of a subspace energy function, which is computed by TRSCF, not only provides a search direction along which the KS total energy function decreases but also gives an optimal 'step-length' that yields a sufficient decrease in total energy. A numerical example is provided to demonstrate that the combination of TRSCF and DCM is more efficient than SCF

  19. The total Hartree-Fock energy-eigenvalue sum relationship in atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, K.D.

    1979-01-01

    Using the well known relationships for the isoelectronic changes in the total Hartree-Fock energy, nucleus-electron attraction energy and electron-electron repulsion energy in atoms a simple polynomial expansion in Z is obtained for the sum of the eigenvalues which can be used to calculate the total Hartree-Fock energy. Numerical results are presented for 2-10 electron series to show that the present relationship is a better approximation than the other available energy-eigenvalue relationships. (author)

  20. Energy efficiency improvement: A strong driver for Total operations and R and D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garnaud, Frederic; Rocher, Anne

    2010-09-15

    Total has implemented an energy efficiency action plan for both producing fields and new projects linked to a dedicated R and D program. The Energy efficiency assessment methodology is described, with an example: base line of the current situation, energy efficiency plan, contribution to best practices at corporate level. A methodology to assess the energy efficiency of a new development has been defined and implemented within Total. This methodology as well as related indicators is presented. Examples of R and D results dedicated to improve energy efficiency in two major areas of future developments are given: sour gas production and deep offshore field architecture.

  1. Impact of dietary fiber energy on the calculation of food total energy value in the Brazilian Food Composition Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Elizabete Wenzel de; Grande, Fernanda; Giuntini, Eliana Bistriche; Lopes, Tássia do Vale Cardoso; Dan, Milana Cara Tanasov; Prado, Samira Bernardino Ramos do; Franco, Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo; Charrondière, U Ruth; Lajolo, Franco Maria

    2016-02-15

    Dietary fiber (DF) contributes to the energy value of foods and including it in the calculation of total food energy has been recommended for food composition databases. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of including energy provided by the DF fermentation in the calculation of food energy. Total energy values of 1753 foods from the Brazilian Food Composition Database were calculated with or without the inclusion of DF energy. The energy values were compared, through the use of percentage difference (D%), in individual foods and in daily menus. Appreciable energy D% (⩾10) was observed in 321 foods, mainly in the group of vegetables, legumes and fruits. However, in the Brazilian typical menus containing foods from all groups, only D%foods, when individually considered. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Machine Learning methods in fitting first-principles total energies for substitutionally disordered solid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qin; Yao, Sanxi; Widom, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) provides an accurate and first-principles description of solid structures and total energies. However, it is highly time-consuming to calculate structures with hundreds of atoms in the unit cell and almost not possible to calculate thousands of atoms. We apply and adapt machine learning algorithms, including compressive sensing, support vector regression and artificial neural networks to fit the DFT total energies of substitutionally disordered boron carbide. The nonparametric kernel method is also included in our models. Our fitted total energy model reproduces the DFT energies with prediction error of around 1 meV/atom. The assumptions of these machine learning models and applications of the fitted total energies will also be discussed. Financial support from McWilliams Fellowship and the ONR-MURI under the Grant No. N00014-11-1-0678 is gratefully acknowledged.

  3. Thermodynamics of the living organisms. Allometric relationship between the total metabolic energy, chemical energy and body temperature in mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanasov, Atanas Todorov

    2017-11-01

    The study present relationship between the total metabolic energy (ETME(c), J) derived as a function of body chemical energy (Gchem, J) and absolute temperature (Tb, K) in mammals: ETME(c) =Gchem (Tb/Tn). In formula the temperature Tn =2.73K appears normalization temperature. The calculated total metabolic energy ETME(c) differs negligible from the total metabolic energy ETME(J), received as a product between the basal metabolic rate (Pm, J/s) and the lifespan (Tls, s) of mammals: ETME = Pm×Tls. The physical nature and biological mean of the normalization temperature (Tn, K) is unclear. It is made the hypothesis that the kTn energy (where k= 1.3806×10-23 J/K -Boltzmann constant) presents energy of excitation states (modes) in biomolecules and body structures that could be in equilibrium with chemical energy accumulated in body. This means that the accumulated chemical energy allows trough all body molecules and structures to propagate excitations states with kTn energy with wavelength in the rage of width of biological membranes. The accumulated in biomolecules chemical energy maintains spread of the excited states through biomolecules without loss of energy.

  4. Reduced biliary sterol output with no change in total faecal excretion in mice expressing a human apolipoprotein A-I variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parolini, Cinzia; Caligari, Silvia; Gilio, Donatella; Manzini, Stefano; Busnelli, Marco; Montagnani, Marco; Locatelli, Marcello; Diani, Erika; Giavarini, Flavio; Caruso, Donatella; Roda, Enrico; Roda, Aldo; Sirtori, Cesare R; Chiesa, Giulia

    2012-10-01

    Apolipoprotein (apo)A-I(M) (ilano), is a molecular variant of apoA-I(wild-type), associated with dramatically low HDL-cholesterol levels, but no increased risk for cardiovascular disease. In view of the present uncertainties on the role of apoA-I in liver cholesterol removal by way of bile acids and neutral sterols, and of the greater capacity of apoA-I(M) (ilano) to remove arterial cholesterol, biliary sterol metabolism was evaluated in transgenic mice expressing apoA-I(M) (ilano). ApoA-I(M) (ilano) mice were fed a high-cholesterol/high-fat diet, and compared with human apoA-I(wild-type) mice. Plasma lipid levels, hepatic bile flow and composition, hepatic and intestinal cholesterol and bile acid content, and faecal sterol content were measured. Moreover, the expression of hepatic ABCA1, SR-B1 and that of hepatic and intestinal genes involved in bile acid metabolism were evaluated. The dietary treatment led to a strong elevation in HDL-cholesterol levels in A-I(M) (ilano) mice, associated with an increased expression of hepatic ABCA1. ApoA-I(M) (ilano) mice showed lower cholesterol output from the liver compared with apoA-I(wild-type) mice, in the absence of liver sterol accumulation. Faecal excretion of neutral sterols and bile acids was similar in the two mouse lines. In spite of a different response to the dietary challenge, with an increased ABCA1 expression and a lower hepatic cholesterol output in apoA-I(M) (ilano) mice, the net sterol excretion is comparable in the two transgenic lines. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. 6,7Li + 28Si total reaction cross sections at near barrier energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakou, A.; Musumarra, A.; Pierroutsakou, D.; Alamanos, N.; Assimakopoulos, P.A.; Divis, N.; Doukelis, G.; Gillibert, A.; Harissopulos, S.; Kalyva, G.; Kokkoris, M.; Lagoyannis, A.; Mertzimekis, T.J.; Nicolis, N.G.; Papachristodoulou, C.; Perdikakis, G.; Roubos, D.; Rusek, K.; Spyrou, S.; Zarkadas, Ch.

    2007-01-01

    Total reaction cross section measurements for the 6,7 Li + 28 Si systems have been performed at near-barrier energies. The results indicate that, with respect to the potential anomaly at barrier, 6 Li and 7 Li on light targets exhibit similar energy dependence on the imaginary potential. Comparisons are made with 6,7 Li cross sections on light and heavy targets, extracted via previous elastic scattering measurements and also with CDCC calculations. Energy dependent parametrisations are also obtained for total reaction cross sections of 6,7 Li on Si, as well as on any target, at near barrier energies

  6. How fast is the growth of Total Cross Section at High Energies?

    CERN Document Server

    Fazal-e-Aleem, M; Sohail-Afzal, Tahir; Ayub-Faridi, M; Qadee-Afzal, M

    2003-01-01

    Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and Large Hadron Colliders have special agenda for the measurements of the total cross sections at high energies giving us an opportunity to touch cosmic ray energies. Recent analyses of the cosmic ray data together with earlier experimental measurements at ISR and SPS gives us an insight about the behaviour of this important parameter at asymptotic energies. We will study the growth of total cross section at high energies in the light of various theoretical approaches with special reference to measurements at RHIC and LHC.

  7. Total kinetic energy in four global eddying ocean circulation models and over 5000 current meter records

    KAUST Repository

    Scott, Robert B.; Arbic, Brian K.; Chassignet, Eric P.; Coward, Andrew C.; Maltrud, Mathew; Merryfield, William J.; Srinivasan, Ashwanth; Varghese, Anson

    2010-01-01

    We compare the total kinetic energy (TKE) in four global eddying ocean circulation simulations with a global dataset of over 5000, quality controlled, moored current meter records. At individual mooring sites, there was considerable scatter between

  8. Relativistic total energy and chemical potential of heavy atoms and positive ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, S.H.; Grout, P.J.; March, N.H.

    1984-01-01

    The relativistic Thomas-Fermi theory, with a finite nucleus, is used to study the variation of the chemical potential μ with atomic number Z and number of electrons N (N <= Z). The difference between the total energy of positive ions and that of the corresponding neutral atom has been obtained. The scaling predictions are confirmed by numerical calculations. The first principles calculation of the relativistic Thomas-Fermi total energy of neutral atoms is also studied. (author)

  9. The effects of dimensional parameters on sensing and energy harvesting of an embedded PZT in a total knee replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei, Mohsen; Anton, Steven R.

    2016-04-01

    Total Knee Replacement (TKR), one of the most common surgeries in the United States, is performed when the patient is experiencing significant amounts of pain or when knee functionality has become substantially degraded. Despite impressive recent developments, only about 85% of patients are satisfied with the pain reduction after one year. Therefore, structural health and performance monitoring are integral for intraoperative and postoperative feedback. In extension of the author's previous work, a new configuration for implementation of piezoelectric transducers in total knee replacement bearings is proposed and FEA modeling is performed to attain appropriate sensing and energy harvesting ability. The predicted force transmission ratio to the PZT (ratio of force applied to the bearing to force transferred to the embedded piezoelectric transducer) is about 6.2% compared to about 5% found for the previous encapsulated design. Dimensional parameters of the polyethylene bearing including the diameter and depth of the PZT pocket as well as the placement geometry of the PZT transducer within the bearing are hypothesized as the most influential parameters on the performance of the designed system. The results show a small change of 1% and 2.3% in the output of the system as a result of variation in the PZT location and pocket diameter, respectively. Whereas, the output of the system is significantly sensitive to the pocket depth; a pocket 0.01 mm deeper than the PZT transducer leads to no force transmission, and a pocket 0.15 mm shallower leads to full load transmission to the PZT. In order to develop a self-powered sensor, the amount of energy harvested from tibial forces for the proposed geometry is investigated.

  10. Priority listing of industrial processes by total energy consumption and potential for savings. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streb, A.J.

    1977-01-01

    A survey of eight of the most energy-intensive segments of the U.S. industry is made to quantify the energy consumed in the principal process units, to identify areas in which significant improvement appear possible, and to rank the process units in terms of total energy consumption and the potential for improvement. Data on the steel, paper, aluminum, textile, cement, and glass industries, petroleum refineries, and olefins and derivative products industries were compiled to help plan the development of new energy sources and to provide targets for energy conservation activities. (MCW)

  11. Energy inputs and outputs in the wheat production at different localizations; Balanco de energia na producao de trigo em diferentes locais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gollmann, Pedro; Greco, Marcelo; Campos, Alessandro Torres [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Marechal Candido Rondon, PR (Brazil). Grupo de Pesquisas em Ambiencia do Oeste do Parana], e-mail: jefersonklein@yahoo.com.br; Klein, Jeferson [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Marechal Candido Rondon, PR (Brazil); Palagi, Celso A.; Jurach, Jorge J. [Cooperativa Central de Pesquisa Agricola Tecnologia da Nossa Terra (COODETEC), Cascavel, PR (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The intensifying and modernization of agriculture, in spite of improving the productivity, it caused a complete petroleum derived dependence, so much in the form of fuels, lubricants and machinery, as in the form of inputs for the production. This work had as objective to esteem the energy inputs and outputs and the energy conversion, in two different local, in the west of Parana State/Brazil. The largest consumption was observed for the direct energy category, with 95.6% and 95.28% in Cascavel and Palotina, respectively. In the direct energy flow, the Palotina production spent 5,0% more. The consumption of fossil energy was of 22.32% for the Palotina farm and of 23.84% for the Cascavel farm. The energy conversion was of 3.2 and 1.8, for the wheat productions in Cascavel and Palotina, respectively. (author)

  12. Carbon and energy footprints of electric delivery trucks:a hybrid multi-regional input-output life cycle assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Yang; Onat, Nuri Cihat; Küçükvar, Murat; Tatari, Ömer

    2016-01-01

    Due to frequent stop-and-go operation and long idling periods when driving in congested urban areas, the electrification of commercial delivery trucks has become an interesting topic nationwide. In this study, environmental impacts of various alternative delivery trucks including battery electric, diesel, diesel-electric hybrid, and compressed natural gas trucks are analyzed. A novel life cycle assessment method, an environmentally-extended multi-region input-output analysis, is utilized to c...

  13. The total kinetic energy release in the fast neutron-induced fission of {sup 232}Th

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Jonathan; Yanez, Ricardo; Loveland, Walter; Barrett, J. Spencer; Oscar, Breland [Oregon State University, Dept. of Chemistry, Corvallis, OR (United States); Fotiades, Nikolaos; Tovesson, Fredrik; Young Lee, Hye [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Physics Division, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-12-15

    The post-emission total kinetic energy release (TKE) in the neutron-induced fission of {sup 232}Th was measured (using white spectrum neutrons from LANSCE) for neutron energies from E{sub n} = 3 to 91 MeV. In this energy range the average post-neutron total kinetic energy release decreases from 162.3 ± 0.3 at E{sub n} = 3 MeV to 154.9 ± 0.3 MeV at E{sub n} = 91 MeV. Analysis of the fission mass distributions indicates that the decrease in TKE with increasing neutron energy is a combination of increasing yields of symmetric fission (which has a lower associated TKE) and a decrease in the TKE release in asymmetric fission. (orig.)

  14. Solar Total Energy Project (STEP) Performance Analysis of High Temperature Energy Storage Subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, D. M.

    1984-01-01

    The 1982 milestones and lessons learned; performance in 1983; a typical day's operation; collector field performance and thermal losses; and formal testing are highlighted. An initial test that involves characterizing the high temperature storage (hts) subsystem is emphasized. The primary element is on 11,000 gallon storage tank that provides energy to the steam generator during transient solar conditions or extends operating time. Overnight, thermal losses were analyzed. The length of time the system is operated at various levels of cogeneration using stored energy is reviewed.

  15. Surface morphology and surface energy of anode materials influence power outputs in a multi-channel mediatorless bio-photovoltaic (BPV) system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombelli, Paolo; Zarrouati, Marie; Thorne, Rebecca J; Schneider, Kenneth; Rowden, Stephen J L; Ali, Akin; Yunus, Kamran; Cameron, Petra J; Fisher, Adrian C; Ian Wilson, D; Howe, Christopher J; McCormick, Alistair J

    2012-09-21

    Bio-photovoltaic cells (BPVs) are a new photo-bio-electrochemical technology for harnessing solar energy using the photosynthetic activity of autotrophic organisms. Currently power outputs from BPVs are generally low and suffer from low efficiencies. However, a better understanding of the electrochemical interactions between the microbes and conductive materials will be likely to lead to increased power yields. In the current study, the fresh-water, filamentous cyanobacterium Pseudanabaena limnetica (also known as Oscillatoria limnetica) was investigated for exoelectrogenic activity. Biofilms of P. limnetica showed a significant photo response during light-dark cycling in BPVs under mediatorless conditions. A multi-channel BPV device was developed to compare quantitatively the performance of photosynthetic biofilms of this species using a variety of different anodic conductive materials: indium tin oxide-coated polyethylene terephthalate (ITO), stainless steel (SS), glass coated with a conductive polymer (PANI), and carbon paper (CP). Although biofilm growth rates were generally comparable on all materials tested, the amplitude of the photo response and achievable maximum power outputs were significantly different. ITO and SS demonstrated the largest photo responses, whereas CP showed the lowest power outputs under both light and dark conditions. Furthermore, differences in the ratios of light : dark power outputs indicated that the electrochemical interactions between photosynthetic microbes and the anode may differ under light and dark conditions depending on the anodic material used. Comparisons between BPV performances and material characteristics revealed that surface roughness and surface energy, particularly the ratio of non-polar to polar interactions (the CQ ratio), may be more important than available surface area in determining biocompatibility and maximum power outputs in microbial electrochemical systems. Notably, CP was readily outperformed by all

  16. Fabrication of electrophoretically deposited, self-assembled three-dimensional porous Al/CuO nanothermite films for highly enhanced energy output

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Yanjun [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Li, Xueming, E-mail: xuemingli@cqu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Shu, Yuanjie [Xi’an Modern Chemistry Research Institute, Xi’an 71000 (China); Guo, Xiaogang; Bao, Hebin; Li, Wulin; Zhu, Yuhua; Li, Yu; Huang, Xinyue [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2017-06-15

    A novel porous Al/CuO nanothermite was successfully synthetized by utilizing the controllable electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method. The morphology and phase composition of the CuO and Al/CuO films were investigated in detail by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). When the pH of the solution was 2.0, the surface area of the Al/CuO film was able to reach 495.6 m{sup 2}/g, which was much higher than that of films grown at pH 1.0, 3.0 or 4.0. Meanwhile, the combustion performance and energy outputs were coincident with the results mentioned above. At pH 2.0, bright flames were observed after ignition, and the released heat of the nanothermite reaction reached 3.49 kJ/g, exhibiting excellent combustion performance and enhanced energy output. - Highlights: • Porous CuO films were synthesized without using templates. • The self-assembled porous Al/CuO nanothermite had a specific surface area of 495.6 m{sup 2}/g. • The energy output and combustion performance of Al/CuO nanothermite were significantly enhanced.

  17. Total Energy of Charged Black Holes in Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton-Axion Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Korunur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We focus on the energy content (including matter and fields of the Møller energy-momentum complex in the framework of Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton-Axion (EMDA theory using teleparallel gravity. We perform the required calculations for some specific charged black hole models, and we find that total energy distributions associated with asymptotically flat black holes are proportional to the gravitational mass. On the other hand, we see that the energy of the asymptotically nonflat black holes diverge in a limiting case.

  18. Relation between total shock energy and mortality in patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenma, Taro; Yokoshiki, Hisashi; Mitsuyama, Hirofumi; Watanabe, Masaya; Mizukami, Kazuya; Kamada, Rui; Takahashi, Masayuki; Sasaki, Ryo; Maeno, Motoki; Okamoto, Kaori; Chiba, Yuki; Anzai, Toshihisa

    2018-05-15

    Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator (ICD) shocks have been associated with mortality. However, no study has examined the relation between total shock energy and mortality. The aim of this study is to assess the association of total shock energy with mortality, and to determine the patients who are at risk of this association. Data from 316 consecutive patients who underwent initial ICD implantation in our hospital between 2000 and 2011 were retrospectively studied. We collected shock energy for 3 years from the ICD implantation, and determined the relation of shock energy on mortality after adjusting confounding factors. Eighty-seven ICD recipients experienced shock(s) within 3 years from ICD implantation and 43 patients had died during the follow-up. The amount of shock energy was significantly associated with all-cause death [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.26 (per 100 joule increase), p energy accumulation (≥182 joule) was lower (p energy accumulation (energy accumulation and all-cause death was remarkable in the patients with low left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF ≤40%) or atrial fibrillation (AF). Increase of shock energy was related to mortality in ICD recipients. This relation was evident in patients with low LVEF or AF. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A sequential input–output framework to analyze the economic and environmental implications of energy policies: Gas taxes and fuel subsidies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jun-Ki; Bakshi, Bhavik R.; Hubacek, Klaus; Nader, Jordan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel framework integrates monetary and physical changes in sequential input–output analysis. • Estimate economy-wide environmental changes as a result of combined energy policies. • Life cycle resource consumption and emission data for the U.S. economic sectors are adopted. • Ecosystem impacts could increase as a consequence of combined gasoline tax and bio-subsidy. - Abstract: A novel generic sequential input–output framework is developed to model the economy-wide changes in resource consumption and environmental emissions as a result of combined applied energy policies, e.g. taxes for non-renewables and subsidies for renewables. Many input–output analyses are based on a single period analysis. However, in the case of analyzing the effects of multiple policy interventions over time, the input–output table reflecting the state of the economy before the energy policy was introduced cannot be used for analyzing the economic effects of another policy intervention in the next time period since the monetary and physical transaction of commodities have already been affected. To show the efficacy of the proposed method, a case study is developed that introduced a gasoline tax and earmarks the revenues to subsidize biofuel production in the subsequent time period in the United States. In order to assess the change of environmental indicators after sequential policy interventions, Ecologically-based Life Cycle Analysis (ECO-LCA) inventories which include data on resource consumption, emissions, ecosystem goods and services related to the U.S. economic sectors are adopted. The environmentally extended input–output framework is ideally suited to model the interlinkages between a range for environmental indicators and detailed structural economic information at the sector level for the analysis of energy policies. The proposed framework can be utilized as a tool for leveraging the energy and environmental policy trade-off decisions which

  20. Comparison of stress and total energy methods for calculation of elastic properties of semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, M A; Schulz, S; O'Reilly, E P

    2013-01-16

    We explore the calculation of the elastic properties of zinc-blende and wurtzite semiconductors using two different approaches: one based on stress and the other on total energy as a function of strain. The calculations are carried out within the framework of density functional theory in the local density approximation, with the plane wave-based package VASP. We use AlN as a test system, with some results also shown for selected other materials (C, Si, GaAs and GaN). Differences are found in convergence rate between the two methods, especially in low symmetry cases, where there is a much slower convergence for total energy calculations with respect to the number of plane waves and k points used. The stress method is observed to be more robust than the total energy method with respect to the residual error in the elastic constants calculated for different strain branches in the systems studied.

  1. Optimization of stand-alone photovoltaic systems with hydrogen storage for total energy self-sufficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, P D [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland). Dept. of Technical Physics

    1991-01-01

    A new method for optimization of stand-alone photovoltaic-hydrogen energy systems is presented. The methodology gives the optimum values for the solar array and hydrogen storage size for any given system configuration and geographical site. Sensitivity analyses have been performed to study the effect of subsystem efficiencies on the total system performance and sizing, and also to identify possibilities for further improvements. Optimum system configurations have also been derived. The results indicate that a solar-hydrogen energy system is a very promising potential alternative for low power applications requiring a total electricity self-sufficiency. (Author).

  2. DWBA differential and total pair production cross sections for intermediate energy photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvaraju, C.; Bhullar, A.S.; Sud, K.K.

    2001-01-01

    We present in this communication the theoretical differential and total cross section for electron-positron pair creation by intermediate energy photons (5.0-10.0 MeV) on different targets (Z=1, 30, 50, 68, 82 and 92). The computed cross sections are in distorted wave Born approximation (DWBA) in point Coulomb potential. The database of the differential and total pair production cross sections is presented in tabulated as well as in graphical form and the interpolation of differential cross sections for different atomic numbers, positron and photon energies is discussed

  3. Total electron scattering cross sections for methanol and ethanol at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, D G M; Tejo, T; Lopes, M C A; Muse, J; Romero, D; Khakoo, M A

    2010-01-01

    Absolute total cross section (TCS) measurements of electron scattering from gaseous methanol and ethanol molecules are reported for impact energies from 60 to 500 eV, using the linear transmission method. The attenuation of intensity of a collimated electron beam through the target volume is used to determine the absolute TCS for a given impact energy, using the Beer-Lambert law to first approximation. Besides these experimental measurements, we have also determined TCS using the additivity rule.

  4. Hadronic multiplicity and total cross-section: a new scaling in wide energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobylinsky, N.A.; Martynov, E.S.; Shelest, V.P.

    1983-01-01

    The ratio of mean multiplicity to total cross-section is shown to be the same for all the Regge models and to rise with energy as lns which is confirmed by experimental data. Hence, a power of multiplicity growth is unambiguously connected with that of total cross-section. As regards the observed growth, approximately ln 2 s, it tells about a dipole character of pomeron singularity

  5. Total cross sections of hadron interactions at high energies in low constituents number model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramovskij, V.A.; Radchenko, N.V.

    2009-01-01

    We consider QCD hadrons interaction model in which gluons density is low in initial state wave function in rapidity space and real hadrons are produced from color strings decay. In this model behavior of total cross sections of pp, pp bar, π ± p, K ± p, γp, and γγ interactions is well described. The value of proton-proton total cross section at LHC energy is predicted

  6. Statistical studies on the light output and energy resolution of small LSO single crystals with different surface treatments combined with various reflector materials

    CERN Document Server

    Heinrichs, U; Bussmann, N; Engels, R; Kemmerling, G; Weber, S; Ziemons, K

    2002-01-01

    The optimization of light output and energy resolution of scintillators is of special interest for the development of high resolution and high sensitivity PET. The aim of this work is to obtain statistically reliable results concerning optimal surface treatment of scintillation crystals and the selection of reflector material. For this purpose, raw, mechanically polished and etched LSO crystals (size 2x2x10 mm sup 3) were combined with various reflector materials (Teflon tape, Teflon matrix, BaSO sub 4) and exposed to a sup 2 sup 2 Na source. In order to ensure the statistical reliability of the results, groups of 10 LSO crystals each were measured for all combinations of surface treatment and reflector material. Using no reflector material the light output increased up to 551+-35% by mechanical polishing the surface compared to 100+-5% for raw crystals. Etching the surface increased the light output to 441+-29%. The untreated crystals had an energy resolution of 24.6+-4.0%. By mechanical polishing the surfac...

  7. Interprovincial transfer of embodied energy between the Jing-Jin-Ji area and other provinces in China: A quantification using interprovincial input-output model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weiming; Wu, Sanmang; Lei, Yalin; Li, Shantong

    2017-04-15

    Commodity trade between regions implies a large amount of energy transfer. As an important economic growth pole of China, the Jing-Jin-Ji area (Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei) is also one of the areas with the largest energy consumption in China. Moreover, the primary energy consumer goods in this area are fossil fuels, such as coal. This has led to serious air pollution in the area. Therefore, the reduction of energy consumption under the premise of maintaining sustained economic growth is an important task of the Jing-Jin-Ji area. In this study, an interprovincial input-output model was applied to quantitatively estimate the embodied energy transfer between Jing-Jin-Ji area and other provinces in China. The results indicated that the Metal and nonmetal mineral processing industry and the Electrical, gas and water industry in the Jing-Jin-Ji area exported a large amount of embodied energy to the Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta. However, the embodied energy export of the Jing-Jin-Ji area mainly exported by Hebei province. Beijing and Tianjin even have some net import of embodied energy. The embodied energy transfer between Tianjin, Hebei and other provinces was mainly driven by investment, while the main media of embodied energy transfer between Beijing and other provinces was consumption. Therefore, we suggest that the Jing-Jin-Ji area should further increase the degree of dependence on other provinces' energy-intensive products and reduce the export of energy-intensive products. In addition, there should be difference in the energy and industrial policies among Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei, and the problems of high energy consumption and high proportion of heavy industry in Hebei should be first resolved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Studies on the power output of a MADE AE-30 operating on complex terrain. Annual Energy Production estimation and Multivariable analysis. A case of multi-stall effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuerva, A.

    1996-12-01

    The main need of the EWTS-II Sub-project IV group is to have a suitable data-base which allows it to reach proper conclusions on the characteristics of power performance of wind turbines in complex terrain. With this aim, this document presents an analysis on the power output of the MADE AE-30 Wind turbine operating at Tarifa (also data from flat terrain are enclosed as a reference). An application of the bin method and AEP estimation for energy production method, in the two last issues a directional analysis and an study for two different turbulence intensity ranges are enclosed. Finally the Stepwise multirregression method is applied on the measurements to identify the stored parameters that have influence on the power output. A brief description of multi stall effect is enclosed. (Author)

  9. Studies on the power output of a MADEAE-30 operating on complex terrain. Annual Energy Production estimation and Multivariable analysis. A case of multi-stall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuerva, A.

    1996-01-01

    The main need of the EWTS-II Sub-project IV group is to have a suitable data-base which allows it to reach proper conclusions on the characteristics of power performance of wind turbines in complex terrain. With this aim, this document presents an analysis on the power output of the MADE AE-30 Wind turbine operating at Tarifa (also data from flat terrain are enclosed as a reference). An application of the bin method and AEP estimation for energy production method. In the two last issues a directional analysis and an study for two different turbulence intensity ranges are enclosed. Finally the STEPWISE multirregression method is applied on the measurements to identify the stored parameters that have influence on the power output. A brief description of multi stall effect is enclosed. (Author) 7 refs

  10. The conditions for total reflection of low-energy atoms from crystal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, M.; Robinson, M.T.

    1978-01-01

    The critical angles for the total reflection of low-energy particles from Cu rows and (001) planes have been investigated, using the binary collision approximation computer simulation code MARLOWE Breakthrough angles were evaluated for H, N, Ne, Ar, Cu, Xe, and Au in the energy range from 0.1 to 7.5 keV. In both the axial and the planar cases, recoiling of the target atoms lowers the energy barrier which the target surface presents to the heavy projectiles. Consequently, the breakthrough angles are reduced for heavy projectiles below the values expected either from observations on light projectiles or from analytical channeling theory. (orig.) [de

  11. Total cross section for hadron production by e+e- annihilation at PETRA energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartel, W.; Canzler, T.; Cords, D.; Dittmann, P.; Eichler, R.; Felst, R.; Godermann, E.; Haidt, D.; Kawabata, S.; Krehbiel, H.

    1979-10-01

    The cross section for the process e + e - → multihadrons has been measured at the highest PETRA energies. We measure R (the total cross-section in units of the point-like e + e - → μ + μ - cross-section) to be 2.9 +- 0.7, 4.0 +- 0.5, 4.6 +- 0.4 and 4.2 +- 0.6 at √s of 22, 27.7, 30 and 31.6 GeV respectively. The observed average multiplicity, together with existing low energy data, indicate a rapid increase in multiplicity with increasing energy. (orig.)

  12. Activities Contributing to Total Energy Expenditure in the United States: Results from the NHAPS Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Block Gladys

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity is increasingly recognized as an important factor influencing health and disease status. Total energy expenditure, both low-intensity and high-intensity, contributes to maintenance of healthy body weight. This paper presents the results of a quantitative approach to determining the activities that contribute to total energy expenditure in the United States. Methods Data from the National Human Activity Pattern Survey (NHAPS were used. In 1992–1994 the NHAPS sampled 4,185 females and 3,330 males, aged 18 years and over, weighted to be representative of the 48 contiguous United States. A detailed report of each activity performed in the previous 24 hours was obtained. A score was created for each activity, by multiplying duration and intensity for each individual and summing across individuals. This score was then used to rank each activity according to its contribution to total population energy expenditure, for the total sample and separately for each gender, race, age, region, and season. Results This analysis reveals our society to be primarily sedentary; leisure time physical activity contributed only approximately 5% of the population's total energy expenditure. Not counting sleeping, the largest contributor to energy expenditure was "Driving a car", followed by "Office work" and "Watching TV". Household activities accounted for 20.1% and 33.3% of energy expenditure for males and females respectively. Conclusion The information presented in this paper may be useful in identifying common activities that could be appropriate targets for behavioral interventions to increase physical activity.

  13. From Cycling Between Coupled Reactions to the Cross-Bridge Cycle: Mechanical Power Output as an Integral Part of Energy Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Diederichs

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ATP delivery and its usage are achieved by cycling of respective intermediates through interconnected coupled reactions. At steady state, cycling between coupled reactions always occurs at zero resistance of the whole cycle without dissipation of free energy. The cross-bridge cycle can also be described by a system of coupled reactions: one energising reaction, which energises myosin heads by coupled ATP splitting, and one de-energising reaction, which transduces free energy from myosin heads to coupled actin movement. The whole cycle of myosin heads via cross-bridge formation and dissociation proceeds at zero resistance. Dissipation of free energy from coupled reactions occurs whenever the input potential overcomes the counteracting output potential. In addition, dissipation is produced by uncoupling. This is brought about by a load dependent shortening of the cross-bridge stroke to zero, which allows isometric force generation without mechanical power output. The occurrence of maximal efficiency is caused by uncoupling. Under coupled conditions, Hill’s equation (velocity as a function of load is fulfilled. In addition, force and shortening velocity both depend on [Ca2+]. Muscular fatigue is triggered when ATP consumption overcomes ATP delivery. As a result, the substrate of the cycle, [MgATP2−], is reduced. This leads to a switch off of cycling and ATP consumption, so that a recovery of [ATP] is possible. In this way a potentially harmful, persistent low energy state of the cell can be avoided.

  14. SU-E-T-782: Using Light Output From Doped Plastic Scintillators to Resolve the Linear Energy Transfer Spectrum of Clinical Electron Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nusrat, H; Pang, G; Ahmad, S; Keller, B; Sarfehnia, A

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This research seeks to develop a portable, clinically-suitable linear energy transfer (LET) detector. In radiotherapy, absorbed dose is commonly used to measure the amount of delivered radiation, though, it is not a good indicator of actual biological damage. LET is the energy absorbed per unit length by a medium along charged particle’s pathway; studies have shown that LET correlates well with relative biological effectiveness (RBE). Methods: According to Birks’ law, light output of plastic scintillators is stopping-power dependent. This dependency can be varied through doping by various high-Z elements. By measuring light output signals of differently doped plastic scintillators (represented by column vector S, where each row corresponds to different scintillator material), the fluence of charged particles of a given LET (represented by column vector Φ, where each row corresponds to different LET bins) can be unfolded by S=R*Φ where R is system response matrix (each row represents a different scintillator, each column corresponds to different electron LET). Monte Carlo (MC) GEANT4.10.1 was used to evaluate ideal detector response of BC408 scintillating material doped with various concentrations of several high Z dopants. Measurements were performed to validate MC. Results: Signal for 1%-lead doped BC408 and the non-doped scintillator was measured experimentally by guiding light emitted by the scintillator (via in-house made taper, fiber system) to a PMT and then an electrometer. Simulations of 1%Pb-doped scintillator to non-doped scintillator revealed 9.3% reduction in light output for 6 MeV electrons which compared well (within uncertainty) with measurements showing 10% reduction (6MeV electrons). Conclusion: Measurements were used to validate MC simulation of light output from doped scintillators. The doping of scintillators is a viable technique to induce LET dependence. Our goal is to use this effect to resolve the LET spectrum of an incident

  15. Changes in Energy Cost and Total External Work of Muscles in Elite Race Walkers Walking at Different Speeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chwała Wiesław

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess energy cost and total external work (total energy depending on the speed of race walking. Another objective was to determine the contribution of external work to total energy cost of walking at technical, threshold and racing speed in elite competitive race walkers.

  16. Measurement of the total solar energy transmittance (g-value) for conventional glazings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duer, Karsten

    1998-01-01

    Three different glazings have been investigated in the Danish experimental setup METSET. (A device for calorimetric measurement of total solar energy transmittance - g-value).The purpose of the measurements is to increase the confidence in the calorimetric measurements. This is done by comparison...

  17. Mechanical properties of carbynes investigated by ab initio total-energy calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castelli, Ivano E.; Salvestrini, Paolo; Manini, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    As sp carbon chains (carbynes) are relatively rigid molecular objects, can we exploit them as construction elements in nanomechanics? To answer this question, we investigate their remarkable mechanical properties by ab initio total-energy simulations. In particular, we evaluate their linear...

  18. Parameterization of α-nucleus total reaction cross section at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvi, M A; Abdulmomen, M A

    2008-01-01

    Applying a Coulomb correction factor to the Glauber model we have derived a closed expression for α-nucleus total reaction cross section, σ R . Under the approximation of rigid projectile model, the elastic S-matrix element S el (b) is evaluated from the phenomenological N-α amplitude and a Gaussian fit to the Helm's model form factor. Excellent agreements with the experimental data have been achieved by performing two-parameter fits to the α-nucleus σ R data in the energy range about 75 to 193 MeV. One of the parameters was found to be energy independent while the other, as expected, shows the energy dependence similar to that of N-α total cross section.

  19. Institutional applications of solar total-energy systems. Draft final report. Volume 2. Appendixes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-07-01

    The appendices present the analytical basis for the analysis of solar total energy (STE) systems. A regional-climate model and a building-load requirements model are developed, along with fuel-price scenarios. Life-cycle costs are compared for conventional-utility, total energy, and STE systems. Thermal STE system design trade-offs are performed and thermal STE system performance is determined. The sensitivity of STE competitiveness to fuel prices is examined. The selection of the photovoltaic array is briefly discussed. The institutional-sector decision processes are analyzed. Hypothetical regional back-up rates and electrical-energy costs are calculated. The algorithms and equations used in operating the market model are given, and a general methodology is developed for projecting the size of the market for STE systems and applied to each of 8 institutional subsectors. (LEW)

  20. Fission fragment mass and total kinetic energy distributions of spontaneously fissioning plutonium isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomorski, K.; Nerlo-Pomorska, B.; Bartel, J.; Schmitt, C.

    2018-03-01

    The fission-fragment mass and total kinetic energy (TKE) distributions are evaluated in a quantum mechanical framework using elongation, mass asymmetry, neck degree of freedom as the relevant collective parameters in the Fourier shape parametrization recently developed by us. The potential energy surfaces (PES) are calculated within the macroscopic-microscopic model based on the Lublin-Strasbourg Drop (LSD), the Yukawa-folded (YF) single-particle potential and a monopole pairing force. The PES are presented and analysed in detail for even-even Plutonium isotopes with A = 236-246. They reveal deep asymmetric valleys. The fission-fragment mass and TKE distributions are obtained from the ground state of a collective Hamiltonian computed within the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, in the WKB approach by introducing a neck-dependent fission probability. The calculated mass and total kinetic energy distributions are found in good agreement with the data.

  1. Universal trend for heavy-ion total reaction cross sections at energies above the Coulomb barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, O.A.P.; Medeiros, E.L.; Morcelle, V.

    2010-06-01

    Heavy-ion total reaction cross section measurements for more than one thousand one hundred reaction cases covering 61 target nuclei in the range 6 Li- 238 U, and 158 projectile nuclei from 2 H up to 84 Kr (mostly exotic ones) have been analysed in a systematic way by using an empirical, three-parameter formula which is applicable to cases for projectile kinetic energies above the Coulomb barrier. The analysis has shown that the average total nuclear binding energy per nucleon of the interacting nuclei and their radii are the chief quantities which describe the cross section patterns. A great number of cross section data (87%) has been quite satisfactorily reproduced by the proposed formula, therefore total reaction cross section predictions for new, not yet experimentally investigated reaction cases can be obtained within 25 percent (or much less) of uncertainty (author)

  2. Universal trend for heavy-ion total reaction cross sections at energies above the Coulomb barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavares, O.A.P.; Medeiros, E.L., E-mail: emil@cbpf.b [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Morcelle, V. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2010-06-15

    Heavy-ion total reaction cross section measurements for more than one thousand one hundred reaction cases covering 61 target nuclei in the range {sup 6}Li-{sup 238}U, and 158 projectile nuclei from {sup 2}H up to {sup 84}Kr (mostly exotic ones) have been analysed in a systematic way by using an empirical, three-parameter formula which is applicable to cases for projectile kinetic energies above the Coulomb barrier. The analysis has shown that the average total nuclear binding energy per nucleon of the interacting nuclei and their radii are the chief quantities which describe the cross section patterns. A great number of cross section data (87%) has been quite satisfactorily reproduced by the proposed formula, therefore total reaction cross section predictions for new, not yet experimentally investigated reaction cases can be obtained within 25 percent (or much less) of uncertainty (author)

  3. Optimization of power output and study of electron beam energy spread in a Free Electron Laser oscillator

    CERN Document Server

    Abramovich, A; Efimov, S; Gover, A; Pinhasi, Y; Yahalom, A

    2001-01-01

    Design of a multi-stage depressed collector for efficient operation of a Free Electron Laser (FEL) oscillator requires knowledge of the electron beam energy distribution. This knowledge is necessary to determine the voltages of the depressed collector electrodes that optimize the collection efficiency and overall energy conversion efficiency of the FEL. The energy spread in the electron beam is due to interaction in the wiggler region, as electrons enter the interaction region at different phases relative to the EM wave. This interaction can be simulated well by a three-dimensional simulation code such as FEL3D. The main adjustable parameters that determine the electron beam energy spread after interaction are the e-beam current, the initial beam energy, and the quality factor of the resonator out-coupling coefficient. Using FEL3D, we study the influence of these parameters on the available radiation power and on the electron beam energy distribution at the undulator exit. Simulations performed for I=1.5 A, E...

  4. Prediction equation for estimating total daily energy requirements of special operations personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barringer, N D; Pasiakos, S M; McClung, H L; Crombie, A P; Margolis, L M

    2018-01-01

    Special Operations Forces (SOF) engage in a variety of military tasks with many producing high energy expenditures, leading to undesired energy deficits and loss of body mass. Therefore, the ability to accurately estimate daily energy requirements would be useful for accurate logistical planning. Generate a predictive equation estimating energy requirements of SOF. Retrospective analysis of data collected from SOF personnel engaged in 12 different SOF training scenarios. Energy expenditure and total body water were determined using the doubly-labeled water technique. Physical activity level was determined as daily energy expenditure divided by resting metabolic rate. Physical activity level was broken into quartiles (0 = mission prep, 1 = common warrior tasks, 2 = battle drills, 3 = specialized intense activity) to generate a physical activity factor (PAF). Regression analysis was used to construct two predictive equations (Model A; body mass and PAF, Model B; fat-free mass and PAF) estimating daily energy expenditures. Average measured energy expenditure during SOF training was 4468 (range: 3700 to 6300) Kcal·d- 1 . Regression analysis revealed that physical activity level ( r  = 0.91; P  plan appropriate feeding regimens to meet SOF nutritional requirements across their mission profile.

  5. Total Factor Productivity and Energy Intensity in Indian Manufacturing: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar Sahu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to estimate the transcendental logarithmic production function and further study the determinants of total factor productivity (TFP of Indian manufacturing industries. The estimation of TFP is based on four inputs model, where apart from labour and capital, material and energy are the other two inputs. The findings of the paper suggest that labour and material inputs play major role as compared to the capital and energy input. Age of the firm, ownership, energy intensity, embodied and disembodied technology imports, research and development and exports were considered as the possible determinants of the TFP in the second stage regression. The finding of the estimates suggest that age of the firm, export intensity and disembodied technology import are positively related to the TFP, where ownership, energy intensity, embodied technology import and R&D intensity are negatively related to the TFP of the firms for Indian manufacturing.

  6. Forward elastic scattering and total cross-section at very high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaldi, R.

    1985-01-01

    The successful cooling technique of antiproton beams at CERN has recently allowed the acceleration of proton and antiproton bunches simultaneously circulating in opposite directions in the SPS. Hadron-hadron collisions could so be produced at a centre-of-mass energy one order of magnitude higher than previously available, thus opening a new wide range of energies to experimentation. This technique also made it possible to replace one of the two proton beams in the ISR by a beam of antiprotons, allowing a direct precise comparison, by the same detectors, of pp and anti pp processes at the same energies. The recent results are summarized of the forward elastic scattering and total cross-section in this new energy domain. (Mori, K.)

  7. Analyses of power output of piezoelectric energy-harvesting devices directly connected to a load resistor using a coupled piezoelectric-circuit finite element method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Meiling; Worthington, Emma; Njuguna, James

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents, for the first time, a coupled piezoelectric-circuit finite element model (CPC-FEM) to analyze the power output of a vibration-based piezoelectric energy-harvesting device (EHD) when it is connected to a load resistor. Special focus is given to the effect of the load resistor value on the vibrational amplitude of the piezoelectric EHD, and thus on the current, voltage, and power generated by the device, which are normally assumed to be independent of the load resistor value to reduce the complexity of modeling and simulation. The presented CPC-FEM uses a cantilever with a sandwich structure and a seismic mass attached to the tip to study the following characteristics of the EHD as a result of changing the load resistor value: 1) the electric outputs: the current through and voltage across the load resistor; 2) the power dissipated by the load resistor; 3) the displacement amplitude of the tip of the cantilever; and 4) the shift in the resonant frequency of the device. It is found that these characteristics of the EHD have a significant dependence on the load resistor value, rather than being independent of it as is assumed in most literature. The CPC-FEM is capable of predicting the generated output power of the EHD with different load resistor values while simultaneously calculating the effect of the load resistor value on the displacement amplitude of the tip of the cantilever. This makes the CPC-FEM invaluable for validating the performance of a designed EHD before it is fabricated and tested, thereby reducing the recurring costs associated with repeat fabrication and trials. In addition, the proposed CPC-FEM can also be used for producing an optimized design for maximum power output.

  8. Testing Procedures for High Output Fluid Viscous Dampers Used in Building and Bridge Structures to Dissipate Seismic Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas P. Taylor

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Today's economic climate demands that conversion of military technology for commerical applications be a part of an aerospace and defense company's strategic planning. Toward this goal, a successful defense conversion has occurred recently with the application of high capacity fluid damping devices from the defense community for use as seismic energy dissipation elements in commercial buildings, bridges, and related structures. These products have been used by the military for many years for attenuation of weapons grade shock, typically applied to shipboard equipment or land based strategic weapons. Commercial energy dissipation devices historically have involved heavy yielding sections or hysteretic joints.

  9. Energy use in two Italian and Chinese tile manufacturers: A comparison using an enterprise input–output model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhtz, Silvana; Zhou, Chaoying; Albino, Vito; Yazan, Devrim

    2010-01-01

    It is becoming evident that sustainable development methods are now being considered by governments and corporations from all countries at both local and global level. Firms are increasingly looking to strike a balance between profit, preserving the local environment, and energy savings, rather than

  10. Dependence of the quasipotential on the total energy of a two-particle system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapshai, V.N.; Savrin, V.I.; Skachkov, N.B.

    1987-01-01

    For a system of two relativistic particles described in the Logunov-Tavkhelidze one-time approach the dependence of the quasipotential of one-boson exchange on the total energy of the system is calculated. It is shown that despite the nonlocal form of the obtained quasipotential the three-dimensional equations for the waves function can be reduced by a partial expansion to one-dimensional equations. The influence of the energy dependence of the quasipotential on its behavior in the coordinate representation is discussed

  11. On the dependence of quasipotential on the total energy of a two-particle system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapshaj, V.N.; Savrin, V.I.

    1986-01-01

    For a system of two relativistic particles described in the framework of the Logunov-Tavkhelidze one-time approach the dependence is calculated of the one-boson exchange potential on the total energy of the system. It is shown that in spite of a nonlocal form of the quasipotential obtained, three-dimensional equations for the wave function are reduced to one-dimensional ones by means of partial expansion. Influence of the energy dependence of the quasipotential on its behaviour in the coordinate representation is discussed

  12. Utilisation of total solar radiation energy in the photosynthetic production of radish, red beet and bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław Nowakowski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Utilisation of total solar radiation energy in the photosynthetic production of radish, red beet and bean is expressed as per cent of solar radiation accumulated in the carbon of -the dry mass per 1 cm2 of the assimilation surface area. Utilisation of this energy ranges from 2.6 to 8.4 per cent in radish, from 1.7 to 7.5 per cent in beet and from 1.9 to 4.9 per cent in bean.

  13. Mid-South solar total energy: institutional analysis. Final report, May 1, 1978-December 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powe, R.E.; Carley, C.T.; Forbes, R.E.; Johnson, L.R.; Stiffler, A.K.; Hodge, B.K.; Bouchillon, C.W.

    1979-01-01

    A comprehensive survey was undertaken to determine the current usage of energy by the Mississippi State University, considering electricity and fuel separately. A variety of individual components likely to be employed in total energy systems are then considered in detail, including: solar assisted space heating system, space cooling system design, solar electric system, flat plate solar collector system, central solar receiver, and geothermal heat pump system. Also, algorithms have been developed for the approximate prediction of building heating and cooling loads based on gross parameters such as floor area, type of wall construction, etc. System considerations and evaluation are then presented. (LEW)

  14. Preliminary results of total kinetic energy modelling for neutron-induced fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visan, I.; Giubega, G.; Tudora, A.

    2015-01-01

    The total kinetic energy as a function of fission fragments mass TKE(A) is an important quantity entering in prompt emission calculations. The experimentally distributions of TKE(A) are referring to a limited number of fission systems and incident energies. In the present paper, a preliminary model for TKE calculation in neutron induced fission system is presented. The range of fission fragments is chosen as in the Point by Point treatment. The model needs as input only mass excesses and deformation parameters taken from available nuclear databases being based on the following approximations: total excitation energy of fully accelerated fission fragments TXE is calculated from energy balance of neutron-induced fission systems as sum of the total excitation energy at scission E*sciss and deformation energy Edef. The deformation energy at scission is given by minimizing the potential energy at the scission configuration. At the scission point, the fission system is described by two spheroidal fragments nearly touching by a pre-scission distance or neck caused by the nuclear forces between fragments. Therefore, the Columbian repulsion depending on neck and, consequently, on the fragments deformation at scission, is essentially in TKE determination. An approximation is made based on the fission modes. For the very symmetric fission, the dominant super long channel is characterized by long distance between fragments leading to low TKE values. Due to magic and double-magic shells closure, the dominant S1 fission mode for pairs with heavy fragment mass AH around 130-134 is characterized by spherical heavy fragment shape and easily deformed light fragment. The nearly spherical shape of the complementary fragments are characterized by minimum distance, and consequently to maximum TKE values. The results obtained for TKE(A) are in good agreement with existing experimental data for many neutron induced fission systems, e.g. ''2''3''3&apos

  15. High-energy master oscillator power amplifier with near-diffraction-limited output based on ytterbium-doped PCF fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rao; Qiao, Zhi; Wang, Xiaochao; Fan, Wei; Lin, Zunqi

    2017-10-01

    With the development of fiber technologies, fiber lasers are able to deliver very high power beams and high energy pulses which can be used not only in scientific researches but industrial fields (laser marking, welding,…). The key of high power fiber laser is fiber amplifier. In this paper, we present a two-level master-oscillator power amplifier system at 1053 nm based on Yb-doped photonic crystal fibers. The system is used in the front-end of high power laser facility for the amplification of nano-second pulses to meet the high-level requirements. Thanks to the high gain of the system which is over 50 dB, the pulse of more than 0.89 mJ energy with the nearly diffraction-limited beam quality has been obtained.

  16. Total scattering investigation of materials for clean energy applications: the importance of the local structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavasi, Lorenzo

    2011-04-21

    In this Perspective article we give an account of the application of total scattering methods and pair distribution function (PDF) analysis to the investigation of materials for clean energy applications such as materials for solid oxide fuel cells and lithium batteries, in order to show the power of this technique in providing new insights into the structure-property correlation in this class of materials.

  17. Total β-decay energies of neutron-rich zinc isotopes, A=75-80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, E.; Aleklett, K.; Fogelberg, B.; Sangariyavanish, A.

    1984-01-01

    The present investigation involves improved measurements of the Qsub(β)-values of 75-78 Zn and determinations of the total decay energies of sup(79,80)Zn which are not reported in the literature before. Also 81 Zn was detected but at the time for the experiment the ion-source was not efficient enough to yield sufficient activity for an accurate Qsub(β)-determination. (orig./HSI)

  18. Total binding energy of heavy positive ions including density treatment of Darwin and Breit corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, S.H.; Grout, P.J.; March, N.H.

    1987-01-01

    Previous work on the relativistic Thomas-Fermi treatment of total energies of neutral atoms is first generalised to heavy positive ions. To facilitate quantitative contact with the numerical predictions of Dirac-Fock theory, Darwin and Breit corrections are expressed in terms of electron density, and computed using input again from relativistic Thomas-Fermi theory. These corrections significantly improve the agreement between the two seemingly very different theories. (author)

  19. Reaction and total cross sections for low energy π+ and π- on isospin zero nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, A.; Ho/ibraten, S.; Kraushaar, J.J.; Kriss, B.J.; Peterson, R.J.; Ristinen, R.A.; Brack, J.T.; Hofman, G.; Gibson, E.F.; Morris, C.L.

    1996-01-01

    Reaction and total cross sections for π + and π - on targets of 2 H, 6 Li, C, Al, Si, S, and Ca have been measured for beam energies from 42 to 65 MeV. The cross sections are proportional to the target mass at 50 MeV, consistent with transparency to these projectiles. The cross sections are compared to theoretical calculations. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  20. Misreporting of energy intake in the elderly using doubly labeled water to measure total energy expenditure and weight change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahar, Danit R; Yu, Binbing; Houston, Denise K; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Newman, Anne B; Sellmeyer, Deborah E; Tylavsky, Frances A; Lee, Jung Sun; Harris, Tamara B

    2010-02-01

    One of the major problems in dietary assessment is inaccuracy in reporting diet. To examine the association between self-reported energy intake (EI) by food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and energy expenditure (EE), measured by doubly labeled water (DLW), among older persons. EE was assessed in 298 high-functioning, community-dwelling older adults (70-79 years of age) over a 2-week period using DLW. Dietary intake was assessed using a Block FFQ. The ratio between reported EI and total energy expenditure (TEE) was calculated. Misreporting was defined as follows: participants with an EI/TEE ratio of reporters, while participants with an EI/TEE ratio >1.28 were categorized as high energy reporters. Participants with an EI/TEE ratio of 0.77-1.28 were categorized as "true" energy reporters. One-year percent weight change prior to EE visit was used as another validation indicator. Participants who were low energy reporters but lost >2% of their body weight were categorized as undereaters. Two hundred ninety-six participants provided both FFQ and DLW measurements. Forty-three percent of participants were low energy reporters; among them, almost 30% lost weight and, therefore, were categorized as undereaters. The undereaters consumed significantly fewer calories. No difference in the frequency of low energy reporting was detected between genders or racial groups. Underreporters had significantly higher body weight than "true" or high reporters. Undereaters tended to have higher body mass index than the underreporters. Undereating is prevalent in the elderly and may be falsely perceived as underreporting. It should be further addressed and characterized in future studies.

  1. Sorting through the many total-energy-cycle pathways possible with early plug-in hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaines, L.; Burnham, A.; Rousseau, A.; Santini, D.

    2008-01-01

    Using the 'total energy cycle' methodology, we compare U.S. near term (to ∼2015) alternative pathways for converting energy to light-duty vehicle kilometers of travel (VKT) in plug-in hybrids (PHEVs), hybrids (HEVs), and conventional vehicles (CVs). For PHEVs, we present total energy-per-unit-of-VKT information two ways (1) energy from the grid during charge depletion (CD); (2) energy from stored on-board fossil fuel when charge sustaining (CS). We examine 'incremental sources of supply of liquid fuel such as (a) oil sands from Canada, (b) Fischer-Tropsch diesel via natural gas imported by LNG tanker, and (c) ethanol from cellulosic biomass. We compare such fuel pathways to various possible power converters producing electricity, including (i) new coal boilers, (ii) new integrated, gasified coal combined cycle (IGCC), (iii) existing natural gas fueled combined cycle (NGCC), (iv) existing natural gas combustion turbines, (v) wood-to-electricity, and (vi) wind/solar. We simulate a fuel cell HEV and also consider the possibility of a plug-in hybrid fuel cell vehicle (FCV). For the simulated FCV our results address the merits of converting some fuels to hydrogen to power the fuel cell vs. conversion of those same fuels to electricity to charge the PHEV battery. The investigation is confined to a U.S. compact sized car (i.e. a world passenger car). Where most other studies have focused on emissions (greenhouse gases and conventional air pollutants), this study focuses on identification of the pathway providing the most vehicle kilometers from each of five feedstocks examined. The GREET 1.7 fuel cycle model and the new GREET 2.7 vehicle cycle model were used as the foundation for this study. Total energy, energy by fuel type, total greenhouse gases (GHGs), volatile organic compounds (VOC), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO x ), fine particulate (PM2.5) and sulfur oxides (SO x ) values are presented. We also isolate the PHEV emissions contribution from varying k

  2. Fort Hood Solar Total Energy Project. Volume II. Preliminary design. Part 1. System criteria and design description. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1979-01-01

    This volume documents the preliminary design developed for the Solar Total Energy System to be installed at Fort Hood, Texas. Current system, subsystem, and component designs are described and additional studies which support selection among significant design alternatives are presented. Overall system requirements which form the system design basis are presented. These include program objectives; performance and output load requirements; industrial, statutory, and regulatory standards; and site interface requirements. Material in this section will continue to be issued separately in the Systems Requirements Document and maintained current through revision throughout future phases of the project. Overall system design and detailed subsystem design descriptions are provided. Consideration of operation and maintenance is reflected in discussion of each subsystem design as well as in an integrated overall discussion. Included are the solar collector subsystem; the thermal storage subsystem, the power conversion sybsystem (including electrical generation and distribution); the heating/cooling and domestic hot water subsystems; overall instrumentation and control; and the STES building and physical plant. The design of several subsystems has progressed beyond the preliminary stage; descriptions for such subsystems are therefore provided in more detail than others to provide complete documentation of the work performed. In some cases, preliminary design parameters require specific verificaton in the definitive design phase and are identified in the text. Subsystem descriptions will continue to be issued and revised separately to maintain accuracy during future phases of the project. (WHK)

  3. Total energy supply for remote human habitations (Or 'Nuclear North of 60')

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, J.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation will examine the direct application of nuclear energy solutions in the north, and remote areas of Canada. Further it will challenge the existing energy network based on the shipment of fossil fuels to remote areas, and examine the use of small, modular, and/or deployable nuclear plants in these communities. The use of these small reactors and some newly emerging technologies will likely provide a near total energy supply for these communities. In particular low grade heat processes, district heating, the 'local' production of motive fuels, and local food production will be examined. Additionally the economic and social impact of moving the value added side of many of these processes to the local communities will also be briefly discussed.

  4. Total and elastic electron scattering cross sections from Xe at intermediate and high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, G; Pablos, J L de; Blanco, F; Williart, A

    2002-01-01

    Experimental total electron scattering cross sections from Xe in the energy range 300-5000 eV have been obtained with experimental errors of about 3%. The method was based on the measurement of the attenuation of a linear electron beam through a Xe gas cell in combination with an electron spectroscopy technique to analyse the energy of the transmitted electrons. Differential and integral elastic cross sections have been calculated using a scattering potential method which includes relativistic effects. The consistency of our theoretical and experimental results is also discussed in the paper. Finally, analytical formulae depending on two parameters, namely the number of target electrons and the atomic polarizability, are given to reproduce the experimental data for Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe in the energy range 500-10 000 eV

  5. Framework for Evaluating the Total Value Proposition of Clean Energy Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pater, J. E.

    2006-02-01

    Conventional valuation techniques fail to include many of the financial advantages of clean energy technologies. By omitting benefits associated with risk management, emissions reductions, policy incentives, resource use, corporate social responsibility, and societal economic benefits, investors and firms sacrifice opportunities for new revenue streams and avoided costs. In an effort to identify some of these externalities, this analysis develops a total value proposition for clean energy technologies. It incorporates a series of values under each of the above categories, describing the opportunities for recapturing investments throughout the value chain. The framework may be used to create comparable value propositions for clean energy technologies supporting investment decisions, project siting, and marketing strategies. It can also be useful in policy-making decisions.

  6. Aortic and Hepatic Contrast Enhancement During Hepatic-Arterial and Portal Venous Phase Computed Tomography Scanning: Multivariate Linear Regression Analysis Using Age, Sex, Total Body Weight, Height, and Cardiac Output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Takanori; Nakaura, Takeshi; Funama, Yoshinori; Higaki, Toru; Kiguchi, Masao; Imada, Naoyuki; Sato, Tomoyasu; Awai, Kazuo

    We evaluated the effect of the age, sex, total body weight (TBW), height (HT) and cardiac output (CO) of patients on aortic and hepatic contrast enhancement during hepatic-arterial phase (HAP) and portal venous phase (PVP) computed tomography (CT) scanning. This prospective study received institutional review board approval; prior informed consent to participate was obtained from all 168 patients. All were examined using our routine protocol; the contrast material was 600 mg/kg iodine. Cardiac output was measured with a portable electrical velocimeter within 5 minutes of starting the CT scan. We calculated contrast enhancement (per gram of iodine: [INCREMENT]HU/gI) of the abdominal aorta during the HAP and of the liver parenchyma during the PVP. We performed univariate and multivariate linear regression analysis between all patient characteristics and the [INCREMENT]HU/gI of aortic- and liver parenchymal enhancement. Univariate linear regression analysis demonstrated statistically significant correlations between the [INCREMENT]HU/gI and the age, sex, TBW, HT, and CO (all P linear regression analysis showed that only the TBW and CO were of independent predictive value (P linear regression analysis only the TBW and CO were significantly correlated with aortic and liver parenchymal enhancement; the age, sex, and HT were not. The CO was the only independent factor affecting aortic and liver parenchymal enhancement at hepatic CT when the protocol was adjusted for the TBW.

  7. The rise of the proton-(anti)proton total cross section at tevatron energies and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kluit, P.M.; Timmermans, J.

    1987-12-01

    A dispersion relation analysis of the UA4 result on the real part of the panti p elastic scattering amplitude is presented. The interpretation is twofold. Assuming that the pp and panti p cross sections are asymptotically identical, a steep rise is deduced of the total cross section in the 1-4 TeV domain. In case the pp and panti p cross sections are asymptotically different, it is deduced that there is a crossing of the total cross section of pp and panti p between ISR and Spanti pS energies followed by a steep rise of the difference of the pp and panti p total cross sections. It is shown that in both cases this rise can be accounted for if we add an additional term with an energy cut-off to the usual Amaldi parametrisation of the total cross section: ln 2 (s/s cut ) in the first case, or ln(s/s cuto ) in the second case, where √s cut lies around 500 GeV and √s cuto around 63 GeV. Both quantities can be interpreted as a threshold of a new process. For the first case, a continuous parametrisation without a threshold is also proposed with an extra term of the form ln 2 (1+ s/s 1 ), where √s 1 equals 700 GeV. 12 refs.; 5 figs.; 3 tabs

  8. Application of global weather and climate model output to the design and operation of wind-energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curry, Judith [Climate Forecast Applications Network, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2015-05-21

    This project addressed the challenge of providing weather and climate information to support the operation, management and planning for wind-energy systems. The need for forecast information is extending to longer projection windows with increasing penetration of wind power into the grid and also with diminishing reserve margins to meet peak loads during significant weather events. Maintenance planning and natural gas trading is being influenced increasingly by anticipation of wind generation on timescales of weeks to months. Future scenarios on decadal time scales are needed to support assessment of wind farm siting, government planning, long-term wind purchase agreements and the regulatory environment. The challenge of making wind forecasts on these longer time scales is associated with a wide range of uncertainties in general circulation and regional climate models that make them unsuitable for direct use in the design and planning of wind-energy systems. To address this challenge, CFAN has developed a hybrid statistical/dynamical forecasting scheme for delivering probabilistic forecasts on time scales from one day to seven months using what is arguably the best forecasting system in the world (European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting, ECMWF). The project also provided a framework to assess future wind power through developing scenarios of interannual to decadal climate variability and change. The Phase II research has successfully developed an operational wind power forecasting system for the U.S., which is being extended to Europe and possibly Asia.

  9. The total energy-momentum tensor for electromagnetic fields in a dielectric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crenshaw, Michael E.

    2017-08-01

    mv. Newtonian fluids can behave very much like dust with the same energy-momentum tensor. The energy and momentum conservation properties of light propagating in the vacuum were long-ago cast in the energy-momentum tensor formalism in terms of the electromagnetic energy density and electromagnetic momentum density. However, extrapolating the tensor theory of energy-momentum conservation for propagation of light in the vacuum to propagation of light in a simple linear dielectric medium has proven to be problematic and controversial. A dielectric medium is not "otherwise empty" and it is typically assumed that optically induced forces accelerate and decelerate nanoscopic material constituents of the dielectric. The corresponding material energy-momentum tensor is added to the electromagnetic energy-momentum tensor to form the total energy-momentum tensor, thereby ensuring that the total energy and the total momentum of the thermodynamically closed system remain constant in time.

  10. Using performance measures to evaluate programmatic outputs and outcomes in the Department of Energy's environmental restoration program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turi, G.; Resch, R.; Shangraw, W.R.

    1994-01-01

    Over the last year, a revolution has occurred in the use of performance measures in the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM). The performance measures range from traditional cost and schedule performance criteria to strategic measures of program outcomes. Each area of performance measurement has resulted (or is resulting) in a different approach for evaluating performance using a different set of performance criteria. Although some data elements cross cut the groups, each of the approaches focuses on different data collection process. The Office of Environmental Restoration is attempting to link these groups together through a unified system of performance measurement. This paper will define and discuss each type of performance measurement and its supporting systems or approaches

  11. Comparison of escalating, constant, and reduction energy output in ESWL for renal stones: multi-arm prospective randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabah, Danny M; Mabrouki, Mohamed S; Farhat, Karim H; Seida, Mohamed A; Arafa, Mostafa A; Talic, Riyadh F

    2017-06-01

    This study was designed to find out the optimized energy delivery strategy in Shock Wave Lithotripsy (SWL) that yield to the best stone-free rate (SFR). In this clinical trial, 150 consecutive patients were randomized into three groups: (a) Dose escalation, 1500 SW at 18 kV, followed by 1500 SW at 20 kV then 1500 SW at 22 kV. (b) Constant dose, 4500 SW at 20 kV. All patients undergo plain X-ray film of the urinary tract at day 1, 14, and 90 to assess stone-free rate (SFR) which was defined as no stones or painless fragments less than 4 mm. (c) Dose reduction, 1500 SW at 22 kV, followed by 1500 SW at 20 kV and then 1500 SW at 18 kV. The three treatment groups were comparable in terms of age, sex, stone size and distribution of the kidneys, and the need for Double J stent use. On day 90, the SFR achieved was 82, 90, and 84 % in the escalating, constant, and reduction energy groups, respectively. However, this rate was not statistically significant (x 2  = 1.38, p level = 0.28). At a slow rate of 60 shocks, there was no difference in stone-free rate between different voltages at 1, 14, and 90 days. Our randomized clinical trial showed no statistically significant difference in SFR between the three groups while using the slow SWL rate. Our trial is the first randomized trial comparing the three strategies. As such, a dose adjustment strategy while delivering SWL in slow rate was not recommended.

  12. Total reflection coefficients of low-energy photons presented as universal functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubenov Vladan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of expressing the total particle and energy reflection coefficients of low-energy photons in the form of universal functions valid for different shielding materials is investigated in this paper. The analysis is based on the results of Monte Carlo simulations of photon reflection by using MCNP, FOTELP, and PENELOPE codes. The normal incidence of the narrow monoenergetic photon beam of the unit intensity and of initial energies from 20 keV up to 100 keV is considered, and particle and energy reflection coefficients from the plane homogenous targets of water, aluminum, and iron are determined and compared. The representations of albedo coefficients on the initial photon energy, on the probability of large-angle photon scattering, and on the mean number of photon scatterings are examined. It is found out that only the rescaled albedo coefficients dependent on the mean number of photon scatterings have the form of universal functions and these functions are determined by applying the least square method.

  13. Quantifying the risk of an increase in the prices of non-energy products by combining the portfolio and input-output approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Kengo; Uchiyama, Yohji

    2010-01-01

    An increase in the price of imported fossil fuels indirectly increases the producer price in non-energy sectors; however, this indirect influence cannot be taken into account by the traditional portfolio approach. This study proposes an analytical framework combining the input-output (I-O) model and the portfolio approach that can take the indirect influence into account. A risk of an increase in the producer price in Japanese non-energy sectors during the period 1970-2000 is estimated, and the causes of a decrease in the risk through the analysis period are clarified by decomposing an index of the risk. The result indicates that almost all non-energy sectors have decreased this risk during the analysis period. The degree and cause of the decrease depends on a sector's location in the hierarchical structure of Japanese industries. For example, assembly sectors have decreased their risk mainly as the result of improvement in energy usage by upstream sectors, such as material sectors, rather than their own improvements. Proper policies considering such a structure are required to decrease the risk further because the effort taken to do so is seldom motivated by economic profit.

  14. Analyzing the Effects of the Iranian Energy Subsidy Reform Plan on Short- Run Marginal Generation Cost of Electricity Using Extended Input-Output Price Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Salimian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Subsidizing energy in Iran has imposed high costs on country's economy. Thus revising energy prices, on the basis of a subsidy reform plan, is a vital remedy to boost up the economy. While the direct consequence of cutting subsidies on electricity generation costs can be determined in a simple way, identifying indirect effects, which reflect higher costs for input factors such as labor, is a challenging problem. In this paper, variables such as compensation of employees and private consumption are endogenized by using extended Input-Output (I-O price model to evaluate direct and indirect effects of electricity and fuel prices increase on economic subsectors. The determination of the short-run marginal generation cost of electricity using I-O technique with taken into account the Iranian targeted subsidy plan's influences is the main goal of this paper. Marginal cost of electricity, in various scenarios of price adjustment of energy, is estimated for three conventional categories of thermal power plants. Our results show that the raising the price of energy leads to an increase in the electricity production costs. Accordingly, the production costs will be higher than 1000 Rials per kWh until 2014 as predicted in the beginning of the reform plan by electricity suppliers.

  15. TX 2000: total reflection and 45o energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasti, F.; Torboli, A.; Valdes, M.

    2000-01-01

    This equipment, developed by Ital Structures, combines two kinds of energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence techniques, the first using total reflection geometry and the second conventional 45 o geometry. The equipment is completely controlled by a PC and to reach the condition of total reflection is very easy because it is enough to load the file with the right position for the corresponding energy. In this apparatus we used an x-ray tube with an alloy anode of Mo/W with a long fine focus at 2200 W. To monochromatize the x-ray beam while choosing, for example, the Mo K alpha or W L alpha or a piece of white spectrum of 33 keV, we use a highly reflective multilayer made of Si/W with 2d = 45.5 A o . The detector used in the equipment is a lithium drifted silicon detector (Si(Li)) with an excellent energy resolution of 135 eV at 5.9 keV and 1000 cps. We developed two programs written in Windows 95, 98 and NT for a 32 bit microprocessor. The first one is called TYACQ32 and has the following functions: first, complete control of the hardware, second automatic alignment of the TX 2000 spectrometer and third acquisition of spectra. The second program is EDXRF32. This is a program to accomplish spectrum and quantitative analysis for TXRF and EDXRF 45 o degrees analysis. (author)

  16. Beverage Consumption Habits in Italian Population: Association with Total Water Intake and Energy Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenza Mistura

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to investigate total water intake (TWI from water, beverages and foods among Italian adults and the elderly. Methods: Data of 2607 adults and the elderly, aged 18–75 years from the last national food consumption survey, INRAN-SCAI 2005-06, were used to evaluate the TWI. The INRAN-SCAI 2005-06 survey was conducted on a representative sample of 3323 individuals aged 0.1 to 97.7 years. A 3-day semi-structured diary was used for participants to record the consumption of all foods, beverages and nutritional supplements. Results: On average, TWI was 1.8 L for men and 1.7 L for women. More than 75% of women and 90% of men did not comply with the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA Adequate Intake. The contribution of beverages to the total energy intake (EI was 6% for the total sample. Water was the most consumed beverage, followed by alcoholic beverages for men and hot beverages for women. Conclusion: According to the present results, adults and elderly Italians do not reach the adequate intake for water as suggested by the EFSA and by the national reference level of nutrient and energy intake. Data on water consumption should also be analyzed in single socio-demographic groups in order to identify sub-groups of the population that need more attention and to plan more targeted interventions.

  17. Total, partial and differential ionization cross sections in proton-hydrogen collisions at low energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Shiyang [Graduate University for Advanced Studies, School of Mathematical and Physical Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Pichl, Lukas [University of Aizu, Foundation of Computer Science Laboratory, Aizuwakamatsu, Fukushima (Japan); Kimura, Mineo [Yamaguchi Univ., Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ube, Yamaguchi (Japan); Kato, Takako [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)

    2003-01-01

    Single-differential, partial and total ionization cross sections for the proton-hydrogen collision system at low energy range (0.1-10 keV/amu) are determined by using the electron translation factor corrected molecular-orbital close-coupling method. Full convergence of ionization cross sections as a function of H{sub 2}{sup +} molecular basis size is achieved by including up to 10 bound states, and 11 continuum partial waves. The present cross sections are in an excellent agreement with the recent experiments of Shah et al., but decrease more rapidly than the cross sections measured by Pieksma et al. with decreasing energy. The calculated cross section data are included in this report. (author)

  18. Determination of the total neutron cross section using average energy shift method for filtered neutron beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. О. Gritzay

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of the technique for determination of the total neutron cross sections from the measurements of sample transmission by filtered neutrons, scattered on hydrogen is described. One of the methods of the transmission determination TH52Cr from the measurements of 52Cr sample, using average energy shift method for filtered neutron beam is presented. Using two methods of the experimental data processing, one of which is presented in this paper (another in [1], there is presented a set of transmissions, obtained for different samples and for different measurement angles. Two methods are fundamentally different; therefore, we can consider the obtained processing results, using these methods as independent. In future, obtained set of transmissions is planned to be used for determination of the parameters E0, Гn and R/ of the resonance 52Cr at the energy of 50 keV.

  19. Measurement of the energy dependence of the total photon-proton cross section at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramowicz, H. [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel). Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences; Univ. Coll. London (United Kingdom); Krakow Univ. of Technology (Poland). Faculty of Physics, Mathematics and Applied Computer Science; Abt, I. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Adamczyk, L. [AGH-Univ. of Science and Technology, Cracow (PL). Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science] (and others)

    2010-10-15

    The energy dependence of the photon-proton total cross section, {sigma}{sub tot}{sup {gamma}}{sup p}, was determined from e{sup +}p scattering data collected with the ZEUS detector at HERA at three values of the center-of-mass energy, W, of the {gamma}p system in the range 194

  20. Total Energy Expenditure, Energy Intake, and Body Composition in Endurance Athletes Across the Training Season: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydenreich, Juliane; Kayser, Bengt; Schutz, Yves; Melzer, Katarina

    2017-12-01

    Endurance athletes perform periodized training in order to prepare for main competitions and maximize performance. However, the coupling between alterations of total energy expenditure (TEE), energy intake, and body composition during different seasonal training phases is unclear. So far, no systematic review has assessed fluctuations in TEE, energy intake, and/or body composition in endurance athletes across the training season. The purpose of this study was to (1) systematically analyze TEE, energy intake, and body composition in highly trained athletes of various endurance disciplines and of both sexes and (2) analyze fluctuations in these parameters across the training season. An electronic database search was conducted on the SPORTDiscus and MEDLINE (January 1990-31 January 2015) databases using a combination of relevant keywords. Two independent reviewers identified potentially relevant studies. Where a consensus was not reached, a third reviewer was consulted. Original research articles that examined TEE, energy intake, and/or body composition in 18-40-year-old endurance athletes and reported the seasonal training phases of data assessment were included in the review. Articles were excluded if body composition was assessed by skinfold measurements, TEE was assessed by questionnaires, or data could not be split between the sexes. Two reviewers assessed the quality of studies independently. Data on subject characteristics, TEE, energy intake, and/or body composition were extracted from the included studies. Subjects were categorized according to their sex and endurance discipline and each study allocated a weight within categories based on the number of subjects assessed. Extracted data were used to calculate weighted means and standard deviations for parameters of TEE, energy intake, and/or body composition. From 3589 citations, 321 articles were identified as potentially relevant, with 82 meeting all of the inclusion criteria. TEE of endurance athletes was

  1. Solar total energy: large scale experiment, Shenandoah, Georgia Site. Annual report, June 1978-June 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ney, E.J.

    1979-07-01

    A background summary and a complete description of the progress and current status of activities relative to the Cooperative Agreement for the Solar Total Energy - Large Scale Experiment at the Bleyle Knitwear Plant at Shenandoah, Georgia are presented. A statement of objectives and an abstract of progress to date are included. This is followed by a short introduction containing a project overview, a summary of the participants and their respective roles, a brief description of the Solar Total Energy System (STES) design concept, and a chronological summary of progress to date. A general description of the site is given, a detailed report of progress is reported, and drawings and equipment lists are included. The closed-loop solar energy system planned for Shenandoah begins with circulation of Syltherm 800, a heat transfer fluid of the Dow-Corning Corporation, through the receiver tubes of a parabolic dish solar collector field. As solar energy is focused on the receivers, the heat transfer fluid is heated to approximately 399/sup 0/C (750/sup 0/F) and is pumped to a heat exchanger for immediate use, or to a thermal storage system for later use. Once in the heat exchanger, the fluid heats a working fluid that produces the steam required for operating the turbine. After performing this task, the heat transfer fluid returns to the collectors to repeat the cycle, while the steam turbine-generator system supplies the electrical demands for the knitwear plant and the STES. During STES operation, maximum thermal and electrical requirements of the application are expected to be at 1.08 MWth and 161 kWe, respectively. During the power generation phase, some of the steam is extracted for use as process steam in the knitwear manufacturing process, while exhaust steam from the turbine is passed through a condenser to produce hot water for heating, domestic use, and absorption air conditioning. (WHK)

  2. Analytic properties of the relativistic Thomas-Fermi equation and the total energy of atomic ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    March, N.H.; Senatore, G.

    1985-06-01

    The analytic properties of solutions of the relativistic Thomas-Fermi equation which tend to zero at infinity are first examined, the neutral atom solution being a member of this class. A new length is shown to enter the theory, proportional to the square root of the fine structure constant. This information is used to develop a perturbation expansion around the neutral atom solution, corresponding to positive atomic ions with finite but large radii. The limiting law relating ionic radius to the degree of ionization is thereby displayed in functional form, and solved explicitly to lowest order in the fine structure constant. To embrace this knowledge of heavy positive ions, as well as results from the one-electron Dirac equation, a proposal is then advanced as to the analytic form of the relativistic total energy E(Z,N) of an atomic ion with nuclear charge Ze and total number of electrons N. The fact that, for N>1, the nucleus is known only to bind Z+n electrons, where n is 1 or 2, indicates non-analyticity in the complex Z plane, represented by a circle of radius Z approx.= N. Such non-analyticity is also a property of the non-relativistic energy derived from the many-electron Schroedinger equation. The relativistic theory, however, must also embody a second type of non-analyticity associated with the known property for N=1 that the Dirac equation predicts electron-positron pair production when the electronic binding energy becomes equal to twice the electron rest mass energy. This corresponds to a second circle of non-analyticity in E(Z,N), and hence to a Taylor-Laurent expansion of this quantity in the atomic number Z. The relation of this expansion to the Layzer-Bahcall series is finally discussed. (author)

  3. The influence of x-ray energy on lung dose uniformity in total-body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekstrand, Kenneth; Greven, Kathryn; Wu Qingrong

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: In this study we examine the influence of x-ray energy on the uniformity of the dose within the lung in total-body irradiation treatments in which partial transmission blocks are used to control the lung dose. Methods and Materials: A solid water phantom with a cork insert to simulate a lung was irradiated by x-rays with energies of either 6, 10, or 18 MV. The source to phantom distance was 3.9 meters. The cork insert was either 10 cm wide or 6 cm wide. Partial transmission blocks with transmission factors of 50% were placed anterior to the cork insert. The blocks were either 8 or 4 cm in width. Kodak XV-2 film was placed in the midline of the phantom to record the dose. Midplane dose profiles were measured with a densitometer. Results: For the 10 cm wide cork insert the uniformity of the dose over 80% of the block width varied from 6.6% for the 6 MV x-rays to 12.2% for the 18 MV x-rays. For the 6 cm wide cork insert the uniformity was comparable for all three x-ray energies, but for 18 MV the central dose increased by 9.4% compared to the 10 cm wide insert. Conclusion: Many factors must be considered in optimizing the dose for total-body irradiation. This study suggests that for AP/PA techniques lung dose uniformity is superior with 6 MV irradiation. The blanket recommendation that the highest x-ray energy be used in TBI is not valid for all situations

  4. Energy Output Estimation for a Small Wind Turbine Positioned on a Rooftop in the Urban Environment with and without a Duct

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beller, Christina

    , the free standing turbines had an energy potential of 300kWh/m2/a for the horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) and for the vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) 180kWh/m2/a. For the ducted turbines an energy output of 180kWh/m2/a was found for the HAWT configuration, while the VAWT configuration reached......Nowadays, wind turbines in general, but also urban wind turbines attained acceptance to a certain extend. Conceptual designs and some examples in reality exist, where small-scale wind turbines have been implemented close to buildings or even integrated in the building structure. This work is aiming...... to estimate how much energy a wind turbine could produce in the built environment, depending on its integration and configuration. On the basis of measurements taken on the rooftop of H.C. Ørsted Institut in Copenhagen, which is located in an urban area, a comparison of fictive free standing turbines...

  5. A Different View of Solar Spectral Irradiance Variations: Modeling Total Energy over Six-Month Intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Thomas N; Snow, Martin; Harder, Jerald; Chapman, Gary; Cookson, Angela

    A different approach to studying solar spectral irradiance (SSI) variations, without the need for long-term (multi-year) instrument degradation corrections, is examining the total energy of the irradiance variation during 6-month periods. This duration is selected because a solar active region typically appears suddenly and then takes 5 to 7 months to decay and disperse back into the quiet-Sun network. The solar outburst energy, which is defined as the irradiance integrated over the 6-month period and thus includes the energy from all phases of active region evolution, could be considered the primary cause for the irradiance variations. Because solar cycle variation is the consequence of multiple active region outbursts, understanding the energy spectral variation may provide a reasonable estimate of the variations for the 11-year solar activity cycle. The moderate-term (6-month) variations from the Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) instruments can be decomposed into positive (in-phase with solar cycle) and negative (out-of-phase) contributions by modeling the variations using the San Fernando Observatory (SFO) facular excess and sunspot deficit proxies, respectively. These excess and deficit variations are fit over 6-month intervals every 2 months over the mission, and these fitted variations are then integrated over time for the 6-month energy. The dominant component indicates which wavelengths are in-phase and which are out-of-phase with solar activity. The results from this study indicate out-of-phase variations for the 1400 - 1600 nm range, with all other wavelengths having in-phase variations.

  6. Robust total energy demand estimation with a hybrid Variable Neighborhood Search – Extreme Learning Machine algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sánchez-Oro, J.; Duarte, A.; Salcedo-Sanz, S.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The total energy demand in Spain is estimated with a Variable Neighborhood algorithm. • Socio-economic variables are used, and one year ahead prediction horizon is considered. • Improvement of the prediction with an Extreme Learning Machine network is considered. • Experiments are carried out in real data for the case of Spain. - Abstract: Energy demand prediction is an important problem whose solution is evaluated by policy makers in order to take key decisions affecting the economy of a country. A number of previous approaches to improve the quality of this estimation have been proposed in the last decade, the majority of them applying different machine learning techniques. In this paper, the performance of a robust hybrid approach, composed of a Variable Neighborhood Search algorithm and a new class of neural network called Extreme Learning Machine, is discussed. The Variable Neighborhood Search algorithm is focused on obtaining the most relevant features among the set of initial ones, by including an exponential prediction model. While previous approaches consider that the number of macroeconomic variables used for prediction is a parameter of the algorithm (i.e., it is fixed a priori), the proposed Variable Neighborhood Search method optimizes both: the number of variables and the best ones. After this first step of feature selection, an Extreme Learning Machine network is applied to obtain the final energy demand prediction. Experiments in a real case of energy demand estimation in Spain show the excellent performance of the proposed approach. In particular, the whole method obtains an estimation of the energy demand with an error lower than 2%, even when considering the crisis years, which are a real challenge.

  7. Test of the universal rise of hadronic total cross sections at super-high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Muneyuki; Igi, Keiji

    2007-01-01

    The increase of the total cross sections at very high energies described by log 2 (s/s 0 ) appears to be confirmed. In the analysis of the COMPETE collaboration in the Particle Data Group (2006), the Blog 2 (s/s 0 ) was assumed to extend the universal rise of all the total hadronic cross sections to reduce the number of adjustable parameters. We test if the assumption on the universality of B is justified, through investigation of the values of B for π ± p(K ± p) and pp,pp scatterings. We search for the simultaneous best fit to the σ tot and ρ ratios, using a constraint from the FESR of the P' type for π -+ p scatterings and constraints that are free from the unphysical regions for the pp, pp and K ± p scatterings. By including rich information of the low-energy scattering data owing to the use of FESR, the errors of the B parameters decrease especially for πp. The resulting value of B pp is consistent with B πp within two standard deviations, which appears to support the universality hypothesis. (orig.)

  8. Relativistic analysis of the dielectric Einstein box: Abraham, Minkowski and total energy-momentum tensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Tomas; Rubilar, Guillermo F.; Obukhov, Yuri N.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The definition of the momentum of light inside matter is studied. → Fully relativistic analysis of the dielectric 'Einstein box' thought experiment. → Minkowski, Abraham and the total energy-momentum tensors are derived in detail. → Some assumptions hidden in the usual Einstein box argument are identified. → The Abraham momentum is not uniquely selected as the momentum of light in this case. - Abstract: We analyse the 'Einstein box' thought experiment and the definition of the momentum of light inside matter. We stress the importance of the total energy-momentum tensor of the closed system (electromagnetic field plus material medium) and derive in detail the relativistic expressions for the Abraham and Minkowski momenta, together with the corresponding balance equations for an isotropic and homogeneous medium. We identify some assumptions hidden in the Einstein box argument, which make it weaker than it is usually recognized. In particular, we show that the Abraham momentum is not uniquely selected as the momentum of light in this case.

  9. Design considerations of a total energy power system for a rural health centre in Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chendo, M A.C. [Lagos Univ. (NG). Dept. of Physics; Salawu, R I [Lagos Univ. (NG). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1989-01-01

    A conceptual total energy (hybrid) system design considerations are presented for a Rural Health Centre in a remote village in Nigeria. The design uses a spectrally selective beam splitting technique. The system provides both electrical and thermal energy with electrical needs of the centre being provided by the photoquantum convertor while the hot water and sterilization requirements are met by the spectrally selective heat transfer liquid in the thermally decoupled loop. A critical analysis of the electrical and thermal energy requirements of the health centre including its laboratories, water supply, refrigeration, lighting, etc. and its technoeconomic aspects is also discussed. With appropriate sizing of panels, storage, choice of the spectrally selective heat transfer liquid and other accessories, the PV/PT system using moderately concentrated sunlight is attractive for such application in areas with no national grid lines and normally considered uneconomical for electrification by the extension of the national grid or by the provision of generators which require constant supply of fuel and servicing. (author).

  10. Total energy expenditure in burned children using the doubly labeled water technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goran, M.I.; Peters, E.J.; Herndon, D.N.; Wolfe, R.R.

    1990-01-01

    Total energy expenditure (TEE) was measured in 15 burned children with the doubly labeled water technique. Application of the technique in burned children required evaluation of potential errors resulting from nutritional intake altering background enrichments during studies and from the high rate of water turnover relative to CO2 production. Five studies were discarded because of these potential problems. TEE was 1.33 +/- 0.27 times predicted basal energy expenditure (BEE), and in studies where resting energy expenditure (REE) was simultaneously measured, TEE was 1.18 +/- 0.17 times REE, which in turn was 1.16 +/- 0.10 times predicted BEE. TEE was significantly correlated with measured REE (r2 = 0.92) but not with predicted BEE. These studies substantiate the advantage of measuring REE to predict TEE in severely burned patients as opposed to relying on standardized equations. Therefore we recommend that optimal nutritional support will be achieved in convalescent burned children by multiplying REE by an activity factor of 1.2

  11. Total cross sections for electron scattering by CO2 molecules in the energy range 400 endash 5000 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, G.; Manero, F.

    1996-01-01

    Total cross sections for electron scattering by CO 2 molecules in the energy range 400 endash 5000 eV have been measured with experimental errors of ∼3%. The present results have been compared with available experimental and theoretical data. The dependence of the total cross sections on electron energy shows an asymptotic behavior with increasing energies, in agreement with the Born-Bethe approximation. In addition, an analytical formula is provided to extrapolate total cross sections to higher energies. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  12. Changes in Intakes of Total and Added Sugar and their Contribution to Energy Intake in the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won O. Song

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to document changes in total sugar intake and intake of added sugars, in the context of total energy intake and intake of nutrient categories, between the 1970s and the 1990s, and to identify major food sources contributing to those changes in intake. Data from the NHANES I and III were analyzed to obtain nationally representative information on food consumption for the civilian, non-institutionalized population of the U.S. from 1971 to 1994. In the past three decades, in addition to the increase in mean intakes of total energy, total sugar, added sugars, significant increases in the total intake of carbohydrates and the proportion of carbohydrates to the total energy intake were observed. The contribution of sugars to total carbohydrate intake decreased in both 1–18 y and 19+ y age subgroups, and the contribution of added sugars to the total energy intake did not change. Soft drinks/fluid milk/sugars and cakes, pastries, and pies remained the major food sources for intake of total sugar, total carbohydrates, and total energy during the past three decades. Carbonated soft drinks were the most significant sugar source across the entire three decades. Changes in sugar consumption over the past three decades may be a useful specific area of investigation in examining the effect of dietary patterns on chronic diseases.

  13. Innovative direct energy conversion systems from fusion output thermal power to the electrical one with the use of electronic adiabatic processes of electron fluid in solid conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondoh, Y.; Kondo, M.; Shimoda, K.; Takahashi, T.; Osuga, K.

    2003-07-01

    It is shown that with the use of the fusion output and/or environmental thermal energy, innovative open systems for permanent auto-working (PA) direct energy converting (DEC) from the thermal to the electrical (TE) and further to the chemical potential (TEC) energies, abbreviated as PA-TEC-DEC systems, can be used for new auto-working electrical power plants and the plants of the compressible and conveyable hydrogen gas resources at various regions in the whole world. It is analytically shown that the same physical mechanism by free electrons and electrical potential determined by temperature in conductors, which include semiconductors, leads to the Peltier effect and the Seebeck one. It is analytically proved that the energy conservation law is exactly satisfied in a simple form where the net absorbed thermal power is directly transferred to the electrical power and to the chemical power in the PA-TEC-DEC systems. It is analytically and experimentally clarified that the long distance separation between two π type elements of the heat absorption side and the production one of the Peltier effect circuit system or between the higher temperature side and the lower one of the Seebeck effect circuit one does not change mechanisms of the heat pumping by the Peltier effect and of the TE-DEC by the Seebeck effect. The proposed systems gives us freedom of no using the fossil fuel, such as coals, oils, and natural gases that yield serious greenhouse effect all over the earth, and the plant of nuclear fissions that left radiating wastes, i.e., no more environmental pollutions. The PA-TEC-DEC systems can be applicable for several km scale systems to the micro ones, such as the plants of the electrical power and the hydrogen gas resources, compact transportable hydrogen gas producers, the refrigerators, the air conditions, home electrical apparatuses, and further the computer elements. (author)

  14. Total energy cycle assessment of electric and conventional vehicles: an energy and environmental analysis. Volume 1: technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuenca, R.; Formento, J.; Gaines, L.; Marr, B.; Santini, D.; Wang, M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Adelman, S.; Kline, D.; Mark, J.; Ohi, J.; Rau, N. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Freeman, S.; Humphreys, K.; Placet, M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This report compares the energy use, oil use and emissions of electric vehicles (EVs) with those of conventional, gasoline-powered vehicles (CVs) over the total life cycle of the vehicles. The various stages included in the vehicles` life cycles include vehicle manufacture, fuel production, and vehicle operation. Disposal is not included. An inventory of the air emissions associated with each stage of the life cycle is estimated. Water pollutants and solid wastes are reported for individual processes, but no comprehensive inventory is developed. Volume I contains the major results, a discussion of the conceptual framework of the study, and summaries of the vehicle, utility, fuel production, and manufacturing analyses. It also contains summaries of comments provided by external peer reviewers and brief responses to these comments.

  15. Development of a Total Energy, Environment and Asset Management (TE2AM tm) Curriculum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Leary, Phillip R. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2012-12-31

    The University of Wisconsin Department of Engineering Professional Development (EPD) has completed the sponsored project entitled, Development of a Total Energy, Environment and Asset Management (TE2AM) Curriculum. The project involved the development of a structured professional development program to improve the knowledge, skills, capabilities, and competencies of engineers and operators of commercial buildings. TE2AM advances a radically different approach to commercial building design, operation, maintenance, and end of life disposition. By employing asset management principles to the lifecycle of a commercial building, owners and occupants will realize improved building performance, reduced energy consumption and positive environmental impacts. Through our commercialization plan, we intend to offer TE2AM courses and certificates to the professional community and continuously improve TE2AM course materials. The TE2AM project supports the DOE Strategic Theme 1 Energy Security; and will further advance the DOE Strategic Goal 1.4 Energy Productivity. Through participation in the TE2AM curriculum, engineers and operators of commercial buildings will be eligible for a professional certificate; denoting the completion of a prescribed series of learning activities. The project involved a comprehensive, rigorous approach to curriculum development, and accomplished the following goals: 1. Identify, analyze and prioritize key learning needs of engineers, architects and technical professionals as operators of commercial buildings. 2. Design and develop TE2AM curricula and instructional strategies to meet learning needs of the target learning community. 3. Establish partnerships with the sponsor and key stakeholders to enhance the development and delivery of learning programs. 4. Successfully commercialize and sustain the training and certificate programs for a substantial time following the term of the award. The project team was successful in achieving the goals and

  16. Integrated Autopilot/Autothrottle Based on a Total Energy Control Concept: Design and Evaluation of Additional Autopilot Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Kevin R.

    1988-01-01

    An integrated autopilot/autothrottle system was designed using a total energy control design philosophy. This design ensures that the system can differentiate between maneuvers requiring a change in thrust to accomplish a net energy change, and those maneuvers which only require elevator control to redistribute energy. The system design, the development of the system, and a summary of simulation results are defined.

  17. Fiscal 1974 Sunshine Project result report. Research on solar energy utilization systems (total system); 1974 nendo taiyo energy riyo system chosa kenkyu seika hokokusho. Total system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-03-01

    The current most important solar energy utilization fields are solar energy power generation (solar heat and photovoltaic power generation), and solar heat cooling and heating. A solar heat power system collects or stores solar thermal energy as energy source of power systems, and converts it to electric power through heat exchange systems. To establish such system, not only R and D on a collector, absorption capsule, storage unit and heat transfer unit, but also complete study on an optimum system configuration and environmental impact are necessary. A photovoltaic power system converts solar energy to electric power directly by photoelectric conversion device such solar cell. Except specific local uses, drastic cost reduction and improvement of a conversion efficiency (at present 12-15%) and life (several years) are necessary for solar cells. Although a lot of solar heat cooling and heating systems is in practical use in Japan, for its further diffusion an important research task is development of heat collector excellent in efficiency, cost, life and maintainability. (NEDO)

  18. Real-space formulation of the electrostatic potential and total energy of solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pask, J E; Sterne, P A

    2004-01-01

    We develop expressions for the electrostatic potential and total energy of crystalline solids which are amenable to direct evaluation in real space. Unlike conventional reciprocal space formulations, no Fourier transforms or reciprocal lattice summations are required, and the formulation is well suited for large-scale, parallel computations. The need for reciprocal space expressions is eliminated by replacing long-range potentials by equivalent localized charge distributions and incorporating long-range interactions into boundary conditions on the unit cell. In so doing, a simplification of the conventional reciprocal space formalism is obtained. The equivalence of the real- and reciprocal space formalisms is demonstrated by direct comparison in self-consistent density-functional calculations

  19. Distributed Flexibility Management Targeting Energy Cost and Total Power Limitations in Electricity Distribution Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bessler, Sanford; Kemal, Mohammed Seifu; Silva, Nuno

    2018-01-01

    Demand Management uses the interaction and information exchange between multiple control functions in order to achieve goals that can vary in different application contexts. Since there are several stakeholders involved, these may have diverse objectives and even use different architectures...... to actively manage power demand. This paper utilizes an existing distributed demand management architecture in order to provide the following contributions: (1) It develops and evaluates a set of algorithms that combine the optimization of energy costs in scenarios of variable day-ahead prices with the goal...... to improve distribution grid operation reliability, here implemented by a total Power limit. (2) It evaluates the proposed scheme as a distributed system where flexibility information is exchanged with the existing industry standard OpenADR. A Hardware-in-the-Loop testbed realization demonstrates...

  20. Association of bovine leptin polymorphisms with energy output and energy storage traits in progeny tested Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle sires

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Leptin modulates appetite, energy expenditure and the reproductive axis by signalling via its receptor the status of body energy stores to the brain. The present study aimed to quantify the associations between 10 novel and known single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes coding for leptin and leptin receptor with performance traits in 848 Holstein-Friesian sires, estimated from performance of up to 43,117 daughter-parity records per sire. Results All single nucleotide polymorphisms were segregating in this sample population and none deviated (P > 0.05) from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Complete linkage disequilibrium existed between the novel polymorphism LEP-1609, and the previously identified polymorphisms LEP-1457 and LEP-580. LEP-2470 associated (P body condition score, reduced milk yield and shorter gestation (P fertility in the Holstein-Friesian dairy cow. PMID:20670403

  1. Association of bovine leptin polymorphisms with energy output and energy storage traits in progeny tested Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle sires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waters Sinead M

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leptin modulates appetite, energy expenditure and the reproductive axis by signalling via its receptor the status of body energy stores to the brain. The present study aimed to quantify the associations between 10 novel and known single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes coding for leptin and leptin receptor with performance traits in 848 Holstein-Friesian sires, estimated from performance of up to 43,117 daughter-parity records per sire. Results All single nucleotide polymorphisms were segregating in this sample population and none deviated (P > 0.05 from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Complete linkage disequilibrium existed between the novel polymorphism LEP-1609, and the previously identified polymorphisms LEP-1457 and LEP-580. LEP-2470 associated (P Conclusions Several leptin polymorphisms (LEP-2470, LEP-1238, LEP-963, Y7F and R25C associated with the energetically expensive process of lactogenesis. Only SNP Y7F associated with energy storage. Associations were also observed between leptin polymorphisms and calving difficulty, gestation length and calf perinatal mortality. The lack of an association between the leptin variants investigated with calving interval in this large data set would question the potential importance of these leptin variants, or indeed leptin, in selection for improved fertility in the Holstein-Friesian dairy cow.

  2. Electromagnetic Compatibility of Transcutaneous Energy Transmission Systemfor Totally Implantable Artificial Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiba, Kenji; Koshiji, Kohji

    Transcutaneous Energy Transmission (TET) is one way of providing the energy needed to power a totally implantable artificial heart (TIAH). In the present study, an externally coupled TET system was implanted in a prototype human phantom to evaluate emission and immunity. In the emission evaluation, measurements were conducted based on CISPR Pub.11 and VDE 0871 standards, while immunity tests were based on the standards of the IEC 61000-4 series. The magnetic field of the radiated emission was measured using a loop antenna. At 0.1[MHz], we found the greatest magnetic field of 47.8 [dBμA/m], somewhat less than CISPR’s upper limit of 54 [dBμA/m]. For the conducted emission, by installing a noise filter and ferrite beads in the input section of the DC-power supply, conducted emission could be kept within the allowable limits of CISPR Pub.11 and VDE 0871. Finally, the immunity tests against radiated and conducted emission, electrostatic discharge and voltage fluctuation proved that the prototype could withstand the maximum level of disturbance. These results confirmed that the TET system implanted in a human phantom could, through modification, meet the emission and immunity standards.

  3. Classical calculation of the total ionization energy of helium-like atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karastoyanov, A.

    1990-01-01

    Quantum mechanics rejects the classical modelling of microworld. One of the reasons is that the Bohr's rules can not be applied for many-electron atoms and molecules. But the many-body problem in classical mechanics has no analytical solution even for 3 particles. Numerical solutions should be used. The quantum Bohr's rule expressing the moment of momentum conservation for two particles is invalid in more complicated cases. Yet Bohr reached some success for helium-like atoms. The Bohr's formula concerning helim-like atoms is deduced again in this paper and its practical reliability is analyzed with contemporary data. The binding energy of the system is obtained in the simple form E=(Z-1/4) 2 α 2 mc 2 , where Z is the atomic number, α - the fine structure constant, M - the electron mass and c - the light speed in vacuum. The calculated values are compared with experimental data on the total ionization energy of the helium-like atoms from 2 He 4 to 29 Cu 64 . The error decreases quickly with the increasing of atomic mass, reaching zero for Cu. This indicated that the main source of error is the nucleus motion. The role of other possible causes is analyzed and proves negligible. (author). 1 tab, 4 refs

  4. Single- and dual energy QCT around acetabular cups in total hip arthroplasty using 3-dimensional segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mussmann, Bo Redder; Andersen, Poul Erik; Torfing, Trine

    of segmentation software and to compare bone mineral density (BMD) measurements in single- and dual energy CT (SECT and DECT) Materials and Methods: 24 male patients with total hip arthroplasty (12 cemented and 12 uncemented) were scanned and rescanned using SECT and virtual monochromatic DECT images. 3D- ROIs......Background: Bone density measurements around hip implants are challenged by artifacts and the complex anatomy of the acetabulum. We developed 3D segmentation software and used dual energy CT to reduce artifacts. Purpose / Aim of Study: To test the between-scan agreement and reliability...... the cemented cup the mean BMD for SECT was 523 mg/ccm with a between-scan difference of 14 mg/ccm, p=0.25 and 186 mg/ccm in DECT with a difference of 6 mg/ccm, p=0.15. ICC was >0.95 with more narrow limits of agreement in DECT compared with SECT. Computed tomography dose index (CTDI) was 25% higher with DECT...

  5. Total Energy Recovery System for Agribusiness: Lake County study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogleman, S.F.; Fisher, L.A.; Black, A.R.

    1978-04-01

    A brief summary is given of the results of a previously reported study designed to evaluate the costs and viability of combined thermodynamic and biologic cycles in a system known as the Total Energy Recovery System for Agribusiness (TERSA). This conceptual system involved the combined geothermally assisted activities of greenhouse crop and mushroom growing, fish farming, and biogas generation in an integrated biologic system such that the waste or by-products of each subsystem cycle were recovered to service input needs of companion cycles. An updated direct use geothermal system based on TERSA that is viable for implementation in Lake County is presented. Particular consideration is given to: location of geothermal resources, availability of land and irrigation quality water, compatibility of the specific direct use geothermal activities with adjacent and local uses. Private interest and opposition, and institutional factors as identified. Factors relevant to local TERSA implementation are discussed, followed by sites considered, selection criteria, site slection, and the modified system resulting. Particular attention is paid to attempt to make clear the process followed in applying this conceptual design to the specific task of realistic local implementation. Previous publications on geothermal energy and Lake County are referenced where specific details outside the scope of this study may be found. (JGB)

  6. Embedded piezoelectrics for sensing and energy harvesting in total knee replacement units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Brooke E.; Meneghini, Michael; Anton, Steven R.

    2015-04-01

    The knee replacement is the second most common orthopedic surgical intervention in the United States, but currently only 1 in 5 knee replacement patients are satisfied with their level of pain reduction one year after surgery. It is imperative to make the process of knee replacement surgery more objective by developing a data driven approach to ligamentous balance, which increases implant life. In this work, piezoelectric materials are considered for both sensing and energy harvesting applications in total knee replacement implants. This work aims to embed piezoelectric material in the polyethylene bearing of a knee replacement unit to act as self-powered sensors that will aid in the alignment and balance of the knee replacement by providing intraoperative feedback to the surgeon. Postoperatively, the piezoelectric sensors can monitor the structural health of the implant in order to perceive potential problems before they become bothersome to the patient. Specifically, this work will present on the use of finite element modeling coupled with uniaxial compression testing to prove that piezoelectric stacks can be utilized to harvest sufficient energy to power sensors needed for this application.

  7. Measurement of the elastic, total and diffraction cross sections at tevatron energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belforte, S.

    1993-11-01

    The CDF collaboration has measured the differential elastic cross section dσ el /dt, the single diffraction dissociation double differential cross section d 2 σ sd /dM 2 dt and the total inelastic cross section for antiproton-proton collisions at center of mass energies √s = 546 and 1,800 GeV. Data for this measurement have been collected in short dedicated runs during the 1988--1989 data taking period of CDF. The elastic scattering slope is 15.28 ± 0.58 (16.98 ± 0.25) GeV -2 at √s = 546 (1,800) GeV. Using the luminosity independent method (1 + ρ 2 )σ T is measured to be 62.64 ± 0.95 (81.83 ± 2.29) mb at √s = 546 (1,800) GeV. Assuming ρ = 0.15 the elastic, total and single diffraction cross sections are σ el = 12.87 ± 0.30, σ T = 61.26 ± 0.93 and σ sd = 7.89 ± 0.33 mb (σ el = 19.70 ± 0.85, σ T = 80.03 ± 2.24 and σ sd = 9.46 ± 0.44 mb) at √s = 546 (1,800) GeV

  8. An energy harvesting converter to power sensorized total human knee prosthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luciano, V; Sardini, E; Serpelloni, M; Baronio, G

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring the internal loads acting in a total knee prosthesis (TKP) is fundamental aspect to improve their design. One of the main benefits of this improvement is the longer duration of the tibial inserts. In this work, an electromagnetic energy harvesting system, which is implantable in a TKP, is presented. This is conceived for powering a future implantable system that is able to monitor the loads (and, possibly, other parameters) that could influence the working conditions of a TKP in real-time. The energy harvesting system (EHS) is composed of two series of NdFeB magnets, positioned into each condyle, and a coil that is placed in a pin of the tibial insert and connected to an implantable power management circuit. The magnetic flux variation and the induced voltage are generated by the knee's motion. A TKP prototype has been realized in order to reproduce the knee mechanics and to test the EHS performance. In the present work, the experimental results are obtained by adopting a resistive load of 2.2 kΩ, in order to simulate a real implanted autonomous system with a current consumption of 850 µA and voltage of 2 V. The tests showed that, after 7 to 30 s of walking with a gait cycle frequency of about 1.0 Hz, the EHS can generate an energy of about 70 μJ, guaranteeing a voltage between 2 and 1.4 V every 7.6 s. With this prototype we can verify that it is possible to power for 16 ms a circuit having a power consumption of 1.7 mW every 7.6 s. The proposed generator is a viable solution to power an implanted electronic system that is conceived for measuring and transmitting the TKP load parameters. (paper)

  9. A prospective study of spine fractures diagnosed by total spine computed tomography in high energy trauma patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takami, Masanari; Nohda, Kazuhiro; Sakanaka, Junya; Nakamura, Masamichi; Yoshida, Munehito

    2011-01-01

    Since it is known to be impossible to identify spinal fractures in high-energy trauma patients the primary trauma evaluation, we have been performing total spine computed tomography (CT) in high-energy trauma cases. We investigated the spinal fractures that it was possible to detect by total spine CT in 179 cases and evaluated the usefulness of total spine CT prospectively. There were 54 (30.2%) spinal fractures among the 179 cases. Six (37.5%) of the 16 cervical spine fractures that were not detected on plain X-ray films were identified by total spine CT. Six (14.0%) of 43 thoracolumbar spine fractures were considered difficult to diagnose based on the clinical findings if total spine CT had not been performed. We therefore concluded that total spine CT is very useful and should be performed during the primary trauma evaluation in high-energy trauma cases. (author)

  10. Holistic virtual machine scheduling in cloud datacenters towards minimizing total energy

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiang; Garraghan, Peter; Jiang, Xiaohong; Wu, Zhaohui; Xu, Jie

    2018-01-01

    Energy consumed by Cloud datacenters has dramatically increased, driven by rapid uptake of applications and services globally provisioned through virtualization. By applying energy-aware virtual machine scheduling, Cloud providers are able to achieve enhanced energy efficiency and reduced operation cost. Energy consumption of datacenters consists of computing energy and cooling energy. However, due to the complexity of energy and thermal modeling of realistic Cloud datacenter operation, tradi...

  11. A step by step selection method for the location and the size of a waste-to-energy facility targeting the maximum output energy and minimization of gate fee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriakis, Efstathios; Psomopoulos, Constantinos; Kokkotis, Panagiotis; Bourtsalas, Athanasios; Themelis, Nikolaos

    2017-06-23

    This study attempts the development of an algorithm in order to present a step by step selection method for the location and the size of a waste-to-energy facility targeting the maximum output energy, also considering the basic obstacle which is in many cases, the gate fee. Various parameters identified and evaluated in order to formulate the proposed decision making method in the form of an algorithm. The principle simulation input is the amount of municipal solid wastes (MSW) available for incineration and along with its net calorific value are the most important factors for the feasibility of the plant. Moreover, the research is focused both on the parameters that could increase the energy production and those that affect the R1 energy efficiency factor. Estimation of the final gate fee is achieved through the economic analysis of the entire project by investigating both expenses and revenues which are expected according to the selected site and outputs of the facility. In this point, a number of commonly revenue methods were included in the algorithm. The developed algorithm has been validated using three case studies in Greece-Athens, Thessaloniki, and Central Greece, where the cities of Larisa and Volos have been selected for the application of the proposed decision making tool. These case studies were selected based on a previous publication made by two of the authors, in which these areas where examined. Results reveal that the development of a «solid» methodological approach in selecting the site and the size of waste-to-energy (WtE) facility can be feasible. However, the maximization of the energy efficiency factor R1 requires high utilization factors while the minimization of the final gate fee requires high R1 and high metals recovery from the bottom ash as well as economic exploitation of recovered raw materials if any.

  12. Improving the Energy Performance in Existing Non-residential Buildings in Denmark Using the Total Concept Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krawczyk, Pawel; Afshari, Alireza; Simonsen, Graves K.

    2016-01-01

    This project is a part of a joint European research project, “Total Concept”, which is a method for improving the energy performance in existing non-Residential buildings. The method focuses on achieving maximum energy savings in a Building within the profitability frames set by a building owner...... was to form a package of measures for an energy performance improvement in the building based on the Total Concept method. This paper presents results from recently analyzed data on two renovated Danish buildings according to the rules of “Total Concept” method. According to the estimation done based...

  13. Fiscal 1976 Sunshine Project result report. Research on solar energy utilization systems (total system); 1976 nendo taiyo energy riyo system chosa kenkyu seika hokokusho. Total system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-03-01

    For every solar energy utilization field, its background, feasibility, impact in practical use, and R and D policy in Japan were studied. Heating and hot water supply by solar energy are already practical because of less technical problems and reasonable profitability, and cooling is also practical as far as a technical viewpoint. At present, the technical level of solar heat power generation is in the stage of basic technology, however, in the future, development of economically reasonable systems will be demanded as well as establishment of its technology. The most difficult problem for realizing practical solar cell power generation systems is cost reduction. It is also another problem that a big demand of Si for solar cells further exceeds the current yield of Si in a semiconductor industry. A small-scale hybrid solar cell power generation system applicable to the roof of general residences is already feasible. Although a solar furnace is still poor in application to industrial fields, it is expected as the leading part for a future solar heat chemical industry. (NEDO)

  14. Projection potentials and angular momentum convergence of total energies in the full-potential Korringa–Kohn–Rostoker method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeller, Rudolf

    2013-01-01

    Although the full-potential Korringa–Kohn–Rostoker Green function method yields accurate results for many physical properties, the convergence of calculated total energies with respect to the angular momentum cutoff is usually considered to be less satisfactory. This is surprising because accurate single-particle energies are expected if they are calculated by Lloyd’s formula and because accurate densities and hence accurate double-counting energies should result from the total energy variational principle. It is shown how the concept of projection potentials can be used as a tool to analyse the convergence behaviour. The key factor blocking fast convergence is identified and it is illustrated how total energies can be improved with only a modest increase of computing time. (paper)

  15. ATU/Fort Hood Solar Total Energy Military Large-Scale Experiment (LSE-1): system design and support activities. Final report, November 23, 1976-November 30, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    The ATU/Fort Hood Solar Total Energy System will include a concentrating solar collector field of several acres. During periods of direct insolation, a heat-transfer fluid will be circulated through the collector field and thus heated to 500 to 600/sup 0/F. Some of the fluid will be circulated through a steam generator to drive a turbine-generator set; additional fluid will be stored in insulated tanks for use when solar energy is not available. The electrical output will satisfy a portion of the electrical load at Fort Hood's 87,000 Troop Housing Complex. Heat extracted from the turbine exhaust in the form of hot water will be used for space heating, absorption air conditioning, and domestic water heating at the 87,000 Complex. Storage tanks for the hot water are also included. The systems analysis and program support activities include studies of solar availability and energy requirements at Fort Hood, investigation of interfacing LSE-1 with existing energy systems at the 87,000 Complex, and preliminary studies of environmental, health, and safety considerations. An extensive survey of available concentrating solar collectors and modifications to a computerized system simulation model for LSE-1 use are also reported. Important program support activities are military liaison and information dissemination. The engineering test program reported involved completion of the Solar Engineering Test Module (SETM) and extensive performance testing of a single module of the linear-focusing collector.

  16. Total kinetic energy in four global eddying ocean circulation models and over 5000 current meter records

    KAUST Repository

    Scott, Robert B.

    2010-01-01

    We compare the total kinetic energy (TKE) in four global eddying ocean circulation simulations with a global dataset of over 5000, quality controlled, moored current meter records. At individual mooring sites, there was considerable scatter between models and observations that was greater than estimated statistical uncertainty. Averaging over all current meter records in various depth ranges, all four models had mean TKE within a factor of two of observations above 3500. m, and within a factor of three below 3500. m. With the exception of observations between 20 and 100. m, the models tended to straddle the observations. However, individual models had clear biases. The free running (no data assimilation) model biases were largest below 2000. m. Idealized simulations revealed that the parameterized bottom boundary layer tidal currents were not likely the source of the problem, but that reducing quadratic bottom drag coefficient may improve the fit with deep observations. Data assimilation clearly improved the model-observation comparison, especially below 2000. m, despite assimilated data existing mostly above this depth and only south of 47°N. Different diagnostics revealed different aspects of the comparison, though in general the models appeared to be in an eddying-regime with TKE that compared reasonably well with observations. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Intraspecies variation in BMR does not affect estimates of early hominin total daily energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehle, Andrew W; Schoeninger, Margaret J

    2006-12-01

    We conducted a meta-analysis of 45 studies reporting basal metabolic rate (BMR) data for Homo sapiens and Pan troglodytes to determine the effects of sex, age, and latitude (a proxy for climate, in humans only). BMR was normalized for body size using fat-free mass in humans and body mass in chimpanzees. We found no effect of sex in either species and no age effect in chimpanzees. In humans, juveniles differed significantly from adults (ANCOVA: P BMR and body size, and used them to predict total daily energy expenditure (TEE) in four early hominin species. Our predictions concur with previous TEE estimates (i.e. Leonard and Robertson: Am J Phys Anthropol 102 (1997) 265-281), and support the conclusion that TEE increased greatly with H. erectus. Our results show that intraspecific variation in BMR does not affect TEE estimates for interspecific comparisons. Comparisons of more closely related groups such as humans and Neandertals, however, may benefit from consideration of this variation. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Total β-decay energies and atomic masses in regions far from β-stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleklett, K.

    1977-01-01

    This thesis is a summary of experimental investigations on total β-decay energies and deduced atomic masses of nuclei far from the region of β-stability. The Qsub(β) values are given for isotopes of Zn, Ga, Ge, As, Br, Rb, In, Sn, Sb, Te, Cs, Fr, Ra and Ac, with β-unstable nuclei. These unstable nuclei have very short half-lives, often below 10s, and the experimental techniques for the production, separation and collection of these short-lived nuclei are described. Neutron deficient nuclides were produced by spallation, in the ISOLDE facility, and neutron deficient nuclides were produced by thermal neutron induced fission of 235 U in the OSIRIS facility. β-spectra were recorded using an Si(Li)-detector and a coincidence system. Qsub(β) values obtained from mass formulae have been compared with experimental values obtained in different mass regions and a comparison made between results obtained from different droplet mass formulae. (B.D.)

  19. A Gaussian quadrature method for total energy analysis in electronic state calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Kimichika

    This article reports studies by Fukushima and coworkers since 1980 concerning their highly accurate numerical integral method using Gaussian quadratures to evaluate the total energy in electronic state calculations. Gauss-Legendre and Gauss-Laguerre quadratures were used for integrals in the finite and infinite regions, respectively. Our previous article showed that, for diatomic molecules such as CO and FeO, elliptic coordinates efficiently achieved high numerical integral accuracy even with a numerical basis set including transition metal atomic orbitals. This article will generalize straightforward details for multiatomic systems with direct integrals in each decomposed elliptic coordinate determined from the nuclear positions of picked-up atom pairs. Sample calculations were performed for the molecules O3 and H2O. This article will also try to present, in another coordinate, a numerical integral by partially using the Becke's decomposition published in 1988, but without the Becke's fuzzy cell generated by the polynomials of internuclear distance between the pair atoms. Instead, simple nuclear weights comprising exponential functions around nuclei are used. The one-center integral is performed with a Gaussian quadrature pack in a spherical coordinate, included in the author's original program in around 1980. As for this decomposition into one-center integrals, sample calculations are carried out for Li2.

  20. Effects of Material Properties on the Total Stored Energy of a Hybrid Flywheel Rotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, S.K.; Yoon, Y.B. [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea); Han, S.C. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    2000-05-01

    A numerical method based on an assumption of a generalized plane strain (GPS) state is presented for calculating the stress and strength ratio distributions of the rotating composite flywheel rotor of varying material properties in the radial direction. The rotor is divided into many rings and each ring has constant material properties. All the rings are assumed to expand and have the same axial strain. A three-dimensional finite element method is then used to verify the accuracy of the present method for various height ratios and ply angles. This method gives a better solution for most of the rotors than other methods of a plane stress or plane strain state. After verification, the effects of material properties on the total stored energy (TSE) of the composite flywheel rotor are investigated. For this purpose, the material properties of the rotor, i.e., circumferential and radial Youngs moduli, ply angles and mass densities, are expressed by power functions of the radius and the rotor is analyzed. The analysis shows that TSE can be most effectively increased by changing the circumferential Youngs moduli along the radius, which amounts to over 300% of TSE of the constant material properties. The variation of ply angles along the radius can increase TSE by about 30% at most. The method of changing the mass densities along the radius could be also effective but its effects are not so noticeable in the rotor where the circumferential stiffness is properly arranged. (author). 24 refs., 7 figs.

  1. New approach to exploit optimally the PV array output energy by maximizing the discharge rate of a directly-coupled photovoltaic water pumping system (DC/PVPS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boutelhig, Azzedine; Hadj Arab, Amar; Hanini, Salah

    2016-01-01

    insignificant deviations. The demand and supply energy curves are approximately approachable. Compared to the previous required water volumes, the new predicted averages show an annual excess rate between 41% and 54%. This rate is expected to be extracted by an annual surplus energy rate between 29% and 36% of the total annual provided energy rate. The proposed approach may be a tool to investigate the maximal delivery capacity and to determine the corresponding maximal PV energy production to be exploited of such system, so that to select the best management at any case.

  2. An analysis of cross-sectional variations in total household energy requirements in India using micro survey data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pachauri, Shonali

    2004-01-01

    Using micro level household survey data from India, we analyse the variation in the pattern and quantum of household energy requirements, both direct and indirect, and the factors causing such variation. An econometric analysis using household survey data from India for the year 1993-1994 reveals that household socio-economic, demographic, geographic, family and dwelling attributes influence the total household energy requirements. There are also large variations in the pattern of energy requirements across households belonging to different expenditure classes. Results from the econometric estimation show that total household expenditure or income level is the most important explanatory variable causing variation in energy requirements across households. In addition, the size of the household dwelling and the age of the head of the household are related to higher household energy requirements. In contrast, the number of members in the household and literacy of the head are associated with lower household energy requirements

  3. An analysis of cross-sectional variations in total household energy requirements in India using micro survey data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pachauri, Shonali E-mail: shonali.pachauri@cepe.mavt.ethz.ch

    2004-10-01

    Using micro level household survey data from India, we analyse the variation in the pattern and quantum of household energy requirements, both direct and indirect, and the factors causing such variation. An econometric analysis using household survey data from India for the year 1993-1994 reveals that household socio-economic, demographic, geographic, family and dwelling attributes influence the total household energy requirements. There are also large variations in the pattern of energy requirements across households belonging to different expenditure classes. Results from the econometric estimation show that total household expenditure or income level is the most important explanatory variable causing variation in energy requirements across households. In addition, the size of the household dwelling and the age of the head of the household are related to higher household energy requirements. In contrast, the number of members in the household and literacy of the head are associated with lower household energy requirements.

  4. Total photoabsorption cross section on nuclei measured in energy range 0.5-2.6 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirazita, M.

    1998-03-01

    The total photoabsorption cross section on several nuclei has been measured in the energy range 0.5 - 2.6 GeV. Nuclear data show a significant reduction of the absorption strength with respect to the free nucleon case suggesting a shadowing effect at low energies

  5. On the coherence between high-energy total cross-section data when compared with general principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauron, P.; Nicolescu, B.; Paris-6 Univ., 75

    1993-12-01

    An essential model is performed - an independent study of the internal coherence between high-energy total cross-section data by using classes of functions satisfying general principles. The study is practically independent of the ρ-parameter values. This general analysis, made without any fit, reveals certain inconsistencies in the existing set of high-energy data. Some of these inconsistencies are eliminated by giving up arbitrary assumptions sometimes made in 'fitology'. It is shown that the ln 2 s increase of total cross-sections at high energies is clearly favoured when compared with other possible behaviours. (authors). 16 refs., 3 figs

  6. Absolute total and one and two electron transfer cross sections for Ar8+ on Ar as a function of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vancura, J.; Kostroun, V.O.

    1992-01-01

    The absolute total and one and two electron transfer cross sections for Ar 8+ on Ar were measured as a function of projectile laboratory energy from 0.090 to 0.550 keV/amu. The effective one electron transfer cross section dominates above 0.32 keV/amu, while below this energy, the effective two electron transfer starts to become appreciable. The total cross section varies by a factor over the energy range explored. The overall error in the cross section measurement is estimated to be ± 15%

  7. Unit 16 - Output

    OpenAIRE

    Unit 16, CC in GIS; Star, Jeffrey L.

    1990-01-01

    This unit discusses issues related to GIS output, including the different types of output possible and the hardware for producing each. It describes text, graphic and digital data that can be generated by a GIS as well as line printers, dot matrix printers/plotters, pen plotters, optical scanners and cathode ray tubes (CRTs) as technologies for generating the output.

  8. Dynamic integration of residential building design and green energies : the Bireth approach : building integrated renewable energy total harvest approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, K.P. [Hong Kong Univ., Hong Kong (China). Dept. of Architecture; Luk, C.L.P. [Chu Hai College of Higher Education, Hong Kong (China). Dept. of Architecture; Wong, S.T. [Hong Kong Univ., Hong Kong (China). Div. of Arts and Humanities, SPACE; Chung, S.L.; Fung, K.S.; Leung, M.F. [Hong Kong Inst. of Vocational Education, Hong Kong (China)

    2006-07-01

    Renewable energy sources that are commonly used in buildings include solar energy, wind energy and rainwater collection. High quality environmentally responsive residential buildings are designed to provide good insulation in winter and solar shading in summer. However, this study demonstrated that the green energy design in residential buildings is not usually well integrated. For example, windows with clear double or triple glazed glass, allow good penetration of sunlight during the day in winter, but are not further dynamically insulated for when the sun goes down to avoid heat loss from the building. Additionally, good solar static shading devices often block much needed daylight on cloudy winter days. These examples emphasize the lack of an integrated approach to gain the best advantage of green energies and to minimize energy costs in residential buildings. This study addressed issues facing the integrated approach with particular reference to the design of a small residential building in rural Beijing. The design included a new approach for interpreting a traditional Beijing court yard house in the modern Beijing rural context, while integrating multi-responding innovative green energy applications derived from first principles. This paper also presented a proposal for a village house in Hong Kong to harvest as much renewable energies as possible, primarily wind energy and solar energy, that come into contact with the building. The purpose was to work towards a renewable energy approach for buildings, namely the Bireth approach, which will benefit practically all houses by making them zero energy houses. The paper described the feasibility of integrating renewable energies in buildings to fulfill performance requirements such improving ventilation, providing warm interiors, drying clothes, or storing solar and wind energies into power batteries. The challenges facing the development of a proposed micro solar hot air turbine were also presented. 15 refs., 6

  9. Optimization of Photospheric Electric Field Estimates for Accurate Retrieval of Total Magnetic Energy Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumme, E.; Pomoell, J.; Kilpua, E. K. J.

    2017-12-01

    Estimates of the photospheric magnetic, electric, and plasma velocity fields are essential for studying the dynamics of the solar atmosphere, for example through the derivative quantities of Poynting and relative helicity flux and using the fields to obtain the lower boundary condition for data-driven coronal simulations. In this paper we study the performance of a data processing and electric field inversion approach that requires only high-resolution and high-cadence line-of-sight or vector magnetograms, which we obtain from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) onboard Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). The approach does not require any photospheric velocity estimates, and the lacking velocity information is compensated for using ad hoc assumptions. We show that the free parameters of these assumptions can be optimized to reproduce the time evolution of the total magnetic energy injection through the photosphere in NOAA AR 11158, when compared to recent state-of-the-art estimates for this active region. However, we find that the relative magnetic helicity injection is reproduced poorly, reaching at best a modest underestimation. We also discuss the effect of some of the data processing details on the results, including the masking of the noise-dominated pixels and the tracking method of the active region, neither of which has received much attention in the literature so far. In most cases the effect of these details is small, but when the optimization of the free parameters of the ad hoc assumptions is considered, a consistent use of the noise mask is required. The results found in this paper imply that the data processing and electric field inversion approach that uses only the photospheric magnetic field information offers a flexible and straightforward way to obtain photospheric magnetic and electric field estimates suitable for practical applications such as coronal modeling studies.

  10. The Health Impacts of Energy Policy Pathways in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia: A Total Exposure Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, L. A.; Damdinsuren, Y.; Olkhanud, P. B.; Smith, K. R.; Turner, J. R.; Edwards, R.; Odsuren, M.; Ochir, C.

    2015-12-01

    Ulaanbaatar is home to nearly half of Mongolia's 2.8 million residents. The city's rapid growth, frigid winters, valley topography, and reliance on coal-fired stoves have led to some of the worst winter pollution levels in the world. To better understand this issue, we modeled integrated PM2.5exposures and related health impacts for various city-wide heating policies through 2024. This assessment is one of the first to employ a total exposure approach and results of the 2014 Comparative Risk Assessments of the Global Burden of Disease Project (CRA/GBD) in a policy-relevant energy study. Emissions related to heating, traffic, and power generation were considered under Business as Usual, Moderate Improvement, and Max Improvement scenarios. Calibrated outdoor models were combined with indoor models, local infiltration and time activity estimates, and demographic projections to estimate PM2.5exposures in 2014 and 2024. Indoor exposures were assigned by heating type, home type, and smoking status; outdoor exposures were assigned through geocoding. Population average annual exposures were calculated and applied to local disease rates and integrated exposure-response curves (2014 CRA/GBD) to arrive at annual projections of premature deaths and DALYs. We estimate 2014 annual average exposures at 68 μg/m3, dictated almost exclusively by indoor winter exposures. Under current trends, annual exposures increase 10% to 75 μg/m3 in 2024. This is in stark contrast to the moderate and max improvement scenarios, which lead to 2024 annual exposures that are 31%, and 68% lower, respectively. Under the Moderate scenario, 2024 per capita annual DALY and death burdens drop 26% and 22%, respectively, from 2014 levels. Under the Max scenario, 2024 per capita annual DALY and death burdens drop 71% and 66%, respectively, from 2014. SHS becomes a major contributor as emissions from other sectors decrease. Reductions are dominated by cardiovascular and lower respiratory diseases in children.

  11. Importance of Dissolved Neutral Hg-Sulfides, Energy Rich Organic Matter and total Hg Concentrations for Methyl Mercury Production in Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drott, A.; Skyllberg, U.

    2007-12-01

    Methyl mercury (MeHg) is the mercury form that biomagnifies to the greatest extent in aquatic food webs. Therefore information about factors determining MeHg concentrations is critical for accurate risk assessment of contaminated environments. The concentration of MeHg in wetlands and sediments is the net result of: 1) methylation rates, 2) demethylation rates, and 3) input/output processes. In this study, the main controls on Hg methylation rates and total concentrations of MeHg, were investigated at eight sites in Sweden with sediments that had been subjected to local Hg contamination either as Hg(0), or as phenyl-Hg. Sediments were selected to represent a gradient in total Hg concentration, temperature climate, salinity, primary productivity, and organic C content and quality. Most sediments were high in organic matter content due to wood fibre efflux from pulp and paper industry. The pore water was analysed for total Hg, MeHg, DOC, H2S(aq), pH, DOC, Cl and Br. The chemical speciation of Hg(II) and MeHg in pore water was calculated using equilibrium models. Potential methylation and demethylation rates in sediments were determined in incubation experiments at 23° C under N2(g) for 48 h, after addition of isotopically enriched 201Hg(II) and Me204Hg. In all surface (0-20 cm) sediments there was a significant (pdetermined specific potential methylation rate constant (Km, day-1) and % MeHg (concentrations of MeHg normalized to total Hg) in the sediment. This indicates that MeHg production overruled degradation and input/output processes of MeHg in surface sediments, and that % MeHg in surface sediments may be used as a proxy for net production of MeHg. To our knowledge, these are the first data showing significant positive relationships between short term (48 h) MeHg production and longer term accumulation of MeHg, across a range of sites with different properties (1). If MeHg was not normalized to total Hg, the relationship was not significant. For sub-sets of

  12. Achievement report on research and development in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1978. Studies on a hydrogen energy total system; 1978 nendo suiso energy total system no kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1979-03-01

    Analysis was made on timing, patterns and scales of introducing hydrogen energy into the Japan's total energy system, and case studies were made on transfer of the comprehensive systems that can be realized in the years of 1985, 2000 and 2025. The basic conception for the analytic method employed a method to analyze and present theoretically the conditions in which prerequisites or results of the estimation can be established, rather than intending elucidation of the estimation itself. An energy model was used for the theoretical means thereof. The objective function to be optimized was assumed to maximize (estimate over the planned period of time) the total effectiveness of the hydrogen energy system converted into the present value being given appropriate discount. The economic performance measures for different secondary energies working as the comparison measures are the limiting production cost of each energy. A consideration was given to the point that the electrolytic hydrogen cannot compete with that made by using the thermo-chemical method (if developed successfully) using heat from high-temperature gas reactor if the fossil fuel price rises sharply. Considerations are also required in replaceability of hydrogen energy with other energies, and hydrogen utilization in petroleum refining. (NEDO)

  13. Energy supply scenarios and sustainable development: A total view on economy and ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voss, A.

    2000-01-01

    'Sustainable development' is the guiding principle of the ecological, economic and development policy debate. Although the guiding principle of 'sustainable development' meets with unanimous approval as a general rule, there is a broad spectrum of views and interpretations of this guiding principle in terms of its normative and theoretical scientific basis as well as with regard to the aims and line of action to be taken. This applies especially to the energy sector. This lecture endeavours to concretise the guiding principle of 'sustainable development' for the energy sector, or to put in more exact terms, for the sector providing energy services. Major options for the supply of energy are classified and evaluated in terms of their importance for the sustainable provision of energy based on the results of a comprehensive review of materials and different types of energy. (orig.) [de

  14. Commercial applications of solar total energy systems. Volume 3. Conceptual designs and market analyses. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boobar, M.G.; McFarland, B.L.; Nalbandian, S.J.; Willcox, W.W.; French, E.P.; Smith, K.E.

    1978-07-01

    The overall objective of this program was to assess the feasibility of using solar energy to provide a significant fraction of the energy needs of commercial buildings that have energy demands greater than 200 kWe. The STES concept trade studies, sensitivity parameters, performance characteristics, and selected concepts are discussed. Market penetration rate estimates are provided, and technology advancements and utilization plans are discussed. Photovoltaic STES configurations and Rankine cycle thermal STES systems are considered. (WHK)

  15. Output factors and scatter ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrivastava, P N; Summers, R E; Samulski, T V; Baird, L C [Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA (USA); Ahuja, A S; Dubuque, G L; Hendee, W R; Chhabra, A S

    1979-07-01

    Reference is made to a previous publication on output factors and scatter ratios for radiotherapy units in which it was suggested that the output factor should be included in the definitions of scatter-air ratio and tissue-maximum ratio. In the present correspondence from other authors and from the authors of the previous publication, the original definitions and the proposed changes are discussed. Radiation scatter from source and collimator degradation of beam energy and calculation of dose in tissue are considered in relation to the objective of accurate dosimetry.

  16. Achievement report on research and development in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1977. Studies on hydrogen energy total systems and the safety assuring technologies thereon (Studies on hydrogen energy total systems); 1977 nendo suiso energy total system to sono hoan gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusho. Suiso energy total system no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1978-03-01

    A numerical model was prepared to express fields and size of hydrogen energy introduction in Japan's energy systems in the future. Dividing Japan into 13 weather sections, one to two energy bases (import and secondary production bases in coastal areas) were assumed on each section. Secondary energies produced in these energy bases are transported to intermediate bases, from which the energies are distributed into cities and consumed. For the purpose of simplification, final consumption departments are hypothesized to exist in these intermediate bases. Parameters that characterize the flows on networks in the processes of supply, distribution, production, storage, transportation and utilization are divided largely into energy efficiency and cost of the processes. The amount of energy demand in each final consumption department was defined as an amount to maximize the expected effects as a result of having satisfied the demand. The result of trial calculations revealed that, as long as the hydrogen to be introduced is limited to hydrogen produced via electrolysis using thermally generated power, the hydrogen introduction into the future energy systems is difficult in terms of economic performance. (NEDO)

  17. Total number albedo and average cosine of the polar angle of low-energy photons reflected from water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Srpko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The total number albedo and average cosine of the polar angle for water and initial photon energy range from 20 keV to 100 keV are presented in this pa per. A water shield in the form of a thick, homogenous plate and per pendicular incidence of the monoenergetic photon beam are assumed. The results were obtained through Monte Carlo simulations of photon reflection by means of the MCNP computer code. Calculated values for the total number albedo were compared with data previously published and good agreement was confirmed. The dependence of the average cosine of the polar angle on energy is studied in detail. It has been found that the total average cosine of the polar angle has values in the narrow interval of 0.66-0.67, approximately corresponding to the reflection angle of 48°, and that it does not depend on the initial photon energy.

  18. THREE-PHASE ENERGY SUPPLY SYSTEMS SIMULATION FOR THE TOTAL POWER LOSSES COMPONENTS ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V. Tugay

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The goal is to optimize a structure of Matlab-model of the three-phase energy supply system with power active filter. The mathematical model that describes the energy supply system modes of operation which contains additional losses is proposed. Methodology. We have applied concepts of the electrical circuits theory, mathematical modeling elements based on linear algebra and vector calculus, mathematical simulation in Matlab package. Results. We have developed two models of three-phase energy supply system. The first one is based on a vector representation, and the second one on the matrix representation of energy processes. Using these models we have solved the problem of maintaining unchanged the average useful power for 279 cases of energy supply system modes of operation. Originality. We have developed methods of mathematical analysis of a three-phase energy supply systems with polyharmonic voltages and currents in the symmetric and asymmetric modes. Practical value. We have created Matlab-model of a three-phase energy supply system with automated calculation of a correction factor. It allows reducing more than one order the time for energy processes elucidation in multiphase systems.

  19. Local functional derivative of the total energy and the shell structure in atoms and molecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pino, R.; Markvoort, Albert. J.; Santen, van R.A.; Hilbers, P.A.J.

    2003-01-01

    The full and local Thomas–Fermi–Dirac energy functional derivatives are evaluated at Hartree–Fock densities for several atoms and molecules. These functions are interpreted as local chemical potentials and related mainly to kinetic energy functional derivatives. They are able to reveal the shell

  20. Total neutron cross sections at energies around 20 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, J.R.; Romero, J.L.; Martens, P.

    1990-09-01

    The results for measurements of total cross sections on C, Al, Mg, Cu, Ge and Pb at 17.6 and 19.8 MeV are reported. A detailed comparison is presented with previous data and with the global optical model by the Ohio group. We also discuss plans for total non elastic cross section measurements. 31 refs, 12 figs, 2 tabs

  1. Achievement report for fiscal 1981 on Sunshine Program-entrusted research and development. Research on hydrogen energy total system; 1981 nendo suiso energy total system no kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    In this research, studies are conducted relative to the time point, form, and magnitude of the introduction of hydrogen into Japan's total energy system. The research aims to construct a hydrogen energy total system consisting of hydrogen energy subsystems to be available in the future and to clearly define the stage at which transfer to the target system will be carried out. In the research for fiscal 1981, studies continue about the feasibility of hydrogen as automobile and aviation fuels and as a material for use in chemical engineering, about conversion into each other of hydrogen and various synthetic fuels and electric power with which hydrogen will have to compete in the domain into which it will be supplied, and about technologies of their utilization for comparison between such energies in the search for their interchangeability. Surveys are conducted on technical data about local energies. The Yakushima island is chosen, for instance, and a conceptual hydrogen energy base is constructed there and the cost for the construction is estimated. At the last part, the feasibility of the introduction of hydrogen into Japan's energy system in the future is discussed for assessment. (NEDO)

  2. Total β-decay energies and masses of tin, antimony and tellurium isotopes in the vicinity of 50132Sn82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, E.; Aleklett, K.; Rudstam, G.

    1977-01-01

    Experimental β-decay energies for short-lived isotopes of tin, antimony and tellurium are presented. Mass-separated sources were produced at the on-line isotope separator OSIRIS. By applying β-γ coincidence methods, total β-decay energies have been determined for the following nuclides: 127-131 Sn, 128 130 131 134 Sb and 134 135 Te. The atomic mass excess has been derived for these nuclei, and comparisons are made with mass formula predictions. (Auth.)

  3. Determining the primary cosmic ray energy from the total flux of Cherenkov light measured at the Yakutsk EAS array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, A. A.; Knurenko, S. P.; Sleptsov, I. E.

    2007-01-01

    We present a method for determining the energy of the primary particle that generates an extensive air shower (EAS) of comic rays based on measuring the total flux of Cherenkov light from the shower. Applying this method to Cherenkov light measurements at the Yakutsk EAS array has allowed us to construct the cosmic ray energy spectrum in the range 10 15 - 3 x 10 19 eV

  4. Low energy positron interactions with uracil—Total scattering, positronium formation, and differential elastic scattering cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, E. K.; Boadle, R. A.; Machacek, J. R.; Makochekanwa, C.; Sullivan, J. P. [ARC Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra 0200 (Australia); Chiari, L. [ARC Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, 5001 SA (Australia); Buckman, S. J., E-mail: Stephen.buckman@anu.edu.au [ARC Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra 0200 (Australia); Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Brunger, M. J. [ARC Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, 5001 SA (Australia); Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Garcia, G. [Instituto de Fısica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigationes Cientıficas (CSIC), Serrano 113-bis, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Blanco, F. [Departamento de Fısica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Ingolfsson, O. [Department of Chemistry, Science Institute, University of Iceland, Reykjavík 107 (Iceland)

    2014-07-21

    Measurements of the grand total and total positronium formation cross sections for positron scattering from uracil have been performed for energies between 1 and 180 eV, using a trap-based beam apparatus. Angular, quasi-elastic differential cross section measurements at 1, 3, 5, 10, and 20 eV are also presented and discussed. These measurements are compared to existing experimental results and theoretical calculations, including our own calculations using a variant of the independent atom approach.

  5. Input-output supervisor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuy, R.

    1970-01-01

    The input-output supervisor is the program which monitors the flow of informations between core storage and peripheral equipments of a computer. This work is composed of three parts: 1 - Study of a generalized input-output supervisor. With sample modifications it looks like most of input-output supervisors which are running now on computers. 2 - Application of this theory on a magnetic drum. 3 - Hardware requirement for time-sharing. (author) [fr

  6. The total cross section as a function of energy for elastic scattering of noble gas atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linse, C.A.

    1978-01-01

    Precise relative measurements of the total cross-sections as a function of velocity is presented for the systems Ar-Ar, Ar-Kr, Kr-Ar, Ar-Xe, Ne-Ar, Ne-Kr, and Ne-Xe, the primary beam particle being mentioned first. A discription of the apparatus is given. Then the method for extracting total cross-sections from the measured beam attenuation is analyzed. A comparison is made with total cross-sections calculated from various potentials that have been proposed in the literature

  7. Energy consumption optimization of the total-FETI solver by changing the CPU frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horak, David; Riha, Lubomir; Sojka, Radim; Kruzik, Jakub; Beseda, Martin; Cermak, Martin; Schuchart, Joseph

    2017-07-01

    The energy consumption of supercomputers is one of the critical problems for the upcoming Exascale supercomputing era. The awareness of power and energy consumption is required on both software and hardware side. This paper deals with the energy consumption evaluation of the Finite Element Tearing and Interconnect (FETI) based solvers of linear systems, which is an established method for solving real-world engineering problems. We have evaluated the effect of the CPU frequency on the energy consumption of the FETI solver using a linear elasticity 3D cube synthetic benchmark. In this problem, we have evaluated the effect of frequency tuning on the energy consumption of the essential processing kernels of the FETI method. The paper provides results for two types of frequency tuning: (1) static tuning and (2) dynamic tuning. For static tuning experiments, the frequency is set before execution and kept constant during the runtime. For dynamic tuning, the frequency is changed during the program execution to adapt the system to the actual needs of the application. The paper shows that static tuning brings up 12% energy savings when compared to default CPU settings (the highest clock rate). The dynamic tuning improves this further by up to 3%.

  8. Analysis of temperature difference on the total of energy expenditure during static bicycle exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiono

    2016-04-01

    How to manage energy expenditure for cyclist is very crucial part to achieve a good performance. As the tropical situation, the differences of temperature level might be contributed in energy expenditure and durability. The aim of the paper is to estimate and to analysis the configuration of energy expenditure for static cycling activity based on heart rate value in room with air conditioning (AC)/no AC treatment. The research is started with study literatures of climate factors, temperature impact on human body, and definition of energy expenditure. The next step is design the experiment for 5 participants in 2 difference models for 26.80C - 74% relative humidity (room no AC) and 23,80C - 54.8% relative humidity (room with AC). The participants’ heart rate and blood pressure are measured in rest condition and in cycling condition to know the impact of difference temperature in energy expenditure profile. According to the experiment results, the reducing of the temperature has significantly impact on the decreasing of energy expenditure at average 0.3 Kcal/minute for all 5 performers. Finally, the research shows that climate condition (temperature and relative humidity) are very important factors to manage and to reach a higher performance of cycling sport.

  9. Simultaneous measurement of milk intake and total energy expenditure in mixed-fed infants: Methodological approach and prediction of total body water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, J.C.K.; Davies, P.S.W.; Coward, W.A.

    2000-01-01

    Evaluation of the energy metabolism that underlies the new WHO breast-fed growth reference requires simultaneous measurements of milk volume intake (MVI) and total energy expenditure (TEE) by stable isotope methodologies. In young infants, such data is collected without difficulty using the dose-to-the-infant method. In older infants, where breast-milk is supplemented with non-milk foods, MVI must be measured by dosing the mother instead of the infant. This procedure would interfere with a simple measurement of infant TEE using the standard dose-to-the-infant method. Theoretically, this difficulty can be resolved by dosing the mother with deuterium and the infant with 18-oxygen, and using curve-peeling methods to calculate the infant deuterium kinetics. We propose to ascertain whether such an approach is viable in practice, such that MVI, TEE and body composition could all be measured simultaneously in mixed-fed infants. Where MVI in older infants is measured on its own, there is a need to predict infant body water in order to estimate the deuterium dilution space. Using a database of 234 infants aged 1.5 to 12 months, we provide new predictive equations by which such values may be obtained. (author)

  10. Studies on fission with ALADIN. Precise and simultaneous measurement of fission yields, total kinetic energy and total prompt neutron multiplicity at GSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Julie-Fiona; Taieb, Julien; Chatillon, Audrey; Belier, Gilbert; Boutoux, Guillaume; Ebran, Adeline; Gorbinet, Thomas; Grente, Lucie; Laurent, Benoit; Pellereau, Eric; Alvarez-Pol, Hector; Ayyad, Yassid; Benlliure, Jose; Cortina Gil, Dolores; Caamano, Manuel; Fernandez Dominguez, Beatriz; Paradela, Carlos; Ramos, Diego; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Jose-Luis; Vargas, Jossitt; Audouin, Laurent; Tassan-Got, Laurent; Aumann, Thomas; Casarejos, Enrique; Farget, Fanny; Rodriguez-Tajes, Carme; Heinz, Andreas; Jurado, Beatriz; Kelic-Heil, Aleksandra; Kurz, Nikolaus; Nociforo, Chiara; Pietri, Stephane; Rossi, Dominic; Schmidt, Karl-Heinz; Simon, Haik; Voss, Bernd; Weick, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    A novel technique for fission studies, based on the inverse kinematics approach, is presented. Following pioneering work in the nineties, the SOFIA Collaboration has designed and built an experimental set-up dedicated to the simultaneous measurement of isotopic yields, total kinetic energies and total prompt neutron multiplicities, by fully identifying both fission fragments in coincidence, for the very first time. This experiment, performed at GSI, permits to study the fission of a wide variety of fissioning systems, ranging from mercury to neptunium, possibly far from the valley of stability. A first experiment, performed in 2012, has provided a large array of unprecedented data regarding the nuclear fission process. An excerpt of the results is presented. With this solid starter, further improvements of the experimental set-up are considered, which are consistent with the expected developments at the GSI facility, in order to measure more fission observables in coincidence. The completeness reached in the SOFIA data, permits to scrutinize the correlations between the interesting features of fission, offering a very detailed insight in this still unraveled mechanism. (orig.)

  11. Studies on fission with ALADIN. Precise and simultaneous measurement of fission yields, total kinetic energy and total prompt neutron multiplicity at GSI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Julie-Fiona; Taieb, Julien; Chatillon, Audrey; Belier, Gilbert; Boutoux, Guillaume; Ebran, Adeline; Gorbinet, Thomas; Grente, Lucie; Laurent, Benoit; Pellereau, Eric [CEA DAM Bruyeres-le-Chatel, Arpajon (France); Alvarez-Pol, Hector; Ayyad, Yassid; Benlliure, Jose; Cortina Gil, Dolores; Caamano, Manuel; Fernandez Dominguez, Beatriz; Paradela, Carlos; Ramos, Diego; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Jose-Luis; Vargas, Jossitt [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Audouin, Laurent; Tassan-Got, Laurent [CNRS/IN2P3, IPNO, Orsay (France); Aumann, Thomas [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany); Casarejos, Enrique [Universidad de Vigo, Vigo (Spain); Farget, Fanny; Rodriguez-Tajes, Carme [CNRS/IN2P3, GANIL, Caen (France); Heinz, Andreas [Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden); Jurado, Beatriz [CNRS/IN2P3, CENBG, Gradignan (France); Kelic-Heil, Aleksandra; Kurz, Nikolaus; Nociforo, Chiara; Pietri, Stephane; Rossi, Dominic; Schmidt, Karl-Heinz; Simon, Haik; Voss, Bernd; Weick, Helmut [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    A novel technique for fission studies, based on the inverse kinematics approach, is presented. Following pioneering work in the nineties, the SOFIA Collaboration has designed and built an experimental set-up dedicated to the simultaneous measurement of isotopic yields, total kinetic energies and total prompt neutron multiplicities, by fully identifying both fission fragments in coincidence, for the very first time. This experiment, performed at GSI, permits to study the fission of a wide variety of fissioning systems, ranging from mercury to neptunium, possibly far from the valley of stability. A first experiment, performed in 2012, has provided a large array of unprecedented data regarding the nuclear fission process. An excerpt of the results is presented. With this solid starter, further improvements of the experimental set-up are considered, which are consistent with the expected developments at the GSI facility, in order to measure more fission observables in coincidence. The completeness reached in the SOFIA data, permits to scrutinize the correlations between the interesting features of fission, offering a very detailed insight in this still unraveled mechanism. (orig.)

  12. Analysis of losses within SMES system for compensating output fluctuation of wind power farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, S. I.; Kim, J. H.; Le, T. D.; Lee, D. H.; Kim, H. M. [Jeju National University, Jeju (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Y. S. [Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Shin Ansan University, Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, K. Y. [Dept. of lectrical and Electronic Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Output fluctuation which is generated in wind power farm can hinder stability of total power system. The electric energy storage (EES) reduces unstable output, and superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) of various EESs has the proper performance for output compensation of wind power farm since it charges and discharges large scale power quickly with high efficiency. However, because of the change of current within SMES, the electromagnetic losses occur in the process of output compensation. In this paper, the thermal effect of the losses that occur in SMES system while compensating in wind power farm is analyzed. The output analysis of wind power farm is processed by numerical analysis, and the losses of SMES system is analyzed by 3D finite element analysis (FEA) simulation tool.

  13. Analysis of losses within SMES system for compensating output fluctuation of wind power farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S. I.; Kim, J. H.; Le, T. D.; Lee, D. H.; Kim, H. M.; Yoon, Y. S.; Yoon, K. Y.

    2014-01-01

    Output fluctuation which is generated in wind power farm can hinder stability of total power system. The electric energy storage (EES) reduces unstable output, and superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) of various EESs has the proper performance for output compensation of wind power farm since it charges and discharges large scale power quickly with high efficiency. However, because of the change of current within SMES, the electromagnetic losses occur in the process of output compensation. In this paper, the thermal effect of the losses that occur in SMES system while compensating in wind power farm is analyzed. The output analysis of wind power farm is processed by numerical analysis, and the losses of SMES system is analyzed by 3D finite element analysis (FEA) simulation tool.

  14. On the equivalence of the solar wind coupling parameter ε and the magnetospheric energy output parameter UT during intense geomagnetic storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, W.D.; Gonzalez, A.L.C.; Tsurutani, B.T.

    1990-01-01

    For intervals with intense geomagnetic activity it is shown that the solar wind coupling parameter ε and the magnetospheric output parameter U T are equivalent and that ranges of values of ε can be set up in terms of values of the ring current-time constant τ. (author)

  15. The Study of Prompt and Delayed Muon Induced Fission. I.Total kinetic energies and mass distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    David, P; Hartfiel, J.; Janszen, H.; Petitjean, C.; Reist, H.W.; Polikanov, S.M.; Konijn, J.; Laat, de C.T.A.M.; Taal, A.; Krogulski, T.; Johansson, T.; Tibell, G.; Achard van Enschut, d' J.F.M.

    1987-01-01

    Mass yield and total kinetic energy release (TKE) distributions of fragments from prompt and delayed muon induced fission, separately, have been measured for the isotopes235U,238U,237Np and242Pu. The distributions from prompt muon induced fission are compared with the corresponding distributions

  16. The state of the art in Japan's telecommunications energy systems - Strategy for Total Power Management -

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muroyama, Seiichi [NTT Power and Building Facilities Inc., Midori-cho, Musashino-shi, Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    The ''strategy for total power management (STPM)'' was developed for managing problems in relation to energy for multimedia services in a comprehensive manner from the viewpoints of risk, cost, and environment. To provide integrated services based on STPM, a DC power supply system, a highly reliable UPS, and a co-generation system have been developed. (orig.)

  17. Mixing alcohol with energy drink (AMED) and total alcohol consumption : a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verster, Joris C|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/241442702; Benson, Sarah; Johnson, Sean J; Scholey, Andrew; Alford, Chris

    It has been suggested that consuming alcohol mixed with energy drink (AMED) may increase total alcohol consumption. Aims of this systematic review and meta-analysis were (i) to compare alcohol consumption of AMED consumers with alcohol only (AO) consumers (between-group comparisons), and (ii) to

  18. Energy transmission and power sources for mechanical circulatory support devices to achieve total implantability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jake X; Smith, Joshua R; Bonde, Pramod

    2014-04-01

    Left ventricular assist device therapy has radically improved congestive heart failure survival with smaller rotary pumps. The driveline used to power today's left ventricular assist devices, however, continues to be a source of infection, traumatic damage, and rehospitalization. Previous attempts to wirelessly power left ventricular assist devices using transcutaneous energy transfer systems have been limited by restrictions on separation distance and alignment between the transmit and receive coils. Resonant electrical energy transfer allows power delivery at larger distances without compromising safety and efficiency. This review covers the efforts to wirelessly power mechanical circulatory assist devices and the progress made in enhancing their energy sources. Copyright © 2014 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Investigation of the heavy nuclei fission with anomalously high values of the fission fragments total kinetic energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khryachkov, Vitaly; Goverdovskii, Andrei; Ketlerov, Vladimir; Mitrofanov, Vecheslav; Sergachev, Alexei

    2018-03-01

    Binary fission of 232Th and 238U induced by fast neutrons were under intent investigation in the IPPE during recent years. These measurements were performed with a twin ionization chamber with Frisch grids. Signals from the detector were digitized for further processing with a specially developed software. It results in information of kinetic energies, masses, directions and Bragg curves of registered fission fragments. Total statistics of a few million fission events were collected during each experiment. It was discovered that for several combinations of fission fragment masses their total kinetic energy was very close to total free energy of the fissioning system. The probability of such fission events for the fast neutron induced fission was found to be much higher than for spontaneous fission of 252Cf and thermal neutron induced fission of 235U. For experiments with 238U target the energy of incident neutrons were 5 MeV and 6.5 MeV. Close analysis of dependence of fission fragment distribution on compound nucleus excitation energy gave us some explanation of the phenomenon. It could be a process in highly excited compound nucleus which leads the fissioning system from the scission point into the fusion valley with high probability.

  20. A panel data parametric frontier technique for measuring total-factor energy efficiency: An application to Japanese regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honma, Satoshi; Hu, Jin-Li

    2014-01-01

    Using the stochastic frontier analysis model, we estimate TFEE (total-factor energy efficiency) scores for 47 regions across Japan during the years 1996–2008. We extend the cross-sectional stochastic frontier model proposed by Zhou et al. (2012) to panel data models and add environmental variables. The results provide not only the TFEE scores, in which statistical noise is taken into account, but also the determinants of inefficiency. The three stochastic TFEE scores are compared with a TFEE score derived using data envelopment analysis. The four TFEE scores are highly correlated with one another. For the inefficiency estimates, higher manufacturing industry shares and wholesale and retail trade shares correspond to lower TFEE scores. - Highlights: • This study estimates total-factor energy efficiency of Japanese regions using the stochastic frontier analysis model. • Determinants of inefficiency are also estimated. • The higher the manufacturing share and wholesale and retail trade share, the lower the energy efficiency

  1. Design of a bolometer for total-energy measurement of the linear coherent light source pulsed X-ray laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, S.; Li, L.; Ott, L.L.; Kolgani, Rajeswari M.; Yong, G.J.; Ali, Z.A.; Drury, O.B.; Ables, E.; Bionta, R.M.

    2006-01-01

    We are developing a cryogenic bolometer to measure the total energy of the linear coherent light source (LCLS) free electron X-ray laser to be built at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The laser will produce ultrabright X-ray pulses in the energy range between 0.8 and 8 keV with ∼10 12 photons per ∼200 fs pulse at a repeat interval of 8 ms, and will be accompanied by a halo of spontaneous undulator radiation. The bolometer is designed to determine the total energy of each laser pulse to within (1- x ) Sr x MnO 3 sensor array at the metal-insulator transition, where the composition x is adjusted to produce the desired transition temperature. We discuss design considerations and material choices, and present numerical simulations of the thermal response

  2. Energy and economic analysis of total energy systems for residential and commercial buildings. [utilizing waste heat recovery techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maag, W. L.; Bollenbacher, G.

    1974-01-01

    Energy and economic analyses were performed for an on-site power-plant with waste heat recovery. The results show that for any specific application there is a characteristic power conversion efficiency that minimizes fuel consumption, and that efficiencies greater than this do not significantly improve fuel consumption. This type of powerplant appears to be a reasonably attractive investment if higher fuel costs continue.

  3. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence and energy-dispersive X-ray ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nuclear energy is one of the clean options of electricity generation for the betterment of human life. India has an ambitious program for such electricity generation using different types of nuclear reactors. The safe and efficient generation of electricity from these reactors requires quality control of different nuclear materials, ...

  4. Seasonality of food groups and total energy intake: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelmach-Mardas, M; Kleiser, C; Uzhova, I; Peñalvo, J L; La Torre, G; Palys, W; Lojko, D; Nimptsch, K; Suwalska, A; Linseisen, J; Saulle, R; Colamesta, V; Boeing, H

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the effect of season on food intake from selected food groups and on energy intake in adults. The search process was based on selecting publications listed in the following: Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, Embase and Agris. Food frequency questionnaires, 24-h dietary recalls and food records as methods for assessment of dietary intake were used to assess changes in the consumption of 11 food groups and of energy intake across seasons. A meta-analysis was performed. Twenty-six studies were included. Articles were divided into those reporting data on four seasons (winter, spring, summer and autumn) or on two seasons (pre-and post-harvest). Four of the studies could be utilized for meta-analysis describing changes in food consumption across four season scheme: from winter to spring fruits decreased, whereas vegetables, eggs and alcoholic beverages increased; from spring to summer vegetable consumption further increased and cereals decreased; from summer to autumn fruits and cereals increased and vegetables, meat, eggs and alcoholic beverages decreased; from autumn to winter cereals decreased. A significant association was also found between energy intake and season, for 13 studies reporting energy intake across four seasons (favors winter) and for eight studies across pre- and post-harvest seasons (favors post-harvest). The winter or the post-harvest season is associated with increased energy intake. The intake of fruits, vegetables, eggs, meat, cereals and alcoholic beverages is following a seasonal consumption pattern and at least for these foods season is determinant of intake.

  5. Saturated output tabletop x-ray lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, J.; Osterheld, A.L.; Nilsen, J.; Hunter, J.R.; Li, Y.; Faenov, A.Ya.; Pikuz, T.A.; Shlyaptsev, N.

    2000-01-01

    The high efficiency method of transient collisional excitation has been successfully demonstrated for Ne-like and Ni-like ion x-ray laser schemes with small 5-10 J laser facilities. Our recent studies using the tabletop COMET (Compact Multipulse Terawatt) laser system at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) have produced several x-ray lasers operating in the saturation regime. Output energy of 10-15 (micro)J corresponding to a gL product of 18 has been achieved on the Ni-like Pd 4d → 4p transition at 147 (angstrom) with a total energy of 5-7 J in a 600 ps pulse followed by a 1.2 ps pulse. Analysis of the laser beam angular profile indicates that refraction plays an important role in the amplification and propagation process in the plasma column. We report further improvement in the extraction efficiency by varying a number of laser driver parameters. In particular, the duration of the second short pulse producing the inversion has an observed effect on the x-ray laser output

  6. Saturated output tabletop X-ray lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, J.; Osterheld, A.L.; Nilsen, J.; Hunter, J.R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Yuelin Li [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); ILSA, Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States); Faenov, A.Ya.; Pikuz, T.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); MISDC of VNIIFTRI, Mendeleevo (Russian Federation); Shlyaptsev, V.N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); DAS, Univ. of California Davis-Livermore, Livermore, CA (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The high efficiency method of transient collisional excitation has been successfully demonstrated for Ne-like and Ni-like ion X-ray laser schemes with small 5-10 J laser facilities. Our recent studies using the tabletop COMET (compact multipulse terawatt) laser system at the Lawrence livermore national laboratory (LLNL) have produced several X-ray lasers operating in the saturation regime. Output energy of 10-15 {mu}J corresponding to a gL product of 18 has been achieved on the Ni-like Pd 4d{yields}4p transition at 147 A with a total energy of 5-7 J in a 600 ps pulse followed by a 1.2 ps pulse. Analysis of the laser beam angular profile indicates that refraction plays an important role in the amplification and propagation process in the plasma column. We report further improvement in the extraction efficiency by varying a number of laser driver parameters. In particular, the duration of the second short pulse producing the inversion has an observed effect on the X-ray laser output. (orig.)

  7. Total Water Intake from Beverages and Foods Is Associated with Energy Intake and Eating Behaviors in Korean Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Won Lee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Water is essential for the proper functioning of the body. Even though a recommendation exists for adequate water intake for Koreans, studies identifying actual water intake from all beverages and foods consumed daily in the Korean population are limited. Thus, we estimated total water intake from both beverages and foods and its association with energy intake and eating behaviors in Korean adults. We used a nationally representative sample of 25,122 Korean adults aged ≥19 years, from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2012. We performed multiple regression analyses, adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related variables to investigate the contribution of overall energy and dietary intakes and eating behaviors to total water intake. The mean total water intake excluding plain water was 1071 g (398 g from beverages and 673 g from foods and the estimated plain water intake was 1.3 L. Among Korean adults, 82% consumed beverages (excluding plain water and these beverages contributed to 10% of daily energy intake and 32% of total water intake from beverages and foods. For every 100 kcal/day in energy intake, water intake consumed through beverages and foods increased by 18 g and 31 g, respectively. Water intake from beverages and foods was positively associated with energy from fat and dietary calcium, but inversely associated with energy density and energy from carbohydrates. When there was a 5% increase in energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home, there was an increase in water intake from beverages of 13 g and 2 g, respectively. Increased daily energy intake, the number of eating episodes, and energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home predicted higher water intake from beverages and foods. Our results provide evidence suggesting that various factors, including sociodemographic status, dietary intakes, and eating behaviors, could be important contributors to the water intake of Korean

  8. Total Water Intake from Beverages and Foods Is Associated with Energy Intake and Eating Behaviors in Korean Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Won; Shin, Dayeon; Song, Won O.

    2016-01-01

    Water is essential for the proper functioning of the body. Even though a recommendation exists for adequate water intake for Koreans, studies identifying actual water intake from all beverages and foods consumed daily in the Korean population are limited. Thus, we estimated total water intake from both beverages and foods and its association with energy intake and eating behaviors in Korean adults. We used a nationally representative sample of 25,122 Korean adults aged ≥19 years, from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2012. We performed multiple regression analyses, adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related variables to investigate the contribution of overall energy and dietary intakes and eating behaviors to total water intake. The mean total water intake excluding plain water was 1071 g (398 g from beverages and 673 g from foods) and the estimated plain water intake was 1.3 L. Among Korean adults, 82% consumed beverages (excluding plain water) and these beverages contributed to 10% of daily energy intake and 32% of total water intake from beverages and foods. For every 100 kcal/day in energy intake, water intake consumed through beverages and foods increased by 18 g and 31 g, respectively. Water intake from beverages and foods was positively associated with energy from fat and dietary calcium, but inversely associated with energy density and energy from carbohydrates. When there was a 5% increase in energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home, there was an increase in water intake from beverages of 13 g and 2 g, respectively. Increased daily energy intake, the number of eating episodes, and energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home predicted higher water intake from beverages and foods. Our results provide evidence suggesting that various factors, including sociodemographic status, dietary intakes, and eating behaviors, could be important contributors to the water intake of Korean adults. Findings

  9. Total Water Intake from Beverages and Foods Is Associated with Energy Intake and Eating Behaviors in Korean Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Won; Shin, Dayeon; Song, Won O

    2016-10-04

    Water is essential for the proper functioning of the body. Even though a recommendation exists for adequate water intake for Koreans, studies identifying actual water intake from all beverages and foods consumed daily in the Korean population are limited. Thus, we estimated total water intake from both beverages and foods and its association with energy intake and eating behaviors in Korean adults. We used a nationally representative sample of 25,122 Korean adults aged ≥19 years, from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2012. We performed multiple regression analyses, adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related variables to investigate the contribution of overall energy and dietary intakes and eating behaviors to total water intake. The mean total water intake excluding plain water was 1071 g (398 g from beverages and 673 g from foods) and the estimated plain water intake was 1.3 L. Among Korean adults, 82% consumed beverages (excluding plain water) and these beverages contributed to 10% of daily energy intake and 32% of total water intake from beverages and foods. For every 100 kcal/day in energy intake, water intake consumed through beverages and foods increased by 18 g and 31 g, respectively. Water intake from beverages and foods was positively associated with energy from fat and dietary calcium, but inversely associated with energy density and energy from carbohydrates. When there was a 5% increase in energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home, there was an increase in water intake from beverages of 13 g and 2 g, respectively. Increased daily energy intake, the number of eating episodes, and energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home predicted higher water intake from beverages and foods. Our results provide evidence suggesting that various factors, including sociodemographic status, dietary intakes, and eating behaviors, could be important contributors to the water intake of Korean adults. Findings

  10. Research report of fiscal 1997. Study on total energy and material control (feasibility study on circulating society); 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Total energy and material control ni kansuru chosa (junkangata shakai kochiku kanosei chosa) chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    In order to construct real sustainable global environment and human society in the 21st century called the century of environment, not only the innovation of manufacturing processes technically supporting such the construction but also the conception including the innovation of the whole society from a wide viewpoint are essential. As a total energy and material control system (TEMCOS) concept, the view of an energy-saving circulating society is attempted which minimizes a total energy and material flow in Japan, and the role and issue of manufacturing industry, in particular, material industry are extracted. As one of the targets of such a concept, the conception of an eco-town is also described. Paying attention on some important material industries including a mass material flow and consuming a large amount of energy such as metal, plastics and automobile industries, the study result on a material flow for every industry is arranged, and some effective issues contributing to minimize a material flow and control energy consumption and CO2 emission are extracted. 80 refs., 67 figs., 30 tabs.

  11. Structure determination of disordered organic molecules on surfaces from the Bragg spots of low-energy electron diffraction and total energy calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poon, H.C.; Weinert, M.; Saldin, D.K.; Stacchiola, D.; Zheng, T.; Tysoe, W.T.

    2004-01-01

    We show that an analysis of the intensity versus energy variation of Bragg spots due to low-energy electron diffraction from a disordered overlayer of molecules on a crystal surface allows a much more convenient method of determining the local adsorption geometries of such molecules than previously analyzed weak diffuse diffraction patterns. For the case of methanol on Pd(111), we show that the geometry determined by this means from experimental diffraction data is in excellent agreement with the predictions of density functional total energy calculations

  12. Harris functional and related methods for calculating total energies in density-functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Averill, F.W.; Painter, G.S.

    1990-01-01

    The simplified energy functional of Harris has given results of useful accuracy for systems well outside the limits of weakly interacting fragments for which the method was originally proposed. In the present study, we discuss the source of the frequent good agreement of the Harris energy with full Kohn-Sham self-consistent results. A procedure is described for extending the applicability of the scheme to more strongly interacting systems by going beyond the frozen-atom fragment approximation. A gradient-force expression is derived, based on the Harris functional, which accounts for errors in the fragment charge representation. Results are presented for some diatomic molecules, illustrating the points of this study

  13. Current State and Future Perspectives of Energy Sources for Totally Implantable Cardiac Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleszynski, Peter A; Luc, Jessica G Y; Schade, Peter; PhilLips, Steven J; Tchantchaleishvili, Vakhtang

    There is a large population of patients with end-stage congestive heart failure who cannot be treated by means of conventional cardiac surgery, cardiac transplantation, or chronic catecholamine infusions. Implantable cardiac devices, many designated as destination therapy, have revolutionized patient care and outcomes, although infection and complications related to external power sources or routine battery exchange remain a substantial risk. Complications from repeat battery replacement, power failure, and infections ultimately endanger the original objectives of implantable biomedical device therapy - eliminating the intended patient autonomy, affecting patient quality of life and survival. We sought to review the limitations of current cardiac biomedical device energy sources and discuss the current state and trends of future potential energy sources in pursuit of a lifelong fully implantable biomedical device.

  14. From partial to total economic analysis. Five applications to environmental and energy economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, T.

    2006-05-04

    The studies presented in this thesis address the consequences of market distortions of governmental policies - predominantly in the area of environmental and energy policy. The studies cover different economic aggregation levels: The first study aims at investigating firm-level effects. Thus, the results refer only to a small number of well-defined economic entities, e.g. electricity supply companies in Germany. Subsequently, issues - such as the evaluation of efficiency effects of the European Emissions Trading system - are addressed on a multi-sectoral and multi-regional level, but still only one market is considered. Thereupon, the scope of investigation is broadened by interactions of different markets - e.g. as in the case of the economic evaluation of renewable energy promotion strategies. Finally, a general equilibrium analysis of a European nuclear phase-out scenario covers all economic feed-backs on the national and international level. (orig.) 5.

  15. Commercial applications of solar total energy systems. Third quarterly progress report, November 1, 1976--January 31, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-09-01

    The application of Solar Total Energy System (STES) to the commercial sector (e.g., office buildings, shopping centers, retail stores, etc.) in the United States is investigated. Candidate solar-thermal and solar-photovoltaic concepts are considered for providing on-site electrical power generation as well as thermal energy for both heating and cooling applications. The solar-thermal concepts include the use of solar concentrators (distributed or central-receiver) for collection of the thermal energy for conversion to electricity by means of a Rankine-cycle or Brayton-cycle power-conversion system. Recoverable waste heat from the power-generation process is utilized to help meet the building thermal-energy demand. Evaluation methodology is identified to allow ranking and/or selection of the most cost-effective concept for commercial-building applications.

  16. Output hardcopy devices

    CERN Document Server

    Durbeck, Robert

    1988-01-01

    Output Hardcopy Devices provides a technical summary of computer output hardcopy devices such as plotters, computer output printers, and CRT generated hardcopy. Important related technical areas such as papers, ribbons and inks, color techniques, controllers, and character fonts are also covered. Emphasis is on techniques primarily associated with printing, as well as the plotting capabilities of printing devices that can be effectively used for computer graphics in addition to their various printing functions. Comprised of 19 chapters, this volume begins with an introduction to vector and ras

  17. Variability in the reported energy, total fat and saturated fat contents in fast-food products across ten countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziauddeen, Nida; Fitt, Emily; Edney, Louise; Dunford, Elizabeth; Neal, Bruce; Jebb, Susan A

    2015-11-01

    Fast foods are often energy dense and offered in large serving sizes. Observational data have linked the consumption of fast foods to an increased risk of obesity and related diseases. We surveyed the reported energy, total fat and saturated fat contents, and serving sizes, of fast-food items from five major chains across ten countries, comparing product categories as well as specific food items available in most countries. MRC Human Nutrition Research, Cambridge, UK. Data for 2961 food and drink products were collected, with most from Canada (n 550) and fewest from the United Arab Emirates (n 106). There was considerable variability in energy and fat contents of fast foods across countries, reflecting both the portfolio of products and serving size variability. Differences in total energy between countries were particularly noted for chicken dishes (649-1197 kJ/100 g) and sandwiches (552-1050 kJ/100g). When comparing the same product between countries variations were consistently observed in total energy and fat contents (g/100 g); for example, extreme variation in McDonald's Chicken McNuggets with 12 g total fat/100 g in Germany compared with 21·1 g/100 g in New Zealand. These cross-country variations highlight the possibility for further product reformulation in many countries to reduce nutrients of concern and improve the nutritional profiles of fast-food products around the world. Standardisation of serving sizes towards the lower end of the range would also help to reduce the risk of overconsumption.

  18. Variability in the reported energy, total fat and saturated fat content in fast food products across ten countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziauddeen, Nida; Fitt, Emily; Edney, Louise; Dunford, Elizabeth; Neal, Bruce; Jebb, Susan A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Fast foods are often energy dense and offered in large serving sizes. Observational data has linked the consumption of fast food to an increased risk of obesity and related diseases. Design We surveyed the reported energy, total fat and saturated fat contents, and serving sizes, of fast food items from five major chains across 10 countries, comparing product categories as well as specific food items available in most countries. Setting MRC Human Nutrition Research (HNR), Cambridge Subjects Data for 2961 food and drink products were collected, with most from Canada (n=550) and fewest from United Arab Emirates (n=106). Results There was considerable variability in energy and fat content of fast food across countries, reflecting both the portfolio of products, and serving size variability. Differences in total energy between countries were particularly noted for chicken dishes (649-1197kJ/100g) and sandwiches (552-1050kJ/100g). When comparing the same product between countries variations were consistently observed in total energy and fat content (g/100g) with extreme variation in McDonald’s Chicken McNuggets with 12g total fat (g/100g) in Germany compared to 21.1g in New Zealand. Conclusions These cross-country variations highlight the possibility for further product reformulation in many countries to reduce nutrients of concern and improve the nutritional profiles of fast food products around the world. Standardisation of serving sizes towards the lower end of the range would also help to reduce the risk of overconsumption. PMID:25702788

  19. Achievement report for fiscal 1982 on Sunshine Program-entrusted research and development. Research on hydrogen energy total system; 1982 nendo suiso energy total system no kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-03-01

    In this research on a hydrogen energy total system, studies are conducted on the plan of a hydrogen energy proving pilot base and on hydrogen as fuel for automobiles. It is estimated that the construction of a hydrogen energy proving pilot base will cost 7.125-billion yen in total. The sum includes 6.410-billion yen for the construction of a system on an island named Island A, 500-million yen for structures on an island named Island B, and 215-million yen for the construction of a marine transportation system between the two islands. Large shares will go to a hydroelectric power plant and a hydrogen liquefaction system, the two occupying approximately half of the total sum. In the study of hydrogen as fuel for automobiles, it is concluded that hydrogen is advantageously employed as fuel for automobiles. When comparison is made in terms of heat value, it is found that even a hydrogen engine which is a mere modification of a currently used engine is comparable to the currently used engine in terms of performance. As for abnormal combustion, a hydrogen/air 2-system injection method is contrived, and this solves the problem almost completely. Cryogenic hydrogen is advantageous in both NOx emission and heat efficiency though within certain limitations. From the viewpoint of safety, the recommended automobile fuel structural formula is GH{sub 2}(MH). (NEDO)

  20. The spectrum of protons produced in pp collisions at 31 GeV total energy

    CERN Document Server

    Albrow, M G; Barber, D P; Bogaerts, A; Bosnjakovic, B; Brooks, J R; Clegg, A B; Erné, F C; Gee, C N P; Locke, D H; Loebinger, F K; Murphy, P G; Rudge, A; Sens, Johannes C; Van der Veen, F

    1973-01-01

    Data are reported on the distributions in longitudinal and transverse momentum of protons produced in the range 0.5energy at the CERN ISR. The invariant inelastic cross section shows a peak at high longitudinal momenta. The shape of this peak suggests substantial production of states with masses up to at least 7 GeV. (4 refs).

  1. Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis with multiple total reflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitag, K.

    1985-01-01

    The development of a total reflection XRF analyzer and the performance data of this instrument are described. The drastic reduction of the scattered radiation is the outstanding property of the method. Detection limits of elements and matrix effects are discussed. The competition with other methods of analysis has proven its advantages in a wide range. In addition to its multi-element features down to the picogram level, particularly its universal calibration function has turned out to be a great help in the analytical practice. (orig./RB)

  2. Low-dose dual-energy cone-beam CT using a total-variation minimization algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Jong Hwan

    2011-02-01

    Dual-energy cone-beam CT is an important imaging modality in diagnostic applications, and may also find its use in other application such as therapeutic image guidance. Despite of its clinical values, relatively high radiation dose of dual-energy scan may pose a challenge to its wide use. In this work, we investigated a low-dose, pre-reconstruction type of dual-energy cone-beam CT (CBCT) using a total-variation minimization algorithm for image reconstruction. An empirical dual-energy calibration method was used to prepare material-specific projection data. Raw data at high and low tube voltages are converted into a set of basis functions which can be linearly combined to produce material-specific data using the coefficients obtained through the calibration process. From much fewer views than are conventionally used, material specific images are reconstructed by use of the total-variation minimization algorithm. An experimental study was performed to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method using a micro-CT system. We have reconstructed images of the phantoms from only 90 projections acquired at tube voltages of 40 kVp and 90 kVp each. Aluminum-only and acryl-only images were successfully decomposed. We evaluated the quality of the reconstructed images by use of contrast-to-noise ratio and detectability. A low-dose dual-energy CBCT can be realized via the proposed method by greatly reducing the number of projections

  3. The Impact of Environmental Regulation on Total Factor Energy Efficiency: A Cross-Region Analysis in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianting Lin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Environmental regulations are the key measure by which governments achieve sustainable environmental and economic development. This study aimed to determine the direct and indirect impacts of environmental regulations on total factor energy efficiency of regions in China. Since regions have different levels of economic development and resource endowment, we used the slacks-based measure (SBM-undesirable model to calculate total factor energy efficiency considering regional technology heterogeneity and examined the regional impacts of environmental regulation on this efficiency using the Tobit regression model. A positive direct impact was generated in the eastern region of China by the forced mechanism, which forced enterprises to reduce fossil fuel energy demand and increase clean energy consumption; whereas a negative direct impact was generated in the middle and western regions owing to the green paradox, which is the observation that expected stringent environmental regulation prompts energy owners to accelerate resource extraction. Moreover, indirect impacts through technological progress and foreign direct investment were taken into account in the model, and the results show that the indirect impacts vary across regions. A logical response to these findings would be to develop different policies for different regions.

  4. Manifestation of jet quenching in differential distributions of the total transverse energy in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savina, M.V.; Shmatov, S.V.; Slavin, N.V.; Zarubin, P.I.

    1998-01-01

    In the framework of the HIJING model, global characteristics of nucleus-nucleus collisions are studied for a Large Hadron Collider (LHC) energy scale. An interesting model prediction is the presence of a central bump over a pseudorapidity plateau of a total transverse energy distribution. The bump is induced by a jet quenching effect in a dense nuclear matter. It is shown that a wide acceptance calorimeter with a pseudorapidity coverage -5<η<5 allows one to obtain experimental confirmation of such an effect

  5. WRF Model Output

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains WRF model output. There are three months of data: July 2012, July 2013, and January 2013. For each month, several simulations were made: A...

  6. VMS forms Output Tables

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These output tables contain parsed and format validated data from the various VMS forms that are sent from any given vessel, while at sea, from the VMS devices on...

  7. Governmentally amplified output volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funashima, Yoshito

    2016-11-01

    Predominant government behavior is decomposed by frequency into several periodic components: updating cycles of infrastructure, Kuznets cycles, fiscal policy over business cycles, and election cycles. Little is known, however, about the theoretical impact of such cyclical behavior in public finance on output fluctuations. Based on a standard neoclassical growth model, this study intends to examine the frequency at which public investment cycles are relevant to output fluctuations. We find an inverted U-shaped relationship between output volatility and length of cycle in public investment. This implies that periodic behavior in public investment at a certain frequency range can cause aggravated output resonance. Moreover, we present an empirical analysis to test the theoretical implication, using the U.S. data in the period from 1968 to 2015. The empirical results suggest that such resonance phenomena change from low to high frequency.

  8. CMAQ Model Output

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — CMAQ and CMAQ-VBS model output. This dataset is not publicly accessible because: Files too large. It can be accessed through the following means: via EPA's NCC tape...

  9. Precise determination of total absorption coefficients for low-energy gamma-quanta with Moessbauer effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonchev, T.; Statev, S.; Nejkov, Kh.

    1980-01-01

    A new method of determining the total absorption coefficient applying the Moessbauer effect is proposed. This method enables the accuracy of the measurement increase. The coefficient is measured with practically no background on using the recoilless part of gamma radiation obtained from the Moessbauer source with and without the sample between the source of the gamma-quanta and the detector. Moessbauer sources and absorbers with a single line and without an isomeric shift are used. The recoilless part of the radiation is obtained by the ''two point'' method as a difference between the numbers of photons corresponding to the stationary source and to the vibrating one with a big mean square velocity, respectively. In the concrete measurements the sources 57 Co and 119 Sn are used. The total absorption coefficient for different samples beginning with water up to plumbum is determined. The mean square error for the mean result in all measurements is less than the mean statistical error for the coefficient. The obtained experimental data give a much smaller deviation from the theoretical data of the last issue of the Stom-Israel Tables than the one expected by their authors

  10. Postprandial appetite ratings are reproducible and moderately related to total day energy intakes, but not ad libitum lunch energy intakes, in healthy young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Amy J; Heap, Sarah; Ingram, Jessica; Law, Marron; Wright, Amanda J

    2016-04-01

    Reproducibility and validity testing of appetite ratings and energy intakes are needed in experimental and natural settings. Eighteen healthy young women ate a standardized breakfast for 8 days. Days 1 and 8, they rated their appetite (Hunger, Fullness, Desire to Eat, Prospective Food Consumption (PFC)) over a 3.5 h period using visual analogue scales, consumed an ad libitum lunch, left the research center and recorded food intake for the remainder of the day. Days 2-7, participants rated their at-home Hunger at 0 and 30 min post-breakfast and recorded food intake for the day. Total area under the curve (AUC) over the 180 min period before lunch, and energy intakes were calculated. Reproducibility of satiety measures between days was evaluated using coefficients of repeatability (CR), coefficients of variation (CV) and intra-class coefficients (ri). Correlation analysis was used to examine validity between satiety measures. AUCs for Hunger, Desire to Eat and PFC (ri = 0.73-0.78), ad libitum energy intakes (ri = 0.81) and total day energy intakes (ri​ = 0.48) were reproducible; fasted ratings were not. Average AUCs for Hunger, Desire to Eat and PFC, Desire to Eat at nadir and PFC at fasting, nadir and 180 min were correlated to total day energy intakes (r = 0.50-0.77, P < 0.05), but no ratings were correlated to lunch consumption. At-home Hunger ratings were weakly reproducible but not correlated to reported total energy intakes. Satiety ratings did not concur with next meal intake but PFC ratings may be useful predictors of intake. Overall, this study adds to the limited satiety research on women and challenges the accepted measures of satiety in an experimental setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Absence of a Scott correction for the total binding energy of noninteracting fermions in a smooth potential well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huxtable, B.D.

    1988-01-01

    It is shown, for V in a particular class of smooth functions, that the total binding energy, E(Z), of Z noninteracting Fermions in the potential well Z 4/3 V(Z 1/3 X) obeys E(Z) = c TF (V)Z 7/3 + O(Z 5/3 ) as Z → ∞. Here c TF (V) is the coefficient predicted by Thomas-Fermi theory. This result is consistent with the conjectured Scott correction, which occurs at order Z 2 , to the total binding energy of an atomic number Z. This correction is thought to arise only because V(x)∼ - |x| -1 near x = 0 in the atomic problem, and so V is not a smooth function

  12. Hubbard-U corrected Hamiltonians for non-self-consistent random-phase approximation total-energy calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patrick, Christopher; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2016-01-01

    In non-self-consistent calculations of the total energy within the random-phase approximation (RPA) for electronic correlation, it is necessary to choose a single-particle Hamiltonian whose solutions are used to construct the electronic density and noninteracting response function. Here we...... investigate the effect of including a Hubbard-U term in this single-particle Hamiltonian, to better describe the on-site correlation of 3d electrons in the transitionmetal compounds ZnS, TiO2, and NiO.We find that the RPA lattice constants are essentially independent of U, despite large changes...... in the underlying electronic structure. We further demonstrate that the non-selfconsistent RPA total energies of these materials have minima at nonzero U. Our RPA calculations find the rutile phase of TiO2 to be more stable than anatase independent of U, a result which is consistent with experiments...

  13. Total-energy Assisted Tight-binding Method Based on Local Density Approximation of Density Functional Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Takeo; Nishino, Shinya; Yamamoto, Susumu; Suzuki, Takashi; Ikeda, Minoru; Ohtani, Yasuaki

    2018-06-01

    A novel tight-binding method is developed, based on the extended Hückel approximation and charge self-consistency, with referring the band structure and the total energy of the local density approximation of the density functional theory. The parameters are so adjusted by computer that the result reproduces the band structure and the total energy, and the algorithm for determining parameters is established. The set of determined parameters is applicable to a variety of crystalline compounds and change of lattice constants, and, in other words, it is transferable. Examples are demonstrated for Si crystals of several crystalline structures varying lattice constants. Since the set of parameters is transferable, the present tight-binding method may be applicable also to molecular dynamics simulations of large-scale systems and long-time dynamical processes.

  14. Single/total-economy aspects of production and utilization of energy from renewable raw materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinhold, K

    1982-01-01

    ''Biosprit (biologically produced gasohol) can compete with synthetically produced ethanol for use in commerce and industries but not fully so with petrol due to the present refinery selling prices. Nevertheless, a 10% admixture will increase the price of one litre of petrol only slightly. If the consumer is not meant to cover this price increase, it could be covered by a small proportion of those expenditures which will be saved through a changeover to biogasohol production and which have been payed for necessary export refunding so far. Even at present, there is a considerable benefit involved for the overall national economy if there was a changeover to biogasohol production. In terms of total economy, transitional or initial subsidization would be just as justified as it is with initial promotion by the government with the introduction of new technologies.

  15. The total neutron cross section of 58Fe in the energy range 7 to 325 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, L.D.; Beer, H.; Kaeppeler, F.

    1976-08-01

    The total neutron cross section of 58 Fe has been determined in the energy range 7-325 keV by a transmission measurement using enriched 58 Fe samples. The data have been shape fitted by means of an R-matrix multi-level formalism to extract resonance parameters for s- and l > 0 wave resonances. The s-wave strength function was determined to S 0 = (4.3 +- 1.9) c 10 -4 . (orig.) [de

  16. The thermodynamic approach to boron chemical vapour deposition based on a computer minimization of the total Gibbs free energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naslain, R.; Thebault, J.; Hagenmuller, P.; Bernard, C.

    1979-01-01

    A thermodynamic approach based on the minimization of the total Gibbs free energy of the system is used to study the chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of boron from BCl 3 -H 2 or BBr 3 -H 2 mixtures on various types of substrates (at 1000 < T< 1900 K and 1 atm). In this approach it is assumed that states close to equilibrium are reached in the boron CVD apparatus. (Auth.)

  17. Total Water Intake from Beverages and Foods Is Associated with Energy Intake and Eating Behaviors in Korean Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kyung Won; Shin, Dayeon; Song, Won O.

    2016-01-01

    Water is essential for the proper functioning of the body. Even though a recommendation exists for adequate water intake for Koreans, studies identifying actual water intake from all beverages and foods consumed daily in the Korean population are limited. Thus, we estimated total water intake from both beverages and foods and its association with energy intake and eating behaviors in Korean adults. We used a nationally representative sample of 25,122 Korean adults aged ≥19 years, from the Kor...

  18. Total energy and potential enstrophy conserving schemes for the shallow water equations using Hamiltonian methods - Part 1: Derivation and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldred, Christopher; Randall, David

    2017-02-01

    The shallow water equations provide a useful analogue of the fully compressible Euler equations since they have similar characteristics: conservation laws, inertia-gravity and Rossby waves, and a (quasi-) balanced state. In order to obtain realistic simulation results, it is desirable that numerical models have discrete analogues of these properties. Two prototypical examples of such schemes are the 1981 Arakawa and Lamb (AL81) C-grid total energy and potential enstrophy conserving scheme, and the 2007 Salmon (S07) Z-grid total energy and potential enstrophy conserving scheme. Unfortunately, the AL81 scheme is restricted to logically square, orthogonal grids, and the S07 scheme is restricted to uniform square grids. The current work extends the AL81 scheme to arbitrary non-orthogonal polygonal grids and the S07 scheme to arbitrary orthogonal spherical polygonal grids in a manner that allows for both total energy and potential enstrophy conservation, by combining Hamiltonian methods (work done by Salmon, Gassmann, Dubos, and others) and discrete exterior calculus (Thuburn, Cotter, Dubos, Ringler, Skamarock, Klemp, and others). Detailed results of the schemes applied to standard test cases are deferred to part 2 of this series of papers.

  19. Precise Measurement of the $\\bar{p}p$ Total Cross-Section in the ISR Energy Range

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The major aim of this experiment is the precise measurement of the antiproton-proton total cross-section in the ISR energy range, using the total-rate method. The proton-proton total cross-section is remeasured with the same method and the same apparatus, and a precision of 0.5\\% is expected for both cross-sections. The total-rate method consists in the simultaneous measurement of the total interaction rate and the ISR luminosity. This is done with a set of scintillation-counter hodoscopes covering over 99.99\\% of the solid angle, which are sensitive to over 95\\% of all interactions. In addition to these detectors, small-angle drift-tube hodoscopes are used to measure the differential elastic cross-section as a function of the momentum transfert t. The total cross-section can be measured independently by extrapolating this differential cross-section to the forward direction and invoking the optical theorem. A study of the general features of charged-particle production is performed using finely divided scinti...

  20. Achievement report on surveys and researches in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1980. Surveys and researches on total energy systems; 1980 nendo total energy system ni kansuru chosa kenkyu seika hokokusho yoyaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-06-01

    Identifying the energy demand system as a total system covering from energy generation to the ultimate utilization, a quantitative and theoretical analysis method was developed in achieving selection and development of long-term strategy of Japan for 50 years from about 1975 to about 2025. Development was made on a supply estimation model by using the system dynamics method, that includes international fluctuation factors in primary energy supply structure and time-based relevant elements. Improvements were made in several occasions on the demand estimation model that includes movements of Japan's industrial structures and nation's needs for living, and fluctuation factors of population configuration. Development and improvement were made on the energy flow model to link the supply side with the demand side and analyze the energy flow. In addition, efforts were made on arranging data for inputting these models (data collection, putting them in order, and processing). These models are now in the phase of practical use, and three models have also been nearly completed. Quantitative analysis will be possible if arranging the input database is continued. (NEDO)

  1. High Output Piezo/Triboelectric Hybrid Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Woo-Suk; Kang, Min-Gyu; Moon, Hi Gyu; Baek, Seung-Hyub; Yoon, Seok-Jin; Wang, Zhong-Lin; Kim, Sang-Woo; Kang, Chong-Yun

    2015-03-01

    Recently, piezoelectric and triboelectric energy harvesting devices have been developed to convert mechanical energy into electrical energy. Especially, it is well known that triboelectric nanogenerators have a simple structure and a high output voltage. However, whereas nanostructures improve the output of triboelectric generators, its fabrication process is still complicated and unfavorable in term of the large scale and long-time durability of the device. Here, we demonstrate a hybrid generator which does not use nanostructure but generates much higher output power by a small mechanical force and integrates piezoelectric generator into triboelectric generator, derived from the simultaneous use of piezoelectric and triboelectric mechanisms in one press-and-release cycle. This hybrid generator combines high piezoelectric output current and triboelectric output voltage, which produces peak output voltage of ~370 V, current density of ~12 μA.cm-2, and average power density of ~4.44 mW.cm-2. The output power successfully lit up 600 LED bulbs by the application of a 0.2 N mechanical force and it charged a 10 μF capacitor to 10 V in 25 s. Beyond energy harvesting, this work will provide new opportunities for developing a small, built-in power source in self-powered electronics such as mobile electronics.

  2. High Output Piezo/Triboelectric Hybrid Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Woo-Suk; Kang, Min-Gyu; Moon, Hi Gyu; Baek, Seung-Hyub; Yoon, Seok-Jin; Wang, Zhong-Lin; Kim, Sang-Woo; Kang, Chong-Yun

    2015-01-01

    Recently, piezoelectric and triboelectric energy harvesting devices have been developed to convert mechanical energy into electrical energy. Especially, it is well known that triboelectric nanogenerators have a simple structure and a high output voltage. However, whereas nanostructures improve the output of triboelectric generators, its fabrication process is still complicated and unfavorable in term of the large scale and long-time durability of the device. Here, we demonstrate a hybrid generator which does not use nanostructure but generates much higher output power by a small mechanical force and integrates piezoelectric generator into triboelectric generator, derived from the simultaneous use of piezoelectric and triboelectric mechanisms in one press-and-release cycle. This hybrid generator combines high piezoelectric output current and triboelectric output voltage, which produces peak output voltage of ~370 V, current density of ~12 μA·cm−2, and average power density of ~4.44 mW·cm−2. The output power successfully lit up 600 LED bulbs by the application of a 0.2 N mechanical force and it charged a 10 μF capacitor to 10 V in 25 s. Beyond energy harvesting, this work will provide new opportunities for developing a small, built-in power source in self-powered electronics such as mobile electronics. PMID:25791299

  3. Fort Hood Solar Total Energy Project. Volume II. Preliminary design. Part 2. System performance and supporting studies. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1979-01-01

    The preliminary design developed for the Solar Total Energy System to be installed at Fort Hood, Texas, is presented. System performance analysis and evaluation are described. Feedback of completed performance analyses on current system design and operating philosophy is discussed. The basic computer simulation techniques and assumptions are described and the resulting energy displacement analysis is presented. Supporting technical studies are presented. These include health and safety and reliability assessments; solar collector component evaluation; weather analysis; and a review of selected trade studies which address significant design alternatives. Additional supporting studies which are generally specific to the installation site are reported. These include solar availability analysis; energy load measurements; environmental impact assessment; life cycle cost and economic analysis; heat transfer fluid testing; meteorological/solar station planning; and information dissemination. (WHK)

  4. Mid-south solar total energy institutional analysis. Semi-annual technical progress report, December 1978-May 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powe, R.E.; Carley, C.T.; Forbes, R.E.; Johnson, L.R.

    1979-07-31

    During this reporting period a variety of individual components likely to be employed in total energy systems at Mississippi State University have been considered in detail. Also, algorithms have been developed for the approximate prediction of building heating and cooling loads based on gross parameters such as floor area, type of wall construction, etc. A comprehensive survey was undertaken to determine the current usage of energy by the university and correlation equations were used to project consumption rates for the next few years. The development of an algorithm for heating and cooling load calculations is described. Design and specifications are given for a solar-assisted space heating system, a solar air conditioning system, and a 1-MWe solar thermal power plant for the university. Flat-plate collectors for space heating or water heating at the MSU campus are assessed. Also the possibility of exploiting low-grade geothermal energy near MSU using heat pumps for space heating is discussed.

  5. Design of a bolometer for total-energy measurement of the linear coherent light source pulsed X-ray laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore CA 94550 (United States)]. E-mail: Friedrich1@llnl.gov; Li, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore CA 94550 (United States); Ott, L.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore CA 94550 (United States); Kolgani, Rajeswari M. [Department of Physics, Geosciences and Astronomy, Towson University, 8000 York Avenue, Towson MD 21252 (United States); Yong, G.J. [Department of Physics, Geosciences and Astronomy, Towson University, 8000 York Avenue, Towson MD 21252 (United States); Ali, Z.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore CA 94550 (United States); Drury, O.B. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore CA 94550 (United States); Ables, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore CA 94550 (United States); Bionta, R.M. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore CA 94550 (United States)

    2006-04-15

    We are developing a cryogenic bolometer to measure the total energy of the linear coherent light source (LCLS) free electron X-ray laser to be built at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The laser will produce ultrabright X-ray pulses in the energy range between 0.8 and 8 keV with {approx}10{sup 12} photons per {approx}200 fs pulse at a repeat interval of 8 ms, and will be accompanied by a halo of spontaneous undulator radiation. The bolometer is designed to determine the total energy of each laser pulse to within <0.1%, taking into account thermal and mechanical stress to prevent melting in the LCLS beam due to its high energy density. We propose to use a magnetoresistive Nd{sub (1-} {sub x} {sub )}Sr {sub x} MnO{sub 3} sensor array at the metal-insulator transition, where the composition x is adjusted to produce the desired transition temperature. We discuss design considerations and material choices, and present numerical simulations of the thermal response.

  6. Investigation into the acute effects of total and partial energy restriction on postprandial metabolism among overweight/obese participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoni, Rona; Johnston, Kelly L; Collins, Adam L; Robertson, M Denise

    2016-03-28

    The intermittent energy restriction (IER) approach to weight loss involves short periods of substantial (75-100 %) energy restriction (ER) interspersed with normal eating. This study aimed to characterise the early metabolic response to these varying degrees of ER, which occurs acutely and prior to weight loss. Ten (three female) healthy, overweight/obese participants (36 (SEM 5) years; 29·0 (sem 1·1) kg/m2) took part in this acute three-way cross-over study. Participants completed three 1-d dietary interventions in a randomised order with a 1-week washout period: isoenergetic intake, partial 75 % ER and total 100 % ER. Fasting and postprandial (6-h) metabolic responses to a liquid test meal were assessed the following morning via serial blood sampling and indirect calorimetry. Food intake was also recorded for two subsequent days of ad libitum intake. Relative to the isoenergetic control, postprandial glucose responses were increased following total ER (+142 %; P=0·015) and to a lesser extent after partial ER (+76 %; P=0·051). There was also a delay in the glucose time to peak after total ER only (P=0·024). Both total and partial ER interventions produced comparable reductions in postprandial TAG responses (-75 and -59 %, respectively; both Pobese participants. Further investigations are required to establish how metabolism adapts over time to the repeated perturbations experienced during IER, as well as the implications for long-term health.

  7. Hybrid fuel cell/diesel generation total energy system, part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazek, C. F.

    1982-11-01

    Meeting the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex (DGSCC) electrical and thermal requirements with the existing system was compared with using fuel cells. Fuel cell technology selection was based on a 1985 time frame for installation. The most cost-effective fuel feedstock for fuel cell application was identified. Fuels considered included diesel oil, natural gas, methanol and coal. These fuel feedstocks were considered not only on the cost and efficiency of the fuel conversion process, but also on complexity and integration of the fuel processor on system operation and thermal energy availability. After a review of fuel processor technology, catalytic steam reformer technology was selected based on the ease of integration and the economics of hydrogen production. The phosphoric acid fuel cell was selected for application at the GDSCC due to its commercial readiness for near term application. Fuel cell systems were analyzed for both natural gas and methanol feedstock. The subsequent economic analysis indicated that a natural gas fueled system was the most cost effective of the cases analyzed.

  8. Total-Factor Energy Efficiency (TFEE Evaluation on Thermal Power Industry with DEA, Malmquist and Multiple Regression Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Peng Liu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Under the background of a new round of power market reform, realizing the goals of energy saving and emission reduction, reducing the coal consumption and ensuring the sustainable development are the key issues for thermal power industry. With the biggest economy and energy consumption scales in the world, China should promote the energy efficiency of thermal power industry to solve these problems. Therefore, from multiple perspectives, the factors influential to the energy efficiency of thermal power industry were identified. Based on the economic, social and environmental factors, a combination model with Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA and Malmquist index was constructed to evaluate the total-factor energy efficiency (TFEE in thermal power industry. With the empirical studies from national and provincial levels, the TFEE index can be factorized into the technical efficiency index (TECH, the technical progress index (TPCH, the pure efficiency index (PECH and the scale efficiency index (SECH. The analysis showed that the TFEE was mainly determined by TECH and PECH. Meanwhile, by panel data regression model, unit coal consumption, talents and government supervision were selected as important indexes to have positive effects on TFEE in thermal power industry. In addition, the negative indexes, such as energy price and installed capacity, were also analyzed to control their undesired effects. Finally, considering the analysis results, measures for improving energy efficiency of thermal power industry were discussed widely, such as strengthening technology research and design (R&D, enforcing pollutant and emission reduction, distributing capital and labor rationally and improving the government supervision. Relative study results and suggestions can provide references for Chinese government and enterprises to enhance the energy efficiency level.

  9. Energy and cost total cost management discussion: The global gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batten, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    Gas has emerged as one of the most desirable fuels for a wide range of applications that previously have been supplied by oil, coal, or nuclear energy. Compared to these, it is environmentally clean and burns at efficiencies far in excess of competitive fuels. The penetration of gas as the fuel of choice in most parts of the world is still modest. This is particularly true in newly-developed countries that are engaged in rapid industrialization and where rates of growth in the gross domestic products are two or three times greater than in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries. I will not attempt here to survey the world gas scene comprehensively. I will, however, attempt to focus on some aspects of the industry that could be the trigger points for global development. These triggers are occurring all along the gas chain, by which I mean the entire process of bringing gas to the customer from discovery through delivery. The chain includes exploration and production, power generation, transmission, and distribution. I describe an industry that is on the verge of truly global status, which is fast overcoming the remaining obstacles to transnational trade, and which has unusually exciting long-term prospects. It does have a good way to go before it achieves the maturity of the international oil industry, but in the last few years there has been a tremendous growth of confidence among both investors and users. The global gas industry is certainly developing at a fast pace, and the world can only benefit from the wider availability of this clean, economic, and efficient hydrocarbon

  10. Predicted and Totally Unexpected in the Energy Frontier Opened by LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zichichi, Antonino

    2011-01-01

    Opening lectures. Sid Coleman and Erice / A. Zichichi. Remembering Sidney Coleman / G.'t Hooft -- Predicted signals at LHC. From extra-dimensions: Multiple branes scenarios and their contenders / I. Antoniadis. Predicted signals at the LHC from technicolor / A. Martin. The one-parameter model at LHC / J. Maxin, E. Mayes and D. V. Nanopoulos. How supercritical string cosmology affects LHC / D. V. Nanopoulos. High scale physics connection to LHC data / P. Nath. Predicted signatures at the LHC from U(I) extensions of the standard model / P. Nath -- Hot theoretical topics. Progress on the ultraviolet finiteness of supergravity / Z. Bern. Status of supersymmetry: Foundations and applications / S. Ferrara and A. Marrani. Quantum gravity from dynamical triangulation / R. Loll. Status of superstring and M-theory / J. H. Schwarz. Some effects of instantons in QCD / G.'t Hooft. Crystalline gravity / G.'t Hooft -- QCD problems. Strongly coupled gauge theories / R. Kenway. Strongly interacting matter at high energy density / L. McLerran. Seminars on specialized topics. The nature and the mass of neutrinos. Majorana vs. Dirac / A. Bettini. The anomalous spin distributions in the nucleon / A. Deshpande. Results from PHENIX at RHIC / M. J. Tannenbaum -- Highlights from laboratories. Highlights from RHIC / Y. Akiba. News from the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory / E. Coccia. Highlights from TRIUMF / N. S. Lockyer. Highlights from Superkamiokande / M. Koshiba. Highlights from Fermilab / P. J. Oddone. Highlights from IHEP / Y. Wang -- Special sessions for new talents. Fake supergravity and black hole evolution / A. Gnecchi. Track-based improvement in the jet transverse momentum resolution for ATLAS / Z. Marshall. Searches for supersymmetric dark matter with XENON / K. Ni. Running of Newton's constant and quantum gravitational effects / D. Reeb.

  11. Skylarks trade size and energy content in weed seeds to maximize total ingested lipid biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaba, Sabrina; Collas, Claire; Powolny, Thibaut; Bretagnolle, François; Bretagnolle, Vincent

    2014-10-01

    The trade-off between forage quality and quantity has been particularly studied in herbivore organisms, but much less for seed eating animals, in particular seed-eating birds which constitute the bulk of wintering passerines in European farmlands. The skylark is one of the commonest farmland birds in winter, mainly feeding on seeds. We focus on weed seeds for conservation and management purposes. Weed seeds form the bulk of the diet of skylarks during winter period, and although this is still a matter for discussion, weed seed predation by granivorous has been suggested as an alternative to herbicides used to regulate weed populations in arable crops. Our objectives were to identify whether weed seed traits govern foraging decisions of skylarks, and to characterize key seed traits with respect to size, which is related to searching and handling time, and lipid content, which is essential for migratory birds. We combined a single-offer experiment and a multiple-offer one to test for feeding preferences of the birds by estimating seed intake on weed seed species differing in their seed size and seed lipid content. Our results showed (1) a selective preference for smaller seeds above a threshold of seed size or seed size difference in the pair and, (2) a significant effect of seed lipid biomass suggesting a trade-off between foraging for smaller seeds and selecting seeds rich in lipids. Skylarks foraging decision thus seems to be mainly based on seed size, that is presumably a 'proxy' for weed seed energy content. However, there are clearly many possible combinations of morphological and physiological traits that must play crucial role in the plant-bird interaction such as toxic compound or seed coat. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Total energy supply-system for manned spaceship using nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narabayashi, Tadashi; Honma, Yuji; Yoshida, Yutaka; Shimazu, Yoichiro

    2007-01-01

    In order to explore the deep space, such as Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, etc in the future, a spacecraft that will be driven by nuclear power should be developed. At present, satellites or space probes have been using mainly electric source of chemical battery, fuel battery, solar battery, and RI battery. However, considering highly developed and extensive space exploration in the future, it is obvious that larger electric power is required over the long term space travel more than several years. Additionally, the solar battery used in space will be fundamentally impossible to use in planetary exploration father away form Mars because sunlight is attenuated. Therefore, larger electric power source must be installed in the space craft. In this study, we consider about co-generation system for heat and electricity using nuclear power. We think that the nuclear power is appropriate for using in deep space because of a long time operation without refueling and possibility in downsizing due to higher power density. We selected the fast reactor system of about 18 MWth compared with other type of reactors, such as PWR and high temperature gas reactor (Honma, 2006). With regard to a power generation system, we examined about efficiency of Stirling engine compared with a gas-turbine engine. Theoretical efficiency of Stirling engine is much higher than that of gas-turbine engine. Therefore, we selected Stirling engine and we have started the model test of a Stirling engine. Total power generation at International Space Station (ISS) that has been built since 1998 is about 110kWe. We estimated that about 5 times as much electricity as that of ISS is enough to explore or developed the space. In that case, 2.5MWe will be generated by the system, number of crews will be about 10 and 2MW will be used to electric propulsion. (author)

  13. Evaluation of Energy Dose and Output Power Optimum of Diode’s Laser of 450 nm and 650 nm in Photoantimicrobial Mechanisms Against Inhibition of C. Albicans Biofilm Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi-Astuty, S.; Suhariningsih; Dyah-Astuti, S.; Baktir, A.

    2018-03-01

    Photoantimicrobial as a pathogenic microbial inhibitory therapy system such as C. albicans in biofilms forms has been studied in vitro. Mechanisms of inhibiting called inactivating used the absorb principles of a dye agents such as chlorophyll against the photon energy of diode laser which any number of ROS product depend on energy doses of a laser, time of irradiation, concentration and time of incubation the dyes agent. The inactivation profile of C. albicans biofilm cells was observed based on cell viability reduction after photoantimicrobial treatment with or without oxygenation by XTT assay test. Results show that the inhibiting significantly with the time incubation of the dye agents and the oxygen degree inside the sample. The inhibition for oxygenation biofilm’s group 10% lower than without oxygenation biofilm’s group at the maximum of reduction of cell viability occurred in the 3hour incubation group. Optimum of inactivation are 89.6% (without oxygenation) and 94.8% (with oxygenation) after irradiation with 450 nm laser (power output 128.73 at energy dose 86.09 J/cm2), While, by 650 nm laser (power output 164.53 mW at energy dose 92.52 J/cm2) irradiation treatment obtained optimum of inactivation are 89.5% (without oxygenation) and 92.3% (with oxygenation).

  14. The role of input-output analysis of energy and ecologic systems. In the early development of ecological economics--a personal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    A summary is provided of the early history of research on the flow of nonrenewable energy resources through the economy and of the flow of renewable energy resources through a natural ecosystem. The techniques are similar, and many specific applications are provided. A combined economic and ecological technique is also defined. The early history and people of the International Society Ecological Economic are cited.

  15. Total-Factor Energy Efficiency in BRI Countries: An Estimation Based on Three-Stage DEA Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changhong Zhao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Belt and Road Initiative (BRI is showing its great influence and leadership on the international energy cooperation. Based on the three-stage DEA model, total-factor energy efficiency (TFEE in 35 BRI countries in 2015 was measured in this article. It shows that the three-stage DEA model could eliminate errors of environment variable and random, which made the result better than traditional DEA model. When environment variable errors and random errors were eliminated, the mean value of TFEE was declined. It demonstrated that TFEE of the whole sample group was overestimated because of external environment impacts and random errors. The TFEE indicators of high-income countries like South Korea, Singapore, Israel and Turkey are 1, which is in the efficiency frontier. The TFEE indicators of Russia, Saudi Arabia, Poland and China are over 0.8. And the indicators of Uzbekistan, Ukraine, South Africa and Bulgaria are in a low level. The potential of energy-saving and emissions reduction is great in countries with low TFEE indicators. Because of the gap in energy efficiency, it is necessary to distinguish different countries in the energy technology options, development planning and regulation in BRI countries.

  16. Oil output's changing fortunes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eldridge, D.

    1994-01-01

    The Petroleum Economist, previously the Petroleum Press Service, has been making annual surveys of output levels of petroleum in all the oil-producing countries since its founding in 1934. This article documents trends and changes in the major oil-producing countries output from 1934 until the present. This analysis is linked with the political and historical events accompanying these changes, notably the growth of Middle Eastern oil production, the North Sea finds and most recently, Iraq's invasion of Kuwait in 1990. (UK)

  17. Cardiac output measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Möller Petrun

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, developments in the measuring of cardiac output and other haemodynamic variables are focused on the so-called minimally invasive methods. The aim of these methods is to simplify the management of high-risk and haemodynamically unstable patients. Due to the need of invasive approach and the possibility of serious complications the use of pulmonary artery catheter has decreased. This article describes the methods for measuring cardiac output, which are based on volume measurement (Fick method, indicator dilution method, pulse wave analysis, Doppler effect, and electrical bioimpedance.

  18. Measurements of Daily Energy Intake and Total Energy Expenditure in People with Dementia in Care Homes: The Use of Wearable Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, J; Holmes, J; Brooks, C

    2017-01-01

    To estimate daily total energy expenditure (TEE) using a physical activity monitor, combined with dietary assessment of energy intake to assess the relationship between daily energy expenditure and patterns of activity with energy intake in people with dementia living in care homes. A cross-sectional study in care homes in the UK. Twenty residents with confirmed dementia diagnosis were recruited from two care homes that specialised in dementia care. A physical activity monitor (SensewearTM Armband, Body Media, Pittsburgh, PA) was employed to objectively determine total energy expenditure, sleep duration and physical activity. The armband was placed around the left upper triceps for up to 7 days. Energy intake was determined by weighing all food and drink items over 4 days (3 weekdays and 1 weekend day) including measurements of food wastage. The mean age was 78.7 (SD ± 11.8) years, Body Mass Index (BMI) 23.0 (SD ± 4.2) kg/m2; 50% were women. Energy intake (mean 7.4; SD ± 2.6) MJ/d) was correlated with TEE (mean 7.6; SD ± 1.8 MJ/d; r=0.49, p<0.05). Duration of sleeping ranged from 0.4-12.5 (mean 6.1) hrs/d and time spent lying down was 1.3-16.0 (8.3) hrs/d. On average residents spent 17.9 (6.3-23.4) hrs/d undertaking sedentary activity. TEE was correlated with BMI (r=0.52, p<0.05) and body weight (r=0.81, p<0.001) but inversely related to sleep duration (r=-0.59, p<0.01) and time lying down (r=-0.62, p<0.01). Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that after taking BMI, sleep duration and time spent lying down into account, TEE was no longer correlated with energy intake. The results show the extent to which body mass, variable activity and sleep patterns may be contributing to TEE and together with reduced energy intake, energy requirements were not satisfied. Thus wearable technology has the potential to offer real-time monitoring to provide appropriate nutrition management that is more person-centred to prevent weight loss in dementia.

  19. Beverage Consumption Habits and Association with Total Water and Energy Intakes in the Spanish Population: Findings of the ANIBES Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissensohn, Mariela; Sánchez-Villegas, Almudena; Ortega, Rosa M; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2016-04-20

    Inadequate hydration is a public health issue that imposes a significant economic burden. In Spain, data of total water intake (TWI) are scarce. There is a clear need for a national study that quantifies water and beverage intakes and explores associations between the types of beverages and energy intakes. The Anthropometry, Intake and Energy Balance Study ANIBES is a national survey of diet and nutrition conducted among a representative sample of 2285 healthy participants aged 9-75 years in Spain. Food and beverage intakes were assessed in a food diary over three days. Day and time of beverage consumption were also recorded. On average, TWI was 1.7 L (SE 21.2) for men and 1.6 L (SE 18.9) for women. More than 75% of participants had inadequate TWI, according to European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) recommendations. Mean total energy intake (EI) was 1810 kcal/day (SE 11.1), of which 12% was provided by beverages. Water was the most consumed beverage, followed by milk. The contribution of alcoholic drinks to the EI was near 3%. For caloric soft drinks, a relatively low contribution to the EI was obtained, only 2%. Of eight different types of beverages, the variety score was positively correlated with TWI (r = 0.39) and EI (r = 0.23), suggesting that beverage variety is an indicator of higher consumption of food and drinks. The present study demonstrates that well-conducted surveys such as the ANIBES study have the potential to yield rich contextual value data that can emphasize the need to undertake appropriate health and nutrition policies to increase the total water intake at the population level promoting a healthy Mediterranean hydration pattern.

  20. Beverage Consumption Habits and Association with Total Water and Energy Intakes in the Spanish Population: Findings of the ANIBES Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissensohn, Mariela; Sánchez-Villegas, Almudena; Ortega, Rosa M.; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2016-01-01

    Background: Inadequate hydration is a public health issue that imposes a significant economic burden. In Spain, data of total water intake (TWI) are scarce. There is a clear need for a national study that quantifies water and beverage intakes and explores associations between the types of beverages and energy intakes. Methods: The Anthropometry, Intake and Energy Balance Study ANIBES is a national survey of diet and nutrition conducted among a representative sample of 2285 healthy participants aged 9–75 years in Spain. Food and beverage intakes were assessed in a food diary over three days. Day and time of beverage consumption were also recorded. Results: On average, TWI was 1.7 L (SE 21.2) for men and 1.6 L (SE 18.9) for women. More than 75% of participants had inadequate TWI, according to European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) recommendations. Mean total energy intake (EI) was 1810 kcal/day (SE 11.1), of which 12% was provided by beverages. Water was the most consumed beverage, followed by milk. The contribution of alcoholic drinks to the EI was near 3%. For caloric soft drinks, a relatively low contribution to the EI was obtained, only 2%. Of eight different types of beverages, the variety score was positively correlated with TWI (r = 0.39) and EI (r = 0.23), suggesting that beverage variety is an indicator of higher consumption of food and drinks. Conclusions: The present study demonstrates that well-conducted surveys such as the ANIBES study have the potential to yield rich contextual value data that can emphasize the need to undertake appropriate health and nutrition policies to increase the total water intake at the population level promoting a healthy Mediterranean hydration pattern. PMID:27104564

  1. Beverage Consumption Habits and Association with Total Water and Energy Intakes in the Spanish Population: Findings of the ANIBES Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela Nissensohn

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inadequate hydration is a public health issue that imposes a significant economic burden. In Spain, data of total water intake (TWI are scarce. There is a clear need for a national study that quantifies water and beverage intakes and explores associations between the types of beverages and energy intakes. Methods: The Anthropometry, Intake and Energy Balance Study ANIBES is a national survey of diet and nutrition conducted among a representative sample of 2285 healthy participants aged 9–75 years in Spain. Food and beverage intakes were assessed in a food diary over three days. Day and time of beverage consumption were also recorded. Results: On average, TWI was 1.7 L (SE 21.2 for men and 1.6 L (SE 18.9 for women. More than 75% of participants had inadequate TWI, according to European Food Safety Authority (EFSA recommendations. Mean total energy intake (EI was 1810 kcal/day (SE 11.1, of which 12% was provided by beverages. Water was the most consumed beverage, followed by milk. The contribution of alcoholic drinks to the EI was near 3%. For caloric soft drinks, a relatively low contribution to the EI was obtained, only 2%. Of eight different types of beverages, the variety score was positively correlated with TWI (r = 0.39 and EI (r = 0.23, suggesting that beverage variety is an indicator of higher consumption of food and drinks. Conclusions: The present study demonstrates that well-conducted surveys such as the ANIBES study have the potential to yield rich contextual value data that can emphasize the need to undertake appropriate health and nutrition policies to increase the total water intake at the population level promoting a healthy Mediterranean hydration pattern.

  2. Two-scale evaluation of remediation technologies for a contaminated site by applying economic input-output life cycle assessment: risk-cost, risk-energy consumption and risk-CO2 emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yasushi; Katayama, Arata

    2011-09-15

    A two-scale evaluation concept of remediation technologies for a contaminated site was expanded by introducing life cycle costing (LCC) and economic input-output life cycle assessment (EIO-LCA). The expanded evaluation index, the rescue number for soil (RN(SOIL)) with LCC and EIO-LCA, comprises two scales, such as risk-cost, risk-energy consumption or risk-CO(2) emission of a remediation. The effectiveness of RN(SOIL) with LCC and EIO-LCA was examined in a typical contamination and remediation scenario in which dieldrin contaminated an agricultural field. Remediation was simulated using four technologies: disposal, high temperature thermal desorption, biopile and landfarming. Energy consumption and CO(2) emission were determined from a life cycle inventory analysis using monetary-based intensity based on an input-output table. The values of RN(SOIL) based on risk-cost, risk-energy consumption and risk-CO(2) emission were calculated, and then rankings of the candidates were compiled according to RN(SOIL) values. A comparison between three rankings showed the different ranking orders. The existence of differences in ranking order indicates that the scales would not have reciprocal compatibility for two-scale evaluation and that each scale should be used independently. The RN(SOIL) with LCA will be helpful in selecting a technology, provided an appropriate scale is determined. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Solar total energy-large scale experiment, Shenandoah, Georgia site. Annual report, June 1977--June 1978. [For Bleyle Knitwear Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1978-06-01

    The site was described in terms of location, suitably, accessibility, and other factors. Detailed descriptions of the Solar Total Energy-Large Scale Experiment Application (STE-LSE) (Bleyle of America, Inc., Knitwear Plant), the DOE owned Meteorology Station operating at the site, and the instrumentation provided by the Georgia Power Company to measure energy usage within the knitwear plant are included. A detailed report of progress is given at the Shenandoah Site, introduced by the STE-LSE schedule and the Cooperative Agreement work tasks. Progress is described in terms of the following major task areas: site/application; instrumentation/data acquisition; meteorology station; site to STES interface; information dissemination. A brief overview of milestones to be accomplished is given, followed by these appendices: solar easement agreement, interface drawing set, and additional site background data. (MHR)

  4. Total electron scattering cross section from pyridine molecules in the energy range 10-1000 eV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubuis, A. Traoré; Costa, F.; da Silva, F. Ferreira; Limão-Vieira, P.; Oller, J. C.; Blanco, F.; García, G.

    2018-05-01

    We report on experimental total electron scattering cross-section (TCS) from pyridine (C5H5N) for incident electron energies between 10 and 1000 eV, with experimental uncertainties within 5-10%, as measured with a double electrostatic analyser apparatus. The experimental results are compared with our theoretical calculations performed within the independent atom model complemented with a screening corrected additivity rule (IAM-SCAR) procedure which has been updated by including interference effects. A good level of agreement is found between both data sources within the experimental uncertainties. The present TCS results for electron impact energy under study contribute, together with other scattering data available in the literature, to achieve a consistent set of cross section data for modelling purposes.

  5. ENDF/B-IV representation of the 238U total neutron cross section in the resolved resonance energy region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Saussure, G.; Olsen, D.K.; Perez, R.B.

    1976-01-01

    The ENDF/B-IV prescription fails to represent correctly the 238 U total (and scattering) cross section between the levels of the resolved range. It is shown how this representation can be improved by properly accounting for the contribution of levels outside the resolved region to the cross section at energies inside the resolved region, and by substituting the more precise multilevel Breit-Wigner formula for the presently used single-level formula. The importance of computing accurately the minima in the total cross section is illustrated by comparing values of the self-shielded capture resonance integral computed with ENDF/B-IV and with a more accurate cross section model

  6. Neutron total cross section measurements in the energy region from 47 keV to 20 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poenitz, W.P.; Whalen, J.F.

    1983-05-01

    Neutron total cross sections were measured for 26 elements. Data were obtained in the energy range from 47 keV to 20 MeV for 11 elements in the range of light-mass fission products. Previously reported measurements for eight heavy and actinide isotopes were extended to 20 MeV. Data were also obtained for Cu (47 keV to 1.4 MeV) and for Sc, Zn, Nd, Hf, and Pt (1.8 to 20 MeV). The present work is part of a continuing effort to provide accurate neutron total cross sections for evaluations and for optical-model parameteriztions. The latter are required for the derivation of other nuclear-data information of importance to applied programs. 37 references

  7. Total cross-sections for reactions of high energy particles (including elastic, topological, inclusive and exclusive reactions). Subvol. b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schopper, H.; Moorhead, W.G.; Morrison, D.R.O.

    1988-01-01

    The aim of this report is to present a compilation of cross-sections (i.e. reaction rates) of elementary particles at high energy. The data are presented in the form of tables, plots and some fits, which should be easy for the reader to use and may enable him to estimate cross-sections for presently unmeasured energies. We have analyzed all the data published in the major Journals and Reviews for momenta of the incoming particles larger than ≅ 50 MeV/c, since the early days of elementary particle physics and, for each reaction, we have selected the best cross-section data available. We have restricted our attention to integrated cross-sections, such as total cross-sections, exclusive and inclusive cross-sections etc., at various incident beam energies. We have disregarded data affected by geometrical and/or kinematical cuts which would make them not directly comparable to other data at different energies. Also, in the case of exclusive reactions, we have left out data where not all of the particles in the final state were unambiguously identified. This work contains reactions induced by neutrinos, gammas, charged pions, kaons, nucleons, antinucleons and hyperons. (orig./HSI)

  8. Natural gas reserves/total energy consumption: a useful new ratio for addressing global climate change concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqi, T.A.

    2002-01-01

    Energy analysts have used the reserves/production ratios for oil and natural gas for decades as indicators of the ability of countries to maintain or increase their production of those fuels. The global community is now faced with the challenge of reducing carbon dioxide emissions from a variety of sources, with the energy sector being the largest contributor to the anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases. Natural gas has emerged as a highly desirable fuel, since it produces lower emissions of carbon dioxide than coal or oil for equivalent amounts of energy supplied. The ratio of a country's proven natural gas reserves to its total energy consumption is a good indicator of its ability to improve its air quality situation or address greenhouse gas reduction targets from domestic natural gas sources. This paper provides the ratio for several countries at different stages of development, and discusses some of the implications. In countries where exploration for natural gas has been limited, the estimated resources in place may sometimes be a more useful indicator than proven reserves, and could be used instead. (author)

  9. Total and inelastic cross-sections at LHC at CM energy of 7 TeV and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Achilli, Andrea; Grau, Agnes; Pancheri, Giulia; Shekhovtsova, Olga; Srivastava, Yogendra N

    2011-01-01

    We discuss expectations for the total and inelastic cross-sections at LHC CM energies $\\sqrt{s}\\ =\\ 7\\ TeV$ {and $ 14\\ TeV$} obtained in an eikonal minijet model augmented by soft gluon $k_t$-resummation, which we describe in some detail. We present a band of predictions which encompass recent LHC data and suggest that the inelastic cross-section described by two channel eikonal models include only uncorrelated processes. We show that this interpretation of the model is supported by the LHC data.

  10. The total neutron cross-section of Nb at different temperatures for neutrons with energies below 1 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adib, M.; Abdel-Kawy, A.; Maayouf, R.M.A.; Fayek, M.; Mostafa, M.; Hamouda, I.

    1981-09-01

    Total neutron cross-section measurements have been performed for natural Nb at liquid nitrogen, room and 425 0 K temperatures in the energy range from 2 MeV - 1 eV. The measurements were performed using two time-of-flight spectrometers installed in front of two of the ET-RR-1 reactor horizontal channels. The neutron diffraction pattern of Nb, at room temperature, was obtained using a double axis crystal spectrometer installed also at the ET-RR-1 reactor. The obtained total neutron cross-sections were analyzed using the single level Breit-Wigner formula. The coherent scattering amplitude was determined from the Bragg reflections observed in the total neutron cross-section of Nb and the analysis of its neutron diffraction pattern. The incoherent and thermal inelastic scattering cross-sections of Nb were determined from the analysis of the total cross-section of Nb beyond the cut-off wavelength. The following results have been obtained: sigmasub(t) = (6.30+-0.20)b; sigmasub(coh) = (6.0+-0.3)b; sigmasub(incoh) = (2.0+-1.0)b; bsub(coh) = (6.91+-0.08)fm

  11. Combination of equilibrium models and hybrid life cycle-input–output analysis to predict the environmental impacts of energy policy scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igos, Elorri; Rugani, Benedetto; Rege, Sameer; Benetto, Enrico; Drouet, Laurent; Zachary, Daniel S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The environmental impacts of two energy policy scenarios in Luxembourg are assessed. • Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) and Partial Equilibrium (PE) models are used. • Results from coupling of CGE and PE are integrated in hybrid Life Cycle Assessment. • Impacts due to energy related production and imports are likely to grow over time. • Carbon mitigation policies seem to not substantially decrease the impacts’ trend. - Abstract: Nowadays, many countries adopt an active agenda to mitigate the impact of greenhouse gas emissions by moving towards less polluting energy generation technologies. The environmental costs, directly or indirectly generated to achieve such a challenging objective, remain however largely underexplored. Until now, research has focused either on pure economic approaches such as Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) and partial equilibrium (PE) models, or on (physical) energy supply scenarios. These latter could be used to evaluate the environmental impacts of various energy saving or cleaner technologies via Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology. These modelling efforts have, however, been pursued in isolation, without exploring the possible complementarities and synergies. In this study, we have undertaken a practical combination of these approaches into a common framework: on the one hand, by coupling a CGE with a PE model, and, on the other hand, by linking the outcomes from the coupling with a hybrid input–output−process based life cycle inventory. The methodological framework aimed at assessing the environmental consequences of two energy policy scenarios in Luxembourg between 2010 and 2025. The study highlights the potential of coupling CGE and PE models but also the related methodological difficulties (e.g. small number of available technologies in Luxembourg, intrinsic limitations of the two approaches, etc.). The assessment shows both environmental synergies and trade-offs due to the implementation of

  12. Fission Fragment Mass Distributions and Total Kinetic Energy Release of 235-Uranium and 238-Uranium in Neutron-Induced Fission at Intermediate and Fast Neutron Energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duke, Dana Lynn [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-11-12

    This Ph.D. dissertation describes a measurement of the change in mass distributions and average total kinetic energy (TKE) release with increasing incident neutron energy for fission of 235U and 238U. Although fission was discovered over seventy-five years ago, open questions remain about the physics of the fission process. The energy of the incident neutron, En, changes the division of energy release in the resulting fission fragments, however, the details of energy partitioning remain ambiguous because the nucleus is a many-body quantum system. Creating a full theoretical model is difficult and experimental data to validate existing models are lacking. Additional fission measurements will lead to higher-quality models of the fission process, therefore improving applications such as the development of next-generation nuclear reactors and defense. This work also paves the way for precision experiments such as the Time Projection Chamber (TPC) for fission cross section measurements and the Spectrometer for Ion Determination in Fission (SPIDER) for precision mass yields.

  13. Summarized achievement report on research and development in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1979. Research on hydrogen energy total systems; 1979 nendo suiso energy total system no kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1980-03-01

    This paper describes discussions on future possibility of introducing hydrogen, by adding the latest data acquired in fiscal 1979 into a hydrogen energy total system calculation model. The critical cost of hydrogen is higher always than other secondary energies up to about 2030. Since it is a presupposition that hydrogen manufacturing is technologically feasible only by using the electrolytic manufacturing process, the hydrogen cost changes with the critical cost of electric power. Thereafter, if a hydrogen manufacturing process of mixed type utilizing heat from a high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) is introduced, the cost will be reduced. However, introduction of HTGR is governed by the nuclear power plan such as HTGR technology development, rather than simply by the economic performance. Value factors showing qualitative advantage of hydrogen have been assigned to different demand sectors, whereas acceptable economic performance may emerge from this effect from about 2010 in sectors having large value factors (such as 2.8 in aircraft fuels). Hydrogen contribution would be about 2.1% in 2020 and 5.5% in 2030 of the whole energy demand. (NEDO)

  14. Achievement report on research and development in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1980. Research on a hydrogen energy total system; 1980 nendo suiso energy total system no kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    This paper describes research on a hydrogen energy total system. Fiscal 1980 has surveyed R/D technologies in the sectors anticipated to have large possibility of introducing hydrogen in Japan's energy systems in the future (ammonia/methanol industries, automobiles and aircraft fuel), and discussed the possibility of the introduction. The value factors (VF) applied to them are 1.7 for the ammonia industry, 1.1 to 1.6 for the methanol industry, 1.4 for gasoline as automobile and jet fuel, and 2.8 for jet fuel. Whether hydrogen would be introduced in all of these sectors depends on conditions of introducing hydrogen utilizing HTGR heat, and the VF of hydrogen against competing energies. Therefore, case studies were performed by using these factors as the parameters. If the VF is fixed and HTGR introduction speed is accelerated, introduction of hydrogen will be accelerated in the fields of chemical materials, air conditioning and process heat. On the other hand, the introduction will decrease in the automobile and aircraft fuel fields. If the methanol VF is made smaller, hydrogen introduction will be decelerated in the chemical industry field (methanol), and that in the air conditioning, automobiles and aircraft fuel fields will be accelerated. (NEDO)

  15. Beverage consumption habits "24/7" among British adults: association with total water intake and energy intake.

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