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Sample records for total operative time

  1. Application of total care time and payment per unit time model for physician reimbursement for common general surgery operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Abhishek; Holubar, Stefan D; Figy, Sean; Chen, Lilian; Montagne, Shirley A; Rosen, Joseph M; Desimone, Joseph P

    2012-06-01

    The relative value unit system relies on subjective measures of physician input in the care of patients. A payment per unit time model incorporates surgeon reimbursement to the total care time spent in the operating room, postoperative in-house, and clinic time to define payment per unit time. We aimed to compare common general surgery operations by using the total care time and payment per unit time method in order to demonstrate a more objective measurement for physician reimbursement. Average total physician payment per case was obtained for 5 outpatient operations and 4 inpatient operations in general surgery. Total care time was defined as the sum of operative time, 30 minutes per hospital day, and 30 minutes per office visit for each operation. Payment per unit time was calculated by dividing the physician reimbursement per case by the total care time. Total care time, physician payment per case, and payment per unit time for each type of operation demonstrated that an average payment per time spent for inpatient operations was $455.73 and slightly more at $467.51 for outpatient operations. Partial colectomy with primary anastomosis had the longest total care time (8.98 hours) and the least payment per unit time ($188.52). Laparoscopic gastric bypass had the highest payment per time ($707.30). The total care time and payment per unit time method can be used as an adjunct to compare reimbursement among different operations on an institutional level as well as on a national level. Although many operations have similar payment trends based on time spent by the surgeon, payment differences using this methodology are seen and may be in need of further review. Copyright © 2012 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Does antegrade JJ stenting affect the total operative time during laparoscopic pyeloplasty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolat, Mustafa Suat; Çınar, Önder; Akdeniz, Ekrem

    2017-12-01

    We aimed to show the effect of retrograde JJ stenting and intraoperative antegrade JJ stenting techniques on operative time in patients who underwent laparoscopic pyeloplasty. A total of 34 patients were retrospectively investigated (15 male and 19 female) with ureteropelvic junction obstruction. Of the patients stentized under local anesthesia preoperatively, as a part of surgery, 15 were retrogradely stentized at the beginning of the procedure (Group 1), and 19 were antegradely stentized during the procedure (Group 2). A transperitoneal dismembered pyeloplasty technique was performed in all patients. The two groups were retrospectively compared in terms of complications, the mean total operative time, and the mean stenting times. The mean ages of the patients were 31.5±15.5 and 33.2±15.5 years (p=0.09), and the mean body mass indexes were 25.8±5.6 and 26.2.3±8.4 kg/m 2 in Group 1 and Group 2, respectively. The mean total operative times were 128.9±38.9 min and 112.7±21.9 min (p=0.04); the mean stenting times were 12.6±5.4 min and 3.5±2.4 min (p=0.02); and the mean rates of catheterization-to-total surgery times were 0.1 and 0.03 (p=0.01) in Group 1 and 2, respectively. The mean hospital stays and the mean anastomosis times were similar between the two groups (p>0.05). Antegrade JJ stenting during laparoscopic pyeloplasty significantly decreased the total operative time.

  3. Reduced Operating Time but Not Blood Loss With Cruciate Retaining Total Knee Arthroplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermesan, Dinu; Trocan, Ilie; Prejbeanu, Radu; Poenaru, Dan V; Haragus, Horia; Gratian, Damian; Marrelli, Massimo; Inchingolo, Francesco; Caprio, Monica; Cagiano, Raffaele; Tatullo, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Background There is no consensus regarding the use of retaining or replacing cruciate implants for patients with limited deformity who undergo a total knee replacement. Scope of this paper is to evaluate whether a cruciate sparing total knee replacement could have a reduced operating time compared to a posterior stabilized implant. Methods For this purpose, we performed a randomized study on 50 subjects. All procedures were performed by a single surgeon in the same conditions to minimize bias and only knees with a less than 20 varus deviation and/or maximum 15° fixed flexion contracture were included. Results Surgery time was significantly shorter with the cruciate retaining implant (P = 0.0037). The mean duration for the Vanguard implant was 68.9 (14.7) and for the NexGen II Legacy was 80.2 (11.3). A higher range of motion, but no significant Knee Society Scores at 6 months follow-up, was used as controls. Conclusions In conclusion, both implants had the potential to assure great outcomes. However, if a decision has to be made, choosing a cruciate retaining procedure could significantly reduce the surgical time. When performed under tourniquet, this gain does not lead to reduced blood loss. PMID:25584102

  4. Extending DIII-D Neutral Beam Modulated Operations with a Camac Based Total on Time Interlock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baggest, D.S.; Broesch, J.D.; Phillips, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    A new total-on-time interlock has increased the operational time limits of the Neutral Beam systems at DIII-D. The interlock, called the Neutral Beam On-Time-Limiter (NBOTL), is a custom built CAMAC module utilizing a Xilinx 9572 Complex Programmable Logic Device (CPLD) as its primary circuit. The Neutral Beam Injection Systems are the primary source of auxiliary heating for DIII-D plasma discharges and contain eight sources capable of delivering 20MW of power. The delivered power is typically limited to 3.5 s per source to protect beam-line components, while a DIII-D plasma discharge usually exceeds 5 s. Implemented as a hardware interlock within the neutral beam power supplies, the NBOTL limits the beam injection time. With a continuing emphasis on modulated beam injections, the NBOTL guards against command faults and allows the beam injection to be safely spread over a longer plasma discharge time. The NBOTL design is an example of incorporating modern circuit design techniques (CPLD) within an established format (CAMAC). The CPLD is the heart of the NBOTL and contains 90% of the circuitry, including a loadable, 1 MHz, 28 bit, BCD count down timer, buffers, and CAMAC communication circuitry. This paper discusses the circuit design and implementation. Of particular interest is the melding of flexible modern programmable logic devices with the CAMAC format

  5. The influence of tourniquet use and operative time on the incidence of deep vein thrombosis in total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Arnaldo José; Almeida, Adriano Marques de; Fávaro, Edmar; Sguizzato, Guilherme Turola

    2012-09-01

    To evaluate the association between tourniquet and total operative time during total knee arthroplasty and the occurrence of deep vein thrombosis. Seventy-eight consecutive patients from our institution underwent cemented total knee arthroplasty for degenerative knee disorders. The pneumatic tourniquet time and total operative time were recorded in minutes. Four categories were established for total tourniquet time: 120 minutes. Three categories were defined for operative time: 150 minutes. Between 7 and 12 days after surgery, the patients underwent ascending venography to evaluate the presence of distal or proximal deep vein thrombosis. We evaluated the association between the tourniquet time and total operative time and the occurrence of deep vein thrombosis after total knee arthroplasty. In total, 33 cases (42.3%) were positive for deep vein thrombosis; 13 (16.7%) cases involved the proximal type. We found no statistically significant difference in tourniquet time or operative time between patients with or without deep vein thrombosis. We did observe a higher frequency of proximal deep vein thrombosis in patients who underwent surgery lasting longer than 120 minutes. The mean total operative time was also higher in patients with proximal deep vein thrombosis. The tourniquet time did not significantly differ in these patients. We concluded that surgery lasting longer than 120 minutes increases the risk of proximal deep vein thrombosis.

  6. Imageless navigation total hip arthroplasty – an evaluation of operative time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valsamis Epaminondas Markos

    2018-01-01

    Discussion: This is the first study that demonstrates no added operative time when using imageless navigation in THA, achieved with an improved workflow. The results also demonstrate a very reasonable learning curve.

  7. Impact of operative time on early joint infection and deep vein thrombosis in primary total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, B W; Sheppard, E D; Smith, W R; Staggers, J R; Li, P; Shah, A; Lee, S R; Naranje, S M

    2018-03-22

    Infections and deep vein thrombosis (DVT) after total hip arthroplasty (THA) are challenging problems for both the patient and surgeon. Previous studies have identified numerous risk factors for infections and DVT after THA but have often been limited by sample size. We aimed to evaluate the effect of operative time on early postoperative infection as well as DVT rates following THA. We hypothesized that an increase in operative time would result in increased odds of acquiring an infection as well as a DVT. We conducted a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data using the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) database from 2006 to 2015 for all patients undergoing primary THA. Associations between operative time and infection or DVT were evaluated with multivariable logistic regressions controlling for demographics and several known risks factors for infection. Three different types of infections were evaluated: (1) superficial surgical site infection (SSI), an infection involving the skin or subcutaneous tissue, (2) deep SSI, an infection involving the muscle or fascial layers beneath the subcutaneous tissue, and (3) organ/space infection, an infection involving any part of the anatomy manipulated during surgery other than the incisional components. In total, 103,044 patients who underwent THA were included in our study. Our results suggested a significant association between superficial SSIs and operative time. Specifically, the adjusted odds of suffering a superficial SSI increased by 6% (CI=1.04-1.08, ptime. When using dichotomized operative time (90minutes), the adjusted odds of suffering a superficial SSI was 56% higher for patients with prolonged operative time (CI=1.05-2.32, p=0.0277). The adjusted odds of suffering a deep SSI increased by 7% for every 10-minute increase in operative time (CI=1.01-1.14, p=0.0335). No significant associations were detected between organ/space infection, wound

  8. When is it safe to resume driving after total hip and total knee arthroplasty? a meta-analysis of literature on post-operative brake reaction times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velden, C A; Tolk, J J; Janssen, R P A; Reijman, M

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the current available evidence about when patients might resume driving after elective, primary total hip (THA) or total knee arthroplasty (TKA) undertaken for osteoarthritis (OA). In February 2016, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Web of Science, Scopus, Cochrane, PubMed Publisher, CINAHL, EBSCO and Google Scholar were searched for clinical studies reporting on 'THA', 'TKA', 'car driving', 'reaction time' and 'brake response time'. Two researchers (CAV and JJT) independently screened the titles and abstracts for eligibility and assessed the risk of bias. Both fixed and random effects were used to pool data and calculate mean differences (MD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) between pre- and post-operative total brake response time (TBRT). A total of 19 studies were included. The assessment of the risk of bias showed that one study was at high risk, six studies at moderate risk and 12 studies at low risk. Meta-analysis of TBRT showed a MD decrease of 25.54 ms (95% CI -32.02 to 83.09) two weeks after right-sided THA, and of 18.19 ms (95% CI -6.13 to 42.50) four weeks after a right-sided TKA, when compared with the pre-operative value. The TBRT returned to baseline two weeks after a right-sided THA and four weeks after a right-sided TKA. These results may serve as guidelines for orthopaedic surgeons when advising patients when to resume driving. However, the advice should be individualised. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:566-76. ©2017 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  9. Time Operators and Time Crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Nakatsugawa, K.; Fujii, T.; Saxena, A.; Tanda, S.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate time operators in the context of quantum time crystals in ring systems. We demonstrate that a self-adjoint time operator with a periodic time evolution can be derived for a free particle on a ring system: The conventional Aharonov-Bohm time operator is obtained by taking the infinite-radius limit. We also reveal the relationship between our time operator and a $\\mathcal PT$-symmetric time operator. We find that both time operators indeed describe the periodic time evolution of ...

  10. A new system of computer-assisted navigation leading to reduction in operating time in uncemented total hip replacement in a matched population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Fouad A; Ismail, Sanaa Z; Davis, Edward T

    2018-05-01

    Computer-assisted navigation techniques are used to optimise component placement and alignment in total hip replacement. It has developed in the last 10 years but despite its advantages only 0.3% of all total hip replacements in England and Wales are done using computer navigation. One of the reasons for this is that computer-assisted technology increases operative time. A new method of pelvic registration has been developed without the need to register the anterior pelvic plane (BrainLab hip 6.0) which has shown to improve the accuracy of THR. The purpose of this study was to find out if the new method reduces the operating time. This was a retrospective analysis of comparing operating time in computer navigated primary uncemented total hip replacement using two methods of registration. Group 1 included 128 cases that were performed using BrainLab versions 2.1-5.1. This version relied on the acquisition of the anterior pelvic plane for registration. Group 2 included 128 cases that were performed using the newest navigation software, BrainLab hip 6.0 (registration possible with the patient in the lateral decubitus position). The operating time was 65.79 (40-98) minutes using the old method of registration and was 50.87 (33-74) minutes using the new method of registration. This difference was statistically significant. The body mass index (BMI) was comparable in both groups. The study supports the use of new method of registration in improving the operating time in computer navigated primary uncemented total hip replacements.

  11. Neither pre-operative education or a minimally invasive procedure have any influence on the recovery time after total hip replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biau, David Jean; Porcher, Raphael; Roren, Alexandra; Babinet, Antoine; Rosencher, Nadia; Chevret, Sylvie; Poiraudeau, Serge; Anract, Philippe

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate pre-operative education versus no education and mini-invasive surgery versus standard surgery to reach complete independence. We conducted a four-arm randomized controlled trial of 209 patients. The primary outcome criterion was the time to reach complete functional independence. Secondary outcomes included the operative time, the estimated total blood loss, the pain level, the dose of morphine, and the time to discharge. There was no significant effect of either education (HR: 1.1; P = 0.77) or mini-invasive surgery (HR: 1.0; 95 %; P = 0.96) on the time to reach complete independence. The mini-invasive surgery group significantly reduced the total estimated blood loss (P = 0.0035) and decreased the dose of morphine necessary for titration in the recovery (P = 0.035). Neither pre-operative education nor mini-invasive surgery reduces the time to reach complete functional independence. Mini-invasive surgery significantly reduces blood loss and the need for morphine consumption.

  12. High-frequency Total Focusing Method (TFM) imaging in strongly attenuating materials with the decomposition of the time reversal operator associated with orthogonal coded excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaverde, Eduardo Lopez; Robert, Sébastien; Prada, Claire

    2017-02-01

    In the present work, the Total Focusing Method (TFM) is used to image defects in a High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) pipe. The viscoelastic attenuation of this material corrupts the images with a high electronic noise. In order to improve the image quality, the Decomposition of the Time Reversal Operator (DORT) filtering is combined with spatial Walsh-Hadamard coded transmissions before calculating the images. Experiments on a complex HDPE joint demonstrate that this method improves the signal-to-noise ratio by more than 40 dB in comparison with the conventional TFM.

  13. Operational resource theory of total quantum coherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Si-ren; Yu, Chang-shui

    2018-01-01

    Quantum coherence is an essential feature of quantum mechanics and is an important physical resource in quantum information. Recently, the resource theory of quantum coherence has been established parallel with that of entanglement. In the resource theory, a resource can be well defined if given three ingredients: the free states, the resource, the (restricted) free operations. In this paper, we study the resource theory of coherence in a different light, that is, we consider the total coherence defined by the basis-free coherence maximized among all potential basis. We define the distillable total coherence and the total coherence cost and in both the asymptotic regime and the single-copy regime show the reversible transformation between a state with certain total coherence and the state with the unit reference total coherence. Extensively, we demonstrate that the total coherence can also be completely converted to the total correlation with the equal amount by the free operations. We also provide the alternative understanding of the total coherence, respectively, based on the entanglement and the total correlation in a different way.

  14. Timing the total reflection of light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauvat, Dominique; Bonnet, Christophe; Dunseath, Kevin; Emile, Olivier; Le Floch, Albert

    2005-01-01

    We have identified for the first time the absolute delay at total reflection, envisioned by Newton. We show that there are in fact two divergent Wigner delays, depending on the polarisation of the incident light. These measurements give a new insight on the passage from total reflection to refraction

  15. Revitalizing Space Operations through Total Quality Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylis, William T.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show the reader what total quality management (TQM) is and how to apply TQM in the space systems and management arena. TQM is easily understood, can be implemented in any type of business organization, and works.

  16. Environment of care: Is it time to reassess microbial contamination of the operating room air as a risk factor for surgical site infection in total joint arthroplasty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvizi, Javad; Barnes, Sue; Shohat, Noam; Edmiston, Charles E

    2017-11-01

    In the modern operating room (OR), traditional surgical mask, frequent air exchanges, and architectural barriers are viewed as effective in reducing airborne microbial populations. Intraoperative sampling of airborne particulates is rarely performed in the OR because of technical difficulties associated with sampling methodologies and a common belief that airborne contamination is infrequently associated with surgical site infections (SSIs). Recent studies suggest that viable airborne particulates are readily disseminated throughout the OR, placing patients at risk for postoperative SSI. In 2017, virtually all surgical disciplines are engaged in the implantation of selective biomedical devices, and these implants have been documented to be at high risk for intraoperative contamination. Approximately 1.2 million arthroplasties are performed annually in the United States, and that number is expected to increase to 3.8 million by the year 2030. The incidence of periprosthetic joint infection is perceived to be low (<2.5%); however, the personal and fiscal morbidity is significant. Although the pharmaceutic and computer industries enforce stringent air quality standards on their manufacturing processes, there is currently no U.S. standard for acceptable air quality within the OR environment. This review documents the contribution of air contamination to the etiology of periprosthetic joint infection, and evidence for selective innovative strategies to reduce the risk of intraoperative microbial aerosols. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Factorizing the time evolution operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Quijas, P C; Arevalo Aguilar, L M

    2007-01-01

    There is a widespread belief in the quantum physical community, and textbooks used to teach quantum mechanics, that it is a difficult task to apply the time evolution operator e itH-hat/h on an initial wavefunction. Because the Hamiltonian operator is, generally, the sum of two operators, then it is not possible to apply the time evolution operator on an initial wavefunction ψ(x, 0), for it implies using terms like (a-hat + b-hat). A possible solution is to factorize the time evolution operator and then apply successively the individual exponential operator on the initial wavefunction. However, the exponential operator does not directly factorize, i.e. e a-hat+b-hat ≠ e a-hat e b-hat . In this study we present a useful procedure for factorizing the time evolution operator when the argument of the exponential is a sum of two operators, which obey specific commutation relations. Then, we apply the exponential operator as an evolution operator for the case of elementary unidimensional potentials, like a particle subject to a constant force and a harmonic oscillator. Also, we discuss an apparent paradox concerning the time evolution operator and non-spreading wave packets addressed previously in the literature

  18. Total sleep time severely drops during adolescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien Leger

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Restricted sleep duration among young adults and adolescents has been shown to increase the risk of morbidities such as obesity, diabetes or accidents. However there are few epidemiological studies on normal total sleep time (TST in representative groups of teen-agers which allow to get normative data. PURPOSE: To explore perceived total sleep time on schooldays (TSTS and non schooldays (TSTN and the prevalence of sleep initiating insomnia among a nationally representative sample of teenagers. METHODS: Data from 9,251 children aged 11 to 15 years-old, 50.7% of which were boys, as part of the cross-national study 2011 HBSC were analyzed. Self-completion questionnaires were administered in classrooms. An estimate of TSTS and TSTN (week-ends and vacations was calculated based on specifically designed sleep habits report. Sleep deprivation was estimated by a TSTN - TSTS difference >2 hours. Sleep initiating nsomnia was assessed according to International classification of sleep disorders (ICSD 2. Children who reported sleeping 7 hours or less per night were considered as short sleepers. RESULTS: A serious drop of TST was observed between 11 yo and 15 yo, both during the schooldays (9 hours 26 minutes vs. 7 h 55 min.; p<0.001 and at a lesser extent during week-ends (10 h 17 min. vs. 9 h 44 min.; p<0.001. Sleep deprivation concerned 16.0% of chidren aged of 11 yo vs. 40.5% of those of 15 yo (p<0.001. Too short sleep was reported by 2.6% of the 11 yo vs. 24.6% of the 15 yo (p<0.001. CONCLUSION: Despite the obvious need for sleep in adolescence, TST drastically decreases with age among children from 11 to 15 yo which creates significant sleep debt increasing with age.

  19. PFP total operating efficiency calculation and basis of estimate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SINCLAIR, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Total Operating Efficiency Calculation and Basis of Estimate document is to provide the calculated value and basis of estimate for the Total Operating Efficiency (TOE) for the material stabilization operations to be conducted in 234-52 Building. This information will be used to support both the planning and execution of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Stabilization and Deactivation Project's (hereafter called the Project) resource-loaded, integrated schedule

  20. Family of commuting operators for the totally asymmetric exclusion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golinelli, O; Mallick, K

    2007-01-01

    The algebraic structure underlying the totally asymmetric exclusion process is studied by using the Bethe Ansatz technique. From the properties of the algebra generated by the local jump operators, we explicitly construct the hierarchy of operators (called generalized Hamiltonians) that commute with the Markov operator. The transfer matrix, which is the generating function of these operators, is shown to represent a discrete Markov process with long-range jumps. We give a general combinatorial formula for the connected Hamiltonians obtained by taking the logarithm of the transfer matrix. This formula is proved using a symbolic calculation program for the first ten connected operators

  1. Incidence of Early Post Operative Infection after Primary Total Knee ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Incidence of Early Post Operative Infection after. Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty at an East African. Centre. Kigera JWM1, Kimpiatu P2. 1. School of Medicine, University of Nairobi. 2. PCEA Kikuyu Hospital. Correspondence to: Dr James Kigera, P.O Box 30197 – 00100 Nairobi. Email: jameskigera@yahoo.co.uk. Abstract.

  2. Total Hip Arthroplasty – over 100 years of operative history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Richard Knight

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Total hip arthroplasty (THA has completely revolutionised the nature in which the arthritic hip is treated, and is considered to be one of the most successful orthopaedic interventions of its generation (1. With over 100 years of operative history, this review examines the progression of the operation from its origins, together with highlighting the materials and techniques that have contributed to its development. Knowledge of its history contributes to a greater understanding of THA, such as the reasons behind selection of prosthetic materials in certain patient groups, while demonstrating the importance of critically analyzing research to continually determine best operative practice. Finally, we describe current areas of research being undertaken to further advance techniques and improve outcomes.

  3. Financial, operating results, assets total down for OGJ300

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Financial and operating results of the Oil and Gas Journal 300 dropped again in 1992. It was the second consecutive set of declines for OGJ's list of the largest publicly traded, oil and gas producing companies in the U.S. Totals fell from 1991 results in almost all categories for financial and operating performance. Group net income fell sharply in 1992. Large, integrated companies reported sharp earnings declines, many of them related to special charges for restructuring and mandatory accounting changes. In addition, revenues were suppressed by lower crude and product prices below levels of 1991 and a decline in total crude production. This was partially offset by higher prices and demand for natural gas and by increased demand for petroleum products. The paper discusses the economic situation in the petroleum and natural gas industries then gives extensive data on the following: total assets, total income, net income, stockholders' equity, capital spending, worldwide and US liquids production, worldwide and US natural gas production, worldwide and US liquids reserves, worldwide and US natural gas reserves, and US net wells drilled

  4. Time Warp Operating System (TWOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellenot, Steven F.

    1993-01-01

    Designed to support parallel discrete-event simulation, TWOS is complete implementation of Time Warp mechanism - distributed protocol for virtual time synchronization based on process rollback and message annihilation.

  5. Proprioceptive Factors in Operative Timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, M. J.

    Time estimation is improved when the interval is filled with a motor response, with the proprioceptive feedback (PFB) presumably acting as a mediator. Altering the resistive dynamics of a handle moved 60 centimeters to fill a two-second interval manipulated the PFB from the response. Spelling aloud 2-, 3-, and 4-letter words during the motor…

  6. Modeling operators' emergency response time for chemical processing operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Susan L; Harputlu, Emrah; Mentzer, Ray A; Mannan, M Sam

    2014-01-01

    Operators have a crucial role during emergencies at a variety of facilities such as chemical processing plants. When an abnormality occurs in the production process, the operator often has limited time to either take corrective actions or evacuate before the situation becomes deadly. It is crucial that system designers and safety professionals can estimate the time required for a response before procedures and facilities are designed and operations are initiated. There are existing industrial engineering techniques to establish time standards for tasks performed at a normal working pace. However, it is reasonable to expect the time required to take action in emergency situations will be different than working at a normal production pace. It is possible that in an emergency, operators will act faster compared to a normal pace. It would be useful for system designers to be able to establish a time range for operators' response times for emergency situations. This article develops a modeling approach to estimate the time standard range for operators taking corrective actions or following evacuation procedures in emergency situations. This will aid engineers and managers in establishing time requirements for operators in emergency situations. The methodology used for this study combines a well-established industrial engineering technique for determining time requirements (predetermined time standard system) and adjustment coefficients for emergency situations developed by the authors. Numerous videos of workers performing well-established tasks at a maximum pace were studied. As an example, one of the tasks analyzed was pit crew workers changing tires as quickly as they could during a race. The operations in these videos were decomposed into basic, fundamental motions (such as walking, reaching for a tool, and bending over) by studying the videos frame by frame. A comparison analysis was then performed between the emergency pace and the normal working pace operations

  7. Operational quantum theory without predefined time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oreshkov, Ognyan; Cerf, Nicolas J

    2016-01-01

    The standard formulation of quantum theory assumes a predefined notion of time. This is a major obstacle in the search for a quantum theory of gravity, where the causal structure of space-time is expected to be dynamical and fundamentally probabilistic in character. Here, we propose a generalized formulation of quantum theory without predefined time or causal structure, building upon a recently introduced operationally time-symmetric approach to quantum theory. The key idea is a novel isomorphism between transformations and states which depends on the symmetry transformation of time reversal. This allows us to express the time-symmetric formulation in a time-neutral form with a clear physical interpretation, and ultimately drop the assumption of time. In the resultant generalized formulation, operations are associated with regions that can be connected in networks with no directionality assumed for the connections, generalizing the standard circuit framework and the process matrix framework for operations without global causal order. The possible events in a given region are described by positive semidefinite operators on a Hilbert space at the boundary, while the connections between regions are described by entangled states that encode a nontrivial symmetry and could be tested in principle. We discuss how the causal structure of space-time could be understood as emergent from properties of the operators on the boundaries of compact space-time regions. The framework is compatible with indefinite causal order, timelike loops, and other acausal structures. (paper)

  8. Minimizing total weighted completion time in a proportionate flow shop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shakhlevich, N.V.; Hoogeveen, J.A.; Pinedo, M.L.

    1998-01-01

    We study the special case of the m machine flow shop problem in which the processing time of each operation of job j is equal to pj; this variant of the flow shop problem is known as the proportionate flow shop problem. We show that for any number of machines and for any regular performance

  9. PROCESS INNOVATION: HOLISTIC SCENARIOS TO REDUCE TOTAL LEAD TIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alin POSTEUCĂ

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The globalization of markets requires continuous development of business holistic scenarios to ensure acceptable flexibility to satisfy customers. Continuous improvement of supply chain supposes continuous improvement of materials and products lead time and flow, material stocks and finished products stocks and increasing the number of suppliers close by as possible. The contribution of our study is to present holistic scenarios of total lead time improvement and innovation by implementing supply chain policy.

  10. Whole blood coagulation time, haematocrit, haemoglobin and total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out to determine the values of whole blood coagulation time (WBCT), haematocrit (HM), haemaglobin (HB) and total protein (TP) of one hundred and eighteen apparently healthy turkeys reared under an extensive management system in Zaria. The mean values for WBCT, HM, HB and TP were 1.12 ...

  11. Simulation of worst-case operating conditions for integrated circuits operating in a total dose environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhuva, B.L.

    1987-01-01

    Degradations in the circuit performance created by the radiation exposure of integrated circuits are so unique and abnormal that thorough simulation and testing of VLSI circuits is almost impossible, and new ways to estimate the operating performance in a radiation environment must be developed. The principal goal of this work was the development of simulation techniques for radiation effects on semiconductor devices. The mixed-mode simulation approach proved to be the most promising. The switch-level approach is used to identify the failure mechanisms and critical subcircuits responsible for operational failure along with worst-case operating conditions during and after irradiation. For precise simulations of critical subcircuits, SPICE is used. The identification of failure mechanisms enables the circuit designer to improve the circuit's performance and failure-exposure level. Identification of worst-case operating conditions during and after irradiation reduces the complexity of testing VLSI circuits for radiation environments. The results of test circuits for failure simulations using a conventional simulator and the new simulator showed significant time savings using the new simulator. The savings in simulation time proved to be circuit topology-dependent. However, for large circuits, the simulation time proved to be orders of magnitude smaller than simulation time for conventional simulators

  12. Time Operator in Relativistic Quantum Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorasani, Sina

    2017-07-01

    It is first shown that the Dirac’s equation in a relativistic frame could be modified to allow discrete time, in agreement to a recently published upper bound. Next, an exact self-adjoint 4 × 4 relativistic time operator for spin-1/2 particles is found and the time eigenstates for the non-relativistic case are obtained and discussed. Results confirm the quantum mechanical speculation that particles can indeed occupy negative energy levels with vanishingly small but non-zero probablity, contrary to the general expectation from classical physics. Hence, Wolfgang Pauli’s objection regarding the existence of a self-adjoint time operator is fully resolved. It is shown that using the time operator, a bosonic field referred here to as energons may be created, whose number state representations in non-relativistic momentum space can be explicitly found.

  13. Body Mass Index and Operating Times in Vascular Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Durup-Dickenson

    Full Text Available : Introduction: The influence of body mass index (BMI on operating times in central and peripheral vascular surgical procedures was investigated. Report: A national cohort of Danish patients who underwent a vascular procedure between 1983 and 2012 was used for analysis. Data were analysed with pairwise comparisons of BMI groups for operating times using the independent samples Kruskall–Wallis test. Discussion: A total of 3,255 carotid endarterectomies; 6,885 central vascular procedures; and 4,488 peripheral bypasses were included for the analysis. Median operating times for carotid endarterectomy and central vascular procedures were, respectively, 5 and 15 minutes longer in obese patients than in normal weight patients. This represents a 7% and 10% increase in median operating times, respectively. Linear and multi-adjusted linear regressions were conducted adjusting for confounders, showing a significant correlation between BMI and operating time. Obesity significantly increased the operating times in carotid endarterectomy and central vascular procedures. These may have ramifications for the individual operative stress but not necessarily on logistical operation planning. Keywords: Body mass index (BMI, Obesity, Operating time, Surgery, Vascular surgical procedures

  14. Determination of operation time function for activimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, C.H.S.; Peixoto, J.G.P.; Araujo, G.; Padilha, L.G.

    2016-01-01

    Radiation detectors must pass periodically recommended quality control tests and standardized to certify the quality of measurements, however, many studies have shown that several parameters can influence the results, however, some instrument components that can not be adjusted during calibrations may have significant importance in measurement results over the operating time. This study sought to determine the influence of the use of time in the activity measurements. The results show a trend of decreased activity measured for equipment with detectors with more operating time. (author)

  15. Surgical team turnover and operative time: An evaluation of operating room efficiency during pulmonary resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzi, Alain Joe; Shah, Karan; Seely, Andrew; Villeneuve, James Patrick; Sundaresan, Sudhir R; Shamji, Farid M; Maziak, Donna E; Gilbert, Sebastien

    2016-05-01

    Health care resources are costly and should be used judiciously and efficiently. Predicting the duration of surgical procedures is key to optimizing operating room resources. Our objective was to identify factors influencing operative time, particularly surgical team turnover. We performed a single-institution, retrospective review of lobectomy operations. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate the impact of different factors on surgical time (skin-to-skin) and total procedure time. Staff turnover within the nursing component of the surgical team was defined as the number of instances any nurse had to leave the operating room over the total number of nurses involved in the operation. A total of 235 lobectomies were performed by 5 surgeons, most commonly for lung cancer (95%). On multivariate analysis, percent forced expiratory volume in 1 second, surgical approach, and lesion size had a significant effect on surgical time. Nursing turnover was associated with a significant increase in surgical time (53.7 minutes; 95% confidence interval, 6.4-101; P = .026) and total procedure time (83.2 minutes; 95% confidence interval, 30.1-136.2; P = .002). Active management of surgical team turnover may be an opportunity to improve operating room efficiency when the surgical team is engaged in a major pulmonary resection. Copyright © 2016 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Novel crystal timing calibration method based on total variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xingjian; Isobe, Takashi; Watanabe, Mitsuo; Liu, Huafeng

    2016-11-01

    A novel crystal timing calibration method based on total variation (TV), abbreviated as ‘TV merge’, has been developed for a high-resolution positron emission tomography (PET) system. The proposed method was developed for a system with a large number of crystals, it can provide timing calibration at the crystal level. In the proposed method, the timing calibration process was formulated as a linear problem. To robustly optimize the timing resolution, a TV constraint was added to the linear equation. Moreover, to solve the computer memory problem associated with the calculation of the timing calibration factors for systems with a large number of crystals, the merge component was used for obtaining the crystal level timing calibration values. Compared with other conventional methods, the data measured from a standard cylindrical phantom filled with a radioisotope solution was sufficient for performing a high-precision crystal-level timing calibration. In this paper, both simulation and experimental studies were performed to demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the TV merge method. We compare the timing resolutions of a 22Na point source, which was located in the field of view (FOV) of the brain PET system, with various calibration techniques. After implementing the TV merge method, the timing resolution improved from 3.34 ns at full width at half maximum (FWHM) to 2.31 ns FWHM.

  17. 24 CFR 902.47 - Management operations portion of total PHAS points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Management operations portion of... Operations § 902.47 Management operations portion of total PHAS points. Of the total 100 points available for a PHAS score, a PHA may receive up to 30 points based on the Management Operations Indicator. ...

  18. Total connectivity speeds research and support of field operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Himes, R.E.; Frost, K.I.; Henry, S.R.; Funkhouser, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that research and field support roles in the oilfield service industry have become increasingly complex in the last 15 years. Experimental apparatus are more dependent on the data-acquisition and processing capabilities of computers as the amount of data generated increases. Therefore, the need to network these computers for data transport has significantly increased. The type of network system selected depends on the goals to be achieved. Incorporation of existing equipment, communication between systems of different architectures, and future expandability are only a few of the necessary attributes. With these in mind, a computer network system was designed and is being implemented. The system combines local- and wide-area networks (LAN's or WAN's) of different protocols to acquire, process, and transport information worldwide. The result is faster development of new products and quicker response in support of field operations

  19. Operational and real-time Business Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Ioana SANDU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A key component of a company’s IT framework is a business intelligence (BI system. BI enables business users to report on, analyze and optimize business operations to reduce costs and increase revenues. Organizations use BI for strategic and tactical decision making where the decision-making cycle may span a time period of several weeks (e.g., campaign management or months (e.g., improving customer satisfaction.Competitive pressures coming from a very dynamic business environment are forcing companies to react faster to changing business conditions and customer requirements. As a result, there is now a need to use BI to help drive and optimize business operations on a daily basis, and, in some cases, even for intraday decision making. This type of BI is usually called operational business intelligence and real-time business intelligence.

  20. Real-time analysis of total, elemental, and total speciated mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlager, R.J.; Wilson, K.G.; Sappey, A.D.

    1995-01-01

    ADA Technologies, Inc., is developing a continuous emissions monitoring system that measures the concentrations of mercury in flue gas. Mercury is emitted as an air pollutant from a number of industrial processes. The largest contributors of these emissions are coal and oil combustion, municipal waste combustion, medical waste combustion, and the thermal treatment of hazardous materials. It is difficult, time consuming, and expensive to measure mercury emissions using current testing methods. Part of the difficulty lies in the fact that mercury is emitted from sources in several different forms, such as elemental mercury and mercuric chloride. The ADA analyzer measures these emissions in real time, thus providing a number of advantages over existing test methods: (1) it will provide a real-time measure of emission rates, (2) it will assure facility operators, regulators, and the public that emissions control systems are working at peak efficiency, and (3) it will provide information as to the nature of the emitted mercury (elemental mercury or speciated compounds). This update presents an overview of the CEM and describes features of key components of the monitoring system--the mercury detector, a mercury species converter, and the analyzer calibration system

  1. Real-time analysis of total, elemental, and total speciated mercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlager, R.J.; Wilson, K.G.; Sappey, A.D. [ADA Technologies, Inc., Englewood, CO (United States)

    1995-11-01

    ADA Technologies, Inc., is developing a continuous emissions monitoring system that measures the concentrations of mercury in flue gas. Mercury is emitted as an air pollutant from a number of industrial processes. The largest contributors of these emissions are coal and oil combustion, municipal waste combustion, medical waste combustion, and the thermal treatment of hazardous materials. It is difficult, time consuming, and expensive to measure mercury emissions using current testing methods. Part of the difficulty lies in the fact that mercury is emitted from sources in several different forms, such as elemental mercury and mercuric chloride. The ADA analyzer measures these emissions in real time, thus providing a number of advantages over existing test methods: (1) it will provide a real-time measure of emission rates, (2) it will assure facility operators, regulators, and the public that emissions control systems are working at peak efficiency, and (3) it will provide information as to the nature of the emitted mercury (elemental mercury or speciated compounds). This update presents an overview of the CEM and describes features of key components of the monitoring system--the mercury detector, a mercury species converter, and the analyzer calibration system.

  2. Quantum arrival times and operator normalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegerfeldt, Gerhard C.; Seidel, Dirk; Gonzalo Muga, J.

    2003-01-01

    A recent approach to arrival times used the fluorescence of an atom entering a laser illuminated region, and the resulting arrival-time distribution was close to the axiomatic distribution of Kijowski, but not exactly equal, neither in limiting cases nor after compensation of reflection losses by normalization on the level of expectation values. In this paper we employ a normalization on the level of operators, recently proposed in a slightly different context. We show that in this case the axiomatic arrival-time distribution of Kijowski is recovered as a limiting case. In addition, it is shown that Allcock's complex potential model is also a limit of the physically motivated fluorescence approach and connected to Kijowski's distribution through operator normalization

  3. Increased Total Anesthetic Time Leads to Higher Rates of Surgical Site Infections in Spinal Fusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puffer, Ross C; Murphy, Meghan; Maloney, Patrick; Kor, Daryl; Nassr, Ahmad; Freedman, Brett; Fogelson, Jeremy; Bydon, Mohamad

    2017-06-01

    A retrospective review of a consecutive series of spinal fusions comparing patient and procedural characteristics of patients who developed surgical site infections (SSIs) after spinal fusion. It is known that increased surgical time (incision to closure) is associated with a higher rate of postoperative SSIs. We sought to determine whether increased total anesthetic time (intubation to extubation) is a factor in the development of SSIs as well. In spine surgery for deformity and degenerative disease, SSI has been associated with operative time, revealing a nearly 10-fold increase in SSI rates in prolonged surgery. Surgical time is associated with infections in other surgical disciplines as well. No studies have reported whether total anesthetic time (intubation to extubation) has an association with SSIs. Surgical records were searched in a retrospective fashion to identify all spine fusion procedures performed between January 2010 and July 2012. All SSIs during that timeframe were recorded and compared with the list of cases performed between 2010 and 2012 in a case-control design. There were 20 (1.7%) SSIs in this fusion cohort. On univariate analyses of operative factors, there was a significant association between total anesthetic time (Infection 7.6 ± 0.5 hrs vs. no infection -6.0 ± 0.1 hrs, P operative time (infection 5.5 ± 0.4 hrs vs. no infection - 4.4 ± 0.06 hrs, P infections, whereas level of pathology and emergent surgery were not significant. On multivariate logistic analysis, BMI and total anesthetic time remained independent predictors of SSI whereas ASA status and operative time did not. Increasing BMI and total anesthetic time were independent predictors of SSIs in this cohort of over 1000 consecutive spinal fusions. 3.

  4. A distributed real-time operating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuynman, F.; Hertzberger, L.O.

    1984-07-01

    A distributed real-time operating system, Fados, has been developed for an embedded multi-processor system. The operating system is based on a host target approach and provides for communication between arbitrary processes on host and target machine. The facilities offered are, apart from process communication, access to the file system on the host by programs on the target machine and monitoring and debugging of programs on the target machine from the host. The process communication has been designed in such a way that the possibilities are the same as those offered by the Ada programming language. The operating system is implemented on a MC 68000 based multiprocessor system in combination with a Unix host. (orig.)

  5. Comparison between local anaesthesia with remifentanil and total intravenous anaesthesia for operative hysteroscopic procedures in day surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majholm, B; Bartholdy, J; Clausen, H V

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: /st>This study aimed at comparing total i.v. anaesthesia (TIVA) with monitored anaesthesia care (MAC) during day-surgery operative hysteroscopy regarding: operation time, time to mobilization and discharge, and patient satisfaction. METHODS: /st>Ninety-one healthy women were randomized...... to MAC with paracervical local anaesthesia and remifentanil or to TIVA with propofol and remifentanil. Time from arrival to leaving the operating theatre, time from arrival in the recovery room to mobilization and discharge readiness, and patient satisfaction with MAC and TIVA were observed. RESULTS: /st.......003). CONCLUSIONS: /st>Paracervical local anaesthesia combined with remifentanil is suitable for operative hysteroscopy in day surgery....

  6. Optimizing capital and time expenditures for drilling service operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zazovskiy, F Ya; Soltysyak, T I

    1980-01-01

    The operational efficiency of drilling services operations management are examined. The structure of time expenditure is analyzed for repair operations according to equipment type employed by the Ivano-Frankovsk Drilling Management under the Ukrneft' enterprise during 1977. The results of this analysis are weighed against a series of service operations carried out at industrial enterprises and connected with technical disruptions. Some of the cases examined include service competion operations outside of the industrial units when technical processes are disrupted only for the change of equipment which has outlived its usefulness and is no longer in series production. First of all, time expended for repair work can be reduced to zero during the drilling of shallow wells which do not require extensive drilling time. The actual savings, both in time and money, as far as repair work is concerned, hinges on the actual time factor for total oil depetion. An equation is provided for optimal time expenditure necessary for repair work and equipment replacement. An actual example is given from the Dolinsk UBR (Drillin Management) under the Ukrneft' enterprise where time spent on actual service operations has appeared to be less than the optimal figure cited in the above material. This is possible because of increased capital expenditures.

  7. Expanding the Operational Use of Total Lightning Ahead of GOES-R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stano, Geoffrey T.; Wood, Lance; Garner, Tim; Nunez, Roland; Kann, Deirdre; Reynolds, James; Rydell, Nezette; Cox, Rob; Bobb, William R.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition Center (SPoRT) has been transitioning real-time total lightning observations from ground-based lightning mapping arrays since 2003. This initial effort was with the local Weather Forecast Offices (WFO) that could use the North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array (NALMA). These early collaborations established a strong interest in the use of total lightning for WFO operations. In particular the focus started with warning decision support, but has since expanded to include impact-based decision support and lightning safety. SPoRT has used its experience to establish connections with new lightning mapping arrays as they become available. The GOES-R / JPSS Visiting Scientist Program has enabled SPoRT to conduct visits to new partners and expand the number of operational users with access to total lightning observations. In early 2014, SPoRT conducted the most recent visiting scientist trips to meet with forecast offices that will used the Colorado, Houston, and Langmuir Lab (New Mexico) lightning mapping arrays. In addition, SPoRT met with the corresponding Center Weather Service Units (CWSUs) to expand collaborations with the aviation community. These visits were an opportunity to learn about the forecast needs of each office visited as well as to provide on-site training for the use of total lightning, setting the stage for a real-time assessment during May-July 2014. With five lightning mapping arrays covering multiple geographic locations, the 2014 assessment has demonstrated numerous uses of total lightning in varying situations. Several highlights include a much broader use of total lightning for impact-based decision support ranging from airport weather warnings, supporting fire crews, and protecting large outdoor events. The inclusion of the CWSUs has broadened the operational scope of total lightning, demonstrating how these data can support air traffic management, particularly in the Terminal Radar Approach

  8. Embedded and real-time operating systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, K C

    2017-01-01

    This book covers the basic concepts and principles of operating systems, showing how to apply them to the design and implementation of complete operating systems for embedded and real-time systems. It includes all the foundational and background information on ARM architecture, ARM instructions and programming, toolchain for developing programs, virtual machines for software implementation and testing, program execution image, function call conventions, run-time stack usage and link C programs with assembly code. It describes the design and implementation of a complete OS for embedded systems in incremental steps, explaining the design principles and implementation techniques. For Symmetric Multiprocessing (SMP) embedded systems, the author examines the ARM MPcore processors, which include the SCU and GIC for interrupts routing and interprocessor communication and synchronization by Software Generated Interrupts (SGIs). Throughout the book, complete working sample systems demonstrate the design principles and...

  9. On Real-Time Operating Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    1Ri2 193 ONREAL-TIME OPERATING SYS EMS(U MAYLAN UN V COLLG PARK DEPT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE S LEVI ET AL APR 87 CS-TR-1838 NOSO14-87-K-9124 UNCLASSIFIED...and processes. In each instance the abstraction takes the form of some non- physical resource and benefits both the system and the user. ...The...service, which is important as an inter-process service (for physical synchronization) as well as an internal service for a process. A time service in a

  10. REAL TIME SYSTEM OPERATIONS 2006-2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Joseph H.; Parashar, Manu; Lewis, Nancy Jo

    2008-08-15

    The Real Time System Operations (RTSO) 2006-2007 project focused on two parallel technical tasks: (1) Real-Time Applications of Phasors for Monitoring, Alarming and Control; and (2) Real-Time Voltage Security Assessment (RTVSA) Prototype Tool. The overall goal of the phasor applications project was to accelerate adoption and foster greater use of new, more accurate, time-synchronized phasor measurements by conducting research and prototyping applications on California ISO's phasor platform - Real-Time Dynamics Monitoring System (RTDMS) -- that provide previously unavailable information on the dynamic stability of the grid. Feasibility assessment studies were conducted on potential application of this technology for small-signal stability monitoring, validating/improving existing stability nomograms, conducting frequency response analysis, and obtaining real-time sensitivity information on key metrics to assess grid stress. Based on study findings, prototype applications for real-time visualization and alarming, small-signal stability monitoring, measurement based sensitivity analysis and frequency response assessment were developed, factory- and field-tested at the California ISO and at BPA. The goal of the RTVSA project was to provide California ISO with a prototype voltage security assessment tool that runs in real time within California ISO?s new reliability and congestion management system. CERTS conducted a technical assessment of appropriate algorithms, developed a prototype incorporating state-of-art algorithms (such as the continuation power flow, direct method, boundary orbiting method, and hyperplanes) into a framework most suitable for an operations environment. Based on study findings, a functional specification was prepared, which the California ISO has since used to procure a production-quality tool that is now a part of a suite of advanced computational tools that is used by California ISO for reliability and congestion management.

  11. Total sitting time, leisure time physical activity and risk of hospitalization due to low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Mie; Holmberg, Teresa; Petersen, Christina B

    2018-01-01

    AIMS: This study aimed to test the hypotheses that a high total sitting time and vigorous physical activity in leisure time increase the risk of low back pain and herniated lumbar disc disease. METHODS: A total of 76,438 adults answered questions regarding their total sitting time and physical...... activity during leisure time in the Danish Health Examination Survey 2007-2008. Information on low back pain diagnoses up to 10 September 2015 was obtained from The National Patient Register. The mean follow-up time was 7.4 years. Data were analysed using Cox regression analysis with adjustment...... disc disease. However, moderate or vigorous physical activity, as compared to light physical activity, was associated with increased risk of low back pain (HR = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.03-1.30 and HR = 1.45, 95% CI: 1.15-1.83). Moderate, but not vigorous physical activity was associated with increased risk...

  12. Time related total lactic acid bacteria population diversity and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The total lactic acid bacterial community involved in the spontaneous fermentation of malted cowpea fortified cereal weaning food was investigated by phenotypically and cultivation independent method. A total of 74 out of the isolated 178 strains were Lactobacillus plantarum, 32 were Pediococcus acidilactici and over 60% ...

  13. Intra-operative reliability of ShapeMatch cutting guide placement in total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Gavin; Leong, Anthony; McEwen, Peter; Steele, Robert; Tran, Ton; Trivett, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Custom cutting guides based on pre-operative imaging have been introduced for total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The aim of this prospective cohort study was to assess the reliability of repeated placement of custom cutting guides by multiple surgeons in a group of patients undergoing TKA. Custom cutting guides (ShapeMatch®, Stryker Orthopaedics) were designed from pre-operative MRI scans. The treating surgeon placed each guide on the femur and tibia of each patient three times without pinning the block. The three-dimensional position and orientation of the guide was measured for each repetition using a computer navigation system. The surgeon was blinded to the navigation system display. Data from 24 patients and 6 surgeons were analyzed. Intraclass correlation coefficients for all measurement parameters were in the range 0.889-0.997 (excellent), and all comparisons were statistically significant (p reliable.

  14. Reengineering observatory operations for the time domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, Robert L.; Vestrand, W. T.; Hessman, Frederic V.

    2014-07-01

    Observatories are complex scientific and technical institutions serving diverse users and purposes. Their telescopes, instruments, software, and human resources engage in interwoven workflows over a broad range of timescales. These workflows have been tuned to be responsive to concepts of observatory operations that were applicable when various assets were commissioned, years or decades in the past. The astronomical community is entering an era of rapid change increasingly characterized by large time domain surveys, robotic telescopes and automated infrastructures, and - most significantly - of operating modes and scientific consortia that span our individual facilities, joining them into complex network entities. Observatories must adapt and numerous initiatives are in progress that focus on redesigning individual components out of the astronomical toolkit. New instrumentation is both more capable and more complex than ever, and even simple instruments may have powerful observation scripting capabilities. Remote and queue observing modes are now widespread. Data archives are becoming ubiquitous. Virtual observatory standards and protocols and astroinformatics data-mining techniques layered on these are areas of active development. Indeed, new large-aperture ground-based telescopes may be as expensive as space missions and have similarly formal project management processes and large data management requirements. This piecewise approach is not enough. Whatever challenges of funding or politics facing the national and international astronomical communities it will be more efficient - scientifically as well as in the usual figures of merit of cost, schedule, performance, and risks - to explicitly address the systems engineering of the astronomical community as a whole.

  15. An assessment of the quality indicators of operative and non-operative times in a public university hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Altair da Silva; Leão, Luiz Eduardo Villaça; Novais, Maykon Anderson Pires de; Zucchi, Paola

    2015-01-01

    To assess the operative time indicators in a public university hospital. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted using data from operating room database. The sample was obtained from January 2011 to January 2012. The operations performed in sequence in the same operating room, between 7:00 am and 5:00 pm, elective or emergency, were included. The procedures with incomplete data in the system were excluded, as well as the operations performed after 5:00 pm or on weekends or holidays. We measured the operative and non-operative time of 8,420 operations. The operative time (mean and standard deviation) of anesthesias and operations were 177.6 ± 110 and 129.8 ± 97.1 minutes, respectively. The total time of the patient in operative room (mean and standard deviation) was 196.8 ± 113.2. The non-operative time, e.g., between the arrival of the patient and the onset of anesthesia was 14.3 ± 17.3 minutes. The time to set the next patient in operating room was 119.8 ± 79.6 minutes. Our total non-operative time was 155 minutes. Delays frequently occurred in our operating room and had a major effect on patient flow and resource utilization. The non-operative time was longer than the operative time. It is possible to increase the operating room capacity by management and training of the professionals involved. The indicators provided a tool to improve operating room efficiency.

  16. SYNERGISTIC EFFECTS OF TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND OPERATIONAL RISK MANAGEMENT IN CENTRAL BANKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoica Luburić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on two very important and current approaches to management: Total Quality Management (TQM and Operational Risk Management (ORM. As a paradigm of business success, TQM provides the key assumptions for survival, development and success of an organisation, regardless of any limitations whatsoever. ORM, on the other hand, is predetermined to be an irreplaceable managerial tool that enables organisations to survive in any environment. In times of accelerated political, economic and technological changes, frequent natural disasters, acts of terrorism and other external events, a successful risk management has been gaining importance and becomes one of the key competitive advantages of an organisation. The ultimate objective is to make TQM and ORM, as two rather compatible and complementary approaches to risk management, harmonized, efficient and functional in order to get their synergistic effects in an organisation in full swing and practice. Various organisations, and thus central banks as conservative institutions, have an innovative opportunity to timely minimize their operational risk through preventive, comprehensive and synergistic operation of TQM and ORM and thus significantly contribute to improving their business performance.

  17. Using wide area differential GPS to improve total system error for precision flight operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, Keith Warren

    Total System Error (TSE) refers to an aircraft's total deviation from the desired flight path. TSE can be divided into Navigational System Error (NSE), the error attributable to the aircraft's navigation system, and Flight Technical Error (FTE), the error attributable to pilot or autopilot control. Improvement in either NSE or FTE reduces TSE and leads to the capability to fly more precise flight trajectories. The Federal Aviation Administration's Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) became operational for non-safety critical applications in 2000 and will become operational for safety critical applications in 2002. This navigation service will provide precise 3-D positioning (demonstrated to better than 5 meters horizontal and vertical accuracy) for civil aircraft in the United States. Perhaps more importantly, this navigation system, which provides continuous operation across large regions, enables new flight instrumentation concepts which allow pilots to fly aircraft significantly more precisely, both for straight and curved flight paths. This research investigates the capabilities of some of these new concepts, including the Highway-In-The Sky (HITS) display, which not only improves FTE but also reduces pilot workload when compared to conventional flight instrumentation. Augmentation to the HITS display, including perspective terrain and terrain alerting, improves pilot situational awareness. Flight test results from demonstrations in Juneau, AK, and Lake Tahoe, CA, provide evidence of the overall feasibility of integrated, low-cost flight navigation systems based on these concepts. These systems, requiring no more computational power than current-generation low-end desktop computers, have immediate applicability to general aviation flight from Cessnas to business jets and can support safer and ultimately more economical flight operations. Commercial airlines may also, over time, benefit from these new technologies.

  18. Online total organic carbon (TOC) monitoring for water and wastewater treatment plants processes and operations optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assmann, Céline; Scott, Amanda; Biller, Dondra

    2017-08-01

    Organic measurements, such as biological oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were developed decades ago in order to measure organics in water. Today, these time-consuming measurements are still used as parameters to check the water treatment quality; however, the time required to generate a result, ranging from hours to days, does not allow COD or BOD to be useful process control parameters - see (1) Standard Method 5210 B; 5-day BOD Test, 1997, and (2) ASTM D1252; COD Test, 2012. Online organic carbon monitoring allows for effective process control because results are generated every few minutes. Though it does not replace BOD or COD measurements still required for compliance reporting, it allows for smart, data-driven and rapid decision-making to improve process control and optimization or meet compliances. Thanks to the smart interpretation of generated data and the capability to now take real-time actions, municipal drinking water and wastewater treatment facility operators can positively impact their OPEX (operational expenditure) efficiencies and their capabilities to meet regulatory requirements. This paper describes how three municipal wastewater and drinking water plants gained process insights, and determined optimization opportunities thanks to the implementation of online total organic carbon (TOC) monitoring.

  19. Criterion-based laparoscopic training reduces total training time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkman, W.M.; Buzink, S.N.; Alevizos, L.; De Hingh, I.H.J.T.; Jakimowicz, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    The benefits of criterion-based laparoscopic training over time-oriented training are unclear. The purpose of this study is to compare these types of training based on training outcome and time efficiency. Methods During four training sessions within 1 week (one session per day) 34 medical interns

  20. RURAL EXTENSION EPISTEMOLOGY AND THE TIME OF TOTAL EXTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Calgaro Neto

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is dedicated to explore the field of knowledge related to rural extension. In general, a three complementary perspective is used as theoretical strategy to present this epistemological study. The first perspective, seeks to accomplish a brief archeology of rural extension, identifying the remarkable historical passages. At the second, we look to some theoretical models through the modern epistemological platform. Finally, the third perspective, aims to present a methodological proposal that contemplate this epistemic characteristics, relating with the contemporary transformations observed in the knowledge construction and technological transference for a rural development. Keywords: Total institutions. University.

  1. An Analysis of Operational Total Lightning Data During Long-Track Tornadoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcione, Brian C.; Stano, Geoffrey T.

    2012-01-01

    The 27 April 2011 tornado outbreak brought three distinct waves of tornadic thunderstorms to portions of Mississippi, Alabama, Tennessee, and Georgia, striking the Tennessee Valley of north Alabama and southern Tennessee particularly hard. A total of 42 tornado paths were surveyed across the fourteen county area covered by the National Weather Service (NWS) forecast office in Huntsville, Alabama. Ten of these tornadoes were on the ground for at least 20 miles, two had total path lengths over 130 miles, and six tornadoes were classified as violent (EF-4 or EF-5 on the Enhanced Fujita Scale). Many of these tornadoes occurred within the domain of the North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array (NALMA), a ground-based total lightning detection network owned and operated by the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. Since 2003, the NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition Center has supplied data from NALMA in real time to NWS forecast offices in Huntsville, Knoxville/Tri-Cities, Birmingham, and Nashville. Previous research has documented the utility of total lightning information in predicting tornadogenesis, particularly when combined with other remote sensing tools. Basic warning decision-making during events such as 27 April is not the most difficult part of the process; instead, the focus of warning meteorologists shifts to looking for changes in intensity or possible particularly dangerous situations, since doppler radar velocity data often cannot distinguish between weak and strong tornadoes. To that end, this research attempts to determine if any correlation exists between flash densities of the longest-tracked tornadoes over time, and the surveyed wind speeds of the tornadoes. The long-track EF-5 tornado which struck the Hackleburg, Phil Campbell, and Tanner communities in north Alabama was the primary focus of this research due to its intensity and extended life cycle. However, not all tornadoes were available for total lightning analysis due to widespread

  2. Some Operational Aspects Relating to Quality Management and Total Quality Management

    OpenAIRE

    Sorin GRESOI; Aurelian DIACONU

    2013-01-01

    The work pass in review a few basic concepts found in quality management focusing on operational aspects of quality assurance in production activity and continue with issues regarding total quality strategy, the vector of competitiveness on the market.

  3. Criterion-based laparoscopic training reduces total training time

    OpenAIRE

    Brinkman, Willem M.; Buzink, Sonja N.; Alevizos, Leonidas; de Hingh, Ignace H. J. T.; Jakimowicz, Jack J.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The benefits of criterion-based laparoscopic training over time-oriented training are unclear. The purpose of this study is to compare these types of training based on training outcome and time efficiency. Methods During four training sessions within 1 week (one session per day) 34 medical interns (no laparoscopic experience) practiced on two basic tasks on the Simbionix LAP Mentor virtual-reality (VR) simulator: ‘clipping and grasping’ and ‘cutting’. Group C (criterion-based) (N...

  4. [Operative treatment strategies for multiple trauma patients : early total care versus damage control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klüter, T; Lippross, S; Oestern, S; Weuster, M; Seekamp, A

    2013-09-01

    The treatment of multiple trauma patients is a great challenge for an interdisciplinary team. After preclinical care and subsequent treatment in the emergency room the order of the interventions is prioritized depending of the individual risk stratification. For planning the surgery management it is essential to distinguish between absolutely essential operations to prevent life-threatening situations for the patient and interventions with shiftable indications, depending on the general condition of the patient. All interventions need to be done without causing significant secondary damage to prohibit hyperinflammation and systemic inflammatory response syndrome. The challenge consists in determination of the appropriate treatment at the right point in time. In general the early primary intervention, early total care, is differentiated from the damage control concept.

  5. Intra-operative digital imaging: assuring the alignment of components when undertaking total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambright, D; Hellman, M; Barrack, R

    2018-01-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the rate at which the positioning of the acetabular component, leg length discrepancy and femoral offset are outside an acceptable range in total hip arthroplasties (THAs) which either do or do not involve the use of intra-operative digital imaging. A retrospective case-control study was undertaken with 50 patients before and 50 patients after the integration of an intra-operative digital imaging system in THA. The demographics of the two groups were comparable for body mass index, age, laterality and the indication for surgery. The digital imaging group had more men than the group without. Surgical data and radiographic parameters, including the inclination and anteversion of the acetabular component, leg length discrepancy, and the difference in femoral offset compared with the contralateral hip were collected and compared, as well as the incidence of altering the position of a component based on the intra-operative image. Digital imaging took a mean of five minutes (2.3 to 14.6) to perform. Intra-operative changes with the use of digital imaging were made for 43 patients (86%), most commonly to adjust leg length and femoral offset. There was a decrease in the incidence of outliers when using intra-operative imaging compared with not using it in regard to leg length discrepancy (20% versus 52%, p = 0.001) and femoral offset inequality (18% versus 44%, p = 0.004). There was also a difference in the incidence of outliers in acetabular inclination (0% versus 7%, p = 0.023) and version (0% versus 4%, p = 0.114) compared with historical results of a high-volume surgeon at the same centre. The use of intra-operative digital imaging in THA improves the accuracy of the positioning of the components at THA without adding a substantial amount of time to the operation. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2018;100B(1 Supple A):36-43. ©2018 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  6. Extending the maximum operation time of the MNSR reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawahra, S; Khattab, K; Saba, G

    2016-09-01

    An effective modification to extend the maximum operation time of the Miniature Neutron Source Reactor (MNSR) to enhance the utilization of the reactor has been tested using the MCNP4C code. This modification consisted of inserting manually in each of the reactor inner irradiation tube a chain of three polyethylene-connected containers filled of water. The total height of the chain was 11.5cm. The replacement of the actual cadmium absorber with B(10) absorber was needed as well. The rest of the core structure materials and dimensions remained unchanged. A 3-D neutronic model with the new modifications was developed to compare the neutronic parameters of the old and modified cores. The results of the old and modified core excess reactivities (ρex) were: 3.954, 6.241 mk respectively. The maximum reactor operation times were: 428, 1025min and the safety reactivity factors were: 1.654 and 1.595 respectively. Therefore, a 139% increase in the maximum reactor operation time was noticed for the modified core. This increase enhanced the utilization of the MNSR reactor to conduct a long time irradiation of the unknown samples using the NAA technique and increase the amount of radioisotope production in the reactor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of Resident Involvement on Operative Time and Operating Room Staffing Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Robert William; Pruitt, Mark; Taaffe, Kevin M

    The operating room (OR) is a major driver of hospital costs; therefore, operative time is an expensive resource. The training of surgical residents must include time spent in the OR, but that experience comes with a cost to the surgeon and hospital. The objective of this article is to determine the effect of surgical resident involvement in the OR on operative time and subsequent hospital labor costs. The Kruskal-Wallis statistical test is used to determine whether or not there is a difference in operative times between 2 groups of cases (with residents and without residents). This difference leads to an increased cost in associated hospital labor costs for the group with the longer operative time. Cases were performed at Greenville Memorial Hospital. Greenville Memorial Hospital is part of the larger healthcare system, Greenville Health System, located in Greenville, SC and is a level 1 trauma center with up to 33 staffed ORs. A total of 84,997 cases were performed at the partnering hospital between January 1st, 2011 and July 31st, 2015. Cases were only chosen for analysis if there was only one CPT code associated with the case and there were more than 5 observations for each group being studied. This article presents a comprehensive retrospective analysis of 29,134 cases covering 246 procedures. The analysis shows that 45 procedures took significantly longer with a resident present in the room. The average increase in operative time was 4.8 minutes and the cost per minute of extra operative time was determined to be $9.57 per minute. OR labor costs at the partnering hospital was found to be $2,257,433, or $492,889 per year. Knowing the affect on operative time and OR costs allows managers to make smart decisions when considering alternative educational and training techniques. In addition, knowing the connection between residents in the room and surgical duration could help provide better estimates of surgical time in the future and increase the predictability of

  8. Working time intervals and total work time on nursing positions in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Kunecka

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: For the last few years a topic of overwork on nursing posts has given rise to strong discussions. The author has set herself a goal of answering the question if it is a result of real overwork of this particular profession or rather commonly assumed frustration of this professional group. The aim of this paper is to conduct the analysis of working time on chosen nursing positions in relation to measures of time being used as intervals in the course of conducting standard professional activities during one working day. Material and Methods: Research material consisted of documentation of work time on chosen nursing workplaces, compiled between 2007–2012 within the framework of a nursing course at the Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin. As a method of measurement a photograph of a working day has been used. Measurements were performed in institutions located in 6 voivodeships in Poland. Results: Results suggest that only 6.5% of total of surveyed representatives of nurse profession spends proper amount of time (meaning: a time set by the applicable standards on work intervals during a working day. Conclusions: The scale of the phenomenon indicates excessive workload for nursing positions, which along with a longer period of time, longer working hours may cause decrease in efficiency of work and cause a drop in quality of provided services. Med Pr 2015;66,(2:165–172

  9. Time-driven activity based costing of total knee replacement surgery at a London teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Alvin; Sabharwal, Sanjeeve; Akhtar, Kashif; Makaram, Navnit; Gupte, Chinmay M

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a time-driven activity based costing (TDABC) analysis of the clinical pathway for total knee replacement (TKR) and to determine where the major cost drivers lay. The in-patient pathway was prospectively mapped utilising a TDABC model, following 20 TKRs. The mean age for these patients was 73.4 years. All patients were ASA grade I or II and their mean BMI was 30.4. The 14 varus knees had a mean deformity of 5.32° and the six valgus knee had a mean deformity of 10.83°. Timings were prospectively collected as each patient was followed through the TKR pathway. Pre-operative costs including pre-assessment and joint school were £ 163. Total staff costs for admission and the operating theatre were £ 658. Consumables cost for the operating theatre were £ 1862. The average length of stay was 5.25 days at a total cost of £ 910. Trust overheads contributed £ 1651. The overall institutional cost of a 'noncomplex' TKR in patients without substantial medical co-morbidities was estimated to be £ 5422, representing a profit of £ 1065 based on a best practice tariff of £ 6487. The major cost drivers in the TKR pathway were determined to be theatre consumables, corporate overheads, overall ward cost and operating theatre staffing costs. Appropriate discounting of implant costs, reduction in length of stay by adopting an enhanced recovery programme and control of corporate overheads through the use of elective orthopaedic treatment centres are proposed approaches for reducing the overall cost of treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Reducing start time delays in operating rooms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Does, R.J.M.M.; Vermaat, T.M.B.; Verver, J.P.S.; Bisgaard, S.; van den Heuvel, J.

    2009-01-01

    Problem: Health care today is facing serious problems: quality of care does not meet patients’ needs and costs are exploding. Inefficient utilization of expensive operating rooms is one of the major problems in many hospitals worldwide. A benchmark study of 13 hospitals in the Netherlands and

  11. Total output operation chart optimization of cascade reservoirs and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Zhiqiang; Ji, Changming; Sun, Ping; Wang, Liping; Zhang, Yanke

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We propose a new double nested model for cascade reservoirs operation optimization. • We use two methods to extract the output distribution ratio. • The adopted two methods perform better than the widely used methods at present. • Stepwise regression method performs better than mean value method on the whole. - Abstract: With the rapid development of cascade hydropower stations in recent decades, the cascade system composed of multiple reservoirs needs unified operation and management. However, the output distribution problem has not yet been solved reasonably when the total output of cascade system obtained, which makes the full utilization of hydropower resources in cascade reservoirs very difficult. Discriminant criterion method is a traditional and common method to solve the output distribution problem at present, but some shortcomings cannot be ignored in the practical application. In response to the above concern, this paper proposes a new total output operation chart optimization model and a new optimal output distribution model, the two models constitute to a double nested model with the goal of maximizing power generation. This paper takes the cascade reservoirs of Li Xianjiang River in China as an instance to obtain the optimal total output operation chart by the proposed double nested model and the 43 years historical runoff data, progressive searching method and progressive optimality algorithm are used in solving the model. In order to take the obtained total output operation chart into practical operation, mean value method and stepwise regression method are adopted to extract the output distribution ratios on the basis of the optimal simulation intermediate data. By comparing with discriminant criterion method and conventional method, the combined utilization of total output operation chart and output distribution ratios presents better performance in terms of power generation and assurance rate, which proves it is an effective

  12. Improving the Prediction of Total Surgical Procedure Time Using Linear Regression Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelman, Eric R; van Kuijk, Sander M J; Hamaekers, Ankie E W; de Korte, Marcel J M; van Merode, Godefridus G; Buhre, Wolfgang F F A

    2017-01-01

    For efficient utilization of operating rooms (ORs), accurate schedules of assigned block time and sequences of patient cases need to be made. The quality of these planning tools is dependent on the accurate prediction of total procedure time (TPT) per case. In this paper, we attempt to improve the accuracy of TPT predictions by using linear regression models based on estimated surgeon-controlled time (eSCT) and other variables relevant to TPT. We extracted data from a Dutch benchmarking database of all surgeries performed in six academic hospitals in The Netherlands from 2012 till 2016. The final dataset consisted of 79,983 records, describing 199,772 h of total OR time. Potential predictors of TPT that were included in the subsequent analysis were eSCT, patient age, type of operation, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status classification, and type of anesthesia used. First, we computed the predicted TPT based on a previously described fixed ratio model for each record, multiplying eSCT by 1.33. This number is based on the research performed by van Veen-Berkx et al., which showed that 33% of SCT is generally a good approximation of anesthesia-controlled time (ACT). We then systematically tested all possible linear regression models to predict TPT using eSCT in combination with the other available independent variables. In addition, all regression models were again tested without eSCT as a predictor to predict ACT separately (which leads to TPT by adding SCT). TPT was most accurately predicted using a linear regression model based on the independent variables eSCT, type of operation, ASA classification, and type of anesthesia. This model performed significantly better than the fixed ratio model and the method of predicting ACT separately. Making use of these more accurate predictions in planning and sequencing algorithms may enable an increase in utilization of ORs, leading to significant financial and productivity related benefits.

  13. Improving the Prediction of Total Surgical Procedure Time Using Linear Regression Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric R. Edelman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available For efficient utilization of operating rooms (ORs, accurate schedules of assigned block time and sequences of patient cases need to be made. The quality of these planning tools is dependent on the accurate prediction of total procedure time (TPT per case. In this paper, we attempt to improve the accuracy of TPT predictions by using linear regression models based on estimated surgeon-controlled time (eSCT and other variables relevant to TPT. We extracted data from a Dutch benchmarking database of all surgeries performed in six academic hospitals in The Netherlands from 2012 till 2016. The final dataset consisted of 79,983 records, describing 199,772 h of total OR time. Potential predictors of TPT that were included in the subsequent analysis were eSCT, patient age, type of operation, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA physical status classification, and type of anesthesia used. First, we computed the predicted TPT based on a previously described fixed ratio model for each record, multiplying eSCT by 1.33. This number is based on the research performed by van Veen-Berkx et al., which showed that 33% of SCT is generally a good approximation of anesthesia-controlled time (ACT. We then systematically tested all possible linear regression models to predict TPT using eSCT in combination with the other available independent variables. In addition, all regression models were again tested without eSCT as a predictor to predict ACT separately (which leads to TPT by adding SCT. TPT was most accurately predicted using a linear regression model based on the independent variables eSCT, type of operation, ASA classification, and type of anesthesia. This model performed significantly better than the fixed ratio model and the method of predicting ACT separately. Making use of these more accurate predictions in planning and sequencing algorithms may enable an increase in utilization of ORs, leading to significant financial and productivity related

  14. On the definition of time operator in quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowicki, A.A.

    1974-01-01

    Different approaches to the quantum-mechanical definition of time operator T are briefly discussed. In particular we define the analytic continuation of the time operator and show that one can construct its exact eigenstates. We consider also the case of a relativistic free scalar particle and discuss the notion of proper time operator S. (author)

  15. Evaluation of real time operating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Cheol Hoon; Cho, Moon Heang; Choi, In Bum; Lee, Jung Won; Kang, Hui Sung

    2006-02-01

    An hard RTOS used in the Nuclear Power Plants must satisfy severe performance requirements even in a worst case scenario. Since operating systems are becoming more complicated, it is not an easy job to evaluate them. So it becomes more important how to evaluate the RTOS's used in the Nuclear Power Plants. The purpose of this work is to survey design examples and performance models of RTOS's used in the nuclear power plants and based on this survey, develop a evaluation technologies

  16. Evaluation of real time operating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Cheol Hoon; Cho, Moon Heang; Choi, In Bum; Lee, Jung Won; Kang, Hui Sung [Chungnam National Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-02-15

    An hard RTOS used in the Nuclear Power Plants must satisfy severe performance requirements even in a worst case scenario. Since operating systems are becoming more complicated, it is not an easy job to evaluate them. So it becomes more important how to evaluate the RTOS's used in the Nuclear Power Plants. The purpose of this work is to survey design examples and performance models of RTOS's used in the nuclear power plants and based on this survey, develop a evaluation technologies.

  17. Real-Time Operating System/360

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, R. L.; Kopp, R. S.; Mueller, H. H.; Pollan, W. D.; Van Sant, B. W.; Weiler, P. W.

    1969-01-01

    RTOS has a cost savings advantage for real-time applications, such as those with random inputs requiring a flexible data routing facility, display systems simplified by a device independent interface language, and complex applications needing added storage protection and data queuing.

  18. Organizational Culture Influence On Total Productive Maintenance (TPM and Operational Performance Using RASCH Model Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Norhasni Mohd Asaad

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Market globalization, competitive product and services, high economic crises are the most critical factors that influence the success of the manufacturing companies in global market. Therefore it is critical to the manufacturing companies to be efficient in production and lean tool may used to achieve that.  The most frequently used is the Total Preventive Maintenance (TPM, even though there are many studies have been conducted in relation to the TPM but there is limited research in investigating the effects of the TPM on operational performance. However, the result of the studies was not consistent, where TPM practice may have positive and negative impact on operational performance. Among the reason is the culture of the organization that influenced the implementation of TPM and operational performance. Due to that this study attempts to investigate the influence of organizational culture on the TPM implementation and operational performance.  Rasch model is used in this study due to its ability in interpreting and analyzing the ability of respondents in performing the difficult items. The online questionnaires were distributed to 63 randomly selected automotive companies located at Northern Region of Malaysia.  Results of the study revealed that the organizational culture has influenced on the successful implementation of TPM and operational performance. Therefore by the implementation of TPM in outstanding organizational culture can improve operational performance.   Keyword: Total Preventive Maintenance (TPM, Lean manufacturing, Operational performance, Organizational culture, Rasch modeldoi:10.12695/ajtm.2013.6.2.2How to cite this article:Mohd Asaad, M.N and Yusoff, R.Z. (2013. Organizational Culture Influence On Total Productive Maintenance (TPM and Operational Performance Using RASCH Model Analysis . The Asian Journal of Technology Management 6 (2: 72-81. Print ISSN: 1978-6956; Online ISSN: 2089-791X.  doi:10.12695/ajtm

  19. Inguinal hernia repair: totally preperitoneal laparoscopic approach versus Stoppa operation: randomized trial of 100 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champault, G G; Rizk, N; Catheline, J M; Turner, R; Boutelier, P

    1997-12-01

    In a prospective randomized trial comparing the totally preperitoneal (TPP) laparoscopic approach and the Stoppa procedure (open), 100 patients with inguinal hernias (Nyhus IIIA, IIIB, IV) were followed over a 3-year period. Both groups were epidemiologically comparable. In the laparoscopic group, operating time was significantly longer (p = 0.01), but hospital stay (3.2 vs. 7.3 days) and delay in return to work (17 vs. 35 days) were significantly reduced (p = 0.01). Postoperative comfort (less pain) was better (p = 0.001) after laparoscopy. In this group, morbidity was also reduced (4 vs. 20%; p = 0.02). The mean follow-up was 605 days, and 93% of the patients were reviewed at 3 years. There were three (6%) recurrences after TPP, especially at the beginning of the surgeon's learning curve, versus one for the Stoppa procedure (NS). For bilateral hernias, the authors suggest the use of a large prosthesis rather than two small ones to minimize the likelihood of recurrence. In the conditions described, the laparoscopic (TPP) approach to inguinal hernia treatment appears to have the same long-term recurrence rate as the open (Stoppa) procedure but a real advantage in the early postoperative period.

  20. Near-real-time Estimation and Forecast of Total Precipitable Water in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholy, J.; Kern, A.; Barcza, Z.; Pongracz, R.; Ihasz, I.; Kovacs, R.; Ferencz, C.

    2013-12-01

    Information about the amount and spatial distribution of atmospheric water vapor (or total precipitable water) is essential for understanding weather and the environment including the greenhouse effect, the climate system with its feedbacks and the hydrological cycle. Numerical weather prediction (NWP) models need accurate estimations of water vapor content to provide realistic forecasts including representation of clouds and precipitation. In the present study we introduce our research activity for the estimation and forecast of atmospheric water vapor in Central Europe using both observations and models. The Eötvös Loránd University (Hungary) operates a polar orbiting satellite receiving station in Budapest since 2002. This station receives Earth observation data from polar orbiting satellites including MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Direct Broadcast (DB) data stream from satellites Terra and Aqua. The received DB MODIS data are automatically processed using freely distributed software packages. Using the IMAPP Level2 software total precipitable water is calculated operationally using two different methods. Quality of the TPW estimations is a crucial question for further application of the results, thus validation of the remotely sensed total precipitable water fields is presented using radiosonde data. In a current research project in Hungary we aim to compare different estimations of atmospheric water vapor content. Within the frame of the project we use a NWP model (DBCRAS; Direct Broadcast CIMSS Regional Assimilation System numerical weather prediction software developed by the University of Wisconsin, Madison) to forecast TPW. DBCRAS uses near real time Level2 products from the MODIS data processing chain. From the wide range of the derived Level2 products the MODIS TPW parameter found within the so-called mod07 results (Atmospheric Profiles Product) and the cloud top pressure and cloud effective emissivity parameters from the so

  1. Minimizing the Total Service Time of Discrete Dynamic Berth Allocation Problem by an Iterated Greedy Heuristic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Berth allocation is the forefront operation performed when ships arrive at a port and is a critical task in container port optimization. Minimizing the time ships spend at berths constitutes an important objective of berth allocation problems. This study focuses on the discrete dynamic berth allocation problem (discrete DBAP), which aims to minimize total service time, and proposes an iterated greedy (IG) algorithm to solve it. The proposed IG algorithm is tested on three benchmark problem sets. Experimental results show that the proposed IG algorithm can obtain optimal solutions for all test instances of the first and second problem sets and outperforms the best-known solutions for 35 out of 90 test instances of the third problem set. PMID:25295295

  2. Minimizing the Total Service Time of Discrete Dynamic Berth Allocation Problem by an Iterated Greedy Heuristic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Wei Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Berth allocation is the forefront operation performed when ships arrive at a port and is a critical task in container port optimization. Minimizing the time ships spend at berths constitutes an important objective of berth allocation problems. This study focuses on the discrete dynamic berth allocation problem (discrete DBAP, which aims to minimize total service time, and proposes an iterated greedy (IG algorithm to solve it. The proposed IG algorithm is tested on three benchmark problem sets. Experimental results show that the proposed IG algorithm can obtain optimal solutions for all test instances of the first and second problem sets and outperforms the best-known solutions for 35 out of 90 test instances of the third problem set.

  3. Operator of Time and Generalized Schrödinger Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan Prvanović

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The equation describing the change of the state of the quantum system with respect to energy is introduced within the framework of the self-adjoint operator of time in nonrelativistic quantum mechanics. In this proposal, the operator of time appears to be the generator of the change of the energy, while the operator of energy that is conjugate to the operator of time generates the time evolution. Two examples, one with discrete time and the other with continuous one, are given and the generalization of Schrödinger equation is proposed.

  4. Effect of pre-operative methylprednisolone on orthostatic hypotension during early mobilization after total hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg-Larsen, V; Petersen, P B; Jans, Ø

    2018-01-01

    a standardized mobilization protocol pre-operatively, 6, and 24 h after surgery. Systolic and diastolic arterial pressure and heart rate were measured non-invasively (Nexfin® ). The systemic inflammation was monitored by the C-reactive protein (CRP) response. RESULTS: At 6 h post-operatively, 11 (38%) versus 11......BACKGROUND: Orthostatic hypotension (OH) and intolerance (OI) are common after total hip arthroplasty (THA) and may delay early mobilization. The pathology of OH and OI includes a dysregulated post-operative vasopressor response, by a hitherto unknown mechanism. We hypothesized that OI could...... be related to the inflammatory stress response which is inhibited by steroid administration. Consequently, this study evaluated the effect of a pre-operative high-dose methylprednisolone on OH and OI early after THA. METHODS: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 59 patients undergoing...

  5. Does pre-operative psychological distress affect patient satisfaction after primary total hip arthroplasty?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nolan John

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are concerns that pre-operative psychological distress might be associated with reduced patient satisfaction after total hip replacement (THR. Methods We investigated this in a multi-centre prospective study between January 1999 and January 2002. We dichotomised the patients into the mentally distressed (MHS ≤ 56 and the not mentally distressed (MHS > 56 groups based on their pre-operative Mental Health Score (MHS of SF36. Results 448 patients (340 not distressed and 108 distressed completed the patient satisfaction survey. Patient satisfaction rate at five year was 96.66% (415/448. There was no difference in patient satisfaction or willingness to have the surgery between the two groups. None of pre-operative variables predicted five year patient satisfaction in logistic regression. Conclusions Patient satisfaction after surgery may not be adversely affected by pre-operative psychological distress.

  6. Reduced survival for uncemented compared to cemented total hip arthroplasty after operatively treated acetabular fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke-Jenssen, John; Westberg, Marianne; Røise, Olav; Storeggen, Stein Arne Øvre; Bere, Tone; Silberg, Ingunn; Madsen, Jan Erik

    2017-11-01

    Post traumatic arthritis and avascular necrosis of the femoral head are common complications after operatively treated acetabular fractures. This may cause severe disabilities for the patient, necessitating a total hip arthroplasty. Even though an arthroplasty may provide good symptomatic relief, the long-term results are more uncertain and no consensus exists according to preferred prosthetic designs. With this cohort study, we aimed to investigate the medium to long term arthroplasty survival and clinical results of total hip arthroplasty after operatively treated acetabular fractures. We included 52 patients treated with a secondary total hip arthroplasty at a median of 2.4 (0.1-14.1) years after an operatively treated acetabular fracture. The median age was 54 (11-82) years. Cemented arthroplasty was used for 33 patients, 10 patients had an uncemented arthroplasty and 9 patients received a hybrid arthroplasty. Average follow up was 8.0 (SD 5.0) years. Ten-year revision free arthroplasty survival was 79%. Uncemented arthroplasties had a significantly worse 10-year survival of 57%. Arthroplasties performed at a centre without a pelvic fracture service also had a significantly worse 10-years survival of 51%. Cox regression showed similar results with an 8-fold increase in risk of revision for both uncemented arthroplasties and operations performed at a non-pelvic trauma centre. Total hip arthroplasty secondary to an operatively treated acetabular fracture provides good symptomatic relief. These patients are, however, complex cases and are probably best treated at specialist centres with both pelvic trauma surgeons and arthroplasty surgeons proficient in complex revisions present. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Motor operated valve stroke timing; is there value?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, K.; Rosch, F. Jr.; Neckowicz, T.

    1990-01-01

    Both ASME Section XI, Subsection IWV and ASME/ANSI OMa-1988, Part 10 require stroke timing of certain power operated valves. This requirement is intended to detect valve degradation and subsequent maintenance, repair or replacement needs. However, the adequacy of stroke timing, especially for motor operated valves, has met much skepticism in the industry. This paper will demonstrate that stroke timing for ac motor operated valves is inadequate and provide a non-intrusive testing alternative. It will also discuss the value of stroke timing for dc motor operated valves

  8. The application of total quality management principles to spacecraft mission operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetin, Maury

    1993-03-01

    By now, the philosophies of Total Quality Management have had an impact on every aspect of American industrial life. The trail-blazing work of Deming, Juran, and Crosby, first implemented in Japan, has 're-migrated' across the Pacific and now plays a growing role in America's management culture. While initially considered suited only for a manufacturing environment, TQM has moved rapidly into the 'service' areas of offices, sales forces, and even fast-food restaurants. The next logical step has also been taken - TQM has found its way into virtually all departments of the Federal Government, including NASA. Because of this widespread success, it seems fair to ask whether this new discipline is directly applicable to the profession of spacecraft operations. The results of quality emphasis on OAO Corporation's contract at JPL provide strong support for Total Quality Management as a useful tool in spacecraft operations.

  9. The application of total quality management principles to spacecraft mission operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetin, Maury

    1993-01-01

    By now, the philosophies of Total Quality Management have had an impact on every aspect of American industrial life. The trail-blazing work of Deming, Juran, and Crosby, first implemented in Japan, has 're-migrated' across the Pacific and now plays a growing role in America's management culture. While initially considered suited only for a manufacturing environment, TQM has moved rapidly into the 'service' areas of offices, sales forces, and even fast-food restaurants. The next logical step has also been taken - TQM has found its way into virtually all departments of the Federal Government, including NASA. Because of this widespread success, it seems fair to ask whether this new discipline is directly applicable to the profession of spacecraft operations. The results of quality emphasis on OAO Corporation's contract at JPL provide strong support for Total Quality Management as a useful tool in spacecraft operations.

  10. An Evaluation of Intra‑ and Post‑operative Blood Loss in Total Hip ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-05-18

    May 18, 2017 ... Results: The mean intra‑ and post‑operative blood losses were 1222.7 ... To evaluate blood loss after total hip replacement. 2. To evaluate the .... 12.3. 4.2. 0.1. Median. 400.0. 150.0. 20.0. 3.0. Mode. 400.0. 100.0. 0.0. 3.0. SD.

  11. Intra-operative monitoring of the common peroneal nerve during total knee replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unwin, A J; Thomas, M

    1994-01-01

    We present a method allowing intra-operative monitoring of the common peroneal nerve during total knee arthroplasty using a magnetic stimulator. Previous reports have shown no pre-operative method successful in selecting those patients prone to develop a post-operative palsy. The device, placed beneath the lumbar spine, stimulates the cauda equina; common peroneal nerve function is assessed via the response in extensor digitorum brevis. There is a loss of signal from the nerve with the use of a tourniquet 25 min following its application. The protocol therefore requires that a tourniquet is used at least only for fixation of the prosthetic components. The method is quick, safe, non-invasive and reproducible, and is of use both in at-risk patients and in research work. Images Figure 6. PMID:7837197

  12. [Bentall operation combined with total arch replacement and stented elephant trunk implantation for serious Debakey I aortic dissecting aneurysm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Tian-Xiang; Wang, Chun; Zhang, Yu-Hai

    2008-12-01

    To summarize the clinical experience of Bentall operation combined with total arch replacement and stented elephant trunk implantation for serious Debakey I aortic dissecting aneurysm. Twelve patients with serious Debakey I aortic dissecting aneurysm underwent surgical treatment from January 2005 to December 2007. There were 10 male and 2 female with the mean age of (40.1 +/- 9.5) years old. There were acute aortic dissection in 9 cases, chronic aortic dissection in 3 cases. The inner diameter of aorta was (5.3 +/- 1.8) cm. There were Marfan syndrome in 4 cases, aortic regurgitation in all cases, severely persistent chest pain in 9 cases, acute left heart failure in 8 cases, and cardiac tamponade in 4 cases. Bentall operations combined with total arch replacement and stented elephant trunk implantation were performed by using deep hypothermic circulatory arrest and antegrade selective cerebral perfusion in all cases. Urgent surgery underwent in 9 cases. The mean interval between the onset of aortic dissection and the accomplishment of surgery was (41.0 +/- 15.9) hours. Cardiopulmonary bypass time was (191 +/- 26) min, average cross clamp time was (134 +/- 31) min, and average deep hypothermic circulatory arrest time was (50.0 +/- 14.5) min. One patient died in hospital. The time stayed in ICU was 3 to 27 d. Mental disorder in 6 cases, hemi-paralysis in 1 case, amputation in 1 case, hemorrhage of anastomosis in 1 case, hemorrhage of alimentary tract in 1 case, and pleural effusion in 4 cases were recorded. Eleven cases were followed-up for 8 weeks to 36 months. There were no bending of the stents and no obstruction in the vascular prosthesis.No re-operation was needed. One case died 6 months postoperatively. Bentall operation combined with total arch replacement and stented elephant trunk implantation is safe and effective for serious Debakey I aortic dissecting aneurysm, while good organs protection and consummate cardiopulmonary bypass were taken.

  13. Real-time Testing of Operating Systems on Raspberry Pi

    OpenAIRE

    Murstad, Amund

    2016-01-01

    A subset of operating systems are called ``real time'' operating systems. While a general operating system like Windows or OSX can make no guarantee when a process gets to run, a real time one has the ability to do so. They are used for systems where the quality of the results from the operating system is not only defined by their correctness, but also by when they arrive. These kinds of systems are called Real-time Systems and can be divided into soft, hard and firm. If a deadline is missed ...

  14. Exact and Heuristic Solutions to Minimize Total Waiting Time in the Blood Products Distribution Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Salehipour

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel application of operations research to support decision making in blood distribution management. The rapid and dynamic increasing demand, criticality of the product, storage, handling, and distribution requirements, and the different geographical locations of hospitals and medical centers have made blood distribution a complex and important problem. In this study, a real blood distribution problem containing 24 hospitals was tackled by the authors, and an exact approach was presented. The objective of the problem is to distribute blood and its products among hospitals and medical centers such that the total waiting time of those requiring the product is minimized. Following the exact solution, a hybrid heuristic algorithm is proposed. Computational experiments showed the optimal solutions could be obtained for medium size instances, while for larger instances the proposed hybrid heuristic is very competitive.

  15. Patient-specific instrumentation for total knee arthroplasty does not match the pre-operative plan as assessed by intra-operative computer-assisted navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholes, Corey; Sahni, Varun; Lustig, Sebastien; Parker, David A; Coolican, Myles R J

    2014-03-01

    The introduction of patient-specific instruments (PSI) for guiding bone cuts could increase the incidence of malalignment in primary total knee arthroplasty. The purpose of this study was to assess the agreement between one type of patient-specific instrumentation (Zimmer PSI) and the pre-operative plan with respect to bone cuts and component alignment during TKR using imageless computer navigation. A consecutive series of 30 femoral and tibial guides were assessed in-theatre by the same surgeon using computer navigation. Following surgical exposure, the PSI cutting guides were placed on the joint surface and alignment assessed using the navigation tracker. The difference between in-theatre data and the pre-operative plan was recorded and analysed. The error between in-theatre measurements and pre-operative plan for the femoral and tibial components exceeded 3° for 3 and 17% of the sample, respectively, while the error for total coronal alignment exceeded 3° for 27% of the sample. The present results indicate that alignment with Zimmer PSI cutting blocks, assessed by imageless navigation, does not match the pre-operative plan in a proportion of cases. To prevent unnecessary increases in the incidence of malalignment in primary TKR, it is recommended that these devices should not be used without objective verification of alignment, either in real-time or with post-operative imaging. Further work is required to identify the source of discrepancies and validate these devices prior to routine use. II.

  16. Real-Time Operating Systems for Multicore Embedded Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Tomiyama, Hiroyuki; Honda, Shinya; Takada, Hiroaki

    2008-01-01

    Multicore systems-on-chip have become popular inthe design of embedded systems in order to simultaneously achieve high performance and low power consumption. On the software side, real-time operating systems are necessary in orderto handle growing complexity of embedded software. This paper describes requirements, design principles and implementation techniques for real-time operating systems to be used inasymmetric multicore systems.

  17. Research and application of embedded real-time operating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, based on the analysis of existing embedded real-time operating system, the architecture of an operating system is designed and implemented. The experimental results show that the design fully complies with the requirements of embedded real-time operating system, can achieve the purposes of reducing the complexity of embedded software design and improving the maintainability, reliability, flexibility. Therefore, this design program has high practical value.

  18. Overview of real-time operating systems on microprocessor platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luong, T.T.

    1994-01-01

    This paper attempts to overview the real-time operating systems on microprocessor platforms in the field of experimental physics facility controls. The key issues regarding operating systems as well as standards and development environment are discussed. As an illustration, some current industrial products are indicated. Also, real-time systems operating in some institutes of the EPS/EPCS inter divisional group are reviewed. (author). 3 refs., 4 figs

  19. Obesity Increases Operative Time in Children Undergoing Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandian, T K; Ubl, Daniel S; Habermann, Elizabeth B; Moir, Christopher R; Ishitani, Michael B

    2017-03-01

    Few studies have assessed the impact of obesity on laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) in pediatric patients. Children who underwent LC were identified from the 2012 to 2013 American College of Surgeons' National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Pediatrics data. Patient characteristics, operative details, and outcomes were compared. Multivariable logistic regression was utilized to identify predictors of increased operative time (OT) and duration of anesthesia (DOAn). In total, 1757 patients were identified. Due to low rates of obesity in children obese). Among obese children, 80.6% were girls. A higher proportion of obese patients had diabetes (3.0% versus 1.0%, P obesity was an independent predictor of OT >90 (odds ratio [OR] 2.02; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.55-2.63), and DOAn >140 minutes (OR 1.86; 95% CI 1.42-2.43). Obesity is an independent risk factor for increased OT in children undergoing LC. Pediatric surgeons and anesthesiologists should be prepared for the technical and physiological challenges that obesity may pose in this patient population.

  20. Surgical time and complications of total transvaginal (total-NOTES, single-port laparoscopic-assisted and conventional ovariohysterectomy in bitches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.M. Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The recently developed minimally invasive techniques of ovariohysterectomy (OVH have been studied in dogs in order to optimize their benefits and decrease risks to the patients. The purpose of this study was to compare surgical time, complications and technical difficulties of transvaginal total-NOTES, single-port laparoscopic-assisted and conventional OVH in bitches. Twelve bitches were submitted to total-NOTES (NOTES group, while 13 underwent single-port laparoscopic-assisted (SPLA group and 15 were submitted to conventional OVH (OPEN group. Intra-operative period was divided into 7 stages: (1 access to abdominal cavity; (2 pneumoperitoneum; approach to the right (3 and left (4 ovarian pedicle and uterine body (5; (6 abdominal or vaginal synthesis, performed in 6 out of 12 patients of NOTES; (7 inoperative time. Overall and stages operative times, intra and postoperative complications and technical difficulties were compared among groups. Mean overall surgical time in NOTES (25.7±6.8 minutes and SPLA (23.1±4.0 minutes groups were shorter than in the OPEN group (34.0±6.4 minutes (P<0.05. The intraoperative stage that required the longest time was the approach to the uterine body in the NOTES group and abdominal and cutaneous sutures in the OPEN group. There was no difference regarding the rates of complications. Major complications included postoperative bleeding requiring reoperation in a bitch in the OPEN group, while minor complications included mild vaginal discharge in four patients in the NOTES group and seroma in three bitches in the SPLA group. In conclusion, total-NOTES and SPLA OVH were less time-consuming then conventional OVH in bitches. All techniques presented complications, which were properly managed.

  1. Mixed-mode Operating System for Real-time Performance

    OpenAIRE

    M.M. Hasan; S. Sultana; C.K. Foo

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the mixed-mode system research is to handle devices with the accuracy of real-time systems and at the same time, having all the benefits and facilities of a matured Graphic User Interface (GUI) operating system which is typically nonreal-time. This mixed-mode operating system comprising of a real-time portion and a non-real-time portion was studied and implemented to identify the feasibilities and performances in practical applications (in the context of scheduled the real-time...

  2. Mixed - mode Operating System for Real - time Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan M. M.; Sultana S.; Foo C.K.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the mixed-mode system research is to handle devices with the accuracy of real-time systems and at the same time, having all the benefits and facilities of a matured Graphic User Interface(GUI)operating system which is typicallynon-real-time. This mixed-mode operating system comprising of a real-time portion and a non-real-time portion was studied and implemented to identify the feasibilities and performances in practical applications (in the context of scheduled the real-time e...

  3. Time Warp Operating System, Version 2.5.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellenot, Steven F.; Gieselman, John S.; Hawley, Lawrence R.; Peterson, Judy; Presley, Matthew T.; Reiher, Peter L.; Springer, Paul L.; Tupman, John R.; Wedel, John J., Jr.; Wieland, Frederick P.; hide

    1993-01-01

    Time Warp Operating System, TWOS, is special purpose computer program designed to support parallel simulation of discrete events. Complete implementation of Time Warp software mechanism, which implements distributed protocol for virtual synchronization based on rollback of processes and annihilation of messages. Supports simulations and other computations in which both virtual time and dynamic load balancing used. Program utilizes underlying resources of operating system. Written in C programming language.

  4. Real time operation of a multiple gamma measurement installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philippot, J.C.; Lefevre, J.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes a multiple measurement channel facility for fine gamma spectrometry, its real time operation, and the new possibilities which it offers. The installation is presented in its twofold electronic and processing aspects, by considering its architecture, its hard and software, and its data processing package. Real time operation requires customized general organization, perfect instantaneous knowledge of the status of all the units, and a sound hierarchy between the various participants, operators as well as requestors. The care inherent in the installation itself and in the definition of its operation explains its new possibilities. (Auth.)

  5. Timing of urinary catheter removal after uncomplicated total abdominal hysterectomy: a prospective randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Magdy R; Sayed Ahmed, Waleed A; Atwa, Khaled A; Metwally, Lobna

    2014-05-01

    To assess whether immediate (0h), intermediate (after 6h) or delayed (after 24h) removal of an indwelling urinary catheter after uncomplicated abdominal hysterectomy can affect the rate of re-catheterization due to urinary retention, rate of urinary tract infection, ambulation time and length of hospital stay. Prospective randomized controlled trial conducted at Suez Canal University Hospital, Egypt. Two hundred and twenty-one women underwent total abdominal hysterectomy for benign gynecological diseases and were randomly allocated into three groups. Women in group A (73 patients) had their urinary catheter removed immediately after surgery. Group B (81 patients) had the catheter removed 6h post-operatively while in group C (67 patients) the catheter was removed after 24h. The main outcome measures were the frequency of urinary retention, urinary tract infections, ambulation time and length of hospital stay. There was a significantly higher number of urinary retention episodes requiring re-catheterization in the immediate removal group compared to the intermediate and delayed removal groups (16.4% versus 2.5% and 0% respectively). Delayed urinary catheter removal was associated with a higher incidence of urinary tract infections (15%), delayed ambulation time (10.3h) and longer hospital stay (5.6 days) compared to the early (1.4%, 4.1h and 3.2 days respectively) and intermediate (3.7%, 6.8h and 3.4 days respectively) removal groups. Removal of the urinary catheter 6h postoperatively appears to be more advantageous than early or late removal in cases of uncomplicated total abdominal hysterectomy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Review of the total system related to operation of nuclear-powered ship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamasa, Tomoji; Miyashita, Kunio

    2000-01-01

    It is essential to establish a marine reactor having excellent safety and reliability, which is capable of competing economically with conventional ships, and which can be accepted by international society, in order to be prepared for practical application of future nuclear-powered ships. For this purpose, it is important not only to demonstrate a marine reactor using a model or test device to simulate actual operation, but also to establish the environmental requirements for operation of a nuclear-powered ship, such as safety standards that are operationally and internationally common for ships, and to establish a repair base for nuclear-powered ships. Systems research for the practical application of nuclear-powered ships was conducted for five years, fiscal years 1992 through 1996, by a group in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), under the project title 'Review of the total system related to operation of nuclear-powered ships.' The project sought to summarize requirements for the practical application of nuclear-powered ships from the standpoint of the need side, e.g., what nuclear-powered ships will be requested, and what functions will be provided under the expected future social environment; to show a complete system concept for the operation of nuclear-powered ships; and to clarify the situations creating demand for nuclear-powered ships, as well as the system and environmental conditions to be established for operation of practical nuclear-powered ships. Study considerations included the size of the operation system for a nuclear-powered ship, a scenario for introducing a nuclear-powered container ship, and economic evolution from the effects on the whole shipping system, based on container ships, of introducing a nuclear-powered ship. The results of these considerations were made the framework for constructing an entire system and evaluating its economy. The treatment and disposal of radioactive waste from a nuclear-powered ship, and the

  7. A Time-Composable Operating System for the Patmos Processor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziccardi, Marco; Schoeberl, Martin; Vardanega, Tullio

    2015-01-01

    -composable operating system, on top of a time-composable processor, facilitates incremental development, which is highly desirable for industry. This paper makes a twofold contribution. First, we present enhancements to the Patmos processor to allow achieving time composability at the operating system level. Second......, we extend an existing time-composable operating system, TiCOS, to make best use of advanced Patmos hardware features in the pursuit of time composability.......In the last couple of decades we have witnessed a steady growth in the complexity and widespread of real-time systems. In order to master the rising complexity in the timing behaviour of those systems, rightful attention has been given to the development of time-predictable computer architectures...

  8. Operative and Immediate Postoperative Differences Between Traditional Multiport and Reduced Port Laparoscopic Total Splenectomy in Pediatric Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seims, Aaron D; VanHouwelingen, Lisa; Mead, Jessica; Mao, Shenghua; Loh, Amos; Sandoval, John A; Davidoff, Andrew M; Wu, Jianrong; Wang, Winfred C; Fernandez-Pineda, Israel

    2017-02-01

    Laparoscopy offers many benefits to splenectomy, such as reduced incisional pain and shortened hospital duration. The purpose of this study is to evaluate procedural and outcome differences between multiport (MP) and reduced port (RP) splenectomy when utilized to treat children. An institutional review board approved retrospective analysis of all consecutive laparoscopic total splenectomies performed at a single institution between January 2010 and October 2015 was conducted. We evaluated demographics, surgical technique, instance of conversion, operative duration, estimated blood loss, need for intraoperative blood transfusion, postoperative length of stay, time to full feeds, complications, and follow-up duration. Over a 5-year period, 66 patients less than 20 years of age underwent laparoscopic total splenectomy. RP splenectomy was attempted in 14 patients. The remaining 52 were MP operations. Populations were comparable with regard to demographics. Preoperative splenic volumes (mL) were greater in the RP population (median [IQR]: 1377 [747-1508] versus 452 [242-710], P = .039). RP splenectomy demonstrated no difference compared to MP splenectomy in operative time (153 versus 138 minutes, P = .360), estimated blood loss (120 versus 154 mL, P = .634), or percent of cases requiring intraoperative blood transfusion (14 versus 23, P = .716). By the first postoperative day, 57% of RP and 17% of MP patients could be discharged (P = .005). Thirty-day readmission rates were similar, at 7% for RP and 8% for MP operations. Fever was the indication for all readmissions. Mean duration of follow-up is 28 months for MP and 13 months for RP cases. A reduced number of ports can be safely utilized for total splenectomy in pediatric patients without increasing procedural duration or need for intraoperative blood transfusion. In addition, rate of discharge on the first postoperative day was significantly higher in the RP splenectomy group.

  9. Adiabatic theorem for the time-dependent wave operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viennot, David; Jolicard, Georges; Killingbeck, John P.; Perrin, Marie-Yvonne

    2005-01-01

    The application of time-dependent wave operator theory to the development of a quantum adiabatic perturbation theory is treated both theoretically and numerically, with emphasis on the description of field-matter interactions which involve short laser pulses. It is first shown that the adiabatic limit of the time-dependent wave operator corresponds to a succession of instantaneous static Bloch wave operators. Wave operator theory is then shown to be compatible with the two-time Floquet theory of light-matter interaction, thus allowing the application of Floquet theory to cases which require the use of a degenerate active space. A numerical study of some problems shows that the perturbation strength associated with nonadiabatic processes can be reduced by using multidimensional active spaces and illustrates the capacity of the wave operator approach to produce a quasiadiabatic treatment of a nominally nonadiabatic Floquet dynamical system

  10. Wait time management strategies for total joint replacement surgery: sustainability and unintended consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomey, Marie-Pascale; Clavel, Nathalie; Amar, Claudia; Sabogale-Olarte, Juan Carlos; Sanmartin, Claudia; De Coster, Carolyn; Noseworthy, Tom

    2017-09-07

    In Canada, long waiting times for core specialized services have consistently been identified as a key barrier to access. Governments and organizations have responded with strategies for better access management, notably for total joint replacement (TJR) of the hip and knee. While wait time management strategies (WTMS) are promising, the factors which influence their sustainable implementation at the organizational level are understudied. Consequently, this study examined organizational and systemic factors that made it possible to sustain waiting times for TJR within federally established limits and for at least 18 months or more. The research design is a multiple case study of WTMS implementation. Five cases were selected across five Canadian provinces. Three success levels were pre-defined: 1) the WTMS maintained compliance with requirements for more than 18 months; 2) the WTMS met requirements for 18 months but could not sustain the level thereafter; 3) the WTMS never met requirements. For each case, we collected documents and interviewed key informants. We analyzed systemic and organizational factors, with particular attention to governance and leadership, culture, resources, methods, and tools. We found that successful organizations had specific characteristics: 1) management of the whole care continuum, 2) strong clinical leadership; 3) dedicated committees to coordinate and sustain strategy; 4) a culture based on trust and innovation. All strategies led to relatively similar unintended consequences. The main negative consequence was an initial increase in waiting times for TJR and the main positive consequence was operational enhancement of other areas of specialization based on the TJR model. This study highlights important differences in factors which help to achieve and sustain waiting times. To be sustainable, a WTMS needs to generate greater synergies between contextual-level strategy (provincial or regional) and organizational objectives and

  11. On the time evolution operator for time-dependent quadratic Hamiltonians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, F.M.

    1989-01-01

    The Schroedinger equation with a time-dependent quadratic Hamiltonian is investigated. The time-evolution operator is written as a product of exponential operators determined by the Heisenberg equations of motion. This product operator is shown to be global in the occupation number representation when the Hamiltonian is Hermitian. The success of some physical applications of the product-form representation is explained

  12. Feynman's operational calculus and beyond noncommutativity and time-ordering

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, George W; Nielsen, Lance

    2015-01-01

    This book is aimed at providing a coherent, essentially self-contained, rigorous and comprehensive abstract theory of Feynman's operational calculus for noncommuting operators. Although it is inspired by Feynman's original heuristic suggestions and time-ordering rules in his seminal 1951 paper An operator calculus having applications in quantum electrodynamics, as will be made abundantly clear in the introduction (Chapter 1) and elsewhere in the text, the theory developed in this book also goes well beyond them in a number of directions which were not anticipated in Feynman's work. Hence, the second part of the main title of this book. The basic properties of the operational calculus are developed and certain algebraic and analytic properties of the operational calculus are explored. Also, the operational calculus will be seen to possess some pleasant stability properties. Furthermore, an evolution equation and a generalized integral equation obeyed by the operational calculus are discussed and connections wi...

  13. Real-time multi-task operators support system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang He; Peng Minjun; Wang Hao; Cheng Shouyu

    2005-01-01

    The development in computer software and hardware technology and information processing as well as the accumulation in the design and feedback from Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) operation created a good opportunity to develop an integrated Operator Support System. The Real-time Multi-task Operator Support System (RMOSS) has been built to support the operator's decision making process during normal and abnormal operations. RMOSS consists of five system subtasks such as Data Collection and Validation Task (DCVT), Operation Monitoring Task (OMT), Fault Diagnostic Task (FDT), Operation Guideline Task (OGT) and Human Machine Interface Task (HMIT). RMOSS uses rule-based expert system and Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The rule-based expert system is used to identify the predefined events in static conditions and track the operation guideline through data processing. In dynamic status, Back-Propagation Neural Network is adopted for fault diagnosis, which is trained with the Genetic Algorithm. Embedded real-time operation system VxWorks and its integrated environment Tornado II are used as the RMOSS software cross-development. VxGUI is used to design HMI. All of the task programs are designed in C language. The task tests and function evaluation of RMOSS have been done in one real-time full scope simulator. Evaluation results show that each task of RMOSS is capable of accomplishing its functions. (authors)

  14. Real time operating system for a nuclear power plant computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alger, L.S.; Lala, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    A quadruply redundant synchronous fault tolerant processor (FTP) is now under fabrication at the C.S. Draper Laboratory to be used initially as a trip monitor for the Experimental Breeder Reactor EBR-II operated by the Argonne National Laboratory in Idaho Falls, Idaho. The real time operating system for this processor is described

  15. Identification of human operator performance models utilizing time series analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, F. M.; Shinners, S. M.

    1973-01-01

    The results of an effort performed by Sperry Systems Management Division for AMRL in applying time series analysis as a tool for modeling the human operator are presented. This technique is utilized for determining the variation of the human transfer function under various levels of stress. The human operator's model is determined based on actual input and output data from a tracking experiment.

  16. Time-critical multirate scheduling using contemporary real-time operating system services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhardt, D. E., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Although real-time operating systems provide many of the task control services necessary to process time-critical applications (i.e., applications with fixed, invariant deadlines), it may still be necessary to provide a scheduling algorithm at a level above the operating system in order to coordinate a set of synchronized, time-critical tasks executing at different cyclic rates. The scheduling requirements for such applications and develops scheduling algorithms using services provided by contemporary real-time operating systems.

  17. Guidance concepts for time-based flight operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicroy, Dan D.

    1990-01-01

    Airport congestion and the associated delays are severe in today's airspace system and are expected to increase. NASA and the FAA is investigating various methods of alleviating this problem through new technology and operational procedures. One concept for improving airspace productivity is time-based control of aircraft. Research to date has focused primarily on the development of time-based flight management systems and Air Traffic Control operational procedures. Flight operations may, however, require special onboard guidance in order to satisfy the Air Traffic Control imposed time constraints. The results are presented of a simulation study aimed at evaluating several time-based guidance concepts in terms of tracking performance, pilot workload, and subjective preference. The guidance concepts tested varied in complexity from simple digital time-error feedback to an advanced time-referenced-energy guidance scheme.

  18. Army Secure Operating System: Information Security for Real Time Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anderson, Eric

    1984-01-01

    The Army Secure Operating System (ASOS) project, under the management of the U.S. Army CECOM organization, will provide real time systems software necessary for fielding modern Battlefield Automation Systems...

  19. A battery-operated pilot balloon time-signal generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph H. Moltzau

    1966-01-01

    Describes the design and construction of a 1-pound, battery-operated, time-signal transmitter, which is usable with portable radio or field telephone circuits for synchronizing multi-theodolite observation of pilot balloons.

  20. Brake response time before and after total knee arthroplasty: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niederseer David

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the numbers of total knee arthroplasty (TKA are increasing, there is only a small number of studies investigating driving safety after TKA. The parameter 'Brake Response Time (BRT' is one of the most important criteria for driving safety and was therefore chosen for investigation. The present study was conducted to test the hypotheses that patients with right- or left-sided TKA show a significant increase in BRT from pre-operative (pre-op, 1 day before surgery to post-operative (post-op, 2 weeks post surgery, and a significant decrease in BRT from post-op to the follow-up investigation (FU, 8 weeks post surgery. Additionally, it was hypothesized that the BRT of patients after TKA is significantly higher than that of healthy controls. Methods 31 of 70 consecutive patients (mean age 65.7 +/- 10.2 years receiving TKA were tested for their BRT pre-op, post-op and at FU. BRT was assessed using a custom-made driving simulator. We used normative BRT data from 31 healthy controls for comparison. Results There were no significant increases between pre-op and post-op BRT values for patients who had undergone left- or right-sided TKA. Even the proportion of patients above a BRT threshold of 700 ms was not significantly increased postop. Controls had a BRT which was significantly better than the BRT of patients with right- or left-sided TKA at all three time points. Conclusion The present study showed a small and insignificant postoperative increase in the BRT of patients who had undergone right- or left-sided TKA. Therefore, we believe it is not justified to impair the patient's quality of social and occupational life post-surgery by imposing restrictions on driving motor vehicles beyond an interval of two weeks after surgery.

  1. Operative Start Time Does Not Affect Post-Operative Infection Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidry, Christopher A; Davies, Stephen W; Willis, Rhett N; Dietch, Zachary C; Shah, Puja M; Sawyer, Robert G

    2016-10-01

    Surgical care is delivered 24 h a day at most institutions. Alarmingly, some authors have found that certain operative start times are associated with greater morbidity and mortality rates. This effect has been noted in both the public and private sector. Although some of these differences may be related to process, they may also be caused by the human circadian rhythm and corresponding changes in host defenses. We hypothesized that the time of day of an operation would impact the frequency of certain post-operative outcomes significantly. Cases at a single tertiary-care center reported to the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program over a 10-year period were identified. Operative start times were divided into six-hour blocks, with 6 am to noon serving as the reference. Standard univariable techniques were applied. Multivariable logistic regression with mixed effects modeling then was used to determine the relation between operative start times and infectious outcomes, controlling for surgeon clustering. Statistical significance was set at p operative infectious complication. Seventy percent of these infections (n = 1,506) were surgical site infections. On univariable analysis considering all cases, nighttime and evening operations had higher rates of post-operative infections than those in performed during the day (9.1% from 6 am to noon; 9.7% from noon to 6 pm; 14.8% from 6 pm to midnight; and 14.4% from midnight to 6 am; p operative start time was not associated with the risk of post-operative infection, even when emergency cases were considered independently. Our data suggest that operative start times have no correlation with post-operative infectious complications. Further work is required to identify the source of the time-dependent outcome variability observed in previous studies.

  2. Relationship between laparoscopic cholecystectomy operative time and carbonyl hemoglobin content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Qi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate whether operative time of laparoscopic cholecystectomy impacts the carbonyl hemoglobin (COHb concentration in peripheral blood. MethodsForty patients with gallstones and indications for laparoscopic cholecystectomy were enrolled in the study. Peripheral venous blood samples were collected at the beginning and end of the operative procedure. COHb concentration was measured by UV spectroscopy. The significance of changes in COHb concentration in relation to time of the operative procedure (rounded to the nearest minute was assessed by statistical correlation coefficient test. ResultsThe laparoscopic procedure was completed in 38 cases, and two patients required conversion to laparotomy. The content of COHb in peripheral venous blood had significantly increased during the laparoscopic operation (operation beginning: 11.07%±1.18% vs. operation end: 1.44%±0.26%, P<0.05. The change was positively correlated with operation time (r=0.85. ConclusionCarbon monoxide produced during the laparoscopic cholecystectomy procedure can lead to an increase in peripheral venous blood COHb. The longer the operation lasts, the greater the increase in COHb.

  3. Prolonged operative time increases infection rate in tibial plateau fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, Matthew; Wright, Adam; Gruen, Gary; Siska, Peter; Pape, Hans-Christoph; Tarkin, Ivan

    2013-02-01

    Fractures of the tibial plateau present a treatment challenge and are susceptible to both prolonged operative times and high postoperative infection rates. For those fractures treated with open plating, we sought to identify the relationship between surgical site infection and prolonged operative time as well as to identify other surgical risk factors. We performed a retrospective controlled analysis of 309 consecutive unicondylar and bicondylar tibial plateau fractures treated with open plate osteosynthesis at our institution's level I trauma centre during a recent 5-year period. We recorded operative times, injury characteristics, surgical treatment, and need for operative debridement due to infection. Operative times of infected cases were compared to uncomplicated surgical cases. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to identify independent risk factors for postoperative infection. Mean operative time in the infection group was 2.8h vs. 2.2h in the non-infected group (p=0.005). 15 fractures (4.9%) underwent four compartment fasciotomies as part of their treatment, with a significantly higher infection rate than those not undergoing fasciotomy (26.7% vs. 6.8%, p=0.01). Open fracture grade was also significantly related to infection rate (closed fractures: 5.3%, grade 1: 14.3%, grade 2: 40%, grade 3: 50%, pinfection rates (13.9% vs. 8.7%, p=0.36). Multivariable logistic regression analysis of the entire study group identified longer operative times (OR 1.78, p=0.013) and open fractures (OR 7.02, psite infection. Operative times approaching 3h and open fractures are related to an increased overall risk for surgical site infection after open plating of the tibial plateau. Dual incision approaches with bicolumnar plating do not appear to expose the patient to increased risk compared to single incision approaches. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Effect of Patient-Specific Instrumentation Incorporating an Extramedullary Tibial Guide on Operative Efficiency for Total Knee Arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh-Ryong Kwon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This retrospective study was to determine if patient-specific instrumentation (PSI for total knee arthroplasty (TKA leads to shortened surgical time through increased operating room efficiency according to different tibial PSI designs. 166 patients underwent primary TKA and were categorized into three groups as follows: PSI without extramedullary (EM tibial guide (group 1, n=48, PSI with EM tibial guide (group 2, n=68, and conventional instrumentation (CI group (group 3, n=50. Four factors were compared between groups, namely, operative room time, thickness of bone resection, tibial slope, and rotation of the component. The mean surgical time was significantly shorter in the PSI with EM tibial guide group (group 2, 63.9±13.6 min compared to the CI group (group 3, 82.8±24.9 min (P<0.001. However, there was no significant difference in the PSI without EM tibial guide group (group 1, 75.3±18.8 min. This study suggests that PSI incorporating an EM tibial guide may lead to high operative efficiency in TKA compared to CI. This trial is registered with KCT0002384.

  5. Real-Time Plasma Control Tools for Advanced Tokamak Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varandas, C. A. F.; Sousa, J.; Rodrigues, A. P.; Carvalho, B. B.; Fernandes, H.; Batista, A. J.; Cruz, N.; Combo, A.; Pereira, R. C.

    2006-01-01

    Real-time control will play an important role in the operation and scientific exploitation of the new generation fusion devices. This paper summarizes the real-time systems and diagnostics developed by the Portuguese Fusion Euratom Association based on digital signal processors and field programmable gate arrays

  6. Effect of Individual Surgeons and Anesthesiologists on Operating Room Time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, Ruben P A; van Veen-Berkx, Elizabeth; Kazemier, Geert; Eijkemans, Marinus J C

    BACKGROUND:: Variability in operating room (OR) time causes overutilization and underutilization of the available ORs. There is evidence that for a given type of procedure, the surgeon is the major source of variability in OR time. The primary aim was to quantify the variability between surgeons and

  7. [Recostruction of Extensive Acetabular Defects by Bioactive Glass Ceramics in Re-operations of Total Endoprostheses.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, K; Sponer, P

    1998-01-01

    The authors made 37 revisions on account of aseptic loosening of total endoprostheses of the hip joint using bioactive glass ceramics BAS-0 of Lasak Co. Prague. For reconstruction of large defects of the acetabulum they used a combination of different types of anti-protrusion metal baskets and granules from this material. In some instances the glass ceramic material was combined with autologous spongiosa. The longest follow-up period is over 4 years. In no instance loosening of the glass ceramic material occurred or its expulsion. All reconstructed sockets of hip joints were burdened by the patients from the third month after surgery. Harris Hip Score before operation was on average 52. During the last checkups of the patients it reached the level of 86. The authors mention complications associated with the procedure. The advantages and disadvantages of the procedure are discussed. Key words: bioactive glass ceramics, reconstruction of acetabular defect, aseptic loosening of endoprosthesis.

  8. Natural gas domestic market development for total elimination of routine flares in Nigeria's upstream petroleum operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonibare, J.A.; Akeredolu, F.A.

    2006-01-01

    Several research findings confirmed that gaseous emissions and thermal radiation emanate from flaring activities during separation of oil from gas in the petroleum upstream operations. This, coupled with identified degradation potential of flares, makes flaring of about 71 million m 3 /day of associated gas a great concern. In this paper, several efforts hitherto made by government and organized private sectors at monetizing associated natural gas being flared on daily basis in Nigeria were reviewed. Domestic market development, if adopted, could eliminate routine gas flaring by 2008, meeting a goal set by Nigerian Government. Various scenarios considered showed that relatively minor amounts of natural gas could be consumed domestically for cooking; the balance would be absorbed by thermal electricity generation. It could lead to total consumption of between 92 and 140 million m 3 /day of natural gas in the country, representing a fraction of the domestic energy market

  9. Single machine total completion time minimization scheduling with a time-dependent learning effect and deteriorating jobs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji-Bo; Wang, Ming-Zheng; Ji, Ping

    2012-05-01

    In this article, we consider a single machine scheduling problem with a time-dependent learning effect and deteriorating jobs. By the effects of time-dependent learning and deterioration, we mean that the job processing time is defined by a function of its starting time and total normal processing time of jobs in front of it in the sequence. The objective is to determine an optimal schedule so as to minimize the total completion time. This problem remains open for the case of -1 < a < 0, where a denotes the learning index; we show that an optimal schedule of the problem is V-shaped with respect to job normal processing times. Three heuristic algorithms utilising the V-shaped property are proposed, and computational experiments show that the last heuristic algorithm performs effectively and efficiently in obtaining near-optimal solutions.

  10. Tunneling time through a barrier using the tempus operator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobe, Donald H.; Aguilera-Navarro, Valdir C. [North Texas Univ., Denton, TX (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1996-11-01

    The time a particle spends in a classically forbidden region of a potential barrier is expressed as an expectation value of the time operator in that region. Classically, time is canonically conjugate to the energy and is equal to the time a conservative system. The tunneling time is calculated by this approach for a rectangular barrier, which gives a complex time. The imaginary part of the time is non negative, so it is interpreted as a tunneling time. The real part gives a negative value for some values of the parameters, and is therefore rejected because it violates causality. This tunneling time is compared with other tunneling times that have been suggested by also calculating them for the rectangular barrier. 58 refs., 7 figs.

  11. Tunneling time through a barrier using the tempus operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobe, Donald H.; Aguilera-Navarro, Valdir C.

    1996-11-01

    The time a particle spends in a classically forbidden region of a potential barrier is expressed as an expectation value of the time operator in that region. Classically, time is canonically conjugate to the energy and is equal to the time a conservative system. The tunneling time is calculated by this approach for a rectangular barrier, which gives a complex time. The imaginary part of the time is non negative, so it is interpreted as a tunneling time. The real part gives a negative value for some values of the parameters, and is therefore rejected because it violates causality. This tunneling time is compared with other tunneling times that have been suggested by also calculating them for the rectangular barrier. 58 refs., 7 figs

  12. Total-variation based velocity inversion with Bregmanized operator splitting algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zand, Toktam; Gholami, Ali

    2018-04-01

    Many problems in applied geophysics can be formulated as a linear inverse problem. The associated problems, however, are large-scale and ill-conditioned. Therefore, regularization techniques are needed to be employed for solving them and generating a stable and acceptable solution. We consider numerical methods for solving such problems in this paper. In order to tackle the ill-conditioning of the problem we use blockiness as a prior information of the subsurface parameters and formulate the problem as a constrained total variation (TV) regularization. The Bregmanized operator splitting (BOS) algorithm as a combination of the Bregman iteration and the proximal forward backward operator splitting method is developed to solve the arranged problem. Two main advantages of this new algorithm are that no matrix inversion is required and that a discrepancy stopping criterion is used to stop the iterations, which allow efficient solution of large-scale problems. The high performance of the proposed TV regularization method is demonstrated using two different experiments: 1) velocity inversion from (synthetic) seismic data which is based on Born approximation, 2) computing interval velocities from RMS velocities via Dix formula. Numerical examples are presented to verify the feasibility of the proposed method for high-resolution velocity inversion.

  13. Asymptotic behavior of total times For jobs that must start over if a failure occurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, Søren; Fiorini, Pierre; Lipsky, Lester

    the ready queue, or it may restart the task. The behavior of systems under the first two scenarios is well documented, but the third (RESTART) has resisted detailed analysis. In this paper we derive tight asymptotic relations between the distribution of task times without failures to the total time when...... including failures, for any failure distribution. In particular, we show that if the task time distribution has an unbounded support then the total time distribution H is always heavy-tailed. Asymptotic expressions are given for the tail of H in various scenarios. The key ingredients of the analysis...

  14. Asymptotic behaviour of total times for jobs that must start over if a failure occurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, Søren; Fiorini, Pierre; Lipsky, Lester

    2008-01-01

    the ready queue, or it may restart the task. The behavior of systems under the first two scenarios is well documented, but the third (RESTART) has resisted detailed analysis. In this paper we derive tight asymptotic relations between the distribution of task times without failures and the total time when...... including failures, for any failure distribution. In particular, we show that if the task-time distribution has an unbounded support, then the total-time distribution H is always heavy tailed. Asymptotic expressions are given for the tail of H in various scenarios. The key ingredients of the analysis...

  15. Response times of operators in a control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platz, O.; Rasmussen, J.; Skanborg, P.Z.

    1982-12-01

    A statistical analysis was made of operator response times recorded in the control room of a research reactor during the years 1972-1974. A homogeneity test revealed that the data consist of a mixture of populations. A small but statistically significant difference is found between day and night response times. Lognormal distributions are found to provide the best fit of the day and the night response times. (author)

  16. Start time delays in operating room: Different perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babita Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Healthcare expenditure is a serious concern, with escalating costs failing to meet the expectations of quality care. The treatment capacities are limited in a hospital setting and the operating rooms (ORs. Their optimal utilization is vital in efficient hospital management. Starting late means considerable wait time for staff, patients and waste of resources. We planned an audit to assess different perspectives of the residents in surgical specialities and anesthesia and OR staff nurses so as to know the causative factors of operative delay. This can help develop a practical model to decrease start time delays in operating room (ORs. Aims: An audit to assess different perspectives of the Operating room (OR staff with respect to the varied causative factors of operative delay in the OR. To aid in the development of a practical model to decrease start time delays in ORs and facilitate on-time starts at Jai Prakash Narayan Apex Trauma centre (JPNATC, All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS, New Delhi. Methods: We prepared a questionnaire seeking the five main reasons of delay as per their perspective. Results: The available data was analysed. Analysis of the data demonstrated the common causative factors in start time operative delays as: a lack of proper planning, deficiencies in team work, communication gap and limited availability of trained supporting staff. Conclusions: The preparation of the equipment and required material for the OR cases must be done well in advance. Utilization of newer technology enables timely booking and scheduling of cases. Improved inter-departmental coordination and compliance with preanesthetic instructions needs to be ensured. It is essential that the anesthesiologists perform their work promptly, well in time . and supervise the proceedings as the OR manager. This audit is a step forward in defining the need of effective OR planning for continuous quality improvement.

  17. Total Work, Gender and Social Norms in EU and US Time Use

    OpenAIRE

    Burda , Michael C; Hamermesh , Daniel S; Weil , Philippe

    2008-01-01

    Using time-diary data from 27 countries, we demonstrate a negative relationship between real GDP per capita and the female-male difference in total work time--the sum of work for pay and work at home. We also show that in rich non-Catholic countries on four continents men and women do the same amount of total work on average. Our survey results demonstrate that labor economists, macroeconomists, sociologists and the general public consistently believe that women perform more total work. The f...

  18. Schroedinger operators - geometric estimates in terms of the occupation time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demuth, M.; Kirsch, W.; McGillivray, I.

    1995-01-01

    The difference of Schroedinger and Dirichlet semigroups is expressed in terms of the Laplace transform of the Brownian motion occupation time. This implies quantitative upper and lower bounds for the operator norms of the corresponding resolvent differences. One spectral theoretical consequence is an estimate for the eigenfunction for a Schroedinger operator in a ball where the potential is given as a cone indicator function. 12 refs

  19. The energy-momentum operator in curved space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M.R.; Ottewill, A.C.

    1983-01-01

    It is argued that the only meaningful geometrical measure of the energy-momentum of states of matter described by a free quantum field theory in a general curved space-time is that provided by a normal ordered energy-momentum operator. The finite expectation values of this operator are contrasted with the conventional renormalized expectation values and it is further argued that the use of renormalization theory is inappropriate in this context. (author)

  20. Fuzzy operation and real time surveillance of a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Si-Fodil, M.; Guely, F.; Siarry, P.; Tyran, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    The operating power of nuclear power plants needs to be modulated according to the thin evolutions of electric power demand. Two parameters are concerned by load following operations: the power axial disequilibrium and the position of control rods. This paper deals with the automation of the control of power axial disequilibrium using boration-dilution. An automatic system based on fuzzy logic is proposed which can be substituted to the expert operator who is in charge of this fastidious manual task. The management of water and boron flow rates are studied in details. A Graphic interface was designed for the real-time surveillance of the reactor. (J.S.)

  1. Time Management in the Operating Room: An Analysis of the Dedicated Minimally Invasive Surgery Suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Kenneth C.; Machaidze, Zurab

    2004-01-01

    Background: Dedicated minimally invasive surgery suites are available that contain specialized equipment to facilitate endoscopic surgery. Laparoscopy performed in a general operating room is hampered by the multitude of additional equipment that must be transported into the room. The objective of this study was to compare the preparation times between procedures performed in traditional operating rooms versus dedicated minimally invasive surgery suites to see whether operating room efficiency is improved in the specialized room. Methods: The records of 50 patients who underwent laparoscopic procedures between September 2000 and April 2002 were retrospectively reviewed. Twenty-three patients underwent surgery in a general operating room and 18 patients in an minimally invasive surgery suite. Nine patients were excluded because of cystoscopic procedures undergone prior to laparoscopy. Various time points were recorded from which various time intervals were derived, such as preanesthesia time, anesthesia induction time, and total preparation time. A 2-tailed, unpaired Student t test was used for statistical analysis. Results: The mean preanesthesia time was significantly faster in the minimally invasive surgery suite (12.2 minutes) compared with that in the traditional operating room (17.8 minutes) (P=0.013). Mean anesthesia induction time in the minimally invasive surgery suite (47.5 minutes) was similar to time in the traditional operating room (45.7 minutes) (P=0.734). The average total preparation time for the minimally invasive surgery suite (59.6 minutes) was not significantly faster than that in the general operating room (63.5 minutes) (P=0.481). Conclusion: The amount of time that elapses between the patient entering the room and anesthesia induction is statically shorter in a dedicated minimally invasive surgery suite. Laparoscopic surgery is performed more efficiently in a dedicated minimally invasive surgery suite versus a traditional operating room. PMID

  2. A Real-Time Simulation Platform for Power System Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cha, Seung-Tae; Østergaard, Jacob; Wu, Qiuwei

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the real-time digital simulation platform that can be used for power system operation, analysis, and power system modeling. This particular platform gives grid operators, planners and researchers the opportunity to observe how a power system behaves and can be used...... in real time. Various phenomena commonly encountered when dealing with the two-area system is studied. Despite its small size, it mimics very closely the behavior of typical systems in actual operation. The electromagnetic transient type of simulation made in RSCAD enables the study of fast and detailed...... phenomena like single-phase faults in the two-area network and to observe their effects on a larger time scale. Also, the case study of 11 bus system with 5 generators has been also used and the results are presented....

  3. Time parallelization of advanced operation scenario simulations of ITER plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samaddar, D; Casper, T A; Kim, S H; Houlberg, W A; Berry, L A; Elwasif, W R; Batchelor, D

    2013-01-01

    This work demonstrates that simulations of advanced burning plasma operation scenarios can be successfully parallelized in time using the parareal algorithm. CORSICA -an advanced operation scenario code for tokamak plasmas is used as a test case. This is a unique application since the parareal algorithm has so far been applied to relatively much simpler systems except for the case of turbulence. In the present application, a computational gain of an order of magnitude has been achieved which is extremely promising. A successful implementation of the Parareal algorithm to codes like CORSICA ushers in the possibility of time efficient simulations of ITER plasmas.

  4. Embedded real-time operating system micro kernel design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiao-hui; Li, Ming-qiang; Wang, Xin-zheng

    2005-12-01

    Embedded systems usually require a real-time character. Base on an 8051 microcontroller, an embedded real-time operating system micro kernel is proposed consisting of six parts, including a critical section process, task scheduling, interruption handle, semaphore and message mailbox communication, clock managent and memory managent. Distributed CPU and other resources are among tasks rationally according to the importance and urgency. The design proposed here provides the position, definition, function and principle of micro kernel. The kernel runs on the platform of an ATMEL AT89C51 microcontroller. Simulation results prove that the designed micro kernel is stable and reliable and has quick response while operating in an application system.

  5. Total sleep time, alcohol consumption, and the duration and severity of alcohol hangover

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schrojenstein Lantman, Marith; Mackus, Marlou; Roth, Thomas; Verster, Joris C|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/241442702

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: An evening of alcohol consumption often occurs at the expense of sleep time. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between total sleep time and the duration and severity of the alcohol hangover. METHODS: A survey was conducted among Dutch University students to

  6. Assessment and validation of CT scanogram to compare per-operative and post-operative mechanical axis after navigated total knee replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Sunil

    2008-01-01

    Our objective was to assess and validate low-dose computed tomography (CT) scanogram as a post-operative imaging modality to measure the mechanical axis after navigated total knee replacement. A prospective study was performed to compare intra-operative and post-operative mechanical axis after navigated total knee replacements. All consecutive patients who underwent navigated total knee replacement between May and December 2006 were included. The intra-operative final axis was recorded, and post-operatively a CT scanogram of lower limbs was performed. The mechanical axis was measured and compared against the intra-operative measurement. There were 15 patients ranging in age from 57 to 80 (average 70) years. The average final intra-operative axis was 0.56° varus (4° varus to 1.5° valgus) and post-operative CT scanogram axis was 0.52° varus (3.1° varus to 1.8° valgus). The average deviation from final axes to CT scanogram axes was 0.12° valgus with a correlation coefficient of 0.9. Our study suggests that CT scanogram is an imaging modality with reasonable accuracy for measuring mechanical axis despite significantly low radiation. It also confirms a high level of correlation between intra-operative and post-operative mechanical axis after navigated total knee replacement. PMID:18696064

  7. Applicable value of real time interventional ultrasound guidance in family planning reproduction operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Guoping; Zou Dongfang; Sun Jian; Dong Weihua

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine the clinical value of real time interventional ultrasound guidance in family planning reproduction operation. Methods: Under the guidance of ultrasound monitoring, 522 cases with high risk and difficult uterine operation were undertaken in our department. Results: The abdominal endoscopic contraceptive uterine operation under real time ultrasound monitoring was carried out for 522 cases in 4 years, with successful rates for high risk pregnancy as 287/289 cases, high risk troublesome withdrawal of contraceptive ring as 129/130 cases and puzzling uterine operation as 103/103 cases. The total successful rate reached 99.42%, without uterine rupture and other complications. Conclusion: The former complex, blind and difficult uterine operations turn to be simple, safe and reliable under the guidance of real time ultrasound. (authors)

  8. Mixed-mode Operating System for Real-time Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Hasan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the mixed-mode system research is to handle devices with the accuracy of real-time systems and at the same time, having all the benefits and facilities of a matured Graphic User Interface (GUI operating system which is typically nonreal-time. This mixed-mode operating system comprising of a real-time portion and a non-real-time portion was studied and implemented to identify the feasibilities and performances in practical applications (in the context of scheduled the real-time events. In this research an i8751 microcontroller-based hardware was used to measure the performance of the system in real-time-only as well as non-real-time-only configurations. The real-time portion is an 486DX-40 IBM PC system running under DOS-based realtime kernel and the non-real-time portion is a Pentium III based system running under Windows NT. It was found that mixed-mode systems performed as good as a typical realtime system and in fact, gave many additional benefits such as simplified/modular programming and load tolerance.

  9. Smooth time-dependent receiver operating characteristic curve estimators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Camblor, Pablo; Pardo-Fernández, Juan Carlos

    2018-03-01

    The receiver operating characteristic curve is a popular graphical method often used to study the diagnostic capacity of continuous (bio)markers. When the considered outcome is a time-dependent variable, two main extensions have been proposed: the cumulative/dynamic receiver operating characteristic curve and the incident/dynamic receiver operating characteristic curve. In both cases, the main problem for developing appropriate estimators is the estimation of the joint distribution of the variables time-to-event and marker. As usual, different approximations lead to different estimators. In this article, the authors explore the use of a bivariate kernel density estimator which accounts for censored observations in the sample and produces smooth estimators of the time-dependent receiver operating characteristic curves. The performance of the resulting cumulative/dynamic and incident/dynamic receiver operating characteristic curves is studied by means of Monte Carlo simulations. Additionally, the influence of the choice of the required smoothing parameters is explored. Finally, two real-applications are considered. An R package is also provided as a complement to this article.

  10. Response Times of Operators in a Control Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Platz, O.; Rasmussen, Jens; Skanborg, Preben Zacho

    A statistical analysis was made of operator response times recorded in the control room of a research reactor during the years 1972-1974. A homogeneity test revealed that the data consist of a mixture of populations. A small but statistically significant difference is found between day and night...

  11. Real-Time Integrated Re-scheduling for Tramway Operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheung, Kam-Fung; Kuo, Yong-Hong; Lai, S.W.; Leung, Janny M.Y.

    2018-01-01

    Our work aims to develop practical solution approaches for real-time dispatch of crews and vehicles for disruption management. The practical motivation for our research arose from the operations of a public tramway system in Hong Kong. The tram system shares the road with other vehicular traffic in

  12. Anticipation of lead time performance in supply chain operations planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, M.M.; Kok, de A.G.; Fransoo, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    Whilst being predominantly used in practice, linear and mixed integer programming models for Supply Chain Operations Planning (SCOP) are not well suited for modeling the relationship between the release of work to a production unit and its output over time. In this paper we propose an approach where

  13. Optimum pressure for total-reflux operated thermal diffusion column for isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Ichiro; Makino, Hitoshi; Kanagawa, Akira

    1990-01-01

    A formula for prediction of the optimum operating pressure P opt of the thermal diffusion columns at total reflux is derived based on the approximate formulae for the column constants which can be evaluated analytically. The formula is expressed explicitly in terms of (1) physical properties of gases to be separated, (2) ratio of radii between hot wire and cold wall of the column, and (3) the ratio of the temperature difference to the cold wall temperature. The result is compared with experimental data; (1) binary monatomic gas systems, (2) multicomponent monatomic gas systems, (3) isotopically substituted polyatomic systems, (4) systems of low atomic or molecular weight, and (5) mixtures of unlike gases; mainly obtained by Rutherford and coworkers. Although the formula is based on the rather rough approximation for the column constants, the optimum pressures predicted by the present formula are in successfully good agreement with the experimental data even for the systems of low atomic or molecular weight and that of mixtures of unlike gases. (author)

  14. Prediction equation for estimating total daily energy requirements of special operations personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barringer, N D; Pasiakos, S M; McClung, H L; Crombie, A P; Margolis, L M

    2018-01-01

    Special Operations Forces (SOF) engage in a variety of military tasks with many producing high energy expenditures, leading to undesired energy deficits and loss of body mass. Therefore, the ability to accurately estimate daily energy requirements would be useful for accurate logistical planning. Generate a predictive equation estimating energy requirements of SOF. Retrospective analysis of data collected from SOF personnel engaged in 12 different SOF training scenarios. Energy expenditure and total body water were determined using the doubly-labeled water technique. Physical activity level was determined as daily energy expenditure divided by resting metabolic rate. Physical activity level was broken into quartiles (0 = mission prep, 1 = common warrior tasks, 2 = battle drills, 3 = specialized intense activity) to generate a physical activity factor (PAF). Regression analysis was used to construct two predictive equations (Model A; body mass and PAF, Model B; fat-free mass and PAF) estimating daily energy expenditures. Average measured energy expenditure during SOF training was 4468 (range: 3700 to 6300) Kcal·d- 1 . Regression analysis revealed that physical activity level ( r  = 0.91; P  plan appropriate feeding regimens to meet SOF nutritional requirements across their mission profile.

  15. An Estimation of Operator's Diagnostic Time for Feed-And-Bleed Operation under Various Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bo Gyung; Kang, Hyun Gook [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Ho Joon [Khalifa University of Science, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2015-10-15

    In order to assess realistic safety of plant, effects of interactions between components, operator, and plant condition are needed to be considered in the PSA model. One of the important issues to estimate the CDF is the estimation of human error probability (HEP). When an accident occurs, operators follow the emergency operating procedure and check various alarm, parameters, and signals. In the conventional Korean PSA model, the Korean standard HRA (K-HRA) method is used. In this method, the HEP is the sum of diagnosis error probability and execution error probability. A diagnosis error probability is expressed by the available time for diagnosis and adjusting performance shaping factors, and an execution error probability is a function of task type and stress level. Available time for diagnosis is very important factor of HEP. If the available time for diagnosis is short, the HEP becomes high. In order to obtain the realistic risk assessment results, we first focus on the estimation of HEP considering the plant dynamics under various scenarios. Target operation and scenarios are feed-and bleed operation (F and B operation) and total loss of feedwater (TLOFW) accident with/without loss of coolant accident (LOCA). One of the highest HEP is HEP of FnB operation. In additional, Scenarios, which are related to combination secondary heat removal failure and primary heat removal failure, are most critical core damage scenario of the combined accident except scenarios related to station black out (SBO). In these scenarios, the FnB operation is last resort to prevent core damage. To estimate available operator diagnosis time, we identify the relationship between accidents, mitigation function, and plant condition. Distribution of available time of diagnosis was estimated using the MOSAIQUE. The variables are break size, break timing, trip timing of RCP, and availability of high pressure safety injection (HPSI) pump under the TLOFW accident with LOCA. For Type 1 accident

  16. Objectively Measured Total and Occupational Sedentary Time in Three Work Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dommelen, Paula; Coffeng, Jennifer K.; van der Ploeg, Hidde P.; van der Beek, Allard J.; Boot, Cécile R. L.; Hendriksen, Ingrid J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Sedentary behaviour increases the risk for morbidity. Our primary aim is to determine the proportion and factors associated with objectively measured total and occupational sedentary time in three work settings. Secondary aim is to study the proportion of physical activity and prolonged sedentary bouts. Methods Data were obtained using ActiGraph accelerometers from employees of: 1) a financial service provider (n = 49 men, 31 women), 2) two research institutes (n = 30 men, 57 women), and 3) a construction company (n = 38 men). Total (over the whole day) and occupational sedentary time, physical activity and prolonged sedentary bouts (lasting ≥30 minutes) were calculated by work setting. Linear regression analyses were performed to examine general, health and work-related factors associated with sedentary time. Results The employees of the financial service provider and the research institutes spent 76–80% of their occupational time in sedentary behaviour, 18–20% in light intensity physical activity and 3–5% in moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity. Occupational time in prolonged sedentary bouts was 27–30%. Total time was less sedentary (64–70%), and had more light intensity physical activity (26–33%). The employees of the construction company spent 44% of their occupational time in sedentary behaviour, 49% in light, and 7% in moderate intensity physical activity, and spent 7% in sedentary bouts. Total time spent in sedentary behavior was 56%, 40% in light, and 4% in moderate intensity physical behaviour, and 12% in sedentary bouts. For women, low to intermediate education was the only factor that was negatively associated with occupational sedentary time. Conclusions Sedentary behaviour is high among white-collar employees, especially in highly educated women. A relatively small proportion of sedentary time was accrued in sedentary bouts. It is recommended that worksite health promotion efforts should focus on reducing sedentary

  17. Time warp operating system version 2.7 internals manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The Time Warp Operating System (TWOS) is an implementation of the Time Warp synchronization method proposed by David Jefferson. In addition, it serves as an actual platform for running discrete event simulations. The code comprising TWOS can be divided into several different sections. TWOS typically relies on an existing operating system to furnish some very basic services. This existing operating system is referred to as the Base OS. The existing operating system varies depending on the hardware TWOS is running on. It is Unix on the Sun workstations, Chrysalis or Mach on the Butterfly, and Mercury on the Mark 3 Hypercube. The base OS could be an entirely new operating system, written to meet the special needs of TWOS, but, to this point, existing systems have been used instead. The base OS's used for TWOS on various platforms are not discussed in detail in this manual, as they are well covered in their own manuals. Appendix G discusses the interface between one such OS, Mach, and TWOS.

  18. Mixed - mode Operating System for Real - time Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan M. M.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the mixed-mode system research is to handle devices with the accuracy of real-time systems and at the same time, having all the benefits and facilities of a matured Graphic User Interface(GUIoperating system which is typicallynon-real-time. This mixed-mode operating system comprising of a real-time portion and a non-real-time portion was studied and implemented to identify the feasibilities and performances in practical applications (in the context of scheduled the real-time events. In this research an i8751 microcontroller-based hardware was used to measure the performance of the system in real-time-only as well as non-real-time-only configurations. The real-time portion is an 486DX-40 IBM PC system running under DOS-based real-time kernel and the non-real-time portion is a Pentium IIIbased system running under Windows NT. It was found that mixed-mode systems performed as good as a typical real-time system and in fact, gave many additional benefits such as simplified/modular programming and load tolerance.

  19. A Parallel Priority Queue with Constant Time Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Träff, Jesper Larsson; Zaroliagis, Christos D.

    1998-01-01

    We present a parallel priority queue that supports the following operations in constant time:parallel insertionof a sequence of elements ordered according to key,parallel decrease keyfor a sequence of elements ordered according to key,deletion of the minimum key element, anddeletion of an arbitrary...... application is a parallel implementation of Dijkstra's algorithm for the single-source shortest path problem, which runs inO(n) time andO(mlogn) work on a CREW PRAM on graphs withnvertices andmedges. This is a logarithmic factor improvement in the running time compared with previous approaches....

  20. Demonstration of AIRS Total Ozone Products to Operations to Enhance User Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Emily; Zavodsky, Bradley; Jedlovec, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Cyclogenesis is a key forecast challenge at operational forecasting centers such as WPC and OPC, so these centers have a particular interest in unique products that can identify key storm features. In some cases, explosively developing extratropical cyclones can produce hurricane force, non-convective winds along the East Coast and north Atlantic as well as the Pacific Ocean, with the potential to cause significant damage to life and property. Therefore, anticipating cyclogenesis for these types of storms is crucial for furthering the NOAA goal of a "Weather Ready Nation". Over the last few years, multispectral imagery (i.e. RGB) products have gained popularity among forecasters. The GOES-R satellite champion at WPC/OPC has regularly evaluated the Air Mass RGB products from GOES Sounder, MODIS, and SEVIRI to aid in forecasting cyclogenesis as part of ongoing collaborations with SPoRT within the framework of the GOES-R Proving Ground. WPC/OPC has used these products to identify regions of stratospheric air associated with tropopause folds that can lead to cyclogenesis and hurricane force winds. RGB products combine multiple channels or channel differences into multi-color imagery in which different colors represent a particular cloud or air mass type. Initial interaction and feedback from forecasters evaluating the legacy Air Mass RGBs revealed some uncertainty regarding what physical processes the qualitative RGB products represent and color interpretation. To enhance forecaster confidence and interpretation of the Air Mass RGB, NASA SPoRT has transitioned a total column ozone product from AIRS retrievals to the WPC/OPC. The use of legacy AIRS demonstrates future JPSS capabilities possible with CrIS or OMPS. Since stratospheric air can be identified by anomalous potential vorticity and warm, dry, ozone-rich air, hyperspectral infrared sounder ozone products can be used in conjunction with the Air Mass RGB for identifying the role of stratospheric air in explosive

  1. Real-Time Assessment and Diagnosis of Process Operating Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabnam Sedghi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Over time, the performance of processes may deviate from the initial design due to process variations and uncertainties, making it necessary to develop systematic methods for online optimality assessment based on routine operating process data. Some processes have multiple operating modes caused by the set point change of the critical process variables to achieve different product specifications. On the other hand, the operating region in each operating mode can alter, due to uncertainties. In this paper, we will establish an optimality assessment framework for processes that typically have multi-mode, multi-region operations, as well as transitions between different modes. The kernel density approach for mode detection is adopted and improved for operating mode detection. For online mode detection, the model-based clustering discriminant analysis (MclustDA approach is incorporated with some a priori knowledge of the system. In addition, multi-modal behavior of steady-state modes is tackled utilizing the mixture probabilistic principal component regression (MPPCR method, and dynamic principal component regression (DPCR is used to investigate transitions between different modes. Moreover, a probabilistic causality detection method based on the sequential forward floating search (SFFS method is introduced for diagnosing poor or non-optimum behavior. Finally, the proposed method is tested on the Tennessee Eastman (TE benchmark simulation process in order to evaluate its performance.

  2. Developing infrared array controller with software real time operating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sako, Shigeyuki; Miyata, Takashi; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Motohara, Kentaro; Uchimoto, Yuka Katsuno; Onaka, Takashi; Kataza, Hirokazu

    2008-07-01

    Real-time capabilities are required for a controller of a large format array to reduce a dead-time attributed by readout and data transfer. The real-time processing has been achieved by dedicated processors including DSP, CPLD, and FPGA devices. However, the dedicated processors have problems with memory resources, inflexibility, and high cost. Meanwhile, a recent PC has sufficient resources of CPUs and memories to control the infrared array and to process a large amount of frame data in real-time. In this study, we have developed an infrared array controller with a software real-time operating system (RTOS) instead of the dedicated processors. A Linux PC equipped with a RTAI extension and a dual-core CPU is used as a main computer, and one of the CPU cores is allocated to the real-time processing. A digital I/O board with DMA functions is used for an I/O interface. The signal-processing cores are integrated in the OS kernel as a real-time driver module, which is composed of two virtual devices of the clock processor and the frame processor tasks. The array controller with the RTOS realizes complicated operations easily, flexibly, and at a low cost.

  3. Reusable single-port access device shortens operative time and reduces operative costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shussman, Noam; Kedar, Asaf; Elazary, Ram; Abu Gazala, Mahmoud; Rivkind, Avraham I; Mintz, Yoav

    2014-06-01

    In recent years, single-port laparoscopy (SPL) has become an attractive approach for performing surgical procedures. The pitfalls of this approach are technical and financial. Financial concerns are due to the increased cost of dedicated devices and prolonged operating room time. Our aim was to calculate the cost of SPL using a reusable port and instruments in order to evaluate the cost difference between this approach to SPL using the available disposable ports and standard laparoscopy. We performed 22 laparoscopic procedures via the SPL approach using a reusable single-port access system and reusable laparoscopic instruments. These included 17 cholecystectomies and five other procedures. Operative time, postoperative length of stay (LOS) and complications were prospectively recorded and were compared with similar data from our SPL database. Student's t test was used for statistical analysis. SPL was successfully performed in all cases. Mean operative time for cholecystectomy was 72 min (range 40-116). Postoperative LOS was not changed from our standard protocols and was 1.1 days for cholecystectomy. The postoperative course was within normal limits for all patients and perioperative morbidity was recorded. Both operative time and length of hospital stay were shorter for the 17 patients who underwent cholecystectomy using a reusable port than for the matched previous 17 SPL cholecystectomies we performed (p cost difference. Operating with a reusable port ended up with an average cost savings of US$388 compared with using disposable ports, and US$240 compared with standard laparoscopy. Single-port laparoscopic surgery is a technically challenging and expensive surgical approach. Financial concerns among others have been advocated against this approach; however, we demonstrate herein that using a reusable port and instruments reduces operative time and overall operative costs, even beyond the cost of standard laparoscopy.

  4. Minimizing Total Completion Time For Preemptive Scheduling With Release Dates And Deadline Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Cheng

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available It is known that the single machine preemptive scheduling problem of minimizing total completion time with release date and deadline constraints is NP- hard. Du and Leung solved some special cases by the generalized Baker's algorithm and the generalized Smith's algorithm in O(n2 time. In this paper we give an O(n2 algorithm for the special case where the processing times and deadlines are agreeable. Moreover, for the case where the processing times and deadlines are disagreeable, we present two properties which could enable us to reduce the range of the enumeration algorithm

  5. Total Particle Number Emissions from Modern Diesel, Natural Gas, and Hybrid Heavy-Duty Vehicles During On-Road Operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianyang; Quiros, David C; Thiruvengadam, Arvind; Pradhan, Saroj; Hu, Shaohua; Huai, Tao; Lee, Eon S; Zhu, Yifang

    2017-06-20

    Particle emissions from heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) have significant environmental and public health impacts. This study measured total particle number emission factors (PNEFs) from six newly certified HDVs powered by diesel and compressed natural gas totaling over 6800 miles of on-road operation in California. Distance-, fuel- and work-based PNEFs were calculated for each vehicle. Distance-based PNEFs of vehicles equipped with original equipment manufacturer (OEM) diesel particulate filters (DPFs) in this study have decreased by 355-3200 times compared to a previous retrofit DPF dynamometer study. Fuel-based PNEFs were consistent with previous studies measuring plume exhaust in the ambient air. Meanwhile, on-road PNEF shows route and technology dependence. For vehicles with OEM DPFs and Selective Catalytic Reduction Systems, PNEFs under highway driving (i.e., 3.34 × 10 12 to 2.29 × 10 13 particles/mile) were larger than those measured on urban and drayage routes (i.e., 5.06 × 10 11 to 1.31 × 10 13 particles/mile). This is likely because a significant amount of nucleation mode volatile particles were formed when the DPF outlet temperature reached a critical value, usually over 310 °C, which was commonly achieved when vehicle speed sustained over 45 mph. A model year 2013 diesel HDV produced approximately 10 times higher PNEFs during DPF active regeneration events than nonactive regeneration.

  6. Koopman Operator Framework for Time Series Modeling and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surana, Amit

    2018-01-01

    We propose an interdisciplinary framework for time series classification, forecasting, and anomaly detection by combining concepts from Koopman operator theory, machine learning, and linear systems and control theory. At the core of this framework is nonlinear dynamic generative modeling of time series using the Koopman operator which is an infinite-dimensional but linear operator. Rather than working with the underlying nonlinear model, we propose two simpler linear representations or model forms based on Koopman spectral properties. We show that these model forms are invariants of the generative model and can be readily identified directly from data using techniques for computing Koopman spectral properties without requiring the explicit knowledge of the generative model. We also introduce different notions of distances on the space of such model forms which is essential for model comparison/clustering. We employ the space of Koopman model forms equipped with distance in conjunction with classical machine learning techniques to develop a framework for automatic feature generation for time series classification. The forecasting/anomaly detection framework is based on using Koopman model forms along with classical linear systems and control approaches. We demonstrate the proposed framework for human activity classification, and for time series forecasting/anomaly detection in power grid application.

  7. Overcoming misconceptions in quantum mechanics with the time evolution operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Quijas, P C; Arevalo Aguilar, L M

    2007-01-01

    Recently, there have been many efforts to use the research techniques developed in the field of physics education research to improve the teaching and learning of quantum mechanics. In particular, part of this research is focusing on misconceptions held by students. For instance, a set of misconceptions is associated with the concept of stationary states. In this paper, we argue that a possible way to remove these is to solve the Schroedinger equation using the evolution operator method (EOM), and stress the fact that to find stationary states is only the first step in solving that equation. The EOM consists in solving the Schroedinger equation by direct integration, i.e. Ψ(x, t) = U(t)Ψ(x, 0), where U(t)=e -itH-hat/h is the time evolution operator, and Ψ(x, 0) is the initial state. We apply the evolution operator method in the case of the harmonic oscillator

  8. Timing of Re-Transfusion Drain Removal Following Total Knee Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeman, MF; Costa, ML; Costello, E; Edwards, D

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The use of postoperative drains following total knee replacement (TKR) has recently been modified by the use of re-transfusion drains. The aim of our study was to investigate the optimal time for removal of re-transfusion drains following TKR. PATIENTS AND METHODS The medical records of 66 patients who had a TKR performed between October 2003 and October 2004 were reviewed; blood drained before 6 h and the total volume of blood drained was recorded. RESULTS A total of 56 patients had complete records of postoperative drainage. The mean volume of blood collected in the drain in the first 6 h was 442 ml. The mean total volume of blood in the drain was 595 ml. Therefore, of the blood drained, 78% was available for transfusion. CONCLUSION Re-transfusion drains should be removed after 6 h, when no further re-transfusion is permissible. PMID:16551400

  9. A polynomial time algorithm for checking regularity of totally normed process algebra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, F.; Huang, H.

    2015-01-01

    A polynomial algorithm for the regularity problem of weak and branching bisimilarity on totally normed process algebra (PA) processes is given. Its time complexity is O(n 3 +mn) O(n3+mn), where n is the number of transition rules and m is the maximal length of the rules. The algorithm works for

  10. Complexities of the storm-time characteristics of ionospheric total electron content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kane, R.P.

    1982-01-01

    The complexities of the storm-time variations of the ionospheric total electron content are briefly reviewed. It is suggested that large variations from storm to storm may be due to irregular flows from the auroral region towards equator. A proper study of such flows needs an elaborate network of TEC measuring instruments. The need of planning and organizing such a network is emphasized

  11. Objectively measured total and occupational sedentary time in three work settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dommelen, P. van; Coffeng, J. K.; Ploeg, H.P. van der; Beek, A.J. van der; Boot, C.R.; Hendriksen, I.J.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Sedentary behaviour increases the risk for morbidity. Our primary aim is to determine the proportion and factors associated with objectively measured total and occupational sedentary time in three work settings. Secondary aim is to study the proportion of physical activity and prolonged

  12. Can the pre-operative Western Ontario and McMaster score predict patient satisfaction following total hip arthroplasty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, B A; Alolabi, B; Carrothers, A D; Kreder, H J; Jenkinson, R J

    2015-02-01

    In this study we evaluated whether pre-operative Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) osteoarthritis scores can predict satisfaction following total hip arthroplasty (THA). Prospective data for a cohort of patients undergoing THA from two large academic centres were collected, and pre-operative and one-year post-operative WOMAC scores and a 25-point satisfaction questionnaire were obtained for 446 patients. Satisfaction scores were dichotomised into either improvement or deterioration. Scatter plots and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient were used to describe the association between pre-operative WOMAC and one-year post-operative WOMAC scores and patient satisfaction. Satisfaction was compared using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis against pre-operative, post-operative and δ WOMAC scores. We found no relationship between pre-operative WOMAC scores and one-year post-operative WOMAC or satisfaction scores, with Spearman's rank correlation coefficients of 0.16 and -0.05, respectively. The ROC analysis showed areas under the curve (AUC) of 0.54 (pre-operative WOMAC), 0.67 (post-operative WOMAC) and 0.43 (δ WOMAC), respectively, for an improvement in satisfaction. We conclude that the pre-operative WOMAC score does not predict the post-operative WOMAC score or patient satisfaction after THA, and that WOMAC scores can therefore not be used to prioritise patient care. ©2015 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  13. What are the important manoeuvres for beginners to minimize surgical time in primary total knee arthroplasty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harato, Kengo; Maeno, Shinichi; Tanikawa, Hidenori; Kaneda, Kazuya; Morishige, Yutaro; Nomoto, So; Niki, Yasuo

    2016-08-01

    It was hypothesized that surgical time of beginners would be much longer than that of experts. Our purpose was to investigate and clarify the important manoeuvres for beginners to minimize surgical time in primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) as a multicentre study. A total of 300 knees in 248 patients (averaged 74.6 years) were enrolled. All TKAs were done using the same instruments and the same measured resection technique at 14 facilities by 25 orthopaedic surgeons. Surgeons were divided into three surgeon groups (four experts, nine medium-volume surgeons and 12 beginners). The surgical technique was divided into five phases. Detailed surgical time and ratio of the time in each phase to overall surgical time were recorded and compared among the groups in each phase. A total of 62, 119, and 119 TKAs were done by beginners, medium-volume surgeons, and experts, respectively. Significant differences in surgical time among the groups were seen in each phase. Concerning the ratio of the time, experts and medium-volume surgeons seemed cautious in fixation of the permanent component compared to other phases. Interestingly, even in ratio, beginners and medium-volume surgeons took more time in exposure of soft tissue compared to experts. (0.14 in beginners, 0.13 in medium-volume surgeons, 0.11 in experts, P time in exposure and closure of soft tissue compared to experts. Improvement in basic technique is essential to minimize surgical time among beginners. First of all, surgical instructors should teach basic techniques in primary TKA for beginners. Therapeutic studies, Level IV.

  14. Finite-element time evolution operator for the anharmonic oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, Kimball A.

    1995-01-01

    The finite-element approach to lattice field theory is both highly accurate (relative errors approximately 1/N(exp 2), where N is the number of lattice points) and exactly unitary (in the sense that canonical commutation relations are exactly preserved at the lattice sites). In this talk I construct matrix elements for dynamical variables and for the time evolution operator for the anharmonic oscillator, for which the continuum Hamiltonian is H = p(exp 2)/2 + lambda q(exp 4)/4. Construction of such matrix elements does not require solving the implicit equations of motion. Low order approximations turn out to be extremely accurate. For example, the matrix element of the time evolution operator in the harmonic oscillator ground state gives a results for the anharmonic oscillator ground state energy accurate to better than 1 percent, while a two-state approximation reduces the error to less than 0.1 percent.

  15. Tecnatom's operation system interfaces and their evolution in time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trueba, Pedro

    1998-01-01

    The author comments the evolution of operation system interfaces produced by the Tecnatom Company, notably for the support in the construction of the Spanish nuclear power plants. A system can typically be divided into a data acquisition system, a central processing system, and a graphical system. The author discusses and comments the main functional applications which are: real time data displays, data analysis functions, and other utilities (file management, data storing, file reloading)

  16. On Lambda and Time Operators: the Inverse Intertwining Problem Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Cubillo, F.; Suchanecki, Z.; Villullas, S.

    2011-07-01

    An exact theory of irreversibility was proposed by Misra, Prigogine and Courbage, based on non-unitary similarity transformations Λ that intertwine reversible dynamics and irreversible ones. This would advocate the idea that irreversible behavior would originate at the microscopic level. Reversible evolution with an internal time operator have the intertwining property. Recently the inverse intertwining problem has been answered in the negative, that is, not every unitary evolution allowing such Λ-transformation has an internal time. This work contributes new results in this direction.

  17. Batch Scheduling for Hybrid Assembly Differentiation Flow Shop to Minimize Total Actual Flow Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulidya, R.; Suprayogi; Wangsaputra, R.; Halim, A. H.

    2018-03-01

    A hybrid assembly differentiation flow shop is a three-stage flow shop consisting of Machining, Assembly and Differentiation Stages and producing different types of products. In the machining stage, parts are processed in batches on different (unrelated) machines. In the assembly stage, each part of the different parts is assembled into an assembly product. Finally, the assembled products will further be processed into different types of final products in the differentiation stage. In this paper, we develop a batch scheduling model for a hybrid assembly differentiation flow shop to minimize the total actual flow time defined as the total times part spent in the shop floor from the arrival times until its due date. We also proposed a heuristic algorithm for solving the problems. The proposed algorithm is tested using a set of hypothetic data. The solution shows that the algorithm can solve the problems effectively.

  18. Tokamak power reactor ignition and time dependent fractional power operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vold, E.L.; Mau, T.K.; Conn, R.W.

    1986-06-01

    A flexible time-dependent and zero-dimensional plasma burn code with radial profiles was developed and employed to study the fractional power operation and the thermal burn control options for an INTOR-sized tokamak reactor. The code includes alpha thermalization and a time-dependent transport loss which can be represented by any one of several currently popular scaling laws for energy confinement time. Ignition parameters were found to vary widely in density-temperature (n-T) space for the range of scaling laws examined. Critical ignition issues were found to include the extent of confinement time degradation by alpha heating, the ratio of ion to electron transport power loss, and effect of auxiliary heating on confinement. Feedback control of the auxiliary power and ion fuel sources are shown to provide thermal stability near the ignition curve

  19. Bentall operation, total aortic replacement and mitral valve replacement for a young adult with Marfan syndrome: a case of three-staged operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, K; Shimazaki, Y; Watanabe, T; Kuraoka, S; Minowa, T; Miura, M; Oshikiri, S; Toyama, H

    1998-08-01

    In Marfan syndrome, the most common cardiovascular abnormalities are dilatation of the aorta and aortic valve regurgitation in adult patients. Mitral valve dysfunction is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in infants and children with Marfan syndrome, and is not frequently operated on in adult Marfan patients who undergo surgery for diseases of the aortic root and total aorta. This report describes a successfully three-staged operation for a 24 year-old man with Marfan syndrome who underwent an emergent Bentall operation and aortic arch replacement, total aortic replacement and mitral valve replacement over 2 years. Mitral valve regurgitation was mild but increased after the second operation. The graft was tightly adhesive and invasive to the sternum. Endoscopic view was helpful to avoid graft damage at resternotomy. The postoperative course was uneventful in each operation. Microscopic examination of the mitral valve leaflets showed abnormal increase of mucopolysaccharides, and disruption and fragmentation of elastic fibers.

  20. Television viewing, computer use and total screen time in Canadian youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Amy E; Boyce, William F; Janssen, Ian

    2006-11-01

    Research has linked excessive television viewing and computer use in children and adolescents to a variety of health and social problems. Current recommendations are that screen time in children and adolescents should be limited to no more than 2 h per day. To determine the percentage of Canadian youth meeting the screen time guideline recommendations. The representative study sample consisted of 6942 Canadian youth in grades 6 to 10 who participated in the 2001/2002 World Health Organization Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children survey. Only 41% of girls and 34% of boys in grades 6 to 10 watched 2 h or less of television per day. Once the time of leisure computer use was included and total daily screen time was examined, only 18% of girls and 14% of boys met the guidelines. The prevalence of those meeting the screen time guidelines was higher in girls than boys. Fewer than 20% of Canadian youth in grades 6 to 10 met the total screen time guidelines, suggesting that increased public health interventions are needed to reduce the number of leisure time hours that Canadian youth spend watching television and using the computer.

  1. Different but Equal: Total Work, Gender and Social Norms in EU and US Time Use

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel S Hamermesh; Michael C Burda; Philippe Weil

    2008-01-01

    Using time-diary data from 27 countries, we demonstrate a negative relationship between real GDP per capita and the female-male difference in total work time—the sum of work for pay and work at home. We also show that in rich non-Catholic countries on four continents men and women do the same amount of total work on average. Our survey results demonstrate that labor economists, macroeconomists, sociologists and the general public consistently believe that women perform more tot...

  2. TWOS - TIME WARP OPERATING SYSTEM, VERSION 2.5.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellenot, S. F.

    1994-01-01

    The Time Warp Operating System (TWOS) is a special-purpose operating system designed to support parallel discrete-event simulation. TWOS is a complete implementation of the Time Warp mechanism, a distributed protocol for virtual time synchronization based on process rollback and message annihilation. Version 2.5.1 supports simulations and other computations using both virtual time and dynamic load balancing; it does not support general time-sharing or multi-process jobs using conventional message synchronization and communication. The program utilizes the underlying operating system's resources. TWOS runs a single simulation at a time, executing it concurrently on as many processors of a distributed system as are allocated. The simulation needs only to be decomposed into objects (logical processes) that interact through time-stamped messages. TWOS provides transparent synchronization. The user does not have to add any more special logic to aid in synchronization, nor give any synchronization advice, nor even understand much about how the Time Warp mechanism works. The Time Warp Simulator (TWSIM) subdirectory contains a sequential simulation engine that is interface compatible with TWOS. This means that an application designer and programmer who wish to use TWOS can prototype code on TWSIM on a single processor and/or workstation before having to deal with the complexity of working on a distributed system. TWSIM also provides statistics about the application which may be helpful for determining the correctness of an application and for achieving good performance on TWOS. Version 2.5.1 has an updated interface that is not compatible with 2.0. The program's user manual assists the simulation programmer in the design, coding, and implementation of discrete-event simulations running on TWOS. The manual also includes a practical user's guide to the TWOS application benchmark, Colliding Pucks. TWOS supports simulations written in the C programming language. It is designed

  3. Rapid intra-operative diagnosis of kidney cancer by attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy of tissue smears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucetaite, Milda; Velicka, Martynas; Urboniene, Vidita; Ceponkus, Justinas; Bandzeviciute, Rimante; Jankevicius, Feliksas; Zelvys, Arunas; Sablinskas, Valdas; Steiner, Gerald

    2018-01-09

    Herein, a technique to analyze air-dried kidney tissue impression smears by means of attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy is presented. Spectral tumor markers-absorption bands of glycogen-are identified in the ATR-IR spectra of the kidney tissue smear samples. Thin kidney tissue cryo-sections currently used for IR spectroscopic analysis lack such spectral markers as the sample preparation causes irreversible molecular changes in the tissue. In particular, freeze-thaw cycle results in degradation of the glycogen and reduction or complete dissolution of its content. Supervised spectral classification was applied to the recorded spectra of the smears and the test spectra were classified with a high accuracy of 92% for normal tissue and 94% for tumor tissue, respectively. For further development, we propose that combination of the method with optical fiber ATR probes could potentially be used for rapid real-time intra-operative tissue analysis without interfering with either the established protocols of pathological examination or the ordinary workflow of operating surgeon. Such approach could ensure easier transition of the method to clinical applications where it may complement the results of gold standard histopathology examination and aid in more precise resection of kidney tumors. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Real-time operating system timing jitter and its impact on motor control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Frederick M.; Shackleford, William P.

    2001-12-01

    General-purpose microprocessors are increasingly being used for control applications due to their widespread availability and software support for non-control functions like networking and operator interfaces. Two classes of real-time operating systems (RTOS) exist for these systems. The traditional RTOS serves as the sole operating system, and provides all OS services. Examples include ETS, LynxOS, QNX, Windows CE and VxWorks. RTOS extensions add real-time scheduling capabilities to non-real-time OSes, and provide minimal services needed for the time-critical portions of an application. Examples include RTAI and RTL for Linux, and HyperKernel, OnTime and RTX for Windows NT. Timing jitter is an issue in these systems, due to hardware effects such as bus locking, caches and pipelines, and software effects from mutual exclusion resource locks, non-preemtible critical sections, disabled interrupts, and multiple code paths in the scheduler. Jitter is typically on the order of a microsecond to a few tens of microseconds for hard real-time operating systems, and ranges from milliseconds to seconds in the worst case for soft real-time operating systems. The question of its significance on the performance of a controller arises. Naturally, the smaller the scheduling period required for a control task, the more significant is the impact of timing jitter. Aside from this intuitive relationship is the greater significance of timing on open-loop control, such as for stepper motors, than for closed-loop control, such as for servo motors. Techniques for measuring timing jitter are discussed, and comparisons between various platforms are presented. Techniques to reduce jitter or mitigate its effects are presented. The impact of jitter on stepper motor control is analyzed.

  5. Physiotherapy Exercise After Fast-Track Total Hip and Knee Arthroplasty: Time for Reconsideration?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandholm, Thomas; Kehlet, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Bandholm T, Kehlet H. Physiotherapy exercise after fast-track total hip and knee arthroplasty: time for reconsideration? Major surgery, including total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA), is followed by a convalescence period, during which the loss of muscle strength......-track methodology or enhanced recovery programs. It is the nature of this methodology to systematically and scientifically optimize all perioperative care components, with the overall goal of enhancing recovery. This is also the case for the care component "physiotherapy exercise" after THA and TKA. The 2 latest...... meta-analyses on the effectiveness of physiotherapy exercise after THA and TKA generally conclude that physiotherapy exercise after THA and TKA either does not work or is not very effective. The reason for this may be that the "pill" of physiotherapy exercise typically offered after THA and TKA does...

  6. Evaluation of Real-time operating systems for FGC controls

    CERN Document Server

    Chalas, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    Power Converter Control for various experiments at CERN, is con- ducted using a machine called Function Generator Controller. The cur- rent generation of FGCs being deployed is FGC3. A certain number of FGCs require very fast and precise control, and for these systems, there is uncertainty of whether the existing hardware will be able to provide the level of determinism required. I have worked in the CCS section as a summer student on a project to study the potential of ARM-based CPUs to provide a real time behaviour fit for a future high-performance FGC4. In this paper, i will present the results of my research into real-time vari- ants of Linux and other real-time operating systems on two different ARM CPUs.

  7. Design of real-time operating system software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stafford, D.L.; Hulbert, A.J.

    1976-01-01

    Design of real-time data collection and control systems is complicated by problems not found in common sequential programming projects. Timing and synchronization are critical; data collection equipment is often completely foreign to mainframe programming facilities; operating system response to real-time events may be far too slow or too cumbersome. The philosophy at the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute (ITRI) is to allow the investigators to do as much of their own programming as possible. Inasmuch as programming is not their primary responsibility or area of training, it is unreasonable to assume that they are familiar with the subtleties involved. The problem, therefore, has been to develop a system whereby investigators are able, with minimal consultation, to write, modify and otherwise maintain their own data collection and control programs and to do so with a minimum of destructive interaction with other data collection and control tasks

  8. Time-based analysis of total cost of patient episodes: a case study of hip replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltokorpi, Antti; Kujala, Jaakko

    2006-01-01

    Healthcare in the public and private sectors is facing increasing pressure to become more cost-effective. Time-based competition and work-in-progress have been used successfully to measure and improve the efficiency of industrial manufacturing. Seeks to address this issue. Presents a framework for time based management of the total cost of a patient episode and apply it to the six sigma DMAIC-process development approach. The framework is used to analyse hip replacement patient episodes in Päijät-Häme Hospital District in Finland, which has a catchment area of 210,000 inhabitants and performs an average of 230 hip replacements per year. The work-in-progress concept is applicable to healthcare--notably that the DMAIC-process development approach can be used to analyse the total cost of patient episodes. Concludes that a framework, which combines the patient-in-process and the DMAIC development approach, can be used not only to analyse the total cost of patient episode but also to improve patient process efficiency. Presents a framework that combines patient-in-process and DMAIC-process development approaches, which can be used to analyse the total cost of a patient episode in order to improve patient process efficiency.

  9. Real-time risk assessment of operational events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perryman, L.J.; Foster, N.A.S.; Nicholls, D.R.; Grobbelaar, J.F.

    1996-01-01

    Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) has always been fundamental to the licensing process of Koeberg nuclear power station. Furthermore, over the past 8 years PRA has assisted in many areas of operation. One of these areas is the real-time assessment of abnormal operating events. Over the years, considerable experience has been gained in using PRA to improve plant safety and performance. This paper presents some of the insights obtained in using PRA in such a dynamic role and demonstrates that, by developing and using the plant-specific 'living' PRA, considerable safety and financial gains can be obtained. These insights specifically concern the prerequisites before optimal use of a plant-specific 'living' PRA can be made. Finally, examples are presented of occurrences when PRA was used to improve plant safety and performance. These examples serve to demonstrate the advantages that can be obtained if sufficient resources are placed at the disposal of the PRA team. (orig.)

  10. Just In Time Value Chain Total Quality Management Part Of Technical Strategic Management Accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesi Hertati

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to determine Just In Time Value Chain Total Quality Management tqm as a technique in management accounting stategis.Tujuan Just In Time value chain or value chain Total Quality Management TQM is strategic for customer satisfaction in the long term obtained from the information. Quality information is the way to continuous improvement in order to increase the companys financial performance in the long term to increase competitive advantage. Strategic Management Accounting process gather competitor information explore opportunities to reduce costs integrate accounting with emphasis on the strategic position of the competition is a great plan. An overall strategic plan interrelated and serves as the basis for achieving targets or goals ahead.

  11. Estimation of total bacteria by real-time PCR in patients with periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brajović, Gavrilo; Popović, Branka; Puletić, Miljan; Kostić, Marija; Milasin, Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Periodontal diseases are associated with the presence of elevated levels of bacteria within the gingival crevice. The aim of this study was to evaluate a total amount of bacteria in subgingival plaque samples in patients with a periodontal disease. A quantitative evaluation of total bacteria amount using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was performed on 20 samples of patients with ulceronecrotic periodontitis and on 10 samples of healthy subjects. The estimation of total bacterial amount was based on gene copy number for 16S rRNA that was determined by comparing to Ct values/gene copy number of the standard curve. A statistically significant difference between average gene copy number of total bacteria in periodontal patients (2.55 x 10⁷) and healthy control (2.37 x 10⁶) was found (p = 0.01). Also, a trend of higher numbers of the gene copy in deeper periodontal lesions (> 7 mm) was confirmed by a positive value of coefficient of correlation (r = 0.073). The quantitative estimation of total bacteria based on gene copy number could be an important additional tool in diagnosing periodontitis.

  12. Physiological Indices of Stress Prior to and Following Total Knee Arthroplasty Predict the Occurrence of Severe Post-Operative Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremeans-Smith, Julie K; Greene, Kenneth; Delahanty, Douglas L

    2016-05-01

    The severe pain and disability associated with osteoarthritis often motivate individuals to undergo arthroplastic surgery. However, a significant number of surgical patients continue to experience pain following surgery. Prior research has implicated both the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) in the sensitization of pain receptors and chronic pain conditions. This study uses a prospective, observational, cohort design to examine whether physiological stress responses before and after surgery could predict post-operative pain severity. Participants included 110 patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty. Physiological indices of stress included the measurement of catecholamine and cortisol levels in 15-hour urine samples collected prior to and 1 month following surgery, as well as in-hospital heart rate and blood pressure (before and after surgery), which were abstracted from medical records. Patients completed the pain subscale of the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) [Bellamy et al., J Orthop Rheumatol 1: , 95 (1988)] 2.5 weeks prior to surgery and at a 3-month follow-up. Contrary to expectations, lower stress hormone levels at baseline were related to more severe post-operative pain. Data at later time points, however, supported our hypothesis: cardiovascular tone shortly before surgery and urinary levels of epinephrine 1 month following surgery were positively related to pain severity 3 months later. Results suggest that the occurrence of post-operative pain can be predicted on the basis of stress physiology prior to and following arthroplastic surgery. © 2015 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Optimizing Ship Speed to Minimize Total Fuel Consumption with Multiple Time Windows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Gon Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the ship speed optimization problem with the objective of minimizing the total fuel consumption. We consider multiple time windows for each port call as constraints and formulate the problem as a nonlinear mixed integer program. We derive intrinsic properties of the problem and develop an exact algorithm based on the properties. Computational experiments show that the suggested algorithm is very efficient in finding an optimal solution.

  14. Objectively Measured Total and Occupational Sedentary Time in Three Work Settings

    OpenAIRE

    van Dommelen, Paula; Coffeng, Jennifer K.; van der Ploeg, Hidde P.; van der Beek, Allard J.; Boot, C?cile R. L.; Hendriksen, Ingrid J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Sedentary behaviour increases the risk for morbidity. Our primary aim is to determine the proportion and factors associated with objectively measured total and occupational sedentary time in three work settings. Secondary aim is to study the proportion of physical activity and prolonged sedentary bouts. Methods. Data were obtained using ActiGraph accelerometers from employees of: 1) a financial service provider (n = 49 men, 31 women), 2) two research institutes (n = 30 men, 57 wom...

  15. Total neutron-counting plutonium inventory measurement systems (PIMS) and their potential application to near real time materials accountancy (NRTMA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driscall, I.; Fox, G.H.; Orr, C.H.; Whitehouse, K.R.

    1988-01-01

    A radiometric method of determining the inventory of an operating plutonium plant is described. An array of total neutron counters distributed across the plant is used to estimate hold-up at each plant item. Corrections for the sensitivity of detectors to plutonium in adjacent plant items are achieved through a matrix approach. This paper describes our experience in design, calibration and operation of a Plutonium Inventory Measurement System (PIMS) on an oxalate precipitation plutonium finishing line. Data from a recent trial of Near-Real-Time Materials Accounting (NRTMA) using the PIMS are presented and used to illustrate its present performance and problem areas. The reader is asked to consider what role PIMS might have in future accountancy systems

  16. Impact of a Disposable Sterile Radiation Shield on Operator Radiation Exposure During Percutaneous Coronary Intervention of Chronic Total Occlusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorrock, Deborah; Christopoulos, Georgios; Wosik, Jedrek; Kotsia, Anna; Rangan, Bavana; Abdullah, Shuaib; Cipher, Daisha; Banerjee, Subhash; Brilakis, Emmanouil S

    2015-07-01

    Daily radiation exposure over many years can adversely impact the health of medical professionals. Operator radiation exposure was recorded for 124 percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs) performed at our institution between August 2011 and May 2013: 69 were chronic total occlusion (CTO)-PCIs and 55 were non-CTO PCIs. A disposable radiation protection sterile drape (Radpad; Worldwide Innovations & Technologies, Inc) was used in all CTO-PCI cases vs none of the non-CTO PCI cases. Operator radiation exposure was compared between CTO and non-CTO PCIs. Mean age was 64.6 ± 6.2 years and 99.2% of the patients were men. Compared with non-CTO PCI, patients undergoing CTO-PCI were more likely to have congestive heart failure, to be current smokers, and to have longer lesions, and less likely to have prior PCI and a saphenous vein graft target lesion. CTO-PCI cases had longer procedural time (median: 123 minutes [IQR, 85-192 minutes] vs 27 minutes [IQR, 20-44 minutes]; P<.001), fluoroscopy time (35 minutes [IQR, 19-54 minutes] vs 8 minutes [IQR, 5-16 minutes]; P<.001), number of stents placed (2.4 ± 1.5 vs 1.7 ± 0.9; P<.001), and patient air kerma radiation exposure (3.92 Gray [IQR, 2.48-5.86 Gray] vs 1.22 Gray [IQR, 0.74-1.90 Gray]; P<.001), as well as dose area product (267 Gray•cm² [IQR, 163-4.25 Gray•cm²] vs 84 Gray•cm² [IQR, 48-138 Gray•cm²]; P<.001). In spite of higher patient radiation exposure, operator radiation exposure was similar between the two groups (20 μSv [IQR, 9.5-31 μSv] vs 15 μSv [IQR, 7-23 μSv]; P=.07). Operator radiation exposure during CTO-PCI can be reduced to levels similar to less complicated cases with the use of a disposable sterile radiation protection shield.

  17. Time evolution of plasma potential in pulsed operation of ECRIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarvainen, O.; Koivisto, H.; Ropponen, T.; Toivanen, V.; Higurashi, Y.; Nakagawa, T.

    2012-01-01

    The time evolution of plasma potential has been measured with a retarding field analyzer in pulsed operation mode with electron cyclotron resonance ion sources at JYFL and RIKEN. Three different ion sources with microwave frequencies ranging from 6.4 to 18 GHz were employed for the experiments. The plasma potential was observed to increase 10-75 % during the Pre-glow and 10-30 % during the afterglow compared to steady state. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation. (authors)

  18. Effect of operational cycle time length on nitrogen removal in an alternating oxidation ditch system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantziaras, I D; Stamou, A; Katsiri, A

    2011-06-01

    This paper refers to nitrogen removal optimization of an alternating oxidation ditch system through the use of a mathematical model and pilot testing. The pilot system where measurements have been made has a total volume of 120 m(3) and consists of two ditches operating in four phases during one cycle and performs carbon oxidation, nitrification, denitrification and settling. The mathematical model consists of one-dimensional mass balance (convection-dispersion) equations based on the IAWPRC ASM 1 model. After the calibration and verification of the model, simulation system performance was made. Optimization is achieved by testing operational cycles and phases with different time lengths. The limits of EU directive 91/271 for nitrogen removal have been used for comparison. The findings show that operational cycles with smaller time lengths can achieve higher nitrogen removals and that an "equilibrium" between phase time percentages in the whole cycle, for a given inflow, must be achieved.

  19. The HAL 9000 Space Operating System Real-Time Planning Engine Design and Operations Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetson, Howard; Watson, Michael D.; Shaughnessy, Ray

    2012-01-01

    In support of future deep space manned missions, an autonomous/automated vehicle, providing crew autonomy and an autonomous response planning system, will be required due to the light time delays in communication. Vehicle capabilities as a whole must provide for tactical response to vehicle system failures and space environmental effects induced failures, for risk mitigation of permanent loss of communication with Earth, and for assured crew return capabilities. The complexity of human rated space systems and the limited crew sizes and crew skills mix drive the need for a robust autonomous capability on-board the vehicle. The HAL 9000 Space Operating System[2] designed for such missions and space craft includes the first distributed real-time planning / re-planning system. This paper will detail the software architecture of the multiple planning engine system, and the interface design for plan changes, approval and implementation that is performed autonomously. Operations scenarios will be defined for analysis of the planning engines operations and its requirements for nominal / off nominal activities. An assessment of the distributed realtime re-planning system, in the defined operations environment, will be provided as well as findings as it pertains to the vehicle, crew, and mission control requirements needed for implementation.

  20. Impact of the European Working Time Directive (EWTD) on the operative experience of surgery residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopmans, Cornelis J; den Hoed, Pieter T; van der Laan, Lijckle; van der Harst, Erwin; van der Elst, Maarten; Mannaerts, Guido H H; Dawson, Imro; Timman, Reinier; Wijnhoven, Bas P L; IJzermans, Jan N M

    2015-04-01

    In Europe and the United States, work hour restrictions are considered to be particularly burdensome for residents in surgery specialties. The aim of this study was to examine whether reduction of the work week to 48 hours resulting from the implementation of the European Working Time Directive has affected the operative experience of surgery residents. This study was conducted in a general surgery training region in the Netherlands, consisting of 1 university hospital and 6 district training hospitals. Operating records summarizing the surgical procedures performed as "primary surgeon" in the operating theater for different grades of surgeons were retrospectively analyzed for the period 2005-2012 by the use of linear regression models. Operative procedures performed by residents were considered the main outcome measure. In total, 235,357 operative procedures were performed, including 47,458 (20.2%) in the university hospital and 187,899 (79.8%) in the district training hospitals (n = 5). For residents in the university hospital, the mean number of operative procedures performed per 1.0 full-time equivalent increased from 128 operations in 2005 to 204 operations in 2012 (P = .001), whereas for residents in district training hospitals, no substantial differences were found over time. The mean (±SD) operative caseload of 64 residents who completed the 6-year training program between 2005 and 2012 was 1,391 ± 226 (range, 768-1856). A comparison of the operative caseload according to year of board-certification showed no difference. Implementation of the European Working Time Directive has not affected adversely the number of surgical procedures performed by residents within a general surgical training region in the Netherlands. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Determination of total and segmental colonic transit time in constipated children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu-cheng; Wang, Wei-lin; Bai, Yu-zuo; Yuan, Zheng-wei; Wang, Wei

    2003-03-01

    To determine the total and segmental colonic transit time of normal Chinese children and to explore its value in constipation in children. The subjects involved in this study were divided into 2 groups. One group was control, which had 33 healthy children (21 males and 12 females) aged 2 - 13 years (mean 5 years). The other was constipation group, which had 25 patients (15 males and 10 females) aged 3 - 14 years (mean 7 years) with constipation according to Benninga's criteria. Written informed consent was obtained from the parents of each subject. In this study the simplified method of radio opaque markers was used to determine the total gastrointestinal transit time and segmental colonic transit time of the normal and constipated children, and in part of these patients X-ray defecography was also used. The total gastrointestinal transit time (TGITT), right colonic transit time (RCTT), left colonic transit time (LCTT) and rectosigmoid colonic transit time (RSTT) of the normal children were 28.7 +/- 7.7 h, 7.5 +/- 3.2 h, 6.5 +/- 3.8 h and 13.4 +/- 5.6 h, respectively. In the constipated children, the TGITT, LCTT and RSTT were significantly longer than those in controls (92.2 +/- 55.5 h vs 28.7 +/- 7.7 h, P < 0.001; 16.9 +/- 12.6 h vs 6.5 +/- 3.8 h, P < 0.01; 61.5 +/- 29.0 h vs 13.4 +/- 5.6 h, P < 0.001), while the RCTT had no significant difference. X-ray defecography demonstrated one rectocele, one perineal descent syndrome and one puborectal muscle syndrome, respectively. The TGITT, RCTT, LCTT and RSTT of the normal children were 28.7 +/- 7.7 h, 7.5 +/- 3.2 h, 6.5 +/- 3.8 h and 13.4 +/- 5.6 h, respectively. With the segmental colonic transit time, constipation can be divided into four types: slow-transit constipation, outlet obstruction, mixed type and normal transit constipation. X-ray defecography can demonstrate the anatomical or dynamic abnormalities within the anorectal area, with which constipation can be further divided into different subtypes, and

  2. Real-time operations intelligence from the user perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kharbat, Fayez [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    2004-07-01

    Running a refinery or a chemical plant is a complex business. Planning and scheduling, process control and maintenance require dedicated, multifaceted solutions necessitating highly trained and experienced users. The inevitable system and user specialization results in the proliferation of disparate data sources, incoherent information, inconsistent decisions and the failure to realize corporate objectives - until today. IndX Software Corporation is the de facto market-leading provider of operations intelligence solutions. IndX's XHQ{sup TM} Real-time Operations Intelligence solutions have been selected by many of the world's major corporations in their quest for Operational Excellence and IndX is currently engaged in more than 50 maximizedROI{sup TM} deployments around the world. This paper describes the thinking and technology behind XHQ and the implementation methodology typically employed in deploying an XHQ solution enterprise-wide. This paper will also provide examples of the benefits that users have realized from their implementation of XHQ. (author)

  3. First passage times in homogeneous nucleation: Dependence on the total number of particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yvinec, Romain; Bernard, Samuel; Pujo-Menjouet, Laurent; Hingant, Erwan

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by nucleation and molecular aggregation in physical, chemical, and biological settings, we present an extension to a thorough analysis of the stochastic self-assembly of a fixed number of identical particles in a finite volume. We study the statistics of times required for maximal clusters to be completed, starting from a pure-monomeric particle configuration. For finite volumes, we extend previous analytical approaches to the case of arbitrary size-dependent aggregation and fragmentation kinetic rates. For larger volumes, we develop a scaling framework to study the first assembly time behavior as a function of the total quantity of particles. We find that the mean time to first completion of a maximum-sized cluster may have a surprisingly weak dependence on the total number of particles. We highlight how higher statistics (variance, distribution) of the first passage time may nevertheless help to infer key parameters, such as the size of the maximum cluster. Finally, we present a framework to quantify formation of macroscopic sized clusters, which are (asymptotically) very unlikely and occur as a large deviation phenomenon from the mean-field limit. We argue that this framework is suitable to describe phase transition phenomena, as inherent infrequent stochastic processes, in contrast to classical nucleation theory

  4. The Transition of Atmospheric Infrared Sounder Total Ozone Products to Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Emily; Zavodsky, Bradley; Jedlovec, Gary

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Short-term Prediction Research and Transition Center (NASA SPoRT) has transitioned a total column ozone product from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) retrievals to the Weather Prediction Center and Ocean Prediction Center. The total column ozone product is used to diagnose regions of warm, dry, ozone-rich, stratospheric air capable of descending to the surface to create high-impact non-convective winds. Over the past year, forecasters have analyzed the Red, Green, Blue (RGB) Air Mass imagery in conjunction with the AIRS total column ozone to aid high wind forecasts. One of the limitations of the total ozone product is that it is difficult for forecasters to determine whether elevated ozone concentrations are related to stratospheric air or climatologically high values of ozone in certain regions. During the summer of 2013, SPoRT created an AIRS ozone anomaly product which calculates the percent of normal ozone based on a global stratospheric ozone mean climatology. With the knowledge that ozone values 125 percent of normal and greater typically represent stratospheric air; the anomaly product can be used with the total column ozone product to confirm regions of stratospheric air. This paper describes the generation of these products along with forecaster feedback concerning the use of the AIRS ozone products in conjunction with the RGB Air Mass product to access the utility and transition of the products.

  5. Empirical forecast of quiet time ionospheric Total Electron Content maps over Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badeke, Ronny; Borries, Claudia; Hoque, Mainul M.; Minkwitz, David

    2018-06-01

    An accurate forecast of the atmospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) is helpful to investigate space weather influences on the ionosphere and technical applications like satellite-receiver radio links. The purpose of this work is to compare four empirical methods for a 24-h forecast of vertical TEC maps over Europe under geomagnetically quiet conditions. TEC map data are obtained from the Space Weather Application Center Ionosphere (SWACI) and the Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC). The time-series methods Standard Persistence Model (SPM), a 27 day median model (MediMod) and a Fourier Series Expansion are compared to maps for the entire year of 2015. As a representative of the climatological coefficient models the forecast performance of the Global Neustrelitz TEC model (NTCM-GL) is also investigated. Time periods of magnetic storms, which are identified with the Dst index, are excluded from the validation. By calculating the TEC values with the most recent maps, the time-series methods perform slightly better than the coefficient model NTCM-GL. The benefit of NTCM-GL is its independence on observational TEC data. Amongst the time-series methods mentioned, MediMod delivers the best overall performance regarding accuracy and data gap handling. Quiet-time SWACI maps can be forecasted accurately and in real-time by the MediMod time-series approach.

  6. Monitoring total endotoxin and (1 --> 3)-beta-D-glucan at the air exhaust of concentrated animal feeding operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xufei; Wang, Xinlei; Zhang, Yuanhui; Lee, Jongmin; Su, Jingwei; Gates, Richard S

    2013-10-01

    Mitigation of bioaerosol emissions from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) demands knowledge of bioaerosol concentrations feeding into an end-of-pipe air treatment process. The aim of this preliminary study was to measure total endotoxin and (1 --> 3)-beta-glucan concentrations at the air exhaust of 18 commercial CAFOs and to examine their variability with animal operation type (swine farrowing, swine gestation, swine weaning, swine finishing, manure belt laying hen, and tom turkey) and season (cold, mild, and hot). The measured airborne concentrations of total endotoxin ranged from 98 to 23,157 endotoxin units (EU)/m3, and the airborne concentrations of total (1 --> 3)-beta-D-glucan ranged from 2.4 to 537.9 ng/m3. Animal operation type in this study had a significant effect on airborne concentrations of total endotoxin and (1 --> 3)-beta-D-glucan but no significant effect on their concentrations in total suspended particulate (TSP). Both endotoxin and (1 --> 3)-beta-D-glucan attained their highest airborne concentrations in visited tom turkey buildings. Comparatively, season had no significant effect on airborne concentrations of total endotoxin or (1 --> 3)-beta-D-glucan. Endotoxin and (1 --> 3)-beta-glucan concentrations in TSP dust appeared to increase as the weather became warmer, and this seasonal effect was significant in swine buildings. Elevated indoor temperatures in the hot season were considered to facilitate the growth and propagation of bacteria and fungi, thus leading to higher biocomponent concentrations in TSP.

  7. Relation between vitamin D and calcium and post operation hypocalcemia in total thyroidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Asefkabiri

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypocalcemia is one of the most prevalent complications following total thyroidectomy. Over recent years, in addition to hormone parathyroid hormone (PTH, vitamin D has been also studied as a factor causing post-total thyroidectomy hypocalcemia. This survey seeks to study the relationship between the serum level of vitamin D before surgery and during post-total thyroidectomy hypocalcemia. Methods: A group of 57 patients volunteering for total thyroidectomy were studied on Vali-e-Asr Hospital, Tehran, Iran, from March 2013 to March 2015. In all these patients, pre-surgery calcium, vitamin D and parathyroid hormone (PTH as well as the level of calcium during the post-surgery first two days were measured. Based on objectives of this study, the relationship be-tween pre-surgery vitamin D level and post-surgery hypocalcemia was examined. Results: The average age of patients participating in the survey was 24.1±13.3. They included 19 women (33.3% and 38 men, total of 40 patients (70.2%. Their average post-surgery calcium level was 9.2±0.77 milligrams per deciliters (mg/dl and their average vitamin D content before the surgery was 42±12.1 nanomole per liter (nmol/l. The average calcium level before the surgery and the first post-surgery day were meaningfully different in terms of statistics (P0.001. Of 37 patients with pre-surgery vitamin D deficiency, 31 suffered post-surgery second-day hypocalcemia and of 20 patients with vitamin D insufficiency, 18 suffered second-day hypocalcemia. This difference was not statistically meaningful either (P>0.001. Conclusion: The current study showed that the serum level of vitamin D before total thyroidectomy does not have any role in the occurrence of post-surgery hypocalcemia which is almost common after this type of surgery.

  8. Determining the total cost of reverse supply chain operations for original equipment manufacturers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Samuel Brüning; Jacobsen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    When original equipment manufacturers (OEM) examine whether or not to invest in a reverse supply chain (RSC), managers need insight into not only the cost savings and new revenue streams the RSC enables, but also the total cost of the RSC itself. Using case study research the study examines what...... cost parameters constitute the total cost (TC) of the RSC. The specific RSC that the study seeks the TC for consists of 1) end-product refurbishing, 2) component refurbishing, and 3) sales of used materials back to original suppliers or independent recyclers for materials recycling....

  9. High Re-Operation Rates Using Conserve Metal-On-Metal Total Hip Articulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, S L; Jakobsen, Thomas; Christoffersen, Hardy

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Metal-on-metal hip articulations have been intensely debated after reports of adverse reactions and high failure rates. The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the implant of a metal-on.metal total hip articulation (MOM THA) from a single manufacture in a two-center st......INTRODUCTION: Metal-on-metal hip articulations have been intensely debated after reports of adverse reactions and high failure rates. The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the implant of a metal-on.metal total hip articulation (MOM THA) from a single manufacture in a two...

  10. Energy efficiency improvement: A strong driver for Total operations and R and D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garnaud, Frederic; Rocher, Anne

    2010-09-15

    Total has implemented an energy efficiency action plan for both producing fields and new projects linked to a dedicated R and D program. The Energy efficiency assessment methodology is described, with an example: base line of the current situation, energy efficiency plan, contribution to best practices at corporate level. A methodology to assess the energy efficiency of a new development has been defined and implemented within Total. This methodology as well as related indicators is presented. Examples of R and D results dedicated to improve energy efficiency in two major areas of future developments are given: sour gas production and deep offshore field architecture.

  11. IMU-based Real-time Pose Measurement system for Anterior Pelvic Plane in Total Hip Replacement Surgeries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhe Cao; Shaojie Su; Hao Tang; Yixin Zhou; Zhihua Wang; Hong Chen

    2017-07-01

    With the aging of population, the number of Total Hip Replacement Surgeries (THR) increased year by year. In THR, inaccurate position of the implanted prosthesis may lead to the failure of the operation. In order to reduce the failure rate and acquire the real-time pose of Anterior Pelvic Plane (APP), we propose a measurement system in this paper. The measurement system includes two parts: Initial Pose Measurement Instrument (IPMI) and Real-time Pose Measurement Instrument (RPMI). IPMI is used to acquire the initial pose of the APP, and RPMI is used to estimate the real-time pose of the APP. Both are composed of an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) and magnetometer sensors. To estimate the attitude of the measurement system, the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) is adopted in this paper. The real-time pose of the APP could be acquired together with the algorithm designed in the paper. The experiment results show that the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) is within 1.6 degrees, which meets the requirement of THR operations.

  12. Total test operation of HSST-100 and planning project in Nagoya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujino, Masaaki [Chubu HSST Development Corp., Nagoya (Japan); Mizuma, Takeshi [Traffic Safety and Nuisance Research Inst., Ministry of Transport, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    HSST-100 is an urban mass transit system consisting of normal conductivity magnetic levitation. Its special feature is less noise and vibration. Test running operation has been carried out for the last 4 years in Nagoya. Due to the HSST feasibility Study Committee the HSST-100 system is now ready for commercial use. (HW)

  13. Study of Chromatic parameters of Line, Total, Middle graphs and Graph operators of Bipartite graph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarathinam, R.; Parvathi, N.

    2018-04-01

    Chromatic parameters have been explored on the basis of graph coloring process in which a couple of adjacent nodes receives different colors. But the Grundy and b-coloring executes maximum colors under certain restrictions. In this paper, Chromatic, b-chromatic and Grundy number of some graph operators of bipartite graph has been investigat

  14. Total dose induced increase in input offset voltage in JFET input operational amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pease, R.L.; Krieg, J.; Gehlhausen, M.; Black, J.

    1999-01-01

    Four different types of commercial JFET input operational amplifiers were irradiated with ionizing radiation under a variety of test conditions. All experienced significant increases in input offset voltage (Vos). Microprobe measurement of the electrical characteristics of the de-coupled input JFETs demonstrates that the increase in Vos is a result of the mismatch of the degraded JFETs. (authors)

  15. Pre-Operative Patient Education is Associated With Decreased Risk of Arthrofibrosis After Total Knee Arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Livbjerg, Anna Emilie; Frøkjær, Sara; Simonsen, Ole

    2013-01-01

    The purpose was to investigate risk factors for postoperative stiffness and long-term outcome following manipulation under anaesthesia (MUA). In one of the five Danish regions, all patients in a 4-year period who received MUA following total knee arthroplasty (N=36) were included in two case-cont...

  16. The Time Course of Knee Swelling Post Total Knee Arthroplasty and Its Associations with Quadriceps Strength and Gait Speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pua, Yong-Hao

    2015-07-01

    This study examines the time course of knee swelling post total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and its associations with quadriceps strength and gait speed. Eighty-five patients with unilateral TKA participated. Preoperatively and on post-operative days (PODs) 1, 4, 14, and 90, knee swelling was measured using bioimpedance spectrometry. Preoperatively and on PODs 14 and 90, quadriceps strength was measured using isokinetic dynamometry while fast gait speed was measured using the timed 10-meter walk. On POD1, knee swelling increased ~35% from preoperative levels after which, knee swelling reduced but remained at ~11% above preoperative levels on POD90. In longitudinal, multivariable analyses, knee swelling was associated with quadriceps weakness (P<0.01) and slower gait speed (P=0.03). Interventions to reduce post-TKA knee swelling may be indicated to improve quadriceps strength and gait speed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Blood management and transfusion strategies in 600 patients undergoing total joint arthroplasty: an analysis of pre-operative autologous blood donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perazzo, Paolo; Viganò, Marco; De Girolamo, Laura; Verde, Francesco; Vinci, Anna; Banfi, Giuseppe; Romagnoli, Sergio

    2013-07-01

    Blood loss during total joint arthroplasty strongly influences the time to recover after surgery and the quality of the recovery. Blood conservation strategies such as pre-operative autologous blood donation and post-operative cell salvage are intended to avoid allogeneic blood transfusions and their associated risks. Although widely investigated, the real effectiveness of these alternative transfusion practices remains controversial. The surgery reports of 600 patients undergoing total joint arthroplasty (312 hip and 288 knee replacements) were retrospectively reviewed to assess transfusion needs and related blood management at our institute. Evaluation parameters included post-operative blood loss, haemoglobin concentration measured at different time points, ASA score, and blood transfusion strategies. Autologous blood donation increased the odds of receiving a red blood cell transfusion. Reinfusion by a cell salvage system of post-operative shed blood was found to limit adverse effects in cases of severe post-operative blood loss. The peri-operative net decrease in haemoglobin concentration was higher in patients who had predeposited autologous blood than in those who had not. The strengths of this study are the high number of cases and the standardised procedures, all operations having been performed by a single orthopaedic surgeon and a single anaesthesiologist. Our data suggest that a pre-operative autologous donation programme may often be useless, if not harmful. Conversely, the use of a cell salvage system may be effective in reducing the impact of blood transfusion on a patient's physiological status. Basal haemoglobin concentration emerged as a useful indicator of transfusion probability in total joint replacement procedures.

  18. Evaluation of the Influence of the Logistic Operations Reliability on the Total Costs of a Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukinskiy Valery

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays in logistics integral processes between the material and related flows in supply chains are getting developed more and more. However, in spite of increasing volume of statistical data which reflect the integral processes, the influence evaluation issues of the logistic operations reliability indexes on the total logistics costs remain open and require the corresponding researches implementation.

  19. Time-dependent density functional theory description of total photoabsorption cross sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenorio, Bruno Nunes Cabral; Nascimento, Marco Antonio Chaer; Rocha, Alexandre Braga

    2018-02-01

    The time-dependent version of the density functional theory (TDDFT) has been used to calculate the total photoabsorption cross section of a number of molecules, namely, benzene, pyridine, furan, pyrrole, thiophene, phenol, naphthalene, and anthracene. The discrete electronic pseudo-spectra, obtained in a L2 basis set calculation were used in an analytic continuation procedure to obtain the photoabsorption cross sections. The ammonia molecule was chosen as a model system to compare the results obtained with TDDFT to those obtained with the linear response coupled cluster approach in order to make a link with our previous work and establish benchmarks.

  20. Organizational Culture Influence on Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) and Operational Performance Using RASCH Model Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Asaad, Mohd Norhasni; Yusoff, Rushami Zien

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. Market globalization, competitive product and services, high economic crises are the most critical factors that influence the success of the manufacturing companies in global market. Therefore it is critical to the manufacturing companies to be efficient in production and lean tool may used to achieve that.  The most frequently used is the Total Preventive Maintenance (TPM), even though there are many studies have been conducted in relation to the TPM but there is limited research i...

  1. Effect of pre-operative neuromuscular training on functional outcome after total knee replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Erika O; de Bie, Rob A; Roos, Ewa M.

    2013-01-01

    Total Knee Replacement (TKR) is the standard treatment for patients with severe knee osteoarthritis (OA). Significant improvement in pain and function are seen after TKR and approximately 80% of patients are very satisfied with the outcome. Functional status prior to TKR is a major predictor...... of outcome after the intervention. Thus, improving functional status prior to surgery through exercise may improve after surgery outcome. However, results from several previous trials testing the concept have been inconclusive after surgery....

  2. Feasibility study of a real-time operating system for a multichannel MPEG-4 encoder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtoranta, Olli; Hamalainen, Timo D.

    2005-03-01

    Feasibility of DSP/BIOS real-time operating system for a multi-channel MPEG-4 encoder is studied. Performances of two MPEG-4 encoder implementations with and without the operating system are compared in terms of encoding frame rate and memory requirements. The effects of task switching frequency and number of parallel video channels to the encoding frame rate are measured. The research is carried out on a 200 MHz TMS320C6201 fixed point DSP using QCIF (176x144 pixels) video format. Compared to a traditional DSP implementation without an operating system, inclusion of DSP/BIOS reduces total system throughput only by 1 QCIF frames/s. The operating system has 6 KB data memory overhead and program memory requirement of 15.7 KB. Hence, the overhead is considered low enough for resource critical mobile video applications.

  3. Time delay and duration of ionospheric total electron content responses to geomagnetic disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Liu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Although positive and negative signatures of ionospheric storms have been reported many times, global characteristics such as the time of occurrence, time delay and duration as well as their relations to the intensity of the ionospheric storms have not received enough attention. The 10 years of global ionosphere maps (GIMs of total electron content (TEC retrieved at Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL were used to conduct a statistical study of the time delay of the ionospheric responses to geomagnetic disturbances. Our results show that the time delays between geomagnetic disturbances and TEC responses depend on season, magnetic local time and magnetic latitude. In the summer hemisphere at mid- and high latitudes, the negative storm effects can propagate to the low latitudes at post-midnight to the morning sector with a time delay of 4–7 h. As the earth rotates to the sunlight, negative phase retreats to higher latitudes and starts to extend to the lower latitude toward midnight sector. In the winter hemisphere during the daytime and after sunset at mid- and low latitudes, the negative phase appearance time is delayed from 1–10 h depending on the local time, latitude and storm intensity compared to the same area in the summer hemisphere. The quick response of positive phase can be observed at the auroral area in the night-side of the winter hemisphere. At the low latitudes during the dawn-noon sector, the ionospheric negative phase responses quickly with time delays of 5–7 h in both equinoctial and solsticial months.

    Our results also manifest that there is a positive correlation between the intensity of geomagnetic disturbances and the time duration of both the positive phase and negative phase. The durations of both negative phase and positive phase have clear latitudinal, seasonal and magnetic local time (MLT dependence. In the winter hemisphere, long durations for the positive phase are 8–11 h and 12–14 h during the daytime at

  4. Time delay and duration of ionospheric total electron content responses to geomagnetic disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Liu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Although positive and negative signatures of ionospheric storms have been reported many times, global characteristics such as the time of occurrence, time delay and duration as well as their relations to the intensity of the ionospheric storms have not received enough attention. The 10 years of global ionosphere maps (GIMs of total electron content (TEC retrieved at Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL were used to conduct a statistical study of the time delay of the ionospheric responses to geomagnetic disturbances. Our results show that the time delays between geomagnetic disturbances and TEC responses depend on season, magnetic local time and magnetic latitude. In the summer hemisphere at mid- and high latitudes, the negative storm effects can propagate to the low latitudes at post-midnight to the morning sector with a time delay of 4–7 h. As the earth rotates to the sunlight, negative phase retreats to higher latitudes and starts to extend to the lower latitude toward midnight sector. In the winter hemisphere during the daytime and after sunset at mid- and low latitudes, the negative phase appearance time is delayed from 1–10 h depending on the local time, latitude and storm intensity compared to the same area in the summer hemisphere. The quick response of positive phase can be observed at the auroral area in the night-side of the winter hemisphere. At the low latitudes during the dawn-noon sector, the ionospheric negative phase responses quickly with time delays of 5–7 h in both equinoctial and solsticial months. Our results also manifest that there is a positive correlation between the intensity of geomagnetic disturbances and the time duration of both the positive phase and negative phase. The durations of both negative phase and positive phase have clear latitudinal, seasonal and magnetic local time (MLT dependence. In the winter hemisphere, long durations for the positive phase are 8–11 h and 12–14 h during the daytime at middle

  5. Can a surgery-first orthognathic approach reduce the total treatment time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Woo Shik; Choi, Jong Woo; Kim, Do Yeon; Lee, Jang Yeol; Kwon, Soon Man

    2017-04-01

    Although pre-surgical orthodontic treatment has been accepted as a necessary process for stable orthognathic correction in the traditional orthognathic approach, recent advances in the application of miniscrews and in the pre-surgical simulation of orthodontic management using dental models have shown that it is possible to perform a surgery-first orthognathic approach without pre-surgical orthodontic treatment. This prospective study investigated the surgical outcomes of patients with diagnosed skeletal class III dentofacial deformities who underwent orthognathic surgery between December 2007 and December 2014. Cephalometric landmark data for patients undergoing the surgery-first approach were analyzed in terms of postoperative changes in vertical and horizontal skeletal pattern, dental pattern, and soft tissue profile. Forty-five consecutive Asian patients with skeletal class III dentofacial deformities who underwent surgery-first orthognathic surgery and 52 patients who underwent conventional two-jaw orthognathic surgery were included. The analysis revealed that the total treatment period for the surgery-first approach averaged 14.6 months, compared with 22.0 months for the orthodontics-first approach. Comparisons between the immediate postoperative and preoperative and between the postoperative and immediate postoperative cephalometric data revealed factors that correlated with the total treatment duration. The surgery-first orthognathic approach can dramatically reduce the total treatment time, with no major complications. Copyright © 2016 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Time-driven Activity-based Cost of Fast-Track Total Hip and Knee Arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Signe E; Holm, Henriette B; Jørgensen, Mira

    2017-01-01

    this between 2 departments with different logistical set-ups. METHODS: Prospective data collection was analyzed using the time-driven activity-based costing method (TDABC) on time consumed by different staff members involved in patient treatment in the perioperative period of fast-track THA and TKA in 2 Danish...... orthopedic departments with standardized fast-track settings, but different logistical set-ups. RESULTS: Length of stay was median 2 days in both departments. TDABC revealed minor differences in the perioperative settings between departments, but the total cost excluding the prosthesis was similar at USD......-track methodology, the result could be a more cost-effective pathway altogether. As THA and TKA are potentially costly procedures and the numbers are increasing in an economical limited environment, the aim of this study is to present baseline detailed economical calculations of fast-track THA and TKA and compare...

  7. Decreasing Postanesthesia Care Unit to Floor Transfer Times to Facilitate Short Stay Total Joint Replacements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibia, Udai S; Grover, Jennifer; Turcotte, Justin J; Seanger, Michelle L; England, Kimberly A; King, Jennifer L; King, Paul J

    2018-04-01

    We describe a process for studying and improving baseline postanesthesia care unit (PACU)-to-floor transfer times after total joint replacements. Quality improvement project using lean methodology. Phase I of the investigational process involved collection of baseline data. Phase II involved developing targeted solutions to improve throughput. Phase III involved measured project sustainability. Phase I investigations revealed that patients spent an additional 62 minutes waiting in the PACU after being designated ready for transfer. Five to 16 telephone calls were needed between the PACU and the unit to facilitate each patient transfer. The most common reason for delay was unavailability of the unit nurse who was attending to another patient (58%). Phase II interventions resulted in transfer times decreasing to 13 minutes (79% reduction, P care at other institutions. Copyright © 2016 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Time-gated scintillator imaging for real-time optical surface dosimetry in total skin electron therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruza, Petr; Gollub, Sarah L.; Andreozzi, Jacqueline M.; Tendler, Irwin I.; Williams, Benjamin B.; Jarvis, Lesley A.; Gladstone, David J.; Pogue, Brian W.

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure surface dose by remote time-gated imaging of plastic scintillators. A novel technique for time-gated, intensified camera imaging of scintillator emission was demonstrated, and key parameters influencing the signal were analyzed, including distance, angle and thickness. A set of scintillator samples was calibrated by using thermo-luminescence detector response as reference. Examples of use in total skin electron therapy are described. The data showed excellent room light rejection (signal-to-noise ratio of scintillation SNR  ≈  470), ideal scintillation dose response linearity, and 2% dose rate error. Individual sample scintillation response varied by 7% due to sample preparation. Inverse square distance dependence correction and lens throughput error (8% per meter) correction were needed. At scintillator-to-source angle and observation angle  <50°, the radiant energy fluence error was smaller than 1%. The achieved standard error of the scintillator cumulative dose measurement compared to the TLD dose was 5%. The results from this proof-of-concept study documented the first use of small scintillator targets for remote surface dosimetry in ambient room lighting. The measured dose accuracy renders our method to be comparable to thermo-luminescent detector dosimetry, with the ultimate realization of accuracy likely to be better than shown here. Once optimized, this approach to remote dosimetry may substantially reduce the time and effort required for surface dosimetry.

  9. Alpha: A real-time decentralized operating system for mission-oriented system integration and operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, E. Douglas

    1988-01-01

    Alpha is a new kind of operating system that is unique in two highly significant ways. First, it is decentralized transparently providing reliable resource management across physically dispersed nodes, so that distributed applications programming can be done largely as though it were centralized. And second, it provides comprehensive, high technology support for real-time system integration and operation, an application area which consists predominately of aperiodic activities having critical time constraints such as deadlines. Alpha is extremely adaptable so that it can be easily optimized for a wide range of problem-specific functionality, performance, and cost. Alpha is the first systems effort of the Archons Project, and the prototype was created at Carnegie-Mellon University directly on modified Sun multiprocessor workstation hardware. It has been demonstrated with a real-time C(sup 2) application. Continuing research is leading to a series of enhanced follow-ons to Alpha; these are portable but initially hosted on Concurrent's MASSCOMP line of multiprocessor products.

  10. Smoking is associated with earlier time to revision of total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chin Tat; Goodman, Stuart B; Huddleston, James I; Harris, Alex H S; Bhowmick, Subhrojyoti; Maloney, William J; Amanatullah, Derek F

    2017-10-01

    Smoking is associated with early postoperative complications, increased length of hospital stay, and an increased risk of revision after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, the effect of smoking on time to revision TKA is unknown. A total of 619 primary TKAs referred to an academic tertiary center for revision TKA were retrospectively stratified according to the patient smoking status. Smoking status was then analyzed for associations with time to revision TKA using a Chi square test. The association was also analyzed according to the indication for revision TKA. Smokers (37/41, 90%) have an increased risk of earlier revision for any reason compared to non-smokers (274/357, 77%, p=0.031). Smokers (37/41, 90%) have an increased risk of earlier revision for any reason compared to ex-smokers (168/221, 76%, p=0.028). Subgroup analysis did not reveal a difference in indication for revision TKA (p>0.05). Smokers are at increased risk of earlier revision TKA when compared to non-smokers and ex-smokers. The risk for ex-smokers was similar to that of non-smokers. Smoking appears to have an all-or-none effect on earlier revision TKA as patients who smoked more did not have higher risk of early revision TKA. These results highlight the need for clinicians to urge patients not to begin smoking and encourage smokers to quit smoking prior to primary TKA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Total-system expertise in economically efficient operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Siemens Nuclear Power GmbH can look back on well over 40 years of experience in developing and constructing nuclear power plants. 23 Power plant units of Siemens design are in operation in five countries, and in autumn this year, another one will start commercial operation, while yet another one is under construction. In comparative international power plant surveys, the Siemens-design systems usually rank in top positions when it comes to comparing systems availability and electric power generation, and Siemens have build a reputation in manufacturing power plants up to the highest safety standards worldwide. Our experience as a manufacturer of turnkey PWR and BWR type reactors, as well as our profound knowledge of international nuclear standardisation, engineering codes and safety guides, has been used and processed to the benefit of the services offered by Siemens, resulting in well-devised service packages, and enhancements and optimisation of our machinery and equipment. Siemens has of course obtained the relevant licenses and certification for all its services and products according to DIN ISO 9001, KTA and ASME standards [de

  12. Risk factors for post-operative periprosthetic fractures following primary total hip arthroplasty with a proximally coated double-tapered cementless femoral component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gromov, K; Bersang, A; Nielsen, C S

    2017-01-01

    ratio were recorded post-operatively. Periprosthetic fractures were identified and classified according to the Vancouver classification. Regression analysis was performed to identify risk factors for early periprosthetic fracture. RESULTS: The mean follow-up was 713 days (1 to 2058). A total of 48......AIMS: The aim of this study was to identify patient- and surgery-related risk factors for sustaining an early periprosthetic fracture following primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) performed using a double-tapered cementless femoral component (Bi-Metric femoral stem; Biomet Inc., Warsaw, Indiana...... periprosthetic fractures (3.0%) were identified during the follow-up and median time until fracture was 16 days, (interquartile range 10 to 31.5). Patients with femoral Dorr type C had a 5.2 times increased risk of post-operative periprosthetic fracture compared with type B, while female patients had a near...

  13. Improved operative efficiency using a real-time MRI-guided stereotactic platform for laser amygdalohippocampotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Allen L; Sussman, Eric S; Pendharkar, Arjun V; Le, Scheherazade; Mantovani, Alessandra; Keebaugh, Alaine C; Drover, David R; Grant, Gerald A; Wintermark, Max; Halpern, Casey H

    2018-04-01

    OBJECTIVE MR-guided laser interstitial thermal therapy (MRgLITT) is a minimally invasive method for thermal destruction of benign or malignant tissue that has been used for selective amygdalohippocampal ablation for the treatment of temporal lobe epilepsy. The authors report their initial experience adopting a real-time MRI-guided stereotactic platform that allows for completion of the entire procedure in the MRI suite. METHODS Between October 2014 and May 2016, 17 patients with mesial temporal sclerosis were selected by a multidisciplinary epilepsy board to undergo a selective amygdalohippocampal ablation for temporal lobe epilepsy using MRgLITT. The first 9 patients underwent standard laser ablation in 2 phases (operating room [OR] and MRI suite), whereas the next 8 patients underwent laser ablation entirely in the MRI suite with the ClearPoint platform. A checklist specific to the real-time MRI-guided laser amydalohippocampal ablation was developed and used for each case. For both cohorts, clinical and operative information, including average case times and accuracy data, was collected and analyzed. RESULTS There was a learning curve associated with using this real-time MRI-guided system. However, operative times decreased in a linear fashion, as did total anesthesia time. In fact, the total mean patient procedure time was less in the MRI cohort (362.8 ± 86.6 minutes) than in the OR cohort (456.9 ± 80.7 minutes). The mean anesthesia time was significantly shorter in the MRI cohort (327.2 ± 79.9 minutes) than in the OR cohort (435.8 ± 78.4 minutes, p = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS The real-time MRI platform for MRgLITT can be adopted in an expedient manner. Completion of MRgLITT entirely in the MRI suite may lead to significant advantages in procedural times.

  14. The implementation methodology of Total Quality Management in health services, as a best practice operation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodora Malamou

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Total Quality Management – TQM (Total Quality Management-TQM, health services, is a modern management philosophy to improve the quality and efficiency of the organization as a whole, with the involvement of all employees, at all levels. According to the research data, the concept of quality is distinguished in technical, interpersonal quality and hotel infrastructure and focuses on patient satisfaction. The Critical success factors of TQM, organizations for business excellence in continuous competitive changing environment, is the management commitment, customer focus, constant communication with employees, encouragement and reward, education and scientific training, continuous improvement quality of service, interdependent relationships with suppliers, active employee participation, creation of representative indicators, targets and benchmarking, continuous outcome assessment and continuous review, review of program procedures. The purpose of this article is through the review of Greek and international literature, to introduce the methodology of a project TQM, to health services, as everyday best practice, with emphasis on quality of service. According to the literature review, TQM contributes to improving the quality of health services, the cultivation of team spirit, cooperation between health professionals and leadership, with a view to satisfy all. TQM is purely anthropocentric theory of organization and administration. We need comprehensive effort approach to improving the quality of leadership and the introduction of the culture of workers.

  15. Operational performance of the TIMED Doppler Interferometer (TIDI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Wilbert R.; Niciejewski, Rick J.; Killeen, Timothy L.; Solomon, Stanley C.; Gablehouse, Daniel; Wu, Qian; Ortland, David; Gell, David A.; Marshall, Alan R.; Wolfe, Edwin, Jr.; Cooper, Marie; Kafkalidis, Julie F.

    2003-11-01

    The TIMED Doppler Interferometer (TIDI) is a Fabry-Perot interferometer designed to measure winds in the mesosphere and thermosphere (60-180 km) as part of the TIMED mission. TIDI is a limb viewer and observes emissions from OI 557.7 nm and rotational lines in the O2(0-0) Atmospheric band. Wind measurement accuracies approach 3 ms-1 in the mesosphere and 15 ms-1 in the thermosphere. The TIDI instrument"s performance during the first year and a half of operation is discussed in this paper. Many subsystems are working as designed. The thermal control system is holding the instrument temperatures at their desired set-points. The CCD detector is working as expected with no changes observed in the gain, bias or read noise. The instrument suffers from a light leak that causes the background to be elevated and increases the uncertainty in the wind measurement. Nothing can be done to eliminate this problem but modeling of the background has eliminated any systematic effect. Water outgassing from the spacecraft or instrument has deposited as ice on some part of the optics and reduced the instrument"s sensitivity. This problem has been reduced by two spacecraft rolls which pointed the TIDI radiator to view more of the earth causing the optics to warm up and sublimate much of the ice.

  16. Total vaginectomy and urethral lengthening at time of neourethral prelamination in transgender men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Carlos A; Fein, Lydia A; Salgado, Christopher J

    2017-11-29

    For transgender men (TGM), gender-affirmation surgery (GAS) is often the final stage of their gender transition. GAS involves creating a neophallus, typically using tissue remote from the genital region, such as radial forearm free-flap phalloplasty. Essential to this process is vaginectomy. Complexity of vaginal fascial attachments, atrophy due to testosterone use, and need to preserve integrity of the vaginal epithelium for tissue rearrangement add to the intricacy of the procedure during GAS. We designed the technique presented here to minimize complications and contribute to overall success of the phalloplasty procedure. After obtaining approval from the Institutional Review Board, our transgender (TG) database at the University of Miami Hospital was reviewed to identify cases with vaginectomy and urethral elongation performed at the time of radial forearm free-flap phalloplasty prelamination. Surgical technique for posterior vaginectomy and anterior vaginal wall-flap harvest with subsequent urethral lengthening is detailed. Six patients underwent total vaginectomy and urethral elongation at the time of radial forearm free-flap phalloplasty prelamination. Mean estimated blood loss (EBL) was 290 ± 199.4 ml for the vaginectomy and urethral elongation, and no one required transfusion. There were no intraoperative complications (cystotomy, ureteral obstruction, enterotomy, proctotomy, or neurological injury). One patient had a urologic complication (urethral stricture) in the neobulbar urethra. Total vaginectomy and urethral lengthening procedures at the time of GAS are relatively safe procedures, and using the described technique provides excellent tissue for urethral prelamination and a low complication rate in both the short and long term.

  17. Observed and simulated time evolution of HCl, ClONO2, and HF total column abundances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.-M. Sinnhuber

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Time series of total column abundances of hydrogen chloride (HCl, chlorine nitrate (ClONO2, and hydrogen fluoride (HF were determined from ground-based Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectra recorded at 17 sites belonging to the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC and located between 80.05° N and 77.82° S. By providing such a near-global overview on ground-based measurements of the two major stratospheric chlorine reservoir species, HCl and ClONO2, the present study is able to confirm the decrease of the atmospheric inorganic chlorine abundance during the last few years. This decrease is expected following the 1987 Montreal Protocol and its amendments and adjustments, where restrictions and a subsequent phase-out of the prominent anthropogenic chlorine source gases (solvents, chlorofluorocarbons were agreed upon to enable a stabilisation and recovery of the stratospheric ozone layer. The atmospheric fluorine content is expected to be influenced by the Montreal Protocol, too, because most of the banned anthropogenic gases also represent important fluorine sources. But many of the substitutes to the banned gases also contain fluorine so that the HF total column abundance is expected to have continued to increase during the last few years. The measurements are compared with calculations from five different models: the two-dimensional Bremen model, the two chemistry-transport models KASIMA and SLIMCAT, and the two chemistry-climate models EMAC and SOCOL. Thereby, the ability of the models to reproduce the absolute total column amounts, the seasonal cycles, and the temporal evolution found in the FTIR measurements is investigated and inter-compared. This is especially interesting because the models have different architectures. The overall agreement between the measurements and models for the total column abundances and the seasonal cycles is good. Linear trends of HCl, ClONO2, and HF are calculated from both

  18. Decision of Lead-Time Compression and Stable Operation of Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songtao Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A cost optimization strategy and a robust control strategy were studied to realize the low-cost robust operation of the supply chain with lead times. Firstly, for the multiple production lead times which existed in the supply chain, a corresponding inventory state model and a supply chain cost model were constructed based on the Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy control system. Then, by considering the actual inventory level, the lead-time compression cost, and the stock-out cost, a cost optimization strategy was proposed. Furthermore, a fuzzy robust control strategy was proposed to realize the flexible switching among the models. Finally, the simulation results show that the total cost of the supply chain could be reduced effectively by the cost optimization strategy, and the stable operation of the supply chain could be realized by the proposed fuzzy robust control strategy.

  19. FLOW-SHOP SCHEDULING WITH MULTIPLE OPERATIONS AND TIME LAGS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    RIEZEBOS, J; GAALMAN, GJC; GUPTA, JND

    A scheduling system is proposed and developed for a special type of flow shop. Ln this flow shop there is one machine at each stage. A job may require multiple operations at each stage. The first operation of a job on stage j cannot start until the last operation of the job on stage j - 1 has

  20. A Novel Ant Colony Algorithm for the Single-Machine Total Weighted Tardiness Problem with Sequence Dependent Setup Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fardin Ahmadizar

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the NP-hard single-machine total weighted tardiness problem with sequence dependent setup times. Incorporating fuzzy sets and genetic operators, a novel ant colony optimization algorithm is developed for the problem. In the proposed algorithm, artificial ants construct solutions as orders of jobs based on the heuristic information as well as pheromone trails. To calculate the heuristic information, three well-known priority rules are adopted as fuzzy sets and then aggregated. When all artificial ants have terminated their constructions, genetic operators such as crossover and mutation are applied to generate new regions of the solution space. A local search is then performed to improve the performance quality of some of the solutions found. Moreover, at run-time the pheromone trails are locally as well as globally updated, and limited between lower and upper bounds. The proposed algorithm is experimented on a set of benchmark problems from the literature and compared with other metaheuristics.

  1. A rapid infusion protocol is safe for total dose iron polymaltose: time for change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, M; Morrison, G; Friedman, A; Lau, A; Lau, D; Gibson, P R

    2011-07-01

    Intravenous correction of iron deficiency by total dose iron polymaltose is inexpensive and safe, but current protocols entail prolonged administration over more than 4 h. This results in reduced patient acceptance, and hospital resource strain. We aimed to assess prospectively the safety of a rapid intravenous protocol and compare this with historical controls. Consecutive patients in whom intravenous iron replacement was indicated were invited to have up to 1.5 g iron polymaltose by a 58-min infusion protocol after an initial 15-min test dose without pre-medication. Infusion-related adverse events (AE) and delayed AE over the ensuing 5 days were also prospectively documented and graded as mild, moderate or severe. One hundred patients, 63 female, mean age 54 (range 18-85) years were studied. Thirty-four infusion-related AE to iron polymaltose occurred in a total of 24 patients--25 mild, 8 moderate and 1 severe; higher than previously reported for a slow protocol iron infusion. Thirty-one delayed AE occurred in 26 patients--26 mild, 3 moderate and 2 severe; similar to previously reported. All but five patients reported they would prefer iron replacement through the rapid protocol again. The presence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) predicted infusion-related reactions (54% vs 14% without IBD, P cost, resource utilization and time benefits for the patient and hospital system. © 2011 The Authors. Internal Medicine Journal © 2011 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  2. Optimum filters with time width constraints for liquid argon total-absorption detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatti, E.; Radeka, V.

    1977-10-01

    Optimum filter responses are found for triangular current input pulses occurring in liquid argon ionization chambers used as total absorption detectors. The filters considered are subject to the following constraints: finite width of the output pulse having a prescribed ratio to the width of the triangular input current pulse and zero area of a bipolar antisymmetrical pulse or of a three lobe pulse, as required for high event rates. The feasibility of pulse shaping giving an output equal to, or shorter than, the input one is demonstrated. It is shown that the signal-to-noise ratio remains constant for the chamber interelectrode gap which gives an input pulse width (i.e., electron drift time) greater than one third of the required output pulse width

  3. Simplified neural networks for solving linear least squares and total least squares problems in real time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichocki, A; Unbehauen, R

    1994-01-01

    In this paper a new class of simplified low-cost analog artificial neural networks with on chip adaptive learning algorithms are proposed for solving linear systems of algebraic equations in real time. The proposed learning algorithms for linear least squares (LS), total least squares (TLS) and data least squares (DLS) problems can be considered as modifications and extensions of well known algorithms: the row-action projection-Kaczmarz algorithm and/or the LMS (Adaline) Widrow-Hoff algorithms. The algorithms can be applied to any problem which can be formulated as a linear regression problem. The correctness and high performance of the proposed neural networks are illustrated by extensive computer simulation results.

  4. Real-time operation without a real-time operating system for instrument control and data acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Randolf; Poglitsch, Albrecht; Fumi, Fabio; Geis, Norbert; Hamidouche, Murad; Hoenle, Rainer; Looney, Leslie; Raab, Walfried; Viehhauser, Werner

    2004-09-01

    We are building the Field-Imaging Far-Infrared Line Spectrometer (FIFI LS) for the US-German airborne observatory SOFIA. The detector read-out system is driven by a clock signal at a certain frequency. This signal has to be provided and all other sub-systems have to work synchronously to this clock. The data generated by the instrument has to be received by a computer in a timely manner. Usually these requirements are met with a real-time operating system (RTOS). In this presentation we want to show how we meet these demands differently avoiding the stiffness of an RTOS. Digital I/O-cards with a large buffer separate the asynchronous working computers and the synchronous working instrument. The advantage is that the data processing computers do not need to process the data in real-time. It is sufficient that the computer can process the incoming data stream on average. But since the data is read-in synchronously, problems of relating commands and responses (data) have to be solved: The data is arriving at a fixed rate. The receiving I/O-card buffers the data in its buffer until the computer can access it. To relate the data to commands sent previously, the data is tagged by counters in the read-out electronics. These counters count the system's heartbeat and signals derived from that. The heartbeat and control signals synchronous with the heartbeat are sent by an I/O-card working as pattern generator. Its buffer gets continously programmed with a pattern which is clocked out on the control lines. A counter in the I/O-card keeps track of the amount of pattern words clocked out. By reading this counter, the computer knows the state of the instrument or knows the meaning of the data that will arrive with a certain time-tag.

  5. Estimating time-based instantaneous total mortality rate based on the age-structured abundance index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingbin; Jiao, Yan

    2015-05-01

    The instantaneous total mortality rate ( Z) of a fish population is one of the important parameters in fisheries stock assessment. The estimation of Z is crucial to fish population dynamics analysis, abundance and catch forecast, and fisheries management. A catch curve-based method for estimating time-based Z and its change trend from catch per unit effort (CPUE) data of multiple cohorts is developed. Unlike the traditional catch-curve method, the method developed here does not need the assumption of constant Z throughout the time, but the Z values in n continuous years are assumed constant, and then the Z values in different n continuous years are estimated using the age-based CPUE data within these years. The results of the simulation analyses show that the trends of the estimated time-based Z are consistent with the trends of the true Z, and the estimated rates of change from this approach are close to the true change rates (the relative differences between the change rates of the estimated Z and the true Z are smaller than 10%). Variations of both Z and recruitment can affect the estimates of Z value and the trend of Z. The most appropriate value of n can be different given the effects of different factors. Therefore, the appropriate value of n for different fisheries should be determined through a simulation analysis as we demonstrated in this study. Further analyses suggested that selectivity and age estimation are also two factors that can affect the estimated Z values if there is error in either of them, but the estimated change rates of Z are still close to the true change rates. We also applied this approach to the Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua) fishery of eastern Newfoundland and Labrador from 1983 to 1997, and obtained reasonable estimates of time-based Z.

  6. Effect of adductor-canal-blockade on established, severe post-operative pain after total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, P; Grevstad, Ulrik; Henningsen, Maja

    2012-01-01

    In this proof-of-concept study, we investigated the effect of the predominantly sensory adductor-canal-blockade on established pain in the early post-operative period after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We hypothesised that the adductor-canal-blockade would reduce pain during flexion of the knee...... (primary end point) and at rest, as well as reducing morphine consumption and morphine-related side effects (secondary outcomes) compared with placebo....

  7. Improving operating room turnover time: a systems based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Ankeet S; Carlson, Grant W; Deckers, Peter J

    2014-12-01

    Operating room (OR) turnover time (TT) has a broad and significant impact on hospital administrators, providers, staff and patients. Our objective was to identify current problems in TT management and implement a consistent, reproducible process to reduce average TT and process variability. Initial observations of TT were made to document the existing process at a 511 bed, 24 OR, academic medical center. Three control groups, including one consisting of Orthopedic and Vascular Surgery, were used to limit potential confounders such as case acuity/duration and equipment needs. A redesigned process based on observed issues, focusing on a horizontally structured, systems-based approach has three major interventions: developing consistent criteria for OR readiness, utilizing parallel processing for patient and room readiness, and enhancing perioperative communication. Process redesign was implemented in Orthopedics and Vascular Surgery. Comparisons of mean and standard deviation of TT were made using an independent 2-tailed t-test. Using all surgical specialties as controls (n = 237), mean TT (hh:mm:ss) was reduced by 0:20:48 min (95 % CI, 0:10:46-0:30:50), from 0:44:23 to 0:23:25, a 46.9 % reduction. Standard deviation of TT was reduced by 0:10:32 min, from 0:16:24 to 0:05:52 and frequency of TT≥30 min was reduced from 72.5to 11.7 %. P systems-based focus should drive OR TT design.

  8. Revisiting the reactor pressure vessel for long-time operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapena, J.; Serrano, M.; Diego, G. de; Hernandez Mayoral, M.

    2013-01-01

    The reactor pressure vessel (RPV) is one of the key components of nuclear power plants, especially for long time operation. It is a non-replaceable component, at least with current technology. the structural integrity of the vessel is evaluated within called monitoring programs where the degradation of the mechanical properties due to neutron irradiation is determined. From the first designs of the RPVs and monitoring programs in the years 60-70 currently still in force, there have been major advances in the understanding of radiation damage and methods of evaluation. Thus, it is recommended the use of forgings instead of plates in the construction of the RPVs in order to reduce the number of welds, more sensitive to neutron irradiation, and using starting materials with less content of impurities, particularly copper. To evaluate the embrittlement of RPVs the Master Curve methodology is currently used, through the testing of the charpy specimens from the surveillance capsules, to determine the fracture toughness. This article summarizes the last activities of CIEMAT into the European research projects LONGIIFE and PERFORM60, about the knowledge of radiation damage in materials with low copper content, traditionally considered less sensitive to irradiation, and the use of the Master Curve in advanced surveillance programs. The activities related to the problems associated with the use of large forging, such as the appearance of hydrogen flakes in the vessel of Doel 3, and its implications, are also presented. (Author)

  9. Total and domain-specific sitting time among employees in desk-based work settings in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennie, Jason A; Pedisic, Zeljko; Timperio, Anna; Crawford, David; Dunstan, David; Bauman, Adrian; van Uffelen, Jannique; Salmon, Jo

    2015-06-01

    To describe the total and domain-specific daily sitting time among a sample of Australian office-based employees. In April 2010, paper-based surveys were provided to desk-based employees (n=801) in Victoria, Australia. Total daily and domain-specific (work, leisure-time and transport-related) sitting time (minutes/day) were assessed by validated questionnaires. Differences in sitting time were examined across socio-demographic (age, sex, occupational status) and lifestyle characteristics (physical activity levels, body mass index [BMI]) using multiple linear regression analyses. The median (95% confidence interval [CI]) of total daily sitting time was 540 (531-557) minutes/day. Insufficiently active adults (median=578 minutes/day, [95%CI: 564-602]), younger adults aged 18-29 years (median=561 minutes/day, [95%CI: 540-577]) reported the highest total daily sitting times. Occupational sitting time accounted for almost 60% of total daily sitting time. In multivariate analyses, total daily sitting time was negatively associated with age (unstandardised regression coefficient [B]=-1.58, pphysical activity (minutes/week) (B=-0.03, pemployees reported that more than half of their total daily sitting time was accrued in the work setting. Given the high contribution of occupational sitting to total daily sitting time among desk-based employees, interventions should focus on the work setting. © 2014 Public Health Association of Australia.

  10. Early post operative mortality of Total Correction of Tetralogy of Fallot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Azari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Since 1954, after the first surgical repair of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF, several innovations have occurred in cardiac surgery, especially in children. One stage complete repair of TOF is currently possible even in infancy; however, complications such as hypoxemia, arrhythmia, cardiac dysfunction, sudden death, and valvular disorders may happen. In this study, we evaluated the results of complete surgical repair of TOF with pulmonary stenosis. Material and Methods: We assessed 74 cases of TOF with pulmonary stenosis that underwent surgery in Cardiac Surgical Ward of Imam Reza Hospital, Mashhad, Iran from 2008 to 2010. Results: Mean age was 5.74±3.31 years and more than half of the patients were male. Mean perfusion and cross-clamping times were 55.45±15.06 and 42.63±9.07 min,respectively. The most common coexisting anomaly was atrial septal defect. Further, 83.7% of the patients were symptomatic, and history of spell attacks was positive in 24.3% of the cases. Arrhythmia was reported in 28.4% of the patients. Mortality rate was 12.2% in our study, which was higher in younger patients (P=0.022 or those with lower weight (P=0.008, longer perfusion time during cardiac surgery (P=0.009, or presence of associated cardiac anomalies (P=0.030. Conclusion: Outcomes and mortality rate of one-stage surgical repair of TOF with pulmonary stenosis was acceptable in our center, and arrhythmia was the most common postoperative complication

  11. Cost of post-operative intravenous iron therapy in total lower limb arthroplasty: a retrospective, matched cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Manuel; Gómez-Ramírez, Susana; Martín-Montañez, Elisa; Naveira, Enrique; Seara, Javier; Pavía, José

    2014-01-01

    Background Requirements for allogeneic red cell transfusion after total lower limb arthroplasty are still high (20–50%), and post-operative intravenous iron has been shown to reduce transfusion requirements for this surgery. We performed a cost analysis to ascertain whether this alternative is also likely to be cost-effective. Materials and methods Data from 182 matched-pairs of total lower limb arthroplasty patients, managed with a restrictive transfusion protocol and without (control group) or with post-operative intravenous iron (iron group), were retrospectively reviewed. Acquisition and administration costs of iron (iron sucrose or ferric carboxymaltose) and allogeneic red cell concentrates, haemoglobin measurements, and prolonged stay in hospital were used for blood management cost analysis. Results Patients in the iron group received 600 mg intravenous iron, without clinically relevant incidents, and had a lower allogeneic transfusion rate (11.5% vs 26.4% for the iron and control groups, respectively; p=0.001). The reduction in transfusion rate was more pronounced in anaemic patients (17% vs 40%; p=0.015) than in non-anaemic ones (9.6% vs 21.2%; p=0.011). There were no differences with respect to post-operative infection rate. Patients receiving allogeneic transfusion stayed in hospital longer (+1.9 days [95% CI: 1.2–2.6]). As intravenous iron reduces the allogeneic transfusion rate, both iron formulations were cost-neutral in the different cost scenarios (−25.5 to 62.1 €/patient for iron sucrose, and −51.1 to 64.4 €/patient for ferric carboxymaltose). Discussion In patients presenting with or without pre-operative anaemia, post-operative intravenous iron after total lower limb arthroplasty seems to be safe and is associated with reduced transfusion rates, without incremental costs. For anaemic patients, its efficacy could be increased by associating some other blood-saving method. PMID:24120595

  12. Total variation regularization for a backward time-fractional diffusion problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Liyan; Liu, Jijun

    2013-01-01

    Consider a two-dimensional backward problem for a time-fractional diffusion process, which can be considered as image de-blurring where the blurring process is assumed to be slow diffusion. In order to avoid the over-smoothing effect for object image with edges and to construct a fast reconstruction scheme, the total variation regularizing term and the data residual error in the frequency domain are coupled to construct the cost functional. The well posedness of this optimization problem is studied. The minimizer is sought approximately using the iteration process for a series of optimization problems with Bregman distance as a penalty term. This iteration reconstruction scheme is essentially a new regularizing scheme with coupling parameter in the cost functional and the iteration stopping times as two regularizing parameters. We give the choice strategy for the regularizing parameters in terms of the noise level of measurement data, which yields the optimal error estimate on the iterative solution. The series optimization problems are solved by alternative iteration with explicit exact solution and therefore the amount of computation is much weakened. Numerical implementations are given to support our theoretical analysis on the convergence rate and to show the significant reconstruction improvements. (paper)

  13. Use of an operating microscope during spine surgery is associated with minor increases in operating room times and no increased risk of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basques, Bryce A; Golinvaux, Nicholas S; Bohl, Daniel D; Yacob, Alem; Toy, Jason O; Varthi, Arya G; Grauer, Jonathan N

    2014-10-15

    Retrospective database review. To evaluate whether microscope use during spine procedures is associated with increased operating room times or increased risk of infection. Operating microscopes are commonly used in spine procedures. It is debated whether the use of an operating microscope increases operating room time or confers increased risk of infection. The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database, which includes data from more than 370 participating hospitals, was used to identify patients undergoing elective spinal procedures with and without the use of an operating microscope for the years 2011 and 2012. Bivariate and multivariate linear regressions were used to test the association between microscope use and operating room times. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were similarly conducted to test the association between microscope use and infection occurrence within 30 days of surgery. A total of 23,670 elective spine procedures were identified, of which 2226 (9.4%) used an operating microscope. The average patient age was 55.1±14.4 years. The average operative time (incision to closure) was 125.7±82.0 minutes.Microscope use was associated with minor increases in preoperative room time (+2.9 min, P=0.013), operative time (+13.2 min, Pmicroscope and nonmicroscope groups for occurrence of any infection, superficial surgical site infection, deep surgical site infection, organ space infection, or sepsis/septic shock, regardless of surgery type. We did not find operating room times or infection risk to be significant deterrents for use of an operating microscope during spine surgery. 3.

  14. A Flexible Job Shop Scheduling Problem with Controllable Processing Times to Optimize Total Cost of Delay and Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Mokhtari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the flexible job shop scheduling problem with machine flexibility and controllable process times is studied. The main idea is that the processing times of operations may be controlled by consumptions of additional resources. The purpose of this paper to find the best trade-off between processing cost and delay cost in order to minimize the total costs. The proposed model, flexible job shop scheduling with controllable processing times (FJCPT, is formulated as an integer non-linear programming (INLP model and then it is converted into an integer linear programming (ILP model. Due to NP-hardness of FJCPT, conventional analytic optimization methods are not efficient. Hence, in order to solve the problem, a Scatter Search (SS, as an efficient metaheuristic method, is developed. To show the effectiveness of the proposed method, numerical experiments are conducted. The efficiency of the proposed algorithm is compared with that of a genetic algorithm (GA available in the literature for solving FJSP problem. The results showed that the proposed SS provide better solutions than the existing GA.

  15. Mobile laminar air flow screen for additional operating room ventilation: reduction of intraoperative bacterial contamination during total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sossai, D; Dagnino, G; Sanguineti, F; Franchin, F

    2011-12-01

    Surgical site infections are important complications in orthopedic surgery. A mobile laminar air flow (LAF) screen could represent a useful addition to an operating room (OR) with conventional turbulent air ventilation (12.5 air changes/h), as it could decrease the bacterial count near the operating field. The purpose of this study was to evaluate LAF efficacy at reducing bacterial contamination in the surgical area during 34 total knee arthroplasties (TKAs). The additional unit was used in 17 operations; the LAF was positioned beside the operating table between two of the surgeons, with the air flow directed towards the surgical area (wound). The whole team wore conventional OR clothing and the correct hygiene procedures and rituals were used. Bacterial air contamination (CFU/m(3)) was evaluated in the wound area in 17 operations with the LAF unit and 17 without the LAF unit. The LAF unit reduced the mean bacterial count in the wound area from 23.5 CFU/m(3) without the LAF to 3.5 CFU/m(3) with the LAF (P contamination of the wound area significantly decreased to below the accepted level for an ultraclean OR, preventing SSI infections.

  16. Determination of time-dependent uncertainty of the total solar irradiance records from 1978 to present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fröhlich Claus

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. The existing records of total solar irradiance (TSI since 1978 differ not only in absolute values, but also show different trends. For the study of TSI variability these records need to be combined and three composites have been devised; however, the results depend on the choice of the records and the way they are combined. A new composite should be based on all existing records with an individual qualification. It is proposed to use a time-dependent uncertainty for weighting of the individual records. Methods. The determination of the time-dependent deviation of the TSI records is performed by comparison with the square root of the sunspot number (SSN. However, this correlation is only valid for timescales of the order of a year or more because TSI and SSN react quite differently to solar activity changes on shorter timescales. Hence the results concern only periods longer than the one-year-low-pass filter used in the analysis. Results. Besides the main objective to determine an investigator-independent uncertainty, the comparison of TSI with √SSN turns out to be a powerful tool for the study of the TSI long-term changes. The correlation of √SSN with TSI replicates very well the TSI minima, especially the very low value of the recent minimum. The results of the uncertainty determination confirm not only the need for adequate corrections for degradation, but also show that a rather detailed analysis is needed. The daily average of all TSI values available on that day, weighted with the correspondingly determined uncertainty, is used to construct a “new” composite, which, overall, compares well with the Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos (PMOD composite. Finally, the TSI − √SSN comparison proves to be an important diagnostic tool not only for estimating uncertainties of observations, but also for a better understanding of the long-term variability of TSI.

  17. Enhanced responses to tumor immunization following total body irradiation are time-dependent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Diab

    Full Text Available The development of successful cancer vaccines is contingent on the ability to induce effective and persistent anti-tumor immunity against self-antigens that do not typically elicit immune responses. In this study, we examine the effects of a non-myeloablative dose of total body irradiation on the ability of tumor-naïve mice to respond to DNA vaccines against melanoma. We demonstrate that irradiation followed by lymphocyte infusion results in a dramatic increase in responsiveness to tumor vaccination, with augmentation of T cell responses to tumor antigens and tumor eradication. In irradiated mice, infused CD8(+ T cells expand in an environment that is relatively depleted in regulatory T cells, and this correlates with improved CD8(+ T cell functionality. We also observe an increase in the frequency of dendritic cells displaying an activated phenotype within lymphoid organs in the first 24 hours after irradiation. Intriguingly, both the relative decrease in regulatory T cells and increase in activated dendritic cells correspond with a brief window of augmented responsiveness to immunization. After this 24 hour window, the numbers of dendritic cells decline, as does the ability of mice to respond to immunizations. When immunizations are initiated within the period of augmented dendritic cell activation, mice develop anti-tumor responses that show increased durability as well as magnitude, and this approach leads to improved survival in experiments with mice bearing established tumors as well as in a spontaneous melanoma model. We conclude that irradiation can produce potent immune adjuvant effects independent of its ability to induce tumor ablation, and that the timing of immunization and lymphocyte infusion in the irradiated host are crucial for generating optimal anti-tumor immunity. Clinical strategies using these approaches must therefore optimize such parameters, as the correct timing of infusion and vaccination may mean the difference

  18. Parallel algorithm of real-time infrared image restoration based on total variation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ran; Li, Miao; Long, Yunli; Zeng, Yaoyuan; An, Wei

    2015-10-01

    Image restoration is a necessary preprocessing step for infrared remote sensing applications. Traditional methods allow us to remove the noise but penalize too much the gradients corresponding to edges. Image restoration techniques based on variational approaches can solve this over-smoothing problem for the merits of their well-defined mathematical modeling of the restore procedure. The total variation (TV) of infrared image is introduced as a L1 regularization term added to the objective energy functional. It converts the restoration process to an optimization problem of functional involving a fidelity term to the image data plus a regularization term. Infrared image restoration technology with TV-L1 model exploits the remote sensing data obtained sufficiently and preserves information at edges caused by clouds. Numerical implementation algorithm is presented in detail. Analysis indicates that the structure of this algorithm can be easily implemented in parallelization. Therefore a parallel implementation of the TV-L1 filter based on multicore architecture with shared memory is proposed for infrared real-time remote sensing systems. Massive computation of image data is performed in parallel by cooperating threads running simultaneously on multiple cores. Several groups of synthetic infrared image data are used to validate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed parallel algorithm. Quantitative analysis of measuring the restored image quality compared to input image is presented. Experiment results show that the TV-L1 filter can restore the varying background image reasonably, and that its performance can achieve the requirement of real-time image processing.

  19. Modulation of Total Sleep Time by Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frase, Lukas; Piosczyk, Hannah; Zittel, Sulamith; Jahn, Friederike; Selhausen, Peter; Krone, Lukas; Feige, Bernd; Mainberger, Florian; Maier, Jonathan G; Kuhn, Marion; Klöppel, Stefan; Normann, Claus; Sterr, Annette; Spiegelhalder, Kai; Riemann, Dieter; Nitsche, Michael A; Nissen, Christoph

    2016-09-01

    Arousal and sleep are fundamental physiological processes, and their modulation is of high clinical significance. This study tested the hypothesis that total sleep time (TST) in humans can be modulated by the non-invasive brain stimulation technique transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) targeting a 'top-down' cortico-thalamic pathway of sleep-wake regulation. Nineteen healthy participants underwent a within-subject, repeated-measures protocol across five nights in the sleep laboratory with polysomnographic monitoring (adaptation, baseline, three experimental nights). tDCS was delivered via bi-frontal target electrodes and bi-parietal return electrodes before sleep (anodal 'activation', cathodal 'deactivation', and sham stimulation). Bi-frontal anodal stimulation significantly decreased TST, compared with cathodal and sham stimulation. This effect was location specific. Bi-frontal cathodal stimulation did not significantly increase TST, potentially due to ceiling effects in good sleepers. Exploratory resting-state EEG analyses before and after the tDCS protocols were consistent with the notion of increased cortical arousal after anodal stimulation and decreased cortical arousal after cathodal stimulation. The study provides proof-of-concept that TST can be decreased by non-invasive bi-frontal anodal tDCS in healthy humans. Further elucidating the 'top-down' pathway of sleep-wake regulation is expected to increase knowledge on the fundamentals of sleep-wake regulation and to contribute to the development of novel treatments for clinical conditions of disturbed arousal and sleep.

  20. On the Laws of Total Local Times for -Paths and Bridges of Symmetric Lévy Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masafumi Hayashi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The joint law of the total local times at two levels for -paths of symmetric Lévy processes is shown to admit an explicit representation in terms of the laws of the squared Bessel processes of dimensions two and zero. The law of the total local time at a single level for bridges is also discussed.

  1. Automatic stabilization of underwater robots in the time manipulation operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filaretov, V.F.; Koval, E.V.

    1994-01-01

    When carrying out underwater technical works by means of an underwater vehicles having a manipulator it is desirable to perform manipulation operations in the regime of the underwater vehicle hovering above the object without durable and complicated operations up its rigid fixation. Underwater vehicle stabilization is achieved by compensation all the effects on the vehicle caused by the operating manipulator in water medium. This automatic stabilization is formed due to input of the required control signals into corresponding vehicle propellers proportional to calculated components of the generalized forces and moments. The propellers should form stops reacting against effects

  2. Concept of Operations for Real-time Airborne Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barr, Jonathan L.; Taira, Randal Y.; Orr, Heather M.

    2013-03-04

    The purpose of this document is to describe the operating concepts, capabilities, and benefits of RAMS including descriptions of how the system implementations can improve emergency response, damage assessment, task prioritization, and situation awareness. This CONOPS provides general information on operational processes and procedures required to utilize RAMS, and expected performance benefits of the system. The primary audiences for this document are the end users of RAMS (including flight operators and incident commanders) and the RAMS management team. Other audiences include interested offices within the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), and officials from other state and local jurisdictions who want to implement similar systems.

  3. Revision of failed hip resurfacing to total hip arthroplasty rapidly relieves pain and improves function in the early post operative period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muirhead-Allwood Sarah K

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We reviewed the results of 25 consecutive patients who underwent revision of a hip resurfacing prosthesis to a total hip replacement. Revisions were performed for recurrent pain and effusion, infection and proximal femoral fractures. Both components were revised in 20 cases. There were 12 male and 13 female patients with average time to revision of 34.4 and 26.4 months respectively. The mean follow up period was 12.7 months (3 to 31. All patients reported relief of pain and excellent satisfaction scores. Two patients experienced stiffness up to three months post operatively. Pre operative Oxford, Harris and WOMAC hip scores were 39.1, 36.4 and 52.2 respectively. Mean post operative scores at last follow up were 17.4, 89.8 and 6.1 respectively (p

  4. Night-time road construction operations synthesis of practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    report synthesizes existing literature on nighttime construction operations, identifies gaps in the current state of knowledge, and summarizes research in progress studies that are planned or underway. The literature review and synthesis found the fo...

  5. Plant life time management for safe long term operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burket, Danes

    2010-01-01

    The topics discussed include LTO (long-term operation) and licensing procedure in general and specifically for the Dukovany NPP, components of an LTO programme, the PLIM (plant life management) concept for Dukovany and Temelin, the LTO implementation project for Dukovany, LTO strategy, LTO risk study, international verification. The Conclusions include the following items: (i) Technical-economic study of Dukovany NPP LTO demonstrates technical feasibility and economic profitability of Dukovany NPP LTO with perspective for up to 60 years of operation. (ii) Safety part of Program for assurance of Dukovany NPP LTO complies with IAEA SALTO recommendations. (iii) Dukovany NPP LTO programme incorporated IAEA SALTO Peer Review Mission recommendations. (iv) LTO Implementation Project for 2009-2015 was approved with major targets to renew operational permission and prepare NPP for operation up to 60 years. (v) Preparation of Temelin NPP LTO programme has been started. (P.A.)

  6. Joint association of physical activity in leisure and total sitting time with metabolic syndrome amongst 15,235 Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christina Bjørk; Nielsen, Asser Jon; Bauman, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    and total daily sitting time were assessed by self-report in 15,235 men and women in the Danish Health Examination Survey 2007-2008. Associations between leisure time physical activity, total sitting time and metabolic syndrome were investigated in logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Adjusted odds ratios......BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that physical inactivity as well as sitting time are associated with metabolic syndrome. Our aim was to examine joint associations of leisure time physical activity and total daily sitting time with metabolic syndrome. METHODS: Leisure time physical activity...... (OR) for metabolic syndrome were 2.14 (95% CI: 1.88-2.43) amongst participants who were inactive in leisure time compared to the most active, and 1.42 (95% CI: 1.26-1.61) amongst those who sat for ≥10h/day compared to physical activity, sitting time...

  7. Performance analysis and kernel size study of the Lynx real-time operating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan-Kwei; Gibson, James S.; Fernquist, Alan R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper analyzes the Lynx real-time operating system (LynxOS), which has been selected as the operating system for the Space Station Freedom Data Management System (DMS). The features of LynxOS are compared to other Unix-based operating system (OS). The tools for measuring the performance of LynxOS, which include a high-speed digital timer/counter board, a device driver program, and an application program, are analyzed. The timings for interrupt response, process creation and deletion, threads, semaphores, shared memory, and signals are measured. The memory size of the DMS Embedded Data Processor (EDP) is limited. Besides, virtual memory is not suitable for real-time applications because page swap timing may not be deterministic. Therefore, the DMS software, including LynxOS, has to fit in the main memory of an EDP. To reduce the LynxOS kernel size, the following steps are taken: analyzing the factors that influence the kernel size; identifying the modules of LynxOS that may not be needed in an EDP; adjusting the system parameters of LynxOS; reconfiguring the device drivers used in the LynxOS; and analyzing the symbol table. The reductions in kernel disk size, kernel memory size and total kernel size reduction from each step mentioned above are listed and analyzed.

  8. Simultaneous bilateral stereotactic procedure for deep brain stimulation implants: a significant step for reducing operation time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonoff, Erich Talamoni; Azevedo, Angelo; Angelos, Jairo Silva Dos; Martinez, Raquel Chacon Ruiz; Navarro, Jessie; Reis, Paul Rodrigo; Sepulveda, Miguel Ernesto San Martin; Cury, Rubens Gisbert; Ghilardi, Maria Gabriela Dos Santos; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; Lopez, William Omar Contreras

    2016-07-01

    OBJECT Currently, bilateral procedures involve 2 sequential implants in each of the hemispheres. The present report demonstrates the feasibility of simultaneous bilateral procedures during the implantation of deep brain stimulation (DBS) leads. METHODS Fifty-seven patients with movement disorders underwent bilateral DBS implantation in the same study period. The authors compared the time required for the surgical implantation of deep brain electrodes in 2 randomly assigned groups. One group of 28 patients underwent traditional sequential electrode implantation, and the other 29 patients underwent simultaneous bilateral implantation. Clinical outcomes of the patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) who had undergone DBS implantation of the subthalamic nucleus using either of the 2 techniques were compared. RESULTS Overall, a reduction of 38.51% in total operating time for the simultaneous bilateral group (136.4 ± 20.93 minutes) as compared with that for the traditional consecutive approach (220.3 ± 27.58 minutes) was observed. Regarding clinical outcomes in the PD patients who underwent subthalamic nucleus DBS implantation, comparing the preoperative off-medication condition with the off-medication/on-stimulation condition 1 year after the surgery in both procedure groups, there was a mean 47.8% ± 9.5% improvement in the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Part III (UPDRS-III) score in the simultaneous group, while the sequential group experienced 47.5% ± 15.8% improvement (p = 0.96). Moreover, a marked reduction in the levodopa-equivalent dose from preoperatively to postoperatively was similar in these 2 groups. The simultaneous bilateral procedure presented major advantages over the traditional sequential approach, with a shorter total operating time. CONCLUSIONS A simultaneous stereotactic approach significantly reduces the operation time in bilateral DBS procedures, resulting in decreased microrecording time, contributing to the optimization of functional

  9. Expert system of real time for support of operators of atomic power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashlykov, A.A.; Davidenko, N.N.; Dumshev, V.G.; Kislov, G.I.; Pavlova, E.V.; Prozorovskij, E.D.; Bashlykov, A.A.

    1994-01-01

    The problems of construction and introdution of an intellectual system for information support of operators at nuclear power plants are discussed. This system is used for operator assisstance during real time decision making for NPP operational regime control

  10. Reporting surgical site infections following total hip and knee arthroplasty: impact of limiting surveillance to the operative hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoe, Deborah S; Avery, Taliser R; Platt, Richard; Huang, Susan S

    2013-11-01

    Public reporting of surgical site infections (SSIs) by hospitals is largely limited to infections detected during surgical hospitalizations or readmissions to the same facility. SSI rates may be underestimated if patients with SSIs are readmitted to other hospitals. We assessed the impact of readmissions to other facilities on hospitals' SSI rates following primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) or total knee arthroplasty (TKA). This was a retrospective cohort study of all patients who underwent primary THA or TKA at California hospitals between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2009. SSIs were identified using ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes predictive of SSI assigned at any California hospital within 365 days of surgery using a statewide repository of hospital data that allowed tracking of patients between facilities. We used statewide data to estimate the fraction of each hospital's THA and TKA SSIs identified at the operative hospital versus other hospitals. A total of 91 121 THA and 121 640 TKA procedures were identified. Based on diagnosis codes, SSIs developed following 2214 (2.3%) THAs and 2465 (2.0%) TKAs. Seventeen percent of SSIs would have been missed by operative hospital surveillance alone. The proportion of hospitals' SSIs detected at nonoperative hospitals ranged from 0% to 100%. Including SSIs detected at nonoperative hospitals resulted in better relative ranking for 61% of THA hospitals and 61% of TKA hospitals. Limiting SSI surveillance to the operative hospital caused varying degrees of SSI underestimation and substantially impacted hospitals' relative rankings, suggesting that alternative methods for comprehensive postdischarge surveillance are needed for accurate benchmarking.

  11. Possible effects of mobilisation on acute post-operative pain and nociceptive function after total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunn, T H; Kristensen, B B; Gaarn-Larsen, L

    2012-01-01

    anaesthesia and analgesia underwent an exercise (mobilisation) strategy on the first post-operative morning consisting of 25-m walking twice, with a 20-min interval. Pain was assessed at rest and during passive hip and knee flexion before, and 5 and 20 min after walk, as well as during walk. Nociceptive......BACKGROUND: Experimental studies in animals, healthy volunteers, and patients with chronic pain suggest exercise to provide analgesia in several types of pain conditions and after various nociceptive stimuli. To our knowledge, there is no data on the effects of exercise on pain and nociceptive...... function in surgical patients despite early mobilisation being an important factor to enhance recovery. We therefore investigated possible effects of mobilisation on post-operative pain and nociceptive function after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). METHODS: Thirty patients undergoing TKA under standardised...

  12. Mission reliability of semi-Markov systems under generalized operational time requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Xiaoyue; Hillston, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Mission reliability of a system depends on specific criteria for mission success. To evaluate the mission reliability of some mission systems that do not need to work normally for the whole mission time, two types of mission reliability for such systems are studied. The first type corresponds to the mission requirement that the system must remain operational continuously for a minimum time within the given mission time interval, while the second corresponds to the mission requirement that the total operational time of the system within the mission time window must be greater than a given value. Based on Markov renewal properties, matrix integral equations are derived for semi-Markov systems. Numerical algorithms and a simulation procedure are provided for both types of mission reliability. Two examples are used for illustration purposes. One is a one-unit repairable Markov system, and the other is a cold standby semi-Markov system consisting of two components. By the proposed approaches, the mission reliability of systems with time redundancy can be more precisely estimated to avoid possible unnecessary redundancy of system resources. - Highlights: • Two types of mission reliability under generalized requirements are defined. • Equations for both types of reliability are derived for semi-Markov systems. • Numerical methods are given for solving both types of reliability. • Simulation procedure is given for estimating both types of reliability. • Verification of the numerical methods is given by the results of simulation

  13. Observed and simulated time evolution of HCl, ClONO2, and HF total columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhnke, Roland; Geomon, Ndacc Infrared, Modelling Working Group

    2010-05-01

    Institute of Technology (KIT), IMK-IFU, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany, (16) University of Denver, Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Denver, CO, USA, (17) National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), Boulder, CO, USA, (18) NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA, USA, (19) Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Steinbuch Centre for Computing, Karlsruhe, Germany Total column abundances of HCl and ClONO2, the primary components of the stratospheric inorganic chlorine (Cly) budget, and of HF have been retrieved from ground-based, high-resolution infrared solar absorption spectra recorded at 17 sites of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC) located at latitudes between 80.05°N and 77.82°S. These data extend over more than 20 years (through 2007) during a period when the growth in atmospheric halogen loading has slowed in response to the Montreal Protocol (and ammendments). These observed time series are interpreted with calculations performed with a 2-D model, the 3-D chemistry-transport models (CTMs) KASIMA and SLIMCAT, and the 3-D chemistry-climate models (CCMs) EMAC and SOCOLv2.0. The observed Cly and in particular HCl column abundances decreases significantely since the end of the nineties at all stations, which is consistent with the observed changes in the halocarbon source gases, with an increasing rate in the last years. In contrast to Cly, the trend values for total column HF at the different stations show a less consistent behaviour pointing to the fact that the time development of the HF columns is peaking. There is a good overall qualitative agreement regarding trends between models and data. With respect to the CTMs the agreement improves if simulation results for measurement days only are used in the trend analysis instead of simulation results for each day.

  14. The efficiency of a dedicated staff on operating room turnover time in hand surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Daniel M; Matullo, Kristofer S

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of orthopedic and nonorthopedic operating room (OR) staff on the efficiency of turnover time in a hand surgery practice. A total of 621 sequential hand surgery cases were retrospectively reviewed. Turnover times for sequential cases were calculated and analyzed with regard to the characteristics of the OR staff being primarily orthopedic or nonorthopedic. A total of 227 turnover times were analyzed. The average turnover time with all nonorthopedic staff was 31 minutes, for having only an orthopedic surgical technician was 32 minutes, for having only an orthopedic circulator was 25 minutes, and for having both an orthopedic surgical technician and a circulator was 20 minutes. Statistical significance was seen when comparing only an orthopedic surgical technician versus both an orthopedic circulator and a surgical technician and when comparing both nonorthopedic staff versus both an orthopedic circulator and a surgical technician. OR efficiency is being increasingly evaluated for its effect on hospital revenue and OR staff costs. Reducing turnover time is one aspect of a multifaceted solution in increasing efficiency. Our study showed that, for hand surgery, orthopedic-specific staff can reduce turnover time. Economic/Decision Analysis III. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Storm-time total electron content and its response to penetration electric fields over South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. de Siqueira

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work the response of the ionosphere due to the severe magnetic storm of 7–10 November 2004 is investigated by analyzing GPS Total Electron Content (TEC maps constructed for the South America sector. In order to verify the disturbed zonal electric fields in South America during the superstorm, ionospheric vertical drift data obtained from modeling results are used in the analysis. The vertical drifts were inferred from ΔH magnetometer data (Jicamarca-Piura following the methodology presented by Anderson et al. (2004. Also used were vertical drifts measured by the Jicamarca ISR. Data from a digisonde located at São Luís, Brazil (2.33° S, 44.2° W, dip latitude 0.25° are presented to complement the Jicamarca equatorial data. Penetration electric fields were observed by the comparison between the equatorial vertical drifts and the Interplanetary Electric Field (IEF. The TEC maps obtained from GPS data reflect the ionospheric response over the South America low-latitude and equatorial region. They reveal unexpected plasma distributions and TEC levels during the main phase of the superstorm on 7 November, which is coincident with the local post-sunset hours. At this time an increase in the pre-reversal enhancement was expected to develop the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA but we observed the absence of EIA. The results also reveal well known characteristics of the plasma distributions on 8, 9, and 10 November. The emphasized features are the expansion and intensification of EIA due to prompt penetration electric fields on 9 November and the inhibition of EIA during post-sunset hours on 7, 8, and 10 November. One important result is that the TEC maps provided a bi-dimensional view of the ionospheric changes offering a spatial description of the electrodynamics involved, which is an advantage over TEC measured by isolated GPS receivers.

  16. Technology strategy for integrated operations and real time reservoir management; Technology Target Areas; TTA5 - Integrated operations and RTRM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-07-01

    In Norway Integrated Operations (IO) is a concept which in the first phase (G1) has been used to describe how to integrate processes and people onshore and offshore using ICT solutions and facilities that improve onshore's ability to support offshore operationally. The second generation (G2) Integrated Operations aims to help operators utilize vendors' core competencies and services more efficiently. Utilizing digital services and vendor products, operators will be able to update reservoir models, drilling targets and well trajectories as wells are drilled, manage well completions remotely, optimize production from reservoir to export lines, and implement condition-based maintenance concepts. The total impact on production, recovery rates, costs and safety will be profound. When the international petroleum business moves to the Arctic region the setting is very different from what is the case on the Norwegian Continental Shelf (NCS) and new challenges will arise. The Norwegian Ministry of Environment has recently issued an Integrated Management Plan for the Barents Sea where one focus is on 'Monitoring of the Marine Environment in the North'. The Government aims to establish a new and more coordinated system for monitoring the marine ecosystems in the north. A representative group consisting of the major Operators, the Service Industry, Academia and the Authorities have developed the enclosed strategy for the OG21 Integrated Operations and Real Time Reservoir Management (IO and RTRM) Technology Target Area (TTA). Major technology and work process research and development gaps have been identified in several areas: Bandwidth down-hole to surface; Sensor development including Nano-technology; Cross discipline use of Visualisation, Simulation and model development particularly in Drilling and Reservoir management areas; Software development in terms of data handling, model updating and calculation speed; Enabling reliable and robust communications particularly for

  17. Technology strategy for integrated operations and real time reservoir management; Technology Target Areas; TTA5 - Integrated operations and RTRM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-07-01

    In Norway Integrated Operations (IO) is a concept which in the first phase (G1) has been used to describe how to integrate processes and people onshore and offshore using ICT solutions and facilities that improve onshore's ability to support offshore operationally. The second generation (G2) Integrated Operations aims to help operators utilize vendors' core competencies and services more efficiently. Utilizing digital services and vendor products, operators will be able to update reservoir models, drilling targets and well trajectories as wells are drilled, manage well completions remotely, optimize production from reservoir to export lines, and implement condition-based maintenance concepts. The total impact on production, recovery rates, costs and safety will be profound. When the international petroleum business moves to the Arctic region the setting is very different from what is the case on the Norwegian Continental Shelf (NCS) and new challenges will arise. The Norwegian Ministry of Environment has recently issued an Integrated Management Plan for the Barents Sea where one focus is on 'Monitoring of the Marine Environment in the North'. The Government aims to establish a new and more coordinated system for monitoring the marine ecosystems in the north. A representative group consisting of the major Operators, the Service Industry, Academia and the Authorities have developed the enclosed strategy for the OG21 Integrated Operations and Real Time Reservoir Management (IO and RTRM) Technology Target Area (TTA). Major technology and work process research and development gaps have been identified in several areas: Bandwidth down-hole to surface; Sensor development including Nano-technology; Cross discipline use of Visualisation, Simulation and model development particularly in Drilling and Reservoir management areas; Software development in terms of data handling, model updating and calculation speed; Enabling reliable and robust communications

  18. "Knife to skin" time is a poor marker of operating room utilization and efficiency in cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthra, Suvitesh; Ramady, Omar; Monge, Mary; Fitzsimons, Michael G; Kaleta, Terry R; Sundt, Thoralf M

    2015-06-01

    Markers of operation room (OR) efficiency in cardiac surgery are focused on "knife to skin" and "start time tardiness." These do not evaluate the middle and later parts of the cardiac surgical pathway. The purpose of this analysis was to evaluate knife to skin time as an efficiency marker in cardiac surgery. We looked at knife to skin time, procedure time, and transfer times in the cardiac operational pathway for their correlation with predefined indices of operational efficiency (Index of Operation Efficiency - InOE, Surgical Index of Operational Efficiency - sInOE). A regression analysis was performed to test the goodness of fit of the regression curves estimated for InOE relative to the times on the operational pathway. The mean knife to skin time was 90.6 ± 13 minutes (23% of total OR time). The mean procedure time was 282 ± 123 minutes (71% of total OR time). Utilization efficiencies were highest for aortic valve replacement and coronary artery bypass grafting and least for complex aortic procedures. There were no significant procedure-specific or team-specific differences for standard procedures. Procedure times correlated the strongest with InOE (r = -0.98, p knife to skin is not as strong an indicator of efficiency. A statistically significant linear dependence on InOE was observed with "procedure times" only. Procedure times are a better marker of OR efficiency than knife to skin in cardiac cases. Strategies to increase OR utilization and efficiency should address procedure times in addition to knife to skin times. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Lead time anticipation in supply chain operations planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, M.M.; Kok, de A.G.; Fransoo, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Linear programming (LP) models for Supply Chain Operations Planning are widely used in Advanced Planning Systems. The solution to the LP model is a proposal for order releases to the various production units (PU) in the supply network. There is a non-linear relationship between the work-in-process

  20. Prediction of the time-dependent failure rate for normally operating components taking into account the operational history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrbanic, I.; Simic, Z.; Sljivac, D.

    2008-01-01

    The prediction of the time-dependent failure rate has been studied, taking into account the operational history of a component used in applications such as system modeling in a probabilistic safety analysis in order to evaluate the impact of equipment aging and maintenance strategies on the risk measures considered. We have selected a time-dependent model for the failure rate which is based on the Weibull distribution and the principles of proportional age reduction by equipment overhauls. Estimation of the parameters that determine the failure rate is considered, including the definition of the operational history model and likelihood function for the Bayesian analysis of parameters for normally operating repairable components. The operational history is provided as a time axis with defined times of overhauls and failures. An example for demonstration is described with prediction of the future behavior for seven different operational histories. (orig.)

  1. Advanced Hard Real-Time Operating System, the Maruti Project. Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Real - Time Operating System , The Maruti Project DASG-60-92-C-0055 5b. Program Element # 62301E 6. Author(s...The maruti hard real - time " operating system . A CM SIGOPS, Operating Systems Review. 23:90-106, July 1989. 254 !1 110) C. L. Liu and J. Layland...February 14, 1995 Abstract The Maruti Real - Time Operating System was developed for applications that must meet hard real-time constraints. In order

  2. Official Union Time Tracking System Operational Data Store

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Official Union Time Tracking System captures the reporting and accounting of the representational activity for all American Federation of Government Employees (AFGE)...

  3. Airborne concentrations of metals and total dust during solid catalyst loading and unloading operations at a petroleum refinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ryan C; Gaffney, Shannon H; Le, Matthew H; Unice, Ken M; Paustenbach, Dennis J

    2012-09-01

    Workers handle catalysts extensively at petroleum refineries throughout the world each year; however, little information is available regarding the airborne concentrations and plausible exposures during this type of work. In this paper, we evaluated the airborne concentrations of 15 metals and total dust generated during solid catalyst loading and unloading operations at one of the largest petroleum refineries in the world using historical industrial hygiene samples collected between 1989 and 2006. The total dust and metals, which included aluminum, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, platinum, silicon, silver, vanadium, and zinc, were evaluated in relation to the handling of four different types of solid catalysts associated with three major types of catalytic processes. Consideration was given to the known components of the solid catalysts and any metals that were likely deposited onto them during use. A total of 180 analytical results were included in this analysis, representing 13 personal and 54 area samples. Of the long-term personal samples, airborne concentrations of metals ranged from refinery and perhaps other modern refineries during the timeframe examined. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessment of operative times of multiple surgical specialties in a public university hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Altair da Silva

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the indicators duration of anesthesia, operative time and time patients stay in the operating rooms of different surgical specialties at a public university hospital. It was done by a descriptive cross-sectional study based on the operating room database. The following stages were measured: duration of anesthesia, procedure time and patient length of stay in the room of the various specialties. We included surgeries carried out in sequence in the same room, between 7:00 a.m. and 5 p.m., either elective or emergency. We calculated the 80th percentile of the stages, where 80% of procedures were below this value. The study measured 8,337 operations of 12 surgical specialties performed within one year. The overall mean duration of anesthesia of all specialties was 178.12±110.46 minutes, and the 80th percentile was 252 minutes. The mean operative time was 130.45±97.23 minutes, and the 80th percentile was 195 minutes. The mean total time of the patient in the operating room was 197.30±113.71 minutes, and the 80th percentile was 285 minutes. Thus, the variation of the overall mean compared to the 80th percentile was 41% for anesthesia, 49% for surgeries and 44% for operating room time. In average, anesthesia took up 88% of the operating room period, and surgery, 61%. This study identified patterns in the duration of surgery stages. The mean values of the specialties can assist with operating room planning and reduce delays. Avaliar os indicadores de tempo da anestesia, da operação e da permanência do paciente em sala de diversas especialidades do centro cirúrgico de um hospital universitário. Foi realizado em estudo descritivo transversal a partir da base de dados do centro cirúrgico e mensuradas as seguintes etapas: duração de anestesia, tempo do procedimento e tempo de permanência do paciente em sala das diversas especialidades. Foram incluídas as operações realizadas em sequência na mesma sala, das 7h às 17h, eletivas ou de urg

  5. Single-Use Energy Sources and Operating Room Time for Laparoscopic Hysterectomy: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloran-Schwartz, M Brigid; Gavard, Jeffrey A; Martin, Jared C; Blaskiewicz, Robert J; Yeung, Patrick P

    2016-01-01

    To compare the intraoperative direct costs of a single-use energy device with reusable energy devices during laparoscopic hysterectomy. A randomized controlled trial (Canadian Task Force Classification I). An academic hospital. Forty-six women who underwent laparoscopic hysterectomy from March 2013 to September 2013. Each patient served as her own control. One side of the uterine attachments was desiccated and transected with the single-use device (Ligasure 5-mm Blunt Tip LF1537 with the Force Triad generator). The other side was desiccated and transected with reusable bipolar forceps (RoBi 5 mm), and transected with monopolar scissors using the same Covidien Force Triad generator. The instrument approach used was randomized to the attending physician who was always on the patient's left side. Resident physicians always operated on the patient's right side and used the converse instruments of the attending physician. Start time was recorded at the utero-ovarian pedicle and end time was recorded after transection of the uterine artery on the same side. Costs included the single-use device; amortized costs of the generator, reusable instruments, and cords; cleaning and packaging of reusable instruments; and disposal of the single-use device. Operating room time was $94.14/min. We estimated that our single use-device cost $630.14 and had a total time savings of 6.7 min per case, or 3.35 min per side, which could justify the expense of the device. The single-use energy device had significant median time savings (-4.7 min per side, p energy device that both desiccates and cuts significantly reduced operating room time to justify its own cost, and it also reduced total intraoperative direct costs during laparoscopic hysterectomy in our institution. Operating room cost per minute varies between institutions and must be considered before generalizing our results. Copyright © 2016 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Real-time operating system for selected Intel processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pool, W. R.

    1980-01-01

    The rationale for system development is given along with reasons for not using vendor supplied operating systems. Although many system design and performance goals were dictated by problems with vendor supplied systems, other goals surfaced as a result of a design for a custom system able to span multiple projects. System development and management problems and areas that required redesign or major code changes for system implementation are examined as well as the relative successes of the initial projects. A generic description of the actual project is provided and the ongoing support requirements and future plans are discussed.

  7. Eigenvalue sensitivity of sampled time systems operating in closed loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Dionisio

    2018-05-01

    The use of feedback to create closed-loop eigenstructures with high sensitivity has received some attention in the Structural Health Monitoring field. Although practical implementation is necessarily digital, and thus in sampled time, work thus far has center on the continuous time framework, both in design and in checking performance. It is shown in this paper that the performance in discrete time, at typical sampling rates, can differ notably from that anticipated in the continuous time formulation and that discrepancies can be particularly large on the real part of the eigenvalue sensitivities; a consequence being important error on the (linear estimate) of the level of damage at which closed-loop stability is lost. As one anticipates, explicit consideration of the sampling rate poses no special difficulties in the closed-loop eigenstructure design and the relevant expressions are developed in the paper, including a formula for the efficient evaluation of the derivative of the matrix exponential based on the theory of complex perturbations. The paper presents an easily reproduced numerical example showing the level of error that can result when the discrete time implementation of the controller is not considered.

  8. A real-time control framework for urban water reservoirs operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galelli, S.; Goedbloed, A.; Schwanenberg, D.

    2012-04-01

    Drinking water demand in urban areas is growing parallel to the worldwide urban population, and it is acquiring an increasing part of the total water consumption. Since the delivery of sufficient water volumes in urban areas represents a difficult logistic and economical problem, different metropolitan areas are evaluating the opportunity of constructing relatively small reservoirs within urban areas. Singapore, for example, is developing the so-called 'Four National Taps Strategies', which detects the maximization of water yields from local, urban catchments as one of the most important water sources. However, the peculiar location of these reservoirs can provide a certain advantage from the logistical point of view, but it can pose serious difficulties in their daily management. Urban catchments are indeed characterized by large impervious areas: this results in a change of the hydrological cycle, with decreased infiltration and groundwater recharge, and increased patterns of surface and river discharges, with higher peak flows, volumes and concentration time. Moreover, the high concentrations of nutrients and sediments characterizing urban discharges can cause further water quality problems. In this critical hydrological context, the effective operation of urban water reservoirs must rely on real-time control techniques, which can exploit hydro-meteorological information available in real-time from hydrological and nowcasting models. This work proposes a novel framework for the real-time control of combined water quality and quantity objectives in urban reservoirs. The core of this framework is a non-linear Model Predictive Control (MPC) scheme, which employs the current state of the system, the future discharges furnished by a predictive model and a further model describing the internal dynamics of the controlled sub-system to determine an optimal control sequence over a finite prediction horizon. The main advantage of this scheme stands in its reduced

  9. Time-dependent coolant velocity measurements in an operating BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luebbesmeyer, D.; Crowe, R.D.

    1980-01-01

    A method to measure time-dependent fluid velocities in BWR-bundle elements by noise analysis of the incore-neutron-detector signals is shown. Two application examples of the new method are given. The time behaviour of the fluid velocity in the bundle element during a scheduled power excursion of the plant. The change of power was performed by changing the coolant flow through the core The apparent change of the fluid velocity due to thermal elongation of the helix-drive of the TIP-system. A simplified mathematical model was derived for this elongation to use as a reference to check the validity of the new method. (author)

  10. Evaluation of the level of skill required of operators of a computer-assisted radiologic total lung capacity measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzeo, J.

    1985-01-01

    This research was conducted to obtain information regarding the feasibility of using non-medical personnel to obtain measurements of radiologic total lung capacity (TLC). Operators from each of four groups (general undergraduates, nursing students, medical students, radiologists) differing in the amount of medical training and/or experience reading x-rays, performed each of two tasks. The first task was the measurement of radiologic TLC for a set of twenty x-rays. The second task consisted of tracing the outline of the anatomical structures that must be identified in the execution of the radiologic TLC measurement task. Data from the radiologic TLC measurement task were used to identify possible group differences in the reliability and validity of the measures. The reliability analyses were performed within the framework of Generalizability Theory. While the results are not conclusive, due to small sizes, the analyses suggest that group differences in reliability of the measures, if they exist, are small

  11. Characteristics of late-time striations observed during operation stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolcott, J.H.; Simons, D.J.; Eastman, T.E.; Fitzgerald, T.J.

    1978-01-01

    Some results are presented on an experiment in progress of data analysis for a study of the actual satellite communication links through structured barium plasma clouds intended to simulate many aspects of the highly disturbed, post-nuclear-explosion upper atmosphere and the investigation of the late time spatial decay of plasma striations, or filaments, imbedded within the barium ion cloud

  12. Time Evolution of the Wigner Operator as a Quasi-density Operator in Amplitude Dessipative Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhisong; Ren, Guihua; Yu, Ziyang; Wei, Chenhuinan; Fan, Hongyi

    2018-06-01

    For developing quantum mechanics theory in phase space, we explore how the Wigner operator {Δ } (α ,α ^{\\ast } )≡ {1}/{π } :e^{-2(α ^{\\ast } -α ^{\\dag })(α -α )}:, when viewed as a quasi-density operator correponding to the Wigner quasiprobability distribution, evolves in a damping channel. with the damping constant κ. We derive that it evolves into 1/T + 1:\\exp 2/T + 1[-(α^{\\ast} e^{-κ t}-a^{\\dag} )(α e^{-κ t}-a)]: where T ≡ 1 - e - 2 κ t . This in turn helps to directly obtain the final state ρ( t) out of the dessipative channel from the initial classical function corresponding to initial ρ(0). Throught the work, the method of integration within ordered product (IWOP) of operators is employed.

  13. The Older of Two Trees: Young Children's Development of Operational Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamii, Constance; Russell, Kelly A.

    2010-01-01

    Piaget (1971) made a distinction between intuitive (preoperational) time and operational (logico-mathematical) time. According to Piaget, operational time develops around 7-8 years of age and is characterized by children's ability to deduce, for example, that if A was born before B, A will always be older than B. When time is still intuitive,…

  14. Bulk metal concentrations versus total suspended solids in rivers: Time-invariant & catchment-specific relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrabadi, Touraj; Ruegner, Hermann; Schwientek, Marc; Bennett, Jeremy; Fazel Valipour, Shahin; Grathwohl, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Suspended particles in rivers can act as carriers of potentially bioavailable metal species and are thus an emerging area of interest in river system monitoring. The delineation of bulk metals concentrations in river water into dissolved and particulate components is also important for risk assessment. Linear relationships between bulk metal concentrations in water (CW,tot) and total suspended solids (TSS) in water can be used to easily evaluate dissolved (CW, intercept) and particle-bound metal fluxes (CSUS, slope) in streams (CW,tot = CW + CSUS TSS). In this study, we apply this principle to catchments in Iran (Haraz) and Germany (Ammer, Goldersbach, and Steinlach) that show differences in geology, geochemistry, land use and hydrological characteristics. For each catchment, particle-bound and dissolved concentrations for a suite of metals in water were calculated based on linear regressions of total suspended solids and total metal concentrations. Results were replicable across sampling campaigns in different years and seasons (between 2013 and 2016) and could be reproduced in a laboratory sedimentation experiment. CSUS values generally showed little variability in different catchments and agree well with soil background values for some metals (e.g. lead and nickel) while other metals (e.g. copper) indicate anthropogenic influences. CW was elevated in the Haraz (Iran) catchment, indicating higher bioavailability and potential human and ecological health concerns (where higher values of CSUS/CW are considered as a risk indicator).

  15. Total factor productivity (TFP) growth agriculture in pakistan: trends in different time horizons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.; Mushtaq, K.; Ashfaq, M.

    2008-01-01

    The present study estimated total factor productivity (TFP) growth of agriculture sector of Pakistan for the period 1971-2006 by employing Tornqvist-Theil (T-T) index number methodology. Most of the conventional inputs were used in constructing the input index. The output index includes major crops, minor crops, important fruits and vegetables and four categories of livestock products. The study estimated TFP growth rates for different decades. The results showed that TFP growth rate was lowest during the decade of 70s (0.96 percent) and highest during the last six years of the study period (2.86 percent). The decade of 80s and 90s registered TFP growth rate of 2.24 percent and 2.46 percent, respectively. The results also explained that TFP growth contributed about 33 percent to total agricultural output growth during the decade of 70s and this contribution increased up to 83 percent during the last six years of the study period. The contribution of TFP growth to total agricultural output growth was 53 and 81 percent during the decades of 80s and 90s, respectively. The study observed that macro level government policies, institutional factors and weather conditions are the major key factors that influenced TFP growth. (author)

  16. Critical Care Admissions following Total Laryngectomy: Is It Time to Change Our Practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walijee, Hussein; Morgan, Alexandria; Gibson, Bethan; Berry, Sandeep; Jaffery, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Critical Care Unit (CCU) beds are a limited resource and in increasing demand. Studies have shown that complex head and neck patients can be safely managed on a ward setting given the appropriate staffing and support. This retrospective case series aims to quantify the CCU care received by patients following total laryngectomy (TL) at a District General Hospital (DGH) and compare patient outcomes in an attempt to inform current practice. Data relating to TL were collected over a 5-year period from 1st January 2010 to 31st December 2015. A total of 22 patients were included. All patients were admitted to CCU postoperatively for an average length of stay of 25.5 hours. 95% of these patients were admitted to CCU for the purpose of close monitoring only, not requiring any active treatment prior to discharge to the ward. 73% of total complications were encountered after the first 24 hours postoperatively at which point patients had been stepped down to ward care. Avoiding the use of CCU beds and instead providing the appropriate level of care on the ward would result in a potential cost saving of approximately £8,000 with no influence on patient morbidity and mortality.

  17. Correlates of occupational, leisure and total sitting time in working adults: results from the Singapore multi-ethnic cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uijtdewilligen, Léonie; Yin, Jason Dean-Chen; van der Ploeg, Hidde P; Müller-Riemenschneider, Falk

    2017-12-13

    Evidence on the health risks of sitting is accumulating. However, research identifying factors influencing sitting time in adults is limited, especially in Asian populations. This study aimed to identify socio-demographic and lifestyle correlates of occupational, leisure and total sitting time in a sample of Singapore working adults. Data were collected between 2004 and 2010 from participants of the Singapore Multi Ethnic Cohort (MEC). Medical exclusion criteria for cohort participation were cancer, heart disease, stroke, renal failure and serious mental illness. Participants who were not working over the past 12 months and without data on sitting time were excluded from the analyses. Multivariable regression analyses were used to examine cross-sectional associations of self-reported age, gender, ethnicity, marital status, education, smoking, caloric intake and moderate-to-vigorous leisure time physical activity (LTPA) with self-reported occupational, leisure and total sitting time. Correlates were also studied separately for Chinese, Malays and Indians. The final sample comprised 9384 participants (54.8% male): 50.5% were Chinese, 24.0% Malay, and 25.5% Indian. For the total sample, mean occupational sitting time was 2.71 h/day, mean leisure sitting time was 2.77 h/day and mean total sitting time was 5.48 h/day. Sitting time in all domains was highest among Chinese. Age, gender, education, and caloric intake were associated with higher occupational sitting time, while ethnicity, marital status and smoking were associated with lower occupational sitting time. Marital status, smoking, caloric intake and LTPA were associated with higher leisure sitting time, while age, gender and ethnicity were associated with lower leisure sitting time. Gender, marital status, education, caloric intake and LTPA were associated with higher total sitting time, while ethnicity was associated with lower total sitting time. Stratified analyses revealed different associations within

  18. To study the effect of orbital sling on post operative vision in cases of maxillary carcinoma undergoing total maxillectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Anirudh; Dudeja, Vivek

    2014-06-01

    To study effect of orbital sling on post operative vision in cases of maxillary carcinoma undergoing total maxillectomy. All patients with the principal procedure of "total maxillectomy" for histopathologically proven cases of carcinoma maxilla in department of otorhinolaryngology and head-neck surgery, N.S.C.B. medical college, Jabalapur, Madhya Pradesh, India from July 2011 to October 2013 were included. Out of the 20 patients irrespective of whether orbital sling was created or not, maximum number of patients 8 (40 %) showed a 3 step improvement, and maximum improvement seen was up to five steps. Out of the 14 patients in which orbital sling was created maximum number of patients 7 (50 %) showed a 3 step improvement, and maximum improvement seen was up to five steps. Out of the 6 patients in whom orbital sling was not created maximum number of patients 3 (50 %) showed a 2 step improvement, and maximum improvement seen was up to three steps. Infraorbital repair with the help of sling results in better improvement of vision as compared to those in whom sling was not or could not be made with no significant difference on eye movements.

  19. Real Time Optimal Control of Supercapacitor Operation for Frequency Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Yusheng; Panwar, Mayank; Mohanpurkar, Manish; Hovsapian, Rob

    2016-07-01

    Supercapacitors are gaining wider applications in power systems due to fast dynamic response. Utilizing supercapacitors by means of power electronics interfaces for power compensation is a proven effective technique. For applications such as requency restoration if the cost of supercapacitors maintenance as well as the energy loss on the power electronics interfaces are addressed. It is infeasible to use traditional optimization control methods to mitigate the impacts of frequent cycling. This paper proposes a Front End Controller (FEC) using Generalized Predictive Control featuring real time receding optimization. The optimization constraints are based on cost and thermal management to enhance to the utilization efficiency of supercapacitors. A rigorous mathematical derivation is conducted and test results acquired from Digital Real Time Simulator are provided to demonstrate effectiveness.

  20. Welded repair joints of boiler steels following operation in creep conditions exceeding the design time of operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobrzanski, J.; Paszkowska, H.; Zielinski, A. [Institute for Ferrous Metallurgy, Gliwice (Poland)

    2010-07-01

    The assessment of suitability for further operation for materials and welded repair joints of thick-walled main steam pipeline components, made of steel 14MoV63, as well as steam superheater outlet headers made of steel X20CrMoV121 following operation in creep conditions in time periods considerably longer than the specified calculated time of operation. Strength properties, impact strength and transition temperature into brittle condition, as well as structure condition have been evaluated. On the basis of shortened creep tests, the residual life and disposable residual life of materials and welded joints have been determined. Material properties following operation and those of fabricated circumferential welded repair joints have been compared. The condition of examined components and suitability of the fabricated welded repair joints for further operation have been assessed. (orig.)

  1. Total donor ischemic time: relationship to early hemodynamics and intensive care morbidity in pediatric cardiac transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Warren; Carr, Michelle; Ridout, Deborah; Carter, Katherine; Hulme, Sara Louise; Simmonds, Jacob; Elliott, Martin; Hoskote, Aparna; Burch, Michael; Brown, Kate L

    2011-11-01

    Single-center studies have failed to link modest increases in total donor ischemic time to mortality after pediatric orthotopic heart transplant. We aimed to investigate whether prolonged total donor ischemic time is linked to pediatric intensive care morbidity after orthotopic heart transplant. Retrospective cohort review. Tertiary pediatric transplant center in the United Kingdom. Ninety-three pediatric orthotopic heart transplants between 2002 and 2006. Total donor ischemic time was investigated for association with early post-orthotopic heart transplant hemodynamics and intensive care unit morbidities. Of 43 males and 50 females with median age 7.2 (interquartile range 2.2, 13.0) yrs, 62 (68%) had dilated cardiomyopathy, 20 (22%) had congenital heart disease, and nine (10%) had restrictive cardiomyopathy. The mean total donor ischemic time was 225.9 (sd 65.6) mins. In the first 24 hrs after orthotopic heart transplant, age-adjusted mean arterial blood pressure increased (p total donor ischemic time was significantly associated with lower mean arterial blood pressure (p care unit (p = .004), and longer post-orthotopic heart transplant stay in hospital (p = .02). Total donor ischemic time was not related to levels of mean pulmonary arterial pressure (p = .62), left atrial pressure (p = .38), or central venous pressure (p = .76) early after orthotopic heart transplant. Prolonged total donor ischemic time has an adverse effect on the donor organ, contributing to lower mean arterial blood pressure, as well as more prolonged ventilation and intensive care unit and hospital stays post-orthotopic heart transplant, reflecting increased morbidity.

  2. Relative blood loss and operative time can predict length of stay following orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, K; Thastum, M; Nørholt, S E; Blomlöf, J

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the length of stay (LOS) following orthognathic surgery and thereby to establish a benchmark. The secondary aim was to identify predictors of postoperative LOS following orthognathic surgery. Patients were treated consecutively during the period 2010 to 2012. Inclusion criteria were (1) patient age ≥18 years, and (2) surgery involving a three-piece Le Fort I osteotomy, or a bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO), or bimaxillary surgery. A total of 335 patients were included. The following data were recorded: height, weight, body mass index (BMI), age, sex, operative time, intraoperative blood loss, and type of surgery. LOS was defined as the duration of time from date of surgery to date of discharge. The average LOS was 1.3 days following Le Fort I osteotomy, 1.3 days following BSSO, and 1.8 days following bimaxillary surgery. In the multivariate regression model (R(2)=0.11), predictors of a prolonged LOS were operative time (P<0.001) and relative blood loss (P=0.002). No significant effect of age, BMI, sex, or treatment on LOS was observed. The short duration of LOS found in this study supports the possibility of increasing outpatient pathways for selected patients. Copyright © 2016 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 20 Years of Total and Tropical Ozone Time Series Based on European Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyola, D. G.; Heue, K. P.; Coldewey-Egbers, M.

    2016-12-01

    Ozone is an important trace gas in the atmosphere, while the stratospheric ozone layer protects the earth surface from the incident UV radiation, the tropospheric ozone acts as green house gas and causes health damages as well as crop loss. The total ozone column is dominated by the stratospheric column, the tropospheric columns only contributes about 10% to the total column.The ozone column data from the European satellite instruments GOME, SCIAMACHY, OMI, GOME-2A and GOME-2B are available within the ESA Climate Change Initiative project with a high degree of inter-sensor consistency. The tropospheric ozone columns are based on the convective cloud differential algorithm. The datasets encompass a period of more than 20 years between 1995 and 2015, for the trend analysis the data sets were harmonized relative to one of the instruments. For the tropics we found an increase in the tropospheric ozone column of 0.75 ± 0.12 DU decade^{-1} with local variations between 1.8 and -0.8. The largest trends were observed over southern Africa and the Atlantic Ocean. A seasonal trend analysis led to the assumption that the increase is caused by additional forest fires.The trend for the total column was not that certain, based on model predicted trend data and the measurement uncertainty we estimated that another 10 to 15 years of observations will be required to observe a statistical significant trend. In the mid latitudes the trends are currently hidden in the large variability and for the tropics the modelled trends are low. Also the possibility of diverging trends at different altitudes must be considered; an increase in the tropospheric ozone might be accompanied by decreasing stratospheric ozone.The European satellite data record will be extended over the next two decades with the atmospheric satellite missions Sentinel 5 Precursor (launch end of 2016), Sentinel 4 and Sentinel 5.

  4. Total sitting time, leisure time physical activity and risk of hospitalization due to low back pain: The Danish Health Examination Survey cohort 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balling, Mie; Holmberg, Teresa; Petersen, Christina B; Aadahl, Mette; Meyrowitsch, Dan W; Tolstrup, Janne S

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to test the hypotheses that a high total sitting time and vigorous physical activity in leisure time increase the risk of low back pain and herniated lumbar disc disease. A total of 76,438 adults answered questions regarding their total sitting time and physical activity during leisure time in the Danish Health Examination Survey 2007-2008. Information on low back pain diagnoses up to 10 September 2015 was obtained from The National Patient Register. The mean follow-up time was 7.4 years. Data were analysed using Cox regression analysis with adjustment for potential confounders. Multiple imputations were performed for missing values. During the follow-up period, 1796 individuals were diagnosed with low back pain, of whom 479 were diagnosed with herniated lumbar disc disease. Total sitting time was not associated with low back pain or herniated lumbar disc disease. However, moderate or vigorous physical activity, as compared to light physical activity, was associated with increased risk of low back pain (HR = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.03-1.30 and HR = 1.45, 95% CI: 1.15-1.83). Moderate, but not vigorous physical activity was associated with increased risk of herniated lumbar disc disease. The results suggest that total sitting time is not associated with low back pain, but moderate and vigorous physical activity is associated with increased risk of low back pain compared with light physical activity.

  5. Assessment of Tandem Measurements of pH and Total Gut Transit Time in Healthy Volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Mikolajczyk, Adam E; Watson, Sydeaka; Surma, Bonnie L; Rubin, David T

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The variation of luminal pH and transit time in an individual is unknown, yet is necessary to interpret single measurements. This study aimed to assess the intrasubject variability of gut pH and transit time in healthy volunteers using SmartPill devices (Covidien, Minneapolis, MN). Methods: Each subject (n=10) ingested two SmartPill devices separated by 24?h. Mean pH values were calculated for 30?min after gastric emptying (AGE), before the ileocecal (BIC) valve, after the ileocec...

  6. Nonconvex evolution inclusions generated by time-dependent subdifferential operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Arseni-Benou

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider nonlinear nonconvex evolution inclusions driven by time-varying subdifferentials ∂ϕ(t,x without assuming that ϕ(t,. is of compact type. We show the existence of extremal solutions and then we prove a strong relaxation theorem. Moreover, we show that under a Lipschitz condition on the orientor field, the solution set of the nonconvex problem is path-connected in C(T,H. These results are applied to nonlinear feedback control systems to derive nonlinear infinite dimensional versions of the “bang-bang principle.” The abstract results are illustrated by two examples of nonlinear parabolic problems and an example of a differential variational inequality.

  7. Reducing Operating Room Costs Through Real-Time Cost Information Feedback: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabib, Christian H; Bahler, Clinton D; Hardacker, Thomas J; Ball, Kevin M; Sundaram, Chandru P

    2015-08-01

    To create a protocol for providing real-time operating room (OR) cost feedback to surgeons. We hypothesize that this protocol will reduce costs in a responsible way without sacrificing quality of care. All OR costs were obtained and recorded for robot-assisted partial nephrectomy and laparoscopic donor nephrectomy. Before the beginning of this project, costs pertaining to the 20 most recent cases were analyzed. Items were identified from previous cases as modifiable for replacement or omission. Timely feedback of total OR costs and cost of each item used was provided to the surgeon after each case, and costs were analyzed. A cost analysis of the robot-assisted partial nephrectomy before the washout period indicates expenditures of $5243.04 per case. Ten recommended modifiable items were found to have an average per case cost of $1229.33 representing 23.4% of the total cost. A postwashout period cost analysis found the total OR cost decreased by $899.67 (17.2%) because of changes directly related to the modifiable items. Therefore, 73.2% of the possible identified savings was realized. The same stepwise approach was applied to laparoscopic donor nephrectomies. The average total cost per case before the washout period was $3530.05 with $457.54 attributed to modifiable items. After the washout period, modifiable items costs were reduced by $289.73 (8.0%). No complications occurred in the donor nephrectomy cases while one postoperative complication occurred in the partial nephrectomy group. Providing surgeons with feedback related to OR costs may lead to a change in surgeon behavior and decreased overall costs. Further studies are needed to show equivalence in patient outcomes.

  8. Kajian dan Implementasi Real TIME Operating System pada Single Board Computer Berbasis Arm

    OpenAIRE

    A, Wiedjaja; M, Handi; L, Jonathan; Christian, Benyamin; Kristofel, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Operating System is an important software in computer system. For personal and office use the operating system is sufficient. However, to critical mission applications such as nuclear power plants and braking system on the car (auto braking system) which need a high level of reliability, it requires operating system which operates in real time. The study aims to assess the implementation of the Linux-based operating system on a Single Board Computer (SBC) ARM-based, namely Pandaboard ES with ...

  9. Determinantal Representation of the Time-Dependent Stationary Correlation Function for the Totally Asymmetric Simple Exclusion Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay M. Bogoliubov

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The basic model of the non-equilibrium low dimensional physics the so-called totally asymmetric exclusion process is related to the 'crystalline limit' (q → ∞ of the SU_q(2 quantum algebra. Using the quantum inverse scattering method we obtain the exact expression for the time-dependent stationary correlation function of the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process on a one dimensional lattice with the periodic boundary conditions.

  10. Total time on test processes and applications to failure data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlow, R.E.; Campo, R.

    1975-01-01

    This paper describes a new method for analyzing data. The method applies to non-negative observations such as times to failure of devices and survival times of biological organisms and involves a plot of the data. These plots are useful in choosing a probabilistic model to represent the failure behavior of the data. They also furnish information about the failure rate function and aid in its estimation. An important feature of these data plots is that incomplete data can be analyzed. The underlying random variables are, however, assumed to be independent and identically distributed. The plots have a theoretical basis, and converge to a transform of the underlying probability distribution as the sample size increases

  11. Operative time, blood loss, hemoglobin drop, blood transfusion, and hospital stay in orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salma, Ra'ed Ghaleb; Al-Shammari, Fahad Mohammed; Al-Garni, Bishi Abdullah; Al-Qarzaee, Mohammed Abdullah

    2017-06-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the operative time, blood loss, hemoglobin drop, blood transfusion, and length of hospital stay in orthognathic surgery. A 10-year retrospective analysis was performed on patients who underwent bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (with or without genioplasty), Le Fort I osteotomy (with or without genioplasty), or any combination of these procedures. A total of 271 patients were included. The age range was 17 to 49 years, with a mean age of 24.13 ± 4.51 years. Approximately 62% of patients underwent double-jaw surgery. The most common procedure was bilateral sagittal split with Le Fort I (37%). The average operative time was 3.96 ± 1.25 h. The mean estimated blood loss was 345.2 ± 149.74 mL. Approximately 9% of patients received intraoperative blood transfusion. The mean hemoglobin drop in the non-transfusion cases was 2.38 ± 0.89 g/dL. The mean postoperative hospital stay was 1.85 ± 0.83 days. Only one patient was admitted to the ICU for one night. In orthognathic surgery, blood loss is relatively minor, blood transfusion is frequent, and ICU admission is unlikely. Operative time, blood loss, blood transfusion, and the complexity of the surgical procedure can significantly increase the length of hospital stay. Males may bleed more than females in orthognathic surgery. Hemoglobin drop can be overestimated due to hemodilution in orthognathic surgery, which may influence the decision to use blood transfusion.

  12. Effect of temperature, time, and milling process on yield, flavonoid, and total phenolic content of Zingiber officinale water extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriyani, R.; Kosasih, W.; Ningrum, D. R.; Pudjiraharti, S.

    2017-03-01

    Several parameters such as temperature, time of extraction, and size of simplicia play significant role in medicinal herb extraction. This study aimed to investigate the effect of those parameters on yield extract, flavonoid, and total phenolic content in water extract of Zingiber officinale. The temperatures used were 50, 70 and 90°C and the extraction times were 30, 60 and 90 min. Z. officinale in the form of powder and chips were used to study the effect of milling treatment. The correlation among those variables was analysed using ANOVA two-way factors without replication. The result showed that time and temperature did not influence the yield of extract of Powder simplicia. However, time of extraction influenced the extract of simplicia treated without milling process. On the other hand, flavonoid and total phenolic content were not influenced by temperature, time, and milling treatment.

  13. Time- and dose-dependent effects of total-body ionizing radiation on muscle stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Shinya; Hisamatsu, Tsubasa; Seko, Daiki; Urata, Yoshishige; Goto, Shinji; Li, Tao-Sheng; Ono, Yusuke

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to high levels of genotoxic stress, such as high-dose ionizing radiation, increases both cancer and noncancer risks. However, it remains debatable whether low-dose ionizing radiation reduces cellular function, or rather induces hormetic health benefits. Here, we investigated the effects of total-body γ-ray radiation on muscle stem cells, called satellite cells. Adult C57BL/6 mice were exposed to γ-radiation at low- to high-dose rates (low, 2 or 10 mGy/day; moderate, 50 mGy/day; high, 250 mGy/day) for 30 days. No hormetic responses in proliferation, differentiation, or self-renewal of satellite cells were observed in low-dose radiation-exposed mice at the acute phase. However, at the chronic phase, population expansion of satellite cell-derived progeny was slightly decreased in mice exposed to low-dose radiation. Taken together, low-dose ionizing irradiation may suppress satellite cell function, rather than induce hormetic health benefits, in skeletal muscle in adult mice. PMID:25869487

  14. Fall Risk Score at the Time of Discharge Predicts Readmission Following Total Joint Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, Bheeshma; Nan, Zhang; Schwartz, Adam J; Clarke, Henry D

    2017-07-01

    Readmission among Medicare recipients is a leading driver of healthcare expenditure. To date, most predictive tools are too coarse for direct clinical application. Our objective in this study is to determine if a pre-existing tool to identify patients at increased risk for inpatient falls, the Hendrich Fall Risk Score, could be used to accurately identify Medicare patients at increased risk for readmission following arthroplasty, regardless of whether the readmission was due to a fall. This study is a retrospective cohort study. We identified 2437 Medicare patients who underwent a primary elective total joint arthroplasty (TJA) of the hip or knee for osteoarthritis between 2011 and 2014. The Hendrich Fall Risk score was recorded for each patient preoperatively and postoperatively. Our main outcome measure was hospital readmission within 30 days of discharge. Of 2437 eligible TJA recipients, there were 226 (9.3%) patients who had a score ≥6. These patients were more likely to have an unplanned readmission (unadjusted odds ratio 2.84, 95% confidence interval 1.70-4.76, P 3 days (49.6% vs 36.6%, P = .0001), and were less likely to be sent home after discharge (20.8% vs 35.8%, P fall risk score after TJA is strongly associated with unplanned readmission. Application of this tool will allow hospitals to identify these patients and plan their discharge. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Online Synthesis for Operation Execution Time Variability on Digital Microfluidic Biochips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alistar, Mirela; Pop, Paul

    2014-01-01

    have assumed that each biochemical operation in an application is characterized by a worst-case execution time (wcet). However, during the execution of the application, due to variability and randomness in biochemical reactions, operations may finish earlier than their wcets. In this paper we propose...... an online synthesis strategy that re-synthesizes the application at runtime when operations experience variability in their execution time, obtaining thus shorter application execution times. The proposed strategy has been evaluated using several benchmarks....

  16. Advanced Hard Real-Time Operating System, The Maruti Project. Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    REAL - TIME OPERATING SYSTEM , THE MARUTI PROJECT Part 1 of 2 Ashok K. Agrawala Satish K. Tripathi Department of Computer Science University of Maryland...Hard Real - Time Operating System , The Maruti Project DASG-60-92-C-0055 5b. Program Element # 62301E 6. Author(s) 5c. Project # DRPB Ashok K. Agrawala...SdSA94), a real - time operating system developed at the I3nversity of Maryland, and conducted extensive experiments under various task

  17. Comparison of laparoscopic and open appendectomy in terms of operative time, hospital stay and frequency of surgical site infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, T.; Saleem, M.R.; Aziz, O.B.; Arshad, A.

    2014-01-01

    To compare laparoscopic and conventional open appendectomy in terms of operative time, hospital stay and frequency of surgical site infection (SSI). Patient and Methods: A total of 417 patients underwent appendectomy during this period. 137 patients underwent laparoscopic appendectomy (group A) while 280 patient had open appendectomy (group B). The samples include all patients who were operated open between the time span of june 2010 to september 2011. A chi square-test was performed to compare the data for statistical significance. Result: Mean operative time for group A was 79.21+-23.42 minitues where as in group B, the mean operative time was 41.49+-20.86 minitues. Group A patients had a shorter hospital 1 stay (3.6+-1 day) but in group B it was (5.2+-3 days). Seven patients (5.1 %) developed surgical site infection (SSI) in group A and 34 patients (12.14 %)developed postoperative SSI in group B. Conclusion: Laparoscopic appendectomy is superior to open appendectomy because of shorter hospital stay and laser-operative SSI, but requires longer operative time. (author)

  18. Saddlepoint approximation to the distribution of the total distance of the continuous time random walk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatto, Riccardo

    2017-12-01

    This article considers the random walk over Rp, with p ≥ 2, where a given particle starts at the origin and moves stepwise with uniformly distributed step directions and step lengths following a common distribution. Step directions and step lengths are independent. The case where the number of steps of the particle is fixed and the more general case where it follows an independent continuous time inhomogeneous counting process are considered. Saddlepoint approximations to the distribution of the distance from the position of the particle to the origin are provided. Despite the p-dimensional nature of the random walk, the computations of the saddlepoint approximations are one-dimensional and thus simple. Explicit formulae are derived with dimension p = 3: for uniformly and exponentially distributed step lengths, for fixed and for Poisson distributed number of steps. In these situations, the high accuracy of the saddlepoint approximations is illustrated by numerical comparisons with Monte Carlo simulation. Contribution to the "Topical Issue: Continuous Time Random Walk Still Trendy: Fifty-year History, Current State and Outlook", edited by Ryszard Kutner and Jaume Masoliver.

  19. A close-form solution to predict the total melting time of an ablating slab in contact with a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, F.-B.

    2007-01-01

    An exact melt-through time is derived for a one-dimensional heated slab in contact with a plasma when the melted material is immediately removed. The plasma is composed of a collisionless presheath and sheath on a slab, which partially reflects and secondarily emits ions and electrons. The energy transport from plasma to the surface accounting for the presheath and sheath is determined from the kinetic analysis. This work proposes a semi-analytical model to calculate the total melting time of a slab based on a direct integration of the unsteady heat conduction equation, and provides quantitative results applicable to control the total melting time of the slab. The total melting time as a function of plasma parameters and thermophysical properties of the slab are obtained. The predicted energy transmission factor as a function of dimensionless wall potential agrees well with the experimental data. The effects of reflectivities of the ions and electrons on the wall, electron-to-ion source temperature ratio at the presheath edge, charge number, ion-to-electron mass ratio, ionization energy, plasma flow work-to-heat conduction ratios, Stefan number, melting temperature, Biot number and bias voltage on the total melting time of the slab are quantitatively provided in this work

  20. Does the brake response time of the right leg change after left total knee arthroplasty? A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Carlos J; Barreiros, João; Cabri, Jan; Carita, Ana I; Friesecke, Christian; Loehr, Jochen F

    2008-08-01

    Patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty often ask when they can safely resume car driving. There is little evidence available on which physicians can rely when advising patients on this issue. In a prospective study we assessed the brake response time of 24 patients admitted to the clinic for left total knee arthroplasty preoperatively and then 10 days after surgery. On each measurement day the patients performed two tasks, a simple and a complex brake response time task in a car simulator. Ten days after left TKA the brake response time for the simple task had decreased by 3.6% (p=0.24), the reaction time by 3.1% (p=0.34) and the movement time by 6.6% (p=0.07). However, the performance improvement was not statistically significant. Task complexity increased brake response time at both time points. A 5.8% increase was significant (p=0.01) at 10 days after surgery. Based on our results, we suggest that patients who have undergone left total knee arthroplasty may resume car driving 10 days after surgery as long as they drive a car with automatic transmission.

  1. Intelligent control for modeling of real-time reservoir operation, part II: artificial neural network with operating rule curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ya-Ting; Chang, Li-Chiu; Chang, Fi-John

    2005-04-01

    To bridge the gap between academic research and actual operation, we propose an intelligent control system for reservoir operation. The methodology includes two major processes, the knowledge acquired and implemented, and the inference system. In this study, a genetic algorithm (GA) and a fuzzy rule base (FRB) are used to extract knowledge based on the historical inflow data with a design objective function and on the operating rule curves respectively. The adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) is then used to implement the knowledge, to create the fuzzy inference system, and then to estimate the optimal reservoir operation. To investigate its applicability and practicability, the Shihmen reservoir, Taiwan, is used as a case study. For the purpose of comparison, a simulation of the currently used M-5 operating rule curve is also performed. The results demonstrate that (1) the GA is an efficient way to search the optimal input-output patterns, (2) the FRB can extract the knowledge from the operating rule curves, and (3) the ANFIS models built on different types of knowledge can produce much better performance than the traditional M-5 curves in real-time reservoir operation. Moreover, we show that the model can be more intelligent for reservoir operation if more information (or knowledge) is involved.

  2. A cost and time analysis of laryngology procedures in the endoscopy suite versus the operating room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillel, Alexander T; Ochsner, Matthew C; Johns, Michael M; Klein, Adam M

    2016-06-01

    To assess the costs, charges, reimbursement, and efficiency of performing awake laryngology procedures in an endoscopy suite (ES) compared with like procedures performed in the operating room (OR). Retrospective review of billing records. Cost, charges, and reimbursements for the hospital, surgeon, and anesthesiologist were compared between ES injection laryngoplasty and laser excision procedures and matched case controls in the OR. Time spent in 1) the preoperative unit, 2) the operating or endoscopy suite, and 3) recovery unit were compared between OR and ES procedures. Hospital expenses were significantly less for ES procedures when compared to OR procedures. Reimbursement was similar for ES and OR injection laryngoplasty, though greater for OR laser excisions. Net balance (reimbursement-expenses) was greater for ES procedures. A predictive model of payer costs over a 3-year period showed similar costs for ES and OR laser procedures and reduced costs for ES compared to OR injection laryngoplasty. Times spent preoperatively and the procedure were significantly less for ES procedures. For individual laryngology procedures, the ES reduces time and costs compared to the OR, increasing otolaryngologist and hospital efficiency. This reveals cost and time savings of ES injection laryngoplasty, which occurs at a similar frequency as OR injection laryngoplasty. Given the increased frequency for ES laser procedures, total costs are similar for ES and OR laser excision of papilloma, which usually require repeated procedures. When regulated office space is unavailable, endoscopy rooms represent an alternative setting for unsedated laryngology procedures. NA Laryngoscope, 126:1385-1389, 2016. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  3. [Total quality management in times of crisis. The case of Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larroca, Norberto

    2003-01-01

    Healthcare organizations were faced with so great a challenge following the financial slump that they were forced to 'sharpen their wits' in order to survive. Integrated Quality Management (in Spanish GIC), proved the ideal instrument. GIC has four foundational elements, the application of which allow for successful management of crisis situations. They are as follows: TRAINING of human resources EVALUATION of healthcare institutions SELF-EVALUATION by institutions QUALITY ACCREDITATION of institutions All our organizations have the appropriate tools to carry out these activities which form the basis of our project: CAES (Argentinean Chamber of Healthcare Institutions) -training-, CIDCAM (Inter-institutional Committee for Quality Development in Medical Care) -evaluation and self-evaluation-, CENAS (Specialist Centre for the Standardization and Accreditation in Health Care)-accreditation-. In times of crisis, we play an active part, that is, instead of withdrawing our efforts, we do our best to achieve the best and most adequate objective in order to meet the needs of the population through Integrated Quality Management. Eventually, when the results are examined, medical care that meets the best quality standards is found to be, after all, the most economical (that is best results, better satisfaction of healthcare users and providers as well as less mistakes).

  4. Integrated payload and mission planning, phase 3. Volume 3: Ground real-time mission operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, W. J.

    1977-01-01

    The payloads tentatively planned to fly on the first two Spacelab missions were analyzed to examine the cost relationships of providing mission operations support from onboard vs the ground-based Payload Operations Control Center (POCC). The quantitative results indicate that use of a POCC, with data processing capability, to support real-time mission operations is the most cost effective case.

  5. Total testosterone levels are often more than three times elevated in patients with androgen-secreting tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Dorte; Lambaa Altinok, Magda; Petersen, Kresten Rubeck

    2015-01-01

    surgery. Terminal hair growth on lip and chin gradually increases after menopause, which complicates distinction from normal physiological variation. Precise testosterone assays have just recently become available in the daily clinic. We present three women diagnosed with testosterone-producing tumours...... when total testosterone levels are above three times the upper reference limit....

  6. Time cycle calculation procedure for the special crew during the mining mobile machine complex operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shmurygin, V; Lukyanov, V; Maslovsky, A

    2015-01-01

    The relevance of the research is specified by the necessity to optimize the delft mobile tunneling equipment operation. Target of the research is tunneling time cycle justification for the special crew during the mining mobile machine complex operation. Methods of the research included the consideration of operation organization schemes in the drifting face and effective use of the mobile equipment during mine exploratory working operations. Time cycle calculation procedures for major processes have been considered. This has been done for the special crew during the mobile machine complex operations for several working faces and various organization schemes

  7. STUDY OF METABOLIC ACIDOSIS IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING SURGERIES OF OPERATIVE TIME GREATER THAN 2 HOURS DURATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathu T. S

    2018-02-01

    . RESULTS Duration of surgery was significantly related to incidence of both intraoperative and postoperative metabolic acidosis. When cross tabulation was done between operative duration and intra operative metabolic acidosis, it was found that 14(87.5% subjects of total 16 who had duration of greater than 5 hrs had metabolic acidosis. 10 (62.5% individuals of operative duration 2.01-3 hrs., 28 (73.7% individuals from 3.01-4 hrs. group and 37 (94.9% individuals from 4.01-5 hrs duration group were found to have intra operative metabolic acidosis. On doing an independent t test for calculating the significance of each of total crystalloid, normal saline and ringer lactate it was found that ringer lactate had a significant relationship with postoperative metabolic acidosis, indicated by a p value of 0.030, while normal saline had no significant relation to postoperative metabolic acidosis. Still it is interesting to note that total crystalloid administered had a significant relation to postoperative metabolic acidosis indicated by a p value of 0.047. Colloid administration was also found to have a positive relationship with both intra operative (p value of 0.019 and postoperative metabolic acidosis (p value of 0.009. CONCLUSION This study stresses the need of doing an intra operative blood gas analysis, in all prolonged surgeries, to analyse and begin corrective measures intra operatively itself, such that patient has least postoperative morbidity and speedy recovery.

  8. Relationships between post operative pain management and short term functional mobility in total knee arthroplasty patients with a femoral nerve catheter: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ward Sarah

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective pain management following total knee arthroplasty (TKA is fundamental in achieving positive rehabilitation outcomes. The purpose of our study was to investigate post operative pain management in relation to short term functional mobility in an intervention group receiving concomitant use of an IV narcotic PCA and a continuous infusion of local anaesthetic via a femoral nerve catheter (CFNC, compared to a group receiving narcotic PCA alone. This was a preliminary study conducted to establish an appropriate design for a larger investigative study. Methods A prospective design was used to measure the effect of a CFNC on post operative pain management and functional mobility prior to hospital discharge. The amount of fentanyl used, pain and nausea scores, timed up and go (TUG tests and active range of knee movement (AROM were used to compare a CFNC and supplemental narcotic patient controlled analgesia (PCA group (n = 27 with a PCA only group (n = 25. Results The CFNC group used significantly less fentanyl than the PCA only group (p s = .505 p s = .529 p s = .328, p = .034 Conclusions In this small preliminary study improved TUG performance at Day 4 post op was not influenced by the use of a CFNC but was positively correlated with male gender, preoperative performance, time elapsed since last oral analgesia and pain score. However AROM was decreased in the CFNC group suggesting further research on the relationship between CFNCs, local anaesthetic concentration and quadriceps strength should be incorporated in the follow up study's design.

  9. Independent and combined associations of total sedentary time and television viewing time with food intake patterns of 9- to 11-year-old Canadian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghese, Michael M; Tremblay, Mark S; Leduc, Genevieve; Boyer, Charles; Bélanger, Priscilla; LeBlanc, Allana G; Francis, Claire; Chaput, Jean-Philippe

    2014-08-01

    The relationships among sedentary time, television viewing time, and dietary patterns in children are not fully understood. The aim of this paper was to determine which of self-reported television viewing time or objectively measured sedentary time is a better correlate of the frequency of consumption of healthy and unhealthy foods. A cross-sectional study was conducted of 9- to 11-year-old children (n = 523; 57.1% female) from Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Accelerometers were used to determine total sedentary time, and questionnaires were used to determine the number of hours of television watching and the frequency of consumption of foods per week. Television viewing was negatively associated with the frequency of consumption of fruits, vegetables, and green vegetables, and positively associated with the frequency of consumption of sweets, soft drinks, diet soft drinks, pastries, potato chips, French fries, fruit juices, ice cream, fried foods, and fast food. Except for diet soft drinks and fruit juices, these associations were independent of covariates, including sedentary time. Total sedentary time was negatively associated with the frequency of consumption of sports drinks, independent of covariates, including television viewing. In combined sedentary time and television viewing analyses, children watching >2 h of television per day consumed several unhealthy food items more frequently than did children watching ≤2 h of television, regardless of sedentary time. In conclusion, this paper provides evidence to suggest that television viewing time is more strongly associated with unhealthy dietary patterns than is total sedentary time. Future research should focus on reducing television viewing time, as a means of improving dietary patterns and potentially reducing childhood obesity.

  10. Application of total quality tools in the operational process modernization and optimization of large hydroelectric power plants; Aplicacao de ferramentas da qualidade total na modernizacao e otimizacao de processos operacionais de grandes usinas hidreletricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potenza, Luiz Frederico; Kassem, Faisal Ali; Medlo, Gerson Ricardo; Santos, Valdemir Chalito dos [Companhia Paranaense de Energia (COPEL), Capitao Leonidas Marques, PR (Brazil). Superintendencia de Gerencia da Manutencao. Area de Operacao e Manutencao Salto Caxias]. E-mail: potenza@mail.copel.br

    1998-07-01

    This work highlights a practical example of Total Quality tools application, and as the institutional changes advances, the necessity of being better and more competitive becomes evident. By using Total Quality Control tools in the modernization and optimization of operational processes for large hydroelectric power plants of the COPEL-Brazil this work contributes for the continuous increasing of the customers satisfaction and the profitability of the company.

  11. Concentration, size, and density of total suspended particulates at the air exhaust of concentrated animal feeding operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xufei; Lee, Jongmin; Zhang, Yuanhui; Wang, Xinlei; Yang, Liangcheng

    2015-08-01

    Total suspended particulate (TSP) samples were seasonally collected at the air exhaust of 15 commercial concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs; including swine finishing, swine farrowing, swine gestation, laying hen, and tom turkey) in the U.S. Midwest. The measured TSP concentrations ranged from 0.38 ± 0.04 mg m⁻³ (swine gestation in summer) to 10.9 ± 3.9 mg m⁻³ (tom turkey in winter) and were significantly affected by animal species, housing facility type, feeder type (dry or wet), and season. The average particle size of collected TSP samples in terms of mass median equivalent spherical diameter ranged from 14.8 ± 0.5 µm (swine finishing in winter) to 30.5 ± 2.0 µm (tom turkey in summer) and showed a significant seasonal effect. This finding affirmed that particulate matter (PM) released from CAFOs contains a significant portion of large particles. The measured particle size distribution (PSD) and the density of deposited particles (on average 1.65 ± 0.13 g cm⁻³) were used to estimate the mass fractions of PM10 and PM2.5 (PM ≤ 10 and ≤ 2.5 μm, respectively) in the collected TSP. The results showed that the PM10 fractions ranged from 12.7 ± 5.1% (tom turkey) to 21.1 ± 3.2% (swine finishing), whereas the PM2.5 fractions ranged from 3.4 ± 1.9% (tom turkey) to 5.7 ± 3.2% (swine finishing) and were smaller than 9.0% at all visited CAFOs. This study applied a filter-based method for PSD measurement and deposited particles as a surrogate to estimate the TSP's particle density. The limitations, along with the assumptions adopted during the calculation of PM mass fractions, must be recognized when comparing the findings to other studies.

  12. A HARDWARE SUPPORTED OPERATING SYSTEM KERNEL FOR EMBEDDED HARD REAL-TIME APPLICATIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    COLNARIC, M; HALANG, WA; TOL, RM

    1994-01-01

    The concept of the kernel, i.e. the time critical part of a real-time operating system, and its dedicated co-processor, especially tailored for embedded applications, are presented. The co-processor acts as a system controller and operates in conjunction with one or more conventional processors in

  13. Succinct Dynamic Cardinal Trees with Constant Time Operations for Small Alphabet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davoodi, Pooya; Satti, Srinivasa Rao

    2011-01-01

    ) bits and performs the following operations in O(1) time: parent, child(i), label-child(alpha), degree, subtree-size, preorder, is-ancestor(x), insert-leaf (alpha), delete-leaf(alpha). The update times are amortized. The space is close to the information theoretic lower bound. The operations...

  14. Influence of different maceration time and temperatures on total phenols, colour and sensory properties of Cabernet Sauvignon wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şener, Hasan; Yildirim, Hatice Kalkan

    2013-12-01

    Maceration and fermentation time and temperatures are important factors affecting wine quality. In this study different maceration times (3 and 6 days) and temperatures (15  and 25 ) during production of red wine (Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon) were investigated. In all wines standard wine chemical parameters and some specific parameters as total phenols, tartaric esters, total flavonols and colour parameters (CD, CI, T, dA%, %Y, %R, %B, CIELAB values) were determined. Sensory evaluation was performed by descriptive sensory analysis. The results demonstrated not only the importance of skin contact time and temperature during maceration but also the effects of transition temperatures (different maceration and fermentation temperatures) on wine quality as a whole. The results of sensory descriptive analyses revealed that the temperature significantly affected the aroma and flavour attributes of wines. The highest scores for 'cassis', 'clove', 'fresh fruity' and 'rose' characters were obtained in wines produced at low temperature (15 ) of maceration (6 days) and fermentation.

  15. Determination operation Time Risk of Box Spinning Components-oe Spinning Machine

    OpenAIRE

    Slobodan Stefanovic

    2013-01-01

    Based on the constructed dependency diagram reliability of the exploitation operation time of each constituent components of the analyzed frame in the case of selected statistical distributions, areas of the operation exploitation and repair intervals are determined. This is done by determining the first inflection points. Based on these points analysis to determine the time of safety operation of frame components with allowable risk to the segmental linear function of the intensity of failur...

  16. Reducing Operating Room Turnover Time for Robotic Surgery Using a Motor Racing Pit Stop Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souders, Colby P; Catchpole, Ken R; Wood, Lauren N; Solnik, Jonathon M; Avenido, Raymund M; Strauss, Paul L; Eilber, Karyn S; Anger, Jennifer T

    2017-08-01

    Operating room (OR) turnover time, time taken between one patient leaving the OR and the next entering, is an important determinant of OR utilization, a key value metric for hospital administrators. Surgical robots have increased the complexity and number of tasks required during an OR turnover, resulting in highly variable OR turnover times. We sought to streamline the turnover process and decrease robotic OR turnover times and increase efficiency. Direct observation of 45 pre-intervention robotic OR turnovers was performed. Following a previously successful model for handoffs, we employed concepts from motor racing pit stops, including briefings, leadership, role definition, task allocation and task sequencing. Turnover task cards for staff were developed, and card assignments were distributed for each turnover. Forty-one cases were observed post-intervention. Average total OR turnover time was 99.2 min (95% CI 88.0-110.3) pre-intervention and 53.2 min (95% CI 48.0-58.5) at 3 months post-intervention. Average room ready time from when the patient exited the OR until the surgical technician was ready to receive the next patient was 42.2 min (95% CI 36.7-47.7) before the intervention, which reduced to 27.2 min at 3 months (95% CI 24.7-29.7) post-intervention (p system changes are needed to capitalize on that result. Pit stop and other high-risk industry models may inform approaches to the management of tasks and teams.

  17. Brake response time is significantly impaired after total knee arthroplasty: investigation of performing an emergency stop while driving a car.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Maurice; Hofmann, Ulf-Krister; Rondak, Ina; Götze, Marco; Kluba, Torsten; Ipach, Ingmar

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether total knee arthroplasty (TKA) impairs the ability to perform an emergency stop. An automatic transmission brake simulator was developed to evaluate total brake response time. A prospective repeated-measures design was used. Forty patients (20 left/20 right) were measured 8 days and 6, 12, and 52 wks after surgery. Eight days postoperative total brake response time increased significantly by 30% in right TKA and insignificantly by 2% in left TKA. Brake force significantly decreased by 35% in right TKA and by 25% in left TKA during this period. Baseline values were reached at week 12 in right TKA; the impairment of outcome measures, however, was no longer significant at week 6 compared with preoperative values. Total brake response time and brake force in left TKA fell below baseline values at weeks 6 and 12. Brake force in left TKA was the only outcome measure significantly impaired 8 days postoperatively. This study highlights that categorical statements cannot be provided. This study's findings on automatic transmission driving suggest that right TKA patients may resume driving 6 wks postoperatively. Fitness to drive in left TKA is not fully recovered 8 days postoperatively. If testing is not available, patients should refrain from driving until they return from rehabilitation.

  18. Associations of Total and Domain-Specific Sedentary Time With Type 2 Diabetes in Taiwanese Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Chun Hsueh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes in older adults has become a public health concern. We investigated the associations of total and domain-specific sedentary time with risk of type 2 diabetes in older adults. Methods: The sample comprised 1046 older people (aged ≥65 years. Analyses were performed using crosssectional data collected via computer-assisted telephone-based interviews in 2014. Data on six self-reported domains of sedentary time (Measure of Older Adults’ Sedentary Time, type 2 diabetes status, and sociodemographic variables were included in the study. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to calculate the adjusted odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs for total and individual sedentary behavior components and likelihood of type 2 diabetes. Results: A total of 17.5% of the participants reported type 2 diabetes. No significant associations were found between total sitting time and risk of type 2 diabetes, after controlling for confounding factors. After total sedentary behavior was stratified into six domains, only watching television for more than 2 hours per day was associated with higher odds of type 2 diabetes (OR 1.56; 95% CI, 1.10–2.21, but no significant associations were found between other domains of sedentary behavior (computer use, reading, socializing, transport, and hobbies and risk of type 2 diabetes. Conclusions: These findings suggest that, among domain-specific sedentary behavior, excessive television viewing might increase the risk of type 2 diabetes among older adults more than other forms of sedentary behavior.

  19. MID-VASTUS VS MEDIAL PARA-PATELLAR APPROACH IN TOTAL KNEE REPLACEMENT—TIME TO DISCHARGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, P.; Press, J.; Hockings, M.

    2009-01-01

    Background It has been shown before that when compared with the medial para-patellar approach, the mid-vastus approach for TKR results in less post-operative pain for patients and more rapid recovery of straight leg raise. As far as we are aware the post-operative length of stay of the two groups of patients has not been compared. We postulated that the reduced pain and more rapid recovery of straight leg raise would translate into an earlier, safe, discharge home for the mid-vastus patients compared with those who underwent a traditional medial para-patellar approach. Methods Twenty patients operated on by each of five established knee arthroplasty surgeons were evaluated prospectively with regard to their pre and post-operative range of movement, time to achieve straight leg raise post-operatively and length of post-operative hospital stay. Only one of the surgeons performed the mid-vastus approach, and the measurements were recorded by physiotherapists who were blinded as to the approach used on each patient. Results The results were analysed using a standard statistical software package, and although the mean length of stay was lower for the mid-vastus patients, the difference did not reach a level of significance (p = 0.13). The time taken to achieve straight leg raise post-operatively was significantly less in the mid-vastus group (p<0.001). Conclusion Although this study confirms previous findings that the mid-vastus approach reduces the time taken for patients to achieve straight leg raise, when compared with the medial para-patellar approach, on its own it does not translate into a significantly shorter length of hospital stay. In order to reduce the length of post-operative hospital stay with an accelerated rehabilitation program for TKR, a multi-disciplinary approach is required. Patient expectations, GP support, physiotherapists and nursing staff all have a role to play and the mid-vastus approach, in permitting earlier straight leg raising

  20. Operation Cost Minimization of Droop-Controlled DC Microgrids Based on Real-Time Pricing and Optimal Power Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Chendan; de Bosio, Federico; Chaudhary, Sanjay Kumar

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, an optimal power flow problem is formulated in order to minimize the total operation cost by considering real-time pricing in DC microgrids. Each generation resource in the system, including the utility grid, is modeled in terms of operation cost, which combines the cost...... problem is solved in a heuristic way by using genetic algorithms. In order to test the proposed algorithm, a six-bus droop-controlled DC microgrid is used as a case-study. The obtained simulation results show that under variable renewable generation, load, and electricity prices, the proposed method can...

  1. Intraoperative Radiation for Breast Cancer with Intrabeam™: Factors Associated with Decreased Operative Times in Patients Having IORT for Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie A. Valente

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionIntraoperative radiation with Intrabeam™ (IORT for breast cancer is a newer technology recently implemented into the operating room (OR. This procedure requires time and coordination between the surgeon and radiation oncologist, who both perform their treatments in a single operative setting. We evaluated the surgeons at our center, who perform IORT and their OR times to examine changes in OR times following implementation of this new surgical procedure. We hypothesized that IORT is a technique for which timing could be improved with the increasing number of cases performed.MethodsA prospectively maintained IRB approved database was queried for OR times (incision and close in patients who underwent breast conserving surgery (BCS, sentinel lymph node biopsy with and without IORT using the Intrabeam™ system at our institution from 2011 to 2015. The total OR times were compared for each surgeon individually and over time. Next, the OR times of each surgeon were compared to each other. Continuous variables were summarized and then a prediction model was created using IORT time, OR time, surgeon, and number of cases performed.ResultsThere were five surgeons performing IORT at our institution during this time period with a total of 96 cases performed. There was a significant difference observed in baseline surgeon-specific OR time for BSC (p = 0.03 as well as for BCS with IORT (p < 0.05, attributable to surgeon experience. The average BCS times were faster than the BCS plus IORT procedure times for all surgeons. The overall mean OR time for the entire combined surgical and radiation procedure was 135.5 min. The most common applicator sizes used were the 3.5 and 4 cm, yielding an average 21 min IORT time. Applicator choice did not differ over time (p = 0.189. After adjusting for IORT time and surgeon, the prediction model estimated that surgeons decreased the total BCS plus IORT OR time at a rate of −4.5 min per

  2. Lot-Order Assignment Applying Priority Rules for the Single-Machine Total Tardiness Scheduling with Nonnegative Time-Dependent Processing Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Gon Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lot-order assignment is to assign items in lots being processed to orders to fulfill the orders. It is usually performed periodically for meeting the due dates of orders especially in a manufacturing industry with a long production cycle time such as the semiconductor manufacturing industry. In this paper, we consider the lot-order assignment problem (LOAP with the objective of minimizing the total tardiness of the orders with distinct due dates. We show that we can solve the LOAP optimally by finding an optimal sequence for the single-machine total tardiness scheduling problem with nonnegative time-dependent processing times (SMTTSP-NNTDPT. Also, we address how the priority rules for the SMTTSP can be modified to those for the SMTTSP-NNTDPT to solve the LOAP. In computational experiments, we discuss the performances of the suggested priority rules and show the result of the proposed approach outperforms that of the commercial optimization software package.

  3. MINIX4RT: a real-time operating system based on MINIX

    OpenAIRE

    Pessolani, Pablo Andrés

    2006-01-01

    Tanenbaum's MINIX Operating System was extended with a Real-Time microkernel and services to conform MINIX4RT, a Real-Time Operating System for academic uses that includes more flexible Interprocess Communications facilities supporting basic priority inheritance protocol, a fixed priority scheduler, timer and event driven interrupt management, statistics and Real-Time metrics gathering keeping backward compatibility with standard MINIX versions. Facultad de Informática

  4. Controlled time of arrival windows for already initiated energy-neutral continuous descent operations

    OpenAIRE

    Dalmau Codina, Ramon; Prats Menéndez, Xavier

    2017-01-01

    Continuous descent operations with controlled times of arrival at one or several metering fixes could enable environmentally friendly procedures without compromising terminal airspace capacity. This paper focuses on controlled time of arrival updates once the descent has been already initiated, assessing the feasible time window (and associated fuel consumption) of continuous descent operations requiring neither thrust nor speed-brake usage along the whole descent (i.e. only elevator control ...

  5. Terahertz time-domain attenuated total reflection spectroscopy applied to the rapid discrimination of the botanical origin of honeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen; Zhang, Yuying; Yang, Si; Han, Donghai

    2018-05-01

    A new technique to identify the floral resources of honeys is demanded. Terahertz time-domain attenuated total reflection spectroscopy combined with chemometrics methods was applied to discriminate different categorizes (Medlar honey, Vitex honey, and Acacia honey). Principal component analysis (PCA), cluster analysis (CA) and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) have been used to find information of the botanical origins of honeys. Spectral range also was discussed to increase the precision of PLS-DA model. The accuracy of 88.46% for validation set was obtained, using PLS-DA model in 0.5-1.5 THz. This work indicated terahertz time-domain attenuated total reflection spectroscopy was an available approach to evaluate the quality of honey rapidly.

  6. Total and segmental colon transit time in constipated children assessed by scintigraphy with 111In-DTPA given orally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vattimo, A; Burroni, L; Bertelli, P; Messina, M; Meucci, D; Tota, G

    1993-12-01

    Serial colon scintigraphy using 111In-DTPA (2 MBq) given orally was performed in 39 children referred for constipation, and the total and segmental colon transit times were measured. The bowel movements during the study were recorded and the intervals between defecations (ID) were calculated. This method proved able to identify children with normal colon morphology (no. = 32) and those with dolichocolon (no. = 7). Normal children were not included for ethical reasons and we used the normal range determined by others using x-ray methods (29 +/- 4 hours). Total and segmental colon transit times were found to be prolonged in all children with dolichocolon (TC: 113.55 +/- 41.20 hours; RC: 39.85 +/- 26.39 hours; LC: 43.05 +/- 18.30 hours; RS: 30.66 +/- 26.89 hours). In the group of children with a normal colon shape, 13 presented total and segmental colon transit times within the referred normal value (TC: 27.79 +/- 4.10 hours; RC: 9.11 +/- 2.53 hours; LC: 9.80 +/- 3.50 hours; RS: 8.88 +/- 4.09 hours) and normal bowel function (ID: 23.37 +/- 5.93 hours). In the remaining children, 5 presented prolonged retention in the rectum (RS: 53.36 +/- 29.66 hours), and 14 a prolonged transit time in all segments. A good correlation was found between the transit time and bowel function. From the point of view of radiation dosimetry, the most heavily irradiated organs were the lower large intestine and the ovaries, and the level of radiation burden depended on the colon transit time. We can conclude that the described method results safe, accurate and fully diagnostic.

  7. Objectively measured physical environmental neighbourhood factors are not associated with accelerometer-determined total sedentary time in adults

    OpenAIRE

    Compernolle, Sofie; De Cocker, Katrien; Mackenbach, Joreintje D.; Van Nassau, Femke; Lakerveld, Jeroen; Cardon, Greet; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2017-01-01

    Background: The physical neighbourhood environment may influence adults' sedentary behaviour. Yet, most studies examining the association between the physical neighbourhood environment and sedentary behaviour rely on self-reported data of either the physical neighbourhood environment and/or sedentary behaviour. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between objectively measured physical environmental neighbourhood factors and accelerometer-determined total sedentary time in...

  8. Minimizing total weighted tardiness for the single machine scheduling problem with dependent setup time and precedence constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Haddad

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper tackles the single machine scheduling problem with dependent setup time and precedence constraints. The primary objective of this paper is minimization of total weighted tardiness. Since the complexity of the resulted problem is NP-hard we use metaheuristics method to solve the resulted model. The proposed model of this paper uses genetic algorithm to solve the problem in reasonable amount of time. Because of high sensitivity of GA to its initial values of parameters, a Taguchi approach is presented to calibrate its parameters. Computational experiments validate the effectiveness and capability of proposed method.

  9. Clinical responses after total body irradiation by over permissible dose of γ-rays in one time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Benrong; Wang Guilin; Liu Huilan; Tang Xingsheng; Ai Huisheng

    1990-01-01

    The clinical responses of patients after total body over permissilbe dose γ-ray irradiation were observed and analysed. The results showed: when the dose was above 5 cGy, there was some immunological depression, but no significant change in hematopoietic functions. 5 cases showed some transient changes of ECG, perhaps due to vagotonia caused by psychological imbalance, One case vomitted 3-4 times after 28 cGy irradiation, this suggested that a few times of vomitting had no significance in the estimation of the irradiated dose and the whole clinical manifestations must be concretely analysed

  10. Retroperitoneal laparoscopic nephrectomy: the effect of the learning curve, and concentrating expertise, on operating times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Adrian; Maoate, Kiki; Beasley, Spencer

    2010-05-01

    Laparoscopic nephrectomy is an accepted alternative to open nephrectomy. We analyzed our first 80 procedures of laparoscopic nephrectomy to evaluate the effect of experience and configuration of service on operative times. A retrospective review of 80 consecutive children who underwent retroperitoneal laparoscopic nephrectomy or heminephrectomy during an 11-year period from 1997 at Christchurch Hospital (Christchurch, New Zealand) was conducted. Operative times, in relation to the experience of the surgeon for this procedure, were analyzed. Four surgeons, assisted by an annually rotating trainee registrar, performed the procedure in 26 girls and 54 boys (range, 8 months to 15 years). Operating times ranged from 38 to 225 minutes (mean, 104). The average operative time fell from 105 to 90 minutes. One surgeon performed 40% of the procedures and assisted with a further 55%. The operative times for all surgeons showed a tendency to reduce, but this was not marked. Most procedures were performed by two surgeons working together, although one surgeon was involved in the majority of cases. The lead surgeon is often assisted by a fellow consultant colleague. Operative times were influenced by experience, but not markedly so. The shorter operative times and minimal "learning curve," compared with other reported series, may, in part, be due to the involvement of two surgeons experienced in laparoscopy for the majority of cases.

  11. ASPECTS REGARDING THE SETTING OF TIME STANDARDS FOR THE PRODUCTION AND SEWING OPERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SECAN Cristina

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the technological process of manufacture of a shoe for women in IL system in order to establish the time and the production norm in the processing-sewing procedure. The sequence of operations is presented in a case study that analyzed how can be obtained the upper assembly of a footwear product that later becomes integral part into the finished product. Drawing up the technological process is done considering both the manual operations and the manual-mechanical operations for processing and assembling the parts that make the whole upper assembly by gluing the parts, by seaming and securing the joints. The type of equipment chosen to carry out operations is influencing through its productivity the necessary material calculated and hence the labour force required. The amount of time consists of time needed for preparation-finishing time, operative time, time of working place service and time of regulated interruptions. These periods of times were determined basically by timing assistance of the manufacturing process throughout its development. Production norm is calculated on the basis of the standard time, taking into account that it represents the amount of products manufactured in a work shift In order to improve the process by reducing the time of production and the number of workers engaged we are considering the automation of the manufacturing process by using modern methods using laser cutting or cutting under running water, automatic sewing machines, strip conveyor belts with pace imposed etc.

  12. Informed consent: do information pamphlets improve post-operative risk-recall in patients undergoing total thyroidectomy: prospective randomized control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaffar, Hussain; Wilson, Lindsay; Kamdar, Dev P; Sultanov, Faizullo; Enepekides, Danny; Higgins, Kevin M

    2016-02-13

    Informed consent consists of basic five elements: voluntarism, capacity, disclosure, understanding, and ultimate decision-making. Physician disclosure, patient understanding, and information retention are all essential in the doctor-patient relationship. This is inclusive of helping patients make and manage their decisions and expectations better and also to deal with any consequences and/or complications that arise. This study investigates whether giving patients procedure-specific handouts pre-operatively as part of the established informed consent process significantly improves overall risk-recall following surgery. These handouts outline the anticipated peri-operative risks and complications associated with total thyroidectomy, as well as the corrective measures to address complications. In addition, the influence of potential confounders affecting risk-recall, such as anxiety and pre-existing memory disturbance, are also examined. Consecutive adult (≥18 years old) patients undergoing total thyroidectomy at a single academic tertiary care referral centre are included. Participants are randomly assigned into either the experimental group (with pamphlets) or the control group by a computerized randomization system (Clinstat). All participants filled out a Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and they are tested by the physician for short-term memory loss using the Memory Impairment Screen (MIS) exam. All patients are evaluated at one week post-operatively. The written recall questionnaire test is also administered during this clinical encounter. Forty-nine patients are included--25 of them receive verbal consent only, while another 24 patients received both verbal consent and patient education information pamphlets. The overall average of correct answers for each group was 83% and 80% in the control and intervention groups, respectively, with no statistically significant differences. There are also no statistically significant differences between the

  13. Choice reaction time in patients with post-operative cognitive dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinmetz, J.; Rasmussen, L.S.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Post-operative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is detected by administration of a neuropsychological test battery. Reaction time testing is at present not included as a standard test. Choice reaction time (CRT) data from the first International Study of Post-operative Cognitive Dysfunction...... in nine countries. CRT was measured 52 times using the four boxes test. Patients performed the test before surgery (n=1083), at 1 week (n=926) and at 3 months (n=852) post-operatively. CRT for the individual patient was determined as the median time of correct responses. The usefulness of the CRT...... had a significantly longer CRT. ROC curves revealed that a reaction time of 813 ms was the most appropriate cut-off at 1 week and 762 ms at 3 months but the positive predictive value for POCD was low: 34.4% and 14.7%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Post-operative cognitive dysfunction is associated...

  14. Off-Policy Reinforcement Learning: Optimal Operational Control for Two-Time-Scale Industrial Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinna; Kiumarsi, Bahare; Chai, Tianyou; Lewis, Frank L; Fan, Jialu

    2017-12-01

    Industrial flow lines are composed of unit processes operating on a fast time scale and performance measurements known as operational indices measured at a slower time scale. This paper presents a model-free optimal solution to a class of two time-scale industrial processes using off-policy reinforcement learning (RL). First, the lower-layer unit process control loop with a fast sampling period and the upper-layer operational index dynamics at a slow time scale are modeled. Second, a general optimal operational control problem is formulated to optimally prescribe the set-points for the unit industrial process. Then, a zero-sum game off-policy RL algorithm is developed to find the optimal set-points by using data measured in real-time. Finally, a simulation experiment is employed for an industrial flotation process to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  15. Timing system for multi-bunch/multi-train operation at ATF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, T.; Hayano, H.; Urakawa, J.; Imai, T.

    2000-01-01

    A timing system has been constructed for multi-bunch/multi-train operation at KEK-ATF. The linac accelerates 20 bunches of multi-bunch with 2.8 ns spacing. The Damping Ring stores up to 5 trains of multi-bunch. The timing system is required to provide flexible operation mode and bucket selection. A personal computer is used for manipulating the timing. The performance of kicker magnets at the injection/extruction is key issue for multi-train operation. The hardware and the test results are presented. (author)

  16. Research on Control Method Based on Real-Time Operational Reliability Evaluation for Space Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifan Wang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A control method based on real-time operational reliability evaluation for space manipulator is presented for improving the success rate of a manipulator during the execution of a task. In this paper, a method for quantitative analysis of operational reliability is given when manipulator is executing a specified task; then a control model which could control the quantitative operational reliability is built. First, the control process is described by using a state space equation. Second, process parameters are estimated in real time using Bayesian method. Third, the expression of the system's real-time operational reliability is deduced based on the state space equation and process parameters which are estimated using Bayesian method. Finally, a control variable regulation strategy which considers the cost of control is given based on the Theory of Statistical Process Control. It is shown via simulations that this method effectively improves the operational reliability of space manipulator control system.

  17. On $L^p$ Estimates for the Time-Dependent Schrodinger Operator on $L^2$

    CERN Document Server

    Mortad, M H

    2006-01-01

    Let L denote the time-dependent Schrodinger operator in n space variables. We consider a variety of Lebesgue norms for functions u on R^{n+1}, and prove or disprove estimates for such norms of u in terms of the L^2-norms of u and Lu. The results have implications for self-adjo intness of operators of the form L+V where V is a multiplication operator. The proofs are based mainly on the Strichartz-type inequalities.

  18. Development of a prototype real-time automated filter for operational deep space navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, W. C.; Pollmeier, V. M.

    1994-01-01

    Operational deep space navigation has been in the past, and is currently, performed using systems whose architecture requires constant human supervision and intervention. A prototype for a system which allows relatively automated processing of radio metric data received in near real-time from NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) without any redesign of the existing operational data flow has been developed. This system can allow for more rapid response as well as much reduced staffing to support mission navigation operations.

  19. Preliminary Investigation of Time Remaining Display on the Computer-based Emergency Operating Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryono, T. J.; Gofuku, A.

    2018-02-01

    One of the important thing in the mitigation of accidents in nuclear power plant accidents is time management. The accidents should be resolved as soon as possible in order to prevent the core melting and the release of radioactive material to the environment. In this case, operators should follow the emergency operating procedure related with the accident, in step by step order and in allowable time. Nowadays, the advanced main control rooms are equipped with computer-based procedures (CBPs) which is make it easier for operators to do their tasks of monitoring and controlling the reactor. However, most of the CBPs do not include the time remaining display feature which informs operators of time available for them to execute procedure steps and warns them if the they reach the time limit. Furthermore, the feature will increase the awareness of operators about their current situation in the procedure. This paper investigates this issue. The simplified of emergency operating procedure (EOP) of steam generator tube rupture (SGTR) accident of PWR plant is applied. In addition, the sequence of actions on each step of the procedure is modelled using multilevel flow modelling (MFM) and influenced propagation rule. The prediction of action time on each step is acquired based on similar case accidents and the Support Vector Regression. The derived time will be processed and then displayed on a CBP user interface.

  20. A Concurrent Implementation of the Cascade-Correlation Algorithm, Using the Time Warp Operating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, P.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the method in which the Cascade-Correlation algorithm was parallelized in such a way that it could be run using the Time Warp Operating System (TWOS). TWOS is a special purpose operating system designed to run parellel discrete event simulations with maximum efficiency on parallel or distributed computers.

  1. On the definition of the time evolution operator for time-independent Hamiltonians in non-relativistic quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaku, Marcos; Coutinho, Francisco A. B.; Masafumi Toyama, F.

    2017-09-01

    The usual definition of the time evolution operator e-i H t /ℏ=∑n=0∞1/n ! (-i/ℏHt ) n , where H is the Hamiltonian of the system, as given in almost every book on quantum mechanics, causes problems in some situations. The operators that appear in quantum mechanics are either bounded or unbounded. Unbounded operators are not defined for all the vectors (wave functions) of the Hilbert space of the system; when applied to some states, they give a non-normalizable state. Therefore, if H is an unbounded operator, the definition in terms of the power series expansion does not make sense because it may diverge or result in a non-normalizable wave function. In this article, we explain why this is so and suggest, as an alternative, another definition used by mathematicians.

  2. Diversity and dynamics of dominant and rare bacterial taxa in replicate sequencing batch reactors operated under different solids retention time

    KAUST Repository

    Bagchi, Samik

    2014-10-19

    In this study, 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing was applied in order to provide a better insight on the diversity and dynamics of total, dominant, and rare bacterial taxa in replicate lab-scale sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) operated at different solids retention time (SRT). Rank-abundance curves showed few dominant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and a long tail of rare OTUs in all reactors. Results revealed that there was no detectable effect of SRT (2 vs. 10 days) on Shannon diversity index and OTU richness of both dominant and rare taxa. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling analysis showed that the total, dominant, and rare bacterial taxa were highly dynamic during the entire period of stable reactor performance. Also, the rare taxa were more dynamic than the dominant taxa despite expected low invasion rates because of the use of sterile synthetic media.

  3. Volume totalizers analysis of pipelines operated by TRANSPETRO National Operational Control Center; Analise de totalizadores de volume em oleodutos operados pelo Centro Nacional de Controle e Operacao da TRANSPETRO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aramaki, Thiago Lessa; Montalvao, Antonio Filipe Falcao [Petrobras Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Marques, Thais Carrijo [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This paper aims to present the results and methodology in the analysis of differences in volume totals used in systems such as batch tracking and leak detection of pipelines operated by the National Center for Operational Control (CNCO) at TRANSPETRO. In order to optimize this type of analysis, software was developed to acquisition and processing of historical data using the methodology developed. The methodology developed takes into account the particularities encountered in systems operated by TRANSPETRO, more specifically, by CNCO. (author)

  4. Effect of Streamflow Forecast Uncertainty on Real-Time Reservoir Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, T.; Cai, X.; Yang, D.

    2010-12-01

    Various hydrological forecast products have been applied to real-time reservoir operation, including deterministic streamflow forecast (DSF), DSF-based probabilistic streamflow forecast (DPSF), and ensemble streamflow forecast (ESF), which represent forecast uncertainty in the form of deterministic forecast error, deterministic forecast error-based uncertainty distribution, and ensemble forecast errors, respectively. Compared to previous studies that treat these forecast products as ad hoc inputs for reservoir operation models, this paper attempts to model the uncertainties involved in the various forecast products and explores their effect on real-time reservoir operation decisions. In hydrology, there are various indices reflecting the magnitude of streamflow forecast uncertainty; meanwhile, few models illustrate the forecast uncertainty evolution process. This research introduces Martingale Model of Forecast Evolution (MMFE) from supply chain management and justifies its assumptions for quantifying the evolution of uncertainty in streamflow forecast as time progresses. Based on MMFE, this research simulates the evolution of forecast uncertainty in DSF, DPSF, and ESF, and applies the reservoir operation models (dynamic programming, DP; stochastic dynamic programming, SDP; and standard operation policy, SOP) to assess the effect of different forms of forecast uncertainty on real-time reservoir operation. Through a hypothetical single-objective real-time reservoir operation model, the results illustrate that forecast uncertainty exerts significant effects. Reservoir operation efficiency, as measured by a utility function, decreases as the forecast uncertainty increases. Meanwhile, these effects also depend on the type of forecast product being used. In general, the utility of reservoir operation with ESF is nearly as high as the utility obtained with a perfect forecast; the utilities of DSF and DPSF are similar to each other but not as efficient as ESF. Moreover

  5. Real-time solar magnetograph operation system software design and user's guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C.

    1984-01-01

    The Real Time Solar Magnetograph (RTSM) Operation system software design on PDP11/23+ is presented along with the User's Guide. The RTSM operation software is for real time instrumentation control, data collection and data management. The data is used for vector analysis, plotting or graphics display. The processed data is then easily compared with solar data from other sources, such as the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM).

  6. Optimization of scan time in MRI for total hip prostheses. SEMAC tailoring for prosthetic implants containing different types of metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deligianni, X. [University of Basel Hospital, Basel (Switzerland). Div. of Radiological Physics; Merian Iselin Klinik, Basel (Switzerland). Inst. of Radiology; Bieri, O. [University of Basel Hospital, Basel (Switzerland). Div. of Radiological Physics; Elke, R. [Orthomerian, Basel (Switzerland); Wischer, T.; Egelhof, T. [Merian Iselin Klinik, Basel (Switzerland). Inst. of Radiology

    2015-12-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of soft tissues after total hip arthroplasty is of clinical interest for the diagnosis of various pathologies that are usually invisible with other imaging modalities. As a result, considerable effort has been put into the development of metal artifact reduction MRI strategies, such as slice encoding for metal artifact correction (SEMAC). Generally, the degree of metal artifact reduction with SEMAC directly relates to the overall time spent for acquisition, but there is no specific consensus about the most efficient sequence setup depending on the implant material. The aim of this article is to suggest material-tailored SEMAC protocol settings. Five of the most common total hip prostheses (1. Revision prosthesis (S-Rom), 2. Titanium alloy, 3. Mueller type (CoNiCRMo alloy), 4. Old Charnley prosthesis (Exeter/Stryker), 5. MS-30 stem (stainless-steel)) were scanned on a 1.5 T MRI clinical scanner with a SEMAC sequence with a range of artifact-resolving slice encoding steps (SES: 2 - 23) along the slice direction (yielding a total variable scan time ranging from 1 to 10 min). The reduction of the artifact volume in comparison with maximal artifact suppression was evaluated both quantitatively and qualitatively in order to establish a recommended number of steps for each case. The number of SES that reduced the artifact volume below approximately 300 mm{sup 3} ranged from 3 to 13, depending on the material. Our results showed that although 3 SES steps can be sufficient for artifact reduction for titanium prostheses, at least 11 SES should be used for prostheses made of materials such as certain alloys of stainless steel. Tailoring SES to the implant material and to the desired degree of metal artifact reduction represents a simple tool for workflow optimization of SEMAC imaging near total hip arthroplasty in a clinical setting.

  7. Optimization of scan time in MRI for total hip prostheses. SEMAC tailoring for prosthetic implants containing different types of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deligianni, X.; Wischer, T.; Egelhof, T.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of soft tissues after total hip arthroplasty is of clinical interest for the diagnosis of various pathologies that are usually invisible with other imaging modalities. As a result, considerable effort has been put into the development of metal artifact reduction MRI strategies, such as slice encoding for metal artifact correction (SEMAC). Generally, the degree of metal artifact reduction with SEMAC directly relates to the overall time spent for acquisition, but there is no specific consensus about the most efficient sequence setup depending on the implant material. The aim of this article is to suggest material-tailored SEMAC protocol settings. Five of the most common total hip prostheses (1. Revision prosthesis (S-Rom), 2. Titanium alloy, 3. Mueller type (CoNiCRMo alloy), 4. Old Charnley prosthesis (Exeter/Stryker), 5. MS-30 stem (stainless-steel)) were scanned on a 1.5 T MRI clinical scanner with a SEMAC sequence with a range of artifact-resolving slice encoding steps (SES: 2 - 23) along the slice direction (yielding a total variable scan time ranging from 1 to 10 min). The reduction of the artifact volume in comparison with maximal artifact suppression was evaluated both quantitatively and qualitatively in order to establish a recommended number of steps for each case. The number of SES that reduced the artifact volume below approximately 300 mm 3 ranged from 3 to 13, depending on the material. Our results showed that although 3 SES steps can be sufficient for artifact reduction for titanium prostheses, at least 11 SES should be used for prostheses made of materials such as certain alloys of stainless steel. Tailoring SES to the implant material and to the desired degree of metal artifact reduction represents a simple tool for workflow optimization of SEMAC imaging near total hip arthroplasty in a clinical setting.

  8. Simulated effect of timing and Pt quantity injected on On-line NobleChem application on total fuel liftoff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pop, M.G.; Riddle, J.M.; Lamanna, L.S.; Gregorich, C.; Hoornik, A.

    2015-01-01

    Total liftoff is a measure of fuel performance and a risk indicator for fuel reliability. Fuel operability and license limits are directly related to the expected total lifetime liftoff. AREVA's continued commitment to zero fuel failure is expressed, among other efforts, in the continued development and improvement of its fuel cladding corrosion and crud risk assessment tools. The AREVA models used to assess and predict crud deposition on BWR cores over their lifespan have been refined by the development and incorporation of the PEZOG tool in response to the move in the industry to the On-Line NobleChem TM (OLNC) technology. PEZOG models the platinum-enhanced zirconium oxide growth of fuel cladding when exposed to platinum during operation. Depending on the local chemistry and radiation condition, noble metals act as catalysts for many reactions, including but not limited to hydrogen oxidation and oxygen reduction. OLNC's intention is to catalyze the hydrogen and oxygen recombination reaction for core internals protection. However, research has indicated that noble metals catalyze the oxygen reduction under the chemistry and radiation conditions as experienced in the pores of crud deposits, and hence, can increase the corrosion rate of zirconium alloy cladding. The developed PEZOG module calculates the oxide thickness as a function of platinum injection strategy. The stratified nature of oxide and crud layers formed on fuel cladding surfaces is reflected in the calculations as are the different platinum interaction in each of the layers. This paper presents examples of the evaluation of various aspects of the platinum injection strategies and their influence on the oxide growth enhancement as applied to conditions of a U.S. plant. (authors)

  9. DETERMINATION OF THE RESIDUAL OPERATING TIME OF UNRESTORABLE ELEMENT OF THE ELECTRIC POWER OBJECT AT THE WAYBALL DISTRIBUTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namgaladze, D.; Gurgenidze, D.

    2007-01-01

    In practice, it is often essential to determinethe residual operating time for an unrestorable element of the electric power object which has operated without failure for a certain time. The density of probability distribution of operating time can be determined from the initial probability distribution of operating time. In this work, the relations for determination of the function of residual operating time of the unrestorable element at the exponential and Wayball distributions are analytically derived. (author)

  10. Natural world physical, brain operational, and mind phenomenal space-time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingelkurts, Andrew A.; Fingelkurts, Alexander A.; Neves, Carlos F. H.

    2010-06-01

    Concepts of space and time are widely developed in physics. However, there is a considerable lack of biologically plausible theoretical frameworks that can demonstrate how space and time dimensions are implemented in the activity of the most complex life-system - the brain with a mind. Brain activity is organized both temporally and spatially, thus representing space-time in the brain. Critical analysis of recent research on the space-time organization of the brain's activity pointed to the existence of so-called operational space-time in the brain. This space-time is limited to the execution of brain operations of differing complexity. During each such brain operation a particular short-term spatio-temporal pattern of integrated activity of different brain areas emerges within related operational space-time. At the same time, to have a fully functional human brain one needs to have a subjective mental experience. Current research on the subjective mental experience offers detailed analysis of space-time organization of the mind. According to this research, subjective mental experience (subjective virtual world) has definitive spatial and temporal properties similar to many physical phenomena. Based on systematic review of the propositions and tenets of brain and mind space-time descriptions, our aim in this review essay is to explore the relations between the two. To be precise, we would like to discuss the hypothesis that via the brain operational space-time the mind subjective space-time is connected to otherwise distant physical space-time reality.

  11. Teaching surgery takes time: the impact of surgical education on time in the operating room

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinden, Christopher; Malthaner, Richard; McGee, Jacob; McClure, J. Andrew; Winick-Ng, Jennifer; Liu, Kuan; Nash, Danielle M.; Welk, Blayne; Dubois, Luc

    2016-01-01

    Background It is generally accepted that surgical training is associated with increased surgical duration. The purpose of this study was to determine the magnitude of this increase for common surgical procedures by comparing surgery duration in teaching and nonteaching hospitals. Methods This retrospective population-based cohort study included all adult residents of Ontario, Canada, who underwent 1 of 14 surgical procedures between 2002 and 2012. We used several linked administrative databases to identify the study cohort in addition to patient-, surgeon- and procedure-related variables. We determined surgery duration using anesthesiology billing records. Negative binomial regression was used to model the association between teaching versus nonteaching hospital status and surgery duration. Results Of the 713 573 surgical cases included in this study, 20.8% were performed in a teaching hospital. For each procedure, the mean surgery duration was significantly longer for teaching hospitals, with differences ranging from 5 to 62 minutes across individual procedures in unadjusted analyses (all p surgery duration, adjusting for patient-, surgeon- and procedure-related variables as well as the clustering of patients within surgeons and hospitals. Conclusion Our results show that a wide range of surgical procedures require significantly more time to perform in teaching than nonteaching hospitals. Given the magnitude of this difference, the impact of surgical training on health care costs and clinical outcomes should be a priority for future studies. PMID:27007088

  12. A combined time-of-flight and depth-of-interaction detector for total-body positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Eric, E-mail: eberg@ucdavis.edu; Roncali, Emilie; Du, Junwei; Cherry, Simon R. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Kapusta, Maciej [Molecular Imaging, Siemens Healthcare, Knoxville, Tennessee 37932 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Purpose: In support of a project to build a total-body PET scanner with an axial field-of-view of 2 m, the authors are developing simple, cost-effective block detectors with combined time-of-flight (TOF) and depth-of-interaction (DOI) capabilities. Methods: This work focuses on investigating the potential of phosphor-coated crystals with conventional PMT-based block detector readout to provide DOI information while preserving timing resolution. The authors explored a variety of phosphor-coating configurations with single crystals and crystal arrays. Several pulse shape discrimination techniques were investigated, including decay time, delayed charge integration (DCI), and average signal shapes. Results: Pulse shape discrimination based on DCI provided the lowest DOI positioning error: 2 mm DOI positioning error was obtained with single phosphor-coated crystals while 3–3.5 mm DOI error was measured with the block detector module. Minimal timing resolution degradation was observed with single phosphor-coated crystals compared to uncoated crystals, and a timing resolution of 442 ps was obtained with phosphor-coated crystals in the block detector compared to 404 ps without phosphor coating. Flood maps showed a slight degradation in crystal resolvability with phosphor-coated crystals; however, all crystals could be resolved. Energy resolution was degraded by 3%–7% with phosphor-coated crystals compared to uncoated crystals. Conclusions: These results demonstrate the feasibility of obtaining TOF–DOI capabilities with simple block detector readout using phosphor-coated crystals.

  13. A combined time-of-flight and depth-of-interaction detector for total-body positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, Eric; Roncali, Emilie; Du, Junwei; Cherry, Simon R.; Kapusta, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In support of a project to build a total-body PET scanner with an axial field-of-view of 2 m, the authors are developing simple, cost-effective block detectors with combined time-of-flight (TOF) and depth-of-interaction (DOI) capabilities. Methods: This work focuses on investigating the potential of phosphor-coated crystals with conventional PMT-based block detector readout to provide DOI information while preserving timing resolution. The authors explored a variety of phosphor-coating configurations with single crystals and crystal arrays. Several pulse shape discrimination techniques were investigated, including decay time, delayed charge integration (DCI), and average signal shapes. Results: Pulse shape discrimination based on DCI provided the lowest DOI positioning error: 2 mm DOI positioning error was obtained with single phosphor-coated crystals while 3–3.5 mm DOI error was measured with the block detector module. Minimal timing resolution degradation was observed with single phosphor-coated crystals compared to uncoated crystals, and a timing resolution of 442 ps was obtained with phosphor-coated crystals in the block detector compared to 404 ps without phosphor coating. Flood maps showed a slight degradation in crystal resolvability with phosphor-coated crystals; however, all crystals could be resolved. Energy resolution was degraded by 3%–7% with phosphor-coated crystals compared to uncoated crystals. Conclusions: These results demonstrate the feasibility of obtaining TOF–DOI capabilities with simple block detector readout using phosphor-coated crystals

  14. Real-time fusion of coronary CT angiography with x-ray fluoroscopy during chronic total occlusion PCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoshhajra, Brian B; Takx, Richard A P; Stone, Luke L; Girard, Erin E; Brilakis, Emmanouil S; Lombardi, William L; Yeh, Robert W; Jaffer, Farouc A

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of real-time fusion of coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) centreline and arterial wall calcification with x-ray fluoroscopy during chronic total occlusion (CTO) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Patients undergoing CTO PCI were prospectively enrolled. Pre-procedural CT scans were integrated with conventional coronary fluoroscopy using prototype software. We enrolled 24 patients who underwent CTO PCI using the prototype CT fusion software, and 24 consecutive CTO PCI patients without CT guidance served as a control group. Mean age was 66 ± 11 years, and 43/48 patients were men. Real-time CTA fusion during CTO PCI provided additional information regarding coronary arterial calcification and tortuosity that generated new insights into antegrade wiring, antegrade dissection/reentry, and retrograde wiring during CTO PCI. Overall CTO success rates and procedural outcomes remained similar between the two groups, despite a trend toward higher complexity in the fusion CTA group. This study demonstrates that real-time automated co-registration of coronary CTA centreline and calcification onto live fluoroscopic images is feasible and provides new insights into CTO PCI, and in particular, antegrade dissection reentry-based CTO PCI. • Real-time semi-automated fusion of CTA/fluoroscopy is feasible during CTO PCI. • CTA fusion data can be toggled on/off as desired during CTO PCI • Real-time CT calcium and centreline overlay could benefit antegrade dissection/reentry-based CTO PCI.

  15. The Bloch wave operator: generalizations and applications: Part I. The time-independent case

    CERN Document Server

    Killingbeck, J P

    2003-01-01

    This is part 1 of a two-part review on wave operator theory and methods. The basic theory of the time-independent wave operator is presented in terms of partitioned matrix theory for the benefit of general readers, with a discussion of the links between the matrix and projection operator approaches. The matrix approach is shown to lead to simple derivations of the wave operators and effective Hamiltonians of Loewdin, Bloch, Des Cloizeaux and Kato as well as to some associated variational forms. The principal approach used throughout stresses the solution of the nonlinear equation for the reduced wave operator, leading to the construction of the effective Hamiltonians of Bloch and of Des Cloizeaux. Several mathematical techniques which are useful in implementing this approach are explained, some of them being relatively little known in the area of wave operator calculations. The theoretical discussion is accompanied by several specimen numerical calculations which apply the described techniques to a selection ...

  16. Predictors of shoulder dystocia at the time of operative vaginal delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palatnik, Anna; Grobman, William A; Hellendag, Madeline G; Janetos, Timothy M; Gossett, Dana R; Miller, Emily S

    2016-11-01

    It remains uncertain whether clinical factors known prior to delivery can predict which women are more likely to experience shoulder dystocia in the setting of operative vaginal delivery. We sought to identify whether shoulder dystocia can be accurately predicted among women undergoing an operative vaginal delivery. This was a case-control study of women undergoing a low or outlet operative vaginal delivery from 2005 through 2014 in a single tertiary care center. Cases were defined as women who experienced a shoulder dystocia at the time of operative vaginal delivery. Controls consisted of women without a shoulder dystocia at the time of operative vaginal delivery. Variables previously identified to be associated with shoulder dystocia that could be known prior to delivery were abstracted from the medical records. Bivariable analyses and multivariable logistic regression were used to identify factors independently associated with shoulder dystocia. A receiver operating characteristic curve was created to evaluate the predictive value of the model for shoulder dystocia. Of the 4080 women who met inclusion criteria, shoulder dystocia occurred in 162 (4.0%) women. In bivariable analysis, maternal age, parity, body mass index, diabetes, chorioamnionitis, arrest disorder as an indication for an operative vaginal delivery, vacuum use, and estimated fetal weight >4 kg were significantly associated with shoulder dystocia. In multivariable analysis, parity, diabetes, chorioamnionitis, arrest disorder as an indication for operative vaginal delivery, vacuum use, and estimated fetal weight >4 kg remained independently associated with shoulder dystocia. The area under the curve for the generated receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.73 (95% confidence interval, 0.69-0.77), demonstrating only a modest ability to predict shoulder dystocia before performing an operative vaginal delivery. While risk factors for shoulder dystocia at the time of operative vaginal delivery

  17. New design for photonic temporal integration with combined high processing speed and long operation time window.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghari, Mohammad H; Park, Yongwoo; Azaña, José

    2011-01-17

    We propose and experimentally prove a novel design for implementing photonic temporal integrators simultaneously offering a high processing bandwidth and a long operation time window, namely a large time-bandwidth product. The proposed scheme is based on concatenating in series a time-limited ultrafast photonic temporal integrator, e.g. implemented using a fiber Bragg grating (FBG), with a discrete-time (bandwidth limited) optical integrator, e.g. implemented using an optical resonant cavity. This design combines the advantages of these two previously demonstrated photonic integrator solutions, providing a processing speed as high as that of the time-limited ultrafast integrator and an operation time window fixed by the discrete-time integrator. Proof-of-concept experiments are reported using a uniform fiber Bragg grating (as the original time-limited integrator) connected in series with a bulk-optics coherent interferometers' system (as a passive 4-points discrete-time photonic temporal integrator). Using this setup, we demonstrate accurate temporal integration of complex-field optical signals with time-features as fast as ~6 ps, only limited by the processing bandwidth of the FBG integrator, over time durations as long as ~200 ps, which represents a 4-fold improvement over the operation time window (~50 ps) of the original FBG integrator.

  18. Preoperative management of surgical patients by "shortened fasting time": a study on the amount of total body water by multi-frequency impedance method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Hideki; Sasaki, Toshio; Fujita, Hisae

    2012-01-01

    Preoperative fasting is an established procedure to be practiced for patients before surgery, but optimal preoperative fasting time still remains controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of "shortened preoperative fasting time" on the change in the amount of total body water (TBW) in elective surgical patients. TBW was measured by multi-frequency impedance method. The patients, who were scheduled to undergo surgery for stomach cancer, were divided into two groups of 15 patients each. Before surgery, patients in the control group were managed with conventional preoperative fasting time, while patients in the "enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS)" group were managed with "shortened preoperative fasting time" and "reduced laxative medication." TBW was measured on the day before surgery and the day of surgery before entering the operating room. Defecation times and anesthesia-related vomiting and aspiration were monitored. TBW values on the day of surgery showed changes in both groups as compared with those on the day before surgery, but the rate of change was smaller in the ERAS group than in the control group (2.4±6.8% [12 patients] vs. -10.6±4.6% [14 patients], pfasting time" and "reduced administration of laxatives" is effective in the maintenance of TBW in elective surgical patients.

  19. Synthesis of Biochemical Applications on Digital Microfluidic Biochips with Operation Execution Time Variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alistar, Mirela; Pop, Paul

    2015-01-01

    that each biochemical operation in an application is characterized by a worst-case execution time (wcet). However, during the execution of the application, due to variability and randomness in biochemical reactions, operations may finish earlier than their wcetswcets, resulting in unexploited slack...... in the schedule. In this paper, we first propose an online synthesis strategy that re-synthesizes the application at runtime when operations experience variability in their execution time, exploiting thus the slack to obtain shorter application completion times. We also propose a quasi-static synthesis strategy...... approaches have been proposed for the synthesis of digital microfluidic biochips, which, starting from a biochemical application and a given biochip architecture, determine the allocation, resource binding, scheduling, placement and routing of the operations in the application. Researchers have assumed...

  20. Efficacy of pre-operative quadriceps strength training on knee-extensor strength before and shortly following total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Rasmus Skov; Troelsen, Anders; Thorborg, Kristian

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) report knee pain, limitation in physical activities and low quality of life. The two primary treatments for knee OA are non-surgical treatment (e.g., exercise) and surgery (total knee arthroplasty (TKA)); however, national guidelines recommend non...

  1. Pre-operative ambulatory measurement of asymmetric lower limb loading during walking in total hip arthroplasty patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martínez-Ramírez, Alicia; Weenk, D.; Lecumberri, Pablo; Verdonschot, Nicolaas Jacobus Joseph; Pakvis, Dean; Veltink, Petrus H.

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to investigate how mobility characteristics during walking, relate to gait velocity and questionnaire outcomes of patients with hip osteoarthritis in an outpatient setting. Methods 22 patients with primary osteoarthritis of the hip selected for a total hip

  2. Effects of operator time pressure and noise on manual ultrasonic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enkvist, J.; Edland, A.; Svenson, O.

    2002-01-01

    In earlier studies of manual ultrasonic testing, great variations have been found in operator performance, often attributed to operator fatigue. However, no conclusive findings have been reported. In the present study, twenty operators performed manual ultrasonic inspections of six test-pieces with manufactured flaws. The operators performed the inspections under stress (high arousal - time pressure and noise) and no-stress conditions; one condition the first day and the other the second and last day. According to the Yerkes-Dodson Law there is an optimal arousal level where performance is highest. It was hypothesised that the stress condition led to a level of arousal so high that it would affect the results negatively. However, contrary to the hypotheses it was found that the manipulation increased operator performance. Operators with the stress condition day 1 performed better than the other operators (under the no-stress condition). This was interpreted as the 'stress first' (group 1) operators had established efficient performance patterns the first day - affecting also the second day. Operators beginning with stress condition also tended to be more motivated. It was concluded that operator performance is affected by arousal. (author)

  3. Comparison of the effect of pre- and post-operative physical therapy versus post-operative physical therapy alone on pain and recovery of function after total knee arthroplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Alghadir, Ahmad; Iqbal, Zaheen Ahmed; Anwer, Shahnawaz

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of pre-operative and post-operative physical therapy versus post-operative physical therapy alone on pain and recovery of function after total knee arthroplasty. [Subjects and Methods] Fifty patients (18 males and 32 females) ranging in age from 48 to 80?years (mean 63.28, SD 9.44) participated in a 6-week two-arm randomized rater-blinded trial. One group received pre- and post-operative physical therapy whereas the other group ...

  4. The total length of myocytes and capillaries, and total number of myocyte nuclei in the rat heart are time-dependently increased by growth hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brüel, Annemarie; Oxlund, Hans; Nyengaard, Jens Randel

    2005-01-01

    /kg/day) or vehicle for 5, 10, 20, 40, or 80 days. From the left ventricle (LV) histological sections were made and stereological methods applied. Linear regression showed that GH time-dependently increased: LV volume (r=0.96, P

  5. Factors impacting arthroscopic rotator cuff repair operational throughput time at an ambulatory care center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily J. Curry

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Identifying patient factors influencing operational throughput time is becoming more imperative due to an increasing focus on value and cost savings in healthcare. The primary objective of this study was to determine patient factors influencing throughput time for primary rotator cuff repairs. Demographic information, medical history and operative reports of 318 patients from one ambulatory care center were retrospectively reviewed. Operating room set up, incision to closure and recovery room time were collected from anesthesia records. Univariate analysis was performed for both continuous and categorical variables. A stepwise, multivariable regression analysis was performed to determine factors associated with operating room time (incision to closure and recovery room time. Of the 318 patients, the mean age was 54.4±10.0 and 197 (61% were male. Male patients had a significantly longer OR time than females (115.5 vs. 100.8 minutes; P<0.001. Furthermore, patients set up in the beach chair position had a significantly longer OR time than patients positioned lateral decubitus (115.8 vs. 89.6 mins, P<0.0001. Number of tendons involved, and inclusion of distal clavicle excision, biceps tenodesis and labral debridement also added significant OR time. Type and number of support staff present also significantly affected OR time. Recovery room time was significantly longer patients who had surgery in the beach chair position (+9.61 minutes and for those who had a cardiac-related medical comorbidity (+11.7 minutes. Our study found that patients positioned in a beach chair spent significantly more time in the operating and recovery rooms. While ease of set up has been a stated advantage ofbeach chair position, we found the perceived ease of set up does not result in more efficient OR throughput.

  6. Investigation of the Adaptability of Transient Stability Assessment Methods to Real-Time Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weckesser, Johannes Tilman Gabriel; Jóhannsson, Hjörtur; Sommer, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, an investigation of the adaptability of available transient stability assessment methods to real-time operation and their real-time performance is carried out. Two approaches based on Lyapunov’s method and the equal area criterion are analyzed. The results allow to determine...

  7. Fast reactor parameter optimization taking into account changes in fuel charge type during reactor operation time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afrin, B.A.; Rechnov, A.V.; Usynin, G.B.

    1987-01-01

    The formulation and solution of optimization problem for parameters determining the layout of the central part of sodium cooled power reactor taking into account possible changes in fuel charge type during reactor operation time are performed. The losses under change of fuel composition type for two reactor modifications providing for minimum doubling time for oxide and carbide fuels respectively, are estimated

  8. Capillary Suction Time. Operational Control Tests for Wastewater Treatment Facilities. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooley, John F.

    Capillary suction time is time required for the liquid phase of a treated sludge to travel through 1 centimeter of media (blotter or filter paper). Designed for individuals who have completed National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) level 1 laboratory training skills, this module provides waste water treatment plant operators with…

  9. Reconstruction of MODIS total suspended matter time series maps by DINEOF and validation with autonomous platform data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechad, Bouchra; Alvera-Azcaràte, Aida; Ruddick, Kevin; Greenwood, Naomi

    2011-08-01

    In situ measurements of total suspended matter (TSM) over the period 2003-2006, collected with two autonomous platforms from the Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences (Cefas) measuring the optical backscatter (OBS) in the southern North Sea, are used to assess the accuracy of TSM time series extracted from satellite data. Since there are gaps in the remote sensing (RS) data, due mainly to cloud cover, the Data Interpolating Empirical Orthogonal Functions (DINEOF) is used to fill in the TSM time series and build a continuous daily "recoloured" dataset. The RS datasets consist of TSM maps derived from MODIS imagery using the bio-optical model of Nechad et al. (Rem Sens Environ 114: 854-866, 2010). In this study, the DINEOF time series are compared to the in situ OBS measured in moderately to very turbid waters respectively in West Gabbard and Warp Anchorage, in the southern North Sea. The discrepancies between instantaneous RS, DINEOF-filled RS data and Cefas data are analysed in terms of TSM algorithm uncertainties, space-time variability and DINEOF reconstruction uncertainty.

  10. Realization of a unique time evolution unitary operator in Klein Gordon theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramanian, T.S.; Bhatia, S.Kr.

    1986-01-01

    The scattering theory for the Klein Gordon equation, with time-dependent potential and in a non-static space-time, is considered. Using the Klein Gordon equation formulated in the Hilbert space L 2 (R 3 ) and the Einstein's relativistic equation in the space L 2 (R 3 ,dx) and establishing the equivalence of the vacuum states of their linearized forms in the Hilbert space L 2 (R 3 ) with the help of unique symmetric symplectic operator, the time evolution unitary operator U(t) has been fixed for the Klein Gordon eqution, incorporating either the positive or negative frequencies, in the infinite dimensional Hilbert space L 2 (R 3 ). (author)

  11. Numerical Solution of Time-Dependent Problems with a Fractional-Power Elliptic Operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vabishchevich, P. N.

    2018-03-01

    A time-dependent problem in a bounded domain for a fractional diffusion equation is considered. The first-order evolution equation involves a fractional-power second-order elliptic operator with Robin boundary conditions. A finite-element spatial approximation with an additive approximation of the operator of the problem is used. The time approximation is based on a vector scheme. The transition to a new time level is ensured by solving a sequence of standard elliptic boundary value problems. Numerical results obtained for a two-dimensional model problem are presented.

  12. Determination of operation time function for activimeters; Determinacao da funcao tempo de operacao para ativimetros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, C.H.S.; Peixoto, J.G.P. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Araujo, G.; Padilha, L.G. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Radiation detectors must pass periodically recommended quality control tests and standardized to certify the quality of measurements, however, many studies have shown that several parameters can influence the results, however, some instrument components that can not be adjusted during calibrations may have significant importance in measurement results over the operating time. This study sought to determine the influence of the use of time in the activity measurements. The results show a trend of decreased activity measured for equipment with detectors with more operating time. (author)

  13. Operation Modes and Control Schemes for Internet-Based Teleoperation System with Time Delay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾庆军; 宋爱国

    2003-01-01

    Teleoperation system plays an important role in executing task under hazard environment. As the computer networks such as the Internet are being used as the communication channel of teleoperation system, varying time delay causes the overall system unstable and reduces the performance of transparency. This paper proposed twelve operation modes with different control schemes for teleoperation on the Internet with time delay. And an optimal operation mode with control scheme was specified for teleoperation with time delay, based on the tradeoff between passivity and transparency properties. It experimentally confirmed the validity of the proposed optimal mode and control scheme by using a simple one DOF master-slave manipulator system.

  14. Analysis characteristics determination of electrohydraulic control system operation to reduce the operation time of a powered roof support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szurgacz, Dawid

    2018-01-01

    The article discusses basic functions of a powered roof support in a longwall unit. The support function is to provide safety by protecting mine workings against uncontrolled falling of rocks. The subject of the research includes the measures to shorten the time of roof support shifting. The roof support is adapted to transfer, in hazard conditions of rock mass tremors, dynamic loads caused by mining exploitation. The article presents preliminary research results on the time reduction of the unit advance to increase the extraction process and thus reduce operating costs. Conducted stand tests showed the ability to increase the flow for 3/2-way valve cartridges. The level of fluid flowing through the cartridges is adequate to control individual actuators.

  15. Do post-operative changes of neck-shaft angle and femoral component anteversion have an effect on clinical outcome following uncemented total hip arthroplasty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, M; Abdel, M P; Wassilew, G I; Duda, G; Perka, C

    2015-12-01

    The accurate reconstruction of hip anatomy and biomechanics is thought to be important in achieveing good clinical outcomes following total hip arthroplasty (THA). To this end some newer hip designs have introduced further modularity into the design of the femoral component such that neck-shaft angle and anteversion, which can be adjusted intra-operatively. The clinical effect of this increased modularity is unknown. We have investigated the changes in these anatomical parameters following conventional THA with a prosthesis of predetermined neck-shaft angle and assessed the effect of changes in the hip anatomy on clinical outcomes. In total, 44 patients (mean age 65.3 years (standard deviation (SD) 7); 17 male/27 female; mean body mass index 26.9 (kg/m²) (SD 3.1)) underwent a pre- and post-operative three-dimensional CT scanning of the hip. The pre- and post-operative neck-shaft angle, offset, hip centre of rotation, femoral anteversion, and stem alignment were measured. Additionally, a functional assessment and pain score were evaluated before surgery and at one year post-operatively and related to the post-operative anatomical changes. The mean pre-operative neck-shaft angle was significantly increased by 2.8° from 128° (SD 6.2; 119° to 147°) to 131° (SD 2.1; 127° to 136°) (p = 0.009). The mean pre-operative anteversion was 24.9° (SD 8; 7.9 to 39.1) and reduced to 7.4° (SD 7.3; -11.6° to 25.9°) post-operatively (p shaft angles was found with a significant decrease of the post-operative anteversion and slight increase of the neck-shaft angles, but without any impact on clinical outcome. ©2015 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  16. Ureteral catheters for colorectal surgery: Influence on operative times and complication outcomes: An observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio T. Chong

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Placement of pre-operative ureteral catheters for colorectal surgery can aid in the identification of ureteral injuries. This study investigates whether simultaneous ureteral catheterization with surgery skin preparation can minimize operating room times without increasing post-operative complications. Materials and Methods: Patients undergoing simultaneous colorectal surgery skin preparation and placement of pre-operative ureteral catheters (n=21 were compared to those who underwent these events sequentially (n=28. Operative time-points of anesthesia ready (AR, surgery procedure start (PS, dorsal lithotomy and catheter insertion (CI times were compared to assess for differences between groups. Complications were compared between groups. Results: There were no differences in age, gender, body mass index (BMI, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA, comorbidities, current procedure terminology (CPT or International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision (ICD-9 codes between groups. Simultaneous catheterization saved 11.82 minutes of operative time between CI to PS (p=0.005, t-test. There was a significant difference in mean time between CI to PS (11.82 minutes, p=0.008 between simultaneous and sequential ureteral catheterization groups in a linear regression multivariate analysis controlling for age, BMI, CPT and ICD-9 codes. There were 4 complications in the simultaneous (19% and 3 in the sequential group (11% (p=0.68. Conclusions: Ureteral catheterization and colorectal surgery skin preparation in a simultaneous fashion decreases the time between CI and PS without significant increase in complications. Mean time saved with simultaneous ureteral catheterization was 11.82 minutes per case. Simultaneous ureteral catheterization may be an option in colorectal surgery and may result in cost savings without additional complications.

  17. Applying cost accounting to operating room staffing in otolaryngology: time-driven activity-based costing and outpatient adenotonsillectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Karthik; Goico, Brian; Arjmand, Ellis M

    2015-04-01

    (1) To describe the application of a detailed cost-accounting method (time-driven activity-cased costing) to operating room personnel costs, avoiding the proxy use of hospital and provider charges. (2) To model potential cost efficiencies using different staffing models with the case study of outpatient adenotonsillectomy. Prospective cost analysis case study. Tertiary pediatric hospital. All otolaryngology providers and otolaryngology operating room staff at our institution. Time-driven activity-based costing demonstrated precise per-case and per-minute calculation of personnel costs. We identified several areas of unused personnel capacity in a basic staffing model. Per-case personnel costs decreased by 23.2% by allowing a surgeon to run 2 operating rooms, despite doubling all other staff. Further cost reductions up to a total of 26.4% were predicted with additional staffing rearrangements. Time-driven activity-based costing allows detailed understanding of not only personnel costs but also how personnel time is used. This in turn allows testing of alternative staffing models to decrease unused personnel capacity and increase efficiency. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  18. The Regional Special Operations Headquarters: Franchising the NATO Model as a Hedge in Lean Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    1 AIR FORCE FELLOWS AIR UNIVERSITY THE REGIONAL SPECIAL OPERATIONS HEADQUARTERS: FRANCHISING THE NATO MODEL AS A HEDGE IN LEAN...Headquarters: Franchising The NATO Model As A Hedge In Lean Times 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d...it is not copyrighted, but is the property of the United States government. 3 The Regional Special Operations Headquarters: Franchising the

  19. Synthesis document on the long time behavior of packages: operational document ''bituminous'' 2204

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiffreau, C.

    2004-09-01

    This document is realized in the framework of the law of 1991 on the radioactive wastes management. The 2004 synthesis document on long time behavior of bituminous sludges packages is constituted by two documents, the reference document and the operational document. This paper presents the operational model describing the water alteration of the packages and the associated radioelements release, as the gas term source and the swelling associated to the self-irradiation and the bituminous radiolysis. (A.L.B.)

  20. Real-time fusion of coronary CT angiography with X-ray fluoroscopy during chronic total occlusion PCI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghoshhajra, Brian B.; Takx, Richard A.P. [Harvard Medical School, Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Radiology and Division of Cardiology, Boston, MA (United States); Stone, Luke L.; Yeh, Robert W.; Jaffer, Farouc A. [Harvard Medical School, Cardiac Cathetrization Laboratory, Cardiology Division, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Girard, Erin E. [Siemens Healthcare, Princeton, NJ (United States); Brilakis, Emmanouil S. [Cardiology Division, Dallas VA Medical Center and UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States); Lombardi, William L. [University of Washington, Cardiology Division, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2017-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of real-time fusion of coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) centreline and arterial wall calcification with X-ray fluoroscopy during chronic total occlusion (CTO) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Patients undergoing CTO PCI were prospectively enrolled. Pre-procedural CT scans were integrated with conventional coronary fluoroscopy using prototype software. We enrolled 24 patients who underwent CTO PCI using the prototype CT fusion software, and 24 consecutive CTO PCI patients without CT guidance served as a control group. Mean age was 66 ± 11 years, and 43/48 patients were men. Real-time CTA fusion during CTO PCI provided additional information regarding coronary arterial calcification and tortuosity that generated new insights into antegrade wiring, antegrade dissection/reentry, and retrograde wiring during CTO PCI. Overall CTO success rates and procedural outcomes remained similar between the two groups, despite a trend toward higher complexity in the fusion CTA group. This study demonstrates that real-time automated co-registration of coronary CTA centreline and calcification onto live fluoroscopic images is feasible and provides new insights into CTO PCI, and in particular, antegrade dissection reentry-based CTO PCI. (orig.)

  1. A Hybrid Metaheuristic Approach for Minimizing the Total Flow Time in A Flow Shop Sequence Dependent Group Scheduling Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Costa

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Production processes in Cellular Manufacturing Systems (CMS often involve groups of parts sharing the same technological requirements in terms of tooling and setup. The issue of scheduling such parts through a flow-shop production layout is known as the Flow-Shop Group Scheduling (FSGS problem or, whether setup times are sequence-dependent, the Flow-Shop Sequence-Dependent Group Scheduling (FSDGS problem. This paper addresses the FSDGS issue, proposing a hybrid metaheuristic procedure integrating features from Genetic Algorithms (GAs and Biased Random Sampling (BRS search techniques with the aim of minimizing the total flow time, i.e., the sum of completion times of all jobs. A well-known benchmark of test cases, entailing problems with two, three, and six machines, is employed for both tuning the relevant parameters of the developed procedure and assessing its performances against two metaheuristic algorithms recently presented by literature. The obtained results and a properly arranged ANOVA analysis highlight the superiority of the proposed approach in tackling the scheduling problem under investigation.

  2. Measuring quality indicators in the operating room: cleaning and turnover time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jericó, Marli de Carvalho; Perroca, Márcia Galan; da Penha, Vivian Colombo

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory-descriptive study was carried out in the Surgical Center Unit of a university hospital aiming to measure time spent with concurrent cleaning performed by the cleaning service and turnover time and also investigated potential associations between cleaning time and the surgery's magnitude and specialty, period of the day and the room's size. The sample consisted of 101 surgeries, computing cleaning time and 60 surgeries, computing turnover time. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to analyze time and Pearson's correlation to study potential correlations. The time spent in concurrent cleaning was 7.1 minutes and turnover time was 35.6 minutes. No association between cleaning time and the other variables was found. These findings can support nurses in the efficient use of resources thereby speeding up the work process in the operating room.

  3. Ignition and time-dependent fractional power operation of tokamak reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vold, E.L.; Mau, T.K.; Conn, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    The eventual utilization of a tokamak fusion reactor for commercial power necessitates a thorough understanding of the operational requirements at full and fractional power levels and during transitions from one operating level to another. In this study we examine the role of burn control in maintaining the reactor plasma at equilibrium to avoid thermal runaway during fractional power operation. Because these requirements rely so heavily on the assumptions that govern the plasma transport, this study focuses on time-dependent analyses and a comparison of ignition requirements using a range of energy confinement

  4. A real-time monitoring and assessment method for calculation of total amounts of indoor air pollutants emitted in subway stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, TaeSeok; Kim, MinJeong; Lim, JungJin; Kang, OnYu; Shetty, K Vidya; SankaraRao, B; Yoo, ChangKyoo; Park, Jae Hyung; Kim, Jeong Tai

    2012-05-01

    Subway systems are considered as main public transportation facility in developed countries. Time spent by people in indoors, such as underground spaces, subway stations, and indoor buildings, has gradually increased in the recent past. Especially, operators or old persons who stay in indoor environments more than 15 hr per day usually influenced a greater extent by indoor air pollutants. Hence, regulations on indoor air pollutants are needed to ensure good health of people. Therefore, in this study, a new cumulative calculation method for the estimation of total amounts of indoor air pollutants emitted inside the subway station is proposed by taking cumulative amounts of indoor air pollutants based on integration concept. Minimum concentration of individual air pollutants which naturally exist in indoor space is referred as base concentration of air pollutants and can be found from the data collected. After subtracting the value of base concentration from data point of each data set of indoor air pollutant, the primary quantity of emitted air pollutant is calculated. After integration is carried out with these values, adding the base concentration to the integration quantity gives the total amount of indoor air pollutant emitted. Moreover the values of new index for cumulative indoor air quality obtained for 1 day are calculated using the values of cumulative air quality index (CAI). Cumulative comprehensive indoor air quality index (CCIAI) is also proposed to compare the values of cumulative concentrations of indoor air pollutants. From the results, it is clear that the cumulative assessment approach of indoor air quality (IAQ) is useful for monitoring the values of total amounts of indoor air pollutants emitted, in case of exposure to indoor air pollutants for a long time. Also, the values of CCIAI are influenced more by the values of concentration of NO2, which is released due to the use of air conditioners and combustion of the fuel. The results obtained in

  5. From dynamical systems with time-varying delay to circle maps and Koopman operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, David; Otto, Andreas; Radons, Günter

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we investigate the influence of the retarded access by a time-varying delay on the dynamics of delay systems. We show that there are two universality classes of delays, which lead to fundamental differences in dynamical quantities such as the Lyapunov spectrum. Therefore, we introduce an operator theoretic framework, where the solution operator of the delay system is decomposed into the Koopman operator describing the delay access and an operator similar to the solution operator known from systems with constant delay. The Koopman operator corresponds to an iterated map, called access map, which is defined by the iteration of the delayed argument of the delay equation. The dynamics of this one-dimensional iterated map determines the universality classes of the infinite-dimensional state dynamics governed by the delay differential equation. In this way, we connect the theory of time-delay systems with the theory of circle maps and the framework of the Koopman operator. In this paper, we extend our previous work [A. Otto, D. Müller, and G. Radons, Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 044104 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.118.044104] by elaborating the mathematical details and presenting further results also on the Lyapunov vectors.

  6. Assessment of the Middle Administrative Leadership's Awareness of the Implementation of the Concept of Total Quality Management (TQM in Commercial Banks operating in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firas Mohammed Al Rawashdeh, Dr.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the role of the modern concept of total quality management (TQM and how it is applied by the middle management that links between senior management and clients in the most important service sector: banks. It also aims to identify the middle management's awareness and understanding of the concept and importance of applying total quality management in commercial banks operating in Jordan. In general, the study found that there is a high awareness and understanding of the concept of total quality management. Middle management is also fully aware of the meaning and importance of total quality, but the role of middle management in the application of total quality management in commercial banks was very low. There are obstacles hindering the application of Total Quality Management. Therefore, the study recommended that middle management should be given the opportunity to apply Total Quality Management, because the role of this management is executive and has an important role in this area. There should be therefore a training plan with a timetable for all levels of management in the bank, and the banks should provide effective communication channels to identify customers’ needs, and create distinguished human relations among the staff. The workers should also be involved in the formulation of the vision and message of the bank. The researcher also recommended that there should be specialized administrative units interested in total quality management.

  7. The utility of the Philips SRI-100 real time portal imaging device in a case of postoperative irradiation for prevention of heterotopic bone formation following total hip replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiffer, J.D.; Quong, G.; Lawlor, M.; Schumer, W.; Aitken, L.; Wallace, A.

    1994-01-01

    The new Radiation Oncology Department at the Heidelberg Repatriation Hospital in Melbourne, Australia commenced operation in June 1992. As part of quality control the Philips SL-15 linear accelerator was fitted with the Philips SRI-100 Real Time Portal Imaging Device (RTPID), the first such apparatus in Australia. One of its major advantages over older systems is its ability to provide a permanent hard copy of the image of the field treated. The computer image can be immediately manipulated and enhanced on the screen (with respect to such qualities as brightness and contrast) prior to the printing of the hard copy. This is a significant improvement over the more cumbersome older port films that required developing time, without any pre-assessment of the image quality. The utility of the Philips SRI-100 RTPID is demonstrated in the case of a patient irradiated soon after total hip replacement, as prophylaxis against heterotopic bone formation (HBF). The rapidity and quality of image production is a major advantage in these patients where post operative pain may result in positional change between film exposure and image production. Extremely accurate shielding block position is essential to shield the prosthesis(and allow bone ingrowth for fixation) whilst avoiding inadvertent shielding of the areas at risk for HBF. A review of the literature on this topic is provided. 14 refs., 4 figs

  8. Distributed Resource Energy Analysis and Management System (DREAMS) Development for Real-time Grid Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakafuji, Dora [Hawaiian Electric Company, Honululu, HI (United States); Gouveia, Lauren [Hawaiian Electric Company, Honululu, HI (United States)

    2016-10-24

    This project supports development of the next generation, integrated energy management infrastructure (EMS) able to incorporate advance visualization of behind-the-meter distributed resource information and probabilistic renewable energy generation forecasts to inform real-time operational decisions. The project involves end-users and active feedback from an Utility Advisory Team (UAT) to help inform how information can be used to enhance operational functions (e.g. unit commitment, load forecasting, Automatic Generation Control (AGC) reserve monitoring, ramp alerts) within two major EMS platforms. Objectives include: Engaging utility operations personnel to develop user input on displays, set expectations, test and review; Developing ease of use and timeliness metrics for measuring enhancements; Developing prototype integrated capabilities within two operational EMS environments; Demonstrating an integrated decision analysis platform with real-time wind and solar forecasting information and timely distributed resource information; Seamlessly integrating new 4-dimensional information into operations without increasing workload and complexities; Developing sufficient analytics to inform and confidently transform and adopt new operating practices and procedures; Disseminating project lessons learned through industry sponsored workshops and conferences;Building on collaborative utility-vendor partnership and industry capabilities

  9. MOPITT Near Real-Time Data for LANCE: Automatic Quality Assurance and Comparison to Operational Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Alonso, S.; Deeter, M. N.; Worden, H. M.; Ziskin, D.

    2017-12-01

    Terra-MOPITT (the Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere instrument) near real-time (NRT) carbon monoxide (CO) products have been selected for distribution through NASA's LANCE (the Land, Atmosphere Near Real-Time Capability for EOS). MOPITT version 7 NRT data will be made publicly available within 3 hours from observation. The retrieval process is the same for both MOPITT NRT and operational products, albeit for the former it is constrained to use ancillary data available within the latency time. Among other requirements, LANCE NRT products must be examined for quality assurance (QA) purposes and relative errors between NRT and operational products must be quantified. Here we present an algorithm for automatic MOPITT NRT QA aimed to identify artifacts and separate those from anomalously high but real CO values. The algorithm is based on a comparison to the statistics of MOPITT operational products. We discuss the algorithm's performance when tested by applying it to three MOPITT datasets: a known (and corrected) artifact in version 4 operational data, anomalously high CO values in operational data during the 2015 Indonesia fires, and actual NRT data. Last, we describe results from a quantitative comparison between MOPITT NRT data and their operational counterparts.

  10. Dissociated time course between peak torque and total work recovery following bench press training in resistance trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Diogo V; Gentil, Paulo; Ferreira-Junior, João B; Soares, Saulo R S; Brown, Lee E; Bottaro, Martim

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the time course of peak torque and total work recovery after a resistance training session involving the bench press exercise. Repeated measures with a within subject design. Twenty-six resistance-trained men (age: 23.7±3.7years; height: 176.0±5.7cm; mass: 79.65±7.61kg) performed one session involving eight sets of the bench press exercise performed to momentary muscle failure with 2-min rest between sets. Shoulder horizontal adductors peak torque (PT), total work (TW), delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) and subjective physical fitness were measured pre, immediately post, 24, 48, 72 and 96h following exercise. The exercise protocol resulted in significant pectoralis major DOMS that lasted for 72h. Immediately after exercise, the reduction in shoulder horizontal adductors TW (25%) was greater than PT (17%). TW, as a percentage of baseline values, was also less than PT at 24, 48 and 96h after exercise. Additionally, PT returned to baseline at 96h, while TW did not. Resistance trained men presented dissimilar PT and TW recovery following free weight bench press exercise. This indicates that recovery of maximal voluntary contraction does not reflect the capability to perform multiple contractions. Strength and conditioning professionals should be cautious when evaluating muscle recovery by peak torque, since it can lead to the repetition of a training session sooner than recommended. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Development of a processor embedded timing unit for the synchronized operation in KSTAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Woongryol, E-mail: wrlee@nfri.re.kr; Lee, Taegu; Hong, Jaesic

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Timing board for the synchronized tokamak operation. • Processor embedded distributed control system. • Single clock source and multiple trigger signal for the plasma diagnostics. • Delay compensation among the distributed timing boards. - Abstract: The Local Timing Unit (LTU) in KSTAR provides a single clock source and multiple trigger signals with flexible configuration. Over the past seven years, the LTU had a mechanical redesign and several firmware updates for the purpose of provision of a robust operation and precision timing signal. Now we have developed a third version of a local timing unit which has a standalone operation capability. The LTU is built in a cabinet mountable 1U PIZZA box and provides twelve signal output ports, a packet mirroring interface, and an LCD interface panel. The core functions of the LTU are implemented in a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) which has an internal hardcore processor. The internal processor allows the use of Linux Operating System (OS) and the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). All user level application functions are controllable through the EPICS, however the time critical internal functions are performed by the FPGA logic blocks same as the previous version. The new LTU provides pluggable output module so that we can easily extend the signal output port. The easy installation and effective replacement reduce the efforts of maintenance. This paper describes design, development, and commissioning results of the new KSTAR LTU.

  12. Operating system for a real-time multiprocessor propulsion system simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, G. L.

    1984-01-01

    The success of the Real Time Multiprocessor Operating System (RTMPOS) in the development and evaluation of experimental hardware and software systems for real time interactive simulation of air breathing propulsion systems was evaluated. The Real Time Multiprocessor Operating System (RTMPOS) provides the user with a versatile, interactive means for loading, running, debugging and obtaining results from a multiprocessor based simulator. A front end processor (FEP) serves as the simulator controller and interface between the user and the simulator. These functions are facilitated by the RTMPOS which resides on the FEP. The RTMPOS acts in conjunction with the FEP's manufacturer supplied disk operating system that provides typical utilities like an assembler, linkage editor, text editor, file handling services, etc. Once a simulation is formulated, the RTMPOS provides for engineering level, run time operations such as loading, modifying and specifying computation flow of programs, simulator mode control, data handling and run time monitoring. Run time monitoring is a powerful feature of RTMPOS that allows the user to record all actions taken during a simulation session and to receive advisories from the simulator via the FEP. The RTMPOS is programmed mainly in PASCAL along with some assembly language routines. The RTMPOS software is easily modified to be applicable to hardware from different manufacturers.

  13. Development of a processor embedded timing unit for the synchronized operation in KSTAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Woongryol; Lee, Taegu; Hong, Jaesic

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Timing board for the synchronized tokamak operation. • Processor embedded distributed control system. • Single clock source and multiple trigger signal for the plasma diagnostics. • Delay compensation among the distributed timing boards. - Abstract: The Local Timing Unit (LTU) in KSTAR provides a single clock source and multiple trigger signals with flexible configuration. Over the past seven years, the LTU had a mechanical redesign and several firmware updates for the purpose of provision of a robust operation and precision timing signal. Now we have developed a third version of a local timing unit which has a standalone operation capability. The LTU is built in a cabinet mountable 1U PIZZA box and provides twelve signal output ports, a packet mirroring interface, and an LCD interface panel. The core functions of the LTU are implemented in a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) which has an internal hardcore processor. The internal processor allows the use of Linux Operating System (OS) and the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). All user level application functions are controllable through the EPICS, however the time critical internal functions are performed by the FPGA logic blocks same as the previous version. The new LTU provides pluggable output module so that we can easily extend the signal output port. The easy installation and effective replacement reduce the efforts of maintenance. This paper describes design, development, and commissioning results of the new KSTAR LTU.

  14. The position of a standard optical computer mouse affects cardiorespiratory responses during the operation of a computer under time constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sako, Shunji; Sugiura, Hiromichi; Tanoue, Hironori; Kojima, Makoto; Kono, Mitsunobu; Inaba, Ryoichi

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated the association between task-induced stress and fatigue by examining the cardiovascular responses of subjects using different mouse positions while operating a computer under time constraints. The study was participated by 16 young, healthy men and examined the use of optical mouse devices affixed to laptop computers. Two mouse positions were investigated: (1) the distal position (DP), in which the subjects place their forearms on the desk accompanied by the abduction and flexion of their shoulder joints, and (2) the proximal position (PP), in which the subjects place only their wrists on the desk without using an armrest. The subjects continued each task for 16 min. We assessed differences in several characteristics according to mouse position, including expired gas values, autonomic nerve activities (based on cardiorespiratory responses), operating efficiencies (based on word counts), and fatigue levels (based on the visual analog scale - VAS). Oxygen consumption (VO(2)), the ratio of inspiration time to respiration time (T(i)/T(total)), respiratory rate (RR), minute ventilation (VE), and the ratio of expiration to inspiration (Te/T(i)) were significantly lower when the participants were performing the task in the DP than those obtained in the PP. Tidal volume (VT), carbon dioxide output rates (VCO(2)/VE), and oxygen extraction fractions (VO(2)/VE) were significantly higher for the DP than they were for the PP. No significant difference in VAS was observed between the positions; however, as the task progressed, autonomic nerve activities were lower and operating efficiencies were significantly higher for the DP than they were for the PP. Our results suggest that the DP has fewer effects on cardiorespiratory functions, causes lower levels of sympathetic nerve activity and mental stress, and produces a higher total workload than the PP. This suggests that the DP is preferable to the PP when operating a computer.

  15. A real-time expert system for nuclear power plant failure diagnosis and operational guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, N.; Sakuma, A.; Shigeno, K.; Mori, N.

    1987-01-01

    A real-time expert system (DIAREX) has been developed to diagnose plant failure and to offer a corrective operational guide for boiling water reactor (BWR) power plants. The failure diagnosis model used in DIAREX was systematically developed, based mainly on deep knowledge, to cover heuristics. Complex paradigms for knowledge representation were adopted, i.e., the process representation language and the failure propagation tree. The system is composed of a knowledge base, knowledge base editor, preprocessor, diagnosis processor, and display processor. The DIAREX simulation test has been carried out for many transient scenarios, including multiple failures, using a real-time full-scope simulator modeled after the 1100-MW(electric) BWR power plant. Test results showed that DIAREX was capable of diagnosing a plant failure quickly and of providing a corrective operational guide with a response time fast enough to offer valuable information to plant operators

  16. Development and operation of a real-time simulation at the NASA Ames Vertical Motion Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Christopher; Sheppard, Shirin; Chetelat, Monique

    1993-01-01

    The Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS) facility at the NASA Ames Research Center combines the largest vertical motion capability in the world with a flexible real-time operating system allowing research to be conducted quickly and effectively. Due to the diverse nature of the aircraft simulated and the large number of simulations conducted annually, the challenge for the simulation engineer is to develop an accurate real-time simulation in a timely, efficient manner. The SimLab facility and the software tools necessary for an operating simulation will be discussed. Subsequent sections will describe the development process through operation of the simulation; this includes acceptance of the model, validation, integration and production phases.

  17. Study of time-critical diagnostic method for emergency operation of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gofuku, A.; Yoshikawa, H.; Itoh, K.; Wakabayashi, J.

    1986-01-01

    In order to support the emergency operation of nuclear power plant, the method of time-critical diagnostic plant analyzer has been investigated. The conception of the emergency operation support center is proposed and two types of plant analyzer may be installed in this center. One analyzer is a real-time tracking simulation code using the observed signals and another is a fast trend-prediction code. A real-time tracking code, TOKRAC, has been developed for analyzing the PWR primary loop thermo-hydraulics at SBLOCA, and the applicability of this code was examined by the numerical experiments for the initial phase transient of both TMI-2 accident and 6% coldleg SBLOCA of a Westinghouse-type PWR plant. The results showed that fairly good tracking was carried out by TOKRAC. The CPU time of TOKRAC was about 12-14 percent of real-time

  18. Nonunitary similarity transformation of conservative to dissipative evolutions: Intertwining without time operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Fernando

    2007-04-01

    Reversible evolutions are usually expressed in terms of unitary groups on separable Hilbert spaces, whereas irreversible ones are described by contraction semigroups. In the theory of nonunitary similarity transformations intertwining unitary groups and contraction semigroups, proposed initially in the context of statistical mechanics as part of an exact theory of irreversibility, the unitary groups with such intertwining property have been qualified by the existence of an internal time operator. This work tackles the question of existence of internal time operators for unitary groups with the intertwining property. Equivalent conditions to the existence of internal time operators for such unitary groups are given on the basis of the Sz.-Nagy-Foiaş [Harmonic Analysis of Operators on Hilbert Spaces (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1970)] dilation theory and the theory of shift invariant subspaces. These conditions permit us to solve the inverse intertwining problem in the negative: there are unitary groups with the intertwining property which do not admit internal time operator. A representative family of such unitary groups is given.

  19. Inflammation and post-operative recovery in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty-secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkilde, A; Jakobsen, T L; Bandholm, T Q

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Reduced function persists for many patients after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Inflammation is part of osteoarthritis' pathophysiology, and surgery induces a marked inflammatory response. We therefore wanted to explore the role of inflammation in long-term recovery after TKA, and thus...... conducted this secondary analysis of our randomized controlled trial (RCT) of physical rehabilitation ± progressive strength training (PST). We aimed to investigate whether (1) inflammation is associated with functional performance, knee-extension strength, and knee pain before TKA; (2) PST affects...... factor (TNF)-α at baseline; day 1, week 4, 8, and 26 after TKA. RESULTS: At baseline, suPAR (P = 006) was negatively associated with 6MWT. Neither baseline nor surgery-induced inflammation modified the response to rehabilitation ± PST. Only surgery-induced IL-10 was associated with Δ6MWT26 weeks...

  20. Extending total parenteral nutrition hang time in the neonatal intensive care unit: is it safe and cost effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balegar V, Kiran Kumar; Azeem, Mohammad Irfan; Spence, Kaye; Badawi, Nadia

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effects of prolonging hang time of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) fluid on central line-associated blood stream infection (CLABSI), TPN-related cost and nursing workload. A before-after observational study comparing the practice of hanging TPN bags for 48 h (6 February 2009-5 February 2010) versus 24 h (6 February 2008-5 February 2009) in a tertiary neonatal intensive care unit was conducted. The main outcome measures were CLABSI, TPN-related expenses and nursing workload. One hundred thirty-six infants received 24-h TPN bags and 124 received 48-h TPN bags. Median (inter-quartile range) gestation (37 weeks (33,39) vs. 36 weeks (33,39)), mean (±standard deviation) admission weight of 2442 g (±101) versus 2476 g (±104) and TPN duration (9.7 days (±12.7) vs. 9.9 days (±13.4)) were similar (P > 0.05) between the 24- and 48-h TPN groups. There was no increase in CLABSI with longer hang time (0.8 vs. 0.4 per 1000 line days in the 24-h vs. 48-h group; P < 0.05). Annual cost saving using 48-h TPN was AUD 97,603.00. By using 48-h TPN, 68.3% of nurses indicated that their workload decreased and 80.5% indicated that time spent changing TPN reduced. Extending TPN hang time from 24 to 48 h did not alter CLABSI rate and was associated with a reduced TPN-related cost and perceived nursing workload. Larger randomised controlled trials are needed to more clearly delineate these effects. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2012 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  1. A Study on Evaluation Issues of Real-Time Operating System in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y. M.; Jeong, C. H.; Koh, J. S. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    Control applications such as aircraft, robotics and nuclear power plant have to maintain a very high level of safety, typically defined as the avoidance of unplanned events resulting in hazard. These applications usually operate with hard real-time operating system (RTOS). In this case, hard RTOS software should be reliable and safe. RTOS used in safety-critical I and C system is the base software for the purpose of satisfying the real-time constraints. So, careful evaluation of its safety and functionality is very important. In this paper, we present the case study for RTOSs used in real nuclear power plants (NPP), and suggest the evaluation approach for the RTOS.

  2. A Study on Evaluation Issues of Real-Time Operating System in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y. M.; Jeong, C. H.; Koh, J. S.

    2006-01-01

    Control applications such as aircraft, robotics and nuclear power plant have to maintain a very high level of safety, typically defined as the avoidance of unplanned events resulting in hazard. These applications usually operate with hard real-time operating system (RTOS). In this case, hard RTOS software should be reliable and safe. RTOS used in safety-critical I and C system is the base software for the purpose of satisfying the real-time constraints. So, careful evaluation of its safety and functionality is very important. In this paper, we present the case study for RTOSs used in real nuclear power plants (NPP), and suggest the evaluation approach for the RTOS

  3. Real-time embedded systems open-source operating systems perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Bertolotti, Ivan Cibrario

    2012-01-01

    From the Foreword: "!the presentation of real-time scheduling is probably the best in terms of clarity I have ever read in the professional literature. Easy to understand, which is important for busy professionals keen to acquire (or refresh) new knowledge without being bogged down in a convoluted narrative and an excessive detail overload. The authors managed to largely avoid theoretical-only presentation of the subject, which frequently affects books on operating systems. ! an indispensable [resource] to gain a thorough understanding of the real-time systems from the operating systems p

  4. Time-dependent reliability analysis of nuclear reactor operators using probabilistic network models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Y.; Miyata, K.; Kodaira, H.; Murakami, S.; Kondo, S.; Togo, Y.

    1987-01-01

    Human factors are very important for the reliability of a nuclear power plant. Human behavior has essentially a time-dependent nature. The details of thinking and decision making processes are important for detailed analysis of human reliability. They have, however, not been well considered by the conventional methods of human reliability analysis. The present paper describes the models for the time-dependent and detailed human reliability analysis. Recovery by an operator is taken into account and two-operators models are also presented

  5. Real time estimation of photovoltaic modules characteristics and its application to maximum power point operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrigos, Ausias; Blanes, Jose M.; Carrasco, Jose A. [Area de Tecnologia Electronica, Universidad Miguel Hernandez de Elche, Avda. de la Universidad s/n, 03202 Elche, Alicante (Spain); Ejea, Juan B. [Departamento de Ingenieria Electronica, Universidad de Valencia, Avda. Dr Moliner 50, 46100 Valencia, Valencia (Spain)

    2007-05-15

    In this paper, an approximate curve fitting method for photovoltaic modules is presented. The operation is based on solving a simple solar cell electrical model by a microcontroller in real time. Only four voltage and current coordinates are needed to obtain the solar module parameters and set its operation at maximum power in any conditions of illumination and temperature. Despite its simplicity, this method is suitable for low cost real time applications, as control loop reference generator in photovoltaic maximum power point circuits. The theory that supports the estimator together with simulations and experimental results are presented. (author)

  6. Real-Time Science Operations to Support a Lunar Polar Volatiles Rover Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldmann, Jennifer L.; Colaprete, Anthony; Elphic, Richard C.; Mattes, Greg; Ennico, Kimberly; Fritzler, Erin; Marinova, Margarita M.; McMurray, Robert; Morse, Stephanie; Roush, Ted L.; hide

    2014-01-01

    Future human exploration of the Moon will likely rely on in situ resource utilization (ISRU) to enable long duration lunar missions. Prior to utilizing ISRU on the Moon, the natural resources (in this case lunar volatiles) must be identified and characterized, and ISRU demonstrated on the lunar surface. To enable future uses of ISRU, NASA and the CSA are developing a lunar rover payload that can (1) locate near subsurface volatiles, (2) excavate and analyze samples of the volatile-bearing regolith, and (3) demonstrate the form, extractability and usefulness of the materials. Such investigations are important both for ISRU purposes and for understanding the scientific nature of these intriguing lunar volatile deposits. Temperature models and orbital data suggest near surface volatile concentrations may exist at briefly lit lunar polar locations outside persistently shadowed regions. A lunar rover could be remotely operated at some of these locations for the approx. 2-14 days of expected sunlight at relatively low cost. Due to the limited operational time available, both science and rover operations decisions must be made in real time, requiring immediate situational awareness, data analysis, and decision support tools. Given these constraints, such a mission requires a new concept of operations. In this paper we outline the results and lessons learned from an analog field campaign in July 2012 which tested operations for a lunar polar rover concept. A rover was operated in the analog environment of Hawaii by an off-site Flight Control Center, a rover navigation center in Canada, a Science Backroom at NASA Ames Research Center in California, and support teams at NASA Johnson Space Center in Texas and NASA Kennedy Space Center in Florida. We find that this type of mission requires highly efficient, real time, remotely operated rover operations to enable low cost, scientifically relevant exploration of the distribution and nature of lunar polar volatiles. The field

  7. Latitude-Time Total Electron Content Anomalies as Precursors to Japan's Large Earthquakes Associated with Principal Component Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyh-Woei Lin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to determine whether principal component analysis (PCA can be used to process latitude-time ionospheric TEC data on a monthly basis to identify earthquake associated TEC anomalies. PCA is applied to latitude-time (mean-of-a-month ionospheric total electron content (TEC records collected from the Japan GEONET network to detect TEC anomalies associated with 18 earthquakes in Japan (M≥6.0 from 2000 to 2005. According to the results, PCA was able to discriminate clear TEC anomalies in the months when all 18 earthquakes occurred. After reviewing months when no M≥6.0 earthquakes occurred but geomagnetic storm activity was present, it is possible that the maximal principal eigenvalues PCA returned for these 18 earthquakes indicate earthquake associated TEC anomalies. Previously PCA has been used to discriminate earthquake-associated TEC anomalies recognized by other researchers, who found that statistical association between large earthquakes and TEC anomalies could be established in the 5 days before earthquake nucleation; however, since PCA uses the characteristics of principal eigenvalues to determine earthquake related TEC anomalies, it is possible to show that such anomalies existed earlier than this 5-day statistical window.

  8. Time-series MODIS image-based retrieval and distribution analysis of total suspended matter concentrations in Lake Taihu (China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuchao; Lin, Shan; Liu, Jianping; Qian, Xin; Ge, Yi

    2010-09-01

    Although there has been considerable effort to use remotely sensed images to provide synoptic maps of total suspended matter (TSM), there are limited studies on universal TSM retrieval models. In this paper, we have developed a TSM retrieval model for Lake Taihu using TSM concentrations measured in situ and a time series of quasi-synchronous MODIS 250 m images from 2005. After simple geometric and atmospheric correction, we found a significant relationship (R = 0.8736, N = 166) between in situ measured TSM concentrations and MODIS band normalization difference of band 3 and band 1. From this, we retrieved TSM concentrations in eight regions of Lake Taihu in 2007 and analyzed the characteristic distribution and variation of TSM. Synoptic maps of model-estimated TSM of 2007 showed clear geographical and seasonal variations. TSM in Central Lake and Southern Lakeshore were consistently higher than in other regions, while TSM in East Taihu was generally the lowest among the regions throughout the year. Furthermore, a wide range of TSM concentrations appeared from winter to summer. TSM in winter could be several times that in summer.

  9. [Fuel Rod Consolidation Project]: The estimated total life cycle cost for the 30-year operation of prototypical consolidation demonstration equipment: Volume 4, Phase 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The Total Life Cycle Costs have been developed for the construction, operation and decommissioning of a single line of hot-cell-enclosed production consolidation equipment operating on spent fuel at the rate of 750 MTU/year for 30 years. The cost estimate is for a single production line that is part of an overall facility at either a Monitored Retrievable Storage or a Repository facility. This overall facility would include other capabilities and possibly other consolidation lines. However, no costs were included in the cost estimate for other portions of the plant, except that staff costs include an overhead charge that reflects the overhead support services in an overall facility

  10. Assessment of resident operative performance using a real-time mobile Web system: preparing for the milestone age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Justin P; Chen, David C; Donahue, Timothy R; Quach, Chi; Hines, O Joe; Hiatt, Jonathan R; Tillou, Areti

    2014-01-01

    To satisfy trainees' operative competency requirements while improving feedback validity and timeliness using a mobile Web-based platform. The Southern Illinois University Operative Performance Rating Scale (OPRS) was embedded into a website formatted for mobile devices. From March 2013 to February 2014, faculty members were instructed to complete the OPRS form while providing verbal feedback to the operating resident at the conclusion of each procedure. Submitted data were compiled automatically within a secure Web-based spreadsheet. Conventional end-of-rotation performance (CERP) evaluations filed 2006 to 2013 and OPRS performance scores were compared by year of training using serial and independent-samples t tests. The mean CERP scores and OPRS overall resident operative performance scores were directly compared using a linear regression model. OPRS mobile site analytics were reviewed using a Web-based reporting program. Large university-based general surgery residency program. General Surgery faculty used the mobile Web OPRS system to rate resident performance. Residents and the program director reviewed evaluations semiannually. Over the study period, 18 faculty members and 37 residents logged 176 operations using the mobile OPRS system. There were 334 total OPRS website visits. Median time to complete an evaluation was 45 minutes from the end of the operation, and faculty spent an average of 134 seconds on the site to enter 1 assessment. In the 38,506 CERP evaluations reviewed, mean performance scores showed a positive linear trend of 2% change per year of training (p = 0.001). OPRS overall resident operative performance scores showed a significant linear (p = 0.001), quadratic (p = 0.001), and cubic (p = 0.003) trend of change per year of clinical training, reflecting the resident operative experience in our training program. Differences between postgraduate year-1 and postgraduate year-5 overall performance scores were greater with the OPRS (mean = 0.96, CI

  11. Operative time and cost of resident surgical experience: effect of instituting an otolaryngology residency program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollei, Taylor R; Barrs, David M; Hinni, Michael L; Bansberg, Stephen F; Walter, Logan C

    2013-06-01

    Describe the procedure length difference between surgeries performed by an attending surgeon alone compared with the resident surgeon supervised by the same attending surgeon. Case series with chart review. Tertiary care center and residency program. Six common otolaryngologic procedures performed between August 1994 and May 2012 were divided into 2 cohorts: attending surgeon alone or resident surgeon. This division coincided with our July 2006 initiation of an otolaryngology-head and neck surgery residency program. Operative duration was compared between cohorts with confounding factors controlled. In addition, the direct result of increased surgical length on operating room cost was calculated and applied to departmental and published resident case log report data. Five of the 6 procedures evaluated showed a statistically significant increase in surgery length with resident involvement. Operative time increased 6.8 minutes for a cricopharyngeal myotomy (P = .0097), 11.3 minutes for a tonsillectomy (P operative time difference. Cost of increased surgical time was calculated per surgery and ranged from $286 (cricopharyngeal myotomy) to $2142 (mastoidectomy). When applied to reported national case log averages for graduating residents, this resulted in a significant increase of direct training-related costs. Resident participation in the operating room results in increased surgical length and additional system cost. Although residency is a necessary part of surgical training, associated costs need to be acknowledged.

  12. Operator-normalized quantum arrival times in the presence of interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegerfeldt, G.C.; Seidel, D.; Muga, J.G.; Navarro, B.

    2004-01-01

    We model ideal arrival-time measurements for free quantum particles and for particles subject to an external interaction by means of a narrow and weak absorbing potential. This approach is related to the operational approach of measuring the first photon emitted from a two-level atom illuminated by a laser. By operator normalizing the resulting time-of-arrival distribution, a distribution is obtained which for freely moving particles not only recovers the axiomatically derived distribution of Kijowski for states with purely positive momenta but is also applicable to general momentum components. For particles interacting with a square barrier the mean arrival time and corresponding 'tunneling time' obtained at the transmission side of the barrier become independent of the barrier width (Hartman effect) for arbitrarily wide barriers, i.e., without the transition to the ultraopaque, classical-like regime dominated by wave packet components above the barrier

  13. Modeling of human operator dynamics in simple manual control utilizing time series analysis. [tracking (position)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, G. C.; Osafo-Charles, F.; Oneill, W. D.; Gottlieb, G. L.

    1982-01-01

    Time series analysis is applied to model human operator dynamics in pursuit and compensatory tracking modes. The normalized residual criterion is used as a one-step analytical tool to encompass the processes of identification, estimation, and diagnostic checking. A parameter constraining technique is introduced to develop more reliable models of human operator dynamics. The human operator is adequately modeled by a second order dynamic system both in pursuit and compensatory tracking modes. In comparing the data sampling rates, 100 msec between samples is adequate and is shown to provide better results than 200 msec sampling. The residual power spectrum and eigenvalue analysis show that the human operator is not a generator of periodic characteristics.

  14. Investigation of the Adaptability of Transient Stability Assessment Methods to Real-Time Operation

    OpenAIRE

    Weckesser, Johannes Tilman Gabriel; Jóhannsson, Hjörtur; Sommer, Stefan; Østergaard, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, an investigation of the adaptability of available transient stability assessment methods to real-time operation and their real-time performance is carried out. Two approaches based on Lyapunov’s method and the equal area criterion are analyzed. The results allow to determine the runtime of each method with respect to the number of inputs. Furthermore, it allows to identify, which method is preferable in case of changes in the power system such as the integration of distributed ...

  15. A computer-based time study system for timber harvesting operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingxin Wang; Joe McNeel; John Baumgras

    2003-01-01

    A computer-based time study system was developed for timber harvesting operations. Object-oriented techniques were used to model and design the system. The front-end of the time study system resides on the MS Windows CE and the back-end is supported by MS Access. The system consists of three major components: a handheld system, data transfer interface, and data storage...

  16. Effectiveness Analysis of a Part-Time Rapid Response System During Operation Versus Nonoperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youlim; Lee, Dong Seon; Min, Hyunju; Choi, Yun Young; Lee, Eun Young; Song, Inae; Park, Jong Sun; Cho, Young-Jae; Jo, You Hwan; Yoon, Ho Il; Lee, Jae Ho; Lee, Choon-Taek; Do, Sang Hwan; Lee, Yeon Joo

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of a part-time rapid response system on the occurrence rate of cardiopulmonary arrest by comparing the times of rapid response system operation versus nonoperation. Retrospective cohort study. A 1,360-bed tertiary care hospital. Adult patients admitted to the general ward were screened. Data were collected over 36 months from rapid response system implementation (October 2012 to September 2015) and more than 45 months before rapid response system implementation (January 2009 to September 2012). None. The rapid response system operates from 7 AM to 10 PM on weekdays and from 7 AM to 12 PM on Saturdays. Primary outcomes were the difference of cardiopulmonary arrest incidence between pre-rapid response system and post-rapid response system periods and whether the rapid response system operating time affects the cardiopulmonary arrest incidence. The overall cardiopulmonary arrest incidence (per 1,000 admissions) was 1.43. Although the number of admissions per month and case-mix index were increased (3,555.18 vs 4,564.72, p times (0.82 vs 0.49/1,000 admissions; p = 0.001) but remained similar during rapid response system nonoperating times (0.77 vs 0.73/1,000 admissions; p = 0.729). The implementation of a part-time rapid response system reduced the cardiopulmonary arrest incidence based on the reduction of cardiopulmonary arrest during rapid response system operating times. Further analysis of the cost effectiveness of part-time rapid response system is needed.

  17. The impact of pre-operative weight loss on incidence of surgical site infection and readmission rates after total joint arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inacio, Maria C S; Kritz-Silverstein, Donna; Raman, Rema; Macera, Caroline A; Nichols, Jeanne F; Shaffer, Richard A; Fithian, Donald C

    2014-03-01

    This study characterized a cohort of obese total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) patients (1/1/2008-12/31/2010) and evaluated whether a clinically significant amount of pre-operative weight loss (5% decrease in body weight) is associated with a decreased risk of surgical site infections (SSI) and readmissions post-surgery. 10,718 TKAs and 4066 THAs were identified. During the one year pre-TKA 7.6% of patients gained weight, 12.4% lost weight, and 79.9% remained the same. In the one year pre-THA, 6.3% of patients gained weight, 18.0% lost weight, and 75.7% remained the same. In TKAs and THAs, after adjusting for covariates, the risk of SSI and readmission was not significantly different in the patients who gained or lost weight pre-operatively compared to those who remained the same. © 2013.

  18. Evolving from Planning and Scheduling to Real-Time Operations Support: Design Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez, Jessica J.; Ludowise, Melissa; McCurdy, Michael; Li, Jack

    2010-01-01

    Versions of Scheduling and Planning Interface for Exploration (SPIFe) have supported a variety of mission operations across NASA. This software tool has evolved and matured over several years, assisting planners who develop intricate schedules. While initially conceived for surface Mars missions, SPIFe has been deployed in other domains, where people rather than robotic explorers, execute plans. As a result, a diverse set of end-users has compelled growth in a new direction: supporting real-time operations. This paper describes the new needs and challenges that accompany this development. Among the key features that have been built for SPIFe are current time indicators integrated into the interface and timeline, as well as other plan attributes that enable execution of scheduled activities. Field tests include mission support for the Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS), NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) and Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS) campaigns.

  19. Evaluation of real-time operating system for small-scale embedded systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dayang Norhayati Abang Jawawi; Rosbi Mamat

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, the performance of some real-time operating systems for small-scale embedded systems are evaluated based on some criteria. The evaluation is performed qualitatively and quantitatively. The evaluation results based on a case study on an engineering application will be presented. (author)

  20. DCOS, a Real-Time Light-weight Data Centric Operating System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmeijer, T.J.; Dulman, S.O.; Jansen, P.G.; Havinga, Paul J.M.; Sahni, S.

    2004-01-01

    DCOS is a Data Centric lightweight Operating System for embedded devices. Despite limited energy and hardware resources, it supports a data driven architecture with provisions for dynamic loadable Modules. It combines these with Real-Time provisions based on Earliest Deadline First with a simple but

  1. Extending an open-source real-time operating system with hierarchical scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holenderski, M.J.; Cools, W.A.; Bril, R.J.; Lukkien, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    Hierarchical scheduling frameworks (HSFs) have been devised to support the integration of independently developed and analyzed subsystems. This paper presents an efficient, modular and extendible design for enhancing a real-time operating system with periodic tasks, two-level fixed-priority HSF

  2. DCOS, a real-time light-weight Data Centric Operating System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmeijer, T.J.; Dulman, S.O.; Jansen, P.G.; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2004-01-01

    DCOS is a Data Centric lightweight Operating System for embedded devices. Despite limited energy and hardware resources, it supports a data driven architecture with provisions for dynamic loadable Modules. It combines these with Real-Time provisions based on Earliest Deadline First with a simple but

  3. Dynamic state estimation and prediction for real-time control and operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, P.H.; Venayagamoorthy, G.K.; Kling, W.L.; Ribeiro, P.F.

    2013-01-01

    Real-time control and operation are crucial to deal with increasing complexity of modern power systems. To effectively enable those functions, it is required a Dynamic State Estimation (DSE) function to provide accurate network state variables at the right moment and predict their trends ahead. This

  4. Optimal operation of smart houses by a real-time rolling horizon algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paterakis, N.G.; Pappi, I.N.; Catalão, J.P.S.; Erdinc, O.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a novel real-time rolling horizon optimization framework for the optimal operation of a smart household is presented. A home energy management system (HEMS) model based on mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) is developed in order to minimize the energy procurement cost considering

  5. ODEs with Preisach operator under the derivative and with discontinuous in time right-hand side

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhezherun, A; Flynn, D

    2006-01-01

    We consider ordinary Differential equations with a Preisach operator under the derivative. A special case when the right-hand side has discontinuities in time is studied. We present theorems about the existence and uniqueness of solutions. We also prove a theorem which describes the behavior of a solution at the points of discontinuity of the right-hand side

  6. Operational Testing and Measurement of the Resolving Time of a Counting Assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manent, G.; Scheemaecker, J. de

    1968-01-01

    An experiment is described which constitutes a very sensitive test of the satisfactory operation of a counting assembly. It makes it possible to measure the resolving time of an assembly to an accuracy of 1 per cent. A certain number of examples are presented which show the sensitivity of the test. (author) [fr

  7. Personal, place, and time characteristics of offshore accidents in five oil companies operating in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahardjo; Sudjoko; Sebayang

    1991-01-01

    This study is to determine personal, place and time characteristics of offshore accidents during the year of 1987, 1988 and 1989 of five oil companies operating in Indonesia. Age, length of service, employment status, job characteristics, work cycles, work schedules, marital status, citizenship, disability, anatomy and nature of accident

  8. Longer operating times of nuclear power plants. Options for compensating public utility advantages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bode, Sven; Kondziella, Hendrik; Bruckner, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The current German government of CDU/CSU and FDP intends to prolong the operating time of existing nuclear power plants in Germany. The advantages resulting for public utilities are to be compensated. The authors discuss how compensation may be achieved and outline the available instruments. (orig.)

  9. What Are We Waiting For Customer Wait Time, Fill Rate, And Marine Corps Equipment Operational Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    directed the use of Customer Wait Time (CWT) as a measure of supply chain performance (Department of Defense [DOD], 2000). CWT is defined as “the total...time elapsed between issuance of a customer order and satisfaction of the order” (United States Marine Corps [USMC], 2014, pp. 2–29). In theory...rate is a widely used metric for setting inventory levels and is also a useful measure of customer satisfaction . In general, high fill-rates can be

  10. Preemptive analgesia by using celecoxib combined with tramadol/APAP alleviates post-operative pain of patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhongwei; Zhang, Hua; Luo, Jiao; Zhou, Aiguo; Zhang, Jian

    2017-09-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the efficacy of preemptive analgesia (PA) by using celecoxib combined with low-dose tramadol/acetaminophen (tramadol/APAP) in treating post-operative pain of patients undergoing unilateral total knee arthroplasty (TKA). A total of 132 patients scheduled for TKA were included in this study. Three-day pre-operative medication was administrated in PA group with subsequent effective intra- and post-operative multimodal analgesia, while control patients received multimodal analgesia without PA. Visual analog scale (VAS) was utilized to assess the pain intensity at rest and during movement. VAS scores of participants were recorded 3 days before surgery, 1 day, 3 days, 1 week, 3 weeks, 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months postoperatively. Moreover, the length of hospital stay, expense of hospitalization, C-reactive protein (CRP) values during hospitalization, and complications during medication were also recorded. PA showed superiority over control at 3 weeks (P = 0.013) and 6 weeks (P = 0.046) in resting pain, and 1 week (P = 0.015), 3 weeks (P = 0.003), 6 weeks (P = 0.003) and 3 months (P = 0.012) postoperatively in movement pain. There was no statistically significant difference in the length of hospital stay, total expense, CRP values, as well as complications. Based on satisfactory intra- and post-operative analgesia, PA by 3-day administration of celecoxib and low-dose tramadol/APAP might be an effective and safe therapy regarding patients undergoing TKA in terms of alleviating post-operative pain.

  11. Optimisation of high-quality total ribonucleic acid isolation from cartilaginous tissues for real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, M; Huang, C L; Vonk, L A; Lu, Z F; Bank, R A; Helder, M N; Doulabi, B Zandieh

    2016-11-01

    Studies which consider the molecular mechanisms of degeneration and regeneration of cartilaginous tissues are seriously hampered by problematic ribonucleic acid (RNA) isolations due to low cell density and the dense, proteoglycan-rich extracellular matrix of cartilage. Proteoglycans tend to co-purify with RNA, they can absorb the full spectrum of UV light and they are potent inhibitors of polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Therefore, the objective of the present study is to compare and optimise different homogenisation methods and RNA isolation kits for an array of cartilaginous tissues. Tissue samples such as the nucleus pulposus (NP), annulus fibrosus (AF), articular cartilage (AC) and meniscus, were collected from goats and homogenised by either the MagNA Lyser or Freezer Mill. RNA of duplicate samples was subsequently isolated by either TRIzol (benchmark), or the RNeasy Lipid Tissue, RNeasy Fibrous Tissue, or Aurum Total RNA Fatty and Fibrous Tissue kits. RNA yield, purity, and integrity were determined and gene expression levels of type II collagen and aggrecan were measured by real-time PCR. No differences between the two homogenisation methods were found. RNA isolation using the RNeasy Fibrous and Lipid kits resulted in the purest RNA (A260/A280 ratio), whereas TRIzol isolations resulted in RNA that is not as pure, and show a larger difference in gene expression of duplicate samples compared with both RNeasy kits. The Aurum kit showed low reproducibility. For the extraction of high-quality RNA from cartilaginous structures, we suggest homogenisation of the samples by the MagNA Lyser. For AC, NP and AF we recommend the RNeasy Fibrous kit, whereas for the meniscus the RNeasy Lipid kit is advised.Cite this article: M. Peeters, C. L. Huang, L. A. Vonk, Z. F. Lu, R. A. Bank, M. N. Helder, B. Zandieh Doulabi. Optimisation of high-quality total ribonucleic acid isolation from cartilaginous tissues for real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. Bone Joint Res 2016

  12. A Time Scheduling Model of Logistics Service Supply Chain Based on the Customer Order Decoupling Point: A Perspective from the Constant Service Operation Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Xu, Haitao; Liu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yijia; Liang, Zhicheng

    2014-01-01

    In mass customization logistics service, reasonable scheduling of the logistics service supply chain (LSSC), especially time scheduling, is benefit to increase its competitiveness. Therefore, the effect of a customer order decoupling point (CODP) on the time scheduling performance should be considered. To minimize the total order operation cost of the LSSC, minimize the difference between the expected and actual time of completing the service orders, and maximize the satisfaction of functional logistics service providers, this study establishes an LSSC time scheduling model based on the CODP. Matlab 7.8 software is used in the numerical analysis for a specific example. Results show that the order completion time of the LSSC can be delayed or be ahead of schedule but cannot be infinitely advanced or infinitely delayed. Obtaining the optimal comprehensive performance can be effective if the expected order completion time is appropriately delayed. The increase in supply chain comprehensive performance caused by the increase in the relationship coefficient of logistics service integrator (LSI) is limited. The relative concern degree of LSI on cost and service delivery punctuality leads to not only changes in CODP but also to those in the scheduling performance of the LSSC. PMID:24715818

  13. A time scheduling model of logistics service supply chain based on the customer order decoupling point: a perspective from the constant service operation time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weihua; Yang, Yi; Xu, Haitao; Liu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yijia; Liang, Zhicheng

    2014-01-01

    In mass customization logistics service, reasonable scheduling of the logistics service supply chain (LSSC), especially time scheduling, is benefit to increase its competitiveness. Therefore, the effect of a customer order decoupling point (CODP) on the time scheduling performance should be considered. To minimize the total order operation cost of the LSSC, minimize the difference between the expected and actual time of completing the service orders, and maximize the satisfaction of functional logistics service providers, this study establishes an LSSC time scheduling model based on the CODP. Matlab 7.8 software is used in the numerical analysis for a specific example. Results show that the order completion time of the LSSC can be delayed or be ahead of schedule but cannot be infinitely advanced or infinitely delayed. Obtaining the optimal comprehensive performance can be effective if the expected order completion time is appropriately delayed. The increase in supply chain comprehensive performance caused by the increase in the relationship coefficient of logistics service integrator (LSI) is limited. The relative concern degree of LSI on cost and service delivery punctuality leads to not only changes in CODP but also to those in the scheduling performance of the LSSC.

  14. Five times sit-to-stand test in subjects with total knee replacement: Reliability and relationship with functional mobility tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Mirapeix, Francesc; Vivo-Fernández, Iván; López-Cañizares, Juan; García-Vidal, José A; Benítez-Martínez, Josep Carles; Del Baño-Aledo, María Elena

    2018-01-01

    The objective was to determine the inter-observer and test/retest reliability of the "Five-repetition sit-to-stand" (5STS) test in patients with total knee replacement (TKR). To explore correlation between 5STS and two mobility tests. A reliability study was conducted among 24 (mean age 72.13, S.D. 10.67; 50% were women) outpatients with TKR. They were recruited from a traumatology unit of a public hospital via convenience sampling. A physiotherapist and trauma physician assessed each patient at the same time. The same physiotherapist realized a 5STS second measurement 45-60min after the first one. Reliability was assessed with intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and Bland-Altman plots. Pearson coefficient was calculated to assess the correlation between 5STS, time up to go test (TUG) and four meters gait speed (4MGS). ICC for inter-observer and test-retest reliability of the 5STS were 0.998 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.995-0.999) and 0.982 (95% CI, 0.959-0.992). Bland-Altman plot inter-observer showed limits between -0.82 and 1.06 with a mean of 0.11 and no heteroscedasticity within the data. Bland-Altman plot for test-retest showed the limits between 1.76 and 4.16, a mean of 1.20 and heteroscedasticity within the data. Pearson correlation coefficient revealed significant correlation between 5STS and TUG (r=0.7, ptest-retest reliability when it is used in people with TKR, and also significant correlation with other functional mobility tests. These findings support the use of 5STS as outcome measure in TKR population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Performance evaluation of linear time-series ionospheric Total Electron Content model over low latitude Indian GPS stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabbakuti, J. R. K. Kumar; Venkata Ratnam, D.

    2017-10-01

    Precise modeling of the ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) is a critical aspect of Positioning, Navigation, and Timing (PNT) services intended for the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) applications as well as Earth Observation System (EOS), satellite communication, and space weather forecasting applications. In this paper, linear time series modeling has been carried out on ionospheric TEC at two different locations at Koneru Lakshmaiah University (KLU), Guntur (geographic 16.44° N, 80.62° E; geomagnetic 7.55° N) and Bangalore (geographic 12.97° N, 77.59° E; geomagnetic 4.53° N) at the northern low-latitude region, for the year 2013 in the 24th solar cycle. The impact of the solar and geomagnetic activity on periodic oscillations of TEC has been investigated. Results confirm that the correlation coefficient of the estimated TEC from the linear model TEC and the observed GPS-TEC is around 93%. Solar activity is the key component that influences ionospheric daily averaged TEC while periodic component reveals the seasonal dependency of TEC. Furthermore, it is observed that the influence of geomagnetic activity component on TEC is different at both the latitudes. The accuracy of the model has been assessed by comparing the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) 2012 model TEC and TEC measurements. Moreover, the absence of winter anomaly is remarkable, as determined by the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) between the linear model TEC and GPS-TEC. On the contrary, the IRI2012 model TEC evidently failed to predict the absence of winter anomaly in the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA) crest region. The outcome of this work will be useful for improving the ionospheric now-casting models under various geophysical conditions.

  16. Using mean duration and variation of procedure times to plan a list of surgical operations to fit into the scheduled list time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Jaideep J; Tavare, Aniket

    2011-07-01

    It is important that a surgical list is planned to utilise as much of the scheduled time as possible while not over-running, because this can lead to cancellation of operations. We wished to assess whether, theoretically, the known duration of individual operations could be used quantitatively to predict the likely duration of the operating list. In a university hospital setting, we first assessed the extent to which the current ad-hoc method of operating list planning was able to match the scheduled operating list times for 153 consecutive historical lists. Using receiver operating curve analysis, we assessed the ability of an alternative method to predict operating list duration for the same operating lists. This method uses a simple formula: the sum of individual operation times and a pooled standard deviation of these times. We used the operating list duration estimated from this formula to generate a probability that the operating list would finish within its scheduled time. Finally, we applied the simple formula prospectively to 150 operating lists, 'shadowing' the current ad-hoc method, to confirm the predictive ability of the formula. The ad-hoc method was very poor at planning: 50% of historical operating lists were under-booked and 37% over-booked. In contrast, the simple formula predicted the correct outcome (under-run or over-run) for 76% of these operating lists. The calculated probability that a planned series of operations will over-run or under-run was found useful in developing an algorithm to adjust the planned cases optimally. In the prospective series, 65% of operating lists were over-booked and 10% were under-booked. The formula predicted the correct outcome for 84% of operating lists. A simple quantitative method of estimating operating list duration for a series of operations leads to an algorithm (readily created on an Excel spreadsheet, http://links.lww.com/EJA/A19) that can potentially improve operating list planning.

  17. Kajian dan Implementasi Real Time Operating System pada Single Board Computer Berbasis Arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiedjaja A

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Operating System is an important software in computer system. For personal and office use the operating system is sufficient. However, to critical mission applications such as nuclear power plants and braking system on the car (auto braking system which need a high level of reliability, it requires operating system which operates in real time. The study aims to assess the implementation of the Linux-based operating system on a Single Board Computer (SBC ARM-based, namely Pandaboard ES with the Dual-core ARM Cortex-A9, TI OMAP 4460 type. Research was conducted by the method of implementation of the General Purpose OS Ubuntu 12:04 OMAP4-armhf-RTOS and Linux 3.4.0-rt17 + on PandaBoard ES. Then research compared the latency value of each OS on no-load and with full-load condition. The results obtained show the maximum latency value of RTOS on full load condition is at 45 uS, much smaller than the maximum value of GPOS at full-load at 17.712 uS. The lower value of latency demontrates that the RTOS has ability to run the process in a certain period of time much better than the GPOS.

  18. Regulatory Approach to Safety of Long Time Operating Research Reactors in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapozhnikov, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    In the Russian Federation more than 60% of operating Nuclear Research Facilities (NRFs) are of age over 30 years old or their usage exceeds originally conceived continuous operation. In this regard, important areas of regulatory body activity are: 1) a systematic assessment of the actual state of structures, systems and components (SSCs) important to safety, 2) control of implementation of organizational and technical measures to mitigate ageing impact on the basis of programmes to manage reliability (service life) of SSCs, and 3) issues of facility modification/reconstruction in line with up-to-day safety requirements. The practice of licensing NRFs with long operating times shows that the national regulations are generally in compliance with IAEA recommendations for ageing management of research reactors. In operating organizations, the ageing management is being effectively provided as a part of the integrated management system for NRFs, including the monitoring of the reliability of SSCs, a methodology to detect their ageing, reporting and investigation of events, analysis of their root causes, and measures to prevent and mitigate ageing effects to safety. The report outlines a good practice of safety regulation of NRFs with long operating times and based on lessons learned from experience, including challenges for future improvement of ageing management

  19. Regulatory Approach to Safety of Long Time Operating Research Reactors in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapozhnikov, Alexander [Industrial and Nuclear Supervision Service, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-01

    In the Russian Federation more than 60% of operating Nuclear Research Facilities (NRFs) are of age over 30 years old or their usage exceeds originally conceived continuous operation. In this regard, important areas of regulatory body activity are: 1) a systematic assessment of the actual state of structures, systems and components (SSCs) important to safety, 2) control of implementation of organizational and technical measures to mitigate ageing impact on the basis of programmes to manage reliability (service life) of SSCs, and 3) issues of facility modification/reconstruction in line with up-to-day safety requirements. The practice of licensing NRFs with long operating times shows that the national regulations are generally in compliance with IAEA recommendations for ageing management of research reactors. In operating organizations, the ageing management is being effectively provided as a part of the integrated management system for NRFs, including the monitoring of the reliability of SSCs, a methodology to detect their ageing, reporting and investigation of events, analysis of their root causes, and measures to prevent and mitigate ageing effects to safety. The report outlines a good practice of safety regulation of NRFs with long operating times and based on lessons learned from experience, including challenges for future improvement of ageing management.

  20. Development of a subway operation incident delay model using accelerated failure time approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Jinxian; Zheng, Yang; Yan, Xuedong; Meng, Qiang

    2014-12-01

    This study aims to develop a subway operational incident delay model using the parametric accelerated time failure (AFT) approach. Six parametric AFT models including the log-logistic, lognormal and Weibull models, with fixed and random parameters are built based on the Hong Kong subway operation incident data from 2005 to 2012, respectively. In addition, the Weibull model with gamma heterogeneity is also considered to compare the model performance. The goodness-of-fit test results show that the log-logistic AFT model with random parameters is most suitable for estimating the subway incident delay. First, the results show that a longer subway operation incident delay is highly correlated with the following factors: power cable failure, signal cable failure, turnout communication disruption and crashes involving a casualty. Vehicle failure makes the least impact on the increment of subway operation incident delay. According to these results, several possible measures, such as the use of short-distance and wireless communication technology (e.g., Wifi and Zigbee) are suggested to shorten the delay caused by subway operation incidents. Finally, the temporal transferability test results show that the developed log-logistic AFT model with random parameters is stable over time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Characterizing the hydration state of L-threonine in solution using terahertz time-domain attenuated total reflection spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huachuan; Liu, Qiao; Zhu, Liguo; Li, Zeren

    2018-01-01

    The hydration of biomolecules is closely related to the dynamic process of their functional expression, therefore, characterizing hydration phenomena is a subject of keen interest. However, direct measurements on the global hydration state of biomolecules couldn't have been acquired using traditional techniques such as thermodynamics, ultrasound, microwave spectroscopy or viscosity, etc. In order to realize global hydration characterization of amino acid such as L-threonine, terahertz time-domain attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy (THz-TDS-ATR) was adopted in this paper. By measuring the complex permittivity of L-threonine solutions with various concentrations in the THz region, the hydration state and its concentration dependence were obtained, indicating that the number of hydrous water decreased with the increase of concentration. The hydration number was evaluated to be 17.8 when the molar concentration of L-threonine was 0.34 mol/L, and dropped to 13.2 when the molar concentration increased to 0.84 mol/L, when global hydration was taken into account. According to the proposed direct measurements, it is believed that the THz-TDS-ATR technique is a powerful tool for studying the picosecond molecular dynamics of amino acid solutions.

  2. Cross-sectional associations of total sitting and leisure screen time with cardiometabolic risk in adults. Results from the HUNT Study, Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chau, J.Y.; Grunseit, A.; Midthjell, K.; Holmen, J.; Holmen, T.L.; Bauman, A.E.; van der Ploeg, H.P.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To examine associations of total sitting time, TV-viewing and leisure-time computer use with cardiometabolic risk biomarkers in adults. Design: Population based cross-sectional study. Methods: Waist circumference, BMI, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, blood pressure, non-fasting

  3. The time optimal trajectory planning with limitation of operating task for the Tokamak inspecting manipulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hesheng; Lai, Yinping [Department of Automation,Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Key Laboratory of System Control and Information Processing, Ministry of Education of China (China); Chen, Weidong, E-mail: wdchen@sjtu.edu.cn [Department of Automation,Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Key Laboratory of System Control and Information Processing, Ministry of Education of China (China)

    2016-12-15

    In this paper, a new optimization model of time optimal trajectory planning with limitation of operating task for the Tokamak inspecting manipulator is designed. The task of this manipulator is to inspect the components of Tokamak, the inspecting velocity of manipulator must be limited in the operating space in order to get the clear pictures. With the limitation of joint velocity, acceleration and jerk, this optimization model can not only get the minimum working time along a specific path, but also ensure the imaging quality of camera through the constraint of inspecting velocity. The upper bound of the scanning speed is not a constant but changes according to the observation distance of camera in real time. The relation between scanning velocity and observation distance is estimated by curve-fitting. Experiment has been carried out to verify the feasibility of optimization model, moreover, the Laplace image sharpness evaluation method is adopted to evaluate the quality of images obtained by the proposed method.

  4. Operating system for a real-time multiprocessor propulsion system simulator. User's manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, G. L.

    1985-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center is developing and evaluating experimental hardware and software systems to help meet future needs for real-time, high-fidelity simulations of air-breathing propulsion systems. Specifically, the real-time multiprocessor simulator project focuses on the use of multiple microprocessors to achieve the required computing speed and accuracy at relatively low cost. Operating systems for such hardware configurations are generally not available. A real time multiprocessor operating system (RTMPOS) that supports a variety of multiprocessor configurations was developed at Lewis. With some modification, RTMPOS can also support various microprocessors. RTMPOS, by means of menus and prompts, provides the user with a versatile, user-friendly environment for interactively loading, running, and obtaining results from a multiprocessor-based simulator. The menu functions are described and an example simulation session is included to demonstrate the steps required to go from the simulation loading phase to the execution phase.

  5. Real time evolution at finite temperatures with operator space matrix product states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pižorn, Iztok; Troyer, Matthias; Eisler, Viktor; Andergassen, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    We propose a method to simulate the real time evolution of one-dimensional quantum many-body systems at finite temperature by expressing both the density matrices and the observables as matrix product states. This allows the calculation of expectation values and correlation functions as scalar products in operator space. The simulations of density matrices in inverse temperature and the local operators in the Heisenberg picture are independent and result in a grid of expectation values for all intermediate temperatures and times. Simulations can be performed using real arithmetics with only polynomial growth of computational resources in inverse temperature and time for integrable systems. The method is illustrated for the XXZ model and the single impurity Anderson model. (paper)

  6. Real time evolution at finite temperatures with operator space matrix product states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pižorn, Iztok; Eisler, Viktor; Andergassen, Sabine; Troyer, Matthias

    2014-07-01

    We propose a method to simulate the real time evolution of one-dimensional quantum many-body systems at finite temperature by expressing both the density matrices and the observables as matrix product states. This allows the calculation of expectation values and correlation functions as scalar products in operator space. The simulations of density matrices in inverse temperature and the local operators in the Heisenberg picture are independent and result in a grid of expectation values for all intermediate temperatures and times. Simulations can be performed using real arithmetics with only polynomial growth of computational resources in inverse temperature and time for integrable systems. The method is illustrated for the XXZ model and the single impurity Anderson model.

  7. The time optimal trajectory planning with limitation of operating task for the Tokamak inspecting manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hesheng; Lai, Yinping; Chen, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a new optimization model of time optimal trajectory planning with limitation of operating task for the Tokamak inspecting manipulator is designed. The task of this manipulator is to inspect the components of Tokamak, the inspecting velocity of manipulator must be limited in the operating space in order to get the clear pictures. With the limitation of joint velocity, acceleration and jerk, this optimization model can not only get the minimum working time along a specific path, but also ensure the imaging quality of camera through the constraint of inspecting velocity. The upper bound of the scanning speed is not a constant but changes according to the observation distance of camera in real time. The relation between scanning velocity and observation distance is estimated by curve-fitting. Experiment has been carried out to verify the feasibility of optimization model, moreover, the Laplace image sharpness evaluation method is adopted to evaluate the quality of images obtained by the proposed method.

  8. A time-dependent event tree technique for modelling recovery operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohut, P.; Fitzpatrick, R.

    1991-01-01

    The development of a simplified time dependent event tree methodology is presented. The technique is especially applicable to describe recovery operations in nuclear reactor accident scenarios initiated by support system failures. The event tree logic is constructed using time dependent top events combined with a damage function that contains information about the final state time behavior of the reactor core. Both the failure and the success states may be utilized for the analysis. The method is illustrated by modeling the loss of service water function with special emphasis on the RCP [reactor coolant pump] seal LOCA [loss of coolant accident] scenario. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  9. NOAA Operational Model Archive Distribution System (NOMADS): High Availability Applications for Reliable Real Time Access to Operational Model Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpert, J. C.; Wang, J.

    2009-12-01

    To reduce the impact of natural hazards and environmental changes, the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) provide first alert and a preferred partner for environmental prediction services, and represents a critical national resource to operational and research communities affected by climate, weather and water. NOMADS is now delivering high availability services as part of NOAA’s official real time data dissemination at its Web Operations Center (WOC) server. The WOC is a web service used by organizational units in and outside NOAA, and acts as a data repository where public information can be posted to a secure and scalable content server. A goal is to foster collaborations among the research and education communities, value added retailers, and public access for science and development efforts aimed at advancing modeling and GEO-related tasks. The user (client) executes what is efficient to execute on the client and the server efficiently provides format independent access services. Client applications can execute on the server, if it is desired, but the same program can be executed on the client side with no loss of efficiency. In this way this paradigm lends itself to aggregation servers that act as servers of servers listing, searching catalogs of holdings, data mining, and updating information from the metadata descriptions that enable collections of data in disparate places to be simultaneously accessed, with results processed on servers and clients to produce a needed answer. The services used to access the operational model data output are the Open-source Project for a Network Data Access Protocol (OPeNDAP), implemented with the Grid Analysis and Display System (GrADS) Data Server (GDS), and applications for slicing, dicing and area sub-setting the large matrix of real time model data holdings. This approach insures an efficient use of computer resources because users transmit/receive only the data necessary for their tasks including

  10. Impact of an electronic health record operating room management system in ophthalmology on documentation time, surgical volume, and staffing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, David S; Read-Brown, Sarah; Tu, Daniel C; Lambert, William E; Choi, Dongseok; Almario, Bella M; Yackel, Thomas R; Brown, Anna S; Chiang, Michael F

    2014-05-01

    Although electronic health record (EHR) systems have potential benefits, such as improved safety and quality of care, most ophthalmology practices in the United States have not adopted these systems. Concerns persist regarding potential negative impacts on clinical workflow. In particular, the impact of EHR operating room (OR) management systems on clinical efficiency in the ophthalmic surgery setting is unknown. To determine the impact of an EHR OR management system on intraoperative nursing documentation time, surgical volume, and staffing requirements. For documentation time and circulating nurses per procedure, a prospective cohort design was used between January 10, 2012, and January 10, 2013. For surgical volume and overall staffing requirements, a case series design was used between January 29, 2011, and January 28, 2013. This study involved ophthalmic OR nurses (n = 13) and surgeons (n = 25) at an academic medical center. Electronic health record OR management system implementation. (1) Documentation time (percentage of operating time documenting [POTD], absolute documentation time in minutes), (2) surgical volume (procedures/time), and (3) staffing requirements (full-time equivalents, circulating nurses/procedure). Outcomes were measured during a baseline period when paper documentation was used and during the early (first 3 months) and late (4-12 months) periods after EHR implementation. There was a worsening in total POTD in the early EHR period (83%) vs paper baseline (41%) (P system implementation was associated with worsening of intraoperative nursing documentation time especially in shorter procedures. However, it is possible to implement an EHR OR management system without serious negative impacts on surgical volume and staffing requirements.

  11. Extended operating times are more efficient, save money and maintain a high staff and patient satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herron, Jonathan Blair Thomas; French, Rachel; Gilliam, Andrew Douglas

    2018-01-01

    Current public sector austerity measures necessitate efficiency savings throughout the NHS. Performance targets have resulted in activity being performed in the private sector, waiting list initiative lists and requests for staff to work overtime. This has resulted in staff fatigue and additional agency costs. Adoption of extended operating theatre times (0800-1800 hours) may improve productivity and efficiency, with potentially significant financial savings; however, implementation may adversely affect staff morale and patient compliance. A pilot period of four months of extended operating times (4.5 hour sessions) was completed and included all theatre surgical specialties. Outcome measures included: the number of cases completed, late starts, early finishes, cancelled operations, theatre overruns, preoperative assessment and 18-week targets. The outcomes were then compared to pre-existing normal working day operating lists (0900-1700). Theatre staff, patient and surgical trainee satisfaction with the system were also considered by use of an anonymous questionnaire. The study showed that in-session utilisation time was unchanged by extended operating hours 88.7% (vs 89.2%). The service was rated as 'good' or 'excellent' by 87.5% of patients. Over £345,000 was saved by reducing premium payments. Savings of £225,000 were made by reducing privately outsourced operation and a further £63,000 by reviewing staff hours. Day case procedures increased from 2.8 to 3.2 cases/day with extended operating. There was no significant increase in late starts (5.1% vs 6.8%) or cancellation rates (0.75% vs 1.02%). Theatre over-runs reduced from 5% to 3.4%. The 18 weeks target for surgery was achieved in 93.7% of cases (vs 88.3%). The number of elective procedures increased from 4.1 to 4.89 cases/day. Only 13.33% of trainees (n = 33) surveyed felt that extended operating had a negative impact on training. The study concludes that extended operating increased productivity from

  12. Radiation self-polarization of electrons moving in a magnetic field. [Vector spin operator, relaxation time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagrov, V G; Dorofeev, O F; Sokolov, A A; Ternov, I M; Khalilov, V R [Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR)

    1975-03-11

    When electrons move in a magnetic field, synchrotron radiation gives rise to transitions accompanied by the electron spin reorientation. In this case, it is essential that the transition probability depends on the spin orientation; as a result electron polarization takes place with the spin orientation being predominantly opposite to the direction of the magnetic field. This effect has been called ''radiative self-polarization of electrons''. The present work is concerned with the question how the choice of the spin operator will affect the self-polarization degree and relaxation time. The problem has been solved for a vector spin operator.

  13. APPLICATION OF TRAVEL TIME RELIABILITY FOR PERFORMANCE ORIENTED OPERATIONAL PLANNING OF EXPRESSWAYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehran, Babak; Nakamura, Hideki

    Evaluation of impacts of congestion improvement scheme s on travel time reliability is very significant for road authorities since travel time reliability repr esents operational performance of expressway segments. In this paper, a methodology is presented to estimate travel tim e reliability prior to implementation of congestion relief schemes based on travel time variation modeling as a function of demand, capacity, weather conditions and road accident s. For subject expressway segmen ts, traffic conditions are modeled over a whole year considering demand and capacity as random variables. Patterns of demand and capacity are generated for each five minute interval by appl ying Monte-Carlo simulation technique, and accidents are randomly generated based on a model that links acci dent rate to traffic conditions. A whole year analysis is performed by comparing de mand and available capacity for each scenario and queue length is estimated through shockwave analysis for each time in terval. Travel times are estimated from refined speed-flow relationships developed for intercity expressways and buffer time index is estimated consequently as a measure of travel time reliability. For validation, estimated reliability indices are compared with measured values from empirical data, and it is shown that the proposed method is suitable for operational evaluation and planning purposes.

  14. Economic Dispatch for Operating Cost Minimization under Real Time Pricing in Droop Controlled DC Microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Chendan; Federico, de Bosio; Chen, Fang

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, an economic dispatch problem for total operation cost minimization in DC microgrids is formulated. An operating cost is associated with each generator in the microgrid, including the utility grid, combining the cost-efficiency of the system with demand response requirements...... achieving higher control accuracy and faster response. The optimization problem is solved in a heuristic method. In order to test the proposed algorithm, a six-bus droop-controlled DC microgrid is used in the case studies. Simulation results show that under variable renewable energy generation, load...... of the utility. The power flow model is included in the optimization problem, thus the transmission losses can be considered for generation dispatch. By considering the primary (local) control of the grid-forming converters of a microgrid, optimal parameters can be directly applied to this control level, thus...

  15. REAL TIME MEASUREMENT OF ULTRAFINE AND NANO PARTICLES AND SIGNIFICANCE OF OPERATING GEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. NAKHAWA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This research paper focuses on characterization of ultrafine and nanoparticle emissions from diesel vehicle to investigate their physical characterization in terms of number and size as they are more vulnerable and responsible for toxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. An investigation has been carried out to identify the significance of different operating gears, clutch, declutch and gear change operations for their contributions to particle number(PN on urban and extra urban part of the driving cycle. A bi-modal particle size distribution pattern was observed for both urban and extra urban parts where almost all the particles are below 200 nm and particle number peaks appear at 7 to 8 nm and at 70 nm. Nano particles contribute approximately, 70% of total particle number over urban part. Experimental investigation shows that the most significant gear for their contribution to particle number are 3rd and 5th gears on urban and extra urban part of the driving cycle respectively.

  16. Opioids Consumed in the Immediate Post-Operative Period Do Not Influence How Patients Rate Their Experience of Care After Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etcheson, Jennifer I; Gwam, Chukwuweike U; George, Nicole E; Virani, Sana; Mont, Michael A; Delanois, Ronald E

    2018-04-01

    Patient perception of care, commonly measured with Press Ganey (PG) surveys, is an important metric used to determine hospital and provider reimbursement. However, post-operative pain following total hip arthroplasty (THA) may negatively affect patient satisfaction. As a result, over-administration of opioids may occur, even without marked evidence of pain. Therefore, this study evaluated whether opioid consumption in the immediate postoperative period bears any influence on satisfaction scores after THA. Specifically, this study assessed the correlation between post-operative opioid consumption and 7 PG domains: (1) Overall hospital rating; (2) Communication with nurses; (3) Responsiveness of hospital staff; (4) Communication with doctors; (5) Hospital environment; (6) Pain Management; and (7) Communication about medicines. Our institutional PG database was reviewed for patients who received THA from 2011 to 2014. A total of 322 patients (mean age = 65 years; 61% female) were analyzed. Patient's opioid consumption was measured using a morphine milli-equivalent conversion algorithm. Bivariate correlation analysis assessed the association between opioid consumption and Press-Ganey survey elements. Pearson's r assessed the strength of the association. No correlation was found between total opioid consumption and Overall hospital rating (r = 0.004; P = .710), Communication with nurses (r = 0.093; P = .425), Responsiveness of hospital staff (r = 0.104; P = .381), Communication with doctors (r = 0.009; P = .940), Hospital environment (r = 0.081; P = .485), and Pain management (r = 0.075; P = .536). However, there was a positive correlation between total opioid consumption and "Communication about medicines" (r = 0.262; P = .043). Our report demonstrates that PG patient satisfaction scores are not influenced by post-operative opioid use, with the exception of PG domain, "Communication about medications." These results suggest that opioid medications should be

  17. Operative outcomes of single-port-access laparoscopy-assisted vaginal hysterectomy compared with single-port-access total laparoscopic hysterectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Sung Yoon

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: SPA-TLH with laparoscopic vaginal suture required the longest operating time, and hemoglobin changes were smaller in the SPA-LAVH group than in the other groups. In patients undergoing SPA laparoscopy, we recommend the SPA-LAVH procedure.

  18. The position of a standard optical computer mouse affects cardiorespiratory responses during the operation of a computer under time constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunji Sako

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study investigated the association between task-induced stress and fatigue by examining the cardiovascular responses of subjects using different mouse positions while operating a computer under time constraints. Material and Methods: The study was participated by 16 young, healthy men and examined the use of optical mouse devices affixed to laptop computers. Two mouse positions were investigated: (1 the distal position (DP, in which the subjects place their forearms on the desk accompanied by the abduction and flexion of their shoulder joints, and (2 the proximal position (PP, in which the subjects place only their wrists on the desk without using an armrest. The subjects continued each task for 16 min. We assessed differences in several characteristics according to mouse position, including expired gas values, autonomic nerve activities (based on cardiorespiratory responses, operating efficiencies (based on word counts, and fatigue levels (based on the visual analog scale – VAS. Results: Oxygen consumption (VO2, the ratio of inspiration time to respiration time (Ti/Ttotal, respiratory rate (RR, minute ventilation (VE, and the ratio of expiration to inspiration (Te/Ti were significantly lower when the participants were performing the task in the DP than those obtained in the PP. Tidal volume (VT, carbon dioxide output rates (VCO2/VE, and oxygen extraction fractions (VO2/VE were significantly higher for the DP than they were for the PP. No significant difference in VAS was observed between the positions; however, as the task progressed, autonomic nerve activities were lower and operating efficiencies were significantly higher for the DP than they were for the PP. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the DP has fewer effects on cardiorespiratory functions, causes lower levels of sympathetic nerve activity and mental stress, and produces a higher total workload than the PP. This suggests that the DP is preferable to the PP when

  19. A new continuous-time formulation for scheduling crude oil operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, P. Chandra Prakash; Karimi, I.A.; Srinivasan, R.

    2004-01-01

    In today's competitive business climate characterized by uncertain oil markets, responding effectively and speedily to market forces, while maintaining reliable operations, is crucial to a refinery's bottom line. Optimal crude oil scheduling enables cost reduction by using cheaper crudes intelligently, minimizing crude changeovers, and avoiding ship demurrage. So far, only discrete-time formulations have stood up to the challenge of this important, nonlinear problem. A continuous-time formulation would portend numerous advantages, however, existing work in this area has just begun to scratch the surface. In this paper, we present the first complete continuous-time mixed integer linear programming (MILP) formulation for the short-term scheduling of operations in a refinery that receives crude from very large crude carriers via a high-volume single buoy mooring pipeline. This novel formulation accounts for real-world operational practices. We use an iterative algorithm to eliminate the crude composition discrepancy that has proven to be the Achilles heel for existing formulations. While it does not guarantee global optimality, the algorithm needs only MILP solutions and obtains excellent maximum-profit schedules for industrial problems with up to 7 days of scheduling horizon. We also report the first comparison of discrete- vs. continuous-time formulations for this complex problem. (Author)

  20. Dependence of the time-constant of a fuel rod on different design and operational parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elenkov, D.; Lassmann, K.; Schubert, A.; Laar, J. van de

    2001-01-01

    The temperature response during a reactor shutdown has been measured for many years in the OECD-Halden Project. It has been shown that the complicated shutdown processes can be characterized by a time constant τ which depends on different fuel design and operational parameters, such as fuel geometry, gap size, fill gas pressure and composition, burnup and linear heat rate. In the paper the concept of a time constant is analyzed and the dependence of the time constant on various parameters is investigated analytically. Measured time constants for different designs and conditions are compared with those derived from calculations of the TRANSURANUS code. Employing standard models results in a systematic underprediction of the time constant, i.e. the heat transfer during shutdown is overestimated. (author)

  1. A multi-disciplinary assessment of operator action time for mitigating a postulated accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, C.D.; Fields, C.C.; Hightower, N.T. III; Buczek, J.A.; Jenkins, T.B.; Swanson, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses mitigation of the postulated Loss of Heat Sink Accident for the Savannah River Site K Reactor which requires operator action to place the plant in a water conservation configuration. In August 1991, concerns were raised about the allowances in the safety analyses for operator action times in an unpowered scenario, where several valves would be manually closed. WSRC management conservatively decided to include explicit consideration of a seismic initiator for this scenario, which introduced the additional concern that operator actions could be hindered by tritium from flange leakage. The revised analyses concluded that the powered case documented in the Safety Analysis Report is limiting and that all acceptance criteria are met

  2. Real time observation system for monitoring environmental impact on marine ecosystems from oil drilling operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godø, Olav Rune; Klungsøyr, Jarle; Meier, Sonnich; Tenningen, Eirik; Purser, Autun; Thomsen, Laurenz

    2014-07-15

    Environmental awareness and technological advances has spurred development of new monitoring solutions for the petroleum industry. This paper presents experience from a monitoring program off Norway. To maintain operation within the limits of the government regulations Statoil tested a new monitoring concept. Multisensory data were cabled to surface buoys and transmitted to land via wireless communication. The system collected information about distribution of the drilling wastes and the welfare of the corals in relation to threshold values. The project experienced a series of failures, but the backup monitoring provided information to fulfil the requirements of the permit. The experience demonstrated the need for real time monitoring and how such systems enhance understanding of impacts on marine organisms. Also, drilling operations may improve by taking environmental information into account. The paper proposes to standardize and streamline monitoring protocols to maintain comparability during all phases of the operation and between drill sites. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Determination of total flow rate and flow rate of every operating branch in commissioning of heavy water loop for ARR-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Yan

    1997-01-01

    The heavy water loop (i,e, RCS) for ARR-2 in Algeria is a complex loop. Flow regulating means are not provided by the design in order to operate the reactor safely and simplify operating processes. How to determine precisely the orifice diameters of resistance parts for the loop is a key point for decreasing deviation between practical and design flow rates. Commissioning tests shall ensure that under every one of combined operating modes for the pumps, total coolant flow rate is about the same (the number of pumps operating in parallel is the same) and is consistent with design requirement, as well as the distribution of coolant flow rate to every branch is uniform. The flow Determination is divided into two steps. First and foremost, corresponding resistance part at each pump outlet is determined in commissioning test of shorted heavy water loop with light water, so that the problem about uniform distribution of the flow rate to each branch is solved, Secondly, resistance part at the reactor inlet is determined in commissioning test of heavy water loop connected with the vessel, so that the problem about that total heavy water flow rate is within optimal range is solved. According to practical requirements of the project, a computer program of hydraulic calculation and analysis for heavy water loop has been developed, and hydraulic characteristics test for a part of loop has been conducted in order to correct calculation error. By means of program calculation combining with tests in site, orifice diameters of 9 resistance parts has been determined rapidly and precisely and requirements of design and operation has been met adequately

  4. How Predictable Is the Operative Time of Laparoscopic Surgery for Ovarian Endometrioma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Gambadauro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Endometriosis is a tricky albeit common disease whose management largely relies on laparoscopy. We have studied the operative times of laparoscopic endometrioma surgery in order to assess their predictability and possible predictors. One hundred forty-eight laparoscopies were included, with a median operative time of 70 minutes (mean 75.14; 95% CI: 70.03–80.24. Half of the cases had a duration within 15–20 minutes above or below the median (IQR: 55–93.75, but the whole dataset ranged from 20 to 180 minutes, and the standard deviation was relatively large (31.4. Surgical times were significantly related to technical (number and size of the cysts and nontechnical factors (age, parity, dysmenorrhea, and family history. At multiple logistic regression, after adjusting for number and size of the cysts, surgical times below the first quartile were associated with older age (>30 years old: aOR: 3.590; 95% CI: 1.417–9.091 and parity (≥1 delivery: aOR: 3.409; 95% CI: 1.343–8.651. Longer times, above the third quartile, were instead predicted by a familial anamnesis of endometriosis (aOR: 3.639; 95% CI: 1.246–10.627. Our findings indicate highly variable surgical times, which are predicted by unexpected nontechnical factors. This is consistent with the complexity of endometriosis and its treatment. Productivity and efficiency in endometriosis surgery should focus on the quality of healthcare outcomes rather than on the time spent in the operating theatres.

  5. Winter-time size distribution and source apportionment of total suspended particulate matter and associated metals in Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Arun; Gupta, Sandeep; Jain, V. K.

    2009-03-01

    A study of the winter time size distribution and source apportionment of total suspended particulate matter (TSPM) and associated heavy metal concentrations have been carried out for the city of Delhi. This study is important from the point of view of implementation of compressed natural gas (CNG) as alternate of diesel fuel in the public transport system in 2001 to reduce the pollution level. TSPM were collected using a five-stage cascade impactor at six sites in the winters of 2005-06. The results of size distribution indicate that a major portion (~ 40%) of TSPM concentration is in the form of PM0.7 (heavy metals associated with various size fractions of TSPM. A very good correlation between coarse and fine size fraction of TSPM was observed. It was also observed that the metals associated with coarse particles have more chances of correlation with other metals; rather they are associated with fine particles. Source apportionment was carried out separately in coarse and fine size modes of TSPM by Chemical Mass Balance Receptor Model (CMB8) as well as by Principle Component Analysis (PCA) of SPSS. Source apportionment by PCA reveals that there are two major sources (possibly vehicular and crustal re-suspension) in both coarse and fine size fractions. Results obtained by CMB8 show the dominance of vehicular pollutants and crustal dust in fine and coarse size mode respectively. Noticeably the dominance of vehicular pollutants are now confined to fine size only whilst during pre CNG era it dominated both coarse and fine size mode. An increase of 42.5, 44.4, 48.2, 38.6 and 38.9% in the concentrations of TSPM, PM10.9, coarse particles, fine particles and lead respectively was observed during pre (2001) to post CNG (2005-06) period.

  6. ISS Operations Cost Reductions Through Automation of Real-Time Planning Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Timothy A.; Clancey, William J.; McDonald, Aaron; Toschlog, Jason; Tucker, Tyson; Khan, Ahmed; Madrid, Steven (Eric)

    2011-01-01

    In 2007 the Johnson Space Center s Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) management team challenged their organizations to find ways to reduce the cost of operations for supporting the International Space Station (ISS) in the Mission Control Center (MCC). Each MOD organization was asked to define and execute projects that would help them attain cost reductions by 2012. The MOD Operations Division Flight Planning Branch responded to this challenge by launching several software automation projects that would allow them to greatly improve console operations and reduce ISS console staffing and intern reduce operating costs. These tasks ranged from improving the management and integration mission plan changes, to automating the uploading and downloading of information to and from the ISS and the associated ground complex tasks that required multiple decision points. The software solutions leveraged several different technologies including customized web applications and implementation of industry standard web services architecture; as well as engaging a previously TRL 4-5 technology developed by Ames Research Center (ARC) that utilized an intelligent agent-based system to manage and automate file traffic flow, archive data, and generate console logs. These projects to date have allowed the MOD Operations organization to remove one full time (7 x 24 x 365) ISS console position in 2010; with the goal of eliminating a second full time ISS console support position by 2012. The team will also reduce one long range planning console position by 2014. When complete, these Flight Planning Branch projects will account for the elimination of 3 console positions and a reduction in staffing of 11 engineering personnel (EP) for ISS.

  7. iFLOOD: A Real Time Flood Forecast System for Total Water Modeling in the National Capital Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumi, S. J.; Ferreira, C.

    2017-12-01

    Extreme flood events are the costliest natural hazards impacting the US and frequently cause extensive damages to infrastructure, disruption to economy and loss of lives. In 2016, Hurricane Matthew brought severe damage to South Carolina and demonstrated the importance of accurate flood hazard predictions that requires the integration of riverine and coastal model forecasts for total water prediction in coastal and tidal areas. The National Weather Service (NWS) and the National Ocean Service (NOS) provide flood forecasts for almost the entire US, still there are service-gap areas in tidal regions where no official flood forecast is available. The National capital region is vulnerable to multi-flood hazards including high flows from annual inland precipitation events and surge driven coastal inundation along the tidal Potomac River. Predicting flood levels on such tidal areas in river-estuarine zone is extremely challenging. The main objective of this study is to develop the next generation of flood forecast systems capable of providing accurate and timely information to support emergency management and response in areas impacted by multi-flood hazards. This forecast system is capable of simulating flood levels in the Potomac and Anacostia River incorporating the effects of riverine flooding from the upstream basins, urban storm water and tidal oscillations from the Chesapeake Bay. Flood forecast models developed so far have been using riverine data to simulate water levels for Potomac River. Therefore, the idea is to use forecasted storm surge data from a coastal model as boundary condition of this system. Final output of this validated model will capture the water behavior in river-estuary transition zone far better than the one with riverine data only. The challenge for this iFLOOD forecast system is to understand the complex dynamics of multi-flood hazards caused by storm surges, riverine flow, tidal oscillation and urban storm water. Automated system

  8. First Zenith Total Delay and Integrated Water Vapour Estimates from the Near Real-Time GNSS Data Processing Systems at the University of Luxembourg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, F.; Teferle, F. N.; Bingley, R. M.

    2012-04-01

    Since September 2011 the University of Luxembourg in collaboration with the University of Nottingham has been setting up two near real-time processing systems for ground-based GNSS data for the provision of zenith total delay (ZTD) and integrated water vapour (IWV) estimates. Both systems are based on Bernese v5.0, use the double-differenced network processing strategy and operate with a 1-hour (NRT1h) and 15-minutes (NRT15m) update cycle. Furthermore, the systems follow the approach of the E-GVAP METO and IES2 systems in that the normal equations for the latest data are combined with those from the previous four updates during the estimation of the ZTDs. NRT1h currently takes the hourly data from over 130 GNSS stations in Europe whereas NRT15m is primarily using the real-time streams of EUREF-IP. Both networks include additional GNSS stations in Luxembourg, Belgium and France. The a priori station coordinates for all of these stem from a moving average computed over the last 20 to 50 days and are based on the precise point positioning processing strategy. In this study we present the first ZTD and IWV estimates obtained from the NRT1h and NRT15m systems in development at the University of Luxembourg. In a preliminary evaluation we compare their performance to the IES2 system at the University of Nottingham and find the IWV estimates to agree at the sub-millimetre level.

  9. Nonlinear modeling and identification of a DC motor for bidirectional operation with real time experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kara, Tolgay; Eker, Ilyas

    2004-01-01

    Modeling and identification of mechanical systems constitute an essential stage in practical control design and applications. Controllers commanding systems that operate at varying conditions or require high precision operation raise the need for a nonlinear approach in modeling and identification. Most mechanical systems used in industry are composed of masses moving under the action of position and velocity dependent forces. These forces exhibit nonlinear behavior in certain regions of operation. For a multi-mass rotational system, the nonlinearities, like Coulomb friction and dead zone, significantly influence the system operation when the rotation changes direction. The paper presents nonlinear modeling and identification of a DC motor rotating in two directions together with real time experiments. Linear and nonlinear models for the system are obtained for identification purposes, and the major nonlinearities in the system, such as Coulomb friction and dead zone, are investigated and integrated in the nonlinear model. The Hammerstein nonlinear system approach is used for identification of the nonlinear system model. Online identification of the linear and nonlinear system models is performed using the recursive least squares method. Results of the real time experiments are graphically and numerically presented, and the advantages of the nonlinear identification approach are revealed

  10. A Systematic Approach for Real-Time Operator Functional State Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guangfan; Wang, Wei; Pepe, Aaron; Xu, Roger; Schnell, Thomas; Anderson, Nick; Heitkamp, Dean; Li, Jiang; Li, Feng; McKenzie, Frederick

    2012-01-01

    A task overload condition often leads to high stress for an operator, causing performance degradation and possibly disastrous consequences. Just as dangerous, with automated flight systems, an operator may experience a task underload condition (during the en-route flight phase, for example), becoming easily bored and finding it difficult to maintain sustained attention. When an unexpected event occurs, either internal or external to the automated system, the disengaged operator may neglect, misunderstand, or respond slowly/inappropriately to the situation. In this paper, we discuss an approach for Operator Functional State (OFS) monitoring in a typical aviation environment. A systematic ground truth finding procedure has been designed based on subjective evaluations, performance measures, and strong physiological indicators. The derived OFS ground truth is continuous in time compared to a very sparse estimation of OFS based on an expert review or subjective evaluations. It can capture the variations of OFS during a mission to better guide through the training process of the OFS assessment model. Furthermore, an OFS assessment model framework based on advanced machine learning techniques was designed and the systematic approach was then verified and validated with experimental data collected in a high fidelity Boeing 737 simulator. Preliminary results show highly accurate engagement/disengagement detection making it suitable for real-time applications to assess pilot engagement.

  11. On-line diagnostic techniques for air-operated control valves based on time series analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Kenji; Matsuoka, Yoshinori; Minamikawa, Shigeru; Komatsu, Yasuki; Satoh, Takeshi.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this research is to study the feasibility of applying on-line diagnostic techniques based on time series analysis to air-operated control valves - numerous valves of the type which are used in PWR plants. Generally the techniques can detect anomalies by failures in the initial stages for which detection is difficult by conventional surveillance of process parameters measured directly. However, the effectiveness of these techniques depends on the system being diagnosed. The difficulties in applying diagnostic techniques to air-operated control valves seem to come from the reduced sensitivity of their response as compared with hydraulic control systems, as well as the need to identify anomalies in low level signals that fluctuate only slightly but continuously. In this research, simulation tests were performed by setting various kinds of failure modes for a test valve with the same specifications as of a valve actually used in the plants. Actual control signals recorded from an operating plant were then used as input signals for simulation. The results of the tests confirmed the feasibility of applying on-line diagnostic techniques based on time series analysis to air-operated control valves. (author)

  12. The cost of post-operative shed blood salvage after total knee arthroplasty: an analysis of 1,093 consecutive procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Manuel; Ariza, Daniel; Campos, Arturo; Martín-Montañez, Elisa; Pavía, José

    2013-01-01

    Background Requirements for allogeneic red cell transfusion after total knee arthroplasty are still high (20–50%), and salvage and reinfusion of unwashed, filtered post-operative shed blood is an established method for reducing transfusion requirements following this operation. We performed a cost analysis to ascertain whether this alternative is likely to be cost-effective. Materials and methods Data from 1,093 consecutive primary total knee arthroplasties, managed with (reinfusion group, n=763) or without reinfusion of unwashed salvaged blood (control group, n=330), were retrospectively reviewed. The costs of low-vacuum drains, shed blood collection canisters (Bellovac ABT®, Wellspect HealthCare and ConstaVac CBC II®, Stryker), shed blood reinfusion, acquisition and transfusion of allogeneic red cell concentrate, haemoglobin measurements, and prolonged length of hospital stay were used for the blood management cost analysis. Results Patients in the reinfusion group received 152±64 mL of red blood cells from postoperatively salvaged blood, without clinically relevant incidents, and showed a lower allogeneic transfusion rate (24.5% vs 8.5%, for the control and reinfusion groups, respectively; p =0.001). There were no differences in post-operative infection rates. Patients receiving allogeneic transfusions stayed in hospital longer (+1.9 days [95% CI: 1.2 to 2.6]). As reinfusion of unwashed salvaged blood reduced the allogeneic transfusion rate, both reinfusion systems may provide net savings in different cost scenarios (€ 4.6 to € 106/patient for Bellovac ABT, and € −51.9 to € 49.9/patient for ConstaVac CBCII). Discussion Return of unwashed salvaged blood after total knee arthroplasty seems to save costs in patients with pre-operative haemoglobin between 12 and 15 g/dL. It is not cost-saving in patients with a pre-operative haemoglobin >15 g/dL, whereas in those with a pre-operative haemoglobin cost-saving, its efficacy could be increased by

  13. Operational definition of (brane-induced) space-time and constraints on the fundamental parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maziashvili, Michael

    2008-01-01

    First we contemplate the operational definition of space-time in four dimensions in light of basic principles of quantum mechanics and general relativity and consider some of its phenomenological consequences. The quantum gravitational fluctuations of the background metric that comes through the operational definition of space-time are controlled by the Planck scale and are therefore strongly suppressed. Then we extend our analysis to the braneworld setup with low fundamental scale of gravity. It is observed that in this case the quantum gravitational fluctuations on the brane may become unacceptably large. The magnification of fluctuations is not linked directly to the low quantum gravity scale but rather to the higher-dimensional modification of Newton's inverse square law at relatively large distances. For models with compact extra dimensions the shape modulus of extra space can be used as a most natural and safe stabilization mechanism against these fluctuations

  14. A Systematic Multi-Time Scale Solution for Regional Power Grid Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, W. J.; Liu, Z. G.; Cheng, T.; Hu, B. Q.; Liu, X. Z.; Zhou, Y. F.

    2017-10-01

    Many aspects need to be taken into consideration in a regional grid while making schedule plans. In this paper, a systematic multi-time scale solution for regional power grid operation considering large scale renewable energy integration and Ultra High Voltage (UHV) power transmission is proposed. In the time scale aspect, we discuss the problem from month, week, day-ahead, within-day to day-behind, and the system also contains multiple generator types including thermal units, hydro-plants, wind turbines and pumped storage stations. The 9 subsystems of the scheduling system are described, and their functions and relationships are elaborated. The proposed system has been constructed in a provincial power grid in Central China, and the operation results further verified the effectiveness of the system.

  15. Post-event human decision errors: operator action tree/time reliability correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, R E; Fragola, J; Wreathall, J

    1982-11-01

    This report documents an interim framework for the quantification of the probability of errors of decision on the part of nuclear power plant operators after the initiation of an accident. The framework can easily be incorporated into an event tree/fault tree analysis. The method presented consists of a structure called the operator action tree and a time reliability correlation which assumes the time available for making a decision to be the dominating factor in situations requiring cognitive human response. This limited approach decreases the magnitude and complexity of the decision modeling task. Specifically, in the past, some human performance models have attempted prediction by trying to emulate sequences of human actions, or by identifying and modeling the information processing approach applicable to the task. The model developed here is directed at describing the statistical performance of a representative group of hypothetical individuals responding to generalized situations.

  16. Post-event human decision errors: operator action tree/time reliability correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, R.E.; Fragola, J.; Wreathall, J.

    1982-11-01

    This report documents an interim framework for the quantification of the probability of errors of decision on the part of nuclear power plant operators after the initiation of an accident. The framework can easily be incorporated into an event tree/fault tree analysis. The method presented consists of a structure called the operator action tree and a time reliability correlation which assumes the time available for making a decision to be the dominating factor in situations requiring cognitive human response. This limited approach decreases the magnitude and complexity of the decision modeling task. Specifically, in the past, some human performance models have attempted prediction by trying to emulate sequences of human actions, or by identifying and modeling the information processing approach applicable to the task. The model developed here is directed at describing the statistical performance of a representative group of hypothetical individuals responding to generalized situations

  17. Real time test bed development for power system operation, control and cyber security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddi, Ram Mohan

    The operation and control of the power system in an efficient way is important in order to keep the system secure, reliable and economical. With advancements in smart grid, several new algorithms have been developed for improved operation and control. These algorithms need to be extensively tested and validated in real time before applying to the real electric power grid. This work focuses on the development of a real time test bed for testing and validating power system control algorithms, hardware devices and cyber security vulnerability. The test bed developed utilizes several hardware components including relays, phasor measurement units, phasor data concentrator, programmable logic controllers and several software tools. Current work also integrates historian for power system monitoring and data archiving. Finally, two different power system test cases are simulated to demonstrate the applications of developed test bed. The developed test bed can also be used for power system education.

  18. ISS Operations Cost Reductions Through Automation of Real-Time Planning Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Timothy A.

    2011-01-01

    In 2008 the Johnson Space Center s Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) management team challenged their organization to find ways to reduce the costs of International Space station (ISS) console operations in the Mission Control Center (MCC). Each MOD organization was asked to identify projects that would help them attain a goal of a 30% reduction in operating costs by 2012. The MOD Operations and Planning organization responded to this challenge by launching several software automation projects that would allow them to greatly improve ISS console operations and reduce staffing and operating costs. These projects to date have allowed the MOD Operations organization to remove one full time (7 x 24 x 365) ISS console position in 2010; with the plan of eliminating two full time ISS console support positions by 2012. This will account for an overall 10 EP reduction in staffing for the Operations and Planning organization. These automation projects focused on utilizing software to automate many administrative and often repetitive tasks involved with processing ISS planning and daily operations information. This information was exchanged between the ground flight control teams in Houston and around the globe, as well as with the ISS astronaut crew. These tasks ranged from managing mission plan changes from around the globe, to uploading and downloading information to and from the ISS crew, to even more complex tasks that required multiple decision points to process the data, track approvals and deliver it to the correct recipient across network and security boundaries. The software solutions leveraged several different technologies including customized web applications and implementation of industry standard web services architecture between several planning tools; as well as a engaging a previously research level technology (TRL 2-3) developed by Ames Research Center (ARC) that utilized an intelligent agent based system to manage and automate file traffic flow

  19. An inversion formula for a Prandtl-Ishlinskii operator with time dependent thresholds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Al Janaideh, M.; Krejčí, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 406, č. 8 (2011), s. 1528-1532 ISSN 0921-4526 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP201/10/2315 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : hysteresis * Prandtl-Ishlinskii operator * inversion formula * time dependent thresholds Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.063, year: 2011 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921452611001001

  20. Whither probabilistic security management for real-time operation of power systems ?

    OpenAIRE

    Karangelos, Efthymios; Panciatici, Patrick; Wehenkel, Louis

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the stakes of introducing probabilistic approaches for the management of power system’s security. In real-time operation, the aim is to arbitrate in a rational way between preventive and corrective control, while taking into account i) the prior probabilities of contingencies, ii) the possible failure modes of corrective control actions, iii) the socio-economic consequences of service interruptions. This work is a first step towards the construction of a globally co...