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Sample records for total monthly depletion

  1. Hyperfractionated total body irradiation for T-depleted HLA identical bone marrow transplants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latini, P.; Checcaglini, F.; Maranzano, E.; Aristei, C.; Panizza, B.M.; Gobbi, G.; Raymondi, C.; Aversa, F.; Martelli, M.F.

    1988-01-01

    Twenty patients suffering from malignant hemopathies (mean age 31.7 years) were given hyperfractionated total body irradiation (TBI) as conditioning for T-depleted HLA identical allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. At an average of 12 months (range of 4.5-22 months) follow-up there were two cases of early death and two cases (11%) of rejection. There were no cases of acute or chronic graft versus host disease nor cases of interstitial pneumonitis. The average time for durable engraftment was 22 days. Disease-free survival at 12 months was 65%. To improve the results and further reduce the percent of rejection, the authors propose intensifying the immunosuppressive conditioning by increasing the cyclophosphamide dose and that of TBI so that a total dose of 1560 cGy is reached. 35 refs.; 1 figure

  2. New Insights into Fully-Depleted SOI Transistor Response During Total Dose Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, J.A.; Dodd, P.E.; Keast, C.L.; Schwank, J.R.; Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Wyatt, P.W.

    1999-01-01

    Worst-case bias configuration for total-dose testing fully-depleted SOI transistors was found to be process dependent. No evidence was found for total-dose induced snap back. These results have implications for hardness assurance testing

  3. Depletion and repopulation of lymphocytes in Peyer's patches of mice after total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermak, T.H.; Steger, H.J.; Owen, R.L.; Strober, S.

    1988-01-01

    The depletion and repopulation of lymphocytes in specific cellular domains of mouse Peyer's patches were examined following total lymphoid irradiation (TLI). BALB/c mice 5-months-old were given 17 fractionated doses of irradiation to a total of 3400 to 4250 rads over a 4-week period, and Peyer's patches were examined by immunohistochemistry at 1 to 4 days and 1 to 4 weeks after TLI. Cryostat sections were labeled with monoclonal antibodies directed against B220 (B cells), Thy-1.2 (all T cells), L3T4 (helper T cells), and Ly-2 (cytotoxic/suppressor T cells). In depleted mice, Peyer's patches were greatly reduced in size in comparison to controls, although the structural framework of follicles, domes, and interfollicular areas was still present. B cells in follicles were reduced to a small core of B220+ cells interspersed with nonlymphocytic cells. T cells were virtually eliminated from the patch except for a small population of Thy-1.2+ cells that were neither L3T4+ nor Ly-2+ in follicle domes. During early stages of repopulation at 1 to 2 weeks after TLI, follicles increased in size and were populated by helper T cells but Peyer's patches lacked discrete interfollicular T cell regions. At 3 to 4 weeks after TLI, T cell regions were found in interfollicular areas. The results indicate that morphologically distinct cellular domains are maintained in Peyer's patches after TLI which are sequentially repopulated by immigrating lymphocytes

  4. Spatial relationship of 1-meter equatorial spread-F irregularities and depletions in total electron content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsunoda, R.T.; Towle, D.M.

    1979-01-01

    An experiment was conducted at Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands to investigate the spatial relationship of 1-m equatorial spread-F irregularities to total electron content (TEC) depletions. A high-power radar was operated (1) in a backscatter scan mode to spatially map the distribution of 1-m irregularities, and (2) in a dual-frequency, satellite-track mode to obtain the longitudinal TEC variations. We show that radar backscatter ''plumes'' found in the disturbed, nighttime equatorial ionosphere are longitudinally coincident with TEC depletions. We suggest that the TEC depletions are probably due to the presence of plasma ''bubbles'' in the equatorial F layer

  5. Comparative changes in monthly blood urea nitrogen, total protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the comparative changes in the monthly blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentration, total protein (TP) concentration in blood serum and the body condition score of Nguni cows and heifers raised on sweetveld. Twenty-four clinically healthy animals in different parities, namely Parity ...

  6. A comparative study of total body irradiation as a method of inducing granulocyte depletion in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogman, M.J.J.T.; Cornelissen, I.M.H.A.; Berden, J.H.M.; Jong, J. de; Koene, R.A.P.

    1984-01-01

    Since conventional methods of inducing depletion of polymorphonuclear granulocytes (PMNs) in mice, such as treatment with cytostatic drugs and anti-PMN sera, proved to be insufficient to induce a stable PMN depletion for several days, and were accompanied by considerable toxic side effects, we induced neutrophil depletion in mice by total body irradiation (TBI) in a single dose of 6.0 Gy (600 rads.) at a dose rate of 0.20 Gy/min. This treatment reduced the number of PMNs in the peripheral circulation to values below 150/μl from day 3-10 after irradiation. The number of lymphocytes fell simultaneously. Platelet counts remained above 60% of normal values during the first 7 days after irradiation. Complement levels were not significantly affected by TBI. The results show that TBI of 6.0 Gy induces pronounced and stable PMN depletion in mice for at least 7 days. Furthermore, under an aseptic regimen the mice can be kept in good condition and losses are less than 5%. (Auth.)

  7. New insights into fully-depleted SOI transistor response during total-dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwank, J.R.; Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Dodd, P.E.; Burns, J.A.; Keast, C.L.; Wyatt, P.W.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we present irradiation results on 2-fully depleted processes (HYSOI6, RKSOI) that show SOI (silicon on insulator) device response can be more complicated than originally suggested by others. The major difference between the 2 process versions is that the RKSOI process incorporates special techniques to minimize pre-irradiation parasitic leakage current from trench sidewalls. Transistors were irradiated at room temperature using 10 keV X-ray source. Worst-case bias configuration for total-dose testing fully-depleted SOI transistors was found to be process dependent. It appears that the worst-case bias for HYPOI6 process is the bias that causes the largest increase in sidewall leakage. The RKSOI process shows a different response during irradiation, the transition response appears to be dominated by charge trapping in the buried oxide. These results have implications for hardness assurance testing. (A.C.)

  8. Observations in equatorial anomaly region of total electron content enhancements and depletions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Dashora

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available A GSV 4004A GPS receiver has been operational near the crest of the equatorial anomaly at Udaipur, India for some time now. The receiver provides the line-of-sight total electron content (TEC, the phase and amplitude scintillation index, σφ and S4, respectively. This paper presents the first results on the nighttime TEC depletions associated with the equatorial spread F in the Indian zone. The TEC depletions are found to be very well correlated with the increased S4 index. A new feature of low-latitude TEC is also reported, concerning the observation of isolated and localized TEC enhancements in the nighttime low-latitude ionosphere. The TEC enhancements are not correlated with the S4 index. The TEC enhancements have also been observed along with the TEC depletions. The TEC enhancements have been interpreted as the manifestation of the plasma density enhancements reported by Le et al. (2003.

    Keywords. Ionosphere (Equatorial ionosphere; Ionospheric irregularities

  9. M cells and granular mononuclear cells in Peyer's patch domes of mice depleted of their lymphocytes by total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermak, T.H.; Steger, H.J.; Strober, S.; Owen, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    The cytoarchitecture of Peyer's patches that were depleted of their lymphocytes by total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) was examined with particular attention to the effects on M cells in the follicle epithelium and on mononuclear cells in follicle domes underlying the epithelium. Five-month-old, specific pathogen-free Balb/c mice were irradiated with 200-250 rad/day, five times a week to a total dose of 3400-4250, and their Peyer's patches were either fixed for electron microscopy or frozen for immunohistochemistry 1-4 days after completion of irradiation. Control mice were examined at the same time intervals. Follicle domes of TLI mice had approximately one fourth the epithelial surface area of domes of control mice. Within the epithelium, lymphoid cells were virtually depleted after TLI, and yet the epithelium contained M cells. In control mice, most M cells were accompanied by lymphoid cells in invaginations of the apical-lateral cell membrane. In TLI mice, most M cells did not have such apical-lateral invaginations and were columnar shaped. Other than lacking lymphocytes, these cells appeared to be mature M cells. Some M cells did have lymphoid cells or granular mononuclear cells below their basal membranes, adjacent to the basal lamina. Below the epithelium, the proportion of granular mononuclear cells was greatly increased following TLI. The retention of M cells and the increase in proportion of granular mononuclear cells in follicle domes are consistent with selective depletion of lymphocytes following TLI. Persistence of M cells without lymphocytic invaginations after TLI suggests that M cells can differentiate in the absence of, or at least in the presence of very few, lymphocytes, and that invagination by lymphocytes is not necessary to maintain mature M cell morphology

  10. Deep depletions of total electron content associated with severe mid-latitude gigahertz scintillations during geomagnetic storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, T.; Kumagai, H.

    1985-01-01

    Using 136-MHz Faraday rotation data obtained at three closely spaced stations, we present evidence that severe nightime gigahertz scintillations, which appear rarely at mid-latitudes around Japan only during geomagnetic storm conditions, are closely associated with deep depletions of total electron content (TEC). The TEC depletions amount to 2--8 x 10 16 el/m 2 (10--30% of the background TEC), and their durations range from 10 min to 1 hour. These depletions move northeastward or eastward with velocities between 60 and 260 m/s. The depletions are probably not counterparts of the equatorial bubbles but seem to be formed in localized regions around Japan under complicated and peculiar ionospheric conditions. There is an indication that the oscillation of the F region caused by large-scale TID's propagating from north to south (approx.600 m/s) may initiate the generation of the depletion

  11. Rituximab administration within 6 months of T cell-depleted allogeneic SCT is associated with prolonged life-threatening cytopenias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIver, Zachariah; Stephens, Nicole; Grim, Andrew; Barrett, A John

    2010-11-01

    The monoclonal anti-CD20 antibody Rituximab (RTX) is increasingly used in allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) to treat lymphoproliferative disorders and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). RTX administration can be complicated by delayed and prolonged neutropenia, but the mechanism is unclear. We report the occurrence of profound cytopenias following RTX given in the conditioning regimen or early after T cell-deplete SCT to treat B cell lymphoproliferative disorders or chronic GVHD (cGVHD). Between 2006 and 2009, 102 patients (median age: 43 years, range: 13-68 years), received a myeloablative matched-sibling T cell-deplete SCT for lymphoid or myeloid hematologic disorders. Neutropenia occurring within 4 weeks of treatment developed in 16 of 17 patients given RTX within the first 190 days after SCT. Fourteen patients developed severe neutropenia (count SCT compared to patients with cGVHD not treated with early RTX (P SCT experienced only moderate neutropenia 3 to 5 months after treatment lasting 10 to 20 days while maintaining absolute neutrophil count (ANC) >1.0 × 10⁹/L. Although RTX rapidly controlled cGVHD, we conclude that its administration early after T cell-deplete SCT is associated with prolonged profound and life-threatening cytopenias, and should be avoided. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Monthly Total Precipitation Observation for Climate Prediction Center (CPC)Forecast Divisions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This ASCII dataset contains monthly total precipitation for 102 Forecast Divisions within the conterminous U.S. It is derived from the monthly NCDC climate division...

  13. Reduction in total plasma ghrelin levels following catecholamine depletion: relation to bulimic and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homan, Philipp; Grob, Simona; Milos, Gabriella; Schnyder, Ulrich; Hasler, Gregor

    2013-09-01

    There is increasing preclinical and clinical evidence of the important role played by the gastric peptide hormone ghrelin in the pathogenesis of symptoms of depression and eating disorders. To investigate the role of ghrelin and its considered counterpart, peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY), in the development of bulimic and depressive symptoms induced by catecholamine depletion, we administered the tyrosine hydroxylase inhibitor alpha-methyl-paratyrosine (AMPT) in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover, single-site experimental trial to 29 healthy controls and 20 subjects with fully recovered bulimia nervosa (rBN). We found a decrease between preprandial and postprandial plasma ghrelin levels (psymptoms (psymptoms induced by catecholamine depletion. These findings suggest a relationship between catecholamines and ghrelin with depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Monitoring of German fertility: Estimation of monthly and yearly total fertility rates on the basis of preliminary monthly data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Doblhammer (Gabriele); Milewski, N. (Nadja); F. Peters (Frederick)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis paper introduces a set of methods for estimating fertility indicators in the absence of recent and short-term birth statistics. For Germany, we propose a set of straightforward methods that allow for the computation of monthly and yearly total fertility rates (mTFR) on the basis of

  15. Monitoring of German Fertility: Estimation of Monthly and Yearly Total Fertility Rates on the Basis of Preliminary Monthly Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Doblhammer

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a set of methods for estimating fertility indicators in the absence of recent and short-term birth statistics. For Germany, we propose a set of straightforward methods that allow for the computation of monthly and yearly total fertility rates (mTFR on the basis of preliminary monthly data, including a confidence interval. The method for estimating most current fertility rates can be applied when no information on the age structure and the number of women exposed to childbearing is available. The methods introduced in this study are useful for calculating monthly birth indicators, with minimal requirements for data quality and statistical effort. In addition, we suggest an approach for projecting the yearly TFR based on preliminary monthly information up to June.

  16. Gamma-spectrometric and total alpha-beta counting methods for radioactivity analysis of deuterium depleted water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferdes, Ov. S.; Mladin, C.; Vladu, Mihaela; Bulubasa, G.; Bidica, N.

    2008-01-01

    According to national regulations, as well as to the EU directive on the quality of drinking water, the radionuclide concentrations represent some of the drinking water quality parameters. Among the most important radioactivity content parameters are: the total alpha and total beta concentration (Bq/l); K-40 content, and the gamma-nuclides volume activities. The paper presents the measuring methods for low-level total alpha and/or beta counting of volume samples, as well as the high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometric method used to measure the volume activity of nuclides in drinking water. These methods are applied to monitor the radioactivity content and quality of the QLARIVIA brand of Deuterium depleted water (DDW). There are discussed the performances of these applied methods as well as some preliminary results. (authors)

  17. Next Generation Sequencing Analysis of Human Platelet PolyA+ mRNAs and rRNA-Depleted Total RNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissopoulou, Antheia; Jonasson, Jon; Lindahl, Tomas L.; Osman, Abdimajid

    2013-01-01

    Background Platelets are small anucleate cells circulating in the blood vessels where they play a key role in hemostasis and thrombosis. Here, we compared platelet RNA-Seq results obtained from polyA+ mRNA and rRNA-depleted total RNA. Materials and Methods We used purified, CD45 depleted, human blood platelets collected by apheresis from three male and one female healthy blood donors. The Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform was employed to sequence cDNA converted either from oligo(dT) isolated polyA+ RNA or from rRNA-depleted total RNA. The reads were aligned to the GRCh37 reference assembly with the TopHat/Cufflinks alignment package using Ensembl annotations. A de novo assembly of the platelet transcriptome using the Trinity software package and RSEM was also performed. The bioinformatic tools HTSeq and DESeq from Bioconductor were employed for further statistical analyses of read counts. Results Consistent with previous findings our data suggests that mitochondrially expressed genes comprise a substantial fraction of the platelet transcriptome. We also identified high transcript levels for protein coding genes related to the cytoskeleton function, chemokine signaling, cell adhesion, aggregation, as well as receptor interaction between cells. Certain transcripts were particularly abundant in platelets compared with other cell and tissue types represented by RNA-Seq data from the Illumina Human Body Map 2.0 project. Irrespective of the different library preparation and sequencing protocols, there was good agreement between samples from the 4 individuals. Eighteen differentially expressed genes were identified in the two sexes at 10% false discovery rate using DESeq. Conclusion The present data suggests that platelets may have a unique transcriptome profile characterized by a relative over-expression of mitochondrially encoded genes and also of genomic transcripts related to the cytoskeleton function, chemokine signaling and surface components compared with other cell and

  18. Effect of myostatin depletion on weight gain, hyperglycemia, and hepatic steatosis during five months of high-fat feeding in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerri Burgess

    Full Text Available The marked hypermuscularity in mice with constitutive myostatin deficiency reduces fat accumulation and hyperglycemia induced by high-fat feeding, but it is unclear whether the smaller increase in muscle mass caused by postdevelopmental loss of myostatin activity has beneficial metabolic effects during high-fat feeding. We therefore examined how postdevelopmental myostatin knockout influenced effects of high-fat feeding. Male mice with ubiquitous expression of tamoxifen-inducible Cre recombinase were fed tamoxifen for 2 weeks at 4 months of age. This depleted myostatin in mice with floxed myostatin genes, but not in control mice with normal myostatin genes. Some mice were fed a high-fat diet (60% of energy for 22 weeks, starting 2 weeks after cessation of tamoxifen feeding. Myostatin depletion increased skeletal muscle mass ∼30%. Hypermuscular mice had ∼50% less weight gain than control mice over the first 8 weeks of high-fat feeding. During the subsequent 3 months of high-fat feeding, additional weight gain was similar in control and myostatin-deficient mice. After 5 months of high-fat feeding, the mass of epididymal and retroperitoneal fat pads was similar in control and myostatin-deficient mice even though myostatin depletion reduced the weight gain attributable to the high-fat diet (mean weight with high-fat diet minus mean weight with low-fat diet: 19.9 g in control mice, 14.1 g in myostatin-deficient mice. Myostatin depletion did not alter fasting blood glucose levels after 3 or 5 months of high-fat feeding, but reduced glucose levels measured 90 min after intraperitoneal glucose injection. Myostatin depletion also attenuated hepatic steatosis and accumulation of fat in muscle tissue. We conclude that blocking myostatin signaling after maturity can attenuate some of the adverse effects of a high-fat diet.

  19. Next generation sequencing analysis of human platelet PolyA+ mRNAs and rRNA-depleted total RNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antheia Kissopoulou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Platelets are small anucleate cells circulating in the blood vessels where they play a key role in hemostasis and thrombosis. Here, we compared platelet RNA-Seq results obtained from polyA+ mRNA and rRNA-depleted total RNA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used purified, CD45 depleted, human blood platelets collected by apheresis from three male and one female healthy blood donors. The Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform was employed to sequence cDNA converted either from oligo(dT isolated polyA+ RNA or from rRNA-depleted total RNA. The reads were aligned to the GRCh37 reference assembly with the TopHat/Cufflinks alignment package using Ensembl annotations. A de novo assembly of the platelet transcriptome using the Trinity software package and RSEM was also performed. The bioinformatic tools HTSeq and DESeq from Bioconductor were employed for further statistical analyses of read counts. RESULTS: Consistent with previous findings our data suggests that mitochondrially expressed genes comprise a substantial fraction of the platelet transcriptome. We also identified high transcript levels for protein coding genes related to the cytoskeleton function, chemokine signaling, cell adhesion, aggregation, as well as receptor interaction between cells. Certain transcripts were particularly abundant in platelets compared with other cell and tissue types represented by RNA-Seq data from the Illumina Human Body Map 2.0 project. Irrespective of the different library preparation and sequencing protocols, there was good agreement between samples from the 4 individuals. Eighteen differentially expressed genes were identified in the two sexes at 10% false discovery rate using DESeq. CONCLUSION: The present data suggests that platelets may have a unique transcriptome profile characterized by a relative over-expression of mitochondrially encoded genes and also of genomic transcripts related to the cytoskeleton function, chemokine signaling and surface components

  20. The Total Body Irradiation Schedule Affects Acute Leukemia Relapse After Matched T Cell–Depleted Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aristei, Cynthia; Carotti, Alessandra; Palazzari, Elisa; Amico, Lucia; Ruggeri, Loredana; Perrucci, Elisabetta; Falcinelli, Lorenzo; Lancellotta, Valentina; Palumbo, Isabella; Falzetti, Franca; Aversa, Franco; Merluzzi, Mara; Velardi, Andrea; Martelli, Massimo Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: We sought to determine whether the total body irradiation (TBI) schedule affected outcome in patients with acute leukemia in complete remission who received T cell–depleted allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from HLA identical siblings. Methods and Materials: The study recruited 55 patients (median age, 48 years; age range, 20-66 years; 30 men and 25 women; 34 with acute myeloid leukemia and 21 with acute lymphoid leukemia). Hyperfractionated TBI (HTBI) (1.2 Gy thrice daily for 4 days [for a total dose of 14.4 Gy] from day −12 to day −9) was administered to 29 patients. Single-dose TBI (STBI) (8 Gy, at a median dose rate of 10.7 cGy/min on day −9) was given to 26 patients. Results: All patients achieved primary, sustained engraftment with full donor-type chimerism. At 10 years, the overall cumulative incidence of transplant-related mortality was 11% (SE, ±0.1%). It was 7% (SE, ±0.2%) after HTBI and 15% (SE, ±0.5%) after STBI (P=.3). The overall cumulative incidence of relapse was 33% (SE, ±0.5). It was 13% (SE, ±0.5%) after HTBI and 46% (SE, ±1%) after STBI (P=.02). The overall probability of disease-free survival (DFS) was 59% (SE, ±7%). It was 67% (SE, ±0.84%) after HTBI and 37% (SE, ±1.4%) after STBI (P=.01). Multivariate analyses showed the TBI schedule was the only risk factor that significantly affected relapse and DFS (P=.01 and P=.03, respectively). Conclusions: In patients with acute leukemia, HTBI is more efficacious than STBI in eradicating minimal residual disease after HLA-matched T cell–depleted hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, thus affecting DFS.

  1. The Total Body Irradiation Schedule Affects Acute Leukemia Relapse After Matched T Cell–Depleted Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aristei, Cynthia, E-mail: cynthia.aristei@unipg.it [Radiation Oncology Section, Department of Surgery and Biomedical Sciences, University of Perugia and Perugia General Hospital, Perugia (Italy); Carotti, Alessandra [Division of Hematology and Clinical Immunology and Bone Marrow Transplant Program, Department of Medicine, Perugia General Hospital and University, Perugia (Italy); Palazzari, Elisa [Radiation Oncology Section, University of Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Amico, Lucia; Ruggeri, Loredana [Division of Hematology and Clinical Immunology and Bone Marrow Transplant Program, Department of Medicine, Perugia General Hospital and University, Perugia (Italy); Perrucci, Elisabetta; Falcinelli, Lorenzo [Radiation Oncology Division, Perugia General Hospital, Perugia (Italy); Lancellotta, Valentina [Radiation Oncology Section, University of Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Palumbo, Isabella [Radiation Oncology Section, Department of Surgery and Biomedical Sciences, University of Perugia and Perugia General Hospital, Perugia (Italy); Falzetti, Franca [Division of Hematology and Clinical Immunology and Bone Marrow Transplant Program, Department of Medicine, Perugia General Hospital and University, Perugia (Italy); Aversa, Franco [Hematology and Bone Marrow Transplant Unit, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Parma General Hospital and University, Parma (Italy); Merluzzi, Mara; Velardi, Andrea; Martelli, Massimo Fabrizio [Division of Hematology and Clinical Immunology and Bone Marrow Transplant Program, Department of Medicine, Perugia General Hospital and University, Perugia (Italy)

    2016-11-15

    Purpose: We sought to determine whether the total body irradiation (TBI) schedule affected outcome in patients with acute leukemia in complete remission who received T cell–depleted allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from HLA identical siblings. Methods and Materials: The study recruited 55 patients (median age, 48 years; age range, 20-66 years; 30 men and 25 women; 34 with acute myeloid leukemia and 21 with acute lymphoid leukemia). Hyperfractionated TBI (HTBI) (1.2 Gy thrice daily for 4 days [for a total dose of 14.4 Gy] from day −12 to day −9) was administered to 29 patients. Single-dose TBI (STBI) (8 Gy, at a median dose rate of 10.7 cGy/min on day −9) was given to 26 patients. Results: All patients achieved primary, sustained engraftment with full donor-type chimerism. At 10 years, the overall cumulative incidence of transplant-related mortality was 11% (SE, ±0.1%). It was 7% (SE, ±0.2%) after HTBI and 15% (SE, ±0.5%) after STBI (P=.3). The overall cumulative incidence of relapse was 33% (SE, ±0.5). It was 13% (SE, ±0.5%) after HTBI and 46% (SE, ±1%) after STBI (P=.02). The overall probability of disease-free survival (DFS) was 59% (SE, ±7%). It was 67% (SE, ±0.84%) after HTBI and 37% (SE, ±1.4%) after STBI (P=.01). Multivariate analyses showed the TBI schedule was the only risk factor that significantly affected relapse and DFS (P=.01 and P=.03, respectively). Conclusions: In patients with acute leukemia, HTBI is more efficacious than STBI in eradicating minimal residual disease after HLA-matched T cell–depleted hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, thus affecting DFS.

  2. Analysis of Serum Total and Free PSA Using Immunoaffinity Depletion Coupled to SRM: Correlation with Clinical Immunoassay Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Hossain, Mahmud; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Fillmore, Thomas L.; Sokoll, Lori J.; Kronewitter, Scott R.; Izmirlian, Grant; Shi, Tujin; Qian, Wei-Jun; Leach, Robin J.; Thompson, Ian M.; Chan, Daniel W.; Smith, Richard D.; Kagan, Jacob; Srivastava, Sudhir; Rodland, Karin D.; Camp, David G.

    2012-01-01

    Recently, selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (SRM-MS) has been more frequently applied to measure low abundance biomarker candidates in tissues and biofluids, owing to its high sensitivity and specificity, simplicity of assay configuration, and exceptional multiplexing capability. In this study, we report for the first time the development of immunoaffinity depletion-based workflows and SRM-MS assays that enable sensitive and accurate quantification of total and free prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in serum without the requirement for specific PSA antibodies. Low ng/mL level detection of both total and free PSA was consistently achieved in both PSA-spiked female serum samples and actual patient serum samples. Moreover, comparison of the results obtained when SRM PSA assays and conventional immunoassays were applied to the same samples showed good correlation in several independent clinical serum sample sets. These results demonstrate that the workflows and SRM assays developed here provide an attractive alternative for reliably measuring candidate biomarkers in human blood, without the need to develop affinity reagents. Furthermore, the simultaneous measurement of multiple biomarkers, including the free and bound forms of PSA, can be performed in a single multiplexed analysis using high-resolution liquid chromatographic separation coupled with SRM-MS. PMID:22846433

  3. Analysis of Serum Total and Free PSA Using Immunoaffinity Depletion Coupled to SRM: Correlation with Clinical Immunoassay Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Tao; Hossain, Mahmud; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Fillmore, Thomas L.; Sokoll, Lori J.; Kronewitter, Scott R.; Izmirlian, Grant; Shi, Tujin; Qian, Weijun; Leach, Robin; Thompson, Ian M.; Chan, Daniel W.; Smith, Richard D.; Kagan, Jacob; Srinivastava, Sudhir; Rodland, Karin D.; Camp, David G.

    2012-08-03

    Sandwich immunoassay is the standard technique used in clinical labs for quantifying protein biomarkers for disease detection, monitoring and therapeutic intervention. Albeit highly sensitive, the development of a specific immunoassay is rather time-consuming and associated with extremely high cost due to the requirement for paired immunoaffinity reagents of high specificity. Recently, mass spectrometry-based methods, specifically selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (SRM-MS), have been increasingly applied to measure low abundance biomarker candidates in tissue and biofluids, owing to high sensitivity and specificity, simplicity of assay configuration, and great multiplexing capability. In this study, we report for the first time the development of immunoaffinity depletion-based workflows and SRM-MS assays that enable sensitive and accurate quantification of total and free prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in serum without the requirement for specific PSA antibodies. With stable isotope dilution and external calibration, low ng/mL level detection of both total and free PSA was consistently achieved in both PSA-spiked female serum samples and actual patient serum samples. Moreover, comparison of the results obtained when SRM PSA assays and conventional immunoassays were applied to the same samples showed very good correlation (R2 values ranging from 0.90 to 0.99) in several independent clinical serum sample sets, including a set of 33 samples assayed in a blinded test. These results demonstrate that the workflows and SRM assays developed here provide an attractive alternative for reliably measuring total and free PSA in human blood. Furthermore, simultaneous measurement of free and total PSA and many other biomarkers can be performed in a single analysis using high-resolution liquid chromatographic separation coupled with SRM-MS.

  4. A Different View of Solar Spectral Irradiance Variations: Modeling Total Energy over Six-Month Intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Thomas N; Snow, Martin; Harder, Jerald; Chapman, Gary; Cookson, Angela

    A different approach to studying solar spectral irradiance (SSI) variations, without the need for long-term (multi-year) instrument degradation corrections, is examining the total energy of the irradiance variation during 6-month periods. This duration is selected because a solar active region typically appears suddenly and then takes 5 to 7 months to decay and disperse back into the quiet-Sun network. The solar outburst energy, which is defined as the irradiance integrated over the 6-month period and thus includes the energy from all phases of active region evolution, could be considered the primary cause for the irradiance variations. Because solar cycle variation is the consequence of multiple active region outbursts, understanding the energy spectral variation may provide a reasonable estimate of the variations for the 11-year solar activity cycle. The moderate-term (6-month) variations from the Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) instruments can be decomposed into positive (in-phase with solar cycle) and negative (out-of-phase) contributions by modeling the variations using the San Fernando Observatory (SFO) facular excess and sunspot deficit proxies, respectively. These excess and deficit variations are fit over 6-month intervals every 2 months over the mission, and these fitted variations are then integrated over time for the 6-month energy. The dominant component indicates which wavelengths are in-phase and which are out-of-phase with solar activity. The results from this study indicate out-of-phase variations for the 1400 - 1600 nm range, with all other wavelengths having in-phase variations.

  5. Modeling and Forecasting of Depletion of Additives in Car Engine Oils Using Attenuated Total Reflectance Fast Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Nguele

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available On average, additives make up to 7% of a typical lubricant base. Commonly, they are blended with lube oils to enhance specific features thereby improving their qualities. Ultimately, additives participate in the performance of car engine oils. Using an analytical tool, attenuated total reflectance fast transform infrared spectroscopy, various grades of car engine oils, at different mileages, were analyzed. Sulfate oxidation and wear were found to trigger chemical processes which, in the long run, cause lubricant degradation while carbonyl oxidation was observed to occur only at a slow rate. Based upon data obtained from infrared spectra and using a curve fitting technique, mathematical equations predicting the theoretical rates of chemical change due to the aforementioned processes were examined. Additive depletions were found to obey exponential regression rather than polynomial. Moreover, breakpoint (breakpoint is used here to denote the initiation of deterioration of additives and critical mileage (critical mileage defines the distance at which the lubricant is chemically unusable of both samples were determined.

  6. Predictors of pain and physical function at 3 and 12 months after total hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plews, Sarah; Løvlund Nielsen, Randi; Overgaard, Søren

    Background: Few studies have combined preoperative patient-reported and objective outcome measures to predict outcomes after total hip arthroplasty (THA). Purpose / Aim of Study: to identify predictors of outcome 3 and 12 months after THA Materials and Methods: A cohort of 107 consecutive patients...... with primary hip osteoarthritis responded to Hip dysfunction and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (HOOS) questionnaires prior to and 3 and 12 months after THA. Preoperative pain intensity; joint space width (JSW), age, gender, and body mass index (BMI) were used to predict changes in pain and physical function....... Conclusions: Preoperative pain predicted changes in pain and physical function up to one year after THA. Such knowledge should be taken into consideration, when assessing OA patients prior to surgery. This study provides useful insight for clinicians, regarding the overall improvement patients can expect...

  7. Improvements in Total Column Ozone in GEOSCCM and Comparisons with a New Ozone-Depleting Substances Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oman, Luke D.; Douglass, Anne R.

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of ozone is examined in the latest version of the Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry-Climate Model (GEOSCCM) using old and new ozone-depleting substances (ODS) scenarios. This version of GEOSCCM includes a representation of the quasi-biennial oscillation, a more realistic implementation of ozone chemistry at high solar zenith angles, an improved air/sea roughness parameterization, and an extra 5 parts per trillion of CH3Br to account for brominated very short-lived substances. Together these additions improve the representation of ozone compared to observations. This improved version of GEOSCCM was used to simulate the ozone evolution for the A1 2010 and the newStratosphere-troposphere Processes and their Role in Climate (SPARC) 2013 ODS scenario derived using the SPARC Lifetimes Report 2013. This new ODS scenario results in a maximum Cltot increase of 65 parts per trillion by volume (pptv), decreasing slightly to 60 pptv by 2100. Approximately 72% of the increase is due to the longer lifetime of CFC-11. The quasi-global (60degS-60degN) total column ozone difference is relatively small and less than 1Dobson unit on average and consistent with the 3-4% larger 2050-2080 average Cly in the new SPARC 2013 scenario. Over high latitudes, this small change in Cly compared to the relatively large natural variabilitymakes it not possible to discern a significant impact on ozone in the second half of the 21st century in a single set of simulations.

  8. Improvement in quality of lifesix months after primary total hip arthroplasty in a Pakistani population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubairi, Akbar Jaleel; Bin Mahmood, Syed Usman; Ali, Moiz; Noordin, Shahryar

    2016-10-01

    This prospective, cohort study was carried out to assess the improvement in quality of life of patients undergoing elective primary total hip arthroplasty (THA). It was conducted at the orthopaedic department of the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from June 2014 to May 2015, and comprised patients who had undergone THA. A total of 89 patients having a mean age of 41.5±12.0 years with a baseline core outcomes measure index (COMI)-hip score of > 3.5 were included. A decrease in COMI-hip score by >3 points six months post-operatively was considered improvement in quality of life. Patient satisfaction with restriction to squatting was assessed separately. The mean reduction in COMI-hip was 4.9±1.3 with 83(93%) patients experiencing significant improvement in quality of life. Age >50 years and American Society of Anaesthesiologists (ASA) level >III was significantly associated with no improvement in quality of life. Most patients were satisfied with their disability to squat irrespective of COMI-hip score. THA was found to be associated with significant improvement in quality of life and COMI-hip score was applicable in our population despite its inability to assess disability with restriction in squatting.

  9. Twelve months follow-up after retrograde recanalization of superficial femoral artery chronic total occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Wojtasik-Bakalarz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Fifty percent of cases of peripheral artery disease are caused by chronic total occlusion (CTO of the superficial femoral artery (SFA. Ten–fifteen percent of percutaneous SFA recanalization procedures are unsuccessful. In those cases the retrograde technique can increase the success rate of the procedure, but the long-term follow-up of such procedures is still unknown. Aim : To assess the efficacy and clinical outcomes during long-term follow-up after retrograde recanalization of the SFA. Material and methods: We included patients after at least one unsuccessful percutaneous antegrade recanalization of the SFA. Patients were evaluated for the procedural and clinical follow-up of mean time 13.9 months. Results: The study included 17 patients (7 females, 10 males who underwent percutaneous retrograde recanalization of the SFA from June 2011 to June 2015. The mean age of patients was 63 ±7 years. Retrograde puncture of the distal SFA was successful in all cases. A retrograde procedure was performed immediately after antegrade failure in 4 (23.5% patients and after a previously failed attempt in 13 (76.5% patients. The procedure was successful in 15 (88.2% patients, and unsuccessful in 2 (11.8% patients. Periprocedural complications included 1 peripheral distal embolization (successfully treated with aspiration thrombectomy, 1 bleeding event from the puncture site and 7 puncture site hematomas. During follow-up the all-cause mortality rate was 5.8% (1 patient, non-cardiac death. The primary patency rate at 12 months was 88.2% and secondary patency 100%. Conclusions : The retrograde SFA puncture seems to be a safe and successful technique for CTO recanalization and is associated with a low rate of perioperative and long-term follow-up complications.

  10. Vaginal Cuff Dehiscence with Small Bowel Evisceration 14 Months after Total Abdominal Hysterectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nida Jareemit, M.D.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Vaginal cuff dehiscence is a rare complication following hysterectomy. The condition coexisting with intraabdominal organ evisceration occurs even rarer. Nevertheless this should not be neglected owing to high morbidity and mortality. Case presentation: The reported case is a 48-year-old widow presenting with vaginal cuff dehiscence and small bowel evisceration after undergoing a total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH in the past 14 months due to myoma uteri. She denied having a history of sexual intercourse after the operation. The exposed bowel, 60 cm in length, appeared viable and no peritoneal sign was observed. There was a vaginal cuff defect approximately 3 cm in length. An exploratory laparotomy was then carried out. Eviscerated bowel was reduced back in the abdominal cavity and the vaginal cuff defect was repaired. No complications such as recurrent dehiscence were observed during one year follow-up. Conclusion: To minimize the incidence of vaginal cuff dehiscence after hysterectomy, surgical techniques should be of concern. Patient instructions, including delaying sexual intercourse and avoiding all possible causes of increased intra-abdominal pressure should be provided postoperatively.

  11. Short-term exercise worsens cardiac oxidative stress and fibrosis in 8-month-old db/db mice by depleting cardiac glutathione.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laher, Ismail; Beam, Julianne; Botta, Amy; Barendregt, Rebekah; Sulistyoningrum, Dian; Devlin, Angela; Rheault, Mark; Ghosh, Sanjoy

    2013-01-01

    Moderate exercise improves cardiac antioxidant status in young humans and animals with Type-2 diabetes (T2D). Given that both diabetes and advancing age synergistically decrease antioxidant expression in most tissues, it is unclear whether exercise can upregulate cardiac antioxidants in chronic animal models of T2D. To this end, 8-month-old T2D and normoglycemic mice were exercised for 3 weeks, and cardiac redox status was evaluated. As expected, moderate exercise increased cardiac antioxidants and attenuated oxidative damage in normoglycemic mice. In contrast, similar exercise protocol in 8-month-old db/db mice worsened cardiac oxidative damage, which was associated with a specific dysregulation of glutathione (GSH) homeostasis. Expression of enzymes for GSH biosynthesis [γ-glutamylcysteine synthase, glutathione reductase] as well as for GSH-mediated detoxification (glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase) was lower, while toxic metabolites dependent on GSH for clearance (4-hydroxynonenal) were increased in exercised diabetic mice hearts. To validate GSH loss as an important factor for such aggravated damage, daily administration of GSH restored cardiac GSH levels in exercised diabetic mice. Such supplementation attenuated both oxidative damage and fibrotic changes in the myocardium. Expression of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) and its regulated genes which are responsible for such profibrotic changes were also attenuated with GSH supplementation. These novel findings in a long-term T2D animal model demonstrate that short-term exercise by itself can deplete cardiac GSH and aggravate cardiac oxidative stress. As GSH administration conferred protection in 8-month-old diabetic mice undergoing exercise, supplementation with GSH-enhancing agents may be beneficial in elderly diabetic patients undergoing exercise.

  12. Depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huffer, E.; Nifenecker, H.

    2001-02-01

    This document deals with the physical, chemical and radiological properties of the depleted uranium. What is the depleted uranium? Why do the military use depleted uranium and what are the risk for the health? (A.L.B.)

  13. High-throughput analysis using non-depletive SPME: challenges and applications to the determination of free and total concentrations in small sample volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyacı, Ezel; Bojko, Barbara; Reyes-Garcés, Nathaly; Poole, Justen J; Gómez-Ríos, Germán Augusto; Teixeira, Alexandre; Nicol, Beate; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2018-01-18

    In vitro high-throughput non-depletive quantitation of chemicals in biofluids is of growing interest in many areas. Some of the challenges facing researchers include the limited volume of biofluids, rapid and high-throughput sampling requirements, and the lack of reliable methods. Coupled to the above, growing interest in the monitoring of kinetics and dynamics of miniaturized biosystems has spurred the demand for development of novel and revolutionary methodologies for analysis of biofluids. The applicability of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) is investigated as a potential technology to fulfill the aforementioned requirements. As analytes with sufficient diversity in their physicochemical features, nicotine, N,N-Diethyl-meta-toluamide, and diclofenac were selected as test compounds for the study. The objective was to develop methodologies that would allow repeated non-depletive sampling from 96-well plates, using 100 µL of sample. Initially, thin film-SPME was investigated. Results revealed substantial depletion and consequent disruption in the system. Therefore, new ultra-thin coated fibers were developed. The applicability of this device to the described sampling scenario was tested by determining the protein binding of the analytes. Results showed good agreement with rapid equilibrium dialysis. The presented method allows high-throughput analysis using small volumes, enabling fast reliable free and total concentration determinations without disruption of system equilibrium.

  14. 20 CFR 404.403 - Reduction where total monthly benefits exceed maximum family benefits payable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... marriage not valid under State law (see §§ 404.345 and 404.346), the benefits of the individual whose entitlement is based on a valid marriage under State law will not be reduced pursuant to this section. The... average indexed monthly earnings equal to one-twelfth of the contribution and benefit base determined for...

  15. Total dose behavior of partially depleted SOI dynamic threshold voltage MOS (DTMOS) for very low supply voltage applications (0.6 - 1 V)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferlet-Cavrois, V.; Musseau, O.; Leray, J.L.; Faynot, O.; Raynaud, C.; Pelloie, J.L.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we presented two DTMOS architectures processed with a partially depleted SOI technology. The first architecture, DTMOS without limiting transistor, is dedicated to ultra-low voltage applications, at 0.6 V. For 1V applications, the second architecture, DTMOS with limiting transistor, needs an additional transistor to limit the body-source diode current. The total dose irradiation of both DTMOS architectures induces no change of the drain current, but an increase of the body-source diode current. Total dose induced trapped charge in the buried oxide increases the body potential of the DTMOS transistor. It induces an increase of the current flow at the back interface of the silicon film. Irradiation of complex circuits using DTMOS transistors would lead to a degradation of the stand-by consumption. (authors)

  16. Six-month clinical outcomes after hyperopic correction with the SCHWIND AMARIS Total-Tech laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbelaez, María Clara; Vidal, Camila; Arba Mosquera, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate postoperative clinical outcomes, and corneal High Order Aberrations, among eyes with hyperopia up to +5 D of spherical equivalent, that have undergone LASIK treatments using the SCHWIND AMARIS laser system. Methods At six-month follow-up, 100 eyes with preoperative hyperopia or hyperopic astigmatism up to +5 D of spherical equivalent were retrospectively analysed. Standard examinations, pre- and postoperative wavefront analysis with a corneal-wavefront-analyzer (OPTIKON Scout) were performed. Aberration-Free aspheric treatments were planned with Custom Ablation Manager software and ablations performed using the SCHWIND AMARIS flying-spot excimer laser system (both SCHWIND eye-tech-solutions). LASIK flaps were created using a LDV femtosecond laser (Ziemer Group) in all cases. Clinical outcomes were evaluated in terms of predictability, refractive outcome, safety, and wavefront aberration. Results At six month, 90 % of eyes achieved ≥ 20/25 UCVA and 44 % achieved ≥ 20/16 UCVA. Seventy-four percent of eyes were within ± 0.25D of spherical equivalent and 89 % within ± 0.50D, with 94 % within 0.50D of astigmatism. Mean spherical equivalent was −0.12 ± 0.51D and 0.50 ± 0.51D for the astigmatism. Fifty-two percent of eyes improved BSCVA vs. only 19 % losing lines of BSCVA. Predictability slope for refraction was 1.03 and intercept +0.01 D. On average, negative corneal spherical aberrations were significantly increased by the treatments, no other aberration terms changed from pre- to postoperative values. Conclusions LASIK for hyperopia and hyperopic astigmatism with SCHWIND AMARIS yields very satisfactory visual outcomes. Preoperative refractions were postoperatively reduced to subclinical values with no clinically relevant induction of corneal HOA.

  17. Psychosocial findings in alcohol-dependent patients before and after three months of total alcohol abstinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ferrulli

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol use disorders (AUDs may be associated with several psychological and affective disorders. It is controversial, however, if these symptoms are a cause or rather a consequence of alcohol dependence. There are few data testing simultaneously psychosocial and affective disorders before and after a period of alcohol abstinence. The aim of this study was to perform multiple psychometric evaluations in alcohol-dependent patients before and after 12 weeks of abstinence. Twenty-five alcohol-dependent patients were included in the study. The following psychometric tests were administered at baseline (T0 and after 12 weeks (T1: Addiction Severity Index (ASI, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS, Social Behaviour Scale (SBS, Sheehan Disability Scale (DISS, Aggression Questionnaire (AQ. At T1, 16 (64% patients were abstinent, 5 (20% patients dropped out and 4 (16% patients relapsed. Compared to T0, patients totally abstinent at T1 showed a significant reduction of the scores related to BPRS, BPRS-E and its subscales (except BPRS 5, ASI 1, ASI 2, ASI 3, ASI 6, ASI 7, BSM, AQ, DISS 1, DISS 2, DISS 3 (p<0.05. No significant changes in ASI 4, ASI 5, DISS 4 and DISS 5, BPRS 5 scores were found at T1 compared to T0. The present study indicates that total alcohol abstinence improves psychometric features, such as alcohol addiction severity, psychiatric rating, social behaviour, aggressiveness, and disability. Larger controlled studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  18. Assessment of serum selenium levels in 2-month-old sucking calves using total reflection technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardini, D.; Testoni, S.; Buoso, M.C.; Ceccato, D.; Moschini, G.; Valdes, M.; Torboli, A.

    2000-01-01

    The assessment of selenium status of livestock is an important aspect of production medicine as evidence for the influence of low Se levels on disease resistance in ruminants is reviewed with emphasis on susceptibility to various pathologies (such as infections, exudative diathesis, pneumonia, pancreatic degeneration). Additional evidence suggests that Se deficiency may cause muscular dystrophy in calves, while, severe deficiency has been associated with cardiomyopathy and even death. Serum Se content is a good indicator of the short term Se status and reflects the recent dietary intake of the element. Since serum Se content is a good indicator of the short term status of the element and reflects the its recent dietary intake, the present work is aimed to determine Se concentration in serum from a group of 2 months old sucking calves suspected to be severely deficient. We used the TX 2000 X-ray spectrometer manufactured by Ital Structures. The energy resolution (FWHM) of the Si(Li) detector was 137 eV for Mn Kα. Among nuclear techniques the TXRF method is the best suitable for trace element analysis in liquid or dissolved samples and can deal much easier with elemental investigation. Physical basis of used analytical method, experimental set up and the sample preparation procedure are described. The concentration data obtained are presented and discussed. (author)

  19. Differences in total and allergen specific IgE during pregnancy compared with 1 month and 1 year post partum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Lee M; Ownby, Dennis R; Wegienka, Ganesa R; Peterson, Edward L; Woodcroft, Kimberly J; Joseph, Christine L; Johnson, Christine C

    2009-10-01

    Pregnancy alters the function of many body systems, including the immune system. However, little is known regarding the effect of pregnancy on maternal IgE levels or atopy. To determine whether pregnancy consistently influences serum levels of total or allergen specific IgE. Blood samples were obtained from 764 women during the third trimester of pregnancy and 1 month post partum. A third sample was obtained from 106 of these women 1 year post partum. Samples were analyzed for total and specific IgE to 8 regionally common allergens using a commercially available system. Sensitization was defined as an allergen specific IgE level of 0.35 kU of allergen per liter or higher to any allergen. Total IgE increased significantly post partum, both at 1 month (40.36 vs 35.37 IU/mL intrapartum; P = .001) and at 1 year (44.97 vs 37.00 IU/mL intrapartum; P = .005). Allergen specific IgE decreased significantly at 1 month for cat, dog, ragweed, timothy grass, and egg (P = .001 to P = .02) but not for dust mite, cockroach, or Alternaria (P = .15 to P = .90). Similar patterns of change in total and specific IgE were seen at 1 year. However, on average, only 3.5% of participants changed sensitization status to the individual allergens studied during the 1 year of observation. Compared with intrapartum levels, total IgE levels increased significantly at 1 month and 1 year post partum. Conversely, at the same time points, IgE levels specific for common allergens significantly declined to most but not all allergens. Few women changed their sensitization status over 1 year.

  20. Factors predicting weight-bearing asymmetry 1month after unilateral total knee arthroplasty: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Cory L; Bade, Michael J; Weitzenkamp, David A; Stevens-Lapsley, Jennifer E

    2013-03-01

    Factors predicting weight-bearing asymmetry (WBA) after unilateral total knee arthroplasty (TKA) are not known. However, identifying modifiable and non-modifiable predictors of WBA is needed to optimize rehabilitation, especially since WBA is negatively correlated to poor functional performance. The purpose of this study was to identify factors predictive of WBA during sit-stand transitions for people 1month following unilateral TKA. Fifty-nine people were tested preoperatively and 1month following unilateral TKA for WBA using average vertical ground reaction force under each foot during the Five Times Sit-to-Stand Test. Candidate variables tested in the regression analysis represented physical impairments (strength, muscle activation, pain, and motion), demographics, anthropometrics, and movement compensations. WBA, measured as the ratio of surgical/non-surgical limb vertical ground reaction force, was 0.69 (0.18) (mean (SD)) 1month after TKA. Regression analysis identified preoperative WBA (β=0.40), quadriceps strength ratio (β=0.31), and hamstrings strength ratio (β=0.19) as factors predictive of WBA 1month after TKA (R(2)=0.30). Greater amounts of WBA 1month after TKA are predicted by modifiable factors including habitual movement pattern and asymmetry in quadriceps and hamstrings strength. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Total and Conceptual Vocabulary in Spanish–English Bilinguals From 22 to 30 Months: Implications for Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Core, Cynthia; Hoff, Erika; Rumiche, Rosario; Señor, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Vocabulary assessment holds promise as a way to identify young bilingual children at risk for language delay. This study compares 2 measures of vocabulary in a group of young Spanish–English bilingual children to a single-language measure used with monolingual children. Method Total vocabulary and conceptual vocabulary were used to measure mean vocabulary size and growth in 47 Spanish–English bilingually developing children from 22 to 30 months of age based on results from the MacArthur–Bates Communicative Development Inventory (CDI; Fenson et al., 1993) and the Inventario del Desarrollo de Habilidades Comunicativas (Jackson-Maldonado et al., 2003). Bilingual children’s scores of total vocabulary and conceptual vocabulary were compared with CDI scores for a control group of 56 monolingual children. Results The total vocabulary measure resulted in mean vocabulary scores and average rate of growth similar to monolingual growth, whereas conceptual vocabulary scores were significantly smaller and grew at a slower rate than total vocabulary scores. Total vocabulary identified the same proportion of bilingual children below the 25th percentile on monolingual norms as the CDI did for monolingual children. Conclusion These results support the use of total vocabulary as a means of assessing early language development in young bilingual Spanish–English speaking children. PMID:24023382

  2. Synergistic effects of combined immunosuppressive modulation. I. Unresponsiveness to dendritic cell-depleted renal allografts in dogs exposed to total-lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapaport, F.T.; Meek, A.; Miura, S.; Hayashi, R.; Arnold, A.N.; Strober, S.

    1988-01-01

    Attenuation of the allogeneic stimulus provided by dendritic cells (DC) was achieved by irradiation of the donors, followed by their reconstitution with bone marrow from the prospective DLA-identical recipient. Following long-term (131-187 days) recovery free of graft-versus-host (GVH) disease, the chimeric kidneys were placed into the corresponding recipients; such allografts were rejected at 55, 55, and 60 days, respectively. Four other recipients were conditioned with 1750-1790 cgy of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) and were then given a similar chimeric kidney from the corresponding partner. These allografts currently survive for 296, 295, 290, and 252 days, respectively. A third group of four dogs was exposed to TLI prior to transplantation of a normal DLA-identical kidney. These grafts were rejected at 20, 42, 46, and 242 days, respectively. Thirteen DLA-identical renal allografts transplanted into normal dogs survived for 13-38 days (mean survival time = 28.6 days). Depletion of allogeneic DC alone, or TLI alone, produced relative prolongations in allograft survival in canine recipients. Combined use of these two modalities, however, resulted in long-term allogeneic unresponsiveness in the recipients

  3. Effects of sex and obesity on gait biomechanics before and six months after total knee arthroplasty: A longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, K L; Sosdian, L; Hinman, R S; Wrigley, T V; Kasza, J; Dowsey, M; Choong, P; Bennell, K L

    2018-03-01

    Gait biomechanics, sex, and obesity can contribute to suboptimal outcomes from primary total knee arthroplasty. The aims of this study were to i) determine if sex and/or obesity influence the amount of change in gait biomechanics from pre-surgery to six months post-surgery and; ii) assess if gait returns to normal in men and women. Three-dimensional gait analysis was performed on 43 patients undergoing primary total knee arthroplasty for knee osteoarthritis (pre- and six months post-operative) and 40 asymptomatic controls. Mixed linear regression models were fit to assess which factors influenced change in gait biomechanics within the arthroplasty cohort, and interaction terms were included to assess if biomechanics returned to normal following surgery. Male peak knee adduction moment (p biomechanics after arthroplasty. Men retained abnormal gait patterns after surgery, whilst women did not. Further research should determine the long-term implications of gait abnormalities seen in men after arthroplasty. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Preoperative hypoalgesia after cold pressor test and aerobic exercise is associated with pain relief six months after total knee replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaegter, Henrik Bjarke; Handberg, Gitte; Emmeluth, Claus

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Chronic pain after total knee replacement (TKR) is not uncommon. Preoperative impaired conditioning pain modulation (CPM) has been used to predict chronic postoperative pain. Interestingly, exercises reduce pain sensitivity in patients with knee osteoarthritis. This pilot study...... investigated the association between exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH) and CPM on post-TKR pain relief. METHODS: Before and six months post-TKR, 14 patients with chronic knee osteoarthritis performed the cold pressor test on the non-affected leg and two exercise conditions (bicycling and isometric knee...... at the affected leg improved post-TKR compared with pre-TKR (PCPM and bicycling EIH assessed by the increase in cPTT correlated with reduction in NRS pain scores post-TKR (PCPM and EIH responses after TKR were significantly correlated with reduction in NRS pain scores...

  5. A three-month longitudinal study of changes in day/night serum total antioxidant capacity in paranoid schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morera-Fumero, Armando L; Díaz-Mesa, Estefanía; Abreu-Gonzalez, Pedro; Fernandez-Lopez, Lourdes; Guillen-Pino, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Free radicals and an oxidant/antioxidant imbalance have been involved in the schizophrenia pathophysiology. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) is a measure of the antioxidant capacity of a system. Day/night changes are a biological characteristic of hormones such as melatonin or cortisol. There is little information about TAC day/night changes in schizophrenia patients. The aim of this research is to study if there are day/night changes in serum TAC levels of schizophrenia patients. Thirty-two DSM-IV schizophrenia paranoid patients were studied. Blood was sampled at 12:00 and 00:00 h at admission, discharge and three months after hospital discharge (TMAHD). TAC results are expressed as mmol of Trolox/L. Patients did not have day/night TAC differences at admission (12:00: 0.67±0.12 vs. 00:00: 0.61±0.14, p>0.14) or discharge (12:00: 0.65±0.15 vs. 00:00: 0.65±0.12, p>0.99). At TMHD, patients had significantly higher TAC levels at midday than midnight (12:00: 0.83±0.10 vs. 00:00: 0.74±0.12, pday/night serum TAC changes when clinically relapsed and the normalization of day/night serum TAC changes at TMHD can be considered as a biological marker of schizophrenia evolution.

  6. A three-month longitudinal study of changes in day/night serum total antioxidant capacity in paranoid schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando L Morera-Fumero

    Full Text Available Free radicals and an oxidant/antioxidant imbalance have been involved in the schizophrenia pathophysiology. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC is a measure of the antioxidant capacity of a system. Day/night changes are a biological characteristic of hormones such as melatonin or cortisol. There is little information about TAC day/night changes in schizophrenia patients. The aim of this research is to study if there are day/night changes in serum TAC levels of schizophrenia patients. Thirty-two DSM-IV schizophrenia paranoid patients were studied. Blood was sampled at 12:00 and 00:00 h at admission, discharge and three months after hospital discharge (TMAHD. TAC results are expressed as mmol of Trolox/L. Patients did not have day/night TAC differences at admission (12:00: 0.67±0.12 vs. 00:00: 0.61±0.14, p>0.14 or discharge (12:00: 0.65±0.15 vs. 00:00: 0.65±0.12, p>0.99. At TMHD, patients had significantly higher TAC levels at midday than midnight (12:00: 0.83±0.10 vs. 00:00: 0.74±0.12, p<0.006 as it has been reported in healthy subjects. There were no significant TAC differences at 12.00 and 00:00 between admission and discharge. At TMAHD, patients had significantly higher TAC levels than at admission and discharge, both at 12:00 and 00:00 h. In conclusion, the absence of day/night serum TAC changes when clinically relapsed and the normalization of day/night serum TAC changes at TMHD can be considered as a biological marker of schizophrenia evolution.

  7. Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score at 3 months can predict patients' ability to return to sport 1 year after injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Maria Swennergren; Christensen, Marianne; Budolfsen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate how the Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score (ATRS) at 3 months and 1 year after injury is associated with a patient's ability to return to work and sports as well as to investigate whether sex and age influence ATRS after 3 months and 1 year. METHOD: This is a retrospectiv...

  8. TOMS/Nimbus-7 Total Column Ozone Monthly L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid V008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data product contains TOMS/Nimbus-7 Total Column Ozone Monthly L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid Version 8 data in ASCII format. The Total Ozone Mapping...

  9. Early changes in muscle strength after total knee arthroplasty. A 6-month follow-up of 30 knees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, J S; Petersen, M M; Brot, C

    1999-01-01

    to surgery, and after 3 and 6 months, isokinetic and isometric muscle strength in both legs were measured, using a Cybex 6000 dynamometer. Isokinetic tests showed a bilateral, significant, and progressive increase (30-53%) in flexor muscle strength most pronounced in the operated legs. Isokinetic extensor...... strength increased significantly (14-18%) in the operated legs, while in the contralateral legs, a limited increase was found. Isometric flexion strength significantly decreased in the operated knees (17%). Isometric extension strength showed a temporary decrease at 3 months, which returned...... to the preoperative level. No significant change in isometric strength was observed in the contralateral legs. The knee pain during the muscle strength measurements decreased significantly from the preoperative level, which may indicate that the substantial pain relief within 3 months after a TKA is an important...

  10. Effect of intratracheally instilled depleted uranium on immunological function of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You Hanhu; Yang Zhihua; Cao Zhenshan; Zhu Maoxiang; Liu Xingrong

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study immunological effects of depleted uranium in rats. Methods: Wistar rats were exposed to depleted uranium by single intratracheal instillation. Body weight and peripheral blood cells were measured weekly and immunological functions were evaluated by weight coefficient of immune organs, plague forming cells of splenocytes, total and subpopulation counts of lymphocytes in thymus. Results: Early after administration, body weight decreased and red blood cells as well as platelets reduced while white blood cells increased, which returned to normal within 1 or 2 months. Immunological functions of splenocytes and thymocytes were affected dose-dependently by depleted uranium. Conclusion: Depleted uranium induces immunological dysfunction in rats. (authors)

  11. Total and Conceptual Vocabulary in Spanish-English Bilinguals from 22 to 30 Months: Implications for Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Core, Cynthia; Hoff, Erika; Rumiche, Rosario; Senor, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Vocabulary assessment holds promise as a way to identify young bilingual children at risk for language delay. This study compares 2 measures of vocabulary in a group of young Spanish-English bilingual children to a single-language measure used with monolingual children. Method: Total vocabulary and conceptual vocabulary were used to…

  12. The Effect of a Physical Activity Program on the Total Number of Primary Care Visits in Inactive Patients: A 15-Month Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Giné-Garriga

    Full Text Available Effective promotion of exercise could result in substantial savings in healthcare cost expenses in terms of direct medical costs, such as the number of medical appointments. However, this is hampered by our limited knowledge of how to achieve sustained increases in physical activity.To assess the effectiveness of a Primary Health Care (PHC based physical activity program in reducing the total number of visits to the healthcare center among inactive patients, over a 15-month period.Randomized controlled trial.Three hundred and sixty-two (n = 362 inactive patients suffering from at least one chronic condition were included. One hundred and eighty-three patients (n = 183; mean (SD; 68.3 (8.8 years; 118 women were randomly allocated to the physical activity program (IG. One hundred and seventy-nine patients (n = 179; 67.2 (9.1 years; 106 women were allocated to the control group (CG. The IG went through a three-month standardized physical activity program led by physical activity specialists and linked to community resources.The total number of medical appointments to the PHC, during twelve months before and after the program, was registered. Self-reported health status (SF-12 version 2 was assessed at baseline (month 0, at the end of the intervention (month 3, and at 12 months follow-up after the end of the intervention (month 15.The IG had a significantly reduced number of visits during the 12 months after the intervention: 14.8 (8.5. The CG remained about the same: 18.2 (11.1 (P = .002.Our findings indicate that a 3-month physical activity program linked to community resources is a short-duration, effective and sustainable intervention in inactive patients to decrease rates of PHC visits.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00714831.

  13. The use of a tripolar articulation in revision total hip arthroplasty: a minimum of 24 months' follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Brett R; Della Valle, Craig J; Deirmengian, Carl A; Breien, Kristoffer M; Weeden, Steven H; Sporer, Scott M; Paprosky, Wayne G

    2008-12-01

    A retrospective cohort study of 31 hips revised with a tripolar articular construct was performed. Patient demographics and preoperative and postoperative information were recorded. Indications for a tripolar construct were recurrent dislocation and the inability to attain intraoperative stability during hip revision. Nine patients (29%) were revised to the tripolar construct after failure of a constrained liner. Twenty patients (65%) had at least one episode of instability before the most recent revision. At a mean follow-up of 38 months, modified Postel scores improved from a mean of 5.28 to 9.64 (P tripolar construct was effective in eliminating or preventing instability in 93% of the complex cases treated. These early results support the use of a tripolar construct in treating recurrent instability or instability encountered at the time of revision hip arthroplasty.

  14. NKT cell depletion in humans during early HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Caroline S; Kelleher, Anthony D; Finlayson, Robert; Godfrey, Dale I; Kent, Stephen J

    2014-08-01

    Natural killer T (NKT) cells bridge across innate and adaptive immune responses and have an important role in chronic viral infections such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). NKT cells are depleted during chronic HIV infection, but the timing, drivers and implications of this NKT cell depletion are poorly understood. We studied human peripheral blood NKT cell levels, phenotype and function in 31 HIV-infected subjects not on antiretroviral treatment from a mean of 4 months to 2 years after HIV infection. We found that peripheral CD4(+) NKT cells were substantially depleted and dysfunctional by 4 months after HIV infection. The depletion of CD4(+) NKT cells was more marked than the depletion of total CD4(+) T cells. Further, the early depletion of NKT cells correlated with CD4(+) T-cell decline, but not HIV viral levels. Levels of activated CD4(+) T cells correlated with the loss of NKT cells. Our studies suggest that the early loss of NKT cells is associated with subsequent immune destruction during HIV infection.

  15. Correlation between Total Solar Irradiance and Glycated Hemoglobin 2 to 3 Months Later in Patients with Diabetes: A Big-Data Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinchiku, Shigesumi; Kotani, Kazuhiko; Maruguchi, Yukiko; Aikou, Anna; Uenomachi, Hitoshi; Kajiya, Shouko

    2016-12-01

    Much attention has been paid recently to a relationship between glucose metabolism and weather. This study investigated the temporal correlation between total solar irradiance (TSI) and glycated hemoglobin (A1C) values in patients with diabetes. In 1531 patients with diabetes who received follow-up care between 2009 and 2013 (type 1 diabetes, 123 patients; type 2 diabetes, 1408 patients; male 53.6%; mean age, 61.2 years), A1C levels were measured a total of 58,830 times. The correlation between mean monthly TSI and mean A1C values from 1 to 4 months later was then examined. The mean values for TSI and A1C throughout the entire study period were 13.7 MJ/m 2 and 7.7%, respectively. The correlation coefficient between TSI and mean monthly A1C values at 1 to 4 months was -0.516, -0.734, -0.726 and -0.475, respectively (all p<0.001). There was a highly negative correlation between TSI and mean A1C values 2 to 3 months later in this population; thus, this fact may need to be considered when using A1C levels as a glycemic control index in patients with diabetes. Further studies are warranted. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Volume-dependent hemodynamic effects of blood collection in canine donors - evaluation of 13% and 15% of total blood volume depletion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RUI R.F. FERREIRA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is no consensus regarding the blood volume that could be safely donated by dogs, ranging from 11 to 25% of its total blood volume (TBV. No previous studies evaluated sedated donors.Aim: To evaluate the hemodynamic effects of blood collection from sedated and non-sedated dogs and to understand if such effects were volume-dependent.Materials and Methods: Fifty three donations of 13% of TBV and 20 donations of 15% TBV were performed in dogs sedated with diazepam and ketamine. Additionally, a total of 30 collections of 13% TBV and 20 collections of 15% TBV were performed in non-sedated dogs. Non-invasive arterial blood pressures and pulse rates were registered before and 15 min after donation. Results: Post-donation pulse rates increased significantly in both sedated groups, with higher differences in the 15% TBV collections. Systolic arterial pressures decreased significantly in these groups, while diastolic pressures increased significantly in 13% TBV donations. Non-sedated groups revealed a slight, but significant, SBP decrease. No clinical signs related to donations were registered.Conclusion: These results suggest that the collection of 15% TBV in sedated donors induces hemodynamic variations that may compromise the harmlessness of the procedure, while it seems to be a safe procedure in non-sedated dogs.

  17. Sampling Errors in Monthly Rainfall Totals for TRMM and SSM/I, Based on Statistics of Retrieved Rain Rates and Simple Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Thomas L.; Kundu, Prasun K.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Estimates from TRMM satellite data of monthly total rainfall over an area are subject to substantial sampling errors due to the limited number of visits to the area by the satellite during the month. Quantitative comparisons of TRMM averages with data collected by other satellites and by ground-based systems require some estimate of the size of this sampling error. A method of estimating this sampling error based on the actual statistics of the TRMM observations and on some modeling work has been developed. "Sampling error" in TRMM monthly averages is defined here relative to the monthly total a hypothetical satellite permanently stationed above the area would have reported. "Sampling error" therefore includes contributions from the random and systematic errors introduced by the satellite remote sensing system. As part of our long-term goal of providing error estimates for each grid point accessible to the TRMM instruments, sampling error estimates for TRMM based on rain retrievals from TRMM microwave (TMI) data are compared for different times of the year and different oceanic areas (to minimize changes in the statistics due to algorithmic differences over land and ocean). Changes in sampling error estimates due to changes in rain statistics due 1) to evolution of the official algorithms used to process the data, and 2) differences from other remote sensing systems such as the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I), are analyzed.

  18. The efficacy of modified direct lateral versus posterior approach on gait function and hip muscle strength after primary total hip arthroplasty at 12months follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenlund, Signe; Broeng, Leif; Overgaard, Søren

    2016-01-01

    -spatial parameters and range of motion. Isometric maximal hip muscle strength in abduction, flexion and extension was also tested. FINDINGS: Post-operatively, no between-group difference in gait function was observed. However, both hip abductor and flexor muscle strength improved more in the posterior approach group......BACKGROUND: The lateral and the posterior approach are the most commonly used procedures for total hip arthroplasty. Due to the detachment of the hip abductors, lateral approach is claimed to cause reduced hip muscle strength and altered gait pattern. However, this has not been investigated...... in a randomised controlled trial. The aim was to compare the efficacy of total hip arthroplasty performed by lateral or posterior approach on gait function and hip muscle strength up to 12months post-operatively. We hypothesised that posterior approach would be superior to lateral approach. METHODS: Forty...

  19. FUNCTIONAL IMPROVEMENT UP TO SIX MONTHS AFTER TOTAL KNEE ARTHROPLASTY: MEASURED BY KNEE RANGE OF MOTION AND SELF-REPORTED QUESTIONNAIRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Kocić

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The primary aim of this study was to assess knee range of motion (ROM as well as patients’ reported pain, stiffness and function up to six months after total knee arthroplasty (TKA. The secondary aim was to analyze the extent to which knee ROM correlates with patient-rated outcome. A prospective study included 60 patients with primary TKA for osteorthritis, admitted at Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinic from April 2009 to October 2014. The patients were evaluated at 4 time points: at admission and at discharge, as well as at follow-up at 3 and at 6 months after surgery. The outcome parameters included: active knee ROM, as well as pain, stiffness and function according to self reported Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis (WOMAC questionnaire. Statistically highly significant improvement in flexion and extension was observed from admission to all other assessment time points (p<0.001. Also, statistically significant improvement of all three WOMAC subscales (pain, stiffness and function was found between all assessments points (p<0.001. According to values of Spearman correlation coefficient, there was significant negative correlation of flexion with all WOMAC subscales at all assessment points, whereas correlation of extension with any assessed outcome parameter was without significance. It can be concluded that in TKA patients all outcome measures improved significantly from admission to 6 months follow-up. Knee flexion ROM negatively and moderately to strongly correlated with pain, stiffness and function, whereas correlation of extension with any assessed outcome measure was without significance.

  20. Pain and recovery after total knee arthroplasty: a 12-month follow-up after a prospective randomized study evaluating Nefopam and Ketamine for early rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aveline, Christophe; Roux, Alain Le; Hetet, Hubert Le; Gautier, Jean F; Vautier, Pierre; Cognet, Fabrice; Bonnet, Francis

    2014-09-01

    Ketamine and nefopam has been documented to decrease pain intensity and improve rehabilitation after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We conducted a follow-up study of a previously randomized clinical trial to determine the prevalence and risk factors of chronic pain 1 year after TKA and to assess the role of perioperative administration of ketamine and nefopam. The original randomized, double-blind trial evaluated postoperative pain in 75 patients scheduled for TKA who received either a 48-hour infusion of ketamine or nefopam compared with placebo. The current study has evaluated patients at 6 and 12 months for the presence of chronic pain defined as a visual analogue scale ≥40 mm during a stair-climbing test. Other outcomes were incidence of neuropathic pain evaluated (DN4 score), active flexion of the knee, and functional outcome (KOOS-PS score). A total of 69 patients completed the trial. The prevalence of chronic pain at 12 months was 17.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 10.2%-27.9%) without difference between the ketamine (12.5%), nefopam (13.7%), and placebo groups (26.1%). Prevalence of neuropathic pain was 10.2% (95% CI, 3%-17.3%). Ketamine reduced DN4 scores (P=0.02), increased knee flexion (P=0.0007), and KOOS-PS scores (Ppain (odds ratio 4.54; 95% CI, 1.17-17.67). After TKA, the intensity of postoperative pain is a risk factor of chronic pain on movement. Intraoperative ketamine seems to improve long-term results of rehabilitation in this setting.

  1. The emergency and delay management in total talus extrusion: Case report and review of literature after 24 months of follow up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Piscitelli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Total talus extrusion is a rare and severe injury. It is burdened by many complications as avascular necrosis and osteomyelitis even if a proper debridement of extruded talus is performed. Few case reports or case series were published, and because of the rarity of this event, there are no guidelines for treatment. We report the first case on an octogenarian man providing a long-term follow-up performing contrast enhanced magnetic resonances. The authors report the case of an octogenarian man who fell from an olive tree reporting a total talus extrusion associated with the fracture of the medial malleolus. After an accurate debridement and washing of the wound, the talus was anatomically repositioned and the fracture was treated with an external fixator. The wound healed with difficulty after 12 months and the patient developed a chronic osteomyelitis of the talar dome and avascular necrosis of talar head. We followed the patient for 24 months performing contrast enhanced magnetic resonances and evaluating the development of the avascular necrosis. Even if we encountered these complications, the treatment allowed the patient to walk without pain, using a talus type shoe and one crutch. Although the literature suggests that an anatomic replacement of talus allows avoiding main complications, we deem that the patient's age is an important biological feature to consider in the prognostic stratification. Moreover, primary talectomy and tibio-calcaneal fusion should be reserved as a salvage procedure. Talus replacement allows an overall good outcome for the patients, retaining height, and allowing a good quality of life.

  2. Deuterium-depleted water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanescu, Ion; Steflea, Dumitru; Saros-Rogobete, Irina; Titescu, Gheorghe; Tamaian, Radu

    2001-01-01

    Deuterium-depleted water represents water that has an isotopic content smaller than 145 ppm D/(D+H) which is the natural isotopic content of water. Deuterium depleted water is produced by vacuum distillation in columns equipped with structured packing made from phosphor bronze or stainless steel. Deuterium-depleted water, the production technique and structured packing are patents of National Institute of Research - Development for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies at Rm. Valcea. Researches made in the last few years showed the deuterium-depleted water is a biological active product that could have many applications in medicine and agriculture. (authors)

  3. Kinetics of depletion interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, G.A.; Schoot, van der P.P.A.M.

    2003-01-01

    Depletion interactions between colloidal particles dispersed in a fluid medium are effective interactions induced by the presence of other types of colloid. They are not instantaneous but built up in time. We show by means of Brownian dynamics simulations that the static (mean-field) depletion force

  4. Management of depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Large stocks of depleted uranium have arisen as a result of enrichment operations, especially in the United States and the Russian Federation. Countries with depleted uranium stocks are interested in assessing strategies for the use and management of depleted uranium. The choice of strategy depends on several factors, including government and business policy, alternative uses available, the economic value of the material, regulatory aspects and disposal options, and international market developments in the nuclear fuel cycle. This report presents the results of a depleted uranium study conducted by an expert group organised jointly by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency. It contains information on current inventories of depleted uranium, potential future arisings, long term management alternatives, peaceful use options and country programmes. In addition, it explores ideas for international collaboration and identifies key issues for governments and policy makers to consider. (authors)

  5. Halo Star Lithium Depletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinsonneault, M. H.; Walker, T. P.; Steigman, G.; Narayanan, Vijay K.

    1999-01-01

    The depletion of lithium during the pre-main-sequence and main-sequence phases of stellar evolution plays a crucial role in the comparison of the predictions of big bang nucleosynthesis with the abundances observed in halo stars. Previous work has indicated a wide range of possible depletion factors, ranging from minimal in standard (nonrotating) stellar models to as much as an order of magnitude in models that include rotational mixing. Recent progress in the study of the angular momentum evolution of low-mass stars permits the construction of theoretical models capable of reproducing the angular momentum evolution of low-mass open cluster stars. The distribution of initial angular momenta can be inferred from stellar rotation data in young open clusters. In this paper we report on the application of these models to the study of lithium depletion in main-sequence halo stars. A range of initial angular momenta produces a range of lithium depletion factors on the main sequence. Using the distribution of initial conditions inferred from young open clusters leads to a well-defined halo lithium plateau with modest scatter and a small population of outliers. The mass-dependent angular momentum loss law inferred from open cluster studies produces a nearly flat plateau, unlike previous models that exhibited a downward curvature for hotter temperatures in the 7Li-Teff plane. The overall depletion factor for the plateau stars is sensitive primarily to the solar initial angular momentum used in the calibration for the mixing diffusion coefficients. Uncertainties remain in the treatment of the internal angular momentum transport in the models, and the potential impact of these uncertainties on our results is discussed. The 6Li/7Li depletion ratio is also examined. We find that the dispersion in the plateau and the 6Li/7Li depletion ratio scale with the absolute 7Li depletion in the plateau, and we use observational data to set bounds on the 7Li depletion in main-sequence halo

  6. Addressing Ozone Layer Depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Access information on EPA's efforts to address ozone layer depletion through regulations, collaborations with stakeholders, international treaties, partnerships with the private sector, and enforcement actions under Title VI of the Clean Air Act.

  7. [Measurement of the passive compliance of the total respiratory system in newborn after respiratory insufficiency for risk assessment of respiratory disorders during the first 6 month of life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olechowski, Wiesław; Majorek-Olechowska, Bernadetta

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the relationships between postnatal passive respiratory compliance (Crs) and development of respiratory disorders during the first 6 month of life in preterm and full-term infants after respiratory insufficiency. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether other relevant neonatal factors, like degree of prematurity, birth weigh, ventilatory conditions, sepsis, and respiratory disease severity affected this relationship. The passive respiratory compliance was measured by the single occlusion technique in 73 preterm infants after respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), 19 full-term infants after congenital pneumonia and 33 healthy full-term infants. Respiratory function measurements were performed by single occlusion technique, during natural sleep, after acute phase of illness, before discharge from neonatal department. Crs was significantly lower in premature newborns newborns who have suffered from a congenital pneumonia (p = 0.0411), than in healthy full-term newborn infants. Premature infants who have undergone sepsis have significantly decreased Crs in relationship with those who did not have this complication (p = 0.0334). Preterm newborns who have suffered pneumonia during treatment of RDS have significantly frequent respiratory problems during the first 6 month of age (p = 0.043). Full-term infants after congenital pneumonia have more but not significantly frequent respiratory problems than healthy term newborns (p = 0.055) in this period. Decreased neonatal Crs wasn't significantly related to respiratory disorders in age of 6 month of life. Prematurity under 36 week of gestational age, low birth weight and suffering from sepsis in premature infants significantly decreased Crs in newborn. Decreased neonatal Crs in premature and full term infants after respiratory insufficiency wasn't significantly related to respiratory disorders during first 6 month of life. This study has showed significantly increase of respiratory problems in this

  8. A randomized trial of a standard dose of Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine given at 4.5 months of age: effect on total hospital admissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Cesario L; Benn, Christine S; Andersen, Andreas; Balé, Carlito; Schaltz-Buchholzer, Frederik; Do, Vu An; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Aaby, Peter; Ravn, Henrik; Whittle, Hilton; Garly, May-Lill

    2014-06-01

    Observational studies and trials from low-income countries indicate that measles vaccine has beneficial nonspecific effects, protecting against non-measles-related mortality. It is not known whether measles vaccine protects against hospital admissions. Between 2003 and 2007, 6417 children who had received the third dose of diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis vaccine were randomly assigned to receive measles vaccine at 4.5 months or no measles vaccine; all children were offered measles vaccine at 9 months of age. Using hospital admission data from the national pediatric ward in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau, we compared admission rates between enrollment and the 9-month vaccination in Cox models, providing admission hazard rate ratios (HRRs) for measles vaccine versus no measles vaccine. All analyses were conducted stratified by sex and reception of neonatal vitamin A supplementation (NVAS). Before enrollment the 2 groups had similar admission rates. Following enrollment, the measles vaccine group had an admission HRR of 0.70 (95% confidence interval [CI], .52-.95), with a ratio of 0.53 (95% CI, .32-.86) for girls and 0.86 (95% CI, .58-1.26) for boys. For children who had not received NVAS, the admission HRR was 0.53 (95% CI, .34-.84), with an effect of 0.30 (95% CI, .13-.70) for girls and 0.73 (95% CI, .42-1.28) for boys (P = .08, interaction test). The reduction in admissions was separately significant for measles infection (admission HRR, 0 [95% CI, 0-.24]) and respiratory infections (admission HRR, 0.37 [95% CI, .16-.89]). Early measles vaccine may have major benefits for infant morbidity patterns and healthcare costs. Clinical trials registration NCT00168558.

  9. No positive effect of autologous platelet gel after total knee arthroplasty: A double-blind randomized controlled trial: 102 patients with a 3-month follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. Peerbooms (Joost); G.S. de Wolf (Gideon); J.W. Colaris (Joost); D.J. Bruijn (Danil); J.A.N. Verhaar (Jan)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBackground and purpose Activated platelets release a cocktail of growth factors, some of which are thought to stimulate repair. We investigated whether the use of autologous platelet gel (PG) in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) would improve wound healing and knee function, and reduce blood

  10. No positive effect of autologous platelet gel after total knee arthroplasty A double-blind randomized controlled trial: 102 patients with a 3-month follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peerbooms, J.C.; de Wolf, G.S.; Colaris, J.W.; Bruijn, D.J.; Verhaar, J.A.N.

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose Activated platelets release a cocktail of growth factors, some of which are thought to stimulate repair. We investigated whether the use of autologous platelet gel (PG) in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) would improve wound healing and knee function, and reduce blood loss and

  11. Issues in Stratospheric Ozone Depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Steven Andrew

    Following the announcement of the discovery of the Antarctic ozone hole in 1985 there have arisen a multitude of questions pertaining to the nature and consequences of polar ozone depletion. This thesis addresses several of these specific questions, using both computer models of chemical kinetics and the Earth's radiation field as well as laboratory kinetic experiments. A coupled chemical kinetic-radiative numerical model was developed to assist in the analysis of in situ field measurements of several radical and neutral species in the polar and mid-latitude lower stratosphere. Modeling was used in the analysis of enhanced polar ClO, mid-latitude diurnal variation of ClO, and simultaneous measurements of OH, HO_2, H_2 O and O_3. Most importantly, such modeling was instrumental in establishing the link between the observed ClO and BrO concentrations in the Antarctic polar vortex and the observed rate of ozone depletion. The principal medical concern of stratospheric ozone depletion is that ozone loss will lead to the enhancement of ground-level UV-B radiation. Global ozone climatology (40^circS to 50^ circN latitude) was incorporated into a radiation field model to calculate the biologically accumulated dosage (BAD) of UV-B radiation, integrated over days, months, and years. The slope of the annual BAD as a function of latitude was found to correspond to epidemiological data for non-melanoma skin cancers for 30^circ -50^circN. Various ozone loss scenarios were investigated. It was found that a small ozone loss in the tropics can provide as much additional biologically effective UV-B as a much larger ozone loss at higher latitudes. Also, for ozone depletions of > 5%, the BAD of UV-B increases exponentially with decreasing ozone levels. An important key player in determining whether polar ozone depletion can propagate into the populated mid-latitudes is chlorine nitrate, ClONO_2 . As yet this molecule is only indirectly accounted for in computer models and field

  12. Revisiting Antarctic Ozone Depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grooß, Jens-Uwe; Tritscher, Ines; Müller, Rolf

    2015-04-01

    Antarctic ozone depletion is known for almost three decades and it has been well settled that it is caused by chlorine catalysed ozone depletion inside the polar vortex. However, there are still some details, which need to be clarified. In particular, there is a current debate on the relative importance of liquid aerosol and crystalline NAT and ice particles for chlorine activation. Particles have a threefold impact on polar chlorine chemistry, temporary removal of HNO3 from the gas-phase (uptake), permanent removal of HNO3 from the atmosphere (denitrification), and chlorine activation through heterogeneous reactions. We have performed simulations with the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS) employing a recently developed algorithm for saturation-dependent NAT nucleation for the Antarctic winters 2011 and 2012. The simulation results are compared with different satellite observations. With the help of these simulations, we investigate the role of the different processes responsible for chlorine activation and ozone depletion. Especially the sensitivity with respect to the particle type has been investigated. If temperatures are artificially forced to only allow cold binary liquid aerosol, the simulation still shows significant chlorine activation and ozone depletion. The results of the 3-D Chemical Transport Model CLaMS simulations differ from purely Lagrangian longtime trajectory box model simulations which indicates the importance of mixing processes.

  13. Capital expenditure and depletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rech, O.; Saniere, A.

    2003-01-01

    In the future, the increase in oil demand will be covered for the most part by non conventional oils, but conventional sources will continue to represent a preponderant share of the world oil supply. Their depletion represents a complex challenge involving technological, economic and political factors. At the same time, there is reason for concern about the decrease in exploration budgets at the major oil companies. (author)

  14. Capital expenditure and depletion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rech, O.; Saniere, A

    2003-07-01

    In the future, the increase in oil demand will be covered for the most part by non conventional oils, but conventional sources will continue to represent a preponderant share of the world oil supply. Their depletion represents a complex challenge involving technological, economic and political factors. At the same time, there is reason for concern about the decrease in exploration budgets at the major oil companies. (author)

  15. Ozone-depleting Substances (ODS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This site includes all of the ozone-depleting substances (ODS) recognized by the Montreal Protocol. The data include ozone depletion potentials (ODP), global warming...

  16. Depleted uranium management alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertzler, T.J.; Nishimoto, D.D.

    1994-08-01

    This report evaluates two management alternatives for Department of Energy depleted uranium: continued storage as uranium hexafluoride, and conversion to uranium metal and fabrication to shielding for spent nuclear fuel containers. The results will be used to compare the costs with other alternatives, such as disposal. Cost estimates for the continued storage alternative are based on a life-cycle of 27 years through the year 2020. Cost estimates for the recycle alternative are based on existing conversion process costs and Capital costs for fabricating the containers. Additionally, the recycle alternative accounts for costs associated with intermediate product resale and secondary waste disposal for materials generated during the conversion process.

  17. Consequences of biome depletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvucci, Emiliano

    2013-01-01

    The human microbiome is an integral part of the superorganism together with their host and they have co-evolved since the early days of the existence of the human species. The modification of the microbiome as a result changes in food and social habits of human beings throughout their life history has led to the emergence of many diseases. In contrast with the Darwinian view of nature of selfishness and competence, new holistic approaches are rising. Under these views, the reconstitution of the microbiome comes out as a fundamental therapy for emerging diseases related to biome depletion.

  18. Depleted uranium management alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertzler, T.J.; Nishimoto, D.D.

    1994-08-01

    This report evaluates two management alternatives for Department of Energy depleted uranium: continued storage as uranium hexafluoride, and conversion to uranium metal and fabrication to shielding for spent nuclear fuel containers. The results will be used to compare the costs with other alternatives, such as disposal. Cost estimates for the continued storage alternative are based on a life-cycle of 27 years through the year 2020. Cost estimates for the recycle alternative are based on existing conversion process costs and Capital costs for fabricating the containers. Additionally, the recycle alternative accounts for costs associated with intermediate product resale and secondary waste disposal for materials generated during the conversion process

  19. Monoamine depletion by reuptake inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinz M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Marty Hinz1, Alvin Stein2, Thomas Uncini31Clinical Research, NeuroResearch Clinics Inc, Cape Coral, FL; 2Stein Orthopedic Associates, Plantation, FL; 3DBS Labs Inc, Duluth, MN, USABackground: Disagreement exists regarding the etiology of cessation of the observed clinical results with administration of reuptake inhibitors. Traditionally, when drug effects wane, it is known as tachyphylaxis. With reuptake inhibitors, the placebo effect is significantly greater than the drug effect in the treatment of depression and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, leading some to assert that waning of drug effects is placebo relapse, not tachyphylaxis.Methods: Two groups were retrospectively evaluated. Group 1 was composed of subjects with depression and Group 2 was composed of bariatric subjects treated with reuptake inhibitors for appetite suppression.Results: In Group 1, 200 subjects with depression were treated with citalopram 20 mg per day. A total of 46.5% (n = 93 achieved relief of symptoms (Hamilton-D rating score ≤ 7, of whom 37 (39.8% of whom experienced recurrence of depression symptoms, at which point an amino acid precursor formula was started. Within 1–5 days, 97.3% (n = 36 experienced relief of depression symptoms. In Group 2, 220 subjects were treated with phentermine 30 mg in the morning and citalopram 20 mg at 4 pm. In this group, 90.0% (n = 198 achieved adequate appetite suppression. The appetite suppression ceased in all 198 subjects within 4–48 days. Administration of an amino acid precursor formula restored appetite suppression in 98.5% (n = 195 of subjects within 1–5 days.Conclusion: Reuptake inhibitors do not increase the total number of monoamine molecules in the central nervous system. Their mechanism of action facilitates redistribution of monoamines from one place to another. In the process, conditions are induced that facilitate depletion of monoamines. The "reuptake inhibitor monoamine depletion theory" of this paper

  20. Long-term safety of rituximab induced peripheral B-cell depletion in autoimmune neurological diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anza B Memon

    Full Text Available B-cells play a pivotal role in several autoimmune diseases, including patients with immune-mediated neurological disorders (PIMND, such as neuromyelitis optica (NMO, multiple sclerosis (MS, and myasthenia gravis (MG. Targeting B-cells has been an effective approach in ameliorating both central and peripheral autoimmune diseases. However, there is a paucity of literature on the safety of continuous B-cell depletion over a long period of time.The aim of this study was to examine the long-term safety, incidence of infections, and malignancies in subjects receiving continuous therapy with a B-cell depleting agent rituximab over at least 3 years or longer.This was a retrospective study involving PIMND who received continuous cycles of rituximab infusions every 6 to 9 months for up to 7 years. The incidence of infection related adverse events (AE, serious adverse events (SAE, and malignancies were observed.There were a total of 32 AE and 4 SAE with rituximab treatment. The 3 SAE were noted after 9 cycles (48 months and 1 SAE was observed after 11 cycles (60 months of rituximab. There were no cases of Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML and malignancies observed throughout the treatment period. Rituximab was well tolerated without any serious infusion reactions. Also, rituximab was found to be beneficial in treating PIMND over a 7-year period.This study demonstrates that long-term depletion of peripheral B-cells appears safe and efficacious in treating PIMND. Longer and larger prospective studies with rituximab are needed to carefully ascertain risks associated with chronic B-cell depletion, including malignancies. Recognizing that this is a small, retrospective study, such data nonetheless complement the growing literature documenting the safety and tolerability of B-cell depleting agents in neurological diseases.

  1. Changes in body weight, C-reactive protein, and total adiponectin in non-obese women after 12 months of a small-volume, home-based exercise program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mediano, Mauro Felippe Felix; Neves, Fabiana Alves; Cunha, Alessandra Cordeiro de Souza Rodrigues; Souza, Erica Patricia Garcia de; Moura, Anibal Sanchez; Sichieri, Rosely

    2013-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the effects of small-volume, home-based exercise combined with slight caloric restriction on the inflammatory markers C-reactive protein and adiponectin. In total, 54 women were randomly assigned to one of two groups for exercise intervention: the control or home-based exercise groups. Weight, waist and hip circumferences, and inflammatory markers were measured at baseline and after 6 and 12 months. Women allocated to the home-based exercise group received a booklet explaining the physical exercises to be practiced at home at least 3 times per week, 40 minutes per session, at low-to-moderate intensity. All participants received dietary counseling aimed at reducing caloric intake by 100-300 calories per day, with a normal distribution of macro-nutrients (26-28% of energy as fat). Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01206413 RESULTS: The home-based exercise group showed a significantly greater reduction in weight and body mass index at six months, but no difference between groups was observed thereafter. With regard to the inflammatory markers, a greater but non-statistically significant reduction was found for C-reactive protein in the home-based exercise group at six months; however, this difference disappeared after adjusting for weight change. No differences in adiponectin were found at the 6- or 12-month follow-up. Small-volume, home-based exercise did not promote changes in inflammatory markers independent of weight change.

  2. MOx Depletion Calculation Benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    San Felice, Laurence; Eschbach, Romain; Dewi Syarifah, Ratna; Maryam, Seif-Eddine; Hesketh, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Under the auspices of the NEA Nuclear Science Committee (NSC), the Working Party on Scientific Issues of Reactor Systems (WPRS) has been established to study the reactor physics, fuel performance, radiation transport and shielding, and the uncertainties associated with modelling of these phenomena in present and future nuclear power systems. The WPRS has different expert groups to cover a wide range of scientific issues in these fields. The Expert Group on Reactor Physics and Advanced Nuclear Systems (EGRPANS) was created in 2011 to perform specific tasks associated with reactor physics aspects of present and future nuclear power systems. EGRPANS provides expert advice to the WPRS and the nuclear community on the development needs (data and methods, validation experiments, scenario studies) for different reactor systems and also provides specific technical information regarding: core reactivity characteristics, including fuel depletion effects; core power/flux distributions; Core dynamics and reactivity control. In 2013 EGRPANS published a report that investigated fuel depletion effects in a Pressurised Water Reactor (PWR). This was entitled 'International Comparison of a Depletion Calculation Benchmark on Fuel Cycle Issues' NEA/NSC/DOC(2013) that documented a benchmark exercise for UO 2 fuel rods. This report documents a complementary benchmark exercise that focused on PuO 2 /UO 2 Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel rods. The results are especially relevant to the back-end of the fuel cycle, including irradiated fuel transport, reprocessing, interim storage and waste repository. Saint-Laurent B1 (SLB1) was the first French reactor to use MOx assemblies. SLB1 is a 900 MWe PWR, with 30% MOx fuel loading. The standard MOx assemblies, used in Saint-Laurent B1 reactor, include three zones with different plutonium enrichments, high Pu content (5.64%) in the center zone, medium Pu content (4.42%) in the intermediate zone and low Pu content (2.91%) in the peripheral zone

  3. Riddle of depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, A.S.

    2005-01-01

    Depleted Uranium (DU) is the waste product of uranium enrichment from the manufacturing of fuel rods for nuclear reactors in nuclear power plants and nuclear power ships. DU may also results from the reprocessing of spent nuclear reactor fuel. Potentially DU has both chemical and radiological toxicity with two important targets organs being the kidney and the lungs. DU is made into a metal and, due to its availability, low price, high specific weight, density and melting point as well as its pyrophoricity; it has a wide range of civilian and military applications. Due to the use of DU over the recent years, there appeared in some press on health hazards that are alleged to be due to DU. In these paper properties, applications, potential environmental and health effects of DU are briefly reviewed

  4. The Toxicity of Depleted Uranium

    OpenAIRE

    Briner, Wayne

    2010-01-01

    Depleted uranium (DU) is an emerging environmental pollutant that is introduced into the environment primarily by military activity. While depleted uranium is less radioactive than natural uranium, it still retains all the chemical toxicity associated with the original element. In large doses the kidney is the target organ for the acute chemical toxicity of this metal, producing potentially lethal tubular necrosis. In contrast, chronic low dose exposure to depleted uranium may not produce a c...

  5. The Toxicity of Depleted Uranium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne Briner

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Depleted uranium (DU is an emerging environmental pollutant that is introduced into the environment primarily by military activity. While depleted uranium is less radioactive than natural uranium, it still retains all the chemical toxicity associated with the original element. In large doses the kidney is the target organ for the acute chemical toxicity of this metal, producing potentially lethal tubular necrosis. In contrast, chronic low dose exposure to depleted uranium may not produce a clear and defined set of symptoms. Chronic low-dose, or subacute, exposure to depleted uranium alters the appearance of milestones in developing organisms. Adult animals that were exposed to depleted uranium during development display persistent alterations in behavior, even after cessation of depleted uranium exposure. Adult animals exposed to depleted uranium demonstrate altered behaviors and a variety of alterations to brain chemistry. Despite its reduced level of radioactivity evidence continues to accumulate that depleted uranium, if ingested, may pose a radiologic hazard. The current state of knowledge concerning DU is discussed.

  6. Ego depletion impairs implicit learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kelsey R; Sanchez, Daniel J; Wesley, Abigail H; Reber, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    Implicit skill learning occurs incidentally and without conscious awareness of what is learned. However, the rate and effectiveness of learning may still be affected by decreased availability of central processing resources. Dual-task experiments have generally found impairments in implicit learning, however, these studies have also shown that certain characteristics of the secondary task (e.g., timing) can complicate the interpretation of these results. To avoid this problem, the current experiments used a novel method to impose resource constraints prior to engaging in skill learning. Ego depletion theory states that humans possess a limited store of cognitive resources that, when depleted, results in deficits in self-regulation and cognitive control. In a first experiment, we used a standard ego depletion manipulation prior to performance of the Serial Interception Sequence Learning (SISL) task. Depleted participants exhibited poorer test performance than did non-depleted controls, indicating that reducing available executive resources may adversely affect implicit sequence learning, expression of sequence knowledge, or both. In a second experiment, depletion was administered either prior to or after training. Participants who reported higher levels of depletion before or after training again showed less sequence-specific knowledge on the post-training assessment. However, the results did not allow for clear separation of ego depletion effects on learning versus subsequent sequence-specific performance. These results indicate that performance on an implicitly learned sequence can be impaired by a reduction in executive resources, in spite of learning taking place outside of awareness and without conscious intent.

  7. Importance of energetic solar protons in ozone depletion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephenson, J A.E.; Scourfield, M W.J. [Natal Univ., Durban (South Africa). Space Physics Research Inst.

    1991-07-11

    CHLORINE-catalysed depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer has commanded considerable attention since 1985, when Farman et al. observed a decrease of 50% in the total column ozone over Antarctica in the austral spring. Here we examine the depletion of stratospheric ozone caused by the reaction of ozone with nitric oxide generated by energetic solar protons, associated with solar flares. During large solar flares in March 1989, satellite observations indicated that total column ozone was depleted by {approx} 9% over {approx} 20% of the total area between the South Pole and latitude 70{sup o}S. Chlorine-catalysed ozone depletion takes place over a much larger area, but our results indicate that the influence of solar protons on atmospheric ozone concentrations should not be ignored. (author).

  8. Importance of energetic solar protons in ozone depletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephenson, J.A.E.; Scourfield, M.W.J.

    1991-01-01

    CHLORINE-catalysed depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer has commanded considerable attention since 1985, when Farman et al. observed a decrease of 50% in the total column ozone over Antarctica in the austral spring. Here we examine the depletion of stratospheric ozone caused by the reaction of ozone with nitric oxide generated by energetic solar protons, associated with solar flares. During large solar flares in March 1989, satellite observations indicated that total column ozone was depleted by ∼ 9% over ∼ 20% of the total area between the South Pole and latitude 70 o S. Chlorine-catalysed ozone depletion takes place over a much larger area, but our results indicate that the influence of solar protons on atmospheric ozone concentrations should not be ignored. (author)

  9. Depleted Nanocrystal-Oxide Heterojunctions for High-Sensitivity Infrared Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-28

    Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: 4.3 Electronic Sensing - Depleted Nanocrystal- Oxide Heterojunctions for High...reviewed journals: Final Report: 4.3 Electronic Sensing - Depleted Nanocrystal- Oxide Heterojunctions for High-Sensitivity Infrared Detection Report Title...PERCENT_SUPPORTEDNAME FTE Equivalent: Total Number: 1 1 Final Progress Report Project title: Depleted Nanocrystal- Oxide Heterojunctions for High

  10. Depleted uranium plasma reduction system study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rekemeyer, P.; Feizollahi, F.; Quapp, W.J.; Brown, B.W.

    1994-12-01

    A system life-cycle cost study was conducted of a preliminary design concept for a plasma reduction process for converting depleted uranium to uranium metal and anhydrous HF. The plasma-based process is expected to offer significant economic and environmental advantages over present technology. Depleted Uranium is currently stored in the form of solid UF 6 , of which approximately 575,000 metric tons is stored at three locations in the U.S. The proposed system is preconceptual in nature, but includes all necessary processing equipment and facilities to perform the process. The study has identified total processing cost of approximately $3.00/kg of UF 6 processed. Based on the results of this study, the development of a laboratory-scale system (1 kg/h throughput of UF6) is warranted. Further scaling of the process to pilot scale will be determined after laboratory testing is complete

  11. Ego Depletion Impairs Implicit Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kelsey R.; Sanchez, Daniel J.; Wesley, Abigail H.; Reber, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Implicit skill learning occurs incidentally and without conscious awareness of what is learned. However, the rate and effectiveness of learning may still be affected by decreased availability of central processing resources. Dual-task experiments have generally found impairments in implicit learning, however, these studies have also shown that certain characteristics of the secondary task (e.g., timing) can complicate the interpretation of these results. To avoid this problem, the current experiments used a novel method to impose resource constraints prior to engaging in skill learning. Ego depletion theory states that humans possess a limited store of cognitive resources that, when depleted, results in deficits in self-regulation and cognitive control. In a first experiment, we used a standard ego depletion manipulation prior to performance of the Serial Interception Sequence Learning (SISL) task. Depleted participants exhibited poorer test performance than did non-depleted controls, indicating that reducing available executive resources may adversely affect implicit sequence learning, expression of sequence knowledge, or both. In a second experiment, depletion was administered either prior to or after training. Participants who reported higher levels of depletion before or after training again showed less sequence-specific knowledge on the post-training assessment. However, the results did not allow for clear separation of ego depletion effects on learning versus subsequent sequence-specific performance. These results indicate that performance on an implicitly learned sequence can be impaired by a reduction in executive resources, in spite of learning taking place outside of awareness and without conscious intent. PMID:25275517

  12. Hsp90 depletion goes wild

    OpenAIRE

    Siegal, Mark L; Masel, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Hsp90 reveals phenotypic variation in the laboratory, but is Hsp90 depletion important in the wild? Recent work from Chen and Wagner in BMC Evolutionary Biology has discovered a naturally occurring Drosophila allele that downregulates Hsp90, creating sensitivity to cryptic genetic variation. Laboratory studies suggest that the exact magnitude of Hsp90 downregulation is important. Extreme Hsp90 depletion might reactivate transposable elements and/or induce aneuploidy, in addition to r...

  13. Ego depletion impairs implicit learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey R Thompson

    Full Text Available Implicit skill learning occurs incidentally and without conscious awareness of what is learned. However, the rate and effectiveness of learning may still be affected by decreased availability of central processing resources. Dual-task experiments have generally found impairments in implicit learning, however, these studies have also shown that certain characteristics of the secondary task (e.g., timing can complicate the interpretation of these results. To avoid this problem, the current experiments used a novel method to impose resource constraints prior to engaging in skill learning. Ego depletion theory states that humans possess a limited store of cognitive resources that, when depleted, results in deficits in self-regulation and cognitive control. In a first experiment, we used a standard ego depletion manipulation prior to performance of the Serial Interception Sequence Learning (SISL task. Depleted participants exhibited poorer test performance than did non-depleted controls, indicating that reducing available executive resources may adversely affect implicit sequence learning, expression of sequence knowledge, or both. In a second experiment, depletion was administered either prior to or after training. Participants who reported higher levels of depletion before or after training again showed less sequence-specific knowledge on the post-training assessment. However, the results did not allow for clear separation of ego depletion effects on learning versus subsequent sequence-specific performance. These results indicate that performance on an implicitly learned sequence can be impaired by a reduction in executive resources, in spite of learning taking place outside of awareness and without conscious intent.

  14. Daddy Months

    OpenAIRE

    Volker Meier; Helmut Rainer

    2014-01-01

    We consider a bargaining model in which husband and wife decide on the allocation of time and disposable income. Since her bargaining power would go down otherwise more strongly, the wife agrees to having a child only if the husband also leaves the labor market for a while. The daddy months subsidy enables the couple to overcome a hold-up problem and thereby improves efficiency. However, the same ruling harms cooperative couples and may also reduce welfare in an endogenous taxation framework.

  15. "When the going gets tough, who keeps going?" Depletion sensitivity moderates the ego-depletion effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Stefanie J; Adriaanse, Marieke A; De Vet, Emely; Fennis, Bob M; De Ridder, Denise T D

    2014-01-01

    Self-control relies on a limited resource that can get depleted, a phenomenon that has been labeled ego-depletion. We argue that individuals may differ in their sensitivity to depleting tasks, and that consequently some people deplete their self-control resource at a faster rate than others. In three studies, we assessed individual differences in depletion sensitivity, and demonstrate that depletion sensitivity moderates ego-depletion effects. The Depletion Sensitivity Scale (DSS) was employed to assess depletion sensitivity. Study 1 employs the DSS to demonstrate that individual differences in sensitivity to ego-depletion exist. Study 2 shows moderate correlations of depletion sensitivity with related self-control concepts, indicating that these scales measure conceptually distinct constructs. Study 3 demonstrates that depletion sensitivity moderates the ego-depletion effect. Specifically, participants who are sensitive to depletion performed worse on a second self-control task, indicating a stronger ego-depletion effect, compared to participants less sensitive to depletion.

  16. Human podocyte depletion in association with older age and hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puelles, Victor G; Cullen-McEwen, Luise A; Taylor, Georgina E; Li, Jinhua; Hughson, Michael D; Kerr, Peter G; Hoy, Wendy E; Bertram, John F

    2016-04-01

    Podocyte depletion plays a major role in the development and progression of glomerulosclerosis. Many kidney diseases are more common in older age and often coexist with hypertension. We hypothesized that podocyte depletion develops in association with older age and is exacerbated by hypertension. Kidneys from 19 adult Caucasian American males without overt renal disease were collected at autopsy in Mississippi. Demographic data were obtained from medical and autopsy records. Subjects were categorized by age and hypertension as potential independent and additive contributors to podocyte depletion. Design-based stereology was used to estimate individual glomerular volume and total podocyte number per glomerulus, which allowed the calculation of podocyte density (number per volume). Podocyte depletion was defined as a reduction in podocyte number (absolute depletion) or podocyte density (relative depletion). The cortical location of glomeruli (outer or inner cortex) and presence of parietal podocytes were also recorded. Older age was an independent contributor to both absolute and relative podocyte depletion, featuring glomerular hypertrophy, podocyte loss, and thus reduced podocyte density. Hypertension was an independent contributor to relative podocyte depletion by exacerbating glomerular hypertrophy, mostly in glomeruli from the inner cortex. However, hypertension was not associated with podocyte loss. Absolute and relative podocyte depletion were exacerbated by the combination of older age and hypertension. The proportion of glomeruli with parietal podocytes increased with age but not with hypertension alone. These findings demonstrate that older age and hypertension are independent and additive contributors to podocyte depletion in white American men without kidney disease. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Isotopic depletion with Monte Carlo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, W.R.; Rathkopf, J.A.

    1996-06-01

    This work considers a method to deplete isotopes during a time- dependent Monte Carlo simulation of an evolving system. The method is based on explicitly combining a conventional estimator for the scalar flux with the analytical solutions to the isotopic depletion equations. There are no auxiliary calculations; the method is an integral part of the Monte Carlo calculation. The method eliminates negative densities and reduces the variance in the estimates for the isotope densities, compared to existing methods. Moreover, existing methods are shown to be special cases of the general method described in this work, as they can be derived by combining a high variance estimator for the scalar flux with a low-order approximation to the analytical solution to the depletion equation

  18. Hsp90 depletion goes wild

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegal Mark L

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hsp90 reveals phenotypic variation in the laboratory, but is Hsp90 depletion important in the wild? Recent work from Chen and Wagner in BMC Evolutionary Biology has discovered a naturally occurring Drosophila allele that downregulates Hsp90, creating sensitivity to cryptic genetic variation. Laboratory studies suggest that the exact magnitude of Hsp90 downregulation is important. Extreme Hsp90 depletion might reactivate transposable elements and/or induce aneuploidy, in addition to revealing cryptic genetic variation. See research article http://wwww.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/12/25

  19. The efficiency of risedronate in reducing bone resorption after total hip arthroplasty: a meta-analysis of randomized control trials at a minimum of 6 months' follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liqing

    2018-04-17

    Recently risedronate is suggested to be effective for the prevention and treatment of for osteoporosis in total hip arthroplasty. This meta-analysis aimes to evaluate the efficacy of risedronate in reducing femoral periprosthetic bone mineral density loss in patients undergoing primary total hip arthroplasty. A systematic search was performed in Medline (1966-31 October 2017), PubMed (1966-31 October 2017), Embase (1980-31 October 2017), ScienceDirect (1985-31 October 2017) and the Cochrane Library. Only randomized controlled trial (RCT) were included. Fixed/random effect model was used according to the heterogeneity tested by I2 statistic. Meta-analysis was performed using Stata 11.0 software. The outcome measures included periprosthetic bone mineral density, length of stay and adverse effects. Four RCTs including 198 patients met the inclusion criteria. The present meta-analysis showed that there were significant differences between treatment groups in terms of periprosthetic bone mineral density in Gruen zones 1 (standard mean difference (SMD) = 0.758, 95% CI 0.469 to 1.047, P = 0.000), 2 (SMD = 0.814, 95% CI 0.523 to 1.106, P = 0.000), 3 (SMD = 0.340, 95% CI 0.059 to 0.622, P = 0.018), 6 (SMD = 2.400, 95% CI 2.029 to 2.771, P = 0.000), and 7 (SMD = 2.400, 95% CI 2.029 to 2.771, P = 0.000). Oral risedronate could significantly reduce periprosthetic bone resorption around an uncemented femoral stem (Gruen zones 1, 2, 3, 6, and 7) up to 6 months after THA. In addition, no severe adverse events were identified. Future trials of risedronate treatment after THA should focus on clinically relevant end points such as the risks of fracture and revision arthroplasty.

  20. Quantifying Modern Recharge and Depletion Rates of the Nubian Aquifer in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mohamed; Abdelmohsen, Karem

    2018-02-01

    Egypt is currently seeking additional freshwater resources to support national reclamation projects based mainly on the Nubian aquifer groundwater resources. In this study, temporal (April 2002 to June 2016) Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE)-derived terrestrial water storage (TWSGRACE) along with other relevant datasets was used to monitor and quantify modern recharge and depletion rates of the Nubian aquifer in Egypt (NAE) and investigate the interaction of the NAE with artificial lakes. Results indicate: (1) the NAE is receiving a total recharge of 20.27 ± 1.95 km3 during 4/2002-2/2006 and 4/2008-6/2016 periods, (2) recharge events occur only under excessive precipitation conditions over the Nubian recharge domains and/or under a significant rise in Lake Nasser levels, (3) the NAE is witnessing a groundwater depletion of - 13.45 ± 0.82 km3/year during 3/2006-3/2008 period, (4) the observed groundwater depletion is largely related to exceptional drought conditions and/or normal baseflow recession, and (5) a conjunctive surface water and groundwater management plan needs to be adapted to develop sustainable water resources management in the NAE. Findings demonstrate the use of global monthly TWSGRACE solutions as a practical, informative, and cost-effective approach for monitoring aquifer systems across the globe.

  1. Depletion field focusing in semiconductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, M.W.J.; Gelder, Van A.P.

    1996-01-01

    We calculate the three-dimensional depletion field profile in a semiconductor, for a planar semiconductor material with a spatially varying potential upon the surface, and for a tip-shaped semiconductor with a constant surface potential. The nonuniform electric field gives rise to focusing or

  2. Depletion interactions in lyotropic nematics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoot, van der P.P.A.M.

    2000-01-01

    A theoretical study of depletion interactions between pairs of small, globular colloids dispersed in a lyotropic nematic of hard, rodlike particles is presented. We find that both the strength and range of the interaction crucially depends on the configuration of the spheres relative to the nematic

  3. Depleted uranium: an explosive dossier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrillot, B.

    2001-01-01

    This book relates the history of depleted uranium, contemporaneous with the nuclear bomb history. Initially used in nuclear weapons and in experiments linked with nuclear weapons development, this material has been used also in civil industry, in particular in aeronautics. However, its properties made it interesting for military applications all along the 'cold war'. (J.S.)

  4. Global depletion of groundwater resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wada, Y.; Beek, L.P.H. van; van Kempen, C.M.; Reckman, J.W.T.M.; Vasak, S.; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2010-01-01

    In regions with frequent water stress and large aquifer systems groundwater is often used as an additional water source. If groundwater abstraction exceeds the natural groundwater recharge for extensive areas and long times, overexploitation or persistent groundwater depletion occurs. Here we

  5. Impact of mineral resource depletion

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Brent, AC

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In a letter to the editor, the authors comment on BA Steen's article on "Abiotic Resource Depletion: different perceptions of the problem with mineral deposits" published in the special issue of the International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment...

  6. Depleted depletion drives polymer swelling in poor solvent mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherji, Debashish; Marques, Carlos M; Stuehn, Torsten; Kremer, Kurt

    2017-11-09

    Establishing a link between macromolecular conformation and microscopic interaction is a key to understand properties of polymer solutions and for designing technologically relevant "smart" polymers. Here, polymer solvation in solvent mixtures strike as paradoxical phenomena. For example, when adding polymers to a solvent, such that all particle interactions are repulsive, polymer chains can collapse due to increased monomer-solvent repulsion. This depletion induced monomer-monomer attraction is well known from colloidal stability. A typical example is poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) in water or small alcohols. While polymer collapse in a single poor solvent is well understood, the observed polymer swelling in mixtures of two repulsive solvents is surprising. By combining simulations and theoretical concepts known from polymer physics and colloidal science, we unveil the microscopic, generic origin of this collapse-swelling-collapse behavior. We show that this phenomenon naturally emerges at constant pressure when an appropriate balance of entropically driven depletion interactions is achieved.

  7. ESB Clinical Biomechanics Award 2008: Complete data of total knee replacement loading for level walking and stair climbing measured in vivo with a follow-up of 6-10 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinlein, Bernd; Kutzner, Ines; Graichen, Friedmar; Bender, Alwina; Rohlmann, Antonius; Halder, Andreas M; Beier, Alexander; Bergmann, Georg

    2009-05-01

    Detailed information about the loading of the knee joint is required for various investigations in total knee replacement. Up to now, gait analysis plus analytical musculo-skeletal models were used to calculate the forces and moments acting in the knee joint. Currently, all experimental and numerical pre-clinical tests rely on these indirect measurements which have limitations. The validation of these methods requires in vivo data; therefore, the purpose of this study was to provide in vivo loading data of the knee joint. A custom-made telemetric tibial tray was used to measure the three forces and three moments acting in the implant. This prosthesis was implanted into two subjects and measurements were obtained for a follow-up of 6 and 10 months, respectively. Subjects performed level walking and going up and down stairs using a self-selected comfortable speed. The subjects' activities were captured simultaneously with the load data on a digital video tape. Customized software enabled the display of all information in one video sequence. The highest mean values of the peak load components from the two subjects were as follows: during level walking the forces were 276%BW (percent body weight) in axial direction, 21%BW (medio-lateral), and 29%BW (antero-posterior). The moments were 1.8%BW*m in the sagittal plane, 4.3%BW*m (frontal plane) and 1.0%BW*m (transversal plane). During stair climbing the axial force increased to 306%BW, while the shear forces changed only slightly. The sagittal plane moment increased to 2.4%BW*m, while the frontal and transversal plane moments decreased slightly. Stair descending produced the highest forces of 352%BW (axial), 35%BW (medio-lateral), and 36%BW (antero-posterior). The sagittal and frontal plane moments increased to 2.8%BW*m and 4.6%BW*m, respectively, while the transversal plane moment changed only slightly. Using the data obtained, mechanical simulators can be programmed according to realistic load profiles. Furthermore

  8. Physics of fully depleted CCDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, S E; Bebek, C J; Kolbe, W F; Lee, J S

    2014-01-01

    In this work we present simple, physics-based models for two effects that have been noted in the fully depleted CCDs that are presently used in the Dark Energy Survey Camera. The first effect is the observation that the point-spread function increases slightly with the signal level. This is explained by considering the effect on charge-carrier diffusion due to the reduction in the magnitude of the channel potential as collected signal charge acts to partially neutralize the fixed charge in the depleted channel. The resulting reduced voltage drop across the carrier drift region decreases the vertical electric field and increases the carrier transit time. The second effect is the observation of low-level, concentric ring patterns seen in uniformly illuminated images. This effect is shown to be most likely due to lateral deflection of charge during the transit of the photo-generated carriers to the potential wells as a result of lateral electric fields. The lateral fields are a result of space charge in the fully depleted substrates arising from resistivity variations inherent to the growth of the high-resistivity silicon used to fabricate the CCDs

  9. 24-month fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenstein, R.G.; Sipes, D.E.; Beall, R.H.; Donovan, E.J.

    1986-01-01

    Twenty-four month reload cycles can potentially lessen total power generation costs. While 24-month cores increase purchased fuel costs, the longer cycles reduce the number of refueling outages and thus enhance plant availability; men-rem exposure to site personnel and other costs associated with reload core design and licensing are also reduced. At dual unit sites an operational advantage can be realized by refueling each plant alternately on a 1-year offset basis. This results in a single outage per site per year which can be scheduled for off-peak periods or when replacement power costs are low

  10. Comparative Analysis of VERA Depletion Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jinsu; Kim, Wonkyeong; Choi, Sooyoung; Lee, Hyunsuk; Lee, Deokjung

    2016-01-01

    Each code has its own solver for depletion, which can produce different depletion calculation results. In order to produce reference solutions for depletion calculation comparison, sensitivity studies should be preceded for each depletion solver. The sensitivity tests for burnup interval, number of depletion zones, and recoverable energy per fission (Q-value) were performed in this paper. For the comparison of depletion calculation results, usually the multiplication factors are compared as a function of burnup. In this study, new comparison methods have been introduced by using the number density of isotope or element, and a cumulative flux instead of burnup. In this paper, optimum depletion calculation options are determined through the sensitivity study of the burnup intervals and the number of depletion intrazones. Because the depletion using CRAM solver performs well for large burnup intervals, smaller number of burnup steps can be used to produce converged solutions. It was noted that the depletion intra-zone sensitivity is only pin-type dependent. The 1 and 10 depletion intra-zones for the normal UO2 pin and gadolinia rod, respectively, are required to obtain the reference solutions. When the optimized depletion calculation options are used, the differences of Q-values are found to be a main cause of the differences of solutions. In this paper, new comparison methods were introduced for consistent code-to-code comparisons even when different kappa libraries were used in the depletion calculations

  11. Potential For Stratospheric Ozone Depletion During Carboniferous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bill, M.; Goldstein, A. H.

    Methyl bromide (CH3Br) constitutes the largest source of bromine atoms to the strato- sphere whereas methyl chloride (CH3Cl) is the most abundant halocarbon in the tro- posphere. Both gases play an important role in stratospheric ozone depletion. For in- stance, Br coupled reactions are responsible for 30 to 50 % of total ozone loss in the polar vortex. Currently, the largest natural sources of CH3Br and CH3Cl appear to be biological production in the oceans, inorganic production during biomass burning and plant production in salt marsh ecosystems. Variations of paleofluxes of CH3Br and CH3Cl can be estimated by analyses of oceanic paleoproductivity, stratigraphic analyses of frequency and distribution of fossil charcoal indicating the occurrence of wildfires, and/or by paleoreconstruction indicating the extent of salt marshes. Dur- ing the lower Carboniferous time (Tournaisian-Visean), the southern margin of the Laurasian continent was characterized by charcoal deposits. Estimation on frequency of charcoal layers indicates that wildfires occur in a range of 3-35 years (Falcon-Lang 2000). This suggests that biomass burning could be an important source of CH3Br and CH3Cl during Tournaisian-Viesan time. During Tounaisian and until Merame- cian carbon and oxygen isotope records have short term oscillations (Bruckschen et al. 1999, Mii et al. 1999). Chesterian time (mid- Carboniferous) is marked by an in- crease in delta18O values ( ~ 2 permil) and an increase of glacial deposit frequency suggesting lower temperatures. The occurrence of glacial deposits over the paleopole suggests polar conditions and the associated special features of polar mete- orology such as strong circumpolar wind in the stratosphere (polar vortex) and polar stratospheric clouds. Thus, conditions leading to polar statospheric ozone depletion can be found. Simultaneously an increase in delta13C values is documented. We interpret the positive shift in delta13C as a result of higher bioproductivity

  12. Exposure to nature counteracts aggression after depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; She, Yihan; Colarelli, Stephen M; Fang, Yuan; Meng, Hui; Chen, Qiuju; Zhang, Xin; Zhu, Hongwei

    2018-01-01

    Acts of self-control are more likely to fail after previous exertion of self-control, known as the ego depletion effect. Research has shown that depleted participants behave more aggressively than non-depleted participants, especially after being provoked. Although exposure to nature (e.g., a walk in the park) has been predicted to replenish resources common to executive functioning and self-control, the extent to which exposure to nature may counteract the depletion effect on aggression has yet to be determined. The present study investigated the effects of exposure to nature on aggression following depletion. Aggression was measured by the intensity of noise blasts participants delivered to an ostensible opponent in a competition reaction-time task. As predicted, an interaction occurred between depletion and environmental manipulations for provoked aggression. Specifically, depleted participants behaved more aggressively in response to provocation than non-depleted participants in the urban condition. However, provoked aggression did not differ between depleted and non-depleted participants in the natural condition. Moreover, within the depletion condition, participants in the natural condition had lower levels of provoked aggression than participants in the urban condition. This study suggests that a brief period of nature exposure may restore self-control and help depleted people regain control over aggressive urges. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Uranium, depleted uranium, biological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Physicists, chemists and biologists at the CEA are developing scientific programs on the properties and uses of ionizing radiation. Since the CEA was created in 1945, a great deal of research has been carried out on the properties of natural, enriched and depleted uranium in cooperation with university laboratories and CNRS. There is a great deal of available data about uranium; thousands of analyses have been published in international reviews over more than 40 years. This presentation on uranium is a very brief summary of all these studies. (author)

  14. Ozone depletion following future volcanic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric Klobas, J.; Wilmouth, David M.; Weisenstein, Debra K.; Anderson, James G.; Salawitch, Ross J.

    2017-07-01

    While explosive volcanic eruptions cause ozone loss in the current atmosphere due to an enhancement in the availability of reactive chlorine following the stratospheric injection of sulfur, future eruptions are expected to increase total column ozone as halogen loading approaches preindustrial levels. The timing of this shift in the impact of major volcanic eruptions on the thickness of the ozone layer is poorly known. Modeling four possible climate futures, we show that scenarios with the smallest increase in greenhouse gas concentrations lead to the greatest risk to ozone from heterogeneous chemical processing following future eruptions. We also show that the presence in the stratosphere of bromine from natural, very short-lived biogenic compounds is critically important for determining whether future eruptions will lead to ozone depletion. If volcanic eruptions inject hydrogen halides into the stratosphere, an effect not considered in current ozone assessments, potentially profound reductions in column ozone would result.

  15. "When the going gets tough, who keeps going?" Depletion sensitivity moderates the ego-depletion effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salmon, Stefanie J.; Adriaanse, Marieke A.; De Vet, Emely; Fennis, Bob M.; De Ridder, Denise T D

    2014-01-01

    Self-control relies on a limited resource that can get depleted, a phenomenon that has been labeled ego-depletion. We argue that individuals may differ in their sensitivity to depleting tasks, and that consequently some people deplete their self-control resource at a faster rate than others. In

  16. "When the going gets tough, who keeps going?" : Depletion sensitivity moderates the ego-depletion effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salmon, Stefanie J.; Adriaanse, Marieke A.; De Vet, Emely; Fennis, Bob M.; De Ridder, Denise T. D.

    2014-01-01

    Self-control relies on a limited resource that can get depleted, a phenomenon that has been labeled ego-depletion. We argue that individuals may differ in their sensitivity to depleting tasks, and that consequently some people deplete their self-control resource at a faster rate than others. In

  17. When the Going Gets Tough, Who Keeps Going? Depletion Sensitivity Moderates the Ego-Depletion Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie J. Salmon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Self-control relies on a limited resource that can get depleted, a phenomenon that has been labeled ego-depletion. We argue that individuals may differ in their sensitivity to depleting tasks, and that consequently some people deplete their self-control resource at a faster rate than others. In three studies, we assessed individual differences in depletion sensitivity, and demonstrate that depletion sensitivity moderates ego-depletion effects. The Depletion Sensitivity Scale (DSS was employed to assess depletion sensitivity. Study 1 employs the DSS to demonstrate that individual differences in sensitivity to ego-depletion exist. Study 2 shows moderate correlations of depletion sensitivity with related self-control concepts, indicating that these scales measure conceptually distinct constructs. Study 3 demonstrates that depletion sensitivity moderates the ego-depletion effect. Specifically, participants who are sensitive to depletion performed worse on a second self-control task, indicating a stronger ego-depletion effect, compared to participants less sensitive to depletion.

  18. CO Depletion: A Microscopic Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazaux, S. [Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Martín-Doménech, R.; Caro, G. M. Muñoz; Díaz, C. González [Centro de Astrobiología (INTA-CSIC), Ctra. de Ajalvir, km 4, Torrejón de Ardoz, E-28850 Madrid (Spain); Chen, Y. J. [Department of Physics, National Central University, Jhongli City, 32054, Taoyuan County, Taiwan (China)

    2017-11-10

    In regions where stars form, variations in density and temperature can cause gas to freeze out onto dust grains forming ice mantles, which influences the chemical composition of a cloud. The aim of this paper is to understand in detail the depletion (and desorption) of CO on (from) interstellar dust grains. Experimental simulations were performed under two different (astrophysically relevant) conditions. In parallel, Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations were used to mimic the experimental conditions. In our experiments, CO molecules accrete onto water ice at temperatures below 27 K, with a deposition rate that does not depend on the substrate temperature. During the warm-up phase, the desorption processes do exhibit subtle differences, indicating the presence of weakly bound CO molecules, therefore highlighting a low diffusion efficiency. IR measurements following the ice thickness during the TPD confirm that diffusion occurs at temperatures close to the desorption. Applied to astrophysical conditions, in a pre-stellar core, the binding energies of CO molecules, ranging between 300 and 850 K, depend on the conditions at which CO has been deposited. Because of this wide range of binding energies, the depletion of CO as a function of A{sub V} is much less important than initially thought. The weakly bound molecules, easily released into the gas phase through evaporation, change the balance between accretion and desorption, which result in a larger abundance of CO at high extinctions. In addition, weakly bound CO molecules are also more mobile, and this could increase the reactivity within interstellar ices.

  19. Erythrocyte depletion from bone marrow: performance evaluation after 50 clinical-scale depletions with Spectra Optia BMC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim-Wanner, Soo-Zin; Bug, Gesine; Steinmann, Juliane; Ajib, Salem; Sorg, Nadine; Poppe, Carolin; Bunos, Milica; Wingenfeld, Eva; Hümmer, Christiane; Luxembourg, Beate; Seifried, Erhard; Bonig, Halvard

    2017-08-11

    Red blood cell (RBC) depletion is a standard graft manipulation technique for ABO-incompatible bone marrow (BM) transplants. The BM processing module for Spectra Optia, "BMC", was previously introduced. We here report the largest series to date of routine quality data after performing 50 clinical-scale RBC-depletions. Fifty successive RBC-depletions from autologous (n = 5) and allogeneic (n = 45) BM transplants were performed with the Spectra Optia BMC apheresis suite. Product quality was assessed before and after processing for volume, RBC and leukocyte content; RBC-depletion and stem cell (CD34+ cells) recovery was calculated there from. Clinical engraftment data were collected from 26/45 allogeneic recipients. Median RBC removal was 98.2% (range 90.8-99.1%), median CD34+ cell recovery was 93.6%, minimum recovery being 72%, total product volume was reduced to 7.5% (range 4.7-23.0%). Products engrafted with expected probability and kinetics. Performance indicators were stable over time. Spectra Optia BMC is a robust and efficient technology for RBC-depletion and volume reduction of BM, providing near-complete RBC removal and excellent CD34+ cell recovery.

  20. Statistical implications in Monte Carlo depletions - 051

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhiwen, Xu; Rhodes, J.; Smith, K.

    2010-01-01

    As a result of steady advances of computer power, continuous-energy Monte Carlo depletion analysis is attracting considerable attention for reactor burnup calculations. The typical Monte Carlo analysis is set up as a combination of a Monte Carlo neutron transport solver and a fuel burnup solver. Note that the burnup solver is a deterministic module. The statistical errors in Monte Carlo solutions are introduced into nuclide number densities and propagated along fuel burnup. This paper is towards the understanding of the statistical implications in Monte Carlo depletions, including both statistical bias and statistical variations in depleted fuel number densities. The deterministic Studsvik lattice physics code, CASMO-5, is modified to model the Monte Carlo depletion. The statistical bias in depleted number densities is found to be negligible compared to its statistical variations, which, in turn, demonstrates the correctness of the Monte Carlo depletion method. Meanwhile, the statistical variation in number densities generally increases with burnup. Several possible ways of reducing the statistical errors are discussed: 1) to increase the number of individual Monte Carlo histories; 2) to increase the number of time steps; 3) to run additional independent Monte Carlo depletion cases. Finally, a new Monte Carlo depletion methodology, called the batch depletion method, is proposed, which consists of performing a set of independent Monte Carlo depletions and is thus capable of estimating the overall statistical errors including both the local statistical error and the propagated statistical error. (authors)

  1. Depleted uranium disposal options evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertzler, T.J.; Nishimoto, D.D.; Otis, M.D.

    1994-05-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, has chartered a study to evaluate alternative management strategies for depleted uranium (DU) currently stored throughout the DOE complex. Historically, DU has been maintained as a strategic resource because of uses for DU metal and potential uses for further enrichment or for uranium oxide as breeder reactor blanket fuel. This study has focused on evaluating the disposal options for DU if it were considered a waste. This report is in no way declaring these DU reserves a ''waste,'' but is intended to provide baseline data for comparison with other management options for use of DU. To PICS considered in this report include: Retrievable disposal; permanent disposal; health hazards; radiation toxicity and chemical toxicity

  2. High order depletion sensitivity analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naguib, K.; Adib, M.; Morcos, H.N.

    2002-01-01

    A high order depletion sensitivity method was applied to calculate the sensitivities of build-up of actinides in the irradiated fuel due to cross-section uncertainties. An iteration method based on Taylor series expansion was applied to construct stationary principle, from which all orders of perturbations were calculated. The irradiated EK-10 and MTR-20 fuels at their maximum burn-up of 25% and 65% respectively were considered for sensitivity analysis. The results of calculation show that, in case of EK-10 fuel (low burn-up), the first order sensitivity was found to be enough to perform an accuracy of 1%. While in case of MTR-20 (high burn-up) the fifth order was found to provide 3% accuracy. A computer code SENS was developed to provide the required calculations

  3. Uranium under its depleted state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This day organised by the SFRP, with the help of the Army Health service, the service of radiation protection of Army and IPSN is an information day to inform the public about the real toxicity of uranium, and its becoming in man and environment, about the risks during the use of depleted uranium and eventual consequences of its dispersion after a conflict, to give information on how is managed the protection of workers (civil or military ones) and what is really the situation of French military personnel in these conflicts. The news have brought to the shore cases of leukemia it is necessary to bring some information to the origin of this disease. (N.C.)

  4. Persistent depletion of plasma gelsolin (pGSN) after exposure of mice to heavy silicon ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rithidech, Kanokporn Noy; Reungpatthanaphong, Paiboon; Tungjai, Montree; Jangiam, Witawat; Honikel, Louise; Whorton, Elbert B.

    2018-05-01

    Little is known about plasma proteins that can be used as biomarkers for early and late responses to radiation. The purpose of this study was to determine a link between depletion of plasma gelsolin (pGSN) and cell-death as well as inflammatory responses in the lung (one of the tissues known to be radiosensitive) of the same exposed CBA/CaJ mice after exposure to heavy silicon (28Si) ions. To prevent the development of multiple organ dysfunctions, pGSN (an important component of the extracellular actin-scavenging system) is responsible for the removal of actin that is released into the circulation during inflammation and from dying cells. We evaluated the levels of pGSN in plasma collected from groups of mice (5 mice in each) at 1 week (wk) and 1 month (1 mo) after exposure whole body to different doses of 28Si ions, i.e. 0, 0.1, 0.25, or 0.5 Gy (2 fractionated exposures, 15 days apart that totaled each selected dose). In the same mouse, the measurements of pGSN levels were coupled with the quantitation of injuries in the lung, determined by (a) the levels of cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (cleaved-PARP), a marker of apoptotic cell-death, (b) the levels of activated nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and selected cytokines, i.e. tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), and IL-6, from tissue-lysates of the lung. Further, the ratio of neutrophils and lymphocytes (N/L) was determined in the same mouse. Our data indicated: (i) the magnitude of pGSN depletion was dependent to radiation dose at both harvest times, (ii) a persistent depletion of pGSN up to 1 mo post-exposure to 0.25 or 0.5 Gy of 28Si ions, (iii) an inverse-correlation between pGSN depletion and increased levels of cleaved-PARP, including activated NF-κB/pro-inflammatory cytokines in the lung, and (iv) at both harvest times, statistically significant increases in the N/L ratio in groups of mice exposed to 0.5 Gy only. Our findings suggested that depletion in pGSN levels

  5. Are relative depletions altered inside diffuse clouds?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, C.L.

    1988-01-01

    The data of Jenkins, Savage, and Spitzer (1986) were used to analyze interstellar abundances and depletions of Fe, P, Mg, and Mn toward 37 stars, spanning nearly 1.0 (dex) in mean line-of-sight depletion. It was found that the depletions of these elements are linearly correlated and do not show evidence of differences in the rates of depletion or sputtering from one element to another. For a given level of overall depletion, the sightline-to-sightline rms variance in the depletion for each of these elements was less than 0.16 (dex), which is significantly smaller than is the element-to-element variance. The results suggest that, for most diffuse lines of sight, the relative abundances of these elements are set early in the lifetime of the grains and are not altered significantly thereafter. 53 references

  6. Is gas in the Orion nebula depleted

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiello, S.; Guidi, I.

    1978-01-01

    Depletion of heavy elements has been recognized to be important in the understanding of the chemical composition of the interstellar medium. This problem is also relevant to the study of H II regions. In this paper the gaseous depletion in the physical conditions of the Orion nebula is investigated. The authors reach the conclusion that very probably no depletion of heavy elements, due to sticking on dust grains, took place during the lifetime of the Orion nebula. (Auth.)

  7. Tryptophan depletion affects compulsive behaviour in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merchán, A; Navarro, S V; Klein, A B

    2017-01-01

    investigated whether 5-HT manipulation, through a tryptophan (TRP) depletion by diet in Wistar and Lister Hooded rats, modulates compulsive drinking in schedule-induced polydipsia (SIP) and locomotor activity in the open-field test. The levels of dopamine, noradrenaline, serotonin and its metabolite were......-depleted HD Wistar rats, while the LD Wistar and the Lister Hooded rats did not exhibit differences in SIP. In contrast, the TRP-depleted Lister Hooded rats increased locomotor activity compared to the non-depleted rats, while no differences were found in the Wistar rats. Serotonin 2A receptor binding...

  8. Total protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003483.htm Total protein To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes ...

  9. Depleted Uranium and Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faa, Armando; Gerosa, Clara; Fanni, Daniela; Floris, Giuseppe; Eyken, Peter V; Lachowicz, Joanna I; Nurchi, Valeria M

    2018-01-01

    Depleted uranium (DU) is generally considered an emerging pollutant, first extensively introduced into environment in the early nineties in Iraq, during the military operation called "Desert Storm". DU has been hypothesized to represent a hazardous element both for soldiers exposed as well as for the inhabitants of the polluted areas in the war zones. In this review, the possible consequences on human health of DU released in the environment are critically analyzed. In the first part, the chemical properties of DU and the principal civil and military uses are summarized. A concise analysis of the mechanisms underlying absorption, blood transport, tissue distribution and excretion of DU in the human body is the subject of the second part of this article. The following sections deal with pathological condition putatively associated with overexposure to DU. Developmental and birth defects, the Persian Gulf syndrome, and kidney diseases that have been associated to DU are the arguments treated in the third section. Finally, data regarding DU exposure and cancer insurgence will be critically analyzed, including leukemia/lymphoma, lung cancer, uterine cervix cancer, breast cancer, bladder cancer and testicular cancer. The aim of the authors is to give a contribution to the debate on DU and its effects on human health and disease. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  10. Ozone depletion potentials of halocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karol, I.L.; Kiselev, A.A.

    1992-01-01

    The concept of ozone depletion potential (ODP) is widely used in the evaluation of numerous halocarbons and of their replacements for effects on ozone, but the methods, model assumptions and conditions of ODP calculation have not been analyzed adequately. In this paper, a model study of effects on ozone after the instantaneous releases of various amounts of CH 3 CCl 3 and of CHF 2 Cl(HCFC-22) in the several conditions of the background atmosphere are presented, aimed to understand the main connections of ODP values with the methods of their calculations. To facilitate the ODP computation in numerous versions for long after the releases, the above rather short-lived gases have been used. The variation of released gas global mass from 1 Mt to 1 Gt leads to ODP value increase atmosphere. The same variations are analyzed for the CFC-free atmosphere of 1960s conditions for the anthropogenically loaded atmosphere in the 21st century according to the known IPCC- A scenario (business as usual). Recommendations of proper ways of ODP calculations are proposed for practically important cases

  11. Plutonium in depleted uranium penetrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, J.P.; Leon-Vintro, L.; Smith, K.; Mitchell, P.I.; Zunic, Z.S.

    2002-01-01

    Depleted Uranium (DU) penetrators used in the recent Balkan conflicts have been found to be contaminated with trace amounts of transuranic materials such as plutonium. This contamination is usually a consequence of DU fabrication being carried out in facilities also using uranium recycled from spent military and civilian nuclear reactor fuel. Specific activities of 239+240 Plutonium generally in the range 1 to 12 Bq/kg have been found to be present in DU penetrators recovered from the attack sites of the 1999 NATO bombardment of Kosovo. A DU penetrator recovered from a May 1999 attack site at Bratoselce in southern Serbia and analysed by University College Dublin was found to contain 43.7 +/- 1.9 Bq/kg of 239+240 Plutonium. This analysis is described. An account is also given of the general population radiation dose implications arising from both the DU itself and from the presence of plutonium in the penetrators. According to current dosimetric models, in all scenarios considered likely ,the dose from the plutonium is estimated to be much smaller than that due to the uranium isotopes present in the penetrators. (author)

  12. Simulation of groundwater conditions and streamflow depletion to evaluate water availability in a Freeport, Maine, watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Martha G.; Locke, Daniel B.

    2012-01-01

    , the public-supply withdrawals (105.5 million gallons per year (Mgal/yr)) were much greater than those for any other category, being almost 7 times greater than all domestic well withdrawals (15.3 Mgal/yr). Industrial withdrawals in the study area (2.0 Mgal/yr) are mostly by a company that withdraws from an aquifer at the edge of the Merrill Brook watershed. Commercial withdrawals are very small (1.0 Mgal/yr), and no irrigation or other agricultural withdrawals were identified in this study area. A three-dimensional, steady-state groundwater-flow model was developed to evaluate stream-aquifer interactions and streamflow depletion from pumping, to help refine the conceptual model, and to predict changes in streamflow resulting from changes in pumping and recharge. Groundwater levels and flow in the Freeport aquifer study area were simulated with the three-dimensional, finite-difference groundwater-flow modeling code, MODFLOW-2005. Study area hydrology was simulated with a 3-layer model, under steady-state conditions. The groundwater model was used to evaluate changes that could occur in the water budgets of three parts of the local hydrologic system (the Harvey Brook watershed, the Merrill Brook watershed, and the buried aquifer from which pumping occurs) under several different climatic and pumping scenarios. The scenarios were (1) no pumping well withdrawals; (2) current (2009) pumping, but simulated drought conditions (20-percent reduction in recharge); (3) current (2009) recharge, but a 50-percent increase in pumping well withdrawals for public supply; and (4) drought conditions and increased pumping combined. In simulated drought situations, the overall recharge to the buried valley is about 15 percent less and the total amount of streamflow in the model area is reduced by about 19 percent. Without pumping, infiltration to the buried valley aquifer around the confining unit decreased by a small amount (0.05 million gallons per day (Mgal/d)), and discharge to the

  13. Depletion of compounds from thin oil films in seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brakstad, O.G.; Faksness, L.G.; Melbye, A.G.

    2002-01-01

    When oil is spilled on water, the oil compounds distribute between droplets and water-soluble phases in the water column. Some small organic acids, phenols, BTEX, and aromatic compounds will dissolve completely, but larger polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and alkanes will remain in the droplet fraction. The biodegradation of droplets occurs at the oil-water interface. A method for immobilizing the oil films onto hydrophobic surfaces was developed in order to obtain a stable oil surface during the biodegradation period. A test system was also established to determine the depletion of oil compounds from the oil phase, including both abiotic and biotic processes. Three North Sea oils were used in the study. Two were paraffinic oils rich in n-alkanes and aromatic compounds, and one was asphalthenic which was richer in branched alkanes and PAH. The biodegradation period was 2 months at 13 degrees C. Samples from the water and thin film on the fabric was analyzed for carbon 10 and carbon 36 by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection. Semi-volatile organic compounds were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results indicated that the depletion process for alkanes was completely caused by biodegradation, while aromatic compounds were depleted by abiotic dissolution as well as by biodegradation. The system has potential for determining oil depletion processes under controlled surface-to-volume conditions, such as thin oil films and dispersed oil droplets. In addition, the system can be used to determine the depletion process in flow-through systems. 13 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs

  14. Dietary phosphorus depletion in sheep: Longterm effects on bone structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breves, G.; Prokop, M.

    1990-01-01

    Experiments were performed on 6 sheep from 8 months old to study effects of dietary phosphorus depletion on bone structure. Sheep were given a semisynthetic diet of chopped straw and pellets for 38 weeks. Mean daily P in the diet was 0.97 g and 3 sheep were given additional NaH2PO4.H2O, increasing daily P supply to 4.5 g (controls). Bone density was estimated photometrically within the laterodistal metaphysis of the foreleg and standardized by a copper step wedge. Metacarpal cortical thickness was also measured. Cortical thickness and bone density started to decrease about 4 weeks after start of P depletion. The trabecular structure of the distal radius was coarser and less dense with reduced cross-linking between trabeculae

  15. Depletion sensitivity predicts unhealthy snack purchases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salmon, Stefanie J.; Adriaanse, Marieke A.; Fennis, Bob M.; De Vet, Emely; De Ridder, Denise T D

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present research is to examine the relation between depletion sensitivity - a novel construct referring to the speed or ease by which one's self-control resources are drained - and snack purchase behavior. In addition, interactions between depletion sensitivity and the goal to lose

  16. The Chemistry and Toxicology of Depleted Uranium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney A. Katz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Natural uranium is comprised of three radioactive isotopes: 238U, 235U, and 234U. Depleted uranium (DU is a byproduct of the processes for the enrichment of the naturally occurring 235U isotope. The world wide stock pile contains some 1½ million tons of depleted uranium. Some of it has been used to dilute weapons grade uranium (~90% 235U down to reactor grade uranium (~5% 235U, and some of it has been used for heavy tank armor and for the fabrication of armor-piercing bullets and missiles. Such weapons were used by the military in the Persian Gulf, the Balkans and elsewhere. The testing of depleted uranium weapons and their use in combat has resulted in environmental contamination and human exposure. Although the chemical and the toxicological behaviors of depleted uranium are essentially the same as those of natural uranium, the respective chemical forms and isotopic compositions in which they usually occur are different. The chemical and radiological toxicity of depleted uranium can injure biological systems. Normal functioning of the kidney, liver, lung, and heart can be adversely affected by depleted uranium intoxication. The focus of this review is on the chemical and toxicological properties of depleted and natural uranium and some of the possible consequences from long term, low dose exposure to depleted uranium in the environment.

  17. Radiation survey and decontamination of cape Arza from depleted uranium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukotić Perko

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the action of NATO A-10 airplanes in 1999, the cape Arza, Serbia and Montenegro was contaminated by depleted uranium. The clean-up operations were undertaken at the site, and 242 uranium projectiles and their 49 larger fragments were removed from the cape. That is about 85% of the total number of projectiles by which Arza was contaminated. Here are described details of the applied procedures and results of the soil radioactivity measurements after decontamination.

  18. Deuterium - depleted water. Achievements and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titescu, Gh.; Stefanescu, I.; Saros-Rogobete, I.

    2001-01-01

    Deuterium - depleted water represents water that has an isotopic content lower than 145 ppm D/(D+H) which is the natural isotopic content of water. The research conducted at ICSI Ramnicu Valcea, regarding deuterium - depleted water were completed by the following patents: - technique and installation for deuterium - depleted water production; - distilled water with low deuterium content; - technique and installation for the production of distilled water with low deuterium content; - mineralized water with low deuterium content and technique to produce it. The gold and silver medals won at international salons for inventions confirmed the novelty of these inventions. Knowing that deuterium content of water has a big influence on living organisms, beginning with 1996, the ICSI Ramnicu Valcea, deuterium - depleted water producer, co-operated with Romanian specialized institutes for biological effects' evaluation of deuterium - depleted water. The role of natural deuterium in living organisms was examined by using deuterium - depleted water instead of natural water. These investigations led to the following conclusions: 1. deuterium - depleted water caused a tendency towards the increase of the basal tone, accompanied by the intensification of the vasoconstrictor effects of phenylefrine, noradrenaline and angiotensin; the increase of the basal tone and vascular reactivity produced by the deuterium - depleted water persists after the removal of the vascular endothelium; -2. animals treated with deuterium - depleted water showed an increase of the resistance both to sublethal and to lethal gamma radiation doses, suggesting a radioprotective action by the stimulation of non-specific immune defence mechanism; 3, deuterium - depleted water stimulates immune defence reactions, represented by the opsonic, bactericidal and phagocyte capacity of the immune system, together with increase in the numbers of polymorphonuclear neutrophils; 4. investigations regarding artificial

  19. Interstellar depletion anomalies and ionization potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabak, R.G.

    1979-01-01

    Satellite observations indicate that (1) most elements are depleted from the gas phase when compared to cosmic abundances, (2) some elements are several orders of magnitude more depleted than others, and (3) these depletions vary from cloud to cloud. Since the most likely possibility is that the 'missing' atoms are locked into grains, depletions occur either by accretion onto core particles in interstellar clouds or earlier, during the period of primary grain formation. If the latter mechanism is dominant, then the most important depletion parameter is the condensation temperature of the elements and their various compounds. However, this alone is not sufficient to explain all the observed anomalies. It is shown that electrostatic effects - under a wide variety of conditions- can enormously enhance the capture cross-section of the grain. It is suggested that this mechanism can also account for such anomalies as the apparent 'overabundance' of the alkali metals in the gas phase. (orig.)

  20. Specification for the VERA Depletion Benchmark Suite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kang Seog [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-12-17

    CASL-X-2015-1014-000 iii Consortium for Advanced Simulation of LWRs EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The CASL neutronics simulator MPACT is under development for the neutronics and T-H coupled simulation for the pressurized water reactor. MPACT includes the ORIGEN-API and internal depletion module to perform depletion calculations based upon neutron-material reaction and radioactive decay. It is a challenge to validate the depletion capability because of the insufficient measured data. One of the detoured methods to validate it is to perform a code-to-code comparison for benchmark problems. In this study a depletion benchmark suite has been developed and a detailed guideline has been provided to obtain meaningful computational outcomes which can be used in the validation of the MPACT depletion capability.

  1. Gulf war depleted uranium risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Albert C

    2008-01-01

    US and British forces used depleted uranium (DU) in armor-piercing rounds to disable enemy tanks during the Gulf and Balkan Wars. Uranium particulate is generated by DU shell impact and particulate entrained in air may be inhaled or ingested by troops and nearby civilian populations. As uranium is slightly radioactive and chemically toxic, a number of critics have asserted that DU exposure has resulted in a variety of adverse health effects for exposed veterans and nearby civilian populations. The study described in this paper used mathematical modeling to estimate health risks from exposure to DU during the 1991 Gulf War for both US troops and nearby Iraqi civilians. The analysis found that the risks of DU-induced leukemia or birth defects are far too small to result in an observable increase in these health effects among exposed veterans or Iraqi civilians. The analysis indicated that only a few ( approximately 5) US veterans in vehicles accidentally targeted by US tanks received significant exposure levels, resulting in about a 1.4% lifetime risk of DU radiation-induced fatal cancer (compared with about a 24% risk of a fatal cancer from all other causes). These veterans may have also experienced temporary kidney damage. Iraqi children playing for 500 h in DU-destroyed vehicles are predicted to incur a cancer risk of about 0.4%. In vitro and animal tests suggest the possibility of chemically induced health effects from DU internalization, such as immune system impairment. Further study is needed to determine the applicability of these findings for Gulf War exposure to DU. Veterans and civilians who did not occupy DU-contaminated vehicles are unlikely to have internalized quantities of DU significantly in excess of normal internalization of natural uranium from the environment.

  2. Total algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tel, G.

    We define the notion of total algorithms for networks of processes. A total algorithm enforces that a "decision" is taken by a subset of the processes, and that participation of all processes is required to reach this decision. Total algorithms are an important building block in the design of

  3. Maximizing percentage depletion in solid minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripp, J.; Grove, H.D.; McGrath, M.

    1982-01-01

    This article develops a strategy for maximizing percentage depletion deductions when extracting uranium or other solid minerals. The goal is to avoid losing percentage depletion deductions by staying below the 50% limitation on taxable income from the property. The article is divided into two major sections. The first section is comprised of depletion calculations that illustrate the problem and corresponding solutions. The last section deals with the feasibility of applying the strategy and complying with the Internal Revenue Code and appropriate regulations. Three separate strategies or appropriate situations are developed and illustrated. 13 references, 3 figures, 7 tables

  4. Muscle Mass Depletion Associated with Poor Outcome of Sepsis in the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, YoonJe; Park, Hyun Kyung; Kim, Won Young; Kim, Myung Chun; Jung, Woong; Ko, Byuk Sung

    2018-05-08

    Muscle mass depletion has been suggested to predict morbidity and mortality in various diseases. However, it is not well known whether muscle mass depletion is associated with poor outcome in sepsis. We hypothesized that muscle mass depletion is associated with poor outcome in sepsis. Retrospective observational study was conducted in an emergency department during a 9-year period. Medical records of 627 patients with sepsis were reviewed. We divided the patients into 2 groups according to 28-day mortality and compared the presence of muscle mass depletion assessed by the cross-sectional area of the psoas muscle at the level of the third lumbar vertebra on abdomen CT scans. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the association of scarcopenia on the outcome of sepsis. A total of 274 patients with sepsis were finally included in the study: 45 (16.4%) did not survive on 28 days and 77 patients (28.1%) were identified as having muscle mass depletion. The presence of muscle mass depletion was independently associated with 28-day mortality on multivariate logistic analysis (OR 2.79; 95% CI 1.35-5.74, p = 0.01). Muscle mass depletion evaluated by CT scan was associated with poor outcome of sepsis patients. Further studies on the appropriateness of specific treatment for muscle mass depletion with sepsis are needed. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Comparative changes in monthly blood urea nitrogen, total protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sibanda M

    2015-03-29

    Mar 29, 2015 ... Twenty-four clinically healthy animals in different parities, namely Parity 1 ..... In the dry spell there is low protein intake because of high fibrous diets from dry forage materials. (MacDonald .... Prentice Hall, Malaysia. Mapekula ...

  6. Fully Depleted Charge-Coupled Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, Stephen E.

    2006-01-01

    We have developed fully depleted, back-illuminated CCDs that build upon earlier research and development efforts directed towards technology development of silicon-strip detectors used in high-energy-physics experiments. The CCDs are fabricated on the same type of high-resistivity, float-zone-refined silicon that is used for strip detectors. The use of high-resistivity substrates allows for thick depletion regions, on the order of 200-300 um, with corresponding high detection efficiency for near-infrared and soft x-ray photons. We compare the fully depleted CCD to the p-i-n diode upon which it is based, and describe the use of fully depleted CCDs in astronomical and x-ray imaging applications

  7. Plasmonic Nanoprobes for Stimulated Emission Depletion Nanoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, Emiliano; Huidobro, Paloma A; Sinclair, Hugo G; Guldbrand, Stina; Peveler, William J; Davies, Timothy; Parrinello, Simona; Görlitz, Frederik; Dunsby, Chris; Neil, Mark A A; Sivan, Yonatan; Parkin, Ivan P; French, Paul M W; Maier, Stefan A

    2016-11-22

    Plasmonic nanoparticles influence the absorption and emission processes of nearby emitters due to local enhancements of the illuminating radiation and the photonic density of states. Here, we use the plasmon resonance of metal nanoparticles in order to enhance the stimulated depletion of excited molecules for super-resolved nanoscopy. We demonstrate stimulated emission depletion (STED) nanoscopy with gold nanorods with a long axis of only 26 nm and a width of 8 nm. These particles provide an enhancement of up to 50% of the resolution compared to fluorescent-only probes without plasmonic components irradiated with the same depletion power. The nanoparticle-assisted STED probes reported here represent a ∼2 × 10 3 reduction in probe volume compared to previously used nanoparticles. Finally, we demonstrate their application toward plasmon-assisted STED cellular imaging at low-depletion powers, and we also discuss their current limitations.

  8. Real depletion in nodal diffusion codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petkov, P.T.

    2002-01-01

    The fuel depletion is described by more than one hundred fuel isotopes in the advanced lattice codes like HELIOS, but only a few fuel isotopes are accounted for even in the advanced steady-state diffusion codes. The general assumption that the number densities of the majority of the fuel isotopes depend only on the fuel burnup is seriously in error if high burnup is considered. The real depletion conditions in the reactor core differ from the asymptotic ones at the stage of lattice depletion calculations. This study reveals which fuel isotopes should be explicitly accounted for in the diffusion codes in order to predict adequately the real depletion effects in the core. A somewhat strange conclusion is that if the real number densities of the main fissionable isotopes are not explicitly accounted for in the diffusion code, then Sm-149 should not be accounted for either, because the net error in k-inf is smaller (Authors)

  9. Depleted UF6 programmatic environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The US Department of Energy has developed a program for long-term management and use of depleted uranium hexafluoride, a product of the uranium enrichment process. As part of this effort, DOE is preparing a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) for the depleted UF 6 management program. This report duplicates the information available at the web site (http://www.ead.anl.gov/web/newduf6) set up as a repository for the PEIS. Options for the web site include: reviewing recent additions or changes to the web site; learning more about depleted UF 6 and the PEIS; browsing the PEIS and related documents, or submitting official comments on the PEIS; downloading all or part of the PEIS documents; and adding or deleting one's name from the depleted UF 6 mailing list

  10. Ecological considerations of natural and depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, W.C.

    1980-01-01

    Depleted 238 U is a major by-product of the nuclear fuel cycle for which increasing use is being made in counterweights, radiation shielding, and ordnance applications. This paper (1) summarizes the pertinent literature on natural and depleted uranium in the environment, (2) integrates results of a series of ecological studies conducted at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) in New Mexico where 70,000 kg of depleted and natural uranium has been expended to the environment over the past 34 years, and (3) synthesizes the information into an assessment of the ecological consequences of natural and depleted uranium released to the environment by various means. Results of studies of soil, plant, and animal communities exposed to this radiation and chemical environment over a third of a century provide a means of evaluating the behavior and effects of uranium in many contexts

  11. Stimulated emission depletion following two photon excitation

    OpenAIRE

    Marsh, R. J.; Armoogum, D. A.; Bain, A. J.

    2002-01-01

    The technique of stimulated emission depletion of fluorescence (STED) from a two photon excited molecular population is demonstrated in the S, excited state of fluorescein in ethylene glycol and methanol. Two photon excitation (pump) is achieved using the partial output of a regeneratively amplified Ti:Sapphire laser in conjunction with an optical parametric amplifier whose tuneable output provides a synchronous depletion (dump) pulse. Time resolved fluorescence intensity and anisotropy measu...

  12. Depleted uranium: A DOE management guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has a management challenge and financial liability in the form of 50,000 cylinders containing 555,000 metric tons of depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) that are stored at the gaseous diffusion plants. The annual storage and maintenance cost is approximately $10 million. This report summarizes several studies undertaken by the DOE Office of Technology Development (OTD) to evaluate options for long-term depleted uranium management. Based on studies conducted to date, the most likely use of the depleted uranium is for shielding of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) or vitrified high-level waste (HLW) containers. The alternative to finding a use for the depleted uranium is disposal as a radioactive waste. Estimated disposal costs, utilizing existing technologies, range between $3.8 and $11.3 billion, depending on factors such as applicability of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the location of the disposal site. The cost of recycling the depleted uranium in a concrete based shielding in SNF/HLW containers, although substantial, is comparable to or less than the cost of disposal. Consequently, the case can be made that if DOE invests in developing depleted uranium shielded containers instead of disposal, a long-term solution to the UF 6 problem is attained at comparable or lower cost than disposal as a waste. Two concepts for depleted uranium storage casks were considered in these studies. The first is based on standard fabrication concepts previously developed for depleted uranium metal. The second converts the UF 6 to an oxide aggregate that is used in concrete to make dry storage casks

  13. Depleted Bulk Heterojunction Colloidal Quantum Dot Photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Barkhouse, D. Aaron R.

    2011-05-26

    The first solution-processed depleted bulk heterojunction colloidal quantum dot solar cells are presented. The architecture allows for high absorption with full depletion, thereby breaking the photon absorption/carrier extraction compromise inherent in planar devices. A record power conversion of 5.5% under simulated AM 1.5 illumination conditions is reported. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Totally James

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Tom

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an interview with James Howe, author of "The Misfits" and "Totally Joe". In this interview, Howe discusses tolerance, diversity and the parallels between his own life and his literature. Howe's four books in addition to "The Misfits" and "Totally Joe" and his list of recommended books with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender,…

  15. ANATOMY OF DEPLETED INTERPLANETARY CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocher, M.; Lepri, S. T.; Landi, E.; Zhao, L.; Manchester, W. B. IV, E-mail: mkocher@umich.edu [Department of Climate and Space Sciences and Engineering, University of Michigan, 2455 Hayward Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2143 (United States)

    2017-01-10

    We report a subset of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) containing distinct periods of anomalous heavy-ion charge state composition and peculiar ion thermal properties measured by ACE /SWICS from 1998 to 2011. We label them “depleted ICMEs,” identified by the presence of intervals where C{sup 6+}/C{sup 5+} and O{sup 7+}/O{sup 6+} depart from the direct correlation expected after their freeze-in heights. These anomalous intervals within the depleted ICMEs are referred to as “Depletion Regions.” We find that a depleted ICME would be indistinguishable from all other ICMEs in the absence of the Depletion Region, which has the defining property of significantly low abundances of fully charged species of helium, carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen. Similar anomalies in the slow solar wind were discussed by Zhao et al. We explore two possibilities for the source of the Depletion Region associated with magnetic reconnection in the tail of a CME, using CME simulations of the evolution of two Earth-bound CMEs described by Manchester et al.

  16. Serotonin 2A receptor regulation of striatal neuropeptide gene expression is selective for tachykinin, but not enkephalin neurons following dopamine depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basura, G J; Walker, P D

    2001-08-15

    Serotonin (5-HT) 2A receptor-mediated regulation of striatal preprotachykinin (PPT) and preproenkephalin (PPE) mRNAs was studied in adult rodents that had been subjected to near-total dopamine (DA) depletion as neonates. Two months following bilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesion, PPT mRNA levels decreased 59-73% across dorsal subregions of the rostral and caudal striatum while PPE transcripts increased 61-94%. Four hours after a single injection of the serotonin 2A/2C receptor agonist, (+/-)-1-(2,5-Dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI; 1 mg/kg), PPT mRNA expression was significantly increased in DA-depleted rats across all dorsal subregions of the rostral and caudal striatum as compared to 6-OHDA-treated animals alone. In the intact rat, DOI did not influence PPT mRNA levels in the rostral striatum, but did raise expression in the caudal striatum where 5-HT2A receptors are prominent. DOI did not regulate PPE mRNA levels in any striatal sub-region of the intact or DA-depleted rat. Prior administration of the 5-HT2A/2C receptor antagonist, ritanserin (1 mg/kg) or the 5-HT2A receptor antagonist, ketanserin (1 mg/kg) completely blocked the DOI-induced increases in striatal PPT mRNA in both lesioned and intact animals. The ability of ketanserin to produce identical results as ritanserin suggests that 5-HT2A receptor-mediated regulation is selectively strengthened within tachykinin neurons of the rostral striatum which are suppressed by DA depletion. The selectivity suggests that 5-HT2A receptor upregulation following DA depletion is capable of regulating tachykinin biosynthesis without influencing enkephalin expression in striatal output neurons.

  17. Interstellar Silicon Depletion and the Ultraviolet Extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ajay; Li, Aigen

    2018-01-01

    Spinning small silicate grains were recently invoked to account for the Galactic foreground anomalous microwave emission. These grains, if present, will absorb starlight in the far ultraviolet (UV). There is also renewed interest in attributing the enigmatic 2175 Å interstellar extinction bump to small silicates. To probe the role of silicon in the UV extinction, we explore the relations between the amount of silicon required to be locked up in silicates [Si/H]dust and the 2175 Å bump or the far-UV extinction rise, based on an analysis of the extinction curves along 46 Galactic sightlines for which the gas-phase silicon abundance [Si/H]gas is known. We derive [Si/H]dust either from [Si/H]ISM - [Si/H]gas or from the Kramers- Kronig relation which relates the wavelength-integrated extinction to the total dust volume, where [Si/H]ISM is the interstellar silicon reference abundance and taken to be that of proto-Sun or B stars. We also derive [Si/H]dust from fi�tting the observed extinction curves with a mixture of amorphous silicates and graphitic grains. We fi�nd that in all three cases [Si/H]dust shows no correlation with the 2175 Å bump, while the carbon depletion [C/H]dust tends to correlate with the 2175 Å bump. This supports carbon grains instead of silicates as the possible carrier of the 2175 Å bump. We also �find that neither [Si/H]dust nor [C/H]dust alone correlates with the far-UV extinction, suggesting that the far-UV extinction is a combined effect of small carbon grains and silicates.

  18. EPRI depletion benchmark calculations using PARAGON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucukboyaci, Vefa N.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • PARAGON depletion calculations are benchmarked against the EPRI reactivity decrement experiments. • Benchmarks cover a wide range of enrichments, burnups, cooling times, and burnable absorbers, and different depletion and storage conditions. • Results from PARAGON-SCALE scheme are more conservative relative to the benchmark data. • ENDF/B-VII based data reduces the excess conservatism and brings the predictions closer to benchmark reactivity decrement values. - Abstract: In order to conservatively apply burnup credit in spent fuel pool criticality analyses, code validation for both fresh and used fuel is required. Fresh fuel validation is typically done by modeling experiments from the “International Handbook.” A depletion validation can determine a bias and bias uncertainty for the worth of the isotopes not found in the fresh fuel critical experiments. Westinghouse’s burnup credit methodology uses PARAGON™ (Westinghouse 2-D lattice physics code) and its 70-group cross-section library, which have been benchmarked, qualified, and licensed both as a standalone transport code and as a nuclear data source for core design simulations. A bias and bias uncertainty for the worth of depletion isotopes, however, are not available for PARAGON. Instead, the 5% decrement approach for depletion uncertainty is used, as set forth in the Kopp memo. Recently, EPRI developed a set of benchmarks based on a large set of power distribution measurements to ascertain reactivity biases. The depletion reactivity has been used to create 11 benchmark cases for 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 GWd/MTU and 3 cooling times 100 h, 5 years, and 15 years. These benchmark cases are analyzed with PARAGON and the SCALE package and sensitivity studies are performed using different cross-section libraries based on ENDF/B-VI.3 and ENDF/B-VII data to assess that the 5% decrement approach is conservative for determining depletion uncertainty

  19. Determination of average fission fraction produced by 14 MeV neutrons in assemblies with large volume of depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Dalun; Li Benci; Wang Xiuchun; Li Yijun; Zhang Shaohua; He Yongwu

    1991-07-01

    The average fission fraction of 238 U caused by 14 MeV neutrons in assemblies with large volume depleted uranium has been determined. The measured value of p f 238U (R ∞ depleted ) 14 was 0.897 ± 0.036. Measurements were also completed for neutron flux distribution and average fission fraction of 235 U isotope in depleted uranium sphere. Values of p f 238U (R depleted ) have been obtained by using a series of uranium spheres. For a sphere with Φ 600 the p f 23 '8 U (R 300 depleted ) is 0.823 ± 0.041, the density of depleted uranium assembly is 18.8g/cm 3 and total weight of assembly is about 2.8t

  20. Monthly Weather Review

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Supplements to the Monthly Weather Review publication. The Weather Bureau published the Monthly weather review Supplement irregularly from 1914 to 1949. The...

  1. Uncertainty Propagation in Monte Carlo Depletion Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Hyung Jin; Kim, Yeong-il; Park, Ho Jin; Joo, Han Gyu; Kim, Chang Hyo

    2008-01-01

    A new formulation aimed at quantifying uncertainties of Monte Carlo (MC) tallies such as k eff and the microscopic reaction rates of nuclides and nuclide number densities in MC depletion analysis and examining their propagation behaviour as a function of depletion time step (DTS) is presented. It is shown that the variance of a given MC tally used as a measure of its uncertainty in this formulation arises from four sources; the statistical uncertainty of the MC tally, uncertainties of microscopic cross sections and nuclide number densities, and the cross correlations between them and the contribution of the latter three sources can be determined by computing the correlation coefficients between the uncertain variables. It is also shown that the variance of any given nuclide number density at the end of each DTS stems from uncertainties of the nuclide number densities (NND) and microscopic reaction rates (MRR) of nuclides at the beginning of each DTS and they are determined by computing correlation coefficients between these two uncertain variables. To test the viability of the formulation, we conducted MC depletion analysis for two sample depletion problems involving a simplified 7x7 fuel assembly (FA) and a 17x17 PWR FA, determined number densities of uranium and plutonium isotopes and their variances as well as k ∞ and its variance as a function of DTS, and demonstrated the applicability of the new formulation for uncertainty propagation analysis that need be followed in MC depletion computations. (authors)

  2. Groundwater Depletion Embedded in International Food Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalin, Carole; Wada, Yoshihide; Kastner, Thomas; Puma, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Recent hydrological modeling and Earth observations have located and quantified alarming rates of groundwater depletion worldwide. This depletion is primarily due to water withdrawals for irrigation, but its connection with the main driver of irrigation, global food consumption, has not yet been explored. Here we show that approximately eleven per cent of non-renewable groundwater use for irrigation is embedded in international food trade, of which two-thirds are exported by Pakistan, the USA and India alone. Our quantification of groundwater depletion embedded in the world's food trade is based on a combination of global, crop-specific estimates of non-renewable groundwater abstraction and international food trade data. A vast majority of the world's population lives in countries sourcing nearly all their staple crop imports from partners who deplete groundwater to produce these crops, highlighting risks for global food and water security. Some countries, such as the USA, Mexico, Iran and China, are particularly exposed to these risks because they both produce and import food irrigated from rapidly depleting aquifers. Our results could help to improve the sustainability of global food production and groundwater resource management by identifying priority regions and agricultural products at risk as well as the end consumers of these products.

  3. Depletion sensitivity predicts unhealthy snack purchases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Stefanie J; Adriaanse, Marieke A; Fennis, Bob M; De Vet, Emely; De Ridder, Denise T D

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present research is to examine the relation between depletion sensitivity - a novel construct referring to the speed or ease by which one's self-control resources are drained - and snack purchase behavior. In addition, interactions between depletion sensitivity and the goal to lose weight on snack purchase behavior were explored. Participants included in the study were instructed to report every snack they bought over the course of one week. The dependent variables were the number of healthy and unhealthy snacks purchased. The results of the present study demonstrate that depletion sensitivity predicts the amount of unhealthy (but not healthy) snacks bought. The more sensitive people are to depletion, the more unhealthy snacks they buy. Moreover, there was some tentative evidence that this relation is more pronounced for people with a weak as opposed to a strong goal to lose weight, suggesting that a strong goal to lose weight may function as a motivational buffer against self-control failures. All in all, these findings provide evidence for the external validity of depletion sensitivity and the relevance of this construct in the domain of eating behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Groundwater depletion embedded in international food trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalin, Carole; Wada, Yoshihide; Kastner, Thomas; Puma, Michael J.

    2017-03-01

    Recent hydrological modelling and Earth observations have located and quantified alarming rates of groundwater depletion worldwide. This depletion is primarily due to water withdrawals for irrigation, but its connection with the main driver of irrigation, global food consumption, has not yet been explored. Here we show that approximately eleven per cent of non-renewable groundwater use for irrigation is embedded in international food trade, of which two-thirds are exported by Pakistan, the USA and India alone. Our quantification of groundwater depletion embedded in the world’s food trade is based on a combination of global, crop-specific estimates of non-renewable groundwater abstraction and international food trade data. A vast majority of the world’s population lives in countries sourcing nearly all their staple crop imports from partners who deplete groundwater to produce these crops, highlighting risks for global food and water security. Some countries, such as the USA, Mexico, Iran and China, are particularly exposed to these risks because they both produce and import food irrigated from rapidly depleting aquifers. Our results could help to improve the sustainability of global food production and groundwater resource management by identifying priority regions and agricultural products at risk as well as the end consumers of these products.

  5. The new MCNP6 depletion capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fensin, M. L.; James, M. R.; Hendricks, J. S.; Goorley, J. T.

    2012-01-01

    The first MCNP based in-line Monte Carlo depletion capability was officially released from the Radiation Safety Information and Computational Center as MCNPX 2.6.0. Both the MCNP5 and MCNPX codes have historically provided a successful combinatorial geometry based, continuous energy, Monte Carlo radiation transport solution for advanced reactor modeling and simulation. However, due to separate development pathways, useful simulation capabilities were dispersed between both codes and not unified in a single technology. MCNP6, the next evolution in the MCNP suite of codes, now combines the capability of both simulation tools, as well as providing new advanced technology, in a single radiation transport code. We describe here the new capabilities of the MCNP6 depletion code dating from the official RSICC release MCNPX 2.6.0, reported previously, to the now current state of MCNP6. NEA/OECD benchmark results are also reported. The MCNP6 depletion capability enhancements beyond MCNPX 2.6.0 reported here include: (1) new performance enhancing parallel architecture that implements both shared and distributed memory constructs; (2) enhanced memory management that maximizes calculation fidelity; and (3) improved burnup physics for better nuclide prediction. MCNP6 depletion enables complete, relatively easy-to-use depletion calculations in a single Monte Carlo code. The enhancements described here help provide a powerful capability as well as dictate a path forward for future development to improve the usefulness of the technology. (authors)

  6. The New MCNP6 Depletion Capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fensin, Michael Lorne; James, Michael R.; Hendricks, John S.; Goorley, John T.

    2012-01-01

    The first MCNP based inline Monte Carlo depletion capability was officially released from the Radiation Safety Information and Computational Center as MCNPX 2.6.0. Both the MCNP5 and MCNPX codes have historically provided a successful combinatorial geometry based, continuous energy, Monte Carlo radiation transport solution for advanced reactor modeling and simulation. However, due to separate development pathways, useful simulation capabilities were dispersed between both codes and not unified in a single technology. MCNP6, the next evolution in the MCNP suite of codes, now combines the capability of both simulation tools, as well as providing new advanced technology, in a single radiation transport code. We describe here the new capabilities of the MCNP6 depletion code dating from the official RSICC release MCNPX 2.6.0, reported previously, to the now current state of MCNP6. NEA/OECD benchmark results are also reported. The MCNP6 depletion capability enhancements beyond MCNPX 2.6.0 reported here include: (1) new performance enhancing parallel architecture that implements both shared and distributed memory constructs; (2) enhanced memory management that maximizes calculation fidelity; and (3) improved burnup physics for better nuclide prediction. MCNP6 depletion enables complete, relatively easy-to-use depletion calculations in a single Monte Carlo code. The enhancements described here help provide a powerful capability as well as dictate a path forward for future development to improve the usefulness of the technology.

  7. Climate Change and Oil Depletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, Rui

    2002-01-01

    Primary energy sources have progressively displaced each other and shared the supply in terms that can historically be described by a model proposed by Cesare Marchetti as a generalization of the Fisher and Pry law. So wood, coal, oil and natural gas have displaced or are displacing each other, each one following a logistic evolution until a maximum share is attained, afterwards receding in a symmetrically similar way, provided there is no exhaustion of the respective resource base, each one completing its own life cycle. On the other hand, the persistent growth of the total energy demand implies that the total amount of each one of the successive primary energy sources, required to complete its life cycle, is growing as time lapses. So it is realized that coal resources are much larger than its total life cycle demand. The same is not the case of oil, whose resource base (estimate 2000 Gb) may be smaller than the integrated prospective demand unless this starts declining steadily in the near future. However, if the rate of growth of total energy demand is persists, the amount of natural gas required to complete a similar life cycle will likely exceed its actual resource base. One faces therefore two problems: the constraint on oil availability right now and a likely, even more severe, constraint on natural gas in about twenty years time. Combustion of fossil fuels always produces CO 2 emissions as well as nitrogen oxides. With the exception of natural gas, all other fuels also produce, to a variable extent, particulate matter (aerosols) and sulfur oxides. The permanent alteration of the chemical composition of the atmosphere as a result of all these emissions may affect the biogeochemical balance of the climate system. Such emissions produce recognized impacts of some sort at local and regional levels, either temporary or permanent. Whether actual impacts can be global and permanent is still under dispute; but the observed steady and simultaneous increase of the

  8. Ego depletion in visual perception: Ego-depleted viewers experience less ambiguous figure reversal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, Marina C; Stirk, Steven; Hancock, Peter J B

    2017-10-01

    This study examined the effects of ego depletion on ambiguous figure perception. Adults (N = 315) received an ego depletion task and were subsequently tested on their inhibitory control abilities that were indexed by the Stroop task (Experiment 1) and their ability to perceive both interpretations of ambiguous figures that was indexed by reversal (Experiment 2). Ego depletion had a very small effect on reducing inhibitory control (Cohen's d = .15) (Experiment 1). Ego-depleted participants had a tendency to take longer to respond in Stroop trials. In Experiment 2, ego depletion had small to medium effects on the experience of reversal. Ego-depleted viewers tended to take longer to reverse ambiguous figures (duration to first reversal) when naïve of the ambiguity and experienced less reversal both when naïve and informed of the ambiguity. Together, findings suggest that ego depletion has small effects on inhibitory control and small to medium effects on bottom-up and top-down perceptual processes. The depletion of cognitive resources can reduce our visual perceptual experience.

  9. The modality effect of ego depletion: Auditory task modality reduces ego depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiong; Wang, Zhenhong

    2016-08-01

    An initial act of self-control that impairs subsequent acts of self-control is called ego depletion. The ego depletion phenomenon has been observed consistently. The modality effect refers to the effect of the presentation modality on the processing of stimuli. The modality effect was also robustly found in a large body of research. However, no study to date has examined the modality effects of ego depletion. This issue was addressed in the current study. In Experiment 1, after all participants completed a handgrip task, one group's participants completed a visual attention regulation task and the other group's participants completed an auditory attention regulation task, and then all participants again completed a handgrip task. The ego depletion phenomenon was observed in both the visual and the auditory attention regulation task. Moreover, participants who completed the visual task performed worse on the handgrip task than participants who completed the auditory task, which indicated that there was high ego depletion in the visual task condition. In Experiment 2, participants completed an initial task that either did or did not deplete self-control resources, and then they completed a second visual or auditory attention control task. The results indicated that depleted participants performed better on the auditory attention control task than the visual attention control task. These findings suggest that altering task modality may reduce ego depletion. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Sensibility analysis of fuel depletion using different nuclear fuel depletion codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, F.; Velasquez, C.E.; Castro, V.F.; Pereira, C.; Silva, C. A. Mello da

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, the utilization of different nuclear codes to perform the depletion and criticality calculations has been used to simulated nuclear reactors problems. Therefore, the goal is to analyze the sensibility of the fuel depletion of a PWR assembly using three different nuclear fuel depletion codes. The burnup calculations are performed using the codes MCNP5/ORIGEN2.1 (MONTEBURNS), KENO-VI/ORIGEN-S (TRITONSCALE6.0) and MCNPX (MCNPX/CINDER90). Each nuclear code performs the burnup using different depletion codes. Each depletion code works with collapsed energies from a master library in 1, 3 and 63 groups, respectively. Besides, each code uses different ways to obtain neutron flux that influences the depletions calculation. The results present a comparison of the neutronic parameters and isotopes composition such as criticality and nuclides build-up, the deviation in results are going to be assigned to features of the depletion code in use, such as the different radioactive decay internal libraries and the numerical method involved in solving the coupled differential depletion equations. It is also seen that the longer the period is and the more time steps are chosen, the larger the deviation become. (author)

  11. Sensibility analysis of fuel depletion using different nuclear fuel depletion codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, F.; Velasquez, C.E.; Castro, V.F.; Pereira, C.; Silva, C. A. Mello da, E-mail: felipmartins94@gmail.com, E-mail: carlosvelcab@hotmail.com, E-mail: victorfariascastro@gmail.com, E-mail: claubia@nuclear.ufmg.br, E-mail: clarysson@nuclear.ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear

    2017-07-01

    Nowadays, the utilization of different nuclear codes to perform the depletion and criticality calculations has been used to simulated nuclear reactors problems. Therefore, the goal is to analyze the sensibility of the fuel depletion of a PWR assembly using three different nuclear fuel depletion codes. The burnup calculations are performed using the codes MCNP5/ORIGEN2.1 (MONTEBURNS), KENO-VI/ORIGEN-S (TRITONSCALE6.0) and MCNPX (MCNPX/CINDER90). Each nuclear code performs the burnup using different depletion codes. Each depletion code works with collapsed energies from a master library in 1, 3 and 63 groups, respectively. Besides, each code uses different ways to obtain neutron flux that influences the depletions calculation. The results present a comparison of the neutronic parameters and isotopes composition such as criticality and nuclides build-up, the deviation in results are going to be assigned to features of the depletion code in use, such as the different radioactive decay internal libraries and the numerical method involved in solving the coupled differential depletion equations. It is also seen that the longer the period is and the more time steps are chosen, the larger the deviation become. (author)

  12. Depleted uranium and the Gulf War syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Some military personnel involved in the 1991Gulf War have complained of continuing stress-like symptoms for which no obvious cause has been found. These symptoms have at times been attributed to the use of depleted uranium (DU) in shell casings which are believed to have caused toxic effects. Depleted uranium is natural uranium which is depleted in the rarer U-235 isotope. It is a heavy metal and in common with other heavy metals is chemically toxic. It is also slightly radioactive and could give rise to a radiological hazard if dispersed in finely divided form so that it was inhaled. In response to concerns, the possible effects of DU have been extensively studied along with other possible contributors to G ulf War sickness . This article looks at the results of some of the research that has been done on DU. (author)

  13. Self-regulation, ego depletion, and inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, Roy F

    2014-12-01

    Inhibition is a major form of self-regulation. As such, it depends on self-awareness and comparing oneself to standards and is also susceptible to fluctuations in willpower resources. Ego depletion is the state of reduced willpower caused by prior exertion of self-control. Ego depletion undermines inhibition both because restraints are weaker and because urges are felt more intensely than usual. Conscious inhibition of desires is a pervasive feature of everyday life and may be a requirement of life in civilized, cultural society, and in that sense it goes to the evolved core of human nature. Intentional inhibition not only restrains antisocial impulses but can also facilitate optimal performance, such as during test taking. Self-regulation and ego depletion- may also affect less intentional forms of inhibition, even chronic tendencies to inhibit. Broadly stated, inhibition is necessary for human social life and nearly all societies encourage and enforce it. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Processing and Applications of Depleted Uranium Alloy Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-09-01

    ammunition, weapons, gyrorotors, and ballast. Depleted uranium used in fly- wheel devices, nuclear fuel casks, and ammunition could consume a significant...from straight in the range of 0,002 to 0.060-inch TIR (total indicated runout ) with an average of 0.025-inch TIR.* Solution heat treatment of the as-cast...an envelope thickness of 0.050 inch to allow for runout and to clean up surface imperfections. The runout resulting from heat treatment was in the

  15. Department of Energy depleted uranium recycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosinski, F.E.; Butturini, W.G.; Kurtz, J.J.

    1994-01-01

    With its strategic supply of depleted uranium, the Department of Energy is studying reuse of the material in nuclear radiation shields, military hardware, and commercial applications. the study is expected to warrant a more detailed uranium recycle plan which would include consideration of a demonstration program and a program implementation decision. Such a program, if implemented, would become the largest nuclear material recycle program in the history of the Department of Energy. The bulk of the current inventory of depleted uranium is stored in 14-ton cylinders in the form of solid uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ). The radioactive 235 U content has been reduced to a concentration of 0.2% to 0.4%. Present estimates indicate there are about 55,000 UF 6 -filled cylinders in inventory and planned operations will provide another 2,500 cylinders of depleted uranium each year. The United States government, under the auspices of the Department of Energy, considers the depleted uranium a highly-refined strategic resource of significant value. A possible utilization of a large portion of the depleted uranium inventory is as radiation shielding for spent reactor fuels and high-level radioactive waste. To this end, the Department of Energy study to-date has included a preliminary technical review to ascertain DOE chemical forms useful for commercial products. The presentation summarized the information including preliminary cost estimates. The status of commercial uranium processing is discussed. With a shrinking market, the number of chemical conversion and fabrication plants is reduced; however, the commercial capability does exist for chemical conversion of the UF 6 to the metal form and for the fabrication of uranium radiation shields and other uranium products. Department of Energy facilities no longer possess a capability for depleted uranium chemical conversion

  16. Depleted uranium hexafluoride: Waste or resource?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwertz, N.; Zoller, J.; Rosen, R.; Patton, S.; Bradley, C.; Murray, A.

    1995-07-01

    The US Department of Energy is evaluating technologies for the storage, disposal, or re-use of depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ). This paper discusses the following options, and provides a technology assessment for each one: (1) conversion to UO 2 for use as mixed oxide duel, (2) conversion to UO 2 to make DUCRETE for a multi-purpose storage container, (3) conversion to depleted uranium metal for use as shielding, (4) conversion to uranium carbide for use as high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) fuel. In addition, conversion to U 3 O 8 as an option for long-term storage is discussed

  17. Depleted uranium processing and fluorine extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laflin, S.T.

    2010-01-01

    Since the beginning of the nuclear era, there has never been a commercial solution for the large quantities of depleted uranium hexafluoride generated from uranium enrichment. In the United States alone, there is already in excess of 1.6 billion pounds (730 million kilograms) of DUF_6 currently stored. INIS is constructing a commercial uranium processing and fluorine extraction facility. The INIS facility will convert depleted uranium hexafluoride and use it as feed material for the patented Fluorine Extraction Process to produce high purity fluoride gases and anhydrous hydrofluoric acid. The project will provide an environmentally friendly and commercially viable solution for DUF_6 tails management. (author)

  18. The Chemistry and Toxicology of Depleted Uranium

    OpenAIRE

    Sidney A. Katz

    2014-01-01

    Natural uranium is comprised of three radioactive isotopes: 238U, 235U, and 234U. Depleted uranium (DU) is a byproduct of the processes for the enrichment of the naturally occurring 235U isotope. The world wide stock pile contains some 1½ million tons of depleted uranium. Some of it has been used to dilute weapons grade uranium (~90% 235U) down to reactor grade uranium (~5% 235U), and some of it has been used for heavy tank armor and for the fabrication of armor-piercing bullets and missiles....

  19. “When the going gets tough, who keeps going?” Depletion sensitivity moderates the ego-depletion effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salmon, S.J.; Adriaanse, M.A.; Vet, de E.W.M.L.; Fennis, B.M.; Ridder, de D.T.D.

    2014-01-01

    Self-control relies on a limited resource that can get depleted, a phenomenon that has been labeled ego-depletion. We argue that individuals may differ in their sensitivity to depleting tasks, and that consequently some people deplete their self-control resource at a faster rate than others. In

  20. “When the going gets tough, who keeps going?” Depletion sensitivity moderates the ego-depletion effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Stefanie J.; Adriaanse, Marieke A.; De Vet, Emely; Fennis, Bob M.; De Ridder, Denise T. D.

    2014-01-01

    Self-control relies on a limited resource that can get depleted, a phenomenon that has been labeled ego-depletion. We argue that individuals may differ in their sensitivity to depleting tasks, and that consequently some people deplete their self-control resource at a faster rate than others. In three studies, we assessed individual differences in depletion sensitivity, and demonstrate that depletion sensitivity moderates ego-depletion effects. The Depletion Sensitivity Scale (DSS) was employed to assess depletion sensitivity. Study 1 employs the DSS to demonstrate that individual differences in sensitivity to ego-depletion exist. Study 2 shows moderate correlations of depletion sensitivity with related self-control concepts, indicating that these scales measure conceptually distinct constructs. Study 3 demonstrates that depletion sensitivity moderates the ego-depletion effect. Specifically, participants who are sensitive to depletion performed worse on a second self-control task, indicating a stronger ego-depletion effect, compared to participants less sensitive to depletion. PMID:25009523

  1. Natural gas monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the Natural Gas Monthly features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  2. Evolution of depleted mantle: The lead perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilton, George R.

    1983-07-01

    Isotopic data have established that, compared to estimated bulk earth abundances, the sources of oceanic basaltic lavas have been depleted in large ion lithophile elements for at least several billions of years. Various data on the Tertiary-Mesozoic Gorgona komatiite and Cretaceous Oka carbonatite show that those rocks also sample depleted mantle sources. This information is used by analogy to compare Pb isotopic data from 2.6 billion year old komatiite and carbonatite from the Suomussalmi belt of eastern Finland and Munro Township, Ontario that are with associated granitic rocks and ores that should contain marked crustal components. Within experimental error no differences are detected in the isotopic composition of initial Pb in either of the rock suites. These observations agree closely with Sr and Nd data from other laboratories showing that depleted mantle could not have originated in those areas more than a few tenths of billions of years before the rocks were emplaced. On a world-wide basis the Pb isotope data are consistent with production of depleted mantle by continuous differentiation processes acting over approximately the past 3 billion years. The data show that Pb evolution is more complex than the simpler models derived from the Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd systems. The nature of the complexity is still poorly understood.

  3. Poroelasticity of high porosity chalk under depletion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Katrine Alling; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2013-01-01

    on mechanical test results is found to be low-er than the pretest dynamic Biot coefficient determined from elastic wave propagation for the loading path and with less deviation under depletion. The calculated lateral stress is lower than the experimentally measured lateral stress depending on loading path...

  4. Nitrogen depletion in field red giants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masseron, T.; Lagarde, N.; Miglio, A.

    2017-01-01

    , the behaviour of nitrogen data along the evolution confirms the existence of non-canonical extramixing on the red giant branch (RGB) for all low-mass stars in the field. But more surprisingly, the data indicate that nitrogen has been depleted between the RGB tip and the red clump. This may suggest that some...

  5. Elephant invasion and escalated depletion of environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For decades, elephants' invasion is known to be associated with severe environmental consequences leading to escalated depletion o environmental resources (plants, water, wildlife and soil). This paper examined the effects of elephants' activity on the environmental resources inHong and Gombi Local Government areas ...

  6. Depletion mode pumping of solid state lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mundinger, D.; Solarz, R.; Beach, R.; Albrecht, G.; Krupke, W.

    1990-01-01

    Depletion mode pumping of solid state lasers is a new concept which offers features that are of interest for many practical applications. In this paper the authors discuss the physical properties and mechanisms that set the design requirements, present model calculations for a practical laser design, and discuss the results of recent experiments

  7. Global Warming: Lessons from Ozone Depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Art

    2010-01-01

    My teaching and textbook have always covered many physics-related social issues, including stratospheric ozone depletion and global warming. The ozone saga is an inspiring good-news story that's instructive for solving the similar but bigger problem of global warming. Thus, as soon as students in my physics literacy course at the University of…

  8. Ozone depleting substances management inventory system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Ivan Romero Rodríguez

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Context: The care of the ozone layer is an activity that contributes to the planet's environmental stability. For this reason, the Montreal Protocol is created to control the emission of substances that deplete the ozone layer and reduce its production from an organizational point of view. However, it is also necessary to have control of those that are already circulating and those present in the equipment that cannot be replaced yet because of the context of the companies that keep it. Generally, the control mechanisms for classifying the type of substances, equipment and companies that own them, are carried in physical files, spreadsheets and text documents, which makes it difficult to control and manage the data stored in them. Method: The objective of this research is to computerize the process of control of substances that deplete the ozone layer. An evaluation and description of all process to manage Ozone-Depleting Substances (ODS, and its alternatives, is done. For computerization, the agile development methodology SCRUM is used, and for the technological solution tools and free open source technologies are used. Result: As a result of the research, a computer tool was developed that automates the process of control and management of substances that exhaust the ozone layer and its alternatives. Conclusions: The developed computer tool allows to control and manage the ozone-depleting substances and the equipment that use them. It also manages the substances that arise as alternatives to be used for the protection of the ozone layer.

  9. Application of backtracking algorithm to depletion calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Mingyu; Wang Shixi; Yang Yong; Zhang Qiang; Yang Jiayin

    2013-01-01

    Based on the theory of linear chain method for analytical depletion calculations, the burnup matrix is decoupled by the divide and conquer strategy and the linear chain with Markov characteristic is formed. The density, activity and decay heat of every nuclide in the chain then can be calculated by analytical solutions. Every possible reaction path of the nuclide must be considered during the linear chain establishment process. To confirm the calculation precision and efficiency, the algorithm which can cover all the reaction paths and search the paths automatically according to the problem description and precision restrictions should be found. Through analysis and comparison of several kinds of searching algorithms, the backtracking algorithm was selected to establish and calculate the linear chains in searching process using depth first search (DFS) method, forming an algorithm which can solve the depletion problem adaptively and with high fidelity. The complexity of the solution space and time was analyzed by taking into account depletion process and the characteristics of the backtracking algorithm. The newly developed depletion program was coupled with Monte Carlo program MCMG-Ⅱ to calculate the benchmark burnup problem of the first core of China Experimental Fast Reactor (CEFR) and the preliminary verification and validation of the program were performed. (authors)

  10. Decontamination of Cape Arza (Montenegro) from depleted Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukotich, P.; Kovachevich, M.; Vasich, V.; Ristich, N.

    2002-01-01

    On May 30, 1999, NATO A-10 aircrafts attacked Cape Arza, a very attractive touring area on peninsula Lustica, at the entrance of Boka Kotorska Bay, in Montenegro. They fired anti-armour rounds with penetrators made of depleted uranium. Such an armour-penetrating round has a length of 173 mm and a diameter of 30 mm. The bullet has an aluminium case (jacket) and inside it a conical DU penetrator. The length of the penetrator itself is 95 mm, and the diameter of its base is 16 mm. The penetrator weight is 292 g. According to the data reported by NATO (NATO, 2001), the total number of rounds fired against Cape Arza was 480. As to the data on combat mix of the A-10 aircraft gun, 300 (UNEP, 2001) or 400 (UNEP, 2001; FAS) of these rounds where with DU penetrators, and the rest with a classical charge. This means that Cape Arza was contaminated with 90 or 120 kg of DU, or with a radioactivity of (3.5 - 4.7) · 10 9 Bq. Depleted uranium is a waste product of the process of uranium enrichment in 2 35U isotope, for use in nuclear reactors or in nuclear weapons. The isotopic composition of depleted uranium is (Harley et al., 1999): (99.7 - 99.8) % of 2 38U , (0.2 - 0.3) % of 2 35U , 0.001 % of 2 34U , and only traces of 2 34T h, 2 34P a and 2 31T h. If traces of the isotopes 2 36U , 2 39P u and 2 40P u are also present, as it is the case with DU from Cape Arza (UNEP, 2002), the depleted uranium is obtained by reprocessing of spent nuclear reactor fuel. The activity concentration of depleted uranium is 39.42 · 10 6 Bq/kg. Most of it comes from 2 38U and its decay products 2 34T h and 2 34P a which are in radioactive equilibrium (12.27 · 10 6 Bq/kg per each of them), and the less part from 2 35U and 2 31T h (0.16 · 10 6 Bq/kg per each) (UNEP, 1999), while the activity concentration of 2 36U , 2 39P u and 2 40P u is below 100 Bq/kg (UNEP, 2001)

  11. U.S. Monthly Climate Normals (1971-2000)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — U.S. Monthly Climate Normals (1971-2000) (DSI-9641C) include climatological normals based on monthly maximum, minimum, and mean temperature and monthly total...

  12. [Acute tryptophan depletion in eating disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Marsa, M; Lozano, C; Herranz, A S; Asensio-Vegas, M J; Martín, O; Revert, L; Saiz-Ruiz, J; Carrasco, J L

    2006-01-01

    This work describes the rational bases justifying the use of acute tryptophan depletion technique in eating disorders (ED) and the methods and design used in our studies. Tryptophan depletion technique has been described and used in previous studies safely and makes it possible to evaluate the brain serotonin activity. Therefore it is used in the investigation of hypotheses on serotonergic deficiency in eating disorders. Furthermore, and given the relationship of the dysfunctions of serotonin activity with impulsive symptoms, the technique may be useful in biological differentiation of different subtypes, that is restrictive and bulimic, of ED. 57 female patients with DSM-IV eating disorders and 20 female controls were investigated with the tryptophan depletion test. A tryptophan-free amino acid solution was administered orally after a two-day low tryptophan diet to patients and controls. Free plasma tryptophan was measured at two and five hours following administration of the drink. Eating and emotional responses were measured with specific scales for five hours following the depletion. A study of the basic characteristics of the personality and impulsivity traits was also done. Relationship of the response to the test with the different clinical subtypes and with the temperamental and impulsive characteristics of the patients was studied. The test was effective in considerably reducing plasma tryptophan in five hours from baseline levels (76%) in the global sample. The test was well tolerated and no severe adverse effects were reported. Two patients withdrew from the test due to gastric intolerance. The tryptophan depletion test could be of value to study involvement of serotonin deficits in the symptomatology and pathophysiology of eating disorders.

  13. Depletion of Pax7+ satellite cells does not affect diaphragm adaptations to running in young or aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murach, Kevin A; Confides, Amy L; Ho, Angel; Jackson, Janna R; Ghazala, Lina S; Peterson, Charlotte A; Dupont-Versteegden, Esther E

    2017-10-01

    Satellite cell depletion does not affect diaphragm adaptations to voluntary wheel running in young or aged mice. Satellite cell depletion early in life (4 months of age) has minimal effect on diaphragm phenotype by old age (24 months). Prolonged satellite cell depletion in the diaphragm does not result in excessive extracellular matrix accumulation, in contrast to what has been reported in hind limb muscles. Up-regulation of Pax3 mRNA+ cells after satellite cell depletion in young and aged mice suggests that Pax3+ cells may compensate for a loss of Pax7+ satellite cells in the diaphragm. Future investigations should focus on the role of Pax3+ cells in the diaphragm during adaptation to exercise and ageing. Satellite cell contribution to unstressed diaphragm is higher compared to hind limb muscles, which is probably attributable to constant activation of this muscle to drive ventilation. Whether satellite cell depletion negatively impacts diaphragm quantitative and qualitative characteristics under stressed conditions in young and aged mice is unknown. We therefore challenged the diaphragm with prolonged running activity in the presence and absence of Pax7+ satellite cells in young and aged mice using an inducible Pax7 CreER -R26R DTA model. Mice were vehicle (Veh, satellite cell-replete) or tamoxifen (Tam, satellite cell-depleted) treated at 4 months of age and were then allowed to run voluntarily at 6 months (young) and 22 months (aged). Age-matched, cage-dwelling, Veh- and Tam-treated mice without wheel access served as activity controls. Diaphragm muscles were analysed from young (8 months) and aged (24 months) mice. Satellite cell depletion did not alter diaphragm mean fibre cross-sectional area, fibre type distribution or extracellular matrix content in young or aged mice, regardless of running activity. Resting in vivo diaphragm function was also unaffected by satellite cell depletion. Myonuclear density was maintained in young satellite cell-depleted

  14. Depleting high-abundant and enriching low-abundant proteins in human serum: An evaluation of sample preparation methods using magnetic nanoparticle, chemical depletion and immunoaffinity techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesus, Jemmyson Romário; da Silva Fernandes, Rafael; de Souza Pessôa, Gustavo; Raimundo, Ivo Milton; Arruda, Marco Aurélio Zezzi

    2017-08-01

    The efficiency of three different depletion methods to remove the most abundant proteins, enriching those human serum proteins with low abundance is checked to make more efficient the search and discovery of biomarkers. These methods utilize magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), chemical reagents (sequential application of dithiothreitol and acetonitrile, DTT/ACN), and commercial apparatus based on immunoaffinity (ProteoMiner, PM). The comparison between methods shows significant removal of abundant protein, remaining in the supernatant at concentrations of 4.6±0.2, 3.6±0.1, and 3.3±0.2µgµL -1 (n=3) for MNPs, DTT/ACN and PM respectively, from a total protein content of 54µgµL -1 . Using GeLC-MS/MS analysis, MNPs depletion shows good efficiency in removing high molecular weight proteins (>80kDa). Due to the synergic effect between the reagents DTT and ACN, DTT/ACN-based depletion offers good performance in the depletion of thiol-rich proteins, such as albumin and transferrin (DTT action), as well as of high molecular weight proteins (ACN action). Furthermore, PM equalization confirms its efficiency in concentrating low-abundant proteins, decreasing the dynamic range of protein levels in human serum. Direct comparison between the treatments reveals 72 proteins identified when using MNP depletion (43 of them exclusively by this method), but only 20 proteins using DTT/ACN (seven exclusively by this method). Additionally, after PM treatment 30 proteins were identified, seven exclusively by this method. Thus, MNPs and DTT/ACN depletion can be simple, quick, cheap, and robust alternatives for immunochemistry-based protein depletion, providing a potential strategy in the search for disease biomarkers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Estonian total ozone climatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Eerme

    Full Text Available The climatological characteristics of total ozone over Estonia based on the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS data are discussed. The mean annual cycle during 1979–2000 for the site at 58.3° N and 26.5° E is compiled. The available ground-level data interpolated before TOMS, have been used for trend detection. During the last two decades, the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO corrected systematic decrease of total ozone from February–April was 3 ± 2.6% per decade. Before 1980, a spring decrease was not detectable. No decreasing trend was found in either the late autumn ozone minimum or in the summer total ozone. The QBO related signal in the spring total ozone has an amplitude of ± 20 DU and phase lag of 20 months. Between 1987–1992, the lagged covariance between the Singapore wind and the studied total ozone was weak. The spring (April–May and summer (June–August total ozone have the best correlation (coefficient 0.7 in the yearly cycle. The correlation between the May and August total ozone is higher than the one between the other summer months. Seasonal power spectra of the total ozone variance show preferred periods with an over 95% significance level. Since 1986, during the winter/spring, the contribution period of 32 days prevails instead of the earlier dominating 26 days. The spectral densities of the periods from 4 days to 2 weeks exhibit high interannual variability.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (middle atmosphere – composition and chemistry; volcanic effects – Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (climatology

  16. Progress report, 24 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Thomas Winther; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    The work performed during the past 12 months (months 13 – 24) of the project has included the conclusion of Task 1 – Fundamental Studies and Task 2 – Multimirror Cutting Head Design. Work on Task 3 – Compact Cutting Head Design, and Task 4 – Interface Design has been carried out and the tests...... of the multimirror cutting head have been started....

  17. Progress report, 36 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Thomas Winther; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    The work performed during the past 12 months (months 13 – 24) of the project has included the conclusion of Task 1 – Fundamental Studies and Task 2 – Multimirror Cutting Head Design. Work on Task 3 – Compact Cutting Head Design, and Task 4 – Interface Design has been carried out and the tests...... of the multimirror cutting head have been started....

  18. Health and environmental impact of depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furitsu, Katsumi

    2010-01-01

    Depleted Uranium (DU) is 'nuclear waste' produced from the enrichment process and is mostly made up of 238 U and is depleted in the fissionable isotope 235 U compared to natural uranium (NU). Depleted uranium has about 60% of the radioactivity of natural uranium. Depleted uranium and natural uranium are identical in terms of the chemical toxicity. Uranium's high density gives depleted uranium shells increased range and penetrative power. This density, combined with uranium's pyrophoric nature, results in a high-energy kinetic weapon that can punch and burn through armour plating. Striking a hard target, depleted uranium munitions create extremely high temperatures. The uranium immediately burns and vaporizes into an aerosol, which is easily diffused in the environment. People can inhale the micro-particles of uranium oxide in an aerosol and absorb them mainly from lung. Depleted uranium has both aspects of radiological toxicity and chemical toxicity. The possible synergistic effect of both kinds of toxicities is also pointed out. Animal and cellular studies have been reported the carcinogenic, neurotoxic, immuno-toxic and some other effects of depleted uranium including the damage on reproductive system and foetus. In addition, the health effects of micro/ nano-particles, similar in size of depleted uranium aerosols produced by uranium weapons, have been reported. Aerosolized DU dust can easily spread over the battlefield spreading over civilian areas, sometimes even crossing international borders. Therefore, not only the military personnel but also the civilians can be exposed. The contamination continues after the cessation of hostilities. Taking these aspects into account, DU weapon is illegal under international humanitarian laws and is considered as one of the inhumane weapons of 'indiscriminate destruction'. The international society is now discussing the prohibition of DU weapons based on 'precautionary principle'. The 1991 Gulf War is reportedly the first

  19. Total Thyroidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez Moris E

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Total thyroidectomy is a surgery that removes all the thyroid tissue from the patient. The suspect of cancer in a thyroid nodule is the most frequent indication and it is presume when previous fine needle puncture is positive or a goiter has significant volume increase or symptomes. Less frequent indications are hyperthyroidism when it is refractory to treatment with Iodine 131 or it is contraindicated, and in cases of symptomatic thyroiditis. The thyroid gland has an important anatomic relation whith the inferior laryngeal nerve and the parathyroid glands, for this reason it is imperative to perform extremely meticulous dissection to recognize each one of these elements and ensure their preservation. It is also essential to maintain strict hemostasis, in order to avoid any postoperative bleeding that could lead to a suffocating neck hematoma, feared complication that represents a surgical emergency and endangers the patient’s life.It is essential to run a formal technique, without skipping steps, and maintain prudence and patience that should rule any surgical act.

  20. Total versus subtotal hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimbel, Helga; Zobbe, Vibeke; Andersen, Anna Birthe

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare total and subtotal abdominal hysterectomy for benign indications, with regard to urinary incontinence, postoperative complications, quality of life (SF-36), constipation, prolapse, satisfaction with sexual life, and pelvic pain at 1-year postoperative. Eighty...... women chose total and 105 women chose subtotal abdominal hysterectomy. No significant differences were found between the 2 operation methods in any of the outcome measures at 12 months. Fourteen women (15%) from the subtotal abdominal hysterectomy group experienced vaginal bleeding and three women had...

  1. Recurrence formulas for evaluating expansion series of depletion functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukadin, Z.

    1991-01-01

    A high-accuracy analytical method for solving the depletion equations for chains of radioactive nuclides is based on the formulation of depletion functions. When all the arguments of the depletion function are too close to each other, series expansions of the depletion function have to be used. However, the high-accuracy series expressions for the depletion functions of high index become too complicated. Recursion relations are derived which enable an efficient high-accuracy evaluation of the depletion functions with high indices. (orig.) [de

  2. Characteristics of Solar Wind Density Depletions During Solar Cycles 23 and 24

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keunchan Park

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Solar wind density depletions are phenomena that solar wind density is rapidly decreased and keep the state. They are generally believed to be caused by the interplanetary (IP shocks. However, there are other cases that are hardly associated with IP shocks. We set up a hypothesis for this phenomenon and analyze this study. We have collected the solar wind parameters such as density, speed and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF data related to the solar wind density depletion events during the period from 1996 to 2013 that are obtained with the advanced composition explorer (ACE and the Wind satellite. We also calculate two pressures (magnetic, dynamic and analyze the relation with density depletion. As a result, we found total 53 events and the most these phenomena’s sources caused by IP shock are interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME. We also found that solar wind density depletions are scarcely related with IP shock’s parameters. The solar wind density is correlated with solar wind dynamic pressure within density depletion. However, the solar wind density has an little anti-correlation with IMF strength during all events of solar wind density depletion, regardless of the presence of IP shocks. Additionally, In 47 events of IP shocks, we find 6 events that show a feature of blast wave. The quantities of IP shocks are weaker than blast wave from the Sun, they are declined in a short time after increasing rapidly. We thus argue that IMF strength or dynamic pressure are an important factor in understanding the nature of solar wind density depletion. Since IMF strength and solar wind speed varies with solar cycle, we will also investigate the characteristics of solar wind density depletion events in different phases of solar cycle as an additional clue to their physical nature.

  3. Depleted uranium hexafluoride: Waste or resource?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwertz, N.; Zoller, J.; Rosen, R.; Patton, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Bradley, C. [USDOE Office of Nuclear Energy, Science, Technology, Washington, DC (United States); Murray, A. [SAIC (United States)

    1995-07-01

    the US Department of Energy is evaluating technologies for the storage, disposal, or re-use of depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}). This paper discusses the following options, and provides a technology assessment for each one: (1) conversion to UO{sub 2} for use as mixed oxide duel, (2) conversion to UO{sub 2} to make DUCRETE for a multi-purpose storage container, (3) conversion to depleted uranium metal for use as shielding, (4) conversion to uranium carbide for use as high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) fuel. In addition, conversion to U{sub 3}O{sub 8} as an option for long-term storage is discussed.

  4. Improvements in EBR-2 core depletion calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finck, P.J.; Hill, R.N.; Sakamoto, S.

    1991-01-01

    The need for accurate core depletion calculations in Experimental Breeder Reactor No. 2 (EBR-2) is discussed. Because of the unique physics characteristics of EBR-2, it is difficult to obtain accurate and computationally efficient multigroup flux predictions. This paper describes the effect of various conventional and higher order schemes for group constant generation and for flux computations; results indicate that higher-order methods are required, particularly in the outer regions (i.e. the radial blanket). A methodology based on Nodal Equivalence Theory (N.E.T.) is developed which allows retention of the accuracy of a higher order solution with the computational efficiency of a few group nodal diffusion solution. The application of this methodology to three-dimensional EBR-2 flux predictions is demonstrated; this improved methodology allows accurate core depletion calculations at reasonable cost. 13 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  5. The depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabogal Nelson

    2000-01-01

    The protection of the Earth's ozone layer is of the highest importance to mankind. The dangers of its destruction are by now well known. The depletion of that layer has reached record levels. The Antarctic ozone hole covered this year a record area. The ozone layer is predicted to begin recovery in the next one or two decades and should be restored to pre-1980 levels by 2050. This is the achievement of the regime established by the 1985 Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer and the 1987 Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. The regime established by these two agreements has been revised, and made more effective in London (1990), Copenhagen (1992), Vienna (1995), and Beijing (1999)

  6. Reactor fuel depletion benchmark of TINDER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, W.J.; Oliveira, C.R.E. de; Hecht, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A reactor burnup benchmark of TINDER, coupling MCNP6 to CINDER2008, was performed. • TINDER is a poor candidate for fuel depletion calculations using its current libraries. • Data library modification is necessary if fuel depletion is desired from TINDER. - Abstract: Accurate burnup calculations are key to proper nuclear reactor design, fuel cycle modeling, and disposal estimations. The TINDER code, originally designed for activation analyses, has been modified to handle full burnup calculations, including the widely used predictor–corrector feature. In order to properly characterize the performance of TINDER for this application, a benchmark calculation was performed. Although the results followed the trends of past benchmarked codes for a UO 2 PWR fuel sample from the Takahama-3 reactor, there were obvious deficiencies in the final result, likely in the nuclear data library that was used. Isotopic comparisons versus experiment and past code benchmarks are given, as well as hypothesized areas of deficiency and future work

  7. Optical assessment of phytoplankton nutrient depletion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heath, M.R.; Richardson, Katherine; Kiørboe, Thomas

    1990-01-01

    The ratio of light absorption at 480 and 665 nm by 90% acetone extracts of marine phytoplankton pigments has been examined as a potential indicator of phytoplankton nutritional status in both laboratory and field studies. The laboratory studies demonstrated a clear relationship between nutritiona......-replete and nutrient-depleted cells. The field data suggest that the absorption ratio may be a useful indicator of nutritional status of natural phytoplankton populations, and can be used to augment the interpretation of other data....

  8. The ultimate disposition of depleted uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    Significant amounts of the depleted uranium (DU) created by past uranium enrichment activities have been sold, disposed of commercially, or utilized by defense programs. In recent years, however, the demand for DU has become quite small compared to quantities available, and within the US Department of Energy (DOE) there is concern for any risks and/or cost liabilities that might be associated with the ever-growing inventory of this material. As a result, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), was asked to review options and to develop a comprehensive plan for inventory management and the ultimate disposition of DU accumulated at the gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs). An Energy Systems task team, under the chairmanship of T. R. Lemons, was formed in late 1989 to provide advice and guidance for this task. This report reviews options and recommends actions and objectives in the management of working inventories of partially depleted feed (PDF) materials and for the ultimate disposition of fully depleted uranium (FDU). Actions that should be considered are as follows. (1) Inspect UF{sub 6} cylinders on a semiannual basis. (2) Upgrade cylinder maintenance and storage yards. (3) Convert FDU to U{sub 3}O{sub 8} for long-term storage or disposal. This will include provisions for partial recovery of costs to offset those associated with DU inventory management and the ultimate disposal of FDU. Another recommendation is to drop the term tails'' in favor of depleted uranium'' or DU'' because the tails'' label implies that it is waste.'' 13 refs.

  9. Nuclear Fuel Depletion Analysis Using Matlab Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihi, F.; Nematollahi, M. R.

    Coupled first order IVPs are frequently used in many parts of engineering and sciences. In this article, we presented a code including three computer programs which are joint with the Matlab software to solve and plot the solutions of the first order coupled stiff or non-stiff IVPs. Some engineering and scientific problems related to IVPs are given and fuel depletion (production of the 239Pu isotope) in a Pressurized Water Nuclear Reactor (PWR) are computed by the present code.

  10. Ozone depletion, greenhouse effect and atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adzersen, K.H.

    1991-01-01

    After describing the causes and effects of ozone depletion and the greenhouse effect, the author discusses the alternative offered by the nuclear industry. In his opinion, a worldwide energy strategy of risk minimisation will not be possible unless efficient energy use is introduced immediately, efficiently and on a reliable basis. Atomic energy is not viewed as an acceptable means of preventing the threatening climate change. (DG) [de

  11. The ultimate disposition of depleted uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemons, T.R. [Uranium Enrichment Organization, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Depleted uranium (DU) is produced as a by-product of the uranium enrichment process. Over 340,000 MTU of DU in the form of UF{sub 6} have been accumulated at the US government gaseous diffusion plants and the stockpile continues to grow. An overview of issues and objectives associated with the inventory management and the ultimate disposition of this material is presented.

  12. Carbon sequestration in depleted oil shale deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, Alan K; Carroll, Susan A

    2014-12-02

    A method and apparatus are described for sequestering carbon dioxide underground by mineralizing the carbon dioxide with coinjected fluids and minerals remaining from the extraction shale oil. In one embodiment, the oil shale of an illite-rich oil shale is heated to pyrolyze the shale underground, and carbon dioxide is provided to the remaining depleted oil shale while at an elevated temperature. Conditions are sufficient to mineralize the carbon dioxide.

  13. TARP Monthly Housing Scorecard

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Treasury — Treasury and the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) jointly produce a Monthly Housing Scorecard on the health of the nation’s housing market. The...

  14. Molecule of the Month

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Molecule of the Month - Adamantane - A Plastic Piece of Diamond. J Chandrasekhar. Volume 16 Issue 12 ... Keywords. Adamantane; diamondoid systems; plastic crystals. ... Resonance – Journal of Science Education | News. © 2017 Indian ...

  15. Oceanographic Monthly Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic Monthly Summary contains sea surface temperature (SST) analyses on both regional and ocean basin scales for the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans....

  16. Barium depletion in hollow cathode emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polk, James E.; Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira; Capece, Angela M.

    2016-01-01

    Dispenser hollow cathodes rely on a consumable supply of Ba released by BaO-CaO-Al 2 O 3 source material in the pores of a tungsten matrix to maintain a low work function surface. The examination of cathode emitters from long duration tests shows deposits of tungsten at the downstream end that appear to block the flow of Ba from the interior. In addition, a numerical model of Ba transport in the cathode plasma indicates that the Ba partial pressure in the insert may exceed the equilibrium vapor pressure of the dominant Ba-producing reaction, and it was postulated previously that this would suppress Ba loss in the upstream part of the emitter. New measurements of the Ba depletion depth from a cathode insert operated for 8200 h reveal that Ba loss is confined to a narrow region near the downstream end, confirming this hypothesis. The Ba transport model was modified to predict the depletion depth with time. A comparison of the calculated and measured depletion depths gives excellent qualitative agreement, and quantitative agreement was obtained assuming an insert temperature 70 °C lower than measured beginning-of-life values

  17. Depletion of energy or depletion of knowledge alternative use of energy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arslan, M.

    2011-01-01

    This research paper is about the depletion of Energy resources being a huge problem facing the world at this time. As available energy sources are coming to a shortage and measures are be taken in order to conserve the irreplaceable energy resources that leads to sustainability and fair use of energy sources for future generations. Alternative energy sources are being sought; however no other energy source is able to provide even a fraction of energy as that of fossil fuels. Use of the alternative energy resources like wind corridors (Sindh and Baluchistan), fair use of Hydro energy (past monsoon flooding can produce enough energy that may available for next century). Uranium Resources which are enough for centuries energy production in Pakistan (Dhok Pathan Formation) lying in Siwalick series from Pliocene to Pleistocene. Among all of these, my focus is about energy from mineral fuels like Uranium from Sandstone hosted deposits in Pakistan (Siwalik Series in Pakistan). A number of uranium bearing mineralized horizons are present in the upper part of the Dhok Pathan Formation. These horizons have secondary uranium mineral carnotite and other ores. Uranium mineralization is widely distributed throughout the Siwaliks The purpose of this paper was to introduce the use of alternative energy sources in Pakistan which are present in enough amounts by nature. Pakistan is blessed with wealth of natural resources. Unfortunately, Pakistan is totally depending on non renewable energy resource. There are three main types of fossil fuels: coal, oil and natural gas. After food, fossil fuel is humanity's most important source of energy. Pakistan is among the most gas dependent economies of the world. Use of fossil fuel for energy will not only increase the demand of more fossils but it has also extreme effects on climate as well as direct and indirect effects to humans. These entire remedial thinking can only be possible if you try to use alternative energy resources rather than

  18. Both cladribine and alemtuzumab may effect MS via B-cell depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, David; Herrod, Samuel S; Alvarez-Gonzalez, Cesar; Zalewski, Lukasz; Albor, Christo; Schmierer, Klaus

    2017-07-01

    To understand the efficacy of cladribine (CLAD) treatment in MS through analysis of lymphocyte subsets collected, but not reported, in the pivotal phase III trials of cladribine and alemtuzumab induction therapies. The regulatory submissions of the CLAD Tablets Treating Multiple Sclerosis Orally (CLARITY) (NCT00213135) cladribine and Comparison of Alemtuzumab and Rebif Efficacy in Multiple Sclerosis, study one (CARE-MS I) (NCT00530348) alemtuzumab trials were obtained from the European Medicine Agency through Freedom of Information requests. Data were extracted and statistically analyzed. Either dose of cladribine (3.5 mg/kg; 5.25 mg/kg) tested in CLARITY reduced the annualized relapse rate to 0.16-0.18 over 96 weeks, and both doses were similarly effective in reducing the risk of MRI lesions and disability. Surprisingly, however, T-cell depletion was rather modest. Cladribine 3.5 mg/kg depleted CD4 + cells by 40%-45% and CD8 + cells by 15%-30%, whereas alemtuzumab suppressed CD4 + cells by 70%-95% and CD8 + cells by 47%-55%. However, either dose of cladribine induced 70%-90% CD19 + B-cell depletion, similar to alemtuzumab (90%). CD19 + cells slowly repopulated to 15%-25% of baseline before cladribine redosing. However, alemtuzumab induced hyperrepopulation of CD19 + B cells 6-12 months after infusion, which probably forms the substrate for B-cell autoimmunities associated with alemtuzumab. Cladribine induced only modest depletion of T cells, which may not be consistent with a marked influence on MS, based on previous CD4 + T-cell depletion studies. The therapeutic drug-response relationship with cladribine is more consistent with lasting B-cell depletion and, coupled with the success seen with monoclonal CD20 + depletion, suggests that B-cell suppression could be the major direct mechanism of action.

  19. Depletion interaction measured by colloidal probe atomic force microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijting, W.K.; Knoben, W.; Besseling, N.A.M.; Leermakers, F.A.M.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the depletion interaction between stearylated silica surfaces in cyclohexane in the presence of dissolved polydimethylsiloxane by means of colloidal probe atomic force microscopy. We found that the range of the depletion interaction decreases with increasing concentration.

  20. Monthly energy review, March 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. Energy production during December 1997 totaled 5.9 quadrillion Btu, a 2.8 percent increase from the level of production during December 1996. Coal production increased 9.5 percent, natural gas production increased 3.9 percent, and production of crude oil and natural gas plant liquids decreased 1.1 percent. All other forms of energy production combined were down 6.9 percent from the level of production during December 1996.

  1. Evaluation 2 of B10 depletion in the WH PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sang Won; Woo, Hae Suk; Kim, Sun Doo; Chae, Hee Dong; Myung, Sun Yup; Jang, Ju Kyung

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the methodology to evaluate the B 10 depletion behavior in the pressurized water reactor. And B 10 depletion evaluation is performed based on the prediction program and the measured data of B 10 . The result shows that B 10 depletion during normal operation is not negligible. Therefore, adjustments for this depletion effect should be made to calculate the estimated critical postion(ECP) and determine the boron concentration required to maintain the specified shutdown margin

  2. The depletion potential in one, two and three dimensions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We study the behavior of the depletion potential in binary mixtures of hard particles in one, two, and three dimensions within the framework of a general theory for depletion potential using density functional theory. By doing so we extend earlier studies of the depletion potential in three dimensions to the cases of d ...

  3. 26 CFR 1.642(e)-1 - Depreciation and depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Depreciation and depletion. 1.642(e)-1 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Estates, Trusts, and Beneficiaries § 1.642(e)-1 Depreciation and depletion. An estate or trust is allowed the deductions for depreciation and depletion, but only to the extent the...

  4. 26 CFR 1.613-1 - Percentage depletion; general rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Percentage depletion; general rule. 1.613-1... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Natural Resources § 1.613-1 Percentage depletion; general rule. (a) In general. In the case of a taxpayer computing the deduction for depletion under section 611...

  5. Monthly progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-06-01

    This monthly report of the SCPRI exposes an interpretation of the principal results concerning the surveillance of radioactivity in the environment: atmospheric dusts(air at ground level, high altitude air), rainwater, surface water, underground water, irrigation water, drinking water, food chain (milk, plants, cattle, fish), sea water around nuclear plant sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables ( 7 Be, 95 Zr and 95 Nb, 103 Ru, 131 I, 137 Cs, 140 Ba and 140 La, 90 Sr, 106 Ru and 106 Rh, 226 Ra, 54 Mn, U and T). A monthly bibliographic selection is also presented [fr

  6. Monthly progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-03-01

    This monthly report of the SCPRI exposes an interpretation of the principal results concerning the surveillance of radioactivity in the environment: atmospheric dusts (air at ground level, high altitude air), rainwater, surface water, underground water, irrigation water, drinking water, food chain (milk, plants, cattle, fish), sea water around nuclear plant sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables ( 7 Be, 95 Zr and 95 Nb, 103 Ru, 131 I, 137 Cs, 140 Ba and 140 La, 90 Sr, 106 Ru and 106 Rh, 226 Ra, 54 Mn, U and T). A monthly bibliographic selection is also presented [fr

  7. Monthly progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-04-01

    This monthly report of the SCPRI exposes an interpretation of the principal results concerning the surveillance of radioactivity in the environment: atmospheric dusts (air at ground level, high altitude air), rainwater, surface water, underground water, irrigation water, drinking water, food chain (milk plants, cattle, fish), seawater around nuclear plant sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables ( 7 Be, 95 Zr and 95 Nb, 103 Ru, 131 I, 137 Cs, 140 Ba and 140 La, 90 Sr, 106 Ru and 106 Rh, 226 Ra, 54 Mn U and T). A monthly bibliographic selection is also presented [fr

  8. Monthly progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    This monthly report of the SCPRI exposes an interpretation of the principal results concerning the surveillance of radioactivity in the environment: atmospheric dusts (air at ground level, high altitude air), rainwater, surface water, underground water, irrigation water, drinking water, food chain (milk, plants, cattle, fish), sea water around nuclear plant sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables ( 7 Be, 95 Zr and 95 Nb, 103 Ru, 131 I, 137 Cs, 140 Ba and 140 La, 90 Sr, 106 Ru and 106 Rh, 226 Ra, 54 Mn, U and T). A monthly bibliographic selection is also presented [fr

  9. Monthly progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-02-01

    This monthly report of the SCPRI exposes an interpretation of the principal results concerning the surveillance of radioactivity in the environment: atmospheric dusts (air at ground level, high altitude air), rainwater, surface water, underground water, irrigation water, drinking water, food chain (milk, plants, cattle, fish), sea water around nuclear plant sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables ( 7 Be, 95 Zr and 95 Nb, 103 Ru, 131 I, 137 Cs, 140 Ba and 140 La, 90 Sr, 106 Ru and 106 Rh, 226 Ra, 54 Mn, U and T). A monthly bibliographic selection is also presented [fr

  10. Petroleum supply monthly, March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-30

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. Most time series include preliminary estimates for one month based on the Weekly Petroleum Supply Reporting System; statistics based on the most recent data from the Monthly Petroleum Supply Reporting System (MPSRS); and statistics published in prior issues of the PSM and PSA. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas -- the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia), five PAD Districts, and 12 Refining Districts. At the US and PAD District level, the total volume and the daily rate of activities are presented. The statistics are developed from monthly survey forms submitted by respondents to the EIA and from data provided from other sources.

  11. A modern depleted uranium manufacturing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagula, T.A.

    1995-07-01

    The Specific Manufacturing Capabilities (SMC) Project located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and operated by Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co. (LMIT) for the Department of Energy (DOE) manufactures depleted uranium for use in the U.S. Army MIA2 Abrams Heavy Tank Armor Program. Since 1986, SMC has fabricated more than 12 million pounds of depleted uranium (DU) products in a multitude of shapes and sizes with varying metallurgical properties while maintaining security, environmental, health and safety requirements. During initial facility design in the early 1980's, emphasis on employee safety, radiation control and environmental consciousness was gaining momentum throughout the DOE complex. This fact coupled with security and production requirements forced design efforts to focus on incorporating automation, local containment and computerized material accountability at all work stations. The result was a fully automated production facility engineered to manufacture DU armor packages with virtually no human contact while maintaining security, traceability and quality requirements. This hands off approach to handling depleted uranium resulted in minimal radiation exposures and employee injuries. Construction of the manufacturing facility was complete in early 1986 with the first armor package certified in October 1986. Rolling facility construction was completed in 1987 with the first certified plate produced in the fall of 1988. Since 1988 the rolling and manufacturing facilities have delivered more than 2600 armor packages on schedule with 100% final product quality acceptance. During this period there was an annual average of only 2.2 lost time incidents and a single individual maximum radiation exposure of 150 mrem. SMC is an example of designing and operating a facility that meets regulatory requirements with respect to national security, radiation control and personnel safety while achieving production schedules and product quality

  12. Molecule of the Month

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 2. Molecule of the Month Isomers of Benzene - Still Pursuing Dreams. J Chandrasekhar. Feature Article Volume 1 Issue 2 February 1996 pp 80-83. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  13. Molecule of the Month

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 12. Molecule of the Month - A Stable Dibismuthene - A Compound with a Bi-Bi Double Bond. V Chandrasekhar. Volume 16 ... Author Affiliations. V Chandrasekhar1. Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208 016, India.

  14. Monthly energy review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This document presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors.

  15. Photos of the month

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni de Oliveira

    Congratulations to Adele Rimoldi, ATLAS physicist from Pavia, who ran her first marathon in New York last month. Adele completed the 42.2 km in a time of 4:49:19. She sure makes it look easy!!! The ATLAS pixel service quarter panel in SR1

  16. Molecule of the Month

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 5. Molecule of the Month Molecular–Chameleon: Solvatochromism at its Iridescent Best! Photon Rao. Feature Article Volume 2 Issue 5 May 1997 pp 69-72. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  17. Depleted uranium concrete container feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haelsig, R.T.

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to consider the feasibility of using containers constructed of depleted uranium aggregate concrete (DUCRETE) to store and transport radioactive materials. The method for this study was to review the advantages and disadvantages of DUCRETE containers considering design requirements for potential applications. The author found that DUCRETE is a promising material for onsite storage containers, provided DUCRETE vessels can be certified for one-way transport to disposal sites. The author also found that DUCRETE multipurpose spent nuclear fuel storage/transport packages are technically viable, provided altered temperature acceptance limits can be developed for DUCRETE

  18. Capstone Depleted Uranium Aerosols: Generation and Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkhurst, MaryAnn; Szrom, Fran; Guilmette, Ray; Holmes, Tom; Cheng, Yung-Sung; Kenoyer, Judson L.; Collins, John W.; Sanderson, T. Ellory; Fliszar, Richard W.; Gold, Kenneth; Beckman, John C.; Long, Julie

    2004-10-19

    In a study designed to provide an improved scientific basis for assessing possible health effects from inhaling depleted uranium (DU) aerosols, a series of DU penetrators was fired at an Abrams tank and a Bradley fighting vehicle. A robust sampling system was designed to collect aerosols in this difficult environment and continuously monitor the sampler flow rates. Aerosols collected were analyzed for uranium concentration and particle size distribution as a function of time. They were also analyzed for uranium oxide phases, particle morphology, and dissolution in vitro. The resulting data provide input useful in human health risk assessments.

  19. Depleted uranium as a by product of nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlic, M.

    2000-01-01

    Depleted uranium (DU) has been used during the War in Yugoslavia in the year 1999 by NATO forces, as well as in Bosnia and Gulf War. In Yugoslavia it has been used in two modalities: as ammunition (mostly caliber 30 mm) and as a part of cruise missiles (counterweight penetrator). Total amount of DU in Yugoslavia was about 10 tons. DU is a by product of nuclear technology and represents low-level nuclear waste. Therefore it should be stored. But, because of military application it is in the environment where it could react chemo toxically or radio toxically and so endanger people and animals. This paper contains all relevant technology parameters of DU created as a by product, DU physical and chemical properties, DU ammunition effects, environmental DU transport, and estimation of consequences on people and environment

  20. Depletion of elements in shock-driven gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gondhalekar, P.M.

    1985-01-01

    The depletion of elements in shocked gas in supernova remnants and in interstellar bubbles is examined. It is shown that elements are depleted in varying degrees in gas filaments shocked to velocities up to 200 km s -1 and that large differences in depletions are observed in gas filaments shocked to similar velocities. In the shocked gas the depletion of an element appears to be correlated with the electron density (or the neutral gas density) in the filaments. This correlation, if confirmed, is similar to the correlation between depletion and mean density of gas in the clouds in interstellar space. (author)

  1. Groundwater depletion and sustainability of irrigation in the US High Plains and Central Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, Bridget R.; Faunt, Claudia C.; Longuevergne, Laurent; Reedy, Robert C.; Alley, William M.; McGuire, Virginia L.; McMahon, Peter B.

    2012-01-01

    Aquifer overexploitation could significantly impact crop production in the United States because 60% of irrigation relies on groundwater. Groundwater depletion in the irrigated High Plains and California Central Valley accounts for ∼50% of groundwater depletion in the United States since 1900. A newly developed High Plains recharge map shows that high recharge in the northern High Plains results in sustainable pumpage, whereas lower recharge in the central and southern High Plains has resulted in focused depletion of 330 km3 of fossil groundwater, mostly recharged during the past 13,000 y. Depletion is highly localized with about a third of depletion occurring in 4% of the High Plains land area. Extrapolation of the current depletion rate suggests that 35% of the southern High Plains will be unable to support irrigation within the next 30 y. Reducing irrigation withdrawals could extend the lifespan of the aquifer but would not result in sustainable management of this fossil groundwater. The Central Valley is a more dynamic, engineered system, with north/south diversions of surface water since the 1950s contributing to ∼7× higher recharge. However, these diversions are regulated because of impacts on endangered species. A newly developed Central Valley Hydrologic Model shows that groundwater depletion since the 1960s, totaling 80 km3, occurs mostly in the south (Tulare Basin) and primarily during droughts. Increasing water storage through artificial recharge of excess surface water in aquifers by up to 3 km3 shows promise for coping with droughts and improving sustainability of groundwater resources in the Central Valley. PMID:22645352

  2. Enriched but not depleted uranium affects central nervous system in long-term exposed rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houpert, Pascale; Lestaevel, Philippe; Bussy, Cyrill; Paquet, François; Gourmelon, Patrick

    2005-12-01

    Uranium is well known to induce chemical toxicity in kidneys, but several other target organs, such as central nervous system, could be also affected. Thus in the present study, the effects on sleep-wake cycle and behavior were studied after chronic oral exposure to enriched or depleted uranium. Rats exposed to 4% enriched uranium for 1.5 months through drinking water, accumulated twice as much uranium in some key areas such as the hippocampus, hypothalamus and adrenals than did control rats. This accumulation was correlated with an increase of about 38% of the amount of paradoxical sleep, a reduction of their spatial working memory capacities and an increase in their anxiety. Exposure to depleted uranium for 1.5 months did not induce these effects, suggesting that the radiological activity induces the primary events of these effects of uranium.

  3. Correlates of bushmeat in markets and depletion of wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fa, John E; Olivero, Jesus; Farfán, Miguel Á; Márquez, Ana L; Duarte, Jesús; Nackoney, Janet; Hall, Amy; Dupain, Jef; Seymour, Sarah; Johnson, Paul J; Macdonald, David W; Real, Raimundo; Vargas, Juan M

    2015-06-01

    We used data on number of carcasses of wildlife species sold in 79 bushmeat markets in a region of Nigeria and Cameroon to assess whether species composition of a market could be explained by anthropogenic pressures and environmental variables around each market. More than 45 mammal species from 9 orders were traded across all markets; mostly ungulates and rodents. For each market, we determined median body mass, species diversity (game diversity), and taxa that were principal contributors to the total number of carcasses for sale (game dominance). Human population density in surrounding areas was significantly and negatively related to the percentage ungulates and primates sold in markets and significantly and positively related to the proportion of rodents. The proportion of carnivores sold was higher in markets with high human population densities. Proportion of small-bodied mammals (markets increased as human population density increased, but proportion of large-bodied mammals (>10 kg) decreased as human population density increased. We calculated an index of game depletion (GDI) for each market from the sum of the total number of carcasses traded per annum and species, weighted by the intrinsic rate of natural increase (rmax ) of each species, divided by individuals traded in a market. The GDI of a market increased as the proportion of fast-reproducing species (highest rmax ) increased and as the representation of species with lowest rmax (slow-reproducing) decreased. The best explanatory factor for a market's GDI was anthropogenic pressure-road density, human settlements with >3000 inhabitants, and nonforest vegetation. High and low GDI were significantly differentiated by human density and human settlements with >3000 inhabitants. Our results provided empirical evidence that human activity is correlated with more depleted bushmeat faunas and can be used as a proxy to determine areas in need of conservation action. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  4. Microscopic to macroscopic depletion model development for FORMOSA-P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, J.M.; Turinsky, P.J.; Sarsour, H.N.

    1996-01-01

    Microscopic depletion has been gaining popularity with regard to employment in reactor core nodal calculations, mainly attributed to the superiority of microscopic depletion in treating spectral history effects during depletion. Another trend is the employment of loading pattern optimization computer codes in support of reload core design. Use of such optimization codes has significantly reduced design efforts to optimize reload core loading patterns associated with increasingly complicated lattice designs. A microscopic depletion model has been developed for the FORMOSA-P pressurized water reactor (PWR) loading pattern optimization code. This was done for both fidelity improvements and to make FORMOSA-P compatible with microscopic-based nuclear design methods. Needless to say, microscopic depletion requires more computational effort compared with macroscopic depletion. This implies that microscopic depletion may be computationally restrictive if employed during the loading pattern optimization calculation because many loading patterns are examined during the course of an optimization search. Therefore, the microscopic depletion model developed here uses combined models of microscopic and macroscopic depletion. This is done by first performing microscopic depletions for a subset of possible loading patterns from which 'collapsed' macroscopic cross sections are obtained. The collapsed macroscopic cross sections inherently incorporate spectral history effects. Subsequently, the optimization calculations are done using the collapsed macroscopic cross sections. Using this approach allows maintenance of microscopic depletion level accuracy without substantial additional computing resources

  5. Deoxyribonucleoside kinases in mitochondrial DNA depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saada-Reisch, Ann

    2004-10-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion syndromes (MDS) are a heterogeneous group of mitochondrial disorders, manifested by a decreased mtDNA copy number and respiratory chain dysfunction. Primary MDS are inherited autosomally and may affect a single organ or multiple tissues. Mutated mitochondrial deoxyribonucleoside kinases; deoxyguanosine kinase (dGK) and thymidine kinase 2 (TK2), were associated with the hepatocerebral and myopathic forms of MDS respectively. dGK and TK2 are key enzymes in the mitochondrial nucleotide salvage pathway, providing the mitochondria with deoxyribonucleotides (dNP) essential for mtDNA synthesis. Although the mitochondrial dNP pool is physically separated from the cytosolic one, dNP's may still be imported through specific transport. Non-replicating tissues, where cytosolic dNP supply is down regulated, are thus particularly vulnerable to dGK and TK2 deficiency. The overlapping substrate specificity of deoxycytidine kinase (dCK) may explain the relative sparing of muscle in dGK deficiency, while low basal TK2 activity render this tissue susceptible to TK2 deficiency. The precise pathophysiological mechanisms of mtDNA depletion due to dGK and TK2 deficiencies remain to be determined, though recent findings confirm that it is attributed to imbalanced dNTP pools.

  6. Bone marrow scintigraphy in hemopoietic depletion states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortynova, J.; Bakos, K.; Pradacova, J.

    1981-01-01

    Bone marrow scintigraphy was performed in 29 patients with hemopoietic depletion states of various etiology. Two tracers were used for visualization, viz., sup(99m)Tc-sulfur-colloid and 111 InCl 3 ;some patients were examined using both indicators. 111 InCl 3 is bound to transferrin and is adsorbed on the surface of reticulocytes and erythroblasts. A scintillation camera PHO GAMMA SEARLE IV fitted with a moving table and computer CLINCOM were used to obtain whole-body images. The comparison of all scans and marrow puncture smears was done. In patients with aplastic anemia with both hyperplastic or hypoplastic marrow good correlation of bone marrow scans and sternal puncture smears was found. In several cases the scintigraphic examination helped to establish the diagnosis of marrow depletion. A peculiar disadvantage of the imaging method with either sup(99m)Tc-sulfur-colloid or 111 InCl 3 is that it shows the disorders in erythropoietic and reticuloendothelial cells whereas the defects in myelopoietic cell series and platelet precursors are not provable. According to literature data, great attention is paid to the prognostic value of scintigraphic examination in aplastic anemia. (author)

  7. Bone marrow scintigraphy in hemopoietic depletion states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortynova, J. (Ustav Hematologie a Krevni Transfuze, Prague (Czechoslovakia)); Bakos, K.; Pradacova, J. (Karlova Univ., Prague (Czechoslovakia). Biofyzikalni Ustav)

    1981-01-01

    Bone marrow scintigraphy was performed in 29 patients with hemopoietic depletion states of various etiology. Two tracers were used for visualization, viz., sup(99m)Tc-sulfur-colloid and /sup 111/InCl/sub 3/; some patients were examined using both indicators. /sup 111/InCl/sub 3/ is bound to transferrin and is adsorbed on the surface of reticulocytes and erythroblasts. A scintillation camera PHO GAMMA SEARLE IV fitted with a moving table and computer CLINCOM were used to obtain whole-body images. The comparison of all scans and marrow puncture smears was done. In patients with aplastic anemia with both hyperplastic or hypoplastic marrow good correlation of bone marrow scans and sternal puncture smears was found. In several cases the scintigraphic examination helped to establish the diagnosis of marrow depletion. A peculiar disadvantage of the imaging method with either sup(99m)Tc-sulfur-colloid or /sup 111/InCl/sub 3/ is that it shows the disorders in erythropoietic and reticuloendothelial cells whereas the defects in myelopoietic cell series and platelet precursors are not provable. According to literature data, great attention is paid to the prognostic value of scintigraphic examination in aplastic anemia.

  8. Electric power monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Sandra R.; Johnson, Melvin; McClevey, Kenneth; Calopedis, Stephen; Bolden, Deborah

    1992-05-01

    The Electric Power Monthly is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fuel are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Additionally, statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, new generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel.

  9. Petroleum marketing monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  10. Petroleum marketing monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PPM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o. b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  11. Petroleum marketing monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  12. Electric power monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares the Electric Power Monthly (EPM) for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. This publication provides monthly statistics for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source, consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead.

  13. Medical Surveillance Monthly Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Illness Prevention and Sun Safety. “Sun Safety.” https:// phc.amedd.army.mil/ topics /discond/hipss/Pages/ SunSafety.aspx. Accessed on 7 December 2016. 22...febrile illness; however, after its wide- spread introduction into immunologically MSMR Vol. 23 No. 12 December 2016 Page 8 naïve populations, a...October 2016 (data as of 22 November 2016) MSMR’s Invitation to Readers Medical Surveillance Monthly Report (MSMR) invites readers to submit topics for

  14. Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome due to mutations in the RRM2B gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Belén; Area, Estela; Flanigan, Kevin M; Ganesh, Jaya; Jayakar, Parul; Swoboda, Kathryn J; Coku, Jorida; Naini, Ali; Shanske, Sara; Tanji, Kurenai; Hirano, Michio; DiMauro, Salvatore

    2008-06-01

    Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome (MDS) is characterized by a reduction in mtDNA copy number and has been associated with mutations in eight nuclear genes, including enzymes involved in mitochondrial nucleotide metabolism (POLG, TK2, DGUOK, SUCLA2, SUCLG1, PEO1) and MPV17. Recently, mutations in the RRM2B gene, encoding the p53-controlled ribonucleotide reductase subunit, have been described in seven infants from four families, who presented with various combinations of hypotonia, tubulopathy, seizures, respiratory distress, diarrhea, and lactic acidosis. All children died before 4 months of age. We sequenced the RRM2B gene in three unrelated cases with unexplained severe mtDNA depletion. The first patient developed intractable diarrhea, profound weakness, respiratory distress, and died at 3 months. The other two unrelated patients had a much milder phenotype and are still alive at ages 27 and 36 months. All three patients had lactic acidosis and severe depletion of mtDNA in muscle. Muscle histochemistry showed RRF and COX deficiency. Sequencing the RRM2B gene revealed three missense mutations and two single nucleotide deletions in exons 6, 8, and 9, confirming that RRM2B mutations are important causes of MDS and that the clinical phenotype is heterogeneous and not invariably fatal in infancy.

  15. Mantle depletion and metasomatism recorded in orthopyroxene in highly depleted peridotites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scott, James; Liu, Jingao; Pearson, D. Graham

    2016-01-01

    Although trace element concentrations in clinopyroxene serve as a useful tool for assessing the depletion and enrichment history of mantle peridotites, this is not applicable for peridotites in which the clinopyroxene component has been consumed (~ 25% partial melting). Orthopyroxene persists in ...

  16. beta-caroteno, ácido ascórbico e antocianinas totais em polpa de frutos de aceroleira conservada por congelamento durante 12 meses beta-carotene, ascorbic acid and total antocyanins in fruit pulp of the acerola tree conserved by the cold for 12 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Germanno Lima de Araújo

    2007-03-01

    Processamento de Frutos da Embrapa Agroindústria Tropical, unpulped, the pulp was storaged in polietilin bags (100 g, frozen, kept in a freezer at -20 °C, and evaluated every 30 days for 12 months. The experiment was carried out with experimental delineament totally casualized in a factorial scheme 6 x 13 (clones x time, with 3 repetitions. The concentration of beta-carotene in the Cereja clone was stable, while the other ones were decreased during the whole time of the experiment. There was a small decrease in the ascorbic acid level in all the clones in the study during the storage, probably due to the high acidity of the pulp, which helps maintain its nutrient. The total anthocyanins level were stable in the Frutacor and Sertaneja clones, however, it decreased in the other ones. The II 47/1 clone was, among all the studied clones, the one that presented the highest levels of ascorbic acid C and total anthocyanins, keeping these characteristics during the whole storage. In conclusion, the clones that presented the lowest level of beta-carotene, showed the highest concentrations of total anthocyanins.

  17. Deuterium-depleted water. Romanian achievements and perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanescu, Ion; Saros-Rogobete, Irina; Titescu, Gheorghe

    2001-01-01

    Deuterium-depleted water has an isotopic content smaller than 145 ppm D/(D+H) which is the natural isotopic content of water. Beginning with 1996 ICSI Rm. Valcea, deuterium-depleted water producer, co-operated with Romanian specialized institutes for biological effect's evaluation of deuterium-depleted water. These investigations lead to the following conclusions: - Deuterium-depleted water caused a tendency towards the increase of the basal tonus, accompanied by the intensification of the vasoconstrictor effects of phenylefrine, noradrenaline and angiotensin; the increase of the basal tonus and vascular reactivity produced by the deuterium-depleted water persist after the removal of the vascular endothelium; - Animals treated with deuterium-depleted water showed an increase of the resistance both to sublethal and to lethal gamma radiation doses, suggesting a radioprotective action; - Deuterium-depleted water stimulates immune defence reactions and increases the numbers of polymorphonuclear neutrophils; - Investigations regarding artificial reproduction of fish with deuterium-depleted water fecundated solutions confirmed favourable influence in embryo growth stage and resistance in subsequent growth stages; - It was studied germination, growth and quantitative character's variability in plants; one can remark the favourable influence of deuterium-depleted water on biological process in plants in various ontogenetic stages; - The deuterium depletion in seawater produces the diminution of the water spectral energy related to an increased metabolism of Tetraselmis Suecica. (authors)

  18. Petroleum marketing monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data.

  19. TURTLE 24.0 diffusion depletion code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altomare, S.; Barry, R.F.

    1971-09-01

    TURTLE is a two-group, two-dimensional (x-y, x-z, r-z) neutron diffusion code featuring a direct treatment of the nonlinear effects of xenon, enthalpy, and Doppler. Fuel depletion is allowed. TURTLE was written for the study of azimuthal xenon oscillations, but the code is useful for general analysis. The input is simple, fuel management is handled directly, and a boron criticality search is allowed. Ten thousand space points are allowed (over 20,000 with diagonal symmetry). TURTLE is written in FORTRAN IV and is tailored for the present CDC-6600. The program is core-contained. Provision is made to save data on tape for future reference. (auth)

  20. Tylosin depletion from edible pig tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prats, C; El Korchi, G; Francesch, R; Arboix, M; Pérez, B

    2002-12-01

    The depletion of tylosin from edible pig tissues was studied following 5 days of intramuscular (i.m.) administration of 10 mg/kg of tylosin to 16 crossbreed pigs. Animals were slaughtered at intervals after treatment and samples of muscle, kidney, liver, skin+fat, and injection site were collected and analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Seven days after the completion of treatment, the concentration of tylosin in kidney, skin+fat, and at the injection site was higher than the European Union maximal residue limit (MRL) of 100 microg/kg. Tylosin residues in all tissues were below the quantification limit (50 microg/kg) at 10 and 14 days post-treatment.

  1. Depleted Reactor Analysis With MCNP-4B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caner, M.; Silverman, L.; Bettan, M.

    2004-01-01

    Monte Carlo neutronics calculations are mostly done for fresh reactor cores. There is today an ongoing activity in the development of Monte Carlo plus burnup code systems made possible by the fast gains in computer processor speeds. In this work we investigate the use of MCNP-4B for the calculation of a depleted core of the Soreq reactor (IRR-1). The number densities as function of burnup were taken from the WIMS-D/4 cell code calculations. This particular code coupling has been implemented before. The Monte Carlo code MCNP-4B calculates the coupled transport of neutrons and photons for complicated geometries. We have done neutronics calculations of the IRR-1 core with the WIMS and CITATION codes in the past Also, we have developed an MCNP model of the IRR-1 standard fuel for a criticality safety calculation of a spent fuel storage pool

  2. Kinetic depletion model for pellet ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuteev, Boris V.

    2001-11-01

    A kinetic model for depletion effect, which determines pellet ablation when the pellet passes a rational magnetic surface, is formulated. The model predicts a moderate decrease of the ablation rate compared with the earlier considered monoenergy versions [1, 2]. For typical T-10 conditions the ablation rate reduces by a reactor of 2.5 when the 1-mm pellet penetrates through the plasma center. A substantial deceleration of pellets -about 15% per centimeter of low shire rational q region; is predicted. Penetration for Low Field Side and High Field Side injections is considered taking into account modification of the electron distribution function by toroidal magnetic field. It is shown that Shafranov shift and toroidal effects yield the penetration length for HFS injection higher by a factor of 1.5. This fact should be taken into account when plasma-shielding effects on penetration are considered. (author)

  3. Local depletion of glycogen with supramaximal exercise in human skeletal muscle fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gejl, Kasper D; Ørtenblad, Niels; Andersson, Erik; Plomgaard, Peter; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Nielsen, Joachim

    2017-05-01

    Glycogen is stored in local spatially distinct compartments within skeletal muscle fibres and is the main energy source during supramaximal exercise. Using quantitative electron microscopy, we show that supramaximal exercise induces a differential depletion of glycogen from these compartments and also demonstrate how this varies with fibre types. Repeated exercise alters this compartmentalized glycogen depletion. The results obtained in the present study help us understand the muscle metabolic dynamics of whole body repeated supramaximal exercise, and suggest that the muscle has a compartmentalized local adaptation to repeated exercise, which affects glycogen depletion. Skeletal muscle glycogen is heterogeneously distributed in three separated compartments (intramyofibrillar, intermyofibrillar and subsarcolemmal). Although only constituting 3-13% of the total glycogen volume, the availability of intramyofibrillar glycogen is of particular importance to muscle function. The present study aimed to investigate the depletion of these three subcellular glycogen compartments during repeated supramaximal exercise in elite athletes. Ten elite cross-country skiers (aged 25 ± 4 years, V̇O2 max : 65 ± 4 ml kg -1  min -1 ; mean ± SD) performed four ∼4 min supramaximal sprint time trials (STT 1-4) with 45 min of recovery. The subcellular glycogen volumes in musculus triceps brachii were quantified from electron microscopy images before and after both STT 1 and 4. During STT 1, the depletion of intramyofibrillar glycogen was higher in type 1 fibres [-52%; (-89:-15%)] than type 2 fibres [-15% (-52:22%)] (P = 0.02), whereas the depletion of intermyofibrillar glycogen [main effect: -19% (-33:0%), P = 0.006] and subsarcolemmal glycogen [main effect: -35% (-66:0%), P = 0.03] was similar between fibre types. By contrast, only intermyofibrillar glycogen volume was significantly reduced during STT 4, in both fibre types [main effect: -31% (-50:-11%), P = 0

  4. Pathogenic lysosomal depletion in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehay, Benjamin; Bové, Jordi; Rodríguez-Muela, Natalia; Perier, Celine; Recasens, Ariadna; Boya, Patricia; Vila, Miquel

    2010-09-15

    Mounting evidence suggests a role for autophagy dysregulation in Parkinson's disease (PD). The bulk degradation of cytoplasmic proteins (including α-synuclein) and organelles (such as mitochondria) is mediated by macroautophagy, which involves the sequestration of cytosolic components into autophagosomes (AP) and its delivery to lysosomes. Accumulation of AP occurs in postmortem brain samples from PD patients, which has been widely attributed to an induction of autophagy. However, the cause and pathogenic significance of these changes remain unknown. Here we found in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine mouse model of PD that AP accumulation and dopaminergic cell death are preceded by a marked decrease in the amount of lysosomes within dopaminergic neurons. Lysosomal depletion was secondary to the abnormal permeabilization of lysosomal membranes induced by increased mitochondrial-derived reactive oxygen species. Lysosomal permeabilization resulted in a defective clearance and subsequent accumulation of undegraded AP and contributed directly to neurodegeneration by the ectopic release of lysosomal proteases into the cytosol. Lysosomal breakdown and AP accumulation also occurred in PD brain samples, where Lewy bodies were strongly immunoreactive for AP markers. Induction of lysosomal biogenesis by genetic or pharmacological activation of lysosomal transcription factor EB restored lysosomal levels, increased AP clearance and attenuated 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium-induced cell death. Similarly, the autophagy-enhancer compound rapamycin attenuated PD-related dopaminergic neurodegeneration, both in vitro and in vivo, by restoring lysosomal levels. Our results indicate that AP accumulation in PD results from defective lysosomal-mediated AP clearance secondary to lysosomal depletion. Restoration of lysosomal levels and function may thus represent a novel neuroprotective strategy in PD.

  5. Monthly Energy Review, February 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    This report presents an overview of recent monthly energy statistics. Energy production during November 1997 totaled 5.6 quadrillion Btu, a 0.3-percent decrease from the level of production during November 1996. Natural gas production increased 2.8 percent, production of crude oil and natural gas plant liquids decreased 1.7 percent, and coal production decreased 1.6 percent. All other forms of energy production combined were down 1.1 percent from the level of production during November 1996. Energy consumption during November 1997 totaled 7.5 quadrillion Btu, 0.1 percent above the level of consumption during November 1996. Consumption of natural gas increased 1.5 percent, consumption of coal fell 0.3 percent, while consumption of petroleum products decreased 0.2 percent. Consumption of all other forms of energy combined decreased 0.8 percent from the level 1 year earlier. Net imports of energy during November 1997 totaled 1.7 quadrillion Btu, 8.6 percent above the level of net imports 1 year earlier. Net imports of petroleum increased 6.3 percent, and net imports of natural gas were up 1.2 percent. Net exports of coal fell 17.8 percent from the level in November 1996.

  6. Is Ego Depletion Real? An Analysis of Arguments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friese, Malte; Loschelder, David D; Gieseler, Karolin; Frankenbach, Julius; Inzlicht, Michael

    2018-03-01

    An influential line of research suggests that initial bouts of self-control increase the susceptibility to self-control failure (ego depletion effect). Despite seemingly abundant evidence, some researchers have suggested that evidence for ego depletion was the sole result of publication bias and p-hacking, with the true effect being indistinguishable from zero. Here, we examine (a) whether the evidence brought forward against ego depletion will convince a proponent that ego depletion does not exist and (b) whether arguments that could be brought forward in defense of ego depletion will convince a skeptic that ego depletion does exist. We conclude that despite several hundred published studies, the available evidence is inconclusive. Both additional empirical and theoretical works are needed to make a compelling case for either side of the debate. We discuss necessary steps for future work toward this aim.

  7. Depletion-induced biaxial nematic states of boardlike particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belli, S; Van Roij, R; Dijkstra, M

    2012-01-01

    With the aim of investigating the stability conditions of biaxial nematic liquid crystals, we study the effect of adding a non-adsorbing ideal depletant on the phase behavior of colloidal hard boardlike particles. We take into account the presence of the depletant by introducing an effective depletion attraction between a pair of boardlike particles. At fixed depletant fugacity, the stable liquid-crystal phase is determined through a mean-field theory with restricted orientations. Interestingly, we predict that for slightly elongated boardlike particles a critical depletant density exists, where the system undergoes a direct transition from an isotropic liquid to a biaxial nematic phase. As a consequence, by tuning the depletant density, an easy experimental control parameter, one can stabilize states of high biaxial nematic order even when these states are unstable for pure systems of boardlike particles. (paper)

  8. Control of Single Molecule Fluorescence Dynamics by Stimulated Emission Depletion

    OpenAIRE

    Marsh, R. J.; Osborne, M. A.; Bain, A. J.

    2003-01-01

    The feasibility of manipulating the single molecule absorption-emission cycle using picosecond stimulated emission depletion (STED) is investigated using a stochastic computer simulation. In the simulation the molecule is subjected to repeated excitation and depletion events using time delayed pairs of excitation (PUMP) and depletion (DUMP) pulses derived from a high repetition rate pulsed laser system. The model is used to demonstrate that a significant and even substantial reduction in the ...

  9. Benchmarking monthly homogenization algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venema, V. K. C.; Mestre, O.; Aguilar, E.; Auer, I.; Guijarro, J. A.; Domonkos, P.; Vertacnik, G.; Szentimrey, T.; Stepanek, P.; Zahradnicek, P.; Viarre, J.; Müller-Westermeier, G.; Lakatos, M.; Williams, C. N.; Menne, M.; Lindau, R.; Rasol, D.; Rustemeier, E.; Kolokythas, K.; Marinova, T.; Andresen, L.; Acquaotta, F.; Fratianni, S.; Cheval, S.; Klancar, M.; Brunetti, M.; Gruber, C.; Prohom Duran, M.; Likso, T.; Esteban, P.; Brandsma, T.

    2011-08-01

    The COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology) Action ES0601: Advances in homogenization methods of climate series: an integrated approach (HOME) has executed a blind intercomparison and validation study for monthly homogenization algorithms. Time series of monthly temperature and precipitation were evaluated because of their importance for climate studies and because they represent two important types of statistics (additive and multiplicative). The algorithms were validated against a realistic benchmark dataset. The benchmark contains real inhomogeneous data as well as simulated data with inserted inhomogeneities. Random break-type inhomogeneities were added to the simulated datasets modeled as a Poisson process with normally distributed breakpoint sizes. To approximate real world conditions, breaks were introduced that occur simultaneously in multiple station series within a simulated network of station data. The simulated time series also contained outliers, missing data periods and local station trends. Further, a stochastic nonlinear global (network-wide) trend was added. Participants provided 25 separate homogenized contributions as part of the blind study as well as 22 additional solutions submitted after the details of the imposed inhomogeneities were revealed. These homogenized datasets were assessed by a number of performance metrics including (i) the centered root mean square error relative to the true homogeneous value at various averaging scales, (ii) the error in linear trend estimates and (iii) traditional contingency skill scores. The metrics were computed both using the individual station series as well as the network average regional series. The performance of the contributions depends significantly on the error metric considered. Contingency scores by themselves are not very informative. Although relative homogenization algorithms typically improve the homogeneity of temperature data, only the best ones improve precipitation data

  10. Streamflow depletion by wells--Understanding and managing the effects of groundwater pumping on streamflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Paul M.; Leake, Stanley A.

    2012-11-02

    Groundwater is an important source of water for many human needs, including public supply, agriculture, and industry. With the development of any natural resource, however, adverse consequences may be associated with its use. One of the primary concerns related to the development of groundwater resources is the effect of groundwater pumping on streamflow. Groundwater and surface-water systems are connected, and groundwater discharge is often a substantial component of the total flow of a stream. Groundwater pumping reduces the amount of groundwater that flows to streams and, in some cases, can draw streamflow into the underlying groundwater system. Streamflow reductions (or depletions) caused by pumping have become an important water-resource management issue because of the negative impacts that reduced flows can have on aquatic ecosystems, the availability of surface water, and the quality and aesthetic value of streams and rivers. Scientific research over the past seven decades has made important contributions to the basic understanding of the processes and factors that affect streamflow depletion by wells. Moreover, advances in methods for simulating groundwater systems with computer models provide powerful tools for estimating the rates, locations, and timing of streamflow depletion in response to groundwater pumping and for evaluating alternative approaches for managing streamflow depletion. The primary objective of this report is to summarize these scientific insights and to describe the various field methods and modeling approaches that can be used to understand and manage streamflow depletion. A secondary objective is to highlight several misconceptions concerning streamflow depletion and to explain why these misconceptions are incorrect.

  11. Equatorial density depletions observed at 840 km during the great magnetic storm of March 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan, M.E.; Rasmussen, C.E.; Burke, W.J.; Abdu, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    Early on March 14, 1989, a thermal plasma probe on the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) F9 spacecraft detected extensive and dramatic decreases in the ion density at 840 km, near 2130 LT, during two consecutive transequatorial passes over South America. The order of magnitude decreases in the ion density extended more than 4,000 km along the satellite track. The depletions were accompanied by upward and westward plasma drifts, both in excess of 100 m/s. Their onsets and terminations were marked by extremely sharp density gradients. A partial depletion was detected over the eastern Pacific during the following orbit. The DMSP F9 ground track passed slightly west of a Brazilian total electron content (TEC) station and two Brazilian ionosondes during the first depletion encounter. The TEC fell far below normal during the night of March 13-14. The ionosonde measurements indicate that, in the hour after sunset, before DMSP passed through the depletions, the F 2 layer rose rapidly and disappeared, but at the time of the first depletion encounter, h m F 2 was decreasing over one of the stations. The authors develop a phenomenological model reconciling DMSP F8, F9 and ground-based measurements. The calculations show that rapid upward drifts sustained for several hours can produce depletions in the equatorial ion density with sharp gradients at their high-latitude boundaries, consistent with the data. They discuss possible contributing mechanisms for generating these upward drifts. These include direct penetration of the magnetospheric electric field to low latitudes, the electric fields generated by the disturbance dynamo, and the effects of conductivity gradients near the dusk terminator and the South Atlantic anomaly

  12. Environmental fate of depleted uranium at three sites contaminated during the balkan conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radenkovic, M.; Joksic, J.; Todorovic, D.; Kovacevic, M.

    2006-01-01

    A study on depleted uranium fate in the sites contaminated during the 1999 war conflict in Serbia was conducted in phases until the clean up activities were completed. The ammunition remains found at the locations in the surface soil were collected in the first phase during the radiation survey of the affected areas. The most of depleted uranium penetrators left buried deep into the ground exposed to the weathering and corrosion processes. The contamination level in the air, water, soil and bio -indicators was controlled all the time by routine gamma and alpha spectrometry measurements. Depleted uranium migration was studied through the soil profile surrounding the penetrator during the 2001 at the Bratoselce location showing the contamination level fall to the 1% of its value at approximately 15 cm distance to the source. The samples taken from the soil layers at different distances in the profile are subjected to a modified Tessiers five-step sequential extraction procedure. The uranium and heavy metals contents were determined in the obtained fractions. Results have specified carbonates and iron hydrous-oxides as the most probable substrates for uranium physical/chemical associations formed in the soil for the time elapsed. A very strong dependence of substrate onto contamination level was found. The correlation of uranium and other heavy metals was obtained. The 234 U/ 238 U and 235 U/ 238 U ratios are determined in extracts by alpha spectrometry after appropriate radiochemical separation procedure and thin alpha sources electroplating. The analysis has shown the share of depleted in total uranium content in exchangeable, carbonate, hydrous or crystalline iron/manganese, organic and residue phases indicating the bioavailability of depleted uranium present in the soil. The results are discussed related to detailed geochemical analysis of the particular soil type common for this region. Depleted uranium content in soil samples taken at the locations after the

  13. Glutathione depletion in tissues after administration of buthionine sulphoximine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minchinton, A.I.; Rojas, A.; Smith, A.; Soranson, J.A.; Shrieve, D.C.; Jones, N.R.; Bremner, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    Buthionine sulphoximine (BSO) an inhibitor of glutathione (GSH) biosynthesis, was administered to mice in single and repeated doses. The resultant pattern of GSH depletion was studied in liver, kidney, skeletal muscle and three types of murine tumor. Liver and kidney exhibited a rapid depletion of GSH. Muscle was depleted to a similar level, but at a slower rate after a single dose. All three tumors required repeated administration of BSO over several days to obtain a similar degree of depletion to that shown in the other tissues

  14. Research on using depleted uranium as nuclear fuel for HWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jiahua; Chen Zhicheng; Bao Borong

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of our work is to find a way for application of depleted uranium in CANDU reactor by using MOX nuclear fuel of depleted U and Pu instead of natural uranium. From preliminary evaluation and calculation, it was shown that MOX nuclear fuel consisting of depleted uranium enrichment tailings (0.25% 235 U) and plutonium (their ratio 99.5%:0.5%) could replace natural uranium in CANDU reactor to sustain chain reaction. The prospects of application of depleted uranium in nuclear energy field are also discussed

  15. Producing, Importing, and Exporting Ozone-Depleting Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overview page provides links to information on producing, importing, and exporting ozone-depleting substances, including information about the HCFC allowance system, importing, labeling, recordkeeping and reporting.

  16. Gas generation matrix depletion quality assurance project plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is to provide the necessary expertise, experience, equipment and instrumentation, and management structure to: Conduct the matrix depletion experiments using simulated waste for quantifying matrix depletion effects; and Conduct experiments on 60 cylinders containing simulated TRU waste to determine the effects of matrix depletion on gas generation for transportation. All work for the Gas Generation Matrix Depletion (GGMD) experiment is performed according to the quality objectives established in the test plan and under this Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP)

  17. Depletion of [14C]clorsulon in cows' milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, S.H.L.; Baylis, F.P.; Taub, R.; Green, M.; Halley, B.A.; Bodden, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    Radioactive residue levels were determined in milk and plasma of Holstein cows dosed once with an oral suspension of 14 C-labeled clorsulon at 7 mg/kg of body weight. Average milk residue levels decreased from 0.54 ppm at 0.9 day postdose to 0.004 ppm at 6.9 days postdose with a half-life of 0.81 day. The drug residue was isolated by a batch adsorption method on an affinity agarose gel of carbonic anhydrase-Sepharose 4B and analyzed by HPCL-reverse isotope dilution assay (RIDA). This novel method greatly simplified the extraction of drug residue from milk and provided pure drug residue isolates. RIDA results of the isolates indicated that the unchanged drug was the major residue component in milk at 0-4 days postdose accounting for 56-99% of the total radioactive residue. Depletion half-life of the parent drug was 0.82 day, in close agreement with that of the total residue in milk. About 0.7% of the dose was recovered in the milk during the 6.9-day period

  18. Regret causes ego-depletion and finding benefits in the regrettable events alleviates ego-depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hongmei; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Fang; Xu, Yan; Hong, Ying-Yi; Jiang, Jiang

    2014-01-01

    This study tested the hypotheses that experiencing regret would result in ego-depletion, while finding benefits (i.e., "silver linings") in the regret-eliciting events counteracted the ego-depletion effect. Using a modified gambling paradigm (Experiments 1, 2, and 4) and a retrospective method (Experiments 3 and 5), five experiments were conducted to induce regret. Results revealed that experiencing regret undermined performance on subsequent tasks, including a paper-and-pencil calculation task (Experiment 1), a Stroop task (Experiment 2), and a mental arithmetic task (Experiment 3). Furthermore, finding benefits in the regret-eliciting events improved subsequent performance (Experiments 4 and 5), and this improvement was mediated by participants' perceived vitality (Experiment 4). This study extended the depletion model of self-regulation by considering emotions with self-conscious components (in our case, regret). Moreover, it provided a comprehensive understanding of how people felt and performed after experiencing regret and after finding benefits in the events that caused the regret.

  19. How Ego Depletion Affects Sexual Self-Regulation: Is It More Than Resource Depletion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolet, Kevin; Rouleau, Joanne-Lucine; Benbouriche, Massil; Carrier Emond, Fannie; Renaud, Patrice

    2015-12-21

    Rational thinking and decision making are impacted when in a state of sexual arousal. The inability to self-regulate arousal can be linked to numerous problems, like sexual risk taking, infidelity, and sexual coercion. Studies have shown that most men are able to exert voluntary control over their sexual excitation with various levels of success. Both situational and dispositional factors can influence self-regulation achievement. The goal of this research was to investigate how ego depletion, a state of low self-control capacity, interacts with personality traits-propensities for sexual excitation and inhibition-and cognitive absorption, to cause sexual self-regulation failure. The sexual responses of 36 heterosexual males were assessed using penile plethysmography. They were asked to control their sexual arousal in two conditions, with and without ego depletion. Results suggest that ego depletion has opposite effects based on the trait sexual inhibition, as individuals moderately inhibited showed an increase in performance while highly inhibited ones showed a decrease. These results challenge the limited resource model of self-regulation and point to the importance of considering how people adapt to acute and high challenging conditions.

  20. Neutrophil depletion after subarachnoid hemorrhage improves memory via NMDA receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provencio, Jose Javier; Swank, Valerie; Lu, Haiyan; Brunet, Sylvain; Baltan, Selva; Khapre, Rohini V; Seerapu, Himabindu; Kokiko-Cochran, Olga N; Lamb, Bruce T; Ransohoff, Richard M

    2016-05-01

    Cognitive deficits after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are common and disabling. Patients who experience delayed deterioration associated with vasospasm are likely to have cognitive deficits, particularly problems with executive function, verbal and spatial memory. Here, we report neurophysiological and pathological mechanisms underlying behavioral deficits in a murine model of SAH. On tests of spatial memory, animals with SAH performed worse than sham animals in the first week and one month after SAH suggesting a prolonged injury. Between three and six days after experimental hemorrhage, mice demonstrated loss of late long-term potentiation (L-LTP) due to dysfunction of the NMDA receptor. Suppression of innate immune cell activation prevents delayed vasospasm after murine SAH. We therefore explored the role of neutrophil-mediated innate inflammation on memory deficits after SAH. Depletion of neutrophils three days after SAH mitigates tissue inflammation, reverses cerebral vasoconstriction in the middle cerebral artery, and rescues L-LTP dysfunction at day 6. Spatial memory deficits in both the short and long-term are improved and associated with a shift of NMDA receptor subunit composition toward a memory sparing phenotype. This work supports further investigating suppression of innate immunity after SAH as a target for preventative therapies in SAH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. "Stiff neonate" with mitochondrial DNA depletion and secondary neurotransmitter defects.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moran, Margaret M

    2011-12-01

    Mitochondrial disorders comprise a heterogenous group. A neonate who presented with episodes of severe truncal hypertonia and apnea progressed to a hypokinetic rigid syndrome characterized by hypokinesia, tremulousness, profound head lag, absent suck and gag reflexes, brisk deep tendon reflexes, ankle and jaw clonus, and evidence of autonomic dysfunction. Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid neurotransmitters from age 7 weeks demonstrated low levels of amine metabolites (homovanillic acid and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid), tetrahydrobiopterin, and pyridoxal phosphate. Mitochondrial DNA quantitative studies on muscle homogenate demonstrated a mitochondrial DNA depletion disorder. Respiratory chain enzymology demonstrated decreased complex IV activity. Screening for mitochondrial DNA rearrangement disorders and sequencing relevant mitochondrial genes produced negative results. No clinical or biochemical response to treatment with pyridoxal phosphate, tetrahydrobiopterin, or l-dopa occurred. The clinical course was progressive, and the patient died at age 19 months. Mitochondrial disorders causing secondary neurotransmitter diseases are usually severe, but are rarely reported. This diagnosis should be considered in neonates or infants who present with hypertonia, hypokinesia rigidity, and progressive neurodegeneration.

  2. Metallographic Characterization of Wrought Depleted Uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsyth, Robert Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hill, Mary Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-02-14

    Metallographic characterization was performed on wrought depleted uranium (DU) samples taken from the longitudinal and transverse orientations from specific locations on two specimens. Characterization of the samples included general microstructure, inclusion analysis, grain size analysis, and microhardness testing. Comparisons of the characterization results were made to determine any differences based on specimen, sample orientation, or sample location. In addition, the characterization results for the wrought DU samples were also compared with data obtained from the metallographic characterization of cast DU samples previously characterized. No differences were observed in microstructure, inclusion size, morphology, and distribution, or grain size in regard to specimen, location, or orientation for the wrought depleted uranium samples. However, a small difference was observed in average hardness with regard to orientation at the same locations within the same specimen. The longitudinal samples were slightly harder than the transverse samples from the same location of the same specimen. This was true for both wrought DU specimens. Comparing the wrought DU sample data with the previously characterized cast DU sample data, distinct differences in microstructure, inclusion size, morphology and distribution, grain size, and microhardness were observed. As expected, the microstructure of the wrought DU samples consisted of small recrystallized grains which were uniform, randomly oriented, and equiaxed with minimal twinning observed in only a few grains. In contrast, the cast DU microstructure consisted of large irregularly shaped grains with extensive twinning observed in most grains. Inclusions in the wrought DU samples were elongated, broken and cracked and light and dark phases were observed in some inclusions. The mean inclusion area percentage for the wrought DU samples ranged from 0.08% to 0.34% and the average density from all wrought DU samples was 1.62E+04/cm

  3. Activation of RAS/ERK alone is insufficient to inhibit RXRα function and deplete retinoic acid in hepatocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ai-Guo, E-mail: wangaiguotl@hotmail.com; Song, Ya-Nan; Chen, Jun; Li, Hui-Ling; Dong, Jian-Yi; Cui, Hai-Peng; Yao, Liang; Li, Xue-Feng; Gao, Wen-Ting; Qiu, Ze-Wen; Wang, Fu-Jin; Wang, Jing-Yu, E-mail: wangjingyus@163.com

    2014-09-26

    Highlights: • The activation of RAS/ERK is insufficient to inhibit RXRα function and deplete RA. • The retinoid metabolism-related genes are down-regulated by ras oncogene. • The atRA has no effect on preventing hepatic tumorigenesis or curing the developed hepatic nodules. - Abstract: Activation of RAS/ERK signaling pathway, depletion of retinoid, and phosphorylation of retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRα) are frequent events found in liver tumors and thought to play important roles in hepatic tumorigenesis. However, the relationships among them still remained to be elucidated. By exploring the transgenic mouse model of hepatic tumorigenesis induced by liver-specific expression of H-ras12V oncogene, the activation of RAS/ERK, the mRNA expression levels of retinoid metabolism-related genes, the contents of retinoid metabolites, and phosphorylation of RXRα were determined. RAS/ERK signaling pathway was gradually and significantly activated in hepatic tumor adjacent normal liver tissues (P) and hepatic tumor tissues (T) of H-ras12V transgenic mice compared with normal liver tissues (Wt) of wild type mice. On the contrary, the mRNA expression levels of retinoid metabolism-related genes were significantly reduced in P and T compared with Wt. Interestingly, the retinoid metabolites 9-cis-retinoic acid (9cRA) and all-trans-retinoic acid (atRA), the well known ligands for nuclear transcription factor RXR and retinoic acid receptor (RAR), were significantly decreased only in T compared with Wt and P, although the oxidized polar metabolite of atRA, 4-keto-all-trans-retinoic-acid (4-keto-RA) was significantly decreased in both P and T compared with Wt. To our surprise, the functions of RXRα were significantly blocked only in T compared with Wt and P. Namely, the total protein levels of RXRα were significantly reduced and the phosphorylation levels of RXRα were significantly increased only in T compared with Wt and P. Treatment of H-ras12V transgenic mice at 5-week

  4. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  5. Petroleum supply monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blends, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  6. Simulations and observations of plasma depletion, ion composition, and airglow emissions in two auroral ionospheric depletion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yau, A.W.; Whalen, B.A.; Harris, F.R.; Gattinger, R.L.; Pongratz, M.B.; Bernhardt, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    In an ionospheric depletion experiment where chemically reactive vapors such as H 2 O and CO 2 are injected into the O + dominant F region to accelerate the plasma recombination rate and to reduce the plasma density, the ion composition in the depleted region is modified, and photometric emissions are produced. We compare in situ ion composition, density, and photometric measurements from two ionospheric depletion experiments with predictions from chemical modeling. The two injections, Waterhole I and III, were part of an auroral perturbation experiment and occurred in different ambient conditions. In both injections a core region of greater than fivefold plasma depletion was observed over roughly-equal5-km diameter within seconds of the injection, surrounded by an outer region of less drastic and slower depletion. In Waterhole I the plasma density was depleted tenfold over a 30-km diamter region after 2 min. The ambient O + density was drastically reduced, and the molecular O + 2 abundance was enhanced fivehold in the depletion region. OH airglow emission associated with the depletion was observed with a peak emission intensity of roughly-equal1 kR. In Waterhole III the ambient density was a decade lower, and the plasma depletion was less drastic, being twofold over 30 km after 2 min. The airglow emissions were also much less intense and below measurement sensitivity (30 R for the OH 306.4-nm emission; 50 R for the 630.0-nm emission)

  7. Too Depleted to Try? Testing the Process Model of Ego Depletion in the Context of Unhealthy Snack Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Ashleigh; Kemps, Eva; Moffitt, Robyn

    2016-11-01

    The process model proposes that the ego depletion effect is due to (a) an increase in motivation toward indulgence, and (b) a decrease in motivation to control behaviour following an initial act of self-control. In contrast, the reflective-impulsive model predicts that ego depletion results in behaviour that is more consistent with desires, and less consistent with motivations, rather than influencing the strength of desires and motivations. The current study sought to test these alternative accounts of the relationships between ego depletion, motivation, desire, and self-control. One hundred and fifty-six undergraduate women were randomised to complete a depleting e-crossing task or a non-depleting task, followed by a lab-based measure of snack intake, and self-report measures of motivation and desire strength. In partial support of the process model, ego depletion was related to higher intake, but only indirectly via the influence of lowered motivation. Motivation was more strongly predictive of intake for those in the non-depletion condition, providing partial support for the reflective-impulsive model. Ego depletion did not affect desire, nor did depletion moderate the effect of desire on intake, indicating that desire may be an appropriate target for reducing unhealthy behaviour across situations where self-control resources vary. © 2016 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  8. Transient Treg depletion enhances therapeutic anti‐cancer vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aston, Wayne J.; Chee, Jonathan; Khong, Andrea; Cleaver, Amanda L.; Solin, Jessica N.; Ma, Shaokang; Lesterhuis, W. Joost; Dick, Ian; Holt, Robert A.; Creaney, Jenette; Boon, Louis; Robinson, Bruce; Lake, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Regulatory T cells (Treg) play an important role in suppressing anti‐ immunity and their depletion has been linked to improved outcomes. To better understand the role of Treg in limiting the efficacy of anti‐cancer immunity, we used a Diphtheria toxin (DTX) transgenic mouse model to specifically target and deplete Treg. Methods Tumor bearing BALB/c FoxP3.dtr transgenic mice were subjected to different treatment protocols, with or without Treg depletion and tumor growth and survival monitored. Results DTX specifically depleted Treg in a transient, dose‐dependent manner. Treg depletion correlated with delayed tumor growth, increased effector T cell (Teff) activation, and enhanced survival in a range of solid tumors. Tumor regression was dependent on Teffs as depletion of both CD4 and CD8 T cells completely abrogated any survival benefit. Severe morbidity following Treg depletion was only observed, when consecutive doses of DTX were given during peak CD8 T cell activation, demonstrating that Treg can be depleted on multiple occasions, but only when CD8 T cell activation has returned to base line levels. Finally, we show that even minimal Treg depletion is sufficient to significantly improve the efficacy of tumor‐peptide vaccination. Conclusions BALB/c.FoxP3.dtr mice are an ideal model to investigate the full therapeutic potential of Treg depletion to boost anti‐tumor immunity. DTX‐mediated Treg depletion is transient, dose‐dependent, and leads to strong anti‐tumor immunity and complete tumor regression at high doses, while enhancing the efficacy of tumor‐specific vaccination at low doses. Together this data highlight the importance of Treg manipulation as a useful strategy for enhancing current and future cancer immunotherapies. PMID:28250921

  9. Tylosin depletion in edible tissues of turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesissa, C; De Liguoro, M; Santi, A; Capolongo, F; Biancotto, G

    1999-10-01

    The depletion of tylosin residues in edible turkey tissues was followed after 3 days of administration of tylosin tartrate at 500 mg l-1 in drinking water, to 30 turkeys. Immediately after the end of the treatment (day 0) and at day 1, 3, 5 and 10 of withdrawal, six turkeys (three males and three females) per time were sacrificed and samples of edible tissues were collected. Tissue homogenates were extracted, purified and analysed by HPLC according to a method previously published for the analysis of tylosin residues in pig tissues. In all tissues, tylosin residues were already below the detection limits of 50 micrograms kg-1 at time zero. However, in several samples of tissues (skin + fat, liver, kidney, muscle), from the six turkeys sacrificed at that time, one peak corresponding to an unknown tylosin equivalent was detected at measurable concentrations. The identification of this unknown compound was performed by LC-MS/MS analysis of the extracts from incurred samples. The mass fragmentation of the compound was consistent with the structure of tylosin D (the alcoholic derivative of tylosin A), the major metabolite of tylosin previously recovered and identified in tissues and/or excreta from treated chickens, cattle and pigs.

  10. Recirculating cooling water solute depletion models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, W.T.

    1990-01-01

    Chromates have been used for years to inhibit copper corrosion in the plant Recirculating Cooling Water (RCW) system. However, chromates have become an environmental problem in recent years both in the chromate removal plant (X-616) operation and from cooling tower drift. In response to this concern, PORTS is replacing chromates with Betz Dianodic II, a combination of phosphates, BZT, and a dispersant. This changeover started with the X-326 system in 1989. In order to control chemical concentrations in X-326 and in systems linked to it, we needed to be able to predict solute concentrations in advance of the changeover. Failure to predict and control these concentrations can result in wasted chemicals, equipment fouling, or increased corrosion. Consequently, Systems Analysis developed two solute concentration models. The first simulation represents the X-326 RCW system by itself; and models the depletion of a solute once the feed has stopped. The second simulation represents the X-326, X-330, and the X-333 systems linked together by blowdown. This second simulation represents the concentration of a solute in all three systems simultaneously. 4 figs

  11. Decommissioning plan depleted uranium manufacturing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernhardt, D.E.; Pittman, J.D.; Prewett, S.V.

    1987-01-01

    Aerojet Ordnance Tennessee, Inc. (Aerojet) is decommissioning its California depleted uranium (DU) manufacturing facility. Aerojet has conducted manufacturing and research and development activities at the facility since 1977 under a State of California Source Materials License. The decontamination is being performed by a contractor selector for technical competence through competitive bid. Since the facility will be released for uncontrolled use it will be decontaminated to levels as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). In order to fully apply the principles of ALARA, and ensure the decontamination is in full compliance with appropriate guides, Aerojet has retained Rogers and Associaties Engineering Corporation (RAE) to assist in the decommissioning. RAE has assisted in characterizing the facility and preparing contract bid documents and technical specifications to obtain a qualified decontamination contractor. RAE will monitor the decontamination work effort to assure the contractor's performance complies with the contract specifications and the decontamination plan. The specifications require a thorough cleaning and decontamination of the facility, not just sufficient cleaning to meet the numeric cleanup criteria

  12. Optimal Allocation of Sampling Effort in Depletion Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    We consider the problem of designing a depletion or removal survey as part of estimating animal abundance for populations with imperfect capture or detection rates. In a depletion survey, animals are captured from a given area, counted, and withheld from the population. This proc...

  13. NOMAD: a nodal microscopic analysis method for nuclear fuel depletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajic, H.L.; Ougouag, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    Recently developed assembly homogenization techniques made possible very efficient global burnup calculations based on modern nodal methods. There are two possible ways of modeling the global depletion process: macroscopic and microscopic depletion models. Using a microscopic global depletion approach NOMAD (NOdal Microscopic Analysis Method for Nuclear Fuel Depletion), a multigroup, two- and three-dimensional, multicycle depletion code was devised. The code uses the ILLICO nodal diffusion model. The formalism of the ILLICO methodology is extended to treat changes in the macroscopic cross sections during a depletion cycle without recomputing the coupling coefficients. This results in a computationally very efficient method. The code was tested against a well-known depletion benchmark problem. In this problem a two-dimensional pressurized water reactor is depleted through two cycles. Both cycles were run with 1 x 1 and 2 x 2 nodes per assembly. It is obvious that the one node per assembly solution gives unacceptable results while the 2 x 2 solution gives relative power errors consistently below 2%

  14. Podocyte Depletion in Thin GBM and Alport Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickman, Larysa; Hodgin, Jeffrey B; Wang, Su Q; Afshinnia, Farsad; Kershaw, David; Wiggins, Roger C

    2016-01-01

    The proximate genetic cause of both Thin GBM and Alport Syndrome (AS) is abnormal α3, 4 and 5 collagen IV chains resulting in abnormal glomerular basement membrane (GBM) structure/function. We previously reported that podocyte detachment rate measured in urine is increased in AS, suggesting that podocyte depletion could play a role in causing progressive loss of kidney function. To test this hypothesis podometric parameters were measured in 26 kidney biopsies from 21 patients aged 2-17 years with a clinic-pathologic diagnosis including both classic Alport Syndrome with thin and thick GBM segments and lamellated lamina densa [n = 15] and Thin GBM cases [n = 6]. Protocol biopsies from deceased donor kidneys were used as age-matched controls. Podocyte depletion was present in AS biopsies prior to detectable histologic abnormalities. No abnormality was detected by light microscopy at 70% podocyte depletion. Low level proteinuria was an early event at about 25% podocyte depletion and increased in proportion to podocyte depletion. These quantitative data parallel those from model systems where podocyte depletion is the causative event. This result supports a hypothesis that in AS podocyte adherence to the GBM is defective resulting in accelerated podocyte detachment causing progressive podocyte depletion leading to FSGS-like pathologic changes and eventual End Stage Kidney Disease. Early intervention to reduce podocyte depletion is projected to prolong kidney survival in AS.

  15. Effect of greenhouse gas emissions on stratospheric ozone depletion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velders GJM; LLO

    1997-01-01

    The depletion of the ozone layer is caused mainly by the increase in emissions of chlorine- and bromine-containing compounds like CFCs, halons, carbon tetrachloride, methyl chloroform and methyl bromide. Emissions of greenhouse gases can affect the depletion of the ozone layer through atmospheric

  16. Ego Depletion Does Not Interfere With Working Memory Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ranjit K; Göritz, Anja S

    2018-01-01

    Ego depletion happens if exerting self-control reduces a person's capacity to subsequently control themselves. Previous research has suggested that ego depletion not only interferes with subsequent self-control but also with working memory. However, recent meta-analytical evidence casts doubt onto this. The present study tackles the question if ego depletion does interfere with working memory performance. We induced ego depletion in two ways: using an e-crossing task and using a Stroop task. We then measured working memory performance using the letter-number sequencing task. There was no evidence of ego depletion interfering with working memory performance. Several aspects of our study render this null finding highly robust. We had a large and heterogeneous sample of N = 1,385, which provided sufficient power. We deployed established depletion tasks from two task families (e-crossing task and Stroop), thus making it less likely that the null finding is due to a specific depletion paradigm. We derived several performance scores from the working memory task and ran different analyses to maximize the chances of finding an effect. Lastly, we controlled for two potential moderators, the implicit theories about willpower and dispositional self-control capacity, to ensure that a possible effect on working memory is not obscured by an interaction effect. In sum, this experiment strengthens the position that ego depletion works but does not affect working memory performance.

  17. Analysis and Application of Whey Protein Depleted Skim Milk Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Hanne

    homogenisation (UHPH). The microfiltration will result in a milk fraction more or less depleted from whey protein, and could probably in combination with UHPH treatment contribute to milk fractions and cheeses with novel micro and macrostructures. These novel fractions could be used as new ingredients to improve......-destructive methods for this purpose. A significant changed structure was observed in skim milk depleted or partly depleted for whey protein, acidified and UHPH treated. Some of the properties of the UHPH treated skim milk depleted from whey protein observed in this study support the idea, that UHPH treatment has...... this. LF-NMR relaxation were utilised to obtain information about the water mobility (relaxation time), in diluted skim milk systems depleted from whey protein. Obtained results indicate that measuring relaxation times with LF-NMR could be difficult to utilize, since no clear relationship between...

  18. Barium depletion study on impregnated cathodes and lifetime prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roquais, J.M.; Poret, F.; Doze, R. le; Ricaud, J.L.; Monterrin, A.; Steinbrunn, A.

    2003-01-01

    In the thermionic cathodes used in cathode ray-tubes (CRTs), barium is the key element for the electronic emission. In the case of the dispenser cathodes made of a porous tungsten pellet impregnated with Ba, Ca aluminates, the evaporation of Ba determines the cathode lifetime with respect to emission performance in the CRT. The Ba evaporation results in progressive depletion of the impregnating material inside the pellet. In the present work, the Ba depletion with time has been extensively characterized over a large range of cathode temperature. Calculations using the depletion data allowed modeling of the depletion as a function of key parameters. The link between measured depletion and emission in tubes has been established, from which an end-of-life criterion was deduced. Taking modeling into account, predicting accelerated life-tests were performed using high-density maximum emission current (MIK)

  19. The Abiotic Depletion Potential: Background, Updates, and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauran van Oers

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Depletion of abiotic resources is a much disputed impact category in life cycle assessment (LCA. The reason is that the problem can be defined in different ways. Furthermore, within a specified problem definition, many choices can still be made regarding which parameters to include in the characterization model and which data to use. This article gives an overview of the problem definition and the choices that have been made when defining the abiotic depletion potentials (ADPs for a characterization model for abiotic resource depletion in LCA. Updates of the ADPs since 2002 are also briefly discussed. Finally, some possible new developments of the impact category of abiotic resource depletion are suggested, such as redefining the depletion problem as a dilution problem. This means taking the reserves in the environment and the economy into account in the reserve parameter and using leakage from the economy, instead of extraction rate, as a dilution parameter.

  20. Barium Depletion in Hollow Cathode Emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polk, James E.; Capece, Angela M.; Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira

    2009-01-01

    The effect of tungsten erosion, transport and redeposition on the operation of dispenser hollow cathodes was investigated in detailed examinations of the discharge cathode inserts from an 8200 hour and a 30,352 hour ion engine wear test. Erosion and subsequent re-deposition of tungsten in the electron emission zone at the downstream end of the insert reduces the porosity of the tungsten matrix, preventing the ow of barium from the interior. This inhibits the interfacial reactions of the barium-calcium-aluminate impregnant with the tungsten in the pores. A numerical model of barium transport in the internal xenon discharge plasma shows that the barium required to reduce the work function in the emission zone can be supplied from upstream through the gas phase. Barium that flows out of the pores of the tungsten insert is rapidly ionized in the xenon discharge and pushed back to the emitter surface by the electric field and drag from the xenon ion flow. This barium ion flux is sufficient to maintain a barium surface coverage at the downstream end greater than 0.6, even if local barium production at that point is inhibited by tungsten deposits. The model also shows that the neutral barium pressure exceeds the equilibrium vapor pressure of the impregnant decomposition reaction over much of the insert length, so the reactions are suppressed. Only a small region upstream of the zone blocked by tungsten deposits is active and supplies the required barium. These results indicate that hollow cathode failure models based on barium depletion rates in vacuum dispenser cathodes are very conservative.

  1. Biological effects of deuterium - depleted water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanescu, I.; Titescu, Gh.; Croitoru, Cornelia; Saros-Rogobete, Irina

    2000-01-01

    Deuterium-depleted water (DDW) is represented by water that has an isotopic content smaller than 145 ppm D/(D + H). DDW production technique consists in the separation of deuterium from water by a continuous distillation process under pressure of about 133.3 mbar. The water used as raw material has a isotopic content of 145 ppm D/(D + H) and can be demineralized water, distillated water or condensed-steam. DDW results as a distillate with an isotopic deuterium content of 15-80 ppm, depending on the level we want to achieve. Beginning with 1996 the Institute of Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies, DDW producer, co-operated with Romanian specialized institutes for studying the biological effects of DDW. The role of naturally occurring D in living organisms was examined by using DDW instead of natural water. These investigations led to the following conclusions: - DDW caused a tendency towards the increase of the basal tone, accompanied by the intensification of the vasoconstrictor effects of phenylefrine, noradrenaline and angiotensin; the increase of the basal tone and vascular reactivity produced by the DDW persists after the removal of the vascular endothelium; - Animals treated with DDW showed an increase of the resistance both to sublethal and lethal gamma radiation doses, suggesting a radioprotective action by the stimulation of non-specific immune defense mechanisms; - DDW stimulates immuno-defense reactions represented by the opsonic, bactericidal and phagocyte capacity of the immune system together with an increase in the number of poly-morphonuclear neutrophils; - Investigations regarding artificial reproduction of fish with DDW fecundated solutions confirmed favorable influence in embryo growth stage and resistance and following growth stages; - It was studied germination, growth and quantitative character variability in plants; one can remark the favorable influence of DDW on biological processes in plants in various ontogenetic stages. (authors)

  2. Deuterium depleted water. Romanian achievements and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanescu, Ioan; Steflea, Dumitru; Titescu, Gheorghe; Tamaian, Radu

    2002-01-01

    The deuterium depleted water (DDW) is microbiologically pure distilled water with a deuterium content lower than that of natural waters which amounts to 140 - 150 ppm D/(D+H); variations depend on geographical zone and altitude. The procedure of obtaining DDW is based on isotopic separation of natural water by vacuum distillation. Isotope concentration can be chosen within 20 to 120 ppm D/(D+H). The ICSI at Rm. Valcea has patented the procedure and equipment for the production of DDW. According to the document SF-01-2002/INC-DTCI - ICSI Rm. Valcea, the product has a D/(D+H) isotope concentration of 25 ± 5. Studies and research for finding the effects and methods of application in different fields were initiated and developed in collaboration with different institutes in Romania. The following important results obtained so far could be mentioned: - absence of toxicity upon organisms; - activation of vascular reactivity; - enhancement of defence capacity of the organism through non-specific immunity activation; - increase of salmonid reproduction capacity and enhancement of the adaptability of alevins to the environmental conditions; - radioprotective effect to ionizing radiation; - maintaining meat freshness through osmotic shock; - stimulation of growth of aquatic macrophytes; - enhancement of culture plant development in certain ontogenetic stages. Mostly, the results and practical applications of the research were patented and awarded with gold medals at international invention fairs. At present, research-development programmes are undergoing to find active biological features of DDW in fighting cancer, on one hand, and its applicability as food additive of pets or performing animals, on the other hand

  3. Clinical case of Mitochondrial DNA Depletion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Degtyareva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reports clinical case of early neonatal manifestation of a rare genetic disease – mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome, confirmed in laboratory in Russia. Mutations of FBXL4, which encodes an orphan mitochondrial F-box protein, involved in the maintenance of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA, ultimately leading to disruption of mtDNA replication and decreased activity of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes. It’s a reason of abnormalities in clinically affected tissues, most of all the muscular system and the brain. In our case hydronephrosis on the right, subependimal cysts of the brain, partial intestinal obstruction accompanied by polyhydramnios were diagnosed antenatal. Baby’s condition at birth was satisfactory and worsened dramatically towards the end of the first day of life. Clinical presentation includes sepsis-like symptom complex, neonatal depression, muscular hypotonia, persistent decompensated lactic acidosis, increase in the concentration of mitochondrial markers in blood plasma and urine, and changes in the basal ganglia of the brain. Imaging of the brain by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI demonstrated global volume loss particularly the subcortical and periventricular white matter with significant abnormal signal in bilateral basal ganglia and brainstem with associated delayed myelination. Differential diagnosis was carried out with hereditary diseases that occur as a «sepsis-like» symptom complex, accompanied by lactic acidosis: a group of metabolic disorders of amino acids, organic acids, β-oxidation defects of fatty acids, respiratory mitochondrial chain disorders and glycogen storage disease. The diagnosis was confirmed after sequencing analysis of 62 mytochondrial genes by NGS (Next Generation Sequencing. Reported disease has an unfavorable prognosis, however, accurate diagnosis is very important for genetic counseling and helps prevent the re-birth of a sick child in the family.

  4. Depletion of NADP(H) due to CD38 activation triggers endothelial dysfunction in the postischemic heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Levy A; Boslett, James; Varadharaj, Saradhadevi; De Pascali, Francesco; Hemann, Craig; Druhan, Lawrence J; Ambrosio, Giuseppe; El-Mahdy, Mohamed; Zweier, Jay L

    2015-09-15

    In the postischemic heart, coronary vasodilation is impaired due to loss of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) function. Although the eNOS cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is depleted, its repletion only partially restores eNOS-mediated coronary vasodilation, indicating that other critical factors trigger endothelial dysfunction. Therefore, studies were performed to characterize the unidentified factor(s) that trigger endothelial dysfunction in the postischemic heart. We observed that depletion of the eNOS substrate NADPH occurs in the postischemic heart with near total depletion from the endothelium, triggering impaired eNOS function and limiting BH4 rescue through NADPH-dependent salvage pathways. In isolated rat hearts subjected to 30 min of ischemia and reperfusion (I/R), depletion of the NADP(H) pool occurred and was most marked in the endothelium, with >85% depletion. Repletion of NADPH after I/R increased NOS-dependent coronary flow well above that with BH4 alone. With combined NADPH and BH4 repletion, full restoration of NOS-dependent coronary flow occurred. Profound endothelial NADPH depletion was identified to be due to marked activation of the NAD(P)ase-activity of CD38 and could be prevented by inhibition or specific knockdown of this protein. Depletion of the NADPH precursor, NADP(+), coincided with formation of 2'-phospho-ADP ribose, a CD38-derived signaling molecule. Inhibition of CD38 prevented NADP(H) depletion and preserved endothelium-dependent relaxation and NO generation with increased recovery of contractile function and decreased infarction in the postischemic heart. Thus, CD38 activation is an important cause of postischemic endothelial dysfunction and presents a novel therapeutic target for prevention of this dysfunction in unstable coronary syndromes.

  5. Depleted uranium in the environment - an issue of concern?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stegnar, P.; Benedik, Lj.

    2002-01-01

    Natural uranium (U) occurs in soils in typical concentrations of a few parts per milion. U-238 is the most abundant isotope in natural uranium (fraction by weight in natural uranium is 99.28%) and decays into other radioactive elements. A radioactive waste product of uranium enrichment is known as 'depleted uranium' (DU) which is basically natural uranium in which the fissionable U-235 isotopic content has been reduced from 0.71% to 0.2-0.3%. It is practically pure alpha emitter, only selected (in=growth) daughter products are gammaand beta emitters. Comparison of radioactivity shows that the total activity in 1mg of natural uranium is 25.28 Bq and in1 mg of DU is 14.80 Bq. The radioactivity of DU is 60% of that of natural uranium. Currently in the USA alone, there are about 600.000 tonnes of DU in storage. DU is cheap and it is available in large quantities. It is widely used as ballast or counterbalances in ships and aircrafts, as radiation shielding and in non-nuclear civil applications requiring hugh density material. (author)

  6. Excretion of depleted uranium by Gulf war veterans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toohey, R.E.

    2003-01-01

    During the Persian Gulf War, in 1991, approximately 100 US military personnel had potential intakes of depleted uranium (DU), including shrapnel wounds. In 1993, the US government initiated a follow-up study of 33 Gulf War veterans who had been exposed to DU, many of whom contained embedded fragments of DU shrapnel in their bodies. The veterans underwent medical evaluation, whole-body counting, and urinalysis for uranium by kinetic phosphorescence analysis (KPA). Data are available from seven individuals who exceeded the detection limit for whole-body counting and also had elevated urinary uranium. Urinary excretion rates, in μg U g -1 creatinine, were determined in 1997 and 1999. The body contents, in mg DU, were determined in 1997; it is assumed there were no significant decreases in total body content in the interim. For the 1997 data, the mean fractional excretion was (2.4 ± 2.8) x 10 -5 g -1 creatinine, and for the 1999 data, the mean was (1.1 ± 0.6) x 10 -5 g -1 creatinine. However, these means are not significantly different, nor is there any correlation of excretion rate with body content. Thus, human data available to date do not provide any basis for determining the effects of particle surface area, composition and solubility, and biological processes such as encapsulation, on the excretion rate. (author)

  7. Your Baby's Growth: 5 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Your Baby's Growth: 5 Months KidsHealth / For Parents / Your Baby's ... a cause for concern. How Much Will My Baby Grow? By 5 months, your baby's birth weight ...

  8. Your Child's Development: 9 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Child's Development: 9 Months Print en español El desarrollo de su hijo: 9 meses Nine-month-olds ... item in each hand at the same time Social and Emotional Development might be fearful of strangers ...

  9. Long-term groundwater depletion in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konikow, Leonard F.

    2015-01-01

    The volume of groundwater stored in the subsurface in the United States decreased by almost 1000 km3 during 1900–2008. The aquifer systems with the three largest volumes of storage depletion include the High Plains aquifer, the Mississippi Embayment section of the Gulf Coastal Plain aquifer system, and the Central Valley of California. Depletion rates accelerated during 1945–1960, averaging 13.6 km3/year during the last half of the century, and after 2000 increased again to about 24 km3/year. Depletion intensity is a new parameter, introduced here, to provide a more consistent basis for comparing storage depletion problems among various aquifers by factoring in time and areal extent of the aquifer. During 2001–2008, the Central Valley of California had the largest depletion intensity. Groundwater depletion in the United States can explain 1.4% of observed sea-level rise during the 108-year study period and 2.1% during 2001–2008. Groundwater depletion must be confronted on local and regional scales to help reduce demand (primarily in irrigated agriculture) and/or increase supply.

  10. Associative Interactions in Crowded Solutions of Biopolymers Counteract Depletion Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, Joost; Foschepoth, David; te Brinke, Esra; Boersma, Arnold J; Imamura, Hiromi; Rivas, Germán; Heus, Hans A; Huck, Wilhelm T S

    2015-10-14

    The cytosol of Escherichia coli is an extremely crowded environment, containing high concentrations of biopolymers which occupy 20-30% of the available volume. Such conditions are expected to yield depletion forces, which strongly promote macromolecular complexation. However, crowded macromolecule solutions, like the cytosol, are very prone to nonspecific associative interactions that can potentially counteract depletion. It remains unclear how the cytosol balances these opposing interactions. We used a FRET-based probe to systematically study depletion in vitro in different crowded environments, including a cytosolic mimic, E. coli lysate. We also studied bundle formation of FtsZ protofilaments under identical crowded conditions as a probe for depletion interactions at much larger overlap volumes of the probe molecule. The FRET probe showed a more compact conformation in synthetic crowding agents, suggesting strong depletion interactions. However, depletion was completely negated in cell lysate and other protein crowding agents, where the FRET probe even occupied slightly more volume. In contrast, bundle formation of FtsZ protofilaments proceeded as readily in E. coli lysate and other protein solutions as in synthetic crowding agents. Our experimental results and model suggest that, in crowded biopolymer solutions, associative interactions counterbalance depletion forces for small macromolecules. Furthermore, the net effects of macromolecular crowding will be dependent on both the size of the macromolecule and its associative interactions with the crowded background.

  11. Quantitative and Topographical Analysis of the Losses of Cone Photoreceptors and Retinal Ganglion Cells Under Taurine Depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadj-Saïd, Wahiba; Froger, Nicolas; Ivkovic, Ivana; Jiménez-López, Manuel; Dubus, Élisabeth; Dégardin-Chicaud, Julie; Simonutti, Manuel; Quénol, César; Neveux, Nathalie; Villegas-Pérez, María Paz; Agudo-Barriuso, Marta; Vidal-Sanz, Manuel; Sahel, Jose-Alain; Picaud, Serge; García-Ayuso, Diego

    2016-09-01

    Taurine depletion is known to induce photoreceptor degeneration and was recently found to also trigger retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss similar to the retinal toxicity of vigabatrin. Our objective was to study the topographical loss of RGCs and cone photoreceptors, with a distinction between the two cone types (S- and L- cones) in an animal model of induced taurine depletion. We used the taurine transporter (Tau-T) inhibitor, guanidoethane sulfonate (GES), to induce taurine depletion at a concentration of 1% in the drinking water. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and electroretinograms (ERG) were performed on animals after 2 months of GES treatment administered through the drinking water. Retinas were dissected as wholemounts and immunodetection of Brn3a (RGC), S-opsin (S-cones), and L-opsin (L-cones) was performed. The number of Brn3a+ RGCs, and L- and S-opsin+ cones was automatically quantified and their retinal distribution studied using isodensity maps. The treatment resulted in a significant reduction in plasma taurine levels and a profound dysfunction of visual performance as shown by ERG recordings. Optical coherence tomography analysis revealed that the retina was thinner in the taurine-depleted group. S-opsin+cones were more affected (36%) than L-opsin+cones (27%) with greater cone cell loss in the dorsal area whereas RGC loss (12%) was uniformly distributed. This study confirms that taurine depletion causes RGC and cone loss. Electroretinograms results show that taurine depletion induces retinal dysfunction in photoreceptors and in the inner retina. It establishes a gradient of cell loss depending on the cell type from S-opsin+cones, L-opsin+cones, to RGCs. The greater cell loss in the dorsal retina and of the S-cone population may underline different cellular mechanisms of cellular degeneration and suggests that S-cones may be more sensitive to light-induced retinal toxicity enhanced by the taurine depletion.

  12. ISOGEN: Interactive isotope generation and depletion code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkata Subbaiah, Kamatam

    2016-01-01

    ISOGEN is an interactive code for solving first order coupled linear differential equations with constant coefficients for a large number of isotopes, which are produced or depleted by the processes of radioactive decay or through neutron transmutation or fission. These coupled equations can be written in a matrix notation involving radioactive decay constants and transmutation coefficients, and the eigenvalues of thus formed matrix vary widely (several tens of orders), and hence no single method of solution is suitable for obtaining precise estimate of concentrations of isotopes. Therefore, different methods of solutions are followed, namely, matrix exponential method, Bateman series method, and Gauss-Seidel iteration method, as was followed in the ORIGEN-2 code. ISOGEN code is written in a modern computer language, VB.NET version 2013 for Windows operating system version 7, which enables one to provide many interactive features between the user and the program. The output results depend on the input neutron database employed and the time step involved in the calculations. The present program can display the information about the database files, and the user has to select one which suits the current need. The program prints the 'WARNING' information if the time step is too large, which is decided based on the built-in convergence criterion. Other salient interactive features provided are (i) inspection of input data that goes into calculation, (ii) viewing of radioactive decay sequence of isotopes (daughters, precursors, photons emitted) in a graphical format, (iii) solution of parent and daughter products by direct Bateman series solution method, (iv) quick input method and context sensitive prompts for guiding the novice user, (v) view of output tables for any parameter of interest, and (vi) output file can be read to generate new information and can be viewed or printed since the program stores basic nuclide concentration unlike other batch jobs. The sample

  13. Development of the point-depletion code DEPTH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    She, Ding; Wang, Kan; Yu, Ganglin

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The DEPTH code has been developed for the large-scale depletion system. ► DEPTH uses the data library which is convenient to couple with MC codes. ► TTA and matrix exponential methods are implemented and compared. ► DEPTH is able to calculate integral quantities based on the matrix inverse. ► Code-to-code comparisons prove the accuracy and efficiency of DEPTH. -- Abstract: The burnup analysis is an important aspect in reactor physics, which is generally done by coupling of transport calculations and point-depletion calculations. DEPTH is a newly-developed point-depletion code of handling large burnup depletion systems and detailed depletion chains. For better coupling with Monte Carlo transport codes, DEPTH uses data libraries based on the combination of ORIGEN-2 and ORIGEN-S and allows users to assign problem-dependent libraries for each depletion step. DEPTH implements various algorithms of treating the stiff depletion systems, including the Transmutation trajectory analysis (TTA), the Chebyshev Rational Approximation Method (CRAM), the Quadrature-based Rational Approximation Method (QRAM) and the Laguerre Polynomial Approximation Method (LPAM). Three different modes are supported by DEPTH to execute the decay, constant flux and constant power calculations. In addition to obtaining the instantaneous quantities of the radioactivity, decay heats and reaction rates, DEPTH is able to calculate the integral quantities by a time-integrated solver. Through calculations compared with ORIGEN-2, the validity of DEPTH in point-depletion calculations is proved. The accuracy and efficiency of depletion algorithms are also discussed. In addition, an actual pin-cell burnup case is calculated to illustrate the DEPTH code performance in coupling with the RMC Monte Carlo code

  14. Monthly energy review, August 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    The Monthly Energy Review for the month of August 1997, presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors.

  15. The enhancements and testing for the MCNPX depletion capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fensin, M. L.; Hendricks, J. S.; Anghaie, S.

    2008-01-01

    Monte Carlo-linked depletion methods have gained recent interest due to the ability to more accurately model true system physics and better track the evolution of temporal nuclide inventory by simulating the actual physical process. The integration of INDER90 into the MCNPX Monte Carlo radiation transport code provides a completely self-contained Monte- Carlo-linked depletion capability in a single Monte Carlo code that is compatible with most nuclear criticality (KCODE) particle tracking features in MCNPX. MCNPX depletion tracks all necessary reaction rates and follows as many isotopes as cross section data permits in order to achieve a highly accurate temporal nuclide inventory solution. We describe here the depletion methodology dating from the original linking of MONTEBURNS and MCNP to the first public release of the integrated capability (MCNPX 2. 6.B, June, 2006) that has been reported previously. Then we further detail the many new depletion capability enhancements since then leading to the present capability. The H.B. Robinson benchmark calculation results are also reported. The new MCNPX depletion capability enhancements include: (1) allowing the modeling of as large a system as computer memory capacity permits; (2) tracking every fission product available in ENDF/B VII. 0; (3) enabling depletion in repeated structures geometries such as repeated arrays of fuel pins; (4) including metastable isotopes in burnup; and (5) manually changing the concentrations of key isotopes during different time steps to simulate changing reactor control conditions such as dilution of poisons to maintain criticality during burnup. These enhancements allow better detail to model the true system physics and also improve the robustness of the capability. The H.B. Robinson benchmark calculation was completed in order to determine the accuracy of the depletion solution. Temporal nuclide computations of key actinide and fission products are compared to the results of other

  16. Challenges dealing with depleted uranium in Germany - Reuse or disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, Kai D.

    2007-01-01

    During enrichment large amounts of depleted Uranium are produced. In Germany every year 2.800 tons of depleted uranium are generated. In Germany depleted uranium is not classified as radioactive waste but a resource for further enrichment. Therefore since 1996 depleted Uranium is sent to ROSATOM in Russia. However it still has to be dealt with the second generation of depleted Uranium. To evaluate the alternative actions in case a solution has to be found in Germany, several studies have been initiated by the Federal Ministry of the Environment. The work that has been carried out evaluated various possibilities to deal with depleted uranium. The international studies on this field and the situation in Germany have been analyzed. In case no further enrichment is planned the depleted uranium has to be stored. In the enrichment process UF 6 is generated. It is an international consensus that for storage it should be converted to U 3 O 8 . The necessary technique is well established. If the depleted Uranium would have to be characterized as radioactive waste, a final disposal would become necessary. For the planned Konrad repository - a repository for non heat generating radioactive waste - the amount of Uranium is limited by the licensing authority. The existing license would not allow the final disposal of large amounts of depleted Uranium in the Konrad repository. The potential effect on the safety case has not been roughly analyzed. As a result it may be necessary to think about alternatives. Several possibilities for the use of depleted uranium in the industry have been identified. Studies indicate that the properties of Uranium would make it useful in some industrial fields. Nevertheless many practical and legal questions are open. One further option may be the use as shielding e.g. in casks for transport or disposal. Possible techniques for using depleted Uranium as shielding are the use of the metallic Uranium as well as the inclusion in concrete. Another

  17. Depletion interaction of casein micelles and an exocellular polysaccharide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuinier, R.; Ten Grotenhuis, E.; Holt, C.; Timmins, P. A.; de Kruif, C. G.

    1999-07-01

    Casein micelles become mutually attractive when an exocellular polysaccharide produced by Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris NIZO B40 (hereafter called EPS) is added to skim milk. The attraction can be explained as a depletion interaction between the casein micelles induced by the nonadsorbing EPS. We used three scattering techniques (small-angle neutron scattering, turbidity measurements, and dynamic light scattering) to measure the attraction. In order to connect the theory of depletion interaction with experiment, we calculated structure factors of hard spheres interacting by a depletion pair potential. Theoretical predictions and all the experiments showed that casein micelles became more attractive upon increasing the EPS concentration.

  18. Early depletion of proliferating B cells of germinal center in rapidly progressive simian immunodeficiency virus infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhiqiang; Casimiro, Danilo R.; Schleif, William A.; Chen, Minchun; Citron, Michael; Davies, Mary-Ellen; Burns, Janine; Liang, Xiaoping; Fu, Tong-Ming; Handt, Larry; Emini, Emilio A.; Shiver, John W.

    2007-01-01

    Lack of virus specific antibody response is commonly observed in both HIV-1-infected humans and SIV-infected monkeys with rapid disease progression. However, the mechanisms underlying this important observation still remain unclear. In a titration study of a SIVmac239 viral stock, three out of six animals with viral inoculation rapidly progressed to AIDS within 5 months. Unexpectedly, there was no obvious depletion of CD4 + T cells in both peripheral and lymph node (LN) compartments in these animals. Instead, progressive depletion of proliferating B cells and disruption of the follicular dendritic cell (FDC) network in germinal centers (GC) was evident in the samples collected at as early as 20 days after viral challenge. This coincided with undetectable, or weak and transient, virus-specific antibody responses over the course of infection. In situ hybridization of SIV RNA in the LN samples revealed a high frequency of SIV productively infected cells and large amounts of accumulated viral RNA in the GCs in these animals. Early severe depletion of GC proliferating B cells and disruption of the FDC network may thus result in an inability to mount a virus-specific antibody response in rapid progressors, which has been shown to contribute to accelerated disease progression of SIV infection

  19. Influence of protein depletion and repletion on lymphocyte activation in adult mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, T.S.; Olson, L.M.; Visek, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    Male 8 month old Balb/c mice were fed 0.5% (Depletion, n = 126) or 6% (Control, n = 16) protein diets for 5 wks. All control and 16 depleted mice were killed (time 0), and the remaining 110 mice were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 diets (3, 6, or 12% protein) and fed for 4, 8, or 32 additional days. Diets were formulated following AIN-76A guidelines with skim milk powder used as the source of protein. Serum albumin and 3 H-thymidine incorporation into splenocytes stimulated by the T-cell mitogens concanavalin A (Con A), or phytohemagglutinin (PHA), and the B-cell mitogen lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were determined. At time 0, mice fed 0.5% protein had lost 32% of their initial body weight and weighed significantly less than controls (19.5 +/- 0.1 g vs 29.9 +/- 0.7 g, p < 0.0001). Protein level did not affect food intake or spleen weight/body weight. Depletion significantly decreased serum albumin concentrations (4.6 +/- 0.1 g/dl vs 6.4 +/- 0.6 g/dl) and responses to PHA and LPS. During repletion mice fed 3% protein weighted significantly less than mice fed 6 or 12% ptn (p < 0.001) despite a significantly higher food intake. The activation of splenocytes by all mitogens increased with time of repletion but was independent of dietary protein concentration

  20. Tumor xenotransplantation in Wistar rats after treatment with cyclophosphamide and total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoogenhout, J.; Kazem, I.; Jerusalem, C.R.; Bakkeren, J.A.J.; de Jong, J.; Kal, H.B.; van Munster, P.J.J.

    1982-01-01

    Three-month-old male Wistar rats were treated with cyclophosphamide and total lymphoid irradiation, and C22LR mouse osteosarcoma was transplanted into the rats. The effects of immunosuppression were monitored by lymphocyte counts, serum IgG determinations, phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and concanavalin A (Con A) responses, measurement of the proportion of B cells, and histopathological studies of the lymphoid organs. At eight days after treatment, the lymphocyte counts, IgG levels, and PHA and Con A values were decreased. Mitotic activity started in the depleted B and T cell areas of the peripheral lymphatic organs two weeks after treatment. There was a 94% graft take of the osteosarcoma. It was determined that the optimum time for tumor xenograft transplantation is 4 days after treatment. The duration of growth was 11 days, and this was followed by regression up to day 21

  1. Time-on-task effects in children with and without ADHD: depletion of executive resources or depletion of motivation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekkers, Tycho J; Agelink van Rentergem, Joost A; Koole, Alette; van den Wildenberg, Wery P M; Popma, Arne; Bexkens, Anika; Stoffelsen, Reino; Diekmann, Anouk; Huizenga, Hilde M

    2017-12-01

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are characterized by deficits in their executive functioning and motivation. In addition, these children are characterized by a decline in performance as time-on-task increases (i.e., time-on-task effects). However, it is unknown whether these time-on-task effects should be attributed to deficits in executive functioning or to deficits in motivation. Some studies in typically developing (TD) adults indicated that time-on-task effects should be interpreted as depletion of executive resources, but other studies suggested that they represent depletion of motivation. We, therefore, investigated, in children with and without ADHD, whether there were time-on-task effects on executive functions, such as inhibition and (in)attention, and whether these were best explained by depletion of executive resources or depletion of motivation. The stop-signal task (SST), which generates both indices of inhibition (stop-signal reaction time) and attention (reaction time variability and errors), was administered in 96 children (42 ADHD, 54 TD controls; aged 9-13). To differentiate between depletion of resources and depletion of motivation, the SST was administered twice. Half of the participants was reinforced during second task performance, potentially counteracting depletion of motivation. Multilevel analyses indicated that children with ADHD were more affected by time-on-task than controls on two measures of inattention, but not on inhibition. In the ADHD group, reinforcement only improved performance on one index of attention (i.e., reaction time variability). The current findings suggest that time-on-task effects in children with ADHD occur specifically in the attentional domain, and seem to originate in both depletion of executive resources and depletion of motivation. Clinical implications for diagnostics, psycho-education, and intervention are discussed.

  2. Groundwater Depletion During Drought Threatens Future Water Security of the Colorado River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Stephanie L.; Thomas, Brian F.; Reager, John T.; Rodell, Matthew; Swenson, Sean C.; Famiglietti, James S.

    2014-01-01

    Streamflow of the Colorado River Basin is the most overallocated in the world. Recent assessment indicates that demand for this renewable resource will soon outstrip supply, suggesting that limited groundwater reserves will play an increasingly important role in meeting future water needs. Here we analyze 9 years (December 2004 to November 2013) of observations from the NASA Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment mission and find that during this period of sustained drought, groundwater accounted for 50.1 cu km of the total 64.8 cu km of freshwater loss. The rapid rate of depletion of groundwater storage (5.6 +/- 0.4 cu km/yr) far exceeded the rate of depletion of Lake Powell and Lake Mead. Results indicate that groundwater may comprise a far greater fraction of Basin water use than previously recognized, in particular during drought, and that its disappearance may threaten the long-term ability to meet future allocations to the seven Basin states.

  3. Filler-depletion layer adjacent to interface impacts performance of thermal interface material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susumu Yada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available When installing thermal interface material (TIM between heat source and sink to reduce contact thermal resistance, the interfacial thermal resistance (ITR between the TIM and heat source/sink may become important, especially when the TIM thickness becomes smaller in the next-generation device integration. To this end, we have investigated ITR between TIM and aluminum surface by using the time-domain thermoreflectance method. The measurements reveal large ITR attributed to the depletion of filler particles in TIM adjacent to the aluminum surface. The thickness of the depletion layer is estimated to be about 100 nm. As a consequence, the fraction of ITR to the total contact thermal resistance becomes about 20% when the TIM thickness is about 50 μm (current thickness, and it exceeds 50% when the thickness is smaller than 10 μm (next-generation thickness.

  4. 800-MeV proton irradiation of thorium and depleted uranium targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, G.J.; Brun, T.O.; Pitcher, E.J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    As part of the Los Alamos Fertile-to-Fissile-Conversion (FERFICON) program in the late 1980`s, thick targets of the fertile materials thorium and depleted uranium were bombarded by 800-MeV protons to produce the fissile materials {sup 233}U and {sup 239}Pu, respectively. The amount of {sup 233}U made was determined by measuring the {sup 233}Pa activity, and the yield of {sup 239}Pu was deduced by measuring the activity of {sup 239}Np. For the thorium target, 4 spallation products and 34 fission products were also measured. For the depleted uranium target, 3 spallation products and 16 fission products were also measured. The number of fissions in each target was deduced from fission product mass-yield curves. In actuality, axial distributions of the products were measured, and the distributions were then integrated over the target volume to obtain the total number of products for each reaction.

  5. Utilization of Alternate Propellants to Reduce Stratospheric Ozone Depletion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lewis, David

    1994-01-01

    There is continuing concern about the depletion of the ozone layer. Recently it has been determined that effluents from rockets exhausts contain chemical species that can be classified as Potentially Ozone Reactive Chemicals (PORCs...

  6. Mycobacterial antigens stimulate rheumatoid mononuclear cells to cartilage proteoglycan depletion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilbrink, B.; Bijlsma, J. W.; Huber-Bruning, O.; van Roy, J. L.; den Otter, W.; van Eden, W.

    1990-01-01

    In a coculture with porcine articular cartilage explants unstimulated blood mononuclear cells (BMC) from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but not from healthy controls, induced proteoglycan depletion of dead cartilage. Specific stimulation of the RA BMC with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MT),

  7. Hyperspectral stimulated emission depletion microscopy and methods of use thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timlin, Jerilyn A; Aaron, Jesse S

    2014-04-01

    A hyperspectral stimulated emission depletion ("STED") microscope system for high-resolution imaging of samples labeled with multiple fluorophores (e.g., two to ten fluorophores). The hyperspectral STED microscope includes a light source, optical systems configured for generating an excitation light beam and a depletion light beam, optical systems configured for focusing the excitation and depletion light beams on a sample, and systems for collecting and processing data generated by interaction of the excitation and depletion light beams with the sample. Hyperspectral STED data may be analyzed using multivariate curve resolution analysis techniques to deconvolute emission from the multiple fluorophores. The hyperspectral STED microscope described herein can be used for multi-color, subdiffraction imaging of samples (e.g., materials and biological materials) and for analyzing a tissue by Forster Resonance Energy Transfer ("FRET").

  8. Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome presenting with ataxia and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laila Selim

    2012-07-24

    Jul 24, 2012 ... Sequencing analysis of the TK2 gene revealed no sequence variation. ... the pathogenesis of the myopathic form of mitochondrial depletion syndrome should be ..... [39,40]. However, the biochemical evidence of deficiency of.

  9. Lagopedo: two F-region ionospheric depletion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pongratz, M.B.; Smith, G.M.; Sutherland, C.D.; Zinn, J.

    1977-01-01

    A significant depletion of ionospheric plasma was produced by a chemical release experiment in the F-layer ionosphere over Hawaii. The results of measurements of the hole produced in the ionospheric plasma are reported

  10. Adding trend data to Depletion-Based Stock Reduction Analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Bayesian model of Depletion-Based Stock Reduction Analysis (DB-SRA), informed by a time series of abundance indexes, was developed, using the Sampling Importance...

  11. AFSC/REFM: Pacific cod Localized Depletion Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Localized Depletion study for Pacific cod 2001-2005. Study was conducted using cod pot gear to measure localized abundance of Pacific cod inside and...

  12. Radioactive reconnaissance in area of utilization ammunition of depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortuna, D.; Dimitrijevic, D.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper are presented methods of radioactive reconnaissance and taking of samples in area of utilization ammunition of depleted uranium during the armed aggression of NATO to Yugoslavia (author)

  13. Trace Element Abundances in Eucrite Basalts: Enrichment or Depletion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, N. R.

    2018-05-01

    It is not clear how incompatible trace element (ITE) variation in eucrite basalts originated. Here, mechanisms for relative ITE enrichment or depletion are experimentally evaluated in an attempt to reconcile the Stannern and main group eucrites.

  14. Separation of Depleted Uranium From Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    only. Total DU disso- lution and precipitation 1, 25-Kg sample DU Garden Excavation samples Intact penetra- tors 5 years Buried at depths that...4.76-mm frac- tion was separated into DU and non-DU-containing fractions. The ura- nium concentration of the >4.76-mm fraction was determined gravimetri ... gravimetri - cally. Each of the size fractions ɜ.76 mm was ground in the field and digested and analyzed in the laboratory. Table 15 presents the uranium

  15. Metabolite Depletion Affects Flux Profiling of Cell Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, A.; Haanstra, J. R.; Teusink, B.

    2018-01-01

    Quantifying the rate of consumption and release of metabolites (i.e., flux profiling) has become integral to the study of cancer. The fluxes as well as the growth of the cells may be affected by metabolite depletion during cultivation.......Quantifying the rate of consumption and release of metabolites (i.e., flux profiling) has become integral to the study of cancer. The fluxes as well as the growth of the cells may be affected by metabolite depletion during cultivation....

  16. Cholinergic depletion and basal forebrain volume in primary progressive aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolien Schaeverbeke

    2017-01-01

    In the PPA group, only LV cases showed decreases in AChE activity levels compared to controls. Surprisingly, a substantial number of SV cases showed significant AChE activity increases compared to controls. BF volume did not correlate with AChE activity levels in PPA. To conclude, in our sample of PPA patients, LV but not SV was associated with cholinergic depletion. BF atrophy in PPA does not imply cholinergic depletion.

  17. Enhanced J/psi suppression due to gluon depletion

    OpenAIRE

    Hwa, R. C.; Pisut, J.; Pisutova, N.

    1997-01-01

    The nonlinear effect of gluon depletion in the collision of large nuclei can be large. It is due to multiple scatterings among comoving partons initiated by primary scattering of partons in the colliding nuclei. The effect can give rise to substantial suppression of $J/\\psi$ production in very large nuclei, even if the linear depletion effect is insignificant for the collisions of nuclei of smaller sizes. This mechanism offers a natural explanation of the enhanced suppression in the Pb-Pb dat...

  18. Phenomenological Evidence for Gluon Depletion in pA Collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Hwa, R. C.; Pisut, J.; Pisutova, N.

    2000-01-01

    The data of J/psi suppression at large x_F in pA collisions are used to infer the existence of gluon depletion as the projectile proton traverses the nucleus. The modification of the gluon distribution is studied by use of a convolution equation whose non-perturbative splitting function is determined phenomenologically. The depletion factor at x_1=0.8 is found to be about 25% at A=100.

  19. Retrieval of buried depleted uranium from the T-1 trench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burmeister, M.; Castaneda, N.; Hull, C.; Barbour, D.; Quapp, W.J.

    1998-01-01

    The Trench 1 remediation project will be conducted this year to retrieve depleted uranium and other associated materials from a trench at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site. The excavated materials will be segregated and stabilized for shipment. The depleted uranium will be treated at an offsite facility which utilizes a novel approach for waste minimization and disposal through utilization of a combination of uranium recycling and volume efficient uranium stabilization

  20. Regionalization of monthly rainfall erosivity patternsin Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Simon; Alewell, Christine; Panagos, Panos; Meusburger, Katrin

    2016-10-01

    One major controlling factor of water erosion is rainfall erosivity, which is quantified as the product of total storm energy and a maximum 30 min intensity (I30). Rainfall erosivity is often expressed as R-factor in soil erosion risk models like the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and its revised version (RUSLE). As rainfall erosivity is closely correlated with rainfall amount and intensity, the rainfall erosivity of Switzerland can be expected to have a regional characteristic and seasonal dynamic throughout the year. This intra-annual variability was mapped by a monthly modeling approach to assess simultaneously spatial and monthly patterns of rainfall erosivity. So far only national seasonal means and regional annual means exist for Switzerland. We used a network of 87 precipitation gauging stations with a 10 min temporal resolution to calculate long-term monthly mean R-factors. Stepwise generalized linear regression (GLM) and leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV) were used to select spatial covariates which explain the spatial and temporal patterns of the R-factor for each month across Switzerland. The monthly R-factor is mapped by summarizing the predicted R-factor of the regression equation and the corresponding residues of the regression, which are interpolated by ordinary kriging (regression-kriging). As spatial covariates, a variety of precipitation indicator data has been included such as snow depths, a combination product of hourly precipitation measurements and radar observations (CombiPrecip), daily Alpine precipitation (EURO4M-APGD), and monthly precipitation sums (RhiresM). Topographic parameters (elevation, slope) were also significant explanatory variables for single months. The comparison of the 12 monthly rainfall erosivity maps showed a distinct seasonality with the highest rainfall erosivity in summer (June, July, and August) influenced by intense rainfall events. Winter months have the lowest rainfall erosivity. A proportion of 62 % of

  1. Adrenal steroidogenesis after B lymphocyte depletion therapy in new-onset Addison's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Simon H S; Mitchell, Anna L; Bennett, Stuart; King, Phil; Chandran, Sukesh; Nag, Sath; Chen, Shu; Smith, Bernard Rees; Isaacs, John D; Vaidya, Bijay

    2012-10-01

    A diagnosis of Addison's disease means lifelong dependence on daily glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid therapy and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality as well as a risk of unexpected adrenal crisis. The objective of the study was to determine whether immunomodulatory therapy at an early stage of autoimmune Addison's disease could lead to preservation or improvement in adrenal steroidogenesis. This was an open-label, pilot study of B lymphocyte depletion therapy in new-onset idiopathic primary adrenal failure. Doses of iv rituximab (1 g) were given on d 1 and 15, after pretreatment with 125 mg iv methylprednisolone. Six patients (aged 17-47 yr; four females) were treated within 4 wk of the first diagnosis of idiopathic primary adrenal failure. Dynamic testing of adrenal function was performed every 3 months for at least 12 months. Serum cortisol levels declined rapidly and were less than 100 nmol/liter (3.6 μg/dl) in all patients by 3 months after B lymphocyte depletion. Serum cortisol and aldosterone concentrations remained low in five of the six patients throughout the follow-up period. However, a single patient had sustained improvement in both serum cortisol [peak 434 nmol/liter (15.7 μg/dl)] and aldosterone [peak 434 pmol/liter (15.7 ng/dl)] secretion. This patient was able to discontinue steroid medications 15 months after therapy and remains well, with improving serum cortisol levels 27 months after therapy. New-onset autoimmune Addison's disease should be considered as a potentially reversible condition in some patients. Future studies of immunomodulation in autoimmune Addison's disease may be warranted.

  2. Depletion optimization of lumped burnable poisons in pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodah, Z.H.

    1982-01-01

    Techniques were developed to construct a set of basic poison depletion curves which deplete in a monotonical manner. These curves were combined to match a required optimized depletion profile by utilizing either linear or non-linear programming methods. Three computer codes, LEOPARD, XSDRN, and EXTERMINATOR-2 were used in the analyses. A depletion routine was developed and incorporated into the XSDRN code to allow the depletion of fuel, fission products, and burnable poisons. The Three Mile Island Unit-1 reactor core was used in this work as a typical PWR core. Two fundamental burnable poison rod designs were studied. They are a solid cylindrical poison rod and an annular cylindrical poison rod with water filling the central region.These two designs have either a uniform mixture of burnable poisons or lumped spheroids of burnable poisons in the poison region. Boron and gadolinium are the two burnable poisons which were investigated in this project. Thermal self-shielding factor calculations for solid and annular poison rods were conducted. Also expressions for overall thermal self-shielding factors for one or more than one size group of poison spheroids inside solid and annular poison rods were derived and studied. Poison spheroids deplete at a slower rate than the poison mixture because each spheroid exhibits some self-shielding effects of its own. The larger the spheroid, the higher the self-shielding effects due to the increase in poison concentration

  3. Assessment Of Depleted Uranium Contamination In Selective IRAQI Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, A.A.; Hussien, A.Sh.M.; Tawfiq, N.F.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this research was to measure the radiation exposure rates in three selected Locations in southren part of Iraq (two in Nassireya, and one in Amara) resulted from the existence of depleted uranium in soil and metal pieces have been taken from destroyed tank and study mathmatically the concentration of Depleted Uranium by its dispersion from soil surface by winds and rains from 2003 to 2007. The exposure rates were measured using inspector device, while depleted uranium concentration in soil samples and tank's matal pieces were detected with Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors(SSNTDs). The wind and rain effects were considered in the calculation of dispersion effect on depleted uranium concentration in soil, where the wind effect were calculated with respect to the sites nature and soil conditions, and rain effect with respect to dispersive-convective equation for radionuclide in soil. The results obtained for the exposure rates were high near the penetrated surfac, moderate and low in soil and metal pices. The Depleted Uranium concentration in soil and metal pieces have the highest value in Nassireya. The results from dispersion calculation (wind & rain) showed that the depleted uranium concentration in 2008 will be less than the danger level and in allowable contamination range

  4. Yield, utilization, storage and ultimate storage of depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aumueller, L.; Hermann, J.

    1977-11-01

    More than 80% of the uranium leaving uranium enrichment plants is depleted to a residual content of about 0,25% U 235. Due to the present ineconomical further depletion to the technically possible residual content of 0,1% U 235, the so-called 'tails' are first of all stored. The quantity of stored depleted uranium in the FRG should be about 100.000 t by the year 2000. It represents a strategic reserve for future energy supply regardless of profitableness. The study analysis the conceivable possible uses for the tails quantity considered. These are, besides further depletion whose profitableness is considered, also the use as breeder material in breeder reactors and the use in the non-nuclear field. The main part of the study deals with the various storage possibilities of the depleted uranium in oxidic or fluoride form. A comparison of costs of alternative storage concepts showed a clear advantage for the storage of UF 6 in 48 inch containers already in use. The conceivable accidents in storing are analyzed and measures to reduce the consequences are discussed. Finally, the problems of ultimate storage for the remaining waste after further depletion or use are investigated and the costs arising here are also estimated. (RB) [de

  5. Muscle glycogen depletion patterns during draught work in Standardbred horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, M

    1989-03-01

    Muscle fibre recruitment was investigated during draught loaded exercise by studying glycogen depletion patterns from histochemical stains of muscle biopsies from the gluteus and semitendinosus muscles. Three Standardbred trotters performed several intervals of draught loaded exercise on a treadmill with 34 kp at a trot (7 m/sec) and with 34 and 80 kp, respectively at a walk (2m/sec). Exercise was continued until the horses were unwilling to continue. Glycogen depletion was seen in all three fibre types when trotting with 34 kp for 5 or 10 mins. When an equal weight resistance was pulled at a walk, glycogen depletion was first seen in type I fibres only, then followed by a small percentage of type IIA fibres after at least 1 h. When 80 kp was pulled at a walk both type I and IIA fibres showed glycogen depletion, and after at least 30 mins exercise a small percentage of type IIB fibres was also depleted. These results indicate that the muscle fibres are depleted, in order, from type I through IIA to IIB as the intensity or duration of draught work increases.

  6. Lithium depletion and rotation in main-sequence stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balachandran, S.

    1990-01-01

    Lithium abundances were measured in nearly 200 old disk-population F stars to examine the effects of rotational braking on the depletion of Li. The sample was selected to be slightly evolved off the main sequence so that the stars have completed all the Li depletion they will undergo on the main sequence. A large scatter in Li abundances in the late F stars is found, indicating that the Li depletion is not related to age and spectral type alone. Conventional depletion mechanisms like convective overshoot and microscopic diffusion are unable to explain Li depletion in F stars with thin convective envelopes and are doubly taxed to explain such a scatter. No correlation is found between Li abundance and the present projected rotational velocity and some of the most rapid rotators are undepleted, ruling out meridional circulation as the cause of Li depletion. There is a somewhat larger spread in Li abundances in the spun-down late F stars compared to the early F stars which should remain rotationally unaltered on the main sequence. 85 refs

  7. Genetics Home Reference: MPV17-related hepatocerebral mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... DNA depletion syndrome MPV17-related hepatocerebral mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable ... collapse boxes. Description MPV17 -related hepatocerebral mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome is an inherited disorder that can cause ...

  8. Therapeutic Depletion of Iron Stores Is Not Associated with a Reduced Hemoglobin Mass in a Hemochromatosis Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Wrobel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hereditary hemochromatosis features a dysregulated iron absorption leading to iron overload and organ damage. The regulation of total hemoglobin mass during depletion of iron deposits by therapeutic phlebotomy has not been studied. Case Presentation: The initial ferritin level of the 52-year-old male subject was 1,276 μg/l. Despite successful depletion of iron stores (ferritinmin: 53 μg/l through phlebotomies, total hemoglobin mass stabilized at the pretherapy level. However, regeneration of total hemoglobin mass was accelerated (up to 10.8 g/day. Conclusion: In this hemochromatosis patient, the total hemoglobin mass was not altered in the long term, but regeneration was accelerated, possibly due to elevated body iron content.

  9. Monthly Program Cost Report (MPCR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Monthly Program Cost Report (MPCR) replaces the Cost Distribution Report (CDR). The MPCR provides summary information about Veterans Affairs operational costs,...

  10. Monthly energy review, January 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This report presents an overview of recent monthly energy statistics. Major activities covered include production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for fossil fuels, electricity, and nuclear energy.

  11. Natural gas monthly, August 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-24

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. This month`s feature article is on US Natural Gas Imports and Exports 1994.

  12. Trends in total column ozone over Australia and New Zealand and its influence on clear-sky surface erythemal irradiance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodeker, G. E.

    1995-01-01

    Australia and New Zealand are two of the countries closest to the Antarctic ozone depletion and may therefore be 'at risk' as a result of the associated increases in surface ultraviolet (UV) radiation. To investigate the possible impact of mid-latitude ozone decreases on surface erythemal irradiances, monthly mean total ozone has been calculated from daily total ozone mapping spectrometer data for 5 Australian cities (Canberra, Hobart, Melbourne, Perth and Sydney) and 3 New Zealand cities (Auckland, Christchurch and Wellington) from 1979 to 1992. These values have then been used as inputs to a single layer model to calculate noon clear-sky global UV irradiances and associated erythemal irradiances. In addition, the monthly mean ozone data have been modelled statistically for each location to reveal a long-term linear trend, an annual variation, a Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO), a solar cycle component and a semi-annual (6 month) signal. Coefficients from these statistical models have been used to estimate monthly mean ozone and noon clear-sky erythemal irradiances to the year 2000 for each city. It is assumed that the rate of increase of stratospheric chlorine over the remainder of the century will remain constant. Given that there is some evidence that the rate of increase is decreasing, the results present here should be regarded as an upper limit. 33 refs., 7 tabs., 4 figs

  13. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview February 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-03-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for February 2017. The monthly balance of French exchanges once again passed back in favour of exports in February 2017, despite a fall in nuclear and hydraulic generation. Gross demand was down compared to February 2016, due to milder temperatures. Fossil fuel thermal generation totalled 6.1 TWh, up by 65% compared to February 2016. Due to fluctuating winds, February 2017 recorded both an instantaneous generation peak for the wind and solar sectors (11.3 GW), and a fall in monthly wind generation compared to February 2016. The fall in wind power generation was not uniform over the country: the Southwest experienced stormy episodes boosting generation whereas that in the North-East fell sharply. Market prices were sharply lower Europe-wide. The balance in favour of exports totalled 3.4 TWh in February 2017. 11 installations went into service in this month

  14. Total hip arthroplasty for giant cell tumour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulkarni S

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available A 32 month follow up of an uncommon case of a Giant Cell Tumour affecting the proximal end of femur is presented. Following a wide excision, the hip was reconstructed using Charnley type of low friction total hip arthroplasty. At a 32 month review, there was no recurrence and the function was good.

  15. Coordinated airborne and satellite measurements of equatorial plasma depletions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, E.J.; Brinton, H.C.; Buchau, J.; Moore, J.G.

    1982-01-01

    A series of experiments was conducted in December 1979 to investigate the structure of plasma depletions in the low latitude, nightime ionosphere. The measurements included all sky imaging photometer (ASIP), ionosonde and amplitude scintillation observations from the AFGL Airborne Ionospheric Observatory (AIO), and in situ ion density measurements from the Atmosphere Explorer (AE-E) Bennett Ion Mass Spectrometer (BIMS). The AIO performed two flights along the Ascension Island (-18 0 MLAT) magnetic meridian: one in the southern hemisphere and one near the Ascension conjugate point in the northern hemisphere. During these flights, measurements from the AE-E satellite at 434 km altitude are compared with simultaneous remote ionospheric measurements from the AIO. Density biteouts of approximately one order of magnitude in the dominant ion O + , were mapped to lower altitudes along magnetic field lines for comparison with 6300-A and 7774-A O I airglow depletions. Because of the different airglow production mechanisms (dissociative recombination of O +2 for 6300 A and radiative recombination of O + for 7774 A) the 6300-A depletions reflect plasma depletions near the bottomside of the F layer, while those at 7774 A are located near the peak of the layer. The O + biteouts map directly into the 7774-A airglow depletions in the same hemisphere and also when traced into the opposite hemisphere, which indicates magnetic flux tube alignment over north-south distances of approx.2220 km. The 6300-A (bottomside) depletions are wider in longitude than the 7774-A (F-peak) depletions near the equatorward edge of the Appleton anomaly. This difference in topside and bottomside structure is used to infer large-scale structure near the anomaly and to relate this to structure, commonly observed near the magnetic equator by the ALTAIR radar

  16. Ego depletion decreases trust in economic decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainsworth, Sarah E.; Baumeister, Roy F.; Vohs, Kathleen D.; Ariely, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Three experiments tested the effects of ego depletion on economic decision making. Participants completed a task either requiring self-control or not. Then participants learned about the trust game, in which senders are given an initial allocation of $10 to split between themselves and another person, the receiver. The receiver receives triple the amount given and can send any, all, or none of the tripled money back to the sender. Participants were assigned the role of the sender and decided how to split the initial allocation. Giving less money, and therefore not trusting the receiver, is the safe, less risky response. Participants who had exerted self-control and were depleted gave the receiver less money than those in the non-depletion condition (Experiment 1). This effect was replicated and moderated in two additional experiments. Depletion again led to lower amounts given (less trust), but primarily among participants who were told they would never meet the receiver (Experiment 2) or who were given no information about how similar they were to the receiver (Experiment 3). Amounts given did not differ for depleted and non-depleted participants who either expected to meet the receiver (Experiment 2) or were led to believe that they were very similar to the receiver (Experiment 3). Decreased trust among depleted participants was strongest among neurotics. These results imply that self-control facilitates behavioral trust, especially when no other cues signal decreased social risk in trusting, such as if an actual or possible relationship with the receiver were suggested. PMID:25013237

  17. Climate Prediction Center - monthly Outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weather Service NWS logo - Click to go to the NWS home page Climate Prediction Center Site Map News Outlooks monthly Climate Outlooks Banner OFFICIAL Forecasts June 2018 [UPDATED MONTHLY FORECASTS SERVICE ) Canonical Correlation Analysis ECCA - Ensemble Canonical Correlation Analysis Optimal Climate Normals

  18. Monthly energy review, January 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  19. Monthly energy review, July 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs. 73 tabs.

  20. Monthly energy review, May 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  1. Monthly energy review, March 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 74 tabs.

  2. Monthly energy review, November 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 91 tabs.

  3. Monthly energy review, June 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 36 figs., 61 tabs.

  4. Monthly energy review, February 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 73 tabs.

  5. Monthly energy review, November 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  6. Monthly energy review, October 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  7. ULTRAPLATE 30 month management report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Dahl

    2003-01-01

    In the period from month 24 to month 30 focus has been on the work-package 3 activities concerning optimisation of the newly developed ULTRAPLATE technology towards specific industrial applications. Three main application areas have been pursued: 1) High- speed plating of lead free solder contacts...

  8. The 2003 Update of the ASPO Oil and Gas Depletion Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Colin; Sivertsson, Anders [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Hydrocarbon Depletion Study Group

    2003-07-01

    What we can term the ASPO Oil and Gas Depletion Model has developed over many years, based on an evolving knowledge of the resource base, culled from many sources, and evolving ideas about how to model depletion. It is sure that the estimates and forecasts are incorrect. The question is: By how much? The model recognises so-called Regular Oil, which excludes the following categories: Oil from coal and shale; Bitumen and synthetics derived therefrom; Extra Heavy Oil (<10 deg API); Heavy Oil (10-17 deg API); Deepwater Oil (>500 m); Polar Oil; Liquids from gas fields and gas plants. It has provided most oil to-date and will dominate all supply far into the future. Its depletion therefore determines the date of peak. The evidence suggests that about 896 Gb (billion barrels) had been produced to end 2002; about 871 Gb remain to produce from known fields and about 113 Gb is expected to be produced from new fields. It is convenient to set a cut-off of, say 2075, for such production, to avoid having to worry about the tail end that can drag on for a long time. A simple depletion model assumes that production declines at the current Depletion Rate (annual production as a percentage of future production) or at the Midpoint Rate in countries that have not yet reached Midpoint (namely half the total). The five main Middle East producers, which hold about half of what remains, are assumed to exercise a swing role, making up the difference between world demand and what the other countries can supply. The base case scenario assumes that consumption will be on average flat until 2010 because of recession; and that the Middle East swing role will end then, as in practice those countries will no longer have the capacity to discharge it. Whether the Iraq war results in extending or shortening the swing role remains to be seen. Adding the contributions of the other categories of oil and gas liquids gives an overall peak in 2010. Gas depletes differently, being more influenced by

  9. Measuring local depletion of terrestrial game vertebrates by central-place hunters in rural Amazonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark I Abrahams

    Full Text Available The degree to which terrestrial vertebrate populations are depleted in tropical forests occupied by human communities has been the subject of an intense polarising debate that has important conservation implications. Conservation ecologists and practitioners are divided over the extent to which community-based subsistence offtake is compatible with ecologically functional populations of tropical forest game species. To quantify depletion envelopes of forest vertebrates around human communities, we deployed a total of 383 camera trap stations and 78 quantitative interviews to survey the peri-community areas controlled by 60 semi-subsistence communities over a combined area of over 3.2 million hectares in the Médio Juruá and Uatumã regions of Central-Western Brazilian Amazonia. Our results largely conform with prior evidence that hunting large-bodied vertebrates reduces wildlife populations near settlements, such that they are only found at a distance to settlements where they are hunted less frequently. Camera trap data suggest that a select few harvest-sensitive species, including lowland tapir, are either repelled or depleted by human communities. Nocturnal and cathemeral species were detected relatively more frequently in disturbed areas close to communities, but individual species did not necessarily shift their activity patterns. Group biomass of all species was depressed in the wider neighbourhood of urban areas rather than communities. Interview data suggest that species traits, especially group size and body mass, mediate these relationships. Large-bodied, large-group-living species are detected farther from communities as reported by experienced informants. Long-established communities in our study regions have not "emptied" the surrounding forest. Low human population density and low hunting offtake due to abundant sources of alternative aquatic protein, suggest that these communities represent a best-case scenario for sustainable

  10. Measuring local depletion of terrestrial game vertebrates by central-place hunters in rural Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Carlos A.; Costa, Hugo C. M.

    2017-01-01

    The degree to which terrestrial vertebrate populations are depleted in tropical forests occupied by human communities has been the subject of an intense polarising debate that has important conservation implications. Conservation ecologists and practitioners are divided over the extent to which community-based subsistence offtake is compatible with ecologically functional populations of tropical forest game species. To quantify depletion envelopes of forest vertebrates around human communities, we deployed a total of 383 camera trap stations and 78 quantitative interviews to survey the peri-community areas controlled by 60 semi-subsistence communities over a combined area of over 3.2 million hectares in the Médio Juruá and Uatumã regions of Central-Western Brazilian Amazonia. Our results largely conform with prior evidence that hunting large-bodied vertebrates reduces wildlife populations near settlements, such that they are only found at a distance to settlements where they are hunted less frequently. Camera trap data suggest that a select few harvest-sensitive species, including lowland tapir, are either repelled or depleted by human communities. Nocturnal and cathemeral species were detected relatively more frequently in disturbed areas close to communities, but individual species did not necessarily shift their activity patterns. Group biomass of all species was depressed in the wider neighbourhood of urban areas rather than communities. Interview data suggest that species traits, especially group size and body mass, mediate these relationships. Large-bodied, large-group-living species are detected farther from communities as reported by experienced informants. Long-established communities in our study regions have not “emptied” the surrounding forest. Low human population density and low hunting offtake due to abundant sources of alternative aquatic protein, suggest that these communities represent a best-case scenario for sustainable hunting of

  11. The 2003 Update of the ASPO Oil and Gas Depletion Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Colin; Sivertsson, Anders [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Hydrocarbon Depletion Study Group

    2003-07-01

    What we can term the ASPO Oil and Gas Depletion Model has developed over many years, based on an evolving knowledge of the resource base, culled from many sources, and evolving ideas about how to model depletion. It is sure that the estimates and forecasts are incorrect. The question is: By how much? The model recognises so-called Regular Oil, which excludes the following categories: Oil from coal and shale; Bitumen and synthetics derived therefrom; Extra Heavy Oil (<10 deg API); Heavy Oil (10-17 deg API); Deepwater Oil (>500 m); Polar Oil; Liquids from gas fields and gas plants. It has provided most oil to-date and will dominate all supply far into the future. Its depletion therefore determines the date of peak. The evidence suggests that about 896 Gb (billion barrels) had been produced to end 2002; about 871 Gb remain to produce from known fields and about 113 Gb is expected to be produced from new fields. It is convenient to set a cut-off of, say 2075, for such production, to avoid having to worry about the tail end that can drag on for a long time. A simple depletion model assumes that production declines at the current Depletion Rate (annual production as a percentage of future production) or at the Midpoint Rate in countries that have not yet reached Midpoint (namely half the total). The five main Middle East producers, which hold about half of what remains, are assumed to exercise a swing role, making up the difference between world demand and what the other countries can supply. The base case scenario assumes that consumption will be on average flat until 2010 because of recession; and that the Middle East swing role will end then, as in practice those countries will no longer have the capacity to discharge it. Whether the Iraq war results in extending or shortening the swing role remains to be seen. Adding the contributions of the other categories of oil and gas liquids gives an overall peak in 2010. Gas depletes differently, being more influenced by

  12. Contamination by depleted uranium (Du) in South Serbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popovic, L.; Todorovic, J.; Bozic, P.; Stevanovic, Z.

    2006-01-01

    The paper present the results of the study on D.U. (depleted uranium) contamination in the environment and possible effects on animal healths in the region o f Bujanovac. Samples of soil, feed, leaves, grass, lichen, moss, honey and water were collected randomly in 2003/2004 in the vicinity of the target area (500-1000 m) and 5 km from the target area. Activity of the radionuclides ( 226 Ra, 232 Th, 40 K, 210 Pb, 238 U, 235 U, 137 Cs, 7 Be) in soils, grass, lichen, moss and honey was determined on Hp Ge detector (Canberra, relative efficiency 23%) by standard gamma spectrometry. Total alpha and beta activity in water was determined on proportional alpha/beta counter (Canberra 2400, efficiency for alpha emitters 11%, efficiency for beta emitters 30%). Non significantly higher values of concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th, 238 U and 235 U were measured in the immediate vicinity of the targeted site, but 235 U/ 238 U activity ratio in soils indicated the natural origin of uranium. On both sites the contents of radionuclides in soils were in the range of values measured in soils in Belgrade (2002-2005), at the mountain Stara Planina (1999) and in the region. The soil was found to be poor in potassium. In mosses and lichen, high concentrations of 137 Cs, 7 Be, 226 Ra and 210 Pb were found, while in leaves and grass there were lower concentrations of K, due to soil poor in K. As for uranium, there were no significant variations due to the sites, and 235 U/ 238 U activity ratios were close to values measured in vegetation in the vicinity of power plants 0.07-0.08. In honey, both 238 U and 235 U were below the minimal detectable concentrations. Total alpha and total beta activities measured in water showed no significant differences between the sites, and the obtained values were in range of the permissible values for drinking water in S.M.N. (total alpha activity <0.1 Bq/L, total beta activity <1 Bq/L) Samples of blood of cows and sheep bred in the area were collected

  13. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview October 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-11-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for Monthly gross domestic demand fell by 5.2% compared to October 2016, due to above-normal temperatures. The monthly trade balance was in favour of exports. Total demand corrected for climate contingencies remained stable. Demand by heavy industry continued its upward trend. Monthly nuclear generation fell by 3.3% compared to October 2016. The rainfall deficit resulted in a reduction of almost 11% in hydropower production compared to October 2016. Wind power production rose 46.7% compared to October 2016. Photovoltaic production fell by 2.2% compared to October 2016. The solar load factor fell in almost all French regions compared to October 2016. Market prices continued to increase, in particular in Belgium and in France where nuclear availability was strongly reduced. The monthly balance of trade for France was once again positive in October 2017. 15 new installations went into service in October

  14. A mixed methods study of emotional exhaustion: Energizing and depleting work within an innovative healthcare team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Cindy L; Taborda-Whitt, Caitlin; Frazer, Monica; Schellinger, Sandra; White, Katie M; Kaasovic, Jason; Nelson, Brenda; Chant, Allison

    2017-11-01

    This mixed methods study documents emotional exhaustion experiences among care team members during the development of an innovative team approach for caring for adults with serious illness. A mixed methods study design was employed to examine depleting work experiences that may produce emotional exhaustion, and energizing aspects of the work that may increase meaningfulness of work, thus reducing emotional exhaustion. The population studied included team members involved in care for adults with serious illness (n = 18). Team members were surveyed quarterly over an 18-month period using the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). The MBI measures burnout, defined as the inability to continue work because of the interactional toll of the work. Analyses of MBI data show that although overall levels of burnout are low, 89% of team members reported moderate/high levels of emotional exhaustion during at least one survey period. In order to understand the kinds of work experiences that may produce or ameliorate emotional exhaustion, qualitative interviews were also conducted with team members at the end of the 18-month period. Major qualitative findings indicate that disputes within the team, environmental pressures, and standardisation of meaningful work leave team members feeling depleted. Having authentic relationships with patients, working as a team, believing in the care model, and practicing autonomy and creativity help team members to restore their emotional energy. Supports for team members' well-being are critical for continued innovation. We conclude with recommendations for improving team members' well-being.

  15. The effects of gut commensal bacteria depletion on mice exposed to acute lethal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Bing; Xu Zhiwei; Zhang Chenggang

    2007-01-01

    The prevention and management of bacterial infection are the mainstays of therapies for irradiation victims. However, worries about adverse effects arise from gut commensal flora depletion owing to the broad-spectrum antibiotics treatment. In the present study, we investigated the effects of gut bacteria depletion on the mice receiving total-body irradiation (TBI) at a single dose of 12 Gy. One group of mice was merely exposed to TBI but was free of antibiotic treatment throughout the experiment, while the other two groups of mice were additionally given broad-spectrum antibiotics, either from 2 weeks before or immediately after irradiation. The survival time of each animal in each group was recorded for analysis. Results showed that the mean survival time of mice was longest in the group without antibiotic treatment and shortest in the group treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics from 2 weeks before TBI. In conclusion, our data suggested that depletion of gut commensal bacteria with broad-spectrum antibiotics seemed deleterious for mammals receiving lethal TBI. (author)

  16. Immunity to Schistosoma mansoni in congenitally athymic, irradiated and mast cell-depleted rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, M.J.; Bickle, Q.D.; Taylor, M.G.

    1987-01-01

    Immunity to Schistosoma mansoni was investigated in congenitally athymic (Nu/Nu) rats, irradiated rats and in mast cell-depleted rats. Nu/Nu rats failed to develop significant resistance following vaccination with irradiated cercariae, although Nu/Nu recipients of serum from vaccinated Fischer rats (VRS) manifested resistance comparable to heterozygous controls, suggesting that T-cells were required in the induction of resistance but were not involved in the efferent arm of antibody-dependent elimination. Radiosensitive cells (including eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils, lymphocytes and mast cells) were apparently not essential for the antibody-dependent elimination of lung or post-lung stages since irradiated (700-750 rad.) recipients of VRS manifested comparable degrees of resistance to unirradiated controls in spite of a greater than 85% reduction in total blood leucocyte counts after irradiation. Depletion of 99% of tissue mast cells by treatment of rats with Compound 48/80 had no significant effect on the attrition of a challenge infection in rats rendered immune by vaccination with irradiated cercariae or by transfer of VRS. However, there was a significant increase in worm recovery in unimmunized and mast cell-depleted or irradiated rats, indicating that mast cells and perhaps other radio-isotope sensitive cells may be involved in innate resistance. (author)

  17. Arabidopsis Phosphatidic Acid Phosphohydrolases Are Essential for Growth under Nitrogen-Depleted Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yushi Yoshitake

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Arabidopsis homologs of mammalian lipin, PAH1 and PAH2, are cytosolic phosphatidic acid phosphohydrolases that are involved in phospholipid biosynthesis and are essential for growth under phosphate starvation. Here, pah1 pah2 double-knockout mutants were found to be hypersensitive to nitrogen (N starvation, whereas transgenic plants overexpressing PAH1 or PAH2 in the pah1 pah2 mutant background showed a similar growth phenotype as compared with wild type (WT under N starvation. The chlorophyll content of pah1 pah2 was significantly lower than that of WT, whereas the chlorophyll content and photosynthetic activity of the transgenic plants were significantly higher than those of WT under N-depleted conditions. Membrane glycerolipid composition of the pah1 pah2 mutants showed a significant decrease in the mole percent of chloroplast lipids to other phospholipids, whereas membrane lipid composition did not differ between transgenic plants and WT plants. Pulse-chase labeling experiments using plants grown under N-depleted conditions showed that, in pah1 pah2 plants, the labeling percent of chloroplast lipids such as phosphatidylglycerol and monogalactosyldiacylglycerol in the total glycerolipids was significantly lower than in WT. Moreover, N starvation-induced degradation of chloroplast structure was enhanced in pah1 pah2 mutants, and the membrane structure was recovered by complementation with PAH1. Thus, PAH is involved in maintaining chloroplast membrane structure and is required for growth under N-depleted conditions.

  18. Sensitivity Analysis of Depletion Parameters for Heat Load Evaluation of PWR Spent Fuel Storage Pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In Young; Lee, Un Chul

    2011-01-01

    As necessity of safety re-evaluation for spent fuel storage facility has emphasized after the Fukushima accident, accuracy improvement of heat load evaluation has become more important to acquire reliable thermal-hydraulic evaluation results. As groundwork, parametric and sensitivity analyses of various storage conditions for Kori Unit 4 spent fuel storage pool and spent fuel depletion parameters such as axial burnup effect, operation history, and specific heat are conducted using ORIGEN2 code. According to heat load evaluation and parametric sensitivity analyses, decay heat of last discharged fuel comprises maximum 80.42% of total heat load of storage facility and there is a negative correlation between effect of depletion parameters and cooling period. It is determined that specific heat is most influential parameter and operation history is secondly influential parameter. And decay heat of just discharged fuel is varied from 0.34 to 1.66 times of average value and decay heat of 1 year cooled fuel is varied from 0.55 to 1.37 times of average value in accordance with change of specific power. Namely depletion parameters can cause large variation in decay heat calculation of short-term cooled fuel. Therefore application of real operation data instead of user selection value is needed to improve evaluation accuracy. It is expected that these results could be used to improve accuracy of heat load assessment and evaluate uncertainty of calculated heat load.

  19. The depletion of nuclear glutathione impairs cell proliferation in 3t3 fibroblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Markovic

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Glutathione is considered essential for survival in mammalian cells and yeast but not in prokaryotic cells. The presence of a nuclear pool of glutathione has been demonstrated but its role in cellular proliferation and differentiation is still a matter of debate.We have studied proliferation of 3T3 fibroblasts for a period of 5 days. Cells were treated with two well known depleting agents, diethyl maleate (DEM and buthionine sulfoximine (BSO, and the cellular and nuclear glutathione levels were assessed by analytical and confocal microscopic techniques, respectively. Both agents decreased total cellular glutathione although depletion by BSO was more sustained. However, the nuclear glutathione pool resisted depletion by BSO but not with DEM. Interestingly, cell proliferation was impaired by DEM, but not by BSO. Treating the cells simultaneously with DEM and with glutathione ethyl ester to restore intracellular GSH levels completely prevented the effects of DEM on cell proliferation.Our results demonstrate the importance of nuclear glutathione in the control of cell proliferation in 3T3 fibroblasts and suggest that a reduced nuclear environment is necessary for cells to progress in the cell cycle.

  20. Immunity to Schistosoma mansoni in congenitally athymic, irradiated and mast cell-depleted rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, M.J.; Bickle, Q.D.; Taylor, M.G.

    1987-04-01

    Immunity to Schistosoma mansoni was investigated in congenitally athymic (Nu/Nu) rats, irradiated rats and in mast cell-depleted rats. Nu/Nu rats failed to develop significant resistance following vaccination with irradiated cercariae, although Nu/Nu recipients of serum from vaccinated Fischer rats (VRS) manifested resistance comparable to heterozygous controls, suggesting that T-cells were required in the induction of resistance but were not involved in the efferent arm of antibody-dependent elimination. Radiosensitive cells (including eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils, lymphocytes and mast cells) were apparently not essential for the antibody-dependent elimination of lung or post-lung stages since irradiated (700-750 rad.) recipients of VRS manifested comparable degrees of resistance to unirradiated controls in spite of a greater than 85% reduction in total blood leucocyte counts after irradiation. Depletion of 99% of tissue mast cells by treatment of rats with Compound 48/80 had no significant effect on the attrition of a challenge infection in rats rendered immune by vaccination with irradiated cercariae or by transfer of VRS. However, there was a significant increase in worm recovery in unimmunized and mast cell-depleted or irradiated rats, indicating that mast cells and perhaps other radio-isotope sensitive cells may be involved in innate resistance.

  1. Neutron irradiation test of depleted CMOS pixel detector prototypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandić, I.; Cindro, V.; Gorišek, A.; Hiti, B.; Kramberger, G.; Mikuž, M.; Zavrtanik, M.; Hemperek, T.; Daas, M.; Hügging, F.; Krüger, H.; Pohl, D.-L.; Wermes, N.; Gonella, L.

    2017-01-01

    Charge collection properties of depleted CMOS pixel detector prototypes produced on p-type substrate of 2 kΩ cm initial resistivity (by LFoundry 150 nm process) were studied using Edge-TCT method before and after neutron irradiation. The test structures were produced for investigation of CMOS technology in tracking detectors for experiments at HL-LHC upgrade. Measurements were made with passive detector structures in which current pulses induced on charge collecting electrodes could be directly observed. Thickness of depleted layer was estimated and studied as function of neutron irradiation fluence. An increase of depletion thickness was observed after first two irradiation steps to 1 · 10 13 n/cm 2 and 5 · 10 13 n/cm 2 and attributed to initial acceptor removal. At higher fluences the depletion thickness at given voltage decreases with increasing fluence because of radiation induced defects contributing to the effective space charge concentration. The behaviour is consistent with that of high resistivity silicon used for standard particle detectors. The measured thickness of the depleted layer after irradiation with 1 · 10 15 n/cm 2 is more than 50 μm at 100 V bias. This is sufficient to guarantee satisfactory signal/noise performance on outer layers of pixel trackers in HL-LHC experiments.

  2. OZONE DEPLETING SUBSTANCES ELIMINATION MANAGEMENT: THE SUCCESS STORY OF MACEDONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Matlievska

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Man, with its activities, produces and uses substances that have negative impact on the environment and the human health, and can cause an economic damage. Consequently, they have a great impact on quality of life. Among the most harmful chemicals are Ozone Depleting Substances that are subject of regulation with international conventions. This Paper supports the fact that each country has to undertake national efforts for ozone depleting substances reduction and elimination. In that respect, the general objective of the Paper is to present the Macedonian unique experience regarding its efforts to reduce or eliminate these substances. The following two aspects were subject to the research: national legislation which regulates the Ozone Depleting Substances import and export as well as the implementation of the projects that resulted with the elimination of Ozone Depleting Substances quantities in the period 1995 – 2010. The research outcomes confirm the starting research hypothesis i.e. that with adequately created and implemented national action, the amount of Ozone Depleting Substances consumption can dramatically fall.

  3. Examining depletion theories under conditions of within-task transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Gene A; Lau, Kevin K H; Wingert, Kimberly M; Ball, B Hunter; Blais, Chris

    2017-07-01

    In everyday life, mental fatigue can be detrimental across many domains including driving, learning, and working. Given the importance of understanding and accounting for the deleterious effects of mental fatigue on behavior, a growing body of literature has studied the role of motivational and executive control processes in mental fatigue. In typical laboratory paradigms, participants complete a task that places demand on these self-control processes and are later given a subsequent task. Generally speaking, decrements to subsequent task performance are taken as evidence that the initial task created mental fatigue through the continued engagement of motivational and executive functions. Several models have been developed to account for negative transfer resulting from this "ego depletion." In the current study, we provide a brief literature review, specify current theoretical approaches to ego-depletion, and report an empirical test of current models of depletion. Across 4 experiments we found minimal evidence for executive control depletion along with strong evidence for motivation mediated ego depletion. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. The Physical Origin of Long Gas Depletion Times in Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semenov, Vadim A.; Kravtsov, Andrey V.; Gnedin, Nickolay Y.

    2017-08-18

    We present a model that elucidates why gas depletion times in galaxies are long compared to the time scales of the processes driving the evolution of the interstellar medium. We show that global depletion times are not set by any "bottleneck" in the process of gas evolution towards the star-forming state. Instead, depletion times are long because star-forming gas converts only a small fraction of its mass into stars before it is dispersed by dynamical and feedback processes. Thus, complete depletion requires that gas transitions between star-forming and non-star-forming states multiple times. Our model does not rely on the assumption of equilibrium and can be used to interpret trends of depletion times with the properties of observed galaxies and the parameters of star formation and feedback recipes in galaxy simulations. In particular, the model explains the mechanism by which feedback self-regulates star formation rate in simulations and makes it insensitive to the local star formation efficiency. We illustrate our model using the results of an isolated $L_*$-sized disk galaxy simulation that reproduces the observed Kennicutt-Schmidt relation for both molecular and atomic gas. Interestingly, the relation for molecular gas is close to linear on kiloparsec scales, even though a non-linear relation is adopted in simulation cells. This difference is due to stellar feedback, which breaks the self-similar scaling of the gas density PDF with the average gas surface density.

  5. Bond rupture between colloidal particles with a depletion interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitaker, Kathryn A.; Furst, Eric M., E-mail: furst@udel.edu [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering and Center for Molecular and Engineering Thermodynamics, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    The force required to break the bonds of a depletion gel is measured by dynamically loading pairs of colloidal particles suspended in a solution of a nonadsorbing polymer. Sterically stabilized poly(methyl methacrylate) colloids that are 2.7 μm diameter are brought into contact in a solvent mixture of cyclohexane-cyclohexyl bromide and polystyrene polymer depletant. The particle pairs are subject to a tensile load at a constant loading rate over many approach-retraction cycles. The stochastic nature of the thermal rupture events results in a distribution of bond rupture forces with an average magnitude and variance that increases with increasing depletant concentration. The measured force distribution is described by the flux of particle pairs sampling the energy barrier of the bond interaction potential based on the Asakura–Oosawa depletion model. A transition state model demonstrates the significance of lubrication hydrodynamic interactions and the effect of the applied loading rate on the rupture force of bonds in a depletion gel.

  6. Automated red blood cell depletion in ABO incompatible grafts in the pediatric setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Fante, Claudia; Scudeller, Luigia; Recupero, Santina; Viarengo, Gianluca; Boghen, Stella; Gurrado, Antonella; Zecca, Marco; Seghatchian, Jerard; Perotti, Cesare

    2017-12-01

    Bone marrow ABO incompatible transplantations require graft manipulation prior to infusion to avoid potentially lethal side effects. We analyzed the influence of pre-manipulation factors (temperature at arrival, transit time, time of storage at 4°C until processing and total time from collection to red blood cell depletion) on the graft quality of 21 red blood cell depletion procedures in ABO incompatible pediatric transplants. Bone marrow collections were processed using the Spectra Optia ® (Terumo BCT) automated device. Temperature at arrival ranged between 4°C and 6°C, median transit time was 9.75h (range 0.33-28), median time of storage at 4°-6°C until processing was 1.8h (range 0.41-18.41) and median time from collection to RBC depletion was 21h (range1-39.4). Median percentage of red blood cell depletion was 97.7 (range 95.4-98.5), median mononuclear cells recovery was 92.2% (range 40-121.2), median CD34+ cell recovery was 93% (range 69.9-161.2), median cell viability was 97.7% (range 94-99.3) and median volume reduction was 83.9% (range 82-92). Graft quality was not significantly different between BM units median age. Our preliminary data show that when all good manifacturing practices are respected the post-manipulation graft quality is excellent also for those units processed after 24h. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. EOS simulation and GRNN modeling of the constant volume depletion behavior of gas condensate reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsharkawy, A.M.; Foda, S.G. [Kuwait University, Safat (Kuwait). Petroleum Engineering Dept.

    1998-03-01

    Currently, two approaches are being used to predict the changes in retrograde gas condensate composition and estimate the pressure depletion behavior of gas condensate reservoirs. The first approach uses the equation of states whereas the second uses empirical correlations. Equations of states (EOS) are poor predictive tools for complex hydrocarbon systems. The EOS needs adjustment against phase behavior data of reservoir fluid of known composition. The empirical correlation does not involve numerous numerical computations but their accuracy is limited. This study presents two general regression neural network (GRNN) models. The first model, GRNNM1, is developed to predict dew point pressure and gas compressibility at dew point using initial composition of numerous samples while the second model, GRNNM2, is developed to predict the changes in well stream effluent composition at any stages of pressure depletion. GRNNM2 can also be used to determine the initial reservoir fluid composition using dew point pressure, gas compressibility at dew point, and reservoir temperature. These models are based on analysis of 142 sample of laboratory studies of constant volume depletion (CVD) for gas condensate systems forming a total of 1082 depletion stages. The database represents a wide range of gas condensate systems obtained worldwide. The performance of the GRNN models has been compared to simulation results of the equation of state. The study shows that the proposed general regression neural network models are accurate, valid, and reliable. These models can be used to forecast CVD data needed for many reservoir engineering calculations in case laboratory data is unavailable. The GRNN models save computer time involved in EOS calculations. The study also show that once these models are properly trained they can be used to cut expenses of frequent sampling and laborious experimental CVD tests required for gas condensate reservoirs. 55 refs., 13 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. Depletion of liver glutathione levels in rats: a potential confound of nose-only inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fechter, Laurence D; Nelson-Miller, Alisa; Gearhart, Caroline

    2008-07-01

    Nose-only inhalation exposure chambers offer key advantages to whole-body systems, particularly when aerosol or mixed aerosol-vapor exposures are used. Specifically, nose-only chambers provide enhanced control over the route of exposure and dose by minimizing the deposition of particles either on the subjects skin/fur or on surfaces of a whole-body exposure system. In the current series of experiments, liver, brain, and lung total glutathione (GSH) levels were assessed following either nose-only or whole-body exposures to either jet fuel or to clean, filtered air. The data were compared to untreated control subjects. Acute nose-only inhalation exposures of rats resulted in a significant depletion of liver GSH levels both in subjects that were exposed to clean, filtered air as well as those exposed to JP-8 jet fuel and to a synthetic jet fuel. Glutathione levels were not altered in lung or brain tissue. Whole-body inhalation exposure had no effect on GSH levels in any tissue for any of the treatment groups. A second experiment demonstrated that the loss of GSH did not occur if rats were anaesthetized prior to and during nose-only exposure to clean, filtered air or to mixed hydrocarbons. These data appear to be consistent with studies demonstrating depletion in liver GSH levels among rats subjected to restraint stress. Finally, the depletion of GSH that was observed in liver following a single acute exposure was reduced following five daily exposures to clean, filtered air, suggesting the possibility of habituation to restraint in the nose-only exposure chamber. The finding that placement in a nose-only exposure chamber per se yields liver GSH depletion raises the possibility of an interaction between this mode of toxicant exposure and the toxicological effects of certain inhaled test substances.

  9. Evaluation of two main RNA-seq approaches for gene quantification in clinical RNA sequencing: polyA+ selection versus rRNA depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shanrong; Zhang, Ying; Gamini, Ramya; Zhang, Baohong; von Schack, David

    2018-03-19

    To allow efficient transcript/gene detection, highly abundant ribosomal RNAs (rRNA) are generally removed from total RNA either by positive polyA+ selection or by rRNA depletion (negative selection) before sequencing. Comparisons between the two methods have been carried out by various groups, but the assessments have relied largely on non-clinical samples. In this study, we evaluated these two RNA sequencing approaches using human blood and colon tissue samples. Our analyses showed that rRNA depletion captured more unique transcriptome features, whereas polyA+ selection outperformed rRNA depletion with higher exonic coverage and better accuracy of gene quantification. For blood- and colon-derived RNAs, we found that 220% and 50% more reads, respectively, would have to be sequenced to achieve the same level of exonic coverage in the rRNA depletion method compared with the polyA+ selection method. Therefore, in most cases we strongly recommend polyA+ selection over rRNA depletion for gene quantification in clinical RNA sequencing. Our evaluation revealed that a small number of lncRNAs and small RNAs made up a large fraction of the reads in the rRNA depletion RNA sequencing data. Thus, we recommend that these RNAs are specifically depleted to improve the sequencing depth of the remaining RNAs.

  10. Natural gas monthly, May 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is ``Restructuring energy industries: Lessons from natural gas.`` 6 figs., 26 tabs.

  11. Natural gas monthly, June 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is the executive summary from Natural Gas 1994: Issues and Trends. 6 figs., 31 tabs.

  12. Characterizing low affinity epibatidine binding to α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors with ligand depletion and nonspecific binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Along with high affinity binding of epibatidine (Kd1≈10 pM) to α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR), low affinity binding of epibatidine (Kd2≈1-10 nM) to an independent binding site has been reported. Studying this low affinity binding is important because it might contribute understanding about the structure and synthesis of α4β2 nAChR. The binding behavior of epibatidine and α4β2 AChR raises a question about interpreting binding data from two independent sites with ligand depletion and nonspecific binding, both of which can affect equilibrium binding of [3H]epibatidine and α4β2 nAChR. If modeled incorrectly, ligand depletion and nonspecific binding lead to inaccurate estimates of binding constants. Fitting total equilibrium binding as a function of total ligand accurately characterizes a single site with ligand depletion and nonspecific binding. The goal of this study was to determine whether this approach is sufficient with two independent high and low affinity sites. Results Computer simulations of binding revealed complexities beyond fitting total binding for characterizing the second, low affinity site of α4β2 nAChR. First, distinguishing low-affinity specific binding from nonspecific binding was a potential problem with saturation data. Varying the maximum concentration of [3H]epibatidine, simultaneously fitting independently measured nonspecific binding, and varying α4β2 nAChR concentration were effective remedies. Second, ligand depletion helped identify the low affinity site when nonspecific binding was significant in saturation or competition data, contrary to a common belief that ligand depletion always is detrimental. Third, measuring nonspecific binding without α4β2 nAChR distinguished better between nonspecific binding and low-affinity specific binding under some circumstances of competitive binding than did presuming nonspecific binding to be residual [3H]epibatidine binding after adding a large concentration of

  13. Characterizing low affinity epibatidine binding to α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors with ligand depletion and nonspecific binding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Person Alexandra M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Along with high affinity binding of epibatidine (Kd1≈10 pM to α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR, low affinity binding of epibatidine (Kd2≈1-10 nM to an independent binding site has been reported. Studying this low affinity binding is important because it might contribute understanding about the structure and synthesis of α4β2 nAChR. The binding behavior of epibatidine and α4β2 AChR raises a question about interpreting binding data from two independent sites with ligand depletion and nonspecific binding, both of which can affect equilibrium binding of [3H]epibatidine and α4β2 nAChR. If modeled incorrectly, ligand depletion and nonspecific binding lead to inaccurate estimates of binding constants. Fitting total equilibrium binding as a function of total ligand accurately characterizes a single site with ligand depletion and nonspecific binding. The goal of this study was to determine whether this approach is sufficient with two independent high and low affinity sites. Results Computer simulations of binding revealed complexities beyond fitting total binding for characterizing the second, low affinity site of α4β2 nAChR. First, distinguishing low-affinity specific binding from nonspecific binding was a potential problem with saturation data. Varying the maximum concentration of [3H]epibatidine, simultaneously fitting independently measured nonspecific binding, and varying α4β2 nAChR concentration were effective remedies. Second, ligand depletion helped identify the low affinity site when nonspecific binding was significant in saturation or competition data, contrary to a common belief that ligand depletion always is detrimental. Third, measuring nonspecific binding without α4β2 nAChR distinguished better between nonspecific binding and low-affinity specific binding under some circumstances of competitive binding than did presuming nonspecific binding to be residual [3H]epibatidine binding after

  14. Resource depletion promotes automatic processing: implications for distribution of practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheel, Matthew H

    2010-12-01

    Recent models of cognition include two processing systems: an automatic system that relies on associative learning, intuition, and heuristics, and a controlled system that relies on deliberate consideration. Automatic processing requires fewer resources and is more likely when resources are depleted. This study showed that prolonged practice on a resource-depleting mental arithmetic task promoted automatic processing on a subsequent problem-solving task, as evidenced by faster responding and more errors. Distribution of practice effects (0, 60, 120, or 180 sec. between problems) on rigidity also disappeared when groups had equal time on resource-depleting tasks. These results suggest that distribution of practice effects is reducible to resource availability. The discussion includes implications for interpreting discrepancies in the traditional distribution of practice effect.

  15. Local condensate depletion at trap center under strong interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukalov, V. I.; Yukalova, E. P.

    2018-04-01

    Cold trapped Bose-condensed atoms, interacting via hard-sphere repulsive potentials are considered. Simple mean-field approximations show that the condensate distribution inside a harmonic trap always has the shape of a hump with the maximum condensate density occurring at the trap center. However, Monte Carlo simulations at high density and strong interactions display the condensate depletion at the trap center. The explanation of this effect of local condensate depletion at trap center is suggested in the frame of self-consistent theory of Bose-condensed systems. The depletion is shown to be due to the existence of the anomalous average that takes into account pair correlations and appears in systems with broken gauge symmetry.

  16. Electrophoretic analysis of cyanide depletion by Pseudomonas alcaligenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaugg, S E; Davidson, R A; Walker, J C; Walker, E B

    1997-02-01

    Bacterial-facilitated depletion of cyanide is under development for remediation of heap leach operations in the gold mining industry. Capillary electrophoresis was found to be a powerful tool for quantifying cyanide depletion. Changes in cyanide concentration in aqueous suspensions of Pseudomonas alcaligenes bacteria and cyanide at elevated pH were easily monitored by capillary electrophoresis. The resulting data can be used to study rates of cyanide depletion by this strain of bacteria. Concentrations of these bacteria at 10(5) cells/mL were found to reduce cyanide from 100 ppm to less than 8 ppm in four days. In addition, other ions of interest in cyanide metabolism, such as formate, can be simultaneously analyzed. Direct UV detection of cyanide at 192 nm further simplifies the analytical method for these ions.

  17. Emittance increase caused by core depletion in collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Bruce, R

    2009-01-01

    A new effect is presented, which changes the emittance during colliding-beam operation in circular colliders. If the initial transverse distribution is Gaussian, the collision probability is much higher for particles in the core of the beam than in the tails. When small-amplitude particles are removed, the remaining ones therefore have a larger transverse emittance. This effect, called core depletion, may cause a decrease in luminosity. An approximate analytic model is developed to study the effect and benchmarked against a multiparticle tracking simulation. Finally, the time evolution of the intensity and emittances of a Pb bunch in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is calculated, taking into account also other processes than collisions. The results show that integrated luminosity drops by 3--4% if core depletion is taken into account. It is also found that core depletion causes the transverse emittance to be larger when more experiments are active. This observation could be checked against experimenta...

  18. International aspects of restrictions of ozone-depleting substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, S.C.

    1989-10-01

    This report summarizes international efforts to protect stratospheric ozone. Also included in this report is a discussion of activities in other countries to meet restrictions in the production and use of ozone-depleting substances. Finally, there is a brief presentation of trade and international competitiveness issues relating to the transition to alternatives for the regulated chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and halons. The stratosphere knows no international borders. Just as the impact of reduced stratospheric ozone will be felt internationally, so protection of the ozone layer is properly an international effort. Unilateral action, even by a country that produces and used large quantities of ozone-depleting substances, will not remedy the problem of ozone depletion if other countries do not follow suit. 32 refs., 7 tabs.

  19. Your Baby's Growth: 12 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Your Baby's Growth: 12 Months KidsHealth / For Parents / Your Baby's ... doubled his or her birth weight. Is My Baby Growing Normally? Babies' growth begins to slow as ...

  20. Developmental milestones record - 4 months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are expected to develop certain physical and mental skills. These skills are called milestones. Information All children develop a ... your child's health care provider. PHYSICAL AND MOTOR SKILLS The typical 4-month-old baby should: Slow ...

  1. Your Child's Development: 1 Month

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Child’s Development: 1 Month Print en español El desarrollo de su hijo: 1 mes Have you ever ... lying on the tummy, holds head up briefly Social and Emotional Development recognizes mother's voice when upset, ...

  2. Your Child's Development: 2 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Child's Development: 2 Months Print en español El desarrollo de su hijo: 2 meses Your baby develops ... pose) fists remain unclenched half of the time Social and Emotional Development comforts himself or herself, maybe ...

  3. Your Child's Development: 6 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Child's Development: 6 Months Print en español El desarrollo de su hijo: 6 meses Notice your baby ... both ways (back to front, front to back) Social and Emotional Development recognizes and responds happily to ...

  4. Your Child's Development: 15 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Child's Development: 15 Months Print en español El desarrollo de su hijo: 15 meses Toddlers this age ... stacks three blocks scribbles with crayon on paper Social and Emotional Development begins to show preference for ...

  5. Monthly energy review, July 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    This document presents an overview of recent monthly energy statistics. Activities covered include: U.S. production, consumption, trade, stock, and prices for petroleum, coal, natural gas, electricity, and nuclear energy.

  6. Developmental milestones record - 12 months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to 2 naps during the day SENSORY AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT The typical 12-month-old: Begins pretend play ( ... Editorial team. Infant and Newborn Development Read more Toddler Development Read more NIH MedlinePlus Magazine Read more A. ...

  7. Developmental milestones record - 18 months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The typical 18-month-old: Shows affection Has separation anxiety Listens to a story or looks at pictures Can say 10 or more words when asked Kisses parents with lips puckered Identifies one or more parts ...

  8. Monthly energy review, May 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This document is a monthly report of Energy Information Administration on production, consumption, stocks, imports, and prices of the principal energy commodities in the United States. International energy data is also presented. 47 figs., 67 tabs

  9. Pump depletion effects in thermal degenerate four-wave mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guha, S.; Chen, W.

    1987-01-01

    Characteristics such as a large magnitude of nonlinearity, fast response, broadband operation, and easy availability make absorbing liquids attractive candidates for performing phase conjugation of optical beams by degenerate four-wave mixing. The coupled-wave equations describing the interaction of four optical fields in an absorbing medium have been solved previously for the case of no pump depletion and no self-action of any of the beams. When studying phase conjugation oscillation, however, the effect of depletion of the pump beams on the phase conjugate reflectivity must be considered. Moreover, in absorbing media the self-action effects are always present. The coupled-wave equations, including the self-action terms for all four waves involved, are derived here for the first time to the authors' knowledge. For the case of small absorption, these equations are solved analytically, and the effect of pump depletion on phase conjugate reflectivity R is determined. In the absence of the pump depletion, R is proportional to tan 2 (Ql), where Ql is a dimensionless gain parameter characterizing the nonlinear medium and the input pump power. When pump depletion and self-action are included, R does not go to infinity when Ql equals odd multiples of π2. Instead R takes on values dependent on the probe ratio q 1 , which is the ratio of the input probe irradiance to the input pump irradiance. The authors find that the maximum value for R is 1q 1 . They also find that for Ql close to odd multiples of π2, the reflectivity is significantly reduced from the value obtained by ignoring pump depletion, even for probe ratios as small as one-tenth of 1%. Experimental confirmation of this theory, using an argon-ion laser as the pump and carbon tetrachloride mixed with a dye as the absorbing medium, is in progress and is reported

  10. Natural gas monthly, October 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  11. Natural gas monthly, May 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  12. Natural gas monthly, June 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  13. Monthly energy review, April 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. The MER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public.

  14. Electric Power Monthly, March 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly summaries of electric utility statistics at the national, Census division, and state level. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data are presented on generation, fuel consumption, stockpiles, costs, sales, and unusual occurrences. Fuels considered are: coal, petroleum, natural gas, nuclear power, and hydroelectric power. 4 figs., 48 tabs

  15. Monthly energy review, August 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. The MER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. 37 figs., 73 tabs.

  16. Natural gas monthly, August 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-24

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  17. Natural gas monthly, November 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground state data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information

  18. Molecular dynamics study of lubricant depletion by pulsed laser heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Young Woo; Rosenkranz, Andreas; Talke, Frank E.

    2018-05-01

    In this study, molecular dynamics simulations were performed to numerically investigate the effect of pulsed laser heating on lubricant depletion. The maximum temperature, the lubricant depletion width, the number of evaporated lubricant beads and the number of fragmented lubricant chains were studied as a function of laser peak power, pulse duration and repetition rate. A continuous-wave laser and a square pulse laser were simulated and compared to a Gaussian pulse laser. With increasing repetition rate, pulsed laser heating was found to approach continuous-wave laser heating.

  19. Choice and ego-depletion: the moderating role of autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moller, Arlen C; Deci, Edward L; Ryan, Richard M

    2006-08-01

    The self-regulatory strength model maintains that all acts of self-regulation, self-control, and choice result in a state of fatigue called ego-depletion. Self-determination theory differentiates between autonomous regulation and controlled regulation. Because making decisions represents one instance of self-regulation, the authors also differentiate between autonomous choice and controlled choice. Three experiments support the hypothesis that whereas conditions representing controlled choice would be egodepleting, conditions that represented autonomous choice would not. In Experiment 3, the authors found significant mediation by perceived self-determination of the relation between the choice condition (autonomous vs. controlled) and ego-depletion as measured by performance.

  20. Depleted uranium determination at the Novi Sad low level facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bikit, I.; Slivka, J.; Krmar, M.; Veskovic, M.; Conkic, Lj.; Varga, E.

    2002-01-01

    Natural uranium determination in environmental samples at the low-level gamma-spectroscopy laboratory of the Faculty of Science in Novi Sad has more than 20 years long tradition. When the issue of depleted uranium emerged the experimental advantages of the measuring equipment (GMX type of HPGe detector with enhanced efficiency below 100 keV, and iron low level shielding) where fully exploited. A detection technique selective for depleted uranium was developed. The details of this method together with the results for about 100 samples (soil, plants, water, food) are presented, and discussed. (author)

  1. Nuclear data for actinide production and depletion calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    The status of nuclear cross section data required for actinide depletion calculations in thermal reactors is summarized, and recommendations are made for future work. The primary fertile and fissile nuclides ( 232 Th, 233 U, 235 U, 238 U, and 239 Pu) are not reviewed. Nuclear data for the transactinium mass region are, with few exceptions, reasonably complete and adequate for current thermal-reactor depletion calculations. There is a real need, however, for well-documented reactor production studies to use as benchmarks for data testing. 3 figures, 6 tables

  2. Impact and mitigation of stratospheric ozone depletion by chemical rockets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcdonald, A.J.

    1992-03-01

    The American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) conducted a workshop in conjunction with the 1991 AIAA Joint Propulsion Conference in Sacramento, California, to assess the impact of chemical rocket propulsion on the environment. The workshop included recognized experts from the fields of atmospheric physics and chemistry, solid rocket propulsion, liquid rocket propulsion, government, and environmental agencies, and representatives from several responsible environmental organizations. The conclusion from this workshop relative to stratospheric ozone depletion was that neither solid nor liquid rocket launchers have a significant impact on stratospheric ozone depletion, and that there is no real significant difference between the two

  3. ROLE OF NUCLEONIC FERMI SURFACE DEPLETION IN NEUTRON STAR COOLING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, J. M.; Zuo, W. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Lombardo, U. [Universita di Catania and Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (INFN), Catania I-95123 (Italy); Zhang, H. F. [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2016-01-20

    The Fermi surface depletion of beta-stable nuclear matter is calculated to study its effects on several physical properties that determine the neutron star (NS) thermal evolution. The neutron and proton Z factors measuring the corresponding Fermi surface depletions are calculated within the Brueckner–Hartree–Fock approach, employing the AV18 two-body force supplemented by a microscopic three-body force. Neutrino emissivity, heat capacity, and in particular neutron {sup 3}PF{sub 2} superfluidity, turn out to be reduced, especially at high baryonic density, to such an extent that the cooling rates of young NSs are significantly slowed.

  4. The depletion of aqueous nitrous acid in packed towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Counce, R.M.; Crawford, D.B.

    1987-01-01

    The depletion of aqueous nitrous acid was studied at 298 0 K and at slightly greater than atmospheric pressure. Solutions containing nitrous and nitric acids were contacted with nitrogen in towers packed with 6- and 13-mm Intalox saddles. The results indicate the existence of two depletion mechanisms for the conditions studied - liquid-phase decomposition and direct desorption of nitrous acid. Models based on mass-transfer and chemical-kinetic information are presented to explain the experimental results. 24 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Long-term management and use of depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Max, A.

    2001-01-01

    The products resulting from the process of enrichment of natural uranium, or reprocessed uranium, are enriched uranium products as the light fraction and depleted uranium (uranium tails) as the heavy fraction. If the source material is natural uranium, the mass ratios of uranium products and uranium tails can be derived relatively easily from the required enrichment level of the uranium product (product assay (% of U-235)) and the selected depletion level of the uranium tails (tails assay (% of U-235)). The paper discusses among other aspects the dependence of the tails mass on the required enrichment level of the relevant uranium product, for various tails assays. (orig./CB) [de

  6. Monte carlo depletion analysis of SMART core by MCNAP code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Jong Sung; Sim, Hyung Jin; Kim, Chang Hyo; Lee, Jung Chan; Ji, Sung Kyun

    2001-01-01

    Depletion an analysis of SMART, a small-sized advanced integral PWR under development by KAERI, is conducted using the Monte Carlo (MC) depletion analysis program, MCNAP. The results are compared with those of the CASMO-3/ MASTER nuclear analysis. The difference between MASTER and MCNAP on k eff prediction is observed about 600pcm at BOC, and becomes smaller as the core burnup increases. The maximum difference bet ween two predict ions on fuel assembly (FA) normalized power distribution is about 6.6% radially , and 14.5% axially but the differences are observed to lie within standard deviation of MC estimations

  7. Risks associated to the depleted uranium in the piercing shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Following the complaints lodged by military personnel against the consequences of the utilization of depleted uranium in weapons during the Balkans war (1995-1999), the governments of six concerned countries asked information to the NATO. In this paper the IPSN gives its own opinion on this problem: the characteristics of the uranium and the depleted uranium, the impacts of the shell fires on the human and the environment. To establish the risks in terms of leukemia and the liabilities the IPSN advises more biological tests and more information on the shells utilization. (A.L.B.)

  8. A new memory effect (MSD) in fully depleted SOI MOSFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawedin, M.; Cristoloveanu, S.; Yun, J. G.; Flandre, D.

    2005-09-01

    We demonstrate that the transconductance and drain current of fully depleted MOSFETs can display an interesting time-dependent hysteresis. This new memory effect, called meta-stable dip (MSD), is mainly due to the long carrier generation lifetime in the silicon film. Our parametric analysis shows that the memory window can be adjusted in view of practical applications. Various measurement conditions and devices with different doping, front oxide and silicon film thicknesses are systematically explored. The MSD effect can be generalized to several fully depleted CMOS technologies. The MSD mechanism is discussed and validated by two-dimensional simulations results.

  9. Depletion policies for oil-exporting developing economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stournaras, Y A

    1984-01-01

    The fact that most oil-exporting countries are developing economies has important implications for oil supply which have not been properly taken into account in the literature on exhaustible resource depletion. The way in which depletion policies are affected by trade uncertainty, given the high degree of the major oil exporters' 'dependence' on crude oil revenues, by investment time lags which delay the exploitation of (some of) these countries' comparative advantage in a petroleum based development, and by ideological objections to the ideal of a rentier society and to foreign capital are examined.

  10. The manufacturing of depleted uranium biological shield components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metelkin, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    The unique combination of the physical and mechanical properties of uranium made it possible to manufacture biological shield components of transport package container (TPC) for transportation nuclear power plant irradiated fuel and radionuclides of radiation diagnostic instruments. Protective properties are substantially dependent on the nature radionuclide composition of uranium, that why I recommended depleted uranium after radiation chemical processing. Depleted uranium biological shield (DUBS) has improved specific mass-size characteristics compared to a shield made of lead, steel or tungsten. Technological achievements in uranium casting and machining made it possible to manufacture DUBS components of TPC up to 3 tons of mass and up to 2 metres of the maximum size. (authors)

  11. 26 CFR 1.611-1 - Allowance of deduction for depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Allowance of deduction for depletion. 1.611-1... depletion. (a) Depletion of mines, oil and gas wells, other natural deposits, and timber—(1) In general... mines, oil and gas wells, other natural deposits, and timber, a reasonable allowance for depletion. In...

  12. Outcome of children with acute leukemia given HLA-haploidentical HSCT after αβ T-cell and B-cell depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatelli, Franco; Merli, Pietro; Pagliara, Daria; Li Pira, Giuseppina; Falco, Michela; Pende, Daniela; Rondelli, Roberto; Lucarelli, Barbarella; Brescia, Letizia Pomponia; Masetti, Riccardo; Milano, Giuseppe Maria; Bertaina, Valentina; Algeri, Mattia; Pinto, Rita Maria; Strocchio, Luisa; Meazza, Raffaella; Grapulin, Lavinia; Handgretinger, Rupert; Moretta, Alessandro; Bertaina, Alice; Moretta, Lorenzo

    2017-08-03

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) from an HLA-haploidentical relative (haplo-HSCT) is a suitable option for children with acute leukemia (AL) either relapsed or at high-risk of treatment failure. We developed a novel method of graft manipulation based on negative depletion of αβ T and B cells and conducted a prospective trial evaluating the outcome of children with AL transplanted with this approach. Eighty AL children, transplanted between September 2011 and September 2014, were enrolled in the trial. All children were given a fully myeloablative preparative regimen. Anti-T-lymphocyte globulin from day -5 to -3 was used for preventing graft rejection and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD); no patient received any posttransplantation GVHD prophylaxis. Two children experienced primary graft failure. The cumulative incidence of skin-only, grade 1-2 acute GVHD was 30%; no patient developed extensive chronic GVHD. Four patients died, the cumulative incidence of nonrelapse mortality being 5%, whereas 19 relapsed, resulting in a 24% cumulative incidence of relapse. With a median follow-up of 46 months for surviving patients, the 5-year probability of chronic GVHD-free, relapse-free survival (GRFS) is 71%. Total body irradiation-containing preparative regimen was the only variable favorably influencing relapse incidence and GRFS. The outcomes of these 80 patients are comparable to those of 41 and 51 children given transplantation from an HLA-identical sibling or a 10/10 allelic-matched unrelated donor in the same period. These data indicate that haplo-HSCT after αβ T- and B-cell depletion represents a competitive alternative for children with AL in need of urgent allograft. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01810120. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  13. MOPITT Gridded Monthly CO Retrievals (Thermal Infrared Radiances) V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MOPITT L3 files contain daily and monthly mean gridded versions of the daily L2 CO profile and total column retrievals. The averaging kernels associated with...

  14. MOPITT Gridded Monthly CO Retrievals (Near Infrared Radiances) V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MOPITT L3 files contain daily and monthly mean gridded versions of the daily L2 CO profile and total column retrievals. The averaging kernels associated with...

  15. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview September 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-10-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for September 2017. Gross domestic demand increased slightly compared to September 2016, despite a monthly average temperature of less than 3.4 deg. C. The monthly balance of trade was positive (i.e. France was a net exporter) and increased by 73% compared to September 2016. Total demand corrected for climate contingencies remained stable. Demand by large industry continued its upward trend. Nuclear generation was up 11% compared to September 2016 and reached 29.3 TWh. Wind power production increased 66% compared to September 2016. The Greoux-les-Bains photovoltaic plant was connected to the public electricity transmission network. The plant has a generating power of 70 MW. The Grand-Est and Hauts-de-France regions really benefited from the strong winds observed across France. They thus contributed the most to the record levels of solar and wind generation recorded in September. Market prices were up in most European countries despite a notable decline in week 37. The monthly balance of trade remained exporter. 15 new installations went into service in September

  16. Remediation of soils contaminated with particulate depleted uranium by multi stage chemical extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crean, Daniel E. [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield (United Kingdom); Centre for Radiochemistry Research, School of Chemistry, The University of Manchester (United Kingdom); Livens, Francis R.; Sajih, Mustafa [Centre for Radiochemistry Research, School of Chemistry, The University of Manchester (United Kingdom); Stennett, Martin C. [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield (United Kingdom); Grolimund, Daniel; Borca, Camelia N. [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland); Hyatt, Neil C., E-mail: n.c.hyatt@sheffield.ac.uk [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Batch leaching was examined to remediate soils contaminated with munitions depleted uranium. • Site specific maximum extraction was 42–50% total U in single batch with NH{sub 4}HCO{sub 3}. • Analysis of residues revealed partial leaching and secondary carbonate phases. • Sequential batch leaching alternating between NH{sub 4}HCO{sub 3} and citric acid was designed. • Site specific extraction was increased to 68–87% total U in three batch steps. -- Abstract: Contamination of soils with depleted uranium (DU) from munitions firing occurs in conflict zones and at test firing sites. This study reports the development of a chemical extraction methodology for remediation of soils contaminated with particulate DU. Uranium phases in soils from two sites at a UK firing range, MOD Eskmeals, were characterised by electron microscopy and sequential extraction. Uranium rich particles with characteristic spherical morphologies were observed in soils, consistent with other instances of DU munitions contamination. Batch extraction efficiencies for aqueous ammonium bicarbonate (42–50% total DU extracted), citric acid (30–42% total DU) and sulphuric acid (13–19% total DU) were evaluated. Characterisation of residues from bicarbonate-treated soils by synchrotron microfocus X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy revealed partially leached U(IV)-oxide particles and some secondary uranyl-carbonate phases. Based on these data, a multi-stage extraction scheme was developed utilising leaching in ammonium bicarbonate followed by citric acid to dissolve secondary carbonate species. Site specific U extraction was improved to 68–87% total U by the application of this methodology, potentially providing a route to efficient DU decontamination using low cost, environmentally compatible reagents.

  17. Absorption, accumulation and biological effects of depleted uranium in Peyer's patches of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dublineau, I.; Grison, S.; Grandcolas, L.; Baudelin, C.; Tessier, C.; Suhard, D.; Frelon, S.; Cossonnet, C.; Claraz, M.; Ritt, J.; Paquet, P.; Voisin, P.; Gourmelon, P.

    2006-01-01

    The digestive tract is the entry route for radionuclides following the ingestion of contaminated food and/or water wells. It was recently characterized that the small intestine was the main area of uranium absorption throughout the gastrointestinal tract. This study was designed to determine the role played by the Peyer's patches in the intestinal absorption of uranium, as well as the possible accumulation of this radionuclide in lymphoid follicles and the toxicological or pathological consequences on the Peyer's patch function subsequent to the passage and/or accumulation of uranium. Results of experiments performed in Ussing chambers indicate that the apparent permeability to uranium in the intestine was higher (10-fold) in the mucosa than in Peyer's patches ((6.21 ± 1.21 to 0.55 ± 0.35) x 10 -6 cm/s, respectively), demonstrating that the small intestinal epithelium was the preferential pathway for the transmucosal passage of uranium. A quantitative analysis of uranium by ICP-MS following chronic contamination with depleted uranium during 3 or 9 months showed a preferential accumulation of uranium in Peyer's patches (1355% and 1266%, respectively, at 3 and 9 months) as compared with epithelium (890% and 747%, respectively, at 3 and 9 months). Uranium was also detected in the mesenteric lymph nodes (∼5-fold after contamination with DU). The biological effects of this accumulation of depleted uranium after chronic contamination were investigated in Peyer's patches. There was no induction of the apoptosis pathway after chronic DU contamination in Peyer's patches. The results indicate no change in the cytokine expression (Il-10, TGF-β, IFN-γ, TNF-α, MCP-1) in Peyer's patches and in mesenteric lymph nodes, and no modification in the uptake of yeast cells by Peyer's patches. In conclusion, this study shows that the Peyer's patches were a site of retention for uranium following the chronic ingestion of this radionuclide, without any biological consequences of

  18. Total parenteral nutrition - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007239.htm Total parenteral nutrition - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses ...

  19. Total parenteral nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000177.htm Total parenteral nutrition To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses ...

  20. Technique of total thyroidectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, R.S.

    1999-01-01

    It is essential to define the various surgical procedures that are carried out for carcinoma of the thyroid gland. They are thyroid gland, subtotal lobectomy, total thyroidectomy and near total thyroidectomy

  1. Total iron binding capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003489.htm Total iron binding capacity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total iron binding capacity (TIBC) is a blood test to ...

  2. The distribution of depleted uranium contamination in Colonie, NY, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, N.S.; Chenery, S.R.N.; Parrish, R.R.

    2009-01-01

    Uranium oxide particles were dispersed into the environment from a factory in Colonie (NY, USA) by prevailing winds during the 1960s and '70s. Uranium concentrations and isotope ratios from bulk soil samples have been accurately measured using inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry (ICP-QMS) without the need for analyte separation chemistry. The natural range of uranium concentrations in the Colonie soils has been estimated as 0.7-2.1 μg g -1 , with a weighted geometric mean of 1.05 μg g -1 ; the contaminated soil samples comprise uranium up to 500 ± 40 μg g -1 . A plot of 236 U/ 238 U against 235 U/ 238 U isotope ratios describes a mixing line between natural uranium and depleted uranium (DU) in bulk soil samples; scatter from this line can be accounted for by heterogeneity in the DU particulate. The end-member of DU compositions aggregated in these bulk samples comprises (2.05 ± 0.06) x 10 -3235 U/ 238 U, (3.2 ± 0.1) x 10 -5236 U/ 238 U, and (7.1 ± 0.3) x 10 -6234 U/ 238 U. The analytical method is sensitive to as little as 50 ng g -1 DU mixed with the natural uranium occurring in these soils. The contamination footprint has been mapped northward from site, and at least one third of the uranium in a soil sample from the surface 5 cm, collected 5.1 km NNW of the site, is DU. The distribution of contamination within the surface soil horizon follows a trend of exponential decrease with depth, which can be approximated by a simple diffusion model. Bioturbation by earthworms can account for dispersal of contaminant from the soil surface, in the form of primary uranium oxide particulates, and uranyl species that are adsorbed to organic matter. Considering this distribution, the total mass of uranium contamination emitted from the factory is estimated to be c. 4.8 tonnes.

  3. The distribution of depleted uranium contamination in Colonie, NY, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lloyd, N.S., E-mail: nsl3@alumni.leicester.ac.uk [Department of Geology, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Chenery, S.R.N. [British Geological Survey, Kingsley Dunham Centre, Keyworth, Nottingham, NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Parrish, R.R. [Department of Geology, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); NERC Isotope Geosciences Laboratory, Kingsley Dunham Centre, Keyworth, Nottingham, NG12 5GG (United Kingdom)

    2009-12-20

    Uranium oxide particles were dispersed into the environment from a factory in Colonie (NY, USA) by prevailing winds during the 1960s and '70s. Uranium concentrations and isotope ratios from bulk soil samples have been accurately measured using inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry (ICP-QMS) without the need for analyte separation chemistry. The natural range of uranium concentrations in the Colonie soils has been estimated as 0.7-2.1 {mu}g g{sup -1}, with a weighted geometric mean of 1.05 {mu}g g{sup -1}; the contaminated soil samples comprise uranium up to 500 {+-} 40 {mu}g g{sup -1}. A plot of {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U against {sup 235}U/{sup 238}U isotope ratios describes a mixing line between natural uranium and depleted uranium (DU) in bulk soil samples; scatter from this line can be accounted for by heterogeneity in the DU particulate. The end-member of DU compositions aggregated in these bulk samples comprises (2.05 {+-} 0.06) x 10{sup -3235}U/{sup 238}U, (3.2 {+-} 0.1) x 10{sup -5236}U/{sup 238}U, and (7.1 {+-} 0.3) x 10{sup -6234}U/{sup 238}U. The analytical method is sensitive to as little as 50 ng g{sup -1} DU mixed with the natural uranium occurring in these soils. The contamination footprint has been mapped northward from site, and at least one third of the uranium in a soil sample from the surface 5 cm, collected 5.1 km NNW of the site, is DU. The distribution of contamination within the surface soil horizon follows a trend of exponential decrease with depth, which can be approximated by a simple diffusion model. Bioturbation by earthworms can account for dispersal of contaminant from the soil surface, in the form of primary uranium oxide particulates, and uranyl species that are adsorbed to organic matter. Considering this distribution, the total mass of uranium contamination emitted from the factory is estimated to be c. 4.8 tonnes.

  4. Rural protein insufficiency in a wildlife-depleted West African farm-forest landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Schulte-Herbrüggen

    Full Text Available Wildlife is an important source of protein for many people in developing countries. Yet wildlife depletion due to overexploitation is common throughout the humid tropics and its effect on protein security, especially for vulnerable households, is poorly understood. This is problematic for both sustainable rural development and conservation management.This study investigates a key dimension of protein security in a cash-crop farming community living in a wildlife-depleted farm-forest landscape in SW Ghana, a region where protein-energy malnutrition persists. Specifically, we monitored protein sufficiency, defined as whether consumption met daily requirements, as benchmarked by recommended daily allowance (RDA. We focus on whether more vulnerable households were less likely to be able to meet their protein needs, where vulnerability was defined by wealth, agricultural season and gender of the household head. Our central hypothesis was: (a vulnerable households are less likely to consume sufficient protein. In the context that most plant proteins were home-produced, so likely relatively accessible to all households, while most animal proteins were purchased, so likely less accessible to vulnerable households, we tested two further hypotheses: (b vulnerable households depend more on plant protein to cover their protein needs; and (c vulnerable households are less likely to earn sufficient cash income to meet their protein needs through purchased animal sources.Between 14% and 60% of households (depending on plant protein content assumptions consumed less than the RDA for protein, but neither protein consumption nor protein sufficiency co-varied with household vulnerability. Fish, livestock and food crops comprised 85% of total protein intake and strongly affected protein sufficiency. However, bushmeat remained an important protein source (15% of total consumption, especially during the post-harvest season when it averaged 26% of total protein

  5. Total well dominated trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finbow, Arthur; Frendrup, Allan; Vestergaard, Preben D.

    cardinality then G is a total well dominated graph. In this paper we study composition and decomposition of total well dominated trees. By a reversible process we prove that any total well dominated tree can both be reduced to and constructed from a family of three small trees....

  6. The Influence of Agreeableness and Ego Depletion on Emotional Responding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, Anna J; Crowell, Adrienne L; Harmon-Jones, Eddie; Schmeichel, Brandon J

    2017-10-01

    Agreeable individuals report more intense withdrawal-oriented negative emotions across aversive situations. Two studies tested the hypothesis that self-regulatory depletion (i.e., ego depletion) moderates the relationship between trait Agreeableness and negative emotional responding. Ego depletion was manipulated using a writing task. Emotional responding was measured with startle eye-blink responses (Study 1, N = 71) and self-reported valence, arousal, and empathic concern (Study 2, N = 256) during emotional picture viewing. Trait Agreeableness was measured using a questionnaire. In Study 1, Agreeableness predicted especially large startle responses during aversive images and especially small startles during appetitive images. After exercising self-control, the relationship between startle magnitudes and Agreeableness decreased. In Study 2, Agreeableness predicted more empathic concern for aversive images, which in turn predicted heightened self-reported negative emotions. After exercising self-control, the relationship between Agreeableness and empathic concern decreased. Agreeable individuals exhibit heightened negative emotional responding. Ego depletion reduced the link between Agreeableness and negative emotional responding in Study 1 and moderated the indirect effect of Agreeableness on negative emotional responding via empathic concern in Study 2. Empathic concern appears to be a resource-intensive process underlying heightened responding to aversive stimuli among agreeable persons. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Monte Carlo simulation in UWB1 depletion code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovecky, M.; Prehradny, J.; Jirickova, J.; Skoda, R.

    2015-01-01

    U W B 1 depletion code is being developed as a fast computational tool for the study of burnable absorbers in the University of West Bohemia in Pilsen, Czech Republic. In order to achieve higher precision, the newly developed code was extended by adding a Monte Carlo solver. Research of fuel depletion aims at development and introduction of advanced types of burnable absorbers in nuclear fuel. Burnable absorbers (BA) allow the compensation of the initial reactivity excess of nuclear fuel and result in an increase of fuel cycles lengths with higher enriched fuels. The paper describes the depletion calculations of VVER nuclear fuel doped with rare earth oxides as burnable absorber based on performed depletion calculations, rare earth oxides are divided into two equally numerous groups, suitable burnable absorbers and poisoning absorbers. According to residual poisoning and BA reactivity worth, rare earth oxides marked as suitable burnable absorbers are Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy, Ho and Er, while poisoning absorbers include Sc, La, Lu, Y, Ce, Pr and Tb. The presentation slides have been added to the article

  8. Depletion and the dynamics in colloid-polymer mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuinier, R.; Fan, T.H.; Taniguchi, T.

    2015-01-01

    The status of work on the influence of nonadsorbing polymers on depletion dynamics in colloidal dispersions is reviewed. In the past focus has been paid to equilibrium properties of colloid-polymer mixtures. In practice the dynamical behaviour is equally important. Dynamic properties including

  9. Depletion of heterogeneous source species pools predicts future invasion rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew M. Liebhold; Eckehard G. Brockerhoff; Mark Kimberley; Jacqueline Beggs

    2017-01-01

    Predicting how increasing rates of global trade will result in new establishments of potentially damaging invasive species is a question of critical importance to the development of national and international policies aimed at minimizing future invasions. Centuries of historical movement and establishment of invading species may have depleted the supply of species...

  10. ISODEP, A Fuel Depletion Analysis Code for Predicting Isotopic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The trend of results was found to be consistent with those obtained by analytical and other numerical methods. Discovery and Innovation Vol. 13 no. 3/4 December (2001) pp. 184-195. KEY WORDS: depletion analysis, code, research reactor, simultaneous equations, decay of nuclides, radionuclitides, isotope. Résumé

  11. Efficient characterization of fuel depletion in boiling water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.H.

    1980-01-01

    An efficient fuel depletion method for boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel assemblies has been developed for fuel cycle analysis. A computer program HISTORY based on this method was designed to carry out accurate and rapid fuel burnup calculation for the fuel assembly. It has been usefully employed to study the depletion characteristics of the fuel assemblies for the preparation of nodal code input data and the fuel management study. The adequacy and the effectiveness of the assessment of this method used in HISTORY were demonstrated by comparing HISTORY results with more detailed CASMO results. The computing cost of HISTORY typically has been less than one dollar for the fuel assembly-level depletion calculations over the full life of the assembly, in contrast to more than $1000 for CASMO. By combining CASMO and HISTORY, a large number of expensive CASMO calculations can be replaced by inexpensive HISTORY. For the depletion calculations via CASMO/HISTORY, CASMO calculations are required only for the reference conditions and just at the beginning of life for other cases such as changes in void fraction, control rod condition and temperature. The simple and inexpensive HISTORY is sufficienty accurate and fast to be used in conjunction with CASMO for fuel cycle analysis and some BWR design calculations

  12. Ozone Layer Depletion: A Review | Eze | Nigerian Journal of Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, the future behaviour of Ozone will also be affected by the changing atmospheric abundances of methane, nitrous oxide, water vapour, sulphate aerosol, and changing climate. KEY WORDS: Ozone Layer Depletion, Bioeffects, Protection. Nigerian Journal of Health and Biomedical Sciences Vol.4(1) 2005: 67-71 ...

  13. Vitamin D depletion aggravates hypertension and target-organ damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise Bjørkholt; Przybyl, Lukasz; Haase, Nadine

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We tested the controversial hypothesis that vitamin D depletion aggravates hypertension and target-organ damage by influencing renin. METHODS AND RESULTS: Four-week-old double-transgenic rats (dTGR) with excess angiotensin (Ang) II production due to overexpression of the human renin (h......REN) and angiotensinogen (hAGT) genes received vitamin D-depleted (n=18) or standard chow (n=15) for 3 weeks. The depleted group had very low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (mean±SEM; 3.8±0.29 versus 40.6±1.19 nmol/L) and had higher mean systolic BP at week 5 (158±3.5 versus 134.6±3.7 mm Hg, P....6±3.3 versus 162.3±3.8 mm Hg, PVitamin D depletion led to increased relative heart weights and increased serum creatinine concentrations. Furthermore, the mRNAs of natriuretic peptides, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, hREN, and r...

  14. Arterial diameter during central volume depletion in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Helle Klingenberg; Madsen, P; Matzen, S

    1995-01-01

    The luminal diameter of the radial artery was followed by high frequency ultrasound during 50 degrees head-up tilt-induced central volume depletion in ten healthy subjects of whom six were tilted twice and pretreated with the serotonin receptor antagonist methysergide or placebo following a double...

  15. Rapid fish stock depletion in previously unexploited seamounts: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rapid fish stock depletion in previously unexploited seamounts: the case of Beryx splendens from the Sierra Leone Rise (Gulf of Guinea) ... A spectral analysis and red-noise spectra procedure (REDFIT) algorithm was used to identify the red-noise spectrum from the gaps in the observed time-series of catch per unit effort by ...

  16. Energetic magnetospheric protons in the plasma depletion layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuselier, S.A.

    1992-01-01

    Interplanetary magnetic field draping against the Earth's dayside subsolar magnetopause creates a region of reduced plasma density and increased magnetic field called the plasma depletion layer. In this region, leakage of energetic ions from the Earth's magnetosphere onto magnetic field lines in the plasma depletion layer can be studied without interference from ions accelerated at the Earth's quasi-parallel bow shock. Active Magnetospheric Particle Tracer Experiment/Charge Composition Explorer (AMPTE/CCE) observations for 13 plasma depletion layer events are used to determine the characteristics of energetic protons between a few keV/e and ∼100keV/e leaked from the magnetosphere. Results indicate that the leaked proton distributions resemble those in the magnetosphere except that they have lower densities and temperatures and much higher velocities parallel (or antiparallel) and perpendicular to the magnetic field. Compared to the low-energy magnetosheath proton distributions present in the depletion layer, the leaked energetic proton distributions typically have substantially higher flow velocities along the magnetic field indicate that the leaked energetic proton distributions to contribute to the energetic proton population seen upstream and downstream from the quasi-parallel bow shock. However, their contribution is small compared to the contribution from acceleration of protons at the bow shock because the leaked proton densities are on the order of 10 times smaller than the energetic proton densities typically observed in the vicinity of the quasi-parallel bow shock

  17. Apoptosis and T cell depletion during feline infectious peritonitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horzinek, M.C.; Haagmans, B.L.; Egberink, H.F.

    1996-01-01

    Cats that have succumbed to feline infectious peritonitis, an immune- mediated disease caused by variants of feline coronaviruses, show apoptosis and T-cell depletion in their lymphoid organs. The ascitic fluid that develops in the course of the condition causes apoptosis in vitro but only in

  18. American big dirty secret. About the depleted uranium weapons reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, R.J.

    2002-01-01

    From International organizations point of view, as the WHO, the hazard of the depleted uranium weapons use, is more and more obvious for the environment and the people health. The author shows how the USA military Government seems not really ''clean'' on this situation and denounces the danger of such a policy. (A.L.B.)

  19. Energizing and depletion of neutrals by a collisional plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruchtman, A

    2008-01-01

    Neutral depletion can significantly affect the steady state of low temperature plasmas. Recent theoretical analyses predicted previously unexpected effects of neutral depletion in both collisional and collisionless regimes. In this paper we address the effect of the energy deposited in the neutral gas by a collisional plasma. The fraction of power deposited in the neutrals is shown to be independent of the amount of power. The first case we address is of a thermalized neutral gas. It is shown that a low heat conductivity of the neutral gas is followed by a high neutral temperature that results in a high neutral depletion even if the plasma pressure is small. In the second case neutrals are accelerated through charge exchange with ions leading to what we call neutral pumping, which is equivalent to ion pumping in a collisionless plasma. Neutral depletion is found in the second case for both a closed system (no net mass flow) and an open system (a finite mass flow). A thruster that employs a collisional plasma and pumped neutrals is compared with the thruster analyzed before that employs collisionless plasma.

  20. Avoidance goal pursuit depletes self-regulatory resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oertig, D.; Schüler, J.; Schnelle, J.; Brandstätter, V.; Roskes, M.; Elliot, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Research on the strength model of self-regulation is burgeoning, but little empirical work has focused on the link between distinct types of daily goal pursuit and the depletion of self-regulatory resources. Here we conducted two studies on the link between avoidance goals and resource

  1. Avoidance goal pursuit depletes self-regulatory resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oertig, Daniela; Schüler, Julia; Schnelle, Jessica; Brandstätter, Veronika; Roskes, Marieke; Elliot, Andrew J.

    Objective: Research on the strength model of self-regulation is burgeoning, but little empirical work has focused on the link between distinct types of daily goal pursuit and the depletion of self-regulatory resources. The authors conducted two studies on the link between avoidance goals and

  2. Optimal reload and depletion method for pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, D.H.

    1984-01-01

    A new method has been developed to automatically reload and deplete a PWR so that both the enriched inventory requirements during the reactor cycle and the cost of reloading the core are minimized. This is achieved through four stepwise optimization calculations: 1) determination of the minimum fuel requirement for an equivalent three-region core model, 2) optimal selection and allocation of fuel requirement for an equivalent three-region core model, 2) optimal selection and allocation of fuel assemblies for each of the three regions to minimize the cost of the fresh reload fuel, 3) optimal placement of fuel assemblies to conserve regionwise optimal conditions and 4) optimal control through poison management to deplete individual fuel assemblies to maximize EOC k/sub eff/. Optimizing the fuel cost of reloading and depleting a PWR reactor cycle requires solutions to two separate optimization calculations. One of these minimizes the enriched fuel inventory in the core by optimizing the EOC k/sub eff/. The other minimizes the cost of the fresh reload cost. Both of these optimization calculations have now been combined to provide a new method for performing an automatic optimal reload of PWR's. The new method differs from previous methods in that the optimization process performs all tasks required to reload and deplete a PWR

  3. Specific depletion of mature T lymphocytes from human bone marrow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler, C; Møller, J; Plesner, T

    1989-01-01

    An effective method for specific depletion of mature T lymphocytes from human bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMC) with preservation of prethymic T cells and natural killer (NK) cells is presented. The BMMC were incubated with F101.01, a monoclonal antibody recognizing an epitope of the T...

  4. Monthly energy review, May 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-24

    Energy production during Feb 95 totaled 5.4 quadrillion Btu (Q), 3.1% over Feb 94. Energy consumption totaled 7.4 Q, 0.7% below Feb 94. Net imports of energy totaled 1.3 Q, 5.6% below Feb 94. This publication is divided into energy overview, energy consumption, petroleum, natural gas, oil and gas resource development, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, energy prices, and international energy.

  5. Defense meteorological satellite measurements of total ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovill, J.E.; Ellis, J.S.; Luther, F.M.; Sullivan, R.J.; Weichel, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    A multichannel filter radiometer (MFR) on Defense Meteorological Satellites (DMS) that measured total ozone on a global-scale from March 1977 - February 1980 is described. The total ozone data measured by the MFR were compared with total ozone data taken by surfaced-based Dobson spectrophotometers. When comparisons were made for five months, the Dobson spectrophotometer measured 2-5% more total ozone than the MFR. Comparisons between the Dobson spectrophotometer and the MFR showed a reduced RMS difference as the comparisons were made at closer proximity. A Northern Hemisphere total ozone distribution obtained from MFR data is presented

  6. Electric power monthly, May 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. This publication provides monthly statistics for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Statistics by company and plant are published on the capability of new generating units, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fossil fuels.

  7. Electric power monthly, April 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. This publication provides monthly statistics at the U.S., Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. This April 1994 issue contains 1993 year-end data and data through January 1994.

  8. Electric power monthly, August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-13

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The EPM is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions.

  9. Electric power monthly, September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-17

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The EPM is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions.

  10. Inducible satellite cell depletion attenuates skeletal muscle regrowth following a scald-burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnerty, Celeste C; McKenna, Colleen F; Cambias, Lauren A; Brightwell, Camille R; Prasai, Anesh; Wang, Ye; El Ayadi, Amina; Herndon, David N; Suman, Oscar E; Fry, Christopher S

    2017-11-01

    Severe burns result in significant skeletal muscle cachexia that impedes recovery. Activity of satellite cells, skeletal muscle stem cells, is altered following a burn injury and likely hinders regrowth of muscle. Severe burn injury induces satellite cell proliferation and fusion into myofibres with greater activity in muscles proximal to the injury site. Conditional depletion of satellite cells attenuates recovery of myofibre area and volume following a scald burn injury in mice. Skeletal muscle regrowth following a burn injury requires satellite cell activity, underscoring the therapeutic potential of satellite cells in the prevention of prolonged frailty in burn survivors. Severe burns result in profound skeletal muscle atrophy; persistent muscle atrophy and weakness are major complications that hamper recovery from burn injury. Many factors contribute to the erosion of muscle mass following burn trauma, and we have previously shown concurrent activation and apoptosis of muscle satellite cells following a burn injury in paediatric patients. To determine the necessity of satellite cells during muscle recovery following a burn injury, we utilized a genetically modified mouse model (Pax7 CreER -DTA) that allows for the conditional depletion of satellite cells in skeletal muscle. Additionally, mice were provided 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine to determine satellite cell proliferation, activation and fusion. Juvenile satellite cell-wild-type (SC-WT) and satellite cell-depleted (SC-Dep) mice (8 weeks of age) were randomized to sham or burn injury consisting of a dorsal scald burn injury covering 30% of total body surface area. Both hindlimb and dorsal muscles were studied at 7, 14 and 21 days post-burn. SC-Dep mice had >93% depletion of satellite cells compared to SC-WT (P satellite cell proliferation and fusion. Depletion of satellite cells impaired post-burn recovery of both muscle fibre cross-sectional area and volume (P satellite cells in the aetiology of lean

  11. Enhanced Monte-Carlo-Linked Depletion Capabilities in MCNPX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fensin, Michael L.; Hendricks, John S.; Anghaie, Samim

    2006-01-01

    As advanced reactor concepts challenge the accuracy of current modeling technologies, a higher-fidelity depletion calculation is necessary to model time-dependent core reactivity properly for accurate cycle length and safety margin determinations. The recent integration of CINDER90 into the MCNPX Monte Carlo radiation transport code provides a completely self-contained Monte-Carlo-linked depletion capability. Two advances have been made in the latest MCNPX capability based on problems observed in pre-released versions: continuous energy collision density tracking and proper fission yield selection. Pre-released versions of the MCNPX depletion code calculated the reaction rates for (n,2n), (n,3n), (n,p), (n,a), and (n,?) by matching the MCNPX steady-state 63-group flux with 63-group cross sections inherent in the CINDER90 library and then collapsing to one-group collision densities for the depletion calculation. This procedure led to inaccuracies due to the miscalculation of the reaction rates resulting from the collapsed multi-group approach. The current version of MCNPX eliminates this problem by using collapsed one-group collision densities generated from continuous energy reaction rates determined during the MCNPX steady-state calculation. MCNPX also now explicitly determines the proper fission yield to be used by the CINDER90 code for the depletion calculation. The CINDER90 code offers a thermal, fast, and high-energy fission yield for each fissile isotope contained in the CINDER90 data file. MCNPX determines which fission yield to use for a specified problem by calculating the integral fission rate for the defined energy boundaries (thermal, fast, and high energy), determining which energy range contains the majority of fissions, and then selecting the appropriate fission yield for the energy range containing the majority of fissions. The MCNPX depletion capability enables complete, relatively easy-to-use depletion calculations in a single Monte Carlo code

  12. Ozone depletion, related UVB changes and increased skin cancer incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, R. P.

    1998-03-01

    Stratospheric ozone at middle latitudes shows a seasonal variation of about +/-20%, a quasi-biennial oscillation of 1-10% range and a long-term variation in which the level was almost steady up to about 1979 and declined thereafter to the present day by about 10%. These variations are expected to be reflected in solar UVB observed at the ground, but in an opposite direction. Thus UVB should have had a long-term increase of about 10-20%, which should cause an increase in skin cancer incidence of about 20-40%. Skin cancer incidence has increased all over the world, e.g. about 90% in USA during 1974-1990. It is popularly believed that this increase in skin cancer incidence is related to the recent ozone depletion. This seems to be incorrect, for two reasons. Firstly, the observed skin cancer increase is too large (90%) compared with the expected value (40%) from ozone depletion. Secondly, cancer does not develop immediately after exposure to solar UVB. The sunburns may occur within hours; but cancer development and detection may take years, even decades. Hence the observed skin cancer increase since 1974 (no data available for earlier periods) must have occurred due to exposure to solar UVB in the 1950s and 1960s, when there was no ozone depletion. Thus, the skin cancer increase must be attributed to harmful solar UVB levels existing even in the 1960s, accentuated later not by ozone depletion (which started only much later, by 1979) but by other causes, such as a longer human life span, better screening, increasing tendencies of sunbathing at beaches, etc., in affluent societies. On the other hand, the recent ozone depletion and the associated UVB increases will certainly take their toll; only that the effects will not be noticed now but years or decades from now. The concern for the future expressed in the Montreal Protocol for reducing ozone depletion by controlling CFC production is certainly justified, especially because increased UVB is harmful to animal and

  13. MCOR - Monte Carlo depletion code for reference LWR calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puente Espel, Federico, E-mail: fup104@psu.edu [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Pennsylvania State University (United States); Tippayakul, Chanatip, E-mail: cut110@psu.edu [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Pennsylvania State University (United States); Ivanov, Kostadin, E-mail: kni1@psu.edu [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Pennsylvania State University (United States); Misu, Stefan, E-mail: Stefan.Misu@areva.com [AREVA, AREVA NP GmbH, Erlangen (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    Research highlights: > Introduction of a reference Monte Carlo based depletion code with extended capabilities. > Verification and validation results for MCOR. > Utilization of MCOR for benchmarking deterministic lattice physics (spectral) codes. - Abstract: The MCOR (MCnp-kORigen) code system is a Monte Carlo based depletion system for reference fuel assembly and core calculations. The MCOR code is designed as an interfacing code that provides depletion capability to the LANL Monte Carlo code by coupling two codes: MCNP5 with the AREVA NP depletion code, KORIGEN. The physical quality of both codes is unchanged. The MCOR code system has been maintained and continuously enhanced since it was initially developed and validated. The verification of the coupling was made by evaluating the MCOR code against similar sophisticated code systems like MONTEBURNS, OCTOPUS and TRIPOLI-PEPIN. After its validation, the MCOR code has been further improved with important features. The MCOR code presents several valuable capabilities such as: (a) a predictor-corrector depletion algorithm, (b) utilization of KORIGEN as the depletion module, (c) individual depletion calculation of each burnup zone (no burnup zone grouping is required, which is particularly important for the modeling of gadolinium rings), and (d) on-line burnup cross-section generation by the Monte Carlo calculation for 88 isotopes and usage of the KORIGEN libraries for PWR and BWR typical spectra for the remaining isotopes. Besides the just mentioned capabilities, the MCOR code newest enhancements focus on the possibility of executing the MCNP5 calculation in sequential or parallel mode, a user-friendly automatic re-start capability, a modification of the burnup step size evaluation, and a post-processor and test-matrix, just to name the most important. The article describes the capabilities of the MCOR code system; from its design and development to its latest improvements and further ameliorations. Additionally

  14. MCOR - Monte Carlo depletion code for reference LWR calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puente Espel, Federico; Tippayakul, Chanatip; Ivanov, Kostadin; Misu, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Introduction of a reference Monte Carlo based depletion code with extended capabilities. → Verification and validation results for MCOR. → Utilization of MCOR for benchmarking deterministic lattice physics (spectral) codes. - Abstract: The MCOR (MCnp-kORigen) code system is a Monte Carlo based depletion system for reference fuel assembly and core calculations. The MCOR code is designed as an interfacing code that provides depletion capability to the LANL Monte Carlo code by coupling two codes: MCNP5 with the AREVA NP depletion code, KORIGEN. The physical quality of both codes is unchanged. The MCOR code system has been maintained and continuously enhanced since it was initially developed and validated. The verification of the coupling was made by evaluating the MCOR code against similar sophisticated code systems like MONTEBURNS, OCTOPUS and TRIPOLI-PEPIN. After its validation, the MCOR code has been further improved with important features. The MCOR code presents several valuable capabilities such as: (a) a predictor-corrector depletion algorithm, (b) utilization of KORIGEN as the depletion module, (c) individual depletion calculation of each burnup zone (no burnup zone grouping is required, which is particularly important for the modeling of gadolinium rings), and (d) on-line burnup cross-section generation by the Monte Carlo calculation for 88 isotopes and usage of the KORIGEN libraries for PWR and BWR typical spectra for the remaining isotopes. Besides the just mentioned capabilities, the MCOR code newest enhancements focus on the possibility of executing the MCNP5 calculation in sequential or parallel mode, a user-friendly automatic re-start capability, a modification of the burnup step size evaluation, and a post-processor and test-matrix, just to name the most important. The article describes the capabilities of the MCOR code system; from its design and development to its latest improvements and further ameliorations

  15. Radiosensitization of mouse skin by oxygen and depletion of glutathione

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, Graham; Joiner, Michael; Joiner, Barbara; Johns, Helen; Denekamp, Juliana

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) and shape of the oxygen sensitization curve of mouse foot skin, the extent to which glutathione (GSH) depletion radiosensitized skin, and the dependence of such sensitization on the ambient oxygen tension. Methods and Materials: The feet of WHT mice were irradiated with single doses of 240 kVp x-rays while mice were exposed to carbogen or gases with oxygen/nitrogen mixtures containing 8-100% O 2 . The anoxic response was obtained by occluding the blood supply to the leg of anesthetized mice with a tourniquet, surrounding the foot with nitrogen, and allowing the mice to breathe 10% O 2 . Further experiments were performed to assess the efficacy of this method to obtain an anoxic response. Radiosensitivity of skin was assessed using the acute skin-reaction assay. Glutathione levels were modified using two schedules of dl-buthionine sulphoximine (BSO) and diethylmaleate (DEM), which were considered to produce extensive and intermediate levels of GSH depletion in the skin of the foot during irradiation. Results: Carbogen caused the greatest radiosensitization of skin, with a reproducible enhancement of 2.2 relative to the anoxic response. The OER of 2.2 is lower than other reports for mouse skin. This may indicate that the extremes of oxygenation were not produced, although there was no direct evidence for this. When skin radiosensitivity was plotted against the logarithm of the oxygen tension in the ambient gas, a sigmoid curve with a K value of 17-21% O 2 in the ambient gas was obtained. Depletion of GSH caused minimal radiosensitization when skin was irradiated under anoxic or well-oxygenated conditions. Radiosensitization by GSH depletion was maximal at intermediate oxygen tensions of 10-21% O 2 in the ambient gas. Increasing the extent of GSH depletion led to increasing radiosensitization, with sensitization enhancement ratios of 1.2 and 1.1, respectively, for extensive and intermediate levels of GSH

  16. Development of an Application Programming Interface for Depletion Analysis (APIDA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lago, Daniel; Rahnema, Farzad

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • APIDA an Application Programming Interface tool for Depletion Analysis. • APIDA employs a matrix exponential method and a linear chain method. • A burnup solver to couple to neutron transport solvers in lattice depletion or reactor core analysis codes. - Abstract: A new utility has been developed with extensive capabilities in identifying nuclide decay and transmutation characteristics, allowing for accurate and efficient tracking of the change in isotopic concentrations in nuclear reactor fuel over time when coupled with a transport solution method. This tool, named the Application Programming Interface for Depletion Analysis (APIDA), employs both a matrix exponential method and a linear chain method to solve for the end-of-time-step nuclide concentrations for all isotopes relevant to nuclear reactors. The Chebyshev Rational Approximation Method (CRAM) was utilized to deal with the ill-conditioned matrices generated during lattice depletion calculations, and a complex linear chain solver was developed to handle isotopes reduced from the burnup matrix due to either radioactive stability or a sufficiently low neutron-induced reaction cross section. The entire tool is housed in a robust but simple application programming interface (API). The development of this API allows other codes, particularly numerical neutron transport solvers, to incorporate APIDA as the burnup solver in a lattice depletion code or reactor core analysis code in memory, without the need to write or read from the hard disk. The APIDA code was benchmarked using several decay and transmutation chains. Burnup solutions produced by APIDA were shown to provide material concentrations comparable to the analytically solved Bateman equations – well below 0.01% relative error for even the most extreme cases using isotopes with vastly different decay constants. As a first order demonstration of the API, APIDA was coupled with the transport solver in the SERPENT code for a fuel pin

  17. Compared studies of natural and artificial deuterium depleted water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butnaru, Gallia; Mihacea, Sorina; Sirbovan, Alina; Butnariu, H.; Titescu, Gh.

    2001-01-01

    The biological influence of the deuterium on animals was studied insensitively in the last years. When animal cell cultures were analyzed it turned out an inhibition of the development, due to the reduced deuterium concentration. In the in vivo experiments a decreasing of the number of tumoral cells was pointed out when performing the depleted water treatment. It is obvious that the presence of deuterium in water is necessary for the development, especially for the tumoral cell proliferation. The aim of this work was to establish influence of the natural and artificial deuterium depleted water on the vegetal organisms development. For this purpose, the developmental stages of Lactuca sativa L. growth were followed. The experimental data were compared with the data obtained with distilled water. The birch, wine sap and some fruit juices are considered 'natural depleted' water sources because their deuterium content is smaller in comparison to natural water (D 2 =150 ppm). The effect of artificial deuterium depleted water (29 ppm D 2 ) was analyzed in comparison to three types of wine saps, which also have a reduced deuterium concentration (125-130 ppm D 2 ). If the deuterium depleted water was used, the germination percent and the root and shoot length were higher compared to control in the first stages. In wine sap it had a negative effect on germination and development. After three days the plants were transferred to soil and their development was followed. The foliage area was larger for all of the experimental variants compared to control. The differences were without significance when deuterium depleted water was tested but they were high and very significant in case of wine sap. The experiment pointed out a stimulative effect of the artificial deuterium depleted water. In case of wine sap the effect was negative when the contact was direct, but the growth was stimulated after the stress cessation. The first ontogenetic stages were represented by direct action

  18. Moderate Acute Malnutrition Treatment among Children 6-23 Months and 24-59 Months Aged

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahamadou, Tanimoune; Traore, Modibo; Fainke, Kamayera; Magagi, Saidou

    2014-01-01

    Full text: The prevalence of acute malnutrition in Mali has slightly decreased between 2012 and 2013 in southern areas from 8.9 to 8.6 percent.The youngest children 6-23 months are seriously affected as 12.6% according the SMART nutrition survey in 2013. The aim of this study was to show how seasonality impacts relapse rates among youngest moderately malnourished children aged 6-23 month compare to 24-59 months. The World Food Programme in Mali set up Targeted Supplementary Feeding Programme (TSFP) in 1032 community health facilities to address the burden of MAM. This TSFP includes treatment of MAM with 92g of Plumpy’SupTM per days during 60 days. The entry criteria according to national protocol was Mid Upper Arm Circumference less than 125mm (MUAC = 125 mm or WHZ > = -1.5 during two consecutives visits. In addition, the programme is accompanied with community based activities such as active screening and culinary demonstration for women groups and sensitization. As a result, after 10 months of implementation, 41604 children 6-23 months aged have been admitted for MAM treatment. This represents 82% of total estimated caseload in this group (50666). During the same period, only 14% (14473) of total estimated caseload (101333) in children 24-59 months aged group have been admitted and treated. Although 74% (41604) of total admission (56077 children 6-59 months) was 6-23 months aged ,the programme performance indicators show that children 24-59 respond better to the treatment compared to 6-23 months: Average recovery rate 88% vs 87%; death rate 0.55% vs 1.07% none response 0.21% vs 0.50%. Only, the defaulter rate was higher in 24-59, 10.21% vs 7.5%. Nevertheless, compared two Sphere performance norms and threshold, the programme is fully satisfactory in all categories. The seasonal analysis shows that the highest admission in MAM programme was registered between April and September in all categories. 79% of the total caseload has been admitted during this period

  19. Petroleum marketing monthly, May 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-26

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  20. Natural gas monthly, April 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-06

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. There are two feature articles in this issue: Natural gas 1998: Issues and trends, Executive summary; and Special report: Natural gas 1998: A preliminary summary. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  1. Electric power monthly, April 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-07

    The Electric Power Monthly is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions.

  2. Electric power monthly, June 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  3. Electric power monthly, August 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-24

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  4. Monthly energy review, June 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. The MER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding data series in the MER and in other EIA publications. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  5. Monthly energy review, July 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. The MER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding data series in the MER and in other EIA publications. 37 figs., 75 tabs.

  6. Natural gas monthly, August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-25

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highhghts activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  7. Electric power monthly, May 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-25

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions.

  8. Electric power monthly, July 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-29

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  9. Electric power monthly, November 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended

  10. The health hazards of depleted uranium munitions. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Depleted uranium is a toxic and weakly radioactive metal used for a variety of purposes. Perhaps its most controversial use is in battlefield munitions, where it can be widely dispersed in the form of fine particles and shrapnel that may enter the bodies of combatants and others through inhalation, ingestion or wounding. It is a matter of legitimate public concern whether the use of this material in this way could create unacceptable health hazards or damage to the environment. The objective of our study has been to provide the best scientific understanding of the ways in which the material may be distributed, how it may be taken up by humans, and the potential implications for health. For politicians, any hazards to health have to be balanced against the military advantages that the use of these munitions confers. We have not tried to reach a judgment on these political issues, but we believe that a better scientific understanding of the extent of the hazards will make it easier for these wider questions to be addressed in a more objective way. This report is the first of two, and addresses the likely levels of exposure to depleted uranium, the resulting radiological risks, and the lessons to be learned from epidemiological studies. Our second report will address toxicological risks and environmental issues. So far, we conclude that risks from radiation are low for most soldiers on the battlefield, and for civilians who later return to the area. However, there are uncertainties about the maximal levels of exposure to depleted uranium on the battlefield, and there may be circumstances in which a few soldiers are exposed to levels of depleted uranium that result in a significant risk to health. Further studies are needed to determine the levels of exposure to depleted uranium that might occur on the battlefield and to judge whether such higher risks are likely to occur in practice

  11. Hybrid microscopic depletion model in nodal code DYN3D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilodid, Y.; Kotlyar, D.; Shwageraus, E.; Fridman, E.; Kliem, S.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new hybrid method of accounting for spectral history effects is proposed. • Local concentrations of over 1000 nuclides are calculated using micro depletion. • The new method is implemented in nodal code DYN3D and verified. - Abstract: The paper presents a general hybrid method that combines the micro-depletion technique with correction of micro- and macro-diffusion parameters to account for the spectral history effects. The fuel in a core is subjected to time- and space-dependent operational conditions (e.g. coolant density), which cannot be predicted in advance. However, lattice codes assume some average conditions to generate cross sections (XS) for nodal diffusion codes such as DYN3D. Deviation of local operational history from average conditions leads to accumulation of errors in XS, which is referred as spectral history effects. Various methods to account for the spectral history effects, such as spectral index, burnup-averaged operational parameters and micro-depletion, were implemented in some nodal codes. Recently, an alternative method, which characterizes fuel depletion state by burnup and 239 Pu concentration (denoted as Pu-correction) was proposed, implemented in nodal code DYN3D and verified for a wide range of history effects. The method is computationally efficient, however, it has applicability limitations. The current study seeks to improve the accuracy and applicability range of Pu-correction method. The proposed hybrid method combines the micro-depletion method with a XS characterization technique similar to the Pu-correction method. The method was implemented in DYN3D and verified on multiple test cases. The results obtained with DYN3D were compared to those obtained with Monte Carlo code Serpent, which was also used to generate the XS. The observed differences are within the statistical uncertainties.

  12. Aqueous Colloid + Polymer Depletion System for Confocal Microscopy and Rheology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Nayoung; Umanzor, Esmeralda J.; Conrad, Jacinta C.

    2018-05-01

    We developed a model depletion system with colloidal particles that were refractive index- and density-matched to 80 (w/w)% glycerol in water, and characterized the effect of interparticle interactions on the structure and dynamics of non-equilibrium phases. 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl methacrylate-co-tert-butyl methacrylate copolymer particles were synthesized following Kodger et al. (Sci. Rep. 5, 14635 (2015)). Particles were dispersed in glycerol/water solutions to generate colloidal suspensions with good control over electrostatic interactions and a moderately high background viscosity of 55 mPa-s. To probe the effects of charge screening and depletion attractions on the suspension phase behavior, we added NaCl and polyacrylamide (M_w = 186 kDa) at various concentrations to particle suspensions formulated at volume fractions of phi = 0.05 and 0.3 and imaged the suspensions using confocal microscopy. The particles were nearly hard spheres at a NaCl concentration of 20 mM, but aggregated when the concentration of NaCl was further increased. Changes in the particle structure and dynamics with increasing concentration of the depletant polyacrylamide followed the trends expected from earlier experiments on depletion-driven gelation. Additionally, we measured the viscosity and corrected first normal stress difference of suspensions formulated at phi = 0.4 with and without added polymer. The solvent viscosity was suitable for rheology measurements without the onset of instabilities such as secondary flows or edge fracture. These results validate this system as an alternative to one common model system, suspensions of poly(methyl methacrylate) particles and polystyrene depletants in organic solvents, for investigating phase behavior and flow properties in attractive colloidal suspensions.

  13. Creatine pretreatment protects cortical axons from energy depletion in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hua; Goldberg, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    Creatine is a natural nitrogenous guanidino compound involved in bioenergy metabolism. Although creatine has been shown to protect neurons of the central nervous system (CNS) from experimental hypoxia/ischemia, it remains unclear if creatine may also protect CNS axons, and if the potential axonal protection depends on glial cells. To evaluate the direct impact of creatine on CNS axons, cortical axons were cultured in a separate compartment from their somas and proximal neurites using a modified two-compartment culture device. Axons in the axon compartment were subjected to acute energy depletion, an in vitro model of white matter ischemia, by exposure to 6 mM sodium azide for 30 min in the absence of glucose and pyruvate. Energy depletion reduced axonal ATP by 65%, depolarized axonal resting potential, and damaged 75% of axons. Application of creatine (10 mM) to both compartments of the culture at 24 h prior to energy depletion significantly reduced axonal damage by 50%. In line with the role of creatine in the bioenergy metabolism, this application also alleviated the axonal ATP loss and depolarization. Inhibition of axonal depolarization by blocking sodium influx with tetrodotoxin also effectively reduced the axonal damage caused by energy depletion. Further study revealed that the creatine effect was independent of glial cells, as axonal protection was sustained even when creatine was applied only to the axon compartment (free from somas and glial cells) for as little as 2 h. In contrast, application of creatine after energy depletion did not protect axons. The data provide the first evidence that creatine pretreatment may directly protect CNS axons from energy deficiency. PMID:22521466

  14. Depleted uranium hexafluoride: The source material for advanced shielding systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quapp, W.J.; Lessing, P.A. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cooley, C.R. [Department of Technology, Germantown, MD (United States)

    1997-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has a management challenge and financial liability problem in the form of 50,000 cylinders containing 555,000 metric tons of depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) that are stored at the gaseous diffusion plants. DOE is evaluating several options for the disposition of this UF{sub 6}, including continued storage, disposal, and recycle into a product. Based on studies conducted to date, the most feasible recycle option for the depleted uranium is shielding in low-level waste, spent nuclear fuel, or vitrified high-level waste containers. Estimates for the cost of disposal, using existing technologies, range between $3.8 and $11.3 billion depending on factors such as the disposal site and the applicability of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Advanced technologies can reduce these costs, but UF{sub 6} disposal still represents large future costs. This paper describes an application for depleted uranium in which depleted uranium hexafluoride is converted into an oxide and then into a heavy aggregate. The heavy uranium aggregate is combined with conventional concrete materials to form an ultra high density concrete, DUCRETE, weighing more than 400 lb/ft{sup 3}. DUCRETE can be used as shielding in spent nuclear fuel/high-level waste casks at a cost comparable to the lower of the disposal cost estimates. Consequently, the case can be made that DUCRETE shielded casks are an alternative to disposal. In this case, a beneficial long term solution is attained for much less than the combined cost of independently providing shielded casks and disposing of the depleted uranium. Furthermore, if disposal is avoided, the political problems associated with selection of a disposal location are also avoided. Other studies have also shown cost benefits for low level waste shielded disposal containers.

  15. Long-Term Maintenance Therapy Using Rituximab-Induced Continuous B-Cell Depletion in Patients with ANCA Vasculitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendergraft, William F.; Cortazar, Frank B.; Wenger, Julia; Murphy, Andrew P.; Rhee, Eugene P.; Laliberte, Karen A.; Niles, John L.

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives Remission in the majority of ANCA vasculitis patients is not sustained after a single course of rituximab, and risk of relapse warrants development of a successful strategy to ensure durable remission. Design, setting, participants, & measurements A retrospective analysis of ANCA vasculitis patients who underwent maintenance therapy using rituximab-induced continuous B-cell depletion for up to 7 years was performed. Maintenance therapy with rituximab was initiated after achieving remission or converting from other prior maintenance therapy. Continuous B-cell depletion was achieved in all patients by scheduled rituximab administration every 4 months. Disease activity, serologic parameters, adverse events, and survival were examined. Results In the study, 172 patients (mean age=60 years, 55% women, 57% myeloperoxidase–ANCA) treated from April of 2006 to March of 2013 underwent continuous B-cell depletion with rituximab. Median remission maintenance follow-up time was 2.1 years. Complete remission (Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score [BVAS]=0) was achieved in all patients. Major relapse (BVAS≥3) occurred in 5% of patients and was associated with weaning of other immunosuppression drugs. Remission was reinduced in all patients. Survival mirrored survival of a general age-, sex-, and ethnicity-matched United States population. Conclusion This analysis provides evidence for long-term disease control using continuous B-cell depletion. This treatment strategy in ANCA vasculitis patients also seems to result in survival rates comparable with rates in a matched reference population. These findings suggest that prospective remission maintenance treatment trials using continuous B-cell depletion are warranted. PMID:24626432

  16. Nardostachys Jatamansi root extract protects of radiation induced glycogen depletion in Albino Wistar rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damodara Gowda, K.M.; Krishna, A.P.; Shetty, Lathika; Suchetha Shetty, N.; Sanjeev, Ganesh

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation cause variety of pathological processes in irradiated cells. The killing action of ionizing radiation is mainly mediated through the free radicals generated from the radiolysis of cellular water. In the present study, protective effects of Nardostachys Jatamansi root extract (NJE) on radiation induced depletion of glycogen in rats exposed to 3 Gy whole body electron beam irradiation (EBR) was investigated. EBR was performed at Microtron centre, Mangalore University. Treatment of rats with NJE at a dosage of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg bw respectively once daily for 15 days before, after and both before and after irradiation was done. The liver, kidney and muscle was separated and used for the estimation of total glycogen content using standard procedures and also for the histochemical localization of glycogen by PAS staining method. The data was analyzed by paired t test and Kruskal Wallis test. P<0.05 was the level of significance. The irradiated rats exhibited significant decline (p=0.000) in the level of total glycogen content in the tissues of liver, kidney and muscle whereas, a nonsignificant variation was recorded in rats treated with NJE. This study indicated that treatment with NJE both before and after irradiation for 15 consecutive days provided significant protection against irradiation induced depletion of glycogen. (author)

  17. Hepatitis Awareness Month PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-05-11

    May is National Hepatitis Awareness Month. This 30 second PSA discusses hepatitis and encourages listners to talk to their health care professional about getting tested.  Created: 5/11/2011 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention.   Date Released: 5/11/2011.

  18. Monthly energy review, June 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-26

    The Monthly Energy Review presents current data on production, consumption, stocks, imports, exports, and prices of the principal energy commodities in the United States. Also included are data on international production of crude oil, consumption of petroleum products, petroleum stocks, and production of electricity from nuclear-powered facilities.

  19. Electric Power Monthly, July 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-12

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) is prepared by the Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation are also displayed at the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) region level. Additionally, company and plant level information are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost in fuel. Quantity, quality, and cost of fuel data lag the net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, electricity sales, and average revenue per kilowatthour data by 1 month. This difference in reporting appears in the national, Census division, and State level tables. However, at the plant level, all statistics presented are for the earlier month for the purpose of comparison. 12 refs., 4 figs., 48 tabs.

  20. Monthly energy review, November 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-24

    The Monthly Energy Review gives information on production, distribution, and consumption for various energy sources, e.g. petroleum, natural gas, oil, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Some data is also included on international energy sources and supplies, the import of petroleum products into the US and pricing and reserves data (as applicable) for the various sources of energy listed above.