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Sample records for total nutrient content

  1. Breast milk nutrient content and infancy growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prentice, Philippa; Ong, Ken K.; Schoemaker, Marieke H.; Tol, van Eric A.F.; Vervoort, Jacques; Hughes, Ieuan A.; Acerini, Carlo L.; Dunger, David B.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Benefits of human breast milk (HM) in avoiding rapid infancy weight gain and later obesity could relate to its nutrient content. We tested the hypothesis that differential HM total calorie content (TCC) or macronutrient contents may be associated with infancy growth. Methods: HM hindmilk

  2. Effect of nutrients on total lipid content and fatty acids profile of Scenedesmus obliquus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrouz Zarei Darki

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The effect of nutrients on the total lipid content and fatty acid profile of Scenedesmus obliquus isolated from the south coast of the Caspian Sea was evaluated. The nutritional compositions of the media impacted the growth rate and biomass of S. obliquus that ranged from 0.175 day-1 to 0.209 day-1and 0.92 gr·l-1 to 1.79 gr·l-1, respectively. The alga grew better in the medium which was characterized by higher levels of sodium and trace elements such as Fe, Mn, Mo, and Co and poor in N and P as compared with the other media. The highest level of the total lipid (32% and the highest values of saturated fatty acids, in particular palmitic acid also were positively correlated with these nutrients. Peaks in polyunsaturated fatty acids (43.7 %, especially α-linolenic acid (28.4% were related to N and P, but its correlation with K and Mg was more evident. The most important factors correlated with high amount of monounsaturated fatty acids were also N and P, followed by K and Mg to a lesser extent. This study demonstrated that the same algal strain may be a source of different amount of fatty acids, depending on the composition of the culture medium.

  3. Excess nutrients in hydroponic solutions alter nutrient content of rice, wheat, and potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeehen, J. D.; Mitchell, C. A.; Wheeler, R. M.; Bugbee, B.; Nielsen, S. S.

    1996-01-01

    Environment has significant effects on the nutrient content of field-grown crop plants. Little is known, however, about compositional changes caused by controlled environments in which plants receive only artificial radiation and soilless, hydroponic culture. This knowledge is essential for developing a safe, nutritious diet in a Controlled Ecological Life-Support System (CELSS). Three crops that are candidates for inclusion in a CELSS (rice, wheat, and white potato) were grown both in the field and in controlled environments where the hydroponic nutrient solution, photosynthetic photon flux (PPF), and CO2 level were manipulated to achieve rapid growth rates. Plants were harvested at maturity, separated into discrete parts, and dried prior to analysis. Plant materials were analyzed for proximate composition (protein, fat, ash, and carbohydrate), total nitrogen (N), nitrate, minerals, and amino-acid composition. The effect of environment on nutrient content varied by crop and plant part. Total N and nonprotein N (NPN) contents of plant biomass generally increased under controlled-environment conditions compared to field conditions, especially for leafy plant parts and roots. Nitrate levels were increased in hydroponically-grown vegetative tissues, but nitrate was excluded from grains and tubers. Mineral content changes in plant tissue included increased phosphorus and decreased levels of certain micronutrient elements under controlled-environment conditions. These findings suggest that cultivar selection, genetic manipulation, and environmental control could be important to obtain highly nutritious biomass in a CELSS.

  4. Testing consumer perception of nutrient content claims using conjoint analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewnowski, Adam; Moskowitz, Howard; Reisner, Michele; Krieger, Bert

    2010-05-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) proposes to establish standardized and mandatory criteria upon which front-of-pack (FOP) nutrition labelling must be based. The present study aimed to estimate the relative contribution of declared amounts of different nutrients to the perception of the overall 'healthfulness' of foods by the consumer. Protein, fibre, vitamin A, vitamin C, calcium and iron were nutrients to encourage. Total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, total and added sugar, and sodium were the nutrients to limit. Two content claims per nutrient used the FDA-approved language. An online consumer panel (n 320) exposed to multiple messages (n 48) rated the healthfulness of each hypothetical food product. Utility functions were constructed using conjoint analysis, based on multiple logistic regression and maximum likelihood estimation. Consumer perception of healthfulness was most strongly driven by the declared presence of protein, fibre, calcium and vitamin C and by the declared total absence of saturated fat and sodium. For this adult panel, total and added sugar had lower utilities and contributed less to the perception of healthfulness. There were major differences between women and men. Conjoint analysis can lead to a better understanding of how consumers process information about the full nutrition profile of a product, and is a powerful tool for the testing of nutrient content claims. Such studies can help the FDA develop science-based criteria for nutrient profiling that underlies FOP and shelf labelling.

  5. Nutrient content of biomass components of Hamlin sweet orange trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattos Jr. Dirceu

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the nutrient distribution in trees is important to establish sound nutrient management programs for citrus production. Six-year-old Hamlin orange trees [Citrus sinensis (L. Osb.] on Swingle citrumelo [Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf. x Citrus paradisi Macfad.] rootstock, grown on a sandy Entisol in Florida were harvested to investigate the macro and micronutrient distributions of biomass components. The biomass of aboveground components of the tree represented the largest proportion of the total. The distribution of the total tree dry weight was: fruit = 30.3%, leaf = 9.7%, twig = 26.1%, trunk = 6.3%, and root = 27.8%. Nutrient concentrations of recent mature leaves were in the adequate to optimal range as suggested by interpretation of leaf analysis in Florida. Concentrations of Ca in older leaves and woody tissues were much greater than those in the other parts of the tree. Concentrations of micronutrients were markedly greater in fibrous root as compared to woody roots. Calcium made up the greatest amount of nutrient in the citrus tree (273.8 g per tree, followed by N and K (234.7 and 181.5 g per tree, respectively. Other macronutrients comprised about 11% of the total nutrient content of trees. The contents of various nutrients in fruits were: N = 1.20, K = 1.54, P = 0.18, Ca = 0.57, Mg = 0.12, S = 0.09, B = 1.63 x 10-3, Cu = 0.39 x 10-3, Fe = 2.1 x 10-3, Mn = 0.38 10-3, and Zn = 0.40 10-3 (kg ton-1. Total contents of N, K, and P in the orchard corresponded to 66.5, 52.0, and 8.3 kg ha-1, respectively, which were equivalent to the amounts applied annually by fertilization.

  6. Effect of humic acid on the growth, yield, nutrient composition, photosynthetic pigment and total sugar contents of peas (pisum sativum l)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.; Khan, M.Z.; Hussain, F.; Akhtar, M.E.; Gurmani, A.R.; Khan, S.

    2013-01-01

    Summary: A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of humic acid (HA) applied as soil and foliar at 15, 30 and 45 ppm on the growth, biochemical content, nutrient concentrations and yield of peas. Soil as well as foliar application of HA increased the plant growth and grain yield of peas; however magnitude of increase was higher in soil application than foliar. Highest plant growth and grain yield was achieved with soil application of 15 ppm HA followed by 30 ppm and foliar application of 45 ppm HA respectively. Percentage increase in dry grain yield due to 15 ppm was 37%, with 30 ppm was 29% and foliar application of 45 ppm was 25%. Nutrient concentrations (P, K, Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu) were increased with soil and foliar application of HA. The concentrations of nutrients were relatively higher in shelf than grain. Maximum concentration of P, K and Fe was obtained with the soil application of HA at 15 ppm. Humic acid applied at 15, 30 as soil as well as foliar application at 45 ppm significantly increased chlorophyll, carotenoid and total sugar content. Our results indicate that soil application of HA at 15 and 30 ppm, while foliar application at 45 ppm can increase growth, nutrients concentration, chlorophyll content and yield of Peas in calcareous soil conditions. (author)

  7. Measurement of broiler litter production rates and nutrient content using recycled litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coufal, C D; Chavez, C; Niemeyer, P R; Carey, J B

    2006-03-01

    It is important for broiler producers to know litter production rates and litter nutrient content when developing nutrient management plans. Estimation of broiler litter production varies widely in the literature due to factors such as geographical region, type of housing, size of broiler produced, and number of flocks reared on the same litter. Published data for N, P, and K content are also highly variable. In addition, few data are available regarding the rate of production, characteristics, and nutrient content of caked litter (cake). In this study, 18 consecutive flocks of broilers were reared on the same litter in experimental pens under simulated commercial conditions. The mass of litter and cake produced was measured after each flock. Samples of all litter materials were analyzed for pH, moisture, N, P, and K. Average litter and cake moisture content were 26.4 and 46.9%, respectively. Significant variation in litter and cake nutrient content was observed and can largely be attributed to ambient temperature differences. Average litter, cake, and total litter (litter plus cake) production rates were 153.3, 74.8, and 228.2 g of dry litter material per kg of live broiler weight (g/kg) per flock, respectively. Significant variation in litter production rates among flocks was also observed. Cumulative litter, cake, and total litter production rates after 18 flocks were 170.3, 78.7, and 249.0 g/kg, respectively. The data produced from this research can be used by broiler producers to estimate broiler litter and cake production and the nutrient content of these materials.

  8. Chlorophyll meter reading and total nitrogen content applied as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ana Mascarello

    The present study was aimed to assess the relationship between the reading of the chlorophyll meter and the total nitrogen (N) content ... devices to measure chlorophyll index (SPAD) and N content in the leaf. The nitrogen levels were found ... absorption of other nutrients and the production of carbohydrates. The methods ...

  9. [Correlation analysis of nutrients and microorganisms in soils with polyphenols and total flavonoids of Houttuynia cordata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dan; Luo, Shi-qiong; Yang, Zhan-nan; Ma, Jing; Hong, Liang

    2015-04-01

    The relationship of nutrients and microorganisms in soils with polyphenols and total flavonoids of Houttuynia cordata were investigated by measuring nutrients, enzyme activity, pH, concentrations of microbe phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) in soils, and determining concentrations of polyphenols and total flavonoids of H. cordata. The research is aimed to understand characteristics of the planting soils and improve the quality of cultivated H. cordata. The soils at different sample sites varied greatly in nutrients, enzyme activity, pH, microbic PLFAs and polyphenols and all flavonoids. The content of total PLFAs in sample sites was following: bacteria > fungi > actinomyces > nematode. The content of bacteria PLFAs was 37.5%-65.0% at different sample sites. Activities of polyphenol oxidease, concentrations of available P and content of PLFAs of bacteria, actinomyces and total microorganisms in soils were significantly and positively related to the concentrations of polyphenols and total flavonoids of H. cordata, respectively (P soils was significantly and negatively related to concentrations of polyphenols and total flavonoids of H. cordata, respectively (P soil nutrient, which may be improved due to transformation of soil microorganisms and enzymes to N and P in the soils, was beneficial to adaptation of H. cordata adapted to different soil conditions, and significantly affects metabolic accumulation of polyphenols and flavonoids of H. cordata.

  10. [Changes of soil nutrient contents after prescribed burning of forestland in Heshan City, Guangdong Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu-xin; Wu, Jian-ping; Zhou, Li-xia; Lin, Yong-biao; Fu, Sheng-lei

    2009-03-01

    A comparative study was conducted to analyze the changes of soil nutrient contents in Eucalyptus forestland and in shrubland after three years of prescribed burning. In Eucalyptus forestland, soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, available potassium contents and soil pH decreased significantly; soil available phosphorus and exchangeable magnesium contents, net nitrogen mineralization rate and ammonification rate also decreased but showed no significant difference. In shrubland, soil exchangeable calcium content increased significantly, but the contents of other nutrients had no significant change. The main reason of the lower soil net nitrogen mineralization rate in Eucalyptus forest could be the decrease of available substrates and the uptake of larger amount of soil nutrients by the fast growth of Eucalyptus. The soil nutrients in shrubland had a quick restoration rate after burning.

  11. 21 CFR 101.60 - Nutrient content claims for the calorie content of foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nutrient content claims for the calorie content of... Claims § 101.60 Nutrient content claims for the calorie content of foods. (a) General requirements. A claim about the calorie or sugar content of a food may only be made on the label or in the labeling of a...

  12. Socioeconomic status, energy cost, and nutrient content of supermarket food purchases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelhans, Bradley M; Milliron, Brandy-Joe; Woolf, Kathleen; Johnson, Tricia J; Pagoto, Sherry L; Schneider, Kristin L; Whited, Matthew C; Ventrelle, Jennifer C

    2012-04-01

    The relative affordability of energy-dense versus nutrient-rich foods may promote socioeconomic disparities in dietary quality and obesity. Although supermarkets are the largest food source in the American diet, the associations between SES and the cost and nutrient content of freely chosen food purchases have not been described. To investigate relationships of SES with the energy cost ($/1000 kcal) and nutrient content of freely chosen supermarket purchases. Supermarket shoppers (n=69) were recruited at a Phoenix AZ supermarket in 2009. The energy cost and nutrient content of participants' purchases were calculated from photographs of food packaging and nutrition labels using dietary analysis software. Data were analyzed in 2010-2011. Two SES indicators, education and household income as a percentage of the federal poverty guideline (FPG), were associated with the energy cost of purchased foods. Adjusting for covariates, the amount spent on 1000 kcal of food was $0.26 greater for every multiple of the FPG, and those with a baccalaureate or postbaccalaureate degree spent an additional $1.05 for every 1000 kcal of food compared to those with no college education. Lower energy cost was associated with higher total fat and less protein, dietary fiber, and vegetables per 1000 kcal purchased. Low-SES supermarket shoppers purchase calories in inexpensive forms that are higher in fat and less nutrient-rich. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A Comparison of Concentrations of Sodium and Related Nutrients (Potassium, Total Dietary Fiber, Total and Saturated Fat, and Total Sugar) in Private-Label and National Brands of Popular, Sodium-Contributing, Commercially Packaged Foods in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Jaspreet K C; Pehrsson, Pamela R; Cogswell, Mary

    2017-05-01

    Private-label brands account for about one in four foods sold in US supermarkets. They provide value to consumers due to their low cost. We know of no US studies comparing the nutrition content of private-label products with corresponding national brand products. The objective was to compare concentrations of sodium and related nutrients (potassium, total dietary fiber, total and saturated fat, and total sugar) in popular sodium-contributing, commercially packaged foods by brand type (national or private-label brand). During 2010 to 2014, the Nutrient Data Laboratory of the US Department of Agriculture obtained 1,706 samples of private-label and national brand products from up to 12 locations nationwide and chemically analyzed 937 composites for sodium and related nutrients. The samples came from 61 sodium-contributing, commercially packaged food products for which both private-label and national brands were among the top 75% to 80% of brands for US unit sales. In this post hoc comparative analysis, the authors assigned a variable brand type (national or private label) to each composite and determined mean nutrient contents by brand type overall and by food product and type. The authors tested for significant differences (Pfoods sampled, differences between brand types were not statistically significant for any of the nutrients studied. However, differences in both directions exist for a few individual food products and food categories. Concentrations of sodium and related nutrients (potassium, total dietary fiber, total and saturated fat, and total sugar) do not differ systematically between private-label and national brands, suggesting that brand type is not a consideration for nutritional quality of foods in the United States. The study data provide public health officials with baseline nutrient content by brand type to help focus US sodium-reduction efforts. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. 9 CFR 317.313 - Nutrient content claims; general principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrient content claims; general principles. 317.313 Section 317.313 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... Labeling § 317.313 Nutrient content claims; general principles. (a) This section applies to meat or meat...

  15. 9 CFR 381.413 - Nutrient content claims; general principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrient content claims; general principles. 381.413 Section 381.413 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... § 381.413 Nutrient content claims; general principles. (a) This section applies to poultry products that...

  16. Effect of organic substrates on available elemental contents in nutrient solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ao, Y.S.; Sun, M.; Li, Y.Q. [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China). School for Agriculture & Biology

    2008-07-15

    In this paper, the changes of available elemental contents in the nutrient solution extracts of organic substrates (peat moss, charred rice husk, chicken manure, sawdust, turfgrass clipping and weathered coal) were studied and compared with that in the water extracts. Results showed that available elemental contents in the nutrient solution extracts are significantly different between organic substrates, whereas ionic concentrations are basically under steady condition after treatment for 36-108 h. Ionic contents in the nutrient solution extracts are not equal to the value of adding ionic concentrations in the supplied nutrient solution to that in the water extract. Thus, a mathematical model was proposed for adjusting the composition of supplied nutrient solution to match plant requirements in the organic soilless culture system.

  17. FOLIAR NUTRIENT CONTENTS AND FRUIT YIELD IN CUSTARD APPLE PROGENIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio Lima e Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Foliar nutrient contents are evaluated in several fruit trees with many objectives. Leaf analysis constitutes a way of evaluating the nutritional requirements of crops. Due to the positive impact that fertilizers have on crop yields, researchers frequently try to evaluate the correlations between yield and foliar nutrient contents. This work's objective was to present fruit yields from the 4th to the 6th cropping seasons, evaluate foliar nutrient contents (on the 5th cropping season, and estimate the correlations between these two groups of traits for 20 half-sibling custard apple tree progenies. The progenies were evaluated in a random block design with five replicates and four plants per plot. One hundred leaves were collected from the middle third of the canopy (in height of each of four plants in each plot. The leaves were collected haphazardly, i.e., in a random manner, but without using a drawing mechanism. In the analysis of variance, the nutrient concentrations in the leaves from plants of each plot were represented by the average of four plants in the plot. Fruit yield in the various progenies did not depend on cropping season; progeny A4 was the most productive. No Spearman correlation was found between leaf nutrient concentrations and fruit yield. Increased nutrient concentrations in the leaves were progeny-dependent, i.e., with regard to Na (progenies FE5 and JG1, Ca (progeny A4, Mg (progeny SM7, N (progeny A3, P (progeny M, and K contents (progeny JG3. Spearman's correlation was negative between Na-Mg, Na-Ca, and Mg-P contents, and positive between Mg-Ca and N-K contents.

  18. Proximate composition and nutrient content of some wild and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate composition and nutrient content of some wild and cultivated ... Ca, P, K), one minor mineral (Fe) constituent and vitamin C content were determined. ... Mineral content (P and K) in the mushroom sporophores were found to be ...

  19. Carbon and nutrient contents in soils from the Kings River Experimental Watersheds, Sierra Nevada Mountains, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.W. Johnson; C.T. Hunsaker; D.W. Glass; B.M. Rau; B.A. Roath

    2011-01-01

    Soil C and nutrient contents were estimated for eight watersheds in two sites (one high elevation, Bull, and one low elevation, Providence) in the Kings River Experimental Watersheds in the western Sierra Nevada Mountains of California. Eighty-seven quantitative pits were dug to measure soil bulk density and total rock content, while three replicate surface samples...

  20. Nutrient contents of Soyabeans: A Guide for sugarcane growers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrient contents of Soyabeans: A Guide for sugarcane growers under fast track land reform programme [FTLRP] in Zimbabwe. ... The economic benefits of growing soyabeans accrue from the nutrients that remain in the leaves, petioles, stems and shells that are ploughed into the soil during land preparation. Keywords: soil ...

  1. Comparison of Nutrient Content and Cost of Home-Packed Lunches to Reimbursable School Lunch Nutrient Standards and Prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Cara M.; Bednar, Carolyn; Kwon, Junehee; Gustof, Alissa

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare nutrient content and cost of home-packed lunches to nutrient standards and prices for reimbursable school lunches. Methods: Researchers observed food and beverage contents of 333 home packed lunches at four north Texas elementary schools. Nutritionist Pro was used to analyze lunches for calories,…

  2. Breast milk nutrient content and infancy growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, Philippa; Ong, Ken K; Schoemaker, Marieke H; van Tol, Eric A F; Vervoort, Jacques; Hughes, Ieuan A; Acerini, Carlo L; Dunger, David B

    2016-06-01

    Benefits of human breast milk (HM) in avoiding rapid infancy weight gain and later obesity could relate to its nutrient content. We tested the hypothesis that differential HM total calorie content (TCC) or macronutrient contents may be associated with infancy growth. HM hindmilk samples were collected at ages 4-8 weeks from 614 mothers participating in a representative birth cohort, with repeated infancy anthropometry. HM triglyceride (fat), lipid analytes and lactose (carbohydrate) were measured by (1) H-NMR, and protein content by the Dumas method. TCC and %macronutrients were determined. In 614 HM samples, fat content was as follows: [median(IQR)]: 2.6 (1.7-3.6) g/100 mL, carbohydrate: 8.6 (8.2-8.8) g/100 mL, protein: 1.2 (1.1-1.2) g/100 mL; TCC: 61.8 (53.7-71.3) kcal/100 mL. HM of mothers exclusively breast feeding vs. mixed feeding was more calorific with higher %fat, lower %carbohydrate and lower %protein. Higher HM TCC was associated with lower 12-months body mass index (BMI)/adiposity, and lower 3-12 months gains in weight/BMI. HM %fat was inversely related to 3-12 months gains in weight, BMI and adiposity, whereas %carbohydrate was positively related to these measures. HM %protein was positively related to 12-months BMI. HM analysis showed wide variation in %macronutrients. Although data on milk intakes were unavailable, our findings suggest functional relevance of HM milk composition to infant growth. ©2016 The Authors. Acta Paediatrica published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  3. Comparison of the Proximate Composition, Total Carotenoids and Total Polyphenol Content of Nine Orange-Fleshed Sweet Potato Varieties Grown in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khairul Alam

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to develop the food composition table for Bangladesh, the nutritional composition of nine varieties of orange-fleshed sweet potato was analyzed together with total carotenoids (TCC and total polyphenol content (TPC. Each variety showed significant variation in different nutrient contents. The quantification of the TCC and TPC was done by spectrophotometric measurement, and the proximate composition was done by the AOAC method. The obtained results showed that total polyphenol content varied from 94.63 to 136.05 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/100 g fresh weight. Among the selected sweet potatoes, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI Sweet Potato 7 (SP7 contained the highest, whereas BARI SP6 contained the lowest amount of total polyphenol content. The obtained results also revealed that total carotenoids content ranged from 0.38 to 7.24 mg/100 g fresh weight. BARI SP8 showed the highest total carotenoids content, whereas BARI SP6 showed the lowest. Total carotenoids content was found to be higher in dark orange-colored flesh varieties than their light-colored counterparts. The results of the study indicated that selected sweet potato varieties are rich in protein and carbohydrate, low in fat, high in polyphenol and carotenoids and, thus, could be a good source of dietary antioxidants to prevent free radical damage, which leads to chronic diseases, and also to prevent vitamin A malnutrition.

  4. Comparison of the Proximate Composition, Total Carotenoids and Total Polyphenol Content of Nine Orange-Fleshed Sweet Potato Varieties Grown in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Mohammad Khairul; Rana, Ziaul Hasan; Islam, Sheikh Nazrul

    2016-09-14

    In an attempt to develop the food composition table for Bangladesh, the nutritional composition of nine varieties of orange-fleshed sweet potato was analyzed together with total carotenoids (TCC) and total polyphenol content (TPC). Each variety showed significant variation in different nutrient contents. The quantification of the TCC and TPC was done by spectrophotometric measurement, and the proximate composition was done by the AOAC method. The obtained results showed that total polyphenol content varied from 94.63 to 136.05 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/100 g fresh weight. Among the selected sweet potatoes, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI) Sweet Potato 7 (SP7) contained the highest, whereas BARI SP6 contained the lowest amount of total polyphenol content. The obtained results also revealed that total carotenoids content ranged from 0.38 to 7.24 mg/100 g fresh weight. BARI SP8 showed the highest total carotenoids content, whereas BARI SP6 showed the lowest. Total carotenoids content was found to be higher in dark orange-colored flesh varieties than their light-colored counterparts. The results of the study indicated that selected sweet potato varieties are rich in protein and carbohydrate, low in fat, high in polyphenol and carotenoids and, thus, could be a good source of dietary antioxidants to prevent free radical damage, which leads to chronic diseases, and also to prevent vitamin A malnutrition.

  5. Response of nutrients, minerals, antioxidant leaf pigments, vitamins, polyphenol, flavonoid and antioxidant activity in selected vegetable amaranth under four soil water content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarker, Umakanta; Oba, Shinya

    2018-06-30

    Four selected vegetable amaranths were grown under four soil water content to evaluate their response in nutrients, minerals, antioxidant leaf pigments, vitamins, polyphenol, flavonoid and total antioxidant activity (TAC). Vegetable amaranth was significantly affected by variety, soil water content and variety × soil water content interactions for all the traits studied. Increase in water stress, resulted in significant changes in proximate compositions, minerals (macro and micro), leaf pigments, vitamin, total polyphenol content (TPC), and total flavonoid content (TFC) of vegetable amaranth. Accessions VA14 and VA16 performed better for all the traits studied. Correlation study revealed a strong antioxidant scavenging activity of leaf pigments, ascorbic acid, TPC and TFC. Vegetable amaranth can tolerate soil water stress without compromising the high quality of the final product in terms of nutrients and antioxidant profiles. Therefore, it could be a promising alternative crop in semi-arid and dry areas and also during dry seasons. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Complete nutrient content of four species of commercially available feeder insects fed enhanced diets during growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finke, Mark D

    2015-11-01

    Commercially raised feeder insects used to feed captive insectivores are a good source of many nutrients but are deficient in several key nutrients. Current methods used to supplement insects include dusting and gut-loading. Here, we report on the nutrient composition of four species of commercially raised feeder insects fed a special diet to enhance their nutrient content. Crickets, mealworms, superworms, and waxworms were analyzed for moisture, crude protein, fat, ash, acid detergent fiber, total dietary fiber, minerals, amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins, taurine, carotenoids, inositol, and cholesterol. All four species contained enhanced levels of vitamin E and omega 3 fatty acids when compared to previously published data for these species. Crickets, superworms, and mealworms contained β-carotene although using standard conversion factors only crickets and superworms would likely contain sufficient vitamin A activity for most species of insectivores. Waxworms did not contain any detectable β-carotene but did contain zeaxanthin which they likely converted from dietary β-carotene. All four species contained significant amounts of both inositol and cholesterol. Like previous reports all insects were a poor source of calcium and only superworms contained vitamin D above the limit of detection. When compared to the nutrient requirements as established by the NRC for growing rats or poultry, these species were good sources of most other nutrients although the high fat and low moisture content of both waxworms and superworms means when corrected for energy density these two species were deficient in more nutrients than crickets or mealworms. These data show the value of modifying the diet of commercially available insects as they are growing to enhance their nutrient content. They also suggest that for most insectivores properly supplemented lower fat insects such as crickets, or smaller mealworms should form the bulk of the diet. © 2015 The Authors. Zoo Biology

  7. Litter Accumulation and Nutrient Content of Roadside Plant Communities in Sichuan Basin, China

    OpenAIRE

    He, Huiqin; Monaco, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    It is widely recognized that feedbacks exist between plant litter and plant community species composition, but this relationship is difficult to interpret over heterogeneous conditions typical of modified environments such as roadways. Given the need to expedite natural recovery of disturbed areas through restoration interventions, we characterized litter accumulation and nutrient content (i.e., organic carbon, total N, and P) and quantified their association with key plant species. Plant spe...

  8. Nutrient content and acceptability of soybean based complementary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrient content and acceptability of soybean based complementary food. ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... A study was carried out in Morogoro region, Tanzania, to determine composition and acceptability of soy-based formulations with banana and cowpeas as traditional staples.

  9. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the nutrient content of preterm and term breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidrewicz, Dominica A; Fenton, Tanis R

    2014-08-30

    Breast milk nutrient content varies with prematurity and postnatal age. Our aims were to conduct a meta-analysis of preterm and term breast milk nutrient content (energy, protein, lactose, oligosaccharides, fat, calcium, and phosphorus); and to assess the influence of gestational and postnatal age. Additionally we assessed for differences by laboratory methods for: energy (measured vs. calculated estimates) and protein (true protein measurement vs. the total nitrogen estimates). Systematic review results were summarized graphically to illustrate the changes in composition over time for term and preterm milk. Since breast milk fat content varies within feeds and diurnally, to obtain accurate estimates we limited the meta-analyses for fat and energy to 24-hour breast milk collections. Forty-one studies met the inclusion criteria: 26 (843 mothers) preterm studies and 30 (2299 mothers) term studies of breast milk composition. Preterm milk was higher in true protein than term milk, with differences up to 35% (0.7 g/dL) in colostrum, however, after postnatal day 3, most of the differences in true protein between preterm and term milk were within 0.2 g/dL, and the week 10-12 estimates suggested that term milk may be the same as preterm milk by that age. Colostrum was higher than mature milk for protein, and lower than mature milk for energy, fat and lactose for both preterm and term milk. Breast milk composition was relatively stable between 2 and 12 weeks. With milk maturation, there was a narrowing of the protein variance. Energy estimates differed whether measured or calculated, from -9 to 13%; true protein measurement vs. the total nitrogen estimates differed by 1 to 37%. Although breast milk is highly variable between individuals, postnatal age and gestational stage (preterm versus term) were found to be important predictors of breast milk content. Energy content of breast milk calculated from the macronutrients provides poor estimates of measured energy, and protein

  10. Nitrogen fertilization of Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines: yield, total nitrogen content in the leaves and must composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Lorensini

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Grapevines grown on sandy soils are subjected to the application of supplemental nitrogen (N; however, there is little information available regarding the impact of these applications on yield, plant nutritional state and must composition. The aim of this study was to evaluate the yield, nutritional state and must composition of grapevines subjected to N fertilization. Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines were subjected to annual applications of 0, 10, 15, 20, 40, 80 and 120 kg N ha-1 in 2008, 2009 and 2010. During the 2008/09, 2009/10 and 2010/11 harvest seasons, leaves were collected during full flowering and when the berries changed color, and the total N content was analyzed. The grape yield and the enological characteristics of the must were evaluated. The response to applied N was low, and the highest Cabernet Sauvignon grape yield was obtained in response to an application of 20 kg N ha-1 year-1. The application of N increased the nutrient content in the leaf collected at full flowering, but it had little effect on the total nutrient content in the must, and it did not affect the enological characteristics of the must, such as soluble solids, pH, total acidity, malic acid and tartaric acid.

  11. Ultra-processed Food Intake and Obesity: What Really Matters for Health-Processing or Nutrient Content?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poti, Jennifer M; Braga, Bianca; Qin, Bo

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this narrative review was to summarize and critique recent evidence evaluating the association between ultra-processed food intake and obesity. Four of five studies found that higher purchases or consumption of ultra-processed food was associated with overweight/obesity. Additional studies reported relationships between ultra-processed food intake and higher fasting glucose, metabolic syndrome, increases in total and LDL cholesterol, and risk of hypertension. It remains unclear whether associations can be attributed to processing itself or the nutrient content of ultra-processed foods. Only three of nine studies used a prospective design, and the potential for residual confounding was high. Recent research provides fairly consistent support for the association of ultra-processed food intake with obesity and related cardiometabolic outcomes. There is a clear need for further studies, particularly those using longitudinal designs and with sufficient control for confounding, to potentially confirm these findings in different populations and to determine whether ultra-processed food consumption is associated with obesity independent of nutrient content.

  12. The influence of dietary and whole-body nutrient content on the excretion of a vertebrate consumer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M Dalton

    Full Text Available In many contexts, nutrient excretion by consumers can impact ecosystems by altering the availability of limiting nutrients. Variation in nutrient excretion can be predicted by mass balance models, most of which are premised on two key ideas: (1 consumers maintain fixed whole-body nutrient content (i.e., %N and %P, so-called fixed homeostasis; (2 if dietary nutrients are not matched to whole-body nutrients, excesses of any nutrient are released as excretion to maintain fixed homeostasis. Mass balance models thus predict that consumer excretion should be positively correlated with diet nutrients and negatively correlated with whole-body nutrients. Recent meta-analyses and field studies, however, have often failed to find these expected patterns, potentially because of a confounding influence-flexibility in whole-body nutrient content with diet quality (flexible homeostasis. Here, we explore the impact of flexible homeostasis on nutrient excretion by comparing the N and P excretion of four genetically diverged Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata populations when reared on diets of variable P content. As predicted by mass balance, P excretion increased on the high-P diet, but, contrary to the notion of fixed homeostasis, guppy whole-body %P also increased on the high-P diet. While there was no overall correlation between excretion nutrients and whole-body nutrients, when the effect of diet on both whole-body and excretion nutrients was included, we detected the expected negative correlation between whole-body N:P and excretion N:P. This last result suggests that mass balance can predict excretion rates within species, but only if dietary effects on whole-body nutrient content are controlled. Flexible homeostasis can obscure patterns predicted by mass balance, creating an imperative to accurately capture an organism's diet quality in predicting its excretion rate.

  13. Energy, nutrient and food content of snacks in French adults

    OpenAIRE

    Si Hassen, Wendy; Castetbon, Katia; Tichit, Christine; Péneau, Sandrine; Nechba, Anouar; Ducrot, Pauline; Lampuré, Aurélie; Bellisle, France; Hercberg, Serge; Méjean, Caroline

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Snacking raises concern since it may lead to an additional energy intake and poor nutrient quality. A snacking occasion can be defined as any eating occasion apart from main meals, regardless of the amount or type of foods consumed. We described the frequency of snacking occasions according to daily timing in French adults, and compared them between each other, and with the main meals, in terms of energy intake, energy and nutrient density, and food content. METHODS: This...

  14. Total Dietary Fiber Content of Selected Traditional Beverages in Egypt: A Brief Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basil H. Aboul-Enein

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Escalating obesity rates have become a major public health concern in North Africa and the Middle East. Culturally-congruent dietary health education and strategies continue to be warranted to address this increasing public health crisis. Knowledge and familiarity with traditional foods and their nutritive value would assist public health practitioners in becoming culturally competent when educating on healthy eating patterns. The aim of this study is to provide a brief dietary profile of the total dietary fiber (TDF contents of selected traditional beverages in Egypt. Five cookbooks for Egyptian food recipes were reviewed for traditional beverages. Beverage recipes (n = 19 were selected and reviewed for their TDF content using the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (Release 27. The published values for TDF content were tabulated and reported per 100 mL of consumable portions. The highest TDF content was found in carob juice (8.0 g and the lowest found in peppermint tea (0.0 g with an overall TDF mean content of 2.8 g. Traditional beverages could be regarded as important sources of TDF within a healthy Egyptian dietary pattern. Cultural awareness and familiarities to traditional foods and their respective dietary profiles should be encouraged as an objective towards building culturally-competent health professionals and combating obesity in Egypt. Furthermore, developments of a traditional Egyptian food nutrient database for public access should be explored.

  15. SEASONAL AND TOPOGRAPHYCAL VARIATION OF THE LITTER NUTRIENT CONTENTS OF A ATLANTIC FOREST FRAGMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela A. Tristão Borém

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objective of this work was to study the effects of forest degradation on the supplyand contents of nutrients in the litter of two toposequences. The study area is located in a fragment ofthe Atlantic Forest, in Silva Jardim, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (42°31'W and 22°31'S. The twotoposequences are under low and high degrees of human intervention. They were divided in lower,middle and upper slope, and the vegetation sampled with plots of 600m2. The litter was collected forquantitative and qualitative characterisation using a wood frame of 0,25m2 randomly distributedwithin the sample plots. Litter collection was carried out in two distinct dates in order to capture seasonalpatterns. The average litter production did not differ significantly between the toposequences.The total litter production was higher at the end of the dry season, and lower at the end of the rainyseason, indicating the seasonal pattern of the forest. The chemical analyses showed that the nutrientscontents varied widely between the toposequences. The lower and middle slope of the toposequenceunder high degree of human intervention presented the highest nutrient contents in the litter.

  16. Relationship between wheat characteristics and nutrient digestibility in broilers: comparison between total collection and marker (titanium dioxide) technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeets, N; Nuyens, F; Van Campenhout, L; Delezie, E; Pannecoucque, J; Niewold, T

    2015-07-01

    Three wheat cultivars (Orpheus, Rustic, and Viscount) were used to formulate 3 test feeds (62.4% wheat) in a broiler digestibility trial. The diets were fed to male Ross 308 broiler chickens. The wheat cultivars mainly differed in their amount of non-starch polysaccharides ( NSP: ). The cultivar Orpheus was chosen to represent a high amount of NSP (102 g/kg DM), whereas the cultivars Rustic and Viscount represented low amounts of NSP (83.4 g/kg DM and 73.9 g/kg DM, respectively). Furthermore, the cultivars Orpheus and Viscount were feed quality wheat, whereas Rustic was a milling quality wheat. Nutrient digestibilities and AMEn contents of the diets were measured from 18 to 22-days-old by total excreta collection, or with the use of the indigestible marker titanium dioxide. In addition, the ileal viscosity was measured when the broilers were 25-days-old. Wheat cultivar affected N retention, DM digestibility, and AMEn. In general, the feed formulated with the high NSP wheat cultivar Orpheus resulted in the least favorable nutrient digestibilities and AMEn, whereas the results were better when the feed was formulated with the low NSP cultivars Viscount and Rustic. Feeding the Rustic cultivar caused the highest intestinal viscosity, although this was not reflected in the animal responses. Nutrient digestibilities and AMEn content of the diets were lower when calculated with the titanium dioxide marker than with the total excreta collection procedure. Moreover, the P-values of the effect of wheat cultivar on DM digestibility, N retention, crude fat digestibility and AMEn were lower with the use of the titanium dioxide marker. It can be concluded that wheat cultivar affected nutrient digestibility and AMEn, and that the observed differences were related to the amount of NSP. Furthermore, both the titanium dioxide marker and the total excreta collection methods showed the same trends despite the different values obtained. The titanium dioxide marker method was the

  17. Total antioxidant content of alternatives to refined sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Katherine M; Carlsen, Monica H; Blomhoff, Rune

    2009-01-01

    Oxidative damage is implicated in the etiology of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and other degenerative disorders. Recent nutritional research has focused on the antioxidant potential of foods, while current dietary recommendations are to increase the intake of antioxidant-rich foods rather than supplement specific nutrients. Many alternatives to refined sugar are available, including raw cane sugar, plant saps/syrups (eg, maple syrup, agave nectar), molasses, honey, and fruit sugars (eg, date sugar). Unrefined sweeteners were hypothesized to contain higher levels of antioxidants, similar to the contrast between whole and refined grain products. To compare the total antioxidant content of natural sweeteners as alternatives to refined sugar. The ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) assay was used to estimate total antioxidant capacity. Major brands of 12 types of sweeteners as well as refined white sugar and corn syrup were sampled from retail outlets in the United States. Substantial differences in total antioxidant content of different sweeteners were found. Refined sugar, corn syrup, and agave nectar contained minimal antioxidant activity (sugar had a higher FRAP (0.1 mmol/100 g). Dark and blackstrap molasses had the highest FRAP (4.6 to 4.9 mmol/100 g), while maple syrup, brown sugar, and honey showed intermediate antioxidant capacity (0.2 to 0.7 mmol FRAP/100 g). Based on an average intake of 130 g/day refined sugars and the antioxidant activity measured in typical diets, substituting alternative sweeteners could increase antioxidant intake an average of 2.6 mmol/day, similar to the amount found in a serving of berries or nuts. Many readily available alternatives to refined sugar offer the potential benefit of antioxidant activity.

  18. Chemical composition and in vitro evaluation of the nutrient content ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical composition and in vitro evaluation of the nutrient content of Panicum maximum-Moringa ... Journal Home > Vol 42, No 2 (2015) > ... Tannin concentrations in these diets were below the 6.00g/100g toxic level for small ruminants.

  19. Effect of solid state fermentation on nutrient content and ileal amino acids digestibility of canola meal in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aljuobori Ahmed

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to investigate the potential of Lactobacillus salivarius solid state fermentation for reduction of glucosinolate content in canola meal (CM as well as the improvement of its nutrient digestibility for broiler chickens. Canola meal was treated with the L. salivarius in solid state fermentation for 30 days. Nutrients ileal digestibility was tested using 42-day-old broilers fed by either CM or fermented CM (FCM as the sole source of energy and protein. The results showed that fermentation of CM using L. salivarius reduced glucosinolate content of CM by 38%. The digestibility coefficient was improved significantly for crude protein, Met, Cys, Arg, Asp, Glu, and Ser in FCM compared to CM. However, apparent metabolisable energy of CM was not affected by fermentation. It appears that fermentation treatment of CM using L. salivarius may improve the overall nutritive value of CM for broiler chickens, reducing its total glucosinolate and crude fibre content by 38 and 16%, respectively.

  20. Effects of liming on forage availability and nutrient content in a forest impacted by acid rain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E Pabian

    Full Text Available Acidic deposition and subsequent forest soil acidification and nutrient depletion can affect negatively the growth, health and nutrient content of vegetation, potentially limiting the availability and nutrient content of forage for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus and other forest herbivores. Liming is a mitigation technique that can be used to restore forest health in acidified areas, but little is known about how it affects the growth or nutrient content of deer forage. We examined the effects of dolomitic limestone application on the growth and chemical composition of understory plants in an acidified forest in central Pennsylvania, with a focus on vegetative groups included as white-tailed deer forage. We used a Before-After-Control-Impact study design with observations 1 year before liming and up to 5 years post-liming on 2 treated and 2 untreated 100-ha sites. Before liming, forage availability and several nutrients were below levels considered optimal for white-tailed deer, and many vegetative characteristics were related to soil chemistry. We observed a positive effect of liming on forb biomass, with a 2.7 fold increase on limed sites, but no biomass response in other vegetation groups. We observed positive effects of liming on calcium and magnesium content and negative effects on aluminum and manganese content of several plant groups. Responses to liming by forbs and plant nutrients show promise for improving vegetation health and forage quality and quantity for deer.

  1. Intake of total and added sugars and nutrient dilution in Australian children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu; Tapsell, Linda C

    2015-12-14

    This analysis aimed to examine the association between intake of sugars (total or added) and nutrient intake with data from a recent Australian national nutrition survey, the 2007 Australian National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (2007ANCNPAS). Data from participants (n 4140; 51 % male) who provided 2×plausible 24-h recalls were included in the analysis. The values on added sugars for foods were estimated using a previously published ten-step systematic methodology. Reported intakes of nutrients and foods defined in the 2007ANCNPAS were analysed by age- and sex-specific quintiles of %energy from added sugars (%EAS) or %energy from total sugars (%ETS) using ANCOVA. Linear trends across the quintiles were examined using multiple linear regression. Logistic regression analysis was used to calculate the OR of not meeting a specified nutrient reference values for Australia and New Zealand per unit in %EAS or %ETS. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, BMI z-score and total energy intake. Small but significant negative associations were seen between %EAS and the intakes of most nutrient intakes (all Padded sugars were associated with lower intakes of most nutrient-rich, 'core' food groups and higher intakes of energy-dense, nutrient-poor 'extra' foods. In conclusion, assessing intakes of added sugars may be a better approach for addressing issues of diet quality compared with intakes of total sugars.

  2. Contents and retentions of free and total purine bases in lamb meat cooked by several household methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Anfossi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Concerns about the content of total and free purine bases in muscle foods and their retentions upon cooking have been since long established (Brulé et al., 1988. Recently, though, an important rôle has been acknowledged to dietary sources of preformed purines for the growth of tissues with a rapid turnover and for optimal function of the cellular immune response, up to the point that the positive features of these nutrients seem to outweigh by far the negative ones (ILSI, 1998. Scanty information exists about the total purine content of raw ovine meat, the only available sources of data being a survey by Herbel and Montag (1987 on purine and pyrimidine contents of protein-rich foods and the comprehensive collection of food composition tables compiled by Scherz and Senser (1994...

  3. Nutrient Contents of the Freshwater Crab, Isolapotamon bauense from Sarawak, Malaysia (Borneo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinang, Jongkar; Tyan, Pang Sing; Tuen, Andrew Alek; Das, Indraneil

    2017-07-01

    Data on nutrient contents of freshwater crabs are important for ecological studies and species conservation assessments, especially when the species concerned is threatened among others by habitat destruction and uncontrolled resources utilisation. Indeed comprehensive biological information is required to reconcile the needs between sustainable resources utilisation and conservation of the species. This study documents the nutrient contents of a freshwater crab, Isolapotamon bauense which is listed as 'Vulnerable' in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species and also being harvested by local community for dietary supplement. Results show that muscles of the freshwater crab contain a substantial amount of nutrients in particular water content (male = 79.31 ± 2.30 %, female = 77.63 ± 0.56 %), protein (male = 77.47 ± 6.11 %, female = 63.28 ± 3.62 %), magnesium (male = 51.48 ± 16.10 mg/g, female = 39.73 ± 6.99 mg/g) and calcium (male = 25.50 ± 6.98 mg/g, female = 39.73 ± 6.99 mg/g). Means of nutrient contents between male and female crabs are not significantly different. It is estimated that an individual of I. bauense with weight range of 56-139 g contained on average of 0.35 ± 0.15 g of protein. Our estimation also shows that the number of individuals of the freshwater crab required to meet the recommended daily protein intakes of the community concerned is in the range 35-96 individuals for children, 130-188 individuals for adolescents, 171-179 individuals for men and 149-159 individuals for women. The results imply that harvesting of wild I. bauense as a source of protein supplement naturally may not be practical because of its relatively low population abundance, and conservation of the species for its ecological roles may thus be preferred.

  4. Individual fluctuations of S content in healthy, and smoke-damaged Scots Pine and the relations between S content and contents of other major nutrients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Themlitz, R

    1960-01-01

    This paper compares the sulfur content of pine needles on trees not subject to smoke damage to the sulfur content of pine needles from trees subject to smoke damage. Four stands of pines located in East and West Germany were studied. The data showed no correlation with the sulfur content, with the age of the trees, nor with the uptake of other nutrients.

  5. Effects of seeding date and seeding rate on yield, proximate composition and total tannins content of two Kabuli chickpea cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Ruggeri

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were conducted in open field to assess the effect of seeding season and density on the yield, the chemical composition and the accumulation of total tannins in grains of two chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. cultivars (Pascià and Sultano. Environmental conditions and genetic factors considerably affected grain yield, nutrient and total tannins content of chickpea seeds, giving a considerable range in its qualitative characteristics. Results confirmed cultivar selection as a central factor when a late autumn-early winter sowing is performed. In effect, a more marked resistance to Ascochyta blight (AB of Sultano, allowed better agronomic performances when favourable-to-AB climatic conditions occur. Winter sowing appeared to be the best choice in the Mediterranean environment when cultivating to maximise the grain yield (+19%. Spring sowing improved crude protein (+10% and crude fibre (+8% content, whereas it did not significantly affect the accumulation of anti-nutrients compounds such as total tannins. The most appropriate seeding rate was 70 seeds m–2, considering that plant density had relatively little effect on the parameters studied.

  6. Differences in nutrient and energy content of commonly-consumed dishes prepared in restaurants vs. at home in Hunan province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiaofang; Liu, Jiawu; Chen, Bo; Jin, Donghui; Fu, Zhongxi; Liu, Huilin; Du, Shufa; Popkin, Barry M.; Mendez, Michelle A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Eating away from home is associated with poor diet quality, in part due to less healthy food choices and larger portions. However, few studies take into account the potential additional contribution of differences in food composition between restaurant- and home-prepared dishes. This study aimed to investigate differences in nutrients of dishes prepared in restaurants vs. at home. Design Eight commonly consumed dishes were collected in 20 of each of the following types of locations: small and large restaurants, and urban and rural households. In addition, two fast-food items were collected from 10 KFC’s, McDonald’s, and food stalls. Five samples per dish were randomly pooled from every location. Nutrients were analyzed and energy was calculated in composite samples. Differences in nutrients of dishes by preparation location were determined. Setting Urban and rural. Subjects Sodium, potassium, protein, total fat, fatty acids, carbohydrate, and energy in dishes. Results On average, both the absolute and relative fat content, saturated fatty acid (SFA) and sodium/potassium ratio were higher in dishes prepared in restaurants than households (Prestaurants (P restaurant preparation was consistently negatively associated with protein and positively associated with the percentage energy from fat in all dishes. Moreover, restaurant preparation also positively influenced the SFA content in dishes, except at the highest quantiles. Conclusions These findings suggest that compared to home preparation, dishes prepared in restaurants in China may differ in concentrations of total fat, SFA, protein, and sodium/potassium ratio, which may further contribute, beyond food choices, to less healthy nutrient intake linked to eating away from home. PMID:29306339

  7. Biogas slurry pricing method based on nutrient content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chang-ai; Guo, Honghai; Yang, Zhengtao; Xin, Shurong

    2017-11-01

    In order to promote biogas-slurry commercialization, A method was put forward to valuate biogas slurry based on its nutrient contents. Firstly, element contents of biogas slurry was measured; Secondly, each element was valuated based on its market price, and then traffic cost, using cost and market effect were taken into account, the pricing method of biogas slurry were obtained lastly. This method could be useful in practical production. Taking cattle manure raw meterial biogas slurry and con stalk raw material biogas slurry for example, their price were 38.50 yuan RMB per ton and 28.80 yuan RMB per ton. This paper will be useful for recognizing the value of biogas projects, ensuring biogas project running, and instructing the cyclic utilization of biomass resources in China.

  8. The effect of growing media and concentration of nutrient solution on growth, flowering and macroelement content of media and leaves of Tymophylla tenuiloba Small

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Nowak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Effects of growing media and concentration of nutrient solution on growth, flowering, evapotranspiration and macroelement content of media and leaves of Tymophylla tenuiloba were evaluated under ebb-and-flow conditions. Two media: peat and peat + perlite (3:l, v/v, and four concentrations of nutrient solution: 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 mS cm-1 were applied. High quality plants were produced in both media and all concentration of nutrient solution. The lowest evapotranspiration was measured at the highest concentration of nutrient solution. N concentration of leaves was high in all treatments. Concentrations of K, Ca, and Mg decreased with increasing concentration of nutrient solution. Opposite was found for P. At the end of cultivation the lowest pH was measured in the upper layer of growing media. The highest total soluble salt level was measured in the upper layers. Upper layers accumulated more N-NO3, P, Ca, and Mg. Mineral element content of both media was high in all concentrations of nutrient solution. Low concentration of nutrient solution at 1.0 mS cm-1 is recommended, although -1Tymophylla tenuiloba-1 can be also cultivated at higher concentrations of nutrient solution up to 2.5mS cm-1, if placed on the same bench with other bedding plants requiring more nutrients.

  9. Potential use of gas sensors in beef manure nutrient content ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to develop a gas sensor array to estimate the manure nutrient contents. Three metal-oxide gas sensors including methane, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide were used. Forty manure samples were collected from four beef operations in Southwest North Dakota. Manure samples were sent to be ...

  10. Growth and Nutrients Content and Uptake of Garlic ( Allium sativum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal ... Thus, the study was conducted on Andosol and Vertisol soils at Debre Zeit Agricultural Research Center, Ethiopia, for two consecutive (dry and main rainy) seasons to assess the effect of various rates of compound fertilizers on growth, and nutrient content and uptake of ...

  11. [Fast determination of contents of nutrients and stone powder in compound fertilizer using near infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zheng; Yuan, Hong-Fu; Zhang, Xian; Song, Chun-Feng; Li, Xiao-Yu; Xie, Jin-Chun

    2011-06-01

    In the present paper, a new approach to fast determination of contents of nutrients, including total nitrogen content (N), P2O5 content (P) and K2O content (K), and of stone powder content in compound fertilizer composed of urea, ammonium dihydrogen phosphate, potassium chloride and stone powder was proposed using near infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. PLS models of N, P and stone powder content were built with the SEP values of 0.8, 0.8 and 1.4 respectively. The information on which stone powder content model was built is the spectrum of crystal water existing in stone powder. K content was calculated using other ingredientcontents by normalization principle with a SEP value of 1.5. Although the SEP values are a little larger than the reproducibility errors of the GB/T methods which are conventional methods, the new method can be accepted by situ quality control in the production process of compound fertilizer.

  12. Thiamin and Riboflavin in Human Milk: Effects of Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplementation and Stage of Lactation on Vitamer Secretion and Contributions to Total Vitamin Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampel, Daniela; Shahab-Ferdows, Setareh; Adair, Linda S; Bentley, Margaret E; Flax, Valerie L; Jamieson, Denise J; Ellington, Sascha R; Tegha, Gerald; Chasela, Charles S; Kamwendo, Debbie; Allen, Lindsay H

    2016-01-01

    While thiamin and riboflavin in breast milk have been analyzed for over 50 years, less attention has been given to the different forms of each vitamin. Thiamin-monophosphate (TMP) and free thiamin contribute to total thiamin content; flavin adenine-dinucleotide (FAD) and free riboflavin are the main contributors to total riboflavin. We analyzed milk collected at 2 (n = 258) or 6 (n = 104), and 24 weeks (n = 362) from HIV-infected Malawian mothers within the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals and Nutrition (BAN) study, randomly assigned at delivery to lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) or a control group, to investigate each vitamer's contribution to total milk vitamin content and the effects of supplementation on the different thiamin and riboflavin vitamers at early and later stages of lactation, and obtain insight into the transport and distribution of these vitamers in human milk. Thiamin vitamers were derivatized into thiochrome-esters and analyzed by high-performance liquid-chromatography-fluorescence-detection (HPLC-FLD). Riboflavin and FAD were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry (ULPC-MS/MS). Thiamin-pyrophosphate (TPP), identified here for the first time in breast milk, contributed 1.9-4.5% to total thiamin. Free thiamin increased significantly from 2/6 to 24 weeks regardless of treatment indicating an active transport of this vitamer in milk. LNS significantly increased TMP and free thiamin only at 2 weeks compared to the control: median 170 versus 151 μg/L (TMP), 13.3 versus 10.5 μg/L (free thiamin, priboflavin was consistently and significantly increased with LNS (range: 14.8-19.6 μg/L (LNS) versus 5.0-7.4 μg/L (control), priboflavin relative amounts from 92-94:6-8% to 85:15%, indicating a preferred secretion of the free form into breast milk. The continuous presence of FAD in breast milk suggests an active transport and secretion system for this vitamer or possibly formation of this co-enymatic form in the

  13. Total fine root mass and nutrient content in forest ecosystems (Pinus patula Schltdl and Cham Cupressus lusitanica Mill and Quercus humboldtii bonpl.) from Piedras Blancas, Antioquia - Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreto Sanchez, Luis Hernan; Leon Pelaez, Juan Diego

    2005-01-01

    In the Piedras Blancas region, Antioquia - Colombia, a sampling of fine roots K > Mg > Fe > P this study sought to highlight the importance of fine roots and their concentrations of nutrients in natural forests and plantations and their relationship with nutrient cycling. For this purpose, the methodological approach comprised total root mass, both dead and alive

  14. NUTRIENT CONTENT IN DURIAN (DURIO ZIBETHINUS L. BRANCH BARK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime A. TEIXEIRA DA SILVA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Durian (Durio zibethinus L. fruit form on the bark of branches. The aim of our research was to assess whether branches bearing different number of fruits have different nutrient contents in their bark. We determined the nitrogen (N, phosphorous (P, potassium (K, and carbon (C content in branch bark 30 days after fruit set using branches bearing different number of fruits per panicle (0, 1, 2 or >2 of two varieties (‘Otong’ and ‘Kani’. Bark was cut into 0.03 m long and 0.005 m wide segments with an average thickness of 0.00085 m. The bark of branches bearing a different number of fruits had the same N, P, K, and C content but different ratios of C/N, C/P, C/K, N/K, and P/K. The bark of ‘Otong’ branches had a higher N content but a lower C/N ratio than ‘Kani’ bark.

  15. Energy, nutrient and food content of snacks in French adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si Hassen, Wendy; Castetbon, Katia; Tichit, Christine; Péneau, Sandrine; Nechba, Anouar; Ducrot, Pauline; Lampuré, Aurélie; Bellisle, France; Hercberg, Serge; Méjean, Caroline

    2018-02-27

    Snacking raises concern since it may lead to an additional energy intake and poor nutrient quality. A snacking occasion can be defined as any eating occasion apart from main meals, regardless of the amount or type of foods consumed. We described the frequency of snacking occasions according to daily timing in French adults, and compared them between each other, and with the main meals, in terms of energy intake, energy and nutrient density, and food content. This cross-sectional analysis included 104,265 adults from the NutriNet-Santé cohort. Food intake was estimated using 24-h records of weekdays. For each eating occasion, nutrient density and energy content and density were computed. After weighting, 47.6% of our sample were men and mean age was 45.6 (15.3). Overall, 68% of participants ate at least one snack during the reported record, mainly in the morning or afternoon. Overall snack had a lower nutrient density [22.8 (SD = 278.3)] than main meals [25.8 (36.9) to 30.0 (30.4)]; but higher energy density [222.2 (163.3) kcal/100 g] than meals [133.9 (57.3) to 175.9 (99.6) kcal/100 g]. Morning snack was the snacking occasion with the lowest energy density [211 kcal/100 g], the lowest energy intake [104.1 kcal] and the highest nutrient density [60.1]. Afternoon and evening snacks had the highest energy loads [192.4 kcal and 207.6 kcal], but low nutrient scores [16 and 13, respectively]. The main food groups contributing to energy intake from snacks were fatty-sweet and sugary foods, fruit, hot beverages, and bread. Our findings highlight the frequency of snacking and the varying nutritional quality of snacks over the day. The morning snack was shown to be healthier than afternoon and evening snacks. This study was conducted according to guidelines laid down in the Declaration of Helsinki, and all procedures were approved by the Institutional Review Board of the French Institute for Health and Medical Research (IRB Inserm No. 0000388FWA00005831) and the

  16. Switchgrass harvest time management can impact biomass yield and nutrient content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a dedicated energy crop native to much of North America. While high-biomass yield is of significant importance for the development of switchgrass as a bioenergy crop, nutrient content in the biomass as it relates to biofuel conversion efficiency is also critical...

  17. Effect of extraction solvent on total phenol content, total flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity of Limnophila aromatica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quy Diem Do

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Limnophila aromatica is commonly used as a spice and a medicinal herb in Southeast Asia. In this study, water and various concentrations (50%, 75%, and 100% of methanol, ethanol, and acetone in water were used as solvent in the extraction of L. aromatica. The antioxidant activity, total phenolic content, and total flavonoid content of the freeze-dried L. aromatica extracts were investigated using various in vitro assays. The extract obtained by 100% ethanol showed the highest total antioxidant activity, reducing power and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity. The same extract also exhibited the highest phenolic content (40.5 mg gallic acid equivalent/g of defatted L. aromatica and the highest flavonoid content (31.11 mg quercetin equivalent/g of defatted L. aromatica. The highest extraction yield was obtained by using 50% aqueous acetone. These results indicate that L. aromatica can be used in dietary applications with a potential to reduce oxidative stress.

  18. Effect of irradiation on anti-nutrients (total phenolics, tannins and phytate) in Brazilian beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge; Delincee, Henry; Greiner, Ralf

    2000-01-01

    The Brazilian bean varieties Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Carioca and Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp var. Macacar were irradiated with doses of 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy and subsequently stored at ambient temperature for 6 months. The anti-nutrients phenolic compounds, tannins and phytate were determined to be 0.48 mg g -1 dry basis, 1.8 mg g -1 dry basis and 13.5 μmol g -1 dry basis in the raw non-irradiated Carioca beans and 0.30 mg g -1 dry basis, 0.42 mg g -1 dry basis and 7.5 μmol g -1 dry basis in the raw non-irradiated Macacar beans. After soaking and cooking a higher content of phenolic compounds and a lower phytate content was observed in both bean varieties. Tannin content was not affected by soaking and cooking of Carioca beans, but higher after soaking and cooking of Macacar beans. Using radiation doses relevant for food did not effect the content of the anti-nutrients under investigation in both bean varieties

  19. Nutrient changes and antinutrient contents of beniseed and beniseed soup during cooking using a Nigerian traditional method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agiang, M A; Umoh, I B; Essien, A I; Eteng, M U

    2010-10-15

    Evaluations of the effect of prolong cooking on the nutrient and antinutrient composition ofbeniseed and beniseed soup were carried out in this study. Proximate, mineral, vitamin A and C and antinutrient compositions of raw beniseed (BS-R), beniseed boiled (BSB) for 15, 30, 45 and 60 min and beniseed soup (BSS) cooked for the same intervals of time were assessed. Results of the proximate composition analyses showed that raw and boiled beniseed had lower moisture content (5.39-5.51%) than beniseed soups (10.06-15.20%). Nitrogen-free extract (total carbohydrates), fats and phosphorus contents were improved in both the boiled beniseed and beniseed soup while calcium and potassium were increased in the boiled seeds and soup samples respectively. Moisture (in the raw and boiled beniseed), ash, magnesium, zinc, iron contents in both the seed and soup were unchanged in all the samples. Vitamins A and C levels of both boiled beniseed and beniseed soup samples were reduced with increase in cooking time. Beniseed soup had higher protein contents than both the raw and boiled beniseed which decreased with increase in cooking time. Beniseed samples provided good sources of energy (572.97-666.05 kcal/100 g). Except for phytate, the levels of antinutrients tested were lower in the raw and boiled beniseed than in the soup samples which decreased with increase in cooking time. The results are discussed with reference to the effect of prolonged cooking on the nutrient requirements of consumers.

  20. Leaf nutrient contents and morphology of invasive tamarisk in different soil conditions in the lower Virgin River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imada, S.; Acharya, K.; Tateno, R.; Yamanaka, N.

    2012-12-01

    Invasive plants can alter ecosystem nitrogen (N) cycling. To increase our understanding of nutrient use strategy of invasive tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) on an arid riparian ecosystem, we examined leaf nutrient contents and morphology of Tamarix ramosissima and its relationship with soil properties in the lower Virgin River floodplain, Nevada, U.S. Leaves were collected in three different locations; near the river, near the stand edge (60-70 m from the river edge) and at 30-40 m from the river edge in the summer of 2011. Leaves were analyzed for carbon (C) and N contents, and specific leaf area (SLA). Soil samples at 10-20 cm depths and under the canopy were also collected for soil water, pH, electrical conductivity (EC) and inorganic nitrogen (NO3- and NH4+) analysis. Results suggested that tree size and SLA increased with decreasing distance from the river, whereas C isotope discrimination did not differ among the samples based on distance from the river. Nitrogen content per unit mass and N isotope discrimination (δ15N) were significantly higher in the trees near the river. Soil NO3- and total inorganic N had positive relationships with δ15N in leaves, which suggests that leaf δ15N may be influenced by N concentrations on the soil surface. Negative correlations were found between soil EC and leaf N contents, suggesting that high soil salinity may decrease Tamarix leaf N and thus limit tree growth.

  1. An examination of the nutrient content and on-package marketing of novel beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dachner, Naomi; Mendelson, Rena; Sacco, Jocelyn; Tarasuk, Valerie

    2015-02-01

    Changing regulatory approaches to fortification in Canada have enabled the expansion of the novel beverage market, but the nutritional implications of these new products are poorly understood. This study assessed the micronutrient composition of energy drinks, vitamin waters, and novel juices sold in Canadian supermarkets, and critically examined their on-package marketing at 2 time points: 2010-2011, when they were regulated as Natural Health Products, and 2014, when they fell under food regulations. We examined changes in micronutrient composition and on-package marketing among a sample of novel beverages (n = 46) over time, compared micronutrient content with Dietary Reference Intakes and the results of the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey to assess potential benefits, and conducted a content analysis of product labels. The median number of nutrients per product was 4.5, with vitamins B6, B12, C, and niacin most commonly added. Almost every beverage provided at least 1 nutrient in excess of requirements, and most contained 3 or more nutrients at such levels. With the exception of vitamin C, there was no discernible prevalence of inadequacy among young Canadian adults for the nutrients. Product labels promoted performance and emotional benefits related to nutrient formulations that go beyond conventional nutritional science. Label graphics continued to communicate these attributes even after reformatting to comply with food regulations. In contrast with the on-package marketing of novel beverages, there is little evidence that consumers stand to benefit from the micronutrients most commonly found in these products.

  2. Effect of Glomus mosseae and plant growth promoting rhizomicroorganisms (PGPR's on growth, nutrients and content of secondary metabolites in Begonia malabarica Lam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thangavel Selvaraj

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Begonia malabarica Lam. (Begoniaceae is one of the important medicinal plants whose main secondary metabolites are luteolin, quercetin and β-sitosterol. The leaves are used for the treatment of respiratory tract infections, diarrhoea, blood cancer and skin diseases. A study was undertaken to determine the effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungus, Glomus mosseae, and some plant growth promoting rhizomicro-organisms (PGPR's on the growth, biomass, nutrients, and content of secondary metabolites of B. malabarica plant under green house conditions. Various plant growth parameters (total plant biomass, mycorrhizal parameter, shoot and root phosphorus, mineral content (potassium, iron, zinc, and copper, and secondary metabolites (total phenols, ortho-dihydroxy phenols, tannins, flavonoids, and alkaloids were determined and found to vary with different treatments. Among all the treatments, plants inoculated with 'microbial consortium' consisting of Glomus mosseae + Bacillus coagulans + Trichoderma viride performed better than with other treatments or uninoculated control plants. The results of this experiment clearly indicated that inoculation of B. malabarica with G. mosseae along with PGPR's enhanced its growth, biomass yield, nutrients and secondary metabolites.

  3. EVALUACIÓN DEL CONTENIDO DE NUTRIENTES Y PRODUCCIÓN DE BIOMASA EN CEPAS DE LEVADURA COLOMBIANAS Y COMERCIALES EVALUATION OF THE NUTRIENT CONTENT AND BIOMASS PRODUCTION IN COLOMBIAN AND COMMERCIAL YEAST STRAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nohora Patricia Manovacía Moreno

    2008-12-01

    , CORPOICA. In an initial phase, three randomly chosen yeast isolates were grown under different conditions of pH, temperature and time of fermentation using liquid malt extract culture medium. The best responses in biomass yield were observed at a pH of 4.5, or temperature of 25 °C and a fermentation period of 24 hours. Using these conditions, 100 native and 4 commercial yeast isolates, were evaluated for their biomass production, content of selenium, total carbohydrates and microbial protein and nutrient intake. According to these variables, a cluster analysis was used to distribute the 104 isolates in homogeneous groups. Great variability in biomass production was observed among isolates, probably due to the existing biological variability in the population studied. Biomass yields varied from 0.101 to 0.480 g of biomass/ g of sugar consumed and rate of biomass production ranged between 0.040 to 0.185 g L-1 h-1. Average nutrient intake (g of consumed nutrients/ g of available nutrients was of 91.6% in the case of carbohydrates and of 17.8% in the case of protein. Ten yeast isolates with superior growth and nutrient content were identified for future screening for prebiotic and probiotic potential.

  4. Efeito do porta-enxerto no teor de nutrientes em tecidos da videira "cabernet sauvignon" Effect of rootstock on nutrient content of 'cabernet sauvignon' grapevine tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Miele

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A nutrição mineral da videira constitui-se em importante fator para a qualidade dos vinhos. Devido a isso, avaliou-se o efeito de porta-enxertos no teor de nutrientes em diferentes tecidos da videira 'Cabernet Sauvignon' (Vitis vinifera L. na Serra Gaúcha. o experimento foi conduzido durante o ciclo vegetativo de 2004/2005, com os porta-enxertos Rupestris du lot, 101-14, 3309, 420A, Kober 5BB, 161-49, So4 e Paulsen 1103, enxertados em 1993 com a cv. 'Cabernet Sauvignon'. o delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com oito tratamentos e três repetições, sendo quatro plantas/parcela. Coletaram-se folhas - separando-se os pecíolos dos limbos -, cachos - separando-se as bagas das ráquis - e ramos, os quais foram posteriormente secados em estufa e pesados. Analisaram-se os nutrientes n, P, K, Ca e Mg. os resultados mostram que houve efeito significativo do porta-enxerto nos teores de N, P, K, Ca e Mg no limbo, pecíolo, ráquis e baga da videira 'Cabernet Sauvignon' e que este efeito variou em função do nutriente e do tecido considerado. Entretanto, não houve efeito significativo do porta-enxerto no teor desses nutrientes no ramo da videira. Além disso, a ordem de grandeza do teor dos nutrientes variou em função do tecido avaliado. Assim, os teores de n e de Ca foram maiores no limbo; os de P e K, na ráquis; e o de Mg, no pecíolo.Grapevine mineral nutrition is an important factor influencing wine quality. For this, the effect of rootstocks on the nutrient content in different tissues of 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grapevines (Vitis vinifera L. grown in the Serra Gaúcha region was evaluated. The experiment was carried out during the 2004/2005 vegetative cycle with the rootstocks Rupestris du Lot, 101-14, 3309, 420A, Kober 5BB, 161-49, SO4, and Paulsen 1103. The experimental design was in randomized blocks, with eight treatments, three replicates, four plants/plot. leaves - petioles were separated from the limbs -, clusters - berries

  5. Concentração e conteúdo de nutrientes em lisianto, cultivado em hidroponia, em sistema NFT = Concentration and nutrient content in lisianthus grown in a hydroponic NFT system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Alice Antonello Londero Backes

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available O diagnóstico nutricional é fundamental para determinar as exigências das plantas quanto aos nutrientes, de forma a se proceder a um manejo adequado, de acordo com a espécie. Assim, para determinar as concentrações e conteúdos nutricionais adequados à produção e qualidade de plantas de lisianto em cultivo hidropônico, instalou-se um experimento onde as plantas foram cultivadas em sistema NFT, em diferentes soluções nutritivas. O experimento foi conduzido, segundo delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 4x3, totalizando 12 tratamentos, com três repetições. Ostratamentos foram compostos de quatro cultivares (Echo Champagne, Mariachi Pure White, Balboa Yellow e Ávila Blue Rim e três soluções nutritivas (Teste, Steiner modificada e Barbosa. Foram avaliadas as concentrações e os conteúdos dos nutrientes nas folhas e conteúdos na parte aérea das plantas. As plantas cultivadas nas soluções Barbosa eTeste apresentaram resultados satisfatórios quanto às concentrações e aos conteúdos de nutrientes, enquanto a solução Steiner modificada produziu plantas com limitações nutricionais.The nutritional diagnosis is fundamental for determining plantnutrients, in order to correctly manage the nutritional requirements for each species. Thus, in order to determine the ideal nutrient amount and concentration for obtaining the best yield and quality of lisianthus grown hydroponically, an experiment was conducted inwhich the plants were grown under the NFT system in different nutrient solutions. The experiment was conducted according to a random block design arrangement in a 4x3 factorial scheme, totaling 12 treatments with three repetitions. The treatments werecomprised of four cultivars (Echo Champagne, Mariachi Pure White, Balboa Yellow and Ávila Blue Rim and three nutrient solutions (Test, modified Steiner and Barbosa. In the leaves, nutrient concentration and content were evaluated; in the aerial

  6. Differences in nutrient and energy contents of commonly consumed dishes prepared in restaurants v. at home in Hunan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiaofang; Liu, Jiawu; Chen, Bo; Jin, Donghui; Fu, Zhongxi; Liu, Huilin; Du, Shufa; Popkin, Barry M; Mendez, Michelle A

    2018-05-01

    Eating away from home is associated with poor diet quality, in part due to less healthy food choices and larger portions. However, few studies account for the potential additional contribution of differences in food composition between restaurant- and home-prepared dishes. The present study aimed to investigate differences in nutrients of dishes prepared in restaurants v. at home. Eight commonly consumed dishes were collected in twenty of each of the following types of locations: small and large restaurants, and urban and rural households. In addition, two fast-food items were collected from ten KFC, McDonald's and food stalls. Five samples per dish were randomly pooled from every location. Nutrients were analysed and energy was calculated in composite samples. Differences in nutrients of dishes by preparation location were determined. Hunan Province, China. Na, K, protein, total fat, fatty acids, carbohydrate and energy in dishes. On average, both the absolute and relative fat contents, SFA and Na:K ratio were higher in dishes prepared in restaurants than households (P < 0·05). Protein was 15 % higher in animal food-based dishes prepared in households than restaurants (P<0·05). Quantile regression models found that, at the 90th quantile, restaurant preparation was consistently negatively associated with protein and positively associated with the percentage of energy from fat in all dishes. Moreover, restaurant preparation also positively influenced the SFA content in dishes, except at the highest quantiles. These findings suggest that compared with home preparation, dishes prepared in restaurants in China may differ in concentrations of total fat, SFA, protein and Na:K ratio, which may further contribute, beyond food choices, to less healthy nutrient intakes linked to eating away from home.

  7. Cultivar and Harvest Month Influence the Nutrient Content of Opuntia spp. Cactus Pear Cladode Mucilage Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Toit, Alba; de Wit, Maryna; Hugo, Arno

    2018-04-16

    Mucilage extracted from cactus pear cladodes is a hydrocolloid gum. It is a novel, natural, low-kilojoule, cost-effective texture-modifying ingredient in functional food products. Yet, the cultivar with the most optimal nutrient content and the preferred harvest times are as yet unknown. For this reason, mucilage from three Opuntia ficus-indica (Algerian, Morado and Gymno-Carpo) and one Opuntia robusta (Robusta) cultivar were investigated to determine their nutrient content over six months. Nutrients that contribute energy (10.2 kJ/g) were low. The mineral content was high (ash 17.7/100 g), particularly calcium (3.0 g/100 g) and phosphorous (109.5 mg/kg). Low insoluble acid-detergent fibre (1.4 g/kg) and neutral-detergent fibre (2.1 g/kg) values indicated that mucilage was mostly soluble fibre. Calcium oxalate crystals were not detected in dried mucilage. Opuntia robusta powders had higher protein, extractable fat and potassium content, while Opuntia ficus-indica mucilage powders had higher polyunsaturated (Linoleic and α-Linolenic acid) fat content. O. robusta Robusta mucilage, harvested after the fruit harvest (February) had the lowest energy content and the highest mineral and protein content. Mucilage powders were highly soluble, low-kilojoule and mineral-rich. This is a functional ingredient that is produced from an easily cultivated crop, as cactus pears grow in areas with poor soil, extremely high daytime temperatures and limited water supplies.

  8. Growth, morphometrics and nutrient content of farmed eastern oysters, Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin), in New Hampshire, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    When harvested, oysters represent a removal from the ecosystem of nutrients such as nitrogen (N)and carbon (C). A number of factors potentially affect nutrient content, but a quantitative understanding across the geographical range of the eastern oysters is lacking. This study wa...

  9. Comparison of the nutrient content of children's menu items at US restaurant chains, 2010-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deierlein, Andrea L; Peat, Kay; Claudio, Luz

    2015-08-15

    To determine changes in the nutritional content of children's menu items at U.S. restaurant chains between 2010 and 2014. The sample consisted of 13 sit down and 16 fast-food restaurant chains ranked within the top 50 US chains in 2009. Nutritional information was accessed in June-July 2010 and 2014. Descriptive statistics were calculated for nutrient content of main dishes and side dishes, as well as for those items that were added, removed, or unchanged during the study period. Nutrient content of main dishes did not change significantly between 2010 and 2014. Approximately one-third of main dishes at fast-food restaurant chains and half of main dishes at sit down restaurant chains exceeded the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommended levels for sodium, fat, and saturated fat in 2014. Improvements in nutrient content were observed for side dishes. At sit down restaurant chains, added side dishes contained over 50% less calories, fat, saturated fat, and sodium, and were more likely to contain fruits/vegetables compared to removed sides (p restaurant chains contained less saturated fat (p restaurant industry and policy makers to improve the nutritional content of children's menu items at restaurant chains to align with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Additional efforts are necessary to help parents and children make informed choices when ordering at restaurant chains.

  10. EuroFIR Guideline on calculation of nutrient content of foods for food business operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machackova, Marie; Giertlova, Anna; Porubska, Janka; Roe, Mark; Ramos, Carlos; Finglas, Paul

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a Guideline for calculating nutrient content of foods by calculation methods for food business operators and presents data on compliance between calculated values and analytically determined values. In the EU, calculation methods are legally valid to determine the nutrient values of foods for nutrition labelling (Regulation (EU) No 1169/2011). However, neither a specific calculation method nor rules for use of retention factors are defined. EuroFIR AISBL (European Food Information Resource) has introduced a Recipe Calculation Guideline based on the EuroFIR harmonized procedure for recipe calculation. The aim is to provide food businesses with a step-by-step tool for calculating nutrient content of foods for the purpose of nutrition declaration. The development of this Guideline and use in the Czech Republic is described and future application to other Member States is discussed. Limitations of calculation methods and the importance of high quality food composition data are discussed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. An analysis of sodium, total fat and saturated fat contents of packaged food products advertised in Bronx-based supermarket circulars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, L; Basch, C H; Ethan, D; Hammond, R; Chiazzese, K

    2014-08-01

    Americans' consumption of sodium, fat, and saturated fat exceed federally recommended limits for these nutrients and has been identified as a preventable leading cause of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. More than 40% of the Bronx population comprises African-Americans, who have increased risk and earlier onset of hypertension and are also genetically predisposed to salt-sensitive hypertension. This study analyzed nutrition information for packaged foods advertised in Bronx-based supermarket circulars. Federally recommended limits for sodium, saturated fat and total fat contents were used to identify foods that were high in these nutrients. The proportion of these products with respect to the total number of packaged foods was calculated. More than a third (35%) and almost a quarter (24%) of the 898 advertised packaged foods were high in saturated fat and sodium respectively. Such foods predominantly included processed meat and fish products, fast foods, meals, entrees and side dishes. Dairy and egg products were the greatest contributors of high saturated fat. Pork and beef products, fast foods, meals, entrees and side dishes had the highest median values for sodium, total fat and saturated fat content. The high proportion of packaged foods that are high in sodium and/or saturated fat promoted through supermarket circulars highlights the need for nutrition education among consumers as well as collaborative public health measures by the food industry, community and government agencies to reduce the amounts of sodium and saturated fat in these products and limit the promotion of foods that are high in these nutrients.

  12. No Fat, No Sugar, No Salt . . . No Problem? Prevalence of "Low-Content" Nutrient Claims and Their Associations with the Nutritional Profile of Food and Beverage Purchases in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taillie, Lindsey Smith; Ng, Shu Wen; Xue, Ya; Busey, Emily; Harding, Matthew

    2017-09-01

    Nutrient claims are a commonly used marketing tactic, but the association between claims and nutritional quality of products is unknown. The objective of this study was to examine trends in the proportion of packaged food and beverage purchases with a nutrient claim, whether claims are associated with improved nutritional profile, and whether the proportion of purchases with claims differs by race/ethnicity or socioeconomic status. This cross-sectional study examined nutrient claims on more than 80 million food and beverage purchases from a transaction-level database of 40,000 US households from 2008 to 2012. χ 2 Tests were used to examine whether the proportion of purchases with a low/no-content claim changed over time or differed by race/ethnicity or household socioeconomic status. Pooled transactions were examined using t-tests to compare products' nutritional profiles overall and by food and beverage group. Thirteen percent of food and 35% of beverage purchases had a low-content claim. Prevalence of claims among purchases did not change over time. Low-fat claims were most prevalent for both foods and beverages (10% and 19%, respectively), followed by low-calorie (3% and 9%), low-sugar (2% and 8%), and low-sodium (2% for both) claims. Compared to purchases with no claim, purchases with any low-content claim had lower mean energy, total sugar, total fat, and sodium densities. However, the association between particular claim types and specific nutrient densities varied substantially, and purchases featuring a given low-content claim did not necessarily offer better overall nutritional profiles or better profiles for the claimed nutrient, relative to products without claims. In addition, there was substantial heterogeneity in associations between claims and nutrient densities within food and beverage groups. Variations in nutrient density by claim type and food and beverage group suggests that claims may have differential utility for certain foods or nutrients

  13. Cultivar and Harvest Month Influence the Nutrient Content of Opuntia spp. Cactus Pear Cladode Mucilage Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba du Toit

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Mucilage extracted from cactus pear cladodes is a hydrocolloid gum. It is a novel, natural, low-kilojoule, cost-effective texture-modifying ingredient in functional food products. Yet, the cultivar with the most optimal nutrient content and the preferred harvest times are as yet unknown. For this reason, mucilage from three Opuntia ficus-indica (Algerian, Morado and Gymno-Carpo and one Opuntia robusta (Robusta cultivar were investigated to determine their nutrient content over six months. Nutrients that contribute energy (10.2 kJ/g were low. The mineral content was high (ash 17.7/100 g, particularly calcium (3.0 g/100 g and phosphorous (109.5 mg/kg. Low insoluble acid-detergent fibre (1.4 g/kg and neutral-detergent fibre (2.1 g/kg values indicated that mucilage was mostly soluble fibre. Calcium oxalate crystals were not detected in dried mucilage. Opuntia robusta powders had higher protein, extractable fat and potassium content, while Opuntia ficus-indica mucilage powders had higher polyunsaturated (Linoleic and α-Linolenic acid fat content. O. robusta Robusta mucilage, harvested after the fruit harvest (February had the lowest energy content and the highest mineral and protein content. Mucilage powders were highly soluble, low-kilojoule and mineral-rich. This is a functional ingredient that is produced from an easily cultivated crop, as cactus pears grow in areas with poor soil, extremely high daytime temperatures and limited water supplies.

  14. Food photography II: use of food photographs for estimating portion size and the nutrient content of meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, M; Atkinson, M; Darbyshire, S

    1996-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the errors in the conceptualization of portion size using photographs. Male and female volunteers aged 18-90 years (n 136) from a wide variety of social and occupational backgrounds completed 602 assessments of portion size in relation to food photographs. Subjects served themselves between four and six foods at one meal (breakfast, lunch or dinner). Portion sizes were weighed by the investigators at the time of serving, and any waste was weighed at the end of the meal. Within 5 min of the end of the meal, subjects were shown photographs depicting each of the foods just consumed. For each food there were eight photographs showing portion sizes in equal increments from the 5th to the 95th centile of the distribution of portion weights observed in The Dietary and Nutritional Survey of British Adults (Gregory et al. 1990). Subjects were asked to indicate on a visual analogue scale the size of the portion consumed in relation to the eight photographs. The nutrient contents of meals were estimated from food composition tables. There were large variations in the estimation of portion sizes from photographs. Butter and margarine portion sizes tended to be substantially overestimated. In general, small portion sizes tended to be overestimated, and large portion sizes underestimated. Older subjects overestimated portion size more often than younger subjects. Excluding butter and margarine, the nutrient content of meals based on estimated portion sizes was on average within +/- 7% of the nutrient content based on the amounts consumed, except for vitamin C (21% overestimate), and for subjects over 65 years (15-20% overestimate for energy and fat). In subjects whose BMI was less than 25 kg/m2, the energy and fat contents of meals calculated from food composition tables and based on estimated portion size (excluding butter and margarine) were 5-10% greater than the nutrient content calculated using actual portion size, but for those

  15. Effects of nutrient content claims, sports celebrity endorsements and premium offers on pre-adolescent children's food preferences: experimental research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, H; Scully, M; Niven, P; Kelly, B; Chapman, K; Donovan, R; Martin, J; Baur, L A; Crawford, D; Wakefield, M

    2014-04-01

    To assess pre-adolescent children's responses to common child-oriented front-of-pack food promotions. Between-subjects, web-based experiment with four front-of-pack promotion conditions on energy-dense and nutrient-poor (EDNP) foods: no promotion [control]; nutrient content claims; sports celebrity endorsements (male athletes) and premium offers. Participants were 1302 grade 5 and 6 children (mean age 11 years) from Melbourne, Australia. Participants chose their preferred product from a randomly assigned EDNP food pack and comparable healthier food pack then completed detailed product ratings. Child-oriented pack designs with colourful, cartooned graphics, fonts and promotions were used. Compared to the control condition, children were more likely to choose EDNP products featuring nutrient content claims (both genders) and sports celebrity endorsements (boys only). Perceptions of nutritional content were enhanced by nutrient content claims. Effects of promotions on some product ratings (but not choice) were negated when children referred to the nutrition information panel. Premium offers did not enhance children's product ratings or choice. Nutrient content claims and sports celebrity endorsements influence pre-adolescent children's preferences towards EDNP food products displaying them. Policy interventions to reduce the impact of unhealthy food marketing to children should limit the use of these promotions. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  16. Litter Accumulation and Nutrient Content of Roadside Plant Communities in Sichuan Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Huiqin; Monaco, Thomas

    2017-08-30

    It is widely recognized that feedbacks exist between plant litter and plant community species composition, but this relationship is difficult to interpret over heterogeneous conditions typical of modified environments such as roadways. Given the need to expedite natural recovery of disturbed areas through restoration interventions, we characterized litter accumulation and nutrient content (i.e., organic carbon, total N, and P) and quantified their association with key plant species. Plant species cover and litter characteristics were sampled at 18 successional forest plant communities along major roadways in Sichuan Basin, western China. Variation in litter across communities was assessed with principal component analysis (PCA) and species with the highest correlation to PCA axes were determined with Pearson's r coefficients. Plant communities with the longest time since road construction (i.e., 70 years) were distinctly different in litter total N and organic carbon compared to plant communities with a shorter disturbance history. We encountered 59 plant species across sampling plots, but only four rare species (i.e., frequency plant litter across heavily disturbed landscapes and how litter characteristics and rare plant species are correlated.

  17. Growth and nutrient content of herbaceous seedlings associated with biological soil crusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. L. Pendleton; B. K. Pendleton; G. L. Howard; S. D. Warren

    2003-01-01

    Biological soil crusts of arid and semiarid lands contribute significantly to ecosystem stability by means of soil stabilization, nitrogen fixation, and improved growth and establishment of vascular plant species. In this study, we examined growth and nutrient content of Bromus tectorum, Elymus elymoides, Gaillardia pulchella, and Sphaeralcea munroana grown in soil...

  18. Gastric volume rather than nutrient content inhibits food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, R J; Powley, T L

    1996-09-01

    To evaluate the separate contributions of distension and nutrient stimulation of the stomach to the inhibition of short-term food intake and, particularly, to reassess previous analyses based on the inflatable gastrointestinal cuff, four experiments were performed. Rats equipped with pyloric cuffs and indwelling gastric catheters consumed a liquid diet ad libitum. Their consumption during short-term (30 min) feeding bout was measured after gastric infusions on cuff-open and cuff-closed trials. Animals taking meals (approximately 5 ml) with cuffs closed immediately after receiving intragastric infusions of 2.5, 5, 7.5, or 10 ml of normal saline exhibited both suppression at the smallest infusion and a dose-dependent reduction across the other volumes (experiment 1). Additionally, when the test diet concentration was varied, animals with their cuffs closed consumed a constant volume, not a constant number of calories (experiment 2). Furthermore, cuff-closed animals exhibited no more suppression to 5-ml intragastric infusions of nutrients (including, on different trials, 50 and 100% Isocal diet; 10, 20, and 40% glucose; and 40% sucrose and 40% fructose) than to the same volume of saline (experiments 3 and 4). In contrast, on cuff-open trials in which gastric contents could empty into the duodenum, these same nutrient loads were more effective (except fructose) than saline in producing suppression of food intake. In summary, although both limited gastric distension with the pylorus occluded and intestinal nutrient stimulation with the cuff open effectively reduced intake, cuff-closed gastric loads of mixed macronutrients or carbohydrate solutions of 2-8 kcal, pH from 5.8 to 6.7, and osmolarities between 117 and 2,294 mosM/kg produced only the distension-based suppression generated by the same volume of saline.

  19. [A survey on the contents of nutrient and nutrition in the orderings of customers when eating at three restaurants in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Baojing; Zhao, Nanxi; Li, Liming; Lyu, Jun

    2016-04-01

    To study the median nutrient content of customers' ordering in the restaurants in Beijing. The median contents of nutrients regarding ordering/per person from the customers were estimated, via combining the nutrient content of menu offering. Data, based on all weights of ingredients and Chinese food composition with all the ordered records from customers, was collected within a set period of time, from 2011 to 2013. Nutrition status was then estimated, under the Nutrient-Rich Foods (NRF). The median energy intake reached 4 973.9 (P25-P75: 3 575.6-6 971.0) kJ and 88.2% of the tables were exceeding the recommended energy limits, respectively, with 3 347.2 kJ for lunch and 2 510.4 kJ for dinner. Data was gathered from three restaurants in Beijing. In all the three restaurants, the median nutrient contents appeared 70% outnumbered the daily value of fat and cholesterol. The median sodium contents (87.9%) were also over the standard set for sodium adequate intake. In addition, the median nutrition on fibers, calcium, vitamin A, vitamin C and vitamin E were far below the recommended nutritional intakes (RNI), in the ordering. For NRF9.3, the Wenzhou restaurant showed the highest score (5.50) but the restaurant in Yunnan appeared the lowest (2.26), with difference statistically significant (P<0.001). Eating-out habit ended in taking low nutrition with higher limited nutrients, but with low recommended nutrients, when compared to the recommended Chinese Dietary Reference Intake.

  20. Growth characteristics and nutrient content of some herbaceous species under shade and fertilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koukoura, Z.; Kyriazopoulos, A. P.; Parissi, Z. M.

    2009-07-01

    Herbage production and nutrient content are affected by light interception and soil fertility. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of artificial shade and fertilization on herbage production, growth characteristics, and nutrient content of the grass species Dactylis glomerata and Festuca ovina, and the legume species Trifolium subterraneum and Medicago lupulina. Each plant species was placed under three shading treatments of 90% (heavy shade), 50% (moderate shade) and 0% (control). Fertilization (225 kg ha{sup -}1 N, 450 kg ha{sup -}1 P, and 225 kg ha{sup -}1 K) was applied to half of the pots of every species and shading treatment. Reduced light intensity (90% shading) significantly lowered herbage production from 18% for F. ovina to 48% for D. glomerata and decreased the root:shoot (R/S) ratio of all species but the moderate reduction of light intensity (50%) did not affect R/S ratio and herbage production of the grasses and M. lupulina, while it resulted in an increase of the production of T. subterraneum by 10.5%. Reduced light intensity increased by 25% on average, the crude protein concentration of the grass species while moderate shading did not affect the crude protein concentration of T. subterraneum. Fertilization increased herbage production from 16% for F. ovina to 59% for D. glomerata and ameliorated its nutrient content. Among the tested species, D. glomerata and T. subterraneum demonstrated the highest shade tolerance and could be incorporated into silvopastoral systems of the Mediterranean region. (Author)

  1. Effect of mycorrhiza and phosphorus content in nutrient solution on the yield and nutritional status of tomato plants grown on rockwool or coconut coir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Kowalska

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Effects of P level in nutrient solution and the colonization of roots by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF on P uptake by tomato plants, their nutritional status, yield and quality of fruits were studied. Plants were grown on rockwool or coconut coir. Inoculation by a mixture of several AMF species was performed three times during the growing period. The mycorrhizal frequency in roots inoculated with AMF amounted to 35.79 – 50.82%. The highest level of mycorrhiza was found in plants receiving nutrient solution with a lower concentration of P. Among the experimental factors, only P level influenced the fruit yield, being higher from plants receiving a nutrient solution with a higher P level. A higher concentration of P in nutrient solution imposed better nutritional status of plants. Higher contents of ascorbic acid and total soluble sugars were found in fruits collected from inoculated plants, grown on rockwool.

  2. Impact of levels of total digestible nutrients on microbiome, enzyme profile and degradation of feeds in buffalo rumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kala, Anju; Kamra, D N; Kumar, Avinash; Agarwal, Neeta; Chaudhary, L C; Joshi, C G

    2017-01-01

    The present study was aimed at understanding a shift in rumen microbiome of buffaloes fed various levels of total digestible nutrients. To understand the process, the metagenomics of rumen microbes, in vivo and in vitro rumen fermentation studies were carried out. Three rumen fistulated adult male Murrah buffaloes were fed three isonitrogenous diets varying in total digestible nutrients (70, 85 and 100% of TDN requirement) in 3X3 switch over design. On dry matter basis, wheat straw/ roughage content were 81, 63 and 51% and that of maize grain was 8, 16 and 21% in three diets respectively. After 20 d of feeding, rumen liquor and rumen contents were sampled just before (0h) and 4h post feeding. Ruminococcus flavefaciens and R. albus (estimated with real time PCR) were higher in high roughage diets. The predominant phyla in all the three groups were Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes followed by Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Fibrobacteres. A core group of more than fifty rumen bacteria was present in all the animals with very little variations due to level of TDN. The most predominant bacterial genera reported in order of decreasing abundance were: Prevotella, Bacteroides, Clostridium, Ruminococcus, Eubacterium, Parabacteroides, Fibrobacter, Butyrivibrio etc. The higher diversity of the enyzmes families GH 23, GH 28, GH 39, GH 97, GH 106, and GH 127 (the enzymes active in fibre and starch degradation) were significantly higher on 100%TDN diet while CE 14 (required for the hydrolysis of bond between carbohydrate and lignin) was higher on low TDN (70%) diet, indicating ester bond cleavage was better in animals fed high roughage (wheat straw) diet.

  3. Ciclagem de nutrientes em Acacia mearnsii de wild. V. Quantificação do conteúdo de nutrientes na biomassa aérea de Acacia mearnsii de wild. Procedência australiana Nutrient cycling in Acacia mearnsii de wild. V. Quantification of nutrient contents in the above-ground biomass of australian provenance of Acacia mearnsii de wild

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Vinicius Winckler Caldeira

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho foi quantificado o conteúdo de nutrientes na procedência Australiana Bodalla de Acácia-negra (Acacia mearnsii De Wild., aos 2,4 anos de idade. A procedência encontra-se estabelecida em solo de baixa fertilidade, com acidez elevada e localizado na Fazenda Menezes, no Distrito de Capão Comprido, município de Butiá-RS, pertencente à Empresa Florestal Agroseta S.A.. Foi selecionado um total de nove árvores para comporem as amostras. A amostragem destrutiva constituiu na individualização dos compartimentos da biomassa aérea (folhas, galhos vivos, galhos mortos, casca e madeira visando à determinação da matéria seca e do conteúdo de nutrientes. As quantidades de nutrientes contidos na biomassa aérea total da procedência Bodalla foram de 182,1kg ha-1 de N; 8,2kg ha-1 de P; 104,4kg ha-1 de K; 66,7kg ha-1 de Ca; 16,1kg ha-1 de Mg e 10,0kg ha-1 de S. Na procedência Bodalla, 57,4% da matéria seca foi alocada para folhas, galhos vivos e galhos mortos, contento 74% do N; 72,1% do P; 63% do K; 68,5% do Ca, 69,3% do Mg e 74,1% do S do total existente na parte aérea. O componente fuste ( casca e madeira acumulou 26% do N; 27,9% do P; 37% do K; 31,5% do Ca; 30,7% do Mg e 25,8% do S.Nutrient contents of 2.4 years old black wattle (., from Bodalla Australian provenance, were quantified. This provenance was established on soils of low fertility and high acidity, at Menezes Farm of Agroseta S.A. Forest CompAcacia mearnsii De Wildany in the Capão Comprido District, municipality of Butiá-RS. A total of nine trees were selected to form the sample. The destructive sampling was constituted in the individualization of compartments of above-ground biomass (leaves, live branches, dead branches, bark and wood to determine dry matter and nutrient contents. The quantity of total nutrients in the above-ground biomass from Bodalla provenance was 182.1kg ha-1 of N; 8.2kg ha-1 of P; 104.4kg ha-1 of K; 66.7kg ha-1 of Ca; 16.1kg ha-1 of

  4. Total and soluble oxalate content of some Indian spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh Das, Sumana; Savage, G P

    2012-06-01

    Spices, such as cinnamon, cloves, cardamom, garlic, ginger, cumin, coriander and turmeric are used all over the world as flavouring and colouring ingredients in Indian foods. Previous studies have shown that spices contain variable amounts of total oxalates but there are few reports of soluble oxalate contents. In this study, the total, soluble and insoluble oxalate contents of ten different spices commonly used in Indian cuisine were measured. Total oxalate content ranged from 194 (nutmeg) to 4,014 (green cardamom) mg/100 g DM, while the soluble oxalate contents ranged from 41 (nutmeg) to 3,977 (green cardamom) mg/100 g DM. Overall, the percentage of soluble oxalate content of the spices ranged from 4.7 to 99.1% of the total oxalate content which suggests that some spices present no risk to people liable to kidney stone formation, while other spices can supply significant amounts of soluble oxalates and therefore should be used in moderation.

  5. Health and Nutrient Content Claims in Food Advertisements on Hispanic and Mainstream Prime-Time Television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbatangelo-Gray, Jodie; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Austin, S. Bryn

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Characterize frequency and type of health and nutrient content claims in prime-time weeknight Spanish- and English-language television advertisements from programs shown in 2003 with a high viewership by women aged 18 to 35 years. Design: Comparative content analysis design was used to analyze 95 hours of Spanish-language and 72 hours…

  6. [Contents of total flavonoids in Rhizoma Arisaematis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, S S; Lin, H Y; Zhou, Y X; Wei, L X

    2001-06-01

    Comparing the contents of total flavonoides of Rhizoma Arisaematis, which collected in different time, regions, different varieties and processed. Determining the contents by ultraviolet spectro-photometry. The contents were found in the following sequence: 1. the end of July, the begin of July, August, September; 2. Beijing, Shanxi, Sichuan, Anhui; 3. Arisaema erubenscens, A. heterophyllum, A. amurense; 4. unprocessed product, processed product.

  7. Fungicidal seed coatings exert minor effects on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and plant nutrient content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aims: Determine if contemporary, seed-applied fungicidal formulations inhibit colonization of plant roots by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, plant development, or plant nutrient content during early vegetative stages of several commodity crops. Methods: We evaluated seed-applied commercial fungic...

  8. Bayesian modeling of the assimilative capacity component of nutrient total maximum daily loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, B. R.

    2008-08-01

    Implementing stream restoration techniques and best management practices to reduce nonpoint source nutrients implies enhancement of the assimilative capacity for the stream system. In this paper, a Bayesian method for evaluating this component of a total maximum daily load (TMDL) load capacity is developed and applied. The joint distribution of nutrient retention metrics from a literature review of 495 measurements was used for Monte Carlo sampling with a process transfer function for nutrient attenuation. Using the resulting histograms of nutrient retention, reference prior distributions were developed for sites in which some of the metrics contributing to the transfer function were measured. Contributing metrics for the prior include stream discharge, cross-sectional area, fraction of storage volume to free stream volume, denitrification rate constant, storage zone mass transfer rate, dispersion coefficient, and others. Confidence of compliance (CC) that any given level of nutrient retention has been achieved is also determined using this approach. The shape of the CC curve is dependent on the metrics measured and serves in part as a measure of the information provided by the metrics to predict nutrient retention. It is also a direct measurement, with a margin of safety, of the fraction of export load that can be reduced through changing retention metrics. For an impaired stream in western Oklahoma, a combination of prior information and measurement of nutrient attenuation was used to illustrate the proposed approach. This method may be considered for TMDL implementation.

  9. The effects of compost prepared from waste material of banana plants on the nutrient contents of banana leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Ilhan; Sen, Bahtiyar; Kaya, Zülküf

    2003-10-01

    In this study, the possible utilization of removed shoots and plant parts of banana as compost after fruit harvest were investigated. Three doses (15-30-45 kg plan(-1)) of the compost prepared from the clone of Dwarf Cavendish banana were compared with Farmyard manure (50 kg plant(-1), Mineral fertilizers (180 g N + 150 g P + 335 g K plant(-1)) and Farmyard manure + Mineral fertilizers (25 kg FM + 180 g N + 150 g P + 335 g K plant(-1)) which determined positive effects on the nutrient contents of banana leaves. The banana plants were grown under a heated glasshouse and in a soil with physical and chemical properties suitable for banana growing. The contents of N, P, K and Mg in compost and in farmyard manure were found to be similar. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium contents of leaves in all applications except control, and Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu contents in all applications were determined between optimum levels of reference values. There were positive correlations among some nutrient contents of leaves, growth, yield and fruit quality characteristics. Farmyard manure, Farmyard manure + Mineral fertilizers and 45 kg plant(-1) of compost increased the nutrient contents of banana leaves. According to obtained results, 45 kg plant(-1) of compost was determined more suitable in terms of economical production and organic farming than the other fertiliser types.

  10. Flavonoid, hesperidine, total phenolic contents and antioxidant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Additionally, the antioxidant activities were also determined by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. C. hystrix had the highest flavonoid and total phenolic contents while C. aurantifolia had the highest hesperidine content. The antioxidant activity of ...

  11. Determining Total Phenolics, Anthocyanin Content and Ascorbic Acid Content in Some Plum Genotypes Grown in Ardahan Ecological Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. T. ABACI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, total phenol content, total anthocyanin content, brix, pH, titrable acidity and total ascorbic acid content in the five plum genotypes cultivated in Ardahan City are determined and sustenance of the plums are revealed. Total phenol content was determined with folin-ciocalteu’s method, total anthocyanin content was determined with pH differential method and total ascorbic acid was determined with 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol method.It is detected that the genotype with the highest brix content (%13.9 and lowest acidity (%0.98 is cancur, the genotype with the lowest brix content (%11 and highest acidity (%2.06 is wild plum, the genotype with the highest content of total anthocyanin, total phenolic substance and ascorbic acid is the wild plum and the genotype with the least content of these is the water plum. As a result of the study, it is revealed that the plum fruit has high levels of phenolic substance, anthocyanin and ascorbic acid content, so it has a high sustenance.

  12. Ethnobotanical study and nutrient content of indigenous vegetables consumed in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUSI KRESNATITA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Chotimah HENC, Kresnatita S, Miranda Y. 2013. Ethnobotanical study and nutrient content of indigenous vegetables consumed in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 14: 106-111. People in Central Kalimantan consume vegetables that collected from the wild or traditionally cultivated. Documentation effort of them is very important because of the diversity of local vegetable are threatened with extinction due to the conversion of peat land and forest fires. This study aims to determine the diversity of indigenous vegetables in Central Kalimantan, its use as a vegetable and nutrient content some vegetables. The method used was the exploration and interviews. Exploration carried out in three districts namely Palangkaraya, Pulang Pisau, and Seruyan. Sampling of plants was randomly and selectively. Data analysis was performed descriptively. The results showed that we recorded 42 plant species belonging to 30 families. There were many vegetables processing: stir-fry, clear soup, a light coconut milk soup, acidic soup, or just consumed as fresh vegetables. The result of nutritional value analyzed, Helminthostachys zeylanica (L. Hook had a potential to further develop whether as vegetables or medicinal plant. It had the highest protein, carbohydrate and mineral P, Fe, Na and K content among the vegetables analyzed.

  13. Wide Variability in Caloric Density of Expressed Human Milk Can Lead to Major Underestimation or Overestimation of Nutrient Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Charles W; Boutin, Mallory A; Kim, Jae H

    2017-05-01

    Very-low-birth-weight infants continue to face significant difficulties with postnatal growth. Human milk is the optimal form of nutrition for infants but may exhibit variation in nutrient content. This study aimed to perform macronutrient analysis on expressed human milk from mothers whose babies are hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit. Up to five human milk samples per participant were analyzed for protein, carbohydrate, and fat content using reference chemical analyses (Kjeldahl for protein, high pressure liquid chromatography for carbohydrates, and Mojonnier for fat). Calorie content was calculated. A total of 64 samples from 24 participants was analyzed. Wide variability was found in calorie, protein, carbohydrate, and fat composition. The authors found an average of 17.9 kcal/ounce, with only 34% of samples falling within 10% of the expected caloric density. The assumption that human milk contains 20 kcal/ounce is no longer supported based on this study. This supports promoting an individualized nutrition strategy as a crucial aspect to optimal nutrition.

  14. Nutrient bioassimilation capacity of aquacultured oysters: quantification of an ecosystem service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Colleen B; Stephenson, Kurt; Brown, Bonnie L

    2011-01-01

    Like many coastal zones and estuaries, the Chesapeake Bay has been severely degraded by cultural eutrophication. Rising implementation costs and difficulty achieving nutrient reduction goals associated with point and nonpoint sources suggests that approaches supplemental to source reductions may prove useful in the future. Enhanced oyster aquaculture has been suggested as one potential policy initiative to help rid the Bay waters of excess nutrients via harvest of bioassimilated nutrients. To assess this potential, total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorous (TP), and total carbon (TC) content were measured in oyster tissue and shell at two floating-raft cultivation sites in the Chesapeake Bay. Models were developed based on the common market measurement of total length (TL) for aquacultured oysters, which was strongly correlated to the TN (R2 = 0.76), TP (R2 = 0.78), and TC (R2 = 0.76) content per oyster tissue and shell. These models provide resource managers with a tool to quantify net nutrient removal. Based on model estimates, 10(6) harvest-sized oysters (76 mm TL) remove 132 kg TN, 19 kg TP, and 3823 kg TC. In terms of nutrients removed per unit area, oyster harvest is an effective means of nutrient removal compared with other nonpoint source reduction strategies. At a density of 286 oysters m(-2), assuming no mortality, harvest size nutrient removal rates can be as high as 378 kg TN ha(-1), 54 kg TP ha(-1), and 10,934 kg TC ha(-1) for 76-mm oysters. Removing 1 t N from the Bay would require harvesting 7.7 million 76-mm TL cultivated oysters.

  15. Níveis de proteína bruta em dietas para bovinos de corte: consumo e digestibilidades total e parcial dos nutrientes Crude protein levels in diets of beef cattle: intake and apparent total tract, intestinal, and ruminal digestibilities of nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Andréa Borges Cavalcante

    2005-12-01

    rumen cannulas were randomly assigned to a 4 x 4 Latin square. Each experimental period lasted 20 days with 10 days for diet adaptation and 10 days for sample collection (feces, abomasum digesta, ruminal content, and urine. Chromium oxide was used as the external marker for determination of fecal excretion. Increasing dietary levels of CP did not change significantly the intakes of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, and total digestible nutrients (TDN. However, intake of CP increased while that of ether extract (EE and non-fiber carbohydrate (NFC decreased with the increment of dietary CP. Apparent total tract digestibilities of DM, OM, and CP all increased linearly by increasing the dietary CP from 10.5 to 15%. Except for intestinal digestibility of CP that increased 2.77 percentage units for each 1% increment in the diet CP, the different dietary CP levels did not affect intestinal and ruminal digestibilities of all remaining nutrients in the current trial.

  16. [Relativity among starch quantity, polysaccharides content and total alkaloid content of Dendrobium loddigesii].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hua; Teng, Jianbei; Cai, Yi; Liang, Jie; Zhu, Yilin; Wei, Tao

    2011-12-01

    To find out the relativity among starch quantity, polysaccharides content and total alkaloid content of Dendrobium loddigesii. Microscopy-counting process was applied to starch quantity statistics, sulfuric acid-anthrone colorimetry was used to assay polysaccharides content and bromocresol green colorimetry was used to assay alkaloid content. Pearson product moment correlation analysis, Kendall's rank correlation analysis and Spearman's concordance coefficient analysis were applied to study their relativity. Extremely significant positive correlation was found between starch quantity and polysaccharides content, and significant negative correlation between alkaloid content and starch quantity was discovered, as well was between alkaloid content and polysaccharides content.

  17. Soil nutrient content of old-field and agricultural ecosystems exposed to chronic gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armentano, T.V.; Holt, B.R.; Bottino, P.J.

    1975-01-01

    Soil nutrients (extractable P. and NO 3 -N, exchangeable Ca, Mg and K), exchangeable Al, pH and organic matter content were measured over the top six inches of the soils of the seven-year old-field portion and the cultivated portion of the Brookhaven gamma field. Although concentrations of all nutrient elements were higher in the agricultural soil, the distributions of Ca, P, Al, pH and organic matter were similar along the radiation gradient in both fields. There was also a regular reduction in the phosphorus with decreasing exposure, but distribution of other elements was not clearly related to radiation effects. The distribution of all elements except K was significantly correlated with pH in the agricultural soil. In the old-field only Ca, Mg and Al showed this relationship. The most conspicuous effects of nearly 25 yr of chronic irradiation of the site were a reduction in soil organic matter content and an increase in soil P in both fields. (author)

  18. US-Total Electron Content Product (USTEC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The US Total Electron Content (US-TEC) product is designed to specify TEC over the Continental US (CONUS) in near real-time. The product uses a Kalman Filter data...

  19. Hot topic: apparent total-tract nutrient digestibilities measured commercially using 120-hour in vitro indigestible neutral detergent fiber as a marker are related to commercial dairy cattle performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalla, A; Meyer, L; Meyer, Z; Onetti, S; Schultz, A; Goeser, J

    2012-09-01

    Measuring individual feed nutrient concentration is common practice for field dairy nutritionists. However, accurately measuring nutrient digestibility and using digestion values in total digestible nutrients models is more challenging. Our objective was to determine if in vivo apparent total-tract nutrient digestibility measured with a practical approach was related to commercial milk production parameters. Total mixed ration and fecal samples were collected from high-producing cows in pens on 39 commercial dairies and analyzed at a commercial feed and forage testing laboratory for nutrient concentration and 120-h indigestible NDF (iNDF) content using the Combs-Goeser in vitro digestion technique. The 120-h iNDF was used as an internal marker to calculate in vivo apparent nutrient digestibilities. Two samples were taken from each dairy and were separated in time by at least 3 wk. Samples were targeted to be taken within 7d of Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) herd testing. Approved DHI testers measured individual cow milk weights as well as fat and protein concentrations. Individual cow records were averaged by pen corresponding to the total mixed ration and fecal samples. Formulated diet and dry matter intake (DMI) records for each respective pen were also collected. Mixed model regression analysis with dairy specified as a random effect was used to relate explanatory variables (diet nutrient concentrations, formulated DMI, in vivo apparent nutrient digestibilities, and fecal nutrient concentrations) to milk production measures. Dry matter intake, organic matter (OM) digestibility, fecal crude protein (CP) concentration, and fecal ether extract concentration were related to milk, energy-corrected milk, and fat yields. Milk protein concentration was related to CP digestibility, and milk protein yield was related to DMI, OM digestibility, CP digestibility, and ether extract digestibility. Although many studies have related DMI and OM digestibility to milk production

  20. Nutrient Content And Acceptability Of Snakehead-Fish (Ophiocephalus Striatus) And Pumpkin (Cucurbita Moschata) Based Complementary Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratna Noer, Etika; Candra, Aryu; Panunggal, Binar

    2017-02-01

    Poor nutrient-dense complementary foods is one of the common factors contributed for decline growth pattern in children. Snakehead-fish and Pumpkin Complementary Feeding (SPCF) base on locally food can help to reduce child malnutrition. Specifically, high protein and vitamin A in SPCF may improve immunity and nutrition status of malnutrition children. This study aimed to formulate low-cost, nutritive value and acceptable of SPCF on malnutrition children in coastal area. Carbohydrate content was determined by difference, protein by Kjeldahl, betacaroten by spectofotometri and sensory evaluation using a five point hedonic scale. Fe and zinc was determined by AAS. There is an effect of the substitution of snake-head fish flour and yellow pumpkin flour toward the nutrient content and the acceptability

  1. Profiling contents of water-soluble metabolites and mineral nutrients to evaluate the effects of pesticides and organic and chemical fertilizers on tomato fruit quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Masami; Ohta, Yuko; Licang, Sun; Motoyama, Naoki; Kikuchi, Jun

    2015-02-15

    In this study, the contents of water-soluble metabolites and mineral nutrients were measured in tomatoes cultured using organic and chemical fertilizers, with or without pesticides. Mineral nutrients and water-soluble metabolites were determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry, respectively, and results were analysed by principal components analysis (PCA). The mineral nutrient and water-soluble metabolite profiles differed between organic and chemical fertilizer applications, which accounted for 88.0% and 55.4%, respectively, of the variation. (1)H-(13)C-hetero-nuclear single quantum coherence experiments identified aliphatic protons that contributed to the discrimination of PCA. Pesticide application had little effect on mineral nutrient content (except Fe and P), but affected the correlation between mineral nutrients and metabolites. Differences in the content of mineral nutrients and water-soluble metabolites resulting from different fertilizer and pesticide applications probably affect tomato quality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Nutrient demand in bioventing of fuel oil pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breedveld, G.D.; Hauge, A.; Olstad, G.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of nutrient addition on bioventing of fuel oil pollution in an artificially polluted sandy soil has been studied at different experimental scales to assess the predictive value of laboratory treatability studies. The results of batch studies, laboratory column studies, and pilot-scale field tests (10 tons of soil) were compared. The qualitative response to nutrient addition was comparable in all experiments. Without nutrient addition, a minimal respiration rate was observed. With nutrient addition, respiration rates increased almost instantaneously. The highest rates were observed in the batch studies. The column study and pilot-scale field test indicated similar respiration rates, at approximately one sixth the respiration rates in the batch study. Respiration rates in the pilot-scale field study decreased during the winter season. Analysis of the residual oil composition in soil samples showed a relation between the degree of weathering, measured as the n-C 17 /pristane and n-C 18 /phytane ratio, and nutrient addition. Lower n-C 17 /pristane ratios were observed at higher total nitrogen content. After 1 year of bioventing with nutrient addition, a 66% reduction in TPH content was observed. Without nutrient addition, the residual oil still closely resembled the original fuel oil product, with only minor removal of the light-end compounds

  3. Influence of temperature and nutrient content on lipid production in freshwater microalgae cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIANA E. BOHNENBERGER

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The production of biomass by microalgae is considered a clean alternative compared to other plant crops that require large areas for cultivation and that generate environmental impacts. This study evaluated the influence of temperature and nutrients on lipid contents of cultured species of freshwater microalgae, with a view toward using these lipids for biodiesel production. Two strains of Monoraphidium contortum, a culture containing Chlorella vulgaris and Desmodesmus quadricauda and another strain of Microcystis aeruginosa were maintained in the laboratory for six days, in five culture media: modified ASM-1 (control, with high concentrations of phosphate and nitrate; phosphorus-deficient; non-limiting phosphate; nitrogen-deficient; and non-limiting nitrate. The cultures were then exposed to temperatures of 13°C, 25°C (control and 37°C for eight days (n=3. Lipids were extracted by the cold-solvent (methanol and chloroform method. On average, the highest total lipid yields were observed when the strains were maintained at 13°C and in the non-limiting nitrate medium. The lipid percentage varied depending on the concentration of algal biomass. This study showed that manipulation of controlling factors can increase the lipid concentration, optimizing the total production in order to use this raw material for biodiesel.

  4. Deeper snow alters soil nutrient availability and leaf nutrient status in high Arctic tundra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Semenchuk, Philipp R.; Elberling, Bo; Amtorp, Cecilie

    2015-01-01

    season. Changing nutrient availability may be reflected in plant N and chlorophyll content and lead to increased photosynthetic capacity, plant growth, and ultimately carbon (C) assimilation by plants. In this study, we increased snow depth and thereby cold-season soil temperatures in high Arctic...... Svalbard in two vegetation types spanning three moisture regimes. We measured growing-season availability of ammonium (NH4 (+)), nitrate (NO3 (-)), total dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (TON) in soil; C, N, delta N-15 and chlorophyll content in Salix polaris leaves; and leaf sizes of Salix...

  5. A Comparative Analysis of Nutrients and Mineral Elements Content ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (Mg), Iron (Fe), Copper (Cu) and Zinc (Zn) content, while P. pedicellatum has high ... INTRODUCTION ... central to animal production and productivity. .... for growth and serve as structural element in all plant ... the animal's body, it ensured correct maintenance of ... Ash content because Ash is the approximation of total.

  6. 'Economy' line foods from four supermarkets and brand name equivalents: a comparison of their nutrient contents and costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, S; Nelson, M

    2003-10-01

    Achieving healthy eating targets for low income households can be difficult because of economic barriers. Several UK supermarkets have introduced 'value line' or 'economy line' foods to improve their attractiveness to low income consumers. The costs and nutrient contents of five 'economy' line products of four major English supermarkets - Asda, KwikSave, Sainsbury and Tesco - were compared with branded (but not 'own label') equivalents. Single samples of tinned tomatoes, long-life orange juice, potatoes, sausages and white bread were purchased in each supermarket. They represented items of potential importance in relation to 'healthy' choices in the shopping baskets of low income households. Nutrients analysed were fat, sodium, potassium, iron, calcium, vitamin C, and energy. Economy line foods had a nutrient composition similar to and often better than the branded goods. The economy line products frequently had nutrient contents more in line with the Balance of Good Health (e.g. lower fat and sodium) compared with the branded goods. In terms of nutrients per pence, the economy line products were far better value for money compared with the branded lines. Economy line foods represent excellent value for money and are not nutritionally inferior to the branded products. They have a potentially important role to play in the promotion of healthy eating, especially amongst low income households.

  7. Total content and bioavailability of plant essential nutrients and heavy metals in top-soils of an industrialized area of Northwestern Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barouchas, Pantelis; Avramidis, Pavlos; Salachas, Georgios; Koulopoulos, Athanasios; Christodoulopoulou, Kyriaki; Liopa-Tsakalidi, Aglaia

    2017-04-01

    Thirty surface soil samples from northwestern Greece in the Ptolemais-Kozani basin, were collected and analyzed for their total content in thirteen elements (Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn) by ICP-AES and bioavailable content from a plant nutrition scope of view for (Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Zn) by AAS and colorimetric techniques. Particle size distribution, Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) and the magnetic susceptibility, in a low and a high frequency (at 47kHz and 0.47kHz), of soil samples were measured also in order to correlate the results. Total carbonates were tested by the pressure technique (BD Inventions, FOGII digital soil calcimeter). The concentrations of these elements were compared with international standards and guidelines. The results indicated that Cu, Cd, Zn and Pb are found enriched in the top soils of the study area, mainly as a consequence of natural processes from the surrounding rocks. Moreover, the bioavailability of some of these elements with a plant nutrition interest was tested and results indicate that they do not pose an immediate threat to the environment or crops as it all demonstrated values in an adequate range. Magnetic susceptibility in low and high frequency was correlated with clay content.

  8. Variability in the contents of pork meat nutrients and how it may affect food composition databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reig, Milagro; Aristoy, M-Concepción; Toldrá, Fidel

    2013-10-01

    Pork meat is generally recognised as a food with relevant nutritional properties because of its content in high biological value proteins, group B vitamins, minerals especially heme iron, trace elements and other bioactive compounds. But pork meat also contributes to the intake of fat, saturated fatty acids, cholesterol, and other substances that, in inappropriate amounts, may result in negative physiologically effects. However, there are relevant factors affecting the content of many of these substances and somehow such variability should be taken into consideration. So, genetics, age and even type of muscle have a relevant influence on the amount of fat and the contents in heme iron. Also the composition in fatty acids of triacylglycerols is very sensitive to the contents of cereals in the feed; for instance, polyunsaturated fatty acids may range from 10% to 22% in pork meat. The content of other nutrients, like vitamins E and A, are also depending on the type of feed. Some bioactive substances like coenzyme Q10, taurine, glutamine, creatine, creatinine, carnosine and anserine show a large dependence on the type of muscle. This manuscript describes the main factors affecting the composition of pork meat nutrients and how these changes may affect the general food composition databases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Marketing foods to children: a comparison of nutrient content between children's and non-children's products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lythgoe, Amelia; Roberts, Caireen; Madden, Angela M; Rennie, Kirsten L

    2013-12-01

    The predominance of marketing of products high in fat, sugar and/or salt to children has been well documented and implicated in the incidence of obesity. The present study aimed to determine whether foods marketed to children in UK supermarkets are nutritionally similar to the non-children's equivalent, focusing on food categories that may be viewed as healthier options. Nutritional data were collected on yoghurts (n 147), cereal bars (n 145) and ready meals (n 144) from seven major UK supermarkets and categorised as children's or non-children's products based on the characteristics, promotional nature or information on the product packaging. Fat, sugar and salt content was compared per 100 g and per recommended portion size. UK. Per 100 g, children's yoghurts and cereal bars were higher in total sugars, fat and saturated fat than the non-children's; this was significant for all except sugar and total fat in cereal bars. Per portion these differences remained, except for sugars in yoghurts. Conversely children's ready meals were significantly lower in these nutrients per portion than non-children's, but not when expressed per 100 g. Children's yoghurts and ready meals had significantly lower sodium content than non-children's both per portion and per 100 g. Significant differences between the nutritional composition of children's and non-children's products were observed but varied depending on the unit reference. A significant number of products marketed towards children were higher in fat, sugar and salt than those marketed to the general population.

  10. Nutrient Content and Nutritional Water Productivity of Selected Grain Legumes in Response to Production Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibarabada, Tendai Polite; Modi, Albert Thembinkosi; Mabhaudhi, Tafadzwanashe

    2017-10-26

    There is a need to incorporate nutrition into aspects of crop and water productivity to tackle food and nutrition insecurity (FNS). The study determined the nutritional water productivity (NWP) of selected major (groundnut, dry bean) and indigenous (bambara groundnut and cowpea) grain legumes in response to water regimes and environments. Field trials were conducted during 2015/16 and 2016/17 at three sites in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa (Ukulinga, Fountainhill and Umbumbulu). Yield and evapotranspiration (ET) data were collected. Grain was analysed for protein, fat, Ca, Fe and Zn nutrient content (NC). Yield, ET and NC were then used to compute NWP. Overall, the major legumes performed better than the indigenous grain legumes. Groundnut had the highest NWP fat . Groundnut and dry bean had the highest NWP protein . For NWP Fe, Zn and Ca , dry bean and cowpea were more productive. Yield instability caused fluctuations in NWP. Water treatments were not significant ( p > 0.05). While there is scope to improve NWP under rainfed conditions, a lack of crop improvement currently limits the potential of indigenous grain legumes. This provides an initial insight on the nutrient content and NWP of a limited number of selected grain legumes in response to the production environment. There is a need for follow-up research to include cowpea data. Future studies should provide more experimental data and explore effects of additional factors such as management practices (fertiliser levels and plant density), climate and edaphic factors on nutrient content and NWP of crops.

  11. Characteristic of Soil Nutrients Loss in Beiyunhe Reservoir Under the Simulated Rainfall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Cao

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Field nutrient loss from soil became the major factor of the water pollution control in countryside in China. Beiyunhe reservoir is located in semiarid zone, where field nutrient loss distributed in summer. To assess the flied nutrient loss in Beiyunhe reservoir, we conducted experiments to study the characteristic of soil nutrients loss by analysis of the content of runoff water, soil nutrients and runoff water sediment under simulated rainfall. The results showed that the runoff happened in the rainstorm. In runoff water, the content of TN was 4.7~11.3 mg·L-1, ammonia nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen accounted for 44.51% of TN; the content of P was 0.66~1.35 mg·L-1, water soluble phosphorus accounted for 54.08% of TP. And the main loss of nutrients was in the surface soil, the loss of TN, NH4+-N, NO3--N, TP and DP were 29.79%, 52.09%, 10.21%, 16.48% and 5.27%, respectively. However, the most of field nutrient loss were in runoff sediment, the content of TN and TP were 0.66~1.27 mg·g-1 and 14.73~20 mg·g-1 in sediment, and TN and TP account for 82.28% and 99.89% of total loss of nutrient. After the rainstorm, the macro-aggregates were reduced 8.8%, and the micro-aggregates increased 9.5%.

  12. The effect of salt stress on growth, chlorophyll content, proline and nutrient accumulation, and k/na ratio in walnut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akca, Y.; Samsunlu, E

    2012-01-01

    The effects of irrigation water salinity on growth, chlorophyll contents, proline and nutrients accumulation and K/Na ratio in three walnut cultivars was investigated. Three irrigation water salinity levels with electrical conductivities of 1,5, 3, and 5.0 dS/m and tap water as a control treatment were used in a randomized design with four replications. Irrigation practices were realized by considering the weight of each pot. Sodium, clor, proline, K/Na and Ca/Na ratio of leaf were increased under salinity conditions. But growth of plant and chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b content were decreased under saline condition. There were significant differences between in irrigation water salinity levels in proline and chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, Na content. But there were not any significant differences in LRWC (%). Results showed that, regarding fresh shoot weight, dry shoot and root weight, there were significant differences between cultivars, but chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, proline accumulation and leaf relative water content (LRWC) there weren't any significant differences between cultivars. Kaman 1 and Bilecik walnut cultivars showed higher accumulation of proline than Kaman 5 but was not observed significant difference between them. (author)

  13. Interspecific variation in total phenolic content in temperate brown algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Mannino

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Marine algae synthesize secondary metabolites such as polyphenols that function as defense and protection mechanisms. Among brown algae, Fucales and Dictyotales (Phaeophyceae contain the highest levels of phenolic compounds, mainly phlorotannins, that play multiple roles. Four temperate brown algae (Cystoseira amentacea, Cystoseira compressa, Dictyopteris polypodioides and Padina pavonica were studied for total phenolic contents. Total phenolic content was determined colorimetrically with the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Significant differences in total phenolic content were observed between leathery and sheetlike algae and also within each morphological group. Among the four species, the sheet-like alga D. polypodioides, living in the upper infralittoral zone, showed the highest concentration of phenolic compounds. These results are in agreement with the hypothesis that total phenolic content in temperate brown algae is influenced by a combination of several factors, such as growth form, depth, and exposition to solar radiation.

  14. The impact of food and nutrient-based standards on primary school children's lunch and total dietary intake: a natural experimental evaluation of government policy in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Suzanne; Delve, Jennifer; Stamp, Elaine; Matthews, John N S; White, Martin; Adamson, Ashley J

    2013-01-01

    In 2005, the nutritional content of children's school lunches in England was widely criticised, leading to a major policy change in 2006. Food and nutrient-based standards were reintroduced requiring primary schools to comply by September 2008. We aimed to determine the effect of the policy on the nutritional content at lunchtime and in children's total diet. We undertook a natural experimental evaluation, analysing data from cross-sectional surveys in 12 primary schools in North East England, pre and post policy. Dietary data were collected on four consecutive days from children aged 4-7 years (n = 385 in 2003-4; n = 632 in 2008-9). We used linear mixed effect models to analyse the effects of gender, year, and lunch type on children's mean total daily intake. Both pre- and post-implementation, children who ate a school lunch consumed less sodium (mean change -128 mg, 95% CI: -183 to -73 mg) in their total diet than children eating home-packed lunches. Post-implementation, children eating school lunches consumed a lower % energy from fat (-1.8%, -2.8 to -0.9) and saturated fat (-1.0%; -1.6 to -0.5) than children eating packed lunches. Children eating school lunches post implementation consumed significantly more carbohydrate (16.4 g, 5.3 to 27.6), protein (3.6 g, 1.1 to 6.0), non-starch polysaccharides (1.5 g, 0.5 to 1.9), vitamin C (0.7 mg, 0.6 to 0.8), and folate (12.3 µg, 9.7 to 20.4) in their total diet than children eating packed lunches. Implementation of school food policy standards was associated with significant improvements in the nutritional content of school lunches; this was reflected in children's total diet. School food- and nutrient-based standards can play an important role in promoting dietary health and may contribute to tackling childhood obesity. Similar policy measures should be considered for other environments influencing children's diet.

  15. The impact of food and nutrient-based standards on primary school children's lunch and total dietary intake: a natural experimental evaluation of government policy in England.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Spence

    Full Text Available In 2005, the nutritional content of children's school lunches in England was widely criticised, leading to a major policy change in 2006. Food and nutrient-based standards were reintroduced requiring primary schools to comply by September 2008. We aimed to determine the effect of the policy on the nutritional content at lunchtime and in children's total diet. We undertook a natural experimental evaluation, analysing data from cross-sectional surveys in 12 primary schools in North East England, pre and post policy. Dietary data were collected on four consecutive days from children aged 4-7 years (n = 385 in 2003-4; n = 632 in 2008-9. We used linear mixed effect models to analyse the effects of gender, year, and lunch type on children's mean total daily intake. Both pre- and post-implementation, children who ate a school lunch consumed less sodium (mean change -128 mg, 95% CI: -183 to -73 mg in their total diet than children eating home-packed lunches. Post-implementation, children eating school lunches consumed a lower % energy from fat (-1.8%, -2.8 to -0.9 and saturated fat (-1.0%; -1.6 to -0.5 than children eating packed lunches. Children eating school lunches post implementation consumed significantly more carbohydrate (16.4 g, 5.3 to 27.6, protein (3.6 g, 1.1 to 6.0, non-starch polysaccharides (1.5 g, 0.5 to 1.9, vitamin C (0.7 mg, 0.6 to 0.8, and folate (12.3 µg, 9.7 to 20.4 in their total diet than children eating packed lunches. Implementation of school food policy standards was associated with significant improvements in the nutritional content of school lunches; this was reflected in children's total diet. School food- and nutrient-based standards can play an important role in promoting dietary health and may contribute to tackling childhood obesity. Similar policy measures should be considered for other environments influencing children's diet.

  16. Variability in the reported energy, total fat and saturated fat contents in fast-food products across ten countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziauddeen, Nida; Fitt, Emily; Edney, Louise; Dunford, Elizabeth; Neal, Bruce; Jebb, Susan A

    2015-11-01

    Fast foods are often energy dense and offered in large serving sizes. Observational data have linked the consumption of fast foods to an increased risk of obesity and related diseases. We surveyed the reported energy, total fat and saturated fat contents, and serving sizes, of fast-food items from five major chains across ten countries, comparing product categories as well as specific food items available in most countries. MRC Human Nutrition Research, Cambridge, UK. Data for 2961 food and drink products were collected, with most from Canada (n 550) and fewest from the United Arab Emirates (n 106). There was considerable variability in energy and fat contents of fast foods across countries, reflecting both the portfolio of products and serving size variability. Differences in total energy between countries were particularly noted for chicken dishes (649-1197 kJ/100 g) and sandwiches (552-1050 kJ/100g). When comparing the same product between countries variations were consistently observed in total energy and fat contents (g/100 g); for example, extreme variation in McDonald's Chicken McNuggets with 12 g total fat/100 g in Germany compared with 21·1 g/100 g in New Zealand. These cross-country variations highlight the possibility for further product reformulation in many countries to reduce nutrients of concern and improve the nutritional profiles of fast-food products around the world. Standardisation of serving sizes towards the lower end of the range would also help to reduce the risk of overconsumption.

  17. Variability in the reported energy, total fat and saturated fat content in fast food products across ten countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziauddeen, Nida; Fitt, Emily; Edney, Louise; Dunford, Elizabeth; Neal, Bruce; Jebb, Susan A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Fast foods are often energy dense and offered in large serving sizes. Observational data has linked the consumption of fast food to an increased risk of obesity and related diseases. Design We surveyed the reported energy, total fat and saturated fat contents, and serving sizes, of fast food items from five major chains across 10 countries, comparing product categories as well as specific food items available in most countries. Setting MRC Human Nutrition Research (HNR), Cambridge Subjects Data for 2961 food and drink products were collected, with most from Canada (n=550) and fewest from United Arab Emirates (n=106). Results There was considerable variability in energy and fat content of fast food across countries, reflecting both the portfolio of products, and serving size variability. Differences in total energy between countries were particularly noted for chicken dishes (649-1197kJ/100g) and sandwiches (552-1050kJ/100g). When comparing the same product between countries variations were consistently observed in total energy and fat content (g/100g) with extreme variation in McDonald’s Chicken McNuggets with 12g total fat (g/100g) in Germany compared to 21.1g in New Zealand. Conclusions These cross-country variations highlight the possibility for further product reformulation in many countries to reduce nutrients of concern and improve the nutritional profiles of fast food products around the world. Standardisation of serving sizes towards the lower end of the range would also help to reduce the risk of overconsumption. PMID:25702788

  18. Trends in Nutrient Content of Children's Menu Items in U.S. Chain Restaurants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Alyssa J.; Block, Jason P.; Goshev, Simo G.; Bleich, Sara N.; Roberto, Christina A.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Restaurant food is widely consumed by children and is associated with poor diet quality. Although many restaurants have made voluntary commitments to improve the nutritional quality of children's menus, it is unclear whether this has led to meaningful changes. Methods Nutrients in children's menu items (n=4,016) from 45 chain restaurants were extracted from the nutrition information database MenuStat. Bootstrapped mixed linear models estimated changes in mean calories, saturated fat, and sodium in children's menu items between 2012 and 2013, 2014, and 2015. Changes in nutrient content of these items over time were compared among restaurants participating in the Kids LiveWell initiative and non-participating restaurants. Types of available children's beverages were also examined. Data were analyzed in 2016. Results There was a significant increase in mean beverage calories from 2012 to 2013 (6, 95% CI=0.8, 10.6) and from 2012 to 2014 (11, 95% CI=3.7, 18.3), but no change between 2012 and 2015, and no differences in nutrient content of other items over time. Restaurants participating in Kids LiveWell reduced entrée calories between 2012 and 2013 (−24, 95% CI= −40.4, −7.2) and between 2012 and 2014 (−40, 95% CI= −68.1, −11.4) and increased side dish calories between 2012 and 2015 (49, 95% CI=4.6, 92.7) versus non-participating restaurants. Sugar-sweetened beverages consistently constituted 80% of children's beverages, with soda declining and flavored milks increasing between 2012 and 2015. Conclusions Results suggest little progress toward improving nutrition in children's menu items. Efforts are needed to engage restaurants in offering healthful children's meals. PMID:28089130

  19. Comparison of total phenolic content and composition of individual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A successful peanut breeding to obtain genotypes with greater phenolic content requires information on type and content of phenolic compounds in parental peanut genotypes. The aim of this study was to investigate the total phenolic contents and phenolic acid profiles of 15 Valencia-type peanut genotypes both in peanut ...

  20. An Integrated Multimodal Sensor for the On-site Monitoring of the Water Content and Nutrient Concentration of Soil by Measuring the Phase and Electrical Conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato FUTAGAWA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We have fabricated a new multimodal sensor chip which is capable of simultaneous on-site measurements of the water content and nutrient concentration. Until now, in agriculture, water content sensors, such as TDR sensors, have been unable to provide accurate measurements, since these sensors are affected by the nutrient concentration in the soil solution. Therefore, tensiometers have generally been used. However, these are large-scale sensors and are not suitable for the precise measurements required in agriculture. Our proposed sensors are the world’s first to enable independent measurements of the water content and nutrient concentration.

  1. Ethnobotanical study and nutrient content of indigenous vegetables consumed in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    SUSI KRESNATITA; YULA MIRANDA; HASTIN E.N.C. CHOTIMAH

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. Chotimah HENC, Kresnatita S, Miranda Y. 2013. Ethnobotanical study and nutrient content of indigenous vegetables consumed in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 14: 106-111. People in Central Kalimantan consume vegetables that collected from the wild or traditionally cultivated. Documentation effort of them is very important because of the diversity of local vegetable are threatened with extinction due to the conversion of peat land and forest fires. This study aims to dete...

  2. Estimation of Total Body Fat from Potassium-40 Content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taha Mohamed Taha Ahmed, T.M.T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper concerns on estimation of total body fat from potassium 40 content using total body counting technique. The work performed using fast scan whole body counter. Calibration of that system for K-40 was carried out under assumption that uniformity distribution of radioactivity of potassium was distributed in 10 polyethylene bottles phantom. Different body sizes were represented by 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 polyethylene bottles; each bottle has a volume of 0.04 m3. The counting efficiency for each body size was determined. Lean body weight (LBW) was calculated for ten males and ten females using appropriate mathematical equation. Total Body Potassium, TBK for the same selected group was measured using whole body counter. A mathematical relationship between lean body weight and potassium content was deduced .Fat contents for some individuals were calculated and weight/height ratio was indicated for fatness.

  3. Dynamics of inorganic nutrients in intertidal sediments: porewater, exchangeable and intracellular pools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio eGarcia-Robledo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The study of inorganic nutrients dynamics in shallow sediments usually focuses on two main pools: the porewater (PW nutrients and the exchangeable (EX ammonium and phosphate. Recently, it has been found that microphytobenthos (MPB and other microorganisms can accumulate large amounts of nutrients intracellularly (IC, highlighting the biogeochemical importance of this nutrient pool. Storing nutrients could support the growth of autotrophs when nutrients are not available, and could also provide alternative electron acceptors for dissimilatory processes such as nitrate reduction. Here, we studied the magnitude and relative importance of these three nutrient pools (PW, IC and EX and their relation to chlorophylls (used as a proxy for MPB abundance and organic matter (OM contents in an intertidal mudflat of Cadiz Bay (Spain. MPB was localized in the first 4 mm of the sediment and showed a clear seasonal pattern; highest chlorophylls content was found during autumn and lowest during spring-summer. The temporal and spatial distribution of nutrients pools and MPB were largely correlated. Ammonium was higher in the IC and EX fractions, representing on average 59 and 37% of the total ammonium pool, respectively. Similarly, phosphate in the IC and EX fractions accounted on average for 40 and 31% of the total phosphate pool, respectively. Nitrate in the PW was low, suggesting low nitrification activity and rapid consumption. Nitrate accumulated in the IC pool during periods of moderate MPB abundance, being up to 66% of the total nitrate pool, whereas it decreased when chlorophyll concentration peaked likely due to a high nitrogen demand. EX-Nitrate accounted for the largest fraction of total sediment nitrate, 66% on average. The distribution of EX-Nitrate was significantly correlated with chlorophyll and OM, which probably indicates a relation of this pool to an increased availability of sites for ionic adsorption. This EX-Nitrate pool could represent an

  4. Effects of physically effective neutral detergent fiber content on dry matter intake, digestibility, and chewing activity in Korean native goats ( fed with total mixed ration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se Young Jang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective This experiment was to determine proper physical traits in the diet for goats by investigating the effects of physically effective neutral detergent fiber (peNDF content on dry matter intake (DMI, digestibility, and chewing activity in black goats fed with total mixed ration (TMR. Methods Six growing wethers of Korean native black goats (Capra hircus coreanae aged 8 months and weighing between 26.9 kg and 27.1 kg (27.03±5.05 kg were used in this experiment. Three diets of varying peNDF content were obtained by original TMR (T1, 12,000 rpm grinding (T2, and 15,500 rpm grinding (T3 of the same TMR diet. The peNDF1.18 content of the experimental diets was 23.85%, 21.71%, and 16.22% for T1, T2, and T3, respectively. Results Average daily gain (ADG was higher in T2 group compared to those of the control and T3 groups, but ADG and DMI were not affected by the dietary particle size and peNDF content. Also, there was no difference between apparent nutrient digestibility of dry matter, crude fiber, ether extract, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber. Although there was no significant difference, rumination and total chewing time were associated with decreased peNDF content. Conclusion The feeding of peNDF-based TMR showed no impact on apparent nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance. Further studies are required with a wider range of dietary peNDF level and particle size to better identify the effect of dietary peNDF and particle size on chewing activity and performance in goats.

  5. Nutrient and Organic Carbon Losses, Enrichment Rate, and Cost of Water Erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildegardis Bertol

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Soil erosion from water causes loss of nutrients and organic carbon, enriches the environment outside the erosion site, and results in costs. The no-tillage system generates increased nutrient and C content in the topsoil and, although it controls erosion, it can produce a more enriched runoff than in the conventional tillage system. This study was conducted in a Humic Cambisol in natural rainfall from 1997 to 2012 to quantify the contents and total losses of nutrients and organic C in soil runoff, and to calculate the enrichment rates and the cost of these losses. The treatments evaluated were: a soil with a crop, consisting of conventional tillage with one plowing + two harrowings (CT, minimum tillage with one chisel plowing + one harrowing (MT, and no tillage (NT; and b bare soil: one plowing + two harrowings (BS. In CT, MT, and NT, black oat, soybean, vetch, corn, turnip, and black beans were cultivated. Over the 15 years, 15.5 Mg ha-1 of limestone, 525 kg ha-1 of N (urea, 1,302 kg ha-1 of P2O5 (triple superphosphate, and 1,075 kg ha-1 of K2O (potassium chloride were used in the soil. The P, K, Ca, Mg, and organic C contents in the soil were determined and also the P, K, Ca, and Mg sediments in the runoff water. From these contents, the total losses, the enrichment rates (ER, and financial losses were calculated. The NT increased the P, K, and organic C contents in the topsoil. The nutrients and organic C content in the runoff from NT was greater than from CT, showing that NT was not a fully conservationist practice for soil. The linear model y = a + bx fit the data within the level of significance (p≤0.01 when the values of P, K, and organic C in the sediments from erosion were related to those values in the soil surface layer. The nutrient and organic C contents were higher in the sediments from erosion than in the soil where the erosion originated, generating values of ER>1 for P, K, and organic C. The value of the total losses

  6. Trends in Nutrient Content of Children's Menu Items in U.S. Chain Restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Alyssa J; Block, Jason P; Goshev, Simo G; Bleich, Sara N; Roberto, Christina A

    2017-03-01

    Restaurant food is widely consumed by children and is associated with poor diet quality. Although many restaurants have made voluntary commitments to improve the nutritional quality of children's menus, it is unclear whether this has led to meaningful changes. Nutrients in children's menu items (n=4,016) from 45 chain restaurants were extracted from the nutrition information database MenuStat. Bootstrapped mixed linear models estimated changes in mean calories, saturated fat, and sodium in children's menu items between 2012 and 2013, 2014, and 2015. Changes in nutrient content of these items over time were compared among restaurants participating in the Kids LiveWell initiative and non-participating restaurants. Types of available children's beverages were also examined. Data were analyzed in 2016. There was a significant increase in mean beverage calories from 2012 to 2013 (6, 95% CI=0.8, 10.6) and from 2012 to 2014 (11, 95% CI=3.7, 18.3), but no change between 2012 and 2015, and no differences in nutrient content of other items over time. Restaurants participating in Kids LiveWell reduced entrée calories between 2012 and 2013 (-24, 95% CI= -40.4, -7.2) and between 2012 and 2014 (-40, 95% CI= -68.1, -11.4) and increased side dish calories between 2012 and 2015 (49, 95% CI=4.6, 92.7) versus non-participating restaurants. Sugar-sweetened beverages consistently constituted 80% of children's beverages, with soda declining and flavored milks increasing between 2012 and 2015. Results suggest little progress toward improving nutrition in children's menu items. Efforts are needed to engage restaurants in offering healthful children's meals. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Total and available metal contents in sediments by synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Silvana; Sobrinho, Gilmar A.; Jesus, Edgar F.O. de; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2002-01-01

    In this work the total and available contents of Al, Si, Cl, K, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Zr, Ba, Ce and Pb in sediments from river Atibaia were determined by Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence technique. The detection limits for K series varies from 200 ng.mL -1 for Al to 2 ng.mL -1 for Zn while for L series the value varies from 20 ng.mL -1 for Ba to 10 ng.mL -1 for Pb. The samples were submitted to two different processes, in order to obtain the total and biological available metal contents. The information about metal content is a important parameter for a correct evaluation about the hydrologic cycle in Piracicaba basin. All the measure were carried out at the National Synchrotron Light Laboratory, Campinas, SP, Brazil, using a white beam for excitation. (author)

  8. Different growing conditions affect nutrient content, fruit yield and growth in strawberry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirsory, L.; Demirsoy, H.; Balci, G.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of organic and conventional growing on contents of some nutrient elements, nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P), potassium (K), iron (Fe), and manganese (Mn), yield and some growth parameters such as leaf area, petiole length, petiole diameter, crown number, crow n diameter, leaf, root dry weight in 'Sweet Charlie' and 'Camarosa' strawberry cultivars. This study consisted of two strawberry cultivars ('Camarosa' and 'Sweet Charlie'), two growing systems (organic and conventional growing) and two different mulches (black and floating sheet). There was significant difference among treatments in terms of P, K, and Mn content in root and Fe content in leaf and yield and some growth parameters. The best treatment in terms of yield and growth parameters was conventional growing with black plastic in 'Camarosa' while the best treatments were organic growing with floating sheet and black plastic in 'Sweet Charlie' in terms of P, K in root and organic growing with floating sheet in 'Sweet Charlie' in terms of Fe in leaf. (author)

  9. Phytochemical screening, total phenolic, total flavonoids contents and antioxidant activity of cinchona ledgeriana leaves ethanol extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundowo, Andini; Artanti, Nina; Hanafi, M.; Minarti, Primahana, Gian

    2017-11-01

    C ledgeriana is a medicinal plant that contains alkaloids, especially on the barks for commercial production of quinine as antimalarial. The main alkaloids in this plant are cinchonine, cinchonidine, quinine and quinidine. Besides for antiamalarial this plant is also commonly used to treat whooping cough, influenza and dysentery. Compare to other medicinal plants, nowadays only very few studies were conducted in Cinchona species. Our current study aims to determine the content of phytochemical, total phenol and total flavonoids from C. ledgeriana leaves 70% ethanol extract. The extraction was performed by maceration method using 70% ethanol solvent and then fractionated into hexane, ethylacetate and butanol. Phytochemical screening was performed to determine the content of alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins and saponins. Total phenol and flavonoid contents of the extract were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu and alumunium chloride colorimetric methods using gallic acid and quercetin as standards. The antioxidant activity was determined by using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. The results of phytochemical screening showed that the 70% ethanol extract of C. ledgeriana leaves contained alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins and saponins. The total phenol and total flavonoids analysis showed that ethyl acetate fraction had the highest total phenol (40.23%) and total flavonoids (65.34%).

  10. Effect of feeding level on ileal and total tract digestibility of nutrients and energy from soybean meal-based diets for piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerke, M; Mosenthin, R; Jezierny, D; Sauer, N; Piepho, H-P; Messerschmidt, U; Eklund, M

    2014-12-01

    A total of 36 piglets with an initial body weight (BW) of 5.6 ± 0.7 kg, fitted with simple T-cannulas at the distal ileum, were used to evaluate the effect of three graded feeding levels (50, 75 or 100 g/kg BW(0.75) day) on apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and total tract digestibility (ATTD) of dry matter (DM), nitrogen (N) and energy, and on ATTD of organic matter (OM), ether extracts (EE), neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF) and digestible (DE), metabolisable (ME) and net energy (NE) content in soybean meal (SBM)-casein-cornstarch-based diets. The AID of DM, N and energy and ATTD of NDF, ADF and EE in the diets were not affected (p > 0.05) by the feed intake (FI) level. There was a small decrease in ATTD of DM, N (CP), OM, ash and energy, and in DE, ME and NE content in the diets (p digestibility values, and for estimating urinary endogenous N loss. High variability in estimates of ileal endogenous N loss and total tract endogenous losses of N, EE and ash reflects great variation in individual endogenous losses between animals. Estimation of true total tract digestibility of N, EE and ash by regression analysis was affected by their decrease in ATTD with increasing FI level, as estimates for true digestibility were lower compared to their apparent values. The present results suggest that FI level can affect both apparent and true total tract nutrient digestibility in piglets. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Rapid, accurate, and direct determination of total lycopene content in tomato paste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicanic, D.; Anese, M.; Luterotti, S.; Dadarlat, D.; Gibkes, J.; Lubbers, M.

    2003-01-01

    Lycopene that imparts red color to the tomato fruit is the most potent antioxidant among carotenes, an important nutrient and also used as a color ingredient in many food formulations. Since cooked and processed foods derived from tomatoes were shown to provide optimal lycopene boost, products such as paste, puree, juice, etc. are nowadays gaining popularity as dietary sources. The analysis of lycopene in tomato paste (partially dehydrated product prepared by vacuum concentrating tomato juice) is carried out using either high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), spectrophotometry, or by evaluating the color. The instability of lycopene during processes of extraction, etc., handling, and disposal of organic solvents makes the preparation of a sample for the analysis a delicate task. Despite a recognized need for accurate and rapid assessment of lycopene in tomato products no such method is available at present. The study described here focuses on a direct determination of a total lycopene content in different tomato pastes by means of the laser optothermal window (LOW) method at 502 nm. The concentration of lycopene in tomato paste ranged between 25 and 150 mg per 100 g product; the results are in excellent agreement with those obtained by spectrophotometry. The time needed to complete LOW analysis is very short, so that decomposition of pigment and the formation of artifacts are minimized. Preliminary results indicate a good degree of reproducibility making the LOW method suitable for routine assays of lycopene content in tomato paste.

  12. Nutrient solution and substrates for ‘cedro doce’ (Pochota fendleri seedling production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar J. Smiderle

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study assessed the effect of different substrates and addition of nutrient solution on the production of Pochota fendleri seedlings, leaf contents of macro and micronutrients and chlorophyll a and b. The experimental design was completely randomized, in a 3 x 2 factorial scheme, with four replicates. The factors were three substrates, with or without addition of nutrient solution, composing six treatments: (T1 = sand; (T2 = soil; (T3 = sand + soil (1:1; (T4 = sand + nutrient solution; (T5 = soil + nutrient solution; (T6 = sand + soil + nutrient solution. Growth characteristics (height, collar diameter, shoot dry matter, root dry matter, root/shoot ratio and total dry matter and contents of macro- and micronutrients and chlorophyll a and b were evaluated. The use of nutrient solution reduces the time to obtain seedlings of Pochota fendleri, and it is important for proper growth and quality of seedlings. The sequence of nutritional requirement presented by Pochota fendleri seedlings in three substrates with addition of nutrient solution follows the descending order: macronutrients (N > Ca > K > Mg > P > S and micronutrients (Fe > Mn > B > Zn > Cu.

  13. Nutrient content in macrophyta collected from southern Baltic Sea beaches in relation to eutrophication and biogas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucholc, K.; Szymczak-Żyła, M.; Lubecki, L. [Marine Pollution Laboratory, Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Powstańców Warszawy 55, 81-712 Sopot (Poland); Zamojska, A. [University of Gdańsk, Department of Econometrics, ul. Armii Krajowej 101, 81-824 Sopot (Poland); Hapter, P. [Marine Pollution Laboratory, Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Powstańców Warszawy 55, 81-712 Sopot (Poland); Tjernström, E. [Environmental Department, Trelleborg Municipality, Algatan 13, 231 83 Trelleborg (Sweden); Kowalewska, G. [Marine Pollution Laboratory, Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Powstańców Warszawy 55, 81-712 Sopot (Poland)

    2014-03-01

    One of the signs of eutrophication is the excessive growth of opportunistic macroalgae, a worldwide phenomenon also observed in the Baltic Sea. Mats of macroalgae may drift long distances and accumulate at the seashore, considerably decreasing the recreational value of beaches. The matter accumulating at the shore is treated usually as waste. However, it could be used, for example, as a resource for biogas production. The aim of this work was to verify the hypothesis that collecting of macrophyta accumulating on the beach and potential usage of this material for biogas production will decrease nutrient reserves in the sea to counteract eutrophication and the increase in greenhouse effects. Samples of macrophyta were collected in 2011 and 2012 and analysed for their C, N, and P contents, and degree of degradation (% Chl-a in the sum of chloropigments-a); the results were analysed statistically. The nutrient content was studied in macrophyta accumulating on the beach (Sopot, Gulf of Gdańsk, Poland) and for comparison, macrophyta collected from their habitats in less nutrient polluted area (off the Skåre coast, Trelleborg, Sweden). The nutrient content (N, P) in macrophyta depends primarily on their morphology and only secondarily on environmental nutrient pollution. Collecting the macrophyta biomass accumulating on beaches will not significantly change the eutrophication of the Baltic as a whole; any improvements in this respect are likely to be on a local scale only. Collecting macrophyta removes more nitrogen than phosphorous, so this would decrease the N/P ratio in seawater. This macrophyta biomass is a substantial reserve of renewable energy, which could be utilized with the appropriate technology for biomass collection/preservation and biofuel production as an additive to other carbon-rich biomasses. And the biofuel production should be evaluated not only from the standpoint of economic efficiency but also from the environmental point of view. - Highlights:

  14. Protein and mineral nutrient contents in kernels from 72 sweet almond cultivars and accessions grown in France, Greece and Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drogoudi, Pavlina D; Pantelidis, Georgios; Bacchetta, Loretta; De Giorgio, Donato; Duval, Henri; Metzidakis, Ioannis; Spera, Daniella

    2013-03-01

    Almond protein and potassium (K), phosphorus (P), calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) contents were determined in 72 cultivars and accessions grown in France, Greece and Italy, as part of the networking of European SAFENUT AGRI GEN RES project, which aimed to explore and valorize the almond genetic resources in Europe. Great variation was found in the nutrient content and the amount of nutrient supplied when consuming the recommended daily amount of one serving of almond, among the different genotypes assayed. The variation among the different genotypes was greatest for Ca, followed by the protein content; the latter also exhibited the lowest variation considering the harvest year. Results from a principal component analysis showed that P and Mg were the most discriminant elements for categorizing samples. Cluster analysis showed groups of samples with interesting characteristics for breeding. There was no clear distinction among the different origins of samples. Correlation analyses between weather conditions and the nutrients assayed showed that the mean temperature recorded in the period between March and September was positively correlated with Ca and P only in France, a place where the greatest climatic difference between years was observed.

  15. Minerals and Total Polyphenolic Content of Some Vegetal Powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana E. TUFEANU

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The total polyphenolic content and minerals were determined for chia seeds, Psyllium husks and watermelon rind powder. The minerals content was performed by using the Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emissions Spectrometer and Atomic Absorption Spectrometer, technique FIAS-Furnace (for Se. The sample with the highest content of polyphenols was chia (2.69 mg GAE/g s. followed by the watermelon rind powder. Reduced amounts of polyphenols were found in the Psyllium husks. Also, the total polyphenol concentration increased with the increase of the extraction time on the ultrasonic water bath. Minerals analysis indicated that powders obtained from chia seeds and watermelon rind contained large amounts of potassium, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium. The most abundant mineral in the Psyllium husks powder was found potassium, followed by calcium. In conclusion, these powders can be used as ingredients for functional food and food supplements production due to the high nutritional content and bioactive properties.

  16. Dynamic contents of energy and organic nutrient in steppe growths of the Mohelenská Serpentine Steppe National Nature Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Veselý

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the dynamics in the content of organic nutrients, ash and energy in dry matter of growths within the Mohelenská Serpentine Steppe National Nature Reserve (NPR, and to document their initial nutritive value before the intended grazing. Plant samples in 1995 and 1996 during the growing season in 14-days intervals from the area of 3 × 1 m2. Amounts of dry matter, fibre, nitrogen substances, fat and ashes were determined in growths according to the ANONYM (2001. Nitrogen-free extract substances (BNLV were determined by final calculating; BE, ME, NEL, NEV, PDIN and PDIE were calculated using the regression equations (VESELÝ and ZEMAN, 1995, 1997. Combining ratio (SP was calculated according to the relation: SP = PDIN (g/NEL (MJ. The dynamics of the contents of dry matter, organic nutrients, ashes and energy were assessed in the growth during the vegetation period and the dynamics was compared with standardized requirements of sheep (no pregnant ewe. Regression and correlation relations for nutrition value of the growths during vegetation period were calculated by use of mathematical-statistical analysis. Only statistically significantly (P<0.05 different parameters form the zero are presented in the paper. The content of dry matter in the growths culminated in summer months (places D8, E13, B17 and it was accompanied by depression in autumn months. After the highest content of crude protein, PDIN and PDIE recorded in spring months summer depression (August followed, this depression was partly balanced by autumn growth of vegetation. The content of ash in steppe growths increased during evaluated period. Similar tendency was registered for fat. Also the contents of fibre and BNLV linearly increased. The contents of nitrogen nutrients and energy corresponded with standardized requirements for sheep during whole vegetation period. Conversely the content of fibre highly exceeded the requirement except in spring

  17. Genetic Engineering of Maize (Zea mays L.) with Improved Grain Nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaotong; Duan, Xiaoguang; Wu, Yongzhen; Cheng, Jieshan; Zhang, Juan; Zhang, Hongxia; Li, Bei

    2018-02-21

    Cell-wall invertase plays important roles in the grain filling of crop plants. However, its functions in the improvement of grain nutrients have not been investigated. In this work, the stable expression of cell-wall-invertase-encoding genes from different plant species and the contents of total starch, protein, amino acid, nitrogen, lipid, and phosphorus were examined in transgenic maize plants. High expressions of the cell-wall-invertase gene conferred enhanced invertase activity and sugar content in transgenic plants, leading to increased grain yield and improved grain nutrients. Transgenic plants with high expressions of the transgene produced more total starch, protein, nitrogen, and essential amino acids in the seeds. Overall, the results indicate that the cell-wall-invertase gene can be used as a potential candidate for the genetic breeding of grain crops with both improved grain yield and quality.

  18. Evaluation of two milk replacers fed to hand-reared cheetah cubs (Acinonyx jubatus): nutrient composition, apparent total tract digestibility, and comparison to maternal cheetah milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Katherine M; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Cottam, Yvette H; Hendriks, Wouter H

    2011-01-01

    Commercially prepared milk replacers are frequently used to provide the sole source of nutrition for hand-reared cheetah cubs (Acinonyx jubatus). The nutrient composition of two commonly used milk replacers was determined. Using titanium dioxide as an indigestible marker, nutrient digestibility was calculated from the analyses of fecal samples collected from each cub (n = 4 on formula 1, and n = 2 on formula 2). Mean apparent total tract digestibility for both formulas was >90% for all nutrients analyzed (crude protein, amino acids, crude fat (CF), and dry matter). However, the total CF content and the concentration of the essential fatty acids, such as α-linolenic, linolenic, and arachidonic acid, of both formulas was lower than reported for maternal cheetah milk. Additionally, one formula contained a comparatively high amount of carbohydrate, at the expense of protein. Although data were lacking for cheetah maternal milk, comparison with domestic cat milk revealed high concentrations of a number of minerals (K, Fe, Zn, and Cu), while vitamin D(3) was not detected in one formula. Both formulas were low in the majority of essential amino acids compared with domestic cat maternal milk. Despite their apparently high digestibility, neither formula was complete or balanced in terms of nutrient concentrations and ratios when maternal cheetah milk and/or the requirements established for growth in domestic cats were used as estimates of ideal. On this basis, although all cubs in this study were healthy and maintained good body conditions for the duration of the trial, the results of dietary analyses indicate that these milk replacers may not provide optimal nutrition for growth in cheetah cubs when used for extended periods. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Characterization of nutrient deficiency in Hancornia speciosa Gomes seedlings by omitting micronutrients from the nutrient solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layara Alexandre Bessa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Hancornia speciosa Gomes (Mangaba tree is a fruit tree belonging to the Apocynaceae family and is native to Brazil. The production of seedlings of this species is limited by a lack of technical and nutritional expertise. To address this deficiency, this study aimed to characterize the visual symptoms of micronutrient deficiency and to assess growth and leaf nutrient accumulation in H. speciosa seedlings supplied with nutrient solutions that lack individual micronutrients. H. speciosa plants were grown in nutrient solution in a greenhouse according to a randomized block design, with four replicates. The treatments consisted of a group receiving complete nutrient solution and groups treated with a nutrient solution lacking one of the following micronutrients: boron (B, copper (Cu, iron (Fe, manganese (Mn, zinc (Zn, and molybdenum (Mo. The visual symptoms of nutrient deficiency were generally easy to characterize. Dry matter production was affected by the omission of micronutrients, and the treatment lacking Fe most limited the stem length, stem diameter, root length, and number of leaves in H. speciosa seedlings as well as the dry weight of leaves, the total dry weight, and the relative growth in H. speciosa plants. The micronutrient contents of H. speciosa leaves from plants receiving the complete nutrient solution treatment were, in decreasing order, Fe>Mn>Cu>Zn>B.

  20. Carrot, Corn, Lettuce and Soybean Nutrient Contents are ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biochar, the carbon-rich material remaining after pyrolysis of cellulosic and manure feedstocks, has the potential as a soil amendment to sequester carbon and to improve soil water-holding and nutrient properties- thereby enhancing plant growth. However, biochar produced from some feedstocks also could adversely affect crop quality by changing soil pH and reducing nutrients (e.g., Ca, K, Mg, N, Na, and P) in plant tissues. To evaluate effects of biochar on the nutrient quality of four crops, we conducted a greenhouse study using pots with: carrot (Daucus carota cv. Tendersweet), corn (Zea mays, cv. Golden Bantam), lettuce (Lactuca sativa, cv. Black-Seeded Simpson) and soybean (Glycine max cv. Viking 2265). Plants were grown in one of two South Carolina sandy Coastal Plain soils (Norfolk and Coxville Soil Series), along with biochar (1% by weight) produced from pine chips (PC), poultry litter (PL), swine solids (SS), switchgrass (SG), and two blends of pine chips plus poultry litter (PC/PL, 50/50% and 80/20%). Each of the feedstocks and feedstock blends was pyrolyzed at 350, 500, and 700 ̊ C to produce the biochar used to amend the Norfolk and Coxville soils. Effects of biochar on leaf nutrients (% dry weight) statistically varied with species, soil, feedstock and temperature and nutrient. For carrot and lettuce, the PL, PL/PC, and SS biochars generally decreased leaf N, Ca, Mg, and P; while PL and PL/PC increased K and Na. Biochars had little effect on lea

  1. Comparative total phenolic content, anti-lipase and antioxidant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total phenol values are expressed in terms of Gallic acid equivalent (w/w of dry mass). Aframomum melegueta exhibited the highest phenolic content of 60.4 ± 2.36 mgGAE/g, a percentage antioxidant activity of 86.6 % at 200μg/ml and percentage lipase inhibition of 89% at 1mg/ml while Aframomum danielli revealed a total ...

  2. Dietary composition and nutrient content of the New Nordic Diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mithril, Charlotte; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Meyer, Claus

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the dietary composition of the New Nordic Diet (NND) and to compare it with the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR)/Danish Food-based Dietary Guidelines (DFDG) and with the average Danish diet. Design Dietary components with clear health-promoting properties included...... in the DFDG were included in the NND in amounts at least equivalent to those prescribed by the DFDG. The quantities of the other dietary components in the NND were based on scientific arguments for their potential health-promoting properties together with considerations of acceptability, toxicological...... concerns, availability and the environment. Calculations were conducted for quantifying the dietary and nutrient composition of the NND. Setting Denmark. Subjects None. Results The NND is characterized by a high content of fruits and vegetables (especially berries, cabbages, root vegetables and legumes...

  3. Using smart card technology to monitor the eating habits of children in a school cafeteria: 2. The nutrient contents of all meals chosen by a group of 8- to 11-year-old boys over 78 days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, N; Plumb, J; Looise, B; Johnson, I T; Harvey, I; Wheeler, C; Robinson, M; Rolfe, P

    2005-08-01

    The aim of the study was to test the abilities of the newly created smart card system to track the nutrient contents of foods chosen over several months by individual diners in a school cafeteria. From the food choice and composition of food data sets, an Access database was created encompassing 30 diners (aged 8-11 years), 78 days and eight nutrients. Data were available for a total of 1909 meals. Based upon population mean values the cohort were clearly choosing meals containing higher than the recommended maximum amounts for sugar and lower than the recommended minimum amounts of fibre, iron and vitamin A. Protein and vitamin C contents of meals chosen were well above minimum requirements. Over the 1909 meals, nutrient requirements were met 41% of the time. The system created was very effective at continually monitoring food choices of individual diners over limitless time. The data generated raised questions on the common practice of presenting nutrient intakes as population mean values calculated over a few days. The impact of heavily fortified foods on such studies in general is discussed.

  4. Photosynthetic capacities of mature tropical forest trees in Rwanda are linked to successional group identity rather than to leaf nutrient content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusenge, Mirindi Eric; Wallin, Göran; Gårdesten, Johanna; Adolfsson, Lisa; Niyonzima, Felix; Nsabimana, Donat; Uddling, Johan

    2014-05-01

    Tropical forests are crucial in the global carbon balance, yet information required to estimate how much carbon that enter these ecosystems through photosynthesis is very limited, in particular for Africa and for tropical montane forests. In order to increases the knowledge of natural variability of photosynthetic capacities in tropical tree species in tropical Africa, measurements of leaf traits and gas exchange were conducted on sun and shade leaves of ten tree species growing in two tropical forests in Rwanda in central Africa. Seven species were studied in Ruhande Arboretum, a forest plantation at mid altitude (1700 m), and six species in Nyungwe National Park, a cooler and higher altitude (at 2500 m) montane rainforest. Three species were common to both sites. At Nyungwe, three species each belonged to the successional groups pioneer and climax species. Climax species had considerably lower maximum rates of photosynthetic carboxylation (Vcmax) and electron transport (Jmax) than pioneer species. This difference was not related to leaf nutrient content, but rather seemed to be caused by differences in within-leaf N allocation between the two successional groups. With respect to N, leaves of climax species invested less N into photosynthetic enzymes (as judged by lower Vcmax and Jmax values) and more N into chlorophyll (as judged by higher SPAD values). Photosynthetic capacities, (i.e., Jmax and Vcmax), Jmax to Vcmax ratio and P content were significantly higher in Nyungwe than in Arboretum. Sun leaves had higher photosynthetic capacities and nutrient content than shade leaves. Across the entire dataset, variation in photosynthetic capacities among species was not related to leaf nutrient content, although significant relationships were found within individual species. This study contributes critical tropical data for global carbon models and suggests that, for montane rainforest trees of different functional types, successional group identity is a better

  5. Evolution of nutrient ingredients in tartary buckwheat seeds during germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiming, Zhou; Hong, Wang; Linlin, Cui; Xiaoli, Zhou; Wen, Tang; Xinli, Song

    2015-11-01

    Evolution of nutrient components and the antioxidative activity of seed sprouts of tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum L. Gaertn) were investigated in the course of germination. Results showed that the contents of total flavonoids increased with germination time and leveled off after the third germination day with the changing trend of rutin and quercetin opposite to each other. The decrease of total protein and total sugar contents in the germinated seeds was accompanied respectively by an increase of amino acid and reducing sugar contents. The contents of vitamin C (Vc) and B1(V(B1)) exhibited a minimum with no appreciable changes found for vitamin B(2) (V(B2)) and B(6) (V(B6)). The contents of total chlorophyll, chlorophyll A and B all exhibited a maximum on the fifth germination day. The contents of fatty acids had no regular changing trend with germination time. The free radical-scavenging activities of the seeds increased with germination time and were caused by an increase in their antioxidative activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Seasonal changes and response to stress of total flavonoids content of Farfugium japonicum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Dalian; Ma, Yuxin

    2013-05-01

    To investigate the seasonal variation of total flavonoid content of Farfugium japonicum and its response to stress. The total flavonoids of Farfugium japonicum were determined by spectrophotometry in different seasons and under various stressful factors. The total flavonoid content in Farfugium japonicum leaves was the highest, followed by the petiole, and rhizomes (Pseasons (Pwater stress, the total flavonoid content in Farfugium japonicum leaves gradually increased, that in petiole first increased and then decreased,while that in rhizomes decreased (Pstress, the total flavonoid content in leaves, petioles and rhizomes of Farfugium japonicum showed a decreasing trend (Pseasons and that in different parts of the plant has different responses to ecological stressful factors.

  7. Effects of prey macronutrient content on body composition and nutrient intake in a web-building spider.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse Hawley

    Full Text Available The nutritional composition of diets can vary widely in nature and have large effects on the growth, reproduction and survival of animals. Many animals, especially herbivores, will tightly regulate the nutritional composition of their body, which has been referred to as nutritional homeostasis. We tested how experimental manipulation of the lipid and protein content of live prey affected the nutrient reserves and subsequent diet regulation of web-building spiders, Argiope keyserlingi. Live locusts were injected with experimental solutions containing specific amounts of lipid and protein and then fed to spiders. The nutrient composition of the spiders' bodies was directly related to the nutrient composition of the prey on which they fed. We then conducted an experiment where spiders were fed either high lipid or high protein prey and subsequently provided with two large unmanipulated locusts. Prior diet did not affect the amount or ratio of lipid and protein ingested by spiders when feeding on unmanipulated prey. Argiope keyserlingi were flexible in the storage of lipid and protein in their bodies and did not bias their extraction of nutrients from prey to compensate for previously biased diets. Some carnivores, especially those that experience frequent food limitation, may be less likely to strictly regulate their body composition than herbivores because food limitation may encourage opportunistic ingestion and assimilation of nutrients.

  8. CAMEX-4 DC-8 NEVZOROV TOTAL CONDENSED WATER CONTENT SENSOR V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The CAMEX-4 DC-8 Nevzorov Total Condensed Water Content Sensor dataset was collected by the Nevzorov total condensed water content sensor which was used to measure...

  9. MICROAGREGADOS ESTÁVEIS E RESERVA DE NUTRIENTES EM LATOSSOLO VERMELHO SOB PASTAGEM EM REGIÃO DE CERRADO STABLE MICROAGGREGATES AND NUTRIENT POOL IN OXISOL UNDER PASTURE IN SAVANNAH REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Paulo Ferreira Fontes

    2011-04-01

    highly weathered soils. With the objective of better understanding the nutrients distribution in microaggregates of fine-sand (200-50 ?m and coarse-silt (50-20 ?m, in a Rhodic Haplustox, the present study utilized an adapted physical fractionation procedure with mineralogical and chemical characterization. Part of the soil fractions was characterized as microaggregates formed by clay and silt minerals, with high macro and micronutrients contents. P, Cu, Mn, and Zn were more efficiently accumulated in the microaggregates and less susceptive to removal by the weathering and leaching actions, when compared to K and Mg. Higher C contents were found in the superficial horizon microaggregates (50-20 ?m, showing evidences of an efficient physical protection against mineralization. Macro and micronutrients pools (total contents, in the 200-50 ?m and 50-20 ?m microaggregates, corresponded to 5-19% of the total soil nutrients content, and 24-26% of the total soil carbon was seized by those microaggregates. Although these microaggregates present a low capacity to store nutrients, they become an important and highly stable compartment to preserve nutrients, as far as physical degradation and weathering and leaching are concerned.

    KEY-WORDS: Soil aggregation; physical fractionation; macronutrients; micronutrients; organic matter storage.

  10. Biochar and lignite affect H+-ATPase and H+-PPase activities in root tonoplast and nutrient contents of mung bean under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabian, Shahram; Farhangi-Abriz, Salar; Rathjen, Judith

    2018-05-31

    This research was conducted to evaluate effects of biochar (50 and 100 g kg -1 soil) and lignite (50 and 100 g kg -1 soil) treatments on H + -ATPase and H + -PPase activity of root tonoplast, nutrient content, and performance of mung bean under salt stress. High saline conditions increased H + -ATPase and H + -PPase activities in root tonoplast, sodium (Na) content, reactive oxygen species (H 2 O 2 and O 2 - ) generation, relative electrolyte leakage (REL) and 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) activity in root and leaf, but decreased relative water content (RWC), chlorophyll content index, leaf area, potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) content of plant tissues, root and shoot dry weight of mung bean. Lignite and biochar treatments decreased the H + -ATPase and H + -PPase activities of root tonoplast under salt stress. Moreover, these treatments increased the cation exchange capacity of soil and nutrient values in plant tissues. Biochar and lignite diminished the generation of reactive oxygen species and DPPH activity in root and leaf cells, and these superior effects improved chlorophyll content index, leaf area and growth of mung bean under both conditions. In general, the results of this study demonstrated that biochar and lignite decreased the entry of Na ion into the cells, enriched plant cells with nutrients, and consequently improved mung bean performance under salt toxicity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Nutrient and Total Polyphenol Contents of Dark Green Leafy Vegetables, and Estimation of Their Iron Bioaccessibility Using the In Vitro Digestion/Caco-2 Cell Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Kweku Amagloh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Dark green leafy vegetables (DGLVs are considered as important sources of iron and vitamin A. However, iron concentration may not indicate bioaccessibility. The objectives of this study were to compare the nutrient content and iron bioaccessibility of five sweet potato cultivars, including three orange-fleshed types, with other commonly consumed DGLVs in Ghana: cocoyam, corchorus, baobab, kenaf and moringa, using the in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model. Moringa had the highest numbers of iron absorption enhancers on an “as-would-be-eaten” basis, β-carotene (14169 μg/100 g; p < 0.05 and ascorbic acid (46.30 mg/100 g; p < 0.001, and the best iron bioaccessibility (10.28 ng ferritin/mg protein. Baobab and an orange-fleshed sweet potato with purplish young leaves had a lower iron bioaccessibility (6.51 and 6.76 ng ferritin/mg protein, respectively compared with that of moringa, although these three greens contained similar (p > 0.05 iron (averaging 4.18 mg/100 g and β-carotene levels. The ascorbic acid concentration of 25.50 mg/100 g in the cooked baobab did not enhance the iron bioaccessibility. Baobab and the orange-fleshed sweet potato with purplish young leaves contained the highest levels of total polyphenols (1646.75 and 506.95 mg Gallic Acid Equivalents/100 g, respectively; p < 0.001. This suggests that iron bioaccessibility in greens cannot be inferred based on the mineral concentration. Based on the similarity of the iron bioaccessibility of the sweet potato leaves and cocoyam leaf (a widely-promoted “nutritious” DGLV in Ghana, the former greens have an added advantage of increasing the dietary intake of provitamin A.

  12. Differential Impact of Message Appeals, Food Healthiness, and Poverty Status on Evaluative Responses to Nutrient-Content Claimed Food Advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hojoon; Reid, Leonard N

    2015-01-01

    A 2 × 3 × 2 mixed factorial experimental design was used to examine how three message appeals (benefit-seeking vs. risk-avoidance vs. taste appeals), food healthiness (healthy vs. unhealthy foods), and consumer poverty status (poverty vs. nonpoverty groups) impact evaluative responses to nutrient-content claimed food advertisements. Subjects were partitioned into two groups, those below and those above the poverty line, and exposed to nutrient-content claimed advertisement treatments for healthy and unhealthy foods featuring the three appeals. The findings reaffirmed the interaction effects between perceivably healthy and unhealthy foods and different appeals reported in previous studies, and found interaction effects between consumer poverty level and response to the message appeals featured in the experimental food advertisements. Age, body mass index, current dieting status, education, and gender were examined as covariates.

  13. Comparison between analyzed and calculated nutrient content of fast foods using two consecutive versions of the Danish food composition databank: FOODCOMP and FRIDA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Knuthsen, Pia; Saxholt, Erling

    2017-01-01

    -to-eat fast foods were collected from fast food outlets, separated into their components and weighed. Typical components were bread, French fries, vegetables, meat and dressings. The fast foods were analyzed, and energy, protein, saturated fat, iron, thiamin, potassium and sodium contents were compared......The objective of this study was to compare the content of selected nutrients of fast foods determined by chemical analysis versus estimated by recipe calculation based on data from two versions of the Danish food composition databank, FOODCOMP and the latest FRIDA. A total of 155 samples of ready....... For the individual fast foods, the error percentages were both acceptable (50%). Future challenges for the databank in relation to recipe calculation are to include more varieties, a better coverage of foods used as ingredients, and inclusion of analytical values of mixed dishes...

  14. Total phenol content and antioxidant activity of water solutions of plant extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Kopjar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Water solutions of extracts were investigated for total phenol content, flavonoid content and antioxidant activity. Susceptibility to degradation of water solutions of plant extracts, under light and in the dark, during storage at room temperature was investigated in order to determine their stability prior to their application for fortification of food products. Large dispersion of total phenol (TP content in the investigated model solutions of selected extracts (olive leaves, green tea, red grape, red wine, pine bark PE 5:1, pine bark PE 95 %, resveratrol, ranging from 11.10 mg GAE/100 mL to 92.19 mg GAE/100 mL was observed. Consequently, large dispersion of total flavonoids (TF content (8.89 mg to 61.75 mg CTE/100 mL was also observed. Since phenols have been mostly responsible for antioxidant activity of extracts, in most cases, antioxidant activity followed the TP content. That was proven by estimation of correlation coefficient between the total phenol content and antioxidant activity. Correlation coefficients between investigated parameters ranged from 0.5749 to 0.9604. During storage of 5 weeks at room temperature loss of phenols and flavonoids occurred. Antioxidant activity decreased with the decrease of TP and TF content. Degradations of phenols and flavonoids were more pronounced in samples stored at light.

  15. Numerical simulations of river discharges, nutrient flux and nutrient dispersal in Jakarta Bay, Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wulp, Simon A. van der; Damar, Ario; Ladwig, Norbert; Hesse, Karl-J.

    2016-01-01

    The present application of numerical modelling techniques provides an overview of river discharges, nutrient flux and nutrient dispersal in Jakarta Bay. A hydrological model simulated river discharges with a total of 90 to 377 m 3 s −1 entering Jakarta Bay. Daily total nitrogen and total phosphorus loads ranged from 40 to 174 tons and 14 to 60 tons, respectively. Flow model results indicate that nutrient gradients are subject to turbulent mixing by tides and advective transport through circulation driven by wind, barotropic and baroclinic pressure gradients. The bulk of nutrient loads originate from the Citarum and Cisadane rivers flowing through predominantly rural areas. Despite lower nutrient loads, river discharges from the urban area of Jakarta exhibit the highest impact of nutrient concentrations in the near shore area of Jakarta Bay and show that nutrient concentrations were not only regulated by nutrient loads but were strongly regulated by initial river concentrations and local flow characteristics. - Highlights: • Full overview of river discharges, nutrient flux and nutrient levels in Jakarta Bay • Important overview of nutrient flux from individual rivers • Simulations identify the principal drivers of water circulation and nutrient gradient. • Nutrient dispersion model includes the local effects of the Java Sea current system.

  16. Numerical simulations of river discharges, nutrient flux and nutrient dispersal in Jakarta Bay, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wulp, Simon A; Damar, Ario; Ladwig, Norbert; Hesse, Karl-J

    2016-09-30

    The present application of numerical modelling techniques provides an overview of river discharges, nutrient flux and nutrient dispersal in Jakarta Bay. A hydrological model simulated river discharges with a total of 90 to 377m(3)s(-1) entering Jakarta Bay. Daily total nitrogen and total phosphorus loads ranged from 40 to 174tons and 14 to 60tons, respectively. Flow model results indicate that nutrient gradients are subject to turbulent mixing by tides and advective transport through circulation driven by wind, barotropic and baroclinic pressure gradients. The bulk of nutrient loads originate from the Citarum and Cisadane rivers flowing through predominantly rural areas. Despite lower nutrient loads, river discharges from the urban area of Jakarta exhibit the highest impact of nutrient concentrations in the near shore area of Jakarta Bay and show that nutrient concentrations were not only regulated by nutrient loads but were strongly regulated by initial river concentrations and local flow characteristics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Improving Lowland Rice (O. sativa L. cv. MR219 Plant Growth Variables, Nutrients Uptake, and Nutrients Recovery Using Crude Humic Substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perumal Palanivell

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available High cation exchange capacity and organic matter content of crude humic substances from compost could be exploited to reduce ammonia loss from urea and to as well improve rice growth and soil chemical properties for efficient nutrients utilization in lowland rice cultivation. Close-dynamic air flow system was used to determine the effects of crude humic substances on ammonia volatilization. A pot experiment was conducted to determine the effects of crude humic substances on rice plant growth, nutrients uptake, nutrients recovery, and soil chemical properties using an acid soil mixed with three rates of crude humic substances (20, 40, and 60 g pot−1. Standard procedures were used to evaluate rice plant dry matter production, nutrients uptake, nutrients recovery, and soil chemical properties. Application of crude humic substances increased ammonia volatilization. However, the lowest rate of crude humic substances (20 g pot−1 significantly improved total dry matter, nutrients uptake, nutrients recovery, and soil nutrients availability compared with crude humic substances (40 and 60 g pot−1 and the normal fertilization. Apart from improving growth of rice plants, crude humic substances can be used to ameliorate acid soils in rice cultivation. The findings of this study are being validated in our ongoing field trials.

  18. Improving Lowland Rice (O. sativa L. cv. MR219) Plant Growth Variables, Nutrients Uptake, and Nutrients Recovery Using Crude Humic Substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanivell, Perumal; Ahmed, Osumanu Haruna; Ab Majid, Nik Muhamad; Jalloh, Mohamadu Boyie; Susilawati, Kasim

    2015-01-01

    High cation exchange capacity and organic matter content of crude humic substances from compost could be exploited to reduce ammonia loss from urea and to as well improve rice growth and soil chemical properties for efficient nutrients utilization in lowland rice cultivation. Close-dynamic air flow system was used to determine the effects of crude humic substances on ammonia volatilization. A pot experiment was conducted to determine the effects of crude humic substances on rice plant growth, nutrients uptake, nutrients recovery, and soil chemical properties using an acid soil mixed with three rates of crude humic substances (20, 40, and 60 g pot(-1)). Standard procedures were used to evaluate rice plant dry matter production, nutrients uptake, nutrients recovery, and soil chemical properties. Application of crude humic substances increased ammonia volatilization. However, the lowest rate of crude humic substances (20 g pot(-1)) significantly improved total dry matter, nutrients uptake, nutrients recovery, and soil nutrients availability compared with crude humic substances (40 and 60 g pot(-1)) and the normal fertilization. Apart from improving growth of rice plants, crude humic substances can be used to ameliorate acid soils in rice cultivation. The findings of this study are being validated in our ongoing field trials.

  19. Distribution of organic matter and plant nutrients in a sal (shorea robusta) coppice plantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaul, O.N.; Sharma, D.C.; Srivastava, P.B.L.

    The biomass and nutrient content (N, P, K, Ca, Mg) of leaves, twigs, branches, stems and bark were determined for sample trees in a stand in the New Forest, Dehra Dun, coppiced 21 years previously. It was estimated that the removal of stems, branches and bark by harvesting at this age would remove 82-91% of the total nutrients (kg/ha) in the stand.

  20. Nutrient Content, Phytonutrient Composition, Alpha Amylase, Alpha Glucosidase Inhibition Activity and Antioxidant Activity of the Stoechospermum Marginatum Collected in Pre Monsoon Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reka Palanivel

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the nutrient content, phytonutrient composition, physicochemical properties, alpha amylase and alpha glucosidase inhibition activity and antioxidant activity of the brown algae Stoechospermum marginatum collected from Gulf of Mannar, Tamil Nadu, India in pre monsoon season (June- September, 2015. Six and eight hours of ethanol and aqueous extract of Stoechospermum marginatum were used for phytonutrient screening, alpha amylase, alpha glucosidase inhibition activity and antioxidant activity. From the results of the study it is understood that Stoechospermum marginatum contain a high amount of carbohydrate, protein, crude fiber and phytonutrients like tannin, flavonoid, saponin, alkaloid, terpenoids, steroid and total phenolic content. The physicochemical properties namely Water absorption and Swelling power were very promising. Alpha amylase and alpha glucosidase inhibition activity was recorded to be high in both aqueous and ethanol extracts of eight hour extraction than in extracts taken from six hours extraction. Antioxidant activity was detected using DPPH, FRAP, beta carotene scavenging and H2O2 assay and found to have a high radical scavenging activity. Stoechospermum marginatum possess a valuable amount of total phenolic content and other phytonutrients and physicochemical properties, it may the reason for the potential inhibition of alpha amylase, alpha glucosidase and antioxidant activity. It is concluded from the study that the brown algae may be incorporated into foods to enhance their nutritional and therapeutic value.

  1. The interplay of dietary nutrient level and varying calcium to phosphorus ratios on efficacy of a bacterial phytase: 2. Ileal and total tract nutrient utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olukosi, O A; Fru-Nji, F

    2014-12-01

    A 14-d broiler experiment was conducted to assess the effects of 2 dietary variables on efficacy of a bacterial 6-phytase from Citobacter braakii on nutrient and phytate P (PP) utilization. Diets were formulated with or without nutrient matrix values (matrix) for phytase as negative control (NC) or positive control (PC), respectively, and with 2 Ca:total P (tP) levels (2:1 or 2.5:1). The diets were supplemented with 0, 1,000, or 2,000 phytase units (FYT)/kg of diet, thus producing a 2 × 2 × 3 factorial arrangement. Excreta were collected on d 19 to 21 and ileal digesta on d 21. There was no 3-way interaction on digestibility of any nutrient. There was matrix × phytase (P phytase interaction (P phytase increased (P phytase supplementation in diets with 2:1 Ca:tP, whereas there was no effect of phytase supplementation on PP disappearance or Ca retention in diets with 2.5:1 Ca:tP. Total P and Ca retention were reduced (P phytase supplementation on P utilization is reduced when diets contain adequate P as exemplified in the PC diets and that the negative impact of wide Ca:tP is more pronounced in diets with phytase matrix allowance as exemplified in the NC diets. ©2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  2. Nutrients and heavy metal distribution in thermally treated pig manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuligowski, Ksawery; Poulsen, Tjalfe G.; Stoholm, Peder

    2008-01-01

    Ash from pig manure treated by combustion and thermal gasification was characterized and compared in terms of nutrient, i.e., potassium (K), phosphorus (P) and heavy metal, i.e., cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) contents. Total nutrient and metal concentrations...... that ash from gasified manure contained more water-extractable K in comparison with combusted manure whereas the opposite was the case with respect to P. Heavy metals Ni, Cr and Cd were present in higher concentrations in the fine particle size fractions (

  3. Nutrient Digestibility and Metabolizable Energy Content of Whole Pods Fed to Growing Pelibuey Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Loyra-Tzab

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The nutrient digestibility, nitrogen balance and in vivo metabolizable energy supply of Mucuna pruriens whole pods fed to growing Pelibuey lambs was investigated. Eight Pelibuey sheep housed in metabolic crates were fed increasing levels of Mucuna pruriens pods: 0 (control, 100 (Mucuna100, 200 (Mucuna200 and 300 (Mucuna300 g/kg dry matter. A quadratic (p0.05 on DM and GE apparent digestibility (p0.05. DM, N and GE apparent digestibility coefficient of M. pruriens whole pods obtained through multiple regression equations were 0.692, 0.457, 0.654 respectively. In vivo DE and ME content of mucuna whole pod were estimated in 11.0 and 9.7 MJ/kg DM. It was concluded that whole pods from M. pruriens did not affect nutrient utilization when included in an mixed diet up to 200 g/kg DM. This is the first in vivo estimation of mucuna whole pod ME value for ruminants.

  4. [Contents of total anthocyanins and total saponins as well as composition of saponin monomers of Purple and Green Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chang-ling; Yang, Sheng-chao; Chen, Zhong-jian; Shen, Yong; Wei, Fu-gang; Wang, Wu; Long, Ting-ju

    2014-10-01

    The contents of total anthocyanins and total saponins as well as the composition of saponin monomers of Purple and Green Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma were studied to compare the medicinal quality and commercial values. Three-year-old Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma was selected as the research materials. The contents of total anthocyanins and total saponins were determined by spectrophotometry. The compositions of saponin monomers were monitored by HPLC. The significance of content differences was determined by variance analysis. The contents of total anthocyanins and total saponins of Purple Notoginseng Radix et Rhizomawere about 204.85% and 33.86% higher than those of Green Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma respectively. The Purple and Green Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma both contained five saponin monomers whose contents were as follows: ginsenoside Rg1 > ginsenoside Rb1 > notoginsenoside R1 > ginsenoside Rd > ginsenoside Re. The contents of notoginsenoside R1, ginsenoside Rd and ginsenoside Re of Purple Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma were about 16.03%, 10.83% and 5.39% higher than those of Green Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma respectively. However, the contents of ginsenoside Rg1 and ginsenoside Rb1 of Green Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma were about 0.93% and 3.33% higher than those of Purple Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma respectively. With respect to Green Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma, the increase of the total anthocyanins in Purple Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma reached a significant level, but the increases of total saponins, notoginsenoside R1, ginsenoside Rd and ginsenoside Re and the decreases of ginsenoside Rg1 and ginsenoside Rb1 did not. The total anthocyanins accumulation in Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma implies the content increases of the total saponins, notoginsenoside R1, ginsenoside Rd and ginsenoside Re, and the slight decreases of ginsenoside Rg1 and ginsenoside Rb1 contents; but the type and relative contents of saponin monomers remain unchanged. The medicinal

  5. Total and Free Sugar Content of Canadian Prepackaged Foods and Beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Jodi T.; Schermel, Alyssa; Mills, Christine M.; L’Abbé, Mary R.

    2016-01-01

    A number of recommendations for policy and program interventions to limit excess free sugar consumption have emerged, however there are a lack of data describing the amounts and types of sugar in foods. This study presents an assessment of sugar in Canadian prepackaged foods including: (a) the first systematic calculation of free sugar contents; (b) a comprehensive assessment of total sugar and free sugar levels; and (c) sweetener and free sugar ingredient use, using the University of Toronto’s Food Label Information Program (FLIP) database 2013 (n = 15,342). Food groups with the highest proportion of foods containing free sugar ingredients also had the highest median total sugar and free sugar contents (per 100 g/mL): desserts (94%, 15 g, and 12 g), sugars and sweets (91%, 50 g, and 50 g), and bakery products (83%, 16 g, and 14 g, proportion with free sugar ingredients, median total sugar and free sugar content in Canadian foods, respectively). Free sugar accounted for 64% of total sugar content. Eight of 17 food groups had ≥75% of the total sugar derived from free sugar. Free sugar contributed 20% of calories overall in prepackaged foods and beverages, with the highest at 70% in beverages. These data can be used to inform interventions aimed at limiting free sugar consumption. PMID:27657125

  6. Total and Free Sugar Content of Canadian Prepackaged Foods and Beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi T. Bernstein

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A number of recommendations for policy and program interventions to limit excess free sugar consumption have emerged, however there are a lack of data describing the amounts and types of sugar in foods. This study presents an assessment of sugar in Canadian prepackaged foods including: (a the first systematic calculation of free sugar contents; (b a comprehensive assessment of total sugar and free sugar levels; and (c sweetener and free sugar ingredient use, using the University of Toronto’s Food Label Information Program (FLIP database 2013 (n = 15,342. Food groups with the highest proportion of foods containing free sugar ingredients also had the highest median total sugar and free sugar contents (per 100 g/mL: desserts (94%, 15 g, and 12 g, sugars and sweets (91%, 50 g, and 50 g, and bakery products (83%, 16 g, and 14 g, proportion with free sugar ingredients, median total sugar and free sugar content in Canadian foods, respectively. Free sugar accounted for 64% of total sugar content. Eight of 17 food groups had ≥75% of the total sugar derived from free sugar. Free sugar contributed 20% of calories overall in prepackaged foods and beverages, with the highest at 70% in beverages. These data can be used to inform interventions aimed at limiting free sugar consumption.

  7. Manure sampling procedures and nutrient estimation by the hydrometer method for gestation pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jun; Ndegwa, Pius M; Zhang, Zhijian

    2004-05-01

    Three manure agitation procedures were examined in this study (vertical mixing, horizontal mixing, and no mixing) to determine the efficacy of producing a representative manure sample. The total solids content for manure from gestation pigs was found to be well correlated with the total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations in the manure, with highly significant correlation coefficients of 0.988 and 0.994, respectively. Linear correlations were observed between the TN and TP contents and the manure specific gravity (correlation coefficients: 0.991 and 0.987, respectively). Therefore, it may be inferred that the nutrients in pig manure can be estimated with reasonable accuracy by measuring the liquid manure specific gravity. A rapid testing method for manure nutrient contents (TN and TP) using a soil hydrometer was also evaluated. The results showed that the estimating error increased from +/-10% to +/-30% with the decrease in TN (from 1000 to 100 ppm) and TP (from 700 to 50 ppm) concentrations in the manure. Data also showed that the hydrometer readings had to be taken within 10 s after mixing to avoid reading drift in specific gravity due to the settling of manure solids.

  8. Assessment of the characteristic of nutrients, total metals, and fecal coliform in Sibu Laut River, Sarawak, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soo, Chen-Lin; Ling, Teck-Yee; Lee, Nyanti; Apun, Kasing

    2016-03-01

    The concentrations of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus), total metals, and fecal coliform (FC) coupling with chlorophyll- a (chl- a), 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) and other general environmental parameters were evaluated at the sub-surface and near-bottom water columns of 13 stations in the Sibu Laut River during low and high slack waters. The results indicated that inorganic nitrogen (mainly nitrate) was the primary form of nitrogen whereas organic phosphorus was the major form of phosphorus. The abundance of total heavy metals in Sibu Laut River and its tributaries was in the order of Pb < Cu < Zn < Cd. Fecal coliform concentration was relatively low along Sibu Laut River. The shrimp farm effluents contributed a substantial amount of chl- a, BOD5, nutrients, and FC to the receiving creek except for total metals. Nevertheless, the influence was merely noticeable in the intake creek and amended rapidly along Selang Sibu River and brought minimal effects on the Sibu Laut River. Besides, the domestic sewage effluents from villages nearby also contributed a substantial amount of pollutants.

  9. Differences in egg nutrient availability, development, and nutrient metabolism of broiler and layer embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nangsuay, A; Molenaar, R; Meijerhof, R; van den Anker, I; Heetkamp, M J W; Kemp, B; van den Brand, H

    2015-03-01

    Selection for production traits of broilers and layers leads to physiological differences, which may already be present during incubation. This study aimed to investigate the influence of strain (broiler vs layer) on egg nutrient availability, embryonic development and nutrient metabolism. A total of 480 eggs with an egg weight range of 62.0 to 64.0 g from Lohmann Brown Lite and Ross 308 breeder flocks of 41 or 42 weeks of age were selected in two batches of 120 eggs per batch per strain. For each batch, 30 eggs per strain were used to determine egg composition, including nutrient and energy content, and 90 eggs per strain were separately incubated in one of two climate respiration chambers at an eggshell temperature of 37.8°C. The results showed that broiler eggs had a higher ratio of yolk: albumen with 2.41 g more yolk and 1.48 g less albumen than layers. The yolk energy content of broiler eggs was 46.32 kJ higher than that of layer eggs, whereas total energy content of broiler eggs was 47.85 kJ higher compared to layer eggs. Yolk-free body mass at incubation day 16 and chick weight and length at hatch were higher in broilers compared to layers. Respiration quotient of broiler embryos was higher than layer embryos during incubation day 8 to incubation day 10. A 0.24 g lower residual yolk at the hatch of broiler embryos than for the layer embryos indicated that broiler embryos used more yolk and had a higher energy utilization and energy deposition in yolk-free body mass. Heat production of broiler embryos was higher than that of layer embryos from incubation day 12 to incubation day 18, but efficiency of converting egg energy used by embryos to form yolk-free body mass was similar. In conclusion, broiler and layer embryos have different embryonic development patterns, which affect energy utilization and embryonic heat production. However, the embryos are equal in efficiency of converting the energy used to yolk-free body mass. © 2015 Poultry Science

  10. Total food duplicate study on nutrient intake of working women in Manila, the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsuka, H; Zhang, Z W; Agetano, M G; Subida, R D; Inouguchi, N; Watanabe, T; Shimbo, S; Higashikawa, K; Ikeda, M

    1998-03-01

    Intakes of various nutrients by working women in Manila, the Philippines, was surveyed by the total food duplicate method, with foci to elucidate relative weight of three meals and snack in addition to quantitative evaluation of nutrient intakes. In practice, 45 women (average age; 37.2 years) volunteered, who were all nonsmokers and nonhabitual drinkers, and mostly married. In parallel, hematology, serum biochemistry, anthropometry and clinical examinations were conducted. On average, the women took 1787 kcal energy, 57 g protein, and 54 g lipid daily. Comparison with the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) for Filipinos showed that intakes of energy and major nutrients were adequate, whereas that of minerals (e.g., 15 mg Fe/day vs. 26 mg Fe/day as RDA) and vitamins (e.g., 0.65 mg vitamin B1/day vs. 1 mg/day as RDA) were generally insufficient. Prevalence of anemia was however rather low with an average hemoglobin concentration of 12.9 g/100 ml blood. Rice was the staple source of energy for daily life, and beef rather than fish and shellfish was the leading source of protein. Lunch was the richest meal of a day (with the largest intake of energy, protein and lipid), and snacks rather than dinner appeared to be next substantial.

  11. Food Sources of Total Energy and Nutrients among U.S. Infants and Toddlers: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Carley A; Szymlek-Gay, Ewa A; Campbell, Karen J; Nicklas, Theresa A

    2015-08-14

    Understanding the dietary intakes of infants and toddlers is important because early life nutrition influences future health outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine the dietary sources of total energy and 16 nutrients in a nationally representative sample of U.S. infants and toddlers aged 0-24 months. Data from the 2005-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. Dietary intake was assessed in 2740 subjects using one 24-h dietary recall. The population proportion was used to determine the contribution of foods and beverages to nutrient intakes. Overall infant formulas and baby foods were the leading sources of total energy and nutrients in infants aged 0-11.9 months. In toddlers, the diversity of food groups contributing to nutrient intakes was much greater. Important sources of total energy included milk, 100% juice and grain based mixed dishes. A number of foods of low nutritional quality also contributed to energy intakes including sweet bakery products, sugar-sweetened beverages and savory snacks. Overall non-flavored milks and ready-to-eat cereals were the most important contributors to micronutrient intakes. In conclusion this information can be used to guide parents regarding appropriate food selection as well as inform targeted dietary strategies within public health initiatives to improve the diets of infants and toddlers.

  12. Total protein and lipid contents of canned fish on the Serbian market

    OpenAIRE

    Marković Goran; Mladenović Jelena; Cvijović Milica; Miljković Jelena

    2015-01-01

    Total protein and lipid contents were analysed in 5 samples of canned fish (sardines, Atlantic mackerel fillets, tuna in olive oil, smoked Baltic sprat and herring fillets) available on the Serbian market. Standard methods for the determination of protein (Kjeldahl method) and lipid (Soxhlet method) contents were used on drained samples. The protein content was 21.31% on average, with a range of 18.59% - 24.17%. Total lipids showed considerably large variations (5.49% - 35.20%), and averaged ...

  13. Changes in mass and nutrient content of wood during decomposition in a south Florida mangrove forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, L.M.; Smith, T. J.; Fourqurean, J.W.

    2005-01-01

    1 Large pools of dead wood in mangrove forests following disturbances such as hurricanes may influence nutrient fluxes. We hypothesized that decomposition of wood of mangroves from Florida, USA (Avicennia germinans, Laguncularia racemosa and Rhizophora mangle), and the consequent nutrient dynamics, would depend on species, location in the forest relative to freshwater and marine influences and whether the wood was standing, lying on the sediment surface or buried. 2 Wood disks (8-10 cm diameter, 1 cm thick) from each species were set to decompose at sites along the Shark River, either buried in the sediment, on the soil surface or in the air (above both the soil surface and high tide elevation). 3 A simple exponential model described the decay of wood in the air, and neither species nor site had any effect on the decay coefficient during the first 13 months of decomposition. 4 Over 28 months of decomposition, buried and surface disks decomposed following a two-component model, with labile and refractory components. Avicennia germinans had the largest labile component (18 ?? 2% of dry weight), while Laguncularia racemosa had the lowest (10 ?? 2%). Labile components decayed at rates of 0.37-23.71% month -1, while refractory components decayed at rates of 0.001-0.033% month-1. Disks decomposing on the soil surface had higher decay rates than buried disks, but both were higher than disks in the air. All species had similar decay rates of the labile and refractory components, but A. germinans exhibited faster overall decay because of a higher proportion of labile components. 5 Nitrogen content generally increased in buried and surface disks, but there was little change in N content of disks in the air over the 2-year study. Between 17% and 68% of total phosphorus in wood leached out during the first 2 months of decomposition, with buried disks having the greater losses, P remaining constant or increasing slightly thereafter. 6 Newly deposited wood from living trees was

  14. Can nutrient enrichment influence the invasion of Phragmites australis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Md Nazim; Robinson, Randall William

    2018-02-01

    Plant invasion and nutrient enrichment because of anthropogenic landscape modifications seriously threaten native plant community diversity in aquatic and wetland ecosystems. It is poorly understood, however, whether these two disturbances interact with the functional identity of recipient native plants to drive community change. We performed combined studies in the fields and greenhouse to examine whether nutrient enrichment may trigger the invasion of Phragmites australis in wetlands through competitive advantage over native Melaleuca ericifolia. Chemical characterizations of rhizosphere water were distinguished in two different nutrient enriched wetlands associated with and without Phragmites over the seasons. Significant changes in rhizosphere water were observed in invaded area compared to uninvaded area at both sites. High nitrogen (NO 3 - ), phosphorous (PO 4 3- ), dissolved organic carbon, phenolics contents, with low pH were found in invaded areas compared to uninvaded areas. Total biomass of Phragmites was positively regressed with rhizosphere water nitrogen (NO 3 - ) and phosphorous (PO 4 3- ) content. Nutrient addition significantly enhanced the growth and competitive ability of Phragmites over Melaleuca. In contrast, Melaleuca was significantly less competitive than Phragmites. There was a significantly positive correlation between the growth of Phragmites grown alone and its competitive ability. The findings in greenhouse studies coupled with characteristics of Phragmites and its' rhizosphere chemistry in the nutrient enriched fields suggest that nutrient enrichment may enhance Phragmites invasion through correspondingly increasing growth and maintaining inherent competitive advantages of Phragmites. Nutrient management could limit the vigorous growth of Phragmites in wetlands and thereby reduce invasion through competitive advantages over natives, which might have important management implications for wetland managers. Copyright © 2017. Published by

  15. TOXICITY OF INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT ON TOTAL CHLOROPHYLL CONTENT OF CERTAIN AQUATIC MACROPHYTES

    OpenAIRE

    Singh Priti; Vishen Ashish; Wadhwani R; Pandey Y.N

    2012-01-01

    To assess the toxicity of industrial effluents on certain macrophytes, the total chlorophyll content of free floating, submerged and emergent macrophytes were estimated in concentrations of industrial effluents at varying exposure duration. The result revealed reduction in total chlorophyll content of exposed macrophytes at higher concentrations of industrial effluents on prolonged duration.

  16. SMART lunch box intervention to improve the food and nutrient content of children's packed lunches: UK wide cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, C E L; Greenwood, D C; Thomas, J D; Cleghorn, C L; Kitchen, M S; Cade, J E

    2010-11-01

    Government standards are now in place for children's school meals but not for lunches prepared at home. The aim of this trial is to improve the content of children's packed lunches. A cluster randomised controlled trial in 89 primary schools across the UK involving 1291 children, age 8-9 years at baseline. Follow-up was 12 months after baseline. A "SMART" lunch box intervention programme consisted of food boxes, bag and supporting materials. The main outcome measures were weights of foods and proportion of children provided with sandwiches, fruit, vegetables, dairy food, savoury snacks and confectionery in each packed lunch. Levels of nutrients provided including energy, total fat, saturated fat, protein, non-milk extrinsic sugar, sodium, calcium, iron, folate, zinc, vitamin A and vitamin C. Moderately higher weights of fruit, vegetables, dairy and starchy food and lower weights of savoury snacks were provided to children in the intervention group. Children in the intervention group were provided with slightly higher levels of vitamin A and folate. 11% more children were provided with vegetables/salad in their packed lunch, and 13% fewer children were provided with savoury snacks (crisps). Children in the intervention group were more likely to be provided with packed lunches meeting the government school meal standards. The SMART lunch box intervention, targeting parents and children, led to small improvements in the food and nutrient content of children's packed lunches. Further interventions are required to bring packed lunches in line with the new government standards for school meals. Current controlled trials ISRCTN77710993.

  17. Determination of Total Phenolics, Flavonoids and Antioxidant Capacity of Methanolic Extracts of Some Brassica Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Doiniţa Borş

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cruciferous vegetables are rich in nutrients and bioactive compounds. Seeds are highly nutritious and they are becoming more and more popular in nowadays diets. In the present study various types of radish and mustard seeds were evaluated on the basis of the total phenolic content (TPC, total flavonoid content (TFC and the antioxidant potential, using simple spectrophotometric methods.

  18. Dietary non-nutrients and haemostasis in humans : effects of salicylates, flavonoids and ginger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, P.L.T.M.K.

    1997-01-01

    In this thesis we studied the content of acetylsalicylate and total salicylates in foods, and we studied the effects of the dietary non-nutrients salicylates and flavonoids and of certain foods on haemostatic parameters in humans.

    Acetylsalicylic acid -aspirin- irreversibly inhibits

  19. Total alkaloid content in various fractions of Tabernaemonata sphaerocarpa Bl. (Jembirit) leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamah, N.; Ningsih, D. S.

    2017-11-01

    Tabernaemontana sphaerocarpa Bl. (Jembirit) is one of the Apocynaceae family plants containing alkaloid compound. Traditionally, it is used as an anti-inflammatory medicine. It is found to have a new bisindole alkaloid compound that shows a potent cytotoxic activity in human cancer. This study aimed to know the total alkaloid content in some fractions of ethanolic extract of T. sphaerocarpa Bl. leaf powder was extracted by maceration method in 70% ethanol solvent. Then, the extract was fractionated in a separatory funnel using water, ethyl acetate, and hexane. The total alkaloid content in each fraction was analyzed with visible spectrophotometric methods based on the reaction with Bromocresol Green (BCG). The total alkaloids in water fraction and ethyl acetate fraction were (0.0312±0.0009)% and (0.0281±0.0014)%, respectively. Meanwhile, the total alkaloid content in hexane was not detected. The statistical analysis, performed in SPSS, resulted in a significant difference between the total alkaloids in water fraction and ethyl acetate fraction. The total alkaloid in water fraction of T. sphaerocarpa Bl. was higher than the one in ethyl acetate fraction.

  20. Effect of Biofertilizers on Macro and Micro Nutrients Uptake and Essential Oil Content in Dracocephalum moldavica L.

    OpenAIRE

    S Rahimzadeh; Y Sohrabi; Gh.R Heidari; A.R Eivazi; S.M.T Hoseini

    2013-01-01

    In order to investigation the effect of different fertilization treatments on nutrient and essential oil contents in dragonhead drug (Dracocephalum moldavica L.), an experiment was conducted in the station of agricultural research in Urmia on 2008. Treatments (nitroxin, barvar phosphate biofertilizer, biosulfur, nitroxin+ barvar phosphate biofertilizer, barvar phosphate biofertilizer + biosulfur, nitroxin+ biosulfur, nitroxin+ barvar phosphate biofertilizer + biosulfur, chemical fertilizer, c...

  1. Cool tadpoles from Arctic environments waste fewer nutrients - high gross growth efficiencies lead to low consumer-mediated nutrient recycling in the North.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liess, Antonia; Guo, Junwen; Lind, Martin I; Rowe, Owen

    2015-11-01

    Endothermic organisms can adapt to short growing seasons, low temperatures and nutrient limitation by developing high growth rates and high gross growth efficiencies (GGEs). Animals with high GGEs are better at assimilating limiting nutrients and thus should recycle (or lose) fewer nutrients. Longer guts in relation to body mass may facilitate higher GGE under resource limitation. Within the context of ecological stoichiometry theory, this study combines ecology with evolution by relating latitudinal life-history adaptations in GGE, mediated by gut length, to its ecosystem consequences, such as consumer-mediated nutrient recycling. In common garden experiments, we raised Rana temporaria tadpoles from two regions (Arctic/Boreal) under two temperature regimes (18/23 °C) crossed with two food quality treatments (high/low-nitrogen content). We measured tadpole GGEs, total nutrient loss (excretion + egestion) rates and gut length during ontogeny. In order to maintain their elemental balance, tadpoles fed low-nitrogen (N) food had lower N excretion rates and higher total phosphorous (P) loss rates than tadpoles fed high-quality food. In accordance with expectations, Arctic tadpoles had higher GGEs and lower N loss rates than their low-latitude conspecifics, especially when fed low-N food, but only in ambient temperature treatments. Arctic tadpoles also had relatively longer guts than Boreal tadpoles during early development. That temperature and food quality interacted with tadpole region of origin in affecting tadpole GGEs, nutrient loss rates and relative gut length, suggests evolved adaptation to temperature and resource differences. With future climate change, mean annual temperatures will increase. Additionally, species and genotypes will migrate north. This will change the functioning of Boreal and Arctic ecosystems by affecting consumer-mediated nutrient recycling and thus affect nutrient dynamics in general. Our study shows that evolved latitudinal adaption can

  2. Effect of Fermented Supplementation on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Blood Characteristics, Fecal Microbial and Fecal Noxious Gas Content in Growing Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 96 growing pigs ((Landrace×Yorkshire×Duroc; BW = 26.58±1.41 kg were used in a 6-wk feeding trail to evaluate the effects of fermented chlorella (FC supplementation on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood characteristics, fecal microbial and fecal noxious gas content in growing pigs. Pigs were randomly allotted into 1 of 4 dietary treatments with 6 replicate pens (2 barrows and 2 gilts per treatment. Dietary treatments were: i negative control (NC, basal diet (without antibiotics; ii positive control (PC, NC+0.05% tylosin; iii (fermented chlorella 01 FC01, NC+0.1% FC, and iv fermented chlorella 02 (FC02, NC+0.2% FC. In this study, feeding pigs PC or FC01 diets led to a higher average daily gain (ADG and dry matter (DM digestibility than those fed NC diet (p0.05 was observed on the body weight, average daily feed intake (ADFI, gain:feed (G:F ratio, the apparent total tract digestibility of N and energy throughout the experiment. The inclusion of PC or FC did not affect the blood characteristics (p>0.05. Moreover, dietary FC treatment led to a higher (p<0.05 lactobacillus concentration and lower E. coli concentration than the NC treatment, whereas the antibiotic supplementation only decreased the E. coli concentration. Pigs fed FC or PC diet had reduced (p<0.05 fecal NH3 and H2S content compared with those fed NC diet. In conclusion, our results indicated that the inclusion of FC01 treatment could improve the growth performance, nutrient digestibility, fecal microbial shedding (lower E. coli and higher lactobacillus, and decrease the fecal noxious gas emission in growing pigs when compared with the group fed the basal diet. In conclusion, dietary FC could be considered as a good source of supplementation in growing pigs because of its growth promoting effect.

  3. Increase of content and bioactivity of total phenolic compounds from spent coffee grounds through solid state fermentation by Bacillus clausii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochín-Medina, Jesús J; Ramírez, Karina; Rangel-Peraza, Jesús G; Bustos-Terrones, Yaneth A

    2018-03-01

    Spent coffee grounds are waste material generated during coffee beverage preparation. This by-product disposal causes a negative environmental impact, in addition to the loss of a rich source of nutrients and bioactive compounds. A rotating central composition design was used to determine the optimal conditions for the bioactivity of phenolic compounds obtained after the solid state fermentation of spent coffee grounds by Bacillus clausii . To achieve this, temperature and fermentation time were varied according to the experimental design and the total phenolic and flavonoid content, antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity were determined. Surface response methodology showed that optimum bioprocessing conditions were a temperature of 37 °C and a fermentation time of 39 h. Under these conditions, total phenolic and flavonoid contents increased by 36 and 13%, respectively, in fermented extracts as compared to non-fermented. In addition, the antioxidant activity was increased by 15% and higher antimicrobial activity was observed against Gram positive and negative bacteria. These data demonstrated that bioprocessing optimization of spent coffee grounds using the surface response methodology was an important tool to improve phenolic extraction, which could be used as an antioxidant and antimicrobial agents incorporated into different types of food products.

  4. Investigation the Effects of Different Doses Organic Fertilizers and Phosphate Solubilizing Bacterias on Yield and Nutrient Contents in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferit SÖNMEZ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to determine the effect of phosphate solubilizing bacteria (N2; Bacillus megaterium M-3, TV-6I; Cellulosimicrobium cellulans, TV-34A; Hafnia Alve, TV-69E; Acetobacter pasteurianus and TV-83F; Bacillus cereus and organic fertilizer (0, 10 and 20 ton / ha on the seed yield and nutrient content of chickpea under field conditions in 2010 and 2011 growing seasons. Phosphate solubilizing bacteria used in this study were determined by the separate investigation conducted in chamber room by using ten phosphate solubilizing bacteria and organic fertilizer (control, %5,%10. The tiral were laid out with a factorial design in randomized complete block with three replications. In this study, plant height, primary branches, secondary branches and number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, grain yield and biological yield and nutrient content of stem and seed were determined. According to the results of the study bacteria applications increased significantly biological and seed yield. Bacteria applications without organic fertilizer increased nutrient contents of seed and steed except cupper content. In case of inoculation with organic fertilizer provided more increases in biological and seed yields. The highest seed yield were obtained from application of 20 ton/ha + N2 (Bacillus megaterium M-3 with 1020 kg/ha and 1793 kg/ha in 2010 and 2011 years, respectively. Bacteria without organic fertilizer application were more active in terms of phosphorus uptake in both years. 

  5. Aflatoxin and nutrient contents of peanut collected from local market and their processed foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginting, E.; Rahmianna, A. A.; Yusnawan, E.

    2018-01-01

    Peanut is succeptable to aflatoxin contamination and the sources of peanut as well as processing methods considerably affect aflatoxin content of the products. Therefore, the study on aflatoxin and nutrient contents of peanut collected from local market and their processed foods were performed. Good kernels of peanut were prepared into fried peanut, pressed-fried peanut, peanut sauce, peanut press cake, fermented peanut press cake (tempe) and fried tempe, while blended kernels (good and poor kernels) were processed into peanut sauce and tempe and poor kernels were only processed into tempe. The results showed that good and blended kernels which had high number of sound/intact kernels (82,46% and 62,09%), contained 9.8-9.9 ppb of aflatoxin B1, while slightly higher level was seen in poor kernels (12.1 ppb). However, the moisture, ash, protein, and fat contents of the kernels were similar as well as the products. Peanut tempe and fried tempe showed the highest increase in protein content, while decreased fat contents were seen in all products. The increase in aflatoxin B1 of peanut tempe prepared from poor kernels > blended kernels > good kernels. However, it averagely decreased by 61.2% after deep-fried. Excluding peanut tempe and fried tempe, aflatoxin B1 levels in all products derived from good kernels were below the permitted level (15 ppb). This suggests that sorting peanut kernels as ingredients and followed by heat processing would decrease the aflatoxin content in the products.

  6. Agroforestry systems, nutrients in litter and microbial activity in soils cultivated with coffee at high altitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystal de Alcantara Notaro

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Agroforestry systems are an alternative option for sustainable production management. These systems contain trees that absorb nutrients from deeper layers of the soil and leaf litter that help improve the soil quality of the rough terrain in high altitude areas, which are areas extremely susceptible to environmental degradation. The aim of this study was to characterize the stock and nutrients in litter, soil activity and the population of microorganisms in coffee (Coffea arabica L. plantations under high altitude agroforestry systems in the semi-arid region of the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. Samples were collected from the surface litter together with soil samples taken at two depths (0-10 and 10-20 cm from areas each subject to one of the following four treatments: agroforestry system (AS, native forest (NF, biodynamic system (BS and coffee control (CT.The coffee plantation had been abandoned for nearly 15 years and, although there had been no management or harvesting, still contained productive coffee plants. The accumulation of litter and mean nutrient content of the litter, the soil nutrient content, microbial biomass carbon, total carbon, total nitrogen, C/N ratio, basal respiration, microbial quotient, metabolic quotient and microbial populations (total bacteria, fluorescent bacteria group, total fungi and Trichoderma spp. were all analyzed. The systems thatwere exposed to human intervention (A and BS differed in their chemical attributes and contained higher levels of nutrients when compared to NF and CT. BS for coffee production at high altitude can be used as a sustainable alternative in the high altitude zones of the semi-arid region in Brazil, which is an area that is highly susceptible to environmental degradation.

  7. O relevo na interpretação da variabilidade espacial dos teores de nutrientes em folha de citros Landrelief in the interpretation of spatial variability of nutrient content in citrus leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol G. A. de Leão

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A diagnose foliar é um critério para avaliação do estado nutricional das culturas agrícolas, que auxilia na compreensão da fertilidade do solo e na aplicação racional de adubos, levando em conta aspectos econômicos e ambientais. O trabalho teve como objetivo utilizar as formas do relevo como regra para auxiliar na interpretação da variabilidade espacial dos teores de nutrientes da folha de citros. Coletas de folhas foram realizadas em intervalos regulares de 50 m, totalizando 332 pontos de amostragem. Os dados foram analisados pela estatística descritiva, geoestatística e indução da árvore de decisão. Com o auxílio do modelo digital de elevação (MDE e do perfil planialtimétrico, a área foi dividida em diferentes formas do relevo e segmentos de vertente. Os maiores valores para os nutrientes da folha de citros foram observados no topo em relação aos segmentos de meia encosta e encosta inferior. Os nutrientes da folha de citros apresentaram altos valores de correlação (>0,05 com a altitude da área estudada, acima de 0,5. A técnica de geoestatística e a indução pela árvore de decisão demonstram que o relevo é a variável com maior potencial para interpretar os mapas de variabilidade espacial dos nutrientes da folha de citros comparada com outras variáveis de campo como comprimento de rampa e declive.Foliar diagnosis is a method for assessing the nutritional status of agricultural crops, which helps in the understanding of soil fertility and rationalized application of fertilizers taking into account economic and environmental criteria. The study aimed to use the landrelief as criteria to assist in interpreting the spatial variability of nutrient content of the citrus leaf. The leaves were collected at regular intervals of 50 m, totaling 332 sampling points. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, geostatistics and induction of decision tree. With the aid of digital elevation model (MDE and the profile

  8. Energy and Nutrient Content of Food Served and Consumed by Nursing Home Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckinx, F; Allepaerts, S; Paquot, N; Reginster, J Y; de Cock, C; Petermans, J; Bruyère, O

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare energy and protein content of the served food with the actual intake from the food consumed by nursing home residents. This study also aimed to compare food intake and dietary allowances. This is a cross sectional study. This study was performed in nursing homes. Residents of these 2 nursing homes were eligible for the study if they agreed to participate and if they meet the selection criteria (to be older than 65 years and have a regular texture diet). Nutrient content of the served food and real food consumption was calculated for all meals during a 5-day period by precise weighting method. Difference between consumed and served dietary content was evaluated by the Chi² test. Seventy-four Belgian nursing home residents (75% of women, 85.8 ± 7.04 years on average) were included in this study. These subjects had a mean body mass index of 24.9 ± 4.83 kg/m². The mean energy content of the served food was 1783.3 ± 125.7 kcal per day. However, residents did not eat the whole of the meals and the actual energy content of the consumed food was significantly less (1552.4 ± 342.1 kcal per day; peating significantly more energy than the others (p=.04). Meals served in nursing homes are not entirely consumed by their residents. As expected, the energy consumed are lower in subjects considered as malnourished or at risk of malnutrition.

  9. Food sources of total energy and overconsumed nutrients of public health concern among US adolescents: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is high intake of energy and overconsumed nutrients of public health concern in adolescents' diet. Overconsumed nutrients are sodium, saturated fatty acids (SFA), and added sugars. Our objective was to identify the most commonly consumed foods by adolescents as percentage of total energy, tota...

  10. Study on optimal fat content in total parenteral nutrition in partially hepatectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, S; Sakabe, S; Hirata, M; Kamuro, H; Asahara, N; Watanabe, M

    1997-04-01

    In order to investigate the optimal fat content for total parenteral nutrition (TPN) solutions, male Wistar rats were subjected to 70% hepatectomy and then placed, for five days, on one of five TPN regimens in which fat represented 0%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40%, respectively, of the total calorie content. As serum triglyceride levels in the fat-treated groups were lower than those in the non-treated normal rats, it was concluded that the administered fat was sufficiently hydrolyzed. The greater the fat content, the higher the regeneration rate of the remnant liver. Significant differences were found between the 0%-fat group and 20%-plus fat groups. Hepatic triglyceride level was significantly lower in the 20%-fat group. Hepatic protein level was significantly elevated in all fat-treated groups. Serum phospholipids and total cholesterol due to the lecithin contained in fat emulsion were significantly elevated in the 30 and 40%-fat groups, indicating that fat content of 30 and 40% was excessive. The results suggest that TPN containing fat is superior to fat-free TPN for liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy, and that optimal fat content is estimated to be about 20% of total calorie content in the case of this fat emulsion.

  11. Assessment of total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity of Mullein (Verbascum songaricum ecotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: The Mullein genus is the largest genus of Scrophulariaceae family which has extensive natural habitat in southwest of Iran. Mullein contains compounds such as phenolic compounds, mucilage, saponins and anthocyanin. The aim of this study was to evaluate the total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity of mullein ecotypes in Iran. Methods: Six ecotypes of the Verbascum songaricum were evaluated. Determination of total flavonoid content was performed bythealuminium chloride colourimetric method. The antioxidant activity of the flower extracts was measured using the DPPH method. Results: The results showed that total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity were different among ecotypes.  The highest and lowest amounts of total flavonoidwas obtained  from Shermard ecotype (13.42 mg rutin /g DW and Klar ecotypes(10.10 mg rutin /g DW, respectively. The highest amounts of antioxidant activity were obtained from the Shermard ecotype (IC50 246.35 μg/mL. The correlation analysis showed that a significant relation between flavonoid, antioxidant activity and habitat elevation. Conclusion: Total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity of the samples were affected by habitat climatic.  The present data indicated that the highest antioxidant activity may be due to higher flavonoid content and the habitat elevation was effective on the flavonoid content. Due to the high amounts of flavonoid and antioxidant activity of mullein extract, it seems to be a good herbal option as an antioxidant in complementary therapies.

  12. Fungal endophyte (Epichloë festucae alters the nutrient content of Festuca rubra regardless of water availability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz R Vázquez-de-Aldana

    Full Text Available Festuca rubra plants maintain associations with the vertically transmitted fungal endophyte Epichloë festucae. A high prevalence of infected host plants in semiarid grasslands suggests that this association could be mutualistic. We investigated if the Epichloë-endophyte affects the growth and nutrient content of F. rubra plants subjected to drought. Endophyte-infected (E+ and non-infected (E- plants of two half-sib lines (PEN and RAB were subjected to three water availability treatments. Shoot and root biomass, nutrient content, proline, phenolic compounds and fungal alkaloids were measured after the treatments. The effect of the endophyte on shoot and root biomass and dead leaves depended on the plant line. In the PEN line, E+ plants had a greater S:R ratio than E-, but the opposite occurred in RAB. In both plant lines and all water treatments, endophyte-infected plants had greater concentrations of N, P and Zn in shoots and Ca, Mg and Zn in roots than E- plants. On average, E+ plants contained in their shoots more P (62%, Zn (58% and N (19% than E- plants. While the proline in shoots increased in response to water stress, the endophyte did not affect this response. A multivariate analysis showed that endophyte status and plant line impose stronger differences in the performance of the plants than the water stress treatments. Furthermore, differences between PEN and RAB lines seemed to be greater in E- than in E+ plants, suggesting that E+ plants of both lines are more similar than those of their non-infected version. This is probably due to the endophyte producing a similar effect in both plant lines, such as the increase in N, P and Zn in shoots. The remarkable effect of the endophyte in the nutrient balance of the plants could help to explain the high prevalence of infected plants in natural grasslands.

  13. Effect of molybdenum on yield and nutrient content of the strawberry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, R.J.; Barros, I.B.I. de

    1984-01-01

    The cultivation of strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) cv. Campinas in nutrient solution using five fields levels of molybdenum (MO), 0.010 ppm, 0.010 ppm, 0.10 ppm, 1.0 ppm and control (Without applying molybdenum). The experiment was carried out in greenhouse and phytothron to evaluate the changes in the mineral status of the leaves and the quality of the berries. The concentration of Mo in the leaves, at the beginning of fruiting stage, varied from 0.5 ppm to 64 ppm. The total N in the levels was affected significantly by Mo. Average weight of the berries were affected by treatments and presented a quadratic regression response. (M.A.C.) [pt

  14. Associations between Dietary Nutrient Intakes and Hepatic Lipid Contents in NAFLD Patients Quantified by 1H-MRS and Dual-Echo MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yipeng Cheng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Dietary habits are crucial in the progression of hepatic lipid accumulation and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. However, there are limited studies using 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS and dual-echo in-phase and out-phase magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging (dual-echo MRI to assess the effects of dietary nutrient intakes on hepatic lipid contents. In the present study, we recruited 36 female adults (NAFLD:control = 19:17 to receive questionnaires and medical examinations, including dietary intakes, anthropometric and biochemical measurements, and 1H-MRS and dual-echo MRI examinations. NAFLD patients were found to consume diets higher in energy, protein, fat, saturated fatty acid (SFA, and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA. Total energy intake was positively associated with hepatic fat fraction (HFF and intrahepatic lipid (IHL after adjustment for age and body-mass index (BMI (HFF: β = 0.24, p = 0.02; IHL: β = 0.38, p = 0.02. Total fat intake was positively associated with HFF and IHL after adjustment for age, BMI and total energy intake (HFF: β = 0.36, p = 0.03; IHL: β = 0.42, p = 0.01. SFA intake was positively associated with HFF and IHL after adjustments (HFF: β = 0.45, p = 0.003; IHL: β = 1.16, p = 0.03. In conclusion, hepatic fat content was associated with high energy, high fat and high SFA intakes, quantified by 1H-MRS and dual-echo MRI in our population. Our findings are useful to provide dietary targets to prevent the hepatic lipid accumulation and NAFLD.

  15. Long-term trends in the total electron content

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laštovička, Jan; Urbář, Jaroslav; Kozubek, Michal

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 16 (2017), s. 8186-8172 ISSN 0094-8276 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-03909S Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : total electron content * long-term trend * solar control Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology OBOR OECD: Climatic research Impact factor: 4.253, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2017GL075063/full

  16. Root yield and reserpine content of Rauvolfia serpentina Benth. on media under the plant with potential allelopathic effect by nutrient addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SULANDJARI

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The root of Rauvolfia serpentina Benth (pule pandak contains more than 50 kinds of alkaloid which is useful to treat many kinds of diseases and reserpine is ones to treat of hypertension. Eucalyptus deglupta and Acacia mangium have become release an allelochemy to ecosystem that are can reduce the growth of the plant association. The purpose of this research is to know about the influence of nutrient and media under the plant with potential allelopathic effect to root yield and reserpine content. The research was arranged in Complete Random Block Design. Nutrient was nested on media. Media are: under Tectona grandis, A. mangium, and E. deglupta. Nutrient is 30 t ha-1 organic fertilizers, 200 ha-1 inorganic (NPK fertilizers and control. Polybag with 30 cmx30 cm plant densities and 20% of shading. The result are that beside under the T. grandis, pule pandak was capable to growth under the A. mangium and E. deglupta. Thirty ton per hectare organic fertilizers was increased of growth and yield more than 200 ha-1 inorganic (NPK fertilizers. Allelocemy from A. mangium and E. deglupta was decreased dry root yield but was not effect to reserpine content.

  17. Antioxidant capacity and total polyphenol content in different apple varieties cultivated in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Quitral, Vilma; Sepulveda, Marcela; Schwartz, Marco; Kern, Werther

    2014-01-01

    Three apple varieties cultivated in Chile were studied in total polyphenol content by Folin Ciocalteu method and antioxidant capacity by FRAP method: Granny Smith, Royal Gala and Fuji (whole and peeled apples). The total polyphenol content in whole and peeled apples do not show significant differences. The antioxidant capacity of the Granny Smith variety is significantly higher than Royal Gala and Fuji. Apple dehydration at 60 oC for 4 hours to obtain flakes keeps polyphenol content high. The...

  18. Nutrient Uptake by High-Yielding Cotton Crop in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luís Vilela Vieira

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Determining nutrient uptake and accumulation rates by cotton crops is important to define management strategies, especially for transgenic varieties, which are cultivated using high-technology approaches that require substantial investment to maximize yield. Currently in Brazil, the states of Bahia and Mato Grosso are responsible for 84.4 % of the total cotton growing area. In the present study, two trials were conducted in 2013, one that involved planting FM 940 GLT, FM 980 GLT, and FM 913 GLT varieties in the state of Bahia and the other which involved FM 940 GLT and FM 980 GLT varieties in the state of Mato Grosso. The aim of the two trials was to represent the two regions that currently encompass the largest areas of cotton cultivation. Tissue samples, consisting of leaves, stems, and reproductive components, were collected eleven times during the crop cycle for determination of nutrient content and shoot dry matter. After weighing, plant tissue samples were dried and ground to determine nutrient contents. Because there were no overall differences in nutrient contents and biomass accumulation of the varieties during the crop cycle, we undertook joint analysis of the data from all varieties at each site. Favorable climatic conditions in Bahia promoted plant biomass production that was twice as much as plants grown in Mato Grosso, with cotton yields of 6.2 and 3.8 t ha−1 of lint and seed, respectively. The maximum nutrient accumulation occurred between 137-150 days after emergence (DAE for N; 143-148 for P; 172-185 for K; 100 for Ca; 144-149 for Mg; and 153-158 for S. Maximum uptake ranged from 218-362 kg ha−1 N; 26-53 kg ha−1 P; 233-506 kg ha−1 K; 91-202 kg ha−1 Ca; 28-44 kg ha−1 Mg; and 19-61 kg ha−1 S. On average, the sites revealed nutrient export of 14, 2, 23, 3, 2, and 2 kg t−1 of lint and seed for N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and S, respectively, with little variation among sites. Extraction of nutrients per area by cotton

  19. Production and evaluation of mineral and nutrient contents, chemical composition, and sensory properties of ice creams fortified with laboratory-prepared peach fibre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yangılar, Filiz

    2016-01-01

    Background In the coming years, a nutraceutical food may provide both physical and mental benefits that are commonly attributed to the active components of the food. Objective In this study, we determined the nutrient and mineral contents, sensory properties, and physical and chemical characteristics of ice creams manufactured using peach fibre at different concentrations (1 and 2%). Method A total of five experimental groups were formed: two types (from peach peel and pulp) of flour, two fibre concentrations (1 and 2%), and a control group without fibres. Results Flour obtained from peach pulp and peel was found to have a significant (pice cream samples, especially the rates of Ca, K, Mg, and P, which increased in the samples depending on the content of peach fibre. Sensory ratings and acceptability of ice creams decreased significantly with increasing peach peel fibre, whereas ice creams made with C (control) and B1 (ice creams made from 1% peach pulp fibre) was the highest scored by the panellists. Conclusions Peach fibre concentrates might be used as a good source of nutraceutical ingredients. PMID:27814781

  20. Effects of irradiation on decontamination and nutrients of dehydrated longan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jiating; Feng Min; Tang Yuxin; Lin Jiabin; Yang Ping; Wang Dening

    2011-01-01

    The dehydrated longan were irradiated at the doses of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 kGy and the effects of irradiation on nutrients contents and decontamination were studied. Results showed that dehydrated longan were irradiated at 6 kGy, the number of total bacterial count, mold and coliform bacteria accorded with national standards. There were no significant influence on contents of crude fat, ash, Fe, P, Na and V B2 , but the contents of protein, crude fiber, carbohydrate, moisture, Ca, K and V C of irradiated deghdrated longan were significantly different with control. 6-10 kGy irradiation could meet the commercial demands of dehydrated longan decontamination. (authors)

  1. Comparison of Some Nutrient Content of Sport Lawn under the Influence of Fertilizer and Seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Zarei

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Quantity, characteristics and composition of organic matter widely vary by changing seasons and geographical conditions. On the other hand when soil conditioning due to poor drainage limits then decomposition of organic matter by soil microorganisms highly reduces. Soil and plant testing is one of the best management methods in measuring these changes. In this study, the effect of seven types of organic fertilizer including Leaf Mold (LM, Rice Husk (RH, manure, Spent Mushroom Compost (SMC, a mixture of LM, RH and manure (mixture 1, a mixture of LM, RH and SMC (mixture 2 with the ratio of 1:1:1 and control (no fertilizer at three levels of compaction including roller weighted at 36, 56 and 76 kilograms on some nutrient content of sport lawn were investigated in different seasons. An experiment was conducted as a strip plot design in three replications, in research farm of Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources during 2008-2009. With the comparison of the total mean of leaf nitrogen and potassium in different seasons, the highest and the lowest absorption rate of these elements was observed in the fall and summer respectively. Moreover, statistical analysis indicated higher concentration of phosphorus in spring and summer than fall and winter.

  2. Nutrient content in maize fertilized with tannery sludge vermicompost and irrigated with domestic wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Malafaia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the macro and micronutrient content of maize leaves (Zea mays L. grown in soil containing tannery sludge vermicomposting and irrigated with wastewater. The arrangement of the treatments consisted of a factorial 2x6 (two types of irrigation and six kinds of fertilizer in a completely randomized design, with five repetitions, totaling sixty experimental units. The following experimental units, irrigated with supply water (A and household wastewater (R, were established: (T1 Control Soil, with no chemical fertilization and no vermicomposting; (T2 Soil + NPK; (T3 Soil + primary sludge vermicompost; (T4 Soil + P + primary sludge vermicompost; (T5 Soil + P + liming sludge vermicompost; and (T6 Soil + liming sludge vermicompost. For the leaf-tissue analysis, the opposite whole leaf below the first (upper ear was collected from each plant, excluding the midrib at the onset of the female inflorescence. The results showed that both wastewater and the tannery sludge vermicomposts can be a good source of nutrients for maize plants, since the macro and micronutrients in the leaves of plants were satisfactory and no signs or symptoms of toxicity were observed. While leaf analysis alone is insufficient to assess the nutritional status of plants, this study innovatively suggests the potential beneficial use of a combination of wastewater and tannery sludge vermicompost in the cultivation of corn, motivating new research.

  3. Proteína degradável no rúmen na dieta de bovinos: digestibilidades total e parcial dos nutrientes e parâmetros ruminais Rumen degradable protein on bovine diet: total and partial nutrient digestibility and ruminal parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saul Ferreira Caldas Neto

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Quatro novilhos da raça Holandesa (450 kg portadores de cânula ruminal e duodenal, recebendo dietas com níveis de proteína degradável no rúmen (PDR de 50, 60, 65 e 70%, associadas a uma fonte de amido de alta degradabilidade ruminal (farinha de varredura de mandioca, foram distribuídos em quadrado latino 4 × 4 para se avaliarem as digestibilidades total e parcial dos nutrientes, a concentração de amônia e o pH ruminal. Foi utilizada, como indicador do fluxo duodenal e fecal, a cinza insolúvel em ácido. Não foi observado efeito do nível de PDR sobre o coeficiente de digestibilidade total, digestibilidade ruminal e digestibilidade intestinal da matéria seca, matéria orgânica, fibra em detergente neutro, carboidratos não-estruturais e energia bruta. O aumento do nível de PDR na dieta elevou o coeficiente de digestibilidade total e ruminal da proteína bruta e reduziu a digestibilidade intestinal desse nutriente como porcentagem do digerido. Não houve efeito dos níveis de PDR no pH ruminal, no entanto, maior concentração ruminal de amônia foi observada para as dietas com maior teor de PDR. Os resultados obtidos indicaram que o aumento no teor de PDR acarretou maior produção de nitrogênio na forma de amônia, independentemente da presença da fonte de amido de alta degradabilidade ruminal, contudo, o aporte de proteína intestinal foi semelhante para todas as dietas.Four ruminally and duodenally cannulated Holstein steers (450 kg were fed diets with rumen degradable protein (RDP levels of 50.0 60.0 65.0 and 70.0% associated with a high ruminal degradability starch (cassava by-product meal were allotted to a 4 × 4 Latin square design for the evaluation of total and partial digestibility of the nutrients, ruminal ammonia concentration and pH. The acid insoluble ash was used as a marker of the duodenal and fecal flow. No effects were observed on the level of RDP on total digestibility coefficient, ruminal digestibility and

  4. Food Sources of Total Energy and Nutrients among U.S. Infants and Toddlers: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carley A. Grimes

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the dietary intakes of infants and toddlers is important because early life nutrition influences future health outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine the dietary sources of total energy and 16 nutrients in a nationally representative sample of U.S. infants and toddlers aged 0–24 months. Data from the 2005–2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. Dietary intake was assessed in 2740 subjects using one 24-h dietary recall. The population proportion was used to determine the contribution of foods and beverages to nutrient intakes. Overall infant formulas and baby foods were the leading sources of total energy and nutrients in infants aged 0–11.9 months. In toddlers, the diversity of food groups contributing to nutrient intakes was much greater. Important sources of total energy included milk, 100% juice and grain based mixed dishes. A number of foods of low nutritional quality also contributed to energy intakes including sweet bakery products, sugar-sweetened beverages and savory snacks. Overall non-flavored milks and ready-to-eat cereals were the most important contributors to micronutrient intakes. In conclusion this information can be used to guide parents regarding appropriate food selection as well as inform targeted dietary strategies within public health initiatives to improve the diets of infants and toddlers.

  5. Nutrient production from dairy cattle manure and loading on arable land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seunggun Won

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective Along with increasing livestock products via intensive rearing, the accumulation of livestock manure has become a serious issue due to the fact that there is finite land for livestock manure recycling via composting. The nutrients from livestock manure accumulate on agricultural land and the excess disembogues into streams causing eutrophication. In order to systematically manage nutrient loading on agricultural land, quantifying the amount of nutrients according to their respective sources is very important. However, there is a lack of research concerning nutrient loss from livestock manure during composting or storage on farms. Therefore, in the present study we quantified the nutrients from dairy cattle manure that were imparted onto agricultural land. Methods Through investigation of 41 dairy farms, weight reduction and volatile solids (VS, total nitrogen (TN, and total phosphorus (TP changes of dairy cattle manure during the storage and composting periods were analyzed. In order to support the direct investigation and survey on site, the three cases of weight reduction during the storing and composting periods were developed according to i experiment, ii reference, and iii theoretical changes in phosphorus content (ΔP = 0. Results The data revealed the nutrient loading coefficients (NLCs of VS, TN, and TP on agricultural land were 1.48, 0.60, and 0.66, respectively. These values indicated that the loss of nitrogen and phosphorus was 40% and 34%, respectively, and that there was an increase of VS since bedding materials were mixed with excretion in the barn. Conclusion As result of nutrient-footprint analyses, the amounts of TN and TP particularly entered on arable land have been overestimated if applying the nutrient amount in fresh manure. The NLCs obtained in this study may assist in the development of a database to assess the accurate level of manure nutrient loading on soil and facilitate systematic nutrient management.

  6. Nutrient Digestibility and Metabolizable Energy Content of Mucuna pruriens Whole Pods Fed to Growing Pelibuey Lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyra-Tzab, Enrique; Sarmiento-Franco, Luis Armando; Sandoval-Castro, Carlos Alfredo; Santos-Ricalde, Ronald Herve

    2013-07-01

    The nutrient digestibility, nitrogen balance and in vivo metabolizable energy supply of Mucuna pruriens whole pods fed to growing Pelibuey lambs was investigated. Eight Pelibuey sheep housed in metabolic crates were fed increasing levels of Mucuna pruriens pods: 0 (control), 100 (Mucuna100), 200 (Mucuna200) and 300 (Mucuna300) g/kg dry matter. A quadratic (pMucuna100 and Mucuna200 treatments. Increasing M. pruriens in the diets had no effect (p>0.05) on DM and GE apparent digestibility (pmucuna pod level. This effect was accompanied by a quadratic effect (pMucuna100 and Mucuna200 treatments. Urine-N excretion, GE retention and dietary estimated nutrient supply (metabolizable protein and metabolizable energy) were not affected (p>0.05). DM, N and GE apparent digestibility coefficient of M. pruriens whole pods obtained through multiple regression equations were 0.692, 0.457, 0.654 respectively. In vivo DE and ME content of mucuna whole pod were estimated in 11.0 and 9.7 MJ/kg DM. It was concluded that whole pods from M. pruriens did not affect nutrient utilization when included in an mixed diet up to 200 g/kg DM. This is the first in vivo estimation of mucuna whole pod ME value for ruminants.

  7. Assessment of Fecal Near-infrared Spectroscopy to Predict Feces Chemical Composition and Apparent Total Tract Digestibility of Nutrients in Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirea, K G; Pérez de Nanclares, M; Skugor, A; Afseth, N K; Meuwissen, T H E; Hansen, J Ø; Mydland, L T; Øverland, M

    2018-05-08

    Apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients could be an alternative measure of feed efficiency when breeding for robust animals that are fed fiber-rich diets. Apparent total tract digestibility of nutrients requires measuring individual feed intake of a large number of animals which is expensive and complex. Alternatively, ATTD of nutrients and feces chemical composition can be predicted using fecal near-infrared spectroscopy (FNIRS). The objective of this study was to assess if the feces chemical composition and ATTD of nutrients can be predicted using FNIRS that originate from various pig experimental datasets. Fecal samples together with detailed information on the feces chemical composition and ATTD of nutrients were obtained from four different pig experiments. Feces near-infrared spectroscopy were analyzed from fecal samples of a complete dataset. The model was calibrated using the FNIRS and reference samples of feces chemical composition and ATTD of nutrients. The robustness and predictability of the model was evaluated by the r2 and the closeness between SE of calibration (SEC) and SE of cross-validation (SECV). Prediction of the feces chemical components and ATTD of nutrients was successful as SEC and SECV were equivalent. Calibration model was developed to estimate the ATTD of nutrients and fecal chemical composition from the FNIRS and worked well for OM (r2 = 0.94; SEC = 48.5; SECV = 56.6), CP ( r2 = 0.89; SEC = 18.1; SECV = 18.8), GE ( r2 = 0.92; SEC = 1.2; SECV = 1.4), NDF (r2 = 0.94 ; SEC = 55; SECV = 60.2), OM digestibility (r2 = 0.94; SEC = 5.5; SECV = 6.7), GE digestibility (r2 = 0.88; SEC = 2.3; SECV = 2.6) and fat digestibility (r2 = 0.79 ; SEC = 6, SECV = 6.8). However, the SE of prediction was slightly higher than what has been reported in another study. The prediction of feces chemical composition for fat (r2 = 0.69; SEC = 11.7, SECV = 12.3), CP digestibility (r2 = 0.63; SEC = 2.3; SECV = 2.7) and NDF digestibility (r2 = 0.64, SEC

  8. Thiamin and riboflavin vitamers in human milk: effects of lipid-based nutrient supplementation and stage of lactation on vitamer secretion and contributions to total vitamin content

    Science.gov (United States)

    While thiamin and riboflavin in breast milk have been analyzed for over 50 years, less attention has been given to the different forms of each vitamin. Thiamin-monophosphate (TMP) and free thiamin contribute to total thiamin content; flavin adenine-dinucleotide (FAD) and free riboflavin are the main...

  9. Evaluation of dried vegetables residues for poultry: II. Effects of feeding cabbage leaf residues on broiler performance, ileal digestibility and total tract nutrient digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, A F; Baurhoo, B

    2017-03-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of partial replacing corn and soybean meal with dried cabbage leaf residues (DCR) on broiler growth performance, apparent ileal nutrient digestibility, and apparent total tract nutrient utilization. Dietary treatments include 4 levels of DCR (0, 3, 6, and 9%). Two hundred and twenty-four day-old male broilers were randomly assigned to one of 4 groups (8 cage replicates; 7 birds/cage) and grown over a 35-d experimental period. Results showed that feeding DCR had no effects on daily body weigh gain (average 53.4 g/d), daily feed intake (average 94.9 g/d), and feed conversion ratio (average 1.78 g of feed/g of gain). Inclusion of DCR reduced apparent ileal DM (quadratic effect, P digestibility of younger birds (d 21) while incremental levels of DCR had no effect on apparent ileal nutrient digestibilities of older birds (d 35). Apparent total tract digestibility of DM, OM, and CP increased (linear effect, P digestibility of older birds and improved apparent total tract nutrient digestibility. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  10. Quantification of litter and nutrients on an Atlantic Rain Forest/ Quantificação de serapilheira e de nutrientes em uma Floresta Ombrófila Densa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaelo Balbinot

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available No matter what kind of forest it is, the litter production represents the first stage of nutrients and energy transfer from the vegetation to the soil, because most of the nutrients absorbed by the plants comes back to the forest ground through the fall of the litter or leaves wash. The aim of this study was to quantify the production of accumulated litter and nutrient contents on three successional stages of Atlantic Rain Forest, Blumenau/SC - Brazil. For the collections of the accumulated litter five rectangular samples units (SU of 10 m x 20 m were used in each successional stage, in a total of 15 SUs. In each SU the collections of material in an aleatory way was made with the aid of a metal frame of 0.25 m x 0.25 m, with five replications per SU every 30 days (75 samples/month, that is to say, 25 samples/successional stage. The average production of accumulated litter in twenty two months in the collected data was, in a decreasing order, stage III (5.28 Mg ha-1 > stage II (5.02 Mg ha-1 > stage I (4.47 Mg ha-1. The total macronutrient contents on accumulated litter of successional stages I and II, in decreasing order were: N > Ca > Mg > K > S > P, and on stage III: N > Ca > Mg > S > K > P. The forest presented total content of micronutrients on accumulated litter of three successional stages in the following decreasing order: Fe > Mn > Zn > B > Cu. For the total organic carbon content on accumulated litter, the sequence was: stage II (1.65 Mg ha-1 > stage III (1.50 Mg ha-1 > stage I (1.47 Mg ha-1.Seja qual for o tipo de floresta, a produção de serapilheira representa o primeiro estágio de transferência de nutrientes e energia da vegetação para o solo, pois a maior parte dos nutrientes absorvidos pelas plantas retorna ao piso florestal através da queda de serapilheira ou lavagem foliar. O objetivo desse estudo foi quantificar a produção de serapilheira acumulada e o conteúdo de nutrientes em três estádios sucessionais da Floresta

  11. Total tract nutrient digestion and milk fatty acid profile of dairy cows fed diets containing different levels of whole raw soya beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturelli, B C; de Freitas Júnior, J E; Takiya, C S; de Araújo, A P C; Santos, M C B; Calomeni, G D; Gardinal, R; Vendramini, T H A; Rennó, F P

    2015-12-01

    Whole oilseeds such as soya beans have been utilized in dairy rations to supply additional fat and protein. However, antinutritional components contained in soya beans, such as trypsin inhibitors and haemagglutinins (lectins) may alter digestibility of nutrients and consequently affect animal performance. The objective of the present experiment was to quantify the effect of different levels of whole raw soya beans in diets of dairy cows on nutrient intake, total tract digestion, nutrient balances and milk yield and composition. Sixteen mid to late-lactation cows (228 ± 20 days in milk; mean ± SD) were used in four replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment with 21-d periods. Cows were assigned to each square according to milk yield and DIM. The animals were randomly allocated to treatments: control (without soya beans addition; CO), WS9, WS18 and WS27, with addition of 9%, 18% and 27% of whole raw soya bean in diet on a dry matter (DM) basis respectively. All diets contained identical forage and concentrate components and consisted of maize silage and concentrate based on ground corn and soya beans at a ratio of 60:40. There were no differences in OM, CP, NDF and NEL intakes (kg/day and MJ/day) among the treatments (p > 0.05). However, DM and NFC intakes were negatively affected (p = 0.04 and p raw soya beans for EE (p raw soya beans. However, the nutritive characteristics of excreted grains were not altered. Milk (kg), milk lactose (kg) and protein (kg) yield decreased linearly (p milk fat content (%) increased linearly (p raw soya beans inclusion. Increasing addition of whole raw soya beans affected milk fatty acid profile with a linear decrease of cis-9-trans 11CLA and total saturated FA; and linear increase of total unsaturated and C18:3 FA. Energy balance was positively affected (p = 0.03) by whole raw soya beans as well as efficiency of NEL milk/DE intake (p = 0.02). Nitrogen balance and microbial protein synthesis were not affected by whole raw soya

  12. Cytotoxicity, Total Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant Activity of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The leaves of Annona muricata were extracted using ethanol and the extracts were evaluated for cytotoxicity using Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay, total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity using DPPH radical scavenging assay. The crude extract showed 73.33 % mortality at 1000 μg/mL concentration and its ...

  13. Serum lipid profiles, total tract nutrient digestibility, and gastrointestinal tolerance by dogs of α-cyclodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, M A; Bauer, L L; Garleb, K A; Fahey, G C; de Godoy, M R C

    2015-05-01

    The objectives were to quantify gastrointestinal tolerance, total tract nutrient digestibility, and serum lipid profiles of dogs as affected by α-cyclodextrin (ACD) supplementation and to validate the accuracy of fat analyses techniques using novel ACD-fat complexes. The ACD was hydrolyzed and free sugars and hydrolyzed monosaccharides were quantified using high performance liquid chromatography. Known amount of fats were complexed with ACD, and fat content of complexes were determined using the ether extraction and acid-hydrolyzed fat methods. Nine mixed-breed hounds were used in a crossover design with 3 periods of 10 d each, including 6 d for diet adaptation and 4 d for fecal collection. Dogs were fed twice daily a diet with poultry byproduct meal and brewer's rice as the main ingredients, and chromic oxide (0.2%) was included as a digestion marker. Dogs were supplemented with either 0, 3, or 6 g of ACD diluted in 15 mL of water twice per day for a total of 0, 6, and 12 g ACD per day. The ACD had a very low free sugar concentration and, once hydrolyzed, released only glucose, as expected. Average daily food intake, fecal output (DM basis), and fecal scores were not significantly different among treatments. Body weight and condition score and serum triglycerides and cholesterol concentrations remained unaltered throughout the duration of the experiment. Dry matter, OM, and fat digestibility coefficients were lower (P < 0.05) for both treatment groups compared to the control. The acid-hydrolyzed fat method was valid to measure fat that was bound to ACD. Intake of ACD lowered fat digestibility somewhat but not to the extent previously reported, without affecting serum lipid concentrations or outcomes related to tolerance. Therefore, ACD supplementation resulted in a small decrease in fat digestibility, but ACD supplementation might have potential in modifying serum lipid profiles.

  14. Increases of equatorial total electron content (TEC) during magnetic storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeboah-Amankwah, D.

    1976-01-01

    This paper is a report on the analysis of equatorial electron content, TEC, during magnetic storms. Storms between 1969 and 1972 have been examined as part of an on-going study of TEC morphology during magnetically disturbed days. The published magnetic Ksup(p) indices and TEC data from the Legon abservatory have been employed. The general picture arising from the analysis is that the total electron content of the ionosphere is significantly enhanced during magnetic storms. (author)

  15. AAS determination of total mercury content in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moskalova, M.; Zemberyova, M.

    1997-01-01

    Two methods for determination of total mercury content in environmental samples soils, and sediments, were compared. Dissolution procedure of soils, sediments, and biological material under elevated pressure followed by determination of mercury by cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry using a MHS-1 system and direct total mercury determination without any chemical pretreatment from soil samples using a Trace Mercury Analyzer TMA-254 were compared. TMA-254 was also applied for the determination of mercury in various further standard reference materials. Good agreement with certified values of environmental reference materials was obtained. (authors)

  16. Contributions to total phosphorus intake: all sources considered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Mona S; Uribarri, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    High serum phosphorus is linked to poor health outcome and mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients before or after the initiation of dialysis. Dietary intake of phosphorus, a major determinant of serum phosphorus, seems to be systematically underestimated using the available software tools and generalized nutrient content databases. Several sources of dietary phosphorus including the addition of phosphorus ingredients in food processing, and phosphorus content of vitamin and mineral supplements and commonly used over-the-counter or prescription medications are not fully accounted for by the nutrient content databases and software programs in current clinical use or used in large population studies. In this review, we explore the many unknown sources of phosphorus in the food supply to identify all possible contributors to total phosphorus intake of Americans that have escaped inclusion in past intake estimates. Our goal is to help delineate areas for future interventions that will enable tighter control of dietary phosphorus intake, a critical factor to maintaining health and quality of life in CKD and dialysis patients. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The Sum of Its Parts—Effects of Gastric Distention, Nutrient Content and Sensory Stimulation on Brain Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spetter, Maartje S.; de Graaf, Cees; Mars, Monica; Viergever, Max A.; Smeets, Paul A. M.

    2014-01-01

    During food consumption the brain integrates multiple interrelated neural and hormonal signals involved in the regulation of food intake. Factors influencing the decision to stop eating include the foods' sensory properties, macronutrient content, and volume, which in turn affect gastric distention and appetite hormone responses. So far, the contributions of gastric distention and oral stimulation by food on brain activation have not been studied. The primary objective of this study was to assess the effect of gastric distention with an intra-gastric load and the additional effect of oral stimulation on brain activity after food administration. Our secondary objective was to study the correlations between hormone responses and appetite-related ratings and brain activation. Fourteen men completed three functional magnetic resonance imaging sessions during which they either received a naso-gastric infusion of water (stomach distention), naso-gastric infusion of chocolate milk (stomach distention + nutrients), or ingested chocolate-milk (stomach distention + nutrients + oral exposure). Appetite ratings and blood parameters were measured at several time points. During gastric infusion, brain activation was observed in the midbrain, amygdala, hypothalamus, and hippocampus for both chocolate milk and water, i.e., irrespective of nutrient content. The thalamus, amygdala, putamen and precuneus were activated more after ingestion than after gastric infusion of chocolate milk, whereas infusion evoked greater activation in the hippocampus and anterior cingulate. Moreover, areas involved in gustation and reward were activated more after oral stimulation. Only insulin responses following naso-gastric infusion of chocolate milk correlated with brain activation, namely in the putamen and insula. In conclusion, we show that normal (oral) food ingestion evokes greater activation than gastric infusion in stomach distention and food intake-related brain areas. This provides neural

  18. The sum of its parts--effects of gastric distention, nutrient content and sensory stimulation on brain activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spetter, Maartje S; de Graaf, Cees; Mars, Monica; Viergever, Max A; Smeets, Paul A M

    2014-01-01

    During food consumption the brain integrates multiple interrelated neural and hormonal signals involved in the regulation of food intake. Factors influencing the decision to stop eating include the foods' sensory properties, macronutrient content, and volume, which in turn affect gastric distention and appetite hormone responses. So far, the contributions of gastric distention and oral stimulation by food on brain activation have not been studied. The primary objective of this study was to assess the effect of gastric distention with an intra-gastric load and the additional effect of oral stimulation on brain activity after food administration. Our secondary objective was to study the correlations between hormone responses and appetite-related ratings and brain activation. Fourteen men completed three functional magnetic resonance imaging sessions during which they either received a naso-gastric infusion of water (stomach distention), naso-gastric infusion of chocolate milk (stomach distention + nutrients), or ingested chocolate-milk (stomach distention + nutrients + oral exposure). Appetite ratings and blood parameters were measured at several time points. During gastric infusion, brain activation was observed in the midbrain, amygdala, hypothalamus, and hippocampus for both chocolate milk and water, i.e., irrespective of nutrient content. The thalamus, amygdala, putamen and precuneus were activated more after ingestion than after gastric infusion of chocolate milk, whereas infusion evoked greater activation in the hippocampus and anterior cingulate. Moreover, areas involved in gustation and reward were activated more after oral stimulation. Only insulin responses following naso-gastric infusion of chocolate milk correlated with brain activation, namely in the putamen and insula. In conclusion, we show that normal (oral) food ingestion evokes greater activation than gastric infusion in stomach distention and food intake-related brain areas. This provides neural

  19. The sum of its parts--effects of gastric distention, nutrient content and sensory stimulation on brain activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maartje S Spetter

    Full Text Available During food consumption the brain integrates multiple interrelated neural and hormonal signals involved in the regulation of food intake. Factors influencing the decision to stop eating include the foods' sensory properties, macronutrient content, and volume, which in turn affect gastric distention and appetite hormone responses. So far, the contributions of gastric distention and oral stimulation by food on brain activation have not been studied. The primary objective of this study was to assess the effect of gastric distention with an intra-gastric load and the additional effect of oral stimulation on brain activity after food administration. Our secondary objective was to study the correlations between hormone responses and appetite-related ratings and brain activation. Fourteen men completed three functional magnetic resonance imaging sessions during which they either received a naso-gastric infusion of water (stomach distention, naso-gastric infusion of chocolate milk (stomach distention + nutrients, or ingested chocolate-milk (stomach distention + nutrients + oral exposure. Appetite ratings and blood parameters were measured at several time points. During gastric infusion, brain activation was observed in the midbrain, amygdala, hypothalamus, and hippocampus for both chocolate milk and water, i.e., irrespective of nutrient content. The thalamus, amygdala, putamen and precuneus were activated more after ingestion than after gastric infusion of chocolate milk, whereas infusion evoked greater activation in the hippocampus and anterior cingulate. Moreover, areas involved in gustation and reward were activated more after oral stimulation. Only insulin responses following naso-gastric infusion of chocolate milk correlated with brain activation, namely in the putamen and insula. In conclusion, we show that normal (oral food ingestion evokes greater activation than gastric infusion in stomach distention and food intake-related brain areas. This

  20. Nutrient Partitioning and Stoichiometry in Unburnt Sugarcane Ratoon at Varying Yield Levels

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    José Marcos Leite

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Unraveling nutrient imbalances in contemporary agriculture is a research priority to improve whenever possible yield and nutrient use efficiency in sugarcane (Saccharum spp. systems while minimizing the costs of cultivation (e.g., use of fertilizers and environmental concerns. The main goal of this study was therefore to investigate biomass and nutrient [nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P, and potassium (K] content, partitioning, stoichiometry and internal efficiencies in sugarcane ratoon at varying yield levels. Three sites were established on highly weathered tropical soils located in the Southeast region of Brazil. At all sites, seasonal biomass and nutrient uptake patterns were synthesized from four sampling times taken throughout the sugarcane ratoon season. At all sites, in-season nutrient partitioning (in diverse plant components, internal efficiencies (yield to nutrient content ratio and nutrient ratios (N:P and N:K were determined at harvesting. Sugarcane exhibited three distinct phases of plant growth, as follows: lag, exponential-linear, and stationary. Across sites, nutrient requirement per unit of yield was 1.4 kg N, 0.24 kg P, and 2.7 kg K per Mg of stalk produced, but nutrient removal varied with soil nutrient status (based on soil plus fertilizer nutrient supply and crop demand (potential yield. Dry leaves had lower nutrient content (N, P, and K and broader N:P and N:K ratios when compared with tops and stalks plant fractions. Greater sugarcane yield and narrowed N:P ratio (6:1 were verified for tops of sugarcane when increasing both N and P content. High-yielding sugarcane systems were related to higher nutrient content and more balanced N:P (6:1 and N:K (0.5:1 ratios.

  1. Effects of inclusion level on nutrient digestibility and energy content of wheat middlings and soya bean meal for growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiang; Piao, Xiangshu; Liu, Ling; Li, Defa

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of inclusion level of wheat middlings and soya bean meal on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy and chemical components of these ingredients in growing pigs. Furthermore, the effects of the inclusion level on their contents of digestible energy (DE) and metabolisable energy (ME) were also determined by the difference method. In Experiment 1, six diets were fed to 36 growing pigs according to a completely randomised design. The basal diet was a corn-soya bean meal diet while the other five diets contained 9.6%, 19.2%, 28.8%, 38.4% or 48.0% of wheat middlings added at the expense of corn and soya bean meal. The measured digestibility of energy and most nutrients of wheat middlings increased (p soya bean meal (22.2% and 33.6%). The content of DE in soya bean meal did not differ at 22.2% and 33.6% inclusion levels (16.2 and 16.3 MJ/kg DM, respectively), but the digestibility of dry matter (DM), organic matter and carbohydrates was increased at a higher inclusion level (p soya bean meal and wheat middlings was affected by their dietary inclusion levels. For soya bean meal, the estimated energy contents was independent of its inclusion level, but not for wheat middlings. Therefore, the inclusion level of wheat middlings has to be considered for estimating their energy value.

  2. Decomposition and nutrient release of leguminous plants in coffee agroforestry systems

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    Eduardo da Silva Matos

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Leguminous plants used as green manure are an important nutrient source for coffee plantations, especially for soils with low nutrient levels. Field experiments were conducted in the Zona da Mata of Minas Gerais State, Brazil to evaluate the decomposition and nutrient release rates of four leguminous species used as green manures (Arachis pintoi, Calopogonium mucunoides, Stizolobium aterrimum and Stylosanthes guianensis in a coffee agroforestry system under two different climate conditions. The initial N contents in plant residues varied from 25.7 to 37.0 g kg-1 and P from 2.4 to 3.0 g kg-1. The lignin/N, lignin/polyphenol and (lignin+polyphenol/N ratios were low in all residues studied. Mass loss rates were highest in the first 15 days, when 25 % of the residues were decomposed. From 15 to 30 days, the decomposition rate decreased on both farms. On the farm in Pedra Dourada (PD, the decomposition constant k increased in the order C. mucunoides < S. aterrimum < S. guianensis < A. pintoi. On the farm in Araponga (ARA, there was no difference in the decomposition rate among leguminous plants. The N release rates varied from 0.0036 to 0.0096 d-1. Around 32 % of the total N content in the plant material was released in the first 15 days. In ARA, the N concentration in the S. aterrimum residues was always significantly higher than in the other residues. At the end of 360 days, the N released was 78 % in ARA and 89 % in PD of the initial content. Phosphorus was the most rapidly released nutrient (k values from 0.0165 to 0.0394 d-1. Residue decomposition and nutrient release did not correlate with initial residue chemistry and biochemistry, but differences in climatic conditions between the two study sites modified the decomposition rate constants.

  3. Are trends in total electron content (TEC) really positive?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laštovička, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 118, č. 6 (2013), s. 3831-3835 ISSN 2169-9380 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP209/10/1792 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : Long-term trends * total electron content Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 3.440, year: 2013 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jgra.50261/abstract

  4. [Analysis of effect of topographical conditions on content of total alkaloid in Coptidis Rhizoma in Chongqin, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Huang, He; Yang, Yan-fang; Wu, He-zhen

    2014-12-01

    To study ecology suitability rank dividing of the total alkaloid content of Coptis Rhizoma for selecting artificial planting base and high-quality industrial raw material in Chongqing province. Based on the investigation of PCB and DEM data of Chongqing province, the relationship between the total alkaloid content in Coptis Rhizoma and topographical conditions was analyzed by statistical analysis. The geographic information systems (GIS)-based assessment and landscape ecological principles were applied to assess eco logy suitability areas of Coptis Rhizoma in Chongqing. slope, aspect and altitude are main topographical factors that affect the content of the total alkaloid content in Coptis Rhizoma The total alkaloid content in Coptis Rhizoma is higher in the lower altitude, shady slope and bigger slope areas. The total alkaloid content is higher in the south areas of Chongqing province and lower in the northeast. Terrain conditions of the southern region of Chongqing are most suitable for The accumulated of total alkaloid Coptis Rhizoma content.

  5. Nutrient transport within and between habitats through seed dispersal processes by woolly monkeys in north-western Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Pablo R; Guzmán-Caro, Diana C

    2010-11-01

    The contribution of vertebrate animals to nutrient cycling has proven to be important in various ecosystems. However, the role of large bodied primates in nutrient transport in neotropical forests is not well documented. Here, we assess the role of a population of woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagothricha lugens) as vectors of nutrient movement through seed dispersal. We estimated total seed biomass transported by the population within and between two habitats (terra firme and flooded forests) at Tinigua Park, Colombia, and quantified potassium (K), phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) content in seeds of 20 plant species from both forests. Overall, the population transported an estimated minimum of 11.5 (±1.2 SD) g of potassium, 13.2 (±0.7) g of phosphorus and 34.3 (±0.1) g nitrogen, within 22.4 (±2.0) kg of seeds ha(-1) y(-1). Approximately 84% of all nutrients were deposited in the terra firme forest mostly through recycling processes, and also through translocation from the flooded forest. This type of translocation represents an important and high-quality route of transport since abiotic mechanisms do not usually move nutrients upwards, and since chemical tests show that seeds from flooded forests have comparatively higher nutrient contents. The overall contribution to nutrient movement by the population of woolly monkeys is significant because of the large amount of biomass transported, and the high phosphorus content of seeds. As a result, the phosphorus input generated by these monkeys is of the same order of magnitude as other abiotic mechanisms of nutrient transport such as atmospheric deposition and some weathering processes. Our results suggest that via seed dispersal processes, woolly monkey populations can contribute to nutrient movement in tropical forests, and may act as important nutrient input vectors in terra firme forests. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Effects of soil characteristics on grape juice nutrient concentrations and other grape quality parameters in Shiraz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concepción Ramos, Maria; Romero, Maria Paz

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated the response of grapes to soil properties in the variety Shiraz (SH) cultivated in the Costers de Segre Designation of Origin (NE, Spain). The research was carried out in two areas with differences in vigor, which was examined using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Soil properties such as organic matter content, pH, electrical conductivity and nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Zn and Mn) were analysed in the two areas. Soil analyses were limited to the upper 40 cm. Soil N-NO3 was measured in 2M KCl extracts. Assimilable phosphorus was analysed by extraction with 0.5 M NaHCO3 at pH 8.5 using the Olsen method. The available K, Ca and Mg were evaluated in hemaaxinecobalt trichloride extracts and the available fraction of Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe in DTPA- trietanolamine extracts, by spectroscopy atomic emission/absorption. Berry grapes were collected at maturity. Nutrients in grape juice (K, Ca, Mg Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe) were determined after a microwave hydrogen peroxide digestion in a closed vessel microwave digestion system and measured by spectroscopy. Other grape properties that determine grape quality such as pH, berry weight and sugar content were analysed using the methods proposed by the OIV. Differences in soil properties were observed between plots, which determined the differences in vigour. The vines with lower vigour were grown in the soils with higher pH, electrical conductivity and silt content, which had in addition higher Ca, Mg and K available levels as well as higher levels of Fe and Mn than the soil in which vines had higher vigour. However, the available fraction of Cu and Zn was smaller. Similar differences in nutrient concentration in the berry were observed for all nutrients except for Cu. Grape juice pH and total soluble solids (°Brix) were higher in the most vigorous vines. However, the differences in berry weight and total acidity at ripening were not significant. Keywords: acidity; berry weight; nutrients; p

  7. Carbon Monoxide Fumigation Improved the Quality, Nutrients, and Antioxidant Activities of Postharvest Peach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Pei, Fei

    2014-01-01

    Peaches (Prunus persica cv. Yanhong) were fumigated with carbon monoxide (CO) at 0, 0.5, 5, 10, and 20 μmol/L for 2 hours. The result showed that low concentration CO (0.5–10 μmol/L) might delay the decrease of firmness and titrable acid content, restrain the increase of decay incidence, and postpone the variation of soluble solids content, but treating peaches with high concentration CO (20 μmol/L) demonstrated adverse effects. Further research exhibited that exogenous CO could induce the phenylalnine ammonialyase activity, maintain nutrient contents such as Vitamin C, total flavonoid, and polyphenol, and enhance antioxidant activity according to reducing power and 2,2-diphenyl-1-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl) hydrazyl radical scavenging activity. Treating peaches with appropriate concentration CO was beneficial to the quality, nutrients, and antioxidant activity of postharvest peaches during storage time. Therefore, CO fumigation might probably become a novel method to preserve postharvest peach and other fruits in the future. PMID:26904651

  8. Maize nutrient uptake affected by genotype and fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đalović Ivica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The content of nutrients in maize are commonly related with fertilization and soil quality and rarely explained with the individual hybrid properties. Therefore, the aim of this study is to access a long term fertilization system on ear leaf of Mg, Fe, Mn and Cu content in six maize hybrids(NS 3014, NS 4015, NS 5043, NS 6010, NS 6030 and NS 7020. Samples were collected from a long-term experiment at the Rimski Šančevi experimental field of the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad. The study included maize monoculture and 2-year rotations with the application of NPK and manure. Results showed that ear Mg content was influenced with the treatments, hybrid and their interaction and ranged from 1.77-2.69 g kg-1. Iron variability was significantly affected with the treatments and interaction (hybrid x treatments in range from 103.2 to151.9g kg-1. The ear manganese content (41.1-63.6g kg-1 derived from treatments and hybrid effect and Cu (12.3-23.6 g kg-1 was significantly influenced with treatments. Across all treatments, in average, NS6030 had higher values of nutrient and NS3014 was lower in ear nutrient content. This indicates that vegetation length could favor nutrient accumulation. Obtained results suggested that even on fairly productive soil such as Chernozem hybrid selection and the balanced fertilization is crucial for managing the maize nutrient content. [Projekat Ministarsva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR031073

  9. Chlorophyll meter reading and total nitrogen content applied as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was aimed to assess the relationship between the reading of the chlorophyll meter and the total nitrogen (N) content in the leaf in different parts of the crambe plant, depending on the doses of nitrogen applied to the canopy. Randomized block design in a split plot experimental design was used. The plots ...

  10. Sediment Enrichment Ratio and Nutrient Leached by Runoff and Soil Erosion on Cacao Plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oteng Haridjaja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil consevation management system is an activity for diminishing sediment enrichment ratio and nutrient leachedsby water run off and soil erosion processes. The research was aimed to study sediment enrichment ratio and nutrientleached by run off and soil erosion on cacao plantations. Arachis pintoi with strips parallel contour and multiplestrip cropping of upland rice or soybean (Glycine max were planted to improve soil physical characterictic oncacao plantation as a main plant. The expriment were conducted with treatments as 10-15% and 40-45% slopes, 5-7months and 25-27 months cacao ages (as main plants. As sub plots are T1 as a monoculture which to be cleaningunder the plant canopy, T2 as a multiple strip cropping of upland rice or soybean, T3 as a combination of T2 and A.Pintoi strip. The results showed that total N, P2O5, and K2O and organic-C contents in water run off and soilsediments indicated that T3 >T2 >T1 treatment, with the contents of each nutrient: T3 (total N 0.18%; 24.87 mg 100g-1 P2O5: K2O 15.16 mg 100 g-1, T1 (total N 0.16%, 22.39 mg 100g-1 P2O5, K2O 11.50 mg 100g-1. The total N, P2O5, K2Oand organic-C soil contents 1.

  11. Leaf mineral nutrient remobilization during leaf senescence and modulation by nutrient deficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne eMaillard

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Higher plants have to cope with fluctuating mineral resource availability. However strategies such as stimulation of root growth, increased transporter activities, and nutrient storage and remobilization have been mostly studied for only a few macronutrients. Leaves of cultivated crops (Zea mays, Brassica napus, Pisum sativum, Triticum aestivum, Hordeum vulgare and tree species (Quercus robur, Populus nigra, Alnus glutinosa grown under field conditions were harvested regularly during their life span and analysed to evaluate the net mobilization of 13 nutrients during leaf senescence. While N was remobilized in all plant species with different efficiencies ranging from 40% (maize to 90% (wheat, other macronutrients (K-P-S-Mg were mobilized in most species. Ca and Mn, usually considered as having low phloem mobility were remobilized from leaves in wheat and barley. Leaf content of Cu-Mo-Ni-B-Fe-Zn decreased in some species, as a result of remobilization. Overall, wheat, barley and oak appeared to be the most efficient at remobilization while poplar and maize were the least efficient. Further experiments were performed with rapeseed plants subjected to individual nutrient deficiencies. Compared to field conditions, remobilization from leaves was similar (N-S-Cu or increased by nutrient deficiency (K-P-Mg while nutrient deficiency had no effect on Mo-Zn-B-Ca-Mn, which seemed to be non-mobile during leaf senescence under field conditions. However, Ca and Mn were largely mobilized from roots (-97 and -86% of their initial root contents, respectively to shoots. Differences in remobilization between species and between nutrients are then discussed in relation to a range of putative mechanisms.

  12. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content in Red Ginger (Zingiber officinale) based drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widayat; Cahyono, B.; Satriadi, H.; Munfarida, S.

    2018-01-01

    Indonesia is a rich spices country, both as a cooking spice and medicine. One of the most abundant commodities is red ginger, where it still less in application. On the other hand, the level of pollution is higher, so antioxidants are needed to protect the body cells from the bad effects of free radicals. The body can not naturally produce antioxidants as needed, so we need to consume foods with high antioxidant content. The purpose of this study is to know the antioxidant activity and total phenolic content in red ginger (Zingiber officinale) based drinks. Research design with complete randomized design (RAL) with factorial pattern 3 x 3, as the first factor is red ginger extract and water ratio (1: 1, 1: 2 and 1: 3) and second factor is the type of sugar used (cane sugar, palm sugar and mixed sugar). The results of this study indicate that red ginger extract and water ratio of 1: 3 give higher antioxidant. The highest antioxidant obtained in red ginger extract and water ratio of 1: 3 and using mixed sugar. That antioxidants value is 88.56%, it is not significant decreased compared to the antioxidant of pure ginger extract that is 91.46%. For higher phenol total content obtained on syrup that uses palm sugar. The highest phenol total content obtained in red ginger extract and water ratio of 1: 1 and using palm sugar. That total phenol content value is 6299 ppm.

  13. Implication of two in-stream processes in the fate of nutrients discharged by sewage system into a temporary river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Arthur; Perrin, Jean-Louis; Rosain, David; Rodier, Claire; Picot, Bernadette; Tournoud, Marie-George

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to better understand the fate of nutrients discharged by sewage treatment plants into an intermittent Mediterranean river, during a low-flow period. Many pollutants stored in the riverbed during the low-flow period can be transferred to the downstream environments during flood events. The study focused on two processes that affect the fate and the transport of nutrients, a physical process (retention in the riverbed sediments) and a biological process (denitrification). A spatial campaign was carried out during a low-flow period to characterize the nutrient contents of both water and sediments in the Vène River. The results showed high nutrient concentrations in the water column downstream of the treated wastewater disposal (up to 13,315 μg N/L for ammonium and 2,901 μg P/L for total phosphorus). Nutrient concentrations decreased rapidly downstream of the disposal whereas nutrient contents in the sediments increased (up to 1,898 and 784 μg/g for total phosphorus and Kjeldahl nitrogen, respectively). According to an in situ experiment using sediment boxes placed in the riverbed for 85 days, we estimated that the proportion of nutrients trapped in the sediments represents 25% (respectively 10%) of phosphorus (respectively nitrogen) loads lost from the water column. In parallel, laboratory tests indicated that denitrification occurred in the Vène River, and we estimated that denitrification likely coupled to nitrification processes during the 85 days of the experiment was significantly involved in the removal of nitrogen loads (up to 38%) from the water column and was greater than accumulation processes.

  14. Effects of ultraviolet radiation and nutrients on the structure-function of phytoplankton in a high mountain lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korbee, Nathalie; Carrillo, Presentación; Mata, M Teresa; Rosillo, Silvia; Medina-Sánchez, Juan Manuel; Figueroa, Félix L

    2012-06-01

    The combined effect of high solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and nutrient supply in a phytoplankton community of a high mountain lake is analyzed in a in situ experiment for 6 days with 2 × 2 factorial design. Interactive UVR × nutrient effects on structural and functional variables (algal biomass, chlorophyll a (chl a), primary production (PP), maximal electron transport rate (ETR(max)), and alkaline phosphatase activity (APA)), as well as stoichiometric ones (sestonic N per cell and N:P ratio) were found. Under non-nutrient enriched conditions, no deleterious effects of UVR on structural variables, PP, photosynthetic efficiency and ETR(max) were observed, whereas only particulate and total APA were affected by UVR. However, percentage excreted organic carbon (%EOC), dissolved APA and sestonic C and P per cell increased under UVR, leading to a decrease in algal C:P and N:P ratios. After nutrient enrichment, chl a, total algal biomass and PP were negatively affected by UVR whereas %EOC, ETR(max) and internal C, P and N content increased. We suggest that the mechanism of algal acclimation to UVR in this high UVR flux ecosystem seems to be related to the increase of internal algal P-content mediated by physiological mechanisms to save P and by a stimulatory UVR effect on dissolved extracellular APA. The mechanism involved in the unmasking effect of UVR after nutrient-enrichment may be the result of a greater sensitivity to UVR-induced cell damage, making the negative UVR effects more evident.

  15. Soil Nutrient Dynamics under Old and Young Cocoa, Coffee and Cashew Plantations at Uhonmora, Edo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rotimi Rufus Ipinmoroti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to assess nutrient dynamics of soils under old and young cocoa, coffee and cashew plantations and the leaf nutrient contents of the crops at Uhonmora, Edo State, Nigeria for proper cultural and soil fertility management of the plantations. Soil and crop leaf samples were collected from each plantation using a random sampling technique. The samples were analyzed using standard procedures for sand, silt, clay, pH (H2O, electrical conductivity (EC, total N, available P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, and Effective Cation Exchange Capacity (ECEC. Leaf samples were analyzed for N, P, K, Ca, Mg and Na. Data were compared with the corresponding soil and foliar critical nutrient values for each crop. Results indicated that the soils were texturally sandy clay loam and acidic. The soils varied in their nutrient contents, with soil P for the old cocoa, young coffee and cashew plantations far below critical values. The young cashew plot was low in N content but adequate for other plots. However, the soil ECEC increased with the increasing of calcium contents. Leaf N was below critical for all the crops. Leaf K was low for cocoa and coffee plants, leaf Ca was low for the young cashew plants, while leaf Mg was low for the young cocoa and old cashew. The high soil Mg/K ratio of 8.7- 22.3 as against the established value of 2.0 might have resulted in gross nutrient imbalance which must have affected the absorption and utilization of other nutrients. Hence, adequate soil N did not translate the same availability to the crops. The ECEC showed that the soil needs to be improved upon for sustainable productivity. Soil nutrient content variation across the plantations with age of establishment will necessitate the need for consistent routine soil nutrient assessment for proper and balanced soil nutrient supply to the crops, for healthy crop growth and optimum yield. Management practices of soil surface mulching using organic wastes and cover crops under

  16. Weak leaf photosynthesis and nutrient content relationships from tropical vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, T. F.; Ishida, F. Y.; Feldpaush, T.; Saiz, G.; Grace, J.; Meir, P.; Lloyd, J.

    2015-12-01

    Evergreen rain forests and savannas are the two major vegetations of tropical land ecosystems, in terms of land area, biomass, biodiversity, biogeochemical cycles and rates of land use change. Mechanistically understanding ecosystem functioning on such ecosystems is still far from complete, but important for generation of future vegetation scenarios in response to global changes. Leaf photosynthetic rates is a key processes usually represented on land surface-atmosphere models, although data from tropical ecosystems is scarce, considering the high biodiversity they contain. As a shortcut, models usually recur to relationships between leaf nutrient concentration and photosynthetic rates. Such strategy is convenient, given the possibility of global datasets on leave nutrients derived from hyperspectral remote sensing data. Given the importance of Nitrogen on enzyme composition, this nutrient is usually used to infer photosynthetic capacity of leaves. Our experience, based on individual measurements on 1809 individual leaves from 428 species of trees and shrubs naturally occurring on tropical forests and savannas from South America, Africa and Australia, indicates that the relationship between leaf nitrogen and its assimilation capacity is weak. Therefore, leaf Nitrogen alone is a poor predictor of photosynthetic rates of tropical vegetation. Phosphorus concentrations from tropical soils are usually low and is often implied that this nutrient limits primary productivity of tropical vegetation. Still, phosphorus (or other nutrients) did not exerted large influence over photosynthetic capacity, although potassium influenced vegetation structure and function. Such results draw attention to the risks of applying universal nitrogen-photosynthesis relationships on biogeochemical models. Moreover, our data suggests that affiliation of plant species within phylogenetic hierarchy is an important aspect in understanding leaf trait variation. The lack of a strong single

  17. Macro and Micro-Nutrient Contents of 18 Medicinal Plants used Traditionally to Alleviate Diabetes in Nuevo Leon, Northeast of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maiti, R.; Rodriguez, H. G.; Kumari, C. A.; Sarkar, N. C.

    2016-01-01

    Although several medicinal plants has been documented to alleviate diabetes in Nuevo Leon, Northeast of Mexico, no systematic study has been undertaken to determine the efficacy of these plant species. The present study was undertaken to determine micronutrients (Cu, Fe and Zn) and macro-nutrients (K, Mg and P), C, N and C/N and to select plants with high macro and micronutrient contents for high efficacy in 18 medicinal plants collected from botanical gardens of Forest Science Faculty, UANL, Mexico used in Nuevo Leon in Northeast of Mexico, at the experimental station of Facultad de Ciencias Forestales, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon. Following standard protocols, carbon and nitrogen were determined using a CHN analyzer (Perkin Elmer, model 2400). Mineral contents were using the wet digestion technique (Cherney, 2000). The present study indicated the presence of large variation in the contents of several macro and micronutrients among these 18 species of medicinal plants utilized traditionally to control diabetes and other diseases in Nuevo Leon, Mexico. Among these species containing high nitrogen content (%) are Moringa oleifera (6.25), Melia azadirachta (5.85), Marrubium vulgare (4.56) and Phoradendron villosum (4.9). The C/N values ranged from 8 to 30. The species having high C/N were Agave macroculmis (30), Arbutus xalapensis (26) and Rhus virens (22). The species Melia azadirachta, Marrubium vulgare, Buddleja cordata, Tecoma stans, Hedeoma palmeri, Phoradendron villosum, Opuntia ficus-indica, Arbutus xalapensis exhibited large variations in the contents of macro and micronutrients which, could be considered to be used effectively for the control of diabetes. Few species viz. Marrubium vulgare, Buddleja cordata, Tecoma stans, Hedeoma palmeri, Phoradendron villosum, Opuntia ficus-indica and Arbutus xalapensis on the basis of high nutrient content with respect to C, N, C/N, Cu, Fe, Zn, K, P and Mg are selected and recommended to control diabetes. (author)

  18. Brachiaria sp yield and nutrient contents after nitrogen and sulphur fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reges Heinrichs

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Among the production factors, adequate fertilization is an important tool to raise the productivity of pastoral systems and consequently increase the share of Brazil in the supply chain of primary agricultural products at the global level. The objective of this study was to evaluate the interaction of nitrogen and sulfur fertilization in BRACHIARIA DECUMBENS: Stapf. The experiment in pots with Dystrophic Oxisol was evaluated in a completely randomized design with four replications in a 5 x 3 factorial arrangement, involving five N doses (0, 100, 200, 400, and 800 mg dm-3 in the form of ammonium nitrate and three S doses (0, 20 and 80 mg dm-3 in the form of calcium sulfate, with a total of 15 treatments. In the treatments with low S dose, calcium was provided as calcium chloride, to ensure a homogeneous Ca supply in all treatments. The results showed that the tiller production and dry weight of green leaves and of stems + sheaths and total dry weight were favored by the combination of N and S fertilizer, while the proportion of dry leaves was reduced. Nitrogen fertilization raised the N contents in green leaves and stems + sheaths and reduced K contents in fresh and dry leaves. The response to S rates in the N content of green leaves was quadratic.

  19. Nutritional strategies to cope with reduced litter weight gain and total tract digestibility in lactating sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Rodríguez, J; Mir, L; Seradj, A R; Morazán, H; Balcells, J; Babot, D

    2017-10-01

    Twelve lactating sows were used to evaluate the effects of reducing dietary crude protein (CP) (14% vs. 12%) and increasing neutral detergent fibre (NDF) levels (18% vs. 22%) on litter performance, total tract apparent digestibility and manure composition in a 4 × 4 latin square arrangement during a 36-day lactation period. Diets were isoenergetic (2.9 Mcal ME/kg) and had similar total lysine content (0.9%). In addition, a second aim was to compare a reference external marker method (Cr 2 O 3 ) with an internal feed marker [acid-insoluble ash (AIA)] for the calculation of apparent total tract digestibility of nutrients in lactating sows. The reduction of dietary CP level in lactating sows had no effect on either live-weight or backfat thickness or apparent total tract digestibility of nutrients. However, the piglets' average daily gain (ADG) was reduced in low dietary CP diets, which suggests that sows reduced milk production due to an underestimation of certain essential amino acid requirements (e.g. valine). The increase of dietary NDF level did not affect sow and litter performance. Nevertheless, the total tract apparent digestibility of organic matter, CP and carbohydrates was reduced, and ether extract digestion was increased in high NDF compared to normal NDF diets equally balanced for ME and lysine content. The coefficients of total tract apparent digestibility of nutrients in lactating sows were greater when using AIA compared to Cr 2 O 3 marker, regardless of dietary CP or NDF level, but their coefficients of variation were lower in the former than in the latter. In lactating sows, a trade-off between litter performance and nutrient digestion is established when reducing dietary CP or increasing NDF levels while maintaining similar lysine content through synthetic amino acids and balancing metabolizable energy through dietary fat sources. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. The Effect of Phosphorus and Zinc Fertilizers on Nutrient Content and Essential Oil Yield of German Chamomile under Drought Stress (Matricaria recutita L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghaedi Jeshni

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The German chamomile (Matricaria recutita L. is mainly cultivated for essential oil. Nowadays, it is a highly favored and much-used medicinal plant in reqular and traditional medicine. Water deficit is one of the most important limiting factors on crops production in arid and semi-arid regions (Sharafi et al. 2002. Drought stress limits the growth of plants by reducing water content of tissues and causes some metabolic and physiological changes. On the other hand, the availability of nutrients in the soil is affected by drought stress. Thus, nutritional management of plants under drought stress conditions is one of the most important factors in crop production. A better understanding of the role of nutrients in plant resistance to drought is associated with improvement of fertilizer management in arid and semi-arid areas. Our objectives were to investigate the effects of phosphorus and zinc fertilizers on nutrient content and essential oil yield of German chamomile under drought stress. Material and Methods: The experiment was conducted in split plot factorial based on randomized complete block design with three replications at Research farm of University of Zabol in 2013. Drought stress consisted of three levels 75% (control, 50% (mild stress and 25% of field capacity (severe stress as main plots, and factorial combinations of three triple superphosphate fertilizer (CaH4P2O8 levels (0, 150, and 300 kg ha-1 and two zinc sulphate fertilizer (ZnSO4H2O levels (0 and 30 kg ha-1 as sub plots (the fertilizers were applied before planting time. The seeds were sown at 20 cm apart in rows 40 cm wide, on first half of March 2013. Drought stress levels were determined by the Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR. The success of chamomile cultivation as a commercial venture lies in how efficiently and effectively one can collect the flowers at the right stage during the peak flowering season extending over a period of 3–6 weeks. So, flowers were

  1. Productivity and Nutrient Quality of Some Sorghum Mutant Lines at Different Cutting Ages

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    R. E. Puteri

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to explore the appropriate cutting age to produce optimal biomass and good nutrient quality from sorghum mutant lines BMR i.e., PATIR 3.5 M7, PATIR 3.6 M7, and PATIR 3.7 M7, also SAMURAI I (M17. A completely randomized in Split Plot design with 2 factors and 3 replicates was used. The first factor was the type of sorghum (SAMURAI I M17, PATIR 3.5, PATIR 3.6, PATIR 3.7 as the main plot and the second factor was the cutting age (85, 95, 105 as a subplot. Parameters observed were the production of stems, leaves, grains, total biomass production, ash, crude fat, crude fiber, crude protein, NFE, TDN, percentage of DMD, OMD and N-NH3. Data were analyzed by using ANOVA followed by DMRT (Duncan Multiple Range Test. The results showed that there were highly significant interactions (P<0.01 between cutting age and type of sorghum in production of stems, leaves, grains, total biomass production, value of TDN, DMD, OMD, and N-NH3. Increasing cutting age significantly increased the percentage of ash content, crude protein and crude fat. The sorghum type significantly affected crude fat content nonBMR sorghum variety of SAMURAI I (M17 and achieved optimal biomass production and nutrient content at cutting age of 85 d similar to BMR sorghum mutant lines PATIR 3.6 and PATIR 3.5, whereas BMR sorghum mutant lines of PATIR 3.7 achieved optimum production at the age of 95 d of cutting. All types of sorghum varieties was not recommended to be harvested at 105 d. Biomass production increased with the increasing of cutting age, but the nutrient content decreased.

  2. Antioxidant properties, total phenolic and total flavonoid content of the Slovak white wines – welschriesling and chardonnay

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    Daniel Bajčan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The biologically active compounds in wines, especially phenolics, are responsible for reduced risk of developing chronic diseses (cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes, Alzheimer disease, etc., due to their antioxidant activities. Twenty six Slovak white wines, produced from different geographical origins, were examined in this study. The antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid contents of two types monovarietal wines - Welschriesling and Chardonnay were evaluated. All three mentioned parameters were determined by UV-VIS absorption spectrometry. The results showed that both types of Slovak white wines were high in polyphenols (average content was 303.2 mg GAE.L-1 in Welschriesling, resp. 355.6 mg GAE.L-1 in Chardonnay and flavonoids (average content was 51.9 mg CE.L-1 in Welschriesling, resp. 60.1 mg CE.L-1 in Chardonnay, as well as a high antioxidant activity (average value was 35.0% inhibition of DPPH in Welschriesling, resp. 43.3% inhibition of DPPH in Chardonnay, comparable to the wines produced in other regions in the world. Among the white wines, Chardonnay had higher content of total polyphenols, as well as flavonoids and higher values of antioxidant activity. Our results confirmed very strong linear correlations between all three analysed parameters (TPC, TFC and AA: TPC and TFC (r = 0.818, AA and TPC (r = 0.699, resp. TFC and AA (r = 0.693.

  3. In vitro fermentation characteristics, in vivo ileal and total tract nutrient digestibilities, and fecal microbiota responses of dogs to α-cyclodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, M A; Bauer, L L; Garleb, K A; Fahey, G C; de Godoy, M R C

    2016-05-01

    The objectives were to examine in vitro fermentation characteristics, in vivo nutrient digestibility, fecal microbiota, and serum lipid profiles as affected by α-cyclodextrin (ACD) supplementation. Short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production was measured after in vitro fermentation for 3, 6, 9, and 12 h of ACD, β-cyclodextrin, and γ-cyclodextrin. Five mixed-breed hounds were used in a Latin square design. Each experimental period comprised 14 d, including 10 d for diet adaptation and 4 d for fecal collection. Dogs were fed, twice a day, an extruded diet made with poultry byproduct meal and brewer's rice as the main ingredients. Dogs were supplemented with 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4 g of ACD diluted in 15 mL of water twice daily for a total of 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 g ACD/d. Maximal in vitro production of total SCFA was lowest for ACD. However, the greatest maximal production of propionate was noted for ACD treatment. Total tract nutrient digestibility and fecal DM concentration linearly decreased ( dogs and were not different among treatments. Similarly, no changes in fecal microbiota were observed. Overall, ACD supplementation appears to have no effect on nutrient absorption in the small intestine but may alter fermentation in the large bowel, which could lead to a higher proportion of propionate production as observed in the in vitro experiment.

  4. Effect of Biofertilizers on Macro and Micro Nutrients Uptake and Essential Oil Content in Dracocephalum moldavica L.

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    S Rahimzadeh

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigation the effect of different fertilization treatments on nutrient and essential oil contents in dragonhead drug (Dracocephalum moldavica L., an experiment was conducted in the station of agricultural research in Urmia on 2008. Treatments (nitroxin, barvar phosphate biofertilizer, biosulfur, nitroxin+ barvar phosphate biofertilizer, barvar phosphate biofertilizer + biosulfur, nitroxin+ biosulfur, nitroxin+ barvar phosphate biofertilizer + biosulfur, chemical fertilizer, control were arranged based on randomized complete block design with 4 replications. Results indicated that uptake of Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium, Iron, Copper, Manganese and essential oil content were affected by studied treatments significantly but uptake of zinc by plant was not affected. Means comparison showed the highest values of Nitrogen (3.55%, Potassium (3.47% and Iron (4.56 ppm in Nitroxin treatment, Phosphorus (0.26% and Copper (0.33 ppm in barvar phosphate biofertilizer + biosulfur treatment, Manganese (0.48 ppm in chemical origin of nitrogen+phosphorus+ potassium treatment and essential oil content (0.48% in nitroxin+ barvar phosphate biofertilizer + biosulfur treatment

  5. Nutrient balances in the forest energy cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, Bengt

    2006-02-01

    In Sweden, recycling of stabilised wood-ashes to forests is considered to compensate for nutrient removals from whole-tree harvesting (i.e. use of harvest residues - slash - for energy purposes). This study has analysed nutrient fluxes through the complete forest energy cycle and estimated mass balances of nutrients in harvested biomass with those in ashes, to investigate the realism in large-scale nutrient compensation with wood-ash. Expected nutrient fluxes from forests through energy plants were calculated based on nutrient and biomass data of forest stands in the Nordic countries, and from data on nutrient fluxes through CFB-plants. The expected stoichiometric composition of wood-ashes was compared with the composition of CFB-fly ashes from various Swedish energy plants. Nutrient contents for different tree fractions were calculated to express the average nutrient concentrations in slash and stems with bark, respectively. A nutrient budget synthesis of the effects of whole-tree harvesting on base cation turnover in the following stand was presented for two experimental sites. Major conclusions from the study are: In the CFB-scenario, where the bottom ash is deposited and only the fly ash can be applied to forests, the fly ash from the slash do not meet the demands for nutrient compensation for slash harvesting. Stem material (50% wood, 50% bark) must be added at equivalent amounts, as the slash to produce the amounts of fly ash needed for compensation of slash harvesting. In the scenario where more stem material was added (75% of total fuel load), the amounts of fly ashes produced hardly compensated for nutrient removals with both stem and slash harvesting. The level of nutrient compensation was lowest for potassium. The stoichiometric nutrient composition of CFB-fly ashes from Swedish energy plants is not similar with the nutrient composition of tree biomass. The higher Ca/P ratio in ashes is only partly explained by the mixture of fuels (e.g. increasing bark

  6. Results and Conclusions from the NASA Isokinetic Total Water Content Probe 2009 IRT Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reehorst, Andrew; Brinker, David

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center has developed and tested a Total Water Content Isokinetic Sampling Probe. Since, by its nature, it is not sensitive to cloud water particle phase nor size, it is particularly attractive to support super-cooled large droplet and high ice water content aircraft icing studies. The instrument comprises the Sampling Probe, Sample Flow Control, and Water Vapor Measurement subsystems. Results and conclusions are presented from probe tests in the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) during January and February 2009. The use of reference probe heat and the control of air pressure in the water vapor measurement subsystem are discussed. Several run-time error sources were found to produce identifiable signatures that are presented and discussed. Some of the differences between measured Isokinetic Total Water Content Probe and IRT calibration seems to be caused by tunnel humidification and moisture/ice crystal blow around. Droplet size, airspeed, and liquid water content effects also appear to be present in the IRT calibration. Based upon test results, the authors provide recommendations for future Isokinetic Total Water Content Probe development.

  7. THE RESEARCH OF TOTAL POLYPHENOLS CONTENT AND THEIR CHANGES IN DIFFERENT VARIETIES OF POTATOES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beáta Volnová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols are secondary metabolites of plants with antioxidant properties. In this work we research the changes in the content of total polyphenols in five varieties of potatoes (Rumelia, Arwen, Megan, Malvína, Erídia. Potatoes were grown at the stage of full maturity from Matejovce nad Hornádom, region of Poprad. Total polyphenols we determined in whole peeled potatoes; in the outside part of peeled potato tubers (1 cm; in inside part of potato tubers (mean 2 cm and in the whole peel-boiled potatoes. The total polyphenols content was determined by spectrophotometry (λ = 765 nm and it was used lyophilized samples in ethanol extracts. In whole peeled potatoes was the content of total polyphenols in the range from 243.34 mg.kg-1 DM (cv. Rumelia to 446.38 mg.kg-1 DM (cv. Megan, in the outside part of peeled potato tubers was content in the range from 190.45 mg.kg-1 (cv. Rumelia to 446.84 mg.kg-1 DM (cv. Malvína and in inside part of potato tubers from 245.51 mg.kg-1 to 446.26 mg.kg-1 DM (Arwen < Rumelia < Megan < Erídia < Malvína. In the whole peel-boiled potatoes was the lowest content of total polyphenols in variety Rumelia (252.5 mg.kg-1 DM and the highest content in variety Megan (440.54 mg.kg-1 DM. Results were statistically evaluated by the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA – Multiple Range Tests, Method: 95.0 percent LSD using statistical software STATGRAPHICS (Centurion XVI.I, USA and the regression and correlation analysis (Microsoft Excel was used.

  8. THE INFORMATION CONTENT OF THE FARM AND UNIT LEVEL NUTRIENT BALANCES FOR THE MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T SOMOGYI

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The farm gate balance is well known from the environmental literature. This method is not suitable in every case to show the nutrient load for the environment of agricultural companies that is the reason why unit level internal nutrient balances are applied to express the level of nutrient pollution on the environment. These also help to determine the source of the pollution. With the survey of the nutrient flows within the farm we determine the keystones of nutrient management to control the nutrient load of the pollution sources. On the basis of the results and the controlled data of the unit level internal balances we make recommendations for the most appropriate environmental policy instrument to reduce the nutrient pollution.

  9. Changes in the content of total nitrogen and mineral nitrogen in the basil herb depending on the cultivar and nitrogen nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Dzida

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Among fundamental nutrients, nitrogen fertilization is considered one of the most effective factors affecting both the yield and the quality of plant material. Nitrogen form used for fertilizing is also of great importance. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of nitrogen nutrition (calcium nitrate, ammonium nitrate, and urea as well as (green, purple, and‘Fino Verde’ on the chemical composition and yielding of basil (Ocimum basilicumL.. After drying the plant material at a temperature of 60°C and milling, total nitrogen was determined by means of Kjeldahl method, while mineral nitrogen content (N-NH 4, N-NO 3 was analyzed in 2% acetic acid extract. Yield of fresh basil matter depended significantly on the variety grown. The highest yields were obtained from a cultivar of ‘Fino Verde’ fertilized with ammonium nitrate. The purple variety plants fertilized with urea were characterized by a largest amount of total nitrogen. The‘Fino Verde’cultivar fertilized with urea accumulated the least quantities of nitrates in the basil herb.

  10. Is Nutrient Content and Other Label Information for Prescription Prenatal Supplements Different from Nonprescription Products?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldanha, Leila G; Dwyer, Johanna T; Andrews, Karen W; Brown, LaVerne L; Costello, Rebecca B; Ershow, Abby G; Gusev, Pavel A; Hardy, Constance J; Pehrsson, Pamela R

    2017-09-01

    Prenatal supplements are often recommended to pregnant women to help meet their nutrient needs. Many products are available, making it difficult to choose a suitable supplement because little is known about their labeling and contents to evaluate their appropriateness. To determine differences between prescription and nonprescription prenatal supplements available in the United States regarding declared nutrient and nonnutrient ingredients and the presence of dosing and safety-related information. Using two publicly available databases with information about prenatal supplement products, information from prescription and nonprescription product labels were extracted and evaluated. For the 82 prescription and 132 nonprescription products, declared label amounts of seven vitamins and minerals, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the presence of other nonnutrient components, and the presence of key safety and informational elements as identified in two Department of Health and Human Services Office of Inspector General (OIG)'s 2003 reports were compiled and compared. Compared with nonprescription products, prescription products contained significantly fewer vitamins (9±0.2 vs 11±0.3; P≤0.05) and minerals (4±0.1 vs 8±0.3; P≤0.05). Declared amounts of folic acid were higher in prescription products, whereas vitamin A, vitamin D, iodine, and calcium were higher in the nonprescription products. Amounts of iron, zinc, and DHA were similar. Virtually all products contained levels of one or more nutrients that exceeded the Recommended Dietary Allowances for pregnant and/or lactating women. Product type also influenced ingredients added. Fewer prescription products contained botanical ingredients (6% prescription vs 33% nonprescription) and probiotics (2% prescription vs 8% nonprescription). Only prescription products contained the stool softener docusate sodium. Our analysis of prenatal supplements indicates that prescription and nonprescription supplements differ in terms

  11. Evaluation of total polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity of different verity lupin seeds

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    Ismael Sulaiman Dalaram

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Legumes, including lupins, beans, lentil and chickpea, are one of the most important crops in the world because of their nutritional quality. Lupin seeds have been used as human food and animal feed since ancient times. It was known that antioxidant photochemical in foods have many health benefits including prevention of various diseases associated with oxidative stress such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, neuro-degeneration and diabetes. Lupin grains are rich sources of complex carbohydrates, protein, vitamins and minerals. Antioxidants can be found naturally in foods. Total polyphenols content and antioxidant activity were measured in four varieties of lupin, namely in white lupin, blue lupin, yellow lupin and Mutabilis lupin species. A majority of antioxidants naturally present in foods occur in phenolic structures and especially in flavonoid structures. The content of the total polyphenols was determined by using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent (FCR. Antioxidant activity was measured by using a compound DPPH˙ (2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. In the present experiment according to the average contents of total polyphenols (TPC in dry matter of lupin seeds there was the following line: L. Angustifolius (blue lupin (696.212 mg GAE.100g-1 > L. Albus (white lupin (614.13 mg GAE.100g-1 > L. Luteus (yellow lupin (467.78 mg GAE.100g-1 > L. Mutabilis (pearl lupin (367.36 mg GAE.100g-1. Based on the measured values of total antioxidant capacity (TAC of lupin samples can be classified as follows: L. Albus (white lupin (43.44% >L. Angustifolius (blue lupin (38.27% >L. Luteus (yellow lupin (22.29% >L. Mutabilis (Pearl lupin (20.80%. The relationship of antioxidant capacity with total polyphenolic was discussed. According to used statistical analyzes. Correlation between the phenolic contents and antioxidant capacity was significantly positive (r = 0.88. Our results confirmed that legumes can be a good source of bioactive compounds in the human nutrition

  12. Settling characteristics of nursery pig manure and nutrient estimation by the hydrometer method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jun; Ndegwa, Pius M; Zhang, Zhijian

    2003-05-01

    The hydrometer method to measure manure specific gravity and subsequently relate it to manure nutrient contents was examined in this study. It was found that this method might be improved in estimation accuracy if only manure from a single growth stage of pigs was used (e.g., nursery pig manure used here). The total solids (TS) content of the test manure was well correlated with the total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations in the manure, with highly significant correlation coefficients of 0.9944 and 0.9873, respectively. Also observed were good linear correlations between the TN and TP contents and the manure specific gravity (correlation coefficients: 0.9836 and 0.9843, respectively). These correlations were much better than those reported by past researchers, in which lumped data for pigs at different growing stages were used. It may therefore be inferred that developing different linear equations for pigs at different ages should improve the accuracy in manure nutrient estimation using a hydrometer. Also, the error of using the hydrometer method to estimate manure TN and TP was found to increase, from +/- 10% to +/- 50%, with the decrease in TN (from 700 ppm to 100 ppm) and TP (from 130 ppm to 30 ppm) concentrations in the manure. The estimation errors for TN and TP may be larger than 50% if the total solids content is below 0.5%. In addition, the rapid settling of solids has long been considered characteristic of swine manure; however, in this study, the solids settling property appeared to be quite poor for nursery pig manure in that no conspicuous settling occurred after the manure was left statically for 5 hours. This information has not been reported elsewhere in the literature and may need further research to verify.

  13. Antioxidant Capacities and Total Phenolic Contents of 56 Wild Fruits from South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Bin Li

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify wild fruits possessing high nutraceutical potential, the antioxidant activities of 56 wild fruits from South China were systematically evaluated. The fat-soluble components were extracted with tetrahydrofuran, and the water-soluble ones were extracted with a 50:3.7:46.3 (v/v methanol-acetic acid-water mixture. The antioxidant capacities of the extracts were evaluated using the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC assays, and their total phenolic contents were measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Most of these wild fruits were analyzed for the first time for their antioxidant activities. Generally, these fruits had high antioxidant capacities and total phenolic contents. A significant correlation between the FRAP value and the TEAC value suggested that antioxidant components in these wild fruits were capable of reducing oxidants and scavenging free radicals. A high correlation between antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content indicated that phenolic compounds could be the main contributors to the measured antioxidant activity. The results showed that fruits of Eucalyptus robusta, Eurya nitida, Melastoma sanguineum, Melaleuca leucadendron, Lagerstroemia indica, Caryota mitis, Lagerstroemia speciosa and Gordonia axillaris possessed the highest antioxidant capacities and total phenolic contents among those tested, and could be potential rich sources of natural antioxidants and functional foods. The results obtained are very helpful for the full utilization of these wild fruits.

  14. 21 CFR 101.13 - Nutrient content claims-general principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... from recognized data bases for raw and processed foods, recipes, and other means to compute nutrient... and amounts of ingredients, cooking temperatures, etc.). Firms making claims on foods based on this...

  15. Total antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content and mineral elements in the fruit peel of Myrciaria cauliflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clináscia Rodrigues Rocha Araújo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content and mineral elements of the fruit peel of Myrciaria cauliflora were investigated. The antioxidant capacity was analyzed by the diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and β-carotene methods. The assays based on the DPPH (EC50 = 3.18 g sample/g DPPH, ABTS•+ (1017 μmol Trolox/g sample, FRAP (1676 µM Fe2SO4/g sample and β-carotene/linoleic acid (70% of oxidation inhibition methods indicated a high antioxidant capacity of the fruit peel extract of the plant. The Folin-Denis method was more efficient in determining the total phenolic compound contents in the different solvents than the Folin-Ciocalteu one. Extractions made with 4:1 methanol-water, 4:1 ethanol-water, 3:2 ethanol-water and 3:2 acetone-water solutions using the Folin-Denis method exhibited high contents of phenolic compounds (18.95, 14.06, 12.93 and 11.99 mg GAE/g, respectively. Potassium was the major element found in the fruit peel, followed by phosphorus, calcium, magnesium and iron, in that order. As a result, the fruit peel of M. cauliflora can be considered as an important source of natural antioxidants and essential elements of easy access for the population and for application in the food industry.

  16. Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Capacity of Radish as Influenced by the Variety and Vegetative Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Doinița Borș

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the influence of the variety and vegetative stage on the total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of radish. Samples of seeds, sprouts (day-3, day-5 and day-7 and roots of three varieties (red, white and black of radish (Raphanussativus were collected and tested for the above-mentioned parameters. Determination of total phenolic content was performed by Folin-Ciocalteau assay and antioxidant activity by DPPH assay. The total phenolic content ranged between 4.75 and 19.44 mg GAE/g DW and the antioxidant capacity between 12 and 75%. The highest total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity was found in radish sprouts and the lowest in radish roots, and among samples in the black radish variety. 

  17. Response of total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of bush ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The positive health benefits associated with tea are made possible by the antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds present in tea. The total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of bush tea (Athrixia phylicoides DC.) and special tea (Monsonia burkeana) were studied. The extractions were done in triplicate using cold ...

  18. An energy evaluation of coupling nutrient removal from wastewater with algal biomass production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturm, Belinda S.M.; Lamer, Stacey L.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, several life cycle analyses of algal biodiesel from virtual production facilities have outlined the potential environmental benefits and energetic balance of the process. There are a wide range of assumptions that have been utilized for these calculations, including the addition of fertilizers and carbon dioxide to achieve high algal yields in open ponds. This paper presents an energy balance of microalgal production in open ponds coupled with nutrient removal from wastewater. Actual microalgal yields and nutrient removal rates were obtained from four pilot-scale reactors (2500 gallons each) fed with wastewater effluent from a conventional activated sludge process for 6 months, and the data was used to estimate an energy balance for treating the total average 12 million gallons per day processed by the wastewater treatment plant. Since one of the most energy-intensive steps is the dewatering of algal cultures, several thickening and dewatering processes were compared. This analysis also includes the energy offset from removing nutrients with algal reactors rather than the biological nutrient removal processes typically utilized in municipal wastewater treatment. The results show that biofuel production is energetically favorable for open pond reactors utilizing wastewater as a nutrient source, even without an energy credit for nutrient removal. The energy content of algal biomass was also considered as an alternate to lipid extraction and biodiesel production. Direct combustion of algal biomass may be a more viable energy source than biofuel production, especially when the lipid content of dry biomass (10% in this field experiment) is lower than the high values reported in lab-scale reactors (50-60%).

  19. Phosphorus body content in an herbivorous fish in environments with different trophic state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita M. de Andrade Santos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Animals are believed to be homeostatic by maintaining relatively constant body nutrient content independently of changes in diet. Phosphorus (P is one of the most important elements for fishes as Loricariids, which are covered with armor-like bony plates. These species are expected to maintain nutrient homeostasis, however, in environments with low P availability they can be P-limited. The hypothesis of this study is that P concentration in body composition of an herbivorous fish, Hypostomus jaguribensis, does not change in environments with different availability of this nutrient. We conducted this study in two locations of the Curu river basin in Brazil, which differed in their nutrient concentrations: one was ultraoligotrophic and the other mesotrophic, as determined by total phosphorous concentrations and chlorophyll a in the water. We found significant differences in the body P content of the fish from the two sites: Hypostomus jaguribensis from the ultraoligotrophic site showed higher body P content, higher body weight and condition factor. This suggests that the ultraoligotrophic site is a more favorable environment for this species. The body P content was higher in intermediate sizes (between 12 and 14 cm in the ultraoligotrophic site and between 11 and 13 cm in the mesotrophic site, which can be related to biological characteristics such as the need to accumulate nutrients at the beginning of the reproductive period. Our study did not find support for strict homeostasis in this high-P demand fish species.

  20. Geographical variation in total and inorganic arsenic content of polished (white) rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meharg, Andrew A; Williams, Paul N; Adomako, Eureka; Lawgali, Youssef Y; Deacon, Claire; Villada, Antia; Cambell, Robert C J; Sun, Guoxin; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Feldmann, Joerg; Raab, Andrea; Zhao, Fang-Jie; Islam, Rafiqul; Hossain, Shahid; Yanai, Junta

    2009-03-01

    An extensive data set of total arsenic analysis for 901 polished (white) grain samples, originating from 10 countries from 4 continents, was compiled. The samples represented the baseline (i.e., notspecifically collected from arsenic contaminated areas), and all were for market sale in major conurbations. Median total arsenic contents of rice varied 7-fold, with Egypt (0.04 mg/kg) and India (0.07 mg/kg) having the lowest arsenic content while the U.S. (0.25 mg/kg) and France (0.28 mg/kg) had the highest content. Global distribution of total arsenic in rice was modeled by weighting each country's arsenic distribution by that country's contribution to global production. A subset of 63 samples from Bangladesh, China, India, Italy, and the U.S. was analyzed for arsenic species. The relationship between inorganic arsenic contentversus total arsenic contentsignificantly differed among countries, with Bangladesh and India having the steepest slope in linear regression, and the U.S. having the shallowest slope. Using country-specific rice consumption data, daily intake of inorganic arsenic was estimated and the associated internal cancer risk was calculated using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) cancer slope. Median excess internal cancer risks posed by inorganic arsenic ranged 30-fold for the 5 countries examined, being 0.7 per 10,000 for Italians to 22 per 10,000 for Bangladeshis, when a 60 kg person was considered.

  1. Qualidade e teores de nutrientes de palmeira-rápis em substrato com fibra de coco Quality and nutrient content of lady palm in coconut fiber substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia dos S Alves

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available As avaliações foram realizadas em quatro substratos compostos de mistura de fibra de coco triturada (FC e substrato comercial Plantmax HT® (SC, nas proporções de 0, 25, 50 e 75% de FC, em vasos com capacidade para 35 L, em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições e três vasos por parcela, com uma planta por vaso. A adubação das plantas foi feita alternando-se, a cada três meses, 25 g de 4-14-8 com 10 g de uréia por vaso, a partir do plantio e durante os 24 meses do período experimental. O crescimento foi avaliado medindo-se a altura da haste inicial (da base do caule à inserção da última folha completamente expandida, número de folhas da haste inicial, número de perfilhos, número de folhas dos perfilhos, altura dos perfilhos e teores de nutrientes da última folha completamente expandida da haste inicial. A qualidade foi avaliada através de análise sensorial visual, baseado nos critérios "gostei"(muito ou pouco e "compraria"(sim ou não. Não houve diferença entre os tratamentos sobre as características de crescimento, exceto para o número de folhas da haste inicial. As plantas com melhor aceitação foram aquelas cultivadas na mistura com 50% FC e 50% SC. Nenhuma das plantas apresentou sintoma visual de deficiência de nutrientes, sendo os teores foliares encontrados em plantas sadias com padrão de qualidade para comercialização de: 17,80 - 18,29 g kg-1 de N; 0,66 - 0,81 g kg-1 de NO-3; 2,02 - 2,34 g kg-1 de P; 18,11 - 20,40 g kg-1 de K; 11,63 - 13,84 g kg-1 de Cl; 2,69 - 4,04 g kg-1 de Ca; 1,61 - 2,07 g kg-1 de S; 1,98 - 2,64 g kg-1 de Mg.It was evaluated the quality and nutrient content of lady palm in four substrates made up of a mixture of shredded coconut fiber (FC and commercial substrate Plantmax HT® (SC, in proportions of 0, 25, 50 and 75% of FC, in 35 liters containers, in a randomized block experiment with four replicates and three pots per plot, with one plant per pot. The plants were

  2. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY, TOTAL PHENOLIC AND FLAVONOID CONTENT OF MORINDA CITRIFOLIA FRUIT EXTRACTS FROM VARIOUS EXTRACTION PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRAVEEN K. RAMAMOORTHY

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Soxhlet, Ultrasonic extract of Morinda citrifolia L. fruit and four extracts from high pressure extraction at 10 MPa using ethanol, ethyl acetate as solvent and dried by vacuum oven and spray dryer were analyzed for their antioxidant activity by peroxide value method and diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical scavenging method. The five extracts along with the reference samples, butylated hydroxyl toluene and tannic acid were further analyzed to determine their total phenolic content by Folin-Ciocalteau method and total flavonoid content by Dowd method. The M. citrifolia extract by high pressure extraction with ethyl acetate as solvent and spray dried was found to exhibit highest antioxidant activity and total flavonoid content. High total phenolic content was determined in the high pressure extract using ethyl acetate as solvent and vacuum dried. It was interesting to note that ultrasonic extract exhibited significant antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid content. High pressure extracted M. citrifolia in ethanol was found to express lesser values comparatively. The significant difference in activity among the high pressure extracts was found to be due to the polarity of the solvents used for extraction as M. citrifolia fruit contains relatively larger quantity of non-polar antioxidant compounds. It was also found that the drying methods had significant impact on the antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid content of the extracts.

  3. The Addition of White Turmeric (Curcuma zedoaria Concentrated Base on Quality Antioxidant Activity, Total Phenol, Protein Content and Salt Content of Salted Egg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu’addimah Mu’addimah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this research was to determine the effect of Curcuma zedoaria concentrated addition on quality antioxidant activity, total phenols, protein content and salt content of salted egg. The materials were duck’s egg, water, salt, and essence of white turmeric. The method was experiment using Complete Randomized Design (CRD with five treatments and three for replications. The Curcuma zedoaria juice research were divided into P0 (0%, P1 (10%, P2 (20%, P3 (30% and P4 (40%. Data was analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA and then continued by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT, if it was found significant effect among treatmeants. The result showed that the addition of Curcuma zedoaria juice indicated highly significant different effect (P<0.01 on antioxidant activity, protein content and salt content, but significantly effect (P<0.05 on total phenol. The best treatment was the addition of Curcuma zedoaria juice 40% were indicated of antioxidant activity, total phenol, protein content and the salt content was 99.80 mg/g, 0.16%, 9.96%, 2.43% respectively.

  4. Total Phenol amd Flavonoid contents of Crude Extract and Fractions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phenolic compounds are numerous in plants and are essential part of human diet. Picralima nitida has been extensively used in African folk medicine especially in West Africa. The present study evaluated the total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the extract and fractions of Picralima nitida. The methanol extracts of P.

  5. Nutrient status of crop contents of rural scavenging local chickens in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwalusanya, N A; Katule, A M; Mutayoba, S K; Minga, U M; Mtambo, M M A; Olsen, J E

    2002-03-01

    1. A total of 144 chickens purchased from peasants in Morogoro, Tanzania were slaughtered, their crops dissected and the contents analysed. The birds consisted of 48 chickens from each of three climatic zones (warm and wet, warm and dry, cool and wet). Seventy-two chickens were slaughtered in each season, that is short rainy and long rainy season. 2. Cereal grains, bran, green forages, insects/worms and kitchen food wastes were the main crop contents and their composition varied significantly with season and climate. 3. The overall mean chemical compositions (g/kg) of the crop contents were: 430.8 +/- 107.78 dry matter (DM), 104.4 +/- 43.47 crude protein (CP), 61.2 +/- 36.48 ether extract (EE), 58.2 +/- 26.29 crude fibre (CF), 125.4 +/- 58-27 ash, 6.3 +/- 5.19 calcium (Ca) and 3.6 +/- 2.41 phosphorus (P). 4. CP, EE, ash and P contents varied significantly (Pnutritional requirements and varied with season, climate and age of birds.

  6. Growth, allocation and tissue chemistry of Picea abies seedlings affected by nutrient supply during the second growing season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaakinen, Seija; Jolkkonen, Annika; Iivonen, Sari; Vapaavuori, Elina

    2004-06-01

    One-year-old Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) seedlings were grown hydroponically in a growth chamber to investigate the effects of low and high nutrient availability (LN; 0.25 mM N and HN; 2.50 mM N) on growth, biomass allocation and chemical composition of needles, stem and roots during the second growing season. Climatic conditions in the growth chamber simulated the mean growing season from May to early October in Flakaliden, northern Sweden. In the latter half of the growing season, biomass allocation changed in response to nutrient availability: increased root growth and decreased shoot growth led to higher root/shoot ratios in LN seedlings than in HN seedlings. At high nutrient availability, total biomass, especially stem biomass, increased, as did total nonstructural carbohydrate and nitrogen contents per seedling. Responses of stem chemistry to nutrient addition differed from those of adult trees of the same provenance. In HN seedlings, concentrations of alpha-cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin decreased in the secondary xylem. Our results illustrate the significance of retranslocation of stored nutrients to support new growth early in the season when root growth and nutrient uptake are still low. We conclude that nutrient availability alters allocation patterns, thereby influencing the success of 2-year-old Norway spruce seedlings at forest planting sites.

  7. Nutrients and antinutrients composition of raw, cooked and sun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrients and antinutrients composition of raw, cooked and sun-dried sweet potato leaves. ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... This study aimed to determine nutrient (iron, calcium, vitamin A and ascorbic acid) and anti-nutrient (oxalates and polyphenols) contents in raw, cooked and dried ...

  8. Seasonal changes in environmental variables, biomass, production and nutrient contents in two contrasting tropical intertidal seagrass beds in South Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erftemeijer, Paul L A; Herman, Peter M J

    1994-09-01

    Seasonal dynamics were studied by monthly monitoring of biological and environmental variables in permanent quadrats in two contrasting intertidal seagrass beds in South Sulawesi, Indonesia, from February 1991 to January 1992. Datasets were analysed with canonical correlation analysis for correlations between environmental and biological variables. Considerable variation in biomass, production and plant tissue nutrient contents in a monospecific seagrass bed of Enhalus acoroides, growing on a coastal terrigenous mudbank (Gusung Tallang), was assumed to be related to riverine influences of the nearby Tallo River. The variation in seagrass variables at this site could, however, not be significantly correlated to seasonal patterns in rainfall, salinity, tides, nutrient availability, water motion or turbidity. A seasonal cycle in biomass, production and nutrient contents in a mixed seagrass bed of Thalassia hemprichii and E. acoroides, growing on carbonate sand on the reef flat of an offshore coral island (Barang Lompo), was found to be largely determined by tidal exposure and water motion. Exposure of the intertidal seagrass bed during hours of low water during spring tides showed a gradual shift from exposure during the night (January-June) to exposure during daylight (July-December). Daylight exposure resulted in a significant loss of above-ground plant biomass through desiccation and 'burning' of leaves. The observed seasonal dynamics of the seagrass bed on reef sediment contrast with reports from the Caribbean, where the effect of tidal exposure on comparable shallow-water seagrass communities is relatively insignificant due to a small tidal amplitude.

  9. A comparative assessment of the the nutritional contents of 'wara' a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The processing line of West African soft cheese varieties (processed with Calotropis procera (Sodom apple) and Cymbopogon citratus (lemon grass) leaf extracts was assessed for nutrient compositions (nitrogen, crude protein, fat, lactose, moisture content), pH, total aerobic plate count and trace elements (Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, ...

  10. A study on total phenolics and vitamin c contents of kalecik karasi (vitis vinifera l.) clones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keskin, N.; Keskin, S.

    2014-01-01

    In this study total phenolic and vitamin C contents of the fully ripe berries of 23 clones of Kalecik Karasi which is one of the leading Turkish local red-wine grape cultivar originally grown in Kizilirmak valley near Kalecik/Ankara region were examined under the clone selection project supported by TUBTAK (Project Nr: 107 O 731). High-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used for vitamin C and spectrophotometer for total phenolics estimation. One way ANOVA was used to compare means of clone for their total phenolic and vitamin C contents. In addition to this univariate method, hierarchical cluster analysis was performed to identify similarity levels among the clones by considering total phenolics and vitamin C content together. Differences among the clones were found statistically significant for both characteristics. Total phenolic contents of the clones varied from 3.310 mg (clone 21) to 3.389 mg (clone 6) as GAE g fw. Vitamin C content ranged from 14.010 mg (clone 6) to 16.500 mg (clone 19) in 100g fw. Furthermore, similarity level for all clones was 83.1% that means variation rate is about 17% among the clones. As a summary of whole data, the first three performing clones are 6 (3.389 mg), 10 (3.374 mg) and 1 (3.365 mg) for total phenolics, and 19 (16.500 mg), 9 (16.020 mg), and 21 (16.015 mg) for vitamin C contents of the berries. (author)

  11. Nutritive composition of soybean by-products and nutrient digestibility of soybean pod husk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sompong Sruamsiri

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Soybean by-products (soybean germ, soybean milk residue, soybean hull, soybean pod husk and soybean stem were subjected to proximate analysis, and in vitro digestibility of DM (IVDMD, ADF (IVADFD and NDF (IVNDFD were determined after digesting the by-products in buffered rumen fluid for 24 or 48 h in 2 ANKOMII Daisy Incubators using Completely Randomised Design. Four native cattle (body weight 210 + 13.5 kg were used to determine nutrient digestibility of soybean pod husk. They were randomly assigned by Cross-over Design to receive two roughage sources, i.e. guinea grass and guinea grass + soybean pod husk (60:40 DM basis, in two experimental periods. Guinea grass was harvested on the 35th day after the first cut of the year and used as green forage. Total collection method was used to determine the digestibility coefficients and digestibility by difference was used to calculate nutrient digestibility of soybean pod husk.The nutritive composition showed that soybean germ was highest in CP content (42.27% of DM and EE content (5.07% of DM but lowest in NDF and ADF content (20.09 and 21.53% of DM respectively. The average CP content of soybean straw, soybean stem and soybean pod husk was low (4.91, 4.67 and 5.04% respectively, while ADF content was high (42.76, 38.01 and 42.08% respectively. In vitro digestibility of DM (IVDMD, ADF (IVADFD and NDF (IVNDFD showed that all of them, except soybean stem, can be used as cattle feed, e.g. as supplemented feed or admixture in concentrate feed. Digestibility coefficients of guinea grass were higher in CP, CF and EE when compared to the other groups. The apparent digestibility of CP and CF were highly different (P0.05. The digestibility of nutrients (DM, OM, CP, CF, NFE, NDF and ADF of soybean pod husk were 53.81 + 4.3, 59.69 + 4.6, 42.38 + 3.8, 30.71 + 3.2, 50.74 + 4.3, 75.26 + 4.0, 45.78 + 3.7 and 30.53 + 4.2 % respectively. Soybean pod husk was higher in total digestible nutrients (TDN (51.87 + 3.3 vs

  12. Quantitative analysis of total starch content in wheat flour by reaction headspace gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wei-Qi; Gong, Yi-Xian; Yu, Kong-Xian

    2017-09-01

    This paper proposed a new reaction headspace gas chromatographic (HS-GC) method for efficiently quantifying the total starch content in wheat flours. A certain weight of wheat flour was oxidized by potassium dichromate in an acidic condition in a sealed headspace vial. The results show that the starch in wheat flour can be completely transferred to carbon dioxide at the given conditions (at 100 °C for 40 min) and the total starch content in wheat flour sample can be indirectly quantified by detecting the CO 2 formed from the oxidation reaction. The data showed that the relative standard deviation of the reaction HS-GC method in the precision test was less than 3.06%, and the relative differences between the new method and the reference method (titration method) were no more than 8.90%. The new reaction HS-GC method is automated, accurate, and can be a reliable tool for determining the total starch content in wheat flours in both laboratory and industrial applications. Graphical abstract The total starch content in wheat flour can be indirectly quantified by the GC detection of the CO 2 formed from the oxidation reaction between wheat flour and potassium dichromate in an acidic condition.

  13. Total polyphenols contents in different grapevine varieties in highlands of southern brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brighenti Emilio

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are one of the main parameters of wine quality and contribute to the organoleptic characteristics, particularly color, astringency and body. In the highlands of southern Brazil, low temperatures and high accumulation of global solar radiation favor the synthesis of total polyphenols in grapes. The objective of this work was to evaluate the concentration of total polyphenols of 10 white varieties and 13 red varieties produced in high altitude regions of southern Brazil. The vineyard is located in the Experimental Station of Santa Catarina State Agricultural Research and Rural Extension Agency (EPAGRI, in the city of São Joaquim (28° 16′30″S, 49° 56′09″W, Altitude 1,400 m, the evaluations occurred in 2015/2016 growing season. The content of total polyphenols was determined as proposed by Singleton & Rossi (1965, using the Folin-Ciocalteu method, with spectrophotometer readings. Polyphenol content ranged from 283.56 to 1,387.31 mg/L for white varieties, the varieties with the highest concentrations were Greco di Tufo (1,378.31 mg/L, Trebbiano Toscano (995.59 mg/L and Ribola Gialla (737.48 mg/L. For the red varieties, the total polyphenol content ranged from 523.87 to 4,929.57 mg/L, Ancellotta (4,929.57 mg/L, Uva di Troia (2,722.27 mg/L and Croatina (2,410 mg/L stood out for presenting the highest levels.

  14. How to know which food is good for you: bumblebees use taste to discriminate between different concentrations of food differing in nutrient content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruedenauer, Fabian A; Spaethe, Johannes; Leonhardt, Sara D

    2015-07-01

    In view of the ongoing pollinator decline, the role of nutrition in bee health has received increasing attention. Bees obtain fat, carbohydrates and protein from pollen and nectar. As both excessive and deficient amounts of these macronutrients are detrimental, bees would benefit from assessing food quality to guarantee an optimal nutrient supply. While bees can detect sucrose and use it to assess nectar quality, it is unknown whether they can assess the macronutrient content of pollen. Previous studies have shown that bees preferentially collect pollen of higher protein content, suggesting that differences in pollen quality can be detected either by individual bees or via feedback from larvae. In this study, we examined whether and, if so, how individuals of the buff-tailed bumblebee (Bombus terrestris) discriminate between different concentrations of pollen and casein mixtures and thus nutrients. Bumblebees were trained using absolute and differential conditioning of the proboscis extension response (PER). As cues related to nutrient concentration could theoretically be perceived by either smell or taste, bees were tested on both olfactory and, for the first time, chemotactile perception. Using olfactory cues, bumblebees learned and discriminated between different pollen types and casein, but were unable to discriminate between different concentrations of these substances. However, when they touched the substances with their antennae, using chemotactile cues, they could also discriminate between different concentrations. Bumblebees are therefore able to discriminate between foods of different concentrations using contact chemosensory perception (taste). This ability may enable them to individually regulate the nutrient intake of their colonies. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. Concentração foliar de nutrientes em cultivares de Coffea arabica L. sob espaçamentos adensados Foliar nutrient contents in cultivars of Coffea arabica L. at condensed spacings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Silva Augusto

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Os plantios adensados de café proporcionam melhor reciclagem de nutrientes e conseqüentemente reduzem a perda de nutrientes do solo por erosão, lixiviação e oxidação da matéria orgânica. Avaliaram-se as influências de diferentes espaçamentos na concentração de macro e micronutrientes em folhas de cafeeiro das cultivares IAC 44, IAC 99, MG 1192, Katipó, MG 6851 e UFV 3880. Ao início do experimento o solo foi arado para incorporação do calcário. As mudas foram plantadas em covas de 0,30 x 0,30 x 0,40 m, espaçadas entre si em 0,75 m na fileira. Na adubação de plantio aplicou-se 200 g de Fosfato Natural de Araxá, 50 g de Superfosfato Simples por cova, e 15 dias após o plantio 2L/cova de esterco em cobertura. As demais adubações foram realizadas segundo o recomendado para a cultura do café. O delineamento foi em blocos casualizados num esquema fatorial 6 x 4 (seis cultivares x quatro espaçamentos, com seis repetições. As parcelas foram compostas por quatro fileiras de 4,50 m de comprimento, espaçadas entre fileiras em 1,0; 1,5; 2,0 e 2,5 m. Amostras de folhas foram retiradas aos 21 e 34 meses para avaliação dos teores foliares de macro e micronutrientes. O adensamento não influenciou na concentração de nutrientes nas folhas aos 21 meses após o plantio, mas influenciou as concentrações foliares de P, K e Mg aos 34 meses após o plantio.Coffee-tree condensed plantings provide reduction in the loss of the soil nutrients by erosion, lixiviation and oxidation of the organic matter, and even increase nutrient recycling. This experiment aimed evaluates the influence of different spacing among rows on the nutrient foliar contents of coffee-tree varieties, and was performed in randomized blocks with 24 treatments and six replications. The employed varieties IAC 44, IAC 99, MG 1192, Katipó, MG 6851 and UFV 3880 were planted with a spacing of 0,75 m among plants and 1,0; 1,5; 2,0 and 2,5m among rows. Each plot was composed

  16. Effect of Foliar Application of Micro Nutrients on Physiological Growth Indices and Total Dry Matter Yield of Forage Corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Soleymani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of foliar application of micro nutrients on physiological growth indices and total dry matter yield of forage corn. Field experiment was conducted in 2006 at Bersian village Isfahan. A randomized complete block design with four replications was used. Plant treated with 8 foliar application treatments (Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe + Mn, Cu + Zn, Fe + Mn + Cu + Zn and control. The responses to foliar application in total dry weight, LAI and CGR appeared to differ between the treatments, but there is no significant difference in NAR between the treatments. Maximum leaf area index gained in foliar application of Fe but there is significant difference between this treatment and other treatments except foliar application of Zn and Fe + Mn. Foliar application of Fe and Fe + Mn result to maximum total dry weight, but there is no significant difference between these treatments and foliar application of Zn, Mn, Mn + Cu and Fe + Zn + Cu +Mn. Maximum and minimum NAR gained in foliar application of Mn and control treatments respectively. Maximum CGR gained in foliar application of Zn, there is significant difference between this treatment and others. Control treatment in comparison with others shows minimum value in all measured factors. The results indicate that foliar application of micro nutrients particularly Fe and Fe+Mn may be suitable to product maximum total dry matter yield under similar condition.

  17. Mass-Balance Constraints on Nutrient Cycling in Tropical Seagrass Beds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erftemeijer, P.L.A.; Middelburg, J.J.

    1995-01-01

    A relatively simple mass balance model is presented to study the cycling of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) in tropical seagrass beds. The model is based on quantitative data on nutrient availability, seagrass primary production, community oxygen metabolism, seagrass tissue nutrient contents,

  18. Effect of Harvesting Frequency, Variety and Leaf Maturity on Nutrient Composition, Hydrogen Cyanide Content and Cassava Foliage Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuc Thi Hue

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment studied the effect of harvesting frequencies and varieties on yield, chemical composition and hydrogen cyanide content in cassava foliage. Foliage from three cassava varieties, K94 (very bitter, K98-7 (medium bitter and a local (sweet, were harvested in three different cutting cycles, at 3, 6 and 9 months; 6 and 9 months and 9 months after planting, in a 2-yr experiment carried out in Hanoi, Vietnam. Increasing the harvesting frequency increased dry matter (DM and crude protein (CP production in cassava foliage. The K94 variety produced higher foliage yields than the other two varieties. Dry matter, neutral detergent fibre (NDF, acid detergent fibre (ADF and total tannin content increased with months to the first harvest, whereas CP content decreased. Hydrogen cyanide (HCN content was lower at the first harvest than at later harvests for all cutting cycles. At subsequent harvests the content of total tannins tended to decline, while HCN content increased (p<0.05. Chemical composition differed somewhat across varieties except for total tannins and ash. Dry matter, NDF, ADF and total tannins were higher in fully matured leaves, while CP and HCN were lower in developing leaves.

  19. Determination of essential nutrients in raw milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penphimon Phongphanphanee

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Milk production in Thailand has gradually increased since 1961. Occasional oversupply of raw milk has become one of dairy farmers' major problems. Increasing the consumption of milk by making use of its separated nutrients may offer a solution. This study was to assess the composition of raw milk produced in Thailand, which included fat, protein, lactose, solid-not-fat (SNF and total solid (TS. A large dairy cooperatives in Saraburi Province was selected for the study. About 9% of its total members, constituting 108 farms, were randomly chosen. They consisted of small size (less than 20 cows/farm, medium size (21-100 cows/farm and large size (>100 cows/farm. The majority was medium-size. Raw milk from each farm was sampled at the delivery site of the cooperatives in the morning. Milk data of the 108 farms were compiled at 3 different periods between February and July 2003. The raw milk was analyzed by the Fourier Transform Infrared Analysis (FTIR using MilkoScan FT6000. The results showed the average fat content of 3.50±0.47%, protein of 3.13±0.16%, lactose of 4.59±0.12%, SNF of 8.42±0.20%, and TS of 11.92±0.54%. The samples were superior in all of the nutrients as compared to the standard levels set by the Department of Livestock Development, except for TS. This indicates the possibility of a local production of milk nutrients such as lactose and protein as ingredients for the pharmaceutical and health food industries.

  20. Differences in egg nutrient availability, development, and nutrient metabolism of broiler and layer embryos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nangsuay, A.; Molenaar, R.; Meijerhof, R.; Anker, van den I.; Heetkamp, M.J.W.; Kemp, B.; Brand, van den H.

    2015-01-01

    Selection for production traits of broilers and layers leads to physiological differences, which may already be present during incubation. This study aimed to investigate the influence of strain (broiler vs layer) on egg nutrient availability, embryonic development and nutrient metabolism. A total

  1. Total Oil Content and Fatty Acid Profile of some Almond (Amygdalus Communis L. Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yildirim Adnan Nurhan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the total oil contents and fatty acid compositions of some commercial almond cultivars. The total oil contents changed significantly (p<0.05 by year in all cultivars with the exception of cultivar Ferrastar. Total oil contents were changed from 50.90% (Picantili to 62.01% (Supernova in 2008 and from 52.44% (Lauranne to 63.18% (Cristomorto in 2009. While predominant unsaturated fatty acids were oleic and linoleic acids, predominant saturated fatty acid was palmitic acid. The highest amount of oleic acid was obtained in Glorieta in both 2008 (83.35% and 2009 (72.74%. Linoleic acid content varied by year and the highest content was recorded in Picantili (26.08% in 2008 and Yaltinski (30.01% in 2009. The highest amount of palmitic acid was detected in cultivar Sonora in both years, i.e. as 7.76% in 2008 and 10.11% in 2009. The mean UFA:SFA ratio was 11.73 in 2008 but 7.59 in 2009. Principal component (PC analysis indicated that palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, arachidic acid, unsaturated fatty acid (UFA, saturated fatty acid (SFA and UFA:SFA ratio were primarily responsible for the separation on PC1

  2. Protein nutrient value evaluation of mutant strain J5 fruitbody Agaricus bazei murrill by 60Co γ-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng Boqi; Huang Tingjun

    2004-01-01

    Protein nutrient value evaluation of mutant strain J 5 fruitbody Agaricus bazei Murrill by 60 Co γ-irradiation was studied. The results showed its total content of amino acids Agaricus bazei murrill was 48.20%; chemical score 58.10; amino acids score 88.60; necessary amino acids index 89.94; biologic value 86.29; nutrient index 29.15. All the index above were higher than that in original strain J 1 , but the ratio score of amino acids of J 5 fruitbody (39.48) was lower than strain J 1 . The results indicated that nutrient value of protein in J 5 was higher than in J 1 . (authors)

  3. 40 CFR 60.4360 - How do I determine the total sulfur content of the turbine's combustion fuel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... content of the turbine's combustion fuel? 60.4360 Section 60.4360 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Standards of Performance for Stationary Combustion Turbines Monitoring § 60.4360 How do I determine the total sulfur content of the turbine's combustion fuel? You must monitor the total sulfur content of the...

  4. Nutrient Dynamics and Litter Decomposition in Leucaena ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrient contents and rate of litter decomposition were investigated in Leucaena leucocephala plantation in the University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria. Litter bag technique was used to study the pattern and rate of litter decomposition and nutrient release of Leucaena leucocephala. Fifty grams of oven-dried ...

  5. Non-destructive Measurement of Total Carotenoid Content in Processed Tomato Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bicanic, D.; Streza, M.; Dóka, O.; Valinger, D.; Luterotti, S.; Ajtony, Zs; Kurtanjek, Z.; Dadarlat, D.

    2015-01-01

    Carotenes found in a diversity of fruits and vegetables are among important natural antioxidants. In a study described in this paper, the total carotenoid content (TCC) in seven different products derived from thermally processed tomatoes was determined using laser photoacoustic spectroscopy

  6. Effect of cold storage on total phenolics content, antioxidant activity and vitamin C level of selected potato clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Külen, Oktay; Stushnoff, Cecil; Holm, David G

    2013-08-15

    Twelve Colorado-grown specialty potato clones were evaluated for total phenolic content, antioxidant activity and ascorbic acid content at harvest and after 2, 4, 6 and 7 months cold storage at 4 °C. Potato clones were categorized as pigmented ('CO97226-2R/R', 'CO99364-3R/R', 'CO97215-2P/P', 'CO97216-3P/P', 'CO97227-2P/P', 'CO97222-1R/R', 'Purple Majesty', 'Mountain Rose' and 'All Blue'), yellow ('Yukon Gold') and white fleshed ('Russet Nugget', 'Russet Burbank'). Folin-Ciocalteu reagent was used to estimate total phenolic content, and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS(•+) ) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(•) ) radical scavenging assays were used to estimate antioxidant capacity. Pigmented potato genotypes had significantly higher total phenolic content and antioxidant activity at all data points than yellow- and white-fleshed cultivars. Vitamin C content was higher in 'Yukon Gold' than in the other clones. The highest level of vitamin C in all clones was at harvest and after 2 months in cold storage. Vitamin C content in all potato clones dropped rapidly with longer intervals of cold storage. Although total phenolic content and antioxidant activity fluctuated during cold storage, after 7 months of cold storage their levels were slightly higher than at harvest. Total phenolic content was better correlated with Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC)/ABTS(•+) than the TEAC/DPPH(•) radical scavenging assay. Pigmented potato clones had significantly higher total phenolic content and antioxidant activity, while the yellow-fleshed potato cultivar 'Yukon Gold' had significantly higher vitamin C content. Vitamin C content decreased in all potato clones during cold storage, while total phenolics increased in pigmented clones. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. African rainforest vegetation and rumen microbes: Phenolic compounds and nutrients as correlates of digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, Peter G; Mbi, Christiana N; McKey, Doyle B; Gartlan, J Stephen

    1980-01-01

    In order to refine hypotheses concerning food selection by generalist herbivores with ruminant-like digestive systems the chemical correlates of digestibility in such a system have been studied. Samples of seeds and leaves from tree species growing in two African rainforests (Douala-Edea Forest Reserve, Cameroon, and Kibale Forest, Uganda) were assayed for phenolic content and nutrient content, and in-vitro dry matter digestibility was analysed utilizing rumen inoculum from a fistulated steer. Both forests studied carry populations of colobine monkeys with ruminant like digestive tracts. Content of condensed tannins and, to a lesser extent of total phenolics, was found to be negatively correlated with digestibility; a result that may be attributable to the inctivation of microbial enzymes by tannins. The negative association of tannin content and digestibility was stronger in material from the Cameroon site, the vegetation of which contains considerably higher concentrations of tannins and is generally less digestible than that from the Ugandan site. Gross energy content of leaves was also found to be persistently negatively correlated with digestibility. The interpretation of this result is uncertain; however, gross energy yield may well reflect variation in content of cell wall polymers, especially lignin. For the complete set of data, tannins presented the strongest observed correlation with digestibility, but when only mature leaves were considered the relationship with gross energy appeared stronger. No strong association was noted between high nutrient content and high digestibility. This was attributed to the fact that the assay measured the extent of digestion under standardised and very favourable conditions of nutrient supply. The results obtained are discussed in relation to observations of leaf and seed selection preferences of Colobus spp. in these two forests.

  8. Folate content and availability in Malaysian cooked foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, S C; Khor, G L; Loh, S P

    2012-12-01

    Data on folate availability of Malaysian cooked foods would be useful for estimation of dietary folate intake; however such information is scarce. A total of 53 samples of frequently consumed foods in Malaysia were selected from the Nutrient Composition of Malaysian Foods. Folate content was determined using HPLC method hyphenated with a stainless steel C18 column and ultraviolet detector (lambda = 280 nm). The index of folate availability was defined as the proportion of folate identified as monoglutamyl derivatives from the total folate content. Total folate content of different food samples varied from 30-95 microg/100g fresh weight. Among rice-based dishes, the highest and the lowest total folate was in coconut milk rice (nasi lemak) and ghee rice (nasi minyak), respectively. In noodle dishes, fried rice noodle (kuey teow goreng) and curry noodle (mee kari) had the highest folate contents. The highest index of folate availability was in a flat rice noodle dish (kuey teow bandung) (12.13%), while the lowest was in a festival cake (kuih bakul) (0.13%). Folate content was found to be negatively related to its availability. This study determined folate content and folate availability in commonly consumed cooked foods in Malaysia. The uptake of folate from foods with high folate content may not be necessarily high as folate absorption also depends on the capacity of intestinal deconjugation and the presence of high fibre in the foods.

  9. Investigation of the effects of aluminum stress on some macro and micro-nutrient contents of the seedlings of lycopersicon esculentum mill. by using scanning electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colak, G.; Catak, E.; Baykul, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    This study was planned to see the affect of aluminum stress on plant nutrition and metabolism. The effects of aluminum stress on uptake level of some macro- and micro-nutrients from the nutrition solution into the seedlings of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. and on mobilization of some nutrient elements in the seedlings were examined at the level of epidermal cells. The elemental structure of root, hypocotyl and cotyledon epidermal cells were determined by Energy Dispersive Xray Microanalysis (EDX) performed in a local area 50 nm in diameter at the level of a single epidermal cell cytoplasm by using low vacuum (24 pascal ) Scanning Electron Microscope. EDX analysis revealed that aluminum content of the cells was increasing with the increased concentrations of aluminum in the nutrient solution and that aluminum largelyaccumulated in the roots. Aluminum concentration was much higher in the root epidermal cells of the seedlings incubated in aluminum containing media for 17 days without adding any nutrient solution; it was also true for the local EDX analysis of radicle epidermal cells from the same series. Aluminum stress was found to tend to modify the plant nutritional element content of the cells and this was particularly of critical importance in terms of some macro- and micro-nutrients. The assessments performed at the level of epidermal cells of young seedlings of Lycopersicon esculentum suggest that aluminum stress leads to an absolute change in the plant nutritional element composition of the cells and in the mobilization of some nutritional elements in the seedlings. (author)

  10. Effects of Coated Compound Proteases on Apparent Total Tract Digestibility of Nutrients and Apparent Ileal Digestibility of Amino Acids for Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, L; Zhao, P F; Yang, Z Y; Long, S F; Wang, H L; Tian, Q Y; Xu, Y T; Xu, X; Zhang, Z H; Piao, X S

    2016-12-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate effects of coated compound proteases (CC protease) on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nitrogen (N) and energy, and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of amino acids (AA) and nutrients in diets for pigs. In Exp. 1, 12 crossbred barrows (initial body weight: 20.14±1.71 kg) were housed in individual metabolism crates and allotted into 2 treatments with 6 piglets per treatment according to weight in a randomized complete block design. The 2 diets were corn-soybean meal basal diets with (0.2 g/kg) or without CC protease supplementation. The CC protease supplementation increased (pdigestible and metabolizable N and energy values and the digestibility and retention rate of N in the diet. The ATTD of energy and nutrients had been improved (pdigestibility of nutrients was unaffected. Overall, the CC protease improved the ATTD of N and energy and AID of some indispensible AA and nutrients in the corn-soybean meal diet for pigs. Therefore, the CC protease supplement could improve the utilization of protein in the corn-soybean meal diet and thus contribute to lower N excretion to the environment.

  11. Managing soil nutrients with compost in organic farms of East Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghambashidze, Giorgi

    2013-04-01

    Soil Fertility management in organic farming relies on a long-term integrated approach rather than the more short-term very targeted solutions common in conventional agriculture. Increasing soil organic matter content through the addition of organic amendments has proven to be a valuable practice for maintaining or restoring soil quality. Organic agriculture relies greatly on building soil organic matter with compost typically replacing inorganic fertilizers and animal manure as the fertility source of choice. In Georgia, more and more attention is paid to the development of organic farming, occupying less than 1% of total agricultural land of the country. Due to increased interest towards organic production the question about soil amendments is arising with special focus on organic fertilizers as basic nutrient supply sources under organic management practice. In the frame of current research two different types of compost was prepared and their nutritional value was studied. The one was prepared from organic fraction municipal solid waste and another one using fruit processing residues. In addition to main nutritional properties both composts were tested on heavy metals content, as one of the main quality parameter. The results have shown that concentration of main nutrient is higher in municipal solid waste compost, but it contains also more heavy metals, which is not allowed in organic farming system. Fruit processing residue compost also has lower pH value and is lower in total salt content being is more acceptable for soil in lowlands of East Georgia, mainly characterised by alkaline reaction. .

  12. Nutrient cycling in a RRIM 600 clone rubber plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murbach Marcos Roberto

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Few reports have been presented on nutrient cycling in rubber tree plantations (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.. This experiment was carried out to evaluate: the effect of K rates on the amount of nutrients transfered to the soil in a 13-year old Hevea brasilensis RRIM 600 clone plantation, nutrient retranslocation from the leaves before falling to the soil, and nutrient loss by dry rubber export. The experiment started in 1998 and potassium was applied at the rates of 0, 40, 80 and 160 kg ha-1 of K2O under the crowns of 40 rubber trees of each plot. Literfall collectors, five per plot, were randomly distributed within the plots under the trees. The accumulated literfall was collected monthly during one year. The coagulated rubber latex from each plot was weighed, and samples were analyzed for nutrient content. Increasing K fertilization rates also increased the K content in leaf literfall. Calcium and N were the most recycled leaf nutrients to the soil via litterfall. Potassium, followed by P were the nutrients with the highest retranslocation rates. Potassium was the most exported nutrient by the harvested rubber, and this amount was higher than that transfered to the soil by the leaf literfall.

  13. Measurement of thyroid volume, iodine concentration and total iodine content by CT and its clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakaji, Shunsuke; Imanishi, Yoshimasa; Okamoto, Kyouko; Shinagawa, Toshihito

    2007-01-01

    Recently, Imanishi et al have developed new CT software for quantitative in vivo measurement of thyroid iodine. Using a CT system with the software, we measured volume, iodine concentration and total iodine content of thyroids in 63 controls and 435 patients with various diffuse thyroid diseases and thyroid nodules. In controls, all of them showed no difference between the sexes. Although the iodine concentration of the thyroid showed no difference among children, adults and seniles, the volume and total iodine content of the thyroid appeared smaller in children and seniles than in adults. In addition, although the volume and iodine concentration of the thyroid had two peaks in distribution, the total iodine content had almost normal distribution. Normal range of volume, iodine concentration and total iodine content in adults were 5.2-15.5 cm 3 , 0.28831-0.85919 mg/cm 3 and 2.35-11.69 mg, respectively. In thyroid nodule, there is no significant difference in volume, iodine concentration and total iodine content between benign and malignant nodules. All nodules with iodine concentration of less than 0.00007 mg/cm 3 were benign. No thyroid was higher in iodine concentration than the normal range although the thyroid was lower in 78.7% of patients with diffuse thyroid diseases. In all thyroids with increasing iodine concentration and total iodine content in medication course, thyroidal symptoms and signs were uncontrollable by the medication. In 43.8% of patients with long-period systemic diseases, the thyroid showed abnormality in any of the three. We concluded that quantitative in vivo measurement of thyroid iodine by CT could assist the diagnosis of thyroid diseases and decision of therapeutic methods. (author)

  14. Digestibility Nutrient Contents on Acacia Seyal, Balanities Aegyptiaca and Chloris Gayana Hay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiliti, J.K

    2002-01-01

    A study was carried to determine the nutrients and their digestibility in Acacia seyal and Balanities aegyptiaca legume browses and compared with Chloris gayana hay. Samples were taken from these two leguminous forages at Mogotio and Emining divisions of Koibatek district and fed to sheep in a change over design. The sheep were housed in individual pens and fitted with faecal collection bags. They were fed and faeces collected twice daily. An adaptation period of 14 days, Faecal collection of 7 days and changeover of 10 days were enforced. Nutrients analysed for during digestibility included DM, OM, CP, NDF, Hemicellulose and Cellulose. The nutrients compositions were 651, 916, 112, 370, 339, 59 and 84; 665, 920, 152, 443, 341, 89 and 80, 845, 924, 68, 730, 463, 57, and 76 for DM, OM, CP, NDF, ADF, and ash in Acacia seal, Balanities aegyptiaca and Chloris gayana hay. The in vivio digestibility results were different (p<0.05) for all nutrients. The digestibilities of DM, OM, CP NDF, Hemicellulose and Cellulose in Acacia seyal, Balanities aegyptiaca and Chloris gayana hay were 54.7, 66.5, 32.8, 40.3, 51.7, and 82.7; 48.5, 58.9, 67.4, 36.9, 36.3, and 40.6 and 48.1, 50.4, 41.7, 53.7, 63.0 and 62.3% respectively. The two legume forages had nutrients that had higher digestibility than hay except for fibre

  15. Estado nutricional de diferentes cultivares de pereira nas condições edafoclimáticas de Guarapuava-PR Leaf content and nutrient extraction by fruit harvest of pear trees cultivars grafted on quince 'CP'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Vasconcelos Botelho

    2010-09-01

    of 2.500 plants ha-1. Samples of leaves and fruits were collected in 2006 and 2007 for chemical analysis of nutrient contents. Complete and normal leaves were sampled in the end of January, token from the middle part of one-year shoots. The fruits were collected when the total soluble solids content reached 10º Brix. The pear cultivars showed differences in relation to nutrient content in leaves and fruits, indicating distinct nutritional requirements. The cv. Cascatense presented the highest N and P contents in fruits at least in one of the years, and the cv Hosui the highest K content. The nutrient extraction by fruits ranged from 0.366 to 0.825 kg N; 0.097 to 0.205 kg P, 0.996 to 1.302 kg K, 0.049 to 0.085 kg Ca and 0.041 to 0.095 kg Mg per fruit ton.

  16. Effect of increasing total solids contents on anaerobic digestion of food waste under mesophilic conditions: performance and microbial characteristics analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yi

    Full Text Available The total solids content of feedstocks affects the performances of anaerobic digestion and the change of total solids content will lead the change of microbial morphology in systems. In order to increase the efficiency of anaerobic digestion, it is necessary to understand the role of the total solids content on the behavior of the microbial communities involved in anaerobic digestion of organic matter from wet to dry technology. The performances of mesophilic anaerobic digestion of food waste with different total solids contents from 5% to 20% were compared and the microbial communities in reactors were investigated using 454 pyrosequencing technology. Three stable anaerobic digestion processes were achieved for food waste biodegradation and methane generation. Better performances mainly including volatile solids reduction and methane yield were obtained in the reactors with higher total solids content. Pyrosequencing results revealed significant shifts in bacterial community with increasing total solids contents. The proportion of phylum Chloroflexi decreased obviously with increasing total solids contents while other functional bacteria showed increasing trend. Methanosarcina absolutely dominated in archaeal communities in three reactors and the relative abundance of this group showed increasing trend with increasing total solids contents. These results revealed the effects of the total solids content on the performance parameters and the behavior of the microbial communities involved in the anaerobic digestion of food waste from wet to dry technologies.

  17. Effect of Increasing Total Solids Contents on Anaerobic Digestion of Food Waste under Mesophilic Conditions: Performance and Microbial Characteristics Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jingwei; Dai, Xiaohu

    2014-01-01

    The total solids content of feedstocks affects the performances of anaerobic digestion and the change of total solids content will lead the change of microbial morphology in systems. In order to increase the efficiency of anaerobic digestion, it is necessary to understand the role of the total solids content on the behavior of the microbial communities involved in anaerobic digestion of organic matter from wet to dry technology. The performances of mesophilic anaerobic digestion of food waste with different total solids contents from 5% to 20% were compared and the microbial communities in reactors were investigated using 454 pyrosequencing technology. Three stable anaerobic digestion processes were achieved for food waste biodegradation and methane generation. Better performances mainly including volatile solids reduction and methane yield were obtained in the reactors with higher total solids content. Pyrosequencing results revealed significant shifts in bacterial community with increasing total solids contents. The proportion of phylum Chloroflexi decreased obviously with increasing total solids contents while other functional bacteria showed increasing trend. Methanosarcina absolutely dominated in archaeal communities in three reactors and the relative abundance of this group showed increasing trend with increasing total solids contents. These results revealed the effects of the total solids content on the performance parameters and the behavior of the microbial communities involved in the anaerobic digestion of food waste from wet to dry technologies. PMID:25051352

  18. Effect of increasing total solids contents on anaerobic digestion of food waste under mesophilic conditions: performance and microbial characteristics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jing; Dong, Bin; Jin, Jingwei; Dai, Xiaohu

    2014-01-01

    The total solids content of feedstocks affects the performances of anaerobic digestion and the change of total solids content will lead the change of microbial morphology in systems. In order to increase the efficiency of anaerobic digestion, it is necessary to understand the role of the total solids content on the behavior of the microbial communities involved in anaerobic digestion of organic matter from wet to dry technology. The performances of mesophilic anaerobic digestion of food waste with different total solids contents from 5% to 20% were compared and the microbial communities in reactors were investigated using 454 pyrosequencing technology. Three stable anaerobic digestion processes were achieved for food waste biodegradation and methane generation. Better performances mainly including volatile solids reduction and methane yield were obtained in the reactors with higher total solids content. Pyrosequencing results revealed significant shifts in bacterial community with increasing total solids contents. The proportion of phylum Chloroflexi decreased obviously with increasing total solids contents while other functional bacteria showed increasing trend. Methanosarcina absolutely dominated in archaeal communities in three reactors and the relative abundance of this group showed increasing trend with increasing total solids contents. These results revealed the effects of the total solids content on the performance parameters and the behavior of the microbial communities involved in the anaerobic digestion of food waste from wet to dry technologies.

  19. Dietary Supplements Contribute Substantially to the Total Nutrient Intake in Pregnant Norwegian Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugen, Margaretha; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Alexander, Jan; Meltzer, Helle Margrete

    2008-01-01

    Background Use of dietary supplements during pregnancy may give an important contribution to nutrient intake, and for nutrients like folate and vitamin D supplements are recommended. Our objective was to study use and contribution of dietary supplement to nutrient intake among women participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Methods This study is based on 40,108 women participating in MoBa which is conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. The women had filled inversion 2 of the food frequency questionnaire in MoBa between February 2002 and February 2005. Results 81% reported use of one or more dietary supplements. The most commonly used category was cod liver oil/fish oil supplements (59%) followed by singular folic acid supplements (36%) and multivitamin/multimineral supplements (31%). The nutrient contribution of the dietary supplements varied from 65% for folate and vitamin D to 1% for potassium among supplement users. The dietary intake of vitamin D, folate, iodine and iron did not reach the Nordic Recommendations for pregnant women. Conclusions Use of supplements improved the intake of folate, iron and vitamin D, but not sufficiently to reach the recommended amounts. PMID:18645244

  20. Compost and Crude Humic Substances Produced from Selected Wastes and Their Effects on Zea mays L. Nutrient Uptake and Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanivell, Perumal; Susilawati, Kasim; Ahmed, Osumanu Haruna; Majid, Nik Muhamad

    2013-01-01

    Production of agriculture and timber commodities leads generation of enormous quantity of wastes. Improper disposal of these agroindustrial wastes pollutes the environment. This problem could be reduced by adding value to them. Therefore, a study was carried out to analyse and compare the nutrients content of RS, RH, SD, and EFB of composts and crude humic substances; furthermore, their effect on growth, dry matter production, and nutrient uptake for Zea mays L., and selected soil chemical properties were evaluated. Standard procedures were used to analyze humic acids (HA), crude fulvic acids (CFA), crude humin (CH), soil, dry matter production and nutrient uptake. Sawdust and RS compost matured at 42 and 47 days, respectively, while RH and EFB composts were less matured at 49th day of composting. Rice straw compost had higher ash, N, P, CEC, HA, K, and Fe contents with lower organic matter, total organic carbon, and C/N and C/P ratios. The HA of sawdust compost showed higher carbon, carboxylic, K, and Ca contents compared to those of RS, RH, and EFB. Crude FA of RS compost showed highest pH, total K, Ca, Mg, and Na contents. Crude humin from RS compost had higher contents of ash, N, P, and CEC. Rice straw was superior in compost, CFA, and CH, while sawdust compost was superior in HA. Application of sawdust compost significantly increased maize plants' diameter, height, dry matter production, N, P, and cations uptake. It also reduced N, P, and K based chemical fertilizer use by 90%. Application of CH and the composts evaluated in this study could be used as an alternative for chemical fertilizers in maize cultivation. PMID:24319353

  1. Nutrient composition of strawberry genotypes cultivated in a horticulture farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Ashrafi; Begum, Parveen; Salma Zannat, M; Hafizur Rahman, Md; Ahsan, Monira; Islam, Sheikh Nazrul

    2016-05-15

    This article decribes the nutrient composition of four strawberry genotypes cultivated at the Sher-e-Bangla Agriculture University horticulture farm in Dhaka (Bangladesh). AOAC and standard validated methods were employed to analyse the nutrient composition. Protein, fat and ash contents were found to be vary significantly (LSD<0.05), while the variation in moisture (LSD<1.33), dietary fibre (LSD<0.15) and total sugar (LSD<0.09) were found to be insignificant among the genotypes. Vitamin C content ranged from 26.46 mg to 37.77 mg per 100g edible strawberries (LSD<0.060). Amount of carotenoids were found to be very low being in a range of 0.99-3.30 μg per 100g edible fruit. Analysis of mineral revealed that strawberry genotypes contained a wide array of minerals including Ca, Mg, Na, K, P, Mn, Zn, Cu and Fe; most of which varied significantly (LSD<0.05) among the genotypes. Strawberries could be a potential dietary supplement for vitamin C along with minerals, particularly for the children who do not like local fruits, but love to eat the colourful strawberries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Changes in microbial and nutrient composition associated with rumen content compost incubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Karuna; Shrestha, Pramod; Adetutu, Eric M; Walsh, Kerry B; Harrower, Keith M; Ball, Andrew S; Midmore, David J

    2011-02-01

    Physico-chemical and microbiological investigations were carried out on rumen content material composted for nine months, fresh vermicasts (obtained after passing the same compost through the guts of a mixture of three species of earthworms: Eisenia fetida, Lumbricus rubellus and Perionyx excavates) and microbially enhanced extracts derived from rumen compost, vermicast and vermicast leachate incubated for up to 48 h. Compared to composted rumen contents, vermicast was only improved in terms of microbial biomass C, while vermicast leached extract was significantly higher in NH(4)(+)-N,PO(4)(-)-P, humic acid, bacterial counts and total microbial activity compared to rumen compost extract. Although no difference between treatments was observed in genetic diversity as indicated by DGGE analysis, community level functional diversity of vermicast leached extract (Biolog™) was higher than that of composted rumen contents, vermicast and rumen compost extract indicating an enhancement of microbial activity rather than diversity due to liquid incubation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Nutrient-enhancement of Matooke banana for improved nutrient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 173 PLHIVregistered with Rakai Health Science Project were chosen and interviewed using structured questionnaires to determine the current contribution of banana to the household food security. Nutrient intake data were collected using Gibson s 24-hour recall method and food frequency questionnaires.

  4. Evaluation of antibacterial and anthelmintic activities with total phenolic contents of Piper betel leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazi Akter

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study was conducted to investigate the antibacterial and anthelmintic activities and to determine total phenolic contents of methanolic extract of Piper betel leaves. Materials and Methods: The extract was subjected to assay for antibacterial activity using both gram positive and gram negative bacterial strains through disc diffusion method; anthelmintic activity with the determination of paralysis and death time using earthworm (Pheritima posthuma at five different concentrations and the determination of total phenolic contents using the Folin-ciocalteau method. Results: The extract showed significant (p

  5. Optimization of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of Piper Betel Linn leaves oil and total phenolic content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, A. H. A.; Yunus, M. A. C.; Arsad, N. H.; Lee, N. Y.; Idham, Z.; Razak, A. Q. A.

    2016-11-01

    Supercritical Carbon Dioxide (SC-CO2) Extraction was applied to extract piper betel linn leaves. The piper betel leaves oil was used antioxidant, anti-diabetic, anticancer and antistroke. The aim of this study was to optimize the conditions of pressure, temperature and flowrate for oil yield and total phenolic content. The operational conditions of SC-CO2 studied were pressure (10, 20, 30 MPa), temperature (40, 60, 80 °C) and flowrate carbon dioxide (4, 6, 8 mL/min). The constant parameters were average particle size and extraction regime, 355pm and 3.5 hours respectively. First order polynomial expression was used to express the extracted oil while second order polynomial expression was used to express the total phenolic content and the both results were satisfactory. The best conditions to maximize the total extraction oil yields and total phenolic content were 30 MPa, 80 °C and 4.42 mL/min leading to 7.32% of oil and 29.72 MPa, 67.53 °C and 7.98 mL/min leading to 845.085 mg GAE/g sample. In terms of optimum condition with high extraction yield and high total phenolic content in the extracts, the best operating conditions were 30 MPa, 78 °C and 8 mL/min with 7.05% yield and 791.709 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g sample. The most dominant condition for extraction of oil yield and phenolic content were pressure and CO2 flowrate. The results show a good fit to the proposed model and the optimal conditions obtained were within the experimental range with the value of R2 was 96.13% for percentage yield and 98.52% for total phenolic content.

  6. AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN DAN KADAR FENOLIK TOTAL DARI GANGGANG MERAH (Gracilaria verrucosa L. [Antioxidant Activity and Total Phenolic Content of Red Sea Weed (Gracilaria verrucosa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Ninan Lestario*

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to compare the antioxidant activity and the total phenolic content of red sea weed (Gracilaria verrucosa L. from extract of methanol, ethanol, acetone, chloroform and hexane; and the correlation between total phenolic content and the antioxidant activity of each extract; then to determine the chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and carotene content of each extract and their correlation with the free radical scavenging activity as well. The antioxidant activity were measured by free radical scavenging method with DPPH and by reducing power method with K4Fe(CN6 as standard, whereas the total phenolic content was measured by Folin Ciocalteu method with gallic acid as standard. Chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and carotene were determined by spectrophotometric method based on Lambert-Beer law. The data of antioxidant activity and total phenolic content were statistically analyzed by Randomized Completely Block Design (RCBD with five kinds of solvents as treatments and five replications. Honestly Significant Difference Test (HSDT was used to compare the difference of treatments; whereas the chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and carotene content were not statistically analyzed since they were only supplement data. The results showed that the highest of the antioxidant activity by free radical scavenging method was found in acetone extract : 43.43% (BHT: 84.15%; whereas by reducing power method was found in chloroform extract : 0.1756 meq K4Fe(CN6/g extract (BHT : 6.1767 meq K4Fe(CN6/g extract; and the highest of the total phenolic content was also found in acetone extract : 45.29 mg /g extract. There were close correlation between phenolic content and antioxidant activity both by free radical scavenging method and by reducing power method with r (coefficient correlation respectivelly 0.89 and 0.91.Chlorophyll a and carotene had also close correlation with the free radical scaveging activity, but not for chlorophyll b.

  7. Use of hydroponics culture to assess nutrient supply by treated wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrover, Maria; Moyà, Gabriel; Vadell, Jaume

    2013-09-30

    The use of treated wastewater for irrigation is increasing, especially in those areas where water resources are limited. Treated wastewaters contain nutrients that are useful for plant growth and help to reduce fertilizers needs. Nutrient content of these waters depends on the treatment system. Nutrient supply by a treated wastewater from a conventional treatment plant (CWW) and a lagooned wastewater from the campus of the University of Balearic Islands (LWW) was tested in an experiment in hydroponics conditions. Half-strength Hoagland nutrient solution (HNS) was used as a control. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seedlings were grown in 4 L containers filled with the three types of water. Four weeks after planting, barley was harvested and root and shoot biomass was measured. N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na and Fe contents were determined in both tissues and heavy metal concentrations were analysed in shoots. N, P and K concentrations were lower in LWW than in CWW, while HNS had the highest nutrient concentration. Dry weight barley production was reduced in CWW and LWW treatments to 49% and 17%, respectively, comparing to HNS. However, to a lesser extent, reduction was found in shoot and root N content. Treated wastewater increased Na content in shoots and roots of barley and Ca and Cr content in shoots. However, heavy metals content was lower than toxic levels in all the cases. Although treated wastewater is an interesting water resource, additional fertilization is needed to maintain a high productivity in barley seedlings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of harvest managements on biomass nutrient concentrations and removal rates of festulolium and tall fescue from a poorly drained nutrient-rich fen peatland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kandel, Tanka; Elsgaard, Lars; Lærke, Poul Erik

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to show the effects of harvest time and frequency on biomass nutrient concentrations (total ash, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn) as well as total nutrient removal potential by festulolium and tall fescue cultivated on a nutrient-rich fen peatland. The harvest managemen...

  9. Broccoli yield and yield quality as affected by gamma rays seeds irradiation and foliar application of some nutrients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabal, M R [Botany Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Moshtohor, Zagazig University (Egypt); Abdallah, A A.G.; Awad, S M; Aboel-Kheir, O H [Plant Research Department, Nuclear Research Centre, Cairo (Egypt)

    2005-07-01

    Two field experiments were carried out during 1999/2000 and 2000/2001 winter growing seasons at the Atomic Energy Authority (AEA) in Inshas, Egypt. The experiment was conducted to study the effect of pre-sowing seeds irradiation with different doses of gamma rays (0, 2, 3 and 4 Gy) and foliar application of different nutrients (Zn, B, S and S+K) on spear diameter, main spear fresh and dry weight per plant, total spear fresh weight per plant, total spear yield besides NPK in leaves at 90 days after transplanting and NPK and total protein content in spears at maturity. In general, exposing broccoli seeds to different gamma ray doses up to 4 Gy prior to sowing increased the above mentioned parameters with different magnitudes comparing with the non-irradiated control plants. There were no significant differences between 3 Gy and 4 Gy treatments during the two growing seasons. With respect to the effect of nutrient application on the studied parameters, all nutrients application significantly increased all the above mentioned parameters. The highest result was detected with B application. Regarding to the interaction of gamma ray with nutrients application, the highest value of all above mentioned parameters was detected with B application and 3 Gy of gamma ray.

  10. Broccoli yield and yield quality as affected by gamma rays seeds irradiation and foliar application of some nutrients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabal, M.R.; Abdallah, A.A.G.; Awad, S.M.; Aboel-Kheir, O.H.

    2005-01-01

    Two field experiments were carried out during 1999/2000 and 2000/2001 winter growing seasons at the Atomic Energy Authority (AEA) in Inshas, Egypt. The experiment was conducted to study the effect of pre-sowing seeds irradiation with different doses of gamma rays (0, 2, 3 and 4 Gy) and foliar application of different nutrients (Zn, B, S and S+K) on spear diameter, main spear fresh and dry weight per plant, total spear fresh weight per plant, total spear yield besides NPK in leaves at 90 days after transplanting and NPK and total protein content in spears at maturity. In general, exposing broccoli seeds to different gamma ray doses up to 4 Gy prior to sowing increased the above mentioned parameters with different magnitudes comparing with the non-irradiated control plants. There were no significant differences between 3 Gy and 4 Gy treatments during the two growing seasons. With respect to the effect of nutrient application on the studied parameters, all nutrients application significantly increased all the above mentioned parameters. The highest result was detected with B application. Regarding to the interaction of gamma ray with nutrients application, the highest value of all above mentioned parameters was detected with B application and 3 Gy of gamma ray

  11. CAMEX-4 DC-8 NEVZOROV TOTAL CONDENSED WATER CONTENT SENSOR V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Nevzorov probe is an instrument that measures the total water content of the sample of air which passes through it. It flew on the NASA DC-8 during the CAMEX-4...

  12. Effect of Storage Method on Nutrients Composition, Antioxidant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corchorus olitorious is a vegetable that is popularly consumed in West Africa. It is also known to be rich in nutrients. The effects of market storage methods of vegetables on nutrient composition, antioxidant contents and consumer acceptability of Corchorus olitorious were assessed at Owo, Ondo state, Southwest Nigeria.

  13. Growth performance and total tract nutrient digestion for Holstein heifers limit-fed diets high in distillers grains with different forage particle sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluated dairy heifer growth performance and total tract nutrient digestion when fed diets high in dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) with different forage particle size. An 8-wk randomized complete block design study was conducted utilizing twenty-two Holstein heifers (123 ±...

  14. Total body and regional bone mineral content in hemodialysis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagiwara, Satoshi; Aratani, Hideyui; Miki, Takami; Nishizawa, Yoshiki; Okamura, Terue; Koizumi, Yoshiko; Ochi, Hironobu; Morii, Hirotoshi

    1994-01-01

    Bone mineral content (BMC) in the total body and lumbar spine was evaluated in 126 hemodialysis patients (60 males, 66 females) by dual photon absorptiometry with the Norland DBD 2600. Measurements of: 1) total body BMC divided by lean body mass (BMC TB /LBM), 2) bone mineral density (BMD) of total body, 3) BMD of four regional sections (head, trunk, pelvis, and legs), and 4) BMD of lumbar spine, generally showed a significant decrease in the hemodialysis patients compared to the reference population. However, arm BMD did not show a significant difference between patients and control populations. The z-score of BMC TB /LBM declined significantly throughout the duration of hemodialysis, although that of the lumbar spine BMD did not. It should be noted that the degree of decrease in BMC was more prominent in the total body measurement than in the lumbar spine measurement. There was preferential osteopenia of the total body in the hemodialysis patients. Although the lumbar spine BMD showed a lower value than the control population, the lumbar spine is not the recommended region to monitor the BMD change in hemodialysis patients. (author)

  15. Solid fat content as a substitute for total polar compound analysis in edible oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    The solid fat contents (SFC) of heated edible oil samples were measured and found to correlate positively with total polar compounds (TPC) and inversely with triglyceride concentration. Traditional methods for determination of total polar compounds require a laboratory setting and are time intensiv...

  16. INFLUENCE OF ELEMENTAL SULFUR AND/OR INOCULATION WITH SULFUR OXIDIZING BACTERIA ON GROWTH, AND NUTRIENT CONTENT OF SORGHUM PLANTS GROWN ON DIFFERENT SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Kandil

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A pot experiment was conducted to study the effect of elemental sulfur(E.S rates (300 and 600 ppm and/or sulfur oxidizing bacteria (S.O.B. ATCC 8158 on growth and nutrients content of sorghum plants grown on different soils (sandy soils(I & II and clay loam soil.The obtained results could be summarized in the followings:Sorghum plants:Significant increases over the control were observed in fresh and dry weights of sorghum plant as well as its content of SO4=, N, P, K, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu by using all the sulfur and/or the oxidizing bacteria treatments. Addition of E.S (300 & 600 ppm in combination with S.O.B. ATCC 8158 significantly increased both fresh and dry weights as well as SO4=, N, P, K, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu contents of sorghum plants grown on the used soils as compared with either of them alone.E.S rates (300 & 600 ppm significantly increased the fresh and dry weights as well as all the studied nutrients content (SO4=, N, P, K, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu of sorghum plants grown on the different soils as compared with S.O.B. ATCC 8158 treatment alone. The highest rate of E.S (600 ppm significantly increased all the previous parameters under study as compared with the lower rate (300 ppm. The highest values of fresh and dry weights as well as nutrients content (SO4=, N, P, K, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu of sorghum plants grown on the used soils were obtained by 600 ppm E.S + S.O.B. ATCC 8158 treatment followed by 600 ppm E.S; 300 ppm E.S + S.O.B. ATCC 8158; 300 ppm E.S; S.O.B. ATCC 8158 and control treatments in decreasing order.The used soils:E.S rates (300 & 600 ppm and/or S.O.B. ATCC 8158 decreased pH values of the used soils after 3, 6 and 9 weeks from sowing as compared with their corresponding control treatments. The values of pH of sand soil (I and clay loam soil slightly decreased by time i.e they decreased from 3 weeks to 9 weeks from plantation. E.S rates (300 & 600 ppm with or without inoculation the used soils with S.O.B. ATCC 8158 significantly

  17. Concentrations of some macro and micro plant nutrient of cultivated soils in Central and Eastern Blacksea Region and their mapping by inverse distance weighted (IDW method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Arif Özyazıcı

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine plant nutrients content and to in terms of soil variables their soil database and generate maps of their distribution on agricultural land in Central and Eastern Black Sea Region using geographical information system (GIS. In this research, total 3400 soil samples (0-20 cm depth were taken at 2.5 x 2.5 km grid points representing agricultural soils. Total nitrogen, extractable calcium, magnesium, sodium, boron, iron, copper, zinc and manganese contents were analysed in collected soil samples. Analysis results of these samples were classified and evaluated for deficiency, sufficiency or excess with respect to plant nutrients. Afterwards, in terms of GIS, a soil database and maps for current status of the study area were created by using inverse distance weighted (IDW interpolation method. According to this research results, it was determined sufficient plant nutrient elements in terms of total nitrogen, extractable iron, copper and manganese in arable soils of Central and Eastern Blacksea Region while, extractable calcium, magnesium, sodium were found good and moderate level in 66.88%, 81.44% and 64.56% of total soil samples, respectively. In addition, insufficient boron and zinc concentration were found in 34.35% and 51.36% of soil samples, respectively.

  18. Effects of different mycorrhiza species on grain yield, nutrient uptake and oil content of sunflower under water stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Heidari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in alleviating water stress is well documented. In order to study the effects of water stress and two different mycorrhiza species on grain yield, nutrient uptake and oil content of sunflower, a field experiment as split plot design with three replications was conducted in the Research Field Station, Zabol University, Zabol, Iran in 2011. Water stress treatments included control as 90% of field capacity (W1, 70% field capacity (W2 and 50% field capacity (W3 assigned to the main plots and two different mycorrhiza species, consisting of M1 = control (without any inoculation, M2 = Glumus mossea and M3 = Glumus etanicatum as sub plots. Results showed that by increasing water stress from control (W1 to W3 treatment, grain yield was significantly decreased. The reduction in the level of W3 was 15.05%. The content of potassium in seeds significantly decreased due to water stress but water stress upto W2 treatment increased the content of phosphorus, nitrogen and oil content of seeds. In between two species of mycorrhiza in sunflower plants, Glumus etanicatum had the highest effect on grain yield and these elements in seeds and increased both.

  19. Evaluation of feed value of a by-product of pickled radish for ruminants: analyses of nutrient composition, storage stability, and in vitro ruminal fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Seoyoung; Sohn, Keun-Nam; Seo, Seongwon

    2016-01-01

    By-products of pickled radish (BPR) are considered food waste. Approximately 300 g/kg of the total mass of raw materials becomes BPR. Production of pickled radish has grown continuously and is presently about 40,000 metric tons annually in Korea. The objective of the present study was thus to explore the possibility of using BPR as a ruminant feed ingredient. BPR contained a large amount of moisture (more than 800 g/kg) and ash, and comprised mostly sodium (103 g/kg DM) and chloride (142 g/kg DM). On a dry matter basis, the crude protein (CP) and ether extract (EE) levels in BPR were 75 g/kg and 7 g/kg, respectively. The total digestible nutrient (TDN) level was 527 g/kg and the major portion of digestible nutrients was carbohydrate; 88 % organic matter (OM) was carbohydrate and 65 % of total carbohydrate was soluble or degradable fiber. The coefficient of variation (CV) of nutrient contents among production batches ranged from 4.65 to 33.83 %. The smallest CV was observed in OM, and the largest, in EE. The variation in CP content was relatively small (10.11 %). The storage stability test revealed that storage of BPR at 20 °C (room temperature) might not cause spoilage for 4 d, and possibly longer. If BPR is refrigerated, spoilage can be deferred for 21 d and longer. The in vitro ruminal fermentation study showed that substitution of annual ryegrass straw with BPR improved ruminal fermentation, as evidenced by an increase in VFA concentration, DM degradability, and total gas production. The major portion of nutrients in BPR is soluble or degradable fiber that can be easily fermented in the rumen without adverse effects, to provide energy to ruminant animals. Although its high sodium chloride content needs to be considered when formulating a ration, BPR can be successfully used as a feed ingredient in a ruminant diet, particularly if it is one component of a total mixed ration.

  20. Procyanidin content of grape seed and pomace, and total anthocyanin content of grape pomace as affected by extrusion processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, R C; Howard, L R; Prior, R L

    2009-08-01

    Grape juice processing by-products, grape seed and pomace are a rich source of procyanidins, compounds that may afford protection against chronic disease. This study was undertaken to identify optimal extrusion conditions to enhance the contents of monomers and dimers at the expense of large molecular weight procyanidin oligomers and polymers in grape seed and pomace. Extrusion variables, temperature (160, 170, and 180 degrees C in grape seed, and 160, 170, 180, and 190 degrees C in pomace) and screw speed (100, 150, and 200 rpm in both) were tested using mixtures of grape seed as well as pomace with decorticated white sorghum flour at a ratio of 30 : 70 and moisture content of 45%. Samples of grape seed and pomace were analyzed for procyanidin composition before and after extrusion, and total anthocyanins were determined in pomace. Additionally, chromatograms from diol and normal phase high-performance liquid chromatography were compared for the separation of procyanidins. Extrusion of both grape by-products increased the biologically important monomer and dimers considerably across all temperature and screw speeds. Highest monomer content resulted when extruded at a temperature of 170 degrees C and screw speed of 200 rpm, which were 120% and 80% higher than the unextruded grape seed and pomace, respectively. Increases in monomer and dimer contents were apparently the result of reduced polymer contents, which declined by 27% to 54%, or enhanced extraction facilitated by disruption of the food matrix during extrusion. Extrusion processing reduced total anthocyanins in pomace by 18% to 53%. Extrusion processing can be used to increase procyanidin monomer and dimer contents in grape seed and pomace. Procyanidins in grape by-products have many health benefits, but most are present as large molecular weight compounds, which are poorly absorbed. Extrusion processing appears to be a promising technology to increase levels of the bioactive low molecular weight

  1. Effect of Treated Wastewater Combined with Various Amounts of Manure and Chemical Fertilizers on Nutrient Content and Yield in Corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazal Tavassoli

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of treated wastewater combined with manure and chemical fertilizers on the nutrients content and forage yield in corn, field experiments were conducted in 2007. The experiments were conducted in a split plot design with three replications. The treatments were comprised of two levels of irrigation water (W1= well water and W2= wastewater in the main plot and five levels of fertilizer (F1= unfertilized, F2 = 100% manure, F3= 50% manure, F4= 100% fertilizer, and F5= 50% fertilizer in the subplot. Results showed that, compared to ordinary water, irrigation with treated wastewater significantly increased fresh and dry forage yield of corn. The treatment using treated wastewater also had a significant effect on N, P, and K contents in corn forage. However, wastewater had no significant effect on plant Fe, Mn, and Zn contents. Among the fertilizer treatments, the highest fresh and dry forage yields and the highest N, P and K contents belonged to the treatments using 100% fertilizer. The highest Fe, Mn, and Zn contents were observed in plants in the treatment with 100% manure.

  2. Nutrient losses from cattle co-digestate slurry during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Perazzolo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Among environmental issues related to intensive livestock activity, emissions to air from manure management are of increasing concern. Thus the knowledge of the effect of treatment application on subsequent emissions from manure is required to assess the environment impact of management solutions. This work addresses the effect of anaerobic digestion and phase separation on emissions during storage by studying nitrogen losses from lab-scale stores and field pilot-scale stores of a co-digestate cattle slurry and its respective separated fractions. Lab-scale experiment was carried in temperature-controlled room where each fraction (untreated, separated liquid and separated solid was stored in duplicate for a period of 32 days in 30 L vessel. Pilot-scale experiment was carried out both during the cold season and during warm season for 90 days of storage. In both experimentations samples of the manure were analysed periodically for total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN, total ammonia nitrogen, dry matter and volatile solids and pH. These analyses allow estimating nitrogen losses in different storage conditions. Effects of mechanical separation and season were assessed by ANOVA (Wilcoxon test, P<0.05. In temperature controlled conditions nitrogen losses measured account for 13% and 26% of TKN for unseparated and separated slurries respectively. In field conditions during cold season nutrient losses were limited. On average unseparated and separated slurries lost respectively 6.8% and 12.6% of their initial TKN content. Much higher were the TKN losses from the slurries examined in warm season where losses raised up to 40% of the initial TKN content. Generally mechanical separation increases nutrient losses, but the differences were not significant in field conditions. The results highlighted that nutrient losses, in particular the nitrogen ones, can be considerable especially during summer storage. The latter, in case of separated slurries, are mainly related

  3. Varying plant density and harvest time to optimize cowpea leaf yield and nutrient content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohler, T. A.; Nielsen, S. S.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1996-01-01

    Plant density and harvest time were manipulated to optimize vegetative (foliar) productivity of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] canopies for future dietary use in controlled ecological life-support systems as vegetables or salad greens. Productivity was measured as total shoot and edible dry weights (DW), edible yield rate [(EYR) grams DW per square meter per day], shoot harvest index [(SHI) grams DW per edible gram DW total shoot], and yield-efficiency rate [(YER) grams DW edible per square meter per day per grams DW nonedible]. Cowpeas were grown in a greenhouse for leaf-only harvest at 14, 28, 42, 56, 84, or 99 plants/m2 and were harvested 20, 30, 40, or 50 days after planting (DAP). Shoot and edible dry weights increased as plant density and time to harvest increased. A maximum of 1189 g shoot DW/m2 and 594 g edible DW/m2 were achieved at an estimated plant density of 85 plants/m2 and harvest 50 DAP. EYR also increased as plant density and time to harvest increased. An EYR of 11 g m-2 day-1 was predicted to occur at 86 plants/m2 and harvest 50 DAP. SHI and YER were not affected by plant density. However, the highest values of SHI (64%) and YER (1.3 g m-2 day-1 g-1) were attained when cowpeas were harvested 20 DAP. The average fat and ash contents [dry-weight basis (dwb)] of harvested leaves remained constant regardless of harvest time. Average protein content increased from 25% DW at 30 DAP to 45% DW at 50 DAP. Carbohydrate content declined from 50% DW at 30 DAP to 45% DW at 50 DAP. Total dietary fiber content (dwb) of the leaves increased from 19% to 26% as time to harvest increased from 20 to 50 days.

  4. The effect of structured triglycerides on the kinetic stability of total nutrient admixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogh, Judit; Bubenik, Júlia; Dredán, Judit; Csempesz, Ferenc; Kiss, Dorottya; Zelkó, Romána

    2005-10-05

    The physical stability of two types of total parenteral nutrient (TPN) admixtures was studied as a function of storage time and temperature. One of them contained only structured triglycerides and the other exclusively long-chain triglycerides as lipid components. Droplet size of the mixtures was followed by photon correlation spectroscopy for 10 days. Zeta potential and dynamic surface tension measurements were carried out to evaluate the possible changes in the charge and interfacial surface tension of the emulsion droplets during the storage. pH values were monitored in order to follow the possible decomposition processes in the course of storage. Droplet size of emulsions prepared with lipids containing exclusively long-chain triglycerides showed remarkable increase after 4 days of storage in contrast with that of the mixtures containing structured lipids. The obtained results indicate that besides the advantageous metabolic effects of structured triglycerides, their application is recommended to improve the physical stability of TPN admixtures.

  5. Evaluation of antibacterial and anthelmintic activities with total phenolic contents of Piper betel leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akter, Kazi Nahid; Karmakar, Palash; Das, Abhijit; Anonna, Shamima Nasrin; Shoma, Sharmin Akter; Sattar, Mohammad Mafruhi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The study was conducted to investigate the antibacterial and anthelmintic activities and to determine total phenolic contents of methanolic extract of Piper betel leaves. Materials and Methods: The extract was subjected to assay for antibacterial activity using both gram positive and gram negative bacterial strains through disc diffusion method; anthelmintic activity with the determination of paralysis and death time using earthworm (Pheritima posthuma) at five different concentrations and the determination of total phenolic contents using the Folin-ciocalteau method. Results: The extract showed significant (pbetel leaves extract, therefore it may be processed for further drug research. PMID:25386394

  6. Nutrient-rich versus nutrient-poor foods for depressed patients based on Iranian Traditional Medicine resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tavakkoli-Kakhki, Mandana; Eslami, Saeid; Motavasselian, Malihe

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Considering the positive effects of certain nutrients on depression, increasingly prevalent in the contemporary societies, we investigated the nutritional content of prescribed and prohibited foodstuffs for depressed patients in Iranian Traditional Medicine resources. Materials and

  7. The Total Electron Content From InSAR and GNSS: A Midlatitude Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musico, Elvira; Cesaroni, Claudio; Spogli, Luca

    2018-01-01

    The total electron content (TEC) measured from the interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) and froma dense network of global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receivers are used to assess the capability of InSAR to retrieve ionospheric information, when the tropospheric contribution...

  8. Growth and accumulation of carotenoids and nitrogen compounds in Gracilaria domingensis (Kütz. Sonder ex Dickie (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta cultured under different irradiance and nutrient levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Ramlov

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Effects of the interaction of irradiance and nutrient levels on growth and contents of photosynthetic pigments, carotenoids and proteins in Gracilaria domingensis (Kütz. Sonder ex Dickie (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta were investigated experimentally. Nutrient availability provided by dilutions of the nutrient solution of von Stosch (25 and 50%, which corresponded to nitrate concentrations of 125 and 250 μmol, respectively and two photon flux densities [low PFD (50±5 and high PFD (100±5 μmol photons.m-2.s-1] were tested. Growth rates of G. domingensis were stimulated by high PFD. The interaction between high nutrient availability (50% VSES and high PFD stimulated the accumulation of total soluble protein. Phycobiliprotein concentrations (phycoerythrin, phycocyanin, and allophycocyanin and carotenoid contents were influenced by irradiance levels. Phycobiliprotein concentrations were higher at low PFD and high irradiances stimulated carotenoid accumulation. These results reflect the function of these pigments in photoprotection and the acclimation of G. domingensis to changes in irradiance levels. Our results indicate that light is a limiting factor for G. domingensis growth, that variations in phycobiliprotein contents under different irradiance levels are related to photoacclimation process, and that higher carotenoid contents at high irradiances are due to a photoprotection mechanism.

  9. Growth and accumulation of carotenoids and nitrogen compounds in Gracilaria domingensis (Kütz. Sonder ex Dickie (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta cultured under different irradiance and nutrient levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Ramlov

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Effects of the interaction of irradiance and nutrient levels on growth and contents of photosynthetic pigments, carotenoids and proteins in Gracilaria domingensis (Kütz. Sonder ex Dickie (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta were investigated experimentally. Nutrient availability provided by dilutions of the nutrient solution of von Stosch (25 and 50%, which corresponded to nitrate concentrations of 125 and 250 μmol, respectively and two photon flux densities [low PFD (50±5 and high PFD (100±5 μmol photons.m-2.s-1] were tested. Growth rates of G. domingensis were stimulated by high PFD. The interaction between high nutrient availability (50% VSES and high PFD stimulated the accumulation of total soluble protein. Phycobiliprotein concentrations (phycoerythrin, phycocyanin, and allophycocyanin and carotenoid contents were influenced by irradiance levels. Phycobiliprotein concentrations were higher at low PFD and high irradiances stimulated carotenoid accumulation. These results reflect the function of these pigments in photoprotection and the acclimation of G. domingensis to changes in irradiance levels. Our results indicate that light is a limiting factor for G. domingensis growth, that variations in phycobiliprotein contents under different irradiance levels are related to photoacclimation process, and that higher carotenoid contents at high irradiances are due to a photoprotection mechanism.

  10. Do agricultural terraces and forest fires recurrence in Mediterranean afforested micro-catchments alter soil quality and soil nutrient content?

    Science.gov (United States)

    E Lucas-Borja, Manuel; Calsamiglia, Aleix; Fortesa, Josep; García-Comendador, Julián; Gago, Jorge; Estrany, Joan

    2017-04-01

    Bioclimatic characteristics and intense human pressure promote Mediterranean ecosystems to be fire-prone. Afforestation processes resulting from the progressive land abandonment during the last decades led to greater biomass availability increasing the risk of large forest fires. Likewise, the abandonment and lack of maintenance in the terraced lands constitute a risk of land degradation in terms of soil quantity and quality. Despite the effects of fire and the abandonment of terraced lands on soil loss and physico-chemical properties are identified, it is not clearly understood how wildfires and abandonment of terraces affect soil quality and nutrients content. Microbiological soil parameters and soil enzymes activities are biomarkers of the soil microbial communitýs functional ability, which potentially enables them as indicators of change, disturbance or stress within the soil community. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of terracing (abandoned and non-abandoned) on the soil enzyme activities, microbiological soil parameters and soil nutrients dynamics in three Mediterranean afforested micro-catchments (i.e., fire recurrence in the last 20 years; i.e., unburned areas, burned once and burned twice. The combination of the presence of terraces and the recurrence of forest fire, thirty-six plots of 25 m2 were sampled along the these three micro-catchments collecting four replicas at the corners of each plot. The results elucidated how non-terraced and unburned plots presented the highest values of soil respiration rate and extracellular soil enzymes. Differences between experimental plots with different forest fire recurrence or comparing terraced and unburned plots with burned plots were weaker in relation to biochemical and microbiological parameters. Soil nutrient content showed an opposite trend with higher values in terraced plots, although differences were weaker. We conclude that terraced landscapes present poorer soil quality

  11. Cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris in a pilot-scale photobioreactor using real centrate wastewater with waste glycerol for improving microalgae biomass production and wastewater nutrients removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hongyan; Tuo, Jinhua; Addy, Min M; Zhang, Renchuan; Lu, Qian; Anderson, Erik; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2017-12-01

    To improve nutrients removal from real centrate wastewater and enhance the microalgae biomass production, cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris in lab and a pilot-scale photobioreactor with waste glycerol was studied. The results showed the optimal concentration of the crude glycerol was 1.0gL -1 with the maximum biomass productivity of 460mgL -1 d -1 TVS, the maximum lipid content of 27%, the nutrient removal efficiency of all above 86%, due to more balanced C/N ratio. The synergistic relationship between the wastewater-borne bacteria and the microalgae had significant good influence on nutrient removal. In pilot-scale wastewater-based algae cultivation, with 1gL -1 waste glycerol addition, the average biomass production of 16.7gm -2 d -1 , lipid content of 23.6%, and the removal of 2.4gm -2 d -1 NH 4 + -N, 2.7gm -2 d -1 total nitrogen, 3.0gm -2 d -1 total phosphorous, and 103.0gm -2 d -1 of COD were attained for 34days semi-continuous mode. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Improvements in recall and food choices using a graphical method to deliver information of select nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Nathan S; Ellison, Brenna D; Benjamin, Aaron S; Nakamura, Manabu T

    2016-01-01

    Consumers have difficulty using nutrition information. We hypothesized that graphically delivering information of select nutrients relative to a target would allow individuals to process information in time-constrained settings more effectively than numerical information. Objectives of the study were to determine the efficacy of the graphical method in (1) improving memory of nutrient information and (2) improving consumer purchasing behavior in a restaurant. Values of fiber and protein per calorie were 2-dimensionally plotted alongside a target box. First, a randomized cued recall experiment was conducted (n=63). Recall accuracy of nutrition information improved by up to 43% when shown graphically instead of numerically. Second, the impact of graphical nutrition signposting on diner choices was tested in a cafeteria. Saturated fat and sodium information was also presented using color coding. Nutrient content of meals (n=362) was compared between 3 signposting phases: graphical, nutrition facts panels (NFP), or no nutrition label. Graphical signposting improved nutrient content of purchases in the intended direction, whereas NFP had no effect compared with the baseline. Calories ordered from total meals, entrées, and sides were significantly less during graphical signposting than no-label and NFP periods. For total meal and entrées, protein per calorie purchased was significantly higher and saturated fat significantly lower during graphical signposting than the other phases. Graphical signposting remained a predictor of calories and protein per calorie purchased in regression modeling. These findings demonstrate that graphically presenting nutrition information makes that information more available for decision making and influences behavior change in a realistic setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Testing the Capacity of a Multi-Nutrient Profiling System to Guide Food and Beverage Reformulation: Results from Five National Food Composition Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combet, Emilie; Vlassopoulos, Antonis; Mölenberg, Famke; Gressier, Mathilde; Privet, Lisa; Wratten, Craig; Sharif, Sahar; Vieux, Florent; Lehmann, Undine; Masset, Gabriel

    2017-04-21

    Nutrient profiling ranks foods based on their nutrient composition, with applications in multiple aspects of food policy. We tested the capacity of a category-specific model developed for product reformulation to improve the average nutrient content of foods, using five national food composition datasets (UK, US, China, Brazil, France). Products ( n = 7183) were split into 35 categories based on the Nestlé Nutritional Profiling Systems (NNPS) and were then classified as NNPS 'Pass' if all nutrient targets were met (energy (E), total fat (TF), saturated fat (SFA), sodium (Na), added sugars (AS), protein, calcium). In a modelling scenario, all NNPS Fail products were 'reformulated' to meet NNPS standards. Overall, a third (36%) of all products achieved the NNPS standard/pass (inter-country and inter-category range: 32%-40%; 5%-72%, respectively), with most products requiring reformulation in two or more nutrients. The most common nutrients to require reformulation were SFA (22%-44%) and TF (23%-42%). Modelled compliance with NNPS standards could reduce the average content of SFA, Na and AS (10%, 8% and 6%, respectively) at the food supply level. Despite the good potential to stimulate reformulation across the five countries, the study highlights the need for better data quality and granularity of food composition databases.

  14. Cyanobacterial biomass as carbohydrate and nutrient feedstock for bioethanol production by yeast fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möllers, K Benedikt; Canella, D.; Jørgensen, Henning

    2014-01-01

    cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 was fermented using yeast into bioethanol. Results: The cyanobacterium accumulated a total carbohydrate content of about 60% of cell dry weight when cultivated under nitrate limitation. The cyanobacterial cells were harvested by centrifugation and subjected to enzymatic...... cyanobacteria or microalgae. Importantly, as well as fermentable carbohydrates, the cyanobacterial hydrolysate contained additional nutrients that promoted fermentation. This hydrolysate is therefore a promising substitute for the relatively expensive nutrient additives (such as yeast extract) commonly used...... hydrolysis using lysozyme and two alpha-glucanases. This enzymatic hydrolysate was fermented into ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae without further treatment. All enzyme treatments and fermentations were carried out in the residual growth medium of the cyanobacteria with the only modification being that p...

  15. Feed consumption, nutrient utilization and serum metabolite profile of captive blackbucks (Antelope cervicapra) fed diets varying in crude protein content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, A; Katole, S; Kumar, A; Gupta, S P; Saini, M; Swarup, D

    2012-06-01

    A feeding trial was conducted to determine the optimum level of crude protein (CP) in the diet of captive blackbuck (Antelope cervicapra) in which feed consumption and nutrient utilization are maximal. Fifteen blackbucks (BW 25-34 kg) were distributed into three groups of five each in an experiment of 75-days duration including a digestion trial of 5-day collection period. All the animals were offered 200 g of concentrates and fresh maize fodder ad libitum. The overall CP content of the three respective diets was 6.9%, 10.4% and 12.7%. Blood samples were collected on the last day of the experiment. Intake and digestibility of CP increased (p consumption and nutrient intake were not significantly different among the groups. However, digestibilities of most of the nutrients were higher in the 10.4% CP diet than in the 6.9% CP diet. The endogenous loss of nitrogen was similar among the groups. Based on the endogenous losses, minimum N requirement was calculated to be 776 mg/kg BW(0.75) /day, and to meet this requirement, diet must contain at least 8.27% CP. Serum urea nitrogen concentration increased (p consumption and serum metabolite profile of blackbucks. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Content of heavy metals in gleyic chernozem of Srem loess terrace under alfalfa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakšić Snežana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of high-quality forage from alfalfa is influenced not only by the presence of nutrients, but also by the absence of harmful elements, such as heavy metals. The examination of the total heavy metals content (Ni, Cr, Pb and As in gleyic chernozem soil of Srem loess terrace in Hrtkovci, under alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. were carried out in 2011 in order to determine suitability for the production of safe forage. It total content of Pb, As and Crwas below the maximum permitted concentrations. The content of As, Cr and Ni was higher in the surface layer, unlike Pb, whose content was higher in the deeper layers of soil. A significant positive correlation was found between the total content of Ni, Cr and As. An increased concentration of Ni was found, which was above the maximum permitted concentration. It is necessary to further control its content and accessibility examination and extraction from plants, to prevent its entry into the food chain and provide safe food.

  17. Effects of polymer coated slow-release urea on ruminal fermentation and nutrient total tract digestion of beef steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Gardinal

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of polymer coated slow-release urea (SRU in high-forage diets of beef steers on nutrient intake and digestibility, ruminal fermentation, microbial protein synthesis, and energy balance. Eight 24-mo-old rumen-fistulated castrated Nellore steers (average body weight = 418.0±40.0 kg were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. Animals were randomly distributed to receive one of the following diets: no urea inclusion; 1.0% inclusion of feed grade urea in the diet (dry matter [DM] basis; 1.0% inclusion of slow-release urea 1 in the diet (DM basis; and 1.0% inclusion of slow-release urea 2 in the diet (DM basis. Slow-release urea 2 had a similar composition to that of slow-release urea 1 and differed in that it contained 2.95% sulfur. A high-forage diet was provided (75% of total DM and corn silage was used as the forage source. Diets with urea had increased crude protein (CP intake, and CP and total digestible nutrients total tract digestion. Urea sources increased ruminal concentrations of ammonia nitrogen and acetate, and decreased butyrate concentrations. The polymer coated urea did not alter ruminal fermentation when compared with feed grade urea. Diets did not affect the energy balance of steers. Feed grade urea presented greater microbial protein synthesis than polymer coated slow-release urea. The partial replacement of soybean meal by 1% slow-release urea in a diet with 75% forage does not improve ruminal fermentation and microbial protein synthesis, and shows similar results as feeding feed grade urea to beef steers.

  18. Nutrient tasting and signaling mechanisms in the gut V. Mechanisms of immunologic sensation of intestinal contents.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shanahan, F

    2012-02-03

    Immune perception of intestinal contents reflects a functional dualism with systemic hyporesponsiveness to dietary antigens and resident microflora (oral tolerance) and active immune responses to mucosal pathogens. This facilitates optimal absorption of dietary nutrients while conserving immunologic resources for episodic pathogenic challenge. Discrimination between dangerous and harmless antigens within the enteric lumen requires continual sampling of the microenvironment by multiple potential pathways, innate and adaptive recognition mechanisms, bidirectional lymphoepithelial signaling, and rigorous control of effector responses. Errors in these processes disrupt mucosal homeostasis and are associated with food hypersensitivity and mucosal inflammation. Mechanisms of mucosal immune perception and handling of dietary proteins and other antigens have several practical and theoretical implications including vaccine design, therapy of systemic autoimmunity, and alteration of enteric flora with probiotics.

  19. Cadmium toxicity affects chlorophyll a and b content, antioxidant enzyme activities and mineral nutrient accumulation in strawberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferhad Muradoglu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cadmium (Cd is well known as one of the most toxic metals affecting the environment and can severely restrict plant growth and development. In this study, Cd toxicities were studied in strawberry cv. Camarosa using pot experiment. Chlorophyll and malondialdehyde (MDA contents, catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, ascorbate peroxidase (APX activities and mineral nutrient concentrations were investigated in both roots and leaves of strawberry plant after exposure Cd. RESULTS: Cd content in both roots and leaves was increased with the application of increasing concentrations of Cd. We found higher Cd concentration in roots rather than in leaves. Chlorophyll a and b was decreased in leaves but MDA significantly increased under increased Cd concentration treatments in both roots and leaves. SOD and CAT activities was also increased with the increase Cd concentrations. K, Mn and Mg concentrations were found higher in leaves than roots under Cd stress. In general, increased Cd treatments increased K, Mg, Fe, Ca, Cu and Zn concentration in both roots and leaves. Excessive Cd treatments reduced chlorophyll contents, increased antioxidant enzyme activities and changes in plant nutrition concentrations in both roots and leaves. CONCLUSION: The results presented in this work suggested that Cd treatments have negative effect on chlorophyll content and nearly decreased 30% of plant growth in strawberry. Strawberry roots accumulated higher Cd than leaves. We found that MDA and antioxidant enzyme (CAT, SOD and APX contents may have considered a good indicator in determining Cd tolerance in strawberry plant.

  20. Nutrient Content, Phytonutrient Composition, Alpha Amylase, Alpha Glucosidase Inhibition Activity and Antioxidant Activity of the Stoechospermum Marginatum Collected in Pre Monsoon Season

    OpenAIRE

    Reka Palanivel; Thahira Banu Azeez; Seethalakshmi Muthaya

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the nutrient content, phytonutrient composition, physicochemical properties, alpha amylase and alpha glucosidase inhibition activity and antioxidant activity of the brown algae Stoechospermum marginatum collected from Gulf of Mannar, Tamil Nadu, India in pre monsoon season (June- September, 2015). Six and eight hours of ethanol and aqueous extract of Stoechospermum marginatum were used for phytonutrient screening, alpha amylase, alpha glucosidase...

  1. Comparative Analysis of Total Phenolic Content in Sea Buckthorn Wine and Other Selected Fruit Wines

    OpenAIRE

    Bharti Negi; Gargi Dey

    2009-01-01

    This is the first report from India on a beverage resulting from alcoholic fermentation of the juice of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L) using lab isolated yeast strain. The health promoting potential of the product was evaluated based on its total phenolic content. The most important finding was that under the present fermentation condition, the total phenolic content of the wine product was 689 mg GAE/L. Investigation of influence of bottle ageing on the sea buckthorn wine showed a sl...

  2. Sampling strategies for tropical forest nutrient cycling studies: a case study in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sparovek

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The precise sampling of soil, biological or micro climatic attributes in tropical forests, which are characterized by a high diversity of species and complex spatial variability, is a difficult task. We found few basic studies to guide sampling procedures. The objective of this study was to define a sampling strategy and data analysis for some parameters frequently used in nutrient cycling studies, i. e., litter amount, total nutrient amounts in litter and its composition (Ca, Mg, Κ, Ν and P, and soil attributes at three depths (organic matter, Ρ content, cation exchange capacity and base saturation. A natural remnant forest in the West of São Paulo State (Brazil was selected as study area and samples were collected in July, 1989. The total amount of litter and its total nutrient amounts had a high spatial independent variance. Conversely, the variance of litter composition was lower and the spatial dependency was peculiar to each nutrient. The sampling strategy for the estimation of litter amounts and the amount of nutrient in litter should be different than the sampling strategy for nutrient composition. For the estimation of litter amounts and the amount of nutrients in litter (related to quantity a large number of randomly distributed determinations are needed. Otherwise, for the estimation of litter nutrient composition (related to quality a smaller amount of spatially located samples should be analyzed. The determination of sampling for soil attributes differed according to the depth. Overall, surface samples (0-5 cm showed high short distance spatial dependent variance, whereas, subsurface samples exhibited spatial dependency in longer distances. Short transects with sampling interval of 5-10 m are recommended for surface sampling. Subsurface samples must also be spatially located, but with transects or grids with longer distances between sampling points over the entire area. Composite soil samples would not provide a complete

  3. Changes in intestinal absorption of nutrients and brush border glycoproteins after total parenteral nutrition in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, S; Tanaka, S; Yoshioka, M; Serizawa, H; Tashiro, H; Shiozaki, H; Imaeda, H; Tsuchiya, M

    1992-01-01

    The effect of total parenteral nutrition on nutrients absorption and glycoprotein changes of brush border membrane was examined in rat small intestine. In total parenteral nutrition rats, a marked decrease in activity of brush border enzymes was observed mainly in the proximal and middle segments of the intestine. Galactose perfusion of jejunal segment showed that hexose absorption was significantly inhibited, while intestinal absorption of glycine or dipeptide, glycylglycine was not significantly affected by total parenteral nutrition treatment. When brush border membrane glycoprotein profile was examined by [3H]-glucosamine or [3H]-fucose incorporation into jejunal loops, significant changes were observed in the glycoprotein pattern of brush border membrane especially in the high molecular weight range over 120 kDa after total parenteral nutrition treatment, suggesting strong dependency of glycoprotein synthesis on luminal substances. Molecular weight of sucrase isomaltase in brush border membrane detected by specific antibody showed no significant difference, however, in total parenteral nutrition and control rats. Also, molecular weight of specific sodium glucose cotransporter of intestinal brush border membrane detected by selective photoaffinity labelling was not altered in total parenteral nutrition rats. It may be that prolonged absence of oral food intake may produce significant biochemical changes in brush border membrane glycoprotein and absorptive capacity of small intestine, but these changes were not observed in all brush border membrane glycoproteins. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:1582592

  4. Fruit quality, anthocyanin and total phenolic contents, and antioxidant activities of 45 blueberry cultivars grown in Suwon, Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jin Gook; Kim, Hong Lim; Kim, Su Jin; Park, Kyo-Sun

    2013-01-01

    Blueberry fruits from 45 commercial cultivars (39 northern highbush and 6 half highbush blueberry) grown in Suwon, Korea were analyzed for fruit size, soluble solids content, titratable acidity, total anthocyanin content, total phenolic content, and antioxidant activity. Fruit characteristics varied widely among the 45 blueberry cultivars. Fruit weight ranged from 0.9 to 3.6 g, soluble solids content from 8.3 to 14.3 °Brix, and titratable acidity from 0.8% to 3.6%. Antioxidant activity ranged...

  5. Assessing national nutrition security: The UK reliance on imports to meet population energy and nutrient recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdiarmid, Jennie I; Clark, Heather; Whybrow, Stephen; de Ruiter, Henri; McNeill, Geraldine

    2018-01-01

    Nutrition security describes the adequacy of the food supply to meet not only energy but also macronutrient and micronutrient requirements for the population. The aim of this study was to develop a method to assess trends in national nutrition security and the contribution of imports to nutrition security, using the UK as a case study. Food supply data from FAO food balance sheets and national food composition tables were used to estimate the nutrient content of domestically produced food, imported food and exported food. Nutrition security was defined as the total nutrient supply (domestic production, minus exports, plus imports) to meet population-level nutrient requirements. The results showed that the UK was nutrition secure over the period 1961-2011 for energy, macronutrients and key micronutrients, with the exception of total carbohydrates and fibre, which may be due to the loss of fibre incurred by processing cereals into refined products. The supply of protein exceeded population requirements and could be met with domestic production alone. Even excluding all meat there was sufficient protein for population requirements. The supply of total fat, saturated fat and sugar considerably exceeded the current dietary recommendation. As regards nutrition security in 2010, the UK was reliant on imported foods to meet energy, fibre, total carbohydrate, iron, zinc and vitamin A requirements. This analysis demonstrates the importance of including nutrients other than energy to determine the adequacy of the food supply. The methodology also provides an alternative perspective on food security and self-sufficiency by assessing the dependency on imports to meet population level nutritional requirements.

  6. Bioaccessible nutrients and bioactive components from fortified products prepared using finger millet (Eleusine coracana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oghbaei, Morteza; Prakash, Jamuna

    2012-08-30

    Finger millet (Eleusine coracana), a staple food in semi-arid parts of the world, is a rich source of nutrients and bioactive components comparable to rice and wheat but with higher fibre content. Unprocessed and processed finger millet (whole flour (WFM), sieved flour (SFM), wafers and vermicelli with altered matrices (added Fe or Zn or reduced fibre)) were analysed for chemical composition, bioaccessible Fe, Zn and Ca, in vitro digestible starch (IVSD) and protein (IVPD) and bioactive components (polyphenols and flavonoids). WFM and SFM flours differed significantly in their composition. Sieving decreased the content of both nutrients and antinutrients in WFM but increased their digestibility/bioaccessibility. WFM products with Zn and Fe showed highest IVPD, whereas SFM products with Fe showed highest IVSD. Products with externally added Fe and Zn showed maximum bioaccessibility of Fe and Zn respectively. WFM had the highest levels of total polyphenols and flavonoids, 4.18 and 15.85 g kg⁻¹ respectively; however, bioaccessibility was highest in SFM vermicelli. The availability of nutrients and bioactive components was influenced by both processing methods and compositional alterations of the food matrix in finger millet products, and bioaccessibility of all constituents was higher in vermicelli (wet matrix) than in wafers (dry matrix). Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Neutral detergent fibre in piglet diets: digestibility, performance, and deposition of body nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAFAEL C. NEPOMUCENO

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A total 120 piglets with an average live weight of 7.00 kg, weaned at 21 days, were used to evaluate the effect of neutral detergent fibre levels on the digestibility of nutrients and energy from the diets, productive performance, and the composition and rate of deposition of nutrients and energy in the bodies of piglets in the nursery phase. The animals were distributed according to a randomized-block design into five treatments, which consisted of neutral detergent fibre levels, with six replicates and four animals per plot. A quadratic effect was detected for the digestibility coefficients of nutrients and energy, feed intake and weight gain. The increase in fibre level promoted a linear increase in fat content in the carcass, blood, and body, whereas the energy in the carcass, organs, and body showed an inverse response. The results showed a quadratic effect on the nutrient deposition rate in the carcass, organs and body. In conclusion, the best digestibility of nutrients and energy from the diet is obtained with 10-11.5% neutral detergent fibre, as higher weight gain and greater protein deposition in the body are achieved at neutral detergent fibre levels of 10.6% and 10.3%, respectively.

  8. Complexities of the storm-time characteristics of ionospheric total electron content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kane, R.P.

    1982-01-01

    The complexities of the storm-time variations of the ionospheric total electron content are briefly reviewed. It is suggested that large variations from storm to storm may be due to irregular flows from the auroral region towards equator. A proper study of such flows needs an elaborate network of TEC measuring instruments. The need of planning and organizing such a network is emphasized

  9. Effects of Pig Manure Organic Fertilizer Application on Available Nutrient Content and Soil Aggregate Distribution in Fluvo-aquic Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHI Wen-xuan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on environmental risk caused by livestock manure disorderly discharged from integrated livestock and poultry industry. 2-year pot experiment was carried out to study the effects of pig manure organic fertilizer on fluvo-aquic soil organic carbon, available nutrient content and soil aggregate distribution, which designed in 5 levels of organic fertilizer application(0, 6.7, 13.3, 26.7, 40.0 g·kg-1 soil. The results showed that the organic carbon, alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen, available P and available K contents in soil were enhanced with organic fertilizer application increasing, and the indicators of soil were increased significantly in second year, such as organic carbon content was 2.7%~54.0% higher than that of the first year, alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen content was higher 6.7%~34.6%, available P content was higher 36.8%~159.5% and available K content was higher 20.3%~35.7%. There was a significant linear relationship between soil organic carbon content and external organic carbon input. Organic fertilizer application could significantly improve lettuce yield, and it had a significant effect. The soil micro-aggregate contents for 0.053~0.25 mm and 0.5 mm soil macro-aggregates were increased with organic fertilizer application increasing. Organic fertilizer application could promote soil macro-aggregates formation, when the pig manure organic fertilizer applied 40.0 g·kg-1 soil, the contents of >0.25 mm soil aggregates reached maximum, and also the mean weight diameter(MWD and geometric average diameter(GWD of soil aggregates were higher than that of other treatments, the soil agglomeration became more stronger and the soil structure became more stable.

  10. Effect of polyphenol oxidase (PPO and air treatments on total phenol and tannin content of cocoa nibs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brito Edy Sousa de

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa flavour is greatly influenced by polyphenols. These compounds undergo a series of transformations during cocoa processing leading to the characteristic cocoa flavour. The use of exogenous polyphenol oxidase (PPO proved to be useful to reduce polyphenol content in cocoa nibs. The effect of a PPO associated or not with air over total phenol and tannin content was evaluated. Cocoa nibs were autoclaved and treated with a PPO or water in the absence or presence of an air flow for 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 hours. Total phenol content was reduced in PPO or water treatments, but when associated with air there was an increase in phenol content. Tannin content was reduced only by the treatment with water and air.

  11. California Hass Avocado: Profiling of Carotenoids, tocopherol, fatty acid, and fat content during maturation and from different growing areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qing-Yi; Zhang, Yanjun; Wang, Yue; Wang, David; Lee, Ru-po; Gao, Kun; Byrns, Russell; Heber, David

    2009-01-01

    The California Hass avocado (Persea Americana) is an example of a domesticated berry fruit that matures on the tree during its growing season but ripens only after being harvested. Avocados are typically harvested multiple times during the growing season in California. Previous research has demonstrated potential health benefits of avocados and extracts of avocado against inflammation and cancer cell growth, but seasonal variations in the phytochemical profile of the fruits being studied may affect the results obtained in future research. Therefore in the present study, avocados were harvested in January, April, July and September 2008 from four different growing locations in California (San Luis Obispo, Ventura, Riverside and San Diego), and analyzed fortotal fat content, fatty acid profile, carotenoids and vitamin E. A significant increase in total carotenoid and fat content of avocados from all regions was noted as the season progressed from January to September. Four carotenoids not previously described in the avocado were quantified. The total content of carotenoids was highly correlated with total fat content (r=0.99, pavocado.. Future clinical research on the health benefits of the avocado should specify the time of harvest, degree of ripening, growing area and the total phytochemical profile of the fruit or extract being studied. These steps will enable researchers to account for potential nutrient-nutrient interactions that might affect the research outcomes. PMID:19813713

  12. Determination of the Content of Heavy Metals in Pyrite Contaminated Soil and Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Marić

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Determination of a pyrite contaminated soil texture, content of heavy metals in the soil and soil pH, was the aim in the investigation. Acidification of damaged soil was corrected by calcium carbonate. Mineral nutrients and organic matter (NPK, dung, earthworm cast, straw and coal dust were added to damaged soil. Afterwards, the soil was used for oat production. Determination of total heavy metal contents (Cu, Pb, Zn, Fe in soil was performed by atomic absorption spectrofotometry. Plant material (stems, seeds was analysed, too. Total concentration of the heavy metals in the plant material were greater than in crop obtained in unaffected soil.

  13. Nutrient composition of climbing and prostrate vegetable cowpea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study evaluated the nutrient content of different accessions of two vegetable cowpea genotypes. The mineral content of the vegetable cowpea accessions were high. Potassium content of the accessions of the climbing genotype “Akidi enu” ranged from 1.25 to 1.52% with a mean value of 1.43 ± 0.13% while in the ...

  14. Evaluation of Nutrient and Anti-nutrient Contents of Parkia biglobosa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    that of Aloe vera (4.2 ± 0.9%) , Euphorbia radians (4.9 ± 1.7% ) and Arbutus xalapensis (3.9. ± 0.5%) as reported by Sotelo et al. (2007) and. 5.3% for C. esculenta (Richard et al., 1996). The low lipid content of the plants is in agreement with general observation that vegetables are low lipid containing foods (Lintas, 1992).

  15. Total phosphorus, phytate phosphorus contents and the correlation of phytates with amylose in selected edible beans in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keerthana Sivakumaran

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Phytate a major anti nutritional factors in legumes and it accounts for larger portion of the total phosphorus, while limiting the bioavailablity of certain divalent cations to the human body. Legumes of eleven varieties cultivated in Sri Lanka, Mung bean (MI5, MI6, Cowpea (Waruni, MICP1, Bombay, Dhawala, ANKCP1, Soybean (MISB1, Pb1 and Horse gram (ANKBlack, ANKBrown were analyzed for phosphorus content and phytate content. Total phosphorus content was quantified by dry ashing followed by spectrophotometrical measurement of the blue colour intensity of acid soluble phosphate with sodium molybdate in the presence of ascorbic acid while phytate phosphorus using anion exchange chromatographic technique followed by spectrometrical measurement of the digested organic phosphorus and amylose content by Simple Iodine-Colourimetric method. Where the least value for phosphorus was observed 275.04 ±1.44 mg.100g-1 in ANKBlack (Horse gram and the highest in MISB1 (Soyabean with 654.94 ±0.05 mg.100g-1. The phytate phosphorus content (which is a ratio of phyate to total phosphorus was highest in Dhawala (Cowpea. The phytate phosphorus (which is a ratio of phyate to total phosphorus was highest in Dhawala with 67.42% and least in Bombay (Cowpea with 24.87%. The amylose content of the legumes was least in Pb1 with 8.71 ±0.13 mg.100mg-1 and the highest in MI6 22.58 ±0.71 mg.100mg-1. The correlation between phyate and total phosphorus was significant (p <0.05 and positive (r = 0.62. Similarly the correlation coefficient for phytate phosphorus and total phosphorus was significant (p <0.05 and positive (r = 0.63. Amylose content of legumes was significantly correlated negatively (p <0.05 with the total phytates content (r = -0.82.

  16. Assessment of the Nutrient Contents of Finished Broiler Starter and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to assess and compare the proximate composition and amino acid profile of six (6) finished broiler starter and finisher diets with recommendations of National Research Council (NRC) nutrient requirements table for the different physiological age growth stage. Four samples of each feed type were ...

  17. Phytochemical screening, antioxidant activity, total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of seven local varieties of Rosa indica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahid, Kiran; Ahmed, Maqsood; Khan, Farah

    2018-05-01

    Rosa indica symbol of godness and beauty known for various healing power, has astringent, sedative, anti-inflammatory and antidepressant qualities. Standard methods were used for qualitative detection of phyto-compounds, and quantitative detection of antioxidants was done using DPPH radical scavenging assay, total phenolics and total flavonoids content were expressed in mg GAE/g dry weight and mg QE/g dry weight. Results revealed phyto-compounds presence in all varieties under study however maximum % inhibition was observed by R. indica var pink perfume (94 ± 0.6) with IC50 value 0.3376 ± 0.01 mg/mL. Highest phenolic and flavonoid content was observed in the leaves extract of R. indica var cardinal red, i.e. 3.3553 ± 0.11 (ethanol) mg of Gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g dry weight and 3.736 ± 0.001(ethanol) mg of quercetin equivalents (QE)/g dry weight, respectively, at conc. 0.125 mg/mL. Our finding provides evidence that all varieties of rose contain medicinally important bioactive compounds and justifies their use for treatment of different diseases.

  18. Study of total phenol, flavonoids contents and phytochemical screening of various leaves crude extracts of locally grown Thymus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mohammad Amzad; AL-Raqmi, Khulood Ahmed Salim; AL-Mijizy, Zawan Hamood; Weli, Afaf Mohammed; Al-Riyami, Qasim

    2013-09-01

    To prepare various crude extracts using different polarities of solvent and to quantitatively evaluate their total phenol, flavonoids contents and phytochemical screening of Thymus vulgaris collected from Al Jabal Al Akhdar, Nizwa, Sultanate of Oman. The leave sample was extracted with methanol and evaporated. Then it was defatted with water and extracted with different polarities organic solvents with increasing polarities. The prepare hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol and methanol crude extracts were used for their evaluation of total phenol, flavonoids contents and phytochemical screening study. The established conventional methods were used for quantitative determination of total phenol, flavonoids contents and phytochemical screening. Phytochemical screening for various crude extracts were tested and shown positive result for flavonoids, saponins and steroids compounds. The result for total phenol content was the highest in butanol and the lowest in methanol crude extract whereas the total flavonoids contents was the highest in methanol and the lowest hexane crude extract. The crude extracts from locally grown Thymus vulgaris showed high concentration of flavonoids and it could be used as antibiotics for different curable and uncurable diseases.

  19. Beacon satellite studies and modelling of total electron contents of the ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyagi, T.R.

    1990-01-01

    An attempt is made to highlight some of the beacon satellite studies, particularly those relating to total electron content (TEC) and scintillations, with special attention to Indian subcontinent observations. The modelling of TEC is described. The scope of new experiments for specific problem is indicated. (author). 78 refs., 12 figs

  20. Total Phenolics, Flavonoids, Tannin Contents and Antioxidant Properties of Pleurotus ostreatus Cultivated on Different Wastes and Sawdust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşenur Yılmaz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the usage possibilities of some agro-industrial wastes such as; peanut wastes, potatoes farm wastes, walnut and orange tree sawdust in Pleurotus ostreatus cultivation were investigated and total phenolic, flavonoid, condensed tannin content and antioxidant properties of these methanolic mushroom extracts were examined. For the determination of the total phenolic contents, the Folin-Ciocalteau procedure was used. The content of total flavonoid present in the methanolic extracts was measured using a spectrophotometric assay. Condensed tannins were determined according to the method by Julkunen-Tıtto. The antioxidant capacity was determined using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and free radical scavenging activity of DPPH. The highest total phenolic content (2.672 ± 0.003 mg GAE/g was found in mushroom cultivated on walnut sawdust. The highest condensed tannin (1.011 ± 0.088 CE mg/g and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP (12.332 ± 0.017 μmol FeSO4.7H2O/g were observed in the same mushroom extract. The highest total flavonoid and free radical scavenging activity of DPPH were found in extract of mushroom cultivated on potatoes handle. Bioactive properties of P. ostreatus cultivated on walnut tree sawdust were generally exhibited remarkable results.

  1. Leaching behavior of total organic carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus from banana peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ruixue; Sun, Shujuan; Xu, Yan; Qiu, Xiudong; Yang, Jili; Li, Xiaochen

    2015-01-01

    The leaching behavior of organic carbon and nutrient compounds from banana peel (BP) was investigated in batch assays with respect to particle size, contact time, pH value, and temperature. The granularity, contact time, pH, and temperature caused no significant effects on the leaching of total phosphorus (TP) from the BP. The maximum leached total nitrogen (TN) content was found at pH 5.0 and 90 minutes, while no significant effects were caused by the granularity and temperature. The maximum leached total organic carbon (TOC) content was found by using a powder of 40 mesh, 150 minutes and at pH 6.0, while the temperature had no effect on the TOC leaching. The proportions of the TN, TP, and TOC contents leached from the dried BP ranged from 33.6% to 40.9%, 60.4% to 72.7%, and 8.2% to 9.9%, respectively, indicating that BP could be a potential pollution source for surface and ground water if discharged as domestic waste or reutilized without pretreatment.

  2. Effects of exogenous phytase and xylanase, individually or in combination, and pelleting on nutrient digestibility, available energy content of wheat and performance of growing pigs fed wheat-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y Y; Fan, Y F; Cao, Y H; Guo, P P; Dong, B; Ma, Y X

    2017-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of adding exogenous phytase and xylanase, individually or in combination, as well as pelleting on nutrient digestibility, available energy content of wheat and the performance of growing pigs fed wheat-based diets. In Experiment 1, forty-eight barrows with an initial body weight of 35.9±0.6 kg were randomly assigned to a 2×4 factorial experiment with the main effects being feed form (pellet vs meal) and enzyme supplementation (none, 10,000 U/kg phytase, 4,000 U/kg xylanase or 10,000 U/kg phytase plus 4,000 U/kg xylanase). The basal diet contained 97.8% wheat. Pigs were placed in metabolic cages for a 7-d adaptation period followed by a 5-d total collection of feces and urine. Nutrient digestibility and available energy content were determined. Experiment 2 was conducted to evaluate the effects of pelleting and enzymes on performance of wheat for growing pigs. In this experiment, 180 growing pigs (35.2±9.0 kg BW) were allocated to 1 of 6 treatments according to a 2×3 factorial treatment arrangement with the main effects being feed form (meal vs pellet) and enzyme supplementation (0, 2,500 or 5,000 U/kg xylanase). In Experiment 1, there were no interactions between feed form and enzyme supplementation. Pelleting reduced the digestibility of acid detergent fiber (ADF) by 6.4 percentage units (pdigestibility of energy by 0.6 percentage units (pdigestibility of crude protein by 0.5 percentage units (p = 0.07) compared with diets in mash form. The addition of phytase improved the digestibility of phosphorus (pdigestibility of crude protein by 1.0 percentage units (p = 0.09) and increased the digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) (pdigestibility of phosphorus (pdigestibility (pdigestibility but decreased ADF digestibility. Adding xylanase increased crude protein digestibility and pig performance. Phytase increased the apparent total tract digestibility of phosphorus and calcium. The combination of

  3. [Nutritional content of food, and nonalcoholic beverages advertisements broadcasted in children's slot of Colombian national television].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía-Díaz, Diana Margarita; Carmona-Garcés, Isabel Cristina; Giraldo-López, Paula Andrea; González-Zapata, Laura

    2014-04-01

    To describe the nutritional content of foods and non-alcoholic beverages advertised in the children's frame vs. the general frame in two national, private, free-access, television channels in Colombia. Cross-sectional, descriptive study. The recording was performed in July of 2012, for four days randomly chosen from 6:00 am to 12:30 pm. The nutritional content was classified according to the nutritional profiles criteria of the Food Standards Agency for risk-indicating nutrients, the Health Pan-American Organization for trans fat, and the 333 Colombian Resolution of 2011 that classifies foods as source of protecting nutrients. Descriptive statistics were used, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test to establish the normality, and the Chi square test for variables comparison. A p value foods and beverages, of which 56.3% were shown within the children's frame. Regarding the nutritional content, a high percentage of foods and non-alcoholic beverages classified as "rich" in sugar, sodium, saturated fat was observed within the children's' frame (69.0%, 56.0%, 57.1%), as compared to the general frame. By contrast, the percentage of foods and nonalcoholic beverages classified as "rich" in total fat was higher in the general frame as compared to the children's frame (70.4% vs. 29.6%, respectively). Higher exposure to advertising of foods and non-alcoholic beverages was observed within the children's' frame, characterized by high content of risk-indicating nutrients and low content of foods and non-alcoholic beverages with protective nutrients. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of nutrient contents of Gmelina arborea leaves as animal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An evaluation of chemical and mineral composition different forms of Gmelina arborea (GA) leaves was investigated. Experiment 1 involve the determination of the chemical composition, mineral and anti-nutrient of green, yellow and brown leaves of GA. In experiment 2, a free choice intake study was carried out using fifteen ...

  5. Effect of compound bio-fertilizer on fertilizer efficiency of rice and active nutrients of soil after harvesting by 15N tracing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Daiyan; Weng Boqi; Lin Yan

    2005-01-01

    The experimental study on the effects of bio-fertilizer on pot planted rice showed that bio-fertilizer could promote the nutrient supply for rice. In addition, the nutrient content in soil after harvesting was increased through the application of bio-fertilizer. 15 N tracing showed that Bacillus azotofixans in bio-fertilizer can provided 99.5 mg/ plant azote for rice, which was about 11.92% of the total azote absorption. At the same time, micro-organism could decrease the loss of the azote, thus increasing the recovery rate of azote. (authors)

  6. Effects of conventional and grass-feeding systems on the nutrient composition of beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leheska, J M; Thompson, L D; Howe, J C; Hentges, E; Boyce, J; Brooks, J C; Shriver, B; Hoover, L; Miller, M F

    2008-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the nutrient composition of grass-fed beef in the United States for inclusion in the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, and to compare the fatty acid composition of grass-fed and conventionally fed (control) beef. Ground beef (GB) and strip steaks (SS) were collected on 3 separate occasions from 15 grass-fed beef producers that represented 13 different states, whereas control beef samples were collected from 3 regions (Ohio, South Dakota, and Texas) of the United States on 3 separate occasions. Concentrations of minerals, choline, vitamin B(12), and thiamine were determined for grass-fed beef samples. Grass-fed GB samples had less Mg, P, and K (P < 0.05), and more Na, Zn, and vitamin B(12) (P < 0.05) than SS samples. Fat color, marbling, and pH were assessed for grass-fed and control SS. Subjective evaluation of the SS indicated that grass-fed beef had fat that was more yellow in color than control beef. Percentages of total fat, total cholesterol, and fatty acids along with trans fatty acids and CLA were determined for grass-fed and control SS and GB. Grass-fed SS had less total fat than control SS (P = 0.001), but both grass-fed and control SS were considered lean, because their total fat content was 4.3% or less. For both GB and SS, grass-fed beef had significantly less (P = 0.001 and P = 0.023, respectively) content of MUFA and a greater content of SFA, n-3 fatty acids, CLA, and trans-vaccenic acid than did the control samples. Concentrations of PUFA, trans fatty acids, n-6 fatty acids, and cholesterol did not differ between grass-fed and control ground beef. Trans-vaccenic acid (trans-11 18:1) made up the greatest concentration of the total trans fats in grass-fed beef, whereas CLA accounted for approximately 15% of the total trans fats. Although the fatty acid composition of grass-fed and conventionally fed beef was different, conclusions on the possible effects of these differences on human

  7. Unravelling the importance of forest age stand and forest structure driving microbiological soil properties, enzymatic activities and soil nutrients content in Mediterranean Spanish black pine(Pinus nigra Ar. ssp. salzmannii) Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas-Borja, M E; Hedo, J; Cerdá, A; Candel-Pérez, D; Viñegla, B

    2016-08-15

    This study aimed to investigate the effects that stand age and forest structure have on microbiological soil properties, enzymatic activities and nutrient content. Thirty forest compartments were randomly selected at the Palancares y Agregados managed forest area (Spain), supporting forest stands of five ages; from 100 to 80years old to compartments with trees that were 19-1years old. Forest area ranging from 80 to 120years old and without forest intervention was selected as the control. We measured different soil enzymatic activities, soil respiration and nutrient content (P, K, Na, Mg, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb and Ca) in the top cm of 10 mineral soils in each compartment. Results showed that the lowest forest stand age and the forest structure created by management presented lower values of organic matter, soil moisture, water holding capacity and litterfall and higher values of C/N ratio in comparison with the highest forest stand age and the related forest structure, which generated differences in soil respiration and soil enzyme activities. The forest structure created by no forest management (control plot) presented the highest enzymatic activities, soil respiration, NH4(+) and NO3(-). Results did not show a clear trend in nutrient content comparing all the experimental areas. Finally, the multivariate PCA analysis clearly clustered three differentiated groups: Control plot; from 100 to 40years old and from 39 to 1year old. Our results suggest that the control plot has better soil quality and that extreme forest stand ages (100-80 and 19-1years old) and the associated forest structure generates differences in soil parameters but not in soil nutrient content. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Testing the Capacity of a Multi-Nutrient Profiling System to Guide Food and Beverage Reformulation: Results from Five National Food Composition Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Combet

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Nutrient profiling ranks foods based on their nutrient composition, with applications in multiple aspects of food policy. We tested the capacity of a category-specific model developed for product reformulation to improve the average nutrient content of foods, using five national food composition datasets (UK, US, China, Brazil, France. Products (n = 7183 were split into 35 categories based on the Nestlé Nutritional Profiling Systems (NNPS and were then classified as NNPS ‘Pass’ if all nutrient targets were met (energy (E, total fat (TF, saturated fat (SFA, sodium (Na, added sugars (AS, protein, calcium. In a modelling scenario, all NNPS Fail products were ‘reformulated’ to meet NNPS standards. Overall, a third (36% of all products achieved the NNPS standard/pass (inter-country and inter-category range: 32%–40%; 5%–72%, respectively, with most products requiring reformulation in two or more nutrients. The most common nutrients to require reformulation were SFA (22%–44% and TF (23%–42%. Modelled compliance with NNPS standards could reduce the average content of SFA, Na and AS (10%, 8% and 6%, respectively at the food supply level. Despite the good potential to stimulate reformulation across the five countries, the study highlights the need for better data quality and granularity of food composition databases.

  9. Assessment of by-products of bioenergy systems (anaerobic digestion and gasification) as potential crop nutrient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataki, Sampriti; Hazarika, Samarendra; Baruah, D C

    2017-01-01

    Alternative fertilizer resources have drawn attention in recent times in order to cope up with ever increasing demand for fertilizer. By-products of bioenergy system are considered favourable as organic fertilizer due to their ability to recycle plant nutrients. Present study evaluates fertilizer suitability of by-products of two bioenergy systems viz. 3 types of anaerobic digestion by-products (digestate) from local surplus biomass such as cowdung, Ipomoea carnea:cowdung (60:40) and ricestraw:green gram stover:cowdung (30:30:40) and one gasification by-product (biochar) from rice husk. Digestates were assessed considering 4 different application options of each viz. whole, solid, liquid and ash from solid digestates. Digestate characteristics (organic matter, macronutrients, micronutrients and heavy metal content) were found to be a function of feedstock and processing (solid liquid separation and ashing). Ipomoea carnea based digestates in all application options showed comparatively higher N, P, K, NH 4 + -N, Ca, Mg, S and micro nutrient content than other digestates. Separation concentrated plant nutrients and organic matter in solid digestates, making these suitable both as organic amendments and fertilizer. Separated liquid digestate shared larger fraction of ammonium nitrogen (61-91% of total content), indicating their suitability as readily available N source. However, fertilizer application of liquid digestate may not match crop requirements due to lower total nutrient concentration. Higher electrical conductivity of the liquid digestates (3.4-9.3mScm -1 ) than solid digestates (1.5-2mScm -1 ) may impart phyto-toxic effect upon fertilization due to salinity. In case of by-products with unstable organic fraction i.e. whole and solid digestates of rice straw:green gram stover:cowdung digestates (Humification index 0.7), further processing (stabilization, composting) may be required to maximize their fertilizer benefit. Heavy metal contents of the by

  10. Methods of preparing and using intravenous nutrient compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beigler, M.A.; Koury, A.J.

    1983-01-01

    A method for preparing a stable, dry-packaged, sterile, nutrient composition which upon addition of sterile, pyrogen-free water is suitable for intravenous administration to a mammal, including a human, is described. The method comprises providing the nutrients in a specific dry form and state of physical purity acceptable for intravenous administration, sealing the nutrients in a particular type of container adapted to receive and dispense sterile fluids and subjecting the container and its sealed contents to a sterilizing, nondestructive dose of ionizing radiation. The method results in a packaged, sterile nutrient composition which may be dissolved by the addition of sterile pyrogen-free water. The resulting aqueous intravenous solution may be safely administered to a mammal in need of nutrient therapy. The packaged nutrient compositions of the invention exhibit greatly extended storage life and provide an economical method of providing intravenous solutions which are safe and efficacious for use. (author)

  11. Influence of foliar nutrients on phenol levels in leaves of Eugenia uniflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa M. Santos

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Eugenia uniflora L., Myrtaceae, leaves contain high amounts of phenolic compounds which are responsible for several pharmacological activities. In order to evaluate the phenolics seasonal variation leaves were analysed on a monthly basis during the period of two years for the contents of hydrolysable tannins, total phenols, flavonoids, and nutrients (N, P, K, S, Ca, Mg, Mn, Zn, Cu, and Fe. Results were correlated with climate conditions (rainfall, humidity, and mean temperature by Principal Component and ClusterAnalysis which allowed four groups to be distinguished with respect to the age of the leaves and the content of some metals. Young leaves were characterised by high levels of Zn and nitrogen whereas old leaves contained high levels of Fe and calcium, and both groups had moderate amounts of phenolics. Adult leaves were divided in two groups and results revealed that while one group had the highest levels of all phenols and lowest amounts of Mn and Cu, the other showed opposite quantities. The Canonical Correlation Analysis confirmed a highly significant negative correlation between phenol contents and Mn and Cu. These facts suggested that flavonoids and tannins production depends of the amounts of foliar nutrients, Cu and Mn in particular, which are cofactors of enzymes involved in phenol degradation and lignin biosynthesis. This knowledge can improve this specie cultivation in order to enhance the phenolic compounds concentration.

  12. Total Phenolics and Total Flavonoids Contents and Hypnotic Effect in Mice of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. Seed Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aye Moh Moh San

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The seeds of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. have been traditionally used for treatment of various complications including insomnia and anxiety. They are popularly used as sedative and hypnotic drugs in China, Korea, Myanmar, Vietnam, and other Asian countries. However, no scientific proof on hypnotic activity of Z. mauritiana seeds (ZMS was reported. In this study, the hypnotic activity of 50% ethanolic extract from ZMS was observed on the loss of righting reflex in mice using pentobarbital-induced sleep mice method. The contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids in the extract were also determined. The results showed that the 50% ethanolic extract from ZMS contained total phenolics  mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/g extract and total flavonoids  mg quercetin equivalent (QE/g extract. Oral administration of the extract at the dose of 200 mg/kg significantly increased the sleeping time in mice intraperitoneally administered with sodium pentobarbital (50 mg/kg body weight. These results supported the traditional use of ZMS for the treatment of insomnia. The seeds of Z. mauritiana should be further developed as an alternative sedative and/or hypnotic product.

  13. The Antioxidant Capacities and Total Phenolic Contents of Some Medicinal Plants in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mirzaei

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Free radicals are highly reactive molecules may cause great damage to cell membranes and DNA and Result in inducing oxidation DNA mutations leading to cancer, degenerative, and other diseases. Plant antioxidant derived may be preventive of free radical damages. Methods & Materials: The Stems and flower sample of plants air-dried, finely ground and were extracted by ethanol: water (70:30 for 48 h. Extracts were filtered and dried under vacuum. The antioxidant activity of five ethanolic extract of medicinal plants (Descurainia Sophia, Plantago major, Trachyspermum copticum L, Coriandrum sativum and Trigonella foenum-graecum from Iran were analysed by five different methods [1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical, 2,2,azinobis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS radical cation, Ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP, phosphomolybdenum (PMB and reducing power (RP]. In addition, for determination of antioxidant components total phenolic content was also analyzed. Results: The total phenolic content of medicinal plant ranges from 74 to 154.3 mg Gallic acid/g extract as measured by the Folin–Ciocalteau method. Values of DPPH varied from 15.5 to 19.6 µmol trolex/g. FRAP ranged from 124.2 to 753 µmol of Fe(II/g extract. Antioxidant activity of the Plantago major was always higher compared to the other plants extracts values of total phenols content and antioxidant capacity by DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, (154.33 mg GAE/g, 1856 µmol trolox, 750 µmol trolox and 1169 µmol of Fe(II/g, extract respectively. The range of total antioxidant activity by phosphomolybdenum method was 513.3 to 870 µmol trolox/g. The reducing ability of the tested extracts was between 0.31-1.26. Plantago majorwas also highest activity in both tests. Conclusion: This study clearly demonstrated that Plantago major crude extract exhibit significant antioxidant activity.

  14. Nutrient and antinutrient composition of yellow yam (Dioscorea cayenensis products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oladejo Thomas Adepoju

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to research article titled “Effects of processing methods on nutrient and antinutrient composition of yellow yam (Dioscorea cayenensis products” (Adepoju et al., 2016 [1]. This article documented information on nutrient and antinutrient composition as well as nutrient retention of Dioscorea cayenensis products. Fresh Dioscorea cayenensis tubers obtained from Bodija market were prepared into raw sample and local delicacies and analysed for proximate, mineral, vitamin and antinutrient composition using AOAC methods [2]. Data obtained were analysed using ANOVA, and level of significance set at p<0.05. Processing significantly improved macronutrients and energy content of yam products, and led to significant reduction in values of all antinutrient content of the products (p<0.05.

  15. High nitrate to phosphorus regime attenuates negative effects of rising pCO2 on total population carbon accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Krug

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The ongoing rise in atmospheric pCO2 and consequent increase in ocean acidification have direct effects on marine calcifying phytoplankton, which potentially alters carbon export. To date it remains unclear, firstly, how nutrient regime, in particular by coccolithophores preferred phosphate limitation, interacts with pCO2 on particulate carbon accumulation; secondly, how direct physiological responses on the cellular level translate into total population response. In this study, cultures of Emiliania huxleyi were full-factorially exposed to two different N:P regimes and three different pCO2 levels. Cellular biovolume and PIC and POC content significantly declined in response to pCO2 in both nutrient regimes. Cellular PON content significantly increased in the Redfield treatment and decreased in the high N:P regime. Cell abundance significantly declined in the Redfield and remained constant in the high N:P regime. We hypothesise that in the high N:P regime severe phosphorous limitation could be compensated either by reduced inorganic phosphorous demand and/or by enzymatic uptake of organic phosphorous. In the Redfield regime we suggest that enzymatic phosphorous uptake to supplement enhanced phosphorous demand with pCO2 was not possible and thus cell abundance declined. These hypothesised different physiological responses of E. huxleyi among the nutrient regimes significantly altered population carrying capacities along the pCO2 gradient. This ultimately led to the attenuated total population response in POC and PIC content and biovolume to increased pCO2 in the high N:P regime. Our results point to the fact that the physiological (i.e. cellular PIC and POC response to ocean acidification cannot be linearly extrapolated to total population response and thus carbon export. It is therefore necessary to consider both effects of nutrient limitation on cell physiology and their consequences for population size when predicting the influence of

  16. NUTRIENT CONTENT IN SUNFLOWERS IRRIGATED WITH OIL EXPLORATION WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADERVAN FERNANDES SOUSA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation using produced water, which is generated during crude oil and gas recovery and treated by the exploration industry, could be an option for irrigated agriculture in semiarid regions. To determine the viability of this option, the effects of this treated water on the nutritional status of plants should be assessed. For this purpose, we examined the nutritional changes in sunflowers after they were irrigated with oil - produced water and the effects of this water on plant biomass and seed production. The sunflower cultivar BRS 321 was grown for three crop cycles in areas irrigated with filtered produced water (FPW, reverse osmosis - treated produced water (OPW, or ground water (GW. At the end of each cycle, roots, shoots, and seeds were collected to examine their nutrient concentrations. Produced water irrigation affected nutrient accumulation in the sunflower plants. OPW irrigation promoted the accumulation of Ca, Na, N, P, and Mg. FPW irrigation favored the accumulation of Na in both roots and shoots, and biomass and seed production were negatively affected. The Na in the shoots of plants irrigated with FPW increased throughout the three crop cycles. Under controlled conditions, it is possible to reuse reverse osmosis - treated produced water in agriculture. However, more long - term research is needed to understand its cumulative effects on the chemical and biological properties of the soil and crop production.

  17. Effects of two different AMF species on growth and nutrient content ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-02-19

    Feb 19, 2008 ... INTRODUCTION. Soil salinity is one of the limiting environmental factors for ..... There could be other mechanisms explaining the role of. AMF in salt .... mycorrhizas in assessment of genetically dependent efficiency of nutrient ...

  18. Study of Nutrient Content Variation in Bulb And Stalk of Onions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    Keywords: Onion bulbs and stalks, proximate, nutrient elements, vitamins A and C; oxalate. ... application of fertilizers, manure, compost and ..... iron products, the use of natural source of Fe such .... in Fish and Sediment from Kubanni River,.

  19. In vitro anthelmintic activity of Barleria buxifolia on Indian adult earthworms and estimation of total flavonoid content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purna A. Chander

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the anthelmintic activity of Barleria buxifolia leaf and to estimate the total flavonoid content. Methods: The aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts were prepared and these were analyzed for total flavonoid content by aluminium chloride colorimetric method and Pheretima posthuma was used for anthelmintic activity by using the different concentrations (10, 20, 40, 80 and 100 mg/mL. Results: All the investigational extracts showed an anthelmintic activity at concentration of 10 mg/mL. The ethanolic extract of 100 mg/mL has produced an significant effect (P<0.001 when compared to aqueous extract. The total flavonoid content was found to be 5.67 mg QE/100 g. Conclusions: From the above study, the leaf extract has shown a good anthelmintic activity.

  20. Nutrients in some estuaries of Kerala

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Devi, K.S.; Venugopal, P.; Remani, K.N.; Zacharias, D.; Unnithan, R.V.

    phosphate and ammonia were high at Kallai compared to other three estuaries. All the estuaries showed an increase in nitrate content during monsoon. Nitrite values were high in postmonsoon. Ammonia levels were generally high except at Korapuzha. Nutrient...

  1. Manipulating nutrient composition of microalgal growth media to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biodiesel production from microalgae depends on the algal biomass and lipid content. Both biomass production and lipid accumulation are limited by several factors in which nutrients play a key role. We investigated the influences of micronutrients on biomass, and lipid content of Micractinium pusillum GU732425 cultivated ...

  2. Effects of water addition to total mixed ration on water intake, nutrient digestibility, wool cortisol and blood indices in Corriedale ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejad, Jalil Ghassemi; Kim, Byong-Wan; Lee, Bae-Hun; Kim, Ji-Yung; Sung, Kyung-Il

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of adding water to total mixed ration (TMR) on fresh water intake, nutrient digestibility, wool cortisol, and blood indices in Corriedale ewes under hot and humid conditions. Nine non-pregnant Corriedale ewes (ave. body weight = 41±3.5 kg) were individually fed diets based on maintenance requirements in metabolic crates. Ewes were assigned to three treatment groups according to a triplicate 3×3 Latin Square design for 3 periods of 21 days duration each (9 ewes per treatment, 27 replications). Treatments were TMR (crude protein [CP] = 16.1, total digestible nutrients = 69.1%) moisture levels for 40%, 50%, and 60%. No differences were found in body weight gain among all treatment groups (p>0.05). Nitrogen balance including digestible N, retained N, and urinary and fecal N showed no change among the treatment groups (p>0.05). Fresh water intake was the lower in 50% TMR moisture group than in the other groups (p0.05). No significant difference was observed for serum protein, blood urea nitrogen, glucose, and triglyceride among the treatment groups (p>0.05). Wool and blood cortisol were not different among the treatment groups (p>0.05). Blood hematology including red blood cell, white blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit, basophils, and eosinophils were not different among the treatment groups (p>0.05). It is concluded that TMR moisture at 40%, 50%, and 60% had no effects on N balance parameters, and nutrient digestibilities except for the ether extract under hot and humid conditions. Additionally there were no effects on stress conditions include wool cortisol, as well as blood cortisol levels of ewes.

  3. Phytochemical constituents, antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid contents of Arisarum vulgare seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Hadjer Kadri; Salah Eddine Djilani; Abdelouaheb Djilani

    2013-01-01

    Background.Arisarum vulgare is screened and its total phenolic compounds and total flavonoid contents were measured. In addition, the antioxidant capacity of the methanol-water (7:3) extract of this plant is evalu- ated by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1 picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS (2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfon- ic)) tests expressed by Vitamin C Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (VCEAC). HPLC analyses are carried out to identify some polyphenols. The aim of this study is to identify, ...

  4. Mineral content in four browse species from northeastern mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilo, G.; Gomez, D.; Roque, G.; Lonano, R.; Lozano, R.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine and compare macro (Ca, K, Mg, Na and P) and micro (Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn) nutrient foliar content in Acacia amentacea (DC.), Celtis pallida (Torr.), Forestiera angustifolia (Torr.) and Parkinsonia texana (A. Gray). Leaf samples were collected monthly from January throughout December 2009 in China, Linares and Los Ramones counties in the state of Nuevo Leon, Mexico. All nutrients were significantly different among sites, months and species; double and triple interactions were also significant. Among sites, samples from Los Ramones County showed the higher macronutrient content, followed by China and Linares. As for species, Celtis pallida showed the highest values while A. amentacea had the lowest macronutrient content. Micronutrient content showed the following decreasing order: China>Los Ramones>Linares. Parkinsonia texana was characteristically the most abundant in micronutrient content, while, A. amentacea was the poorest in this respect. Regardless of species, site or timing, Ca (total mean = 30 g kg-1), K (15; except A. amentacea), Mg (5.2; except A. amentacea), Na (1.9; only F. angustifolia), Fe (100 mg kg-1), Mn (51; only F. angustifolia) and Zn (35; except A. amentacea) were determined to be present in suitable amounts to meet nutritional requirements of range ruminants, while Na (1.9; except F. angustifolia), P (1.3 g kg-1) and Cu (6 mg kg-1) were marginally deficient throughout the year. (author)

  5. KANDUNGAN GIZI, RENDEMEN TEPUNG, DAN KADAR FENOL TOTAL ALPUKAT (Persea americana, Mill VARIETAS I JO PANJANG DAN I JO BUNDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuri Marsigit

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the study were to determine pulp proportion, dried pulp rendement, nutrient dan  total phenolic content avocado variety of Ijo Panjang dan Ijo Bundar. Variety of Ijo Panjang and Ijo Bundar were selected because both of varieties were categorized as excelent varities and recomendedto develop in Indonesia. Water, carbohydrate, protein, fat dan ash content were determined by using proxymate analysis (AOAC, vitamin A dan E using spectrophotometry method, vitamin C using titration method, dan minerals using AAS method. Total phenolic content were determined by using Follin-Cialcetau method. The result of the studies found that pulp portion Ijo Bundar Variety higher than Ijo Panjang. Water content dan zinc of Ijo Panjang variety higher than Ijo Bundar. Dried pulp rendement of Ijo Bundar higher than Ijo Panjang. Protein, fat,  ash, minerals (Fe, Na, K dan P avocado variety of Ijo Bundar higher than Ijo Panjang. Magnesium dan mangan content of both varieties have not significant different. Total phenolic content of pulp dan dried pulp were higher in Ijo Bundar than Ijo Bundar. Keywords: Pulp proportion, dried pulp rendement, nutrients dan total phenolics content   ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui proporsi daging buah, rendemen tepung, kandungan gizi dan fenol total alpukat varietas Ijo Panjang dan Ijo Bundar. Pemilihan kedua varietas tersebut karena merupakan varietas unggul dan direkomendasikan untuk dikembangkan di Indonesia. Kandungan, air, karbohidat, protein, lemak dan abu dilakukan dengan analisis proksimat (AOAC, kandungan vitamin A dan E dengan metode spektrofotometri dan vitamin C dengan metode titrasi, analisis mineral dengan metode AAS. Total fenol dianalisis dengan metode Folin-Ciocalteu. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa proporsi daging buah, kadar air, seng varietas Ijo Panjang lebih tinggi dibandingkan Ijo Bundar. Rendemen tepung alpukat lebih tinggi pada varietas Ijo Bundar. Kandungan protein, lemak, abu

  6. Analysis of total hydrogen content in palm oil and palm kernel oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A fast and non-destructive technique based on thermal neutron moderation has been used for determining the total hydrogen content in two types of red palm oil (dzomi and amidze) and palm kernel oil produced by traditio-nal methods in Ghana. An equipment consisting of an 241Am-Be neutron source and 3He neutron ...

  7. Indicators for estimating the total apparent digestibility in horses Indicadores para estimativa da digestibilidade aparente total em equinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Ariboni Brandi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study to evaluate various indicators to estimate the total nutrient digestibility in horses. We used four adult mares, breed, grouped in a 4 x 4 Latin square balanced fed diets containing equal parts of hay Tifton 85 (Cynodon sp and concentrated experimental containing corn subjected to four processes: a diet containing ground corn ; flaked corn diet 2, 3 rolled corn, and 4 extruded corn. The weighting coefficient of digestibility of nutrients by the indicators was done through the bias. The accuracy and precision were determined by comparing the predicted and observed data, and the robustness of the biases by comparing with other factors studied. The chromic oxide methods showed similar values of apparent digestibility of nutrients when compared to the total collection method. We observed higher accuracy for the acid detergent lignin as compared to the other indicators tested. However, the acid detergent lignin underestimated the digestibility of nutrients when compared to the total collection. The acid detergent insoluble ash overestimated the digestibility of nutrients when compared to the total collection. The chromic oxide is presented as a better indicator for estimating the total apparent digestibility in horses due to its higher accuracy among the markers evaluated.Objetivou-se neste estudo avaliar diferentes indicadores para estimativa das digestibilidades aparente total em equinos. Foram utilizadas quatro éguas adultas, sem raça definida, agrupadas em um quadrado latino 4 x 4 balanceado, alimentadas com dietas que continham partes iguais de feno da gramínea Tifton 85 (Cynodon sp e concentrado experimental que continha milho submetido a quatro processamentos: dieta um milho triturado; dieta dois milho floculado; dieta três milho laminado e dieta quatro milho extrusado. A ponderação dos coeficientes de digestibilidade dos nutrientes pelos indicadores foi efetuada por meio do viés. A acurácia e a precis

  8. Total arsenic, mercury, lead, and cadmium contents in edible dried seaweed in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Y O; Park, S G; Park, G Y; Choi, S M; Kim, M Y

    2010-01-01

    Total arsenic, mercury, lead, and cadmium contents were determined in 426 samples of seaweed sold in Korea in 2007-08. The average concentrations, expressed in mg kg(-1), dry weight, were: total arsenic 17.4 (less than the limit of detection [LOD] to 88.8), Hg 0.01 (from 0.001 to 0.050), lead 0.7 (less than the LOD to 2.7), and cadmium 0.50 (less than the LOD to 2.9). There were differences in mercury, cadmium, and arsenic content in seaweed between different kinds of products and between coastal areas. The intakes of total mercury, lead, and cadmium for Korean people from seaweed were estimated to be 0.11, 0.65, and 0.45 µg kg(-1) body weight week(-1), respectively. With respect to food safety, consumption of 8.5 g day(-1) of the samples analysed could represent up to 0.2-6.7% of the respective provisional tolerable weekly intakes established by the World Health Organization (WHO). Therefore, even if Korean people have a high consumption of seaweed, this study confirms the low probability of health risks from these metals via seaweed consumption.

  9. Above-ground woody biomass allocation and within tree carbon and nutrient distribution of wild cherry (Prunus avium L. – a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Morhart

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The global search for new ways to sequester carbon has already reached agricultural lands. Such land constitutes a major potential carbon sink. The production of high value timber within agroforestry systems can facilitate an in-situ carbon storage function. This is followed by a potential long term ex- situ carbon sinkwithin long lasting products such as veneer and furniture. For this purpose wild cherry (Prunus avium L. is an interesting option for middle Europe, yielding high prices on the timber market. Methods: A total number of 39 wild cherry were sampled in 2012 and 2013 to assess the leafless above ground biomass. The complete trees including stem and branches were separated into 1 cm diameter classes. Wood and bark from sub-samples were analysed separately and nutrient content was derived. Models for biomass estimation were constructed for all tree compartments. Results: The smallest diameter classes possess the highest proportion of bark due to smaller cross sectional area. Tree boles with a greater amount of stem wood above 10 cm in diameter will have a more constant bark proportion. Total branch bark proportion also remains relatively constant above d1.3m measurements of 8 cm. A balance is evident between the production of new branches with a low diameter and high bark proportion offset by the thickening and a relative reduction in bark proportion in larger branches. The results show that a single tree with an age of 17 and 18 years can store up to 85 kg of carbon within the aboveground biomass portion, an amount that will increase as the tree matures. Branches display greater nutrient content than stem sections per volume unit which can be attributed to a greater bark proportion. Conclusions: Using the derived models the carbon and the nutrient content of above-ground woody biomass of whole trees can be calculated. Suggested values for carbon with other major and minor nutrients held within relatively immature trees

  10. [Contents mensuration of total alkaloid in Uncaria rhynchophylla by acid dye colorimetry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Chang-qing; Luo, Bei-liang

    2007-08-01

    To investigate the method of determination of total alkaloids Uncaria rhynchophylla. The Contents of total Alkaloid were determined by Acid dye Colorimetry. Acid dye color conditions: pH3.6 buffer 5.0 ml, bromocresol green liquid 5.0 ml; chloroform extraction three times, each time was exeracted for 2 minutes, put it aside for at least 5 minutes for the determination of the best method. Rhynchophylline 6.018 microg - 108.324 microg in the linear range, Recoveriys rate was 97.19%, RSD was 1.34% (n = 6). The method is simple, highly sensitive and reproducible.

  11. Morpho-physiological and mineral nutrient characterization of 45 collected Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L. accessions

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    Amirul Alam

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine, evaluation and characterization of the morphological, physiological as well as mineral nutrient vitiations among all forty five purslane accessions collected from different locations of West Peninsular, Malaysia. Significant differences (p<0.05 were observed for all those traits measured regarding morphological, physiological and mineral composition. Morphological traits viz. plant height varied between 20.06-40.8 cm; number of main branch, 1.4-4.4; number of nodes, 8.4-31; internode distance, 2.1-3.43 cm; stem diameter, 2.12-3.8 mm; number of leaves, 97-1019; leaf area, 1.03-2.21 cm², number of flowers, 14-826.8; root length, 5.09-11.7 cm; fresh weight, 40-280 g; and dry weight varied between 2.71-29.16 g. Among physiological traits, total chlorophyll content varied between 26.2-39.52 (SPAD value, net photosynthesis, 20.8-28.73 µmol CO2/m²/sec; stomatal conductance, 0.02-0.28 cm/sec; transpiration rate, 0.46-2.48 mol/m²/sec; and water vapor deficit varied between 0.51-2.65 mol H2O/m²/sec. Analysis of mineral macro and micro nutrient compositions showed that all accessions contained appreciable amount of essential nutrients. Among the macro nutrient elements; N, P, K, Ca and Mg contents ranged respectively between 31.2-100, 2.51-8.2, 78.4-276, 9.1-62.2 and 8.7-32.55 ppm. Whereas micro nutrient elements; Zn, Fe and Mn ranged respectively between 0.31-1.09; 1.01-13.09 and 0.06-1.32 ppm. This great variability among the purslane accessions may contribute enhancing the genetic improvement of the species for desired traits.

  12. Response of algal metrics to nutrients and physical factors and identification of nutrient thresholds in agricultural streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, R.W.; Moran, P.W.; Frankforter, J.D.

    2011-01-01

    Many streams within the United States are impaired due to nutrient enrichment, particularly in agricultural settings. The present study examines the response of benthic algal communities in agricultural and minimally disturbed sites from across the western United States to a suite of environmental factors, including nutrients, collected at multiple scales. The first objective was to identify the relative importance of nutrients, habitat and watershed features, and macroinvertebrate trophic structure to explain algal metrics derived from deposition and erosion habitats. The second objective was to determine if thresholds in total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) related to algal metrics could be identified and how these thresholds varied across metrics and habitats. Nutrient concentrations within the agricultural areas were elevated and greater than published threshold values. All algal metrics examined responded to nutrients as hypothesized. Although nutrients typically were the most important variables in explaining the variation in each of the algal metrics, environmental factors operating at multiple scales also were important. Calculated thresholds for TN or TP based on the algal metrics generated from samples collected from erosion and deposition habitats were not significantly different. Little variability in threshold values for each metric for TN and TP was observed. The consistency of the threshold values measured across multiple metrics and habitats suggest that the thresholds identified in this study are ecologically relevant. Additional work to characterize the relationship between algal metrics, physical and chemical features, and nuisance algal growth would be of benefit to the development of nutrient thresholds and criteria. ?? 2010 The Author(s).

  13. Plant response to nutrient availability across variable bedrock geologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, S.C.; Neff, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the role of rock-derived mineral nutrient availability on the nutrient dynamics of overlying forest communities (Populus tremuloides and Picea engelmanni-Abies lasiocarpa v. arizonica) across three parent materials (andesite, limestone, and sandstone) in the southern Rocky Mountains of Colorado. Broad geochemical differences were observed between bedrock materials; however, bulk soil chemistries were remarkably similar between the three different sites. In contrast, soil nutrient pools were considerably different, particularly for P, Ca, and Mg concentrations. Despite variations in nutrient stocks and nutrient availability in soils, we observed relatively inflexible foliar concentrations and foliar stoichiometries for both deciduous and coniferous species. Foliar nutrient resorption (P and K) in the deciduous species followed patterns of nutrient content across substrate types, with higher resorption corresponding to lower bedrock concentrations. Work presented here indicates a complex plant response to available soil nutrients, wherein plant nutrient use compensates for variations in supply gradients and results in the maintenance of a narrow range in foliar stoichiometry. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  14. Effect of Litter Fall on Soil Nutrient Content and pH, and its Consequences in View of Climate Change (Síkf

    OpenAIRE

    TÓTH, János Attila; NAGY, Péter Tamás; KRAKOMPERGER, Zsolt; VERES, Zsuzsa; KOTROCZÓ, Zsolt; KINCSES, Sándorné; FEKETE, István; PAPP, Mária; LAJTHA, Kate

    2011-01-01

    In the DIRT (Detritus Input and Removal Treatment) field experiments established at theSíkfkút Site (North Hungary) in October 2000, an experiment was initiated to study the long-termeffects of litter quality and quantity on pH and nutrient content (organic carbon, N forms, PO43–, K+,Mg2+, Ca2+) of soil in a Quercetum petraeae-cerris forest. An eight-year litter manipulationdemonstrated a close connection between the changes in pH and Mg2+ and Ca2+ concentration. Thedecline of litter producti...

  15. CARBOHYDRATES CONTENT IN JERUSALEM ARTICHOKE TUBERS DURING VEGETATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Levina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L. is rich in vitamins, carbohydrates, fiber. Tubers of Jerusalem artichoke consist valuable  substance inulin, which has a complex of health properties. Breeders create new hybrids and varieties of Jerusalem artichoke to increase the content of nutrients, productivity and climate resilience. The authors analysed moisture content, dry residue and fractional  composition of carbohydrates in the tubers of Jerusalem artichoke  varieties Skorospelka and Sireniki and the hybrids PBB and PBK in  various phases of vegetation. In the flowering stage the moisture of  the tubers of the investigated varieties was in the range of 77.2-81.3 percent, the value of dry residue of nutrients was 18.7-22.8 percent. The greatest number of non-reducing and total sugars in  the flowering stage contained in the tuber varieties of Sireniki and was equaled 78.3 and 61.8 percent, respectively. A similar analysis was conducted in the maturation phase. In this phase the solids  content slightly increased and amounted to 22.9-26.2 percent. Non- reducing sugars content, including inulin, increased in all the studied samples of Jerusalem artichoke. However, the greatest values of 72  percent were noted for variety Sireniki and hybrid PBK. The content  of inulin depends on the phase of the growing season and the  varietal characteristics of Jerusalem artichoke and the absence of decisive superiority of the hybrids.

  16. Nutrient resorption efficiency of cocoa plantson lowl and of Alluvial plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy Erwiyono

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Observation on nutrient retranslocation of cocoa plants has been carried out in Kaliwining Experimental Station, Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute (ICCRI in Jember in order to assess its efficiency to have better understanding on the loss of nutrients through cocoa litterfall relatively intensive during dry season, better utilization of the plant litters, and further more efficient plant management. Nutrient retranslocation assessment has been conducted for macro nutrients in terms of N, P, and K that have been observed on four clones of cocoa planted in 2004, that are KW 163, KW 162, KKM 22, and KW 165 in the plot with Tectona grandis shading trees and plot with Cassia surithensis shading trees, with five replicates. The plots of observation overlaid on Alluvial plain 45 m asl. and D type rainfall. The results showed that nutrient contents in senescence leaves with yellow colour and then falling significantly lower than those of mature leaves with green colour adjacent to it. Reductions of N, P, and K contents during leaf senescence occured significantly on KW 163, KW 162, and KKM 22 clones, whereas on KW 165 clone significant reduction only happened to phosphorus. Mature leaves of cocoa with green colour contained average nitrogen, phosphorus, and kalium at 13.0, 1.6, and 13.5 mg/g- respectively. Whereas senescing leaves with yellow colour then defoliating contained average nitrogen, phosphorus, and kalium at 9.5, 0.9, and 10.0 mg/g, respectively. This reduction of nutrient contents was caused by nutrient retranslocation mechanism of the plants. Nitrogen, phosphorus, and kalium retranslocated by cocoa plants in rainy season are as much as 3.60, 0.70, and 3.39 mg/g, or 27%, 42%, and 24%, respectively. In other words nutrient retranslocation efficiency of cocoa plants for N, P, and K is in the following order: P>N>K. Among the clones, KKM 22 clone retranslocated P and K most efficiently; whereas for N, KW 162 clone retranslocated it

  17. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY AND TOTAL PHENOLIC CONTENT OF GRAPE SEEDS AND PEELS FROM ROMANIAN VARIETIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mădălina IUGA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Grape seeds and peels are valuable by-products from wine production industry that can be valorized in food production. Both grape seeds and peels have a great amount of antioxidants and polyphenolic compounds. The aim of this study was to investigate the total phenolic content of red and white grape seeds and peels and to establish the optimal solvent concentration for highest extraction yield. For this purpose, Folin Ciocâlteu method was used to achieve the phenols content and the antioxidant activity was estimated using 2,2 – diphenyl-1-1picrylhydrazyl (DPPH reagent. The total phenolic content ranged from 81.13 mg GAE/g for red peels, 93.47 mg GAE/g for white peels, to 128.47 mg GAE/g for red seeds and 164.70 mg GAE/g for white seeds. The One-Way ANOVA method was used to see if there are differences between the antioxidant activities depending on the solvent concentration. The results showed that the methanol concentration significantly (p < 0.05 influences the antioxidants extraction. The inhibition percent IC50 ranged from 0,24 to 4,37 μg/mL for white peels, from 3,12 to 6,29 μg/mL for red peels, from 5,53 to 5,90 μg/mL for white seeds and from 4,59 to 6,14 μg/mL for red seeds. This study highlighted the possibility to use grape seeds and peels as food ingredients or natural antioxidant to extend the shelf life of food, especial of lipids and lipid-containing foods because of their high antioxidant activity and total phenolic content.

  18. Effect of Increasing Total Solids Contents on Anaerobic Digestion of Food Waste under Mesophilic Conditions: Performance and Microbial Characteristics Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Yi, Jing; Dong, Bin; Jin, Jingwei; Dai, Xiaohu

    2014-01-01

    The total solids content of feedstocks affects the performances of anaerobic digestion and the change of total solids content will lead the change of microbial morphology in systems. In order to increase the efficiency of anaerobic digestion, it is necessary to understand the role of the total solids content on the behavior of the microbial communities involved in anaerobic digestion of organic matter from wet to dry technology. The performances of mesophilic anaerobic digestion of food waste...

  19. Water and nutrient budgets for Vancouver Lake, Vancouver, Washington, October 2010-October 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheibley, Rich W.; Foreman, James R.; Marshall, Cameron A.; Welch, Wendy B.

    2014-01-01

    Vancouver Lake, a large shallow lake in Clark County, near Vancouver, Washington, has been undergoing water-quality problems for decades. Recently, the biggest concern for the lake are the almost annual harmful cyanobacteria blooms that cause the lake to close for recreation for several weeks each summer. Despite decades of interest in improving the water quality of the lake, fundamental information on the timing and amount of water and nutrients entering and exiting the lake is lacking. In 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a 2-year field study to quantify water flows and nutrient loads in order to develop water and nutrient budgets for the lake. This report presents monthly and annual water and nutrient budgets from October 2010–October 2012 to identify major sources and sinks of nutrients. Lake River, a tidally influenced tributary to the lake, flows into and out of the lake almost daily and composed the greatest proportion of both the water and nutrient budgets for the lake, often at orders of magnitude greater than any other source. From the water budget, we identified precipitation, evaporation and groundwater inflow as minor components of the lake hydrologic cycle, each contributing 1 percent or less to the total water budget. Nutrient budgets were compiled monthly and annually for total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and orthophosphate; and, nitrogen loads were generally an order of magnitude greater than phosphorus loads across all sources. For total nitrogen, flow from Lake River at Felida, Washington, made up 88 percent of all inputs into the lake. For total phosphorus and orthophosphate, Lake River at Felida flowing into the lake was 91 and 76 percent of total inputs, respectively. Nutrient loads from precipitation and groundwater inflow were 1 percent or less of the total budgets. Nutrient inputs from Burnt Bridge Creek and Flushing Channel composed 12 percent of the total nitrogen budget, 8 percent of the total phosphorus budget, and 21 percent

  20. Carrot, Corn, Lettuce and Soybean Nutrient Contents are Affected by Biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biochar, the carbon-rich material remaining after pyrolysis of cellulosic and manure feedstocks, has the potential as a soil amendment to sequester carbon and to improve soil water-holding and nutrient properties- thereby enhancing plant growth. However, biochar produced from so...

  1. Nutrient removal from swine lagoon effluent by duckweed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergmann, B.A.; Cheng, J.; Classen, J.; Stomp, A.M.

    2000-04-01

    Three duckweed geographic isolates were grown on varying concentrations of swine lagoon effluent in a greenhouse to determine their ability to remove nutrients from the effluent. Duckweed biomass was harvested every other day over a 12-day period. Duckweed biomass production, nutrient loss from the swine lagoon effluent, and nutrient content of duckweed biomass were used to identify effluent concentrations/geographic isolate combinations that are effective in terms of nutrient utilization from swine lagoon effluent and production of healthy duckweed biomass. When Lemna minor geographic isolate 8627 was grown on 50% swine lagoon effluent, respective losses of TKN, NH{sub 3}-N, TP, OPO{sub 4}-P, TOC, K, Cu, and Zn were 83, 100, 49, 31, 68, 21, 28 and 67%.

  2. Changes in Nutrient Content of Root and Grain of Wheat Cultivars Inoculated by Azospirillum and Mycorrhiza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jiriaie

    2016-02-01

    Azospirillum and the use of G. mosseae. Also, in the general case of Mycorrhiza fungi use (between 6 to 20 present and seed inoculation with Azospirillum lipoferum (between 8 to 25 present, the improved nutrient content in the seeds as well as greatest impact of Mycorrhiza use is in increasing the content of the grain Zn (20 present and the lowest effect of Mycorrhiza using is in increasing the nitrogen content in seed (6 percent. Considering the elements content in the grain, the use of bacteria also showed that the greatest impact on increasing the use of bacteria Azospirillum lipoferum is in increasing the iron content in seeds (25 present and the least impact of the use of Azospirillum lipoferum is in increasing the seed’s manganese (8 present. Moreover, the use of Mycorrhiza fungi (between 7 and 23 present and seed inoculation with Azospirillum lipoferum (4 to 16 present improved the contents of nutrients in wheat roots compared with the control group. Here, too, the greatest impact for Mycorrhiza application was in increasing the content of the Zn in the root (23 present and the lowest effect of Mycorrhiza application was in increasing the potassium content in the root (7 percent. Moreover, considering the elements content in the roots in the case of being treated with Azospirillum lipoferum, the results showed that upon increasing the use of bacteria, the greatest impact of Azospirillum lipoferum in increasing elements content in the roots was an increased iron content in the root (16 present and the minimum effect of the bactericidal application was in increasing the potassium root (4 present. Comparing the two species of Mycorrhizal fungi that have been used in the experiment, although application Glomus intraradices showed satisfactory results, the use of the species Glomus mosseae to increase the content of the element in seeds and roots has had a greater role. Moreover, the combined effects of these microorganisms have not only had an antagonistic effect of

  3. Submarine groundwater discharge as an important nutrient source influencing nutrient structure in coastal water of Daya Bay, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuejing; Li, Hailong; Zheng, Chunmiao; Yang, Jinzhong; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Meng; Qi, Zhanhui; Xiao, Kai; Zhang, Xiaolang

    2018-03-01

    As an important nutrient source for coastal waters, submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) has long been largely ignored in Daya Bay, China. In this study, we estimate the fluxes of SGD and associated nutrients into this region using a 224Ra mass balance model and assess the contribution/importance of nutrients by SGD, benthic sediments, local rivers, and atmospheric deposition. The results of 224Ra mass balance show that the estimated SGD ranges from (2.76 ± 1.43) × 106 m3/d to (1.03 ± 0.53) × 107 m3/d with an average of (6.32 ± 2.42) × 106 m3/d, about 16 times the total discharge rate of local rivers. The nutrient loading from SGD is estimated to be (1.05-1.99) × 105 mol/d for NO3-N, (4.04-12.16) × 103 mol/d for DIP, and (3.54-11.35) × 105 mol/d for Si. Among these considered nutrient sources, we find that SGD is the primary source for Si and NO3-N, contributing 68% and 42% of all considered sources, respectively. The atmospheric NO3-N flux is comparable to that from SGD. The local rivers are the most important source for DIP, contributing 75% of all considered sources. SGD with high N:P ratio (NO3-N/DIP) of 37.0 delivers not only a large quantity of nutrients, but also changes nutrient structure in coastal water. Based on a DIP budget, primary productivity is evaluated to be 54-73 mg C/m2 d, in which SGD accounts for approximately 30% of total production. This study indicates that SGD is a key source of nutrients to coastal waters and may cause an obvious change of primary production and nutrient structure in Daya Bay.

  4. Nutrient sequestration, biomass production by microalgae and phytoremediation of sewage water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renuka, N; Sood, A; Ratha, S K; Prasanna, R; Ahluwalia, A S

    2013-01-01

    The present work was aimed at analysing the role of inoculated microalgae in nutrient dynamics, bioremediation and biomass production of sewage water. Preliminary microscopic analyses of sewage water revealed the presence of different algal groups, with predominance of Cyanophyta. Among the inoculated strains, Calothrix showed highest dry cell weight (916.67 mg L(-1)), chlorophyll and carotenoid content in tap water + sewage water (1:1) treatment. Significant removal of NO3-N ranging from 57-78% and PO4-P (44-91%) was recorded in microalgae inoculated tap water + sewage water. The total dissolved solids and electrical conductivity of tap water + sewage water after incubation with Calothrix sp. decreased by 28.5 and 28.0%, accompanied by an increase in dissolved oxygen from 4.4 to 6.4 mg L(-1) on the 20th day. Our investigation revealed the robustness of Calothrix sp. in sequestering nutrients (N and P), improving water quality and proliferating in sewage water.

  5. Lipid globule size in total nutrient admixtures prepared in three-chamber plastic bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, David F; Thoma, Andrea; Franke, Rolf; Klütsch, Karsten; Nehne, Jörg; Bistrian, Bruce R

    2009-04-01

    The stability of injectable lipid emulsions in three-chamber plastic (3CP) bags, applying the globule-size limits established by United States Pharmacopeia ( USP ) chapter 729, was studied. A total of five premixed total nutrient admixture (TNA) products packaged in 3CP bags from two different lipid manufacturers containing either 20% soybean oil or a mixture of soybean oil and medium-chain-triglyceride oil as injectable lipid emulsions were tested. Two low-osmolarity 3CP bags and three high-osmolarity 3CP bags were studied. All products were tested with the addition of trace elements and multivitamins. All additive conditions (with and without electrolytes) were tested in triplicate at time 0 (immediately after mixing) and at 6, 24, 30, and 48 hours after mixing; the bags were stored at 24-26 degrees C. All additives were equally distributed in each bag for comparative testing, applying both globule sizing methods outlined in USP chapter 729. Of the bags tested, all bags from one manufacturer were coarse emulsions, showing signs of significant growth in the large-diameter tail when mixed as a TNA formulation and failing the limits set by method II of USP chapter 729 from the outset and throughout the study, while the bags from the other manufacturer were fine emulsions and met these limits. Of the bags that failed, significant instability was noted in one series containing additional electrolytes. Injectable lipid emulsions provided in 3CP bags that did not meet the globule-size limits of USP chapter 729 produced coarser TNA formulations than emulsions that met the USP limits.

  6. Nutrient Removal from Wastewater using Microalgae: A Kinetic Evaluation and Lipid Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-15

    The objective of this study was to examine the performance of mixed microalgal bioreactors in treating three differenttypes of wastewaters - kitchen wastewater (KWW), palm oil mill effluent (POME), and pharmaceutical wastewater (PWW) in semi-continuous mode and to analyze the lipid content in the harvested algal biomass. The reactors were monitored for total nitrogen and phosphate removal at eight solid retention times (SRTs) - 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 days. The nutrient uptake kinetic parameters were quantified using linearized Michaelis-Menten and Monod models at steady-state conditions. The nutrient removal efficiency and lipid production were found to be higher in KWW when compared with the other wastewaters. Saturated fatty acids (C16:0, C18:0, and C18:1) accounted for more than 60% of the algal fatty acids for all the wastewaters. The lipid is, therefore, considered suitable for synthesizing biodiesel.

  7. Aplicação foliar de cálcio em pessegueiro na Serra Gaúcha: avaliação do teor de nutrientes na folha, no fruto e produção Foliar application of calcium in peach in Serra Gaúcha: evaluation of content of nutrients in the leaf, fruit and yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Brunetto

    2008-06-01

    calcium in Peach tree in the Southern Brasil is used during productive cycle, without any information about calcium content and other nutrients in the leaves, fruits and yield. Two experiments were carried out in 2003/2004 to evaluate the effect of foliar application of different sources of calcium in its content and other nutrients in the leaf, fruit and yield of peach trees, Chimarrita cultivar, at an Haplumbrept soil in Southern Brazil, Pinto Bandeira city. The treatments in the experiment 1 were three foliar applications of calcium chloride, concentrations 0 (water, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0%.Experiment 2 were three foliar applications of calcium nitrate, concentrations 0 (water, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0%. A randomized block experimental design was used with three replications and three plants for treatment. Leaves were collected, oven-dried and analyzed total calcium, nitrogen, potassium and magnesium. In the maturation, fruits were collected and determined the mass, yield and total content of calcium, nitrogen, potassium and magnesium. The results showed that foliar applications of calcium in the form of chloride and nitrate in peach tree, increase calcium content in the leaves, but did not affect the content of nitrogen, potassium and magnesium in the leaves, content of calcium, nitrogen, potassium and magnesium in the fruit and yield.

  8. Combining mid infrared and total X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy for prediction of soil properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towett, Erick; Shepherd, Keith; Sila, Andrew; Aynekulu, Ermias; Cadisch, Georg

    2015-04-01

    Mid-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (MIR) can predict many soil properties but extractable nutrients are often predicted poorly. We evaluated the potential of MIR and total elemental analysis using total X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (TXRF), both individually and combined, to predict results of conventional soil tests. Total multi-elemental analysis provides a fingerprint of soil mineralogy and could predict some soil properties and help improve MIR predictions. A set of 700 georeferenced soil samples associated with the Africa Soil Information Service (AfSIS) (www.africasoils.net) from 44 stratified randomly-located 100-km2 sentinel sites distributed across sub-Saharan Africa were analysed for physico-chemical composition using conventional reference methods, and compared to MIR and TXRF spectra using the Random Forests regression algorithm and an internal out-of-bag validation. MIR spectra resulted in good prediction models (R2 >0.80) for organic C and total N, Mehlich-3 Ca and Al, and pH. To test the combined spectroscopic approach, TXRF element concentration data was included as a property predictor along with the first derivative of MIR spectral data using the RF algorithm. Including TXRF did not improve prediction of these properties. TXRF was poorer (R2 0.86) as these elements are not directly determined with TXRF, however the variance explained is still quite high and may be attributable to TXRF signatures relating to mineralogy correlated with protection of soil organic matter. TXRF model for Mehlich-3 Al had excellent prediction capability explaining 81% of the observed variation in extractable Al content and was comparable to that of MIR (R2 = 0.86). However, models for pH and Mehlich-3 exchangeable Ca exhibited R2 values of 0.74 and 0.79 respectively and thus had moderate predictive accuracy, compared to MIR alone with R2 values of 0.82 and 0.84 respectively. Both MIR and TXRF methods predicted soil properties that relate to nutrient

  9. Use of hydroponics culture to assess nutrient supply by treated wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adrover, M.; Moya, G.; Vadell, J.

    2009-07-01

    The use of treated wastewater for irrigation is increasing, especially in those areas where water resources are limited. Treated wastewaters contain nutrients that are useful for plant growth and help to reduce fertilizers needs. Nutrient content of these waters depends on the treatment system. (Author)

  10. All washed out? Foliar nutrient resorption and leaching in senescing switchgrass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ideal bioenergy feedstocks are low in nutrients that act as anti-quality factors during conversion processes. Research has shown that delaying harvest of temperate perennial grasses until late winter reduces nutrient content, primarily due to end-season resorption, but also indicates a role for foli...

  11. A nutritional intervention to reduce the calorie content of meals served at psychiatric rehabilitation programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casagrande, Sarah Stark; Dalcin, Arlene; McCarron, Phyllis; Appel, Lawrence J; Gayles, Debra; Hayes, Jennifer; Daumit, Gail

    2011-12-01

    To assess the effectiveness of an intervention to reduce the calorie content of meals served at two psychiatric rehabilitation programs. Intervention staff assisted kitchen staff with ways to reduce calories and improve the nutritional quality of meals. Breakfast and lunch menus were collected before and after a 6-month intervention period. ESHA software was used to determine total energy and nutrient profiles of meals. Total energy of served meals significantly decreased by 28% at breakfast and 29% at lunch for site 1 (P breakfast for site 2 (P = 0.018). Total sugars significantly decreased at breakfast for both sites (P ≤ 0.001). In general, sodium levels were high before and after the intervention period. The nutrition intervention was effective in decreasing the total energy and altering the composition of macro-nutrients of meals. These results highlight an unappreciated opportunity to improve diet quality in patients attending psychiatric rehabilitation programs.

  12. Heavy metal, total arsenic, and inorganic arsenic contents of algae food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almela, C; Algora, S; Benito, V; Clemente, M J; Devesa, V; Súñer, M A; Vélez, D; Montoro, R

    2002-02-13

    The total arsenic, inorganic arsenic, lead, cadmium, and mercury contents of 18 algae food products currently on sale in Spain were determined. The suitability of the analytical methodologies for this type of matrix was confirmed by evaluating their analytical characteristics. The concentration ranges found for each contaminant, expressed in milligrams per kilogram of dry weight, were as follows: total arsenic, 2.3-141; inorganic arsenic, 0.15-88; lead, mercury, 0.004-0.04. There is currently no legislation in Spain regarding contaminants in algae food products, but some of the samples analyzed revealed Cd and inorganic As levels higher than those permitted by legislation in other countries. Given the high concentrations of inorganic As found in Hizikia fusiforme, a daily consumption of 1.7 g of the product would reach the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake recommended by the WHO for an average body weight of 68 kg. A more comprehensive study of the contents and toxicological implications of the inorganic As present in the algae food products currently sold in Spain may be necessary, which might then be the basis for the introduction of specific sales restrictions.

  13. Antioxidant, Cytotoxic Activities and Total Phenolic Content of Four Indonesian Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waras Nurcholis

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The crude ethanol extracts of four Indonesian medicinal plants namely Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb.,Phyllanthus niruri Linn., Andrographis paniculata Ness., and Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb. wereexamined for their antioxidant (radical scavenging activity using 2, 2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH free radical and cytotoxicity using brine shrimp lethality test (BSLT. The total phenoliccontent was used the Folin-Ciocalteu method. IC50 values for DPPH radical scavenging activityranged from 14.5 to 178.5 μg/ml, with P. niruri having the lowest value and therefore the mostpotent, and C. aeruginosa having the highest value. LC50 values for BSLT ranged from 210.3 to593.2 μg/ml, with C. xanthorrhiza and A. paniculata having the lowest and highest values,respectively. The total phenolic content of the Indonesian plants ranged from 133.0 ±3.7 to863.3±54.7 mg tannic acid equivalent per 1 g extract, with C. aeruginosa and P. niruri having thelowest and highest values, respectively. A positive correlation between free radical scavengingactivity and the content of phenolic compounds was found in the four of Indonesian medicinal plants.

  14. Nutrient dynamics and plant assemblages of Macrotermes falciger mounds in a savanna ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muvengwi, Justice; Ndagurwa, Hilton G. T.; Nyenda, Tatenda; Mbiba, Monicah

    2016-10-01

    Termites through mound construction and foraging activities contribute significantly to carbon and nutrient fluxes in nutrient-poor savannas. Despite this recognition, studies on the influence of termite mounds on carbon and nitrogen dynamics in sub-tropical savannas are limited. In this regard, we examined soil nutrient concentrations, organic carbon and nitrogen mineralization in incubation experiments in mounds of Macrotermes falciger and surrounding soils of sub-tropical savanna, northeast Zimbabwe. We also addressed whether termite mounds altered the plant community and if effects were similar across functional groups i.e. grasses, forbs or woody plants. Mound soils had significantly higher silt and clay content, pH and concentrations of calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), potassium (K), organic carbon (C), ammonium (NH4+) and nitrate (NO3-) than surrounding soils, with marginal differences in phosphorus (P) and sodium (Na) between mounds and matrix soils. Nutrient enrichment increased by a factor ranging from 1.5 for C, 4.9 for Mg up to 10.3 for Ca. Although C mineralization, nitrification and nitrification fraction were similar between mounds and matrix soils, nitrogen mineralization was elevated on mounds relative to surrounding matrix soils. As a result, termite mounds supported unique plant communities rich and abundant in woody species but less diverse in grasses and forbs than the surrounding savanna matrix in response to mound-induced shifts in soil parameters specifically increased clay content, drainage and water availability, nutrient status and base cation (mainly Ca, Mg and Na) concentration. In conclusion, by altering soil properties such as texture, moisture content and nutrient status, termite mounds can alter the structure and composition of sub-tropical savanna plant communities, and these results are consistent with findings in other savanna systems suggesting that increase in soil clay content, nutrient status and associated changes in the plant

  15. Modeling of the Ionospheric Scintillation and Total Electron Content Observations during the 21 August 2017 Total Solar Eclipse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta-Barua, S.; Gachancipa, J. N.; Deshpande, K.; Herrera, J. A.; Lehmacher, G. A.; Su, Y.; Gyuk, G.; Bust, G. S.; Hampton, D. L.

    2017-12-01

    High concentration of free electrons in the ionosphere can cause fluctuations in incoming electromagnetic waves, such as those from the different Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). The behavior of the ionosphere depends on time and location, and it is highly influenced by solar activity. The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of a total solar eclipse on the local ionosphere in terms of ionospheric scintillations, and on the global ionosphere in terms of TEC (Total Electron Content). The studied eclipse occurred on 21 August 2017 across the continental United States. During the eclipse, we expected to see a decrease in the scintillation strength, as well as in the TEC values. As a broader impact part of our recently funded NSF proposal, we temporarily deployed two GNSS receivers on the eclipse's totality path. One GNSS receiver was placed in Clemson, SC. This is a multi-frequency GNSS receiver (NovAtel GPStation-6) capable of measuring high and low rate scintillation data as well as TEC values from four different GNSS systems. We had the receiver operating before, during, and after the solar eclipse to enable the comparison between eclipse and non-eclipse periods. A twin receiver collected data at Daytona Beach, FL during the same time, where an 85% partial solar eclipse was observed. Additionally, we set up a ground receiver onsite in the path of totality in Perryville, Missouri, from which the Adler Planetarium of Chicago launched a high-altitude balloon to capture a 360-degree video of the eclipse from the stratosphere. By analyzing the collected data, this study looks at the effects of partial and total solar eclipse periods on high rate GNSS scintillation data at mid-latitudes, which had not been explored in detail. This study also explores the impact of solar eclipses on signals from different satellite constellations (GPS, GLONASS, and Galileo). Throughout the eclipse, the scintillation values did not appear to have dramatic changes

  16. TOTAL PHENOLIC CONTENT, ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES OF THE EXTRACT OF EPHEDRA PROCERA FISCH. ET MEY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehkordi, Naser Vahed; Kachouie, Mehrdad Ataie; Pirbalouti, Abdollah Ghasemi; Malekpoor, Fatemeh; Rabei, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Ephedra prcera belonging to the family Ephedraceae is a poison and medicinal plant. The main aim of present study was to determine total phenolic content and antioxidant and antibacterial activities of ethanolic extract from the aerial parts of E. procera collected from a natural habitat in Chaharmahal va Bakhtiari province, Southwestern Iran. The total phenolic content of the extract by Folin-Ciocalteu method and the antioxidant activity using DPPH assay were determined. The antibacterial activity, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the extract were evaluated against five bacteria, including Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enteobacter aeogenes, Bacillus ceirus and Staphylococcus aureus. Total phenolic content in the extract of E. procera was 0.718 mg tannic acid/g dry weight extract. The results indicated that the ethanolic extract of E. piocera exhibited radical scavenging activity. In addition, the results of this study confirmed that the ethanolic extract of E. procera exhibited antibacterial activity. In conclusion, the extract of E. piocera could be an important source of phenolic components with antioxidant capacity and antibacterial activity.

  17. Effect of ensiling process of total mixed ration on fermentation profile, nutrient loss and in situ ruminal degradation characteristics of diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaji, Makoto; Matsuyama, Hiroki; Nonaka, Kazuhisa

    2017-01-01

    This experiment aimed to determine the changes in chemical composition, fermentation profile, in situ disappearance characteristics, and nutrient losses of ensiled total mixed ration (TMR) containing steam-flaked corn or brown rice (BR) during storage. TMRs for dairy cows, containing either steam-flaked corn or BR at 31.9% with 15.2% rye silage, 40.5% alfalfa silage, 5.0% beet pulp and 7.0% soybean meal, were prepared (dry matter (DM) basis). Each TMR was placed in a plastic drum silo, stored at 23°C in an air-conditioned room and sampled 0, 7, 14, 30, 90 and 210 days after preparation. In both grain sources, the fermentation products increased, while DM and starch storage losses increased and starch content greatly decreased during storage. The rapidly degradable fraction and effective ruminal degradability of DM, crude protein and starch increased during storage. These changes of dietary characteristics were large during 30 days of storage, but small after 90 days of storage. Replacing corn with BR led to increased fermentation products, starch loss and effective ruminal degradability of the ensiled TMR. These results indicate that the ensiling process of TMR changes the dietary characteristics and replacing corn with BR in TMR had a large impact on these dietary characteristics. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  18. Effects of water addition to total mixed ration on water intake, nutrient digestibility, wool cortisol and blood indices in Corriedale ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalil Ghassemi Nejad

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective The objective of this study was to determine the effect of adding water to total mixed ration (TMR on fresh water intake, nutrient digestibility, wool cortisol, and blood indices in Corriedale ewes under hot and humid conditions. Methods Nine non-pregnant Corriedale ewes (ave. body weight = 41±3.5 kg were individually fed diets based on maintenance requirements in metabolic crates. Ewes were assigned to three treatment groups according to a triplicate 3×3 Latin Square design for 3 periods of 21 days duration each (9 ewes per treatment, 27 replications. Treatments were TMR (crude protein [CP] = 16.1, total digestible nutrients = 69.1% moisture levels for 40%, 50%, and 60%. Results No differences were found in body weight gain among all treatment groups (p>0.05. Nitrogen balance including digestible N, retained N, and urinary and fecal N showed no change among the treatment groups (p>0.05. Fresh water intake was the lower in 50% TMR moisture group than in the other groups (p0.05. No significant difference was observed for serum protein, blood urea nitrogen, glucose, and triglyceride among the treatment groups (p>0.05. Wool and blood cortisol were not different among the treatment groups (p>0.05. Blood hematology including red blood cell, white blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit, basophils, and eosinophils were not different among the treatment groups (p>0.05. Conclusion It is concluded that TMR moisture at 40%, 50%, and 60% had no effects on N balance parameters, and nutrient digestibilities except for the ether extract under hot and humid conditions. Additionally there were no effects on stress conditions include wool cortisol, as well as blood cortisol levels of ewes.

  19. Effects of nutrient enrichment derived from fish farming activities on macroinvertebrate assemblages in a subtropical region of Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qin-Feng; Cheung, Kwok-Leung; Cheung, Siu-Gin; Shin, Paul K S

    2005-01-01

    To study the correlation between nutrient enrichment derived from fish farming activities and changes in macrobenthic assemblages, a one-year field study was conducted in Kau Sai Bay marine fish culture zone of Hong Kong. Bimonthly sediment samples were collected at six stations: two at the fish cages, two near the boundary of the fish culture area, and two reference sites further away from the culture area. Sediment physico-chemical characteristics in terms of silt/clay fraction, moisture content, total organic carbon (TOC), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) and total phosphorus (TP) were analyzed. The macrobenthos (>0.5 mm) present in the sediment were sorted, identified and enumerated. On average, TOC, TKN and TP levels at the fish cage stations were 82.8%, 128.5% and 1315.7% higher than those at the reference stations, respectively. As a result, the N:P molar ratio was greatly reduced from 8.75 at the reference stations to 1.83 at the fish cage stations. Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that diversity of macrofauna was significantly reduced and community structure differed at the fish cage stations relative to the reference sites. The intermediary stations near the fish culture area showed a transitional state of disturbance. Faunal diversity was negatively correlated with nutrient level, reflecting the adverse impacts of nutrient enrichment derived from fish farming activities on the benthic assemblages. Whilst in subtropical Asia-Pacific trash fish is the major feed for fish culture resulting in a higher nutrient loading and nutrient ratio accumulated in the sediment beneath the fish rafts, the effects of nutrient enrichment on macrobenthic assemblages are comparable to that in temperate waters owing to relatively high sediment metabolism rate and smaller fish culture scale in Hong Kong.

  20. Modeling nutrient in-stream processes at the watershed scale using Nutrient Spiralling metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcé, R.; Armengol, J.

    2009-07-01

    One of the fundamental problems of using large-scale biogeochemical models is the uncertainty involved in aggregating the components of fine-scale deterministic models in watershed applications, and in extrapolating the results of field-scale measurements to larger spatial scales. Although spatial or temporal lumping may reduce the problem, information obtained during fine-scale research may not apply to lumped categories. Thus, the use of knowledge gained through fine-scale studies to predict coarse-scale phenomena is not straightforward. In this study, we used the nutrient uptake metrics defined in the Nutrient Spiralling concept to formulate the equations governing total phosphorus in-stream fate in a deterministic, watershed-scale biogeochemical model. Once the model was calibrated, fitted phosphorus retention metrics where put in context of global patterns of phosphorus retention variability. For this purpose, we calculated power regressions between phosphorus retention metrics, streamflow, and phosphorus concentration in water using published data from 66 streams worldwide, including both pristine and nutrient enriched streams. Performance of the calibrated model confirmed that the Nutrient Spiralling formulation is a convenient simplification of the biogeochemical transformations involved in total phosphorus in-stream fate. Thus, this approach may be helpful even for customary deterministic applications working at short time steps. The calibrated phosphorus retention metrics were comparable to field estimates from the study watershed, and showed high coherence with global patterns of retention metrics from streams of the world. In this sense, the fitted phosphorus retention metrics were similar to field values measured in other nutrient enriched streams. Analysis of the bibliographical data supports the view that nutrient enriched streams have lower phosphorus retention efficiency than pristine streams, and that this efficiency loss is maintained in a wide

  1. Evaluation of the isoflavone and total phenolic contents of kefir-fermented soymilk storage and after the in vitro digestive system simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Fernandes, Meg; Sanches Lima, Fernando; Rodrigues, Daniele; Handa, Cintia; Guelfi, Marcela; Garcia, Sandra; Ida, Elza Iouko

    2017-08-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the isoflavone and total phenolic contents in kefir-fermented soymilk storage and after the in vitro digestive system simulation (DSS). Soymilk was fermented with kefir culture (0.02UC/L) at 25°C for 15h and stored at 4°C for 4days. After the fermentation and storage, the isoflavone and total phenolic contents were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography and spectrophotometry, respectively. The cell viability of lactic acid bacteria and yeast was evaluated. Fermentation promoted an increase of approximately 3log CFU/g cycles of the microorganisms and the storage process did not alter the aglycone isoflavones and total phenolic contents. The content of aglycone isoflavones increased 2-fold, and the total phenolic content increased 9-fold. Therefore, kefir-fermented soymilk is a good source of aglycone isoflavones and phenolics, since the content of these substances was increased significantly after the in vitro digestive system simulation of the product. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Alocação de nutrientes em plantios de eucalipto no Brasil Nutrient allocation in eucalypt plantations in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynaldo Campos Santana

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Práticas de manejo florestal podem alterar a exportação de nutrientes do sítio. Este trabalho teve por objetivo estimar o conteúdo de nutrientes em árvores de eucalipto, em diferentes regiões do Brasil. Avaliou-se a influência de algumas características climáticas na produção e no conteúdo de nutrientes na biomassa, utilizando-se o banco de dados do Programa de Pesquisa em Solos e Nutrição de Eucalipto do Departamento de Solos - UFV. As características climáticas foram um importante componente dos modelos. A produção de biomassa e o conteúdo de nutrientes foram positivamente relacionados entre si e ambos foram menores nas regiões com menor disponibilidade de água. As estimativas apontaram que até à idade de 4,5 anos pós-plantio acumulam-se as maiores proporções de nutrientes (68 % do N, 69 % do P, 67 % do K, 63 % do Ca e 68 % do Mg para a idade de corte de 6,5 anos. Isto indica que, após 4,5 anos, o potencial de resposta à aplicação de fertilizantes é menor. O conteúdo estimado de nutrientes acumulados na copa e na casca representou 65, 70, 64, 79 e 79 %, de N, P, K, Ca e Mg, respectivamente, até 6,5 anos de idade. Assim, a colheita apenas do lenho representa expressiva redução na exportação desses nutrientes proporcionando maior sustentabilidade da produção nas plantações de eucalipto.Forest management practices can alter nutrient exportation from the site. The purpose of this study was to estimate nutrient contents in the aboveground biomass of eucalyptus plantations in Brazil. The influence of key climatic variables on eucalypt productivity and nutrient content was evaluated, using the database from the Reserch Programa on Soil and Eucalyptus Nutrition of the Soil Science, Departament - Federal University of Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Climatic characteristics were an important component of the models. In regions with low water availability the nutrient accumulation in aboveground biomass as

  3. JUICE EXTRACTION FOR TOTAL SOLUBLE SOLIDS CONTENT DETERMINATION IN MELON

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    Paulo Sérgio Lima e Silva

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The total soluble solids content (TSSC shows high positive correlation with sugars content, and therefore is generally accepted as an important quality trait of fruits. In melon, this evaluation is usually done by grinding a slice of the fruit's pulp in a household food processor, straining the ground material and then proceeding the TSSC determination in the resulting juice. This evaluation is labor-intensive and takes a long time to complete. An alternative process was delineated for obtaining the juice: the pulp of the fruit slice would be transversally cut one or more times, and longitudinally pressed by hand to obtain the juice. The objective of this work was to compare processes for obtaining juice to evaluate TSSC in melons. Fifty, 15, and 15 fruits of the Galia, Yellow, and Cantaloupe type melons were evaluated, respectively. Each fruit was considered as a block, and was longitudinally split into six fractions with similar sizes, which corresponded to the plots. The following treatments were evaluated: fraction without cuts, fractions with one, three, five, or seven transversal cuts, and the fraction treated by the conventional process. It was concluded that the procedure by which the melon slices of Galia, Yellow and Cantaloupe types are pressed for obtaining the juice to evaluate TSSC can overestimate this content. This would probably be due to the fact that the most internal section of the mesocarp presents greater TSSC than the portions closer to the epicarp.

  4. Diversidad genética y contenido de carotenos totales en accesiones de yuca (Manihot esculenta Crantz Genetic diversity and total carotene content in accessions of the cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cruz Morillo C.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available La yuca (Manihot esculenta Crantz es un arbusto perenne cultivado en África, América Latina y el Sureste asiático, cuya raíz constituye una fuente importante de energía en la dieta humana en países tropicales. Los carotenoides son pigmentos naturales que se encuentran ampliamente distribuidos en la naturaleza. Se reconoce que aproximadamente cincuenta de ellos tienen actividad provitamina A, siendo b-caroteno el de mayor eficiencia para su conversión en vitamina A. El estudio de la variabilidad genética es un procedimiento útil para fortificar, enriquecer o incrementar el contenido de nutrientes de los alimentos o cultivos, entre ellos los carotenos en raíz de yuca mediante procesos de selección y recombinación en programas de mejoramiento que permitan identificar genotipos superiores. En el presente estudio, a partir de la evaluación de la diversidad genética, se generó un dendrograma de accesiones de yuca en el cual se formaron seis grupos con 68% de similitud. La heterocigosidad promedio observada fue de Ht = 0.559. Los análisis de regresión y correlación entre el contenido de carotenos totales y los datos moleculares mostraron que los marcadores que se encuentran correlacionados con altos contenidos de carotenos pertenecen al grupo de ligamiento D del mapa molecular de yuca.Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz is a perennial shrub cultivated in Africa, Latin America and Southeast Asia. It is an important dietary source for humans in tropical countries. Carotenoids are natural pigments that are widely distributed in the nature, where about 50 of them have provitamin A activity, b-carotene has been the most efficient. Among the procedures to fortify (enrich or increase the nutritional content of foods or crops cassava varieties, the study of genetic variability of the content of carotenoids in the root is one of the most common to carried out processes of selection and recombination in the breeding program which will allow the

  5. Evaluation and comparison of the content of total polyphenols and antioxidant activity of selected species of the genus Allium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna LENKOVÁ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The species of the genus Allium are very important crops for human health. They contain many health beneficial substances, such as polyphenols (especially flavonoids, sulphur compounds, vitamins, mineral substances and substances with antioxidant activity. This work has focused on the comparison of total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of selected species of the genus Allium – garlic (Allium sativum L., chives (Allium schoenoprasum L., ramson (Allium ursinum L. and red, yellow and white onion (Allium cepa L.. Samples of plant material were collected at the stage of full maturity in the area of Nitra. Total polyphenols content was determined using the spectrophotometric method of Folin-Ciocalteu agents. Determined the content of total polyphenols were in the range 444.3 - 1591 mg*kg-1. Total polyphenols content in the observed crops declined in the following order: chives > red onion > garlic > yellow onion > ramson > white onion. Antioxidant activity was measured by the spectrophotometric method using a compound DPPH (2.2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl. Determined the value of antioxidant activity ranged 12.29 – 76.57%. Antioxidant activity observed in crops declined in the following order: chives > ramson > red onion > yellow onion > garlic > white onion. In all the analysed crop plants was confirmed by the strong dependence of the antioxidant activity and the total content of polyphenolic substances.

  6. Comparison of the nutrient content of fresh fruit juices vs commercial fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Densupsoontorn, Narumon; Jirapinyo, Pipop; Thamonsiri, Nuchnoi; Wongarn, Renu; Phosuya, Panarat; Tritiprat, Amornrat; Patraarat, Siriphan; Pidatcha, Pannee; Suwannthol, Lerson

    2002-08-01

    To compare the types and quantities of carbohydrate, electrolytes, pH and osmolarity of fresh fruit juices and commercial fruit juices. Forty kinds of fresh fruits available in Thai markets were analyzed for types and quantities of carbohydrate, electrolyte, pH and osmolarity and compared with previously obtained data for commercial fruit juices. Most fresh fruit juices did not contain sucrose, whereas, commercial fruit juices mostly have sucrose in the range of 3-112 g/L. Although both fruit juices were acidic (pH varied from 3.6-6.7 and 3.2-5.8 of fresh juice and commercial juice), fresh fruit juices had a more neutral pH than commercial fruit juices. Apple, guava, orange, pear, and pineapple juices from commercial fruit juices had a high osmolarity compared with fresh fruit juices. All types of fresh fruit juices contained less sodium than commercial ones, whereas, most fresh fruit juices contained more potassium, phosphorus, and magnesium than commercial fluids. The nutrient content of fresh fruit juices and commercial fruit juices from the same kinds of fruits are not the same, possibly due to the manufacturing process. Therefore, physicians should know the composition of fruit juices in order to advise patients properly.

  7. Fermentation and complex enzyme hydrolysis for improving the total soluble phenolic contents, flavonoid aglycones contents and bio-activities of guava leaves tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Luo, You; Wu, Yanan; Liu, Yan; Wu, Zhenqiang

    2018-10-30

    There are both soluble and insoluble-bound forms of phenolics in tea-leaf products. In order to increase total soluble phenolics contents, guava leaves tea (GLT) was first fermented with Monascus anka and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and then hydrolyzed with complex enzymes. The changes in phenolics profiles, antioxidant activities and inhibitory effect on α-glucosidase in processed GLT were investigated. Compared with the un-fermented GLT, fermentation and complex enzymatic processing (FE) significantly increased the total phenolics, total flavonoids, quercetin and kaempferol contents by 2.1, 2.0, 13.0 and 6.8 times, respectively. After the FE, a major proportion of phenolics existed in the soluble form. Quercetin was released in the highest amount among different phenolics. In addition, soluble phenolic extracts from GLT following FE exhibited a highest antioxidant activity and inhibitory effect on α-glucosidase. The paper suggested an improved method for processing GLT into high-value products rich in phenolics and flavonoids aglycones with enhanced health benefits. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Total phenolic contents and free-radical scavenging activities of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) and grape products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keser, Serhat; Celik, Sait; Turkoglu, Semra

    2013-03-01

    Grape is one of the world's largest fruit crops, with an approximate annual production of 58 million metric tons, and it is well known that the grape skins, seeds and stems, waste products generated during wine and grape juice processing, are rich sources of polyphenols. It contains flavonoids, phenolic acids and stilbenes. In this study, we tried to determine antioxidant properties and phenolic contents of grape and grape products (fresh fruit, seed, dried fruit, molasses, pestil, vinegar) of ethanol and water extracts. Antioxidant properties of extracts were investigated by DPPH(√), ABTS(√+), superoxide, H(2)O(2) scavenging, reducing power, metal chelating activity and determination of total phenolic contents. The seed extracts revealed highest ABTS(√+), DPPH(√), H(2)O(2) scavenging and reducing power activities. Furthermore, these extracts showed higher total phenolic contents than other grape product extracts.

  9. Wheat cultivar tolerance to boron deficiency and toxicity in nutrient solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furlani Ângela Maria Cangiani

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Field symptoms of open spikelets in wheat were observed in specific cultivars and supposedly related to low B soils and differential B requirement among cultivars. This study aimed to evaluate the response of four wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivars, IAC 24, IAC 60, IAC 287 and IAC 289, to increasing B concentrations in nutrient solution. The experiment was set up in a randomized complete block design, with four replicates and five B concentrations (0.0, 0.05, 0.2, 0.8 and 2.0 mg L-1, during 1997/1998, in a greenhouse. Plants were grown to maturity and evaluated for plant height, spike number and length, open spikelet number, grains per spike, plant parts dry matter, B, P, K, Ca and Mg leaf concentrations and total nutrient contents. The visual symptoms of B deficiency consisted of open spikelets, distorted spikes without grains. 'IAC 60' and 'IAC 287' had higher B efficiency, with the highest grain yields in lower B concentrations. The 'IAC 287' and 'IAC 24' were more tolerant to the highest B concentrations. 'IAC 24' required more B for grain production as compared to the other cultivars. The critical leaf B concentration for deficiency was 25 mg kg-1 of dry matter tissue for all cultivars, and for toxicity were: 44 to 45 mg kg-1 for 'IAC 60' and 'IAC 289'; 228 and 318 mg kg-1 for 'IAC 24' and 'IAC 287', respectively. Except for the highest B level in the nutrient solution, the leaf P, K, Ca and Mg concentrations and whole plant contents were in an adequate range in the plants and did not vary among cultivars.

  10. Fruit quality, anthocyanin and total phenolic contents, and antioxidant activities of 45 blueberry cultivars grown in Suwon, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Gook; Kim, Hong Lim; Kim, Su Jin; Park, Kyo-Sun

    2013-09-01

    Blueberry fruits from 45 commercial cultivars (39 northern highbush and 6 half highbush blueberry) grown in Suwon, Korea were analyzed for fruit size, soluble solids content, titratable acidity, total anthocyanin content, total phenolic content, and antioxidant activity. Fruit characteristics varied widely among the 45 blueberry cultivars. Fruit weight ranged from 0.9 to 3.6 g, soluble solids content from 8.3 to 14.3 °Brix, and titratable acidity from 0.8% to 3.6%. Antioxidant activity ranged from 0.7 to 2.1 mg of quercetin equivalents per gram of fresh berries in different blueberry cultivars. Among the 45 blueberry cultivars, high amounts of anthocyanins and polyphenols, and high antioxidant activity were observed in 'Elliott', 'Rubel', 'Rancocas', and 'Friendship'.

  11. Stability of total nutrient admixtures with lipid injectable emulsions in glass versus plastic packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, David F; Silvestri, Anthony P; Bistrian, Bruce R; Mikrut, Bernard A

    2007-02-15

    The physical stability of two emulsions compounded as part of a total nutrient admixture (TNA) was studied in lipids packaged in either glass or plastic containers. Five weight-based adult TNA formulations that were designed to meet the full nutritional needs of adults with body weights between 40 and 80 kg were studied. Triplicate preparations of each TNA were assessed over 30 hours at room temperature by applying currently proposed United States Pharmacopeia (USP) criteria for mean droplet diameter, large-diameter tail, and globule-size distribution (GSD) for lipid injectable emulsions. In accordance with conditions set forth in USP chapter 729, the higher levels of volume-weighted percent of fat exceeding 5 microm (PFAT(5)) should not exceed 0.05% of the total lipid concentration. Significant differences were noted among TNA admixtures based on whether the lipid emulsion product was manufactured in glass or plastic. The plastic-contained TNAs failed the proposed USP methods for large-diameter fat globules in all formulations from the outset, and 60% had significant growth in large-diameter fat globules over time. In contrast, glass-contained TNAs were stable throughout and in all cases would have passed proposed USP limits. Certain lipid injectable emulsions packaged in plastic containers have baseline abnormal GSD profiles compared with those packaged in glass containers. When used to compound TNAs, the abnormal profile worsens and produces less stable TNAs than those compounded with lipid injectable emulsions packaged in glass containers.

  12. Total Hydrocarbon Content (THC) Testing in Liquid Oxygen (LOX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghelli, B. J.; Obregon, R. E.; Ross, H. R.; Hebert, B. J.; Sass, J. P.; Dirschka, G. E.

    2016-01-01

    The measured Total Hydrocarbon Content (THC) levels in liquid oxygen (LOX) systems at Stennis Space Center (SSC) have shown wide variations. Examples of these variations include the following: 1) differences between vendor-supplied THC values and those obtained using standard SSC analysis procedures; and 2) increasing THC values over time at an active SSC test stand in both storage and run vessels. A detailed analysis of LOX sampling techniques, analytical instrumentation, and sampling procedures will be presented. Additional data obtained on LOX system operations and LOX delivery trailer THC values during the past 12-24 months will also be discussed. Field test results showing THC levels and the distribution of the THC's in the test stand run tank, modified for THC analysis via dip tubes, will be presented.

  13. Determination of fat and total protein content in milk using conventional digital imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucheryavskiy, Sergey; Melenteva, Anastasiia; Bogomolov, Andrey

    2014-04-01

    The applicability of conventional digital imaging to quantitative determination of fat and total protein in cow's milk, based on the phenomenon of light scatter, has been proved. A new algorithm for extracting features from digital images of milk samples has been developed. The algorithm takes into account spatial distribution of light, diffusely transmitted through a sample. The proposed method has been tested on two sample sets prepared from industrial raw milk standards, with variable fat and protein content. Partial Least-Squares (PLS) regression on the features calculated from images of monochromatically illuminated milk samples resulted in models with high prediction performance when analysed the sets separately (best models with cross-validated R(2)=0.974 for protein and R(2)=0.973 for fat content). However when analysed the sets jointly with the obtained results were significantly worse (best models with cross-validated R(2)=0.890 for fat content and R(2)=0.720 for protein content). The results have been compared with previously published Vis/SW-NIR spectroscopic study of similar samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of pig manure on nutrient composition, growth and yield of Okra

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five rates of manure, 0,2.5,5.0,7.5, and 10.0t/ha and NPK (15-15-15) fertilizer } at 200kg/ha were compared as to their effects on leaf nutrient composition, growth and pod yield of okra. Pig manure increased okra leaf nutrient N,P,K Ca and Mg contents, and the nutrients increased with application of manure. NPK fertilizer ...

  15. 21 CFR 107.10 - Nutrient information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... supplied by 100 kilocalories: Nutrients Unit of measurement Protein Grams. Fat Do. Carbohydrate Do. Water... of milligram alpha-tocopherol equivalents, and sodium, potassium, and chloride content in units of... bases, such as per 100 milliliters or per liter, as prepared for infant consumption. (4) One of the...

  16. Effect of salinity stress on plant fresh weight and nutrient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of salinity stress on plant fresh weight and nutrient composition of some Canola ( Brassica napus L.) cultivars. ... K+, Ca2+ and K+/Na+ contents in plants decreased by salt stress, but Na+ and Cl- content in the roots, ... from 32 Countries:.

  17. Bran data of total flavonoid and total phenolic contents, oxygen radical absorbance capacity, and profiles of proanthocyanidins and whole grain physical traits of 32 red and purple rice varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hsuan Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemicals in red and purple bran rice have potential health benefit to humans. We determined the phytochemicals in brans of 32 red and purple global rice varieties. The description of the origin and physical traits of the whole grain (color, length, width, thickness and 100-kernel weight of this germplasm collection are provided along with data of total flavonoid and total phenolic contents, oxygen radical absorbance capacity and total proanthocyanidin contents. The contents and proportions of individual oligomers, from degree of polymerization of monomers to 14-mers, and polymers in bran of these 32 rice varieties are presented (DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.04.004 [1]. Keywords: Purple rice, Red rice, Black rice, Proanthocyanidins, Tannins, Flavonoids, Rice bran

  18. Determination of total phenolic compound contents and antioxidant capacity of persimmon skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mohamadi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to the adverse side effects of synthetic antioxidants, the search for natural and safe antioxidants has become crucial. In this study, the total phenolic compound contents and antioxidants activity of persimmon skin was investigated. The extraction was carried out by means of maceration method using ethanol and methanol solvents with ratio of 1 part persimmon skin to 5 parts of solvents. Afterwards, the total phenolic compounds and antioxidants activity was measured. According to the results, ethanolic and methanolic extracts contained 255.6 and 214.15 mg gallic acid per 100 g of persimmon skin, respectively. Moreover, ethanolic extracts showed a higher activity for scavenging free radicals compared to methanolic extracts.

  19. Determining total sulfur content in coal by MSC radiometric sulfur meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czerw, B; Sikora, T; Golebiowski, W

    1976-01-01

    The MSC radiometric sulfur meter is used to determine total sulfur content in brown and black coals. Sulfur content is determined by measuring intensity of radiation beam which has travelled through a coal sample with the optimum constant surface mass. Construction of the MSC, consisting of a measuring head and the electronic measuring system, is shown in a scheme. AM-241 (with activity of 50 mCi) is the source of radiation. Energy of 25.3 keV (tin disc) is selected as the optimum. The SSU-70 probe with NaJ/Tl crystal is the radiation detector. The black coal sample weighs 10 g and the brown coal sample weighs 18 g. Duration of sulfur determination is 10 min. Error of sulfur determination ranges from plus or minus 0.2% to 0.3%. The results of operational tests of MSC radiometric sulfur meters in black and brown coal mines are discussed. Accuracy of measurement is shown in 5 tables. (8 refs.)

  20. Automated nutrient analyses in seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitledge, T.E.; Malloy, S.C.; Patton, C.J.; Wirick, C.D.

    1981-02-01

    This manual was assembled for use as a guide for analyzing the nutrient content of seawater samples collected in the marine coastal zone of the Northeast United States and the Bering Sea. Some modifications (changes in dilution or sample pump tube sizes) may be necessary to achieve optimum measurements in very pronounced oligotrophic, eutrophic or brackish areas. Information is presented under the following section headings: theory and mechanics of automated analysis; continuous flow system description; operation of autoanalyzer system; cookbook of current nutrient methods; automated analyzer and data analysis software; computer interfacing and hardware modifications; and trouble shooting. The three appendixes are entitled: references and additional reading; manifold components and chemicals; and software listings. (JGB)

  1. Analysis of total iodine in soils of some agro-ecological zones of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwakye, P.K.; Osei-Agyeman, K.; Frimpong, K.A.; Adams, A.B.; Okae-Anti, D.

    2004-10-01

    Iodine is beneficial in human nutrition and to a lesser extent in plant nutrition. Availability of this element in the soil is thought to be via ocean-atmosphere precipitation, iodine minerals and redistribution by vegetation, but very little is known about levels of iodine in Ghanaian soils. We analyzed for the content of total iodine alongside pH, organic carbon, total nitrogen, cation exchange capacity, sand, silt and clay in top soils of selected agro-ecological zones. These soils occur at various locations spanning from the coastline to the far interior. Variations in nutrient elements were attributed to diverse parent materials from which these soils originated and the complex interactions of organic matter, type of clay, acidity-alkalinity and leaching processes. The soils recorded low total iodine content of 0.08 - 3.92 μg g - 1. There was a decreasing trend of iodine from the coastal zone inwards in the order of 1.85, 0.84 and μg g - 1 for the coastal savanna, semi-deciduous rainforest and Guinea savanna agro-ecological zones respectively. Iodine very weakly negatively correlated with C and N and showed a moderate positive correlation with clay content and moderate negative correlations with pH and sand content. (author)

  2. Mixed Wastewater Coupled with CO2 for Microalgae Culturing and Nutrient Removal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Yao

    Full Text Available Biomass, nutrient removal capacity, lipid productivity and morphological changes of Chlorella sorokiniana and Desmodesmus communis were investigated in mixed wastewaters with different CO2 concentrations. Under optimal condition, which was 1:3 ratio of swine wastewater to second treated municipal wastewater with 5% CO2, the maximum biomass concentrations were 1.22 g L-1 and 0.84 g L-1 for C. sorokiniana and D. communis, respectively. Almost all of the ammonia and phosphorus were removed, the removal rates of total nitrogen were 88.05% for C. sorokiniana and 83.18% for D. communis. Lipid content reached 17.04% for C. sorokiniana and 20.37% for D. communis after 10 days culture. CO2 aeration increased intracellular particle numbers of both microalgae and made D. communis tend to be solitary. The research suggested the aeration of CO2 improve the tolerance of microalgae to high concentration of NH4-N, and nutrient excess stress could induce lipid accumulation of microalgae.

  3. Antiproliferative activity in tumor cell lines, antioxidant capacity and total phenolic, flavonoid and tannin contents of Myrciaria floribunda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIS A.C. TIETBOHL

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Myrciaria floribunda (H. West ex Willd. O. Berg, Myrtaceae, is a native plant species of the Atlantic Rain Forest, from north to south of Brazil. The lyophilized ethyl acetate extract from the leaves of M. floribunda was investigated for its antiproliferative activity in tumor cell lines, antioxidant capacity and its total phenolic, flavonoid and tannin contents. Antiproliferative activity was tested in vitro against seven human cancer cells and against immortalized human skin keratinocytes line (HaCat, no cancer cell. Antioxidant activity was determined using 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging and oxygen radical absorbing capacity (ORAC assays and total phenolic, flavonoid and tannin contents were determined by spectrophotometric techniques. Ethyl acetate extract of M. floribunda exhibited antiproliferative activity against cancer cell lines with total growth inhibition (TGI between 69.70 and 172.10 µg/mL. For HaCat cell, TGI value was 213.60 µg/mL. M. floribunda showed a strong antioxidant potential: EC50 of 45.89±0.42 µg/mL and 0.55±0.05 mmol TE/g for DPPH and ORAC, respectively. Total phenolic content was 0.23±0.013g gallic acid equivalents (GAE/g extract and exhibited 13.10±1.60% of tannins content. The content of flavonoid was 24.08±0.44% expressed as rutin equivalents. These results provide a direction for further researches about the antitumoral potential of M. floribunda.

  4. Testing the capacity of a Multi-Nutrient profiling system to guide food and beverage reformulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Combet, Emilie; Vlassopoulos, Antonis; Molenberg, Famke; Gressier, Mathilde; Privet, Lisa; Wratten, Craig; Sharif, Sahar; Vieux, Florent; Lehmann, Undine; Masset, Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    Nutrient profiling ranks foods based on their nutrient composition, with applications in multiple aspects of food policy. We tested the capacity of a category-specific model developed for product reformulation to improve the average nutrient content of foods, using five national food composition

  5. Similar taste-nutrient relationships in commonly consumed Dutch and Malaysian foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Pey Sze; van Langeveld, Astrid W B; Pol, Korrie; Siebelink, Els; de Graaf, Cees; Yan, See Wan; Mars, Monica

    2018-06-01

    Three recent studies showed that taste intensity signals nutrient content. However, current data reflects only the food patterns in Western societies. No study has yet been performed in Asian culture. The Malaysian cuisine represents a mixture of Malay, Chinese and Indian foods. This study aimed to investigate the associations between taste intensity and nutrient content in commonly consumed Dutch (NL) and Malaysian (MY) foods. Perceived intensities of sweetness, sourness, bitterness, umami, saltiness and fat sensation were assessed for 469 Dutch and 423 Malaysian commonly consumed foods representing about 83% and 88% of an individual's average daily energy intake in each respective country. We used a trained Dutch (n = 15) and Malaysian panel (n = 20) with quantitative sensory Spectrum™ 100-point rating scales and reference solutions, R1 (13-point), R2 (33-point) and R3 (67-point). Dutch and Malaysian foods had relatively low mean sourness and bitterness (content (R 2  = 0.56 (NL), 0.17(MY)) in Dutch and Malaysian foods (all, p < 0.001). The associations between taste intensity and nutrient content are not different between different countries, except for fat sensation-fat content. The two dimensional basic taste-nutrient space, representing the variance and associations between tastes and nutrients, is similar between Dutch and Malaysian commonly consumed foods. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Nutrient additions to mitigate for loss of Pacific salmon: consequences for stream biofilm and nutrient dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcarelli, Amy M.; Baxter, Colden V.; Wipfli, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    Mitigation activities designed to supplement nutrient and organic matter inputs to streams experiencing decline or loss of Pacific salmon typically presuppose that an important pathway by which salmon nutrients are moved to fish (anadromous and/or resident) is via nutrient incorporation by biofilms and subsequent bottom-up stimulation of biofilm production, which is nutrient-limited in many ecosystems where salmon returns have declined. Our objective was to quantify the magnitude of nutrient incorporation and biofilm dynamics that underpin this indirect pathway in response to experimental additions of salmon carcasses and pelletized fish meal (a.k.a., salmon carcass analogs) to 500-m reaches of central Idaho streams over three years. Biofilm standing crops increased 2–8-fold and incorporated marine-derived nutrients (measured using 15N and 13C) in the month following treatment, but these responses did not persist year-to-year. Biofilms were nitrogen (N) limited before treatments, and remained N limited in analog, but not carcass-treated reaches. Despite these biofilm responses, in the month following treatment total N load was equal to 33–47% of the N added to the treated reaches, and N spiraling measurements suggested that as much as 20%, but more likely 2–3% of added N was taken up by microbes. Design of biologically and cost-effective strategies for nutrient addition will require understanding the rates at which stream microbes take up nutrients and the downstream distance traveled by exported nutrients.

  7. Effects of sun and shade drying on nutrient and antinutrient content ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work determined the effect of sun and shade drying on the nutrient, antinutrient and food toxicant composition of atama – Heinsia crinata, editan - Lasianthore Africana and water – leaf – Talinum tringulare vegetables. Two and a half kilogram of these green leafy vegetable were purchased from Uyo market, picked from ...

  8. Comparison of lycopene, β-carotene and phenolic contents of tomato using conventional and ecological horticultural practices, and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrichs Christian

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Tomato fruits are rich in anti-oxidant compounds that have been recognized as benef icial for human health. Horticultural practices can influence the concentration of these secondary metabolites. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF can increase nutrient and water absorption of plants. The experiment, performed under glasshouse, examined whether organically grown ‘Vitella F1’ tomatoes differed in their fruit content of lycopene, β- carotene and total phenols from that found in conventionally grown tomatoes. Treatments were the cultivation methods: conventional, organic, conventional+AMF and organic+AMF. When comparing the cultivation method, no significant differences for the analyzed nutritional parameters were found; only tomatoes grown organically had slightly lower total phenolic contents. In both cultivation methods, tomato plants inoculated with AMF (Glomus sp. built higher lycopene content in fruits than those without inoculation. Organic grown tomatoes increased β-carotene and total phenolic contents in fruits as a result of the AMF treatment. AMF applications increased root fresh weight but not shoot fresh weight. The improved growth and nutrient acquisition in tomato demonstrated the potential of AMF colonization for increased antioxidant compounds in fruits. White fly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum was controlled successfully with application of diatomaceous earth Fossil Shield® 90 in organic treatments as well as with Applaud® in the conventional cultivation methods.

  9. Relationship between assimilable-nutrient content and physicochemical properties of topsoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkaczyk, Przemysław; Bednarek, Wiesław; Dresler, Sławomir; Krzyszczak, Jaromir; Baranowski, Piotr; Sławiński, Cezary

    2017-10-01

    In the years 2008-2011, an environmental study was conducted for Polish soils, focusing on the south-eastern Poland soils, as they exhibit significant acidification. This study aimed at assessing the current pHKCl and the supply of basic macro- (P, K, Mg and S-SO4) and microelements (B, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn) in the collected soil samples, and also at determining their relationship with the soil agronomic category, humus content and pH class. Soil reaction and humus and macronutrient content were positively correlated with the amount of colloidal clay and particles macro-element content in the soil was positively correlated with soil pH and humus content. As for microelements, a usually significant and positive correlation was found between the soil agronomic category and the content of manganese, iron and zinc, whereas for the content of boron and copper, no such relationship was observed. A significant and positive correlation between soil reaction and the content of manganese, iron and boron was also found. Such correlations were not observed in relation to copper and zinc content. Statistical analysis indicated that the content of boron and manganese depended to the greatest extent on the investigated physicochemical properties.

  10. Effects of Xe Gas Content and Total Gas Pressure on the Discharge Characteristics of Colour Plasma Display Panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Wenbo; Han Mengju; Liang Zhihu

    2006-01-01

    The effects of the Xe gas content and total gas pressure on the discharge characteristics of colour plasma display panels including the sustaining voltage margin, white-field chromaticity, discharge time lag (DTL), discharge current peak, and full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM) of the discharge current pulse, are experimentally studied. The results indicate that as the Xe gas content in the He-Ne-Xe gas mixture or total pressure increases, the sustaining voltage margin increases, the white-field chromaticity improves, and the discharge current peak has a maximum value, while DTL and FWHM have a minimum value. The mean electron energy in the gas mixture discharge is also calculated through a numerical solution of Boltzmann equation. The experimental results are explained from a view of the mean electron energy variations with the Xe gas content and total gas pressure

  11. Absorption of carbohydrate-derived nutrients in sows as influenced by types and contents of dietary fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serena, A; Jørgensen, H; Bach Knudsen, K E

    2009-01-01

    crossover design. Variations in dietary concentration and solubility of dietary fiber were obtained by substituting starch-rich wheat and barley in the LF diet with dietary fiber-rich co-products (sugar beet pulp, potato pulp, pectin residue, brewers spent grain, pea hulls, and seed residue, which have......The current investigation was undertaken to study the absorption and plasma concentration of carbohydrate-derived nutrients [glucose, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), and lactate] and the apparent insulin production in sows fed diets containing contrasting types and contents of dietary fiber. Six...... sows were fed 3 experimental diets, low fiber (LF; 177 g of dietary fiber and 44 g of soluble fiber/kg of DM), high soluble fiber (HF-S; 429 g of dietary fiber and 111 g of soluble fiber/kg of DM), and high insoluble fiber (HF-I; 455 g of dietary fiber and 74 g of soluble fiber/kg of DM), in a repeated...

  12. Acúmulo de Nutrientes na Biomassa e na Serapilheira de Eucalyptus grandis em Função da Aplicação de Lixo Urbano e de Nutrientes Minerais Nutrient Accumulation in Eucalyptus grandis Biomass and Litter Using Urban Waste and Mineral Fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme de Castro Andrade

    2011-03-01

     growing on Neossolo Quartzarênico, analyzing nutrient contents in the litter and in the above ground biomass of trees at 86 months old. The results showed that those plots that received organic wastes presented biomass increments of 36.9 % and largest contents of N, P, K and Ca, 86 months after the establishment. After harvesting, largest nutrient pools remained on those same plots (18 % to 49 %, contributing significantly to maintain forest productivity. This study emphasized also the importance of keeping tree bark on site. Debarking tree on field accounted to an average of about 32 % of total nutrients present in the above ground biomass of the trees. Large quantity of nutrients in the canopy tree and litter highlights the importance to conserve this organic matter to contribute to the sustainability of the forest productivity. 

  • Investigation of nutrient feeding strategies in a countercurrent mixed-acid multi-staged fermentation: experimental data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Aaron Douglas; Lockman, Nur Ain; Holtzapple, Mark T

    2011-06-01

    Nutrients are essential for microbial growth and metabolism in mixed-culture acid fermentations. Understanding the influence of nutrient feeding strategies on fermentation performance is necessary for optimization. For a four-bottle fermentation train, five nutrient contacting patterns (single-point nutrient addition to fermentors F1, F2, F3, and F4 and multi-point parallel addition) were investigated. Compared to the traditional nutrient contacting method (all nutrients fed to F1), the near-optimal feeding strategies improved exit yield, culture yield, process yield, exit acetate-equivalent yield, conversion, and total acid productivity by approximately 31%, 39%, 46%, 31%, 100%, and 19%, respectively. There was no statistical improvement in total acid concentration. The traditional nutrient feeding strategy had the highest selectivity and acetate-equivalent selectivity. Total acid productivity depends on carbon-nitrogen ratio.

  • Soil Nutrient Stocks in Sub-Saharan Africa: Modeling Soil Nutrients Using Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, M. W.; Hengl, T.; Shepherd, K.; Heuvelink, G. B. M.

    2017-12-01

    We present the results of our work modeling 15 target soil nutrients at 250 meter resolution across Sub-Saharan Africa. We used a large stack of GIS layers as covariates, including layers on topography, climate, geology, hydrology and land cover. As training data we used ca. 59,000 soil samples harmonized across a number of projects and datasets, and we modeled each nutrient using an ensemble of random forest and gradient boosting algorithms, implemented using the R packages ranger and xgboost. Using cross validation, we determined that significant models can be produced for organic Carbon, total (organic) Nitrogen, total Phosphorus, and extractable Phosphorous, Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium, Sulfur, Sodium, Iron, Manganese, Zinc, Copper, Aluminum and Boron, with an R-square value between 40 and 95%. The main covariates explaining spatial distribution of nutrients were precipitation and land form parameters. However, we were unable to significantly predict Sulfur, Phosphorus and Boron as these could not be correlated with any environmental covariates we used. Although the accuracy of predictions looks promising, our predictions likely suffer from the significant spatial clustering of the sampling locations, as well as a lack of more detailed data on geology and parent material at a continental scale. These results will contribute to targeting agricultural investments and interventions, as well as targeting restoration efforts and estimating yield potential and yield gaps. These results were recently published in the journal Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems (DOI: 10.1007/s10705-017-9870-x) and the maps are available for download under the ODC Open Database License.

  • [Content and bioavailability of carotenoids from peach palm fruit (Bactris gasipaes) as a source of vitamin A].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, A; Muñoz, L

    1992-06-01

    Four introductions of ripe peach palm fruit (Bactris gasipaes) were analyzed for ether extract, total carotenoids and their biological conversion into vitamin A. Also, edible portion in cooked fruit was estimated. Ether extract content in raw fruit ranged from 8.2 to 12.9% dry basis (DB), cooked between 5.7 to 12.4% DB and nutrient retention after cooking was 69 to 100%. Carotenoids content in raw and cooked pejibaye was similar, 4.8 to 29.6% DB and 4.8 to 29.9% DB, respectively, giving a nutrient retention after cooking greater than 85%. Average edible portion was 68 +/- 2%. The biological study showed significant differences (p 0.05). Carotenoids content was inversely related (r = -0.8, p < 0.02) with ether extract. Cooking had no significant effect in ether extract and carotenoids content, except in one introduction. Based in the results generated in the study and vitamin A Recommended Daily Allowances (RDA) it was estimated that one, in three introductions and seven in the remaining one satisfies an adult RDA's.

  • Evaluation of the micro nutrients daily ingestion and mercury on pre-elementary school children from some communities of the state of Amazonas, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Andrea C.P.; Favaro, Deborah I.T.; Farias, Luciana; Maihara, Vera A.; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A.; ime P.L.; Alencar, Fernando H.; Yuyama, Lucia K.

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluates the daily dietetic ingestion of Hg and some nutrients of pre-scholar children from eight communities of Amazonas state, Brazil. Some children from each community were selected and their diets (24 hours total consumption) were collected by the duplicate quantity method and a pool of diets composed for each of these communities. The diet samples were analysed for the Hg total content by a CV AAS linear accelerator and neutron activation analysis for determination of Ca, Fe, K, Se and Zn micro nutrients. Both analytical methodologies precision and accuracy were validated using the certified reference materials analysis. The provisional tolerable weekly ingestion (PTWI) for Hg and the daily micro nutrient ingestion were calculated for each group, considering an 10 kg average weight for each child. The obtained results for all diets were shown the inadequacy prevail for the evaluated micro nutrients, and some communities exceeded the limit of 5 μg Hg/kg of body weight (PTWI). Those results suggested that the nutritional education program must be implemented at those communities, aiming the better utilization of the local food natural resources. (author)

  • Mineral Composition, Total Phenol Content and Antioxidant Activity of a Macrolichen Everniastrum cirrhatum (Fr. Hale (Parmeliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Prashith Kekuda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated for the first time mineral composition, total phenol content and antioxidant activity of a foliose macrolichen Everniastrum cirrhatum (Fr. Hale (Parmeliaceae from Bhadra wildlife sanctuary, Karnataka, India. Mineral content of the lichen was estimated by Atomic absorption spectrophotometer after acid digestion. The secondary metabolites were detected by thin layer chromatography (TLC and phytochemical assays. The lichen material was extracted with methanol in soxhlet apparatus. Total phenol content was estimated by folin ciocalteu method. Antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH, Ferric reducing and metal chelating assays. Among the principal elements, calcium was found in high concentration followed by magnesium, potassium and phosphorus. Among trace elements, iron was detected in high amount followed by zinc, manganese and copper. The DPPH radical scavenging activity was found to be dose dependent with an IC50 of 6.73 μg/mL. In ferric reducing assay, the absorbance increased with the concentration of extract suggesting reducing power. The extract exhibited good metal chelating activity with an IC50 value of 29.28 μg/mL. Total phenol content was 101.2 mg tannic acid equivalents per gram of extract. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins and terpenoids. TLC revealed atranorin, salazinic acid and protolichesterinic acid. The lichen can be consumed as a source of minerals required for the body as appreciable amount of minerals has been detected. The marked antioxidant activity may be attributed to the presence of phenol content in the extract. Further studies on isolation of metabolites and their bioactivities are under investigation.

  • Effect of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L. by-product on the quality and total phenol content of bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maroua Boubaker

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Legume flours, due to their phenol and fibre content, are ideal ingredients for improving the nutritional value of bakery products. In this study, artichoke stem powder (ASP was used to substitute 0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% and 10% of wheat flour for making breads. Proximate composition of wheat flour and ASP were determined. Bread qualities and total phenols content were analyzed and compared with those of wheat bread. Results show that ASP contained 10.37% moisture, 10.28% ash, 11.53% protein, 0.86% fat, 51.29% fibre and 1350 mg EAG/100g d.m. ASP addition considerably modified the bread quality: altered appearance and texture, darker crumb and more intense odour were observed. From the sensory evaluation, tastes of bread with higher content of ASP (7.5 and 10% were the most acceptable for assessors. Total phenol contents of breads significantly increased with the addition of ASP. Therefore ASP may be considered as valuable ingredients for industrial manufacture of functional foods.

  • Evaluation and comparison of the content of total polyphenols and antioxidant activity in garlic (Allium sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Lenková

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Garlic (Allium sativum L. is one of the oldest cultivated plants in the world and highly valued throughout the ages as a culinary spice. It is a hardy perennial belonging to the Alliaceae family. The garlic bulb is the most commonly used portion of the plant, composed of 5 - 20 individual. It is a very good source of manganese, selenium, vitamin C and vitamin B6 (pyridoxine. In addition, garlic is a good source of other minerals, including phosphorous, calcium, potassium, iron and copper. Many of the perceived therapeutic effects of garlic are thought to be due to its active ingredient allicin. This sulphur-containing compound gives garlic its distinctive pungent smell and taste. Garlic possesses antiviral, antibacterial, anti-fungal properties allowing it to stand against all infections. This work has focused on the evaluation and comparison of total content of polyphenols and antioxidant activity in five varieties of garlic - Mojmír, Záhorský, Lukan, Havran and Makoi. Samples of plant material were collected at the stage of full maturity in the area of Nitra. The total content of polyphenols was determined using the spectrophotometric method of Folin-Ciocalteu agents. Determined the content of total polyphenols in garlic were in the range 621.13 mg.kg-1 (Záhorský to 763.28 mg.kg-1 (Havran. Total polyphenols content in garlic declined in the following order: Havran >Mojmír >Makoi >Lukan >Záhorský. Antioxidant activity was measured by the spectrophotometric method using a compound DPPH (2.2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl. Statistically significant highest value of antioxidant was recorded in 20.22% (Mojmír and the lowest value was in 13.61% (Záhorský. The values of antioxidant activity observed in the varieties of garlic may be arranged as follows: Mojmír >Havran >Lukan >Makoi >Záhorský. In all the analysed varieties of garlic was confirmed by the strong dependence of the antioxidant activity and the total content of polyphenols.

  • Nutrição mineral, crescimento e teor de óleo essencial da menta em solução nutritiva sob diferentes concentrações de fósforo e épocas de coleta Mineral nutrition, growth and essential oil content of mint in nutrient solution under different phosphorus concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos R. Rodrigues

    2004-09-01

    content of mint (Mentha piperita L. was evaluated. The experimental design was of randomized blocks in a split-plot scheme, in a 2x5 factorial with four replications, being two harvest periods (65 and 95 days of cultivation (DC and five concentrations of P in the nutrient solution (6; 12; 18; 24 and 30 mg L-1 evaluated. The leaves dry weight (MSF, stems dry weight (MRS, roots dry weight (MSR, total dry weight (MST, leaf:stem ratio (F:C and aerial part:root ratio (PA:R were evaluated. The essential oil content in fresh leaves was determined. The critical levels and nutrient accumulation in leaves and stems were estimated through leaves and stems chemical analysis. The level of P increased the leaf dry matter production 65 DC. At 95 DC, the P concentration in the nutrient solution, did significantly increase plant growth and essential oil content, the maximum essential oil content being (2.192 dag kg-1 obtained with 19.48 mg L-1 of P. The higher P concentration in nutrient solution (24 and 30 mg L-1, increased the fresh and dry matter of the aerial portion of the plants, but, decreased the essential oil content. Due to the dilution effect, the increase of fresh and dry matter production did not result in an increase in the oil yield per plant. The critical levels of nutrients in the leaves corresponding to the maximum essential oil content at 95 DC in g kg-1 were: N=37,2; P=3,9; K=21,2; Ca=9,3; Mg=3,8; S=3,0 and, in mg kg-1: B=35; Cu=8; Fe=323; Mn=145 and Zn=22. The nutrients requested at 95 DC related to the maximum essential oil content was: N>K>Ca>P>Mg>S>Fe>Mn>B>Zn>Cu.

    1. Measurements of the total-body potassium contents. Application of reference value with the whole-body counter

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      Yamamoto, Tetsuo [Chiba Univ. (Japan). Inst. for Training Radiological Technicians; Saegusa, Kenji; Arimizu, Noboru; Kuniyasu, Yoshio; Itoh, Hisao

      2001-08-01

      The total-body potassium contents were measured in 405 healthy volunteers and 186 patients with whole body counter in Chiba University Hospital. The total-body potassium contents was expressed by the reference value (R value). The R value was calculated as measured potassium contents (g) divided by the body surface area (m{sup 2}) and adjusted by age and sex of healthy persons. The R value was 100.65{+-}9.22% in 405 healthy volunteers. Those of each disease were as follows: liver cirrhosis; 94.24{+-}11.22%, chronic hepatitis; 95.74{+-}11.24%, hyperthyroidism; 99.37{+-}10.8%, periodic paralysis; 82.0{+-}9.01%, Barter's syndrome; 93.99{+-}9.86%, myasthenia gravis; 97.34{+-}6.42% and hypo-potassemia; 90.64{+-}11.76%, respectively. The R values of other diseases such as uterine cancer, breast cancer, anemia, hypertension were 97.78{+-}11.5%, 99.22{+-}8.88%, 96.64{+-}12.73%, 98.5{+-}9.63% respectively. Fourteen patients showed especially lower R values under 75%. These were 1 liver cirrhosis, 3 hypertension, 1 diabetes mellitus, 3 hypo-potassemia, 1 periodic paralysis, 2 Barter's syndrome, 2 chemical poisoning, and 1 breast cancer. Follow-up study was performed in some patients with the lower R values. The result of follow-up study showed that there was a relationship between improvement of symptoms and increase of total body potassium contents. (author)

    2. Measurements of the total-body potassium contents. Application of reference value with the whole-body counter

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Yamamoto, Tetsuo; Saegusa, Kenji; Arimizu, Noboru; Kuniyasu, Yoshio; Itoh, Hisao

      2001-01-01

      The total-body potassium contents were measured in 405 healthy volunteers and 186 patients with whole body counter in Chiba University Hospital. The total-body potassium contents was expressed by the reference value (R value). The R value was calculated as measured potassium contents (g) divided by the body surface area (m 2 ) and adjusted by age and sex of healthy persons. The R value was 100.65±9.22% in 405 healthy volunteers. Those of each disease were as follows: liver cirrhosis; 94.24±11.22%, chronic hepatitis; 95.74±11.24%, hyperthyroidism; 99.37±10.8%, periodic paralysis; 82.0±9.01%, Barter's syndrome; 93.99±9.86%, myasthenia gravis; 97.34±6.42% and hypo-potassemia; 90.64±11.76%, respectively. The R values of other diseases such as uterine cancer, breast cancer, anemia, hypertension were 97.78±11.5%, 99.22±8.88%, 96.64±12.73%, 98.5±9.63% respectively. Fourteen patients showed especially lower R values under 75%. These were 1 liver cirrhosis, 3 hypertension, 1 diabetes mellitus, 3 hypo-potassemia, 1 periodic paralysis, 2 Barter's syndrome, 2 chemical poisoning, and 1 breast cancer. Follow-up study was performed in some patients with the lower R values. The result of follow-up study showed that there was a relationship between improvement of symptoms and increase of total body potassium contents. (author)

    3. Relations of biological indicators to nutrient data for lakes and streams in Pennsylvania and West Virginia, 1990-98

      Science.gov (United States)

      Brightbill, Robin A.; Koerkle, Edward H.

      2003-01-01

      The Clean Water Action Plan of 1998 provides a blueprint for federal agencies to work with states, tribes, and other stakeholders to protect and restore the Nation's water resources. The plan includes an initiative that addresses the nutrient-enrichment problem of lakes and streams across the United States. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) is working to set nutrient criteria by nationwide nutrient ecoregions that are an aggregation of the Omernik level III ecoregions. Because low levels of nutrients are necessary for healthy streams and elevated concentrations can cause algal blooms that deplete available oxygen and kill off aquatic organisms, criteria levels are to be set, in part, using the relation between chlorophyll a and concentrations of total nitrogen and total phosphorus.Data from Pennsylvania and West Virginia, collected between 1990 and 1998, were analyzed for relations between chlorophyll a, nutrients, and other explanatory variables. Both phytoplankton and periphyton chlorophyll a concentrations from lakes and streams were analyzed separately within each of the USEPA nutrient ecoregions located within the boundaries of the two states. These four nutrient ecoregions are VII (Mostly Glaciated Dairy), VIII (Nutrient Poor, Largely Glaciated Upper Midwest and Northeast), IX (Southeastern Temperate Forested Plains and Hills), and XI (Central and Eastern Forested Uplands).Phytoplankton chlorophyll a concentrations in lakes were related to total nitrogen, total phosphorus, Secchi depth, concentration of dissolved oxygen, pH, water temperature, and specific conductivity. In nutrient ecoregion VII, nutrients were not significant predictors of chlorophyll a concentrations. Total nitrogen, Secchi depth, and pH were significantly related to phytoplankton chlorophyll a concentrations in nutrient ecoregion IX. Lake periphyton chlorophyll a concentrations from nutrient ecoregion XI were related to total phosphorus rather than total nitrogen, Secchi

    4. The impact of drying techniques on phenolic compound, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of oat flour tarhana.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Değirmencioğlu, Nurcan; Gürbüz, Ozan; Herken, Emine Nur; Yıldız, Aysun Yurdunuseven

      2016-03-01

      In this study, the changes in phenolic composition, total phenolic content, and antioxidant capacity of tarhanas supplemented with oat flour (OF) at the levels of 20-100% (w/w) after three drying treatments (sun-, oven-, and microwave drying) were investigated. A total of seventeen phenolic standards have been screened in tarhanas, and the most abundant flavonol and phenolic acid compounds were kaempferol (23.62mg/g) and 3-hydroxy-4-metoxy cinnamic acid (9.60mg/g). The total phenolic content amount gradually increased with the addition of OF to tarhana, but decidedly higher total phenolic content was found in samples oven dried at 55°C as compared with other methods. The microwave- and oven dried tarhana samples showed higher TEACDPPH and TEACABTS values than those dried with the other methods, respectively, in higher OF amounts. Consequently, oven- and microwave-drying can be recommended to retain the highest for phenolic compounds as well as maximal antioxidant capacity in OF supplemented tarhana samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    5. Determination of phytochemicals, antioxidant activity and total phenolic content in Andrographis paniculata using chromatographic methods.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Kurzawa, Marzanna; Filipiak-Szok, Anna; Kłodzińska, Ewa; Szłyk, Edward

      2015-07-15

      Antioxidant activity, total phenolics content and selected phytochemicals (alkaloids and andrographolides) were determined in Andrographis paniculata and in dietary supplements containing this plant. Antioxidant activity was measured by FRAP, CUPRAC and DPPH procedures and ranged from 503.36 to 6164.09μmol TE/100g d.m. depending on methods, part of plant and kind of dietary supplement. The total phenolics (175.13-1723.79mg GAE/100g) and andrographolides content (19.44-85.13mg/g) in the studied samples were correlated with antioxidant activities determined by CUPRAC, FRAP and DPPH (r>0.95, ppaniculata leaves, whereas the lowest in dietary supplement Pn. Moreover principal component analysis, cluster analysis and one-way ANOVA follow by Duncan's tests were also performed. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

    6. Compositional variability of nutrients and phytochemicals in corn after processing.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Prasanthi, P S; Naveena, N; Vishnuvardhana Rao, M; Bhaskarachary, K

      2017-04-01

      The result of various process strategies on the nutrient and phytochemical composition of corn samples were studied. Fresh and cooked baby corn, sweet corn, dent corn and industrially processed and cooked popcorn, corn grits, corn flour and corn flakes were analysed for the determination of proximate, minerals, xanthophylls and phenolic acids content. This study revealed that the proximate composition of popcorn is high compared to the other corn products analyzed while the mineral composition of these maize products showed higher concentration of magnesium, phosphorus, potassium and low concentration of calcium, manganese, zinc, iron, copper, and sodium. Popcorn was high in iron, zinc, copper, manganese, sodium, magnesium and phosphorus. The xanthophylls lutein and zeaxanthin were predominant in the dent corn and the total polyphenolic content was highest in dent corn while the phenolic acids distribution was variable in different corn products. This study showed preparation and processing brought significant reduction of xanthophylls and polyphenols.

    7. Biomass estimation by allometric relationships, nutrients, and carbon associated to heart-of-palm plantations in Costa Rica

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Ares, A.; Boniche, Y.; Quesada, J.P.; Yost, R.; Molina, E.; Smyth, T.J.

      2002-01-01

      Peach palm (Bactris gasipaes) agroecosystems constitute a productive and sustainable land use for the humid tropics. Allometric methods allow to predict biomass non-destructively at any time and, subsequently, to determine the span of growth phases, biomass and nutrient pools, and economic yields. The overall goals of this study were to obtain and validate predictive functions of aboveground dry biomass, and to relate standing biomass with heart-of-palm yields as well. Towards this purpose, peach palm shoots were harvested and separated into components: foliage, petiole and stem, in the Atlantic region of Costa Rica. A non-linear seemingly unrelated regression (NSUR) procedure, which simultaneously fits the component equations that predict leaf, petiole and stem in order to assure biomass additivity, was used to generate the allometric equations. Basal diameter (BD) was a more effective predictor of biomass than height to the fork between the spear leaf and the first fully expanded leaf, total height and number of leaves. Regression models explained 70-89% of the variance in biomass components (foliage, petiole and stem) or total shoot biomass. Three growth stages were identified: establishment (0-1 years), fast growth (1-3 or 1-8 years depending on plant density) and maturity (> 8 years). Nutrient contents associated to above- and below-ground biomass were measured. For above-ground biomass nutrient contents were N (up to 150 kg ha-1)>K (up to 119 kg ha-1)>Ca (up to 45 kg ha-1)>Mg=S=P (between 15-17 kg ha-1). The below-ground biomass: above-ground biomass ratio increased with the plantation age [es

    8. Energy and nutrient density of foods in relation to their carbon footprint.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Drewnowski, Adam; Rehm, Colin D; Martin, Agnes; Verger, Eric O; Voinnesson, Marc; Imbert, Philippe

      2015-01-01

      A carbon footprint is the sum of greenhouse gas emissions (GHGEs) associated with food production, processing, transporting, and retailing. We examined the relation between the energy and nutrient content of foods and associated GHGEs as expressed as g CO2 equivalents. GHGE values, which were calculated and provided by a French supermarket chain, were merged with the Composition Nutritionnelle des Aliments (French food-composition table) nutrient-composition data for 483 foods and beverages from the French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety. Foods were aggregated into 34 food categories and 5 major food groups as follows: meat and meat products, milk and dairy products, frozen and processed fruit and vegetables, grains, and sweets. Energy density was expressed as kcal/100 g. Nutrient density was determined by using 2 alternative nutrient-density scores, each based on the sum of the percentage of daily values for 6 or 15 nutrients, respectively. The energy and nutrient densities of foods were linked to log-transformed GHGE values expressed per 100 g or 100 kcal. Grains and sweets had lowest GHGEs (per 100 g and 100 kcal) but had high energy density and a low nutrient content. The more-nutrient-dense animal products, including meat and dairy, had higher GHGE values per 100 g but much lower values per 100 kcal. In general, a higher nutrient density of foods was associated with higher GHGEs per 100 kcal, although the slopes of fitted lines varied for meat and dairy compared with fats and sweets. Considerations of the environmental impact of foods need to be linked to concerns about nutrient density and health. The point at which the higher carbon footprint of some nutrient-dense foods is offset by their higher nutritional value is a priority area for additional research. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

    9. Effects of Post-harvest Storage Duration and Variety on Nutrient Digestibility and Energy Content Wheat in Finishing Pigs.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Guo, P P; Li, P L; Li, Z C; Stein, H H; Liu, L; Xia, T; Yang, Y Y; Ma, Y X

      2015-10-01

      This study was conducted to investigate the effects of post-harvest storage duration and wheat variety on the digestibility and energy content of new season wheat fed to finishing pigs. Two wheat varieties (Shi and Zhong) were harvested in 2013 and stored in the warehouse of the Fengning Pig Experimental Base at China Agricultural University for 3, 6, 9, or 12 mo. For each storage period, 12 barrows were placed in metabolism crates and allotted to diets containing 1 of the 2 wheat varieties in a randomized complete block design. The experimental diets contained 97.34% wheat and 2.66% of a vitamin and trace mineral premix. With an extension of storage duration from 3 mo to 12 mo, the gross energy (GE) and crude protein (CP) of the wheat decreased by 2.0% and 12.01%, respectively, while the concentration of neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and starch content increased by 30.26%, 19.08%, and 2.46%, respectively. Total non-starch polysaccharide, total arabinose, total xylose and total mannose contents decreased by 46.27%, 45.80%, 41.71%, and 75.66%, respectiv