WorldWideScience

Sample records for total monitor units

  1. SU-E-T-31: Alternative VMAT Technique Reduces Total Monitor Units for Lung SBRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Happersett, L; Mechalakos, J; Kuo, L; Zhang, P; Rimner, A [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, NY, NY (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate an alternative approach to VMAT optimization for hypofractionation lung treatment which increases average aperture opening and results in lower total Monitor Units (MU) without significantly sacrificing plan quality. Methods: Benchmark Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (bVMAT) plans were generated for 10 lung Stereotactic Body radiotherapy (SBRT) cases using Eclipse Version 11.0.42 (Varian Medical Systems) without a maximum MU constraint. Prescriptions ranged from 40 to 54Gy in 3 to 5 fractions. AAA dose calculation and PRO fluence based optimization was utilized. Two comparison VMAT plans were generated for each case, one that forced an initial “open” mlc aperture conformal to the tumor as a starting condition (oVMAT) with similar optimization parameters and arc geometries, and one that repeated the bVMAT optimization but added a maximum MU constraint (muVMAT). All plans used two arcs with lengths between 168 to 230 degrees. PTV D 95% and Dmean, lung V20 Gy, chest wall V30 Gy, average aperture opening and MU's were compared. Statistical significance was evaluated using Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results: Average PTV D(95), PTV mean and lung V20Gy over all plans was 99.2 ± 1.7%, 103.3 ± 0.6% and 7.8 ± 2.4% respectively. The average chest wall V30Gy was 61 ± 61 cc and ranged between 0 to 166 cc. There were no significant differences between the three techniques for the dosimetric quantities. MUs were reduced by 11 ±11% (p<0.01) and 25 ± 5% (p<0.01) and the average aperture size was increased by 13.7 ± 14% (p=0.02) and 35.8 ± 10% (p<0.01) with muVMAT and oVMAT, respectively, compared to bVMAT. Conclusion: oVMAT and muVMAT techniques were both able to increase average aperture size and reduce total MU compared to the benchmark VMAT plan, but the magnitude of the changes observed for oVMAT was larger.

  2. Unit Monitors Manchester-Format Data Buses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador, Jose J.

    1994-01-01

    Circuit card converts data signals into convenient hexadecimal form for troubleshooting. Bus-monitoring unit converts data signals from Manchester II format used on data bus into hexadecimal format. Monitoring circuit causes hexadecimal words to display on video terminal, where test engineer compares them with hexadecimal records for troubleshooting. Circuit monitors one bus or two buses simultaneously.

  3. Development of kits for total PSA monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suprarop, P.

    1999-01-01

    The development of kits for Total PSA assay has shown promising results. All essential components of the assay were prepared with reproducibility and used to optimize the assay. By choosing two steps method, we could avoid the hook effect and obtain satisfactory Q.C. parameters of the standard curve i.e. blank = 0.8%, maximum binding = 65%. If reference material for calibration of the standard is agree upon, the validation could then be carried out with total confidence. Our final goal is to reduce the step of incubation to just one step with no interference from hook effect

  4. Slope Monitoring using Total Station: What are the Challenges and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... survey perspective on the typical problems that can be expected during slope monitoring using total station (also known as prism monitoring) and second, to suggest ways of mitigating such problems. The aim is to create awareness of the implications of incorrect use or negligence during slope monitoring surveys utilising ...

  5. Slope Monitoring using Total Station: What are the Challenges and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Afeni

    implications of incorrect use or negligence during slope monitoring surveys ... Data collection, processing and the presentation of results in a concise format ..... There are several software packages on the market for total station error propagation, ..... Thomas, H.G., 2011, Slope stability prism monitoring: A guide for practising ...

  6. Total body irradiation with a reconditioned cobalt teletherapy unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Michael D C; Larouche, Renée-Xavière; Olivares, Marina; Léger, Pierre; Larkin, Joe; Freeman, Carolyn R; Podgorsak, Ervin B

    2006-01-01

    While the current trend in radiotherapy is to replace cobalt teletherapy units with more versatile and technologically advanced linear accelerators, there remain some useful applications for older cobalt units. The expansion of our radiotherapy department involved the decommissioning of an isocentric cobalt teletherapy unit and the replacement of a column-mounted 4-MV LINAC that has been used for total body irradiation (TBI). To continue offering TBI treatments, we converted the decommissioned cobalt unit into a dedicated fixed-field total body irradiator and installed it in an existing medium-energy LINAC bunker. This article describes the logistical and dosimetric aspects of bringing a reconditioned cobalt teletherapy unit into clinical service as a total body irradiator.

  7. Automatic Flushing Unit With Cleanliness Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, N. E.

    1982-01-01

    Liquid-level probe kept clean, therefore at peak accuracy, by unit that flushes probe with solvent, monitors effluent for contamination, and determines probe is particle-free. Approach may be adaptable to industrial cleaning such as flushing filters and pipes, and ensuring that manufactured parts have been adequately cleaned.

  8. Developed vibration waveform monitoring unit for CBM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, T.; Hotsuta, K.; Hirose, I.; Morita, E.

    2007-01-01

    In nuclear power plants, many rotating machines such as pumps and fans are in use. Shikoku Research Institute Inc. has recently developed easy-to-use tools to facilitate the maintenance of such equipment. They include a battery-operated vibration waveform monitoring unit which allows unmanned vibration monitoring on a regular basis and data collection even from intermittently operating equipment, a waveform data collector which can be used for easy collection, storage, control, and analysis of raw vibration waveform data during normal operation, and vibration analysis and evaluation tools. A combination of these tools has a high potential for optimization of rotating equipment maintenance. (author)

  9. Total Factor Productivity Convergence in Africa: Panel Unit Root ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study tested absolute and conditional convergence of Total Factor Productivity in Africa using a sample of 23 countries and TFP data covering the period between 1960 and 2003 while deploying the panel unit root methodology. Countries that have experienced sustained economic growth rate are found to have ...

  10. Requirements for internal contamination monitoring units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, E.; Beyer, D.; Doerfel, H.; Erlenbach, H.; Fischbach, G.; Henrichs, K.; Keller, K.D.; Koenig, K.; Riedel, W.; Scheler, R.; Schieferdecker, H.

    1994-01-01

    For the evaluation of internal contamination by officially authorized monitoring units according to section 63 (6) of the German radiation protection ordinance, a directive will be prepared in order to define uniform requirements for the laboratories in charge of incorporation monitoring by appointment of the relevant authorities. These requirements refer to equipment, to performance of measurements, to interpretation of measured values, to quality control as well as to documentation and to delivery of results. The duties of such laboratories comprise measurements of radioactivity, evaluation of intakes of radionuclides and of the resulting internal radiation dose, but also transmission of results to the employer, to the central dose registry, and under certain circumstances to the authorities. Among the requirements to be met by the laboratory for incorporation control are a sufficient measuring efficiency, the implementation of in-house checks, and the participation in intercomparison programs. For the accomplishment of such duties the laboratory needs appropriate apparatus, rooms, facilities, and staffing. (orig.) [de

  11. Mobile units for monitoring of radiation situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drabova, D.; Filgas, R.; Cespirova, I.

    1995-01-01

    For the radiation monitoring network of the Czech Republic a prototype of the small system for dose rate measurements and nuclide activity estimates suitable for use in mobile units was designed and tested in National Radiation Protection Institute. The system consists of high purity Ge detector, multichannel analyzer, high pressure ionization chamber or proportional counter and portable computer working in multitask mode for storing and evaluating of the spectra as well as dose rate handling, recording, storing and searching and presentation. The information about actual position is provided by the global positioning system Garmin on-line connected to the computer. This information is used later on to create the maps of contamination using small desktop mapping (GIS) system. The system is designed to be used in measurements on foot, in car, with helicopter or small fixed wing aircraft. (J.K.)

  12. Jaguar surveying and monitoring in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culver, Melanie

    2016-06-10

    Because of the jaguar’s (Panthera onca) endangered status under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973 throughout its range (from Arizona in the north to Argentina in the south), jaguar individuals and populations are monitored to varying degrees throughout their range. Knowledge gained from monitoring jaguars is helpful for wildlife managers who are responsible for conserving this species. The University of Arizona (UA) has conducted a multiyear surveying and monitoring effort for jaguars and ocelots in southern Arizona and New Mexico. The purpose of this work was to establish an effective surveying and monitoring system for jaguars along the United States-Mexico border. Surveying and monitoring in this study focused on the United States side of the border, but the methods could also be used in Mexico. The intent was to develop and implement a surveying and monitoring system that would provide the greatest probability of recording jaguar presence in, and passage through, the border area.

  13. Environmental Monitoring, Water Quality - Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — The Clean Water Act Section 303(d) establishes the Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) program. The purpose of the TMDL program is to identify sources of pollution and...

  14. Monitoring water for radioactive releases in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, C.R.; Broadway, J.A.; Kahn, B.

    1990-01-01

    The major radiological environmental monitoring programs for water in the United States are described. The applications of these programs for monitoring radioactive fallout, routine discharges from nuclear facilities, and releases due to accidents at such facilities are discussed, and some examples of measurements are presented. The programs monitor rainfall, surface water, and water supplies. Samples are usually collected and analyzed on a monthly or quarterly schedule, but the frequency is increased in response to emergencies. (author)

  15. Monitoring total mixed rations and feed delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelberg, Thomas J; Stone, William

    2014-11-01

    This article is intended to give practitioners a method to evaluate total mixed ration (TMR) consistency and to give them practical solutions to improve TMR consistency that will improve cattle performance and health. Practitioners will learn how to manage the variation in moisture and nutrients that exists in haylage and corn silage piles and in bales of hay, and methods to reduce variation in the TMR mixing and delivery process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Predictive models for monitoring and analysis of the total zooplankton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obradović Milica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, modeling and prediction of total zooplankton abundance have been performed by various tools and techniques, among which data mining tools have been less frequent. The purpose of this paper is to automatically determine the dependency degree and the influence of physical, chemical and biological parameters on the total zooplankton abundance, through design of the specific data mining models. For this purpose, the analysis of key influencers was used. The analysis is based on the data obtained from the SeLaR information system - specifically, the data from the two reservoirs (Gruža and Grošnica with different morphometric characteristics and trophic state. The data is transformed into optimal structure for data analysis, upon which, data mining model based on the Naïve Bayes algorithm is constructed. The results of the analysis imply that in both reservoirs, parameters of groups and species of zooplankton have the greatest influence on the total zooplankton abundance. If these inputs (group and zooplankton species are left out, differences in the impact of physical, chemical and other biological parameters in dependences of reservoirs can be noted. In the Grošnica reservoir, analysis showed that the temporal dimension (months, nitrates, water temperature, chemical oxygen demand, chlorophyll and chlorides, had the key influence with strong relative impact. In the Gruža reservoir, key influence parameters for total zooplankton are: spatial dimension (location, water temperature and physiological groups of bacteria. The results show that the presented data mining model is usable on any kind of aquatic ecosystem and can also serve for the detection of inputs which could be the basis for the future analysis and modeling.

  17. Characterization and monitoring of total organic chloride vapors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anheier, N.C. Jr.; Evans, J.C. Jr.; Olsen, K.B.

    1992-07-01

    Chemical sensors are being developed intermediate highly selective and broadly selective methods. PNL is developing an optical-emission based TOCl (total organic chlorinated compounds) sensor (Halosnif) which is capable of measuring TOCl in real time on an extracted gas sample over a wide linear dynamic range. Halosnif employs an atomic emission sensor that is broadly selective for any moderately volatile organic hclorinated vapor but does not distinguish between classes of chlorinated compounds. A rf-induced He plasma is used to excite the chlorine atoms, causing light emission at 837.6 nm. The sensitivity ranges from 1-2 ppM up to at least 10,000 ppM. Field tests were conducted at Tinker AFB in areas of high TCE contamination, in two boreholes at Savannah River, and at Hanford CCl 4 vapor extraction system. This sensor is briefly compared with acoustic wave sensors being developed by SNL (PAWS). 4 figs

  18. The extratemporal lobe epilepsies in the epilepsy monitoring unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Deepa; Tripathi, Manjari

    2014-01-01

    Extratemporal lobe epilepsies (ETLE) are characterized by the epileptogenic foci outside the temporal lobe. They have a wide spectrum of semiological presentation depending upon the site of origin. They can arise from frontal, parietal, occipital lobes and from hypothalamic hamartoma. We discuss in this review the semiology of different types of ETLE encountered in the epilepsy monitoring unit. PMID:24791090

  19. Embedded piezoelectrics for sensing and energy harvesting in total knee replacement units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Brooke E.; Meneghini, Michael; Anton, Steven R.

    2015-04-01

    The knee replacement is the second most common orthopedic surgical intervention in the United States, but currently only 1 in 5 knee replacement patients are satisfied with their level of pain reduction one year after surgery. It is imperative to make the process of knee replacement surgery more objective by developing a data driven approach to ligamentous balance, which increases implant life. In this work, piezoelectric materials are considered for both sensing and energy harvesting applications in total knee replacement implants. This work aims to embed piezoelectric material in the polyethylene bearing of a knee replacement unit to act as self-powered sensors that will aid in the alignment and balance of the knee replacement by providing intraoperative feedback to the surgeon. Postoperatively, the piezoelectric sensors can monitor the structural health of the implant in order to perceive potential problems before they become bothersome to the patient. Specifically, this work will present on the use of finite element modeling coupled with uniaxial compression testing to prove that piezoelectric stacks can be utilized to harvest sufficient energy to power sensors needed for this application.

  20. Concentration and flux of total and dissolved phosphorus, total nitrogen, chloride, and total suspended solids for monitored tributaries of Lake Champlain, 1990-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medalie, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Annual and daily concentrations and fluxes of total and dissolved phosphorus, total nitrogen, chloride, and total suspended solids were estimated for 18 monitored tributaries to Lake Champlain by using the Weighted Regressions on Time, Discharge, and Seasons regression model. Estimates were made for 21 or 23 years, depending on data availability, for the purpose of providing timely and accessible summary reports as stipulated in the 2010 update to the Lake Champlain “Opportunities for Action” management plan. Estimates of concentration and flux were provided for each tributary based on (1) observed daily discharges and (2) a flow-normalizing procedure, which removed the random fluctuations of climate-related variability. The flux bias statistic, an indicator of the ability of the Weighted Regressions on Time, Discharge, and Season regression models to provide accurate representations of flux, showed acceptable bias (less than ±10 percent) for 68 out of 72 models for total and dissolved phosphorus, total nitrogen, and chloride. Six out of 18 models for total suspended solids had moderate bias (between 10 and 30 percent), an expected result given the frequently nonlinear relation between total suspended solids and discharge. One model for total suspended solids with a very high bias was influenced by a single extreme value; however, removal of that value, although reducing the bias substantially, had little effect on annual fluxes.

  1. A high arctic experience of uniting research and monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Niels Martin; Christensen, Torben R.; Roslin, Tomas

    2017-07-01

    Monitoring is science keeping our thumb on the pulse of the environment to detect any changes of concern for societies. Basic science is the question-driven search for fundamental processes and mechanisms. Given the firm root of monitoring in human interests and needs, basic sciences have often been regarded as scientifically "purer"—particularly within university-based research communities. We argue that the dichotomy between "research" and "monitoring" is an artificial one, and that this artificial split clouds the definition of scientific goals and leads to suboptimal use of resources. We claim that the synergy between the two scientific approaches is well distilled by science conducted under extreme logistic constraints, when scientists are forced to take full advantage of both the data and the infrastructure available. In evidence of this view, we present our experiences from two decades of uniting research and monitoring at the remote research facility Zackenberg in High Arctic Greenland. For this site, we show how the combination of insights from monitoring with the mechanistic understanding obtained from basic research has yielded the most complete understanding of the system—to the benefit of all, and as an example to follow. We therefore urge scientists from across the continuum from monitoring to research to come together, to disregard old division lines, and to work together to expose a comprehensive picture of ecosystem change and its consequences.

  2. Converter Monitoring Unit for Retrofit of Wind Power Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rannestad, Bjorn; Maarbjerg, Anders Eggert; Frederiksen, Kristian

    2018-01-01

    A Converter Monitoring Unit (CMU), which will enable condition monitoring of wind turbine converters is presented in this paper. Reducing the cost of corrective maintenance by means of condition monitoring is a way of lowering Operation & Maintenance (O&M) costs for wind turbine systems....... The CMU must be able to detect a broad range of failure modes related to Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) power modules and associated gate drives. IGBT collector-emitter on-state voltage (vceon) and current (ic) is sampled in the CMU and used for detection of emerging failures. A new method...... for compensation of unwanted inductive voltage drop in the vceon measurement path is presented, enabling retrofitting of CMUs in existing wind turbines. Finally, experimental results obtained on a prototype CMU are presented. Experimentally the vceon dependency to IGBT junction temperature and deterioration...

  3. Enhanced dynamic wedge and independent monitor unit verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howlett, SJ.

    2005-01-01

    Some serious radiation accidents have occurred around the world during the delivery of radiotherapy treatment. The regrettable incident in Panama clearly indicated the need for independent monitor unit (MU) verification. Indeed the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), after investigating the incident, made specific recommendations for radiotherapy centres which included an independent monitor unit check for all treatments. Independent monitor unit verification is practiced in many radiotherapy centres in developed countries around the world. It is mandatory in USA but not yet in Australia. This paper describes development of an independent MU program, concentrating on the implementation of the Enhanced Dynamic Wedge (EDW) component. The difficult case of non centre of field (COF) calculation points under the EDW was studied in some detail. Results of a survey of Australasian centres regarding the use of independent MU check systems is also presented. The system was developed with reference to MU calculations made by Pinnacle 3 D Radiotherapy Treatment Planning (RTP) system (ADAC - Philips) for 4MV, 6MV and 18MV X-ray beams used at the Newcastle Mater Misericordiae Hospital (NMMH) in the clinical environment. A small systematic error was detected in the equation used for the EDW calculations. Results indicate that COF equations may be used in the non COF situation with similar accuracy to that achieved with profile corrected methods. Further collaborative work with other centres is planned to extend these findings

  4. Comparison of monitor units calculated by radiotherapy treatment planning system and an independent monitor unit verification software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellakumar, P; Arun, C; Sanjay, S S; Ramesh, S B

    2011-01-01

    In radiation therapy, the monitor units (MU) needed to deliver a treatment plan are calculated by treatment planning systems (TPS). The essential part of quality assurance is to verify the MU with independent monitor unit calculation to correct any potential errors prior to the start of treatment. In this study, we have compared the MU calculated by TPS and by independent MU verification software. The MU verification software was commissioned and tested for the data integrity to ensure that the correct beam data was considered for MU calculations. The accuracy of the calculations was tested by creating a series of test plans and comparing them with ion chamber measurements. The results show that there is good agreement between the two. The MU difference (MUdiff) between the monitor unit calculations of TPS and independent MU verification system was calculated for 623 fields from 245 patients and was analyzed by treatment site for head & neck, thorax, breast, abdomen and pelvis. The mean MUdiff of -0.838% with a standard deviation of 3.04% was observed for all 623 fields. The site specific standard deviation of MUdiff was as follows: abdomen and pelvis (<1.75%), head & neck (2.5%), thorax (2.32%) and breast (6.01%). The disparities were analyzed and different correction methods were used to reduce the disparity. © 2010 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Feasibility of Telemetric Intracranial Pressure Monitoring in the Neuro Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilja-Cyron, Alexander; Kelsen, Jesper; Andresen, Morten; Fugleholm, Kåre; Juhler, Marianne

    2018-05-03

    Intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring is crucial in the management of acute neurosurgical conditions such as traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, pathological ICP may persist beyond the admission to the neuro intensive care unit (NICU). We investigated the feasibility of telemetric ICP monitoring in the NICU, as this technology provides the possibility of long-term ICP assessment beyond NICU discharge. In this prospective investigation, we implanted telemetric ICP sensors (Raumedic Neurovent-P-tel) instead of conventional, cabled ICP sensors in patients undergoing decompressive craniectomy. We recorded ICP curves, duration of ICP monitoring, signal quality, and complications. Seventeen patients were included (median age 55 years) and diagnoses were: severe TBI (8), malignant middle cerebral artery infarction (8), and spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (1). In total, 3015 h of ICP monitoring were performed, and the median duration of ICP monitoring was 188 h (interquartile range [IQR] 54-259). The ICP signal was lost 613 times (displacement of the reader unit on the skin) for a median of 1.5 min, corresponding to 0.8% of the total monitoring period. When the signal was lost, it could always be restored by realignment of the reader unit on the skin above the telemetric sensor. Sixteen of 17 patients survived the NICU admission, and ICP gradually decreased from 10.7 mm Hg (IQR 7.5-13.6) during the first postoperative day to 6.3 mm Hg (IQR 4.0-8.3) after 1 week in the NICU. All 17 implanted telemetric sensors functioned throughout the NICU admission, and no wound infections were observed. Therefore, telemetric ICP monitoring in an acute neurosurgical setting is feasible. Signal quality and stability are sufficient for clinical decision making based on mean ICP. The low sampling frequency (5 Hz) does not permit analysis of intracranial pulse wave morphology, but resolution is sufficient for calculation of derived indices such as the pressure reactivity

  6. Volcano-Monitoring Instrumentation in the United States, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guffanti, Marianne; Diefenbach, Angela K.; Ewert, John W.; Ramsey, David W.; Cervelli, Peter F.; Schilling, Steven P.

    2010-01-01

    The United States is one of the most volcanically active countries in the world. According to the global volcanism database of the Smithsonian Institution, the United States (including its Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands) is home to about 170 volcanoes that are in an eruptive phase, have erupted in historical time, or have not erupted recently but are young enough (eruptions within the past 10,000 years) to be capable of reawakening. From 1980 through 2008, 30 of these volcanoes erupted, several repeatedly. Volcano monitoring in the United States is carried out by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Volcano Hazards Program, which operates a system of five volcano observatories-Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO), Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO), Long Valley Observatory (LVO), and Yellowstone Volcano Observatory (YVO). The observatories issue public alerts about conditions and hazards at U.S. volcanoes in support of the USGS mandate under P.L. 93-288 (Stafford Act) to provide timely warnings of potential volcanic disasters to the affected populace and civil authorities. To make efficient use of the Nation's scientific resources, the volcano observatories operate in partnership with universities and other governmental agencies through various formal agreements. The Consortium of U.S. Volcano Observatories (CUSVO) was established in 2001 to promote scientific cooperation among the Federal, academic, and State agencies involved in observatory operations. Other groups also contribute to volcano monitoring by sponsoring long-term installation of geophysical instruments at some volcanoes for specific research projects. This report describes a database of information about permanently installed ground-based instruments used by the U.S. volcano observatories to monitor volcanic activity (unrest and eruptions). The purposes of this Volcano-Monitoring Instrumentation Database (VMID) are to (1) document the Nation's existing

  7. Emergency radiological monitoring and analysis United States Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thome, D.J.

    1994-01-01

    The United States Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan (FRERP) provides the framework for integrating the various Federal agencies responding to a major radiological emergency. Following a major radiological incident the FRERP authorizes the creation of the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC). The FRMAC is established to coordinate all Federal agencies involved in the monitoring and assessment of the off-site radiological conditions in support of the impacted states and the Lead Federal Agency (LFA). Within the FRMAC, the Monitoring and Analysis Division is responsible for coordinating all FRMAC assets involved in conducting a comprehensive program of environmental monitoring, sampling, radioanalysis and quality assurance. This program includes: (1) Aerial Radiological Monitoring - Fixed Wing and Helicopter, (2) Field Monitoring and Sampling, (3) Radioanalysis - Mobile and Fixed Laboratories, (4) Radiation Detection Instrumentation - Calibration and Maintenance, (5) Environmental Dosimetry, and (6) An integrated program of Quality Assurance. To assure consistency, completeness and the quality of the data produced, a methodology and procedures handbook is being developed. This paper discusses the structure, assets and operations of FRMAC monitoring and analysis and the content and preparation of this handbook

  8. Experimental Evaluation of a Total Heat Recovery Unit with Polymer Membrane Foils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Lei; Yuan, Shu; Nie, Jinzhe

    2014-01-01

    A laboratory experimental study was conducted to investigate the energy performance of a total heat recovery unit using a polymer membranes heat exchanger. The study was conducted in twin climate chambers. One of the chambers simulated outdoor climate conditions and the other simulated the climate...... condition indoors. The airflows taken from the two chambers were connected into the total heat recovery unit and exchange heat in a polymer membrane foil heat exchanger installed inside the unit. The temperature and humidity of the air upstream and downstream of the heat exchanger were measured. Based...... on the measured temperature and humidity values, the temperature, humidity, and enthalpy efficiencies of the total heat recovery unit were calculated. The experiment was conducted in different combinations of outdoor climate conditions simulating warm and humid outdoor climates and air-conditioned indoor climate...

  9. Portable and fixed monitoring units for tank calibrations and monitoring of process liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landat, D.A.; Hunt, B.A.

    1999-01-01

    The development work stems from safeguards support activities carried out at the JRC Ispra, Italy to the inspectorate agencies. A range of measurement equipment covering the needs of the inspector have been designed, developed and tested in both the laboratory and in nuclear facilities. The instruments comprise four units: (1) a portable pressure measurement device, (2) a volume long term monitoring device, (3) an unattended volume measurement system and (4) a level measurement unit. Utilization of the equipment has proven to give independent measurement checks and confirmation of operator's instrumentation and declarations, ensuring continuity of knowledge. (J.P.N.)

  10. Monitoring of total suspended air particulate in the ambient air of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Monitoring of total suspended air particulate in the ambient air of welding, car painting and. V. C. IKAMAISE, I. B. OBIOH, I. E. OFOZIE, F. A. AKEREDOLU. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/gjpas.v7i4.16316.

  11. Design and Implementation of Remotely Monitoring System for Total Dissolved Solid in Baghdad Drinking Water Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Abdul-Ridha Mohammed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available he pollution of drinking water is a dangerous problem for the whole world, it can threaten the health of people and as people in developed society attaches more importance to environmental protection, it is of great research significance to intelligently and remotely monitoring the environment. Therefore in this paper, a remote water monitoring system for Baghdad drinking water system is suggested. The proposed system consists of data sensing and monitoring nodes at different locations in Baghdad to sensing and analyzes the data. These nodes are periodically measured Total Dissolved Solids (TDS. In case of measured value above TDS threshold which is 500 ppm, then an automated warning message will be sent to authorize persons in the maintenance center via Global Position System to take the correct action. This suggested structure has several advantages over traditional monitoring systems in terms of price, portability, reliability, applicability and takes a sample from a water tap in easy and real-time approach.

  12. Enhanced dynamic wedge and independent monitor unit verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howlett, S.J.; University of Newcastle, NSW

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Some serious radiation accidents have occurred around the world during the delivery of radiotherapy treatment. The regrettable incident in Panama clearly indicated the need for independent monitor unit (MU) verification. Indeed the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), after investigating the incident, made specific recommendations for radiotherapy centres which included an independent monitor unit check for all treatments. Independent monitor unit verification is practiced in many radiotherapy centres in developed countries around the world. It is mandatory in USA but not yet in Australia. The enhanced dynamic wedge factor (EDWF) presents some significant problems in accurate MU calculation, particularly in the case of non centre of field position (COF). This paper describes development of an independent MU program, concentrating on the implementation of the EDW component. The difficult case of non COF points under the EDW was studied in detail. A survey of Australasian centres regarding the use of independent MU check systems was conducted. The MUCalculator was developed with reference to MU calculations made by Pinnacle 3D RTP system (Philips) for 4MV, 6MV and 18MV X-ray beams from Varian machines used at the Newcastle Mater Misericordiae Hospital (NMMH) in the clinical environment. Ionisation chamber measurements in solid water TM and liquid water were performed based on a published test data set. Published algorithms combined with a depth dependent profile correction were applied in an attempt to match measured data with maximum accuracy. The survey results are presented. Substantial data is presented in tabular form and extensive comparison with published data. Several different methods for calculating EDWF are examined. A small systematic error was detected in the Gibbon equation used for the EDW calculations. Generally, calculations were within +2% of measured values, although some setups exceeded this variation. Results indicate that COF

  13. Challenges of ECG monitoring and ECG interpretation in dialysis units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulikakos, Dimitrios; Malik, Marek

    Patients on hemodialysis (HD) suffer from high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality due to high rates of coronary artery disease and arrhythmias. Electrocardiography (ECG) is often performed in the dialysis units as part of routine clinical assessment. However, fluid and electrolyte changes have been shown to affect all ECG morphologies and intervals. ECG interpretation thus depends on the time of the recording in relation to the HD session. In addition, arrhythmias during HD are common, and dialysis-related ECG artifacts mimicking arrhythmias have been reported. Studies using advanced ECG analyses have examined the impact of the HD procedure on selected repolarization descriptors and heart rate variability indices. Despite the challenges related to the impact of the fluctuant fluid and electrolyte status on conventional and advanced ECG parameters, further research in ECG monitoring during dialysis has the potential to provide clinically meaningful and practically useful information for diagnostic and risk stratification purposes. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. CONCEPT OF OPERATIONS PLANS for Phase I the INTERNATIONAL PILOT FOR Global Radiological source SORTING, Tracking, AND MONITORING (GradSStraM) Using eMERGING RFID AND WEB 2.0 TECHNOLOGIES TO PROVIDE TOTAL ASSET AND INFORMATION VISUALIZATIONA United States-European Union Lighthouse Priority Project for fostering trade and reducing regulatory burden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, Randy M.

    2009-01-01

    Thousands of shipments of radioisotopes developed in the United States (US) are transported domestically and internationally for medical and industrial applications, including to partner laboratories in European Union (EU) countries. Over the past five years, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Department of Energy (DOE), and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have worked with state regulatory compliance personnel, key private sector shippers and carriers, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), the Department of Transportation (DOT), the Department of Defense (DoD) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tracking and monitoring of medical and industrial radioisotopes in commerce. The EPA Radiological Source Tracking and Monitoring (RadSTraM) project tested, evaluated, and integrated RFID technologies in laboratory settings, and at multiple private-sector shipping and distribution facilities (Perkin Elmer and DHL) using common radioisotopes used in everyday commerce. The RFID tracking was also tested in association with other deployed technologies including radiation detection, chemical/explosives detection, advanced imaging, lasers, and infrared scanning. At the 2007 EU-US Summit, the leaders of the US Department of Commerce (DOC) and EU European Commission (EC) committed to pursue jointly directed Lighthouse Priority Projects. These projects are intended to 'foster cooperation' and 'reduce regulatory burdens' with respect to transatlantic commerce. The Transatlantic Economic Council (TEC) Lighthouse Project on Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) has been directed to 'develop a joint framework for cooperation on identification and development of best practices for Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technologies.' The RFID Lighthouse Priority Project commits both sides to endeavor to align U.S. and EU regulatory and policy approaches on RFID technologies, including pilot projects in the public sector

  15. Prevalence of Total Hip and Knee Replacement in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maradit Kremers, Hilal; Larson, Dirk R; Crowson, Cynthia S; Kremers, Walter K; Washington, Raynard E; Steiner, Claudia A; Jiranek, William A; Berry, Daniel J

    2015-09-02

    Descriptive epidemiology of total joint replacement procedures is limited to annual procedure volumes (incidence). The prevalence of the growing number of individuals living with a total hip or total knee replacement is currently unknown. Our objective was to estimate the prevalence of total hip and total knee replacement in the United States. Prevalence was estimated using the counting method by combining historical incidence data from the National Hospital Discharge Survey and the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) State Inpatient Databases from 1969 to 2010 with general population census and mortality counts. We accounted for relative differences in mortality rates between those who have had total hip or knee replacement and the general population. The 2010 prevalence of total hip and total knee replacement in the total U.S. population was 0.83% and 1.52%, respectively. Prevalence was higher among women than among men and increased with age, reaching 5.26% for total hip replacement and 10.38% for total knee replacement at eighty years. These estimates corresponded to 2.5 million individuals (1.4 million women and 1.1 million men) with total hip replacement and 4.7 million individuals (3.0 million women and 1.7 million men) with total knee replacement in 2010. Secular trends indicated a substantial rise in prevalence over time and a shift to younger ages. Around 7 million Americans are living with a hip or knee replacement, and consequently, in most cases, are mobile, despite advanced arthritis. These numbers underscore the substantial public health impact of total hip and knee arthroplasties. Copyright © 2015 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated.

  16. Noninvasive Hemoglobin Monitoring: A Rapid, Reliable, and Cost-Effective Method Following Total Joint Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J Ryan; Camp, Christopher L; Stitz, Amber; Young, Ernest Y; Abdel, Matthew P; Taunton, Michael J; Trousdale, Robert T

    2016-03-02

    Noninvasive hemoglobin (nHgb) monitoring was initially introduced in the intensive care setting as a means of rapidly assessing Hgb values without performing a blood draw. We conducted a prospective analysis to compare reliability, cost, and patient preference between nHgb monitoring and invasive Hgb (iHgb) monitoring performed via a traditional blood draw. We enrolled 100 consecutive patients undergoing primary or revision total hip or total knee arthroplasty. On postoperative day 1, nHgb and iHgb values were obtained within thirty minutes of one another. iHgb and nHgb values, cost, patient satisfaction, and the duration of time required to obtain each reading were recorded. The concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) was utilized to evaluate the agreement of the two Hgb measurement methods. Paired t tests and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were utilized to compare mean Hgb values, time, and pain for all readings. The mean Hgb values did not differ significantly between the two measurement methods: the mean iHgb value (and standard deviation) was 11.3 ± 1.4 g/dL (range, 8.2 to 14.3 g/dL), and the mean nHgb value was 11.5 ± 1.8 g/dL (range, 7.0 to 16.0 g/dL) (p = 0.11). The CCC between the two Hgb methods was 0.69. One hundred percent of the patients with an nHgb value of ≥ 10.5 g/dL had an iHgb value of >8.0 g/dL. The mean time to obtain an Hgb value was 0.9 minute for the nHgb method and 51.1 minutes for the iHgb method (p measurement, resulting in a savings of $26 per Hgb assessment when the noninvasive method is used. Noninvasive Hgb monitoring was found to be more efficient, less expensive, and preferred by patients compared with iHgb monitoring. Providers could consider screening total joint arthroplasty patients with nHgb monitoring and only order iHgb measurement if the nHgb value is protocol had been applied to the first blood draw in our 100 patients, approximately $2000 would have been saved. Extrapolated to the U.S. total joint arthroplasty practice

  17. Requirements for internal contamination monitoring units; Anforderungen an Inkorporationsmessstellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, E. [GSF, Inst. fuer Biophysikalische Strahlenforschung, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Beyer, D. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Abt. ASS (Germany); Doerfel, H. [Hauptabteilung Sicherheit, Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany); Erlenbach, H. [Zentralstelle fuer Sicherheitstechnik NRW, Duesseldorf (Germany); Fischbach, G. [Siemens Brennelementewerk, Hanau (Germany); Henrichs, K. [Siemens AG, Muenchen (Germany); Keller, K.D. [Radiologische Universitaetsklinik, Tuebingen (Germany); Koenig, K. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, ISH, Neuherberg (Germany); Riedel, W. [Freie Univ. Berlin, Klinikum Steglitz (Germany); Scheler, R. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, FB Strahlenschutz, Berlin (Germany); Schieferdecker, H. [Hauptabteilung Sicherheit, Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    For the evaluation of internal contamination by officially authorized monitoring units according to section 63 (6) of the German radiation protection ordinance, a directive will be prepared in order to define uniform requirements for the laboratories in charge of incorporation monitoring by appointment of the relevant authorities. These requirements refer to equipment, to performance of measurements, to interpretation of measured values, to quality control as well as to documentation and to delivery of results. The duties of such laboratories comprise measurements of radioactivity, evaluation of intakes of radionuclides and of the resulting internal radiation dose, but also transmission of results to the employer, to the central dose registry, and under certain circumstances to the authorities. Among the requirements to be met by the laboratory for incorporation control are a sufficient measuring efficiency, the implementation of in-house checks, and the participation in intercomparison programs. For the accomplishment of such duties the laboratory needs appropriate apparatus, rooms, facilities, and staffing. (orig.) [Deutsch] Zur Ermittlung der Koerperdosen nach Paragraph 63 StrlSchV sind fuer die gemaess Abs. 6 von der zustaendigen Behoerde zu bestimmenden Messstellen in einer Richtlinie einheitliche Anforderungen festzulegen. Diese beziehen sich auf deren Ausstattung, die Durchfuehrung der Messungen, Auswertungen und Qualitaetskontrollen sowie die Aufzeichnung und Uebermittlung der Ergebnisse. Die Aufgaben der Messstellen umfassen die Messungen der Radioaktivitaet im Koerper bzw. in Koerperausscheidungen, die Ermittlung der Zufuhr an Radionukliden sowie der daraus resultierenden Koerperdosis und die Weiterleitung der Ergebnisse an den Auftraggeber, an das zentrale Dosisregister und in bestimmten Faellen an die Behoerde. Zu den von einer Messstelle zu erfuellenden Anforderungen gehoeren eine ausreichende Messeffektivitaet, die Durchfuehrung von Eigenkontrollen

  18. Decreasing Postanesthesia Care Unit to Floor Transfer Times to Facilitate Short Stay Total Joint Replacements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibia, Udai S; Grover, Jennifer; Turcotte, Justin J; Seanger, Michelle L; England, Kimberly A; King, Jennifer L; King, Paul J

    2018-04-01

    We describe a process for studying and improving baseline postanesthesia care unit (PACU)-to-floor transfer times after total joint replacements. Quality improvement project using lean methodology. Phase I of the investigational process involved collection of baseline data. Phase II involved developing targeted solutions to improve throughput. Phase III involved measured project sustainability. Phase I investigations revealed that patients spent an additional 62 minutes waiting in the PACU after being designated ready for transfer. Five to 16 telephone calls were needed between the PACU and the unit to facilitate each patient transfer. The most common reason for delay was unavailability of the unit nurse who was attending to another patient (58%). Phase II interventions resulted in transfer times decreasing to 13 minutes (79% reduction, P care at other institutions. Copyright © 2016 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A practical approach for electron monitor unit calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, David; Patyal, Baldev; Cho, Jongmin; Cheng, Ing Y; Nookala, Prashanth

    2009-01-01

    Electron monitor unit (MU) calculation requires measured beam data such as the relative output factor (ROF) of a cone, insert correction factor (ICF) and effective source-to-surface distance (ESD). Measuring the beam data to cover all possible clinical cases is not practical for a busy clinic because it takes tremendous time and labor. In this study, we propose a practical approach to reduce the number of data measurements without affecting accuracy. It is based on two findings of dosimetric properties of electron beams. One is that the output ratio of two inserts is independent of the cone used, and the other is that ESD is a function of field size but independent of cone and jaw opening. For the measurements to prove the findings, a parallel plate ion chamber (Markus, PTW 23343) with an electrometer (Cardinal Health 35040) was used. We measured the outputs to determine ROF, ICF and ESD of different energies (5-21 MeV). Measurements were made in a Plastic Water(TM) phantom or in water. Three linear accelerators were used: Siemens MD2 (S/N 2689), Siemens Primus (S/N 3305) and Varian Clinic 21-EX (S/N 1495). With these findings, the number of data set to be measured can be reduced to less than 20% of the data points. (note)

  20. Combined enteral feeding and total parenteral nutritional support improves outcome in surgical intensive care unit patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Min-Hui; Yu, Ying E; Tsai, Yueh-Miao; Lee, Hui-Chen; Huang, Ying-Che; Hsu, Han-Shui

    2012-09-01

    For intensive care unit (ICU) patients with gastrointestinal dysfunction and in need of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) support, the benefit of additional enteral feeding is not clear. This study aimed to investigate whether combined TPN with enteral feeding is associated with better outcomes in surgical intensive care unit (SICU) patients. Clinical data of 88 patients in SICU were retrospectively collected. Variables used for analysis included route and percentage of nutritional support, total caloric intake, age, gender, body weight, body mass index, admission diagnosis, surgical procedure, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score, comorbidities, length of hospital stay, postoperative complications, blood glucose values and hospital mortality. Wound dehiscence and central catheter infection were observed more frequently in the group of patients receiving TPN calories less than 90% of total calorie intake (p = 0.004 and 0.043, respectively). APACHE II scores were higher in nonsurvivors than in survivors (p = 0.001). More nonsurvivors received TPN calories exceeding 90% of total calorie intake and were in need of dialysis during ICU admission (p = 0.005 and 0.013, respectively). Multivariate analysis revealed that the percentage of TPN calories over total calories and APACHE II scores were independent predictors of ICU mortality in patients receiving supplementary TPN after surgery. In SICU patients receiving TPN, patients who could be fed enterally more than 10% of total calories had better clinical outcomes than patients receiving less than 10% of total calorie intake from enteral feeding. Enteral feeding should be given whenever possible in severely ill patients. 2012 Published by Elsevier B.V

  1. A Regional GPS Receiver Network For Monitoring Mid-latitude Total Electron Content During Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, A.; Cander, Lj. R.

    A regional GPS receiver network has been used for monitoring mid-latitude total elec- tron content (TEC) during ionospheric storms at the current solar maximum. Differ- ent individual storms were examined to study how the temporal patterns of changes develop and how they are related to solar and geomagnetic activity for parameter de- scriptive of plasmaspheric-ionospheric ionisation. Use is then made of computer con- touring techniques to produce snapshot maps of TEC for different study cases. Com- parisons with the local ionosonde data at different phases of the storms enable the storm developments to be studied in detail.

  2. Total Isolation Status Monitoring and Management System by CAD Assisted Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Masaaki

    1995-01-01

    Isolation tasks in a nuclear power station require high confidence and quick response particularly during the annual inspection when the equipment must be checked in a safe and planned manner. To realize these advanced isolation works, JAPC has developed TOtal Isolation Status Monitoring and Management System using CAD Assisted Technology. This system, TOMM-CAT, developed under the concept of 'User friendly advanced man-machine interface', allows planning and management to be performed on a CRT display. TOMM-CAT allows isolation tasks to be performed accurately and efficiently in conjunction with equipment information from the existing Job Order Management System, which runs on the station host computer. (author)

  3. The Vibration Monitoring of the Gascompressor Units with Application of Hurst's Statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharov, O V; Novichkov, S V; Kochetkov, A V

    2016-01-01

    The gascompressor units work in the unsteady regime which depends on many internal and external factors. For the solution of problems of control, management and forecasting the statistical assessment of a condition of object in real time according to noisy observations of one realization of stochastic process is carried out. The traditional spectral analysis on the basis of Fast Fourier Transformation in this case is inefficient if time scale is much less than duration, which is subject to the analysis. Therefore for monitoring of a condition of the equipment it is offered to use Hurst's statistics by means of which it is possible to investigate quantitatively law of development of a vibration signal and unambiguously to analyze a condition of the gascompressor units. Calculation of economic efficiency from introduction of such technology of monitoring will provide decrease on average by 2.5% of a consumption of gas and specific costs of capital repairs of the gascompressor units at the expense of increase in a total operating time by 20%. (paper)

  4. Total Dissolved Gas Monitoring in Chum Salmon Spawning Gravels Below Bonneville Dam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arntzen, Evan V.; Geist, David R.; Panther, Jennifer L.; Dawley, Earl

    2007-01-30

    At the request of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Portland District), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted research to determine whether total dissolved gas concentrations are elevated in chum salmon redds during spring spill operations at Bonneville Dam. The study involved monitoring the total dissolved gas levels at egg pocket depth and in the river at two chum salmon spawning locations downstream from Bonneville Dam. Dissolved atmospheric gas supersaturation generated by spill from Bonneville Dam may diminish survival of chum (Oncorhynchus keta) salmon when sac fry are still present in the gravel downstream from Bonneville Dam. However, no previous work has been conducted to determine whether total dissolved gas (TDG) levels are elevated during spring spill operations within incubation habitats. The guidance used by hydropower system managers to provide protection for pre-emergent chum salmon fry has been to limit TDG to 105% after allowing for depth compensation. A previous literature review completed in early 2006 shows that TDG levels as low as 103% have been documented to cause mortality in sac fry. Our study measured TDG in the incubation environment to evaluate whether these levels were exceeded during spring spill operations. Total dissolved gas levels were measured within chum salmon spawning areas near Ives Island and Multnomah Falls on the Columbia River. Water quality sensors screened at egg pocket depth and to the river were installed at both sites. At each location, we also measured dissolved oxygen, temperature, specific conductance, and water depth to assist with the interpretation of TDG results. Total dissolved gas was depth-compensated to determine when levels were high enough to potentially affect sac fry. This report provides detailed descriptions of the two study sites downstream of Bonneville Dam, as well as the equipment and procedures employed to monitor the TDG levels at the study sites. Results of the monitoring at

  5. Monitoring the consistency of the dynalyser output via digital display unit and calculated practical peak voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Hazlinda Ismail; Muhammad Jamal Mohd Isa; Abdul Aziz Mohd Ramli; Shahrul Azlan Azizan

    2010-01-01

    This study was carried out to ensure the adequacy and accuracy of the Dynalyser Digital Display unit for measuring the true kVp from the invasive kVp meter unit during calibration of non-invasive kVp meters. An invasive high voltage divider (dynalyser) coupled to the x-ray system measures the true kilo voltage supplied to the x-ray tube. The kVp output measured was displayed via its digital display unit while its waveform was acquired using a calibrated oscilloscope. The waveform was used to calculate the Practical Peak Voltage (PPV) using the International Standard method adapted from IEC 61676 and treated as the true kVp value. The kVp output was measured at 9 points ranging between 40 kV-120 kV with interval steps of 10 kV and monitored every day. The test result was evaluated for variation of output, intrinsic error and limit of variation in compliance with the IEC standard. Results showed that kVp output measured by the display unit everyday is consistent with variations of not more than ±0.45 kV, intrinsic error of not more than ±0.009 kV and limits of variation of less than 1% which comply with the IEC standard requirement. The kVp output via digital display unit has a total uncertainty of not more than 2.8 kV (k=2) while the PPV output via oscilloscope has total uncertainty of not more than 0.75 kV (k=2). As a conclusion, the dynalyser digital display unit complies with standard requirement and can be used to measure the true kVp output during the calibration of non-invasive kVp meters. (author)

  6. Activities Contributing to Total Energy Expenditure in the United States: Results from the NHAPS Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Block Gladys

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity is increasingly recognized as an important factor influencing health and disease status. Total energy expenditure, both low-intensity and high-intensity, contributes to maintenance of healthy body weight. This paper presents the results of a quantitative approach to determining the activities that contribute to total energy expenditure in the United States. Methods Data from the National Human Activity Pattern Survey (NHAPS were used. In 1992–1994 the NHAPS sampled 4,185 females and 3,330 males, aged 18 years and over, weighted to be representative of the 48 contiguous United States. A detailed report of each activity performed in the previous 24 hours was obtained. A score was created for each activity, by multiplying duration and intensity for each individual and summing across individuals. This score was then used to rank each activity according to its contribution to total population energy expenditure, for the total sample and separately for each gender, race, age, region, and season. Results This analysis reveals our society to be primarily sedentary; leisure time physical activity contributed only approximately 5% of the population's total energy expenditure. Not counting sleeping, the largest contributor to energy expenditure was "Driving a car", followed by "Office work" and "Watching TV". Household activities accounted for 20.1% and 33.3% of energy expenditure for males and females respectively. Conclusion The information presented in this paper may be useful in identifying common activities that could be appropriate targets for behavioral interventions to increase physical activity.

  7. Evaluation of eleven years of area monitoring in ore treatment unit: I external exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, W.S.; Py Junior, D.A.; Oliveira, S.Q. de; Dantas, M.V.A., E-mail: pereiraws@gmail.com [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Unidade de Tratamento de Minerio. Grupo Multidisciplinar de Radioprotecao; Kelecom, A., E-mail: akelecom@id.uff.br [Universidade Federal Fluminense (LARARA-PLS/GETA/UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Laboratorio de Radiobiologia e Radiometria Pedro Lopes dos Santos. Grupo de Estudos em Temas Ambientais; Pereira, J.R.S., E-mail: pereirarsj@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Alfenas (UNIFAL), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The Ore Treatment Unit (OTU) is an uranium mining and milling complex deactivated in 1995 that operated monazite during the years 2004 and 2005 in a plant used especially for that purpose called Chemical Treatment of Monazite (CTM). This study aims to analyze the monitoring of area to exposure rate from 2002 to 2012, comparing periods of suspended operation of OTU and identifying the influences of CTM and of the radioactive waste deposit, from other facilities of OTU. A total of 22,294 samples were analyzed for area dose rates; average values were obtained of 6.74 μSv h{sup -1} with an amplitude from 0 to 420 μSv h{sup -1}. 92% of the monitoring were below the derivative limit for workers, and 1,702 monitoring samples showed values above this limit. Ignoring the monitoring that was realized at CTM and at the deposit of radioactive waste, the number of monitoring samples were reduced to 1,341. In this case, the average reduces to 0.96 μSv h{sup -1}, going from 0 to 25 μSv h{sup -1}, only 15 samples remained above the threshold for workers and 675 samples were below the limit for individual public. It can be concluded that the OTU is an installation with nearly 99% of monitoring area safe for workers and 50% for individual public. The inclusion of new practices (CTM) and the deposit of radioactive waste coming from other facilities alter this picture dramatically, increased the dose rates. (author)

  8. Post-anaesthesia care unit stay after total hip and knee arthroplasty under spinal anaesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunn, T H; Kristensen, B B; Gaarn-Larsen, L

    2012-01-01

    patients operated with primary unilateral total hip or knee arthroplasty (THA or TKA) under spinal anaesthesia were included in this hypothesis-generating, prospective, observational cohort study during a 4-month period. Surgical technique, analgesia, and perioperative care were standardized. Well......BACKGROUND: Post-anaesthesia care unit (PACU) admission must be well founded and the stay as short as possible without compromising patient safety. However, within the concept of fast-track surgery, studies are limited in addressing the question: why are patients staying in the PACU? METHODS: All...

  9. Acoustic monitoring systems tests at Indian Point Unit 1. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.R.; Rao, G.V.; Craig, J.

    1979-12-01

    This report describes the results of a program to test acoustic monitoring systems on Indian Point Unit No. 1 under actual plant operating conditions, less the reactor core. The two types of systems evaluated were the monitoring of acoustic emissions generated by growing flaws and the monitoring of acoustic signals from leaks

  10. Identifying common practices and challenges for local urban tree monitoring programs across the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara A. Roman; E. Gregory McPherson; Bryant C. Scharenbroch; Julia. Bartens

    2013-01-01

    Urban forest monitoring data are essential to assess the impacts of tree planting campaigns and management programs. Local practitioners have monitoring projects that have not been well documented in the urban forestry literature. To learn more about practitioner-driven monitoring efforts, the authors surveyed 32 local urban forestry organizations across the United...

  11. Forest health monitoring in the United States: focus on national reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt Riitters; Kevin Potter

    2013-01-01

    The health and sustainability of United States forests have been monitored for many years from several different perspectives. The national Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) Program was established in 1990 by Federal and State agencies to develop a national system for monitoring and reporting on the status and trends of forest ecosystem health. We describe and illustrate...

  12. Independent calculation of monitor units for VMAT and SPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xin; Bush, Karl; Ding, Aiping; Xing, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Dose and monitor units (MUs) represent two important facets of a radiation therapy treatment. In current practice, verification of a treatment plan is commonly done in dose domain, in which a phantom measurement or forward dose calculation is performed to examine the dosimetric accuracy and the MU settings of a given treatment plan. While it is desirable to verify directly the MU settings, a computational framework for obtaining the MU values from a known dose distribution has yet to be developed. This work presents a strategy to calculate independently the MUs from a given dose distribution of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and station parameter optimized radiation therapy (SPORT). Methods: The dose at a point can be expressed as a sum of contributions from all the station points (or control points). This relationship forms the basis of the proposed MU verification technique. To proceed, the authors first obtain the matrix elements which characterize the dosimetric contribution of the involved station points by computing the doses at a series of voxels, typically on the prescription surface of the VMAT/SPORT treatment plan, with unit MU setting for all the station points. An in-house Monte Carlo (MC) software is used for the dose matrix calculation. The MUs of the station points are then derived by minimizing the least-squares difference between doses computed by the treatment planning system (TPS) and that of the MC for the selected set of voxels on the prescription surface. The technique is applied to 16 clinical cases with a variety of energies, disease sites, and TPS dose calculation algorithms. Results: For all plans except the lung cases with large tissue density inhomogeneity, the independently computed MUs agree with that of TPS to within 2.7% for all the station points. In the dose domain, no significant difference between the MC and Eclipse Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm (AAA) dose distribution is found in terms of isodose contours

  13. Independent calculation of monitor units for VMAT and SPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xin; Bush, Karl; Ding, Aiping; Xing, Lei, E-mail: lei@stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: Dose and monitor units (MUs) represent two important facets of a radiation therapy treatment. In current practice, verification of a treatment plan is commonly done in dose domain, in which a phantom measurement or forward dose calculation is performed to examine the dosimetric accuracy and the MU settings of a given treatment plan. While it is desirable to verify directly the MU settings, a computational framework for obtaining the MU values from a known dose distribution has yet to be developed. This work presents a strategy to calculate independently the MUs from a given dose distribution of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and station parameter optimized radiation therapy (SPORT). Methods: The dose at a point can be expressed as a sum of contributions from all the station points (or control points). This relationship forms the basis of the proposed MU verification technique. To proceed, the authors first obtain the matrix elements which characterize the dosimetric contribution of the involved station points by computing the doses at a series of voxels, typically on the prescription surface of the VMAT/SPORT treatment plan, with unit MU setting for all the station points. An in-house Monte Carlo (MC) software is used for the dose matrix calculation. The MUs of the station points are then derived by minimizing the least-squares difference between doses computed by the treatment planning system (TPS) and that of the MC for the selected set of voxels on the prescription surface. The technique is applied to 16 clinical cases with a variety of energies, disease sites, and TPS dose calculation algorithms. Results: For all plans except the lung cases with large tissue density inhomogeneity, the independently computed MUs agree with that of TPS to within 2.7% for all the station points. In the dose domain, no significant difference between the MC and Eclipse Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm (AAA) dose distribution is found in terms of isodose contours

  14. A compact XRF unit for determining total sulphur content in coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumitra, T.; Chankow, N.; Punnachaiya, S.; Srisatit, S.

    1994-01-01

    A microcomputer based x-ray fluorescence (XRF) unit was developed for off-line determination of total sulphur content in coal samples. The unit consisted of the x-ray exciting/measuring set and the microcomputer with a plug-in interface card. An Fe-55 radioisotope was used as the exciting source while a krypton-filled proportional counter was used to measure x-rays from the samples. The x-ray spectrum was simultaneously displayed on the microcomputer screen. For quantitative determination of sulphur, the intensities of sulphur K x-rays as well as calcium K x-rays and scattered x-rays were taken into account. The unit was tested with finely-ground, dried and compressed lignite, subbituminous and bituminous samples. If was found that for low-calcium coals, the results were in good agreement with those obtained from the standard chemical analysis method within ± 0.2% and within ± 0.5%S for high-calcium coals. 2 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  15. Intra-operative monitoring of the common peroneal nerve during total knee replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unwin, A J; Thomas, M

    1994-01-01

    We present a method allowing intra-operative monitoring of the common peroneal nerve during total knee arthroplasty using a magnetic stimulator. Previous reports have shown no pre-operative method successful in selecting those patients prone to develop a post-operative palsy. The device, placed beneath the lumbar spine, stimulates the cauda equina; common peroneal nerve function is assessed via the response in extensor digitorum brevis. There is a loss of signal from the nerve with the use of a tourniquet 25 min following its application. The protocol therefore requires that a tourniquet is used at least only for fixation of the prosthetic components. The method is quick, safe, non-invasive and reproducible, and is of use both in at-risk patients and in research work. Images Figure 6. PMID:7837197

  16. Online total organic carbon (TOC) monitoring for water and wastewater treatment plants processes and operations optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assmann, Céline; Scott, Amanda; Biller, Dondra

    2017-08-01

    Organic measurements, such as biological oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were developed decades ago in order to measure organics in water. Today, these time-consuming measurements are still used as parameters to check the water treatment quality; however, the time required to generate a result, ranging from hours to days, does not allow COD or BOD to be useful process control parameters - see (1) Standard Method 5210 B; 5-day BOD Test, 1997, and (2) ASTM D1252; COD Test, 2012. Online organic carbon monitoring allows for effective process control because results are generated every few minutes. Though it does not replace BOD or COD measurements still required for compliance reporting, it allows for smart, data-driven and rapid decision-making to improve process control and optimization or meet compliances. Thanks to the smart interpretation of generated data and the capability to now take real-time actions, municipal drinking water and wastewater treatment facility operators can positively impact their OPEX (operational expenditure) efficiencies and their capabilities to meet regulatory requirements. This paper describes how three municipal wastewater and drinking water plants gained process insights, and determined optimization opportunities thanks to the implementation of online total organic carbon (TOC) monitoring.

  17. Experience of our new monitor for betatron therapy unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, Takenori; Sato, Hisao; Abe, Shunsuke; Suyama, Sachio.

    1975-01-01

    The amount of high energy electron beams is instable owing to lots of factors. As a matter of course, we should be careful in controling the amount of beams and it is also necessary to improve the beam monitoring apparatuses to make them stable. We have improved a usual monitor and had experiments with it. Here is the report. (1) An ordinary monitor is influenced by humidity, air atmosphere induced noise from an apparatus and so on. We made a new monitor with due regard to these factors. When the count is set to 100 with a usual monitor, the standard dose meter (ionex) indicate is 280 R in 16 MeV and the lowest one is 198 R. Between standard dose meter (ionex) and usual monitor is 82 R. With the trial monitor, the highest integrated dose is 103 R and the lowest one is 89 R. The difference is only 14 R and we are satisfied with the result. We gain this value after 16 months' trial. (2) The chamber is made air tight and has a double structure with a collection electrode sandwiched between high tension charging electrodes. In this way, we can eliminate the influences of humidity and induced noise from an apparatus itself and we can putup ion collection efficiency without widening the distance between the electrodes. As for the indicator circuit, we can get an input signal with a big s/n ratio and so we need not use high impedance resistors in the input circuitry. There is little affect from humidity and induced noise, and the circuit is stable. The indicator circuit has a complete electronic system, therefore counting speed is greatly improved and we can measure a large amount of beams in a short time. The trial monitor has four measuring ranges and so measuring is easily done. Our monitor has a circuit tester, too, and we can test the measuring circuit on occasion. (auth.)

  18. Monitoring of health care personnel employee and occupational health immunization program practices in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrico, Ruth M; Sorrells, Nikka; Westhusing, Kelly; Wiemken, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have identified concerns with various elements of health care personnel immunization programs, including the handling and management of the vaccine. The purpose of this study was to assess monitoring processes that support evaluation of the care of vaccines in health care settings. An 11-question survey instrument was developed for use in scripted telephone surveys. State health departments in all 50 states in the United States and the District of Columbia were the target audience for the surveys. Data from a total of 47 states were obtained and analyzed. No states reported an existing monitoring process for evaluation of health care personnel immunization programs in their states. Our assessment indicates that vaccine evaluation processes for health care facilities are rare to nonexistent in the United States. Identifying existing practice gaps and resultant opportunities for improvements may be an important safety initiative that protects patients and health care personnel. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Current Epidemiology of Revision Total Knee Arthroplasty in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delanois, Ronald E; Mistry, Jaydev B; Gwam, Chukwuweike U; Mohamed, Nequesha S; Choksi, Ujval S; Mont, Michael A

    2017-09-01

    Revision surgery for failed total knee arthroplasty (TKA) continues to pose a substantial burden for the United States healthcare system. The predominant etiology of TKA failure has changed over time and may vary between studies. This report aims to update the current literature on this topic by using a large national database. Specifically, we analyzed: (1) etiologies for revision TKA; (2) frequencies of revision TKA procedures; (3) various demographics including payer type and region; and (4) the length of stay (LOS) and total charges based on type of revision TKA procedure. The Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) National Inpatient Sample (NIS) database was used to identify all revision TKA procedures performed between 2009 and 2013. Clinical, economic, and demographic data were collected and analyzed for 337,597 procedures. Patients were stratified according to etiology of failure, age, sex, race, US census region, and primary payor class. The mean LOS and total charges were also calculated. Infection was the most common etiology for revision TKA (20.4%), closely followed by mechanical loosening (20.3%). The most common revision TKA procedure performed was all component revision (31.3%). Medicare was the primary payor for the greatest proportion of revisions (57.7%). The South census region performed the most revision TKAs (33.2%). The overall mean LOS was 4.5 days, with arthrotomy for removal of prosthesis without replacement procedures accounting for the longest stays (7.8 days). The mean total charge for revision TKAs was $75,028.07. Without appropriate measures in place, the burden of revision TKAs may become overwhelming and pose a strain on providers and institutions. Continued insight into the etiology and epidemiology of revision TKAs may be the principle step towards improving outcomes and mitigating the need for future revisions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Integration of virtual control units in the total vehicle simulation; Integration virtueller Steuergeraete in die Gesamtfahrzeugsimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soppa, Andreas; Lund, Christoph [Volkswagen AG, Wolfsburg (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    In this article the simulation of information and energetics of vehicles with model-integration of electronic control units (ECU) in a simulation, based on the coupling of physical and control components of the total vehicle are investigated. For that simplified models of ECU's, simulating the functionally of the real ECU's, were used. The integration of virtual EUC's in models of full vehicles makes it possible to simulate the energetics for different driving cycles in a realistic way. By better simulation results an evaluation of physical components and the amount of functions are possible. In the area of the thermal management of vehicles by this analyses and optimizations of functions become possible. This article shows the advantages of embedding virtual ECU's in simulations of full vehicles. (orig.)

  1. Total synthesis of a Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 12F CPS repeating unit hexasaccharide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter H. Seeberger

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae causes severe disease globally. Vaccines that prevent S. pneumoniae infections induce antibodies against epitopes within the bacterial capsular polysaccharide (CPS. A better immunological understanding of the epitopes that protect from bacterial infection requires defined oligosaccharides obtained by total synthesis. The key to the synthesis of the S. pneumoniae serotype 12F CPS hexasaccharide repeating unit that is not contained in currently used glycoconjugate vaccines is the assembly of the trisaccharide β-D-GalpNAc-(1→4-[α-D-Glcp-(1→3]-β-D-ManpNAcA, in which the branching points are equipped with orthogonal protecting groups. A linear approach relying on the sequential assembly of monosaccharide building blocks proved superior to a convergent [3 + 3] strategy that was not successful due to steric constraints. The synthetic hexasaccharide is the starting point for further immunological investigations.

  2. Anomalies from aerial spectrometric and total count radiometric surveys in the southeastern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C.H.; Lawton, D.E.

    1978-01-01

    Aerial radiometric reconnaissance surveys are conducted because of their cost, time, and manpower savings compared to surface studies. Two types of aerial surveys are being flown in the southeastern United States: total count gamma-ray surveys for the Coastal Plains Regional Commission and the US Geological Survey, and differential gamma-ray spectrometric surveys for the US Department of Energy. Anomalous radioactivity detected during aerial surveys is related to higher concentrations of naturally occurring uranium, or to cultural activities, natural causes, or mapping errors which simulate real uranium anomalies. Each anomaly should be ground checked; however, several types of anomalies may be eliminated by evaluation of the aerial data in the office if field time is limited

  3. On the hazard rate process for imperfectly monitored multi-unit systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, A.; Berenguer, C.; Grall, A.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a stochastic model to characterize the failure distribution of multi-unit systems when the current units state is imperfectly monitored. The definition of the hazard rate process existing with perfect monitoring is extended to the realistic case where the units failure time are not always detected (non-detection events). The so defined observed hazard rate process gives a better representation of the system behavior than the classical failure rate calculated without any information on the units state and than the hazard rate process based on perfect monitoring information. The quality of this representation is, however, conditioned by the monotony property of the process. This problem is mainly discussed and illustrated on a practical example (two parallel units). The results obtained motivate the use of the observed hazard rate process to characterize the stochastic behavior of the multi-unit systems and to optimize for example preventive maintenance policies

  4. On the hazard rate process for imperfectly monitored multi-unit systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, A. [Institut des Sciences et Techonologies de l' Information de Troyes (ISTIT-CNRS), Equipe de Modelisation et Surete des Systemes, Universite de Technologie de Troyes (UTT), 12, rue Marie Curie, BP2060, 10010 Troyes cedex (France)]. E-mail: anne.barros@utt.fr; Berenguer, C. [Institut des Sciences et Techonologies de l' Information de Troyes (ISTIT-CNRS), Equipe de Modelisation et Surete des Systemes, Universite de Technologie de Troyes (UTT), 12, rue Marie Curie, BP2060, 10010 Troyes cedex (France); Grall, A. [Institut des Sciences et Techonologies de l' Information de Troyes (ISTIT-CNRS), Equipe de Modelisation et Surete des Systemes, Universite de Technologie de Troyes (UTT), 12, rue Marie Curie, BP2060, 10010 Troyes cedex (France)

    2005-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a stochastic model to characterize the failure distribution of multi-unit systems when the current units state is imperfectly monitored. The definition of the hazard rate process existing with perfect monitoring is extended to the realistic case where the units failure time are not always detected (non-detection events). The so defined observed hazard rate process gives a better representation of the system behavior than the classical failure rate calculated without any information on the units state and than the hazard rate process based on perfect monitoring information. The quality of this representation is, however, conditioned by the monotony property of the process. This problem is mainly discussed and illustrated on a practical example (two parallel units). The results obtained motivate the use of the observed hazard rate process to characterize the stochastic behavior of the multi-unit systems and to optimize for example preventive maintenance policies.

  5. Total Economic Consequences of an Influenza Outbreak in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prager, Fynnwin; Wei, Dan; Rose, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Pandemic influenza represents a serious threat not only to the population of the United States, but also to its economy. In this study, we analyze the total economic consequences of potential influenza outbreaks in the United States for four cases based on the distinctions between disease severity and the presence/absence of vaccinations. The analysis is based on data and parameters on influenza obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and the general literature. A state-of-the-art economic impact modeling approach, computable general equilibrium, is applied to analyze a wide range of potential impacts stemming from the outbreaks. This study examines the economic impacts from changes in medical expenditures and workforce participation, and also takes into consideration different types of avoidance behavior and resilience actions not previously fully studied. Our results indicate that, in the absence of avoidance and resilience effects, a pandemic influenza outbreak could result in a loss in U.S. GDP of $25.4 billion, but that vaccination could reduce the losses to $19.9 billion. When behavioral and resilience factors are taken into account, a pandemic influenza outbreak could result in GDP losses of $45.3 billion without vaccination and $34.4 billion with vaccination. These results indicate the importance of including a broader set of causal factors to achieve more accurate estimates of the total economic impacts of not just pandemic influenza but biothreats in general. The results also highlight a number of actionable items that government policymakers and public health officials can use to help reduce potential economic losses from the outbreaks. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  6. Total Weight and Axle Loads of Truck Units in the Transport of Timber Depending on the Timber Cargo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Trzciński

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available When transporting timber, the high variability of species, assortments and moisture content of the wood raw material does not allow the weight of the transported timber to be precisely determined. This often contributes to the excessive weight loading of the entire truck unit. The aim of the research is to present the variability of the total weight of truck units with wood cargoes (GVW—gross vehicle weight depending on the weight of the empty unit and the transported timber load, as well as to analyze the changes in GVW, unit loads of wood and load on individual truck unit axles depending on the season. This study analyzes the total weight of truck units for 376 transports of Scots pine timber at different times of the year. The total weight of the truck units depends on the weight of an empty unit and the weight of the load. GVW was determined by using a weighbridge to weigh the vehicles and then the empty unit after unloading. The weight of the load was obtained as the difference between GVW and the tare. It was found that GVW differed significantly depending on the truck unit used, ranging from 43.60–58.80 Mg, often exceeding permissible limits for public roads. The individual axle loads for various truck units were also analyzed. The obtained results indicate that these loads are more equally distributed in the case of five-axle trucks compared to six-axle ones.

  7. ATP bioluminescence: Surface hygiene monitoring in milk preparation room of neonatal intensive care unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, Mahirah; Ishak, Shareena; Jaafar, Rohana; Sani, Norrakiah Abdullah

    2018-04-01

    ATP Bioluminescence application and standard microbiological analyses were used to evaluate the cleanliness of milk contact surfaces and non-milk contact surfaces in milk preparation room of neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC). A total of 44 samples including the breast pump, milk bottle, milk bottle screw top and screw ring, teats, measuring cups, waterless warmer, refrigerator, dishwasher and pasteurizer inner wall were tested on May 2017. 3M Clean and Trace Hygiene Monitoring (UXL100 ATP Test swabs) and the bioluminescence reader Clean-Trace NG Luminometer (3M) were used to measure the Relative Light Unit (RLU) and microbiological analysis using 3M Quick Swab and 3MTM PetrifilmTM for enumeration of aerobic count, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacteriaceae, coliform and detection of Escherichia coli (CFU /100cm2 or utensil/item). The RLU values were from 11 to 194 and passed the ATP benchmark for intensive care unit (ICU), < 250 RLU as recommended. Aerobic colony count was only found in waterless warmer (0.05±0.01 mean log CFU/warmer). None of S. aureus, Enterobacteriaceae, E. coli and coliform was detected in all samples. A weak correlation was found between bioluminescence measurements RLU and the microbiological analysis (CFU). However, the use of ATP bioluminescence in monitoring milk preparation room cleanliness can be a useful method for assessing rapidly the surface hygiene as well as to verify the Sanitation Standard Operating Procedure (SSOP) prior to implementation of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) in milk preparation room.

  8. Important patient characteristics differ prior to total knee arthroplasty and total hip arthroplasty between Switzerland and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Patricia D; Miozzari, Hermes; Christofilopoulos, Panayiotis; Hoffmeyer, Pierre; Ayers, David C; Lübbeke, Anne

    2017-01-11

    Outcomes after total knee (TKA) and hip (THA) arthroplasty are often generalized internationally. Patient-dependent factors and preoperative symptom levels may differ across countries. We compared preoperative patient and clinical characteristics from two large cohorts, one in Switzerland, the other in the US. Patient characteristics were collected prospectively on all elective primary TKAs and THAs performed at a large Swiss hospital and in a US national sample. Data included age, sex, education level, BMI, diagnosis, medical co-morbidities, PROMs (WOMAC pain/function), global health (SF-12). Six thousand six hundred eighty primary TKAs (US) and 823 TKAs (Swiss) were evaluated. US vs. Switzerland TKA patients were younger (mean age 67 vs. 72 years.), more obese (BMI ≥30 55% vs. 43%), had higher levels of education, more cardiac disease. Swiss patients had lower preoperative WOMAC pain scores (41 vs. 52) but pre-operative physical disability were comparable. 4,647 primary THAs (US) and 1,023 THAs (Swiss) were evaluated. US vs. Switzerland patients were younger (65 vs. 68 years.), more obese (BMI ≥30: 38% vs. 24%), had higher levels of education, more diabetes. Swiss patients had lower preoperative WOMAC pain scores (40 vs. 48 points). Physical disability was reported comparable, but Swiss patients indicated lower mental health scores. We found substantial differences between US and Swiss cohorts in pre-operative patient characteristics and pain levels, which has potentially important implications for cross-cultural comparison of TKA/THA outcomes. Reports from national registries lack detailed patient information while these data suggest the need for adequate risk adjustment of patient factors.

  9. Groundwater Monitoring Plan for the Reactor Technology Complex Operable Unit 2-13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard P. Wells

    2007-01-01

    This Groundwater Monitoring Plan describes the objectives, activities, and assessments that will be performed to support the on-going groundwater monitoring requirements at the Reactor Technology Complex, formerly the Test Reactor Area (TRA). The requirements for groundwater monitoring were stipulated in the Final Record of Decision for Test Reactor Area, Operable Unit 2-13, signed in December 1997. The monitoring requirements were modified by the First Five-Year Review Report for the Test Reactor Area, Operable Unit 2-13, at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to focus on those contaminants of concern that warrant continued surveillance, including chromium, tritium, strontium-90, and cobalt-60. Based upon recommendations provided in the Annual Groundwater Monitoring Status Report for 2006, the groundwater monitoring frequency was reduced to annually from twice a year

  10. Application of total care time and payment per unit time model for physician reimbursement for common general surgery operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Abhishek; Holubar, Stefan D; Figy, Sean; Chen, Lilian; Montagne, Shirley A; Rosen, Joseph M; Desimone, Joseph P

    2012-06-01

    The relative value unit system relies on subjective measures of physician input in the care of patients. A payment per unit time model incorporates surgeon reimbursement to the total care time spent in the operating room, postoperative in-house, and clinic time to define payment per unit time. We aimed to compare common general surgery operations by using the total care time and payment per unit time method in order to demonstrate a more objective measurement for physician reimbursement. Average total physician payment per case was obtained for 5 outpatient operations and 4 inpatient operations in general surgery. Total care time was defined as the sum of operative time, 30 minutes per hospital day, and 30 minutes per office visit for each operation. Payment per unit time was calculated by dividing the physician reimbursement per case by the total care time. Total care time, physician payment per case, and payment per unit time for each type of operation demonstrated that an average payment per time spent for inpatient operations was $455.73 and slightly more at $467.51 for outpatient operations. Partial colectomy with primary anastomosis had the longest total care time (8.98 hours) and the least payment per unit time ($188.52). Laparoscopic gastric bypass had the highest payment per time ($707.30). The total care time and payment per unit time method can be used as an adjunct to compare reimbursement among different operations on an institutional level as well as on a national level. Although many operations have similar payment trends based on time spent by the surgeon, payment differences using this methodology are seen and may be in need of further review. Copyright © 2012 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluating the Use of Tissue Oximetry to Decrease Intensive Unit Monitoring for Free Flap Breast Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Joseph A; Vargas, Christina R; Ho, Olivia A; Lin, Samuel J; Tobias, Adam M; Lee, Bernard T

    2017-07-01

    Postoperative free flap care has historically required intensive monitoring for 24 hours in an intensive care unit. Continuous monitoring with tissue oximetry has allowed earlier detection of vascular compromise, decreasing flap loss and improving salvage. This study aims to identify whether a fast-track postoperative paradigm can be safely used with tissue oximetry to decrease intensive monitoring and costs. All consecutive microsurgical breast reconstructions performed at a single institution were reviewed (2008-2014) and cases requiring return to the operating room were identified. Data evaluated included patient demographics, the take back time course, and complications of flap loss and salvage. A cost-benefit analysis was performed to analyse the utility of a postoperative intensive monitoring setting. There were 900 flaps performed and 32 required an unplanned return to the operating room. There were 16 flaps that required a reexploration within the first 24 hours; the standard length of intensive unit monitoring. After 4 hours, there were 7 flaps (44%) detected by tissue oximetry for reexploration. After 15 hours of intensive monitoring postoperatively, cost analysis revealed that the majority (15/16; 94%) of failing flaps had been identified and the cost of identifying each subsequent failing flap exceeded the cost of another hour of intensive monitoring. The postoperative paradigm for microsurgical flaps has historically required intensive unit monitoring. Using tissue oximetry, a fast-track pathway can reduce time spent in an intensive monitoring setting from 24 to 15 hours with significant cost savings and minimal risk of missing a failing free flap.

  12. Dust and smoke pollution monitoring in industrial unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamsi, S.S.

    1995-01-01

    Dust and smoke are the two most commonly emitted industrial pollutants which are visible to the naked eye. Cement plants and power generation plants, based on coal and fuel oil etc. are the most common examples of industry emitting these pollutants. In this article these pollutants have been briefly described and some monitoring instruments for dust and smoke emissions have been specific. These instruments are especially suitable for power station and the cement industry etc. Automotive in urban areas. However, this paper does not include equipment for automotive exhaust pollution. (author)

  13. 76 FR 75523 - Vessel Monitoring Systems; Approved Mobile Transmitting Units and Communications Service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-02

    ... Monitoring Systems; Approved Mobile Transmitting Units and Communications Service Providers for Use in... relevant features of the enhanced mobile transmitting unit (E-MTU) VMS and communications service providers... with the Orbcomm mobile communications provider service. Skymate can be reached at 866-SKYMATE and...

  14. 75 FR 63445 - Vessel Monitoring Systems; Approved Mobile Transmitting Units and Communications Service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... Monitoring Systems; Approved Mobile Transmitting Units and Communications Service Providers for Use in the... features of the VMS. ADDRESSES: To obtain copies of the list of NOAA-approved VMS mobile transmitting units and NOAA-approved VMS communications service providers, please contact the VMS Support Center at...

  15. Water Quality Monitoring: An Environmental Studies Unit for Biology 20/30. Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Environment, Edmonton. Environmental Education Resources Branch.

    The objective of this environmental studies unit is to establish a water quality monitoring project for high school students in Alberta while simultaneously providing a unit which meets the objectives of the Biology 20 program (and which may also be used in Biology 10 and 30). Through this project, students assist in the collection,…

  16. Water Quality Monitoring: An Environmental Studies Unit for Biology 20/30. Student Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Environment, Edmonton. Environmental Education Resources Branch.

    The objective of this environmental studies unit is to establish a water quality monitoring project for high school students in Alberta while simultaneously providing a unit which meets the objectives of the Biology 20 program (and which may also be used in Biology 10 and 30). Through this project, students assist in the collection,…

  17. A Satellite Imagery Approach to Monitor Turbidity and Total Suspended Sediments in Green Bay, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaei, B.; Hamidi, S.; Hosseiny, S. M. H.; Ekhtari, N.

    2017-12-01

    Fox River is a major source of land-based pollutants, nutrients, and sediment that flows into the southern Green Bay (GB). GB supplies one-third of the total nutrient loading to Lake Michigan. This can play a significant role in the biological functioning of the Bay and development of managerial scenarios. To name a few, it can degrade the quality of the aquatic life, add to the costs for treatment processes, and reduce coastal quality. Water quality evaluation is a time consuming and costly process. Spaceborne imagery data provides a cheap and valuable source of information as an alternative for field monitoring of the water resources. Sediment is an optically active variable; hence; remote sensing techniques can be utilized to estimate Total Suspended Sediments (TSS) and Turbidity (TU) of water. In this study, we developed relationships between remote sensing imagery data with daily in situ measurements of TSS and TU in the summers of 2011 to 2014. Surface reflectance (SR) values obtained from Band 1 of MYD09GQ dataset-a level 2 product of MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). This band covers SR between 620 and 670nm, in which, the wavelength is sensitive to mineral suspended matters most. After elimination of days with cloud contamination, 118 pairs of data remained for analysis. Several possible functions were tested and exponential function was the best estimator of the SR-TSS and SR-TU relationships with R2 values of 0.8269 and 0.8688, respectively. We then used 2014 data to validate the proposed functions. The model was able to estimate TSS and TU with NRMSE values of 0.36 and 0.30. It indicates that the model can be well-applied to predict TSS and TU within a reasonable margin of error. Then, equations were used to map the spatiotemporal dynamics of sediment in GB. Area of the plume ranges between 12 to 180 km2 while 50% of the time the area of the turbid plume is more than 106 km2. Expectedly, the concentration of sediment is much higher

  18. Economic impacts of the total nuclear waste management program envisioned for the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, L.; Zielen, A.J.; Parry, S.J.S.

    1978-01-01

    This paper presents information on the costs of nuclear waste management and on the impacts of those costs on the price of power and on the capital and labor markets. It is assumed that the LWR would be the sole commercial reactor used through the year 2000. Two fuel cycle options are considered: the throwaway mode (spent fuel is waste), and the full recycle for comparison. Total costs are calculated for all facilities needed to store, package, and reposit all the spent fuel through the lifetime of 380 GW capacity installed by 2000 and operating for 30 y. The economic impact is: the price of power produced by the reactors would be increased by 1.4%; the capital for nuclear plants would apply to waste management; the average annual labor effort needed over the next 50 to 75 years is 3000 to 5000 man years; and the unit cost of spent fuel disposal is $129/kg ($119/kg for full recycle). 7 tables

  19. Ethiopia before the United Nations Treaty Monitoring Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Brems

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Among the many human rights conventions adopted by the UN, seven are known — together with their additional protocols — as the core international human rights instruments: - The International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination; - The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights; - The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; - The Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women; - The Convention against Torture and other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment; - The Convention on the Rights of the Child;  - The International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of all Migrant Workers and Members of their Families.  The main international control mechanism under these conventions is what may be considered the standard mechanism in international human rights protection: state reporting before an international committee. An initial report is due usually one year after joining the treaty and afterwards, reports are due periodically (every four or five years. The international committees examine the reports submitted by the state parties. In the course of this examination they include information from other sources, such as the press, other United Nations materials or NGO information. They also hold a meeting with representatives of the state submitting the report. At the end of this process the committee issues 'concluding observations' or 'concluding comments'. This paper focuses on the experience of one state — Ethiopia - with the seven core human rights treaties. This should allow the reader to gain insights both into the human rights situation in Ethiopia and in the functioning of the United Nations human rights protection system. Key Words: United Nations, Human Rights Conventions, State Reporting, Human Rights Situation in Ethiopia

  20. Long-term dust climatology in the western United States reconstructed from routine aerosol ground monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Q. Tong

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study introduces an observation-based dust identification approach and applies it to reconstruct long-term dust climatology in the western United States. Long-term dust climatology is important for quantifying the effects of atmospheric aerosols on regional and global climate. Although many routine aerosol monitoring networks exist, it is often difficult to obtain dust records from these networks, because these monitors are either deployed far away from dust active regions (most likely collocated with dense population or contaminated by anthropogenic sources and other natural sources, such as wildfires and vegetation detritus. Here we propose an approach to identify local dust events relying solely on aerosol mass and composition from general-purpose aerosol measurements. Through analyzing the chemical and physical characteristics of aerosol observations during satellite-detected dust episodes, we select five indicators to be used to identify local dust records: (1 high PM10 concentrations; (2 low PM2.5/PM10 ratio; (3 higher concentrations and percentage of crustal elements; (4 lower percentage of anthropogenic pollutants; and (5 low enrichment factors of anthropogenic elements. After establishing these identification criteria, we conduct hierarchical cluster analysis for all validated aerosol measurement data over 68 IMPROVE sites in the western United States. A total of 182 local dust events were identified over 30 of the 68 locations from 2000 to 2007. These locations are either close to the four US Deserts, namely the Great Basin Desert, the Mojave Desert, the Sonoran Desert, and the Chihuahuan Desert, or in the high wind power region (Colorado. During the eight-year study period, the total number of dust events displays an interesting four-year activity cycle (one in 2000–2003 and the other in 2004–2007. The years of 2003, 2002 and 2007 are the three most active dust periods, with 46, 31 and 24

  1. Primary shutdown system monitoring unit for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Tahir Kamal; Balasubramanian, R.; Agilandaeswari, K.

    2013-01-01

    Shut off rods made up of neutron absorbing material are used as Primary Shutdown System. To reduce the power of the reactor under certain abnormal operating conditions, these rods must go down into the core within a specified time. Any malfunctioning in the movement of rods cannot be tolerated and Secondary Shutdown System (SSS) must be actuated within stipulated time to reduce the reactor power. A special safety critical, hardwired electronics unit has been designed to detect failure of PSS Shut off rods movements and generate trip signals for initiating SSS. (author)

  2. A maintenance policy for two-unit parallel systems based on imperfect monitoring information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Anne [Department Genie des Systems Industiels (GSI), Universite de technologie de Troyes, 12 rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes, Cedex (France)]. E-mail: anne.barros@utt.fr; Berenguer, Christophe [Department Genie des Systems Industiels (GSI), Universite de technologie de Troyes, 12 rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes, Cedex (France); Grall, Antoine [Department Genie des Systems Industiels (GSI), Universite de technologie de Troyes, 12 rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes, Cedex (France)

    2006-02-01

    In this paper a maintenance policy is optimised for a two-unit system with a parallel structure and stochastic dependences. Monitoring problems are taken into account in the optimisation scheme: the failure time of each unit can be not detected with a given probability. Conditions on the system parameters (unit failure rates) and on the non-detection probabilities must be verified to make the optimisation scheme valid. These conditions are clearly identified. Numerical experiments allow to show the relevance of taking into account monitoring problems in the maintenance model.

  3. A maintenance policy for two-unit parallel systems based on imperfect monitoring information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, Anne; Berenguer, Christophe; Grall, Antoine

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a maintenance policy is optimised for a two-unit system with a parallel structure and stochastic dependences. Monitoring problems are taken into account in the optimisation scheme: the failure time of each unit can be not detected with a given probability. Conditions on the system parameters (unit failure rates) and on the non-detection probabilities must be verified to make the optimisation scheme valid. These conditions are clearly identified. Numerical experiments allow to show the relevance of taking into account monitoring problems in the maintenance model

  4. Radiological survey of Goiania by a mobile monitoring unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, M.C.F.

    1989-01-01

    After the initial response to the radiological accident in Goiania, a radiological survey throughout the city was performed using a mobile unit. This unit was equipped with two Geiger Muller detectors outsise the vehicle and one 4' x 4' NaI(Tl) detector connected to a dual recorder. All three detectors were placed 1 m above the ground. The survey system covers a wide range of exposure rate, since environmental levels up to 10 R h -1 . Eighty percent of the Goiania urban area was covered by this survey and except for some specific locations the contamination was restricted to the main foci surroundings ocurring in a non homogenous pattern. The highest value observed in the city after the main foci decontamination was of 0.7 mR h -1 in the 57 th street - where the source was opened. Results of the main foci and some other locations are apresented in the paper. The system designed to perform the survey in the city played a fundamental role during the decontamination process (author) [pt

  5. An assessment of seismic monitoring in the United States; requirement for an Advanced National Seismic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1999-01-01

    This report assesses the status, needs, and associated costs of seismic monitoring in the United States. It sets down the requirement for an effective, national seismic monitoring strategy and an advanced system linking national, regional, and urban monitoring networks. Modernized seismic monitoring can provide alerts of imminent strong earthquake shaking; rapid assessment of distribution and severity of earthquake shaking (for use in emergency response); warnings of a possible tsunami from an offshore earthquake; warnings of volcanic eruptions; information for correctly characterizing earthquake hazards and for improving building codes; and data on response of buildings and structures during earthquakes, for safe, cost-effective design, engineering, and construction practices in earthquake-prone regions.

  6. Offsite environmental monitoring report: Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaloud, D.J.; Dicey, B.B.; Mullen, A.A.; Neale, A.C.; Sparks, A.R.; Fontana, C.A.; Carroll, L.D.; Phillips, W.G.; Smith, D.D.; Thome, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program conducted during 1991 by the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory-Las Vegas. This laboratory operates an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and using pressurized ion chambers (PICs); and by biological monitoring of animals, food crops, and humans. Personnel with mobile monitoring equipment are placed in areas downwind from the test site prior to each nuclear weapons test to implement protective actions, provide immediate radiation monitoring, and obtain environmental samples rapidly after any occurrence of radioactivity release. Comparison of the measurements and sample analysis results with background levels and with appropriate standards and regulations indicated that there was no radioactivity detected offsite by the various EPA monitoring networks and no exposure above natural background to the population living in the vicinity of the NTS that could be attributed to current NTS activities. Annual and long-term trends were evaluated in the Noble Gas, Tritium, Milk Surveillance, Biomonitoring, TLD, PIC networks, and the Long-Term Hydrological Monitoring Program.

  7. Offsite environmental monitoring report: Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaloud, D.J.; Dicey, B.B.; Mullen, A.A.; Neale, A.C.; Sparks, A.R.; Fontana, C.A.; Carroll, L.D.; Phillips, W.G.; Smith, D.D.; Thome, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program conducted during 1991 by the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory-Las Vegas. This laboratory operates an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and using pressurized ion chambers (PICs); and by biological monitoring of animals, food crops, and humans. Personnel with mobile monitoring equipment are placed in areas downwind from the test site prior to each nuclear weapons test to implement protective actions, provide immediate radiation monitoring, and obtain environmental samples rapidly after any occurrence of radioactivity release. Comparison of the measurements and sample analysis results with background levels and with appropriate standards and regulations indicated that there was no radioactivity detected offsite by the various EPA monitoring networks and no exposure above natural background to the population living in the vicinity of the NTS that could be attributed to current NTS activities. Annual and long-term trends were evaluated in the Noble Gas, Tritium, Milk Surveillance, Biomonitoring, TLD, PIC networks, and the Long-Term Hydrological Monitoring Program

  8. Total hip arthroplasty in chronic dialysis patients in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Kevin C; Bucci, Jay R; Agodoa, Lawrence Y

    2003-01-01

    The national incidence of and factors associated with total hip arthroplasty (THA) in chronic dialysis patients has never been reported. We therefore performed an historical cohort study of 375,857 chronic dialysis patients listed in the 2000 United States Renal Data System between 1 April 1995 and 31 December 1999 and followed-up until 14 May 2000. Primary outcomes were associations with hospitalizations for a primary discharge code of THA (ICD9 procedure code 81.51x) after initiation of dialysis. Dialysis patients had a cumulative incidence of THA of 35 episodes/10,000 person-years, compared to 5.3/10,000 in the general population. The leading indication for THA was osteoarthritis of the hip and pelvis (58% of cases). However, the strongest risk factor for THA in dialysis patients was end-stage renal disease (ESRD) due to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, adjusted rate ratio (ARR), 6.80, 95% CI 4.62-10.03, in whom avascular necrosis of the hip was the most common indication, 68.4%). The database did not include information on use of corticosteroids. Diabetic recipients were significantly less likely to receive THA, as were males, and African Americans. Mortality after THA was 0.25% at thirty days and 30% at three years, not significantly different from the expected mortality of dialysis, adjusted for comorbidity. The most common indication for THA in dialysis patients is osteoarthritis of the hip, similar to the general population. Patients with SLE are more likely to receive THA which is well tolerated and not associated with increased mortality in this population, perhaps reflecting selection bias due to appropriate screening for this elective procedure.

  9. Electronic monitoring and voice prompts improve hand hygiene and decrease nosocomial infections in an intermediate care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swoboda, Sandra M; Earsing, Karen; Strauss, Kevin; Lane, Stephen; Lipsett, Pamela A

    2004-02-01

    To determine whether electronic monitoring of hand hygiene and voice prompts can improve hand hygiene and decrease nosocomial infection rates in a surgical intermediate care unit. Three-phase quasi-experimental design. Phase I was electronic monitoring and direct observation; phase II was electronic monitoring and computerized voice prompts for failure to perform hand hygiene on room exit; and phase III was electronic monitoring only. Nine-room, 14-bed intermediate care unit in a university, tertiary-care institution. All patient rooms, utility room, and staff lavatory were monitored electronically. All healthcare personnel including physicians, nurses, nursing support personnel, ancillary staff, all visitors and family members, and any other personnel interacting with patients on the intermediate care unit. All patients with an intermediate care unit length of stay >48 hrs were followed for nosocomial infection. Electronic monitoring during all phases, computerized voice prompts during phase II only. We evaluated a total of 283,488 electronically monitored entries into a patient room with 251,526 exits for 420 days (10,080 hrs and 3,549 patient days). Compared with phase I, hand hygiene compliance in patient rooms improved 37% during phase II (odds ratio, 1.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.83) and 41% in phase III (odds ratio, 1.41; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.84). When adjusting for patient admissions during each phase, point estimates of nosocomial infections decreased by 22% during phase II and 48% during phase III; when adjusting for patient days, the number of infections decreased by 10% during phase II and 40% during phase III. Although the overall rate of nosocomial infections significantly decreased when combining phases II and III, the association between nosocomial infection and individual phase was not significant. Electronic monitoring provided effective ongoing feedback about hand hygiene compliance. During both the voice prompt phase and post

  10. Monitoring of total body water to examine the progress of acclimatization of runners at varying altitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Semerád

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our pilot study was to find out if total body water (TBW changes could objectively modify the course of adaptation during training for elite runners at different altitudes. The aim of this pilot study is to summarize the indication of the progress of acclimatization at high altitudes (1000–2700 meters above sea level during alpine conditioning. In three training camps at various altitudes the TBW of elite runners (F = 3, M = 1; n = 4; age 23 } 0.9 was monitored, in order to check the progress of acclimatization. We used BIA measurement methods (Bodystat 1500 at different high altitude running camps at the Czech Republic, Morocco and Ethiopia. Changes in TBW were used to check the progress of acclimatization. We discovered that the retention peaks of TBW corresponded with critical days (p ≤ 0.04; Cohen’s d. The highest measured increases of TBW at an altitude of 1000 m were for runner 1, 1.7 litres and for runner 2, 2.1 litres with retention peaks for both occurring on the 5th day. At an altitude of 1770 m runner 1 reached an increase of TBW of 6.3 litres, with a retention peak on the 11th day, and runner 3 had an increase of 5.1 litres with a peak on the 8th day. In the acclimatization phase we found two critical periods, from the 4th–6th day, and after the 10th–12th day. For runner 4 in altitude 2700m who completed the camp at a higher altitude, the situation is more complicated because there were fluctuations of the content of TBW in the range of 1.25 litres, with the highest depression on the 5th and then again an unsettled rise and reaching a maximum on the 12th, when she nearly returned to the initial value. Detected retention peaks reflected different levels of altitude (5th–12th days.We can conclude that the measuring of changes in TBW during camps at higher altitudes may be one of the biomarkers during acclimatization to altitude.

  11. Offsite environmental monitoring report: Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program conducted during 1990 by the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory -- Las Vegas. This laboratory operates an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and using pressurized ion chambers (PICs); and by biological monitoring of animals, food crops, and humans. Personnel with mobile monitoring equipment are placed in areas downwind from the test site prior to each nuclear weapons test to implement protective actions, provide immediate radiation monitoring, and obtain environmental samples rapidly after any occurrence of radioactivity release

  12. Offsite environmental monitoring report. Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patzer, R.G.; Black, S.C.; Grossman, R.F.; Smith, D.D.

    1984-07-01

    This report covers the routine radiation monitoring activities conducted by the Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory-Las Vegas in areas which may be affected by nuclear testing programs of the Department of Energy. This monitoring is conducted to document compliance with standards, to identify trends in environmental radiation, and to provide such information to the public. It summarizes these activities for calendar year 1983. No radioactivity attributable to NTS activities was detectable offsite by the monitoring networks. Using recorded wind data and Pasquill stability categories, atmospheric dispersion calculations based on reported radionuclide releases yield an estimated dose of 5 x 10 -5 man-rem to the population within 80 km of the Nevada Test Site during 1983. World-wide fallout of Kr-85, Sr-90, Cs-137, and Pu-239 detected by the monitoring networks would cause maximum exposure to an individual of less than 0.2 mrem per year. Plutonium and krypton in air were similar to 1982 levels while cesium and strontium in other samples were near the detection limits. An occasional net exposure to offsite residents has been detected by the TLD network. On investigation, the cause of such net exposures has been due to personal habits or occupational activities, not to NTS activities. 29 references, 35 figures, 30 tables

  13. A total patient monitoring system for point-of-care applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitchurch, Ashwin K.; Abraham, Jose K.; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2007-04-01

    Traditionally, home care for chronically ill patients and the elderly requires periodic visits to the patient's home by doctors or healthcare personnel. During these visits, the visiting person usually records the patient's vital signs and takes decisions as to any change in treatment and address any issues that the patient may have. Patient monitoring systems have since changed this scenario by significantly reducing the number of home visits while not compromising on continuous monitoring. This paper describes the design and development of a patient monitoring systems capable of concurrent remote monitoring of 8 patient-worn sensors: Electroencephalogram (EEG), Electrocardiogram (ECG), temperature, airflow pressure, movement and chest expansion. These sensors provide vital signs useful for monitoring the health of chronically ill patients and alerts can be raised if certain specified signal levels fall above or below a preset threshold value. The data from all eight sensors are digitally transmitted to a PC or to a standalone network appliance which relays the data through an available internet connection to the remote monitoring client. Thus it provides a real-time rendering of the patient's health at a remote location.

  14. A prospective study on medication and total parenteral nutrition practices at a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayakumar Arumugam

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: TPN and medication practices at the NICU should be highly monitored for avoiding medication errors, drug interactions, and mortality rate in neonates. The most effective method can be achieved when a clinical pharmacist become a part of it.

  15. Offsite environmental monitoring report. Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, S.C.; Grossman, R.F.; Mullen, A.A.; Potter, G.D.; Smith, D.D.

    1983-07-01

    A principal activity of the Offsite Radiological Safety Program is routine environmental monitoring for radioactive materials in various media and for radiation in areas which may be affected by nuclear tests. It is conducted to document compliance with standards, to identify trends, and to provide information to the public. This report summarizes these activities for CY 1982

  16. Performance Evaluation of the United Nations Environment Programme Air Quality Monitoring Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    A request for technical collaboration between the UNEP and the US EPA resulted in the establishment of a MCRADA. The purpose of this agreement was to evaluate an air quality monitoring system (referred to as the UNEP pod) developed by the UNEP for use in environmental situations ...

  17. Impact of the economic downturn on total joint replacement demand in the United States: updated projections to 2021.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Steven M; Ong, Kevin L; Lau, Edmund; Bozic, Kevin J

    2014-04-16

    Few studies have explored the role of the National Health Expenditure and macroeconomics on the utilization of total joint replacement. The economic downturn has raised questions about the sustainability of growth for total joint replacement in the future. Previous projections of total joint replacement demand in the United States were based on data up to 2003 using a statistical methodology that neglected macroeconomic factors, such as the National Health Expenditure. Data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (1993 to 2010) were used with United States Census and National Health Expenditure data to quantify historical trends in total joint replacement rates, including the two economic downturns in the 2000s. Primary and revision hip and knee arthroplasty were identified using codes from the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification. Projections in total joint replacement were estimated using a regression model incorporating the growth in population and rate of arthroplasties from 1993 to 2010 as a function of age, sex, race, and census region using the National Health Expenditure as the independent variable. The regression model was used in conjunction with government projections of National Health Expenditure from 2011 to 2021 to estimate future arthroplasty rates in subpopulations of the United States and to derive national estimates. The growth trend for the incidence of joint arthroplasty, for the overall United States population as well as for the United States workforce, was insensitive to economic downturns. From 2009 to 2010, the total number of procedures increased by 6.0% for primary total hip arthroplasty, 6.1% for primary total knee arthroplasty, 10.8% for revision total hip arthroplasty, and 13.5% for revision total knee arthroplasty. The National Health Expenditure model projections for primary hip replacement in 2020 were higher than a previously projected model, whereas the current model estimates for total

  18. 40 CFR Table 11 to Subpart G of... - Wastewater-Inspection and Monitoring Requirements for Waste Management Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wastewater-Inspection and Monitoring Requirements for Waste Management Units 11 Table 11 to Subpart G of Part 63 Protection of Environment... and Monitoring Requirements for Waste Management Units To comply with Inspection or monitoring...

  19. An advanced NSSS integrity monitoring system for Shin-Kori nuclear units 3 and 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Y. G.; Kim, H. B.; Galin, S. R.; Kim, S. H.; Lee, S. J.

    2009-01-01

    The advanced design features of NSSS (Nuclear Steam Supply System) Integrity Monitoring System for Shin-Kori Nuclear Units 3 and 4 are summarized herein. During the overall system design and detailed component design processes, many design improvements have been made for the system. The major design changes are: 1) the application of a common software platform for all subsystems, 2) the implementation of remote access, control and monitoring capabilities, and 3) the equipment redesign and rearrangement that has simplified the system architecture. Changes give an effect on cabinet size, number of cables, cyber-security, graphic user interfaces, and interfaces with other monitoring systems. The system installation and operation for Shin-Kori Nuclear Units 3 and 4 will be more convenient than those for previous Korean nuclear units in view of its remote control capability, automated test functions, improved user interface functions, and much less cabling. (authors)

  20. An Advanced NSSS Integrity Monitoring System for Shin-Kori Nuclear Units 3 and 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Yang Gyun; Galin, Scott R.; Lee, Sang Jeong

    2010-12-01

    The advanced design features of NSSS (Nuclear Steam Supply System) Integrity Monitoring System for Shin-Kori Nuclear Units 3 and 4 are summarized herein. During the overall system design and detailed component design processes, many design improvements have been made for the system. The major design changes are: 1) the application of a common software platform for all subsystems, 2) the implementation of remote access, control and monitoring capabilities, and 3) the equipment redesign and rearrangement that has simplified the system architecture. Changes give an effect on cabinet size, number of cables, cyber-security, graphic user interfaces, and interfaces with other monitoring systems. The system installation and operation for Shin-Kori Nuclear Units 3 and 4 will be more convenient than those for previous Korean nuclear units in view of its remote control capability, automated test functions, improved user interface functions, and much less cabling.

  1. Quantification of differences between occupancy and total monitoring periods for better assessment of exposure to particles in indoor environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzbicka, A.; Bohgard, M.; Pagels, J. H.; Dahl, A.; Löndahl, J.; Hussein, T.; Swietlicki, E.; Gudmundsson, A.

    2015-04-01

    For the assessment of personal exposure, information about the concentration of pollutants when people are in given indoor environments (occupancy time) are of prime importance. However this kind of data frequently is not reported. The aim of this study was to assess differences in particle characteristics between occupancy time and the total monitoring period, with the latter being the most frequently used averaging time in the published data. Seven indoor environments were selected in Sweden and Finland: an apartment, two houses, two schools, a supermarket, and a restaurant. They were assessed for particle number and mass concentrations and number size distributions. The measurements using a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer and two photometers were conducted for seven consecutive days during winter in each location. Particle concentrations in residences and schools were, as expected, the highest during occupancy time. In the apartment average and median PM2.5 mass concentrations during the occupancy time were 29% and 17% higher, respectively compared to total monitoring period. In both schools, the average and medium values of the PM2.5 mass concentrations were on average higher during teaching hours compared to the total monitoring period by 16% and 32%, respectively. When it comes to particle number concentrations (PNC), in the apartment during occupancy, the average and median values were 33% and 58% higher, respectively than during the total monitoring period. In both houses and schools the average and median PNC were similar for the occupancy and total monitoring periods. General conclusions on the basis of measurements in the limited number of indoor environments cannot be drawn. However the results confirm a strong dependence on type and frequency of indoor activities that generate particles and site specificity. The results also indicate that the exclusion of data series during non-occupancy periods can improve the estimates of particle concentrations and

  2. Condition based monitoring, diagnosis and maintenance on operating equipments of a hydraulic generator unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X T; Feng, F Z; Si, A W

    2012-01-01

    According to performance characteristics of operating equipments in a hydraulic generator unit (HGU), the relative techniques on condition monitoring and fault diagnosis (CMFD) are introduced in this paper, especially the key technologies are emphasized, such as equipment monitoring, expert system (ES), intelligent diagnosis and condition based maintenance (CBM). Meanwhile, according to the instructor on CBM proposed by State electric power corporation, based on integrated mode, the main steps on implementation of CBM are discussed in this paper.

  3. Offsite environmental monitoring report: Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, M.G.; Flotard, R.D.; Fontana, C.A.; Hennessey, P.A.; Maunu, H.K.; Mouck, T.L.; Mullen, A.A.; Sells, M.D.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program (OREMP) conducted during 1997 by the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPAs), Radiation and Indoor Environments National Laboratory, Las Vegas, Nevada. This laboratory operated an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling and analyzing milk, water, and air; by deploying and reading thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs); and using pressurized ionization chambers (PICs) to measure ambient gamma exposure rates with a sensitivity capable of detecting low level exposures not detected by other monitoring methods.

  4. Offsite environmental monitoring report: Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaloud, D.J; Daigler, D.M.; Davis, M.G. [and others

    1996-06-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program conducted during 1993 by the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory - Las Vegas (EMSL-LV). This laboratory operates an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and using pressurized ionization chambers (PICs); by biological monitoring of foodstuffs including animal tissues and food crops; and by measurement of radioactive material deposited in humans.

  5. Offsite environmental monitoring report: Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaloud, D.J; Daigler, D.M.; Davis, M.G.

    1996-06-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program conducted during 1993 by the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory - Las Vegas (EMSL-LV). This laboratory operates an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and using pressurized ionization chambers (PICs); by biological monitoring of foodstuffs including animal tissues and food crops; and by measurement of radioactive material deposited in humans

  6. Offsite environmental monitoring report. Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, M.G.; Flotard, R.D.; Fontana, C.A.; Hennessey, P.A.; Maunu, H.K.; Mouck, T.L.; Mullen, A.A.; Sells, M.D.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program (OREMP) conducted during 1997 by the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPAs), Radiation and Indoor Environments National Laboratory, Las Vegas, Nevada. This laboratory operated an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling and analyzing milk, water, and air; by deploying and reading thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs); and using pressurized ionization chambers (PICs) to measure ambient gamma exposure rates with a sensitivity capable of detecting low level exposures not detected by other monitoring methods

  7. The Evolving Contingency Contracting Market: Private Sector Self regulation and United States Government Monitoring of Procurement of Stability Operations Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    statements of work would be useful in ensuring ethical govern- ment procurement practices. Conclusions The United States conducts diplomatic, defense...THE EVOLVING CONTINGENCY CONTRACTING MARKET: PRIVATE SECTOR SELF-REGULATION AND UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT MONITORING OF PROCUREMENT OF STABILITY...MARKET: PRIVATE SECTOR SELF-REGULATION AND UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT MONITORING OF PROCUREMENT OF STABILITY OPERATIONS SERVICES Whitney Grespin January

  8. 40 CFR 60.1320 - How do I monitor the load of my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... municipal waste combustion unit? 60.1320 Section 60.1320 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... of Performance for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units for Which Construction is Commenced After... Monitoring Requirements § 60.1320 How do I monitor the load of my municipal waste combustion unit? (a) If...

  9. Exploding Head Syndrome in the Epilepsy Monitoring Unit: Case Report and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, Kara; Ng, Marcus C

    2017-01-01

    Diagnosis of paroxysmal events in epilepsy patients is often made through video-telemetry electroencephalography in the epilepsy monitoring unit. This case report describes the first-ever diagnosis of exploding head syndrome in a patient with longstanding epilepsy and novel nocturnal events. In this report, we describe the presentation of exploding head syndrome and its prevalence and risk factors. In addition, the prevalence of newly diagnosed sleep disorders through video-telemetry electroencephalography in the epilepsy monitoring unit is briefly reviewed. This report also illustrates the novel use of clobazam for the treatment of exploding head syndrome.

  10. Condition monitoring of primary coolant pump-motor units of Indian PHWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rshikesan, P.B.; Sharma, S.S.; Mhetre, S.G.

    1994-01-01

    As the primary coolant pump motor units are located in shut down accessible area, their start up, satisfactory operation and shut down are monitored from control room. As unavailability of one pump in standardised 220 MWe station reduces the station power to about 110 MWe, satisfactory operation of the pump is also important from economic considerations. All the critical parameters of pump shaft, mechanical seal, bearing system, motor winding and shaft displacement (vibrations) are monitored/recorded to ensure satisfactory operation of critical, capital intensive pump-motor units. (author). 2 tabs., 1 fig

  11. A microcontroller based readout unit for a smart personnel monitoring TLD badge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaonkar, U.P.; Kulkarni, M.S.; Kannan, S.

    1997-01-01

    An automated TLD personnel monitoring system is under development to cope up with the requirements of personnel monitoring of rapidly growing number of radiation workers. The core of the system is a smart TLD badge incorporating a memory device and a microcontroller based readout unit for reading the memory contents of the badge. The memory is used to store personnel data including the accumulated dose data. The reader unit has a serial RS 232C interface for connection to a PC for entering/modifying data in the memory. A password protected software has also been developed in C for entering/modifying the data in the single memory. 3 figs

  12. Space-Proven Medical Monitor: The Total Patient-Care Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The primary objective of the Gemini Program was to develop techniques that would allow for advanced, long-duration space travel, a prerequisite of the ensuing Apollo Program that would put man safely on the Moon before the end of the decade. In order to carry out this objective, NASA worked with a variety of innovative companies to develop propulsion systems, onboard computers, and docking capabilities that were critical to the health of Gemini spacecraft, as well as life-support systems and physiological-monitoring devices that were critical to the health of Gemini astronauts. One of these companies was Spacelabs Medical, Inc., the pioneer of what is commonly known today as medical telemetry. Spacelabs Medical helped NASA better understand man s reaction to space through a series of bioinstrumentation devices that, for the first time ever, were capable of monitoring orbiting astronauts physical conditions in real time, from Earth. The company went on to further expand its knowledge of monitoring and maintaining health in space, and then brought it down to Earth, to dramatically change the course of patient monitoring in the field of health care.

  13. Integrated Data Fusion and Mining Techniques for Monitoring Total Organic Carbon Concentrations in a Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Total organic carbon (TOC) in surface waters, markedly of seasonal variations, is a known precursor of disinfection byproducts such as Total Trihalomethanes (TTHM) in drinking water treatment. Real-time knowledge of TOC distribution in source water can help treatment operation to...

  14. Enhancement of hand hygiene compliance among health care workers from a hemodialysis unit using video-monitoring feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Carrillo, Laura Arelí; Rodríguez-López, Juan Manuel; Galarza-Delgado, Dionisio Ángel; Baena-Trejo, Laura; Padilla-Orozco, Magaly; Mendoza-Flores, Lidia; Camacho-Ortiz, Adrián

    2016-08-01

    The importance of hand hygiene in the prevention of health care-associated infection is well known. Experience with hand hygiene compliance (HHC) evaluation in hemodialysis units is scarce. This study was a 3-phase, prospective longitudinal intervention study during a 5-month period in a 13-bed hemodialysis unit at a university hospital in Northern Mexico. The unit performs an average of 1,150 hemodialysis procedures per month. Compliance was evaluated by a direct observer and a video assisted observer. Feedback was given to health care workers in the form of educational sessions and confidential reports and video analysis of compliance and noncompliance. A total of 5,402 hand hygiene opportunities were registered; 5,201 during 7,820 minutes of video footage and 201 by direct observation during 1,180 minutes. Lower compliance during the baseline evaluation was observed by video monitoring compared with direct observation (P hand hygiene compliance. Video-assisted monitoring of hand hygiene is an excellent method for the evaluation of HHC in a hemodialysis unit; enhanced HHC can be achieved through a feedback program to the hemodialysis staff that includes video examples and confidential reports. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Adjustment of the Kompleks Titan-2 monitoring computerized system at the Rovno NPP third unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zigaev, B.P.

    1987-01-01

    Information signal origin and processing processes in the monitoring computerized system 'Komplex Titan-2' at the Rovno NPP third unit are considered. The system exercises control over the following production equipment parameters: the state of keys of control of lock fittings, mechanisms, regulators, reserve mechanism automatic shut-down circuit; the state of lock fittings, mechanisms, regulators, reserve mechanism automated switching on; parameter deviation from permissible values; interlock operation; protection system state; the state of autonomous units and devices

  16. Acoustic emission monitoring of preservice testing at Watts Bar Unit 1 Nuclear Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutton, P.H.; Pappas, R.A.; Friesel, M.A.

    1985-02-01

    Acoustic emission (AE) monitoring of selected pressure boundary areas at TVA's Watts Bar, Unit 1 Nuclear Plant in the US during hot functional preservice testing is described. Background, methodology, and results are included. The work discussed here is a major milestone in a program supported by the US NRC to develop and demonstrate application of AE monitoring for continuous surveillance of reactor pressure boundaries to detect and evaluate growing flaws. The subject work demonstrated that anticipated problem areas can be overcome. Work is continuing to AE monitoring during reactor operation. 3 refs., 6 figs

  17. Mainstream end-tidal carbon dioxide monitoring in the neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozycki, H J; Sysyn, G D; Marshall, M K; Malloy, R; Wiswell, T E

    1998-04-01

    Continuous noninvasive monitoring of arterial carbon dioxide (CO2) in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) patients would help clinicians avoid complications of hypocarbia and hypercarbia. End-tidal CO2 monitoring has not been used in this population to date, but recent technical advances and the introduction of surfactant therapy, which improves ventilation-perfusion matching, might improve the clinical utility of end-tidal monitoring. To determine the accuracy and precision of end-tidal CO2 monitoring in NICU patients. Nonrandomized recording of simultaneous end-tidal and arterial CO2 pairs. Two university NICUs. Forty-five newborn infants receiving mechanical ventilation who had indwelling arterial access, and a predefined subsample of infants who were NICU patients is as accurate as capillary or transcutaneous monitoring but less precise than the latter. It may be useful for trending or for screening patients for abnormal arterial CO2 values.

  18. Offsite environmental monitoring report; radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, Calendar Year 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, M.G.; Flotard, R.D.; Fontana, C.A.; Huff, P.A.; Maunu, H.K.; Mouck, T.L.; Mullen, A.A.; Sells, M.D.

    1997-08-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program. This laboratory operated an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs); and using pressurized ionization chambers (PICs). No nuclear weapons testing was conducted in 1996 due to the continuing nuclear test moratorium. During this period, R and IE personnel maintained readiness capability to provide direct monitoring support if testing were to be resumed and ascertained compliance with applicable EPA, DOE, state, and federal regulations and guidelines. Comparison of the measurements and sample analysis results with background levels and with appropriate standards and regulations indicated that there was no airborne radioactivity from diffusion or resuspension detected by the various EPA monitoring networks surrounding the NTS. There was no indication of potential migration of radioactivity to the offsite area through groundwater and no radiation exposure above natural background was received by the offsite population. All evaluated data were consistent with previous data history

  19. Surveillance Monitoring Management for General Care Units: Strategy, Design, and Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Susan P; Taenzer, Andreas H; Karon, Nancy; Blike, George

    2016-07-01

    The growing number of monitoring devices, combined with suboptimal patient monitoring and alarm management strategies, has increased "alarm fatigue," which have led to serious consequences. Most reported alarm man- agement approaches have focused on the critical care setting. Since 2007 Dartmouth-Hitchcock (Lebanon, New Hamp- shire) has developed a generalizable and effective design, implementation, and performance evaluation approach to alarm systems for continuous monitoring in general care settings (that is, patient surveillance monitoring). In late 2007, a patient surveillance monitoring system was piloted on the basis of a structured design and implementation approach in a 36-bed orthopedics unit. Beginning in early 2009, it was expanded to cover more than 200 inpatient beds in all medicine and surgical units, except for psychiatry and labor and delivery. Improvements in clinical outcomes (reduction of unplanned transfers by 50% and reduction of rescue events by more than 60% in 2008) and approximately two alarms per patient per 12-hour nursing shift in the original pilot unit have been sustained across most D-H general care units in spite of increasing patient acuity and unit occupancy. Sample analysis of pager notifications indicates that more than 85% of all alarm conditions are resolved within 30 seconds and that more than 99% are resolved before escalation is triggered. The D-H surveillance monitoring system employs several important, generalizable features to manage alarms in a general care setting: alarm delays, static thresholds set appropriately for the prevalence of events in this setting, directed alarm annunciation, and policy-driven customization of thresholds to allow clinicians to respond to needs of individual patients. The systematic approach to design, implementation, and performance management has been key to the success of the system.

  20. An inexpensive optical sensor system for monitoring total suspended solids in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sami Gumaan Daraigan; Mohd Zubir Matjafri; Khiruddin Abdullah; Azlan Abdul Aziz; Abdul Aziz Tajuddin; Mohd Firdaus Othman

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of this work are to design and develop an optical transsmissometer sensor for measuring total suspended solids TSS concentrations in water samples. The proposed optical sensor has the advantages of being relatively inexpensive, and easy to make and operate. An optical algorithm has been developed and used for the measurement of total suspended solids concentrations. The developed optical sensor components include light emitting diodes LEDs that are used for measuring transmitted light. The concentrations of total suspended solids TSS are determined from transmitted light through the water samples. The transmitted light is measured in terms of the output voltage of the photodetector of the sensor system. The readings are measured using a digital multimeter. The results indicate that the level of the photocurrent is linearly proportional to the total suspended solids concentration. The proposed algorithm produces a high correlation coefficient and low root mean square error. (Author)

  1. Sweeping total reflection X-ray fluorescence optimisation to monitor the metallic contamination into IC manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borde, Yannick; Danel, Adrien; Roche, Agnes; Veillerot, Marc

    2008-01-01

    Among the methods available on the market today to control as metallic contamination in integrated circuit manufacturing, Sweeping Total reflection X-ray Fluorescence mode appears a very good method, providing fast and entire wafer mapping. With the goal of a pertinent use of Sweeping Total reflection X-ray Fluorescence in advanced Integrated Circuit manufacturing this work discusses how acceptable levels of contamination specified by the production (low levels to be detected) can be taken into account. The relation between measurement results (surface coverage, throughput, low limit of detection, limit of quantification, quantification of localized contamination) and Sweeping Total reflection X-ray Fluorescence parameters (number of measurement points and integration time per point) is presented in details. In particular, a model is proposed to explain the mismatch between actual surface contamination in a localized spot on wafer and Total reflection X-ray Fluorescence reading. Both calibration and geometric issues have been taken into account

  2. Offsite environmental monitoring report. Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, S.C.; Grossman, R.F.; Mullen, A.A.; Potter, G.D.; Smith, D.D.; Hopper, J.L.

    1982-08-01

    This report, prepared in accordance with the guidelines in DOE/E-0023 (DOE 1981), covers the program activities conducted around Nevada Test Site (NTS) for calendar year 1981. It contains descriptions of pertinent features of the NTS and its environs, summaries of the dosimetry and sampling methods, analytical procedures, and the analytical results from environmental measurements. Where applicable, dosimetry and sampling data are compared to appropriate guides for external and internal exposures of humans to ionizing radiation. The monitoring networks detected no radioactivity in the various media which could be attributed to US nuclear testing. Small amounts of fission products were detected in air samples as a result of the People's Republic of China nuclear test and atmospheric krypton-85 increased, following the trend beginning in 1960, due to increased use of nuclear technology. Strontium-90 in milk and cesium-137 in meat samples continued the slow decline as observed for the last several years

  3. Offsite environmental monitoring report. Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, S.C.; Grossman, R.F.; Mullen, A.A.; Potter, G.D.; Smith, D.D.; Hopper, J.L. (comps.)

    1982-08-01

    This report, prepared in accordance with the guidelines in DOE/E-0023 (DOE 1981), covers the program activities conducted around Nevada Test Site (NTS) for calendar year 1981. It contains descriptions of pertinent features of the NTS and its environs, summaries of the dosimetry and sampling methods, analytical procedures, and the analytical results from environmental measurements. Where applicable, dosimetry and sampling data are compared to appropriate guides for external and internal exposures of humans to ionizing radiation. The monitoring networks detected no radioactivity in the various media which could be attributed to US nuclear testing. Small amounts of fission products were detected in air samples as a result of the People's Republic of China nuclear test and atmospheric krypton-85 increased, following the trend beginning in 1960, due to increased use of nuclear technology. Strontium-90 in milk and cesium-137 in meat samples continued the slow decline as observed for the last several years.

  4. The development of the operational program for seismic monitoring system of Uljin Unit 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.R.; Heo, T.Y.; Cho, B.H. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, T.G.; Kim, H.M.; Kim, Y.S.; Oh, S.M.; Kang, Y.S. [Korea Electric Power Data Network Co., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    Due to aging of the imported seismic monitoring system of Uljin of t 1 and 2 units it is difficult for this system to provide enough functions needed for the security of seismic safety and the evaluation of the earthquake data from the seismic instrumentation. For this reason, it is necessary to replace the seismic monitoring system of Uljin 1 and 2 units with a new system which has the localized and upgraded hardware and corresponding software. In the part of standardization of existing seismic monitoring system, furthermore, it is necessary to develop the seismic wave analysis system which incorporate newly developed software and can real-timely analyze the seismic wave. This report is the finial product of research project ``The development of the operational program for seismic monitoring system of Uljin Unit 1 and 2`` which have been performed from June 1996 to June 1997 by KEPRI and KDN. Main accomplishments - Review of regulatory criteria for seismic monitoring system -Analysis and upgrade of hardware system -Analysis and upgrade of software system - Development of seismic wave analysis system. (author). 17 refs., 49 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Application for verification of monitor units of the treatment planning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suero Rodrigo, M. A.; Marques Fraguela, E.

    2011-01-01

    Current estimates algorithms achieve acceptable degree of accuracy. However, operate on the basis of un intuitive models. It is therefore necessary to verify the calculation of monitor units of the treatment planning system (TPS) with those obtained by other independent formalisms. To this end, we have developed an application based on factorization formalism that automates the calculation of dose.

  6. Unit-based functional IDDT testing for aging degradation monitoring in a VLIW processor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Yong; Kerkhoff, Hans G.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, functional unit-based IDDT testing has been applied for a 90nm VLIW processor to monitor its aging degradation. This technique can provide health data for reliability evaluation as used in e.g. prognostic software for lifetime prediction. The test-program development based on the

  7. Wireless transmission design for health monitoring at neonatal intensive care units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, W.; Nguyen, S.T.; Bambang Oetomo, S.; Feijs, L.M.G.

    2009-01-01

    Health monitoring is crucial for the survival of the ill and fragile infants admitted at the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in a hospital. However, the adhesive electrodes and wires cause discomfort to the patients and hamper the parent-child interaction. In this paper, we propose the

  8. Electrical - light current remote monitoring, control and automation. [Coal mine, United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collingwood, C H

    1981-06-01

    A brief discussion is given of the application of control monitoring and automation techniques to coal mining in the United Kingdom, especially of the use of microprocessors, for the purpose of enhancing safety and productivity. Lighting systems for the coal mine is similarly discussed.

  9. Offsite environmental monitoring report. Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.D.; Grossman, R.F.; Corkern, W.D.; Thome, D.J.; Patzer, R.G.; Hopper, J.L.

    1981-06-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory in Las Vegas (EMSL-LV) continued its Offsite Radiological Safety Program for the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and other sites of past underground nuclear tests. For each test, the Laboratory provided airborne meteorological measurements, ground and airborne radiation monitoring teams, and special briefings to the Test Controller's Advisory Panel. Test-related radioactivity from the NTS was detected offsite following the Riola Test conducted on September 25, 1980. This consisted of xenon-133 (3.4 x 10 -11 μCi/m1) and xenon-135 (3.6 x 10 -10 μCi/m1) in a compressed air sample collected at Lathrop Wells, Nevada. The estimated dose equivalent to the whole body of a hypothetical receptor at Lathrop Wells from exposure to the radioxenon was 0.011 mrem, which is 0.006 percent of the radiation protection guide for a suitable sample of the general population. Whole-body counts of individuals residing in the environs of the NTS showed no manmade radionuclides attributable to the testing program. The only radioactivity from non-NTS sites of past underground nuclear tests was due to tritium in water samples collected from the Project Dribble Site near Hattiesburg, Mississippi, and the Project Long Shot Site on Amchitka Island, Alaska. The maximum concentrations measured at these locations were 1 and 0.1 percent of the Concentration Guide for drinking water, respectively. A small amount of airborne radioactivity originating from nuclear tests carried out by the People's Republic of China was detected during 1980 at some stations scattered throughout the Air Surveillance Network. The Laboratory's Animal Investigation Program sampled tissues from wildlife and domestic animals on and around the NTS. Data from analysis of these tissues are published separately in an annual report

  10. [Noninvasive total hemoglobin monitoring based on multiwave spectrophotometry in obstetrics and gynecology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyregov, A V; Ovechkin, A Iu; Petrov, S V

    2012-01-01

    Results of prospective randomized comparative research of 2 total hemoglobin estimation methods are presented. There were laboratory tests and continuous noninvasive technique with multiwave spectrophotometry on the Masimo Rainbow SET. Research was carried out in two stages. At the 1st stage (gynecology)--67 patients were included and in second stage (obstetrics)--44 patients during and after Cesarean section. The standard deviation of noninvasive total hemoglobin estimation from absolute values (invasive) was 7.2 and 4.1%, an standard deviation in a sample--5.2 and 2.7 % in gynecologic operations and surgical delivery respectively, that confirms lack of reliable indicators differences. The method of continuous noninvasive total hemoglobin estimation with multiwave spectrophotometry on the Masimo Rainbow SET technology can be recommended for use in obstetrics and gynecology.

  11. Stochastic hydrogeologic units and hydrogeologic properties development for total-system performance assessments. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenker, A.R.; Guerin, D.C.; Robey, T.H.; Rautman, C.A.; Barnard, R.W.

    1995-09-01

    A stochastic representation of the lithologic units and associated hydrogeologic parameters of the potential high-level nuclear waste repository are developed for use in performance-assessment calculations, including the Total-System Performance Assessment for Yucca Mountain-SNL Second Iteration (TSPA-1993). A simplified lithologic model has been developed based on the physical characteristics of the welded and nonwelded units at Yucca Mountain. Ten hydrogeologic units are developed from site-specific data (lithologic and geophysical logs and core photographs) obtained from the unsaturated and saturated zones. The three-dimensional geostatistical model of the ten hydrogeologic units is based on indicator-coding techniques and improves on the two-dimensional model developed for TSPA91. The hydrogeologic properties (statistics and probability distribution functions) are developed from the results of laboratory tests and in-situ aquifer tests or are derived through fundamental relationships. Hydrogeologic properties for matrix properties, bulk conductivities, and fractures are developed from existing site specific data. Extensive data are available for matrix porosity, bulk density, and matrix saturated conductivity. For other hydrogeologic properties, the data are minimal or nonexistent. Parameters for the properties are developed as beta probability distribution functions. For the model units without enough data for analysis, parameters are developed as analogs to existing units. A relational, analytic approach coupled with bulk conductivity parameters is used to develop fracture parameters based on the smooth-wall-parallel-plate theory. An analytic method is introduced for scaling small-core matrix properties to the hydrogeologic unit scales

  12. Outcomes of an innovative model of acute delirium care: the Geriatric Monitoring Unit (GMU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong MS

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mei Sian Chong, Mark Chan, Laura Tay, Yew Yoong Ding Department of Geriatric Medicine, Institute of Geriatrics and Active Ageing, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore Objective: Delirium is associated with poor outcomes following acute hospitalization. The Geriatric Monitoring Unit (GMU is a specialized five-bedded unit for acute delirium care. It is modeled after the Delirium Room program, with adoption of core interventions from the Hospital Elder Life Program and use of evening light therapy to consolidate circadian rhythms and improve sleep in older inpatients. This study examined whether the GMU program improved outcomes in delirious patients. Method: A total of 320 patients, including 47 pre-GMU, 234 GMU, and 39 concurrent control subjects, were studied. Clinical characteristics, cognitive status, functional status (Modified Barthel Index [MBI], and chemical restraint-use data were obtained. We also looked at in-hospital complications of falls, pressure ulcers, nosocomial infection rate, and discharge destination. Secondary outcomes of family satisfaction (for the GMU subjects were collected. Results: There were no significant demographic differences between the three groups. Pre-GMU subjects had longer duration of delirium and length of stay. MBI improvement was most evident in the GMU compared with pre-GMU and control subjects (19.2±18.3, 7.5±11.2, 15.1±18.0, respectively (P<0.05. The GMU subjects had a zero restraint rate, and pre-GMU subjects had higher antipsychotic dosages. This translated to lower pressure ulcer and nosocomial infection rate in the GMU (4.1% and 10.7%, respectively and control (1.3% and 7.7%, respectively subjects compared with the pre-GMU (9.1% and 23.4%, respectively subjects (P<0.05. No differences were observed in mortality or discharge destination among the three groups. Caregivers of GMU subjects felt the multicomponent intervention to be useful, with scheduled activities voted the most beneficial in patient

  13. Beam position and total current monitor for heavy ion fusion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berners, D.; Reginato, L.L.

    1992-10-01

    Heavy Ion Fusion requires moderate currents, 1-10A, for a duration of about 1 μs. For accurate beam transport, the center of charge must be located to within ± 100 μm. Beam position and intensity may be excited at frequencies approaching 10 MHz, and the monitoring system must have adequate bandwidth to respond at these frequencies. We have modified the Rogowski technique by using distributed reactance multiturn magnetic loops so that it is suitable for measuring current position as well as amplitude. Four identical stripline coils are wound one per quadrant around a non magnetic core. The sensitivity is similar to that of a lumped coil system, with the added advantage of increased bandwidth. The voltages induced on the four separate coils are compared and suitable signal conditioning is performed to recover beam position and intensity information

  14. Sampling and Analysis Plan Update for Groundwater Monitoring 1100-EM-1 Operable Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DR Newcomer

    1999-01-01

    This document updates the sampling and analysis plan (Department of Energy/Richland Operations--95-50) to reflect current groundwater monitoring at the 1100-EM-1Operable Unit. Items requiring updating included sampling and analysis protocol, quality assurance and quality control, groundwater level measurement procedure, and data management. The plan covers groundwater monitoring, as specified in the 1993 Record of Decision, during the 5-year review period from 1995 through 1999. Following the 5-year review period, groundwater-monitoring data will be reviewed by Environmental Protection Agency to evaluate the progress of natural attenuation of trichloroethylene. Monitored natural attenuation and institutional controls for groundwater use at the inactive Horn Rapids Landfill was the selected remedy specified in the Record of Decision

  15. Simultaneous minimizing monitor units and number of segments without leaf end abutment for segmental intensity modulated radiation therapy delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Kaile; Dai Jianrong; Ma Lijun

    2004-01-01

    Leaf end abutment is seldom studied when delivering segmental intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) fields. We developed an efficient leaf sequencing method to eliminate leaf end abutment for segmental IMRT delivery. Our method uses simple matrix and sorting operations to obtain a solution that simultaneously minimizes total monitor units and number of segments without leaf end abutment between segments. We implemented and demonstrated our method for multiple clinical cases. We compared the results of our method with the results from exhaustive search method. We found that our solution without leaf end abutment produced equivalent results to the unconstrained solutions in terms of minimum total monitor units and minimum number of leaf segments. We conclude that the leaf end abutment fields can be avoided without affecting the efficiency of segmental IMRT delivery. The major strength of our method is its simplicity and high computing speed. This potentially provides a useful means for generating segmental IMRT fields that require high spatial resolution or complex intensity distributions

  16. Total Quality Management in the United States Army Corps of Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-01

    Office. Telephone interview with author, 20 November 1992. Ishikawa , Kaoru (1985). What is Total Quality Control? The Japanese Way. Prentice-Hall, Inc...Organizations ..... 55 Table 13. Ishikawa PDCA Cycle .......................................................... 68 Table 14. TQM Training M atrix...Standards 1008 ( Ishikawa 1985). The Japanese were aware of both the American and British work with standards. The standards were studied by

  17. Use of multi-objective air pollution monitoring sites and online air pollution monitoring system for total health risk assessment in Hyderabad, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjaneyulu, Y; Jayakumar, I; Hima Bindu, V; Sagareswar, G; Mukunda Rao, P V; Rambabu, N; Ramani, K V

    2005-08-01

    A consensus has been emerging among public health experts in developing countries that air pollution, even at current ambient levels, aggravates respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and leads to premature mortality. Recent studies have also presented well-founded theories concerning the biological mechanisms involved and the groups of people that are probably more susceptible to health effects caused or exacerbated by inhalation of ambient particulate matter (PM.). On the basis of prognostic studies carried out in Center for Environment, JNT University, Hyderabad "it has been estimated that in Hyderabad some 1,700 to 3,000 people per year die prematurely as a result of inhaling PM". These figures reflect only the effects of acute exposure to air pollution. If the long-term effects of chronic exposure are taken into account, 10,000-15,000 people a year could die prematurely in Hyderabad. This estimate of the chronic effects is based on other studies, which are not completely comparable with the Hyderabad situation. While the study designs and analyses in these other studies may indeed be different or irrelevant to Hyderabad, the fact they were carried out in other countries is irrelevant. Taking into account these considerations, a model for total health risk assessment for the city of Hyderabad, and its state of Andhra Pradesh in India has been developed using a multi-objective air pollution monitoring network and online and real time air pollution monitoring stations. For the model studies a number of potential monitoring sites were screened for general and site-specific criteria in a geographic information system (GIS) environment that may, on a local basis, affect the representativeness of the data collected. Local features that may affect either the chemical or meteorological parameters are evaluated to assure a minimum of interference. Finally, for monitoring air pollution, an online and real-time monitoring system was designed using advanced

  18. Use of Multi-Objective Air Pollution Monitoring Sites and Online Air Pollution Monitoring System for Total Health Risk Assessment in Hyderabad, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Ramani

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available A consensus has been emerging among public health experts in developing countries that air pollution, even at current ambient levels, aggravates respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and leads to premature mortality. Recent studies have also presented well-founded theories concerning the biological mechanisms involved and the groups of people that are probably more susceptible to health effects caused or exacerbated by inhalation of ambient particulate matter (PM.. On the basis of prognostic studies carried out in Center for Environment, JNT University, Hyderabad “it has been estimated that in Hyderabad some 1,700 to 3,000 people per year die prematurely as a result of inhaling PM”. These figures reflect only the effects of acute exposure to air pollution. If the long-term effects of chronic exposure are taken into account, 10,000–15,000 people a year could die prematurely in Hyderabad. This estimate of the chronic effects is based on other studies, which are not completely comparable with the Hyderabad situation. While the study designs and analyses in these other studies may indeed be different or irrelevant to Hyderabad, the fact they were carried out in other countries is irrelevant. Taking into account these considerations, a model for total health risk assessment for the city of Hyderabad, and its state of Andhra Pradesh in India has been developed using a multi-objective air pollution monitoring network and online and real time air pollution monitoring stations. For the model studies a number of potential monitoring sites were screened for general and site-specific criteria in a geographic information system (GIS environment that may, on a local basis, affect the representativeness of the data collected. Local features that may affect either the chemical or meteorological parameters are evaluated to assure a minimum of interference. Finally, for monitoring air pollution, an online and real

  19. A Comparison of Concentrations of Sodium and Related Nutrients (Potassium, Total Dietary Fiber, Total and Saturated Fat, and Total Sugar) in Private-Label and National Brands of Popular, Sodium-Contributing, Commercially Packaged Foods in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Jaspreet K C; Pehrsson, Pamela R; Cogswell, Mary

    2017-05-01

    Private-label brands account for about one in four foods sold in US supermarkets. They provide value to consumers due to their low cost. We know of no US studies comparing the nutrition content of private-label products with corresponding national brand products. The objective was to compare concentrations of sodium and related nutrients (potassium, total dietary fiber, total and saturated fat, and total sugar) in popular sodium-contributing, commercially packaged foods by brand type (national or private-label brand). During 2010 to 2014, the Nutrient Data Laboratory of the US Department of Agriculture obtained 1,706 samples of private-label and national brand products from up to 12 locations nationwide and chemically analyzed 937 composites for sodium and related nutrients. The samples came from 61 sodium-contributing, commercially packaged food products for which both private-label and national brands were among the top 75% to 80% of brands for US unit sales. In this post hoc comparative analysis, the authors assigned a variable brand type (national or private label) to each composite and determined mean nutrient contents by brand type overall and by food product and type. The authors tested for significant differences (Pfoods sampled, differences between brand types were not statistically significant for any of the nutrients studied. However, differences in both directions exist for a few individual food products and food categories. Concentrations of sodium and related nutrients (potassium, total dietary fiber, total and saturated fat, and total sugar) do not differ systematically between private-label and national brands, suggesting that brand type is not a consideration for nutritional quality of foods in the United States. The study data provide public health officials with baseline nutrient content by brand type to help focus US sodium-reduction efforts. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Current practice and recommendations in UK epilepsy monitoring units. Report of a national survey and workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamandi, Khalid; Beniczky, Sandor; Diehl, Beate; Kandler, Rosalind H; Pressler, Ronit M; Sen, Arjune; Solomon, Juliet; Walker, Matthew C; Bagary, Manny

    2017-08-01

    Inpatient video-EEG monitoring (VEM) is an important investigation in patients with seizures or blackouts, and in the pre-surgical workup of patients with epilepsy. There has been an expansion in the number of Epilepsy Monitoring Units (EMU) in the UK offering VEM with a necessary increase in attention on quality and safety. Previous surveys have shown variation across centres on issues including consent and patient monitoring. In an effort to bring together healthcare professionals in the UK managing patients on EMU, we conducted an online survey of current VEM practice and held a one-day workshop convened under the auspices of the British Chapter of the ILAE. The survey and workshop aimed to cover all aspects of VEM, including pre-admission, consent procedures, patient safety, drug reduction and reinstatement, seizure management, staffing levels, ictal testing and good data recording practice. This paper reports on the findings of the survey, the workshop presentations and workshop discussions. 32 centres took part in the survey and there were representatives from 22 centres at the workshop. There was variation in protocols, procedures and consent processes between units, and levels of observation of monitored patients. Nevertheless, the workshop discussion found broad areas of agreement on points. A survey and workshop of UK epilepsy monitoring units found that some variability in practice is inevitable due to different local arrangements and patient groups under investigation. However, there were areas of clear consensus particularly in relation to consent and patient safety that can be applied to most units and form a basis for setting minimum standards. Copyright © 2017 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Auditing of Monitoring and Respiratory Support Equipment in a Level III-C Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Bergon-Sendin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Random safety audits (RSAs are a safety tool but have not been widely used in hospitals. Objectives. To determine the frequency of proper use of equipment safety mechanisms in relation to monitoring and mechanical ventilation by performing RSAs. The study also determined whether factors related to the patient, time period, or characteristics of the area of admission influenced how the device safety systems were used. Methods. A prospective observational study was conducted in a level III-C Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU during 2012. 87 days were randomly selected. Appropriate overall use was defined when all evaluated variables were correctly programmed in the audited device. Results. A total of 383 monitor and ventilator audits were performed. The Kappa coefficient of interobserver agreement was 0.93. The rate of appropriate overall use of the monitors and respiratory support equipment was 33.68%. Significant differences were found with improved usage during weekends, OR 1.85 (1.12–3.06, p=0.01, and during the late shift (3 pm to 10 pm, OR 1.59 (1.03–2.4, p=0.03. Conclusions. Equipment safety systems of monitors and ventilators are not properly used. To improve patient safety, we should identify which alarms are really needed and where the difficulties lie for the correct alarm programming.

  2. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Ggg of... - Wastewater-Inspection and Monitoring Requirements for Waste Management Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Wastewater-Inspection and Monitoring Requirements for Waste Management Units 7 Table 7 to Subpart GGG of Part 63 Protection of Environment... for Waste Management Units To comply with Inspection or monitoring requirement Frequency of inspection...

  3. Strategies for monitoring outcomes in HIV-exposed uninfected children in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire eThorne

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Surveillance of pregnancies in women living with HIV is carried out on a national basis in the United Kingdom (UK through the National Study of HIV in Pregnancy and Childhood (NSHPC. There are currently around 1100-1200 HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU infants born every year in the UK, where vertical transmission of HIV now occurs in fewer than five in every 1000 pregnancies. By the end of 2014, there was a cumulative total of more than 15,000 HEU children with any combination antiretroviral therapy (cART exposure and more than 5,000 with cART exposure from conception in the UK. HEU infants are increasingly being exposed to newer antiretroviral drugs for which less is known regarding both short and longer-term safety. In this commentary, we describe the approaches that have been taken to explore health outcomes in HEU children born in the UK. This includes the Children exposed to AntiRetroviral Therapy (CHART Study, which was a consented follow-up study carried out in 2002-2005 of HEU children born in 1996-2004. The CHART Study showed that 4% of HEU children enrolled had a major health or development problem in early childhood; this was within expected UK norms but the study was limited by small numbers and short-term follow-up. However, the problems with recruitment and retention that were encountered within the CHART Study demonstrated that comprehensive, clinic-based follow-up was not a feasible approach for long-term assessment of HEU children in the UK. We describe an alternative approach developed to monitor some aspects of their long-term health, involving the flagging of HEU infants for death and cancer registration with the UK Office for National Statistics. Some of the ethical concerns regarding investigation of long-term outcomes of in utero and perinatal exposure to antiretrovirals including those relating to consent and confidentiality are also discussed.

  4. Improving staff response to seizures on the epilepsy monitoring unit with online EEG seizure detection algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rommens, Nicole; Geertsema, Evelien; Jansen Holleboom, Lisanne; Cox, Fieke; Visser, Gerhard

    2018-05-11

    User safety and the quality of diagnostics on the epilepsy monitoring unit (EMU) depend on reaction to seizures. Online seizure detection might improve this. While good sensitivity and specificity is reported, the added value above staff response is unclear. We ascertained the added value of two electroencephalograph (EEG) seizure detection algorithms in terms of additional detected seizures or faster detection time. EEG-video seizure recordings of people admitted to an EMU over one year were included, with a maximum of two seizures per subject. All recordings were retrospectively analyzed using Encevis EpiScan and BESA Epilepsy. Detection sensitivity and latency of the algorithms were compared to staff responses. False positive rates were estimated on 30 uninterrupted recordings (roughly 24 h per subject) of consecutive subjects admitted to the EMU. EEG-video recordings used included 188 seizures. The response rate of staff was 67%, of Encevis 67%, and of BESA Epilepsy 65%. Of the 62 seizures missed by staff, 66% were recognized by Encevis and 39% by BESA Epilepsy. The median latency was 31 s (staff), 10 s (Encevis), and 14 s (BESA Epilepsy). After correcting for walking time from the observation room to the subject, both algorithms detected faster than staff in 65% of detected seizures. The full recordings included 617 h of EEG. Encevis had a median false positive rate of 4.9 per 24 h and BESA Epilepsy of 2.1 per 24 h. EEG-video seizure detection algorithms may improve reaction to seizures by improving the total number of seizures detected and the speed of detection. The false positive rate is feasible for use in a clinical situation. Implementation of these algorithms might result in faster diagnostic testing and better observation during seizures. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Zinc injection on the EDF fleet monitoring the injection on 12 units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le-Meur, Gaelle Harmand; Anne-Marie; Stutzmann, Agnes; Taunier, Stephane; Benfarah, Moez; Bretelle, Jean-Luc; Alain, Rocher; Claeys, Myriam; Bonne, Sebastien

    2012-09-01

    After a first implementation of zinc injection at Bugey 2 and Bugey 4, EDF decided to extend the program to other units of its fleet. 14 more reactors from the French fleet of 58 were chosen in order to - Reduce the radiation sources for curative or preventive (after SGR) reasons - Mitigate stress corrosion cracking on nickel alloys and reduce the rate of generalized corrosion - Prevent the risk of CIPS, mainly after a fuel management change. Zinc injection started on 9 new units in 2011, 1 unit in 2012 and will be extended to 4 other units before the end of 2013. To monitor the injection, EDF has defined a complete program concerning chemistry, radiation protection (dose rate and deposited activities measurements), materials (statistical analysis of SG tube cracks), fuel (oxide measurements) and waste (radiochemical characterization of filters). Reference units were chosen for each field because of the size of the fleet. This paper will detail the different monitoring programs on the EDF plants injecting zinc. (authors)

  6. Design description of a microprocessor based Engine Monitoring and Control unit (EMAC) for small turboshaft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baez, A. N.

    1985-01-01

    Research programs have demonstrated that digital electronic controls are more suitable for advanced aircraft/rotorcraft turbine engine systems than hydromechanical controls. Commercially available microprocessors are believed to have the speed and computational capability required for implementing advanced digital control algorithms. Thus, it is desirable to demonstrate that off-the-shelf microprocessors are indeed capable of performing real time control of advanced gas turbine engines. The engine monitoring and control (EMAC) unit was designed and fabricated specifically to meet the requirements of an advanced gas turbine engine control system. The EMAC unit is fully operational in the Army/NASA small turboshaft engine digital research program.

  7. In-core monitor housing replacement at Fukushima Daiichi Unit No.4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Tomoyuki

    1999-01-01

    The in-core monitor (ICM) housing replacement of a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) has been completed at Fukushima-Daiichi Unit No. 4 (1F4) of the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) in Japan. Since cracking of the inside surface of an ICM housing was found in this unit, the ICM housing was replaced with one made of low-carbon stainless steel (SS) to improve Intergranular Stress Corrosion Cracking (IGSCC) resistance. This project is the first application of the replacement procedure for the ICM housing and employs various advanced technologies. The outline of the ICM housing replacement project and applied technologies are discussed in this paper. (author)

  8. Design and accomplishment for the monitoring unit of the sup 6 sup 0 Co train freight inspection system

    CERN Document Server

    Cong Peng

    2002-01-01

    The sup 6 sup 0 Co railway cargo inspection system has super automaticity. And the monitoring unit is an important part of the automatic control system. The author introduces the idea of designing the monitoring unit in detail and accomplishes a new-style unit which is different from the traditional one. The monitoring unit which is highly integrated, easy to be mounted and debugged and convenient to be operated and maintained has play an excellent role in the work of the whole inspection system

  9. 40 CFR 75.81 - Monitoring of Hg mass emissions and heat input at the unit level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Monitoring of Hg mass emissions and... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING Hg Mass Emission Provisions § 75.81 Monitoring of Hg mass emissions and heat input at the unit level. The owner or operator of the...

  10. Restriction techniques for the unit-commitment problem with total procurement costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaleta, Mariusz; Toczylowski, Eugeniusz

    2008-01-01

    Many discrete optimization problems may be solved much easier, if the solution space can be restricted in a convenient way. For a given specific problem, the restriction techniques can be helpful if an available optimization solver, perceived as a black box, is capable of solving quickly only reduced subproblems of a limited size. For the family of hard unit-commitment problems we investigate a hierarchical search algorithm, which is based on decomposition of the problem into two subproblems. The upper-level subproblem is a relatively small decision 'kernel' of the problem that can be solved approximately by a search algorithm. We define an appropriate restricted decision space for this subproblem. The lower-level subproblem is an appropriate restriction of the original problem that can be solved efficiently by a dedicated solver. Our approach was analyzed on a set of historical data from the Polish electrical balancing market and the best known solutions were improved by the average of about 2-5%

  11. Online Condition Monitoring of Bearings to Support Total Productive Maintenance in the Packaging Materials Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gligorijevic, Jovan; Gajic, Dragoljub; Brkovic, Aleksandar; Savic-Gajic, Ivana; Georgieva, Olga; Di Gennaro, Stefano

    2016-03-01

    The packaging materials industry has already recognized the importance of Total Productive Maintenance as a system of proactive techniques for improving equipment reliability. Bearing faults, which often occur gradually, represent one of the foremost causes of failures in the industry. Therefore, detection of their faults in an early stage is quite important to assure reliable and efficient operation. We present a new automated technique for early fault detection and diagnosis in rolling-element bearings based on vibration signal analysis. Following the wavelet decomposition of vibration signals into a few sub-bands of interest, the standard deviation of obtained wavelet coefficients is extracted as a representative feature. Then, the feature space dimension is optimally reduced to two using scatter matrices. In the reduced two-dimensional feature space the fault detection and diagnosis is carried out by quadratic classifiers. Accuracy of the technique has been tested on four classes of the recorded vibrations signals, i.e., normal, with the fault of inner race, outer race, and ball operation. The overall accuracy of 98.9% has been achieved. The new technique can be used to support maintenance decision-making processes and, thus, to increase reliability and efficiency in the industry by preventing unexpected faulty operation of bearings.

  12. Online Condition Monitoring of Bearings to Support Total Productive Maintenance in the Packaging Materials Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovan Gligorijevic

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The packaging materials industry has already recognized the importance of Total Productive Maintenance as a system of proactive techniques for improving equipment reliability. Bearing faults, which often occur gradually, represent one of the foremost causes of failures in the industry. Therefore, detection of their faults in an early stage is quite important to assure reliable and efficient operation. We present a new automated technique for early fault detection and diagnosis in rolling-element bearings based on vibration signal analysis. Following the wavelet decomposition of vibration signals into a few sub-bands of interest, the standard deviation of obtained wavelet coefficients is extracted as a representative feature. Then, the feature space dimension is optimally reduced to two using scatter matrices. In the reduced two-dimensional feature space the fault detection and diagnosis is carried out by quadratic classifiers. Accuracy of the technique has been tested on four classes of the recorded vibrations signals, i.e., normal, with the fault of inner race, outer race, and ball operation. The overall accuracy of 98.9% has been achieved. The new technique can be used to support maintenance decision-making processes and, thus, to increase reliability and efficiency in the industry by preventing unexpected faulty operation of bearings.

  13. Monitoring total endotoxin and (1 --> 3)-beta-D-glucan at the air exhaust of concentrated animal feeding operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xufei; Wang, Xinlei; Zhang, Yuanhui; Lee, Jongmin; Su, Jingwei; Gates, Richard S

    2013-10-01

    Mitigation of bioaerosol emissions from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) demands knowledge of bioaerosol concentrations feeding into an end-of-pipe air treatment process. The aim of this preliminary study was to measure total endotoxin and (1 --> 3)-beta-glucan concentrations at the air exhaust of 18 commercial CAFOs and to examine their variability with animal operation type (swine farrowing, swine gestation, swine weaning, swine finishing, manure belt laying hen, and tom turkey) and season (cold, mild, and hot). The measured airborne concentrations of total endotoxin ranged from 98 to 23,157 endotoxin units (EU)/m3, and the airborne concentrations of total (1 --> 3)-beta-D-glucan ranged from 2.4 to 537.9 ng/m3. Animal operation type in this study had a significant effect on airborne concentrations of total endotoxin and (1 --> 3)-beta-D-glucan but no significant effect on their concentrations in total suspended particulate (TSP). Both endotoxin and (1 --> 3)-beta-D-glucan attained their highest airborne concentrations in visited tom turkey buildings. Comparatively, season had no significant effect on airborne concentrations of total endotoxin or (1 --> 3)-beta-D-glucan. Endotoxin and (1 --> 3)-beta-glucan concentrations in TSP dust appeared to increase as the weather became warmer, and this seasonal effect was significant in swine buildings. Elevated indoor temperatures in the hot season were considered to facilitate the growth and propagation of bacteria and fungi, thus leading to higher biocomponent concentrations in TSP.

  14. MODULAR CAUSTIC SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION UNIT (MCU) GAMMA MONITORS SYSTEM FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casella, V

    2005-12-15

    The Department of Energy (DOE) selected Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) as the preferred technology for the removal of radioactive cesium from High-Level Waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Before the full-scale Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) becomes operational, the Closure Business Unit (CBU) plans to process a portion of dissolved saltcake waste through a Modular CSSX Unit (MCU). This work was derived from Technical Task Request SP-TTR-2004-00013, ''Gamma Monitor for MCU''. The deliverables for this task are the hardware and software for the gamma monitors and a report summarizing the testing and acceptance of this equipment for use in the MCU. Gamma-ray monitors are required to: (1) Measure the Cs-137 concentration in the decontaminated salt solution before entering the DSS (Decontaminated Salt Solution) Hold Tank, (2) Measure the Cs-137 concentration in the strip effluent before entering the Strip Effluent Hold Tank, (3) Verify proper operation of the solvent extraction system by verifying material balance within the process (The DSS Hold Tank Cs-137 concentration will be very low and the Cs-137 concentration in the Strip Effluent Hold Tank will be fifteen times higher than the Cs-137 concentration in the Feed Tank.) Sodium iodide monitors are used to measure the Cs-137 concentration in the piping before the DSS Hold tank, while GM monitors are used for Cs-137 measurements before the Strip Effluent Hold Tank. Tungsten shields were designed using Monte Carlo calculations and fabricated to reduce the process background radiation at the detector positions. These monitors were calibrated with NIST traceable standards that were specially made to be the same as the piping being monitored. Since this gamma ray monitoring system is unique, specially designed software was written and acceptance tested by Savannah River National Laboratory personnel. The software is a LabView-based application that serves as a unified

  15. MODULAR CAUSTIC SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION UNIT (MCU) GAMMA MONITORS SYSTEM FINAL REPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casella, V

    2005-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) selected Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) as the preferred technology for the removal of radioactive cesium from High-Level Waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Before the full-scale Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) becomes operational, the Closure Business Unit (CBU) plans to process a portion of dissolved saltcake waste through a Modular CSSX Unit (MCU). This work was derived from Technical Task Request SP-TTR-2004-00013, ''Gamma Monitor for MCU''. The deliverables for this task are the hardware and software for the gamma monitors and a report summarizing the testing and acceptance of this equipment for use in the MCU. Gamma-ray monitors are required to: (1) Measure the Cs-137 concentration in the decontaminated salt solution before entering the DSS (Decontaminated Salt Solution) Hold Tank, (2) Measure the Cs-137 concentration in the strip effluent before entering the Strip Effluent Hold Tank, (3) Verify proper operation of the solvent extraction system by verifying material balance within the process (The DSS Hold Tank Cs-137 concentration will be very low and the Cs-137 concentration in the Strip Effluent Hold Tank will be fifteen times higher than the Cs-137 concentration in the Feed Tank.) Sodium iodide monitors are used to measure the Cs-137 concentration in the piping before the DSS Hold tank, while GM monitors are used for Cs-137 measurements before the Strip Effluent Hold Tank. Tungsten shields were designed using Monte Carlo calculations and fabricated to reduce the process background radiation at the detector positions. These monitors were calibrated with NIST traceable standards that were specially made to be the same as the piping being monitored. Since this gamma ray monitoring system is unique, specially designed software was written and acceptance tested by Savannah River National Laboratory personnel. The software is a LabView-based application that serves as a unified interface for controlling

  16. An Improved Calibration Method for Hydrazine Monitors for the United States Air Force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korsah, K

    2003-07-07

    This report documents the results of Phase 1 of the ''Air Force Hydrazine Detector Characterization and Calibration Project''. A method for calibrating model MDA 7100 hydrazine detectors in the United States Air Force (AF) inventory has been developed. The calibration system consists of a Kintek 491 reference gas generation system, a humidifier/mixer system which combines the dry reference hydrazine gas with humidified diluent or carrier gas to generate the required humidified reference for calibrations, and a gas sampling interface. The Kintek reference gas generation system itself is periodically calibrated using an ORNL-constructed coulometric titration system to verify the hydrazine concentration of the sample atmosphere in the interface module. The Kintek reference gas is then used to calibrate the hydrazine monitors. Thus, coulometric titration is only used to periodically assess the performance of the Kintek reference gas generation system, and is not required for hydrazine monitor calibrations. One advantage of using coulometric titration for verifying the concentration of the reference gas is that it is a primary standard (if used for simple solutions), thereby guaranteeing, in principle, that measurements will be traceable to SI units (i.e., to the mole). The effect of humidity of the reference gas was characterized by using the results of concentrations determined by coulometric titration to develop a humidity correction graph for the Kintek 491 reference gas generation system. Using this calibration method, calibration uncertainty has been reduced by 50% compared to the current method used to calibrate hydrazine monitors in the Air Force inventory and calibration time has also been reduced by more than 20%. Significant findings from studies documented in this report are the following: (1) The Kintek 491 reference gas generation system (generator, humidifier and interface module) can be used to calibrate hydrazine detectors. (2) The

  17. Taming of the monitors: reducing false alarms in intensive care units

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plešinger, Filip; Klimeš, Petr; Halámek, Josef; Jurák, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 8 (2016), s. 1313-1325 ISSN 0967-3334 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP102/12/2034; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : ECG * critical care * arrhythmia * intensive care unit * ICU monitor * false alarm * beat detection Subject RIV: FS - Medical Facilities ; Equipment Impact factor: 2.058, year: 2016

  18. A chemical sensor and biosensor based totally automated water quality monitor for extended space flight: Step 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert S.

    1993-01-01

    The result of a literature search to consider what technologies should be represented in a totally automated water quality monitor for extended space flight is presented. It is the result of the first summer in a three year JOVE project. The next step will be to build a test platform at the Authors' school, St. John Fisher College. This will involve undergraduates in NASA related research. The test flow injection analysis system will be used to test the detection limit of sensors and the performance of sensors in groups. Sensor companies and research groups will be encouraged to produce sensors which are not currently available and are needed for this project.

  19. Salamander chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans) in the United States—Developing research, monitoring, and management strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Evan H. Campbell; Muths, Erin L.; Katz, Rachel A.; Canessa, Stefano; Adams, Michael J.; Ballard, Jennifer R.; Berger, Lee; Briggs, Cheryl J.; Coleman, Jeremy; Gray, Matthew J.; Harris, M. Camille; Harris, Reid N.; Hossack, Blake R.; Huyvaert, Kathryn P.; Kolby, Jonathan E.; Lips, Karen R.; Lovich, Robert E.; McCallum, Hamish I.; Mendelson, Joseph R.; Nanjappa, Priya; Olson, Deanna H.; Powers, Jenny G.; Richgels, Katherine L. D.; Russell, Robin E.; Schmidt, Benedikt R.; Spitzen-van der Sluijs, Annemarieke; Watry, Mary Kay; Woodhams, Douglas C.; White, C. LeAnn

    2016-01-20

    The recently (2013) identified pathogenic chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal), poses a severe threat to the distribution and abundance of salamanders within the United States and Europe. Development of a response strategy for the potential, and likely, invasion of Bsal into the United States is crucial to protect global salamander biodiversity. A formal working group, led by Amphibian Research and Monitoring Initiative (ARMI) scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Fort Collins Science Center, and Forest and Rangeland Ecosystem Science Center, was held at the USGS Powell Center for Analysis and Synthesis in Fort Collins, Colorado, United States from June 23 to June 25, 2015, to identify crucial Bsal research and monitoring needs that could inform conservation and management strategies for salamanders in the United States. Key findings of the workshop included the following: (1) the introduction of Bsal into the United States is highly probable, if not inevitable, thus requiring development of immediate short-term and long-term intervention strategies to prevent Bsal establishment and biodiversity decline; (2) management actions targeted towards pathogen containment may be ineffective in reducing the long-term spread of Bsal throughout the United States; and (3) early detection of Bsal through surveillance at key amphibian import locations, among high-risk wild populations, and through analysis of archived samples is necessary for developing management responses. Top research priorities during the preinvasion stage included the following: (1) deployment of qualified diagnostic methods for Bsal and establishment of standardized laboratory practices, (2) assessment of susceptibility for amphibian hosts (including anurans), and (3) development and evaluation of short- and long-term pathogen intervention and management strategies. Several outcomes were achieved during the workshop, including development

  20. Successful global assessments and monitoring: The roles of the international community and the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, H.G.

    1991-01-01

    Successful global assessments and monitoring of natural resources requires teamwork between participating nations and the international communities charged with the responsibility for collecting and disseminating information. In an attempt to identify emerging information needs and to promote coordination, the International Union of Forestry Research Organizations (IUFRO) and other national and international groups held a major conference and workshop in Venice, Italy, on global monitoring last September. The results of the meeting and subsequent events in Montreal indicated a need for more aggressive leadership at the international level and more cooperation at the national level. This paper reports on the outcome of the Venice conference and list some things that the international community and the United States must do to make global assessments and monitoring a reality

  1. 2008 Groundwater Monitoring Report Central Nevada Test Area, Corrective Action Unit 443

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-03-01

    This report presents the 2008 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) for the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) Subsurface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 443. Responsibility for the environmental site restoration of the CNTA was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) to DOE-LM on October 1, 2006. The environmental restoration process and corrective action strategy for CAU 443 are conducted in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO 2005) entered into by DOE, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada. The corrective action strategy for the site includes proof-of-concept monitoring in support of site closure. This report summarizes investigation activities associated with CAU 443 that were conducted at the site during fiscal year 2008. This is the second groundwater monitoring report prepared by DOE-LM for the CNTA.

  2. 2008 Groundwater Monitoring Report Central Nevada Test Area, Corrective Action Unit 443

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This report presents the 2008 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) for the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) Subsurface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 443. Responsibility for the environmental site restoration of the CNTA was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) to DOE-LM on October 1, 2006. The environmental restoration process and corrective action strategy for CAU 443 are conducted in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO 2005) entered into by DOE, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada. The corrective action strategy for the site includes proof-of-concept monitoring in support of site closure. This report summarizes investigation activities associated with CAU 443 that were conducted at the site during fiscal year 2008. This is the second groundwater monitoring report prepared by DOE-LM for the CNTA

  3. Independent dose per monitor unit review of eight U.S.A. proton treatment facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moyers, M. F.; Ibbott, G. S.; Grant, R. L.; Summers, P. A.; Followill, D. S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Compare the dose per monitor unit at different proton treatment facilities using three different dosimetry methods. Methods: Measurements of dose per monitor unit were performed by a single group at eight facilities using 11 test beams and up to six different clinical portal treatment sites. These measurements were compared to the facility reported dose per monitor unit values. Results: Agreement between the measured and reported doses was similar using any of the three dosimetry methods. Use of the ICRU 59 N D,w based method gave results approximately 3% higher than both the ICRU 59 N X and ICRU 78 (TRS-398) N D,w based methods. Conclusions: Any single dosimetry method could be used for multi-institution trials with similar conformity between facilities. A multi-institutional trial could support facilities using both the ICRU 59 N X based and ICRU 78 (TRS-398) N D,w based methods but use of the ICRU 59 N D,w based method should not be allowed simultaneously with the other two until the difference is resolved

  4. Spread-out Bragg peak and monitor units calculation with the Monte Carlo Code MCNPX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herault, J.; Iborra, N.; Serrano, B.; Chauvel, P.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the dosimetric potential of the Monte Carlo code MCNPX applied to the protontherapy field. For series of clinical configurations a comparison between simulated and experimental data was carried out, using the proton beam line of the MEDICYC isochronous cyclotron installed in the Centre Antoine Lacassagne in Nice. The dosimetric quantities tested were depth-dose distributions, output factors, and monitor units. For each parameter, the simulation reproduced accurately the experiment, which attests the quality of the choices made both in the geometrical description and in the physics parameters for beam definition. These encouraging results enable us today to consider a simplification of quality control measurements in the future. Monitor Units calculation is planned to be carried out with preestablished Monte Carlo simulation data. The measurement, which was until now our main patient dose calibration system, will be progressively replaced by computation based on the MCNPX code. This determination of Monitor Units will be controlled by an independent semi-empirical calculation

  5. Monitor units are not predictive of neutron dose for high-energy IMRT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hälg Roger A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to the substantial increase in beam-on time of high energy intensity-modulated radiotherapy (>10 MV techniques to deliver the same target dose compared to conventional treatment techniques, an increased dose of scatter radiation, including neutrons, is delivered to the patient. As a consequence, an increase in second malignancies may be expected in the future with the application of intensity-modulated radiotherapy. It is commonly assumed that the neutron dose equivalent scales with the number of monitor units. Methods Measurements of neutron dose equivalent were performed for an open and an intensity-modulated field at four positions: inside and outside of the treatment field at 0.2 cm and 15 cm depth, respectively. Results It was shown that the neutron dose equivalent, which a patient receives during an intensity-modulated radiotherapy treatment, does not scale with the ratio of applied monitor units relative to an open field irradiation. Outside the treatment volume at larger depth 35% less neutron dose equivalent is delivered than expected. Conclusions The predicted increase of second cancer induction rates from intensity-modulated treatment techniques can be overestimated when the neutron dose is simply scaled with monitor units.

  6. 24 CFR 882.123 - Conversion of Section 23 Units to Section 8 and Section 23 monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conversion of Section 23 Units to... Applicability, Scope and Basic Policies § 882.123 Conversion of Section 23 Units to Section 8 and Section 23 monitoring. (a)-(d) [Reserved] (e) Section 23 policies for units planned for conversion on or before...

  7. Development of an acoustic measurement protocol to monitor acetabular implant fixation in cementless total hip Arthroplasty: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, Quentin; Leuridan, Steven; Henyš, Petr; Roosen, Jorg; Pastrav, Leonard; Mulier, Michiel; Desmet, Wim; Denis, Kathleen; Vander Sloten, Jos

    2017-11-01

    In cementless total hip arthroplasty (THA), the initial stability is obtained by press-fitting the implant in the bone to allow osseointegration for a long term secondary stability. However, finding the insertion endpoint that corresponds to a proper initial stability is currently based on the tactile and auditory experiences of the orthopedic surgeon, which can be challenging. This study presents a novel real-time method based on acoustic signals to monitor the acetabular implant fixation in cementless total hip arthroplasty. Twelve acoustic in vitro experiments were performed on three types of bone models; a simple bone block model, an artificial pelvic model and a cadaveric model. A custom made beam was screwed onto the implant which functioned as a sound enhancer and insertor. At each insertion step an acoustic measurement was performed. A significant acoustic resonance frequency shift was observed during the insertion process for the different bone models; 250 Hz (35%, second bending mode) to 180 Hz (13%, fourth bending mode) for the artificial bone block models and 120 Hz (11%, eighth bending mode) for the artificial pelvis model. No significant frequency shift was observed during the cadaveric experiment due to a lack of implant fixation in this model. This novel diagnostic method shows the potential of using acoustic signals to monitor the implant seating during insertion. Copyright © 2017 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. SU-E-T-110: An Investigation On Monitor Unit Threshold and Effects On IMPT Delivery in Proton Pencil Beam Planning System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syh, J; Ding, X; Syh, J; Patel, B; Rosen, L; Wu, H

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: An approved proton pencil beam scanning (PBS) treatment plan might not be able to deliver because of existed extremely low monitor unit per beam spot. A dual hybrid plan with higher efficiency of higher spot monitor unit and the efficacy of less number of energy layers were searched and optimized. The range of monitor unit threshold setting was investigated and the plan quality was evaluated by target dose conformity. Methods: Certain limitations and requirements need to be checks and tested before a nominal proton PBS treatment plan can be delivered. The plan needs to be met the machine characterization, specification in record and verification to deliver the beams. Minimal threshold of monitor unit, e.g. 0.02, per spot was set to filter the low counts and plan was re-computed. Further MU threshold increment was tested in sequence without sacrificing the plan quality. The number of energy layer was also alternated due to elimination of low count layer(s). Results: Minimal MU/spot threshold, spot spacing in each energy layer and total number of energy layer and the MU weighting of beam spots of each beam were evaluated. Plan optimization between increases of the spot MU (efficiency) and less energy layers of delivery (efficacy) was adjusted. 5% weighting limit of total monitor unit per beam was feasible. Scarce spreading of beam spots was not discouraging as long as target dose conformity within 3% criteria. Conclusion: Each spot size is equivalent to the relative dose in the beam delivery system. The energy layer is associated with the depth of the targeting tumor. Our work is crucial to maintain the best possible quality plan. To keep integrity of all intrinsic elements such as spot size, spot number, layer number and the carried weighting of spots in each layer is important in this study

  9. Microcontroller based four-channel current readout unit for beam slit monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holikatti, A.C.; Puntambekar, T.A.; Pithawa, C.K.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the design and development of a microcontroller based four-channel current readout unit for Beam Slit Monitor (BSM) installed in Transport Line-1 of Indus Accelerator Complex. BSM is a diagnostic device consisting of two horizontal and two vertical blades, which can be moved independently in to the beam pipe to cut the beam transversely. The readout unit employs switched integrators with reset, hold and select switches and timing and control unit. It integrates the current output of the four blades of BSM and produces an output corresponding to the beam charge intercepted by the blade. The integrator outputs are then multiplexed and digitized using 12-bit ADC. Acquired digital data from ADC is stored into on-chip RAM of the microcontroller. The readout sequence is synchronized with the Microtron beam-timing signal. The timing of integration, hold and reset cycles is controlled by the microcontroller. The unit is connected on a serial link to the host computer in main control room. This unit has been integrated with the BSM system and is being used to obtain the electron beam profile. (author)

  10. Monitoring the quality of total hip replacement in a tertiary care department using a cumulative summation statistical method (CUSUM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biau, D J; Meziane, M; Bhumbra, R S; Dumaine, V; Babinet, A; Anract, P

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to define immediate post-operative 'quality' in total hip replacements and to study prospectively the occurrence of failure based on these definitions of quality. The evaluation and assessment of failure were based on ten radiological and clinical criteria. The cumulative summation (CUSUM) test was used to study 200 procedures over a one-year period. Technical criteria defined failure in 17 cases (8.5%), those related to the femoral component in nine (4.5%), the acetabular component in 32 (16%) and those relating to discharge from hospital in five (2.5%). Overall, the procedure was considered to have failed in 57 of the 200 total hip replacements (28.5%). The use of a new design of acetabular component was associated with more failures. For the CUSUM test, the level of adequate performance was set at a rate of failure of 20% and the level of inadequate performance set at a failure rate of 40%; no alarm was raised by the test, indicating that there was no evidence of inadequate performance. The use of a continuous monitoring statistical method is useful to ensure that the quality of total hip replacement is maintained, especially as newer implants are introduced.

  11. Clinical evaluation of monitor unit software and the application of action levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georg, Dietmar; Nyholm, Tufve; Olofsson, Joergen; Kjaer-Kristoffersen, Flemming; Schnekenburger, Bruno; Winkler, Peter; Nystroem, Hakan; Ahnesjoe, Anders; Karlsson, Mikael

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was the clinical evaluation of an independent dose and monitor unit verification (MUV) software which is based on sophisticated semi-analytical modelling. The software was developed within the framework of an ESTRO project. Finally, consistent handling of dose calculation deviations applying individual action levels is discussed. Materials and methods: A Matlab-based software ('MUV') was distributed to five well-established treatment centres in Europe (Vienna, Graz, Basel, Copenhagen, and Umea) and evaluated as a quality assurance (QA) tool in clinical routine. Results were acquired for 226 individual treatment plans including a total of 815 radiation fields. About 150 beam verification measurements were performed for a portion of the individual treatment plans, mainly with time variable fluence patterns. The deviations between dose calculations performed with a treatment planning system (TPS) and the MUV software were scored with respect to treatment area, treatment technique, geometrical depth, radiological depth, etc. Results: In general good agreement was found between calculations performed with the different TPSs and MUV, with a mean deviation per field of 0.2 ± 3.5% (1 SD) and mean deviations of 0.2 ± 2.2% for composite treatment plans. For pelvic treatments less than 10% of all fields showed deviations larger than 3%. In general, when using the radiological depth for verification calculations the results and the spread in the results improved significantly, especially for head-and-neck and for thorax treatments. For IMRT head-and-neck beams, mean deviations between MUV and the local TPS were -1.0 ± 7.3% for dynamic, and -1.3 ± 3.2% for step-and-shoot IMRT delivery. For dynamic IMRT beams in the pelvis good agreement was obtained between MUV and the local TPS (mean: -1.6 ± 1.5%). Treatment site and treatment technique dependent action levels between ±3% and ±5% seem to be clinically realistic if a radiological depth

  12. Development of expert system for fuel monitoring and analysis in WWER-1000 units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Likhanskii, V.; Evdokimov, I.; Sorokin, A.; Kanukova, V.; Zborovskii, V.; Aliev, T.; Sokolov, N.; Shishkin, A.

    2011-01-01

    At present, an expert system (software package) for fuel monitoring in WWER units is under development in Russia. It comprises several modules which cover analysis of coolant activity, detection of failures and estimation of failure parameters, predictions of activity level and some aspects of PCI analysis. This paper outlines the current version of the fuel monitoring system, its basic features and user interface. Advances in development of computer modules for PCI analysis are reported. At present two levels of PCI analysis are used. The first is estimation of probability for pellets to get in contact with cladding in fuel rods. Estimations are made with taking into account specifications and tolerances for fuel fabrication as well as fuel operation conditions. The second level of PCI analysis implies a simplified approach for on-line calculations of stresses in cladding depending on power ramping rates. The model for PCI calculations and its application within the computer system is demonstrated. (authors)

  13. The Detector Control Unit An ASIC for the monitoring of the CMS silicon tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Magazzù, G; Moreira, P

    2004-01-01

    The Detector Control Unit (DCU) is an ASIC developed as the central building block of a monitoring system for the CMS Tracker. Leakage currents in the Silicon detectors, power supply voltages of the readout electronics and local temperatures will be monitored in order to guarantee safe operating conditions during the 10-years lifetime in the LHC environment. All these measurements can be performed by an A/D converter preceded by an analog multiplexer and properly interfaced to the central control system. The requirements in terms of radiation tolerance, low-power dissipation and integration with the rest of the system led to the design of a custom integrated circuit. Its structure and characteristics are described in this paper. (6 refs).

  14. SU-F-T-67: Correction Factors for Monitor Unit Verification of Clinical Electron Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haywood, J [Mercy Health Partners, Muskegon, MI (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Monitor units calculated by electron Monte Carlo treatment planning systems are often higher than TG-71 hand calculations for a majority of patients. Here I’ve calculated tables of geometry and heterogeneity correction factors for correcting electron hand calculations. Method: A flat water phantom with spherical volumes having radii ranging from 3 to 15 cm was created. The spheres were centered with respect to the flat water phantom, and all shapes shared a surface at 100 cm SSD. D{sub max} dose at 100 cm SSD was calculated for each cone and energy on the flat phantom and for the spherical volumes in the absence of the flat phantom. The ratio of dose in the sphere to dose in the flat phantom defined the geometrical correction factor. The heterogeneity factors were then calculated from the unrestricted collisional stopping power for tissues encountered in electron beam treatments. These factors were then used in patient second check calculations. Patient curvature was estimated by the largest sphere that aligns to the patient contour, and appropriate tissue density was read from the physical properties provided by the CT. The resulting MU were compared to those calculated by the treatment planning system and TG-71 hand calculations. Results: The geometry and heterogeneity correction factors range from ∼(0.8–1.0) and ∼(0.9–1.01) respectively for the energies and cones presented. Percent differences for TG-71 hand calculations drop from ∼(3–14)% to ∼(0–2)%. Conclusion: Monitor units calculated with the correction factors typically decrease the percent difference to under actionable levels, < 5%. While these correction factors work for a majority of patients, there are some patient anatomies that do not fit the assumptions made. Using these factors in hand calculations is a first step in bringing the verification monitor units into agreement with the treatment planning system MU.

  15. Early and total neonatal mortality in relation to birth setting in the United States, 2006-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünebaum, Amos; McCullough, Laurence B; Sapra, Katherine J; Brent, Robert L; Levene, Malcolm I; Arabin, Birgit; Chervenak, Frank A

    2014-10-01

    We examined neonatal mortality in relation to birth settings and birth attendants in the United States from 2006 through 2009. Data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-linked birth and infant death dataset in the United States from 2006 through 2009 were used to assess early and total neonatal mortality for singleton, vertex, and term births without congenital malformations delivered by midwives and physicians in the hospital and midwives and others out of the hospital. Deliveries by hospital midwives served as the reference. Midwife home births had a significantly higher total neonatal mortality risk than deliveries by hospital midwives (1.26 per 1000 births; relative risk [RR], 3.87 vs 0.32 per 1000; P home births of 41 weeks or longer (1.84 per 1000; RR, 6.76 vs 0.27 per 1000; P home births of women with a first birth (2.19 per 1000; RR, 6.74 vs 0.33 per 1000; P home births, neonatal mortality for first births was twice that of subsequent births (2.19 vs 0.96 per 1000; P home births compared with midwife hospital births was 9.32 per 10,000 births, and the excess early neonatal mortality was 7.89 per 10,000 births. Our study shows a significantly increased total and early neonatal mortality for home births and even higher risks for women of 41 weeks or longer and women having a first birth. These significantly increased risks of neonatal mortality in home births must be disclosed by all obstetric practitioners to all pregnant women who express an interest in such births. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Dosimetric accuracy at low monitor unit setting in electron beams at different dose rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravikumar, M.; Ravichandran, R.; Supe, Sanjay S.; Sharma, Anil K.

    1999-01-01

    As electron beam with low monitor unit (LMU) settings are used in some dosimetric studies, better understanding of accuracy in dose delivery at LMU setting is necessary. The dose measurements were carried out with 0.6 cm 3 farmer type ion chamber at d max in a polystyrene phantom. Measurements at different MUs show that the dose linearity ratio (DLR) increases as the MU setting decreases below 20 MU and DLRs are found to increase when the incident electron beams have higher energies. The increase in DLR is minimum for low dose rate setting for all five electron beam energies (6, 9, 12, 16 and 20 MeV). As the variation in dose delivery is machine-specific, a detailed study should be conducted before the low MU setting is implemented. Since errors in dose delivery are high at higher dose rates, low dose rate may be better at low MU unit setting. (author)

  17. Simplified conversions between specific conductance and salinity units for use with data from monitoring stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schemel, Laurence E.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, Bureau of Reclamation, and the California Department of Water Resources maintain a large number of monitoring stations that record specific conductance, often referred to as “electrical conductivity,” in San Francisco Bay Estuary and the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. Specific conductance units that have been normalized to a standard temperature are useful in fresh waters, but conversion to salinity units has some considerable advantages in brackish waters of the estuary and Delta. For example, salinity is linearly related to the mixing ratio of freshwater and seawater, which is not the case for specific conductance, even when values are normalized to a standard temperature. The Practical Salinity Scale 1978 is based on specific conductance, temperature, and pressure measurements of seawater and freshwater mixtures (Lewis 1980 and references therein). Equations and data that define the scale make possible conversions between specific conductance and salinity values.

  18. Improvement of a sensor unit for wrist blood pressure monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Sangjun; Kwon, Jongwon; Park, Yongman; Ayuzenara, Odgerel; Kim, Hiesik

    2007-12-01

    A blood pressure sensor unit for ubiquitous healthcare monitoring was newly developed. The digital wrist band-type blood pressure devices for home are popular already in the market. It is useful for checking blood pressure level at home and control of hypertension. Especially, it is very essential home device to check the health condition of blood circulation disease. Nowadays many product types are available. But the measurement of blood pressure is not accurate enough compared with the mechanical type. It needs to be upgraded to assure the precise health data enough to use in the hospital. The structure, feature and output signal of capacitor type pressure sensors are analyzed. An improved design of capacitor sensor is suggested. It shows more precise health data after use on a wrist band type health unit. They can be applied for remote u-health medical service.

  19. Current Practices of Measuring and Reference Range Reporting of Free and Total Testosterone in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Margaret; Flores, David; May, Danica; Gourley, Eric; Nangia, Ajay K

    2016-05-01

    The evaluation and management of male hypogonadism should be based on symptoms and on serum testosterone levels. Diagnostically this relies on accurate testing and reference values. Our objective was to define the distribution of reference values and assays for free and total testosterone by clinical laboratories in the United States. Upper and lower reference values, assay methodology and source of published reference ranges were obtained from laboratories across the country. A standardized survey was reviewed with laboratory staff via telephone. Descriptive statistics were used to tabulate results. We surveyed a total of 120 laboratories in 47 states. Total testosterone was measured in house at 73% of laboratories. At the remaining laboratories studies were sent to larger centralized reference facilities. The mean ± SD lower reference value of total testosterone was 231 ± 46 ng/dl (range 160 to 300) and the mean upper limit was 850 ± 141 ng/dl (range 726 to 1,130). Only 9% of laboratories where in-house total testosterone testing was performed created a reference range unique to their region. Others validated the instrument recommended reference values in a small number of internal test samples. For free testosterone 82% of laboratories sent testing to larger centralized reference laboratories where equilibrium dialysis and/or liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry was done. The remaining laboratories used published algorithms to calculate serum free testosterone. Reference ranges for testosterone assays vary significantly among laboratories. The ranges are predominantly defined by limited population studies of men with unknown medical and reproductive histories. These poorly defined and variable reference values, especially the lower limit, affect how clinicians determine treatment. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Development of Product Availability Monitoring System In Production Unit In Automotive Component Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartono, Rachmad; Raharno, Sri; Yuwana Martawirya, Yatna; Arthaya, Bagus

    2018-03-01

    This paper described a methodology to monitor the availability of products in a production unit in the automotive component industry. Automotive components made are automotive components made through sheet metal working. Raw material coming into production unit in the form of pieces of plates that have a certain size. Raw materials that come stored in the warehouse. Data of raw each material in the warehouse are recorded and stored in a data base system. The material will then undergo several production processes in the production unit. When the material is taken from the warehouse, material data are also recorded and stored in a data base. The data recorded are the amount of material, material type, and date when the material is out of the warehouse. The material coming out of the warehouse is labeled with information related to the production processes that the material must pass. Material out of the warehouse is a product will be made. The products have been completed, are stored in the warehouse products. When the product is entered into the product warehouse, product data is also recorded by scanning the barcode contained on the label. By recording the condition of the product at each stage of production, we can know the availability of the product in a production unit in the form of a raw material, the product being processed and the finished product.

  1. Intensive care unit drug costs in the context of total hospital drug expenditures with suggestions for targeted cost containment efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altawalbeh, Shoroq M; Saul, Melissa I; Seybert, Amy L; Thorpe, Joshua M; Kane-Gill, Sandra L

    2018-04-01

    To assess costs of intensive care unit (ICU) related pharmacotherapy relative to hospital drug expenditures, and to identify potential targets for cost-effectiveness investigations. We offer the unique advantage of comparing ICU drug costs with previously published data a decade earlier to describe changes over time. Financial transactions for all ICU patients during fiscal years (FY) 2009-2012 were retrieved from the hospital's data repository. ICU drug costs were evaluated for each FY. ICU departments' charges were also retrieved and calculated as percentages of total ICU charges. Albumin, prismasate (dialysate), voriconazole, factor VII and alteplase denoted the highest percentages of ICU drug costs. ICU drug costs contributed to an average of 31% (SD 1.0%) of the hospital's total drug costs. ICU drug costs per patient day increased by 5.8% yearly versus 7.8% yearly for non-ICU drugs. This rate was higher for ICU drugs costs at 12% a decade previous. Pharmacy charges contributed to 17.7% of the total ICU charges. Growth rates of costs per year have declined but still drug expenditures in the ICU are consistently a significant driver in this resource intensive environment with a high impact on hospital drug expenditures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. 40 CFR Table 31 to Subpart Uuu of... - Continuous Monitoring Systems for HAP Emissions From Sulfur Recovery Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Continuous Monitoring Systems for HAP Emissions From Sulfur Recovery Units 31 Table 31 to Subpart UUU of Part 63 Protection of Environment..., Subpt. UUU, Table 31 Table 31 to Subpart UUU of Part 63—Continuous Monitoring Systems for HAP Emissions...

  3. Annual Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program Report for the Three Mile Island, Unit 2, Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, Gregory Graham

    2002-01-01

    This report presents the results of the 2001 Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program conducted in accordance with 10 CFR 72.44 for the Three Mile Island, Unit 2, Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation. A description of the facility and the monitoring program is provided. The results of monitoring the two predominant radiation exposure pathways, potential airborne radioactivity releases and direct radiation exposure, indicate the facility operation has not contributed to any increase in the estimated maximum potential dose commitment to the general public.

  4. Estimating the contribution of strong daily export events to total pollutant export from the United States in summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yuanyuan; Fiore, Arlene M.; Horowitz, Larry W.; Gnanadesikan, Anand; Levy, Hiram; Hu, Yongtao; Russell, Armistead G.

    2009-12-01

    While the export of pollutants from the United States exhibits notable variability from day to day and is often considered to be "episodic," the contribution of strong daily export events to total export has not been quantified. We use carbon monoxide (CO) as a tracer of anthropogenic pollutants in the Model of OZone And Related Tracers (MOZART) to estimate this contribution. We first identify the major export pathway from the United States to be through the northeast boundary (24-48°N along 67.5°W and 80-67.5°W along 48°N), and then analyze 15 summers of daily CO export fluxes through this boundary. These daily CO export fluxes have a nearly Gaussian distribution with a mean of 1100 Gg CO day-1 and a standard deviation of 490 Gg CO day-1. To focus on the synoptic variability, we define a "synoptic background" export flux equal to the 15 day moving average export flux and classify strong export days according to their fluxes relative to this background. As expected from Gaussian statistics, 16% of summer days are "strong export days," classified as those days when the CO export flux exceeds the synoptic background by one standard deviation or more. Strong export days contributes 25% to the total export, a value determined by the relative standard deviation of the CO flux distribution. Regressing the anomalies of the CO export flux through the northeast U.S. boundary relative to the synoptic background on the daily anomalies in the surface pressure field (also relative to a 15 day running mean) suggests that strong daily export fluxes are correlated with passages of midlatitude cyclones over the Gulf of Saint Lawrence. The associated cyclonic circulation and Warm Conveyor Belts (WCBs) that lift surface pollutants over the northeastern United States have been shown previously to be associated with long-range transport events. Comparison with observations from the 2004 INTEX-NA field campaign confirms that our model captures the observed enhancements in CO outflow

  5. Development and implementation of a software for assessment of calculations in radiotherapy monitor units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Marcio Rogerio; Silva, Marco Antonio da; Rodrigues, Laura Natal

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To develop and implement a software based on the manual calculation algorithm for verification of the calculations in radiotherapy monitor units and to establish acceptance levels as a mechanism of quality assurance. Materials and methods: Data were obtained from Clinac 600C and 2100C Varian linear accelerators and the computerized treatment planning system used was CadPlan TM . Results: For the 6 MV beams the acceptance levels for deviations among the calculations of monitor units, divided by treatment area, were the following: breast (0.0%±1.7%), head and neck (1.5%±0.5%), hypophysis (-1.7%±0.5%), pelvis (2.1%±2.1%) and thorax (0.2%±1.3%). For the 15 MV beams the suggested level for pelvis in all the treatment techniques was (3.2%±1.3%). Conclusion: The present data are sufficient to justify the use of the software in the clinical practice as a tool for the quality assurance program. (author)

  6. Groundwater Monitoring Report Central Nevada Test Area, Corrective Action Unit 443

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-04-01

    This report presents the 2007 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) for the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 443. Responsibility for the environmental site restoration of the CNTA was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) to DOE-LM on October 1, 2006. Requirements for CAU 443 are specified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO 2005) entered into by DOE, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada and includes groundwater monitoring in support of site closure. This is the first groundwater monitoring report prepared by DOE-LM for the CNTA The CNTA is located north of U.S. Highway 6, approximately 30 miles north of Warm Springs in Nye County, Nevada (Figure 1). Three emplacement boreholes, UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4, were drilled at the CNTA for underground nuclear weapons testing. The initial underground nuclear test, Project Faultless, was conducted in borehole UC-1 at a depth of 3,199 feet (ft) (975 meters) below ground surface on January 19, 1968. The yield of the Project Faultless test was estimated to be 0.2 to 1 megaton (DOE 2004). The test resulted in a down-dropped fault block visible at land surface (Figure 2). No further testing was conducted at the CNTA, and the site was decommissioned as a testing facility in 1973.

  7. Recommended methods for range-wide monitoring of prairie dogs in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Lyman L.; Stanley, Thomas R.; Otis, David L.; Biggins, Dean E.; Stevens, Patricia D.; Koprowski, John L.; Ballard, Warren

    2011-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges for conserving grassland, prairie scrub, and shrub-steppe ecosystems is maintaining prairie dog populations across the landscape. Of the four species of prairie dogs found in the United States, the Utah prairie dog (Cynomys parvidens) is listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) as threatened, the Gunnison's prairie dog (C. gunnisoni) is a candidate for listing in a portion of its range, and the black-tailed prairie dog (C. ludovicianus) and white-tailed prairie dog (C. leucurus) have each been petitioned for listing at least once in recent history. Although the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) determined listing is not warranted for either the black-tailed prairie dog or white-tailed prairie dog, the petitions and associated reviews demonstrated the need for the States to monitor and manage for self-sustaining populations. In response to these findings, a multi-State conservation effort was initiated for the nonlisted species which included the following proposed actions: (1) completing an assessment of each prairie dog species in each State, (2) developing a range-wide monitoring protocol for each species using a statistically valid sampling procedure that would allow comparable analyses across States, and (3) monitoring prairie dog status every 3-5 years depending upon the species. To date, each State has completed an assessment and currently is monitoring prairie dog status; however, for some species, the inconsistency in survey methodology has made it difficult to compare data year-to-year or State-to-State. At the Prairie Dog Conservation Team meeting held in November 2008, there was discussion regarding the use of different methods to survey prairie dogs. A recommendation from this meeting was to convene a panel in a workshop-type forum and have the panel review the different methods being used and provide recommendations for range-wide monitoring protocols for each species of prairie dog. Consequently, the Western

  8. 40 CFR Table 10 to Subpart Uuu of... - Continuous Monitoring Systems for Organic HAP Emissions From Catalytic Cracking Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Continuous Monitoring Systems for Organic HAP Emissions From Catalytic Cracking Units 10 Table 10 to Subpart UUU of Part 63 Protection of... Organic HAP Emissions From Catalytic Cracking Units As stated in § 63.1565(b)(1), you shall meet each...

  9. 40 CFR Table 17 to Subpart Uuu of... - Continuous Monitoring Systems for Organic HAP Emissions From Catalytic Reforming Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Continuous Monitoring Systems for Organic HAP Emissions From Catalytic Reforming Units 17 Table 17 to Subpart UUU of Part 63 Protection of... Organic HAP Emissions From Catalytic Reforming Units As stated in § 63.1566(b)(1), you shall meet each...

  10. Development of a reference Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU for the monitoring and control of grid stability and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndilimabaka Hervé

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the details of the development of a Phasor Measurement Unit regarding the requirements of the IEEE C37.118-2005 synchrophasor standard relative to steady-state conditions on grid monitoring and control. This phasor measurement unit is intended to be used for field tests sooner.

  11. Development of a reference Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) for the monitoring and control of grid stability and quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndilimabaka, Hervé; Blanc, Isabelle

    2014-08-01

    This paper discusses the details of the development of a Phasor Measurement Unit regarding the requirements of the IEEE C37.118-2005 synchrophasor standard relative to steady-state conditions on grid monitoring and control. This phasor measurement unit is intended to be used for field tests sooner.

  12. Telephone audit for monitoring stroke unit facilities: a post hoc analysis from PROSIT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candelise, Livia; Gattinoni, Monica; Bersano, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Although several valid approaches exist to measure the number and the quality of acute stroke units, only few studies tested their reliability. This study is aimed at establishing whether the telephone administration of the PROject of Stroke unIt ITaly (PROSIT) audit questionnaire is reliable compared with direct face-to-face interview. Forty-three medical leaders in charge of in-hospital stroke services were interviewed twice using the same PROSIT questionnaire with 2 different modalities. First, the interviewers approached the medical leaders by telephone. Thereafter, they went to the hospital site and performed a direct face-to-face interview. Six independent couples of trained researchers conducted the audit interviews. The degree of intermodality agreement was measured with kappa statistic. We found a perfect agreement for stroke units identification between the 2 different audit modalities (K = 1.00; standard error [SE], 1.525). The agreement was also very good for stroke dedicated beds (K = 1.00; SE, 1.525) and dedicated personnel (K = 1.00; SE, 1.525), which are the 2 components of stroke unit definition. The agreement was lower for declared in use process of care and availability of diagnostic investigations. The telephone audit can be used for monitoring stroke unit structures. It is more rapid, less expensive, and can repeatedly be used at appropriate intervals. However, a reliable description of the process of care and diagnostic investigations indicators should be obtained by either local site audit visit or prospective stroke register based on individual patient data. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Parametric monitoring of the quality of total mesorectal excision and surgical treatment of rectal carcinoma results of a multicenter study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, J; Ferko, A; Bláha, M; Ryška, A; Čapov, I; Dušek, L; Feit, J; Grega, M; Hermanová, M; Hovorková, E; Chmelová, R; Kala, Z; Klos, D; Kodet, R; Langer, D; Hadži-Nikolov, D; Örhalmi, J; Páral, J; Tichý, M; Tučková, I; Vjaclovský, M; Vlček, P

    Tumour size and the quality of its complete surgical removal are the main prognostic factors in rectal cancer treatment. The number of postoperative local recurrences depends on whether the mesorectum has been completely removed - total mesorectal excision (TME) - and whether tumour-free resection margins have been achieved. The surgery itself and its quality depend on the accuracy of preoperative diagnosis and detection of risk areas in the rectum and mesorectum, on the surgeons skills, and finally on pathological assessment evaluating whether complete tumour excision has been accomplished including circumferential margins of the tumour, and whether mesorectal excision is complete. The aim of our study was to implement and standardize a new method of evaluation of the quality of the surgical procedure - TME - in rectal cancer treatment using an assessment of its circumferential margins (CRO) and completeness of the excision. The study consisted of two parts. The first, multi-centre retrospective phase with 288 patients analysed individual partial parameters of the diagnosis, operations and histological examinations of the rectal cancer. Critical points were identified and a unified follow-up protocol was prepared. In the second, prospective part of this study 600 patients were monitored parametrically focusing on the quality of the TME and its effect on the oncological treatment results. The proportion of patients with restaging following neoadjuvant therapy increased from 60.0% to 81.7% based on preoperative diagnosis. The number of specimens missing an assessment of the mesorectal excision quality decreased from 52.9% in the retrospective part of to the study to 22.8% in the prospective part. The proportion of actually complete TMEs rose from 22.6% to 26.0%, and that of nearly complete TMEs from 10.1% to 24.0%. The introduction of parametric monitoring into routine clinical practice improved the quality of pre-treatment and preoperative diagnosis, examination of

  14. Monitoring the World Health Organization Global Target 2025 for Exclusive Breastfeeding: Experience From the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Priya M; Perrine, Cria G; Chen, Jian; Elam-Evans, Laurie D; Flores-Ayala, Rafael

    2017-08-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding under 6 months, calculated from a single 24-hour recall among mothers of children 0 to 5 months of age, is a World Health Organization (WHO) indicator used to monitor progress on the 2025 global breastfeeding target. Many upper-middle-income and high-income countries, including the United States, do not have estimates for this indicator. Research aim: To describe the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding under 6 months in the United States. We used a single 24-hour dietary recall from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009-2012 to calculate the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding under 6 months. We discuss our results in the context of routine breastfeeding surveillance, which is reported from a national survey with different methodology. Among children younger than 6 months, 24.4%, 95% confidence interval [17.6, 31.1], were exclusively breastfed the previous day. To our knowledge, this is the first estimate of the WHO indicator of exclusive breastfeeding under 6 months for the United States. This study supports the global surveillance and data strategy for reporting to the WHO on the 2025 target for exclusive breastfeeding.

  15. Development of a unit suitable for corrosion monitoring in district heating systems. Experiences with the LOCOR-cell test method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Asbjørn; Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel

    2004-01-01

    A by-pass unit suitable for placement of a number of different probes for corrosion monitoring has been designed. Also measurements of water parameters are allowed in a side stream from the unit. The project is a part of the Nordic Innovation Fund project KORMOF. The by-pass unit has been installed...... in 6 pressurised circulating heating systems and in one cooling system. 7 different corrosion monitoring methods have been used to study corrosion rates and types in dependency of water chemistry. This paper describes the design of the by-pass unit including water analysis methods. It also describes...... the purpose, background and gained results of one of the used monitoring techniques, the crevice corrosion measurements obtained by the LOCOR-Cell„§. The crevice corrosion cell was developed by FORCE Technology in a previous district heating project financed by Nordic Industrial Fund (1)(2). Results from...

  16. Hand disinfection in a neonatal intensive care unit: continuous electronic monitoring over a one-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helder, Onno K; van Goudoever, Johannes B; Hop, Wim C J; Brug, Johannes; Kornelisse, René F

    2012-10-08

    Good hand hygiene compliance is essential to prevent nosocomial infections in healthcare settings. Direct observation of hand hygiene compliance is the gold standard but is time consuming. An electronic dispenser with built-in wireless recording equipment allows continuous monitoring of its usage. The purpose of this study was to monitor the use of alcohol-based hand rub dispensers with a built-in electronic counter in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) setting and to determine compliance with hand hygiene protocols by direct observation. A one-year observational study was conducted at a 27 bed level III NICU at a university hospital. All healthcare workers employed at the NICU participated in the study. The use of bedside dispensers was continuously monitored and compliance with hand hygiene was determined by random direct observations. A total of 258,436 hand disinfection events were recorded; i.e. a median (interquartile range) of 697 (559-840) per day. The median (interquartile range) number of hand disinfection events performed per healthcare worker during the day, evening, and night shifts was 13.5 (10.8 - 16.7), 19.8 (16.3 - 24.1), and 16.6 (14.2 - 19.3), respectively. In 65.8% of the 1,168 observations of patient contacts requiring hand hygiene, healthcare workers fully complied with the protocol. We conclude that the electronic devices provide useful information on frequency, time, and location of its use, and also reveal trends in hand disinfection events over time. Direct observations offer essential data on compliance with the hand hygiene protocol. In future research, data generated by the electronic devices can be supplementary used to evaluate the effectiveness of hand hygiene promotion campaigns.

  17. National trends and in hospital outcomes for total hip arthroplasty in avascular necrosis in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayers, William; Schwartz, Brian; Schwartz, Aaron; Moretti, Vincent; Goldstein, Wayne; Shah, Ritesh

    2016-09-01

    While a majority of total hip arthroplasty (THA) is performed for osteoarthritis (OA), a significant portion is performed in the setting of avascular necrosis (AVN). The purpose of this study is to evaluate recent trends, patient demographics, and in hospital outcomes for primary THA in the setting of AVN in the United States. The National Hospital Discharge Survey database was searched for patients admitted to US hospitals after a primary THA for the years 2001-2010. Patients were then separated into two groups by ICD-9 diagnosis codes for OA and AVN. The rates of THA for AVN (r = 0.65) and THA for OA (r = 0.82) both demonstrated a positive correlation with time. The mean patient age of the AVN group was significantly lower (56.9 vs 65.9 years, p < 0.01). Men accounted for 51.9 % of the AVN group and 43.0 % of the OA group (p < 0.01). The AVN group had a significantly higher percentage of African Americans (11.2 % vs 5.4 %, p < 0.01) when compared to the OA group. The AVN group had a higher rate of myocardial infarction (0.3 % vs 0.07 %, p = 0.0163) and a higher average number of medical co-morbidities (5.16 vs 4.77, p < 0.01). Patients undergoing THA for AVN were more likely to be younger, male, African American, have more medical co-morbidities, and more likely to have a myocardial infarction than those with OA. While the number of primary THAs performed for AVN in the United States has increased over the past ten years, the rate of primary THA for OA increased at a much more rapid rate.

  18. Measurement system of bubbly flow using ultrasonic velocity profile monitor and video data processing unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aritomi, Masanori; Zhou, Shirong; Nakajima, Makoto; Takeda, Yasushi; Mori, Michitsugu; Yoshioka, Yuzuru.

    1996-01-01

    The authors have been developing a measurement system for bubbly flow in order to clarify its multi-dimensional flow characteristics and to offer a data base to validate numerical codes for multi-dimensional two-phase flow. In this paper, the measurement system combining an ultrasonic velocity profile monitor with a video data processing unit is proposed, which can measure simultaneously velocity profiles in both gas and liquid phases, a void fraction profile for bubbly flow in a channel, and an average bubble diameter and void fraction. Furthermore, the proposed measurement system is applied to measure flow characteristics of a bubbly countercurrent flow in a vertical rectangular channel to verify its capability. (author)

  19. Geothermal resource areas database for monitoring the progress of development in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, J.D.; Lepman, S.R.; Leung, K.; Phillips, S.L.

    1981-01-01

    The Geothermal Resource Areas Database (GRAD) and associated data system provide broad coverage of information on the development of geothermal resources in the United States. The system is designed to serve the information requirements of the National Progress Monitoring System. GRAD covers development from the initial exploratory phase through plant construction and operation. Emphasis is on actual facts or events rather than projections and scenarios. The selection and organization of data are based on a model of geothermal development. Subjects in GRAD include: names and addresses, leases, area descriptions, geothermal wells, power plants, direct use facilities, and environmental and regulatory aspects of development. Data collected in the various subject areas are critically evaluated, and then entered into an on-line interactive computer system. The system is publically available for retrieval and use. The background of the project, conceptual development, software development, and data collection are described here. Appendices describe the structure of the database in detail.

  20. Application for verification of monitor units of the treatment planning system; Aplicacion para la verificacion de unidades monitor del sistema de planificacion de tratamientos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suero Rodrigo, M. A.; Marques Fraguela, E.

    2011-07-01

    Current estimates algorithms achieve acceptable degree of accuracy. However, operate on the basis of un intuitive models. It is therefore necessary to verify the calculation of monitor units of the treatment planning system (PTS) with those obtained by other independent formalisms. To this end, we have developed an application based on factorization formalism that automates the calculation of dose.

  1. Independent calculation of the monitor units and times of treatment in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Marcio Rogerio

    2005-01-01

    In this work, an independent verification system of calculations in radiotherapy was developed and applied, using Visual Basic TM programming language. The computational program performs calculations of monitor units and treatment time, based on the algorithm of manual calculation. The calculations executed for the independent system had initially been compared with the manual calculations performed by the medical physicists of the Institute of Radiotherapy of the Hospital das Clinicas da Universidade de Sao Paulo. In this step, the results found for more than two hundred fields studied were similar to those found in the literature; deviations larger than +- 1% were found only in five cases involving errors in manual calculation. The application of the independent system, in this stage, could have identified errors up to +- 2,4%. Based on these data, the system was validated for use in clinical routine. In a second step, calculations were compared with calculations realized by the treatment computerized planning system CadPIan TM . When, again, the results were similar to those published in other works allowing to obtain levels of acceptance of the discrepancies between the calculations executed for the independent system and the calculations developed from the planning system, separated by anatomical region, as recommended according by the recent literature. For beams of 6 MV, the levels of acceptance for deviations between the calculations of monitor units, separated by treatment region were the following; breast +- 1.7%, head and neck +2%; hypophysis +- 2.2%; pelvis +- 4 . 1% and thorax +- 1.5%. For beams of 15 MV, the level suggested for pelvis was of +- 4.5%. (author)

  2. Investment in epilepsy monitoring units improves epilepsy care—experience in a regional neuroscience centre

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGinty, RN

    2017-08-01

    An evaluation of the clinical yield of inpatient long-term video-EEG (vEEG) in a new epilepsy monitoring unit (EMU) was undertaken, with findings compared to the centre’s prior method of bedside vEEG recording in a standard neurology ward, as reported in 2004. A retrospective analysis of neurophysiology reports for all adults who underwent elective vEEG monitoring in the EMU at Cork University Hospital between January 2015 and July 2016 was conducted. Of 115 vEEG studies in the EMU, 100 (87.0%) were deemed diagnostically conclusive, 14 (12.2%) failed to catch any clinical events and showed normal EEG throughout, and one (0.9%) captured spells of unclear clinical significance—the corresponding figures reported in 2004 for bedside vEEGs were 21.3%, 77% and 1.6%, respectively. The EMU offers a more effective method of recording inpatient vEEG, which aids decision-making and improves clinical outcomes. Some evidence-based measures which could further enhance diagnostic yield are discussed.

  3. Microphone variability and degradation: implications for monitoring programs employing autonomous recording units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick J. Turgeon

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous recording units (ARUs are emerging as an effective tool for avian population monitoring and research. Although ARU technology is being rapidly adopted, there is a need to establish whether variation in ARU components and their degradation with use might introduce detection biases that would affect long-term monitoring and research projects. We assessed whether microphone sensitivity impacted the probability of detecting bird vocalizations by broadcasting a sequence of 12 calls toward an array of commercially available ARUs equipped with microphones of varying sensitivities under three levels (32 dBA, 42 dBA, and 50 dBA of experimentally induced noise conditions selected to reflect the range of noise levels commonly encountered during avian surveys. We used binomial regression to examine factors influencing probability of detection for each species and used these to examine the impact of microphone sensitivity on the effective detection area (ha for each species. Microphone sensitivity loss reduced detection probability for all species examined, but the magnitude of the effect varied between species and often interacted with distance. Microphone sensitivity loss reduced the effective detection area by an average of 25% for microphones just beyond manufacturer specifications (-5 dBV and by an average of 66% for severely compromised microphones (-20 dBV. Microphone sensitivity loss appeared to be more problematic for low frequency calls where reduction in the effective detection area occurred most rapidly. Microphone degradation poses a source of variation in avian surveys made with ARUs that will require regular measurement of microphone sensitivity and criteria for microphone replacement to ensure scientifically reproducible results. We recommend that research and monitoring projects employing ARUs test their microphones regularly, replace microphones with declining sensitivity, and record sensitivity as a potential covariate in

  4. The Epimed Monitor ICU Database®: a cloud-based national registry for adult intensive care unit patients in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampieri, Fernando Godinho; Soares, Márcio; Borges, Lunna Perdigão; Salluh, Jorge Ibrain Figueira; Ranzani, Otávio Tavares

    2017-01-01

    To describe the Epimed Monitor Database®, a Brazilian intensive care unit quality improvement database. We described the Epimed Monitor® Database, including its structure and core data. We presented aggregated informative data from intensive care unit admissions from 2010 to 2016 using descriptive statistics. We also described the expansion and growth of the database along with the geographical distribution of participating units in Brazil. The core data from the database includes demographic, administrative and physiological parameters, as well as specific report forms used to gather detailed data regarding the use of intensive care unit resources, infectious episodes, adverse events and checklists for adherence to best clinical practices. As of the end of 2016, 598 adult intensive care units in 318 hospitals totaling 8,160 intensive care unit beds were participating in the database. Most units were located at private hospitals in the southeastern region of the country. The number of yearly admissions rose during this period and included a predominance of medical admissions. The proportion of admissions due to cardiovascular disease declined, while admissions due to sepsis or infections became more common. Illness severity (Simplified Acute Physiology Score - SAPS 3 - 62 points), patient age (mean = 62 years) and hospital mortality (approximately 17%) remained reasonably stable during this time period. A large private database of critically ill patients is feasible and may provide relevant nationwide epidemiological data for quality improvement and benchmarking purposes among the participating intensive care units. This database is useful not only for administrative reasons but also for the improvement of daily care by facilitating the adoption of best practices and use for clinical research.

  5. Working paper on monitoring strategies in the United Kingdom, Federal Republic of Germany and United States of America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buring, E.; Lanting, R.

    1989-01-01

    This study is a working paper on monitoring strategies used in the U.K., the FRG and the USA to assess exposure to airborne chemical substances. After a brief description of the basic philosophy on monitoring strategies, the requirements formonitoring from the different legal systems in the three

  6. Measurement of Total Site Mercury Emissions from Chlor-Alkali Plant Using Ultraviolet Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy and Cell Room Roof-Vent Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    This technical note describes a United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) measurement project to determine elemental mercury (Hg0) emissions from a mercury cell chlor-alkali (MCCA) facility in the southeastern U.S. during a 53-day monitoring campaign in the fall of...

  7. Use of Internet Search Data to Monitor Rotavirus Vaccine Impact in the United States, United Kingdom, and Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Minesh P; Lopman, Benjamin A; Tate, Jacqueline E; Harris, John; Esparza-Aguilar, Marcelino; Sanchez-Uribe, Edgar; Richardson, Vesta; Steiner, Claudia A; Parashar, Umesh D

    2018-02-19

    Previous studies have found a strong correlation between internet search and public health surveillance data. Less is known about how search data respond to public health interventions, such as vaccination, and the consistency of responses in different countries. In this study, we aimed to study the correlation between internet searches for "rotavirus" and rotavirus disease activity in the United States, United Kingdom, and Mexico before and after introduction of rotavirus vaccine. We compared time series of internet searches for "rotavirus" from Google Trends with rotavirus laboratory reports from the United States and United Kingdom and with hospitalizations for acute gastroenteritis in the United States and Mexico. Using time and location parameters, Google quantifies an internet query share (IQS) to measure the relative search volume for specific terms. We analyzed the correlation between IQS and laboratory and hospitalization data before and after national vaccine introductions. There was a strong positive correlation between the rotavirus IQS and laboratory reports in the United States (R2 = 0.79) and United Kingdom (R2 = 0.60) and between the rotavirus IQS and acute gastroenteritis hospitalizations in the United States (R2 = 0.87) and Mexico (R2 = 0.69) (P United States and by 70% (95% CI, 55%-86%) in Mexico. In the United Kingdom, there was a loss of seasonal variation after vaccine introduction. Rotavirus internet search data trends mirrored national rotavirus laboratory trends in the United States and United Kingdom and gastroenteritis-hospitalization data in the United States and Mexico; lower correlations were found after rotavirus vaccine introduction. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  8. The Emergency Radiological Monitoring and Analysis Division of the United States Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thome, D.J.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan (FRERP) provides the framework for integrating the various Federal agencies responding to a major radiological emergency. The FRERP authorises the creation of the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC), which is established to co-ordinate all Federal agencies involved in the monitoring and assessment of the off-site radiological conditions in support of the impacted States and the Lead Federal Agency (LFA). Within the FRMAC, the Monitoring and Analysis Division is responsible for co-ordinating all FRMAC assets involved in conducting a comprehensive program of environmental monitoring, sampling, radioanalysis, and quality assurance. This program includes: 1. Aerial Radiological Monitoring - Fixed-Wing and Helicopter; 2. Field Monitoring and Sampling; 3. Radioanalysis - Mobile and Fixed Laboratories; 4. Radiation Detection Instrumentation - Calibration and Maintenance; 5. Environmental Dosimetry; 6. Integrated program of Quality Assurance. To assure consistency, completeness, and the quality of the data produced, a methodology and procedures manual is being developed. This paper discusses the structure, assets, and operations of the FRMAC Monitoring and Analysis Division and the content and preparation of the manual. (author)

  9. An initial SPARROW model of land use and in-stream controls on total organic carbon in streams of the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Jhih-Shyang; Alexander, Richard B.; Smith, Richard A.; Boyer, Elizabeth W.; Shwarz, Grogory E.; Chung, Susie

    2010-01-01

    Watersheds play many important roles in the carbon cycle: (1) they are a site for both terrestrial and aquatic carbon dioxide (CO2) removal through photosynthesis; (2) they transport living and decomposing organic carbon in streams and groundwater; and (3) they store organic carbon for widely varying lengths of time as a function of many biogeochemical factors. Using the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Spatially Referenced Regression on Watershed Attributes (SPARROW) model, along with long-term monitoring data on total organic carbon (TOC), this research quantitatively estimates the sources, transport, and fate of the long-term mean annual load of TOC in streams of the conterminous United States. The model simulations use surrogate measures of the major terrestrial and aquatic sources of organic carbon to estimate the long-term mean annual load of TOC in streams. The estimated carbon sources in the model are associated with four land uses (urban, cultivated, forest, and wetlands) and autochthonous fixation of carbon (stream photosynthesis). Stream photosynthesis is determined by reach-level application of an empirical model of stream chlorophyll based on total phosphorus concentration, and a mechanistic model of photosynthetic rate based on chlorophyll, average daily solar irradiance, water column light attenuation, and reach dimensions. It was found that the estimate of in-stream photosynthesis is a major contributor to the mean annual TOC load per unit of drainage area (that is, yield) in large streams, with a median share of about 60 percent of the total mean annual carbon load in streams with mean flows above 500 cubic feet per second. The interquartile range of the model predictions of TOC from in-stream photosynthesis is from 0.1 to 0.4 grams (g) carbon (C) per square meter (m-2) per day (day-1) for the approximately 62,000 stream reaches in the continental United States, which compares favorably with the reported literature range for net carbon fixation by

  10. Analysis of the necessity for inserting new surveillance capsule into the Kori Unit 1 RPV to monitor material fracture toughness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Taek Ho

    2007-01-01

    In association with monitoring of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) fracture toughness, surveillance capsule test specimens have been used to monitor the material property of nuclear reactor vessel. As far as Kori Unit 1 is concerned, 6 capsules were put into the vessel before commercial operation of the plant. Up to now, all the six capsules have been withdrawn to test and monitor the fracture toughness of RPV material. The last capsule has been withdrawn on June this year, and the Kori unit 1 has been shut downed since July 2007 and will be shut downed until December this year for about 6 months, preparing the life extension of the plant to operate the plant 10 more years. With the situation that all the surveillance capsules have been withdrawn, public ask the following question, 'To extend the life of Kori Unit 1 more than 10 years, is it necessary to insert new surveillance capsules into the Kori Unit 1 to monitor RPV material fracture toughness?' In connection with this issue, planning project have been carried out since spring this year. In this paper, it is described that inserting new surveillance capsule into the Kori Unit 1 RPV has some meaning in some public acceptance point of view and is not necessary in material engineering point of view

  11. Finisher hog production in the Southeastern United States: Ancillary measurements derived from the National Air Emissions Monitoring Study (NAEMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robarge, W. P.; Lee, S.; Walker, J. T.

    2010-12-01

    Measurements of emissions of gases and fine particulate matter from swine animal feeding operations (AFOs) in the southeastern US have typically been confined to relatively short periods (days to several weeks) and have generally focused on waste lagoons. Access to swine animal housing units and other ancillary information has been limited. The National Air Emissions Monitoring Study (NAEMS) provided a unique opportunity to characterize emissions from swine housing units for an extended period of time (~ 2 years), and allowed access to ancillary measurements regarding nutrient flows (feed amounts and composition), manure dynamics, animal inventories, water usage and farm management. Presented here is a summary of the observations made for a NAEMS finisher site (NC3B) selected as being representative of swine production in the southeastern US. Finisher hogs are raised in rotations (~ 140 days) with a target market weight of 123 kg/hog. Among the population during a rotation (700-800 hogs/barn) the actual growth rate varies with a series of “grade-outs” of market-weight hogs starting ~ 110 days from initial load-in. Derivation of the standing live-weight in the barns during a rotation therefore requires use of a growth model and summation over several different “populations” of hogs within a single barn. Up to 5 different feed formulations are fed during a rotation with %N content ranging from (3.4 to 2.2% N; total feed consumed 181,000 kg/barn). Across 4 complete rotations, N consumed was ~50 g N per hog/day. Of this amount, we estimate ~ 60% is excreted as fecal matter and urine. The TAN (NH3 + NH4+) content of the shallow pits is consistently higher (1880 ±390 mg TAN/L) than that found in the anaerobic lagoon (800 ±70 mg TAN/L), except immediately after recharge following pit-pull (pH of the two liquids was similar). The presence of a recalcitrant layer of sludge in the shallow pits (liquid height = 20 cm; sludge depth = 5-10 cm; TAN = 2500 mg N/L; total

  12. The changing demographics of total joint arthroplasty recipients in the United States and Ontario from 2001 to 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, Bheeshma; Croxford, Ruth; Reichmann, William M; Losina, Elena; Katz, Jeffrey N; Hawker, Gillian A

    2012-10-01

    The rates of total joint arthroplasty (TJA) of the hip and knee have increased in North America over the last decade. While initially designed for elderly patients (>70 years of age), several reports suggest that an increasing number of younger patients are undergoing joint replacements. This suggests that more people are meeting the indication for TJA earlier in their lives. Alternatively, it might indicate a broadening of the indications for TJA. We used the administrative databases available at the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) and the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences (ICES) to determine the rates of TJA of the hip and knee in the United States, and Ontario, Canada, respectively. We determined the crude rates of THA and TKA in both areas for four calendar years (2001, 2003, 2005 and 2007). We also calculated the age- and sex-standardised rates of THA and TKA in both areas for each time period. We compared the age distribution of TJA recipients between the US and Ontario, and within each area over time. The crude and standardised rates of THA and TKA increased over time in both the US and Ontario. The crude rates of THA were higher in the US in 2001 and 2003, but were not significantly different from the rate in Ontario in 2005 and 2007. The crude rates of TKA were consistently higher in the US for all time periods. In addition, the US consistently had more THA and TKA recipients in 'younger' age categories (age). While the age- and sex-standardised rates of TKA were greater in the US in all time periods, the relative increase in rates from 2001 to 2007 was greater in Ontario (US - 59%, Ontario - 73%). For both the US and Ontario, there was a significant shift in the demographic of THA and TKA recipients to younger patients (p age groups in the general population, in both the US and Ontario. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Extending total parenteral nutrition hang time in the neonatal intensive care unit: is it safe and cost effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balegar V, Kiran Kumar; Azeem, Mohammad Irfan; Spence, Kaye; Badawi, Nadia

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effects of prolonging hang time of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) fluid on central line-associated blood stream infection (CLABSI), TPN-related cost and nursing workload. A before-after observational study comparing the practice of hanging TPN bags for 48 h (6 February 2009-5 February 2010) versus 24 h (6 February 2008-5 February 2009) in a tertiary neonatal intensive care unit was conducted. The main outcome measures were CLABSI, TPN-related expenses and nursing workload. One hundred thirty-six infants received 24-h TPN bags and 124 received 48-h TPN bags. Median (inter-quartile range) gestation (37 weeks (33,39) vs. 36 weeks (33,39)), mean (±standard deviation) admission weight of 2442 g (±101) versus 2476 g (±104) and TPN duration (9.7 days (±12.7) vs. 9.9 days (±13.4)) were similar (P > 0.05) between the 24- and 48-h TPN groups. There was no increase in CLABSI with longer hang time (0.8 vs. 0.4 per 1000 line days in the 24-h vs. 48-h group; P < 0.05). Annual cost saving using 48-h TPN was AUD 97,603.00. By using 48-h TPN, 68.3% of nurses indicated that their workload decreased and 80.5% indicated that time spent changing TPN reduced. Extending TPN hang time from 24 to 48 h did not alter CLABSI rate and was associated with a reduced TPN-related cost and perceived nursing workload. Larger randomised controlled trials are needed to more clearly delineate these effects. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2012 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  14. Characterizing the Breadth and Depth of Volunteer Water Monitoring Programs in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepenuck, Kristine F.; Genskow, Kenneth D.

    2018-01-01

    A survey of 345 volunteer water monitoring programs in the United States was conducted to document their characteristics, and perceived level of support for data to inform natural resource management or policy decisions. The response rate of 86% provided information from 46 states. Programs represented a range of ages, budgets, objectives, scopes, and level of quality assurance, which influenced data uses and perceived support by sponsoring agency administrators and external decision makers. Most programs focused on rivers, streams, and lakes. Programs had not made substantial progress to develop EPA or state-approved quality assurance plans since 1998, with only 48% reporting such plans. Program coordinators reported feeling slightly more support for data to be used for management as compared to policy decisions. Programs with smaller budgets may be at particular risk of being perceived to lack credibility due to failure to develop quality assurance plans. Over half of programs identified as collaborative, in that volunteers assisted scientists in program design, data analysis and/or dissemination of results. Just under a third were contributory, in which volunteers primarily collected data in a scientist-defined program. Recommendations to improve perceived data credibility, and to augment limited budgets include developing quality assurance plans and gaining agency approval, and developing partnerships with other organizations conducting monitoring in the area to share resources and knowledge. Funding agencies should support development of quality assurance plans to help ensure data credibility. Service providers can aid in plan development by providing training to program staff over time to address high staff turnover rates.

  15. Monitoring of mass flux of catalyst FCC in a Cold Pilot Unit by gamma radiation transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, Marcio Fernando Paixao de

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a model for monitoring the mass flow of catalyst FCC - Fluid Catalytic Cracking - in a CPU - Cold Pilot unit - due to the injection of air and solid by gamma radiation transmission. The CPU simplifies the process of FCC, which is represented by the catalyst cycle, and it was constructed of acrylic, so that the flow can be visualized. The CPU consists of riser separation chamber and return column, and simulates the riser reactor of the FCC process. The catalyst is injected into the column back to the base of the riser, an inclined tube, where the compressed air means that there fluidization along the riser. When the catalyst comes in the separation chamber, the solid phase is sent to the return column, and the gas phase exits the system through one of the four cyclones at the top of the separation chamber. The transmission gamma of measures will be made by means of three test sections that have source and detector shielded. Pressure drop in the riser measurements are made through three pressure gauges positioned on the riser. The source used was Am-241 gamma ray with energy of 60 keV, and detector used was a scintillator of NaI (Tl) of 2 x 2 . Measures the mass flow of catalyst are made by varying the seal of the catalyst, and density of solid in the riser because with the combination of these measures can determine the speed of the catalyst in the riser. The results show that the transmission gamma is a suitable technique for monitoring the flow of catalyst, flow model in CPU is annular, tomography third generation is more appropriate to study the CPU and the density variation in circulation in the CPU decreases linearly with increasing air flow. (author)

  16. Hyperspectral sensing for turbid water quality monitoring in freshwater rivers: Empirical relationship between reflectance and turbidity and total solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiunn-Lin; Ho, Chung-Ru; Huang, Chia-Ching; Srivastav, Arun Lal; Tzeng, Jing-Hua; Lin, Yao-Tung

    2014-11-28

    Total suspended solid (TSS) is an important water quality parameter. This study was conducted to test the feasibility of the band combination of hyperspectral sensing for inland turbid water monitoring in Taiwan. The field spectral reflectance in the Wu river basin of Taiwan was measured with a spectroradiometer; the water samples were collected from the different sites of the Wu river basin and some water quality parameters were analyzed on the sites (in situ) as well as brought to the laboratory for further analysis. To obtain the data set for this study, 160 in situ sample observations were carried out during campaigns from August to December, 2005. The water quality results were correlated with the reflectivity to determine the spectral characteristics and their relationship with turbidity and TSS. Furthermore, multiple-regression (MR) and artificial neural network (ANN) were used to model the transformation function between TSS concentration and turbidity levels of stream water, and the radiance measured by the spectroradiometer. The value of the turbidity and TSS correlation coefficient was 0.766, which implies that turbidity is significantly related to TSS in the Wu river basin. The results indicated that TSS and turbidity are positively correlated in a significant way across the entire spectrum, when TSS concentration and turbidity levels were under 800 mg·L(-1) and 600 NTU, respectively. Optimal wavelengths for the measurements of TSS and turbidity are found in the 700 and 900 nm range, respectively. Based on the results, better accuracy was obtained only when the ranges of turbidity and TSS concentration were less than 800 mg·L(-1) and less than 600 NTU, respectively and used rather than using whole dataset (R(2) = 0.93 versus 0.88 for turbidity and R(2) = 0.83 versus 0.58 for TSS). On the other hand, the ANN approach can improve the TSS retrieval using MR. The accuracy of TSS estimation applying ANN (R(2) = 0.66) was better than with the MR approach (R

  17. Hyperspectral Sensing for Turbid Water Quality Monitoring in Freshwater Rivers: Empirical Relationship between Reflectance and Turbidity and Total Solids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiunn-Lin Wu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Total suspended solid (TSS is an important water quality parameter. This study was conducted to test the feasibility of the band combination of hyperspectral sensing for inland turbid water monitoring in Taiwan. The field spectral reflectance in the Wu river basin of Taiwan was measured with a spectroradiometer; the water samples were collected from the different sites of the Wu river basin and some water quality parameters were analyzed on the sites (in situ as well as brought to the laboratory for further analysis. To obtain the data set for this study, 160 in situ sample observations were carried out during campaigns from August to December, 2005. The water quality results were correlated with the reflectivity to determine the spectral characteristics and their relationship with turbidity and TSS. Furthermore, multiple-regression (MR and artificial neural network (ANN were used to model the transformation function between TSS concentration and turbidity levels of stream water, and the radiance measured by the spectroradiometer. The value of the turbidity and TSS correlation coefficient was 0.766, which implies that turbidity is significantly related to TSS in the Wu river basin. The results indicated that TSS and turbidity are positively correlated in a significant way across the entire spectrum, when TSS concentration and turbidity levels were under 800 mg·L−1 and 600 NTU, respectively. Optimal wavelengths for the measurements of TSS and turbidity are found in the 700 and 900 nm range, respectively. Based on the results, better accuracy was obtained only when the ranges of turbidity and TSS concentration were less than 800 mg·L−1 and less than 600 NTU, respectively and used rather than using whole dataset (R2 = 0.93 versus 0.88 for turbidity and R2 = 0.83 versus 0.58 for TSS. On the other hand, the ANN approach can improve the TSS retrieval using MR. The accuracy of TSS estimation applying ANN (R2 = 0.66 was better than with the MR

  18. POST-CLOSURE INSPECTION AND MONITORING REPORT FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 112: AREA 23 HAZARDOUS WASTE TRENCHES, NEVADA TEST SITE, NEVADA; FOR THE PERIOD OCTOBER 2003 - SEPTEMBER 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BECHTEL NEVADA

    2004-01-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 112, Area 23 Hazardous Waste Trenches, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, is a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) unit located in Area 23 of the NTS. This annual Post-Closure Inspection and Monitoring Report provides the results of inspections and monitoring for CAU 112. This report includes a summary and analysis of the site inspections, repair and maintenance, meteorological information, and neutron soil moisture monitoring data obtained at CAU 112 for the current monitoring period, October 2003 through September 2004. Inspections of the CAU 112 RCRA unit were performed quarterly to identify any significant physical changes to the site that could impact the proper operation of the waste unit. The overall condition of the covers and facility was good, and no significant findings were observed. The annual subsidence survey of the elevation markers was conducted on August 23, 2004, and the results indicated that no cover subsidence4 has occurred at any of the markers. The elevations of the markers have been consistent for the past 11 years. The total precipitation for the current reporting period, october 2003 to September 2004, was 14.0 centimeters (cm) (5.5 inches [in]) (National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration, Air Resources Laboratory, Special Operations and Research Division, 2004). This is slightly below the average rainfall of 14.7 cm (5.79 in) over the same period from 1972 to 2004. Post-closure monitoring verifies that the CAU 112 trench covers are performing properly and that no water is infiltrating into or out of the waste trenches. Sail moisture measurements are obtained in the soil directly beneath the trenches and compared to baseline conditions for the first year of post-closure monitoring, which began in october 1993. neutron logging was performed twice during this monitoring period along 30 neutron access tubes to obtain soil moisture data and detect any changes that may indicate moisture movement

  19. Off-site environmental monitoring report: radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, G.D.; Black, S.C.; Grossman, R.F.; Patzer, R.G.; Smith, D.D.

    1985-04-01

    This report covers the routine radiation monitoring activities conducted by the Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory-Las Vegas in areas which may be affected by nuclear testing programs of the Department of Energy. This monitoring is conducted to document compliance with standards, to identify trends in environmental radiation, and to provide such information to the public. It summarizes these activities for calendar year 1984. No radioactivity attributable to NTS activities was detectable offsite by the monitoring networks. Using recorded wind data and Pasquill stability categories, atmospheric dispersion calculations based on reported radionuclides releases yield an estimated dose of 1 x 10 -3 person-rem to the population within 80 km of the Nevada Test Site during 1983. World-wide fallout of Kr-85, Sr-90, Cs-137, and Pu-239 detected by the monitoring networks would cause maximum exposure to an individual of less than 0.6 mrem per year. Plutonium in air was still detectable along with krypton-85, which continued its gradual increase, as has been reported previously. Cesium and strontium in air were near their detection limits. An occasional net exposure to offsite residents has been detected by the TLD network. On investigation, the cause of such net exposures has been due to personal habits or occupational activities, not to NTS activities. 32 refs., 36 figs., 27 tabs

  20. A New Model of Delirium Care in the Acute Geriatric Setting: Geriatric Monitoring Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Mei

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Delirium is a common and serious condition, which affects many of our older hospitalised patients. It is an indicator of severe underlying illness and requires early diagnosis and prompt treatment, associated with poor survival, functional outcomes with increased risk of institutionalisation following the delirium episode in the acute care setting. We describe a new model of delirium care in the acute care setting, titled Geriatric Monitoring Unit (GMU where the important concepts of delirium prevention and management are integrated. We hypothesize that patients with delirium admitted to the GMU would have better clinical outcomes with less need for physical and psychotropic restraints compared to usual care. Methods/Design GMU models after the Delirium Room with adoption of core interventions from Hospital Elder Life Program and use of evening bright light therapy to consolidate circadian rhythm and improve sleep in the elderly patients. The novelty of this approach lies in the amalgamation of these interventions in a multi-faceted approach in acute delirium management. GMU development thus consists of key considerations for room design and resource planning, program specific interventions and daily core interventions. Assessments undertaken include baseline demographics, comorbidity scoring, duration and severity of delirium, cognitive, functional measures at baseline, 6 months and 12 months later. Additionally we also analysed the pre and post-GMU implementation knowledge and attitude on delirium care among staff members in the geriatric wards (nurses, doctors and undertook satisfaction surveys for caregivers of patients treated in GMU. Discussion This study protocol describes the conceptualization and implementation of a specialized unit for delirium management. We hypothesize that such a model of care will not only result in better clinical outcomes for the elderly patient with delirium compared to usual geriatric care

  1. On the usefulness of portal monitor unit subtraction in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuperman, Vadim Y; Lubich, Leslie M

    2003-01-01

    In order to avoid additional dose to patients caused by portal imaging with megavoltage x-rays, portal monitor units (MUs) are frequently subtracted from the actual treatment MUs. This study examines the usefulness of portal MU subtraction in radiation therapy. For 11 prostate cancer patients treated with 23 MV photons, dose to prostate due to portal filming with 6 MV photons was determined. In all 11 patients subtraction of portal MU values from the actual treatment MUs resulted in a small underdosing of the prostate with an average treatment error of -0.5%. Portal filming without MU subtraction would cause small overdosing of the prostate with an average treatment error of 1.2%. The results of this study indicate that the benefits of portal MU subtraction are in doubt if (a) the energy of treatment x-rays is much higher than that of the portal x-rays and/or (b) when radiotherapy is performed with physical wedges. Based on the obtained results, we argue against unconditional use of the portal MU subtraction method to eliminate the dose from portal imaging

  2. Monitoring of radon gas in caves of the Yorkshire Dales, United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langridge, D; Stokes, R P; Jackson, C P

    2010-01-01

    A number of vocational training courses are held in caves in the Yorkshire Dales region of the United Kingdom. The instructors and students involved in these courses have the potential to be exposed to enhanced levels of radon ( 222 Rn) and its progeny as a result of their occupations. A prior radiological risk assessment for the training courses recommended that an environmental monitoring programme be carried out to establish the radon concentrations in the caves, and that the caving instructors wear personal radon dosemeters. Radon gas concentrations varied seasonally, being at their highest in summer and their lowest in winter. The lowest result was 40 Bq m -3 recorded in Lower Longchurn cave during winter, whilst the highest result was 4440 Bq m -3 recorded in Crackpot cave during the summer. As the individuals involved in the caving are entering atmospheres with radon gas concentrations in excess of 400 Bq m -3 , the Ionising Radiation Regulations 1999 (GB Parliament 2000 Ionising Radiations Regulations 1999 (London: Stationary Office) SI 1999/3232) apply. A system of work is therefore in place to control exposure to radon. This system of work stipulates an initial dose investigation level of 1 mSv, a second dose investigation level of 2 mSv and an annual dose limit of 6 mSv. The highest annual dose recorded to date is 2.2 mSv, although the average (median) annual dose is only 0.5 mSv.

  3. The influence of impression management scales on the Personality Assessment Inventory in the epilepsy monitoring unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdom, Catherine L; Kirlin, Kristin A; Hoerth, Matthew T; Noe, Katherine H; Drazkowski, Joseph F; Sirven, Joseph I; Locke, Dona E C

    2012-12-01

    The Somatic Complaints scale (SOM) and Conversion subscale (SOM-C) of the Personality Assessment Inventory perform best in classifying psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) from epileptic seizures (ES); however, the impact of positive impression management (PIM) and negative impression management (NIM) scales on SOM and SOM-C classification has not been examined. We studied 187 patients from an epilepsy monitoring unit with confirmed PNES or ES. On SOM, the best cut score was 72.5 T when PIM was elevated and 69.5 T when there was no bias. On SOM-C, when PIM was elevated, the best cut score was 67.5 T and 76.5 T when there was no bias. Negative impression management elevations (n=9) were too infrequent to analyze separately. Despite similarities in classification accuracy, there were differences in sensitivity and specificity with and without PIM, impacting positive and negative predictive values. The presence of PIM bias generally increases positive predictive power of SOM and SOM-C but decreases negative predictive power. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Generalized monitor unit calculation for the Varian enhanced dynamic wedge field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chihray; Kim, Siyong; Kahler, Darren L.; Palta, Jatinder R.

    2003-01-01

    The generalized monitor unit (MU) calculation equation for the Varian enhanced dynamic wedge (EDW) is derived. The assumption of this MU calculation method is that the wedge factor of the EDW at the center of the field is a function of field size, the position of the center of the field in the wedge direction, and the final position of the moving jaw. The wedge factors at the center of the field in both symmetric and asymmetric fields are examined. The difference between calculated and measured wedge factors is within 1.0%. The method developed here is easy to implement. The only datum required in addition to the standard set of conventional physical wedge implementation data is the off-axis output factor for the open field in the reference condition. The off-center point calculation is also examined. For the off-center point calculation, the dose profile in the wedge direction for the largest EDW field is used to obtain the relative off-center ratio in any smaller wedge field. The accuracy of the off-center point calculation decreases when the point of calculation is too close to the field edge

  5. Dose linearity and monitor unit stability of a G4 type cyberknife robotic stereotactic radiosurgery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudahar, H.; Kurup, P.G.G.; Murali, V.; Velmurugan, J.

    2012-01-01

    Dose linearity studies on conventional linear accelerators show a linearity error at low monitor units (MUs). The purpose of this study was to establish the dose linearity and MU stability characteristics of a cyberknife (Accuracy Inc., USA) stereotactic radiosurgery system. Measurements were done at a depth of 5 cm in a stereotactic dose verification phantom with a source to surface distance of 75 cm in a Generation 4 (G4) type cyberknife system. All the 12 fixed-type collimators starting from 5 to 60 mm were used for the dose linearity study. The dose linearity was examined in small (1-10), medium (15-100) and large (125-1000) MU ranges. The MU stability test was performed with 60 mm collimator for 10 MU and 20 MU with different combinations. The maximum dose linearity error of -38.8% was observed for 1 MU with 5 mm collimator. Dose linearity error in the small MU range was considerably higher than in the medium and large MU ranges. The maximum error in the medium range was -2.4%. In the large MU range, the linearity error varied between -0.7% and 1.2%. The maximum deviation in the MU stability was -3.03%. (author)

  6. Hypertension: The understanding of bearer’s users, enrolled and monitored in the family health units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilara Maria Mesquita Mendes Pires

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available High Blood Pressure (HBP occupies a prominent position, due to its high incidence and prevalence, as a multifactorial disease and mostly asymptomatic, that fundamentally endangers the promote life’s quality. The study aimed to portray the understanding of bearer’s users enrolled and monitored by the HIPERDIA program, in Family Health Units, about their pathology and thus be able to establish strategies that may be closer to their reality to propose policies to encourage the promotion of health. The study with qualitative approach, conducted in the municipality of Jequié -Bahia, with 08 Family Health Teams, with 152 users with hypertension. We used the semi-structured interview and the collective subject speech technique, which enabled us to reconstruct 04 speeches: DSC 01: "To me it is a terrible disease", DSC 02 "do not eat salt, do not eat fat”, DSC 03 "it is to have headaches, vertigo, it causes heart attack, it causes stroke" DSC 04 "I do not know what it exactly is", they reflect the understanding of the study subjects about their pathology. This leads us to think of health actions aimed at health education emerging the need for change in the approach and use of a common language between professionals and service users, ensuring the promotion of life’s quality and, consequently, the co-responsibility in the treatment adherence.

  7. ON-BOARD MONITORING OF TECHNICAL STATE FOR POWER UNITS OF WHEELED AND TRACKED VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. D. Karpievich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers new methodologies pertaining to on-board diagnosis of wear-out rate for friction linings of a clutch driven disk and friction discs of a hydraulic press clutch of transmission gear boxes which are based on physical process that uses friction work as an integrated indicator. A new methodology in determination of life-span rate for engine oil has been developed in the paper. The paper presents block schematic diagrams for on-board monitoring of technical state for power units of wheeled and tracked vehicles. Usage of friction work as an integrated indicator for determination of wear-out rate for friction linings of clutch driven disk and friction discs of a haydraulic press clutch makes it possible timely at any operational period of wheeled and tracked vehicles to determine their residual operation life and forecast their replacement.While taking volume of the used fuel for determination of engine oil life-span rate it permits quickly and effectively at any operational period of wheeled and tracked vehicles to determine residual useful life of the engine oil and also forecast its replacement.

  8. 78 FR 7411 - Vessel Monitoring Systems (VMS); Certification of New VMS Unit for Use in Northeast Fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... Monitoring Systems (VMS); Certification of New VMS Unit for Use in Northeast Fisheries AGENCY: National... used effective January 24, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Office of Law Enforcement, Northeast Division, Northeast VMS Team, telephone 978-281-9213. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Regulations at 50 CFR 648...

  9. Design of an integrated sensor platform for vital sign monitoring of newborn infants at neonatal intensive care unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, W.; Bambang Oetomo, S.; Feijs, L.M.G.; Bouwstra, S.; Ayoola, Idowu; Dols, S.A.E.

    2010-01-01

    Continuous health status monitoring and advances in medical treatments have resulted in a significant increase of survival rate in critically ill infants admitted into Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs). The quality of life and long-term health prospects of the neonates depend increasingly on the

  10. Applications of the monitor of loose parts in the cycle 6 of the Laguna Verde Unit 2 power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calleros, G.; Mendez, A.; Gomez, R.A.; Castillo, R.; Bravo, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    The monitor of loose parts (Loose Parts Monitoring System) installed in the Unit 2 of the Laguna Verde Central is a tool to detect strange objects or parts loose in the system of refrigeration of the reactor that could be impacted in the walls of the recirculation knots or in the internal of the reactor. In this work two applications are shown carried out with the Monitor of Loose Parts, determining the characteristics of the stable nominal conditions, those which when changing, they are used to diagnose during the Cycle 6 of the Unit 2, failures in the components of the the recirculation circuits or to identify mechanical vibrations of the recirculation knots induced by a flow of recirculation bistable associated to operative conditions of the reactor. (Author)

  11. Analysis and Prototyping of the United States Marine Corps Total Force Administration System (TFAS), Echelon II - A Web Enabled Database for the Small Unit Leader

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simmons, Steven

    2002-01-01

    ...), Echelon II - A Web Enabled Database for The Small Unit Leader. The analysis consisted of researching the characteristics of the current manpower system, MCTFS, and the conceptual tenets of the TFAS program...

  12. Regional monitoring programs in the United States: Synthesis of four case studies from Pacific, Atlantic, and Gulf Coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tango, Peter J.; Schiff, K.; Trowbridge, P.R.; Sherwood, E.T.; Batiuk, R.A.

    2016-01-01

    Water quality monitoring is a cornerstone of environmental protection and ambient monitoring provides managers with the critical data they need to take informed action. Unlike site-specific monitoring that is at the heart of regulatory permit compliance, regional monitoring can provide an integrated, holistic view of the environment, allowing managers to obtain a more complete picture of natural variability and cumulative impacts, and more effectively prioritize management actions. By reviewing four long-standing regional monitoring programs that cover portions of all three coasts in the United States – Chesapeake Bay, Tampa Bay, Southern California Bight, and San Francisco Bay – important insights can be gleaned about the benefits that regional monitoring provides to managers. These insights include the underlying reasons that make regional monitoring programs successful, the challenges to maintain relevance and viability in the face of ever-changing technology, competing demands and shifting management priorities. The lessons learned can help other managers achieve similar successes as they seek to establish and reinvigorate their own monitoring programs.

  13. Monitoring of carbon monoxide in residences with bulk wood pellet storage in the Northeast United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossner, Alan; Jordan, Carolyn E; Wake, Cameron; Soto-Garcia, Lydia

    2017-10-01

    The interest in biomass fuel is continuing to expand globally and in the northeastern United States as wood pellets are becoming a primary source of fuel for residential and small commercial systems. Wood pellets for boilers are often stored in basement storage rooms or large bag-type containers. Due to the enclosed nature of these storage areas, the atmosphere may exhibit increased levels of carbon monoxide. Serious accidents in Europe have been reported over the last decade in which high concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO) have been found in or near bulk pellet storage containers. The aim of this study was to characterize the CO concentrations in areas with indoor storage of bulk wood pellets. Data was obtained over approximately 7 months (December 2013 to June 2014) at 25 sites in New Hampshire and Massachusetts: 16 homes using wood pellet boilers with indoor pellet storage containers greater than or equal to 3 ton capacity; 4 homes with wood pellet heating systems with outdoor pellet storage; 4 homes using other heating fuels; and a university laboratory site. CO monitors were set up in homes to collect concentrations of CO in the immediate vicinity of wood pellet storage containers, and data were then compared to those of homes using fossil fuel systems. The homes monitored in this study provided a diverse set of housing stock spanning two and a half centuries of construction, with homes built from 1774 to 2013, representing a range of air exchange rates. The CO concentration data from each home was averaged hourly and then compared to a threshold of 9 ppm. While concentrations of CO were generally low for the homes studied, the need to properly design storage locations for pellets is and will remain a necessary component of wood pellet heating systems to minimize the risk of CO exposure. This paper is an assessment of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure from bulk wood pellet storage in homes in New Hampshire and Massachusetts. Understanding the CO concentrations

  14. The dramatic increase in total knee replacement utilization rates in the United States cannot be fully explained by growth in population size and the obesity epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losina, Elena; Thornhill, Thomas S; Rome, Benjamin N; Wright, John; Katz, Jeffrey N

    2012-02-01

    Total knee replacement utilization in the United States more than doubled from 1999 to 2008. Although the reasons for this increase have not been examined rigorously, some have attributed the increase to population growth and the obesity epidemic. Our goal was to investigate whether the rapid increase in total knee replacement use over the past decade can be sufficiently attributed to changes in these two factors. We used data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample to estimate changes in total knee replacement utilization rates from 1999 to 2008, stratified by age (eighteen to forty-four years, forty-five to sixty-four years, and sixty-five years or older). We obtained data on obesity prevalence and U.S. population growth from federal sources. We compared the rate of change in total knee replacement utilization with the rates of population growth and change in obesity prevalence from 1999 to 2008. In 2008, 615,050 total knee replacements were performed in the United States adult population, 134% more than in 1999. During the same time period, the overall population size increased by 11%. While the population of forty-five to sixty-four-year-olds grew by 29%, the number of total knee replacements in this age group more than tripled. The number of obese and non-obese individuals in the United States increased by 23% and 4%, respectively. Assuming unchanged indications for total knee replacement among obese and non-obese individuals with knee osteoarthritis over the last decade, these changes fail to account for the 134% growth in total knee replacement use. Population growth and obesity cannot fully explain the rapid expansion of total knee replacements in the last decade, suggesting that other factors must also be involved. The disproportionate increase in total knee replacements among younger patients may be a result of a growing number of knee injuries and expanding indications for the procedure.

  15. DUCKS: Low cost thermal monitoring units for near-vent deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, A.; Pirie, D.; Horton, K.; Garbeil, H.; Pilger, E.; Ramm, H.; Hoblitt, R.; Thornber, C.; Ripepe, M.; Marchetti, E.; Poggi, P.

    2005-01-01

    During 1999 we designed and tested a thermal monitoring system to provide a cheap, robust, modular, real-time system capable of surviving the hostile conditions encountered proximal to active volcanic vents. In November 2000 the first system was deployed at Pu'u 'O'o (Kilauea, Hawai'i) to target persistently active vents. Aside from some minor problems, such as sensor damage due to tampering, this system remained operational until January 2004. The success of the prototype system led us to use the blueprint for a second installation at Stromboli (Aeolian Islands, Italy). This was deployed, dug into a bomb-proof bunker, during May 2002 and survived the April 2003 paroxysmal eruption despite being located just 250 m from the vent. In both cases, careful waterproofing of connectors and selection of suitable protection has prevented water damage and corrosion in the harsh atmosphere encountered at the crater rim. The Pu'u 'O'o system cost ???US$10,000 and comprises four modules: sensors, transmission and power hub, repeater station and reception site. The sensor component consists of three thermal infrared thermometers housed in Pelican??? cases fitted with Germanium-Arsenide-Selenium windows. Two 1?? field of view (FOV) sensors allow specific vents to be targeted and a 60?? FOV sensor provides a crater floor overview. A hard wire connection links to a Pelican???-case-housed microprocessor, modem and power module. From here data are transmitted, via a repeater site, to a dedicated PC at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory. Here data are displayed with a delay of ???3 s between acquisition and display. The modular design allows for great flexibility. At Stromboli, 1?? and 15?? FOV sensor modules can be switched depending changes in activity style and crater geometry. In addition a direct line of site to the Stromboli reception center negates the repeater site requirement, reducing the cost to US$5500 for a single sensor system. We have also constructed self-contained units

  16. DUCKS: Low cost thermal monitoring units for near-vent deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Andrew; Pirie, Dawn; Horton, Keith; Garbeil, Harold; Pilger, Eric; Ramm, Hans; Hoblitt, Rick; Thornber, Carl; Ripepe, Maurizio; Marchetti, Emanuele; Poggi, Pasquale

    2005-05-01

    During 1999 we designed and tested a thermal monitoring system to provide a cheap, robust, modular, real-time system capable of surviving the hostile conditions encountered proximal to active volcanic vents. In November 2000 the first system was deployed at Pu'u 'O'o (Kilauea, Hawai'i) to target persistently active vents. Aside from some minor problems, such as sensor damage due to tampering, this system remained operational until January 2004. The success of the prototype system led us to use the blueprint for a second installation at Stromboli (Aeolian Islands, Italy). This was deployed, dug into a bomb-proof bunker, during May 2002 and survived the April 2003 paroxysmal eruption despite being located just 250 m from the vent. In both cases, careful waterproofing of connectors and selection of suitable protection has prevented water damage and corrosion in the harsh atmosphere encountered at the crater rim. The Pu'u 'O'o system cost ˜US10,000 and comprises four modules: sensors, transmission and power hub, repeater station and reception site. The sensor component consists of three thermal infrared thermometers housed in Pelican™ cases fitted with Germanium-Arsenide-Selenium windows. Two 1° field of view (FOV) sensors allow specific vents to be targeted and a 60° FOV sensor provides a crater floor overview. A hard wire connection links to a Pelican™-case-housed microprocessor, modem and power module. From here data are transmitted, via a repeater site, to a dedicated PC at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory. Here data are displayed with a delay of ˜3 s between acquisition and display. The modular design allows for great flexibility. At Stromboli, 1° and 15° FOV sensor modules can be switched depending changes in activity style and crater geometry. In addition a direct line of site to the Stromboli reception center negates the repeater site requirement, reducing the cost to US5500 for a single sensor system. We have also constructed self-contained units

  17. Environmental Monitoring Plan, United States Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-11-09

    This report describes environmental monitoring activities at Hanford Reservation. Attention is focused on effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance. All Hanford contractors reviewed potential sources of contamination. A facility effluent monitoring plan was written for each facility with the potential to release significant quantities of hazardous materials, addressing both radiological and nonradiological effluent monitoring. The environmental surveillance program assesses onsite and offsite environmental impacts and offsite human health exposures. The program monitors air, surface water, sediment, agricultural products, vegetation, soil, and wildlife. In addition, independent onsite surveillance is conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of Hanford Site effluent controls in order to comply with applicable environmental standards and regulations.

  18. Environmental Monitoring Plan, United States Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report describes environmental monitoring activities at Hanford Reservation. Attention is focused on effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance. All Hanford contractors reviewed potential sources of contamination. A facility effluent monitoring plan was written for each facility with the potential to release significant quantities of hazardous materials, addressing both radiological and nonradiological effluent monitoring. The environmental surveillance program assesses onsite and offsite environmental impacts and offsite human health exposures. The program monitors air, surface water, sediment, agricultural products, vegetation, soil, and wildlife. In addition, independent onsite surveillance is conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of Hanford Site effluent controls in order to comply with applicable environmental standards and regulations

  19. Independent verification of monitor unit calculation for radiation treatment planning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Chen, Li-Xin; Huang, Shao-Min; Sun, Wen-Zhao; Sun, Hong-Qiang; Deng, Xiao-Wu

    2010-02-01

    To ensure the accuracy of dose calculation for radiation treatment plans is an important part of quality assurance (QA) procedures for radiotherapy. This study evaluated the Monitor Units (MU) calculation accuracy of a third-party QA software and a 3-dimensional treatment planning system (3D TPS), to investigate the feasibility and reliability of independent verification for radiation treatment planning. Test plans in a homogenous phantom were designed with 3-D TPS, according to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Technical Report No. 430, including open, blocked, wedge, and multileaf collimator (MLC) fields. Test plans were delivered and measured in the phantom. The delivered doses were input to the QA software and the independent calculated MUs were compared with delivery. All test plans were verified with independent calculation and phantom measurements separately, and the differences of the two kinds of verification were then compared. The deviation of the independent calculation to the measurements was (0.1 +/- 0.9)%, the biggest difference fell onto the plans that used block and wedge fields (2.0%). The mean MU difference between the TPS and the QA software was (0.6 +/- 1.0)%, ranging from -0.8% to 2.8%. The deviation in dose of the TPS calculation compared to the measurements was (-0.2 +/- 1.7)%, ranging from -3.9% to 2.9%. MU accuracy of the third-party QA software is clinically acceptable. Similar results were achieved with the independent calculations and the phantom measurements for all test plans. The tested independent calculation software can be used as an efficient tool for TPS plan verification.

  20. Independent monitor unit calculation for intensity modulated radiotherapy using the MIMiC multileaf collimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhe; Xing Lei; Nath, Ravinder

    2002-01-01

    A self-consistent monitor unit (MU) and isocenter point-dose calculation method has been developed that provides an independent verification of the MU for intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) using the MIMiC (Nomos Corporation) multileaf collimator. The method takes into account two unique features of IMRT using the MIMiC: namely the gantry-dynamic arc delivery of intensity modulated photon beams and the slice-by-slice dose delivery for large tumor volumes. The method converts the nonuniform beam intensity planned at discrete gantry angles of 5 deg. or 10 deg. into conventional nonmodulated beam intensity apertures of elemental arc segments of 1 deg. This approach more closely simulates the actual gantry-dynamic arc delivery by MIMiC. Because each elemental arc segment is of uniform intensity, the MU calculation for an IMRT arc is made equivalent to a conventional arc with gantry-angle dependent beam apertures. The dose to the isocenter from each 1 deg. elemental arc segment is calculated by using the Clarkson scatter summation technique based on measured tissue-maximum-ratio and output factors, independent of the dose calculation model used in the IMRT planning system. For treatments requiring multiple treatment slices, the MU for the arc at each treatment slice takes into account the MU, leakage and scatter doses from other slices. This is achieved by solving a set of coupled linear equations for the MUs of all involved treatment slices. All input dosimetry data for the independent MU/isocenter point-dose calculation are measured directly. Comparison of the MU and isocenter point dose calculated by the independent program to those calculated by the Corvus planning system and to direct measurements has shown good agreement with relative difference less than ±3%. The program can be used as an independent initial MU verification for IMRT plans using the MIMiC multileaf collimators

  1. MercNet: A national monitoring network to assess responses to changing mercury emissions in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeltz, D.; Evers, D.C.; Driscoll, C.T.; Artz, R.; Cohen, M.; Gay, D.; Haeuber, R.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.; Mason, R.; Morris, K.; Wiener, J.G.

    2011-01-01

    A partnership of federal and state agencies, tribes, industry, and scientists from academic research and environmental organizations is establishing a national, policy-relevant mercury monitoring network, called MercNet, to address key questions concerning changes in anthropogenic mercury emissions and deposition, associated linkages to ecosystem effects, and recovery from mercury contamination. This network would quantify mercury in the atmosphere, land, water, and biota in terrestrial, freshwater, and coastal ecosystems to provide a national scientific capability for evaluating the benefits and effectiveness of emission controls. Program development began with two workshops, convened to establish network goals, to select key indicators for monitoring, to propose a geographic network of monitoring sites, and to design a monitoring plan. MercNet relies strongly on multi-institutional partnerships to secure the capabilities and comprehensive data that are needed to develop, calibrate, and refine predictive mercury models and to guide effective management. Ongoing collaborative efforts include the: (1) development of regional multi-media databases on mercury in the Laurentian Great Lakes, northeastern United States, and eastern Canada; (2) syntheses and reporting of these data for the scientific and policy communities; and (3) evaluation of potential monitoring sites. The MercNet approach could be applied to the development of other monitoring programs, such as emerging efforts to monitor and assess global mercury emission controls. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC (outside the USA).

  2. Monitoring the hand hygiene compliance of health care workers in a general intensive care unit: Use of continuous closed circle television versus overt observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotfain, Evgeni; Livshiz-Riven, Ilana; Gushansky, Alexander; Erblat, Alexander; Koyfman, Leonid; Ziv, Tomer; Saidel-Odes, Lisa; Klein, Moti; Borer, Abraham

    2017-08-01

    A variety of hand hygiene monitoring programs (HHMPs) have come into use in hospitals throughout the world. In the present study, we compare continuous closed circle television (CCTV) with overt observation for monitoring the hand hygiene compliance of health care workers (HCWs) in a general intensive care unit (GICU). This is a cross-sectional and comparative study. In this study, we use a novel hand hygiene CCTV monitoring system for hand hygiene performance monitoring. The study population incorporated all the GICU HCWs, including registered nurses, staff physicians, and auxiliary workers. All HCWs of our GICU were observed, including ICU registered nurses, ICU staff physicians, and auxiliary workers participated in the present study. Overall, each observer team did 50 sessions in each arm of the study. Total number of hand hygiene opportunities was approaching 500 opportunities. The compliance rates when only overt observations were performed was higher than when only covert observations were performed with a delta of approximately 10% (209 out of 590 [35.43%] vs 130 out of 533 [24.39%]; P hand hygiene. However, there is no clear basis for incorporating a CCTV observation modality into a health care system that already operates an overt observation program. We have shown that CCTV methodology records a different distribution of opportunities for performing hand hygiene and of actual performances of hand hygiene compared with overt observation. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Off-site environmental monitoring report: Radiation monitoring around United States Nuclear Test areas, Calendar year 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patzer, R.G.; Fontana, C.A.; Grossman, R.F.; Black, S.C.; Dye, R.E.; Smith, D.D.; Thome', D.J.; Mullen, A.A.

    1987-05-01

    The principal activity at the NTS is testing of nuclear devices, though other related projects are also conducted. The principal activities of the Off-Site Radiological Safety Program are routine environmental monitoring for radioactive materials in various media and for radiation in areas which may be affected by nuclear tests; and protective actions in support of the nuclear testing program. These are conducted to document compliance with standards, to identify trends, and to provide information to the public. 28 refs., 37 figs., 30 tabs

  4. Design of a microprocessor-based Control, Interface and Monitoring (CIM unit for turbine engine controls research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaat, J. C.; Soeder, J. F.

    1983-01-01

    High speed minicomputers were used in the past to implement advanced digital control algorithms for turbine engines. These minicomputers are typically large and expensive. It is desirable for a number of reasons to use microprocessor-based systems for future controls research. They are relatively compact, inexpensive, and are representative of the hardware that would be used for actual engine-mounted controls. The Control, Interface, and Monitoring Unit (CIM) contains a microprocessor-based controls computer, necessary interface hardware and a system to monitor while it is running an engine. It is presently being used to evaluate an advanced turbofan engine control algorithm.

  5. The role of total cell-free DNA in predicting outcomes among trauma patients in the intensive care unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gögenur, Mikail; Burcharth, Jakob; Gögenur, Ismail

    2017-01-01

    searched Pubmed, Embase, Scopus and the Cochrane Central Register for Controlled Trials and reference lists of relevant articles for studies that assessed the prognostic value of cell-free DNA detection in trauma patients in the intensive care unit. Outcomes of interest included survival, posttraumatic...

  6. STEAM GENERATOR TUBE INTEGRITY ANALYSIS OF A TOTAL LOSS OF ALL HEAT SINKS ACCIDENT FOR WOLSONG NPP UNIT 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HEOK-SOON LIM

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A total loss of all heat sinks is considered a severe accident with a low probability of occurrence. Following a total loss of all heat sinks, the degasser/condenser relief valves (DCRV become the sole means available for the depressurization of the primary heat transport system. If a nuclear power plant has a total loss of heat sinks accident, high-temperature steam and differential pressure between the primary heat transport system (PHTS and the steam generator (SG secondary side can cause a SG tube creep rupture. To protect the PHTS during a total loss of all heat sinks accident, a sufficient depressurization capability of the degasser/condenser relief valve and the SG tube integrity is very important. Therefore, an accurate estimation of the discharge through these valves is necessary to assess the impact of the PHTS overprotection and the SG tube integrity of the primary circuit. This paper describes the analysis of DCRV discharge capacity and the SG tube integrity under a total loss of all heat sink using the CATHENA code. It was found that the DCRV's discharge capacity is enough to protect the overpressure in the PHTS, and the SG tube integrity is maintained in a total loss of all heat accident.

  7. Steam Generator Tube Integrity Analysis of A Total Loss of all Heat Sinks Accident for Wolsong NPP Unit 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Heoksoon; Song, Taeyoung; Chi, Moongoo [Korea Htydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seoungrae [Nuclear Engineering Service and Solution, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-15

    A total loss of all heat sinks is considered a severe accident with a low probability of occurrence. Following a total loss of all heat sinks, the degasser/condenser relief valves (DCRV) become the sole means available for the depressurization of the primary heat transport system. If a nuclear power plant has a total loss of heat sinks accident, high-temperature steam and differential pressure between the primary heat transport system (PHTS) and the steam generator (SG) secondary side can cause a SG tube creep rupture. To protect the PHTS during a total loss of all heat sinks accident, a sufficient depressurization capability of the degasser/condenser relief valve and the SG tube integrity is very important. Therefore, an accurate estimation of the discharge through these valves is necessary to assess the impact of the PHTS overprotection and the SG tube integrity of the primary circuit. This paper describes the analysis of DCRV discharge capacity and the SG tube integrity under a total loss of all heat sink using the CATHENA code. It was found that the DCRV's discharge capacity is enough to protect the overpressure in the PHTS, and the SG tube integrity is maintained in a total loss of all heat accident.

  8. Steam Generator Tube Integrity Analysis of A Total Loss of all Heat Sinks Accident for Wolsong NPP Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Heoksoon; Song, Taeyoung; Chi, Moongoo; Kim, Seoungrae

    2014-01-01

    A total loss of all heat sinks is considered a severe accident with a low probability of occurrence. Following a total loss of all heat sinks, the degasser/condenser relief valves (DCRV) become the sole means available for the depressurization of the primary heat transport system. If a nuclear power plant has a total loss of heat sinks accident, high-temperature steam and differential pressure between the primary heat transport system (PHTS) and the steam generator (SG) secondary side can cause a SG tube creep rupture. To protect the PHTS during a total loss of all heat sinks accident, a sufficient depressurization capability of the degasser/condenser relief valve and the SG tube integrity is very important. Therefore, an accurate estimation of the discharge through these valves is necessary to assess the impact of the PHTS overprotection and the SG tube integrity of the primary circuit. This paper describes the analysis of DCRV discharge capacity and the SG tube integrity under a total loss of all heat sink using the CATHENA code. It was found that the DCRV's discharge capacity is enough to protect the overpressure in the PHTS, and the SG tube integrity is maintained in a total loss of all heat accident

  9. SU-F-T-78: Minimum Data Set of Measurements for TG 71 Based Electron Monitor-Unit Calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, H; Guerrero, M; Prado, K; Yi, B

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Building up a TG-71 based electron monitor-unit (MU) calculation protocol usually involves massive measurements. This work investigates a minimum data set of measurements and its calculation accuracy and measurement time. Methods: For 6, 9, 12, 16, and 20 MeV of our Varian Clinac-Series linear accelerators, the complete measurements were performed at different depth using 5 square applicators (6, 10, 15, 20 and 25 cm) with different cutouts (2, 3, 4, 6, 10, 15 and 20 cm up to applicator size) for 5 different SSD’s. For each energy, there were 8 PDD scans and 150 point measurements for applicator factors, cutout factors and effective SSDs that were then converted to air-gap factors for SSD 99–110cm. The dependence of each dosimetric quantity on field size and SSD was examined to determine the minimum data set of measurements as a subset of the complete measurements. The “missing” data excluded in the minimum data set were approximated by linear or polynomial fitting functions based on the included data. The total measurement time and the calculated electron MU using the minimum and the complete data sets were compared. Results: The minimum data set includes 4 or 5 PDD’s and 51 to 66 point measurements for each electron energy, and more PDD’s and fewer point measurements are generally needed as energy increases. Using only <50% of complete measurement time, the minimum data set generates acceptable MU calculation results compared to those with the complete data set. The PDD difference is within 1 mm and the calculated MU difference is less than 1.5%. Conclusion: Data set measurement for TG-71 electron MU calculations can be minimized based on the knowledge of how each dosimetric quantity depends on various setup parameters. The suggested minimum data set allows acceptable MU calculation accuracy and shortens measurement time by a few hours.

  10. SU-F-T-78: Minimum Data Set of Measurements for TG 71 Based Electron Monitor-Unit Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, H; Guerrero, M; Prado, K; Yi, B [University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Building up a TG-71 based electron monitor-unit (MU) calculation protocol usually involves massive measurements. This work investigates a minimum data set of measurements and its calculation accuracy and measurement time. Methods: For 6, 9, 12, 16, and 20 MeV of our Varian Clinac-Series linear accelerators, the complete measurements were performed at different depth using 5 square applicators (6, 10, 15, 20 and 25 cm) with different cutouts (2, 3, 4, 6, 10, 15 and 20 cm up to applicator size) for 5 different SSD’s. For each energy, there were 8 PDD scans and 150 point measurements for applicator factors, cutout factors and effective SSDs that were then converted to air-gap factors for SSD 99–110cm. The dependence of each dosimetric quantity on field size and SSD was examined to determine the minimum data set of measurements as a subset of the complete measurements. The “missing” data excluded in the minimum data set were approximated by linear or polynomial fitting functions based on the included data. The total measurement time and the calculated electron MU using the minimum and the complete data sets were compared. Results: The minimum data set includes 4 or 5 PDD’s and 51 to 66 point measurements for each electron energy, and more PDD’s and fewer point measurements are generally needed as energy increases. Using only <50% of complete measurement time, the minimum data set generates acceptable MU calculation results compared to those with the complete data set. The PDD difference is within 1 mm and the calculated MU difference is less than 1.5%. Conclusion: Data set measurement for TG-71 electron MU calculations can be minimized based on the knowledge of how each dosimetric quantity depends on various setup parameters. The suggested minimum data set allows acceptable MU calculation accuracy and shortens measurement time by a few hours.

  11. Selected Natural Attenuation Monitoring Data, Operable Unit 1, Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Keyport, Washington, 2007 and 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinicola, R.S.; Huffman, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    Previous investigations indicate that natural attenuation and biodegradation of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are substantial in groundwater beneath the 9-acre former landfill at Operable Unit 1 (OU 1), Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Keyport, Washington. Phytoremediation combined with on-going natural attenuation processes was the preferred remedy selected by the Navy, as specified in the Record of Decision for the site. The Navy planted two hybrid poplar plantations on the landfill in spring 1999 to remove and to control the migration of chlorinated VOCs in shallow groundwater. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has continued to monitor groundwater geochemistry to ensure that conditions remain favorable for contaminant biodegradation as specified in the Record of Decision. In this report are groundwater geochemical and selected VOC data collected at OU 1 by the USGS during June 18-21, 2007, and June 16-18, 2008, in support of long-term monitoring for natural attenuation. For 2007 and 2008, strongly reducing conditions (sulfate reduction and methanogenesis) most favorable for reductive dechlorination of VOCs were inferred for 9 of 16 upper-aquifer wells and piezometers in the northern and southern phytoremediation plantations. Predominant redox conditions in groundwater from the intermediate aquifer just downgradient from the landfill remained mildly reducing and somewhat favorable for reductive dechlorination of VOCs. Dissolved hydrogen (H2) concentrations measured in the upper aquifer during 2007 and 2008 generally have been lower than H2 concentrations measured before 2002. However, widespread and relatively high methane and sulfide concentrations indicate that the lower H2 concentrations measured do not support a trend from strongly to mildly reducing redox conditions because no widespread changes in groundwater redox conditions were identified that should result in less favorable conditions for the reductive dechlorination of the

  12. On the problems of monitoring the total alpha acitivity concentration of the air in the vicinity of nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, R.; Hoetzl, H.

    1983-01-01

    The immission measurement of alpha rays as an environmental monitoring programme is necessary for the production and processing of fuel elements and the WAA. Keeping within the dose limits according to Strl Sch V can only be achieved, if the important radio nuclides are detected with a detection limit, which corresponds to 1130 of the dose limits. For Pu 239/240, this is 3.7 x 10 -6 Bg/m 3 (0.1 f Cu/m 3 ). These detection limits can be achieved by analysis of individual nuclides. (DG) [de

  13. Post-Closure Inspection and Monitoring Report for Corrective Action Unit 110: Area 3 WMD U-3ax/bl Crater, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Bechtel Nevada

    2006-08-01

    This Post-Closure Inspection and Monitoring Report provides the results and inspections and monitoring for Corrective Action Unit 110: Area 3 Waste Management Division U-3ax/bl Crater, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. This report includes an analysis and summary of the site inpsections, repairs and maintenance, meteorological information, and soil moisture monitoring data obtained at Corrective Action Unit 110, for the annual period July 2005 thrugh June 2006.

  14. Monitoring of German fertility: Estimation of monthly and yearly total fertility rates on the basis of preliminary monthly data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Doblhammer (Gabriele); Milewski, N. (Nadja); F. Peters (Frederick)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis paper introduces a set of methods for estimating fertility indicators in the absence of recent and short-term birth statistics. For Germany, we propose a set of straightforward methods that allow for the computation of monthly and yearly total fertility rates (mTFR) on the basis of

  15. Plasma total odd-chain fatty acids in the monitoring of disorders of propionate, methylmalonate and biotin metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coker, M.; de Klerk, J. B.; Poll-The, B. T.; Huijmans, J. G.; Duran, M.

    1996-01-01

    Total plasma odd-numbered long-chain fatty acids were analysed in patients with methylmalonic acidaemia (vitamin B12-responsive and unresponsive), combined methylmalonic acidaemia/homocystinuria (CblC), propionic acidaemia (both neonatal-onset and late-onset), biotinidase deficiency and

  16. A machine learning approach to the accurate prediction of monitor units for a compact proton machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Baozhou; Lam, Dao; Yang, Deshan; Grantham, Kevin; Zhang, Tiezhi; Mutic, Sasa; Zhao, Tianyu

    2018-05-01

    Clinical treatment planning systems for proton therapy currently do not calculate monitor units (MUs) in passive scatter proton therapy due to the complexity of the beam delivery systems. Physical phantom measurements are commonly employed to determine the field-specific output factors (OFs) but are often subject to limited machine time, measurement uncertainties and intensive labor. In this study, a machine learning-based approach was developed to predict output (cGy/MU) and derive MUs, incorporating the dependencies on gantry angle and field size for a single-room proton therapy system. The goal of this study was to develop a secondary check tool for OF measurements and eventually eliminate patient-specific OF measurements. The OFs of 1754 fields previously measured in a water phantom with calibrated ionization chambers and electrometers for patient-specific fields with various range and modulation width combinations for 23 options were included in this study. The training data sets for machine learning models in three different methods (Random Forest, XGBoost and Cubist) included 1431 (~81%) OFs. Ten-fold cross-validation was used to prevent "overfitting" and to validate each model. The remaining 323 (~19%) OFs were used to test the trained models. The difference between the measured and predicted values from machine learning models was analyzed. Model prediction accuracy was also compared with that of the semi-empirical model developed by Kooy (Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2005). Additionally, gantry angle dependence of OFs was measured for three groups of options categorized on the selection of the second scatters. Field size dependence of OFs was investigated for the measurements with and without patient-specific apertures. All three machine learning methods showed higher accuracy than the semi-empirical model which shows considerably large discrepancy of up to 7.7% for the treatment fields with full range and full modulation width. The Cubist-based solution

  17. A program for monitor unit calculation for high energy photon beams in isocentric condition based on measured data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gesheva-Atanasova, N.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is: 1) to propose a procedure and a program for monitor unit calculation for radiation therapy with high energy photon beams, based on data measured by author; 2) to compare this data with published one and 3) to evaluate the precision of the monitor unit calculation program. From this study it could be concluded that, we reproduced with a good agreement the published data, except the TPR values for dept up to 5 cm. The measured relative weight of upper and lower jaws - parameter A was dramatically different from the published data, but perfectly described the collimator exchange effect for our treatment machine. No difference was found between the head scatter ratios, measured in a mini phantom and those measured with a proper brass buildup cap. Our monitor unit calculation program was found to be reliable and it can be applied for check up of the patient's plans for irradiation with high energy photon beams and for some fast calculations. Because of the identity in the construction, design and characteristics of the Siemens accelerators, and the agreement with the published data for the same beam qualities, we hope that most of our experimental data and this program can be used after verification in other hospitals

  18. Environmental Monitoring Plan United States Department of Energy Richland Operations Office. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This Environmental Monitoring Plan was prepared for the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Richland Operations Office (RL) to implement the requirements of DOE Order 5400.1. According to the Order, each DOE site, facility, or activity that uses, generates, releases, or manages significant pollutants or hazardous materials shall prepare a written environmental monitoring plan covering two major activities: (1) effluent monitoring and (2) environmental surveillance. The plan is to contain information discussing the rationale and design criteria for the monitoring programs, sampling locations and schedules, quality assurance requirements, program implementation procedures, analytical procedures, and reporting requirements. The plan's purpose is to assist DOE in the management of environmental activities at the Hanford Site and to help ensure that operations on the site are conducted in an environmentally safe and sound manner

  19. Remediating and Monitoring White Phosphorus Contamination at Eagle River Flats (Operable Unit C), Fort Richardson, Alaska

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walsh, M. E; Racine, C. H; Collins, C. M; Walsh, M. R; Bailey, R. N

    2001-01-01

    .... Army Engineer District, Alaska, and U.S. Army Alaska, Public Works, describing the results of research, monitoring, and remediation efforts addressing the white phosphorus contamination in Eagle River Flats, an 865-ha estuarine salt marsh...

  20. Environmental Monitoring Plan United States Department of Energy Richland Operations Office. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-10

    This Environmental Monitoring Plan was prepared for the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Richland Operations Office (RL) to implement the requirements of DOE Order 5400.1. According to the Order, each DOE site, facility, or activity that uses, generates, releases, or manages significant pollutants or hazardous materials shall prepare a written environmental monitoring plan covering two major activities: (1) effluent monitoring and (2) environmental surveillance. The plan is to contain information discussing the rationale and design criteria for the monitoring programs, sampling locations and schedules, quality assurance requirements, program implementation procedures, analytical procedures, and reporting requirements. The plan`s purpose is to assist DOE in the management of environmental activities at the Hanford Site and to help ensure that operations on the site are conducted in an environmentally safe and sound manner.

  1. NPP Temelin automatic monitoring and diagnostic system of secondary side of the unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidenreich, S.; Pisl, M.; Drab, F.

    1997-01-01

    Two measuring and evaluating systems by SKODA PRAHA are described, designed for the Temelin nuclear power plant: a permanent secondary side diagnostic system for technology monitoring in the period of startup and operation; and the system of physical and power starting-up for monitoring during the first and repeated startup. The purposes of both systems are outlined. The scope of diagnostics covered and the functioning of the secondary side system is dealt with in some detail. (A.K.)

  2. A GPRS-Based Low Energy Consumption Remote Terminal Unit for Aquaculture Water Quality Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Xu , Dan; Li , Daoliang; Fei , Biaoqing; Wang , Yang; Peng , Fa

    2013-01-01

    International audience; The monitoring of water quality parameters such as DO, pH, salinity and temperature are necessary for the health of seafood such as sea cucumber. However, traditional monitoring system is based on cable data acquisition that has many disadvantages. Nowadays, GPRS is the most commonly accepted way for wireless transmission. Based on it, a type of low energy consumption RTU is developed and applied. In this paper, details of the design are introduced. In hardware design ...

  3. Development of a passive sampler based on a polymer inclusion membrane for total ammonia monitoring in freshwaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, M Inês G S; Silva, Adélia M L; Coleman, Rhys A; Pettigrove, Vincent J; Cattrall, Robert W; Kolev, Spas D

    2016-05-01

    A passive sampler for determining the time-weighted average total ammonia (i.e. molecular ammonia and the ammonium cation) concentration (C TWA) in freshwaters, which incorporated a polymer inclusion membrane (PIM) as a semi-permeable barrier separating the aqueous source solution from the receiving solution (i.e. 0.8 mol L(-1) HCl), was developed for the first time. The PIM was composed of dinonylnaphthalene sulfonic acid (DNNS) as a carrier, poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC) as a base polymer and 1-tetradecanol as a modifier. Its optimal composition was found to be 35 wt% commercial DNNS, 55 wt% PVC and 10 wt% 1-tetradecanol. The effect of environmental variables such as the water matrix, pH and temperature were also studied using synthetic freshwaters. The passive sampler was calibrated under laboratory conditions using synthetic freshwaters and exhibited a linear response within the concentration range 0.59-2.8 mg L(-1) NH4(+) (0.46-2.1 mg N L(-1)) at 20 °C. The performance of the sampler was further investigated under field conditions over 7 days. A strong correlation between spot sampling and passive sampling was achieved, thus providing a proof-of-concept for the passive sampler for reliably measuring the C(TWA) of total ammonia in freshwaters, which can be used as an indicator in tracking sources of faecal contamination in stormwater drains.

  4. Total cylindrospermopsins, microcystins/nodularins, and saxitoxins data for the 2007 United States Environmental Protection Agency National Lake Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftin, Keith A.; Dietze, Julie E.; Meyer, Michael T.; Graham, Jennifer L.; Maksimowicz, Megan M.; Toyne, Kathryn D.

    2016-05-26

    Phytoplankton communities in freshwater lakes, ponds, and reservoirs may be dominated by cyanobacteria (also called blue-green algae) under certain environmental conditions. Cyanobacteria may cause a range of water-quality impairments, including the potential for toxin production. Cyanobacteria toxins (cyanotoxins) may adversely impact human and ecological health. Microcystins are considered to be one of the most commonly found classes of cyanotoxins in freshwater ecosystems, and as such were selected as a recreational indicator of water quality for the 2007 United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Lakes Assessment. However, much less is known about the occurrence of other classes of cyanotoxins in fresh surface water such as anatoxins, cylindrospermopsins, nodularins, and saxitoxins.

  5. Monitoring conterminous United States (CONUS) land cover change with Web-Enabled Landsat Data (WELD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, M.C.; Egorov, Alexey; Potapov, P.V.; Stehman, S.V.; Tyukavina, A.; Turubanova, S.A.; Roy, David P.; Goetz, S.J.; Loveland, Thomas R.; Ju, J.; Kommareddy, A.; Kovalskyy, Valeriy; Forsyth, C.; Bents, T.

    2014-01-01

    Forest cover loss and bare ground gain from 2006 to 2010 for the conterminous United States (CONUS) were quantified at a 30 m spatial resolution using Web-Enabled Landsat Data available from the USGS Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) (http://landsat.usgs.gov/WELD.php). The approach related multi-temporal WELD metrics and expert-derived training data for forest cover loss and bare ground gain through a decision tree classification algorithm. Forest cover loss was reported at state and ecoregional scales, and the identification of core forests' absent of change was made and verified using LiDAR data from the GLAS (Geoscience Laser Altimetry System) instrument. Bare ground gain correlated with population change for large metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) outside of desert or semi-desert environments. GoogleEarth™ time-series images were used to validate the products. Mapped forest cover loss totaled 53,084 km2 and was found to be depicted conservatively, with a user's accuracy of 78% and a producer's accuracy of 68%. Excluding errors of adjacency, user's and producer's accuracies rose to 93% and 89%, respectively. Mapped bare ground gain equaled 5974 km2 and nearly matched the estimated area from the reference (GoogleEarth™) classification; however, user's (42%) and producer's (49%) accuracies were much less than those of the forest cover loss product. Excluding errors of adjacency, user's and producer's accuracies rose to 62% and 75%, respectively. Compared to recent 2001–2006 USGS National Land Cover Database validation data for forest loss (82% and 30% for respective user's and producer's accuracies) and urban gain (72% and 18% for respective user's and producer's accuracies), results using a single CONUS-scale model with WELD data are promising and point to the potential for national-scale operational mapping of key land cover transitions. However, validation results highlighted limitations, some of which can be addressed by

  6. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Cretaceous-Tertiary Composite Total Petroleum System, Taranaki Basin Assessment Unit, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandrey, Craig J.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2013-01-01

    The Cretaceous-Tertiary Composite Total Petroleum System coincident Taranaki Basin Assessment Unit was recently assessed for undiscovered technically recoverable oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids resources as part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) World Energy Resources Project, World Oil and Gas Assessment. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS estimated mean volumes of 487 million barrels of oil, 9.8 trillion cubic feet of gas, and 408 million barrels of natural gas liquids.

  7. Characteristics of flattening filter free beams at low monitor unit settings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akino, Yuichi [Department of Radiology, Osaka University Hospital, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan and Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Ota, Seiichi; Inoue, Shinichi; Mizuno, Hirokazu [Department of Radiology, Osaka University Hospital, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Sumida, Iori; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Ogawa, Kazuhiko [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Isohashi, Fumiaki [Oncology Center, Osaka University Hospital, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: Newer linear accelerators (linacs) have been equipped to deliver flattening filter free (FFF) beams. When FFF beams are used for step-and-shoot intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), the stability of delivery of small numbers of monitor units (MU) is important. The authors developed automatic measurement techniques to evaluate the stability of the dose profile, dose linearity, and consistency. Here, the authors report the performance of the Artiste™ accelerator (Siemens, Erlangen, Germany) in delivering low-MU FFF beams.Methods: A 6 MV flattened beam (6X) with 300 MU/min dose rate and FFF beams of 7 (7XU) and 11 MV (11XU), each with a 500 MU/min dose rate, were measured at 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 10, and 20 MU settings. For the 2000 MU/min dose rate, the 7 (7XUH) and 11 MV (11XUH) beams were set at 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 MU because of the limits of the minimum MU settings. Beams with 20 × 20 and 10 × 10 cm{sup 2} field sizes were alternately measured ten times in intensity modulated (IM) mode, with which Siemens linacs regulate beam delivery for step-and-shoot IMRT. The in- and crossplane beam profiles were measured using a Profiler™ Model 1170 (Sun Nuclear Corporation, Melbourne, FL) in multiframe mode. The frames of 20 × 20 cm{sup 2} beams were identified at the off-axis profile. The 6X beam profile was normalized at the central axis. The 7 and 11 MV FFF beam profiles were rescaled to set the dose at the central axis at 145% and 170%, respectively. Point doses were also measured using a Farmer-type ionization chamber and water-equivalent solid phantom to evaluate the linearity and consistency of low-MU beam delivery. The values displayed on the electrometer were recognized with a USB-type camera and read with open-source optical character recognition software.Results: The symmetry measurements of the 6X, 7XU, and 11XU beam profiles were better than 2% for beams ≥2 MU and improved with increasing MU. The variations in flatness of FFF beams ≥2 MU were

  8. Characteristics of flattening filter free beams at low monitor unit settings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akino, Yuichi; Ota, Seiichi; Inoue, Shinichi; Mizuno, Hirokazu; Sumida, Iori; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Ogawa, Kazuhiko; Isohashi, Fumiaki

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Newer linear accelerators (linacs) have been equipped to deliver flattening filter free (FFF) beams. When FFF beams are used for step-and-shoot intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), the stability of delivery of small numbers of monitor units (MU) is important. The authors developed automatic measurement techniques to evaluate the stability of the dose profile, dose linearity, and consistency. Here, the authors report the performance of the Artiste™ accelerator (Siemens, Erlangen, Germany) in delivering low-MU FFF beams.Methods: A 6 MV flattened beam (6X) with 300 MU/min dose rate and FFF beams of 7 (7XU) and 11 MV (11XU), each with a 500 MU/min dose rate, were measured at 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 10, and 20 MU settings. For the 2000 MU/min dose rate, the 7 (7XUH) and 11 MV (11XUH) beams were set at 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 MU because of the limits of the minimum MU settings. Beams with 20 × 20 and 10 × 10 cm 2 field sizes were alternately measured ten times in intensity modulated (IM) mode, with which Siemens linacs regulate beam delivery for step-and-shoot IMRT. The in- and crossplane beam profiles were measured using a Profiler™ Model 1170 (Sun Nuclear Corporation, Melbourne, FL) in multiframe mode. The frames of 20 × 20 cm 2 beams were identified at the off-axis profile. The 6X beam profile was normalized at the central axis. The 7 and 11 MV FFF beam profiles were rescaled to set the dose at the central axis at 145% and 170%, respectively. Point doses were also measured using a Farmer-type ionization chamber and water-equivalent solid phantom to evaluate the linearity and consistency of low-MU beam delivery. The values displayed on the electrometer were recognized with a USB-type camera and read with open-source optical character recognition software.Results: The symmetry measurements of the 6X, 7XU, and 11XU beam profiles were better than 2% for beams ≥2 MU and improved with increasing MU. The variations in flatness of FFF beams ≥2 MU were ±5%. The

  9. Monitoring of German Fertility: Estimation of Monthly and Yearly Total Fertility Rates on the Basis of Preliminary Monthly Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Doblhammer

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a set of methods for estimating fertility indicators in the absence of recent and short-term birth statistics. For Germany, we propose a set of straightforward methods that allow for the computation of monthly and yearly total fertility rates (mTFR on the basis of preliminary monthly data, including a confidence interval. The method for estimating most current fertility rates can be applied when no information on the age structure and the number of women exposed to childbearing is available. The methods introduced in this study are useful for calculating monthly birth indicators, with minimal requirements for data quality and statistical effort. In addition, we suggest an approach for projecting the yearly TFR based on preliminary monthly information up to June.

  10. Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-05-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program conducted during 1989 by the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory-Las Vegas (EMSL-LV). This laboratory operates an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels, and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether the testing is in compliance with existing radiation protection standards, and to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and using pressurized ion chambers (PICs); and by biological monitoring of both animals and humans. To implement protective actions, provide immediate radiation monitoring, and obtain environmental samples rapidly after any release of radioactivity, personnel with mobile monitoring equipment are placed in areas downwind from the test site prior to each test. Comparison of the measurements and sample analysis results with background levels and with appropriate standards and regulations indicated that there was no radioactivity detected offsite by the various EPA monitoring networks and no exposure above natural background to the population living in the vicinity of the NTS that could be attributed to NTS activities. Trends were evaluated in the Noble Gas and Tritium, Milk Surveillance, TLD, and PIC networks, and the Long-Term Hydrological Monitoring Program. 35 refs., 68 figs., 32 tabs.

  11. Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-05-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program conducted during 1989 by the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory-Las Vegas (EMSL-LV). This laboratory operates an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels, and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether the testing is in compliance with existing radiation protection standards, and to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and using pressurized ion chambers (PICs); and by biological monitoring of both animals and humans. To implement protective actions, provide immediate radiation monitoring, and obtain environmental samples rapidly after any release of radioactivity, personnel with mobile monitoring equipment are placed in areas downwind from the test site prior to each test. Comparison of the measurements and sample analysis results with background levels and with appropriate standards and regulations indicated that there was no radioactivity detected offsite by the various EPA monitoring networks and no exposure above natural background to the population living in the vicinity of the NTS that could be attributed to NTS activities. Trends were evaluated in the Noble Gas and Tritium, Milk Surveillance, TLD, and PIC networks, and the Long-Term Hydrological Monitoring Program. 35 refs., 68 figs., 32 tabs

  12. Blood transfusion in primary total shoulder arthroplasty: incidence, trends, and risk factors in the United States from 2000 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Devon J; Yoshihara, Hiroyuki; Yoneoka, Daisuke; Zuckerman, Joseph D

    2015-05-01

    Total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) may be associated with substantial blood loss, and some patients require perioperative blood transfusion. Possible blood transfusion methods include predonated autologous blood transfusion, perioperative autologous blood transfusion, and allogeneic blood transfusion (ALBT). The purposes of the present study were to assess the incidence and recent trends over time of blood transfusion in TSA and analyze patient and hospital characteristics that affect the risk of ALBT. This study used national hospital discharge data from the National Inpatient Sample between 2000 and 2009. The data were used to generate the overall blood transfusion rate, and linear regression was used to assess trends in transfusion patterns over time. Logistic regression analysis was performed to analyze which patient and hospital characteristics independently influence the likelihood that a given patient undergoes ALBT. The overall blood transfusion rate (ie, the proportion of patients who received at least 1 transfusion of any kind) was 6.7%. This rate increased over time, from 4.9% in 2000 to 7.1% in 2009 (P blood transfusion rate in TSA found in the present study may be related to factors specific to TSA, such as the introduction of reverse total shoulder arthroplasty during the study period. A variety of patient and hospital characteristics contribute to the risk of undergoing ALBT. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Acute hypotension in a patient undergoing posttraumatic cervical spine fusion with somatosensory and motor-evoked potential monitoring while under total intravenous anesthesia: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cann, David F

    2009-02-01

    Hypotension should be vigilantly prevented in patients with spinal cord injury. Recent advances in neurological, intraoperative monitoring techniques have allowed Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetists to assess the effects of spinal cord ischemia and compression as they occur. This case report describes a young, healthy man who sustained a cervical spine fracture and was scheduled for anterior spinal fusion with somatosensory and motor-evoked potential (MEP) monitoring while under total intravenous anesthesia. This patient experienced a brief period of intraoperative hypotension with evidence of abnormal MEPs. A wake-up test was performed, which showed normal functioning, and the case resumed an uneventful course. Although this scenario resulted in no neurological sequelae, the effects of spinal cord ischemia due to hypotension can lead to permanent, devastating motor and sensory damage.

  14. Replacement of chemical oxygen demand (COD) with total organic carbon (TOC) for monitoring wastewater treatment performance to minimize disposal of toxic analytical waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubber, Donata; Gray, Nicholas F

    2010-10-01

    Chemical oxygen demand (COD) is widely used for wastewater monitoring, design, modeling and plant operational analysis. However this method results in the production of hazardous wastes including mercury and hexavalent chromium. The study examined the replacement of COD with total organic carbon (TOC) for general performance monitoring by comparing their relationship with influent and effluent samples from 11 wastewater treatment plants. Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) was also included in the comparison as a control. The results show significant linear relationships between TOC, COD and BOD5 in settled (influent) domestic and municipal wastewaters, but only between COD and TOC in treated effluents. The study concludes that TOC can be reliably used for the generic replacement of both COD (COD=49.2+3.00*TOC) and BOD5 (BOD5=23.7+1.68*TOC) in influent wastewaters but only for COD (COD=7.25+2.99*TOC) in final effluents.

  15. Environmental Monitoring Report - United States Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Facilities, Calendar Year 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, R.G.

    1999-01-01

    Each year since 1972, a report has been prepared on the environmental monitoring activities for the DOE facilities in oak Ridge, Tennessee, for the previous calendar year. previously, the individual facilities published quarterly and annual progress reports that contained some environmental monitoring data. The environmental monitoring program for 1984 includes sampling and analysis of air, water from surface streams, groundwater, creek sediment, biota, and soil for both radioactive and nonradioactive (including hazardous) materials. Special environmental studies that have been conducted in the Oak Ridge area are included in this report, primarily as abstracts or brief summaries. The annual report for 1984 on environmental monitoring and surveillance of the Oak Ridge community by Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU) is included as an appendix. A brief description of the topography and climate of the Oak Ridge area and a short description of the three DOE facilities are provided below to enhance the reader's understanding of the direction and contents of the environmental monitoring program for Oak Ridge.

  16. Westinghouse power distribution monitoring experience at Duke Power's McGuire Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grobmyer, L.R.; Cash, M.T.; Kitlan, M.S.; Impink, A.J. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    In the evolution of the Westinghouse methodology of assuring safe core power distributions, emphasis was placed on analysis and not on continuous detailed core monitoring. Power distribution monitoring is currently achieved by periodic surveillances using the movable in-core detector system (MIDS) and by continuous observations of the two-section excore power range detectors. Control of the power distribution is regulated by limits on the indications from these systems, by limits on control rod insertion, and by operational constraints on the position indication systems. As more plants come on line and as more utilities take over the fuel design function for themselves, the desire for better core monitoring becomes evident. Also, the need and desire by the utilities to have more control over their operating margin has motivated the industry to offer and/or upgrade core monitoring systems. Westinghouse and Duke Power are participants in a joint development program to finalize the development of the core on-line surveillance monitoring and operations system (COSMOS). This final stage of development consists of prototype field trials at the McGuire Nuclear Plant. The purpose of the prototype program is to determine how well the design objectives are met and how to improve the system based on the operating experience at McGuire. Another purpose of this prototype program is to generate the necessary experience and information to develop a topical report for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to obtain a licensing basis for technical specification relaxation

  17. Portable air quality sensor unit for participatory monitoring: an end-to-end VESNA-AQ based prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vucnik, Matevz; Robinson, Johanna; Smolnikar, Miha; Kocman, David; Horvat, Milena; Mohorcic, Mihael

    2015-04-01

    Key words: portable air quality sensor, CITI-SENSE, participatory monitoring, VESNA-AQ The emergence of low-cost easy to use portable air quality sensors units is opening new possibilities for individuals to assess their exposure to air pollutants at specific place and time, and share this information through the Internet connection. Such portable sensors units are being used in an ongoing citizen science project called CITI-SENSE, which enables citizens to measure and share the data. The project aims through creating citizens observatories' to empower citizens to contribute to and participate in environmental governance, enabling them to support and influence community and societal priorities as well as associated decision making. An air quality measurement system based on VESNA sensor platform was primarily designed within the project for the use as portable sensor unit in selected pilot cities (Belgrade, Ljubljana and Vienna) for monitoring outdoor exposure to pollutants. However, functionally the same unit with different set of sensors could be used for example as an indoor platform. The version designed for the pilot studies was equipped with the following sensors: NO2, O3, CO, temperature, relative humidity, pressure and accelerometer. The personal sensor unit is battery powered and housed in a plastic box. The VESNA-based air quality (AQ) monitoring system comprises the VESNA-AQ portable sensor unit, a smartphone app and the remote server. Personal sensor unit supports wireless connection to an Android smartphone via built-in Wi-Fi. The smartphone in turn serves also as the communication gateway towards the remote server using any of available data connections. Besides the gateway functionality the role of smartphone is to enrich data coming from the personal sensor unit with the GPS location, timestamps and user defined context. This, together with an accelerometer, enables the user to better estimate ones exposure in relation to physical activities, time

  18. Determination of total mercury for marine environmental monitoring studies by solid sampling continuum source high resolution atomic absorption spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandjukov, Petko; Orani, Anna Maria; Han, Eunmi; Vassileva, Emilia

    2015-01-01

    The most critical step in almost all commonly used analytical procedures for Hg determination is the sample preparation due to its extreme volatility. One of the possible solutions of this problem is the application of methods for direct analysis of solid samples. The possibilities for solid sampling high resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometry (HR CS AAS) determination of total mercury in various marine environmental samples e.g. sediments and biota are object of the present study. The instrumental parameters were optimized in order to obtain reproducible and interference free analytical signal. A calibration technique based on the use of solid standard certified reference materials similar to the nature of the analyzed sample was developed and applied to various CRMs and real samples. This technique allows simple and reliable evaluation of the uncertainty of the result and the metrological characteristics of the method. A validation approach in line with the requirements of ISO 17025 standard and Eurachem guidelines was followed. With this in mind, selectivity, working range (0.06 to 25 ng for biota and 0.025 to 4 ng for sediment samples, expressed as total Hg) linearity (confirmed by Student's t-test), bias (1.6-4.3%), repeatability (4-9%), reproducibility (9-11%), and absolute limit of detection (0.025 ng for sediment, 0.096 ng for marine biota) were systematically assessed using solid CRMs. The relative expanded uncertainty was estimated at 15% for sediment sample and 8.5% for marine biota sample (k = 2). Demonstration of traceability of measurement results is also presented. The potential of the proposed analytical procedure, based on solid sampling HR CS AAS technique was demonstrated by direct analysis of sea sediments form the Caribbean region and various CRMs. Overall, the use of solid sampling HR CS AAS permits obtaining significant advantages for the determination of this complex analyte in marine samples, such as straightforward

  19. Determination of total mercury for marine environmental monitoring studies by solid sampling continuum source high resolution atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandjukov, Petko; Orani, Anna Maria; Han, Eunmi; Vassileva, Emilia, E-mail: e.vasileva-veleva@iaea.org

    2015-01-01

    The most critical step in almost all commonly used analytical procedures for Hg determination is the sample preparation due to its extreme volatility. One of the possible solutions of this problem is the application of methods for direct analysis of solid samples. The possibilities for solid sampling high resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometry (HR CS AAS) determination of total mercury in various marine environmental samples e.g. sediments and biota are object of the present study. The instrumental parameters were optimized in order to obtain reproducible and interference free analytical signal. A calibration technique based on the use of solid standard certified reference materials similar to the nature of the analyzed sample was developed and applied to various CRMs and real samples. This technique allows simple and reliable evaluation of the uncertainty of the result and the metrological characteristics of the method. A validation approach in line with the requirements of ISO 17025 standard and Eurachem guidelines was followed. With this in mind, selectivity, working range (0.06 to 25 ng for biota and 0.025 to 4 ng for sediment samples, expressed as total Hg) linearity (confirmed by Student's t-test), bias (1.6–4.3%), repeatability (4–9%), reproducibility (9–11%), and absolute limit of detection (0.025 ng for sediment, 0.096 ng for marine biota) were systematically assessed using solid CRMs. The relative expanded uncertainty was estimated at 15% for sediment sample and 8.5% for marine biota sample (k = 2). Demonstration of traceability of measurement results is also presented. The potential of the proposed analytical procedure, based on solid sampling HR CS AAS technique was demonstrated by direct analysis of sea sediments form the Caribbean region and various CRMs. Overall, the use of solid sampling HR CS AAS permits obtaining significant advantages for the determination of this complex analyte in marine samples, such as

  20. The design preparation for radiation monitoring system in the frame of completion NPP Mochovce Units 3 and 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevecka, S.; Slavik, O.; Kapisovsky, V.

    2009-01-01

    In 1985 a Basic Design of Radiation Monitoring System (RMS) has been elaborated for Mochovce NPP unit 3 and 4 construction. Due to construction interruption in the following years this design solution became obsolete. A new solution of RMS have been developed with conception following that of original Basic Design accommodating also safety measures implemented in RMS of NPP EMO units 1 and 2, and based on modem instrumentation and computer technique. Following the updating of Basic Design documentation the preparation of elaboration of RMS detailed design was carried on. In the frame of this preparation a review of possible suppliers of instrumentation satisfying the conception of radiation monitoring system and the extension of required deliveries has been made. Also criteria on RMS suppliers selection have been determined. The types of monitoring systems and equipment, as well as their quantities, have been specified based on updated Basic Design requirements and production profiles and possibilities of potential suppliers. The required parameters of measurements (including measurement geometry) have been evaluated, as well as requirements of legislation and requirements of proposed RMS architecture. (authors)

  1. Total Hip Arthroplasty Bearing Surface Trends in the United States From 2007 to 2014: The Rise of Ceramic on Polyethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckmann, Nathanael D; Sivasundaram, Lakshmanan; Stefl, Michael D; Kang, Hyunwoo Paco; Basler, Eric T; Lieberman, Jay R

    2018-06-01

    Wear of the bearing surface is a critical element in determining the longevity of a total hip arthroplasty (THA). Over the past decade, concerns related to modern metal-on-metal (MoM) bearings and corrosion at the femoral head-neck interface have influenced surgeon selection of bearing surfaces. The purpose of this study is to analyze trends in THA bearing surface selection from 2007 through 2014 using a large national database. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample database was used to extract bearing surface data from patients who underwent a primary THA between 2007 and 2014. Patients were grouped by bearing surface type: metal-on-polyethylene (MoP), ceramic-on-polyethylene (CoP), MoM, and ceramic-on-ceramic (CoC) bearings. Descriptive statistics were employed to describe trends. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify differences between bearing surface groups. During the study period, 2,460,640 THA discharges were identified, of which 1,059,825 (43.1%) had bearing surface data. A total of 496,713 (46.9%) MoP, 307,907 (29.1%) CoP, 210,381 (19.9%) MoM, and 44,823 (4.2%) CoC cases were identified. MoM utilization peaked in 2008 representing 40.1% of THAs implanted that year and steadily declined to 4.0% in 2014. From 2007 to 2014, the use of CoP bearing surfaces increased from 11.1% of cases in 2007 to 50.8% of cases in 2014. In 2014, CoP utilization surpassed MoP which represented 42.1% of bearing surfaces that year. During the study period, MoM bearing surfaces decreased precipitously, while CoP surpassed MoP as the most popular bearing surface used in a THA. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. 2012 Groundwater Monitoring Report Central Nevada Test Area, Subsurface Corrective Action Unit 443

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-04-01

    The Central Nevada Test Area was the site of a 0.2- to 1-megaton underground nuclear test in 1968. The surface of the site has been closed, but the subsurface is still in the corrective action process. The corrective action alternative selected for the site was monitoring with institutional controls. Annual sampling and hydraulic head monitoring are conducted as part of the subsurface corrective action strategy. The site is currently in the fourth year of the 5-year proof-of-concept period that is intended to validate the compliance boundary. Analytical results from the 2012 monitoring are consistent with those of previous years. Tritium remains at levels below the laboratory minimum detectable concentration in all wells in the monitoring network. Samples collected from reentry well UC-1-P-2SR, which is not in the monitoring network but was sampled as part of supplemental activities conducted during the 2012 monitoring, indicate concentrations of tritium that are consistent with previous sampling results. This well was drilled into the chimney shortly after the detonation, and water levels continue to rise, demonstrating the very low permeability of the volcanic rocks. Water level data from new wells MV-4 and MV-5 and recompleted well HTH-1RC indicate that hydraulic heads are still recovering from installation and testing. Data from wells MV-4 and MV-5 also indicate that head levels have not yet recovered from the 2011 sampling event during which several thousand gallons of water were purged. It has been recommended that a low-flow sampling method be adopted for these wells to allow head levels to recover to steady-state conditions. Despite the lack of steady-state groundwater conditions, hydraulic head data collected from alluvial wells installed in 2009 continue to support the conceptual model that the southeast-bounding graben fault acts as a barrier to groundwater flow at the site.

  3. Particle size distribution and total solids suspension in samples monitoring of capturing water for optimization of water injection filtration system; Monitoramento da quantidade de particulas e do total de solidos em suspensao em amostras de agua de captacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramalhao, Adriano Gorga; Seno, Carlos Eduardo; Ribeiro, Alice [3M do Brasil, Sumare, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    There is a wide variation in the amount of particulate material in sea water by a great number of reasons. The most well-known contaminant is the organic material derived from seaweed or fish spawning causing seasonally sensitive variations in the water quality treated and injected for enhance oil recovery. This paper presents the results of one year the water monitoring form water sampled at 30 meters deep in the Roncador field, which is located 125 km from the coast with a depth of 1290 meters. It was observed the water seasonal variation with peaks in summer and winter. The monitoring was done through particle counting and distribution analysis and total solids in suspension. It was noted that even in peak with largest amount of particles and greater quantity of solid in suspension the particles had remained concentrated in the range bellow 25 {mu}m. For that reason the life of final filter elements may vary and pre-filters are many times ineffective and sometimes even bypassed due to frequent clogging and not to do the protecting job of the final filter. (author)

  4. Modeling Microalgal Biosediment Formation Based on Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR FT-IR) Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogburn, Zachary L; Vogt, Frank

    2018-03-01

    With increasing amounts of anthropogenic pollutants being released into ecosystems, it becomes ever more important to understand their fate and interactions with living organisms. Microalgae play an important ecological role as they are ubiquitous in marine environments and sequester inorganic pollutants which they transform into organic biomass. Of particular interest in this study is their role as a sink for atmospheric CO 2 , a greenhouse gas, and nitrate, one cause of harmful algal blooms. Novel chemometric hard-modeling methodologies have been developed for interpreting phytoplankton's chemical and physiological adaptations to changes in their growing environment. These methodologies will facilitate investigations of environmental impacts of anthropogenic pollutants on chemical and physiological properties of marine microalgae (here: Nannochloropsis oculata). It has been demonstrated that attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy can gain insights into both and this study only focuses on the latter. From time-series of spectra, the rate of microalgal biomass settling on top of a horizontal ATR element is derived which reflects several of phytoplankton's physiological parameters such as growth rate, cell concentrations, cell size, and buoyancy. In order to assess environmental impacts on such parameters, microalgae cultures were grown under 25 different chemical scenarios covering 200-600 ppm atmospheric CO 2 and 0.35-0.75 mM dissolved NO 3 - . After recording time-series of ATR FT-IR spectra, a multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) algorithm extracted spectroscopic and time profiles from each data set. From the time profiles, it was found that in the considered concentration ranges only NO 3 - has an impact on the cells' physiological properties. In particular, the cultures' growth rate has been influenced by the ambient chemical conditions. Thus, the presented spectroscopic

  5. Estimating total alkalinity for coastal ocean acidification monitoring at regional to continental scales in Australian coastal waters

    KAUST Repository

    Baldry, Kimberlee; Hardman-Mountford, Nick; Greenwood, Jim

    2017-01-01

    Owing to a lack of resources, tools, and knowledge, the natural variability and distribution of Total Alkalinity (TA) has been poorly characterised in coastal waters globally, yet variability is known to be high in coastal regions due to the complex interactions of oceanographic, biotic, and terrestrially-influenced processes. This is a particularly challenging task for the vast Australian coastline, however, it is also this vastness that demands attention in the face of ocean acidification (OA). Australian coastal waters have high biodiversity and endemism, and are home to large areas of coral reef, including the Great Barrier Reef, the largest coral reef system in the world. Ocean acidification threatens calcifying marine organisms by hindering calcification rates, threatening the structural integrity of coral reefs and other ecosystems. Tracking the progression of OA in different coastal regions requires accurate knowledge of the variability in TA. Thus, estimation methods that can capture this variability at synoptic scales are needed. Multiple linear regression is a promising approach in this regard. Here, we compare a range of both simple and multiple linear regression models to the estimation of coastal TA from a range of variables, including salinity, temperature, chlorophyll-a concentration and nitrate concentration. We find that regionally parameterised models capture local variability better than more general coastal or open ocean parameterised models. The strongest contribution to model improvement came through incorporating temperature as an input variable as well as salinity. Further improvements were achieved through the incorporation of either nitrate or chlorophyll-a, with the combination of temperature, salinity, and nitrate constituting the minimum model in most cases. These results provide an approach that can be applied to satellite Earth observation and autonomous in situ platforms to improve synoptic scale estimation of TA in coastal waters.

  6. Estimating total alkalinity for coastal ocean acidification monitoring at regional to continental scales in Australian coastal waters

    KAUST Repository

    Baldry, Kimberlee

    2017-06-01

    Owing to a lack of resources, tools, and knowledge, the natural variability and distribution of Total Alkalinity (TA) has been poorly characterised in coastal waters globally, yet variability is known to be high in coastal regions due to the complex interactions of oceanographic, biotic, and terrestrially-influenced processes. This is a particularly challenging task for the vast Australian coastline, however, it is also this vastness that demands attention in the face of ocean acidification (OA). Australian coastal waters have high biodiversity and endemism, and are home to large areas of coral reef, including the Great Barrier Reef, the largest coral reef system in the world. Ocean acidification threatens calcifying marine organisms by hindering calcification rates, threatening the structural integrity of coral reefs and other ecosystems. Tracking the progression of OA in different coastal regions requires accurate knowledge of the variability in TA. Thus, estimation methods that can capture this variability at synoptic scales are needed. Multiple linear regression is a promising approach in this regard. Here, we compare a range of both simple and multiple linear regression models to the estimation of coastal TA from a range of variables, including salinity, temperature, chlorophyll-a concentration and nitrate concentration. We find that regionally parameterised models capture local variability better than more general coastal or open ocean parameterised models. The strongest contribution to model improvement came through incorporating temperature as an input variable as well as salinity. Further improvements were achieved through the incorporation of either nitrate or chlorophyll-a, with the combination of temperature, salinity, and nitrate constituting the minimum model in most cases. These results provide an approach that can be applied to satellite Earth observation and autonomous in situ platforms to improve synoptic scale estimation of TA in coastal waters.

  7. A real-time monitoring and assessment method for calculation of total amounts of indoor air pollutants emitted in subway stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, TaeSeok; Kim, MinJeong; Lim, JungJin; Kang, OnYu; Shetty, K Vidya; SankaraRao, B; Yoo, ChangKyoo; Park, Jae Hyung; Kim, Jeong Tai

    2012-05-01

    Subway systems are considered as main public transportation facility in developed countries. Time spent by people in indoors, such as underground spaces, subway stations, and indoor buildings, has gradually increased in the recent past. Especially, operators or old persons who stay in indoor environments more than 15 hr per day usually influenced a greater extent by indoor air pollutants. Hence, regulations on indoor air pollutants are needed to ensure good health of people. Therefore, in this study, a new cumulative calculation method for the estimation of total amounts of indoor air pollutants emitted inside the subway station is proposed by taking cumulative amounts of indoor air pollutants based on integration concept. Minimum concentration of individual air pollutants which naturally exist in indoor space is referred as base concentration of air pollutants and can be found from the data collected. After subtracting the value of base concentration from data point of each data set of indoor air pollutant, the primary quantity of emitted air pollutant is calculated. After integration is carried out with these values, adding the base concentration to the integration quantity gives the total amount of indoor air pollutant emitted. Moreover the values of new index for cumulative indoor air quality obtained for 1 day are calculated using the values of cumulative air quality index (CAI). Cumulative comprehensive indoor air quality index (CCIAI) is also proposed to compare the values of cumulative concentrations of indoor air pollutants. From the results, it is clear that the cumulative assessment approach of indoor air quality (IAQ) is useful for monitoring the values of total amounts of indoor air pollutants emitted, in case of exposure to indoor air pollutants for a long time. Also, the values of CCIAI are influenced more by the values of concentration of NO2, which is released due to the use of air conditioners and combustion of the fuel. The results obtained in

  8. Preliminary assessment of a water-quality monitoring program for total maximum daily loads in Johnson County, Kansas, January 2015 through June 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Teresa J.; Paxson, Chelsea R.

    2017-08-25

    Municipalities in Johnson County in northeastern Kansas are required to implement stormwater management programs to reduce pollutant discharges, protect water quality, and comply with applicable water-quality regulations in accordance with National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permits for stormwater discharge. To this end, municipalities collect grab samples at streams entering and leaving their jurisdiction to determine levels of excessive nutrients, sediment, and fecal bacteria to characterize pollutants and understand the factors affecting them.In 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey and the Johnson County Stormwater Management Program, with input from the Kansas Department of Health and Environment, initiated a 5-year monitoring program to satisfy minimum sampling requirements for each municipality as described by new stormwater permits issued to Johnson County municipalities. The purpose of this report is to provide a preliminary assessment of the monitoring program. The monitoring program is described, a preliminary assessment of the monitoring program design is provided using water-quality data collected during the first 2 years of the program, and the ability of the current monitoring network and sampling plan to provide data sufficient to quantify improvements in water quality resulting from implemented and planned best management practices is evaluated. The information in this initial report may be used to evaluate changes in data collection methods while data collection is still ongoing that may lead to improved data utility.Discrete water-quality samples were collected at 27 sites and analyzed for nutrients, Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria, total suspended solids, and suspended-sediment concentration. In addition, continuous water-quality data (water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, turbidity, and nitrate plus nitrite) were collected at one site to characterize variability and provide a basis for comparison to discrete

  9. Intakes and sources of total and added sugars among 4 to 13‐year‐old children in China, Mexico and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afeiche, M. C.; Koyratty, B. N. S.; Wang, D.; Jacquier, E. F.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background Intakes of dietary sugars is a global concern, and many national and international organizations have set targets to limit consumption. However, it is unclear to what extent intakes of total and added sugars vary between geographies. Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the differences in intakes of total and added sugars in 4 to 13‐year‐old children in China, Mexico and the United States. The secondary aim was to identify main sources of total and added sugars in the diets of these children. Methods Secondary data analysis was conducted using the 2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey, 2012 Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey, and 2009–2012 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Total and added sugar intakes were calculated using the US Food Patterns Equivalents Database. Results Mean intakes of total and added sugars were 26 and 9 g d−1 among Chinese children, 92 and 55 g d−1 among Mexican children, and 124 and 76 g d−1 among US children, respectively. The top food sources of total sugars were fruits among Chinese children, and sugar‐sweetened beverages and milk‐based beverages among Mexican and US children. Conclusions These data highlight the heterogeneity of food patterns worldwide and the need for adapted country‐specific public health recommendations on sugars. PMID:28960843

  10. Intakes and sources of total and added sugars among 4 to 13-year-old children in China, Mexico and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afeiche, M C; Koyratty, B N S; Wang, D; Jacquier, E F; Lê, K-A

    2018-04-01

    Intakes of dietary sugars is a global concern, and many national and international organizations have set targets to limit consumption. However, it is unclear to what extent intakes of total and added sugars vary between geographies. The aim of this study was to assess the differences in intakes of total and added sugars in 4 to 13-year-old children in China, Mexico and the United States. The secondary aim was to identify main sources of total and added sugars in the diets of these children. Secondary data analysis was conducted using the 2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey, 2012 Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey, and 2009-2012 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Total and added sugar intakes were calculated using the US Food Patterns Equivalents Database. Mean intakes of total and added sugars were 26 and 9 g d -1 among Chinese children, 92 and 55 g d -1 among Mexican children, and 124 and 76 g d -1 among US children, respectively. The top food sources of total sugars were fruits among Chinese children, and sugar-sweetened beverages and milk-based beverages among Mexican and US children. These data highlight the heterogeneity of food patterns worldwide and the need for adapted country-specific public health recommendations on sugars. © 2017 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of World Obesity Federation.

  11. Continuous EEG monitoring in the intensive care unit: beta scientific and management scientific aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, P.M.H.; van Putten, Michel Johannes Antonius Maria; Jarm, T.; Kramar, P.; Zupanic, A.

    2007-01-01

    Due to various technological advances, it is now possible to continuously monitor critically ill patients using EEG, including the extraction of various quantitative features. In this study, several beta scientific and management scientific aspects of the implementation and use of cEEg on the ICU

  12. Interest of Monitoring Diaphragmatic Electrical Activity in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Ducharme-Crevier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring of electrical activity of the diaphragm (EAdi is a new minimally invasive bedside technology that was developed for the neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA mode of ventilation. In addition to its role in NAVA ventilation, this technology provides the clinician with previously unavailable and essential information on diaphragm activity. In this paper, we review the clinical interests of EAdi in the pediatric intensive care setting. Firstly, the monitoring of EAdi allows the clinician to tailor the ventilatory settings on an individual basis, avoiding frequent overassistance leading potentially to diaphragmatic atrophy. Increased inspiratory EAdi levels can also suggest insufficient support, while a strong tonic activity may reflect the patient efforts to increase its lung volume. EAdi monitoring also allows detection of patient-ventilator asynchrony. It can play a role in evaluation of extubation readiness. Finally, EAdi monitoring provides the clinician with better understanding of the ventilatory capacity of patients with acute neuromuscular disease. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the clinical impact of these potential benefits.

  13. An enhanced ionising radiation monitoring and detecting technique in radiotherapy units of hospitals using wireless sensor networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Peter

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a solution of ionising radiation monitoring based on the concept of Wireless Sensor Network (WSN), is presented. Radiation dose rate measured by the sensor node is sent to the monitoring station through ZigBee wireless network operated on 2.4 GHz unlicensed Industrial Scientific Medical (ISM) band. The system is calibrated for use for ionizing radiation dose rate range of between amount of ionising radiation observed in radiotherapy unit of a hospital and 1.02 mSv/h. Power consumption of the sensor node is kept low by operating the node ZigBee radio with low duty cycle: i.e. by keeping the radio awake only during data transmission/reception. Two ATmega8 microcontrollers, one each for sensor node and the monitoring station, are programmed to perform interfacing, data processing, and control functions. The system range of coverage is 124m for outdoor (line of site) deployment and 56.8m for indoor application where 5 brick walls separated the sensor node and the monitoring station. Range of coverage of the system is extendable via the use of ZigBee router (s)

  14. Wireless sensor and data transmission needs and technologies for patient monitoring in the operating room and intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paksuniemi, M; Sorvoja, H; Alasaarela, E; Myllyla, R

    2005-01-01

    In the intensive care unit, or during anesthesia, patients are attached to monitors by cables. These cables obstruct nursing staff and hinder the patients from moving freely in the hospital. However, rapidly developing wireless technologies are expected to solve these problems. To this end, this study revealed problem areas in current patient monitoring and established the most important medical parameters to monitor. In addition, usable wireless techniques for short-range data transmission were explored and currently employed wireless applications in the hospital environment were studied. The most important parameters measured of the patient include blood pressures, electrocardiography, respiration rate, heart rate and temperature. Currently used wireless techniques in hospitals are based on the WMTS and WLAN standards. There are no viable solutions for short-range data transmission from patient sensors to patient monitors, but potentially usable techniques in the future are based on the WPAN standards. These techniques include Bluetooth, ZigBee and UWB. Other suitable techniques might be based on capacitive or inductive coupling. The establishing of wireless techniques depends on ensuring the reliability of data transmission, eliminating disturbance by other wireless devices, ensuring patient data security and patient safety, and lowering the power consumption and price.

  15. Automated system of monitoring and positioning of functional units of mining technological machines for coal-mining enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meshcheryakov Yaroslav

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is show to the development of an automated monitoring and positioning system for functional nodes of mining technological machines. It describes the structure, element base, algorithms for identifying the operating states of a walking excavator; various types of errors in the functioning of microelectromechanical gyroscopes and accelerometers, as well as methods for their correction based on the Madgwick fusion filter. The results of industrial tests of an automated monitoring and positioning system for functional units on one of the opencast coal mines of Kuzbass are presented. This work is addressed to specialists working in the fields of the development of embedded systems and control systems, radio electronics, mechatronics, and robotics.

  16. Post-Closure Inspection and Monitoring Report for Corrective Action Unit 342: Area 23 Mercury Fire Training Pit, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2006-01-01

    This report provides a summary and analysis of visual site inspections and soil gas sampling results for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 342, Area 23 Mercury Fire Training Pit. CAU 342 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996 and consists of Corrective Action Site 23-56-01, Former Mercury Fire Training Pit. This report covers calendar years 2004 and 2005. Visual site inspections were conducted on May 20 and November 14, 2004, and May 17 and November 15, 2005. No significant findings were observed during these inspections. The site was in good condition, and no repair activities were required. Soil gas samples were collected on November 29, 2005, for analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs), and samples were collected on December 1, 2005, for analysis of base gases. Base gas concentrations in the monitoring well show a high concentration of carbon dioxide and a low concentration of oxygen, which is an indication of biodegradation of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in the soil. Results for VOCs and SVOCs are unchanged, with VOCs below or near laboratory method detection limits and no SVOCs detected above laboratory method detection limits. Post-closure monitoring was required for six years after closure of the site. Therefore, since 2005 was the sixth year of monitoring, the effectiveness of natural attenuation of the TPH-impacted soil by biodegradation was evaluated. The base gas concentrations indicate that biodegradation of TPH in the soil is occurring; therefore, it is recommended that monitoring be discontinued. Visual site inspections should continue to be performed biannually to ensure that the signs are in place and readable and that the use restriction has been maintained. The results of the site inspections will be documented in a letter report and submitted annually

  17. Effects of organ motion on IMRT treatments with segments of few monitor units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seco, J.; Sharp, G. C.; Turcotte, J.; Gierga, D.; Bortfeld, T.; Paganetti, H.

    2007-01-01

    Interplay between organ (breathing) motion and leaf motion has been shown in the literature to have a small dosimetric impact for clinical conditions (over a 30 fraction treatment). However, previous studies did not consider the case of treatment beams made up of many few-monitor-unit (MU) segments, where the segment delivery time (1-2 s) is of the order of the breathing period (3-5 s). In this study we assess if breathing compromises the radiotherapy treatment with IMRT segments of low number of MUs. We assess (i) how delivered dose varies, from patient to patient, with the number of MU per segment, (ii) if this delivered dose is identical to the average dose calculated without motion over the path of the motion, and (iii) the impact of the daily variation of the delivered dose as a function of MU per segment. The organ motion was studied along two orthogonal directions, representing the left-right and cranial-caudal directions of organ movement for a patient setup in the supine position. Breathing motion was modeled as sin(x), sin 4 (x), and sin 6 (x), based on functions used in the literature to represent organ motion. Measurements were performed with an ionization chamber and films. For a systematic study of motion effects, a MATLAB simulation was written to model organ movement and dose delivery. In the case of a single beam made up of one single segment, the dose delivered to point in a moving target over 30 fractions can vary up to 20% and 10% for segments of 10 MU and 20 MU, respectively. This dose error occurs because the tumor spends most of the time near the edges of the radiation beam. In the case of a single beam made of multiple segments with low MU, we observed 2.4%, 3.3%, and 4.3% differences, respectively, for sin(x), sin 4 (x), and sin 6 (x) motion, between delivered dose and motion-averaged dose for points in the penumbra region of the beam and over 30 fractions. In approximately 5-10% of the cases, differences between the motion-averaged dose

  18. First annual report RCRA post-closure monitoring and inspections for the U-3fi waste unit. Final report, July 1995--October 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emer, D.F.

    1997-01-01

    This annual Neutron Soil Moisture Monitoring report provides an analysis and summary for site inspections, meteorological information, and neutron soil moisture monitoring data obtained at the U-3fi RCRA Unit, located in Area 3 of the Nevada Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada during the July 1995 to October 1996 period. Inspections of the U-3fi RCRA Unit are conducted to determine and document the physical condition of the covers, facilities, and any unusual conditions that could impact the proper operation of the waste unit closure. The objective of the neutron logging is to monitor the soil moisture conditions along the 420 ft ER3-3 borehole and detect changes that may be indicative of moisture movement in the regulated interval. This is the first annual report on the U-3fi closure and includes the first year baseline monitoring data as well as one quarter of compliance monitoring data

  19. Continuous stroke unit electrocardiographic monitoring versus 24-hour Holter electrocardiography for detection of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizos, Timolaos; Güntner, Janina; Jenetzky, Ekkehart; Marquardt, Lars; Reichardt, Christine; Becker, Rüdiger; Reinhardt, Roland; Hepp, Thomas; Kirchhof, Paulus; Aleynichenko, Elena; Ringleb, Peter; Hacke, Werner; Veltkamp, Roland

    2012-10-01

    Cardioembolism in paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (pxAF) is a frequent cause of ischemic stroke. Sensitive detection of pxAF after stroke is crucial for adequate secondary stroke prevention; the optimal diagnostic modality to detect pxAF on stroke units is unknown. We compared 24-hour Holter electrocardiography (ECG) with continuous stroke unit ECG monitoring (CEM) for pxAF detection. Patients with acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack were prospectively enrolled. After a 12-channel ECG on admission, all patients received 24-hour Holter ECG and CEM. Additionally, ECG monitoring data underwent automated analysis using dedicated software to identify pxAF. Patients with a history of atrial fibrillation or with atrial fibrillation on the admission ECG were excluded. Four hundred ninety-six patients (median age, 69 years; 61.5% male) fulfilled all inclusion criteria (ischemic stroke: 80.4%; transient ischemic attack: 19.6%). Median stroke unit stay lasted 88.8 hours (interquartile range, 65.0-122.0). ECG data for automated CEM analysis were available for a median time of 64.0 hours (43.0-89.8). Paroxysmal AF was documented in 41 of 496 patients (8.3%). Of these, Holter detected pxAF in 34.1%; CEM in 65.9%; and automated CEM in 92.7%. CEM and automated CEM detected significantly more patients with pxAF than Holter (Pstroke on stroke units compared with 24-hour Holter ECG. The comparative usefulness of prolonged or repetitive Holter ECG recordings requires further evaluation.

  20. Comparison of environmental radiation monitoring programs in China and the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Tianshan; Xu Cuihua; Shang Bing; Zhu Changshou; Sears, R.; Griggs, J.; Leed, H.N.; Wolbarst, A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: It hopes that an awareness of the similarities and differences of China's and USA's programs will prove to be helpful to monitoring networks in their evolving and developing, and possibly to others as well. Methods: Based on the analyses of the sample collection, radionuclides analyses and data dissemination of NRCMS, ERAMS and EML's global network, the similarities and differences of the networks are characterized. Results: ERAMS and NRCMS have more similarities in responsibility, objectives and sampling components. The differences are mainly in the scope and size of each program. EML's global network represents the most extensive and comprehensive global network of its kind in the world for surface air radionuclides monitoring. Conclusions: As compared with EML's global network program, NRCMS and ERAMS has more similarities than differences. (authors)

  1. A low-cost system for graphical process monitoring with colour video symbol display units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grauer, H.; Jarsch, V.; Mueller, W.

    1977-01-01

    A system for computer controlled graphic process supervision, using color symbol video displays is described. It has the following characteristics: - compact unit: no external memory for image storage - problem oriented simple descriptive cut to the process program - no restriction of the graphical representation of process variables - computer and display independent, by implementation of colours and parameterized code creation for the display. (WB) [de

  2. Regional changes and global connections: monitoring climate variability and change in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry F. Diaz

    2004-01-01

    Mountain ecosystems of the Western United States are complex and include cold desert biomes, such as those found in Nevada; subpolar biomes found in the upper treeline zone; and tundra ecosystems, occurring above timberline. Many studies (for example, Thompson 2000) suggest that high-elevation environments, comprising glaciers, snow, permafrost, water, and the...

  3. Radiation dose distribution monitoring at neutron radiography facility area, Nuclear Energy Unit, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Razak Daud

    1995-01-01

    One experiment was carried out to get the distribution of radiation doses at the neutron radiography facilities, Nuclear Energy Unit, Malaysia. The analysis was done to evaluate the safety level of the area. The analysis was used in neutron radiography work

  4. 2015 Groundwater Monitoring Report Project Shoal Area: Subsurface Correction Unit 447

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Findlay, Rick [Navarro Research and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The Project Shoal Area in Nevada was the site of a 12-kiloton-yield underground nuclear test in 1963. Although the surface of the site has been remediated, investigation of groundwater contamination resulting from the test is still in the corrective action process. Annual sampling and hydraulic head monitoring are conducted at the site as part of the subsurface corrective action strategy. The corrective action strategy is currently focused on revising the site conceptual model (SCM) and evaluating the adequacy of the monitoring well network. Some aspects of the SCM are known; however, two major concerns are the uncertainty in the groundwater flow direction and the cause of rising water levels in site wells west of the shear zone. Water levels have been rising in the site wells west of the shear zone since the first hydrologic characterization wells were installed in 1996. Although water levels in wells west of the shear zone continue to rise, the rate of increase is less than in previous years. The SCM will be revised, and an evaluation of the groundwater monitoring network will be conducted when water levels at the site have stabilized to the agreement of both the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection.

  5. Design and Implementation of the Intensive Care Unit Quality Management Registry: Monitoring Quality and Cost of an Adult Intensive Care Unit in a Greek State Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmidis, Dimitrios; Koutsouki, Sotiria; Lampiri, Klairi; Nagy, Eva Ottilia; Papaioannou, Vasilios; Pneumatikos, Ioannis; Anastassopoulos, George

    2017-11-01

    Intensive care electronic registries have been instrumental in quality measurement, improvement, and assurance of intensive care. In this article, the development and pilot implementation of the Intensive Care Unit Quality Management Registry are described, with a particular focus on monitoring the quality and operational cost in an adult ICU at a northern Greek state hospital. A relational database was developed for a hospital ICU so that qualitative and financial data are recorded for further analysis needed for planning quality care improvement and enhanced efficiency. Key features of this database registry were low development cost, user friendliness, maximum data security, and interoperability in existing hospital information systems. The database included patient demographics, nursing and medical parameters, and quality and performance indicators as established in many national registries worldwide. Cost recording was based on a mixed approach: at patient level ("bottom-up" method) and at department level ("top-down" method). During the pilot phase of the database operation, regular monitoring of quality and cost data revealed several fields of quality excellence, while indicating room for improvement for others. Parallel recording and trending of multiple parameters showed that the database can be utilized for optimum ICU quality and cost management and also for further research purposes by nurses, physicians, and administrators.

  6. Silicon Nanowire/Polymer Hybrid Solar Cell-Supercapacitor: A Self-Charging Power Unit with a Total Efficiency of 10.5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruiyuan; Wang, Jie; Sun, Teng; Wang, Mingjun; Wu, Changsheng; Zou, Haiyang; Song, Tao; Zhang, Xiaohong; Lee, Shuit-Tong; Wang, Zhong Lin; Sun, Baoquan

    2017-07-12

    An integrated self-charging power unit, combining a hybrid silicon nanowire/polymer heterojunction solar cell with a polypyrrole-based supercapacitor, has been demonstrated to simultaneously harvest solar energy and store it. By efficiency enhancement of the hybrid nanowire solar cells and a dual-functional titanium film serving as conjunct electrode of the solar cell and supercapacitor, the integrated system is able to yield a total photoelectric conversion to storage efficiency of 10.5%, which is the record value in all the integrated solar energy conversion and storage system. This system may not only serve as a buffer that diminishes the solar power fluctuations from light intensity, but also pave its way toward cost-effective high efficiency self-charging power unit. Finally, an integrated device based on ultrathin Si substrate is demonstrated to expand its feasibility and potential application in flexible energy conversion and storage devices.

  7. The United States Federal Monitoring and Assessment Centre and radiological database management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, P.G.

    1998-01-01

    In the spring of 1979, a series of events occurring at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power plant near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, resulted in severe core damage. Recognizing that state resources were insufficient to respond to the first major nuclear power plant emergency in the United States, the State of Pennsylvania asked the Federal Government for assistance. The United States Government undertook the preparation of a plan, which would co-ordinate all federal assets. The Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan (FRERP) assigned unique responsibilities and authorities for responding to domestic radiological emergencies to each of 12 different federal agencies which form the FRERP. The overall data collection, analysis, and processing procedures within the FRMAC are overviewed. (author)

  8. Warwickshire coalfield second monitoring report working paper No. 8. [United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, K.; Roberts, P. (eds.)

    1983-01-01

    The second in a series of reports providing information relevant to the proposal to deep-mine coal in mid-Warwickshire, United Kingdom. Emphasis is placed upon an updating of energy policy, a progress report on the Belvoir and Selby developments, the impact of coal mining on local income and expenditure, the experience of new mining developments in the West Midlands, the further examination of waste disposal and a detailed look at the economic impacts of coal mining.

  9. Unite research with what citizens do for fun: "recreational monitoring" of marine biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffredo, Stefano; Pensa, Francesco; Neri, Patrizia; Orlandi, Antonio; Gagliardi, Maria Scola; Velardi, Angela; Piccinetti, Corrado; Zaccanti, Francesco

    2010-12-01

    Institutes often lack funds and manpower to perform large-scale biodiversity monitoring. Citizens can be involved, contributing to the collection of data, thus decreasing costs. Underwater research requires specialist skills and SCUBA certification, and it can be difficult to involve volunteers. The aim of this study was to involve large numbers of recreational divers in marine biodiversity monitoring for increasing the environmental education of the public and collecting data on the status of marine biodiversity. Here we show that thousands of recreational divers can be enrolled in a short time. Using specially formulated questionnaires, nonspecialist volunteers reported the presence of 61 marine taxa encountered during recreational dives, performed as regular sport dives. Validation trials were carried out to assess the accuracy and consistency of volunteer-recorded data, and these were compared to reference data collected by an experienced researcher. In the majority of trials (76%) volunteers performed with an accuracy and consistency of 50-80%, comparable to the performance of conservation volunteer divers on precise transects in other projects. The recruitment of recreational divers involved the main diving and tour operators in Italy, a popular scientific magazine, and mass media. During the four-year study, 3825 divers completed 18757 questionnaires, corresponding to 13539 diving hours. The volunteer-sightings-based index showed that in the monitored area the biodiversity status did not change significantly within the project time scale, but there was a significant negative correlation with latitude, suggesting improved quality in the southernmost areas. This trend could be related to the presence of stressors in the northern areas and has been supported by investigations performed by the Italian Ministry of the Environment. The greatest limitation with using volunteers to collect data was the uneven spatial distribution of samples. The benefits were the

  10. Overview of PAT process analysers applicable in monitoring of film coating unit operations for manufacturing of solid oral dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korasa, Klemen; Vrečer, Franc

    2018-01-01

    Over the last two decades, regulatory agencies have demanded better understanding of pharmaceutical products and processes by implementing new technological approaches, such as process analytical technology (PAT). Process analysers present a key PAT tool, which enables effective process monitoring, and thus improved process control of medicinal product manufacturing. Process analysers applicable in pharmaceutical coating unit operations are comprehensibly described in the present article. The review is focused on monitoring of solid oral dosage forms during film coating in two most commonly used coating systems, i.e. pan and fluid bed coaters. Brief theoretical background and critical overview of process analysers used for real-time or near real-time (in-, on-, at- line) monitoring of critical quality attributes of film coated dosage forms are presented. Besides well recognized spectroscopic methods (NIR and Raman spectroscopy), other techniques, which have made a significant breakthrough in recent years, are discussed (terahertz pulsed imaging (TPI), chord length distribution (CLD) analysis, and image analysis). Last part of the review is dedicated to novel techniques with high potential to become valuable PAT tools in the future (optical coherence tomography (OCT), acoustic emission (AE), microwave resonance (MR), and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Design of an Integrated Sensor Platform for Vital Sign Monitoring of Newborn Infants at Neonatal Intensive Care Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuous health status monitoring and advances in medical treatments have resulted in a significant increase of survival rate in critically ill infants admitted into Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs. The quality of life and long-term health prospects of the neonates depend increasingly on the reliability and comfort of the monitoring systems. In this paper, we present the design work of a smart jacket for vital sign monitoring of neonates at a NICU. The design represents a unique integration of sensor technology, user focus and design aspects. Textile sensors, a reflectance pulse oximeter and a wearable temperature sensor were proposed to be embedded into the smart jacket. Location of the sensor, materials and appearance were designed to optimize the functionality, patient comfort and the possibilities for aesthetic features. Prototypes were built for demonstrating the design concept and experimental results were obtained from tests on premature babies at the NICU of M�xima Medical Centre (MMC in Veldhoven, the Netherlands.

  12. Intermittent auscultation versus continuous fetal monitoring: exploring factors that influence birthing unit nurses' fetal surveillance practice using theoretical domains framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patey, Andrea M; Curran, Janet A; Sprague, Ann E; Francis, Jill J; Driedger, S Michelle; Légaré, France; Lemyre, Louise; Pomey, Marie-Pascale A; Grimshaw, Jeremy M

    2017-09-25

    Intermittent Auscultation (IA) is the recommended method of fetal surveillance for healthy women in labour. However, the majority of women receive continuous electronic monitoring. We used the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) to explore the views of Birthing Unit nurses about using IA as their primary method of fetal surveillance for healthy women in labour. Using a semi-structured interview guide, we interviewed a convenience sample of birthing unit nurses throughout Ontario, Canada to elicit their views about fetal surveillance. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were content analysed using the TDF and themes were framed as belief statements. Domains potentially key to changing fetal surveillance behaviour and informing intervention design were identified by noting the frequencies of beliefs, content, and their reported influence on the use of IA. We interviewed 12 birthing unit nurses. Seven of the 12 TDF domains were perceived to be key to changing birthing unit nurses' behaviour The nurses reported that competing tasks, time constraints and the necessity to multitask often limit their ability to perform IA (domains Beliefs about capabilities; Environmental context and resources). Some nurses noted the decision to use IA was something that they consciously thought about with every patient while others stated it their default decision as long as there were no risk factors (Memory, attention and decision processes, Nature of behaviour). They identified positive consequences (e.g. avoid unnecessary interventions, mother-centered care) and negative consequences of using IA (e.g. legal concerns) and reported that the negative consequences can often outweigh positive consequences (Beliefs about consequences). Some reported that hospital policies and varying support from care teams inhibited their use of IA (Social influences), and that support from the entire team and hospital management would likely increase their use (Social

  13. POLAMI: Polarimetric Monitoring of Active Galactic Nuclei at Millimetre Wavelengths - III. Characterization of total flux density and polarization variability of relativistic jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudo, Iván; Thum, Clemens; Ramakrishnan, Venkatessh; Molina, Sol N.; Casadio, Carolina; Gómez, José L.

    2018-01-01

    We report on the first results of the POLAMI (Polarimetric Monitoring of AGNs with Millimetre Wavelengths) programme, a simultaneous 3.5 and 1.3 mm full-Stokes-polarization monitoring of a sample of 36 of the brightest active galactic nuclei in the northern sky with the IRAM 30 m telescope. Through a systematic statistical study of data taken from 2006 October (from 2009 December for the case of the 1.3 mm observations) to 2014 August, we characterize the variability of the total flux density and linear polarization. We find that all sources in the sample are highly variable in total flux density at both 3.5 and 1.3 mm, as well as in spectral index, which (except in particularly prominent flares) is found to be optically thin between these two wavelengths. The total flux-density variability at 1.3 mm is found, in general, to be faster, and to have larger fractional amplitude and flatter power-spectral-density slopes than at 3.5 mm. The polarization degree is on average larger at 1.3 mm than at 3.5 mm, by a factor of 2.6. The variability of linear polarization degree is faster and has higher fractional amplitude than for total flux density, with the typical time-scales during prominent polarization peaks being significantly faster at 1.3 mm than at 3.5 mm. The polarization angle at both 3.5 and 1.3 mm is highly variable. Most of the sources show one or two excursions of >180° on time-scales from a few weeks to about a year during the course of our observations. The 3.5 and 1.3 mm polarization angle evolution follows each other rather well, although the 1.3 mm data show a clear preference to more prominent variability on the short time-scales, i.e. weeks. The data are compatible with multizone models of conical jets involving smaller emission regions for the shortest-wavelength emitting sites. Such smaller emitting regions should also be more efficient in energising particle populations, as implied by the coherent evolution of the spectral index and the total flux

  14. United States Department of Energy Oak Ridge Facilities environmental-monitoring report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The Environmental Monitoring Program for the Oak Ridge area includes sampling and analysis of air, water from surface streams, creek sediments, biota, and soil for both radioactive and nonradioactive materials. Surveillance of radioactivity in the Oak Ridge environs indicates that atmospheric concentrations of radioactivity were not significantly different from other areas in East Tennessee. Concentrations of radioactivity in the Clinch River and in fish collected from the river wre less than one percent of the permissible concentration and intake guides for individuals in the offsite environment. While some radioactivity was released to the environment from plant operations, the concentrations in all of the media sampled were well below established standards. Surveillance of nonradioactive materials in the Oak Ridge environs shows that established limits were not exceeded for those materials possibly present in the air as a result of plant operations. The chemical water quality data in surface streams obtained from the water sampling program indicated that average concentrations resulting from plant effluents were in compliance with state stream guidelines with the exception of fluoride at monitoring Station E-1 which was 110 percent of the guideline and nitrate at Station B-1 which was 100 percent of the guideline. National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit compliance information has been included in this report. During 1982 there were no spills of oil and/or hazardous materials from the Oak Ridge installations reported to the National Response Center

  15. Milrinone in advanced heart failure: dose and therapeutic monitor outside intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charisopoulou, Dafni; Leaver, Neil; Banner, Nicholas R

    2014-04-01

    Advanced chronic heart failure (ACHF) patients often require inotropes before transplantation or ventricular assist device implantation. Milrinone, an inotrope and vasodilator, may accumulate in cardiorenal syndrome with serious adverse effects. We investigated the potential for therapeutic drug monitoring of milrinone levels using High Performance Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-MS). 22 ACHF patients (15 males, 49±9 years) received milrinone 50 µg/kg intravenously (i.v.) during heart catheterization. Milrinone levels were 216±71 ng/ml (within the reported therapeutic range: 100-300 ng/ml), followed by improvements in cardiac index, pulmonary artery and wedge pressures (p milrinone (5-26 days) at 0.1-0.2 µg/kg/min, titrated according to plasma milrinone levels. No adverse events occurred. Therapeutic levels were achieved with doses of 0.2±0.06 µg/Kg/min, below those recommended in Summary of Product Characteristics. Milrinone therapy can be noninvasively monitored by HPLC-MS, while avoiding toxicity in ACHF.

  16. Dialysis Dependence Predicts Complications, Intensive Care Unit Care, Length of Stay, and Skilled Nursing Needs in Elective Primary Total Knee and Hip Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Joseph T; Tillinghast, Kyle; Ward, Derek

    2018-07-01

    Limited data describe risks and perioperative resource needs of total joint arthroplasty (TJA) in dialysis-dependent patients. Retrospective multiple cohort analysis of dialysis-dependent American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program patients undergoing primary elective total hip and knee arthroplasty compared to non-dialysis-dependent controls from 2005 to 2015. Relative risks (RRs) of 30-day adverse events were determined by multivariate regression adjusting for baseline differences. Six hundred forty-five (0.2%) dialysis-dependent patients of 342,730 TJA patients were dialysis-dependent and more likely to be dependent, under weight, anemic, hypoalbuminemic, and have cardiopulmonary disease. In total hip arthroplasty patients, dialysis was associated with greater risk of any adverse event (RR = 1.1, P care unit (ICU) care (RR = 9.8, P total knee arthroplasty patients, dialysis conferred greater risk of any adverse event (RR = 1.1, P care (RR = 6.0, P care, longer admission, and rehabilitation needs in TJA patients. Thirty days is not sufficient to detect infectious complications among these patients. These findings inform shared decision-making, perioperative resource planning, and risk adjustment under alternative reimbursement models. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Monitoring eradication of European mouflon sheep from the Kahuku Unit of Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Seth; Hess, Steven C.; Faford, Jonathan K.; Pacheco, Dexter; Leopold, Christina

    2017-01-01

    European mouflon (Ovis gmelini musimon), the world's smallest wild sheep, have proliferated and degraded fragile native ecosystems in the Hawaiian Islands through browsing, bark stripping, and trampling, including native forests within Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park (HAVO). HAVO resource managers initiated ungulate control efforts in the 469 km2 Kahuku Unit after it was acquired in 2003. We tracked control effort and used aerial surveys in a 64.7 km2 area from 2004 to 2017 and more intensive ground surveys and camera-trap monitoring to detect the last remaining animals within a 25.9 km2 subunit after it was enclosed by fence in 2012. Aerial shooting yielded the most removals per unit effort (3.2 animals/ hour), resulting in 261 animals. However, ground-based methods yielded 4,607 removals overall, 3,038 of which resulted from assistance of volunteers. Ground shooting with dogs, intensive aerial shooting, ground sweeps, and forward-looking infrared (FLIR)-assisted shooting were necessary to find and remove the last remaining mouflon. The Judas technique, baiting, and trapping were not successful in attracting or detecting small numbers of remaining individuals. Effort expended to remove each mouflon increased nearly 15-fold during the last 3 yr of eradication effort from 2013 to 2016. Complementary active and passive monitoring techniques allowed us to track the effectiveness of control effort and reveal locations of small groups to staff. The effort and variety of methods required to eradicate mouflon from an enclosed unit of moderate size illustrates the difficulty of scaling up to entire populations of wild ungulates from unenclosed areas.

  18. Measurement of the dosimetric parameters for low monitor units in step-and-shoot IMRT delivered by Siemens Artiste linear accelerators; Medida de los parametros dosimetricos para bajo numero de unidades monitor en IMRT segmentada estatica administrada por aceleradores lineales Siemens Artiste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Rodriguez, C.; Lopez Fernandez, A.; Saez Beltran, M.; Martin Martin, G.; Alonso Iracheta, L.

    2012-07-01

    Absorbed dose linearity and beam stability, both for low monitor units, are important factors for ensuring planned dose delivery in step-and-shoot IMRT. For Siemens Artiste linear accelerators, under IMRT stable irradiation conditions and for a single segment of 20 cm x 20 cm field size, the linearity of the absorbed dose with the monitor units, field flatness and symmetry have been measured for the range between 1 and 10 monitor units. We have found that absorbed dose linearity with monitor units is within 2% down to 2 monitor units and it is about 9% for 1 monitor unit. Flatness and symmetry values show variations within 1% down to 2 monitor units and increase by 9% for lower values. Using our monitor unit distribution per segment in IMRT we estimate that the uncertainty in absorbed dose for a whole treatment due to these factors is less than 1% (k= 3). (Author) 13 refs.

  19. Warwickshire coalfield first monitoring report working paper No. 5. [United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, K.; Roberts, P. (eds.)

    1982-05-01

    The first of a series of reports providing information relevant to the proposal to deep-mine coal in mid-Warwickshire, United Kingdom. The first part discusses the national energy situation and the difficulties involved in formulating an energy policy, then a brief history of coal mining in Warwickshire is presented. The second part compares experiments of the Selby and Belvoir coalfield, with the expansion of Coventry and Daw Mill collieries. The third, discusses the environmental and economic impact of the mining proposals.

  20. Autonomous monitoring unit, signs and registration for Cobalt-60 irradiator safety system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldaconi, Ricardo H.; Costa, Fabio E. da, E-mail: ricardohovacker@hotmail.com, E-mail: fecosta@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The Cobalt-60 irradiator of IPEN / CNEN, a category IV facility, has a security system for inter locking doors or exposure of radioactive sources made simultaneously by a programmable logic controller (PLC) model S7- 200 from Siemens and a relay logic. From a set of information, the both systems work together opening doors or exposing the sources. All incoming and outgoing information are sent serially via EIA232 communication to a personal computer with Windows® platform for a supervisory program which provides besides a monitoring the entire process by a synoptic table on the computer screen, also keeps records of all events on the computer's hard drive. The electronic management has proven to be efficient and has not produced any failure that had compromised the safety. The PLC along with the relay logic has always taken the right decisions ensuring proper radiation protection of operators and the integrity of radioactive sources, but it presented over the years of operation (beginning in 2004) less than a dozen flaws in system event log. The deficiency was found between the process of sending events via serial communication (EIA232) to the supervisory program. When failure occurs in a very short time, the PLC always took the right decision, but the registration process that had to go through the Windows® timeshare lost the information. This work aimed to build a standalone electronics connect the inputs and outputs of the security system, fully optocoupled to avoid any interference to the security system. It records each event on a memory card, waits for the right decision of the security system and in case of an incorrect decision an independent alarm notifies its own synoptic picture, and sends a text message to a group of defined cell phones. The circuit uses two microcontrollers called 'main' and 'secondary'. The main is responsible for the control and monitoring of peripheral inputs and outputs of the security system. The main is

  1. Autonomous monitoring unit, signs and registration for Cobalt-60 irradiator safety system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldaconi, Ricardo H.; Costa, Fabio E. da

    2015-01-01

    The Cobalt-60 irradiator of IPEN / CNEN, a category IV facility, has a security system for inter locking doors or exposure of radioactive sources made simultaneously by a programmable logic controller (PLC) model S7- 200 from Siemens and a relay logic. From a set of information, the both systems work together opening doors or exposing the sources. All incoming and outgoing information are sent serially via EIA232 communication to a personal computer with Windows® platform for a supervisory program which provides besides a monitoring the entire process by a synoptic table on the computer screen, also keeps records of all events on the computer's hard drive. The electronic management has proven to be efficient and has not produced any failure that had compromised the safety. The PLC along with the relay logic has always taken the right decisions ensuring proper radiation protection of operators and the integrity of radioactive sources, but it presented over the years of operation (beginning in 2004) less than a dozen flaws in system event log. The deficiency was found between the process of sending events via serial communication (EIA232) to the supervisory program. When failure occurs in a very short time, the PLC always took the right decision, but the registration process that had to go through the Windows® timeshare lost the information. This work aimed to build a standalone electronics connect the inputs and outputs of the security system, fully optocoupled to avoid any interference to the security system. It records each event on a memory card, waits for the right decision of the security system and in case of an incorrect decision an independent alarm notifies its own synoptic picture, and sends a text message to a group of defined cell phones. The circuit uses two microcontrollers called 'main' and 'secondary'. The main is responsible for the control and monitoring of peripheral inputs and outputs of the security system. The main is

  2. The use of total susceptibility in the analysis of long term PM10 (PM2.5) collected at Hungarian air quality monitoring stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márton, Emö; Domján, Ádám; Lautner, Péter; Szentmarjay, Tibor; Uram, János

    2013-04-01

    Air monitoring stations in Hungary are operated by Environmental, Nature Conservancy and Water Pollution Inspectorates, according to the CEN/TC 264 European Union standards. PM10 samples are collected on a 24-hour basis, for two weeks in February, in May, in August and in November. About 720m3 air is pumped through quartz filters daily. Mass measurements and toxic metal analysis (As, Pb, Cd, Ni) are made on each filter (Whatmann DHA-80 PAH, 150 mm diameter) by the inspectorates. We have carried out low field magnetic susceptibility measurements using a KLY-2 instrument on all PM10 samples collected at 9 stations from 2009 on (a total of more than 2000 filters). One station, located far from direct sources, monitors background pollution. Here PM2.5 was also collected in two-week runs, seven times during the period of 2009-2012 and made available for the non-destructive magnetic susceptibility measurements. Due to the rather weak magnetic signal, the susceptibility of each PM-10 sample was computed from 10, that of each PM2.5 sample from 20 measurements. Corrections were made for the susceptibility of the sample holder, for the unpolluted filter (provided with each of the two-week runs), and for the plastic bag containing the samples. The susceptibilities of the PM10 samples were analyzed from different aspects, like the degree of magnetic pollution at different stations, daily and seasonal variations of the total and mass susceptibilities compared to the mass of the pollutants and in relation to the concentrations of the toxic elements. As expected, the lowest total and mass susceptibilities characterize the background station (pollution arrives mostly from distant sources, Vienna, Bratislava or even the Sudeten), while the highest values were measured for an industrial town with heavy traffic. At the background station the mass of the PM10 and PM2.5, respectively for the same period are quite similar, while the magnetic susceptibilities are usually higher in the

  3. CHIPS: A New Way to Monitor Colonias Along the United States-Mexico Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcher, Jean W.; Humberson, Delbert G.

    2007-01-01

    Colonias, which are unincorporated border settlements in the United States, have emerged in rural areas without the governance and services normally provided by local government. Colonia residents live in poverty and lack adequate health care, potable water, and sanitation systems. These conditions create substantial health risks for colonias and surrounding communities. By 2001, more than 1,400 colonias were identified in Texas. Cooperation with the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Offices of the Texas Attorney General, Secretary of State, and the Texas Water Development Board has allowed the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to improve colonia Geographic Information System (GIS) boundaries and develop the Colonia Health, Infrastructure, and Platting Status tool (CHIPS). Together, the GIS boundaries and CHIPS aid the Texas government in prioritizing the limited funds that are available for infrastructure improvement. CHIPS's report generator can be tailored to the needs of the user, providing either broad or specific output. For example, a congressman could use CHIPS to list colonias with wastewater issues in a specific county, whereas a health researcher could list all colonias without clinical access. To help cities along the United States-Mexico border manage issues related to colonias growth, CHIPS will become publicly available in an Internet-enabled GIS as part of a cooperative study between the USGS, the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, and the Mexican Instituto Nacional de Estadistica Geografia e Informatica.

  4. Enzyme-immuno assay for total estrogens and human placental lactogen. Comparison with radio-immuno-assay in normal pregnancy-monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raichvarg, D.; Tallet, F.; Lajeunie, E.; Bonnaire, Y.; Danglas, P.

    1980-01-01

    The concentrations of estrogens (E) and human placental lactogen (HLP) are estimated in sera by radio immuno-assay (RIA) and enzyme-immuno-assay (EIA). Statistical data indicate mean intra-assay variation coefficients of 7% and 12% for E and HLP tests, respectively. The correlation coefficient (RIA/EIA) are found higher than 0,9% for both hormonal assays. The dilution curves obtained by RIA and EIA are similar. However, Student'test gives a significant difference for E determination. In fact, total E and E 3 only are measured by EIA and RIA, respectively. In most cases biological interferences are negligible except for HLP in presence of higher protein or haemoglobin levels. RIA and EIA are performed to study serum HLP and E levels throughout normal pregnancies. Results allow to use EIA for HLP and E evaluations in pregnancy-monitoring [fr

  5. Preliminary application of a novel algorithm to monitor changes in pre-flight total peripheral resistance for prediction of post-flight orthostatic intolerance in astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Tatsuya; Lee, Kichang; Stenger, Michael B.; Platts, Steven H.; Meck, Janice V.; Cohen, Richard J.

    2011-04-01

    Orthostatic intolerance (OI) is a significant challenge for astronauts after long-duration spaceflight. Depending on flight duration, 20-80% of astronauts suffer from post-flight OI, which is associated with reduced vascular resistance. This paper introduces a novel algorithm for continuously monitoring changes in total peripheral resistance (TPR) by processing the peripheral arterial blood pressure (ABP). To validate, we applied our novel mathematical algorithm to the pre-flight ABP data previously recorded from twelve astronauts ten days before launch. The TPR changes were calculated by our algorithm and compared with the TPR value estimated using cardiac output/heart rate before and after phenylephrine administration. The astronauts in the post-flight presyncopal group had lower pre-flight TPR changes (1.66 times) than those in the non-presyncopal group (2.15 times). The trend in TPR changes calculated with our algorithm agreed with the TPR trend calculated using measured cardiac output in the previous study. Further data collection and algorithm refinement are needed for pre-flight detection of OI and monitoring of continuous TPR by analysis of peripheral arterial blood pressure.

  6. Automated radioanalytical system incorporating microwave-assisted sample preparation, chemical separation, and online radiometric detection for the monitoring of total 99Tc in nuclear waste processing streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorov, Oleg B; O'Hara, Matthew J; Grate, Jay W

    2012-04-03

    An automated fluidic instrument is described that rapidly determines the total (99)Tc content of aged nuclear waste samples, where the matrix is chemically and radiologically complex and the existing speciation of the (99)Tc is variable. The monitor links microwave-assisted sample preparation with an automated anion exchange column separation and detection using a flow-through solid scintillator detector. The sample preparation steps acidify the sample, decompose organics, and convert all Tc species to the pertechnetate anion. The column-based anion exchange procedure separates the pertechnetate from the complex sample matrix, so that radiometric detection can provide accurate measurement of (99)Tc. We developed a preprogrammed spike addition procedure to automatically determine matrix-matched calibration. The overall measurement efficiency that is determined simultaneously provides a self-diagnostic parameter for the radiochemical separation and overall instrument function. Continuous, automated operation was demonstrated over the course of 54 h, which resulted in the analysis of 215 samples plus 54 hly spike-addition samples, with consistent overall measurement efficiency for the operation of the monitor. A sample can be processed and measured automatically in just 12.5 min with a detection limit of 23.5 Bq/mL of (99)Tc in low activity waste (0.495 mL sample volume), with better than 10% RSD precision at concentrations above the quantification limit. This rapid automated analysis method was developed to support nuclear waste processing operations planned for the Hanford nuclear site.

  7. Live Streaming of the Moon's Shadow from the Edge of Space across the United States during the August 2017 Total Solar Eclipse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzik, T. G.

    2017-12-01

    On August 21, 2017 approximately 55 teams across the path of totality of the eclipse across America will use sounding balloon platforms to transmit, in real-time from an altitude of 90,000 feet, HD video of the moon's shadow as it crosses the U.S. from Oregon to South Carolina. This unprecedented activity was originally organized by the Montana Space Grant Consortium in order to 1) use the rare total eclipse event to captivate the imagination of students and encourage the development of new ballooning teams across the United States, 2) provide an inexpensive high bandwidth data telemetry system for real-time video streaming, and 3) establish the basic infrastructure at multiple institutions enabling advanced "new generation" student ballooning projects following the eclipse event. A ballooning leadership group consisting of Space Grant Consortia in Montana, Colorado, Louisiana, and Minnesota was established to support further development and testing of the systems, as well as to assist in training the ballooning teams. This presentation will describe the high bandwidth telemetry system used for the never before attempted live streaming of HD video from the edge of space, the results of this highly collaborative science campaign stretching from coast-to-coast, potential uses of the data telemetry system for other student science projects, and lessons learned that can be applied to the 2024 total solar eclipse.

  8. Monitoring obesity prevalence in the United States through bookmarking activities in online food portals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Trattner

    Full Text Available Studying the impact of food consumption on people's health is a serious matter for its implications on public policy, but it has traditionally been a slow process since it requires information gathered through expensive collection processes such as surveys, census and systematic reviews of research articles. We argue that this process could be supported and hastened using data collected via online social networks. In this work we investigate the relationships between the online traces left behind by users of a large US online food community and the prevalence of obesity in 47 states and 311 counties in the US. Using data associated with the recipes bookmarked over an 9-year period by 144,839 users of the Allrecipes.com food website residing throughout the US, several hierarchical regression models are created to (i shed light on these relations and (ii establish their magnitude. The results of our analysis provide strong evidence that bookmarking activities on recipes in online food communities can provide a signal allowing food and health related issues, such as obesity to be better understood and monitored. We discover that higher fat and sugar content in bookmarked recipes is associated with higher rates of obesity. The dataset is complicated, but strong temporal and geographical trends are identifiable. We show the importance of accounting for these trends in the modeling process.

  9. Monitoring obesity prevalence in the United States through bookmarking activities in online food portals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trattner, Christoph; Parra, Denis; Elsweiler, David

    2017-01-01

    Studying the impact of food consumption on people's health is a serious matter for its implications on public policy, but it has traditionally been a slow process since it requires information gathered through expensive collection processes such as surveys, census and systematic reviews of research articles. We argue that this process could be supported and hastened using data collected via online social networks. In this work we investigate the relationships between the online traces left behind by users of a large US online food community and the prevalence of obesity in 47 states and 311 counties in the US. Using data associated with the recipes bookmarked over an 9-year period by 144,839 users of the Allrecipes.com food website residing throughout the US, several hierarchical regression models are created to (i) shed light on these relations and (ii) establish their magnitude. The results of our analysis provide strong evidence that bookmarking activities on recipes in online food communities can provide a signal allowing food and health related issues, such as obesity to be better understood and monitored. We discover that higher fat and sugar content in bookmarked recipes is associated with higher rates of obesity. The dataset is complicated, but strong temporal and geographical trends are identifiable. We show the importance of accounting for these trends in the modeling process.

  10. LOCAL ALGORITHM FOR MONITORING TOTAL SUSPENDED SEDIMENTS IN MICRO-WATERSHEDS USIN DRONES AND REMOTE SENSING APPLICATIONS. CASE STUDY: TEUSACÁ RIVER, LA CALERA, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Sáenz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available An empirical relationship of Total Suspended Sediments (TSS concentrations and reflectance values obtained with Drones’ aerial photos and processed using remote sensing tools was set up as the main objective of this research. A local mathematic algorithm for the micro-watershed of the Teusacá River at La Calera, Colombia, was developed based on the computing of four component of bands from consumed-grade cameras obtaining from each their corresponding reflectance values from procedures for correcting digital camera imagery and using statistical analysis for study the fit and RMSE of 25 regressions. The assessment was characterized by the comparison of reflectance values and 34 in-situ data measurements concentrations between 1.6 and 33 mg L−1 taken from the superficial layer of the river in two campaigns. A large data set of empirical and referenced algorithm from literature were used to evaluate the accuracy and precision of the relationship. For estimation of TSS, a higher accuracy was achieved using the Tassan’s algorithm with the BAND X/ BANDX ratio. The correlation coefficient with R2 = X demonstrate the feasibility of use remote sensed data with consumed-grade cameras as an effective tool for a frequent monitoring and controlling of water quality parameters such as Total Suspended Solids of watersheds, these being the most vulnerable and less compliance with environmental regulations.

  11. Microcontroller based motion control interface unit for double slit type beam emittance monitor for H- ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holikatti, A.C.; Jain, Rahul; Karnewar, A.K.; Sonawane, B.B.; Maurya, N.K.; Puntambekar, T.A.

    2015-01-01

    The Indian Spallation Neutron Source (ISNS), proposed to be developed at RRCAT, will use a 1 GeV H - linac and an accumulator ring to produce high flux of pulsed neutrons via spallation process. The development activity of front end of 1H - linac for ISNS is under progress at RRCAT, for which a pulsed H - ion source of 50 keV energy, 30 mA current with pulse width of 500 μs has been developed at RRCAT. In this paper, we present the design and development of a microcontroller based motion control interface unit for double slit type beam emittance monitor for the H - ion source. This is an interceptive type of beam diagnostic device, which is used for the quantitative measurement of transverse emittance and beam intensity profile

  12. Application of an automated patrol-type monitoring system in the reinforced concrete containment vessel at Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Plant Units 6 and 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimoto, T.; Senoh, M.; Hirakawa, H.; Tanaka, K.; Takahashi, M.

    1996-01-01

    An automated patrol-type monitoring system was applied to the first Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) plants in the world, Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Plant Units 6 and 7. The system consists of two robots traveling along monorail and several ITV systems. This monitoring system is used to watch the operating incident of key components of ABWR, such as water leakage from packing in Fine Motion Control Rod Drive (FM-CRD), Reactor Internal Pump (RIP) etc. which are located in the reinforced concrete containment and usually could not be accessible under operation. The traveling robots are equipped with the three kinds of sensors, an infrared camera, a color TV camera and a microphone, and have a capability to inspect the pre-determined inspection points guided by the monorail. This monitoring system is automatically turned on to start inspection at a scheduled time. For Units 6 and 7, this monitoring system, two robots and several ITV systems, can be controlled from one common control desk and one handy-type remote control panel. Since this monitoring system was installed at Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Plant Units 6 and 7, this system has been operating successfully. (The installation and testing of the system for Unit 6 was finished completely and the testing the system for Unit 7 has been carrying out.) (author)

  13. A Wearable Inertial Measurement Unit for Long-Term Monitoring in the Dependency Care Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreu Català

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Human movement analysis is a field of wide interest since it enables the assessment of a large variety of variables related to quality of life. Human movement can be accurately evaluated through Inertial Measurement Units (IMU, which are wearable and comfortable devices with long battery life. The IMU’s movement signals might be, on the one hand, stored in a digital support, in which an analysis is performed a posteriori. On the other hand, the signal analysis might take place in the same IMU at the same time as the signal acquisition through online classifiers. The new sensor system presented in this paper is designed for both collecting movement signals and analyzing them in real-time. This system is a flexible platform useful for collecting data via a triaxial accelerometer, a gyroscope and a magnetometer, with the possibility to incorporate other information sources in real-time. A µSD card can store all inertial data and a Bluetooth module is able to send information to other external devices and receive data from other sources. The system presented is being used in the real-time detection and analysis of Parkinson’s disease symptoms, in gait analysis, and in a fall detection system.

  14. Environmental monitoring report: United States Department of Energy Oak Ridge facilities, calendar year 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    The Environmental Monitoring Program for the Oak Ridge area includes sampling and analysis of air, water from surface streams, groundwater, creek sediments, biota, and soil for both radioactive and nonradioactive materials. This report presents a summary of the results of the program for CY 1984. Surveillance of radioactivity in the Oak Ridge environment indicates that atmospheric concentrations at some stations were above background but would result in radiation exposures well within the applicable Environmental Protection Agency guidelines. Levels of radioactivity in rainwater samples collected in the Oak Ridge areas were not significantly different from those collected at remote locations. Concentrations of radioactivity in the Clinch River and in fish collected from the river were similar to those of previous years. For an Oak Ridge resident, the average committed dose equivalent was 1.6 millirem and the average dose commitment to the pulmonary tissues was calculated to be 5.4 millirem. The primary contributor to the dose was attributed to airborne releases of uranium from the Y-12 Plant. The data on chemical water quality in surface streams obtained from the water sampling program indicated that average concentrations resulting from plant effluents during 1984 were in compliance with State Stream Standards for the protection of drinking water, fish and aquatic life, and recreation classification, except for cadmium, lead, mercury, nitrate, and zinc. The average concentrations of all chemicals analyzed in the processed water from the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant sanitary water pumping station were within the Tennessee Water Quality Criteria for domestic water supply, except for mercury. Although no mercury was detected in any of the samples, the detection limit of the analytical procedure exceeded the criteria

  15. The United Kingdom Acid Waters Monitoring Network: a review of the first 15 years and introduction to the special issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteith, D.T.; Evans, C.D.

    2005-01-01

    The United Kingdom Acid Waters Monitoring Network (AWMN) was established in 1988 to determine the ecological impact of acidic emissions control policy on acid-sensitive lakes and streams. AWMN data have been used to explore a range of causal linkages necessary to connect changes in emissions to chemical and, ultimately, biological recovery. Regional scale reductions in sulphur (S) deposition have been found to have had an immediate influence on surface water chemistry, including increases in acid neutralising capacity, pH and alkalinity and declines in aluminium toxicity. These in turn can be linked to changes in the aquatic biota which are consistent with 'recovery' responses. A continuation of the current programme is essential in order to better understand apparent non-linearity between nitrogen (N) in deposition and runoff, the substantial rise in organic acid concentrations, and the likely impacts of forecast climate change and other potential constraints on further biological improvement. - After 15 years of the UK Acid Waters Monitoring Network, we can now draw clear conclusions regarding the impact of emission reductions on acidified UK fresh waters

  16. A Technical Evaluation of Wireless Connectivity from Patient Monitors to an Anesthesia Information Management System During Intensive Care Unit Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpao, Allan F; Galvez, Jorge A; England, W Randall; Wartman, Elicia C; Scott, James H; Hamid, Michael M; Rehman, Mohamed A; Epstein, Richard H

    2016-02-01

    Surgical procedures performed at the bedside in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia were documented using paper anesthesia records in contrast to the operating rooms, where an anesthesia information management system (AIMS) was used for all cases. This was largely because of logistical problems related to connecting cables between the bedside monitors and our portable AIMS workstations. We implemented an AIMS for documentation in the NICU using wireless adapters to transmit data from bedside monitoring equipment to a portable AIMS workstation. Testing of the wireless AIMS during simulation in the presence of an electrosurgical generator showed no evidence of interference with data transmission. Thirty NICU surgical procedures were documented via the wireless AIMS. Two wireless cases exhibited brief periods of data loss; one case had an extended data gap because of adapter power failure. In comparison, in a control group of 30 surgical cases in which wired connections were used, there were no data gaps. The wireless AIMS provided a simple, unobtrusive, portable alternative to paper records for documenting anesthesia records during NICU bedside procedures.

  17. Solid Waste Management Units And Areas Of Concern Annual Long-Term Monitoring & Maintenance Report For Calendar Year 2016.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dotson, Patrick Wells [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Little, Bonnie Colleen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Long-term controls were maintained at 21 Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) and Areas of Concern (AOCs) in accordance with the requirements of the “Long-Term Monitoring and Maintenance Plan for SWMUs and AOCs Granted Corrective Action Complete with Controls” in Attachment M of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Facility Operating Permit, which took effect February 26, 2015. Maintenance and controls at these SWMUs and AOCs are described and documented in this report. Conditions requiring maintenance or repair activities were not identified for any of the inspected SWMUs or AOCs. Based upon the inspections performed and site conditions observed, the administrative and physical institutional controls in place at the SWMUs and AOCs are effectively providing continued protection of human health and the environment. This report does not present monitoring and maintenance activities for SWMU 76, the Mixed Waste Landfill; those activities adhere to the approved MWL LTMM Plan, Section 4.8.1 requiring a separate annual report which will be submitted to the NMED by June 30, 2017.

  18. Online Health Monitoring using Facebook Advertisement Audience Estimates in the United States: Evaluation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejova, Yelena; Weber, Ingmar; Fernandez-Luque, Luis

    2018-03-28

    Facebook, the most popular social network with over one billion daily users, provides rich opportunities for its use in the health domain. Though much of Facebook's data are not available to outsiders, the company provides a tool for estimating the audience of Facebook advertisements, which includes aggregated information on the demographics and interests, such as weight loss or dieting, of Facebook users. This paper explores the potential uses of Facebook ad audience estimates for eHealth by studying the following: (1) for what type of health conditions prevalence estimates can be obtained via social media and (2) what type of marker interests are useful in obtaining such estimates, which can then be used for recruitment within online health interventions. The objective of this study was to understand the limitations and capabilities of using Facebook ad audience estimates for public health monitoring and as a recruitment tool for eHealth interventions. We use the Facebook Marketing application programming interface to correlate estimated sizes of audiences having health-related interests with public health data. Using several study cases, we identify both potential benefits and challenges in using this tool. We find several limitations in using Facebook ad audience estimates, for example, using placebo interest estimates to control for background level of user activity on the platform. Some Facebook interests such as plus-size clothing show encouraging levels of correlation (r=.74) across the 50 US states; however, we also sometimes find substantial correlations with the placebo interests such as r=.68 between interest in Technology and Obesity prevalence. Furthermore, we find demographic-specific peculiarities in the interests on health-related topics. Facebook's advertising platform provides aggregate data for more than 190 million US adults. We show how disease-specific marker interests can be used to model prevalence rates in a simple and intuitive manner

  19. Online Health Monitoring using Facebook Advertisement Audience Estimates in the United States: Evaluation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Ingmar; Fernandez-Luque, Luis

    2018-01-01

    Background Facebook, the most popular social network with over one billion daily users, provides rich opportunities for its use in the health domain. Though much of Facebook’s data are not available to outsiders, the company provides a tool for estimating the audience of Facebook advertisements, which includes aggregated information on the demographics and interests, such as weight loss or dieting, of Facebook users. This paper explores the potential uses of Facebook ad audience estimates for eHealth by studying the following: (1) for what type of health conditions prevalence estimates can be obtained via social media and (2) what type of marker interests are useful in obtaining such estimates, which can then be used for recruitment within online health interventions. Objective The objective of this study was to understand the limitations and capabilities of using Facebook ad audience estimates for public health monitoring and as a recruitment tool for eHealth interventions. Methods We use the Facebook Marketing application programming interface to correlate estimated sizes of audiences having health-related interests with public health data. Using several study cases, we identify both potential benefits and challenges in using this tool. Results We find several limitations in using Facebook ad audience estimates, for example, using placebo interest estimates to control for background level of user activity on the platform. Some Facebook interests such as plus-size clothing show encouraging levels of correlation (r=.74) across the 50 US states; however, we also sometimes find substantial correlations with the placebo interests such as r=.68 between interest in Technology and Obesity prevalence. Furthermore, we find demographic-specific peculiarities in the interests on health-related topics. Conclusions Facebook’s advertising platform provides aggregate data for more than 190 million US adults. We show how disease-specific marker interests can be used to model

  20. The Impact of Total Liberalization of Domestic Air Transport on the Social Welfare and on the Dynamic of Competition: Comparison Between the United States and the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbidi, Karim

    2003-01-01

    Since the lst of April 1997 date of the implementation of the third package of the liberalization, air transport, within the european Union has become totally liberalized. In the United States the deregulation of domestic air traffic was earlier and faster since it took place in October 1978 after the adoption of the only act of deregulation. This paper, in its first part, deals with the liberalization of the industry of air traffic in the european union. After a comparison with US system based on market demand, fare policy and network restrictions, we present our descriptive results coming from treatments on the OAG data. These results present several aspects such as the evolution of the competitive structure of the intra-european routes, the level of airport dominance and the growth of hub structure. The second part of the paper presents models of entry in the airline industry. As profitability" of route flown explains correctly decisions taken by airlines to serve or not a route, the paper focuses on the specification and the estimation of the determinants of city, pair profitability in the european union. Treatments done on the OAG data show a rapid development of leasing space agreement (partial and total) and code sharing practices between 1995 and 2000 in Europe that's why we differentiate first between the two type of competitive strategy of entry(direct entry and leasing space agreement) and second between the competitive strategy of entry and the alliance strategy of code sharing. So the estimation of model will be able to answer the question if the european air transport market is contestable and in case not to see if the decision of entry is more directed by the level of airport dominance (as in the domestic United States market)or essentially by the competitive structure of the routes. We try to explain the nature of entry(directleasing or code sharing) by the different levels of these two determinants.

  1. Development and installation of a new on-line plant safety monitoring system for the Paks VVER-440 units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vegh, J.; Major, C.; Buerger, L.; Lipcsei, S.; Horvath, C.; Kapocs, G.; Eiler, J.; Hornaes, A.; Hulsund, J.E.

    2000-01-01

    The paper describes the architecture, modules, algorithms and human-machine interface of a new operator support system (OSS), which is integrated into the new, reconstructed Paks NPP plant computers. The main task of the new OSS is to perform continuous plant safety monitoring and assessment, it has the following basic functions: on-line evaluation and presentation of critical safety function (CSF) status trees, continuous evaluation and presentation of the actual safety status of the plant, displaying and browsing the new symptom-oriented EOPs, automatic displaying of those process signals which are quoted in the EOPs. The first version of the new operator support system was connected to the Paks NPP full scope simulator in October 1999. This configuration was later successfully applied for the simulator testing of the new symptom-oriented EOP set for the Paks NPP in November 1999. The installation process was continued in 2000: the new system started its operation on Unit 2 (June) and on Unit 1 (August), together with the reconstructed, new PCS. (author)

  2. Caregiver-reported religious beliefs and complementary and alternative medicine use among children admitted to an epilepsy monitoring unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattie, Julia Fleming; Thompson, Matthew D; Parks, Pamela H; Jacobs, Ruth Q; Goyal, Monisha

    2017-04-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) includes a wide range of practices and products that are generally outside the use of conventional medicine as practiced in Western cultures. Use of CAM in persons with epilepsy is high, even compared to individuals with other chronic health conditions. In this study, we surveyed caregivers of children admitted to a regional epilepsy monitoring unit (EMU) in the southeast United States to assess CAM use among patients (N=225). Thirteen percent of respondents indicated current use of CAM by their child, 16% reported past use, and 43% reported interest in future use, most commonly in marijuana as a potential treatment (23%). Over 25% of respondents expressed interest in CAM use related to side effects of anti-epileptic medications. Regarding prayer as a form of CAM, a large majority of respondents in this sample identified as Christian and actively prayed for their child's illness, revealing a high prevalence of spiritual practices in this population. Eighty-one percent of respondents reported that they had not discussed CAM use with their doctor. Discussing CAM use with a health care provider was significantly related to past CAM use (p.05). These results have important implications for future practice and support increased communication and patient education, as many anti-epileptic medications interact with certain herbs and supplements, posing a potential health risk and treatment barrier in this population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of Fiber Optic and Conduit Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR) Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Setup for In-Line Fermentation Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Cosima; Posch, Andreas E; Herwig, Christoph; Lendl, Bernhard

    2016-12-01

    The performance of a fiber optic and an optical conduit in-line attenuated total reflection mid-infrared (IR) probe during in situ monitoring of Penicillium chrysogenum fermentation were compared. The fiber optic probe was connected to a sealed, portable, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) process spectrometer via a plug-and-play interface. The optical conduit, on the other hand, was connected to a FT-IR process spectrometer via a knuckled probe with mirrors that had to be adjusted prior to each fermentation, which were purged with dry air. Penicillin V (PenV) and its precursor phenoxyacetic acid (POX) concentrations were determined by online high-performance liquid chromatography and the obtained concentrations were used as reference to build partial least squares regression models. Cross-validated root-mean-square errors of prediction were found to be 0.2 g L -1 (POX) and 0.19 g L -1 (PenV) for the fiber optic setup and 0.17 g L -1 (both POX and PenV) for the conduit setup. Higher noise-levels and spectrum-to-spectrum variations of the fiber optic setup lead to higher noise of estimated (i.e., unknown) POX and PenV concentrations than was found for the conduit setup. It seems that trade-off has to be made between ease of handling (fiber optic setup) and measurement accuracy (optical conduit setup) when choosing one of these systems for bioprocess monitoring. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Monitoring of resistivity and IP: The Syscal Monitoring Unit (SMU), a new system dedicated for remote control of the Syscal Pro resistivimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gance, Julien; Leite, Orlando; Texier, Benoît; Bernard, Jean; Truffert, Catherine

    2017-04-01

    All matter, gas, fluids and energy transfer at soil/atmosphere interface govern soil, rock and life evolution in the critical zone. Near surface electrical resistivity and chargeability modifications with time are distinguishable and process related enough for bringing to geoscientist relevant clue within this highly studied zone. Such non-invasive measurements are directly sensitive to a wide range of remarkable parameters (soil water content, temperature, soil water conductivity, clay content, etc.). In order to increase physical, chemical and biological processes understanding, resistivity and IP monitoring remain the less costly and the more powerful method among others. Indeed, these methods are the most suitable to image 2D/3D and 4D processes in an automated way. Whether such geophysical survey are for academic knowledge, waste landfill leakage or landslide monitoring purpose, it has to be done during medium to long period of time (from days to years). Nevertheless, operators don't need to be on site all the survey long. So, equipment manufacturers had to propose them suitable solutions for their needs. Syscal Pro resistivimeter is well adapted to observe the critical zone down to 100 m depth with its 10 channels and 250 watts. Its high speed recording (up to 1000 records/min) ability is also suited to apprehend expected kinetics of studied phenomena. In this context, IRIS Instruments developed a dedicated remote unit able to remote control Syscal Pro resistivimeter. It allows to change acquisition parameters (sequences), to check the main constant (battery levels, internal temperature) and to alert in case of any recording troubles. Data can be sent directly to FTP or SSH server or by mail for an easy and constant access to the data. Alert functionalities sent by mail in case of low battery or too many outliers present in the data are welcome to check the dimensioning of the energy source and for easily maintaining the long-term acquisition necessary for

  5. Impact of mobile intensive care unit use on total ischemic time and clinical outcomes in ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients - real-world data from the Acute Coronary Syndrome Israeli Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koifman, Edward; Beigel, Roy; Iakobishvili, Zaza; Shlomo, Nir; Biton, Yitschak; Sabbag, Avi; Asher, Elad; Atar, Shaul; Gottlieb, Shmuel; Alcalai, Ronny; Zahger, Doron; Segev, Amit; Goldenberg, Ilan; Strugo, Rafael; Matetzky, Shlomi

    2017-01-01

    Ischemic time has prognostic importance in ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients. Mobile intensive care unit use can reduce components of total ischemic time by appropriate triage of ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients. Data from the Acute Coronary Survey in Israel registry 2000-2010 were analyzed to evaluate factors associated with mobile intensive care unit use and its impact on total ischemic time and patient outcomes. The study comprised 5474 ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients enrolled in the Acute Coronary Survey in Israel registry, of whom 46% ( n=2538) arrived via mobile intensive care units. There was a significant increase in rates of mobile intensive care unit utilization from 36% in 2000 to over 50% in 2010 ( pcare unit use were Killip>1 (odds ratio=1.32, pcare units benefitted from increased rates of primary reperfusion therapy (odds ratio=1.58, pcare unit benefitted from shorter median total ischemic time compared with non-mobile intensive care unit patients (175 (interquartile range 120-262) vs 195 (interquartile range 130-333) min, respectively ( pcare unit use was the most important predictor in achieving door-to-balloon time care unit group (odds ratio=0.79, 95% confidence interval (0.66-0.94), p=0.01). Among patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction, the utilization of mobile intensive care units is associated with increased rates of primary reperfusion, a reduction in the time interval to reperfusion, and a reduction in one-year adjusted mortality.

  6. Utilization and Short-Term Outcomes of Primary Total Hip and Knee Arthroplasty in the United States and Canada: An Analysis of New York and Ontario Administrative Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cram, Peter; Landon, Bruce E; Matelski, John; Ling, Vicki; Stukel, Therese A; Paterson, J Michael; Gandhi, Rajiv; Hawker, Gillian A; Ravi, Bheeshma

    2018-04-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and total hip arthroplasty (THA) are common and effective surgical procedures. This study sought to compare utilization and short-term outcomes of primary TKA and THA in adjacent regions of Canada and the United States. The study was designed as a retrospective cohort study of patients who underwent primary TKA or THA, comparing administrative data from New York and Ontario in 2012-2013. Demographic features of the TKA and THA patients, per capita utilization rates, and short-term outcomes were compared between the jurisdictions. A higher percentage of New York hospitals performed TKA compared to Ontario hospitals (75.7% versus 42.1%; P New York hospitals (mean 179 versus 327 in Ontario hospitals; P New York compared to Ontario, both for TKA (16.1 TKAs versus 21.4 TKAs per 10,000 population per year; P New York hospitals; P New York patients were discharged directly home (46.2% versus 90.9% of Ontario patients; P New York compared to Ontario (30-day rates, 4.6% versus 3.9% [P New York but has a smaller percentage of hospitals performing these procedures. Patients are more likely to be discharged home and less likely to be readmitted in Ontario. Our results suggest areas where each jurisdiction could improve. © 2017, American College of Rheumatology.

  7. Tranexamic acid use and postoperative outcomes in patients undergoing total hip or knee arthroplasty in the United States: retrospective analysis of effectiveness and safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeran, Jashvant; Rasul, Rehana; Suzuki, Suzuko; Danninger, Thomas; Mazumdar, Madhu; Opperer, Mathias; Boettner, Friedrich

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the effectiveness and safety of perioperative tranexamic acid use in patients undergoing total hip or knee arthroplasty in the United States. Design Retrospective cohort study; multilevel multivariable logistic regression models measured the association between tranexamic acid use in the perioperative period and outcomes. Setting 510 US hospitals from the claims based Premier Perspective database for 2006-12. Participants 872 416 patients who had total hip or knee arthroplasty. Intervention Perioperative intravenous tranexamic acid use by dose categories (none, ≤1000 mg, 2000 mg, and ≥3000 mg). Main outcome measures Allogeneic or autologous transfusion, thromboembolic complications (pulmonary embolism, deep venous thrombosis), acute renal failure, and combined complications (thromboembolic complications, acute renal failure, cerebrovascular events, myocardial infarction, in-hospital mortality). Results While comparable regarding average age and comorbidity index, patients receiving tranexamic acid (versus those who did not) showed lower rates of allogeneic or autologous transfusion (7.7% v 20.1%), thromboembolic complications (0.6% v 0.8%), acute renal failure (1.2% v 1.6%), and combined complications (1.9% v 2.6%); all Ptranexamic acid dose categories (versus no tranexamic acid use) were associated with significantly (PTranexamic acid was effective in reducing the need for blood transfusions while not increasing the risk of complications, including thromboembolic events and renal failure. Thus our data provide incremental evidence of the potential effectiveness and safety of tranexamic acid in patients requiring orthopedic surgery. PMID:25116268

  8. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Normalized Atmospheric Deposition for 2002, Total Inorganic Nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This tabular data set represents the average normalized atmospheric (wet) deposition, in kilograms per square kilometer multiplied by 100, of Total Inorganic Nitrogen for the year 2002 compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of selected Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). Estimates of Total Inorganic Nitrogen deposition are based on National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) measurements (B. Larsen, U.S. Geological Survey, written. commun., 2007). De-trending methods applied to the year 2002 are described in Alexander and others, 2001. NADP site selection met the following criteria: stations must have records from 1995 to 2002 and have a minimum of 30 observations. The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified version of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) ERF1_2 and include enhancements to support national and regional-scale surface-water quality modeling (Nolan and others, 2002; Brakebill and others, 2011). Data were compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment for the conterminous United States covering New England and Mid-Atlantic (MRB1), South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee (MRB2), the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy (MRB3), the Missouri (MRB4), the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf (MRB5), the Rio Grande, Colorado, and the Great basin (MRB6), the Pacific Northwest (MRB7) river basins, and California (MRB8).

  9. Calibration of whole-body counters for transuranic radionuclides by using total-body donations to the United States Transuranium Registry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, H.E.; Heid, K.R.; Breitenstein, B.D.; Durbin, P.W.; McInroy, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    One of the many benefits of the whole-body donation programme of the United States Transuranium Registry is the calibration of whole-body counters by measuring a donated body containing radioactivity before radiochemical analysis of the body occurs. These measurements have provided the best existing calibration factors for measuring 241 Am and 239 Pu in the skeleton of living people. In one case where the body contained an easily measurable quantity of 241 Am, the 241 Am content was found to be the same for identical bones on the right and left sides of the body. The bones from the right side of the body and every other vertebrae were radiochemically analysed and the bones from the left side were reserved. These latter have a known quantity of naturally distributed 241 Am based on the analysis of bones from the right side. These reserved bones are being incorporated into tissue equivalent body parts for future calibrations and interlaboratory comparisons. The measurements on the total body and the reserved bones have already been very useful in determining the contribution of skeletal activity to that of lung measurements and determining a calibration factor for measuring 239 Pu deposited in the skeleton. In the future it is planned to periodically make in vivo measurements on those people participating in the total-body donation programme so that calibration factors can be obtained for lung and liver content after subsequent analysis of these tissues. (author)

  10. Monitoring of total metal concentration in sludge samples: Case study for the mechanical–biological wastewater treatment plant in Velika Gorica, Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipović, Josip; Grčić, Ivana; Bermanec, Vladimir; Kniewald, Goran

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, monitoring of total metal concentration in sludge samples from wastewater treatment process is elaborated. The presented results summarize the analyses of sludge samples in a period from 2008 to 2012. Possible sources of pollutions are given. Primarily, waste solid samples were collected from different pretreatment steps: (A) coarse grid, (B) fine grid and (C) aerated sand grease grid. Samples of A and B followed a repeatable pattern in 2008 and 2010. According to the results from 2008, samples of C contained measurable concentration of the following metals (mg/kg dry matter): Zn (21), Ni (1.05) and Ba (14.9). Several types of sludge samples were analyzed: fresh raw sludge (PS; 6–12 hour old), the sludge from the digester for anaerobic sludge treatment (DS; 48–72 hour old), samples from lagoons where the sludge is temporarily deposited (DOS and DOSold; 30–120 days) and sludge samples from agricultural areas (AA; aged over 180 days). Additionally, samples of dehydrated sludge (DEHS and DEHSold; 90–180 days) were collected upon construction of equipment for sludge dehydration in 2011. An analysis of total metal concentrations for Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb, Ni, Hg, Cd, Ba, As, Se, Sb, Co, Mo, Fe and Mn was performed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The most recent results (year 2011) indicated a high concentration of heavy metals in PS samples, exceeding the MCLs (mg/kg dry matter): Cu (2122), Zn (5945), Hg (13.67) and Cd (6.29). In 2012 (until July), only a concentration of Cu exceeded MCL (928.75 and 1230.5 in DS and DEHS, respectively). A composition of sludge was variable through time, offering the limited possibility for future prediction. The sludge is being considered as a hazardous waste and a subject of discussion regarding disposal. - Highlights: ► Summarized 5-year monitoring data for heavy metals in sludge ► Partially determined sources of pollution by

  11. Monitoring of total metal concentration in sludge samples: Case study for the mechanical–biological wastewater treatment plant in Velika Gorica, Croatia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filipović, Josip [Town Office for Physical Planning and Environmental Protection, Velika Gorica County, Trg kralja Tomislava 34, 10410 Velika Gorica (Croatia); Grčić, Ivana, E-mail: igrcic@fkit.hr [Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology, University of Zagreb Marulićev trg 19, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Bermanec, Vladimir [Institute of Mineralogy and Petrology, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Horvatovac bb, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Kniewald, Goran [Division for Marine and Environmental Research, Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenička 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, monitoring of total metal concentration in sludge samples from wastewater treatment process is elaborated. The presented results summarize the analyses of sludge samples in a period from 2008 to 2012. Possible sources of pollutions are given. Primarily, waste solid samples were collected from different pretreatment steps: (A) coarse grid, (B) fine grid and (C) aerated sand grease grid. Samples of A and B followed a repeatable pattern in 2008 and 2010. According to the results from 2008, samples of C contained measurable concentration of the following metals (mg/kg dry matter): Zn (21), Ni (1.05) and Ba (14.9). Several types of sludge samples were analyzed: fresh raw sludge (PS; 6–12 hour old), the sludge from the digester for anaerobic sludge treatment (DS; 48–72 hour old), samples from lagoons where the sludge is temporarily deposited (DOS and DOSold; 30–120 days) and sludge samples from agricultural areas (AA; aged over 180 days). Additionally, samples of dehydrated sludge (DEHS and DEHSold; 90–180 days) were collected upon construction of equipment for sludge dehydration in 2011. An analysis of total metal concentrations for Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb, Ni, Hg, Cd, Ba, As, Se, Sb, Co, Mo, Fe and Mn was performed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The most recent results (year 2011) indicated a high concentration of heavy metals in PS samples, exceeding the MCLs (mg/kg dry matter): Cu (2122), Zn (5945), Hg (13.67) and Cd (6.29). In 2012 (until July), only a concentration of Cu exceeded MCL (928.75 and 1230.5 in DS and DEHS, respectively). A composition of sludge was variable through time, offering the limited possibility for future prediction. The sludge is being considered as a hazardous waste and a subject of discussion regarding disposal. - Highlights: ► Summarized 5-year monitoring data for heavy metals in sludge ► Partially determined sources of pollution by

  12. 40 CFR 60.105a - Monitoring of emissions and operations for fluid catalytic cracking units (FCCU) and fluid coking...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Catalytic Reforming Units, and Sulfur Recovery Units. (iii) The owner or operator shall install, operate... for fluid catalytic cracking units (FCCU) and fluid coking units (FCU). 60.105a Section 60.105a... and operations for fluid catalytic cracking units (FCCU) and fluid coking units (FCU). (a) FCCU and...

  13. Minimum monitor unit per segment IMRT planning and over-shoot-ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigorov, G.; Barnett, R.; Chow, J.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this work is to describe the modulation quality for dose delivery of small Multi-Leaf Collimator (MLC) fields and MU/segment. The results were obtained with Pinnacle (V6) and a Varian Clinac 2100 EX (Varis 6.2) linear accelerator. The over-shoot effect was investigated by comparing integrated multiple segmented exposures to a single exposure with the same number of total MU (1, 2, 3,4, 5 and 6 MU). To present the OS effect the Over-Shoot-Ratio (OSR) was defined as the ratio of the segmented dose for a 1 cm 2 field at depth to the static dose for the same field size and depth. OSR was measured as a function of MU/segment and dose rate. Measured results can be used to optimise IMRT planning and also to calculate the surface dose. The dependence of the dose in depth with 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 MU/segments for 6 MV photon beam, dose rate of 100 MU/min and 1 cm 2 beam field at the central axis is presented, where the argument of the function is the depth and parameter of the function is the number of minimum MU/segment. The dependence of the overshoot ratio on the MU/segment with a parameter of the dose rates (100, 400 and 600 MU/min) is also shown. The effect increases with the dose rate and decreases with the increasing of the minimum number of MU/segment. Having measured OSR for the 2100 EX linac it is possible to do correction and calibration of the dose of the first segment of IMRT beam, where the dose to the target and on the surface can increase over the planed dose of 1 MU by 40% and 70% for dose rate of 400 and 600 MU/min respectively. The Over-Shoot-Ratio is an important parameter to be determined as part of the routine quality assurance for IMRT and can be used to significantly improve the agreement between planned and delivered doses to the patient

  14. Integration of In-Flight and Post-Flight Water Monitoring Resources in Addressing the U.S. Water Processor Assembly Total Organic Carbon (TOC) Anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, John E., II; McCly, J. Torin

    2011-01-01

    Beginning in June of 2010, the total organic carbon (TOC) concentration in the U.S. Water Processor Assembly (WPA) product water started to increase. A surprisingly consistent upward TOC trend was observed through weekly ISS total organic carbon analyzer (TOCA) monitoring. As TOC is a general organic compound indicator, return of water archive samples was needed to make better-informed crew health decisions on the specific compounds of concern and to aid in WPA troubleshooting. TOCA-measured TOC was more than halfway to the health-based screening limit of 3,000 g/L before archive samples were returned. Archive samples were returned on 22 Soyuz in September 2010 and on ULF5 in November of 2010. The samples were subjected to extensive analysis. Although TOC was confirmed to be elevated, somewhat surprisingly, none of the typical target compounds were detected at high levels. After some solid detective work, it was confirmed that the TOC was associated with a compound known as dimethylsilanediol (DMSD). DMSD is believed to be a breakdown product of siloxanes which are thought to be ubiquitous in the ISS atmosphere. A toxicological limit was set for DMSD and a forward plan was developed for conducting operations in the context of understanding the composition of the TOC measured in flight. This required careful consideration of existing ISS flight rules, coordination with ISS stakeholders, and development of a novel approach for the blending of inflight TOCA data with archive results to protect crew health. Among other challenges, team members had to determine how to utilize TOCA readings when making decisions about crew consumption of WPA water. This involved balancing very real concerns associated with the assumption that TOC would continue to be comprised of only DMSD. Demonstrated teamwork, multidisciplinary awareness, and innovative problem-solving were required to respond effectively to this anomaly.

  15. Validation of a new software version for monitoring of the core of the Unit 2 of the Laguna Verde power plant with ARTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calleros, G.; Riestra, M.; Ibanez, C.; Lopez, X.; Vargas, A.; Mendez, A.; Gomez, R.

    2005-01-01

    In this work it is intended a methodology to validate a new version of the software used for monitoring the reactor core, which requires of the evaluation of the thermal limits settled down in the Operation Technical Specifications, for the Unit 2 of Laguna Verde with ARTS (improvements to the APRMs, Rod Block Monitor and Technical specifications). According to the proposed methodology, those are shown differences found in the thermal limits determined with the new versions and previous of the core monitoring software. Author)

  16. Monitoring to assess progress toward meeting the Assabet River, Massachusetts, phosphorus total maximum daily load - Aquatic macrophyte biomass and sediment-phosphorus flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Marc J.; Qian, Yu; Yong Q., Tian

    2011-01-01

    In 2004, the Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) for Total Phosphorus in the Assabet River, Massachusetts, was approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The goal of the TMDL was to decrease the concentrations of the nutrient phosphorus to mitigate some of the instream ecological effects of eutrophication on the river; these effects were, for the most part, direct consequences of the excessive growth of aquatic macrophytes. The primary instrument effecting lower concentrations of phosphorus was to be strict control of phosphorus releases from four major wastewatertreatment plants in Westborough, Marlborough, Hudson, and Maynard, Massachusetts. The improvements to be achieved from implementing this control were lower concentrations of total and dissolved phosphorus in the river, a 50-percent reduction in aquatic-plant biomass, a 30-percent reduction in episodes of dissolved oxygen supersaturation, no low-flow dissolved oxygen concentrations less than 5.0 milligrams per liter, and a 90-percent reduction in sediment releases of phosphorus to the overlying water. In 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, initiated studies to evaluate conditions in the Assabet River prior to the upgrading of wastewater-treatment plants to remove more phosphorus from their effluents. The studies, completed in 2008, implemented a visual monitoring plan to evaluate the extent and biomass of the floating macrophyte Lemna minor (commonly known as lesser duckweed) in five impoundments and evaluated the potential for phosphorus flux from sediments in impounded and free-flowing reaches of the river. Hydrologically, the two study years 2007 and 2008 were quite different. In 2007, summer streamflows, although low, were higher than average, and in 2008, the flows were generally higher than in 2007. Visually, the effects of these streamflow differences on the distribution of Lemna were obvious. In 2007, large amounts of

  17. FELASA recommendations for the health monitoring of mouse, rat, hamster, guinea pig and rabbit colonies in breeding and experimental units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mähler Convenor, M; Berard, M; Feinstein, R; Gallagher, A; Illgen-Wilcke, B; Pritchett-Corning, K; Raspa, M

    2014-07-01

    The microbiological quality of experimental animals can critically influence animal welfare and the validity and reproducibility of research data. It is therefore important for breeding and experimental facilities to establish a laboratory animal health monitoring (HM) programme as an integrated part of any quality assurance system. FELASA has published recommendations for the HM of rodent and rabbit colonies in breeding and experimental units (Nicklas et al. Laboratory Animals, 2002), with the intention of harmonizing HM programmes. As stated in the preamble, these recommendations need to be adapted periodically to meet current developments in laboratory animal medicine. Accordingly, previous recommendations have been revised and shall be replaced by the present recommendations. These recommendations are aimed at all breeders and users of laboratory mice, rats, Syrian hamsters, guinea pigs and rabbits as well as diagnostic laboratories. They describe essential aspects of HM, such as the choice of agents, selection of animals and tissues for testing, frequency of sampling, commonly used test methods, interpretation of results and HM reporting. Compared with previous recommendations, more emphasis is put on the role of a person with sufficient understanding of the principles of HM, opportunistic agents, the use of sentinel animals (particularly under conditions of cage-level containment) and the interpretation and reporting of HM results. Relevant agents, testing frequencies and literature references are updated. Supplementary information on specific agents and the number of animals to be monitored and an example of a HM programme description is provided in the appendices. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  18. Monitoring dolphins in an urban marine system: total and effective population size estimates of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins in Moreton Bay, Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina C Ansmann

    Full Text Available Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia is an area of high biodiversity and conservation value and home to two sympatric sub-populations of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus. These dolphins live in close proximity to major urban developments. Successful management requires information regarding their abundance. Here, we estimate total and effective population sizes of bottlenose dolphins in Moreton Bay using photo-identification and genetic data collected during boat-based surveys in 2008-2010. Abundance (N was estimated using open population mark-recapture models based on sighting histories of distinctive individuals. Effective population size (Ne was estimated using the linkage disequilibrium method based on nuclear genetic data at 20 microsatellite markers in skin samples, and corrected for bias caused by overlapping generations (Ne c. A total of 174 sightings of dolphin groups were recorded and 365 different individuals identified. Over the whole of Moreton Bay, a population size N of 554 ± 22.2 (SE (95% CI: 510-598 was estimated. The southern bay sub-population was small at an estimated N = 193 ± 6.4 (SE (95% CI: 181-207, while the North sub-population was more numerous, with 446 ± 56 (SE (95% CI: 336-556 individuals. The small estimated effective population size of the southern sub-population (Ne c = 56, 95% CI: 33-128 raises conservation concerns. A power analysis suggested that to reliably detect small (5% declines in size of this population would require substantial survey effort (>4 years of annual mark-recapture surveys at the precision levels achieved here. To ensure that ecological as well as genetic diversity within this population of bottlenose dolphins is preserved, we consider that North and South sub-populations should be treated as separate management units. Systematic surveys over smaller areas holding locally-adapted sub-populations are suggested as an alternative method for increasing ability to detect

  19. Player Monitoring in Indoor Team Sports: Concurrent Validity of Inertial Measurement Units to Quantify Average and Peak Acceleration Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mareike Roell

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The increasing interest in assessing physical demands in team sports has led to the development of multiple sports related monitoring systems. Due to technical limitations, these systems primarily could be applied to outdoor sports, whereas an equivalent indoor locomotion analysis is not established yet. Technological development of inertial measurement units (IMU broadens the possibilities for player monitoring and enables the quantification of locomotor movements in indoor environments. The aim of the current study was to validate an IMU measuring by determining average and peak human acceleration under indoor conditions in team sport specific movements. Data of a single wearable tracking device including an IMU (Optimeye S5, Catapult Sports, Melbourne, Australia were compared to the results of a 3D motion analysis (MA system (Vicon Motion Systems, Oxford, UK during selected standardized movement simulations in an indoor laboratory (n = 56. A low-pass filtering method for gravity correction (LF and two sensor fusion algorithms for orientation estimation [Complementary Filter (CF, Kalman-Filter (KF] were implemented and compared with MA system data. Significant differences (p < 0.05 were found between LF and MA data but not between sensor fusion algorithms and MA. Higher precision and lower relative errors were found for CF (RMSE = 0.05; CV = 2.6% and KF (RMSE = 0.15; CV = 3.8% both compared to the LF method (RMSE = 1.14; CV = 47.6% regarding the magnitude of the resulting vector and strongly emphasize the implementation of orientation estimation to accurately describe human acceleration. Comparing both sensor fusion algorithms, CF revealed slightly lower errors than KF and additionally provided valuable information about positive and negative acceleration values in all three movement planes with moderate to good validity (CV = 3.9 – 17.8%. Compared to x- and y-axis superior results were found for the z-axis. These findings demonstrate that

  20. Applications of the monitor of loose parts in the cycle 6 of the Laguna Verde Unit 2 power plant; Aplicaciones del monitor de partes sueltas en el ciclo 6 de la Unidad 2 de la central Laguna Verde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calleros, G.; Mendez, A.; Gomez, R.A. [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Central Nucleoelectrica Laguna Verde, Veracruz (Mexico); Castillo, R.; Bravo, J.M. [ININ, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: gcm9acpp@cfe.gob.mx

    2004-07-01

    The monitor of loose parts (Loose Parts Monitoring System) installed in the Unit 2 of the Laguna Verde Central is a tool to detect strange objects or parts loose in the system of refrigeration of the reactor that could be impacted in the walls of the recirculation knots or in the internal of the reactor. In this work two applications are shown carried out with the Monitor of Loose Parts, determining the characteristics of the stable nominal conditions, those which when changing, they are used to diagnose during the Cycle 6 of the Unit 2, failures in the components of the the recirculation circuits or to identify mechanical vibrations of the recirculation knots induced by a flow of recirculation bistable associated to operative conditions of the reactor. (Author)

  1. Provider Use of a Novel EHR display in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit. Large Customizable Interactive Monitor (LCIM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asan, Onur; Holden, Richard J; Flynn, Kathryn E; Yang, Yushi; Azam, Laila; Scanlon, Matthew C

    2016-07-20

    The purpose of this study was to explore providers' perspectives on the use of a novel technology, "Large Customizable Interactive Monitor" (LCIM), a novel application of the electronic health record system implemented in a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit. We employed a qualitative approach to collect and analyze data from pediatric intensive care physicians, pediatric nurse practitioners, and acute care specialists. Using semi-structured interviews, we collected data from January to April, 2015. The research team analyzed the transcripts using an iterative coding method to identify common themes. Study results highlight contextual data on providers' use routines of the LCIM. Findings from thirty six interviews were classified into three groups: 1) providers' familiarity with the LCIM; 2) providers' use routines (i.e. when and how they use it); and 3) reasons why they use or do not use it. It is important to conduct baseline studies of the use of novel technologies. The importance of training and orientation affects the adoption and use patterns of this new technology. This study is notable for being the first to investigate a LCIM system, a next generation system implemented in the pediatric critical care setting. Our study revealed this next generation HIT might have great potential for family-centered rounds, team education during rounds, and family education/engagement in their child's health in the patient room. This study also highlights the effect of training and orientation on the adoption patterns of new technology.

  2. Prevalence of autism spectrum disorders--Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, 14 sites, United States, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a group of developmental disabilities characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication and by restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behavior. Symptoms typically are apparent before age 3 years. The complex nature of these disorders, coupled with a lack of biologic markers for diagnosis and changes in clinical definitions over time, creates challenges in monitoring the prevalence of ASDs. Accurate reporting of data is essential to understand the prevalence of ASDs in the population and can help direct research. 2008. The Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM) Network is an active surveillance system that estimates the prevalence of ASDs and describes other characteristics among children aged 8 years whose parents or guardians reside within 14 ADDM sites in the United States. ADDM does not rely on professional or family reporting of an existing ASD diagnosis or classification to ascertain case status. Instead, information is obtained from children's evaluation records to determine the presence of ASD symptoms at any time from birth through the end of the year when the child reaches age 8 years. ADDM focuses on children aged 8 years because a baseline study conducted by CDC demonstrated that this is the age of identified peak prevalence. A child is included as meeting the surveillance case definition for an ASD if he or she displays behaviors (as described on a comprehensive evaluation completed by a qualified professional) consistent with the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) diagnostic criteria for any of the following conditions: Autistic Disorder; Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS, including Atypical Autism); or Asperger Disorder. The first phase of the ADDM methodology involves screening and abstraction of comprehensive evaluations completed by professional providers at multiple

  3. Instrument-independent flux units for laser Doppler perfusion monitoring assessed in a multi-device study on the renal cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petoukhova, AL; Steenbergen, W; Morales, F; Graaff, R; de Jong, ED; Elstrodt, JM; de Mul, FFM; Rakhorst, G

    To investigate the feasibility of instrument-independent perfusion units for laser Doppler flowmetry, a comparison was performed of two commercial fiberoptic laser Doppler perfusion monitors measuring the same flux situation for two different types of probes. In vivo measurements were performed on

  4. Instrument-independent flux units for laser Doppler perfusion monitoring assessed in a multi-device study on the renal cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petoukhova, Anna; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; Morales, F.; Graaff, R.; de Jong, Ed; Elstrodt, J.M.; de Mul, F.F.M.; Rakhorst, G.

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility of instrument-independent perfusion units for laser Doppler flowmetry, a comparison was performed of two commercial fiberoptic laser Doppler perfusion monitors measuring the same flux situation for two different types of probes. In vivo measurements were performed on

  5. Performance of risk-adjusted control charts to monitor in-hospital mortality of intensive care unit patients: A simulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetsier, Antonie; de Keizer, Nicolette F.; de Jonge, Evert; Cook, David A.; Peek, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Increases in case-mix adjusted mortality may be indications of decreasing quality of care. Risk-adjusted control charts can be used for in-hospital mortality monitoring in intensive care units by issuing a warning signal when there are more deaths than expected. The aim of this study was

  6. The Impact of an Educational Program Regarding Total Parenteral Nutrition on Infection Indicators in Neonates Admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marofi, Maryam; Bijani, Nahid; Abdeyazdan, Zahra; Barekatain, Behzad

    2017-01-01

    One of the basic care measures for preterm infants is providing nutrition through total parenteral nutrition (TPN) and one of the most important complications of it is infection. Because prevention of nosocomial infections is an important issue for neonate's safety, this study aimed to determine the effects of a continuing medical education (CME) course on TPN for neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) nurses on indicators of infection in newborns. This quasi-experimental study was conducted on 127 neonates who fulfilled the inclusion criteria. They were selected through simple convenience sampling method at two stages of before and after the CME program. The inclusion criteria were prescription of TPN by the physician and lack of clinical evidences for infection in newborns before the beginning of TPN. Death of the infant during each stage of the study was considered as the exclusion criteria. The data gathering tool was a data record sheet including clinical signs of infection in the infants and their demographic characteristics. Data were analyzed using Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, and student's t -test in SPSS software. The results showed the frequency of clinical markers for infection in newborns at the pre-intervention stage ( n = 41; 65.10%) was significantly less than at the post-intervention stage ( n = 30; 46.90%) ( p = 0.04). Nursing educational programs on TPN reduce infection rates among neonates in NICUs.

  7. Decrease in Ionized and Total Magnesium Blood Concentrations in Endurance Athletes Following an Exercise Bout Restores within Hours-Potential Consequences for Monitoring and Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terink, Rieneke; Balvers, Michiel G J; Hopman, Maria T; Witkamp, Renger F; Mensink, Marco; Gunnewiek, Jacqueline M T Klein

    2017-06-01

    Magnesium is essential for optimal sport performance, generating an interest to monitor its status in athletes. However, before measuring magnesium status in blood could become routine, more insight into its diurnal fluctuations and effects of exercise itself is necessary. Therefore, we measured the effect of an acute bout of exercise on ionized (iMg) and total plasma magnesium (tMg) in blood obtained from 18 healthy well-trained endurance athletes (age, 31.1 ± 8.1 yr.; VO 2max , 50.9 ± 7.5 ml/kg/min) at multiple time points, and compared this with a resting situation. At both days, 7 blood samples were taken at set time points (8:30 fasted, 11:00, 12:30, 13:30, 15:00, 16:00, 18:30). The control day was included to correct for a putative diurnal fluctuation of magnesium. During the exercise day, athletes performed a 90 min bicycle ergometer test (70% VO 2max ) between 11:00 and 12:30. Whole blood samples were analyzed for iMg and plasma for tMg concentrations. Both concentrations decreased significantly after exercise (0.52 ± 0.04-0.45 ± 0.03 mmol/L and 0.81 ± 0.07-0.73 ± 0.06 mmol/L, respectively, p exercise. These findings suggest that timing of blood sampling to analyze Mg status is important. Additional research is needed to establish the recovery time after different types of exercise to come to a general advice regarding the timing of magnesium status assessment in practice.

  8. 40 CFR 60.1810 - How do I monitor the load of my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... municipal waste combustion unit? 60.1810 Section 60.1810 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Guidelines and Compliance Times for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30... combustion unit? (a) If your municipal waste combustion unit generates steam, you must install, calibrate...

  9. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Ppp of... - Process Vents From Batch Unit Operations-Monitoring, Recordkeeping, and Reporting Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... all instances when monitoring data are not collected—PR. d,e If a base absorbent is used, report all p... all instances when monitoring data are not collected—PR. d,e Catalytic Incinerator Temperature... instances when monitoring data are not collected. e Boiler or Process Heater with a design heat input...

  10. Changes in the fraction of total hypoxia and hypoxia subtypes in human squamous cell carcinomas upon fractionated irradiation: Evaluation using pattern recognition in microcirculatory supply units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maftei, Constantin-Alin; Bayer, Christine; Shi, Kuangyu; Astner, Sabrina T.; Vaupel, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose: Evaluate changes in total hypoxia and hypoxia subtypes in vital tumor tissue of human head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (hHNSCC) upon fractionated irradiation. Materials and methods: Xenograft tumors were generated from 5 hHNSCC cell lines (UT-SCC-15, FaDu, SAS, UT-SCC-5 and UT-SCC-14). Hypoxia subtypes were quantified in cryosections based on (immuno-)fluorescent marker distribution patterns of Hoechst 33342 (perfusion), pimonidazole (hypoxia) and CD31 (endothelium) in microcirculatory supply units (MCSUs). Tumors were irradiated with 5 or 10 fractions of 2 Gy, 5×/week. Results: Upon irradiation with 10 fractions, the overall fraction of hypoxic MCSUs decreased in UT-SCC-15, FaDu and SAS, remained the same in UT-SCC-5 and increased in UT-SCC-14. Decreases were observed in the proportion of chronically hypoxic MCSUs in UT-SCC-15, in the fraction of acutely hypoxic MCSUs in UT-SCC-15 and SAS, and in the percentage of hypoxemically hypoxic MCSUs in SAS tumors. After irradiation with 5 fractions, there were no significant changes in hypoxia subtypes. Changes in the overall fraction of hypoxic MCSUs were comparable to corresponding alterations in the proportions of acutely hypoxic MCSUs. There was no correlation between radiation resistance (TCD 50 ) and any of the investigated hypoxic fractions upon fractionated irradiation. Conclusions: This study shows that there are large alterations in the fractions of hypoxia subtypes upon irradiation that can differ from changes in the overall fraction of hypoxic MCSUs.

  11. Physical Function After Total Knee Replacement: An Observational Study Describing Outcomes in a Small Group of Women From China and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Daniel K; Li, Zhichang; Zhang, Yuqing; Marmon, Adam R; Master, Hiral; Zeni, Joseph; Niu, Jingbo; Jiang, Long; Zhang, Shu; Lin, Jianhao

    2018-01-01

    To describe physical function before and six months after Total Knee Replacement (TKR) in a small sample of women from China and the United States. Observational. Community environment. Both groups adhered to the Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) protocols for the 6-minute walk and 30-second chair stand. We compared physical function prior to TKR and 6 months after using linear regression adjusted for covariates. Women (N=60) after TKR. Not applicable. Age and body mass index in the China group (n=30; 66y and 27.0kg/m 2 ) were similar to those in the U.S. group (n=30; 65y and 29.6kg/m 2 ). Before surgery, the China group walked 263 (95% confidence interval [CI], -309 to -219) less meters and had 10.2 (95% CI, -11.8 to -8.5) fewer chair stands than the U.S. group. At 6 months when compared with the U.S. group, the China group walked 38 more meters, but this difference did not reach statistical significance (95% CI, -1.6 to 77.4), and had 3.1 (95% CI, -4.4 to -1.7) fewer chair stands. The China group had greater improvement in the 6-minute walk test than did the U.S. group (PChina group had greater gains in walking endurance and similar gains in repeated chair stands than did the U.S. group after surgery. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. An independent monitor unit calculation by commercial software as a part of a radiotherapy treatment planning system quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nechvil, K.; Mynarik, J.

    2014-01-01

    For the independent calculation of the monitored unit (MU) the commercial software RadCalc (Lifeline Software Inc., Tyler TX) was used as the choice of some available similar programs. The program was configured and used to verify the doses calculated by commercially accessible planning system Eclipse version 8.6.17 (Varian Medical System Inc., Palo Alto). This system is being used during the clinical running for the creation of the treatment plans. The results of each plan were compared to the dose phantom measurements by the ionization chamber at the same point in which the calculation were done (Eclipse, RadCalc) - in the izocentre. TPS is configured by the beam data (PDD and OAR). Those beam data were exported and afterwards the same data were imported to the program RadCalc. The consistent and independent data between TPS and RadCalc were gained by this process. The reference conditions were set the identical in RadCalc as in TPS, so the consistency between TPS and RadCalc output factors has been achieved (Collimator Scatter Factor: Sc, Phantom Scatter Factor: Sp). Those output factors were also measured by the ionizing chamber in the water phantom and compared with the TPS. Based on the clinical data of the response to the doses, ICRU recommends ensuring the ability of dosimetric systems to deliver the doses with accuracy of at least 5%. Many factors, such as layout of anatomic structures, positioning of a patient, factors related to an accelerator (a dose calibration and mechanic parameters) cause random and systematic failures in a dose delivery. The source of some problems can be also caused by the system databases and relating information transfer; and the TPS containing besides other things other dose calculation algorithms. (authors)

  13. Poster - 21: Verification of Monitor Unit Calculations for Breast Field-In-Field Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy Plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosztyla, Robert; Pierce, Greg; Ploquin, Nicolas; Roumeliotis, Michael; Schinkel, Colleen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the source of systematic monitor unit (MU) calculation discrepancies between RadCalc and Eclipse treatment planning software for three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy field-in-field breast treatments. Methods: Data were reviewed for 28 patients treated with a field-in-field breast technique with MU calculations from RadCalc that were larger than MU calculations from Eclipse for at least one field. The distance of the calculation point from the jaws was measured in each field’s beam’s-eye-view and compared with the percentage difference in MU (%ΔMU) between RadCalc and Eclipse. 10×10, 17×13 and 20×20 cm 2 beam profiles were measured using the Profiler 2 diode array for 6-MV photon beams and compared with profiles calculated with Eclipse and RadCalc using a gamma analysis (3%, 3 mm). Results: The mean %ΔMU was 1.3%±0.3%. There was a statistically-significant correlation between %ΔMU and the distance of the calculation point from the Y jaw (r=−0.43, p<0.001). RadCalc profiles differed from measured profiles, especially near the jaws. The gamma pass rate for 6-MV fields of 17×13 cm 2 field size was 95%±1% for Eclipse-generated profiles and 53%±20% for RadCalc-generated profiles (p=0.01). Conclusions: Calculations using RadCalc for field-in-field breast plans resulted in MUs that were larger than expected from previous clinical experience with wedged plans with calculation points far from the jaws due to the position of the calculation point near the jaws in the beam’s-eye-view of each field.

  14. Exchange sex among people receiving medical care for HIV in the United States - medical monitoring project 2009-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaiya, Oluwatosin; Nerlander, Lina; Mattson, Christine L; Beer, Linda

    2018-04-20

    Many studies of persons who exchange sex for money or drugs have focused on their HIV acquisition risk, and are often limited to select populations and/or geographical locations. National estimates of exchange sex among people living with HIV (PLWH) who are in medical care, and its correlates, are lacking. To address these gaps, we analyzed data from the Medical Monitoring Project, a surveillance system that produces nationally representative estimates of behavioral and clinical characteristics of PLWH receiving medical care in the United States, to estimate the weighted prevalence of exchange sex overall, and by selected socio-demographic, behavioral and clinical characteristics. We found 3.6% of sexually active adults reported exchange sex in the past 12 months. We found a higher prevalence of exchange sex among transgender persons, those who experienced homelessness, and those with unmet needs for social and medical services. Persons who exchanged sex were more likely to report depression and substance use than those who did not exchange sex. We found a higher prevalence of sexual behaviors that increase the risk of HIV transmission and lower viral suppression among persons who exchanged sex. PLWH who exchanged sex had a higher prevalence of not being prescribed ART, and not being ART adherent than those who did not exchange sex. We identify several areas for intervention, including: provision of or referral to services for unmet needs (such as housing or shelter), enhanced delivery of mental health and substance abuse screening and treatment, risk-reduction counseling, and ART prescription and adherence support services.

  15. Poster - 21: Verification of Monitor Unit Calculations for Breast Field-In-Field Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy Plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosztyla, Robert; Pierce, Greg; Ploquin, Nicolas; Roumeliotis, Michael; Schinkel, Colleen [Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, AB, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, AB, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2016-08-15

    Purpose: To determine the source of systematic monitor unit (MU) calculation discrepancies between RadCalc and Eclipse treatment planning software for three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy field-in-field breast treatments. Methods: Data were reviewed for 28 patients treated with a field-in-field breast technique with MU calculations from RadCalc that were larger than MU calculations from Eclipse for at least one field. The distance of the calculation point from the jaws was measured in each field’s beam’s-eye-view and compared with the percentage difference in MU (%ΔMU) between RadCalc and Eclipse. 10×10, 17×13 and 20×20 cm{sup 2} beam profiles were measured using the Profiler 2 diode array for 6-MV photon beams and compared with profiles calculated with Eclipse and RadCalc using a gamma analysis (3%, 3 mm). Results: The mean %ΔMU was 1.3%±0.3%. There was a statistically-significant correlation between %ΔMU and the distance of the calculation point from the Y jaw (r=−0.43, p<0.001). RadCalc profiles differed from measured profiles, especially near the jaws. The gamma pass rate for 6-MV fields of 17×13 cm{sup 2} field size was 95%±1% for Eclipse-generated profiles and 53%±20% for RadCalc-generated profiles (p=0.01). Conclusions: Calculations using RadCalc for field-in-field breast plans resulted in MUs that were larger than expected from previous clinical experience with wedged plans with calculation points far from the jaws due to the position of the calculation point near the jaws in the beam’s-eye-view of each field.

  16. SU-E-T-551: Monitor Unit Optimization in Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Stage I Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, B-T; Lu, J-Y

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The study aims to reduce the monitor units (MUs) in the stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) treatment for lung cancer by adjusting the optimizing parameters. Methods: Fourteen patients suffered from stage I Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) were enrolled. Three groups of parameters were adjusted to investigate their effects on MU numbers and organs at risk (OARs) sparing: (1) the upper objective of planning target volume (UOPTV); (2) strength setting in the MU constraining objective; (3) max MU setting in the MU constraining objective. Results: We found that the parameters in the optimizer influenced the MU numbers in a priority, strength and max MU dependent manner. MU numbers showed a decreasing trend with the UOPTV increasing. MU numbers with low, medium and high priority for the UOPTV were 428±54, 312±48 and 258±31 MU/Gy, respectively. High priority for UOPTV also spared the heart, cord and lung while maintaining comparable PTV coverage than the low and medium priority group. It was observed that MU numbers tended to decrease with the strength increasing and max MU setting decreasing. With maximum strength, the MU numbers reached its minimum while maintaining comparable or improved dose to the normal tissues. It was also found that the MU numbers continued to decline at 85% and 75% max MU setting but no longer to decrease at 50% and 25%. Combined with high priority for UOPTV and MU constraining objectives, the MU numbers can be decreased as low as 223±26 MU/Gy. Conclusion:: The priority of UOPTV, MU constraining objective in the optimizer impact on the MU numbers in SBRT treatment for lung cancer. Giving high priority to the UOPTV, setting the strength to maximum value and the max MU to 50% in the MU objective achieves the lowest MU numbers while maintaining comparable or improved OAR sparing

  17. Monitor unit calculations for external photon and electron beams: Report of the AAPM Therapy Physics Committee Task Group No. 71

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbons, John P., E-mail: john.gibbons@marybird.com [Department of Physics, Mary Bird Perkins Cancer Center, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70809 (United States); Antolak, John A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States); Followill, David S. [Department of Radiation Physics, UT M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Huq, M. Saiful [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15232 (United States); Klein, Eric E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States); Lam, Kwok L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Palta, Jatinder R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States); Roback, Donald M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Centers of North Carolina, Raleigh, North Carolina 27607 (United States); Reid, Mark [Department of Medical Physics, Fletcher-Allen Health Care, Burlington, Vermont 05401 (United States); Khan, Faiz M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    A protocol is presented for the calculation of monitor units (MU) for photon and electron beams, delivered with and without beam modifiers, for constant source-surface distance (SSD) and source-axis distance (SAD) setups. This protocol was written by Task Group 71 of the Therapy Physics Committee of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) and has been formally approved by the AAPM for clinical use. The protocol defines the nomenclature for the dosimetric quantities used in these calculations, along with instructions for their determination and measurement. Calculations are made using the dose per MU under normalization conditions, D{sub 0}{sup ′}, that is determined for each user's photon and electron beams. For electron beams, the depth of normalization is taken to be the depth of maximum dose along the central axis for the same field incident on a water phantom at the same SSD, where D{sub 0}{sup ′} = 1 cGy/MU. For photon beams, this task group recommends that a normalization depth of 10 cm be selected, where an energy-dependent D{sub 0}{sup ′} ≤ 1 cGy/MU is required. This recommendation differs from the more common approach of a normalization depth of d{sub m}, with D{sub 0}{sup ′} = 1 cGy/MU, although both systems are acceptable within the current protocol. For photon beams, the formalism includes the use of blocked fields, physical or dynamic wedges, and (static) multileaf collimation. No formalism is provided for intensity modulated radiation therapy calculations, although some general considerations and a review of current calculation techniques are included. For electron beams, the formalism provides for calculations at the standard and extended SSDs using either an effective SSD or an air-gap correction factor. Example tables and problems are included to illustrate the basic concepts within the presented formalism.

  18. Monitor Unit Calculation for the Multileaf Intensity Modulating Collimator (MIMiCTM) in the PeacockTM Plan System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kania, Aleksander A.; Bleier, Alan R.; Carol, Mark P.

    1995-01-01

    A finite-size pencil beam method has been chosen for dose modelling in conformal radiotherapy when the Multileaf Intensity Modulating Collimator (MIMiC) is used to deliver the treatment. The MIMiC has two rows of 20 tungsten leaves which retract toward or away from the accelerator gantry, producing two intensity-modulated transaxial treatment slices which are 20 cm x 1 or 2 cm at isocenter. The treatment field is thus a fan beam made up of 40 sub-beams or finite-size pencil beams, leading to the choice of the model. Rotational treatments with the MIMiC are modelled in Peacock Plan as a set of ports spaced at gantry angle increments of 5 deg. to 10 deg. . The fractional time spent by the leaf in the beam during the gantry angle increment determines the intensity. The intensities from each leaf for each port are optimized in Peacock Plan, one treatment slice at a time, and then the dose from all slices is combined. The treatment planning system uses a two-dimensional measured pencil beam profile from one leaf at a selected reference depth along with measured open field, broad beam profiles at several depths. This makes beam data collection simple and dosimetrically flexible. The nature of the measured data imposes some conditions on calculation of Monitor Units (MU). The calculation must also take into consideration that two independent slices are delivered at the same time, and that multiple slices may be used to treat targets which are longer in the inferior-superior direction than the field produced by two slices. The MU calculation method is derived and presented as an enhancement of the traditional method of MU determination for treatments based on static ports. Experimental results indicative of the validity and limitations of the model will be demonstrated

  19. MifM monitors total YidC activities of Bacillus subtilis, including that of YidC2, the target of regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Shinobu; Ito, Koreaki

    2015-01-01

    The YidC/Oxa1/Alb3 family proteins are involved in membrane protein biogenesis in bacteria, mitochondria, and chloroplasts. Recent studies show that YidC uses a channel-independent mechanism to insert a class of membrane proteins into the membrane. Bacillus subtilis has two YidC homologs, SpoIIIJ (YidC1) and YidC2 (YqjG); the former is expressed constitutively, while the latter is induced when the SpoIIIJ activity is compromised. MifM is a substrate of SpoIIIJ, and its failure in membrane insertion is accompanied by stable ribosome stalling on the mifM-yidC2 mRNA, which ultimately facilitates yidC2 translation. While mutational inactivation of SpoIIIJ has been known to induce yidC2 expression, here, we show that the level of this induction is lower than that observed when the membrane insertion signal of MifM is defective. Moreover, this partial induction of YidC2 translation is lowered further when YidC2 is overexpressed in trans. These results suggest that YidC2 is able to insert MifM into the membrane and to release its translation arrest. Thus, under SpoIIIJ-deficient conditions, YidC2 expression is subject to MifM-mediated autogenous feedback repression. Our results show that YidC2 uses a mechanism that is virtually identical to that used by SpoIIIJ; Arg75 of YidC2 in its intramembrane yet hydrophilic cavity is functionally indispensable and requires negatively charged residues of MifM as an insertion substrate. From these results, we conclude that MifM monitors the total activities of the SpoIIIJ and the YidC2 pathways to control the synthesis of YidC2 and to maintain the cellular capability of the YidC mode of membrane protein biogenesis. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. [A study of epilepsy according to the age at onset and monitored for 3 years in a regional reference paediatric neurology unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa-Gómez, Laura; López-Pisón, Javier; Lapresta Moros, Carlos; Fuertes Rodrigo, Cristina; Fernando Martínez, Ruth; Samper-Villagrasa, Pilar; Monge-Galindo, Lorena; Peña-Segura, José Luis; García-Jiménez, María Concepción

    2017-01-01

    A study of epilepsy, according to the age at onset of the crisis and its causes, monitored by a Paediatric Neurology Unit over a period of three years. Historical cohorts study was conducted by reviewing the Paediatric Neurology medical records data base of epileptic children followed-up from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2010. A total of 4,595 children were attended during the study period. The diagnosis of epilepsy was established in 605 (13.17%): 277 (45.79%) symptomatic, 156 (25.79%) idiopathic, and 172 (28.43%) with cryptogenic epilepsy. Absence epilepsy and benign childhood epilepsy with centro-temporal spikes are the idiopathic epileptic syndromes most prevalent, and the most prevalent symptomatic epilepsies are prenatal encephalopathies. More than one-quarter (26.12%) of epilepsies began in the first year of life, and 67.72% were symptomatic. Refractory epilepsy was observed in 25.29%, 42.46% with cognitive impairment, 26.45% with motor involvement, and 9.92% with an autism spectrum disorder, being more frequent at an earlier age of onset. The absence of a universally accepted classification of epileptic syndromes makes tasks like this difficult, starting with the terminology. A useful classification would be aetiological, with two groups: a large group with established aetiology, or very likely genetic syndromes, and another with no established cause. The age of onset of epilepsy in each aetiological group helps in the prognosis, which is worsened by refractoriness and associated neurodevelopmental disorders, and are generally worse at an earlier onset and in certain aetiologies. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Monitoring storm tide and flooding from Hurricane Matthew along the Atlantic coast of the United States, October 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantz, Eric R.; Byrne,, Michael L.; Caldwell, Andral W.; Harden, Stephen L.

    2017-11-02

    IntroductionHurricane Matthew moved adjacent to the coasts of Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, and North Carolina. The hurricane made landfall once near McClellanville, South Carolina, on October 8, 2016, as a Category 1 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) deployed a temporary monitoring network of storm-tide sensors at 284 sites along the Atlantic coast from Florida to North Carolina to record the timing, areal extent, and magnitude of hurricane storm tide and coastal flooding generated by Hurricane Matthew. Storm tide, as defined by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, is the water-level rise generated by a combination of storm surge and astronomical tide during a coastal storm.The deployment for Hurricane Matthew was the largest deployment of storm-tide sensors in USGS history and was completed as part of a coordinated Federal emergency response as outlined by the Stafford Act (Public Law 92–288, 42 U.S.C. 5121–5207) under a directed mission assignment by the Federal Emergency Management Agency. In total, 543 high-water marks (HWMs) also were collected after Hurricane Matthew, and this was the second largest HWM recovery effort in USGS history after Hurricane Sandy in 2012.During the hurricane, real-time water-level data collected at temporary rapid deployment gages (RDGs) and long-term USGS streamgage stations were relayed immediately for display on the USGS Flood Event Viewer (https://stn.wim.usgs.gov/FEV/#MatthewOctober2016). These data provided emergency managers and responders with critical information for tracking flood-effected areas and directing assistance to effected communities. Data collected from this hurricane can be used to calibrate and evaluate the performance of storm-tide models for maximum and incremental water level and flood extent, and the site-specific effects of storm tide on natural and anthropogenic features of the environment.

  2. Total protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003483.htm Total protein To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes ...

  3. 40 CFR Table 24 to Subpart Uuu of... - Continuous Monitoring Systems for Inorganic HAP Emissions From Catalytic Reforming Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... alkalinity of the water (or scrubbing liquid) exiting the scrubber during coke burn-off and catalyst... parameter monitoring system to measure and record the pH or alkalinity of the water (or scrubbing liquid... parameter monitoring system for alkalinity of the water (or scrubbing liquid). [70 FR 6956, Feb. 9, 2005] ...

  4. Evaluation of delivered monitor unit accuracy of gated step-and-shoot IMRT using a two-dimensional detector array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, Kwang-Ho; Kang, Sei-Kwon; Lee, MeYeon; Kim, Su SSan; Park, SoAh; Hwang, Tae-Jin; Kim, Kyoung Ju; Oh, Do Hoon; Bae, Hoonsik; Suh, Tae-Suk [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul, 431070 (Korea, Republic of) and Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 137701 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul 431070 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 137701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: To overcome the problem of organ motion in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), gated IMRT is often used for the treatment of lung cancer. In this study, the authors investigated the accuracy of the delivered monitor units (MUs) from each segment during gated IMRT using a two-dimensional detector array for user-specific verification purpose. Methods: The authors planned a 6 MV photon, seven-port step-and-shoot lung IMRT delivery. The respiration signals for gated IMRT delivery were obtained from the one-dimensional moving phantom using the real-time position management (RPM) system (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA). The beams were delivered using a Clinac iX (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) with the Millennium 120 MLC. The MatriXX (IBA Dosimetry GmbH, Germany) was validated through consistency and reproducibility tests as well as comparison with measurements from a Farmer-type ion chamber. The authors delivered beams with varying dose rates and duty cycles and analyzed the MatriXX data to evaluate MU delivery accuracy. Results: There was quite good agreement between the planned segment MUs and the MUs computed from the MatriXX within {+-}2% error. The beam-on times computed from the MatriXX data were almost identical for all cases, and they matched well with the RPM beam-on and beam-off signals. A slight difference was observed between them, but it was less than 40 ms. The gated IMRT delivery demonstrated an MU delivery accuracy that was equivalent to ungated IMRT, and the delivered MUs with a gating signal agreed with the planned MUs within {+-}0.5 MU regardless of dose rate and duty cycle. Conclusions: The authors can conclude that gated IMRT is able to deliver an accurate dose to a patient during a procedure. The authors believe that the methodology and results can be transferred to other vendors' devices, particularly those that do not provide MLC log data for a verification purpose.

  5. Monitoring and Assessment Science to Support Decision-Making by the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winslow, M.; Akhtar-Schuster, M.; Cherlet, M.; Martius, C.; Sommer, S.; Thomas, R.; Vogt, J.

    2009-12-01

    The United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) is a global treaty that emerged from the Rio Earth Summit and formally took force in 1996. It has now been ratified by 193 countries (known as Parties to the Convention). Yet the UNCCD has gained only modest support from donors, largely due to questions about the science base underlying its target issue (desertification) resulting in ambiguous definitions and quantification of the problem. The UNCCD recognizes the need to reform itself and commissioned a scientific conference in Buenos Aires, Argentina in September 2009 to discuss ways to improve the scientific underpinning of monitoring and assessment (M&A) of desertification, land degradation and drought (DLDD). Previous attempts by the UNCCD on M&A focused largely on a search for a common, simple, universal set of indicators that could be reported by country Parties to the Convention Secretariat, which would collate them into a global report. However experience found that no single set of indicators is satisfactory to all countries, because DLDD depends strongly on the local environmental and human/social context. Three preparatory Working Groups analyzed the issue of DLDD M&A and recommended the following. Parties should recognize that M&A methods must integrate human-environment parameters to capture the complexity of DLDD phenomena as defined in the Convention’s text. Traditional tendencies had been to isolate biophysical from social and economic parameters, leading to unrealistic conclusions. Parties should take advantage of a much wider range of analytical techniques than just the coarse-scale indicators that had been their main focus to date. Powerful but underutilized techniques include integrated assessment models, remote sensing, geographic information systems and mapping, participatory stakeholder assessment, hierarchical aggregation of related data, knowledge management and many others. Multiple methods could provide validation checks

  6. Baseline and Postremediation Monitoring Program Plan for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek operable unit, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    This report was prepared in accordance with CERCLA requirements to present the plan for baseline and postremediation monitoring as part of the selected remedy. It provides the Environmental Restoration Program with information about the requirements to monitor for soil and terrestrial biota in the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) floodplain; sediment, surface water, and aquatic biota in LEFPC; wetland restoration in the LEFPC floodplain; and human use of shallow groundwater wells in the LEFPC floodplain for drinking water. This document describes the monitoring program that will ensure that actions taken under Phases I and II of the LEFPC remedial action are protective of human health and the environment

  7. Alternative Site Technology Deployment-Monitoring System for the U-3ax/bl Disposal Unit at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, J.M.; Levitt, D.G.; Rawlinson, S.E.

    2001-01-01

    In December 2000, a performance monitoring facility was constructed adjacent to the U-3ax/bl mixed waste disposal unit at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Recent studies conducted in the arid southwestern United States suggest that a vegetated monolayer evapotranspiration (ET) closure cover may be more effective at isolating waste than traditional Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) multi-layered designs. The monitoring system deployed next to the U-3ax/bl disposal unit consists of eight drainage lysimeters with three surface treatments: two are left bare; two are revegetated with native species; two are being allowed to revegetate with invader species; and two are reserved for future studies. Soil used in each lysimeter is native alluvium taken from the same location as the soil used for the cover material on U-3ax/bl. The lysimeters were constructed so that any drainage to the bottom can be collected and measured. To provide a detailed evaluation of the cover performance, an ar ray of 16 sensors was installed in each lysimeter to measure soil water content, soil water potential, and soil temperature. Revegetation of the U-3ax/bl closure cover establishes a stable plant community that maximizes water loss through transpiration while at the same time, reduces water and wind erosion and ultimately restores the disposal unit to its surrounding Great Basin Desert environment

  8. 40 CFR 62.15265 - How do I monitor the load of my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... continuously estimate load level (for example, the feed rate of municipal solid waste or refuse-derived fuel... municipal waste combustion unit? 62.15265 Section 62.15265 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units...

  9. Total algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tel, G.

    We define the notion of total algorithms for networks of processes. A total algorithm enforces that a "decision" is taken by a subset of the processes, and that participation of all processes is required to reach this decision. Total algorithms are an important building block in the design of

  10. Mosses as an integrating tool for monitoring PAH atmospheric deposition: comparison with total deposition and evaluation of bioconcentration factors. A year-long case-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foan, Louise; Domercq, Maria; Bermejo, Raúl; Santamaría, Jesús Miguel; Simon, Valérie

    2015-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) atmospheric deposition was evaluated at a remote site in Northern Spain using moss biomonitoring with Hylocomium splendens (Hedw.) Schimp., and by measuring the total deposition fluxes of PAHs. The year-long study allowed seasonal variations of PAH content in mosses to be observed, and these followed a similar trend to those of PAH fluxes in total deposition. Generally, atmospheric deposition of PAHs is greater in winter than in summer, due to more PAH emissions from domestic heating, less photoreactivity of the compounds, and intense leaching of the atmosphere by wet deposition. However, fractionation of these molecules between the environmental compartments occurs: PAH fluxes in total deposition and PAH concentrations in mosses are correlated with their solubility (r=0.852, pPAH fluxes can be estimated with moss biomonitoring data if the bioconcentration or 'enriching' factors are known. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Amikacin Dosing and Monitoring in Spinal Cord Injury Patients: Variation in Clinical Practice Between Spinal Injury Units and Differences in Experts' Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramanian Vaidyanathan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article was to determine the current practice on amikacin dosing and monitoring in spinal cord injury patients from spinal cord physicians and experts. Physicians from spinal units and clinical pharmacologists were asked to provide protocol for dosing and monitoring of amikacin therapy in spinal cord injury patients. In a spinal unit in Poland, amikacin is administered usually 0.5 g twice daily. A once-daily regimen of amikacin is never used and amikacin concentrations are not determined. In Belgium, Southport (U.K., Spain, and the VA McGuire Medical Center (Richmond, Virginia, amikacin is given once daily. Whereas peak and trough concentrations are determined in Belgium, only trough concentration is measured in Southport. In both these spinal units, modification of the dose is not routinely done with a nomogram. In Spain and the VA McGuire Medical Center, monitoring of serum amikacin concentration is not done unless a patient has renal impairment. In contrast, the dose/interval of amikacin is adjusted according to pharmacokinetic parameters at the Edward Hines VA Hospital (Hines, Illinois, where amikacin is administered q24h or q48h, depending on creatinine clearance. Spinal cord physicians from Denmark, Germany, and the Kessler Institute for Rehabilitation (West Orange, New Jersey state that they do not use amikacin in spinal injury patients. An expert from Canada does not recommend determining serum concentrations of amikacin, but emphasizes the value of monitoring ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Experts from New Zealand recommend amikacin in conventional twice- or thrice-daily dosing because of the theoretical increased risk of neuromuscular blockade and apnea with larger daily doses in spinal cord injury patients. On the contrary, experts from Greece, Israel, and the U.S. recommend once-daily dosing and determining amikacin pharmacokinetic parameters for each patient. As there is considerable variation in clinical

  12. Quantitative monitoring of sucrose, reducing sugar and total sugar dynamics for phenotyping of water-deficit stress tolerance in rice through spectroscopy and chemometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Bappa; Sahoo, Rabi N.; Pargal, Sourabh; Krishna, Gopal; Verma, Rakesh; Chinnusamy, Viswanathan; Sehgal, Vinay K.; Gupta, Vinod K.; Dash, Sushanta K.; Swain, Padmini

    2018-03-01

    In the present investigation, the changes in sucrose, reducing and total sugar content due to water-deficit stress in rice leaves were modeled using visible, near infrared (VNIR) and shortwave infrared (SWIR) spectroscopy. The objectives of the study were to identify the best vegetation indices and suitable multivariate technique based on precise analysis of hyperspectral data (350 to 2500 nm) and sucrose, reducing sugar and total sugar content measured at different stress levels from 16 different rice genotypes. Spectral data analysis was done to identify suitable spectral indices and models for sucrose estimation. Novel spectral indices in near infrared (NIR) range viz. ratio spectral index (RSI) and normalised difference spectral indices (NDSI) sensitive to sucrose, reducing sugar and total sugar content were identified which were subsequently calibrated and validated. The RSI and NDSI models had R2 values of 0.65, 0.71 and 0.67; RPD values of 1.68, 1.95 and 1.66 for sucrose, reducing sugar and total sugar, respectively for validation dataset. Different multivariate spectral models such as artificial neural network (ANN), multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS), multiple linear regression (MLR), partial least square regression (PLSR), random forest regression (RFR) and support vector machine regression (SVMR) were also evaluated. The best performing multivariate models for sucrose, reducing sugars and total sugars were found to be, MARS, ANN and MARS, respectively with respect to RPD values of 2.08, 2.44, and 1.93. Results indicated that VNIR and SWIR spectroscopy combined with multivariate calibration can be used as a reliable alternative to conventional methods for measurement of sucrose, reducing sugars and total sugars of rice under water-deficit stress as this technique is fast, economic, and noninvasive.

  13. Synthesis of 2,4-disubstituted thiazole combinatorial unit on solid-phase: microwave assisted conversion of alcohol to amine monitored by FT-IR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonow, Dyeison; Eifler-Lima, Vera Lucia; Mahler, S. Graciela; Serra, Gloria L.; Manta, Eduardo

    2005-01-01

    Microwave-assisted solid-phase synthesis of the 2,4-disubstituted thiazole 3 on Merrifield Resin is described. The hydroxyl moiety was converted to amine in five steps - including coupling and cleavage - within a total reaction time of 2 hours and 26% overall yield. The entire solid-phase synthesis was efficiently monitored by FT-IR/KBr pellets and allows potential use in combinatorial chemistry. (author)

  14. Power consumption monitoring using additional monitoring device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truşcă, M. R. C., E-mail: radu.trusca@itim-cj.ro; Albert, Ş., E-mail: radu.trusca@itim-cj.ro; Tudoran, C., E-mail: radu.trusca@itim-cj.ro; Soran, M. L., E-mail: radu.trusca@itim-cj.ro; Fărcaş, F., E-mail: radu.trusca@itim-cj.ro [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Abrudean, M. [Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2013-11-13

    Today, emphasis is placed on reducing power consumption. Computers are large consumers; therefore it is important to know the total consumption of computing systems. Since their optimal functioning requires quite strict environmental conditions, without much variation in temperature and humidity, reducing energy consumption cannot be made without monitoring environmental parameters. Thus, the present work uses a multifunctional electric meter UPT 210 for power consumption monitoring. Two applications were developed: software which carries meter readings provided by electronic and programming facilitates remote device and a device for temperature monitoring and control. Following temperature variations that occur both in the cooling system, as well as the ambient, can reduce energy consumption. For this purpose, some air conditioning units or some computers are stopped in different time slots. These intervals were set so that the economy is high, but the work's Datacenter is not disturbed.

  15. Custo médio do Módulo de Coleta de sangue total pelo método ABC The mean cost of collection of whole blood units by the ABC method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugênia M. A. Ubiali

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Os procedimentos em hemoterapia são complexos e caros. Exigem processos controlados e validados, equipamentos calibrados e monitorados e insumos qualificados, validados e inspecionados antes e durante o uso. Isto acarreta, além dos gastos diretos, gastos indiretos especificamente relacionados à garantia da qualidade e da segurança transfusionais, além dos gastos indiretos usuais de qualquer produto ou serviço. Procurando avaliar com maior aproximação estes custos e buscando evitar as distorções das apropriações de custos por rateios, o presente estudo utilizou o sistema de Custeio Baseado em Atividades - ABC, para apurar o custo médio do Módulo de Coleta de sangue total no Hemocentro de Ribeirão Preto - SP, unidade sede, no primeiro semestre de 2006. O maior impacto no custo médio apurado se deveu aos custos monetários diretos, entretanto os custos indiretos não foram desprezíveis. O custo médio obtido para desempenho das atividades que compõem o Módulo de Coleta foi de R$ 35,20, que é 68,75% superior ao valor pago na tabela SIA/SUS para este módulo. A metodologia desenvolvida pode ser aplicada aos outros procedimentos dos serviços de hemoterapia, permitindo a avaliação dos custos de seus processos, evitando desperdícios, aprimorando o seu funcionamento e gerando evidências objetivas que demonstrem os custos reais da hemoterapia de qualidade para as instâncias financiadoras públicas e privadas.The procedures in hemotherapy are complex and expensive. They demand a controlled and validated process. They also require calibrated and monitored equipment and qualified and validated materials, inspected before and during use. This causes, apart from direct expenses, indirect expenses related to the guarantee of quality and transfusional safety, as well as the usual indirect costs of any product or service. The present study used the Activity-Based Costing system - ABC, to find the mean cost of collection of whole blood

  16. Hematologic, hepatic, renal, and lipid laboratory monitoring after initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy in the United States, 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanik, Elizabeth L; Napravnik, Sonia; Ryscavage, Patrick; Eron, Joseph J; Koletar, Susan L; Moore, Richard D; Zinski, Anne; Cole, Stephen R; Hunt, Peter; Crane, Heidi M; Kahn, James; Mathews, William C; Mayer, Kenneth H; Taiwo, Babafemi O

    2013-06-01

    We assessed laboratory monitoring after combination antiretroviral therapy initiation among 3678 patients in a large US multisite clinical cohort, censoring participants at last clinic visit, combination antiretroviral therapy change, or 3 years. Median days (interquartile range) to first hematologic, hepatic, renal, and lipid tests were 30 (18-53), 31 (19-56), 33 (20-59), and 350 (96-1106), respectively. At 1 year, approximately 80% received more than 2 hematologic, hepatic, and renal tests consistent with guidelines. However, only 40% received 1 or more lipid tests. Monitoring was more frequent in specific subgroups, likely reflecting better clinic attendance or clinician perception of higher susceptibility to toxicities.

  17. Increasing use of less-invasive hemodynamic monitoring in 3 specialty surgical intensive care units: a 5-year experience at a tertiary medical center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirton, Orlando C; Calabrese, Rebecca C; Staff, Ilene

    2015-01-01

    Less-invasive hemodynamic monitoring (eg, esophageal doppler monitoring [EDM] and arterial pressure contour analysis, FloTrac) is increasingly used as an alternative to pulmonary artery catheters (PACs) in critically ill intensive care unit (ICU). The decrease in use of PACs is not associated with increased mortality. Five-year retrospective review of 1894 hemodynamically monitored patients admitted to 3 surgical ICUs in a university-affiliate, tertiary care urban hospital. Data included the number of admissions, diagnosis-related group discharge case mix, length of stay, insertion of monitoring devices (PAC, EDM, and FloTrac probes), administered intravenous vasoactive agents (β-predominant agonists--dobutamine, epinephrine, and dopamine; vasopressors--norepinephrine and phenylephrine), and mortality. Data from hospital administrative databases were compiled to create patient characteristic and monitoring variables across a 5-year time period, 2005 to 2009 inclusive. Chi-square for independent proportions, 1-way analysis of variance, and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used; tests for trend were conducted. An α level of .05 was considered significant. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences v14 was used for all statistical testing. There was a significant change in the type of hemodynamic monitors inserted in 2 of the 3 surgical ICUs (in the general surgery and neurointensive care but not in the cardiac ICU) from PACs to less-invasive devices (FloTrac or EDM) during the 5-year study period (P < .001). There was no change in mortality rate over the time period (P = .492). There was an overall increase in the proportion of monitored patients who received intravenous vasoactive agents (P < .001) with a progressive shift from β-agonists to vasopressors (P < .002). Multivariate analyses indicated that age, case mix, and use of vasoactive agents were all independent predictors of inhospital mortality (P = .001) but that type of monitoring was not (P = .638). In a 5

  18. Monitoring of an esterification reaction by on-line direct liquid sampling mass spectrometry and in-line mid infrared spectrometry with an attenuated total reflectance probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, Andrew W.; McAulay, Edith A.J.; Nordon, Alison; Littlejohn, David; Lynch, Thomas P.; Lancaster, J. Steven; Wright, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • High efficiency thermal vaporiser designed and used for on-line reaction monitoring. • Concentration profiles of all reactants and products obtained from mass spectra. • By-product formed from the presence of an impurity detected by MS but not MIR. • Mass spectrometry can detect trace and bulk components unlike molecular spectrometry. - Abstract: A specially designed thermal vaporiser was used with a process mass spectrometer designed for gas analysis to monitor the esterification of butan-1-ol and acetic anhydride. The reaction was conducted at two scales: in a 150 mL flask and a 1 L jacketed batch reactor, with liquid delivery flow rates to the vaporiser of 0.1 and 1.0 mL min −1 , respectively. Mass spectrometry measurements were made at selected ion masses, and classical least squares multivariate linear regression was used to produce concentration profiles for the reactants, products and catalyst. The extent of reaction was obtained from the butyl acetate profile and found to be 83% and 76% at 40 °C and 20 °C, respectively, at the 1 L scale. Reactions in the 1 L reactor were also monitored by in-line mid-infrared (MIR) spectrometry; off-line gas chromatography (GC) was used as a reference technique when building partial least squares (PLS) multivariate calibration models for prediction of butyl acetate concentrations from the MIR spectra. In validation experiments, good agreement was achieved between the concentration of butyl acetate obtained from in-line MIR spectra and off-line GC. In the initial few minutes of the reaction the profiles for butyl acetate derived from on-line direct liquid sampling mass spectrometry (DLSMS) differed from those of in-line MIR spectrometry owing to the 2 min transfer time between the reactor and mass spectrometer. As the reaction proceeded, however, the difference between the concentration profiles became less noticeable. DLSMS had advantages over in-line MIR spectrometry as it was easier to generate

  19. Hand disinfection in a neonatal intensive care unit: continuous electronic monitoring over a one-year period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helder, O.K.; van Goudoever, J.B.; Hop, W.C.J.; Brug, J.; Kornelisse, R.F.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Good hand hygiene compliance is essential to prevent nosocomial infections in healthcare settings. Direct observation of hand hygiene compliance is the gold standard but is time consuming. An electronic dispenser with built-in wireless recording equipment allows continuous monitoring of

  20. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Uuu of... - Continous Monitoring Systems for Metal HAP Emissions From Catalytic Cracking Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... scrubbing liquor) flow rate to the control device. (2) If you use a wet scrubber of the non-venturi jet... liquor) flow rate to the control device. (2) If you use a wet scrubber of the non-venturi jet-ejector... size Electrostatic precipitator or wet scrubber or no control device Continuous opacity monitoring...

  1. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Ppp of... - Process Vents From Continuous Unit Operations-Monitoring, Recordkeeping, and Reporting Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... when insufficient monitoring data are collected. e Boiler or Process Heater with a design heat input... operating value established in the NCS or operating—PR. d,e Condenser f Exit (product side) temperature 1... operating permit—PR. d,e Absorber, Condenser, and Carbon Adsorber (as an alternative to the above...

  2. A comprehensive guide to fuel management practices for dry mixed conifer forests in the northwestern United States: Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theresa B. Jain; Mike A. Battaglia; Han-Sup Han; Russell T. Graham; Christopher R. Keyes; Jeremy S. Fried; Jonathan E. Sandquist

    2014-01-01

    Short- and medium-term evaluation of how fuel treatments are working is the only way to know if the hundreds of activities on the ground are adding up to the goals of more resilient landscapes and increased safety of people and property. Monitoring is a critical resource for decision makers who design fuels management programs, however it is an often neglected part of...

  3. POST CLOSURE INSPECTION AND MONITORING REPORT FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 417: CENTRAL NEVADA TEST AREA - SURFACE, HOT CREEK VALLEY, NEVADA, FOR CALENDAR YEAR 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BECHTEL NEVADA; NNSA NEVADA SITE OFFICE

    2005-04-01

    This post-closure inspection and monitoring report has been prepared according to the stipulations laid out in the Closure Report (CR) for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 417, Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA)--Surface (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office [NNSA/NV], 2001), and the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996). This report provides an analysis and summary of site inspections, subsidence surveys, meteorological information, and soil moisture monitoring data for CAU 417, which is located in Hot Creek Valley, Nye County, Nevada. This report covers Calendar Year 2004. Inspections at CAU 417 are conducted quarterly to document the physical condition of the UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4 soil covers, monuments, signs, fencing, and use restricted areas. The physical condition of fencing, monuments, and signs is noted, and any unusual conditions that could impact the integrity of the covers are reported. The objective of the soil moisture monitoring program is to monitor the stability of soil moisture conditions within the upper 1.2 meters (m) (4 feet [ft]) of the UC-1 Central Mud Pit (CMP) cover and detect changes that may be indicative of moisture movement exceeding the cover design performance expectations.

  4. Total Blood Mercury Levels and Depression among Adults in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Tsz Hin H.; Mossey, Jana M.; Lee, Brian K.

    2013-01-01

    Background Mercury is a neurotoxicant linked with psychiatric symptoms at high levels of exposure. However, it is unclear whether an association is present at the low exposure levels in the US adult population. Materials and Methods Cross-sectional associations of total blood mercury and depression were assessed in 6,911 adults age ≥20 in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2005–2008. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 was used to assess depression (high likelihood of a depressive spectrum disorder diagnosis; score 5–27). Results Unadjusted survey weighted logistic regression suggested that higher total blood mercury was associated with lower odds of depression (Odds Ratio  = 0.49, 95% Confidence Interval: 0.36–0.65, comparing the highest and lowest mercury quintiles). This association largely disappeared after adjustment for sociodemographic variables (income-poverty ratio, education, marital status). However, in age-stratified analyses, this inverse relationship remained in older adults (age ≥40) even after adjustment for sociodemographic variables. Simulation analyses adjusting for expected confounding effects of fish intake suggested that the inverse relationship among older adults may be plausibly attributed to residual confounding (Odds Ratio  = 0.75, 95% Confidence Interval: 0.50–1.12, comparing the highest and lowest mercury quintiles). Conclusions Higher total blood mercury was not associated with increased odds of depression. The lower odds of depression in older adults with higher total blood mercury may be due to residual confounding. PMID:24244482

  5. Process monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    Many of the measurements and observations made in a nuclear processing facility to monitor processes and product quality can also be used to monitor the location and movements of nuclear materials. In this session information is presented on how to use process monitoring data to enhance nuclear material control and accounting (MC and A). It will be seen that SNM losses can generally be detected with greater sensitivity and timeliness and point of loss localized more closely than by conventional MC and A systems if process monitoring data are applied. The purpose of this session is to enable the participants to: (1) identify process unit operations that could improve control units for monitoring SNM losses; (2) choose key measurement points and formulate a loss indicator for each control unit; and (3) describe how the sensitivities and timeliness of loss detection could be determined for each loss indicator

  6. Development of a Real-Time Thermal Performance Diagnostic Monitoring system Using Self-Organizing Neural Network for Kori-2 Nuclear Power Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Hyun Gook; Seong, Poong Hyun

    1996-01-01

    In this work, a PC-based thermal performance monitoring system is developed for the nuclear power plants. the system performs real-time thermal performance monitoring and diagnosis during plant operation. Specifically, a prototype for the Kori-2 nuclear power unit is developed and examined is very difficult because the system structure is highly complex and the components are very much inter-related. In this study, some major diagnostic performance parameters are selected in order to represent the thermal cycle effectively and to reduce the computing time. The Fuzzy ARTMAP, a self-organizing neural network, is used to recognize the characteristic pattern change of the performance parameters in abnormal situation. By examination, the algorithm is shown to be ale to detect abnormality and to identify the fault component or the change of system operation condition successfully. For the convenience of operators, a graphical user interface is also constructed in this work. 5 figs., 3 tabs., 11 refs. (Author)

  7. Total and isoform-specific quantitative assessment of circulating Fibulin-1 using selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry and time-resolved immunofluorometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Martin; Cangemi, Claudia; Jensen, Martin L

    2015-01-01

    biomarker fibulin-1 and its circulating isoforms in human plasma. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:: We used bioinformatics analysis to predict total and isoform-specific tryptic peptides for absolute quantitation using SRM-MS. Fibulin-1 was quantitated in plasma by nanoflow-LC-SRM-MS in undepleted plasma and time......PURPOSE:: Targeted proteomics using SRM-MS combined with stable isotope dilution has emerged as a promising quantitative technique for the study of circulating protein biomarkers. The purpose of this study was to develop and characterize robust quantitative assays for the emerging cardiovascular......-resolved immunofluorometric assay (TRIFMA). Both methods were validated and compared to a commercial ELISA (CircuLex). Molecular size determination was performed under native conditions by SEC analysis coupled to SRM-MS and TRIFMA. RESULTS:: Absolute quantitation of total fibulin-1, isoforms -1C and -1D was performed by SRM...

  8. Comparison between In-house developed and Diamond commercial software for patient specific independent monitor unit calculation and verification with heterogeneity corrections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppusamy, Vijayalakshmi; Nagarajan, Vivekanandan; Jeevanandam, Prakash; Murugan, Lavanya

    2016-02-01

    The study was aimed to compare two different monitor unit (MU) or dose verification software in volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) using modified Clarkson's integration technique for 6 MV photons beams. In-house Excel Spreadsheet based monitor unit verification calculation (MUVC) program and PTW's DIAMOND secondary check software (SCS), version-6 were used as a secondary check to verify the monitor unit (MU) or dose calculated by treatment planning system (TPS). In this study 180 patients were grouped into 61 head and neck, 39 thorax and 80 pelvic sites. Verification plans are created using PTW OCTAVIUS-4D phantom and also measured using 729 detector chamber and array with isocentre as the suitable point of measurement for each field. In the analysis of 154 clinically approved VMAT plans with isocentre at a region above -350 HU, using heterogeneity corrections, In-house Spreadsheet based MUVC program and Diamond SCS showed good agreement TPS. The overall percentage average deviations for all sites were (-0.93% + 1.59%) and (1.37% + 2.72%) for In-house Excel Spreadsheet based MUVC program and Diamond SCS respectively. For 26 clinically approved VMAT plans with isocentre at a region below -350 HU showed higher variations for both In-house Spreadsheet based MUVC program and Diamond SCS. It can be concluded that for patient specific quality assurance (QA), the In-house Excel Spreadsheet based MUVC program and Diamond SCS can be used as a simple and fast accompanying to measurement based verification for plans with isocentre at a region above -350 HU. Copyright © 2016 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Technical evaluation report on the monitoring of electric power to the reactor protection system for the Nine Mile Point Nuclear Station, Unit 1 (Docket No. 50-220)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selan, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    This report documents the technical evaluation of the monitoring of electric power to the reactor protection system (RPS) at the Nine Mile Point Nuclear Station, Unit 1. The evaluation is to determine if the proposed design modification will protect the RPS from abnormal voltage and frequency conditions which could be supplied from the power supplies and will meet certain requirements set forth by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The proposed design modifications will protect the RPS from sustained abnormal voltage and frequency conditions from the supplying sources

  10. Technical evaluation report on the monitoring of electric power to the reactor-protection system for the Brunswick Steam Electric Plant, Units 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selan, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    This report documents the technical evaluation of the monitoring of electric power to the reactor protection system (RPS) at the Brunswick Steam Electric Plant, Units 1 and 2. The evaluation is to determine if the proposed design modification will protect the RPS from abnormal voltage and frequency conditions which could be supplied from the power supplies and will meet certain requirements set forth by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The proposed design modifications with time delays verified by GE, will protect the RPS from sustained abnormal voltage and frequency conditions from the supplying sources

  11. Totally James

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Tom

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an interview with James Howe, author of "The Misfits" and "Totally Joe". In this interview, Howe discusses tolerance, diversity and the parallels between his own life and his literature. Howe's four books in addition to "The Misfits" and "Totally Joe" and his list of recommended books with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender,…

  12. Potential impacts of year-round sampling on monitoring presence- absence of invasive flora in the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher M. Oswalt; Sonja N. Oswalt; W. Keith Moser

    2012-01-01

    Studies suggest that the southern United States is an area of primary concern with regards to the spread of nonnative invasive plant species. Recent data show that species such as Japanese honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica) and Nepalese browntop (Microstegium vimineum) are invading forests and displacing native species throughout the...

  13. Monitoring i-motif transitions through the exciplex emission of a fluorescent probe incorporating two (Py)A units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Il Joon; Kim, Byeang Hyean

    2012-02-18

    Pairs of pyrene-modified deoxyadenosine ((Py)A) units induce a stable interstrand i-motif structure, which can be characterized by a change in the fluorescence λ(max), with an exciplex emission that is not observable in its single-strand structure. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  14. Monitoring environmental pollution of trace elements in tree-rings by synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis (SR-TXRF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Silvana; Vives, Ana Elisa S. de; Brienza, Sandra Maria B.; Medeiros, Jean Gabriel S.; Tomazello Filho, Mario; Zucchi, Orgheda L.A.D.; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio F.

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims to study the environmental pollution in the tree development, as a manner to evaluate its use as bioindicator in urban and country sides. The sample collecting was carry out in Piracicaba city, Sao Paulo State, that presents high level of environmental contamination of the water, soil and air, due industrial activities, vehicles combustion, sugar-cane leaves burning in the harvesting, etc. It was selected the Caesalpinia peltophoroides ('Sibipiruna') specie because its very used in urban arborization. It was employed the analytical technique named total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) to identify and quantify the elements and metals of nutritional and toxicological importance in the wood samples. The analysis was done in the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory, using a white beam for excitation and a Si(Li) detector for characteristic X-ray detection. It was quantified the P, K, Ca, Ti, Fe, Sr, Ba e Pb elements. (author)

  15. Monitoring environmental pollution of trace elements in tree-rings by synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis (SR-TXRF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Silvana [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: Silvana@fec.unicamp.br; Vives, Ana Elisa S. de [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: aesvives@unimep.br; Brienza, Sandra Maria B. [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil) Faculdade de Ciencias Matematicas, da Natureza e de Tecnologia da Informacao]. E-mail: sbrienza@unimep.br; Medeiros, Jean Gabriel S.; Tomazello Filho, Mario [Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz]. E-mail: jeangm@esalq.usp.br; mtomazel@esalq.usp.br; Zucchi, Orgheda L.A.D. [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas]. E-mail: olzucchi@fcfrp.usp.br; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio F. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear]. E-mail: virgilio@cena.usp.br

    2005-07-01

    This paper aims to study the environmental pollution in the tree development, as a manner to evaluate its use as bioindicator in urban and country sides. The sample collecting was carry out in Piracicaba city, Sao Paulo State, that presents high level of environmental contamination of the water, soil and air, due industrial activities, vehicles combustion, sugar-cane leaves burning in the harvesting, etc. It was selected the Caesalpinia peltophoroides ('Sibipiruna') specie because its very used in urban arborization. It was employed the analytical technique named total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) to identify and quantify the elements and metals of nutritional and toxicological importance in the wood samples. The analysis was done in the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory, using a white beam for excitation and a Si(Li) detector for characteristic X-ray detection. It was quantified the P, K, Ca, Ti, Fe, Sr, Ba e Pb elements. (author)

  16. The responses of net primary production (NPP) and total carbon storage for the continental United States to changes in atmospheric CO{sub 2}, climate, and vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGuire, D.A. [Marine Biological Lab., Woods Hole, MA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    We extrapolated 3 biogeochemistry models (BIOME-BGC, CENTURY, and TEM) across the continental US with the vegetation distributions of 3 biogeography models (BIOME2, DOLY, and MAPSS) for contemporary climate at 355 ppmv CO{sub 2} and each of 3 GCM climate scenarios at 710 ppmv. For contemporary conditions, continental NPP ranges from 3132 to 3854 TgC/yr and total carbon storage ranges from 109 to 125 PgC. The responses of NPP range from no response (BIOME-BGC with DOLY or MAPSS vegetations for UKMO climate) to increases of 53% and 56% (TEM with BIOME2 vegetations for GFDL and OSU climates). The responses of total carbon storage vary from a decrease of 39% (BIOME-BGC with MAPSS vegetation for UKMO climate) to increases of 52% and 56% (TEM with BIOME2 vegetations for OSU and GFDL climates). The UKMO responses of BIOME-BGC with MAPSS vegetation are caused by both decreased forest area (from 44% to 38%) and photosynthetic water stress. The OSU and GFDL responses of TEM with BIOME2 vegetations are caused by forest expansion (from 46% to 67% for OSU and to 75% for GFDL) and increased nitrogen cycling.

  17. Monitoring and understanding changes in heat waves, cold waves, floods, and droughts in the United States: State of knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Thomas C.; Heim, Richard R.; Hirsch, Robert M.; Kaiser, Dale P.; Brooks, Harold; Diffenbaugh, Noah S.; Dole, Randall M.; Giovannettone, Jason P.; Guirguis, Kristen; Karl, Thomas R.; Katz, Richard W.; Kunkel, Kenneth E.; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.; McCabe, Gregory J.; Paciorek, Christopher J.; Ryberg, Karen R.; K Wolter, BS Silva; Schubert, Siegfried; Silva, Viviane B. S.; Stewart, Brooke C.; Vecchia, Aldo V.; Villarini, Gabriele; Vose, Russell S.; Walsh, John; Wehner, Michael; Wolock, David; Wolter, Klaus; Woodhouse, Connie A.; Wuebbles, Donald

    2013-01-01

    Weather and climate extremes have been varying and changing on many different time scales. In recent decades, heat waves have generally become more frequent across the United States, while cold waves have been decreasing. While this is in keeping with expectations in a warming climate, it turns out that decadal variations in the number of U.S. heat and cold waves do not correlate well with the observed U.S. warming during the last century. Annual peak flow data reveal that river flooding trends on the century scale do not show uniform changes across the country. While flood magnitudes in the Southwest have been decreasing, flood magnitudes in the Northeast and north-central United States have been increasing. Confounding the analysis of trends in river flooding is multiyear and even multidecadal variability likely caused by both large-scale atmospheric circulation changes and basin-scale “memory” in the form of soil moisture. Droughts also have long-term trends as well as multiyear and decadal variability. Instrumental data indicate that the Dust Bowl of the 1930s and the drought in the 1950s were the most significant twentieth-century droughts in the United States, while tree ring data indicate that the megadroughts over the twelfth century exceeded anything in the twentieth century in both spatial extent and duration. The state of knowledge of the factors that cause heat waves, cold waves, floods, and drought to change is fairly good with heat waves being the best understood.

  18. The heuristics of nurse responsiveness to critical patient monitor and ventilator alarms in a private room neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Rohan; Mortel, Heidi van de; Feijs, Loe; Andriessen, Peter; Pul, Carola van

    2017-01-01

    Alarm fatigue is a well-recognized patient safety concern in intensive care settings. Decreased nurse responsiveness and slow response times to alarms are the potentially dangerous consequences of alarm fatigue. The aim of this study was to determine the factors that modulate nurse responsiveness to critical patient monitor and ventilator alarms in the context of a private room neonatal intensive care setting. The study design comprised of both a questionnaire and video monitoring of nurse-responsiveness to critical alarms. The Likert scale questionnaire, comprising of 50 questions across thematic clusters (critical alarms, yellow alarms, perception, design, nursing action, and context) was administered to 56 nurses (90% response rate). Nearly 6000 critical alarms were recorded from 10 infants in approximately 2400 hours of video monitoring. Logistic regression was used to identify patient and alarm-level factors that modulate nurse-responsiveness to critical alarms, with a response being defined as a nurse entering the patient's room within the 90s of the alarm being generated. Based on the questionnaire, the majority of nurses found critical alarms to be clinically relevant even though the alarms did not always mandate clinical action. Based on video observations, for a median of 34% (IQR, 20-52) of critical alarms, the nurse was already present in the room. For the remaining alarms, the response rate within 90s was 26%. The median response time was 55s (IQR, 37-70s). Desaturation alarms were the most prevalent and accounted for more than 50% of all alarms. The odds of responding to bradycardia alarms, compared to desaturation alarms, were 1.47 (95% CI = 1.21-1.78; heuristics in determining whether or not to respond to the alarm. Amongst other factors, the category and duration of critical alarms along with the clinical status of the patient determine nurse-responsiveness to alarms.

  19. Monitoring Urban Heat Island Through Google Earth Engine: Potentialities and Difficulties in Different Cities of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravanelli, R.; Nascetti, A.; Cirigliano, R. V.; Di Rico, C.; Monti, P.; Crespi, M.

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this work is to exploit the large-scale analysis capabilities of the innovative Google Earth Engine platform in order to investigate the temporal variations of the Urban Heat Island phenomenon as a whole. A intuitive methodology implementing a largescale correlation analysis between the Land Surface Temperature and Land Cover alterations was thus developed.The results obtained for the Phoenix MA are promising and show how the urbanization heavily affects the magnitude of the UHI effects with significant increases in LST. The proposed methodology is therefore able to efficiently monitor the UHI phenomenon.

  20. A multi-modal geological investigation framework for subsurface modeling and kinematic monitoring of a slow-moving landslide complex in Colorado, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, B. W.; Zhou, W.; Smartgeo

    2010-12-01

    The Muddy Creek landslide complex is a large area of active and reactivating landslides that impact the operation of both a state highway and Paonia Reservoir in Gunnison County, Colorado, United States. Historically, the monitoring of this slide has been investigated using disparate techniques leading to protracted analysis and project knowledge attrition. We present an integrated, data-driven investigation framework that supports continued kinematic monitoring, document cataloging, and subsurface modeling of the landslide complex. A geospatial information system (GIS) was integrated with a visual programming based subsurface model to facilitate modular integration of monitoring data with borehole information. Subsurface modeling was organized by material type and activity state based on multiple sources of kinematic measurement. The framework is constructed to modularly integrate remotely sensed imagery and other spatial datasets such as ASTER, InSAR, and LiDAR derived elevation products as more precise datasets become available. The framework allows for terrestrial LiDAR survey error estimation, borehole siting, and placement of wireless sensor (GPS, accelerometers, geophysical ) networks for optimized spatial relevance and utility. Coordinated spatial referencing within the GIS facilitates geotechnical and hydrogeological modeling input generation and common display of modeling outputs. Kinematic data fusion techniques are accomplished with integration of instrumentation, surficial feature tracking, subsurface classification, and 3D interpolation. The framework includes dynamic decision support including landslide dam failure estimates, back-flooding scenario planning that can be accessed by multiple agencies and stakeholders.

  1. Evaluation and assessment methodology, standards, and procedures manual of the United States Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerns, K.C.; Burson, Z.G.; Smith, J.M.; Blanchard, R.L.

    2000-01-01

    In the event of a major radiological emergency, the U.S. Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan authorises the creation of the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC). The FRMAC is established to co-ordinate the Federal off-site monitoring and assessment activities, and is comprised of representatives from several Federal agencies and Department of Energy contractors who provide assistance to the state(s) and Lead Federal Agency. The Evaluation and Assessment (E and A) Division of the FRMAC is responsible for receiving, storing, and interpreting environmental surveillance data to estimate the potential health consequences to the population in the vicinity of the accident site. The E and A Division has commissioned the preparation of a methodology and procedures manual which will result in a consistent approach by Division members in carrying out their duties. The first edition of this manual is nearing completion. In this paper, a brief review of the structure of the FRMAC is presented, with emphasis on the E and A Division. The contents of the E and A manual are briefly described, as are future plans for its expansion. (author)

  2. Monitoring of the environmental pollution by trace element analysis in tree-rings using synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirito de Vives, Ana Elisa [School of Civil Engineering, Architecture and Urban Design Methodist University of Piracicaba, Rodovia Santa Barbara D' Oeste/Iracemapolis, km 01, 13450-000 Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: aesvives@unimep.br; Moreira, Silvana [State University of Campinas - UNICAMP/FEC (Brazil); Brienza, Sandra Maria Boscolo [School of Civil Engineering, Architecture and Urban Design Methodist University of Piracicaba, Rodovia Santa Barbara D' Oeste/Iracemapolis, km 01, 13450-000 Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil); Silva Medeiros, Jean Gabriel [University of Sao Paulo - USP/ ESALQ (Brazil); Tomazello Filho, Mario Tomazello [University of Sao Paulo - USP/ ESALQ (Brazil); Araujo Domingues Zucchi, Orgheda Luiza [University of Sao Paulo - USP/FCFRP (Brazil); Nascimento Filho, Virgilio Franco do [University of Sao Paulo - USP/CENA (Brazil)

    2006-11-15

    This paper aims to study the environmental pollution in the tree development, in order to evaluate its use as bioindicator in urban and country sides. The sample collection was carried out in Piracicaba city, Sao Paulo State, which presents high level of environmental contamination in water, soil and air, due to industrial activities, vehicles combustion, sugar-cane leaves burning in the harvesting, etc. The species Caesalpinia peltophoroides ('Sibipiruna') was selected because it is widely used in urban forestation. Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence technique (SR-TXRF) was employed to identify and quantify the elements and metals of nutritional and toxicological importance in the wood samples. The analysis was performed in the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Source Laboratory, using a white beam for excitation and a Si(Li) detector for X-ray detection. In several samples, P, K, Ca, Ti, Fe, Sr, Ba and Pb were quantified. The K/Ca, K/P and Pb/Ca ratios were found to decrease towards the bark.

  3. Landsat-Based Long-Term Monitoring of Total Suspended Matter Concentration Pattern Change in the Wet Season for Dongting Lake, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhubin Zheng

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the impacts of environmental change and anthropogenic activities on the historical and current total suspended matter (TSM pattern in Dongting Lake, China, is a large challenge. We addressed this challenge by using more than three decades of Landsat data. Based on in situ measurements, we developed an algorithm based on the near-infrared (NIR band to estimate TSM in Dongting Lake. The algorithm was applied to Landsat images to derive TSM distribution maps from 1978 to 2013 in the wet season, revealing significant inter-annual and spatial variability. The relationship of TSM to water level, precipitation, and wind speed was analyzed, and we found that: (1 sand mining areas usually coincide with regions that have high TSM levels in Dongting Lake; (2 water level and seven-day precipitation were both important to TSM variation, but no significant relationship was found between TSM and wind speed or other meteorological data; (3 the increased level of sand mining in response to rapid economic growth has deeply influenced the TSM pattern since 2000 due to the resuspension of sediment; and (4 TSM variation might be associated with policy changes regarding the management of sand mining; it might also be affected by lower water levels caused by the impoundment of the Three Gorges Dam since 2000.

  4. Monitoring of the environmental pollution by trace element analysis in tree-rings using synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirito de Vives, Ana Elisa; Moreira, Silvana; Brienza, Sandra Maria Boscolo; Silva Medeiros, Jean Gabriel; Tomazello Filho, Mario Tomazello; Araujo Domingues Zucchi, Orgheda Luiza; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio Franco do

    2006-01-01

    This paper aims to study the environmental pollution in the tree development, in order to evaluate its use as bioindicator in urban and country sides. The sample collection was carried out in Piracicaba city, Sao Paulo State, which presents high level of environmental contamination in water, soil and air, due to industrial activities, vehicles combustion, sugar-cane leaves burning in the harvesting, etc. The species Caesalpinia peltophoroides ('Sibipiruna') was selected because it is widely used in urban forestation. Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence technique (SR-TXRF) was employed to identify and quantify the elements and metals of nutritional and toxicological importance in the wood samples. The analysis was performed in the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Source Laboratory, using a white beam for excitation and a Si(Li) detector for X-ray detection. In several samples, P, K, Ca, Ti, Fe, Sr, Ba and Pb were quantified. The K/Ca, K/P and Pb/Ca ratios were found to decrease towards the bark

  5. Total Quality Management Simplified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Pam

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that Total Quality Management (TQM) is one method that helps to monitor and improve the quality of child care. Lists four steps for a child-care center to design and implement its own TQM program. Suggests that quality assurance in child-care settings is an ongoing process, and that TQM programs help in providing consistent, high-quality…

  6. Development and verification of a leningrad NPP unit 1 living PSA model in the INL SAPHIRE code format for prompt operational safety level monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronislav, Vinnikov

    2007-01-01

    The first part of the paper presents results of the work, that was carried out in complete conformity with the Technical Assignment, which was developed by the Leningrad Nuclear Power Plant. The initial scientific and technical information, contained into the In-Depth Safety Assessment Reports, was given to the author of the work. This information included graphical Fault Trees of Safety Systems and Auxiliary Technical Systems, Event Trees for the necessary number of Initial Events, and also information about failure probabilities of basic components of the nuclear unit. On the basis of this information and fueling it to the Usa Idaho National Laboratory (INL) SAPHIRE code, we have developed an electronic version of the Data Base for failure probabilities of the components of technical systems. Then, we have developed both the electronic versions of the necessary Fault Trees, and an electronic versions of the necessary Event Trees. And at last, we have carried out the linkage of the Event Trees. This work has resulted in the Living PSA (LPSA - Living Probabilistic Safety Assessment) Model of the Leningrad NPP Unit 1. The LPSA-model is completely adapted to be consistent with the USA INL SAPHIRE Risk Monitor. The second part of the paper results in analysis of fire consequences in various places of Leningrad NPP Unit 1. The computations were carried out with the help of the LPSA-model, developed in SAPHIRE code format. On the basis of the computations the order of priority of implementation of fire prevention measures was established. (author)

  7. INSTALLATION OF A POST-ACCIDENT CONFINEMENT HIGH-LEVEL RADIATION MONITORING SYSTEM IN THE KOLA NUCLEAR POWER STATION (UNIT 2) IN RUSSIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GREENE,G.A.; GUPPY,J.G.

    1998-09-01

    This is the final report on the INSP project entitled, ``Post-Accident Confinement High-Level Radiation Monitoring System'' conducted by BNL under the authorization of Project Work Plan WBS 1.2.2.6 (Attachment 1). This project was initiated in February 1993 to assist the Russians in reducing risks associated with the continued operation of older Soviet-designed nuclear power plants, specifically the Kola VVER-440/230 Unit 2, through improved accident detection capability, specifically by the installation of a dual train high-level radiation detection system in the confinement of Unit 2 of the Kola NPP. The major technical objective of this project was to provide, install and make operational the necessary hardware inside the confinement of the Kola NPP Unit 2 to provide early and reliable warning of the release of radionuclides from the reactor into the confinement air space as an indication of the occurrence of a severe accident at the plant. In addition, it was intended to provide hands-on experience and training to the Russian plant workers in the installation, operation, calibration and maintenance of the equipment in order that they may use the equipment without continued US assistance as an effective measure to improve reactor safety at the plant.

  8. INSTALLATION OF A POST-ACCIDENT CONFINEMENT HIGH-LEVEL RADIATION MONITORING SYSTEM IN THE KOLA NUCLEAR POWER STATION (UNIT 2) IN RUSSIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GREENE, G.A.; GUPPY, J.G.

    1998-01-01

    This is the final report on the INSP project entitled, ''Post-Accident Confinement High-Level Radiation Monitoring System'' conducted by BNL under the authorization of Project Work Plan WBS 1.2.2.6 (Attachment 1). This project was initiated in February 1993 to assist the Russians in reducing risks associated with the continued operation of older Soviet-designed nuclear power plants, specifically the Kola VVER-440/230 Unit 2, through improved accident detection capability, specifically by the installation of a dual train high-level radiation detection system in the confinement of Unit 2 of the Kola NPP. The major technical objective of this project was to provide, install and make operational the necessary hardware inside the confinement of the Kola NPP Unit 2 to provide early and reliable warning of the release of radionuclides from the reactor into the confinement air space as an indication of the occurrence of a severe accident at the plant. In addition, it was intended to provide hands-on experience and training to the Russian plant workers in the installation, operation, calibration and maintenance of the equipment in order that they may use the equipment without continued US assistance as an effective measure to improve reactor safety at the plant

  9. POST CLOSURE INSPECTION AND MONITORING REPORT FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 417: CENTRAL NEVADA TEST AREA - SURFACE, HOT CREEK VALLEY, NEVADA; FOR CALENDAR YEAR 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-04-01

    bentonite during the first quarter of 2006 and monitored during subsequent inspections. The cover vegetation was healthy and well established. No issues were identified with the CMP fence, gate, or subsidence monuments. No issues were identified with the warning signs and monuments at the other two UC-1 locations. The inspections at UC-3 indicated that the sites are in excellent condition. All monuments and signs showed no displacement, damage, or removal. A small erosion gully from spring rain runoff was observed during the June inspection, but it did not grow to an actionable level during 2005. No other issues or concerns were identified. Inspections performed at UC-4 Mud Pit C cover revealed that erosion rills were formed during March and September exposing the geosynthetic clay liner. Both erosion rills were repaired within 90 days of reporting. Sparse vegetation is present on the cover. The overall condition of the monuments, fence, and gate are in good condition. No issues were identified with the warning signs and monuments at the other four UC-4 locations. Subsidence surveys were conducted at UC-1 CMP and UC-4 Mud Pit C in March and September of 2005. The results of the subsidence surveys indicate that the covers are performing as expected, and no unusual subsidence was observed. The June vegetation survey of the UC-1 CMP cover and adjacent areas indicated that the revegetation has been very successful. The vegetation should continue to be monitored to document any changes in the plant community and identify conditions that could potentially require remedial action in order to maintain a viable vegetative cover on the site. Vegetation surveys should be conducted only as required. Precipitation during 2005 was above average, with an annual rainfall total of 21.79 centimeters (8.58 inches). Soil moisture content data show that the UC-1 CMP cover is performing as designed, with evapotranspiration effectively removing water from the cover. It is recommended to continue

  10. Automatic total kidney volume measurement on follow-up magnetic resonance images to facilitate monitoring of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Timothy L; Korfiatis, Panagiotis; Edwards, Marie E; Warner, Joshua D; Irazabal, Maria V; King, Bernard F; Torres, Vicente E; Erickson, Bradley J

    2016-02-01

    Renal imaging examinations provide high-resolution information about the anatomic structure of the kidneys and are used to measure total kidney volume (TKV) in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) patients. TKV has become the gold-standard image biomarker for ADPKD progression at early stages of the disease and is used in clinical trials to characterize treatment efficacy. Automated methods to segment the kidneys and measure TKV are desirable because of the long time requirement for manual approaches such as stereology or planimetry tracings. However, ADPKD kidney segmentation is complicated by a number of factors, including irregular kidney shapes and variable tissue signal at the kidney borders. We describe an image processing approach that overcomes these problems by using a baseline segmentation initialization to provide automatic segmentation of follow-up scans obtained years apart. We validated our approach using 20 patients with complete baseline and follow-up T1-weighted magnetic resonance images. Both manual tracing and stereology were used to calculate TKV, with two observers performing manual tracings and one observer performing repeat tracings. Linear correlation and Bland-Altman analysis were performed to compare the different approaches. Our automated approach measured TKV at a level of accuracy (mean difference ± standard error = 0.99 ± 0.79%) on par with both intraobserver (0.77 ± 0.46%) and interobserver variability (1.34 ± 0.70%) of manual tracings. All approaches had excellent agreement and compared favorably with ground-truth manual tracing with interobserver, stereological and automated approaches having 95% confidence intervals ∼ ± 100 mL. Our method enables fast, cost-effective and reproducible quantification of ADPKD progression that will facilitate and lower the costs of clinical trials in ADPKD and other disorders requiring accurate, longitudinal kidney quantification. In addition, it will hasten the routine use of

  11. Assessing the beginning to end-of-mission sensitivity change of the PREcision MOnitor Sensor total solar irradiance radiometer (PREMOS/PICARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ball William T.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The switching of the total solar irradiance (TSI backup radiometer (PREMOS-B to a primary role for 2 weeks at the end of the PICARD mission provides a unique opportunity to test the fundamental hypothesis of radiometer experiments in space, which is that the sensitivity change of instruments due to the space environment is identical for the same instrument type as a function of solar-exposure time of the instruments. We verify this hypothesis for the PREMOS TSI radiometers within the PREMOS experiment on the PICARD mission. We confirm that the sensitivity change of the backup instrument, PREMOS-B, is similar to that of the identically-constructed primary radiometer, PREMOS-A. The extended exposure of the backup instrument at the end of the mission allows for the assessment, with an uncertainty estimate, of the sensitivity change of the primary radiometer from the beginning of the PICARD mission compared to the end, and of the degradation of the backup over the mission. We correct six sets of PREMOS-B observations connecting October 2011 with February 2014, using six ratios from simultaneous PREMOS-A and PREMOS-B exposures during the first days of PREMOS-A operation in 2010. These ratios are then used, without indirect estimates or assumptions, to evaluate the stability of SORCE/TIM and SOHO/VIRGO TSI measurements, which have both operated for more than a decade and now show different trends over the time span of the PICARD mission, namely from 2010 to 2014. We find that by February 2014 relative to October 2011 PREMOS-B supports the SORCE/TIM TSI time evolution, which in May 2014 relative to October 2011 is ~0.11 W m−2, or ~84 ppm, higher than SOHO/VIRGO. Such a divergence between SORCE/TIM and SOHO/VIRGO over this period is a significant fraction of the estimated decline of 0.2 W m−2 between the solar minima of 1996 and 2008, and questions the reliability of that estimated trend. Extrapolating the uncertainty indicated by the

  12. Parasitological and nutritional status of school-age and preschool-age children in four villages in Southern Leyte, Philippines: Lessons for monitoring the outcome of Community-Led Total Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belizario, Vicente Y; Liwanag, Harvy Joy C; Naig, June Rose A; Chua, Paul Lester C; Madamba, Manuel I; Dahildahil, Roy O

    2015-01-01

    While preventive chemotherapy remains to be a major strategy for the prevention and control of soil-transmitted helminthiases (STH), improvements in water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) comprise the long-term strategy to achieve sustained control of STH. This study examined the parasitological and nutritional status of school-age and preschool-age children in four villages in Southern Leyte, Philippines where two of the villages attained Open-Defecation-Free (ODF) status after introduction of Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS). A total of 341 children (89.0% of the total eligible population) submitted stool samples which were examined using the Kato-Katz technique. Results showed that 27.9% of the total stool samples examined had at least one type of STH (cumulative prevalence), while 7.9% had moderate-heavy intensity infections. Between the two villages where CLTS was introduced, Buenavista had a significantly higher cumulative prevalence of STH at 67.4% (pnutritional parameters, as well as the presence of CLTS in the village, suggesting the need to monitor the ODF status of villages on a regular basis even after the end of CLTS activities to ensure the sustainability of the CLTS approach. In order to achieve effective control of STH, deeper collaboration between the WASH and STH sectors are recommended where partners can work together in the area of monitoring and evaluation that may include improved parasitological and nutritional status in high-risk groups, as well as sustainable behavior change as outcome indicators. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Continuous ‘Passive’ flow-proportional monitoring of drainage using a new modified Sutro weir (MSW) unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vendelboe, Anders Lindblad; Rozemeijer, Joachim; de Jonge, Lis Wollesen

    2016-01-01

    concentrations. The MSWbuilds on a modern passive sampling technique that responds to hydraulic pressure and measures average concentrations over time (days to months) for various substances. Mounting the samplers in the MSW allowed a flow-proportional part of the drainage to be sampled. Laboratory testing...... yielded high linear correlation between the accumulated sampler flow, qtotal, and accumulated drainage flow, Qtotal (r2 > 0.96). The slope of these correlations was used to calculate the total drainage discharge from the sampled volume, and therefore contaminant load. A calibration of the MSW under...

  14. Utilization of a new optical sensor unit to monitor the electrochemical elimination of selected dyes in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valica, M.; Černá, T.; Hostin, S.

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents results obtained by developed optical sensor, which consist from multi-wavelength LED light source and two photodetectors capable of measuring the change in optical signal along two different optical paths (absorbance and reflectance measurements). Arduino microcomputer was used for light source management and optical signal data measuring and recording. Analytical validation of developed optical sensor is presented in this paper. The performance of the system has been tested with varying water solution of dyes (malachite green, methyl orange, trypan red). These results show strong correlations between the optical signal response and colour change from the dyes. Sensor was used for continual in-situ monitoring of electrochemical elimination of selected dyes (current density 15.7 mA cm-2, electrolyte volume 4 L and NaCl concentration 2 g L-1). Maximum decolorization level varies with each dye. For malachite green was obtain 92,7 % decolorization (25 min); methyl orange 90,8% (8,5 min) and trypan red 84,7% decolorization after 33 min of electrochemical treatment.

  15. Contamination monitoring of Na 131 I levels in therapy unit of Research Institute for Nuclear Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences by indirect method (Wipe test)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beiki, D.; Shahhosseini, S.; Eftekhari, M.; Takavar, A.; Fard-Esfahani, A.

    2003-01-01

    Contamination with radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine centres in addition to being a health concern requires time consuming decontamination efforts. According to Nuclear Regulatory Commission Contamination should be monitored in nuclear medicine centers where radiopharmaceuticals are prepared and administrated at the end of each working session; otherwise, contamination spread to other areas not only equipment but also personnel and other people will be expected. The wipe test for the presence of radioactivity is accomplished by wiping the surface over an area approximately 100 cm 2 with an absorbent paper, then counting it in an appropriate radiation detector. In this study, contamination monitoring of patient's rooms (4 rooms), entrance corridor, patient's corridor, waiting room, control room (nursing station), radiopharmaceutical storage room in therapy unit of Research Institute for Nuclear Medicine, Shariati hospital was performed by indirect method. Based on the results, some areas including storage room were contaminated. There was also a direct relationship between dose administrated and levels of contamination in patient's rooms. Regarding high uptake of iodine by thyroid gland and damaging effects of Na 131 I, weekly wipe tests are required to determine the level of contamination. Patient's rooms after discharging the patients and before re hospitalization specially should be checked. If these tests reveal contamination over standard levels, appropriate decontamination procedures should be carried out immediately

  16. Clinician-Driven Design of VitalPAD–An Intelligent Monitoring and Communication Device to Improve Patient Safety in the Intensive Care Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flohr, Luisa; Beaudry, Shaylene; Johnson, K Taneille; West, Nicholas; Burns, Catherine M; Ansermino, J Mark; Dumont, Guy A; Wensley, David; Skippen, Peter

    2018-01-01

    The pediatric intensive care unit (ICU) is a complex environment, in which a multidisciplinary team of clinicians (registered nurses, respiratory therapists, and physicians) continually observe and evaluate patient information. Data are provided by multiple, and often physically separated sources, cognitive workload is high, and team communication can be challenging. Our aim is to combine information from multiple monitoring and therapeutic devices in a mobile application, the VitalPAD, to improve the efficiency of clinical decision-making, communication, and thereby patient safety. We observed individual ICU clinicians, multidisciplinary rounds, and handover procedures for 54 h to identify data needs, workflow, and existing cognitive aid use and limitations. A prototype was developed using an iterative participatory design approach; usability testing, including general and task-specific feedback, was obtained from 15 clinicians. Features included map overviews of the ICU showing clinician assignment, patient status, and respiratory support; patient vital signs; a photo-documentation option for arterial blood gas results; and team communication and reminder functions. Clinicians reported the prototype to be an intuitive display of vital parameters and relevant alerts and reminders, as well as a user-friendly communication tool. Future work includes implementation of a prototype, which will be evaluated under simulation and real-world conditions, with the aim of providing ICU staff with a monitoring device that will improve their daily work, communication, and decision-making capacity. Mobile monitoring of vital signs and therapy parameters might help improve patient safety in wards with single-patient rooms and likely has applications in many acute and critical care settings. PMID:29552425

  17. Using search query surveillance to monitor tax avoidance and smoking cessation following the United States' 2009 "SCHIP" cigarette tax increase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, John W; Ribisl, Kurt; Brownstein, John S

    2011-03-16

    Smokers can use the web to continue or quit their habit. Online vendors sell reduced or tax-free cigarettes lowering smoking costs, while health advocates use the web to promote cessation. We examined how smokers' tax avoidance and smoking cessation Internet search queries were motivated by the United States' (US) 2009 State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) federal cigarette excise tax increase and two other state specific tax increases. Google keyword searches among residents in a taxed geography (US or US state) were compared to an untaxed geography (Canada) for two years around each tax increase. Search data were normalized to a relative search volume (RSV) scale, where the highest search proportion was labeled 100 with lesser proportions scaled by how they relatively compared to the highest proportion. Changes in RSV were estimated by comparing means during and after the tax increase to means before the tax increase, across taxed and untaxed geographies. The SCHIP tax was associated with an 11.8% (95% confidence interval [95%CI], 5.7 to 17.9; ptax levels in Canada during the months after the tax. Tax avoidance searches increased 27.9% (95%CI, 15.9 to 39.9; ptax compared to Canada, respectively, suggesting avoidance is the more pronounced and durable response. Trends were similar for state-specific tax increases but suggest strong interactive processes across taxes. When the SCHIP tax followed Florida's tax, versus not, it promoted more cessation and avoidance searches. Efforts to combat tax avoidance and increase cessation may be enhanced by using interventions targeted and tailored to smokers' searches. Search query surveillance is a valuable real-time, free and public method, that may be generalized to other behavioral, biological, informational or psychological outcomes manifested online.

  18. Performance characterization of Siemens primus linear accelerator under small monitor unit and small segments for the implementation of step-and-shoot intensity-modulated radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reena, P.; Pai, Rajeshri; Gupta, Tejpal; Rajeev, S.; Dayananda, S.; Jamema, S.V.; Deepak, D.

    2006-01-01

    Implementation of step-and-shoot intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) needs careful understanding of the accelerator start-up characteristic to ensure accurate and precise delivery of radiation dose to patient. The dosimetric characteristic of a Siemens Primus linear accelerator (LA) which delivers 6 and 18 MV x-rays at the dose rate of 300 and 500 monitor unit (MU) per minutes (min) respectively was studied under the condition of small MU ranging from 1 to 100. Dose monitor linearity was studied at different dose calibration parameter (D1 C O) by measuring ionization at 10 cm depth in a solid water phantom using a 0.6 cc ionization chamber. Monitor unit stability was studied from different intensity modulated (IM) groups comprising various combinations of MU per field and number of fields. Stability of beam flatness and symmetry was investigated under normal and IMRT mode for 20x20 cm 2 field under small MU using a 2D Profiler kept isocentrically at 5 cm depth. Inter segment response was investigated form 1 to 10 MU by measuring the dose per MU from various IM groups, each consisting of four segments with inter-segment separation of 2 cm. In the range 1-4 MU, the dose linearity error was more than 5% (max -32% at 1 MU) for 6 MV x-rays at factory calibrated D1 C O value of 6000. The dose linearity error was reduced to -10.95% at 1 MU, within -3% for 2 and 3 MU and ± 1% for MU ≥4 when the D1 C O was subsequently tuned at 4500. For 18 MV x-rays, the dose linearity error at factory calibrated D1 C O value of 4400 was within ± 1% for MU ≥3 with maximum of -13.5 observed at 1 MU. For both the beam energies and MU/field ≥4, the stability of monitor unit tested for different IM groups was within ± 1% of the dose from the normal treatment field. This variation increases to -2.6% for 6 MV and -2.7% for 18 MV x-rays for 2 MU/field. No significant variation was observed in the stability of beam profile measured from normal and IMRT mode. The beam flatness was

  19. Performance characterization of siemens primus linear accelerator under small monitor unit and small segments for the implementation of step-and-shoot intensitymodulated radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reena P

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of step-and-shoot intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT needs careful understanding of the accelerator start-up characteristic to ensure accurate and precise delivery of radiation dose to patient. The dosimetric characteristic of a Siemens Primus linear accelerator (LA which delivers 6 and 18 MV x-rays at the dose rate of 300 and 500 monitor unit (MU per minutes (min respectively was studied under the condition of small MU ranging from 1 to 100. Dose monitor linearity was studied at different dose calibration parameter (D1_C0 by measuring ionization at 10 cm depth in a solid water phantom using a 0.6 cc ionization chamber. Monitor unit stability was studied from different intensity modulated (IM groups comprising various combinations of MU per field and number of fields. Stability of beam flatness and symmetry was investigated under normal and IMRT mode for 20x20 cm2 field under small MU using a 2D Profiler kept isocentrically at 5 cm depth. Inter segment response was investigated form 1 to 10 MU by measuring the dose per MU from various IM groups, each consisting of four segments with inter-segment separation of 2 cm. In the range 1-4 MU, the dose linearity error was more than 5% (max -32% at 1 MU for 6 MV x-rays at factory calibrated D1_C0 value of 6000. The dose linearity error was reduced to -10.95% at 1 MU, within -3% for 2 and 3 MU and ±1% for MU ≥4 when the D1_C0 was subsequently tuned at 4500. For 18 MV x-rays, the dose linearity error at factory calibrated D1_C0 value of 4400 was within ±1% for MU ≥ 3 with maximum of -13.5 observed at 1 MU. For both the beam energies and MU/field ≥ 4, the stability of monitor unit tested for different IM groups was within ±1% of the dose from the normal treatment field. This variation increases to -2.6% for 6 MV and -2.7% for 18 MV x-rays for 2 MU/field. No significant variation was observed in the stability of beam profile measured from normal and IMRT mode. The beam flatness

  20. Post-Closure Inspection and Monitoring Report for Corrective Action Unit 417: Central Nevada Test Area Surface, Hot Creek Valley, Nevada, for Calendar Year 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-09-01

    This report presents data collected during the annual post-closure site inspection conducted at the Central Nevada Test Area Surface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 417 in May 2007. The annual post-closure site inspection included inspections of the UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4 sites in accordance with the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan provided in the CAU 417 Closure Report (NNSA/NV 2001). The annual inspection conducted at the UC-1 Central Mud Pit (CMP) indicated the site and soil cover were in good condition. No new cracks or fractures were observed in the soil cover during the annual inspection. A crack on the west portion of the cover was observed during the last quarterly inspection in December 2006. This crack was filled with bentonite as part of the maintenance activities conducted in February 2007 and will be monitored during subsequent annual inspections. The vegetation on the soil cover was adequate but showing signs of the area's ongoing drought. No issues were identified with the CMP fence, gate, or subsidence monuments. New DOE Office of Legacy Management signs with updated emergency phone numbers were installed as part of this annual inspection, no issues were identified with the warning signs and monuments at the other two UC-1 locations. The annual subsidence survey was conducted at UC-1 CMP and UC-4 Mud Pit C as part of the maintenance activities conducted in February 2007. The results of the subsidence surveys indicate that the covers are performing as expected, and no unusual subsidence was observed. A vegetation survey of the UC-1 CMP cover and adjacent areas was conducted as part of the annual inspection in May 2007. The vegetation survey indicated that revegetation continues to be successful, although stressed due to the area's prevailing drought conditions. The vegetation should continue to be monitored to document any changes in the plant community and to identify conditions that could potentially require remedial action to maintain a viable

  1. Total Thyroidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez Moris E

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Total thyroidectomy is a surgery that removes all the thyroid tissue from the patient. The suspect of cancer in a thyroid nodule is the most frequent indication and it is presume when previous fine needle puncture is positive or a goiter has significant volume increase or symptomes. Less frequent indications are hyperthyroidism when it is refractory to treatment with Iodine 131 or it is contraindicated, and in cases of symptomatic thyroiditis. The thyroid gland has an important anatomic relation whith the inferior laryngeal nerve and the parathyroid glands, for this reason it is imperative to perform extremely meticulous dissection to recognize each one of these elements and ensure their preservation. It is also essential to maintain strict hemostasis, in order to avoid any postoperative bleeding that could lead to a suffocating neck hematoma, feared complication that represents a surgical emergency and endangers the patient’s life.It is essential to run a formal technique, without skipping steps, and maintain prudence and patience that should rule any surgical act.

  2. POST-CLOSURE INSPECTION AND MONITORING REPORT FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 91: AREA 3 U3 fi INJECTION WELL, NEVADA TEST SITE, NEVADA FOR THE PERIOD NOVEMBER 2003 - OCTOBER 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This Post-Closure Inspection and Monitoring report provides an analysis and summary of inspections, meteorological information, and neutron soil moisture monitoring for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 91: Area 3 U-3fi Injection Well, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada. This report covers the annual period November 2003 through October 2004. Site inspections of CAU 91 are performed every six months to identify any significant changes that could impact the proper operation of the waste disposal unit. Inspection results for the current period indicate that the overall condition of the concrete pad, perimeter fence, and warning signs is good

  3. Radiation protection and monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.

    1982-01-01

    The present paper deals with the following topics: - Radiological quantities and units - Principles of radiological protection - Limits of doses and activity uptake - Activity discharges and monitoring - Radiation exposure and its calculation - Environmental monitoring - Personnel dosimetry. (orig./RW)

  4. A Highly Automated, Wireless Inertial Measurement Unit Based System for Monitoring Gym-Based Push-Start Training Sessions by Bob-Skeleton Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark GAFFNEY

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Inertial Measurement Units (WIMUs are increasingly used to improve our understanding of complex human motion scenarios. In sports this allows for more valid coaching, selection and training methods leading to improved athletic performance. The Push-Start in the Winter Olympic sport of Bob-Skeleton is poorly understood but believed to be critical to performance. At the University of Bath a piece of gym-based equipment called the “Assassin” used by athletes to practice the Push-Start was instrumented with a custom WIMU system to investigate this motion regime. A test subject performed 36 runs, comprising 3 runs at each of 12 combinations of 3 Incline and 4 Weight settings. A developed algorithm automatically identified valid data-files, extracted the Pushing-Phase Acceleration data, and estimated sled Velocity and Displacement. The average velocities derived from an existing Light-Gate and WIMU data-files were comparable, with an average Root Mean Squared Error of 0.105 meters per second over the 52 valid WIMU data-files identified, covering 11 of the 12 Weight and Incline settings. Additional investigation of WIMU data revealed information such as: step count; track incline; and whether weights had been added could be determined, although further verification and validation of these features are required. Such an automated WIMU-based system could replace performance monitoring methods such as Light-Gates, providing higher fidelity performance data, additional information on equipment setup with lower-cost and greater ease-of-use by coaches or athletes. Its portable and modular nature also allow use with other training scenarios or equipment, such as using additional on-body WIMUs, or use with outdoor and ice-track sleds, enabling performance monitoring from the gym to the ice-track for improved candidate selection, comparison and training in Bob-Skeleton and other ice-track based sled sports.

  5. EHV transmission maintenance. A total asset strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronsdon, J.A.N.

    1996-01-01

    For countries whose economies are rapidly expanding, the demand for power, and in particular electricity, is resulting in rapid expansions of the generation, transmission and distribution of electricity. This means that a new plant is being installed which, apart from some minor post commissioning problems, will be free from major maintenance for several years to come. Consequently, in such cases, maintenance is confined to basic annual shutdown checks and routine online monitoring. As equipment and plant age it is important to commence planning for additional maintenance over and above these basic annual checks; to monitor performance; to monitor faults and defects and to use that information to engineer out design faults, to influence current maintenance techniques and to influence future procurement specifications. Also, provided that sufficient information is available, informed decisions can be taken as to when a power plant should be decommissioned or refurbished. This process can be described as a total asset management strategy covering all decisions from procurement through to commissioning, ongoing maintenance, refurbishment, decommissioning and reappraisal of specifications for future procurement. Based upon the author's experience within the United Kingdom Electricity Supply industry, a total asset strategy will be proposed for EHV transmission plant that will optimise current and future expenditure while maximizing reliability and minimising downtime. 1 ref., 5 figs

  6. Post-Closure Inspection and Monitoring Report for Corrective Action Unit 110: Area 3 WMD U-3ax/bl Crater, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2006-08-01

    This Post-Closure Inspection and Monitoring Report (PCIMR) provides the results of inspections and monitoring for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 110, Area 3 WMD [Waste Management Division] U-3ax/bl Crater. This PCIMR includes an analysis and summary of the site inspections, repairs and maintenance, meteorological information, and soil moisture monitoring data obtained at CAU 110, for the annual period July 2005 through June 2006. Site inspections of the cover were performed quarterly to identify any significant changes to the site requiring action. The overall condition of the cover, cover vegetation, perimeter fence, and UR warning signs was good. Settling was observed that exceeded the action level as specified in Section VILB.7 of the Hazardous Waste Permit Number NEV HW009 (Nevada Division of Environmental Protection, 2000). This permit states that cracks or settling greater than 15 centimeters (6 inches) deep that extend 1.0 meter (m) (3 feet [ft]) or more on the cover will be evaluated and repaired within 60 days of detection. Along the east edge of the cover (repaired previously in August 2003, December 2003, May 2004, October 2004), an area of settling was observed during the December 2005 inspection to again be above the action level, and required repair. This area and two other areas of settling on the cover that were first observed during the December 2005 inspection were repaired in February 2006. The semiannual subsidence surveys were done in September 2005 and March 2006. No significant subsidence was observed in the survey data. Monument 5 shows the greatest amount of subsidence (-0.015 m [-0.05 ft] compared to the baseline survey of 2000). This amount is negligible and near the resolution of the survey instruments; it does not indicate that subsidence is occurring on the cover. Soil moisture results obtained to date indicate that the CAU 110 cover is performing as expected. Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) data indicated an increase in soil moisture (1

  7. Post-Closure Inspection and Monitoring Report for Corrective Action Unit 110: Area 3 WMD U-3ax/bl Crater, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2006-01-01

    This Post-Closure Inspection and Monitoring Report (PCIMR) provides the results of inspections and monitoring for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 110, Area 3 WMD [Waste Management Division] U-3ax/bl Crater. This PCIMR includes an analysis and summary of the site inspections, repairs and maintenance, meteorological information, and soil moisture monitoring data obtained at CAU 110, for the annual period July 2005 through June 2006. Site inspections of the cover were performed quarterly to identify any significant changes to the site requiring action. The overall condition of the cover, cover vegetation, perimeter fence, and UR warning signs was good. Settling was observed that exceeded the action level as specified in Section VILB.7 of the Hazardous Waste Permit Number NEV HW009 (Nevada Division of Environmental Protection, 2000). This permit states that cracks or settling greater than 15 centimeters (6 inches) deep that extend 1.0 meter (m) (3 feet [ft]) or more on the cover will be evaluated and repaired within 60 days of detection. Along the east edge of the cover (repaired previously in August 2003, December 2003, May 2004, October 2004), an area of settling was observed during the December 2005 inspection to again be above the action level, and required repair. This area and two other areas of settling on the cover that were first observed during the December 2005 inspection were repaired in February 2006. The semiannual subsidence surveys were done in September 2005 and March 2006. No significant subsidence was observed in the survey data. Monument 5 shows the greatest amount of subsidence (-0.015 m [-0.05 ft] compared to the baseline survey of 2000). This amount is negligible and near the resolution of the survey instruments; it does not indicate that subsidence is occurring on the cover. Soil moisture results obtained to date indicate that the CAU 110 cover is performing as expected. Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) data indicated an increase in soil moisture (1

  8. Measurement system of bubbly flow using Ultrasonic Velocity Profile Monitor and Video Data Processing Unit. 3. Comparison of flow characteristics between bubbly cocurrent and countercurrent flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Shirong; Suzuki, Yumiko; Aritomi, Masanori; Matsuzaki, Mitsuo; Takeda, Yasushi; Mori, Michitsugu

    1998-01-01

    The authors have developed a new measurement system which consisted of an Ultrasonic Velocity Profile Monitor (UVP) and a Video Data Processing Unit (VDP) in order to clarify the two-dimensional flow characteristics in bubbly flows and to offer a data base to validate numerical codes for two-dimensional two-phase flow. In the present paper, the proposed measurement system is applied to fully developed bubbly cocurrent flows in a vertical rectangular channel. At first, both bubble and water velocity profiles and void fraction profiles in the channel were investigated statistically. In addition, the two-phase multiplier profile of turbulence intensity, which was defined as a ratio of the standard deviation of velocity fluctuation in a bubbly flow to that in a water single phase flow, were examined. Next, these flow characteristics were compared with those in bubbly countercurrent flows reported in our previous paper. Finally, concerning the drift flux model, the distribution parameter and drift velocity were obtained directly from both bubble and water velocity profiles and void fraction profiles, and their results were compared with those in bubbly countercurrent flows. (author)

  9. Monitoring 2009 Forest Disturbance Across the Conterminous United States, Based on Near-Real Time and Historical MODIS 250 Meter NDVI Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, J.; Hargrove, W. W.; Gasser, G.; Smoot, J. C.; Kuper, P.

    2009-01-01

    This case study shows the promise of computing current season forest disturbance detection products at regional to CONUS scales. Use of the eMODIS expedited product enabled a NRT CONUS forest disturbance detection product, a requirement for an eventual, operational forest threat EWS. The 2009 classification product from this study can be used to quantify the areal extent of forest disturbance across CONUS, although a quantitative accuracy assessment still needs to be completed. However, the results would not include disturbances that occurred after July 27, such as the Station Fire. While not shown here, the project also produced maximum NDVI products for the June 10-July 27 period of each year of the 2000-2009 time frame. These products could be applied to compute forest change products on an annual basis. GIS could then be used to assess disturbance persistence. Such follow-on work could lead to attribution of year in which a disturbance occurred. These products (e.g., Figures 6 and 7) may also be useful for assessing forest change associated with climate change, such as carbon losses from bark beetle-induced forest mortality in the Western United States. Other MODIS phenological products are being assessed for aiding forest monitoring needs of the EWS, including cumulative NDVI products (Figure 10).

  10. Prevalence of internal parasites in beef cows in the United States: Results of the National Animal Health Monitoring System’s (NAHMS) beef study, 2007–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromberg, Bert E.; Gasbarre, Louis C.; Ballweber, Lora R.; Dargatz, David A.; Rodriguez, Judith M.; Kopral, Christine A.; Zarlenga, Dante S.

    2015-01-01

    During the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Animal Health Monitoring System’s (NAHMS) 2007–2008 beef study, 567 producers from 24 US States were offered the opportunity to collect fecal samples from weaned beef calves and have them evaluated for the presence of parasite eggs (Phase 1). Participating producers were provided with instructions and materials for sample collection. Up to 20 fresh fecal samples were collected from each of the 99 participating operations. Fresh fecal samples were submitted to one of 3 randomly assigned laboratories for evaluation. Upon arrival at the laboratories, all samples were processed for the enumeration of strongyle, Nematodirus, and Trichuris eggs using the modified Wisconsin technique. The presence or absence of coccidian oocysts and tapeworm eggs was also noted. In submissions where the strongyle eggs per gram exceeded 30, aliquots from 2 to 6 animals were pooled for DNA extraction. Extracted DNA was subjected to genus level polymerase chain reaction (PCR) identification for the presence of Ostertagia, Cooperia, Haemonchus, Oesophagostomum, and Trichostrongylus. In this study, 85.6% of the samples had strongyle type, Nematodirus, and Trichuris eggs. Among the samples evaluated, 91% had Cooperia, 79% Ostertagia, 53% Haemonchus, 38% Oesophagostomum, 18% Nematodirus, 7% Trichuris, and 3% Trichostrongylus. The prevalence of coccidia and tapeworm eggs was 59.9% and 13.7%, respectively. PMID:26424909

  11. Prevalence of internal parasites in beef cows in the United States: Results of the National Animal Health Monitoring System's (NAHMS) beef study, 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromberg, Bert E; Gasbarre, Louis C; Ballweber, Lora R; Dargatz, David A; Rodriguez, Judith M; Kopral, Christine A; Zarlenga, Dante S

    2015-10-01

    During the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Animal Health Monitoring System's (NAHMS) 2007-2008 beef study, 567 producers from 24 US States were offered the opportunity to collect fecal samples from weaned beef calves and have them evaluated for the presence of parasite eggs (Phase 1). Participating producers were provided with instructions and materials for sample collection. Up to 20 fresh fecal samples were collected from each of the 99 participating operations. Fresh fecal samples were submitted to one of 3 randomly assigned laboratories for evaluation. Upon arrival at the laboratories, all samples were processed for the enumeration of strongyle, Nematodirus, and Trichuris eggs using the modified Wisconsin technique. The presence or absence of coccidian oocysts and tapeworm eggs was also noted. In submissions where the strongyle eggs per gram exceeded 30, aliquots from 2 to 6 animals were pooled for DNA extraction. Extracted DNA was subjected to genus level polymerase chain reaction (PCR) identification for the presence of Ostertagia, Cooperia, Haemonchus, Oesophagostomum, and Trichostrongylus. In this study, 85.6% of the samples had strongyle type, Nematodirus, and Trichuris eggs. Among the samples evaluated, 91% had Cooperia, 79% Ostertagia, 53% Haemonchus, 38% Oesophagostomum, 18% Nematodirus, 7% Trichuris, and 3% Trichostrongylus. The prevalence of coccidia and tapeworm eggs was 59.9% and 13.7%, respectively.

  12. Measurement system of bubbly flow using ultrasonic velocity profile monitor and video data processing unit. 2. Flow characteristics of bubbly countercurrent flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aritomi, Masanori; Zhou, Shirong; Nakajima, Makoto; Takeda, Yasushi; Mori, Michitsugu.

    1997-01-01

    The authors have developed a measurement system which is composed of an ultrasonic velocity profile monitor and a video data processing unit in order to clarify its multi-dimensional flow characteristics in bubbly flows and to offer a data base to validate numerical codes for multi-dimensional two-phase flow. In this paper, the measurement system was applied for bubbly countercurrent flows in a vertical rectangular channel. At first, both bubble and water velocity profiles and void fraction profiles in the channel were investigated statistically. Next, turbulence intensity in a continuous liquid phase was defined as a standard deviation of velocity fluctuation, and the two-phase multiplier profile of turbulence intensity in the channel was clarified as a ratio of the standard deviation of flow fluctuation in a bubbly countercurrent flow to that in a water single phase flow. Finally, the distribution parameter and drift velocity used in the drift flux model for bubbly countercurrent flows were calculated from the obtained velocity profiles of both phases and void fraction profile, and were compared with the correlation proposed for bubbly countercurrent flows. (author)

  13. Use of Current 2010 Forest Disturbance Monitoring Products for the Conterminous United States in Aiding a National Forest Threat Early Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Hargrove, William; Gasser, J.; Smoot, J.; Kuper, P.

    2010-01-01

    This presentation discusses contributions of near real time (NRT) MODIS forest disturbance detection products for the conterminous United States to an emerging national forest threat early warning system (EWS). The latter is being developed by the USDA Forest Service s Eastern and Western Environmental Threat Centers with help from NASA Stennis Space Center and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Building off work done in 2009, this national and regional forest disturbance detection and viewing capability of the EWS employs NRT MODIS NDVI data from the USGS eMODIS group and historical NDVI data from standard MOD13 products. Disturbance detection products are being computed for 24 day composites that are refreshed every 8 days. Products for 2010 include 42 dates of the 24 day composites. For each compositing date, we computed % change in forest maximum NDVI products for 2010 with respect to each of three historical baselines of 2009, 2007-2009, and 2003-2009,. The three baselines enable one to view potential current, recent, and longer term forest disturbances. A rainbow color table was applied to each forest change product so that potential disturbances (NDVI drops) were identified in hot color tones and growth (NDVI gains) in cold color tones. Example products were provided to end-users responsible for forest health monitoring at the Federal and State levels. Large patches of potential forest disturbances were validated based on comparisons with available reference data, including Landsat and field survey data. Products were posted on two internet mapping systems for US Forest Service internal and collaborator use. MODIS forest disturbance detection products were computed and posted for use in as little as 1 day after the last input date of the compositing period. Such products were useful for aiding aerial disturbance detection surveys and for assessing disturbance persistence on both inter- and intra-annual scales. Multiple 2010 forest disturbance events were

  14. Reliability of wireless monitoring using a wearable patch sensor in high-risk surgical patients at a step-down unit in the Netherlands: a clinical validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breteler, Martine J M; Huizinga, Erik; van Loon, Kim; Leenen, Luke P H; Dohmen, Daan A J; Kalkman, Cor J; Blokhuis, Taco J

    2018-02-27

    Intermittent vital signs measurements are the current standard on hospital wards, typically recorded once every 8 hours. Early signs of deterioration may therefore be missed. Recent innovations have resulted in 'wearable' sensors, which may capture patient deterioration at an earlier stage. The objective of this study was to determine whether a wireless 'patch' sensor is able to reliably measure respiratory and heart rate continuously in high-risk surgical patients. The secondary objective was to explore the potential of the wireless sensor to serve as a safety monitor. In an observational methods comparisons study, patients were measured with both the wireless sensor and bedside routine standard for at least 24 hours. University teaching hospital, single centre. Twenty-five postoperative surgical patients admitted to a step-down unit. Primary outcome measures were limits of agreement and bias of heart rate and respiratory rate. Secondary outcome measures were sensor reliability, defined as time until first occurrence of data loss. 1568 hours of vital signs data were analysed. Bias and 95% limits of agreement for heart rate were -1.1 (-8.8 to 6.5) beats per minute. For respiration rate, bias was -2.3 breaths per minute with wide limits of agreement (-15.8 to 11.2 breaths per minute). Median filtering over a 15 min period improved limits of agreement of both respiration and heart rate. 63% of the measurements were performed without data loss greater than 2 min. Overall data loss was limited (6% of time). The wireless sensor is capable of accurately measuring heart rate, but accuracy for respiratory rate was outside acceptable limits. Remote monitoring has the potential to contribute to early recognition of physiological decline in high-risk patients. Future studies should focus on the ability to detect patient deterioration on low care environments and at home after discharge. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of

  15. Annual Report RCRA Post-Closure Monitoring and Inspections for Corrective Action Unit 91: Area 3 U-3fi Injection Well, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, for the Period October 2001 - October 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, G.

    2003-01-01

    This annual monitoring and inspection report provides an analysis and summary for site inspections, meteorological information, and neutron soil moisture monitoring data obtained at the U-3fi Injection Well during the October 2001 to October 2002 period. The U-3fi Injection Well is located in Area 3 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada. Inspections of the Area 3 U-3fi Injection Well are conducted to determine and document the physical condition of the concrete pad, facilities, and any unusual conditions that could impact the proper operation of the waste disposal unit closure. The objective of the neutron logging is to monitor the soil moisture conditions along the 128-meter (m) (420-feet [ft]) ER3-3 monitoring well and detect changes that may be indicative of moisture movement in the regulated interval extending between 73 to 82 m (240 to 270 ft)

  16. Turbidity and total suspended solid concentration dynamics in streamflow from California oak woodland watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Lewis; Kenneth W. Tate; Randy A. Dahlgren; Jacob Newell

    2002-01-01

    Resource agencies, private landowners, and citizen monitoring programs utilize turbidity (water clarity) measurements as a water quality indicator for total suspended solids (TSS – mass of solids per unit volume) and other constituents in streams and rivers. The dynamics and relationships between turbidity and TSS are functions of watershed-specific factors and...

  17. Prevalence of autism spectrum disorder among children aged 8 years - autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network, 11 sites, United States, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-28

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD). 2010. The Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM) Network is an active surveillance system in the United States that provides estimates of the prevalence of ASD and other characteristics among children aged 8 years whose parents or guardians live in 11 ADDM sites in the United States. ADDM surveillance is conducted in two phases. The first phase consists of screening and abstracting comprehensive evaluations performed by professional providers in the community. Multiple data sources for these evaluations include general pediatric health clinics and specialized programs for children with developmental disabilities. In addition, most ADDM Network sites also review and abstract records of children receiving special education services in public schools. The second phase involves review of all abstracted evaluations by trained clinicians to determine ASD surveillance case status. A child meets the surveillance case definition for ASD if a comprehensive evaluation of that child completed by a qualified professional describes behaviors consistent with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) diagnostic criteria for any of the following conditions: autistic disorder, pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (including atypical autism), or Asperger disorder. This report provides updated prevalence estimates for ASD from the 2010 surveillance year. In addition to prevalence estimates, characteristics of the population of children with ASD are described. For 2010, the overall prevalence of ASD among the ADDM sites was 14.7 per 1,000 (one in 68) children aged 8 years. Overall ASD prevalence estimates varied among sites from 5.7 to 21.9 per 1,000 children aged 8 years. ASD prevalence estimates also varied by sex and racial/ethnic group. Approximately one in 42 boys and one in 189 girls living in the ADDM Network communities were identified as having ASD

  18. Winters-Domengine Total Petroleum System—Northern Nonassociated Gas Assessment Unit of the San Joaquin Basin Province: Chapter 21 in Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of oil and gas in the San Joaquin Basin Province, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosford Scheirer, Allegra; Magoon, Leslie B.

    2008-01-01

    The Northern Nonassociated Gas Assessment Unit (AU) of the Winters-Domengine Total Petroleum System of the San Joaquin Basin Province consists of all nonassociated gas accumulations in Cretaceous, Eocene, and Miocene sandstones located north of township 15 South in the San Joaquin Valley. The northern San Joaquin Valley forms a northwest-southeast trending asymmetrical trough. It is filled with an alternating sequence of Cretaceous-aged sands and shales deposited on Franciscan Complex, ophiolitic, and Sierran basement. Eocene-aged strata unconformably overlie the thick Cretaceous section, and in turn are overlain unconformably by nonmarine Pliocene-Miocene sediments. Nonassociated gas accumulations have been discovered in the sands of the Panoche, Moreno, Kreyenhagen, andDomengine Formations and in the nonmarine Zilch formation of Loken (1959) (hereafter referred to as Zilch formation). Most hydrocarbon accumulations occur in low-relief, northwest-southeast trending anticlines formed chiefly by differential compaction of sediment and by northeast southwest directed compression during the Paleogene (Bartow, 1991) and in stratigraphic traps formed by pinch out of submarine fan sands against slope shales. To date, 176 billion cubic feet (BCF) of nonassociated recoverable gas has been found in fields within the assessment unit (table 21.1). A small amount of biogenic gas forms near the surface of the AU. Map boundaries of the assessment unit are shown in figures 21.1 and 21.2; in plan view, this assessment unit is identical to the Northern Area Nonassociated Gas play 1007 considered by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in its 1995 National Assessment (Beyer, 1996). The AU is bounded on the east by the mapped limits of Cretaceous sandstone reservoir rocks and on the west by the east flank of the Diablo Range. The southern limit of the AU is the southernmost occurrence of nonassociated thermogenic-gas accumulations. The northern limit of the AU corresponds to the

  19. Monitoring Groundwater Variations from Satellite Gravimetry and Hydrological Models: A Comparison with in-situ Measurements in the Mid-Atlantic Region of the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruya Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aimed at mapping time variations in the Earth’s gravity field, the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE satellite mission is applicable to access terrestrial water storage (TWS, which mainly includes groundwater, soil moisture (SM, and snow. In this study, SM and accumulated snow water equivalent (SWE are simulated by the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS land surface models (LSMs and then used to isolate groundwater anomalies from GRACE-derived TWS in Pennsylvania and New York States of the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States. The monitoring well water-level records from the U.S. Geological Survey Ground-Water Climate Response Network from January 2005 to December 2011 are used for validation. The groundwater results from different combinations of GRACE products (from three institutions, CSR, GFZ and JPL and GLDAS LSMs (CLM, NOAH and VIC are compared and evaluated with in-situ measurements. The intercomparison analysis shows that the solution obtained through removing averaged simulated SM and SWE of the three LSMs from the averaged GRACE-derived TWS of the three centers would be the most robust to reduce the noises, and increase the confidence consequently. Although discrepancy exists, the GRACE-GLDAS estimated groundwater variations generally agree with in-situ observations. For monthly scales, their correlation coefficient reaches 0.70 at 95% confidence level with the RMSE of the differences of 2.6 cm. Two-tailed Mann-Kendall trend test results show that there is no significant groundwater gain or loss in this region over the study period. The GRACE time-variable field solutions and GLDAS simulations provide precise and reliable data sets in illustrating the regional groundwater storage variations, and the application will be meaningful and invaluable when applied to the data-poor regions.

  20. Dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, pH, and other variables collected from surface discrete observations using spectrophotometer and other instruments from NOAA Ship Henry B. Bigelow off the Northeastern coast of the United States from 2014-09-10 to 2014-11-05 (NCEI Accession 0138983)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains surface measurements of dissolved inorganic, total alkalinity, pH measurements off the Northeastern coast of the United States....

  1. Generalidades de un Sistema de Monitorización Informático para Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos Generalities of a Computer Monitoring System for Intensive Cares Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Carmen Tellería Prieto

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available El empleo de las tecnologías de la información y las comunicaciones en el sector de la salud adquiere cada día una importancia mayor. Se exponen en el trabajo los requisitos generales a partir de los cuales se desarrolla un Sistema Informático para la Monitorización de pacientes críticos en los diferentes servicios de atención al grave, aunque inicialmente está dirigido a las unidades de terapia intensiva. El trabajo es parte de un proyecto ramal que ejecuta la Dirección Nacional de Urgencias Médicas del Ministerio de Salud Pública de Cuba, con la participación de emergencistas e intensivistas de todo el país. El sistema se implementa por informáticos de la salud en Pinar del Río, cumplimentando las regulaciones establecidas por la Dirección Nacional de Informática y la empresa Softel. El sistema de monitorización facilitará la captura, gestión, tratamiento y almacenamiento de la información generada para cada paciente, integrando toda la información que se maneja en el servicio. Se hace hincapié en las evoluciones médicas y de enfermería, la prescripción de los tratamientos, así como en la evaluación clínica de los pacientes, lo que permitirá la toma de decisiones terapéuticas más efectivas. En las generalidades a partir de las cuales se desarrollará el sistema de monitorización, se ha especificado que el sistema sea modular, de manejo sencillo e intuitivo, e implementado con software libre.The application of information and communication technologies in the health sector gains a greater importance every day. General requisites to develop a Computer System to perform the monitoring of critically-ill patients throughout the different services of intensive care were considered; though it was firstly designed to the intensive care units. This paper is part of a branch project conducted by the National Direction of Medical Emergencies belonging to Cuban Ministry of Public Health, and with the participation of

  2. Monitoring Agricultural Drought Using Geographic Information Systems and Remote Sensing on the Primary Corn and Soybean Belt in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shomrany, Adel

    soybean levels show yields as a function of precipitation. The GWR models predicted that yields were significantly better than OLS performances for maize (corn) and soybean. The OLS regression model when used showed a general trend of correlation between observed yields and long-term mean precipitation totals, with 84% and 63% of the variability in mean yield explained by the mean annual precipitation for the non-irrigated crops. The GWR technique performance in predicting yields was significantly better than OLS performances. For instance in the months of June, July, and August precipitations had greater impacts on maize (corn) yields than soybeans under non-irrigated conditions as a result of the greater sensitivity maize (corn) had to water stress. SPI is capable of offering various time-scales enabling it to show initial warning signs of drought conditions and accompanying severity levels. SPI calculation techniques used for various locations are reflected upon the precipitation records acquired during those periods. Over the 3, 6, and 9-month periods, NDII6 performed the best out of all of the MODIS indices as shown in its results in monitoring vegetation moisture and drought detection. NDII6 performed the best due to its detection abilities. The 9-month SPI provides an indication of inter-seasonal precipitation patterns over medium timescale duration. A new approach used is to average corn and soybean yields for all counties of the study area in comparison with average anomalies of the MODIS indices for the growing season between May through September from 2006-2012. There was a strong correlation between average corn yields versus MODIS NDII6 averages for these years with R2 equaling 0.62. That means NDII6 is the best indicator to show drought conditions and vegetation moisture monitoring. There was a weak correlation with R2 = 0.16 between averages of soybean yields and averages of precipitation. Irrigation and management systems, technological improvements from

  3. Survey of commercially available chocolate- and cocoa-containing products in the United States. 2. Comparison of flavan-3-ol content with nonfat cocoa solids, total polyphenols, and percent cacao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kenneth B; Hurst, W Jeffrey; Flannigan, Nancy; Ou, Boxin; Lee, C Y; Smith, Nancy; Stuart, David A

    2009-10-14

    A survey of a broad range of chocolate- and cocoa-containing products marketed in the United States was conducted to provide a more detailed analysis of flavan-3-ol monomers, oligomers, and polymers, which can be grouped into a class of compounds called procyanidins. Samples consisted of the three or four top-selling products within the following six categories: natural cocoa powder, unsweetened baking chocolate, dark chocolate, semisweet baking chips, milk chocolate, and chocolate syrup. Composite samples were characterized for percent fat (% fat), percent nonfat cocoa solids (% NFCS), antioxidant level by ORAC, total polyphenols, epicatechin, catechin, total monomers, and flavan-3-ol oligomers and polymers (procyanidins). On a gram weight basis epicatechin and catechin content of the products follow in decreasing order: cocoa powder > baking chocolate > dark chocolate = baking chips > milk chocolate > chocolate syrup. Analysis of the monomer and oligomer profiles within product categories shows there are two types of profiles: (1) products that have high monomers with decreasing levels of oligomers and (2) products in which the level of dimers is equal to or greater than the monomers. Results show a strong correlation (R(2) = 0.834) of epicatechin to the level of % NFCS and also very good correlations for N = 2-5 oligomers to % NFCS. A weaker correlation was observed for catechin to % NFCS (R(2) = 0.680). Other analyses show a similar high degree of correlation with epicatechin and N = 2-5 oligomers to total polyphenols, with catechin being less well correlated to total polyphenols. A lesser but still good correlation exists between the calculated percent cacao (calcd % cacao) content, a proxy for percent cacao, and these same flavanol measures, with catechin again showing a lesser degree of correlation to calcd % cacao. Principal component analysis (PCA) shows that the products group discretely into five classes: (1) cocoa powder, (2) baking chocolate, (3) dark

  4. Current Status of Groundwater Monitoring Networks in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Yong Lee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Korea has been operating groundwater monitoring systems since 1996 as the Groundwater Act enacted in 1994 enforces nationwide monitoring. Currently, there are six main groundwater monitoring networks operated by different government ministries with different purposes: National Groundwater Monitoring Network (NGMN, Groundwater Quality Monitoring Network (GQMN, Seawater Intrusion Monitoring Network (SIMN, Rural Groundwater Monitoring Network (RGMN, Subsidiary Groundwater Monitoring Network (SGMN, and Drinking Water Monitoring Network (DWMN. The Networks have a total of over 3500 monitoring wells and the majority of them are now equipped with automatic data loggers and remote terminal units. Most of the monitoring data are available to the public through internet websites. These Networks have provided scientific data for designing groundwater management plans and contributed to securing the groundwater resource particularly for recent prolonged drought seasons. Each Network, however, utilizes its own well-specifications, probes, and telecommunication protocols with minimal communication with other Networks, and thus duplicate installations of monitoring wells are not uncommon among different Networks. This mini-review introduces the current regulations and the Groundwater Monitoring Networks operated in Korea and provides some suggestions to improve the sustainability of the current groundwater monitoring system in Korea.

  5. A detection-level hazardous waste ground-water monitoring compliance plan for the 200 areas low-level burial grounds and retrievable storage units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-02-01

    This plan defines the actions needed to achieve detection-level monitoring compliance at the Hanford Site 200 Areas Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBG) in accordance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Compliance will be achieved through characterization of the hydrogeology and monitoring of the ground water beneath the LLBG located in the Hanford Site 200 Areas. 13 refs., 20 figs

  6. Comparison of the ESTRO formalism for monitor unit calculation with a Clarkson based algorithm of a treatment planning system and a traditional ''full-scatter'' methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirotta, M.; Aquilina, D.; Bhikha, T.; Georg, D.

    2005-01-01

    The ESTRO formalism for monitor unit (MU) calculations was evaluated and implemented to replace a previous methodology based on dosimetric data measured in a full-scatter phantom. This traditional method relies on data normalised at the depth of dose maximum (z m ), as well as on the utilisation of the BJR 25 table for the conversion of rectangular fields into equivalent square fields. The treatment planning system (TPS) was subsequently updated to reflect the new beam data normalised at a depth z R of 10 cm. Comparisons were then carried out between the ESTRO formalism, the Clarkson-based dose calculation algorithm on the TPS (with beam data normalised at z m and z R ), and the traditional ''full-scatter'' methodology. All methodologies, except for the ''full-scatter'' methodology, separated head-scatter from phantom-scatter effects and none of the methodologies; except for the ESTRO formalism, utilised wedge depth dose information for calculations. The accuracy of MU calculations was verified against measurements in a homogeneous phantom for square and rectangular open and wedged fields, as well as blocked open and wedged fields, at 5, 10, and 20 cm depths, under fixed SSD and isocentric geometries for 6 and 10 MV. Overall, the ESTRO Formalism showed the most accurate performance, with the root mean square (RMS) error with respect to measurements remaining below 1% even for the most complex beam set-ups investigated. The RMS error for the TPS deteriorated with the introduction of a wedge, with a worse RMS error for the beam data normalised at z m (4% at 6 MV and 1.6% at 10 MV) than at z R (1.9% at 6 MV and 1.1% at 10 MV). The further addition of blocking had only a marginal impact on the accuracy of this methodology. The ''full-scatter'' methodology showed a loss in accuracy for calculations involving either wedges or blocking, and performed worst for blocked wedged fields (RMS errors of 7.1% at 6 MV and 5% at 10 MV). The origins of these discrepancies were

  7. Evaluation of eleven years of area monitoring for external dose rate in a deposit of radioactive waste at the ore treatment unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, W.S.; Oliveira, S.Q. de; Py Junior, D.A.; Silva, A.C.A.; Garcia Filho, O., E-mail: pereiraws@gmail.com [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Unidade de Tratamento de Minerio. Grupo Multidisciplinar de Radioprotecao; Kelecom, A., E-mail: akelecom@id.uff.br [Universidade Federal Fluminense (LARARA-PLS/GETA/UFF), Niteroi, RJ, (Brazil). Lab. de Radiobiologia e Radiometria. Grupo de Estudos em Temas Ambientais; Pereira, J.R.S., E-mail: pereirarsj@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Alfenas (UNIFAL), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    At Ore Treatment Unit (UTM, in Portuguese) situated in Pocos de Caldas, MG, there is a deposit of about 40 tons radioactive waste produced decades ago from Santo Amaro deactivated plant (SAP) and then from NUCLEMON that processed monazite sands to extract rare earth elements. This waste contains uranium and thorium and it is stored in six hangars. This study aims to analyze the dose rates in the hangars from 2002 to 2012. Annually, two samples were obtained, for a total of 24 samples. The results showed the highest doses rates at UTM, ranging from 0.5 to 409.8 μSv h{sup -}'1 for the total set of samples. The averages extended from 0.96 μSv h{sup -1} in hangar C-02 up to 282.64 μSv h{sup -1} in hangar C-05. Considering each hangar separately, the results were as follows: hangar C-01 average 30.34 μSv h{sup -1}, ranging from 6.2 to 71.7 μSv h{sup -1}; hangar C-02 average 0.96 μSv h{sup -1} (min-max 0.5 to 2.51 μSv h{sup -1}); hangar C-05 average 282.64 μSv h{sup -1} (min-max 3.7 to 409.8 μSv h{sup -1}); hangar C-06 average 188.92 μSv h{sup -1} (min-max 1.85 to 338.0 μSv h{sup -1}); hangar C-07, average 172.05 μSv h{sup -1} (min-max 1.95 to 283.0 μSv h{sup -1}) and hangar C-09, average 122.59 μSv h{sup -1} (min-max 1.11 to 277.0 μSv h{sup -1}). ANOVA test indicated that the dose rates averages in the six hangars are different (F{sub calc} of 70.90 higher F{sub crit} of 2.28), and the Tukey test allowed to group the hangars in the following sequence: C-05> C-06 = C-07> C-09> C-01 = C-02. (author)

  8. Evaluation of eleven years of area monitoring for external dose rate in a deposit of radioactive waste at the ore treatment unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, W.S.; Oliveira, S.Q. de; Py Junior, D.A.; Silva, A.C.A.; Garcia Filho, O.

    2013-01-01

    At Ore Treatment Unit (UTM, in Portuguese) situated in Pocos de Caldas, MG, there is a deposit of about 40 tons radioactive waste produced decades ago from Santo Amaro deactivated plant (SAP) and then from NUCLEMON that processed monazite sands to extract rare earth elements. This waste contains uranium and thorium and it is stored in six hangars. This study aims to analyze the dose rates in the hangars from 2002 to 2012. Annually, two samples were obtained, for a total of 24 samples. The results showed the highest doses rates at UTM, ranging from 0.5 to 409.8 μSv h - '1 for the total set of samples. The averages extended from 0.96 μSv h -1 in hangar C-02 up to 282.64 μSv h -1 in hangar C-05. Considering each hangar separately, the results were as follows: hangar C-01 average 30.34 μSv h -1 , ranging from 6.2 to 71.7 μSv h -1 ; hangar C-02 average 0.96 μSv h -1 (min-max 0.5 to 2.51 μSv h -1 ); hangar C-05 average 282.64 μSv h -1 (min-max 3.7 to 409.8 μSv h -1 ); hangar C-06 average 188.92 μSv h -1 (min-max 1.85 to 338.0 μSv h -1 ); hangar C-07, average 172.05 μSv h -1 (min-max 1.95 to 283.0 μSv h -1 ) and hangar C-09, average 122.59 μSv h -1 (min-max 1.11 to 277.0 μSv h -1 ). ANOVA test indicated that the dose rates averages in the six hangars are different (F calc of 70.90 higher F crit of 2.28), and the Tukey test allowed to group the hangars in the following sequence: C-05> C-06 = C-07> C-09> C-01 = C-02. (author)

  9. The Ability of the United States Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center to Collect and Disseminate Environmental Measurements during Radiological Emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marianno, Craig; Essex, James

    2007-01-01

    The Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) is the United States response organization for radiological emergencies. The FRMAC is structured as an operations center and employs the combined resources of several federal agencies to respond to any disaster resulting in the release of radioactivity. The mission of the FRMAC is to support state and local authorities in the gathering of environmental data using an array of survey equipment ranging from alpha probes, beta/gamma probes, and high-purity germanium (HPGe) spectroscopy to the gathering of physical samples. Once collected, the data are projected on maps to assist public officials make protective action decisions. In addition to the accumulation of data, it is the legal obligation of the FRMAC to keep archival records of all data points and their actions. During an event, it is conceivable that hundreds to thousands of sample points will be recorded over a relatively short time. It is in the interest of the federal government and public that the information collected be put to the best use as fast as possible. Toward this end, the Remote Sensing Laboratory, working under the direction of the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration, is investigating the use of several technologies that will accelerate data flow from field teams to the FRMAC and, finally, distribution of data to decision makers and the public. Not only can finished data products be viewed through the internet, but the actual collection of data via 'real-time' telemetry can be viewed using this same method. Data from the field will be transferred directly to the FRMAC using the MCPD (multi-path communication device). This base station receives the survey information from the field teams via Bluetooth and instantly investigates the best communication pathway to transfer data to the FRMAC. Possible paths include standalone radio, commercial cellular networks (GPRS and CDMA) and satellite

  10. Prevalence and Characteristics of Autism Spectrum Disorder Among Children Aged 8 Years--Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, 11 Sites, United States, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Deborah L; Baio, Jon; Van Naarden Braun, Kim; Bilder, Deborah; Charles, Jane; Constantino, John N; Daniels, Julie; Durkin, Maureen S; Fitzgerald, Robert T; Kurzius-Spencer, Margaret; Lee, Li-Ching; Pettygrove, Sydney; Robinson, Cordelia; Schulz, Eldon; Wells, Chris; Wingate, Martha S; Zahorodny, Walter; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn

    2016-04-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD). 2012. The Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM) Network is an active surveillance system that provides estimates of the prevalence and characteristics of ASD among children aged 8 years whose parents or guardians reside in 11 ADDM Network sites in the United States (Arkansas, Arizona, Colorado, Georgia, Maryland, Missouri, New Jersey, North Carolina, South Carolina, Utah, and Wisconsin). Surveillance to determine ASD case status is conducted in two phases. The first phase consists of screening and abstracting comprehensive evaluations performed by professional service providers in the community. Data sources identified for record review are categorized as either 1) education source type, including developmental evaluations to determine eligibility for special education services or 2) health care source type, including diagnostic and developmental evaluations. The second phase involves the review of all abstracted evaluations by trained clinicians to determine ASD surveillance case status. A child meets the surveillance case definition for ASD if one or more comprehensive evaluations of that child completed by a qualified professional describes behaviors that are consistent with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision diagnostic criteria for any of the following conditions: autistic disorder, pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (including atypical autism), or Asperger disorder. This report provides ASD prevalence estimates for children aged 8 years living in catchment areas of the ADDM Network sites in 2012, overall and stratified by sex, race/ethnicity, and the type of source records (education and health records versus health records only). In addition, this report describes the proportion of children with ASD with a score consistent with intellectual disability on a standardized intellectual ability test, the age at which the earliest known

  11. Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder Among Children Aged 8 Years — Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, 11 Sites, United States, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Lisa; Christensen, Deborah L.; Maenner, Matthew J; Daniels, Julie; Warren, Zachary; Kurzius-Spencer, Margaret; Zahorodny, Walter; Robinson Rosenberg, Cordelia; White, Tiffany; Durkin, Maureen S.; Imm, Pamela; Nikolaou, Loizos; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn; Lee, Li-Ching; Harrington, Rebecca; Lopez, Maya; Fitzgerald, Robert T.; Hewitt, Amy; Pettygrove, Sydney; Constantino, John N.; Vehorn, Alison; Shenouda, Josephine; Hall-Lande, Jennifer; Van Naarden Braun, Kim; Dowling, Nicole F.

    2018-01-01

    Problem/Condition Autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Period Covered 2014. Description of System The Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM) Network is an active surveillance system that provides estimates of the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) among children aged 8 years whose parents or guardians reside within 11 ADDM sites in the United States (Arizona, Arkansas, Colorado, Georgia, Maryland, Minnesota, Missouri, New Jersey, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Wisconsin). ADDM surveillance is conducted in two phases. The first phase involves review and abstraction of comprehensive evaluations that were completed by professional service providers in the community. Staff completing record review and abstraction receive extensive training and supervision and are evaluated according to strict reliability standards to certify effective initial training, identify ongoing training needs, and ensure adherence to the prescribed methodology. Record review and abstraction occurs in a variety of data sources ranging from general pediatric health clinics to specialized programs serving children with developmental disabilities. In addition, most of the ADDM sites also review records for children who have received special education services in public schools. In the second phase of the study, all abstracted information is reviewed systematically by experienced clinicians to determine ASD case status. A child is considered to meet the surveillance case definition for ASD if he or she displays behaviors, as described on one or more comprehensive evaluations completed by community-based professional providers, consistent with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) diagnostic criteria for autistic disorder; pervasive developmental disorder–not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS, including atypical autism); or Asperger disorder. This report provides updated ASD prevalence estimates for children aged 8

  12. Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder Among Children Aged 8 Years - Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, 11 Sites, United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baio, Jon; Wiggins, Lisa; Christensen, Deborah L; Maenner, Matthew J; Daniels, Julie; Warren, Zachary; Kurzius-Spencer, Margaret; Zahorodny, Walter; Robinson Rosenberg, Cordelia; White, Tiffany; Durkin, Maureen S; Imm, Pamela; Nikolaou, Loizos; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn; Lee, Li-Ching; Harrington, Rebecca; Lopez, Maya; Fitzgerald, Robert T; Hewitt, Amy; Pettygrove, Sydney; Constantino, John N; Vehorn, Alison; Shenouda, Josephine; Hall-Lande, Jennifer; Van Naarden Braun, Kim; Dowling, Nicole F

    2018-04-27

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD). 2014. The Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM) Network is an active surveillance system that provides estimates of the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) among children aged 8 years whose parents or guardians reside within 11 ADDM sites in the United States (Arizona, Arkansas, Colorado, Georgia, Maryland, Minnesota, Missouri, New Jersey, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Wisconsin). ADDM surveillance is conducted in two phases. The first phase involves review and abstraction of comprehensive evaluations that were completed by professional service providers in the community. Staff completing record review and abstraction receive extensive training and supervision and are evaluated according to strict reliability standards to certify effective initial training, identify ongoing training needs, and ensure adherence to the prescribed methodology. Record review and abstraction occurs in a variety of data sources ranging from general pediatric health clinics to specialized programs serving children with developmental disabilities. In addition, most of the ADDM sites also review records for children who have received special education services in public schools. In the second phase of the study, all abstracted information is reviewed systematically by experienced clinicians to determine ASD case status. A child is considered to meet the surveillance case definition for ASD if he or she displays behaviors, as described on one or more comprehensive evaluations completed by community-based professional providers, consistent with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) diagnostic criteria for autistic disorder; pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS, including atypical autism); or Asperger disorder. This report provides updated ASD prevalence estimates for children aged 8 years during the 2014 surveillance year, on the basis of DSM