WorldWideScience

Sample records for total mixing time

  1. Mixed total screening for sulfur isotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Bin; Zhao Lei; Zhan Zhaoyang; He Zhijun

    2003-01-01

    The research on modern economic geology indicates that most ore deposits formed with characters of multi-origin, multi-stage and multi-genesis. Quantificational research of Sulfur isotope origin is a difficult problem that puzzles Geochemists all along. So the formation process of an ore deposit can be taken as the mix or the superposition of multi totals, which can be described by the mathematics model of mixed total screening. In the study of mid-down Yangtze River and Dongpo ore field in Hunan province, the authors successfully applied the mathematics model of mixed total screening, quantificationally resolved the problem of Sulfur isotope origin and mineralizing matter origin, and found out the mineralizing mechanism. This is very valuable. (authors)

  2. Mixed Hitting-Time Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbring, J.H.

    2009-01-01

    We study mixed hitting-time models, which specify durations as the first time a Levy process (a continuous-time process with stationary and independent increments) crosses a heterogeneous threshold. Such models of substantial interest because they can be reduced from optimal-stopping models with

  3. Markov chains and mixing times

    CERN Document Server

    Levin, David A

    2017-01-01

    Markov Chains and Mixing Times is a magical book, managing to be both friendly and deep. It gently introduces probabilistic techniques so that an outsider can follow. At the same time, it is the first book covering the geometric theory of Markov chains and has much that will be new to experts. It is certainly THE book that I will use to teach from. I recommend it to all comers, an amazing achievement. -Persi Diaconis, Mary V. Sunseri Professor of Statistics and Mathematics, Stanford University Mixing times are an active research topic within many fields from statistical physics to the theory of algorithms, as well as having intrinsic interest within mathematical probability and exploiting discrete analogs of important geometry concepts. The first edition became an instant classic, being accessible to advanced undergraduates and yet bringing readers close to current research frontiers. This second edition adds chapters on monotone chains, the exclusion process and hitting time parameters. Having both exercises...

  4. Monitoring total mixed rations and feed delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelberg, Thomas J; Stone, William

    2014-11-01

    This article is intended to give practitioners a method to evaluate total mixed ration (TMR) consistency and to give them practical solutions to improve TMR consistency that will improve cattle performance and health. Practitioners will learn how to manage the variation in moisture and nutrients that exists in haylage and corn silage piles and in bales of hay, and methods to reduce variation in the TMR mixing and delivery process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Mixed Gaussian-Impulse Noise Image Restoration Via Total Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    deblurring under impulse noise ,” J. Math. Imaging Vis., vol. 36, pp. 46–53, January 2010. [5] B. Li, Q. Liu, J. Xu, and X. Luo, “A new method for removing......Several Total Variation (TV) regularization methods have recently been proposed to address denoising under mixed Gaussian and impulse noise . While

  6. Total mixed ration in exercising horse: digestibility and nitrogen metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Magni

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the apparent digestibility of a total mixed ration (TMR versus a traditional mixed hay/cereals diet. Four adult trained Standardbred geldings – BW = 478±37 kg - were used. The two diets consisted of 20 kg of a commercial TMR - corn silage, alfalfa hay, wet brewers’ grain, oat, apple pomace, molasses cane, soybean oil and mineral/vitamin supplement - (Diet 1 or 7 kg of meadow hay and 4.5 kg of cereal-mix - corn, oat, barley and protein/mineral/vitamin supplement - (Diet 2. The trial was conducted according to a Latin Square design (2x2. After an adaptation period of four weeks, total faeces and urine were collected for 6 days. Both feed and faeces samples were analysed for DM, OM, CP, EE, CF, NDF, ADF, cellulose, hemicellulose, ADL and GE. Data were analysed by ANOVA. The apparent digestibility and nitrogen balance of the two diets were compared. DM, OM, CP and GE apparent digestibility were significantly different between the diets, with higher values for unifeed diet than traditional diet. Energy requirement was satisfied by both diets (96.54 vs 95.55 MJ. Nitrogen balance showed negative values in both diets (- 61.67 vs - 9.05, but the hay/cereals supplemented diet showed the best protein utilisation.

  7. Markov chains and mixing times

    CERN Document Server

    Levin, David A; Wilmer, Elizabeth L

    2009-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the modern approach to the theory of Markov chains. The main goal of this approach is to determine the rate of convergence of a Markov chain to the stationary distribution as a function of the size and geometry of the state space. The authors develop the key tools for estimating convergence times, including coupling, strong stationary times, and spectral methods. Whenever possible, probabilistic methods are emphasized. The book includes many examples and provides brief introductions to some central models of statistical mechanics. Also provided are accounts of r

  8. Timing the total reflection of light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauvat, Dominique; Bonnet, Christophe; Dunseath, Kevin; Emile, Olivier; Le Floch, Albert

    2005-01-01

    We have identified for the first time the absolute delay at total reflection, envisioned by Newton. We show that there are in fact two divergent Wigner delays, depending on the polarisation of the incident light. These measurements give a new insight on the passage from total reflection to refraction

  9. Total sleep time severely drops during adolescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien Leger

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Restricted sleep duration among young adults and adolescents has been shown to increase the risk of morbidities such as obesity, diabetes or accidents. However there are few epidemiological studies on normal total sleep time (TST in representative groups of teen-agers which allow to get normative data. PURPOSE: To explore perceived total sleep time on schooldays (TSTS and non schooldays (TSTN and the prevalence of sleep initiating insomnia among a nationally representative sample of teenagers. METHODS: Data from 9,251 children aged 11 to 15 years-old, 50.7% of which were boys, as part of the cross-national study 2011 HBSC were analyzed. Self-completion questionnaires were administered in classrooms. An estimate of TSTS and TSTN (week-ends and vacations was calculated based on specifically designed sleep habits report. Sleep deprivation was estimated by a TSTN - TSTS difference >2 hours. Sleep initiating nsomnia was assessed according to International classification of sleep disorders (ICSD 2. Children who reported sleeping 7 hours or less per night were considered as short sleepers. RESULTS: A serious drop of TST was observed between 11 yo and 15 yo, both during the schooldays (9 hours 26 minutes vs. 7 h 55 min.; p<0.001 and at a lesser extent during week-ends (10 h 17 min. vs. 9 h 44 min.; p<0.001. Sleep deprivation concerned 16.0% of chidren aged of 11 yo vs. 40.5% of those of 15 yo (p<0.001. Too short sleep was reported by 2.6% of the 11 yo vs. 24.6% of the 15 yo (p<0.001. CONCLUSION: Despite the obvious need for sleep in adolescence, TST drastically decreases with age among children from 11 to 15 yo which creates significant sleep debt increasing with age.

  10. A continuous-time/discrete-time mixed audio-band sigma delta ADC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yan; Hua Siliang; Wang Donghui; Hou Chaohuan

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a mixed continuous-time/discrete-time, single-loop, fourth-order, 4-bit audio-band sigma delta ADC that combines the benefits of continuous-time and discrete-time circuits, while mitigating the challenges associated with continuous-time design. Measurement results show that the peak SNR of this ADC reaches 100 dB and the total power consumption is less than 30 mW. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  11. Mix ratio measurements of pozzolanic blends by Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflectance method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebagay, T.V.; Dodd, D.A.

    1992-07-01

    The disposal of low-level radioactive liquid wastes at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, involves mixing the wastes with pozzolanic grout-forming solid blends. Checking the quality of each blend component and its mix ratio will ensure processibility of the blend and the long-term performance of the resulting waste grout. In earlier work at Hanford laboratories, Fourier transform infrared-transmission method (FTIR-TR) using KBr pellet was applied successfully in the analysis of blends consisting of cement, fly ash, and clays. This method involves time-consuming sample preparation resulting in slow turnaround for repetitive sampling. Because reflection methods do not require elaborate sample preparation, they have the potential to reduce turnaround analysis time. Neat samples may be examined making these methods attractive for quality control. This study investigates the capability of Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflectance method (FTIR-ATR) to analyze pozzolanic blends

  12. Mixed time slicing in path integral simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, Ryan P.; Zwickl, Jill; Shushkov, Philip; Tully, John C.

    2011-01-01

    A simple and efficient scheme is presented for using different time slices for different degrees of freedom in path integral calculations. This method bridges the gap between full quantization and the standard mixed quantum-classical (MQC) scheme and, therefore, still provides quantum mechanical effects in the less-quantized variables. Underlying the algorithm is the notion that time slices (beads) may be 'collapsed' in a manner that preserves quantization in the less quantum mechanical degrees of freedom. The method is shown to be analogous to multiple-time step integration techniques in classical molecular dynamics. The algorithm and its associated error are demonstrated on model systems containing coupled high- and low-frequency modes; results indicate that convergence of quantum mechanical observables can be achieved with disparate bead numbers in the different modes. Cost estimates indicate that this procedure, much like the MQC method, is most efficient for only a relatively few quantum mechanical degrees of freedom, such as proton transfer. In this regime, however, the cost of a fully quantum mechanical simulation is determined by the quantization of the least quantum mechanical degrees of freedom.

  13. Effect of prolonged mixing time on concrete properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Noorul Ikhsan Mohamed; Sidek, H.A.A.; Wahab, Z.A.

    2009-01-01

    The correlation between workability, compressive strength and mixing time of fresh concrete has been studied. The concrete samples used in the study are normal concrete of grade 30. The mix design of the concrete samples was estimated using software called Calcrete. Three concrete cubes of 150 mm size were cast immediately after mixing. The same grade of concrete was prepared with the mixing time of 30 minutes to 5 hours. All of the concrete samples were cured for 28 days under room temperature before they were compressed using a compression machine. Result shows that the compressive strength of concrete decreases when mixing time is increased. (author)

  14. Frequency of mixed onychomycosis with total nail dystrophy in patients attended in a Guatemalan Dermatology Center

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Herrera, Erick; Schlager-Ospino, Herbert; Torres-Guerrero, Edoardo; Porras-López, Carlos; Betancourt, Laura Ramos; Camarena, Stefanie Arroyo; Arenas, Roberto

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Onychomycosis are fungal nail infections that can be caused by dermatophytes, non-dermatophytic molds and yeasts, which are capable of breaking down keratin. Mixed onychomycosis are a controversial subject and they are the outcome of the combination of two dermatophytes, dermatophytes/nondermatophytic molds or dermatophytes/yeast. Objetives: To determine the frequency of total dystrophic onychomycosis caused by more than one etiological agent (mixed onychomycosis) in ...

  15. Prospects for direct measurement of time-integrated Bs mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siccama, I.

    1994-01-01

    This note investigates the prospects of measuring time-integrated B s mixing. Three inclusive decay modes of the B s meson are discussed. For each reconstruction mode, the expected number of events and the different background channels are discussed. Estimates are given for the uncertainty on the mixing parameter χ s . (orig.)

  16. Mixed-mode Operating System for Real-time Performance

    OpenAIRE

    M.M. Hasan; S. Sultana; C.K. Foo

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the mixed-mode system research is to handle devices with the accuracy of real-time systems and at the same time, having all the benefits and facilities of a matured Graphic User Interface (GUI) operating system which is typically nonreal-time. This mixed-mode operating system comprising of a real-time portion and a non-real-time portion was studied and implemented to identify the feasibilities and performances in practical applications (in the context of scheduled the real-time...

  17. Mixed - mode Operating System for Real - time Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan M. M.; Sultana S.; Foo C.K.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the mixed-mode system research is to handle devices with the accuracy of real-time systems and at the same time, having all the benefits and facilities of a matured Graphic User Interface(GUI)operating system which is typicallynon-real-time. This mixed-mode operating system comprising of a real-time portion and a non-real-time portion was studied and implemented to identify the feasibilities and performances in practical applications (in the context of scheduled the real-time e...

  18. Mixed Discretization of the Time Domain MFIE at Low Frequencies

    KAUST Repository

    Ulku, Huseyin Arda; Bogaert, Ignace; Cools, Kristof; Andriulli, Francesco Paolo; Bagci, Hakan

    2017-01-01

    stems from the classical MOT scheme’s failure to predict the correct scaling of the current’s Helmholtz components for large time steps. A recently proposed mixed discretization strategy is used to alleviate the inaccuracy problem by restoring

  19. Frequency of mixed onychomycosis with total nail dystrophy in patients attended in a Guatemalan Dermatology Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Martinez Herrera

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Onychomycosis are fungal nail infections that can be caused by dermatophytes, non-dermatophytic molds and yeasts, which are capable of breaking down keratin. Mixed onychomycosis are a controversial subject and they are the outcome of the combination of two dermatophytes, dermatophytes/nondermatophytic molds or dermatophytes/yeast. Objetives: To determine the frequency of total dystrophic onychomycosis caused by more than one etiological agent (mixed onychomycosis in outpatients from a Dermatologic Center in Guatemala and to establish the characteristics associated with this fungal infection. Methods: Prospective observational study from August to December of 2012. Nail samples were obtained from patients with total dystrophic onychomycosis to identify the causal agents by culture in Sabouraud dextrose and Mycosel® agar. Results: 32 of 130 patients had mixed onychomycosis. 68.5% were associated to tinea pedis. The most common association was between T. rubrum + Candida, T. rubrum + M. canis and T. rubrum + opportunist fungi. Conclusions: Mixed onychomycosis represent 25% of the total dystrophic onychomycosis in Guatemala. We observed an important relationship between diabetes and the main association was T. rubrum with Candida spp.

  20. Modeling of mixing in stirred bioreactors 4. mixing time for aerated bacteria, yeasts and fungus broths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cascaval Dan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The mixing time for bioreactors depends mainly on the rheoiogicai properties of the broths, the biomass concentration and morphology, mixing system characteristics and fermentation conditions. For quantifying the influence of these factors on the mixing efficiency for stirred bioreactors, aerated broths of bacteria (P. shermanii, yeasts (S. cerevisiae and fungi (P. chrysogenum, free mycelia and mycelial aggregates of different concentrations have been investigated using a laboratory bioreactor with a double turbine impeller. The experimental data indicated that the influence of the rotation speed, aeration rate and stirrer positions on the mixing intensity strongly differ from one system to another and must be correlated with the microorganism characteristics, namely: the biomass concentration and morphology. Moreover, compared with non-aerated broths, variations of the mixing time with the considered parameters are very different, due to the complex flow mechanism of gas-liquid dispersions. By means of the experimental data and using a multiregression analysis method some mathematical correlations for the mixing time of the general form: tm = a1*Cx2+a2*Cx+a3*IgVa+a4-N2+a5-N+a6/a7*L2+a8*L+a9 were established. The proposed equations offer good agreement with the experiments, the average deviation being ±6.7% - ±9.4 and are adequate for the flow regime Re < 25,000.

  1. Mixing times in quantum walks on two-dimensional grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquezino, F. L.; Portugal, R.; Abal, G.

    2010-01-01

    Mixing properties of discrete-time quantum walks on two-dimensional grids with toruslike boundary conditions are analyzed, focusing on their connection to the complexity of the corresponding abstract search algorithm. In particular, an exact expression for the stationary distribution of the coherent walk over odd-sided lattices is obtained after solving the eigenproblem for the evolution operator for this particular graph. The limiting distribution and mixing time of a quantum walk with a coin operator modified as in the abstract search algorithm are obtained numerically. On the basis of these results, the relation between the mixing time of the modified walk and the running time of the corresponding abstract search algorithm is discussed.

  2. Characterization of culturable yeast species associating with whole crop corn and total mixed ration silage

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Huili; Hao, Wei; Ning, Tingting; Zheng, Mingli; Xu, Chuncheng

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the association of yeast species with improved aerobic stability of total mixed ration (TMR) silages with prolonged ensiling, and clarified the characteristics of yeast species and their role during aerobic deterioration. Methods Whole crop corn (WCC) silages and TMR silages formulated with WCC were ensiled for 7, 14, 28, and 56 d and used for an aerobic stability test. Predominant yeast species were isolated from different periods and identified by sequencin...

  3. Effect of concentrate feeding strategy on the performance of dairy cows fed total mixed rations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. KHALILI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Little information is available concerning the effects of offering additional concentrates with total mixed ration (TMR on milk production. The aim of the present study was to compare TMR representing simplified feeding (TMR1 with TMR combined with a decreasing amount of additional concentrate (TMR2C. Finnish Ayrshire cows (39 were housed in a loose housing barn. TMR1 consisted of a mixed ration of grass silage (0.49 and concentrates (0.51. In TMR2C, the same grass silage and concentrate were mixed in a ratio of 55:45. In TMR2C, cows were offered additional concentrates from automatic feeders differing in composition from the concentrate in TMR1 [6.5 kg d-1 (first 100 days, Phase 1, 3.0 kg d-1 (subsequent 50 days, Phase 2 and no concentrate thereafter (Phase 3]. During the whole experiment (224 days, total consumption of concentrates per cow averaged 2426 kg dry matter (TMR1 and 2414 kg dry matter (TMR2C. There were no significant differences in mean total dry matter, metabolizable energy, crude protein or absorbed amino acid intakes. During Phase 2, total intake of all cows fed TMR2C was one kg lower (P = 0.10 than for cows fed TMR1. This was due to differences in total feed intake of multiparous cows. Average yields (kg d-1 of milk, energy corrected milk, protein, fat and lactose were not significantly different between diets. During Phase 2, primiparous cows tended to produce more energy corrected milk on TMR2C than on TMR1. The results showed that both TMR1 and TMR2C were equal feeding strategies for early lactating cows and cows did not benefit from greater concentrate consumption in early stage of lactation when total consumption of concentrates was similar.;

  4. Hematologic status of mice submitted to sublethal total body irradiation with mixed neutron-gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herodin, F.; Court, L.

    1989-01-01

    The hematologic status of mice exposed to sublethal whole body irradiation with mixed neutron-gamma radiation (mainly neutrons) is studied. A slight decrease of the blood cell count is still observed below 1 Gy. The recovery of bone marrow granulocyte-macrophage progenitors seems to require more time than after pure gamma irradiation [fr

  5. Mixed - mode Operating System for Real - time Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan M. M.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the mixed-mode system research is to handle devices with the accuracy of real-time systems and at the same time, having all the benefits and facilities of a matured Graphic User Interface(GUIoperating system which is typicallynon-real-time. This mixed-mode operating system comprising of a real-time portion and a non-real-time portion was studied and implemented to identify the feasibilities and performances in practical applications (in the context of scheduled the real-time events. In this research an i8751 microcontroller-based hardware was used to measure the performance of the system in real-time-only as well as non-real-time-only configurations. The real-time portion is an 486DX-40 IBM PC system running under DOS-based real-time kernel and the non-real-time portion is a Pentium IIIbased system running under Windows NT. It was found that mixed-mode systems performed as good as a typical real-time system and in fact, gave many additional benefits such as simplified/modular programming and load tolerance.

  6. On the mixing time of geographical threshold graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradonjic, Milan [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we study the mixing time of random graphs generated by the geographical threshold graph (GTG) model, a generalization of random geometric graphs (RGG). In a GTG, nodes are distributed in a Euclidean space, and edges are assigned according to a threshold function involving the distance between nodes as well as randomly chosen node weights. The motivation for analyzing this model is that many real networks (e.g., wireless networks, the Internet, etc.) need to be studied by using a 'richer' stochastic model (which in this case includes both a distance between nodes and weights on the nodes). We specifically study the mixing times of random walks on 2-dimensional GTGs near the connectivity threshold. We provide a set of criteria on the distribution of vertex weights that guarantees that the mixing time is {Theta}(n log n).

  7. PROCESS INNOVATION: HOLISTIC SCENARIOS TO REDUCE TOTAL LEAD TIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alin POSTEUCĂ

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The globalization of markets requires continuous development of business holistic scenarios to ensure acceptable flexibility to satisfy customers. Continuous improvement of supply chain supposes continuous improvement of materials and products lead time and flow, material stocks and finished products stocks and increasing the number of suppliers close by as possible. The contribution of our study is to present holistic scenarios of total lead time improvement and innovation by implementing supply chain policy.

  8. Whole blood coagulation time, haematocrit, haemoglobin and total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out to determine the values of whole blood coagulation time (WBCT), haematocrit (HM), haemaglobin (HB) and total protein (TP) of one hundred and eighteen apparently healthy turkeys reared under an extensive management system in Zaria. The mean values for WBCT, HM, HB and TP were 1.12 ...

  9. Mixed-mode Operating System for Real-time Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Hasan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the mixed-mode system research is to handle devices with the accuracy of real-time systems and at the same time, having all the benefits and facilities of a matured Graphic User Interface (GUI operating system which is typically nonreal-time. This mixed-mode operating system comprising of a real-time portion and a non-real-time portion was studied and implemented to identify the feasibilities and performances in practical applications (in the context of scheduled the real-time events. In this research an i8751 microcontroller-based hardware was used to measure the performance of the system in real-time-only as well as non-real-time-only configurations. The real-time portion is an 486DX-40 IBM PC system running under DOS-based realtime kernel and the non-real-time portion is a Pentium III based system running under Windows NT. It was found that mixed-mode systems performed as good as a typical realtime system and in fact, gave many additional benefits such as simplified/modular programming and load tolerance.

  10. Feeding of Total Mixed Ration on the Productivity of Friesian Holstein Cross-Grade Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunarso; Christiyanto, M.; Nuswantara, L. K.

    2018-02-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate feeding of total mixed ration (TMR) on the productivity of Friesian Holstein (FH) male cross-grade cattle at Semarang Municipality. TMR was a ration formulated with agricultural and agro-industrial by-product (no grass and/or green forage were used) to fulfilled the nutrient requirement of beef cattle. Total mixed ration were formulated on iso-energy of 66% of total digestible nutrients (TDN) and different level of crude protein (CP) content of 11%, 12%, 13%, and 14%. Twenty (20) heads of FH male cross-grade cattle with initial body weight of 292.40+33.06 kg were used in this experiment, and were arranged into 5 treatments T0, T1, T2, T3, and T4), and 4 replications. Data collected were analysed statistically using analyses of variance (Anova) based on the completely randomized design (CRD), then followed by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT) for different among treatments. Results of the experiment showed significantly different effect (P0.05) on feed conversion ratio (FCR), and feed efficiency. Others parameter showed that there were no significantly different (P>0.05) effect on the dry matter and organic matter digestibility in vitro, rumen ammonia concentration, and volatile fatty acid’s rumen concentration. It was concluded that feeding TMR was potentially prospected for fattening of beef cattle, particularly as feeding strategy when there was no grass and/or green forage anymore.

  11. Novel crystal timing calibration method based on total variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xingjian; Isobe, Takashi; Watanabe, Mitsuo; Liu, Huafeng

    2016-11-01

    A novel crystal timing calibration method based on total variation (TV), abbreviated as ‘TV merge’, has been developed for a high-resolution positron emission tomography (PET) system. The proposed method was developed for a system with a large number of crystals, it can provide timing calibration at the crystal level. In the proposed method, the timing calibration process was formulated as a linear problem. To robustly optimize the timing resolution, a TV constraint was added to the linear equation. Moreover, to solve the computer memory problem associated with the calculation of the timing calibration factors for systems with a large number of crystals, the merge component was used for obtaining the crystal level timing calibration values. Compared with other conventional methods, the data measured from a standard cylindrical phantom filled with a radioisotope solution was sufficient for performing a high-precision crystal-level timing calibration. In this paper, both simulation and experimental studies were performed to demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the TV merge method. We compare the timing resolutions of a 22Na point source, which was located in the field of view (FOV) of the brain PET system, with various calibration techniques. After implementing the TV merge method, the timing resolution improved from 3.34 ns at full width at half maximum (FWHM) to 2.31 ns FWHM.

  12. Optimizing Ship Speed to Minimize Total Fuel Consumption with Multiple Time Windows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Gon Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the ship speed optimization problem with the objective of minimizing the total fuel consumption. We consider multiple time windows for each port call as constraints and formulate the problem as a nonlinear mixed integer program. We derive intrinsic properties of the problem and develop an exact algorithm based on the properties. Computational experiments show that the suggested algorithm is very efficient in finding an optimal solution.

  13. Supported Mixed Oxide Catalysts for the Total Oxidation of Volatile Organic Compounds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kovanda, F.; Jirátová, Květa

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 176, č. 1 (2011), s. 110-115 ISSN 0920-5861. [International Symposium on Air Pollution Abatement Catalysis (APAC) /2./. Cracow, 08.09.2010-10.09.2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP106/10/1762; GA ČR GA106/09/1664 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : layered double hydroxides * mixed oxides * ethanol total oxidation Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 3.407, year: 2011

  14. Multiple Estimation Architecture in Discrete-Time Adaptive Mixing Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Baldi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive mixing control (AMC is a recently developed control scheme for uncertain plants, where the control action coming from a bank of precomputed controller is mixed based on the parameter estimates generated by an on-line parameter estimator. Even if the stability of the control scheme, also in the presence of modeling errors and disturbances, has been shown analytically, its transient performance might be sensitive to the initial conditions of the parameter estimator. In particular, for some initial conditions, transient oscillations may not be acceptable in practical applications. In order to account for such a possible phenomenon and to improve the learning capability of the adaptive scheme, in this paper a new mixing architecture is developed, involving the use of parallel parameter estimators, or multi-estimators, each one working on a small subset of the uncertainty set. A supervisory logic, using performance signals based on the past and present estimation error, selects the parameter estimate to determine the mixing of the controllers. The stability and robustness properties of the resulting approach, referred to as multi-estimator adaptive mixing control (Multi-AMC, are analytically established. Besides, extensive simulations demonstrate that the scheme improves the transient performance of the original AMC with a single estimator. The control scheme and the analysis are carried out in a discrete-time framework, for easier implementation of the method in digital control.

  15. The problem with time in mixed continuous/discrete time modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rovers, K.C.; Kuper, Jan; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    The design of cyber-physical systems requires the use of mixed continuous time and discrete time models. Current modelling tools have problems with time transformations (such as a time delay) or multi-rate systems. We will present a novel approach that implements signals as functions of time,

  16. Mixed Discretization of the Time Domain MFIE at Low Frequencies

    KAUST Repository

    Ulku, Huseyin Arda

    2017-01-10

    Solution of the magnetic field integral equation (MFIE), which is obtained by the classical marching on-in-time (MOT) scheme, becomes inaccurate when the time step is large, i.e., under low-frequency excitation. It is shown here that the inaccuracy stems from the classical MOT scheme’s failure to predict the correct scaling of the current’s Helmholtz components for large time steps. A recently proposed mixed discretization strategy is used to alleviate the inaccuracy problem by restoring the correct scaling of the current’s Helmholtz components under low-frequency excitation.

  17. Rayleigh-Taylor mixing with time-dependent acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abarzhi, Snezhana

    2016-10-01

    We extend the momentum model to describe Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) mixing driven by a time-dependent acceleration. The acceleration is a power-law function of time, similarly to astrophysical and plasma fusion applications. In RT flow the dynamics of a fluid parcel is driven by a balance per unit mass of the rates of momentum gain and loss. We find analytical solutions in the cases of balanced and imbalanced gains and losses, and identify their dependence on the acceleration exponent. The existence is shown of two typical regimes of self-similar RT mixing-acceleration-driven Rayleigh-Taylor-type and dissipation-driven Richtymer-Meshkov-type with the latter being in general non-universal. Possible scenarios are proposed for transitions from the balanced dynamics to the imbalanced self-similar dynamics. Scaling and correlations properties of RT mixing are studied on the basis of dimensional analysis. Departures are outlined of RT dynamics with time-dependent acceleration from canonical cases of homogeneous turbulence as well as blast waves with first and second kind self-similarity. The work is supported by the US National Science Foundation.

  18. Snowmelt Timing as a Determinant of Lake Inflow Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, D. C.; Forrest, A. L.; Sahoo, G. B.; Hook, S. J.; Schladow, S. G.

    2018-02-01

    Snowmelt is a significant source of carbon, nutrient, and sediment loads to many mountain lakes. The mixing conditions of snowmelt inflows, which are heavily dependent on the interplay between snowmelt and lake thermal regime, dictate the fate of these loads within lakes and their ultimate impact on lake ecosystems. We use five decades of data from Lake Tahoe, a 600 year residence-time lake where snowmelt has little influence on lake temperature, to characterize the snowmelt mixing response to a range of climate conditions. Using stream discharge and lake profile data (1968-2017), we find that the proportion of annual snowmelt entering the lake prior to the onset of stratification increases as annual snowpack decreases, ranging from about 50% in heavy-snow years to close to 90% in warm, dry years. Accordingly, in 8 recent years (2010-2017) where hourly inflow buoyancy and discharge could be quantified, we find that decreased snowpack similarly increases the proportion of annual snowmelt entering the lake at weak to positive buoyancy. These responses are due to the stronger effect of winter precipitation conditions on streamflow timing and temperature than on lake stratification, and point toward increased nearshore and near-surface mixing of inflows in low-snowpack years. The response of inflow mixing conditions to snowpack is apparent when isolating temperature effects on snowpack. Snowpack levels are decreasing due to warming temperatures during winter precipitation. Thus, our findings suggest that climate change may lead to increased deposition of inflow loads in the ecologically dynamic littoral zone of high-residence time, snowmelt-fed lakes.

  19. Optimization of Time-Partitions for Mixed-Criticality Real-Time Distributed Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamas-Selicean, Domitian; Pop, Paul

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we are interested in mixed-criticality embedded real-time applications mapped on distributed heterogeneous architectures. The architecture provides both spatial and temporal partitioning, thus enforcing enough separation for the critical applications. With temporal partitioning, each...

  20. Biomass energy in Jordan, and its potential contribution towards the total energy mix of the Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Dabbas, Moh'd A. F.

    1994-04-01

    An evaluation of Jordan's bio-energy status was carried out. Available sources and the viability of exploitation were studied in order to identify the size of contribution that bio-energy could provide to the total energy mix of the Kingdom. The advantages of biogas technology were discussed, and a general description of Jordan's experience in this field was presented. Data on Jordan' animal, municipal, and agricultural wastes that are available as a potential source of bio-energy was tabulated. The report ascertained the economic feasibility of biogas utilization in Jordan, and concluded that the annual energy production potential from biogas, with only animal wastes being utilized, would amount to 80,000 ton oil equivalent. This amount of energy is equivalent to 2% of Jordan's total energy consumption in 1992. The utilization of biogas from municipal wastes would produce an additional 2.5% of the total energy consumption of Jordan. The annual value of utilizing animal and municipal wastes would reach 23 million Jordanian Dinars (JD). This value would increase to 61.5 million JD with the utilization of human wastes. The investment required for the utilization of bio-energy sources in Amman and its suburbs on the scale of family unit fermenters was estimated to be in the order of a million JD. The size of investment for industrial scale utilization for power generation with an electricity feed to the national grid, would range from 3 to 4 million JD. (A.M.H.). 8 refs., 4 tabs

  1. Distribution of Various Mycotoxins in Compound Feed, Total Mix Ration and Silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Sultana, A. Rashid, I. Tahira, H. U. Hanif1 and N. Q. Hanif

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Present study was planned to assess the spectrum of natural occurrence of aflatoxins, zearalenone, ochratoxin A and A-B trichothecenes in dairy feed, silage and total mixed rations. One hundred and seventy one samples were analyzed by chromatographic technique. In cattle compound feed, there was a high incidence of aflatoxin B1 (97.3% followed by aflatoxin B2 (50.3%, aflatoxin G1 (10.7%, aflatoxin G2 (1.5%, zearalenone (39.3%, ochratoxin A (37.5% and deoxynivalenol (2.9% with average values of 29, 8, 21, 10, 862, 64 and 813 ng/g respectively. Nine samples were found tainted with T-2 toxin (282ng/g, nivalenol (285ng/g and fusarenon-x (1625ng/g respectively. However, frequency distribution showed that positive seventy-seven (51.6%samples found to be contaminated with aflatoxin B1 levels higher than permissible level of European Commission (<20ng/g. For zearalenone, forty-four (32.5% samples were tainted with levels ranging from ≥500 to 3750ng/gi.e. higher than recommendations by European commission (<500ng/g. In contrast to compound feed, mycotoxin analysis in silage samples demonstrated the high prevalence of ochratoxin A (77.8 % followed by AFB1 (25% with mean of 53 and 8.71ng/g respectively. A scrutiny of mycotoxin for total mixed ration depicted that all samples were contaminated with aflatoxin B1 and ochratoxin A with an average of 30 and 48.5ng/g respectively. As far as multi-mycotoxin co-existence is concerned, compound feed was concurrently contaminated with two, three and four types of mycotoxins.

  2. In vitro evaluation of total mixed ration supplemented with exogenous fibrolytic enzymes for crossbred cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravin Mohan Lunagariya

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was conducted to evaluate the levels of exogenous fibrolytic enzymes (EFE on in vitro digestibilities of dry matter (DM and organic matter (OM, total gas production (TGP, metabolizable energy (ME content, and microbial biomass production (MBP. Materials and Methods: The total mixed ration (TMR was prepared using 30% each of sorghum hay and groundnut straw and 40% compound concentrate mixture to meet nutritional requirement of cow (500 kg producing 12 kg fat corrected milk. The EFE was incorporated at 0, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160, 180, 200, 220, 240, 260, 280, 300, 320, 340, 360, 380, and 400 mg/kg TMR. The TMR substrates with different levels of EFE were in vitro incubated to ascertain their effect on digestibility, gas production, and nutritive values. Results: The significantly (p<0.05 higher and optimum in vitro digestibilities of DM (63.03% and OM (63.62% as well as TGP (72.35 ml/500 mg TMR were observed at supplementation of 240 mg EFE/kg TMR, while ME (7.16 MJ/kg DM and MBP (97.63 mg/500 mg TMR were also better. Conclusion: The incorporation of EFE at 240 mg/kg TMR resulted significantly (p<0.05 higher and optimum in vitro digestibilities of DM and OM. The TGP, ME, and MBP were also better. The levels of EFE 240 mg/kg TMR were found suitable for further in vivo study in crossbred cows.

  3. Total sitting time, leisure time physical activity and risk of hospitalization due to low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Mie; Holmberg, Teresa; Petersen, Christina B

    2018-01-01

    AIMS: This study aimed to test the hypotheses that a high total sitting time and vigorous physical activity in leisure time increase the risk of low back pain and herniated lumbar disc disease. METHODS: A total of 76,438 adults answered questions regarding their total sitting time and physical...... activity during leisure time in the Danish Health Examination Survey 2007-2008. Information on low back pain diagnoses up to 10 September 2015 was obtained from The National Patient Register. The mean follow-up time was 7.4 years. Data were analysed using Cox regression analysis with adjustment...... disc disease. However, moderate or vigorous physical activity, as compared to light physical activity, was associated with increased risk of low back pain (HR = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.03-1.30 and HR = 1.45, 95% CI: 1.15-1.83). Moderate, but not vigorous physical activity was associated with increased risk...

  4. Optimized total body irradiation for induction of renal allograft tolerance through mixed chimerism in cynomolgus monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimikawa, Masaaki; Kawai, Tatsuo; Ota, Kazuo

    1996-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that a nonmyeloablative preparative regimen can induce mixed chimerism and renal allograft tolerance between MHC-disparate non-human primates. The basic regimen includes anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG), total body irradiation (TBI, 300 cGy), thymic irradiation (TI, 700 cGy), splenectomy, donor bone marrow (DBM) infusion, and posttransplant cyclosporine therapy (CYA, discontinued after 4 weeks). To evaluate the importance and to minimize the toxicity of irradiation, kidney allografts were transplanted with various manipulations of the irradiation protocol. Monkeys treated with the basic protocol without TBI and TI did not develop chimerism or long-term allograft survival. In monkeys treated with the full protocol, all six monkeys treated with two fractionated dose of 150 cGy developed chimerism and five monkeys appeared tolerant. In contrast, only two of the four monkeys treated with fractionated doses of 125 cGy developed chimerism and only one monkey survived long term. The degree of lymphocyte depletion in all recipients was proportional to the TBI dose. The fractionated TBI regimen of 150 cGy appears to be the most consistently effective regimen for establishing donor bone marrow cell engraftment and allograft tolerance. (author)

  5. Fermentation Characteristics and Lactic Acid Bacteria Succession of Total Mixed Ration Silages Formulated with Peach Pomace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Hu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the use of peach pomace in total mixed ration (TMR silages and clarify the differences in aerobic stability between TMR and TMR silages caused by lactic acid bacteria (LAB. The TMR were prepared using peach pomace, alfalfa hay or Leymus chinensis hay, maize meal, soybean meal, cotton meal, limestone, a vitamin-mineral supplement, and salt in a ratio of 6.0:34.0:44.4:7.0:5.0:2.5:1.0:0.1 on a dry matter (DM basis. Fermentation quality, microbial composition, and the predominant LAB were examined during ensiling and aerobic deterioration. The results indicated that the TMR silages with peach pomace were well fermented, with low pH and high lactic acid concentrations. The aerobic stability of TMR silages were significantly higher than that of TMR. Compared with TMR silages with alfalfa hay, TMR silage with Leymus chinensis hay was much more prone to deterioration. Although the dominant LAB were not identical in TMR, the same dominant species, Lactobacillus buchneri and Pediococcus acidilactici, were found in both types of TMR silages after 56 d of ensiling, and they may play an important role in the aerobic stability of TMR silages.

  6. Optimized total body irradiation for induction of renal allograft tolerance through mixed chimerism in cynomolgus monkeys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimikawa, Masaaki; Kawai, Tatsuo; Ota, Kazuo [Tokyo Women`s Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1996-12-01

    We previously demonstrated that a nonmyeloablative preparative regimen can induce mixed chimerism and renal allograft tolerance between MHC-disparate non-human primates. The basic regimen includes anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG), total body irradiation (TBI, 300 cGy), thymic irradiation (TI, 700 cGy), splenectomy, donor bone marrow (DBM) infusion, and posttransplant cyclosporine therapy (CYA, discontinued after 4 weeks). To evaluate the importance and to minimize the toxicity of irradiation, kidney allografts were transplanted with various manipulations of the irradiation protocol. Monkeys treated with the basic protocol without TBI and TI did not develop chimerism or long-term allograft survival. In monkeys treated with the full protocol, all six monkeys treated with two fractionated dose of 150 cGy developed chimerism and five monkeys appeared tolerant. In contrast, only two of the four monkeys treated with fractionated doses of 125 cGy developed chimerism and only one monkey survived long term. The degree of lymphocyte depletion in all recipients was proportional to the TBI dose. The fractionated TBI regimen of 150 cGy appears to be the most consistently effective regimen for establishing donor bone marrow cell engraftment and allograft tolerance. (author)

  7. Time related total lactic acid bacteria population diversity and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The total lactic acid bacterial community involved in the spontaneous fermentation of malted cowpea fortified cereal weaning food was investigated by phenotypically and cultivation independent method. A total of 74 out of the isolated 178 strains were Lactobacillus plantarum, 32 were Pediococcus acidilactici and over 60% ...

  8. Erratic time dependence of orbits of topologically mixing maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Jincheng.

    1988-11-01

    In the present paper we show that for a topologically mixing map there are considerably many points in the domain whose orbits display highly erratic time dependence, i.e., if f: X→X is a topologically mixing map where X is a compact metric space then for any increasing sequence {q i } of positive integers and any countable subset S dense in X there exists everywhere an uncountable subset C of X satisfying the conditions of (1) for any s is an element of S. There exists a subsequence {p i } of the sequence {q i } such that lim i→∞ f P 1 (y)=s for every y is an element of C, and (2) for any n>0, any n distinct points y 1 ,y 2 ,...,y n of C and any n points x 1 ,x 2 ,...,x n of X there exists a subsequence {t i } of the sequence {q i } such that lim i→∞ f t i (y j )=x j for every j=1,2,...n. (author). 4 refs

  9. Characterization of culturable yeast species associating with whole crop corn and total mixed ration silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huili; Hao, Wei; Ning, Tingting; Zheng, Mingli; Xu, Chuncheng

    2018-02-01

    This study investigated the association of yeast species with improved aerobic stability of total mixed ration (TMR) silages with prolonged ensiling, and clarified the characteristics of yeast species and their role during aerobic deterioration. Whole crop corn (WCC) silages and TMR silages formulated with WCC were ensiled for 7, 14, 28, and 56 d and used for an aerobic stability test. Predominant yeast species were isolated from different periods and identified by sequencing analyses of the 26S rRNA gene D1/D2 domain. Characteristics (assimilation and tolerance) of the yeast species and their role during aerobic deterioration were investigated. In addition to species of Candida glabrata and Pichia kudriavzevii ( P. kudriavzevii ) previously isolated in WCC and TMR, Pichia manshurica ( P. manshurica ), Candida ethanolica ( C. ethanolica ), and Zygosaccharomyces bailii ( Z. bailii ) isolated at great frequency during deterioration, were capable of assimilating lactic or acetic acid and tolerant to acetic acid and might function more in deteriorating TMR silages at early fermentation (7 d and 14 d). With ensiling prolonged to 28 d, silages became more (p<0.01) stable when exposed to air, coinciding with the inhibition of yeast to below the detection limit. Species of P. manshurica that were predominant in deteriorating WCC silages were not detectable in TMR silages. In addition, the predominant yeast species of Z. bailii in deteriorating TMR silages at later fermentation (28 d and 56 d) were not observed in both WCC and WCC silages. The inhibition of yeasts, particularly P. kudriavzevii , probably account for the improved aerobic stability of TMR silages at later fermentation. Fewer species seemed to be involved in aerobic deterioration of silages at later fermentation and Z. bailii was most likely to initiate the aerobic deterioration of TMR silages at later fermentation. The use of WCC in TMR might not influence the predominant yeast species during aerobic

  10. Characterization of culturable yeast species associating with whole crop corn and total mixed ration silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huili Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study investigated the association of yeast species with improved aerobic stability of total mixed ration (TMR silages with prolonged ensiling, and clarified the characteristics of yeast species and their role during aerobic deterioration. Methods Whole crop corn (WCC silages and TMR silages formulated with WCC were ensiled for 7, 14, 28, and 56 d and used for an aerobic stability test. Predominant yeast species were isolated from different periods and identified by sequencing analyses of the 26S rRNA gene D1/D2 domain. Characteristics (assimilation and tolerance of the yeast species and their role during aerobic deterioration were investigated. Results In addition to species of Candida glabrata and Pichia kudriavzevii (P. kudriavzevii previously isolated in WCC and TMR, Pichia manshurica (P. manshurica, Candida ethanolica (C. ethanolica, and Zygosaccharomyces bailii (Z. bailii isolated at great frequency during deterioration, were capable of assimilating lactic or acetic acid and tolerant to acetic acid and might function more in deteriorating TMR silages at early fermentation (7 d and 14 d. With ensiling prolonged to 28 d, silages became more (p<0.01 stable when exposed to air, coinciding with the inhibition of yeast to below the detection limit. Species of P. manshurica that were predominant in deteriorating WCC silages were not detectable in TMR silages. In addition, the predominant yeast species of Z. bailii in deteriorating TMR silages at later fermentation (28 d and 56 d were not observed in both WCC and WCC silages. Conclusion The inhibition of yeasts, particularly P. kudriavzevii, probably account for the improved aerobic stability of TMR silages at later fermentation. Fewer species seemed to be involved in aerobic deterioration of silages at later fermentation and Z. bailii was most likely to initiate the aerobic deterioration of TMR silages at later fermentation. The use of WCC in TMR might not influence the predominant

  11. Effects of microbial enzymes on starch and hemicellulose degradation in total mixed ration silages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Ning

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study investigated the association of enzyme-producing microbes and their enzymes with starch and hemicellulose degradation during fermentation of total mixed ration (TMR silage. Methods The TMRs were prepared with soybean curd residue, alfalfa hay (ATMR or Leymus chinensis hay (LTMR, corn meal, soybean meal, vitamin-mineral supplements, and salt at a ratio of 25:40:30:4:0.5:0.5 on a dry matter basis. Laboratory-scale bag silos were randomly opened after 1, 3, 7, 14, 28, and 56 days of ensiling and subjected to analyses of fermentation quality, carbohydrates loss, microbial amylase and hemicellulase activities, succession of dominant amylolytic or hemicellulolytic microbes, and their microbial and enzymatic properties. Results Both ATMR and LTMR silages were well preserved, with low pH and high lactic acid concentrations. In addition to the substantial loss of water soluble carbohydrates, loss of starch and hemicellulose was also observed in both TMR silages with prolonged ensiling. The microbial amylase activity remained detectable throughout the ensiling in both TMR silages, whereas the microbial hemicellulase activity progressively decreased until it was inactive at day 14 post-ensiling in both TMR silages. During the early stage of fermentation, the main amylase-producing microbes were Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (B. amyloliquefaciens, B. cereus, B. licheniformis, and B. subtilis in ATMR silage and B. flexus, B. licheniformis, and Paenibacillus xylanexedens (P. xylanexedens in LTMR silage, whereas Enterococcus faecium was closely associated with starch hydrolysis at the later stage of fermentation in both TMR silages. B. amyloliquefaciens, B. licheniformis, and B. subtilis and B. licheniformis, B. pumilus, and P. xylanexedens were the main source of microbial hemicellulase during the early stage of fermentation in ATMR and LTMR silages, respectively. Conclusion The microbial amylase contributes to starch hydrolysis during the

  12. Controlling mixing and segregation in time periodic granular flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Tathagata

    Segregation is a major problem for many solids processing industries. Differences in particle size or density can lead to flow-induced segregation. In the present work, we employ the discrete element method (DEM)---one type of particle dynamics (PD) technique---to investigate the mixing and segregation of granular material in some prototypical solid handling devices, such as a rotating drum and chute. In DEM, one calculates the trajectories of individual particles based on Newton's laws of motion by employing suitable contact force models and a collision detection algorithm. Recently, it has been suggested that segregation in particle mixers can be thwarted if the particle flow is inverted at a rate above a critical forcing frequency. Further, it has been hypothesized that, for a rotating drum, the effectiveness of this technique can be linked to the probability distribution of the number of times a particle passes through the flowing layer per rotation of the drum. In the first portion of this work, various configurations of solid mixers are numerically and experimentally studied to investigate the conditions for improved mixing in light of these hypotheses. Besides rotating drums, many studies of granular flow have focused on gravity driven chute flows owing to its practical importance in granular transportation and to the fact that the relative simplicity of this type of flow allows for development and testing of new theories. In this part of the work, we observe the deposition behavior of both mono-sized and polydisperse dry granular materials in an inclined chute flow. The effects of different parameters such as chute angle, particle size, falling height and charge amount on the mass fraction distribution of granular materials after deposition are investigated. The simulation results obtained using DEM are compared with the experimental findings and a high degree of agreement is observed. Tuning of the underlying contact force parameters allows the achievement

  13. Criterion-based laparoscopic training reduces total training time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkman, W.M.; Buzink, S.N.; Alevizos, L.; De Hingh, I.H.J.T.; Jakimowicz, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    The benefits of criterion-based laparoscopic training over time-oriented training are unclear. The purpose of this study is to compare these types of training based on training outcome and time efficiency. Methods During four training sessions within 1 week (one session per day) 34 medical interns

  14. Determination of optimum mixing time for raw materials with the tracer method in the glass industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallyas, M; Gemesi, J; Kurinka, J

    1983-02-01

    The authors explain how the optimum mixing time for the raw materials for glass manufacture can be determined with the aid of the radioactive tracer method. Basing themselves on measurements, they indicate the change in the degree of mixing of the individual components (soda (Na-24), sodium sulphate, coke (La-140) and bone meal (P-32) as a function of mixing time. The optimum degree of mixing and mixing time for dry and for wet mixing are determined. Finally, data for determining the permissible storage time of the mixture are given.

  15. Real-time analysis of total, elemental, and total speciated mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlager, R.J.; Wilson, K.G.; Sappey, A.D.

    1995-01-01

    ADA Technologies, Inc., is developing a continuous emissions monitoring system that measures the concentrations of mercury in flue gas. Mercury is emitted as an air pollutant from a number of industrial processes. The largest contributors of these emissions are coal and oil combustion, municipal waste combustion, medical waste combustion, and the thermal treatment of hazardous materials. It is difficult, time consuming, and expensive to measure mercury emissions using current testing methods. Part of the difficulty lies in the fact that mercury is emitted from sources in several different forms, such as elemental mercury and mercuric chloride. The ADA analyzer measures these emissions in real time, thus providing a number of advantages over existing test methods: (1) it will provide a real-time measure of emission rates, (2) it will assure facility operators, regulators, and the public that emissions control systems are working at peak efficiency, and (3) it will provide information as to the nature of the emitted mercury (elemental mercury or speciated compounds). This update presents an overview of the CEM and describes features of key components of the monitoring system--the mercury detector, a mercury species converter, and the analyzer calibration system

  16. Real-time analysis of total, elemental, and total speciated mercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlager, R.J.; Wilson, K.G.; Sappey, A.D. [ADA Technologies, Inc., Englewood, CO (United States)

    1995-11-01

    ADA Technologies, Inc., is developing a continuous emissions monitoring system that measures the concentrations of mercury in flue gas. Mercury is emitted as an air pollutant from a number of industrial processes. The largest contributors of these emissions are coal and oil combustion, municipal waste combustion, medical waste combustion, and the thermal treatment of hazardous materials. It is difficult, time consuming, and expensive to measure mercury emissions using current testing methods. Part of the difficulty lies in the fact that mercury is emitted from sources in several different forms, such as elemental mercury and mercuric chloride. The ADA analyzer measures these emissions in real time, thus providing a number of advantages over existing test methods: (1) it will provide a real-time measure of emission rates, (2) it will assure facility operators, regulators, and the public that emissions control systems are working at peak efficiency, and (3) it will provide information as to the nature of the emitted mercury (elemental mercury or speciated compounds). This update presents an overview of the CEM and describes features of key components of the monitoring system--the mercury detector, a mercury species converter, and the analyzer calibration system.

  17. RURAL EXTENSION EPISTEMOLOGY AND THE TIME OF TOTAL EXTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Calgaro Neto

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is dedicated to explore the field of knowledge related to rural extension. In general, a three complementary perspective is used as theoretical strategy to present this epistemological study. The first perspective, seeks to accomplish a brief archeology of rural extension, identifying the remarkable historical passages. At the second, we look to some theoretical models through the modern epistemological platform. Finally, the third perspective, aims to present a methodological proposal that contemplate this epistemic characteristics, relating with the contemporary transformations observed in the knowledge construction and technological transference for a rural development. Keywords: Total institutions. University.

  18. Criterion-based laparoscopic training reduces total training time

    OpenAIRE

    Brinkman, Willem M.; Buzink, Sonja N.; Alevizos, Leonidas; de Hingh, Ignace H. J. T.; Jakimowicz, Jack J.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The benefits of criterion-based laparoscopic training over time-oriented training are unclear. The purpose of this study is to compare these types of training based on training outcome and time efficiency. Methods During four training sessions within 1 week (one session per day) 34 medical interns (no laparoscopic experience) practiced on two basic tasks on the Simbionix LAP Mentor virtual-reality (VR) simulator: ‘clipping and grasping’ and ‘cutting’. Group C (criterion-based) (N...

  19. Minimizing total weighted completion time in a proportionate flow shop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shakhlevich, N.V.; Hoogeveen, J.A.; Pinedo, M.L.

    1998-01-01

    We study the special case of the m machine flow shop problem in which the processing time of each operation of job j is equal to pj; this variant of the flow shop problem is known as the proportionate flow shop problem. We show that for any number of machines and for any regular performance

  20. Short communication: Effect of straw inclusion rate in a dry total mixed ration on the behavior of weaned dairy calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, M.J.; Steele, M.A.; DeVries, T.J.

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine the effect of straw inclusion levels on the feeding behavior of young, weaned calves adapted to a dry total mixed ration (TMR) composed of a multitextured concentrate and chopped straw. A secondary objective was to determine how developed feeding

  1. Mixing alcohol with energy drink (AMED) and total alcohol consumption : a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verster, Joris C|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/241442702; Benson, Sarah; Johnson, Sean J; Scholey, Andrew; Alford, Chris

    It has been suggested that consuming alcohol mixed with energy drink (AMED) may increase total alcohol consumption. Aims of this systematic review and meta-analysis were (i) to compare alcohol consumption of AMED consumers with alcohol only (AO) consumers (between-group comparisons), and (ii) to

  2. Association of total-mixed-ration chemical composition with milk, fat, and protein yield lactation curves at the individual level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caccamo, M.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Licitra, G.; Petriglieri, R.; Terra, La F.; Pozzebon, A.; Ferguson, J.D.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of the chemical composition of a total mixed ration (TMR) tested quarterly from March 2006 through December 2008 for milk, fat, and protein yield curves for 27 herds in Ragusa, Sicily. Before this study, standard yield curves were generated on

  3. Water Storage, Mixing and Transit Times During a Multiyear Drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Velde, Y.; Visser, A.; Thaw, M.; Safeeq, M.

    2017-12-01

    From 2012 to 2016, a five year intensive drought occurred in the Californian Sierra Nevada. We use this drought period as an opportunity to investigate how catchment water storage, mixing and transit times changes from wet to dry conditions using long term datasets of river discharge, evapotranspiration, water quality, and multiple cosmogenic radioactive isotopes. Characteristic features of the test catchment (4.6 km2 , altitude 1660-2117 m) include a thick (>5m) unsaturated zone in deeply weathered granite mountain soils, snow melt and events of high intensity rainfall, dry summers and numerous wetland meadows along the stream. Our data and model analysis suggest that under drought conditions, river flow predominantly consist of deep groundwater tapped by deeply incised sections of the stream, while the wetlands hold on to their water just below the root system of its shallow rooting vegetation. In contrast, during wet periods, most runoff is generated on the flat riparian wetland meadows, while the regional groundwater system slowly refills itself as water makes its way through the thick unsaturated zones. Antecedent wet or dry years play an crucial role as antecedent wet years cause a substantial regional groundwater flow towards the riparian wetlands, filling up the riparian wetlands and yielding a much stronger discharge response of the wetlands to rainfall events than under antecedent dry years This interaction between the regional groundwater system and the local wetland systems weakens as the drought progresses and regional groundwater flow to the wetlands lessens. Although, due to the wet events in 2016-2017, the catchment fills up rapidly to pre-drought conditions, we show that water transit times and therefore likely the water quality will contain drought signs for several years to come. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS- XXXXXX

  4. Covert Channels and Simple Timed Mix-Firewalls

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Newman, Richard

    2004-01-01

    Traditional methods for evaluating the amount of anonymity afforded by various Mix configurations have depended on either measuring the size of the set of possible senders of a particular message (anonymity set size...

  5. Working time intervals and total work time on nursing positions in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Kunecka

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: For the last few years a topic of overwork on nursing posts has given rise to strong discussions. The author has set herself a goal of answering the question if it is a result of real overwork of this particular profession or rather commonly assumed frustration of this professional group. The aim of this paper is to conduct the analysis of working time on chosen nursing positions in relation to measures of time being used as intervals in the course of conducting standard professional activities during one working day. Material and Methods: Research material consisted of documentation of work time on chosen nursing workplaces, compiled between 2007–2012 within the framework of a nursing course at the Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin. As a method of measurement a photograph of a working day has been used. Measurements were performed in institutions located in 6 voivodeships in Poland. Results: Results suggest that only 6.5% of total of surveyed representatives of nurse profession spends proper amount of time (meaning: a time set by the applicable standards on work intervals during a working day. Conclusions: The scale of the phenomenon indicates excessive workload for nursing positions, which along with a longer period of time, longer working hours may cause decrease in efficiency of work and cause a drop in quality of provided services. Med Pr 2015;66,(2:165–172

  6. [Dynamics of total organic carbon (TOC) in hydrological processes in coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest of Dinghushan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Guangcai; Zhou, Guoyi; Zhang, Deqiang; Wang, Xu; Chu, Guowei; Liu, Yan

    2005-09-01

    The total flux and concentration of total organic carbon (TOC) in hydrological processes in coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest of Dinghushan were measured from July 2002 to July 2003. The results showed that the TOC input by precipitation was 41.80 kg x hm(-2) x yr(-1), while its output by surface runoff and groundwater (soil solution at 50 cm depth) was 17.54 and 1.80 kg x hm(-2) x yr(-1), respectively. The difference between input and output was 22.46 kg x hm(-2) x yr(-1), indicating that the ecosystem TOC was in positive balance. The monthly variation of TOC flux in hydrological processes was very similar to that in precipitation. The mean TOC concentration in precipitation was 3.64 mg x L(-1), while that in throughfall and stemflow increased 6.10 and 7.39 times after rain passed through the tree canopies and barks. The mean TOC concentration in surface runoff and in soil solution at 25 and 50 cm depths was 12.72, 7.905 and 3.06 mg x L(-1), respectively. The monthly TOC concentration in throughfall and stemflow had a similar changing tendency, showing an increase at the beginning of growth season (March), a decrease after September, and a little increase in December. The TOC concentration in runoff was much higher during high precipitation months. No obvious monthly variation was observed in soil solution TOC concentration (25 and 50 cm below the surface). Stemflow TOC concentration differed greatly between different tree species. The TOC concentration in precipitation, throughfall, and soil solution (25 and 50 cm depths) decreased with increasing precipitation, and no significant relationship existed between the TOC concentrations in stemflow, surface runoff and precipitation. The TOC concentrations in the hydrological processes fluctuated with precipitation intensity, except for that in stemflow and soil solutions.

  7. Effect of corn grain particle size on ruminal fermentation and blood metabolites of Holstein steers fed total mixed ration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Hyung Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study was conducted to investigate the effect of corn grain particle size on ruminant fermentation and blood metabolites in Holstein steers fed total mixed ration (TMR as a basal diet to explain fundamental data of corn grain for cattle in Korea. Methods Four ruminally cannulated Holstein steers (body weight 592±29.9 kg fed TMR as a basal diet were housed individually in an auto temperature and humidity modulated chamber (24°C and 60% for 22 h/d. Treatments in a 4×4 Latin square design were TMR only (control, TMR with whole corn grain (WC, coarsely ground corn grain (CC, and finely ground corn grain (FC, respectively. The corn feeds substituted for 20% energy intake of TMR intake. To measure the ruminal pH, ammonia N, and volatile fatty acids (VFA, ruminal digesta was sampled through ruminal cannula at 1 h intervals after the morning feeding to determine ruminal fermentation characteristics. Blood was sampled via the jugular vein after the ruminal digesta sampling. Results There was no difference in dry matter (DM intake between different corn particle size because the DM intake was restricted to 1.66% of body weight. Different corn particle size did not change mean ammonia N and total VFA concentrations whereas lower (p<0.05 ruminal pH and a ratio of acetate to propionate, and higher (p<0.05 propionate concentration were noted when the steers consumed CC compared with WC and FC. Concentration of blood metabolites were not affected by different particle size of corn grain except for blood triglyceride concentration, which was significantly (p<0.05 increased by FC. Conclusion Results indicate that feeding CC may increase feed digestion in the rumen, whereas the FC group seemed to obtain inadequate corn retention time for microbial degradation in the rumen.

  8. [Determination of total and segmental colonic transit time in constipated children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu-cheng; Wang, Wei-lin; Bai, Yu-zuo; Yuan, Zheng-wei; Wang, Wei

    2003-03-01

    To determine the total and segmental colonic transit time of normal Chinese children and to explore its value in constipation in children. The subjects involved in this study were divided into 2 groups. One group was control, which had 33 healthy children (21 males and 12 females) aged 2 - 13 years (mean 5 years). The other was constipation group, which had 25 patients (15 males and 10 females) aged 3 - 14 years (mean 7 years) with constipation according to Benninga's criteria. Written informed consent was obtained from the parents of each subject. In this study the simplified method of radio opaque markers was used to determine the total gastrointestinal transit time and segmental colonic transit time of the normal and constipated children, and in part of these patients X-ray defecography was also used. The total gastrointestinal transit time (TGITT), right colonic transit time (RCTT), left colonic transit time (LCTT) and rectosigmoid colonic transit time (RSTT) of the normal children were 28.7 +/- 7.7 h, 7.5 +/- 3.2 h, 6.5 +/- 3.8 h and 13.4 +/- 5.6 h, respectively. In the constipated children, the TGITT, LCTT and RSTT were significantly longer than those in controls (92.2 +/- 55.5 h vs 28.7 +/- 7.7 h, P < 0.001; 16.9 +/- 12.6 h vs 6.5 +/- 3.8 h, P < 0.01; 61.5 +/- 29.0 h vs 13.4 +/- 5.6 h, P < 0.001), while the RCTT had no significant difference. X-ray defecography demonstrated one rectocele, one perineal descent syndrome and one puborectal muscle syndrome, respectively. The TGITT, RCTT, LCTT and RSTT of the normal children were 28.7 +/- 7.7 h, 7.5 +/- 3.2 h, 6.5 +/- 3.8 h and 13.4 +/- 5.6 h, respectively. With the segmental colonic transit time, constipation can be divided into four types: slow-transit constipation, outlet obstruction, mixed type and normal transit constipation. X-ray defecography can demonstrate the anatomical or dynamic abnormalities within the anorectal area, with which constipation can be further divided into different subtypes, and

  9. Timing Analysis of Mixed-Criticality Hard Real-Time Applications Implemented on Distributed Partitioned Architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinescu, Sorin Ovidiu; Tamas-Selicean, Domitian; Acretoaie, Vlad

    In this paper we are interested in the timing analysis of mixed-criticality embedded real-time applications mapped on distributed heterogeneous architectures. Mixedcriticality tasks can be integrated onto the same architecture only if there is enough spatial and temporal separation among them. We...... in partitions using fixedpriority preemptive scheduling. We have extended the stateof- the-art algorithms for schedulability analysis to take into account the partitions. The proposed algorithm has been evaluated using several synthetic and real-life benchmarks....... consider that the separation is provided by partitioning, such that applications run in separate partitions, and each partition is allocated several time slots on a processor. Each partition can have its own scheduling policy. We are interested to determine the worst-case response times of tasks scheduled...

  10. Blood profile and meat quality of Holstein-Friesian steers finished on total mixed ration or flaxseed oil-supplemented pellet mixed with reed canary grass haylage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utama, D T; Lee, S G; Baek, K H; Chung, W S; Chung, I A; Kim, D I; Kim, G Y; Lee, S K

    2018-02-01

    Holstein-Friesian steer beef production is renowned globally as a secondary product of the milk industry. Grass feeding is a common practice in raising Holstein steers because of its low cost. Furthermore, grass feeding is an alternative way to produce beef with a balanced n-6 to n-3 fatty acids (FAs) ratio. However, the performance and meat quality of Holstein-Friesian cattle is more likely to depend on a high-quality diet. The aim of this study was to observe whether feeding two mixed diets; a corn-based total mixed ration (TMR) with winter ryegrass (Lolium perenne) or flaxseed oil-supplemented pellets with reed canary grass haylage (n-3 mix) provided benefits on carcass weight, meat quality and FA composition compared with cattle fed with reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea) haylage alone. In all, 15 21-month-old Holstein-Friesian steers were randomly assigned to three group pens, were allowed free access to water and were fed different experimental diets for 150 days. Blood samples were taken a week before slaughter. Carcass weight and meat quality were evaluated after slaughter. Plasma lipid levels and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), creatine kinase (CK) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities were determined. Diet did not affect plasma triglyceride levels and GGT activity. Plasma cholesterol levels, including low-density and high-density lipoproteins, were higher in both mixed-diet groups than in the haylae group. The highest activities of plasma AST, CK and ALP were observed in the haylage group, followed by n-3 mix and TMR groups, respectively. Carcass weight was lower in the haylage group than in the other groups and no differences were found between the TMR and n-3 mix groups. Although the n-3 mix-fed and haylage-fed beef provided lower n-6 to n-3 FAs ratio than TMR-fed beef, the roasted beef obtained from the TMR group was more acceptable with better overall meat physicochemical properties and sensory scores

  11. Static, Mixed-Array Total Evaporation for Improved Quantitation of Plutonium Minor Isotopes in Small Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, F. E.; Byerly, Benjamin L.; Thomas, Mariam R.; Spencer, Khalil J.

    2016-06-01

    Actinide isotope measurements are a critical signature capability in the modern nuclear forensics "toolbox", especially when interrogating anthropogenic constituents in real-world scenarios. Unfortunately, established methodologies, such as traditional total evaporation via thermal ionization mass spectrometry, struggle to confidently measure low abundance isotope ratios (evaporation techniques as a straightforward means of improving plutonium minor isotope measurements, which have been resistant to enhancement in recent years because of elevated radiologic concerns. Results are presented for small sample (~20 ng) applications involving a well-known plutonium isotope reference material, CRM-126a, and compared with traditional total evaporation methods.

  12. Maximum Kolmogorov-Sinai Entropy Versus Minimum Mixing Time in Markov Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihelich, M.; Dubrulle, B.; Paillard, D.; Kral, Q.; Faranda, D.

    2018-01-01

    We establish a link between the maximization of Kolmogorov Sinai entropy (KSE) and the minimization of the mixing time for general Markov chains. Since the maximisation of KSE is analytical and easier to compute in general than mixing time, this link provides a new faster method to approximate the minimum mixing time dynamics. It could be interesting in computer sciences and statistical physics, for computations that use random walks on graphs that can be represented as Markov chains.

  13. Covert Channels and Simple Timed Mix-Firewalls

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Newman, Richard

    2004-01-01

    .... Initial work considered a simple model where an observer (Eve) was restricted to counting the number of messages leaving a Mix configured as a firewall guarding the enclave with one malicious sender (Alice) and some other naive senders (Clueless's). Here, we consider the case where Eve can distinguish between multiple destinations, and the senders can select to which destination their message (if any) is sent each clock tick.

  14. Spontaneous Time Symmetry Breaking in System with Mixed Strategy Nash Equilibrium: Evidences in Experimental Economics Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhijian; Xu, Bin; Zhejiang Collaboration

    2011-03-01

    In social science, laboratory experiment with human subjects' interaction is a standard test-bed for studying social processes in micro level. Usually, as in physics, the processes near equilibrium are suggested as stochastic processes with time-reversal symmetry (TRS). To the best of our knowledge, near equilibrium, the breaking time symmetry, as well as the existence of robust time anti-symmetry processes, has not been reported clearly in experimental economics till now. By employing Markov transition method to analysis the data from human subject 2x2 Games with wide parameters and mixed Nash equilibrium, we study the time symmetry of the social interaction process near Nash equilibrium. We find that, the time symmetry is broken, and there exists a robust time anti-symmetry processes. We also report the weight of the time anti-symmetry processes in the total processes of each the games. Evidences in laboratory marketing experiments, at the same time, are provided as one-dimension cases. In these cases, time anti-symmetry cycles can also be captured. The proposition of time anti-symmetry processes is small, but the cycles are distinguishable.

  15. Short communication: Effect of straw inclusion rate in a dry total mixed ration on the behavior of weaned dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, M J; Steele, M A; DeVries, T J

    2015-04-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine the effect of straw inclusion levels on the feeding behavior of young, weaned calves adapted to a dry total mixed ration (TMR) composed of a multitextured concentrate and chopped straw. A secondary objective was to determine how developed feeding patterns persist after calves were switched to a conventional silage-based diet. Ten Holstein bull calves (91 ± 2.4d of age, weighing 136 ± 12.3 kg) were assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: a TMR containing [dry matter (DM) basis] either (1) 85% concentrate and 15% chopped straw for 10 wk (wk 1 to 10) or (2) 85% concentrate and 15% chopped straw for 5 wk (wk 1 to 5), then 70% concentrate and 30% chopped straw for 5 wk (wk 6 to 10). After 10 wk, all animals were transitioned to a TMR containing (DM basis) 42.3% corn silage and 57.7% haylage for 2 wk (wk 11 to 12). During wk 1 to 5, all calves had similar DMI (5.5 kg/d), average daily gain (1.7 kg/d), feed efficiency (3.5 kg of DM/kg of gain), and eating time (151.9 min/d). During wk 6 to 10, calves transitioned to the 70% diet ate less DM (5.5 vs. 7.4 kg/d), grew more slowly (1.3 vs. 1.6 kg/d), sorted more against long forage particles (62.8 vs. 103.8%), and had greater feeding times (194.9 vs. 102.6 min/d). The difference in feeding time occurred only during the first 8 h after feed delivery. Despite similar DMI (5.2 kg/d) and average daily gain (1.1 kg/d) in wk 11 to 12, differences in behavior were observed resulting from previous diets. In wk 11 to 12, calves previously fed the 70% diet continued to have a longer meal immediately after feed delivery. Overall, the results indicate that diluting a dry TMR containing a multitextured concentrate and chopped straw with more straw resulted in calves spending more time feeding and having longer meals immediately after feed delivery; this feeding pattern carried over after calves were transitioned to a silage-based ration. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association

  16. Rheologic properties of fresh cement mixes for repository sealing applications: effects of superplasticizers, mixing procedures, and time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, D.M.; Asaga, K.

    1982-09-01

    As part of the design of optimally durable, hardened cementitious plugging materials for repository borheole plugging, shaft and tunnel sealing, detailed studies of rheological properties have been made. The effects of mixing procedures upon measured rheological properties of fresh cement mixes with and without superplasticizing admixtures condensates of sulfonated naphthalene- and melamine-formaldehyde have been investigated. Coaxial cylindrical viscometer measurements were made, recording shear stress-shear rate relationships and defining yield stress and plastic viscosity. In the absence of admixture, yield stress and plastic viscosity decreased substantially with increasing intensity of mixing, which caused a breakdown of particulate aggregates. However, with admixture present, the rheological properties of already well-dispersed mixes did not change significantly with increasingly intense mixing. The changes of the viscometric functions with time were investigated, and were related to admixture type and concentration, cement type, and volume concentration of cement. The mechanisms of action of the superplasticizers and their use in generating reliable workable low water/cement ratio mixes are discussed. 36 figures, 3 tables

  17. Time-dependent performance of soil mix technology stabilized/solidified contaminated site soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Wang, Hailing; Al-Tabbaa, Abir

    2015-04-09

    This paper presents the strength and leaching performance of stabilized/solidified organic and inorganic contaminated site soil as a function of time and the effectiveness of modified clays applied in this project. Field trials of deep soil mixing application of stabilization/solidification (S/S) were performed at a site in Castleford in 2011. A number of binders and addictives were applied in this project including Portland cement (PC), ground granulated blastfurnace slag (GGBS), pulverised fuel ash (PFA), MgO and modified clays. Field trial samples were subjected to unconfined compressive strength (UCS), BS CN 12457 batch leaching test and the extraction of total organics at 28 days and 1.5 years after treatment. The results of UCS test show that the average strength values of mixes increased from 0-3250 kPa at 28 days to 250-4250 kPa at 1.5 years curing time. The BS EN 12457 leachate concentrations of all metals were well below their drinking water standard, except Ni in some mixes exceed its drinking water standard at 0.02 mg/l, suggesting that due to varied nature of binders, not all of them have the same efficiency in treating contaminated soil. The average leachate concentrations of total organics were in the range of 20-160 mg/l at 28 days after treatment and reduced to 18-140 mg/l at 1.5 years. In addition, organo clay (OC)/inorgano-organo clay (IOC) slurries used in this field trial were found to have a negative effect on the strength development, but were very effective in immobilizing heavy metals. The study also illustrates that the surfactants used to modify bentonite in this field trail were not suitable for the major organic pollutants exist in the site soil in this project. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. BRICKS WITH TOTAL REPLACEMENT OF CLAY BY FLY ASH MIXED WITH DIFFERENT MATERIALS

    OpenAIRE

    J.N Akhtar; J.Alam; M.N Akhtar

    2011-01-01

    Fly ash is a powdery substance obtained from the dust collectors in the Thermal power plants that use coal as fuel. From the cement point of view the mineralogy of Fly ash is important as it contains 80% - 90% of glass. The impurities in coal-mostly clays, shale’s, limestone & dolomite; they cannot be burned so they turn up as ash. The Fly ash of class C category was used as a raw material to total replacement of clay for making Fly ash bricks. In present study the effect of Fly ash with high...

  19. A Real-Time Semiautonomous Audio Panning System for Music Mixing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perez_Gonzalez Enrique

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A real-time semiautonomous stereo panning system for music mixing has been implemented. The system uses spectral decomposition, constraint rules, and cross-adaptive algorithms to perform real-time placement of sources in a stereo mix. A subjective evaluation test was devised to evaluate its quality against human panning. It was shown that the automatic panning technique performed better than a nonexpert and showed no significant statistical difference to the performance of a professional mixing engineer.

  20. Mixed Portmanteau Test for Diagnostic Checking of Time Series Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohail Chand

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Model criticism is an important stage of model building and thus goodness of fit tests provides a set of tools for diagnostic checking of the fitted model. Several tests are suggested in literature for diagnostic checking. These tests use autocorrelation or partial autocorrelation in the residuals to criticize the adequacy of fitted model. The main idea underlying these portmanteau tests is to identify if there is any dependence structure which is yet unexplained by the fitted model. In this paper, we suggest mixed portmanteau tests based on autocorrelation and partial autocorrelation functions of the residuals. We derived the asymptotic distribution of the mixture test and studied its size and power using Monte Carlo simulations.

  1. Quality Improvement, Inventory Management, Lead Time Reduction and Production Scheduling in High-Mix Manufacturing Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-13

    Quality Improvement , Inventory Management, Lead Time Reduction and Production Scheduling in High-mix Manufacturing Environments by Sean Daigle B.S...Mechanical Engineering Chairman, Department Committee on Graduate Theses 2 Quality Improvement , Inventory Management, Lead Time Reduction and... Production Scheduling in High-mix Manufacturing Environments by Sean Daigle Submitted to the Department of Mechanical Engineering on January 13, 2017, in

  2. Mixed Total Variation and L1 Regularization Method for Optical Tomography Based on Radiative Transfer Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinping Tang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical tomography is an emerging and important molecular imaging modality. The aim of optical tomography is to reconstruct optical properties of human tissues. In this paper, we focus on reconstructing the absorption coefficient based on the radiative transfer equation (RTE. It is an ill-posed parameter identification problem. Regularization methods have been broadly applied to reconstruct the optical coefficients, such as the total variation (TV regularization and the L1 regularization. In order to better reconstruct the piecewise constant and sparse coefficient distributions, TV and L1 norms are combined as the regularization. The forward problem is discretized with the discontinuous Galerkin method on the spatial space and the finite element method on the angular space. The minimization problem is solved by a Jacobian-based Levenberg-Marquardt type method which is equipped with a split Bregman algorithms for the L1 regularization. We use the adjoint method to compute the Jacobian matrix which dramatically improves the computation efficiency. By comparing with the other imaging reconstruction methods based on TV and L1 regularizations, the simulation results show the validity and efficiency of the proposed method.

  3. Application of total care time and payment per unit time model for physician reimbursement for common general surgery operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Abhishek; Holubar, Stefan D; Figy, Sean; Chen, Lilian; Montagne, Shirley A; Rosen, Joseph M; Desimone, Joseph P

    2012-06-01

    The relative value unit system relies on subjective measures of physician input in the care of patients. A payment per unit time model incorporates surgeon reimbursement to the total care time spent in the operating room, postoperative in-house, and clinic time to define payment per unit time. We aimed to compare common general surgery operations by using the total care time and payment per unit time method in order to demonstrate a more objective measurement for physician reimbursement. Average total physician payment per case was obtained for 5 outpatient operations and 4 inpatient operations in general surgery. Total care time was defined as the sum of operative time, 30 minutes per hospital day, and 30 minutes per office visit for each operation. Payment per unit time was calculated by dividing the physician reimbursement per case by the total care time. Total care time, physician payment per case, and payment per unit time for each type of operation demonstrated that an average payment per time spent for inpatient operations was $455.73 and slightly more at $467.51 for outpatient operations. Partial colectomy with primary anastomosis had the longest total care time (8.98 hours) and the least payment per unit time ($188.52). Laparoscopic gastric bypass had the highest payment per time ($707.30). The total care time and payment per unit time method can be used as an adjunct to compare reimbursement among different operations on an institutional level as well as on a national level. Although many operations have similar payment trends based on time spent by the surgeon, payment differences using this methodology are seen and may be in need of further review. Copyright © 2012 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Mixed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pau Baya

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Remenat (Catalan (Mixed, "revoltillo" (Scrambled in Spanish, is a dish which, in Catalunya, consists of a beaten egg cooked with vegetables or other ingredients, normally prawns or asparagus. It is delicious. Scrambled refers to the action of mixing the beaten egg with other ingredients in a pan, normally using a wooden spoon Thought is frequently an amalgam of past ideas put through a spinner and rhythmically shaken around like a cocktail until a uniform and dense paste is made. This malleable product, rather like a cake mixture can be deformed pulling it out, rolling it around, adapting its shape to the commands of one’s hands or the tool which is being used on it. In the piece Mixed, the contortion of the wood seeks to reproduce the plasticity of this slow heavy movement. Each piece lays itself on the next piece consecutively like a tongue of incandescent lava slowly advancing but with unstoppable inertia.

  5. Comparisons: Technical-Tactical and Time-Motion Analysis of Mixed Martial Arts by Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miarka, Bianca; Vecchio, Fabrício B D; Camey, Suzi; Amtmann, John A

    2016-07-01

    Miarka, B, Vecchio, FBD, Camey, S, and Amtmann, JA. Comparisons: technical-tactical and time-motion analysis of mixed martial arts by outcomes. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 1975-1984, 2016-The aim of this study was to compare time-motion and technical-tactical analysis between paired outcomes and rounds of mixed martial arts (MMA) matches. The sample consisted of 645 rounds of MMA competition paired by outcomes (first round, winners n = 215 and losers n = 215; second round, winners n = 215 and losers n = 215; third round, winners n = 215 and losers n = 215). The time-motion variables were categorized into low-intensity or high-intensity, stand-up or groundwork situations. Stand-up techniques were analyzed by observing total strikes to the head and body, and takedowns. The actions on the ground were analyzed by observing submission activity, including successful choking and joint locking actions, and also positional improvements, including advances to the mount, half guard, and side and back positions. Chi-squared and Wilcoxon tests were conducted with a significance level of p ≤ 0.05. Results showed that winners had higher values for total strikes and submissions in all rounds, and also positional improvements, over losers. The standing combat with low-intensity comparisons presented differences between the rounds first, with a median of 2:33.5 (P25-P75%: 1:20-3:56) minute, second, with 2:37 (1:24-3:59) minute, and third, with 2:07 (1:06-3:39.2) minute. These data suggest a focus on the intermittent demand presented in combat phases with a special attention to the strike and ground technical-tactical skills; strength and conditioning coaches could emphasize the effort pause ratios for both standing and ground combat that mimic the requirements of MMA, especially during the third round.

  6. The effect of large decoherence on mixing time in continuous-time quantum walks on long-range interacting cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salimi, S; Radgohar, R, E-mail: shsalimi@uok.ac.i, E-mail: r.radgohar@uok.ac.i [Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, University of Kurdistan, Pasdaran Ave, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-01-28

    In this paper, we consider decoherence in continuous-time quantum walks on long-range interacting cycles (LRICs), which are the extensions of the cycle graphs. For this purpose, we use Gurvitz's model and assume that every node is monitored by the corresponding point-contact induced by the decoherence process. Then, we focus on large rates of decoherence and calculate the probability distribution analytically and obtain the lower and upper bounds of the mixing time. Our results prove that the mixing time is proportional to the rate of decoherence and the inverse of the square of the distance parameter (m). This shows that the mixing time decreases with increasing range of interaction. Also, what we obtain for m = 0 is in agreement with Fedichkin, Solenov and Tamon's results [48] for cycle, and we see that the mixing time of CTQWs on cycle improves with adding interacting edges.

  7. Mixing time effects on the dispersion performance of adhesive mixtures for inhalation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floris Grasmeijer

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the effects of mixing time on the homogeneity and dispersion performance of adhesive mixtures for inhalation. Interactions between these effects and the carrier size fraction, the type of drug and the inhalation flow rate were studied. Furthermore, it was examined whether or not changes in the dispersion performance as a result of prolonged mixing can be explained with a balance of three processes that occur during mixing, knowing drug redistribution over the lactose carrier; (de- agglomeration of the drug (and fine lactose particles; and compression of the drug particles onto the carrier surface. For this purpose, mixtures containing salmeterol xinafoate or fluticasone propionate were mixed for different periods of time with a fine or coarse crystalline lactose carrier in a Turbula mixer. Drug detachment experiments were performed using a classifier based inhaler at different flow rates. Scanning electron microscopy and laser diffraction techniques were used to measure drug distribution and agglomeration, whereas changes in the apparent solubility were measured as a means to monitor the degree of mechanical stress imparted on the drug particles. No clear trend between mixing time and content uniformity was observed. Quantitative and qualitative interactions between the effect of mixing time on drug detachment and the type of drug, the carrier size fraction and the flow rate were measured, which could be explained with the three processes mentioned. Generally, prolonged mixing caused drug detachment to decrease, with the strongest decline occurring in the first 120 minutes of mixing. For the most cohesive drug (salmeterol and the coarse carrier, agglomerate formation seemed to dominate the overall effect of mixing time at a low inhalation flow rate, causing drug detachment to increase with prolonged mixing. The optimal mixing time will thus depend on the formulation purpose and the choice for other, interacting variables.

  8. Mixing Time Effects on the Dispersion Performance of Adhesive Mixtures for Inhalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasmeijer, Floris; Hagedoorn, Paul; Frijlink, Henderik W.; de Boer, H. Anne

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the effects of mixing time on the homogeneity and dispersion performance of adhesive mixtures for inhalation. Interactions between these effects and the carrier size fraction, the type of drug and the inhalation flow rate were studied. Furthermore, it was examined whether or not changes in the dispersion performance as a result of prolonged mixing can be explained with a balance of three processes that occur during mixing, knowing drug redistribution over the lactose carrier; (de-) agglomeration of the drug (and fine lactose) particles; and compression of the drug particles onto the carrier surface. For this purpose, mixtures containing salmeterol xinafoate or fluticasone propionate were mixed for different periods of time with a fine or coarse crystalline lactose carrier in a Turbula mixer. Drug detachment experiments were performed using a classifier based inhaler at different flow rates. Scanning electron microscopy and laser diffraction techniques were used to measure drug distribution and agglomeration, whereas changes in the apparent solubility were measured as a means to monitor the degree of mechanical stress imparted on the drug particles. No clear trend between mixing time and content uniformity was observed. Quantitative and qualitative interactions between the effect of mixing time on drug detachment and the type of drug, the carrier size fraction and the flow rate were measured, which could be explained with the three processes mentioned. Generally, prolonged mixing caused drug detachment to decrease, with the strongest decline occurring in the first 120 minutes of mixing. For the most cohesive drug (salmeterol) and the coarse carrier, agglomerate formation seemed to dominate the overall effect of mixing time at a low inhalation flow rate, causing drug detachment to increase with prolonged mixing. The optimal mixing time will thus depend on the formulation purpose and the choice for other, interacting variables. PMID:23844256

  9. Simultaneous measurement of milk intake and total energy expenditure in mixed-fed infants: Methodological approach and prediction of total body water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, J.C.K.; Davies, P.S.W.; Coward, W.A.

    2000-01-01

    Evaluation of the energy metabolism that underlies the new WHO breast-fed growth reference requires simultaneous measurements of milk volume intake (MVI) and total energy expenditure (TEE) by stable isotope methodologies. In young infants, such data is collected without difficulty using the dose-to-the-infant method. In older infants, where breast-milk is supplemented with non-milk foods, MVI must be measured by dosing the mother instead of the infant. This procedure would interfere with a simple measurement of infant TEE using the standard dose-to-the-infant method. Theoretically, this difficulty can be resolved by dosing the mother with deuterium and the infant with 18-oxygen, and using curve-peeling methods to calculate the infant deuterium kinetics. We propose to ascertain whether such an approach is viable in practice, such that MVI, TEE and body composition could all be measured simultaneously in mixed-fed infants. Where MVI in older infants is measured on its own, there is a need to predict infant body water in order to estimate the deuterium dilution space. Using a database of 234 infants aged 1.5 to 12 months, we provide new predictive equations by which such values may be obtained. (author)

  10. Residence Time Distribution (RTD) Prediction in Mixing Vessel via CFD Simulation Using Fluent: An Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Rizal Mamat; Azraf Azman; Noraishah Othman

    2011-01-01

    A prototype mixing vessel has been developed by Industrial Technology Division and installed at a multiphase testing facility in MINT Tech Park. A task to investigate the mixing vessel performance using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has been undertaken using the available FLUENT software in Malaysian Nuclear Agency. This paper discusses the modeling and simulation done in obtaining the Residence Time Distribution (RTD) for the mixing vessel using FLUENT. (author)

  11. estimating formwork striking time for concrete mixes estimating

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    In this study, we estimated the time for strength development in concrete cured up to 56 days. Water. In this .... regression analysis using MS Excel 2016 Software performed on the ..... [1] Abolfazl, K. R, Peroti S. and Rahemi L 'The Effect of.

  12. Solvent sorting in (mixed solvent electrolyte) systems: Time-resolved ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    lar solvents as an effective single component dipo- lar liquid that is characterized ... and time (t) dependent solvation energy of mobile dipo- lar solute with density ..... Even though this way for modification of C is purely ad- hoc, the observation ...

  13. Estimating marginal properties of quantitative real-time PCR data using nonlinear mixed models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerhard, Daniel; Bremer, Melanie; Ritz, Christian

    2014-01-01

    A unified modeling framework based on a set of nonlinear mixed models is proposed for flexible modeling of gene expression in real-time PCR experiments. Focus is on estimating the marginal or population-based derived parameters: cycle thresholds and ΔΔc(t), but retaining the conditional mixed mod...

  14. Mixed butanols addition to gasoline surrogates: Shock tube ignition delay time measurements and chemical kinetic modeling

    KAUST Repository

    AlRamadan, Abdullah S.; Badra, Jihad; Javed, Tamour; Alabbad, Mohammed; Bokhumseen, Nehal; Gaillard, Patrick; Babiker, Hassan; Farooq, Aamir; Sarathy, Mani

    2015-01-01

    work, the effect of mixed butanols addition to gasoline surrogates has been investigated in a high-pressure shock tube facility. The ignition delay times of mixed butanols stoichiometric mixtures were measured at 20 and 40bar over a temperature range

  15. CFD simulation of local and global mixing time in an agitated tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liangchao; Xu, Bin

    2017-01-01

    The Issue of mixing efficiency in agitated tanks has drawn serious concern in many industrial processes. The turbulence model is very critical to predicting mixing process in agitated tanks. On the basis of computational fluid dynamics(CFD) software package Fluent 6.2, the mixing characteristics in a tank agitated by dual six-blade-Rushton-turbines(6-DT) are predicted using the detached eddy simulation(DES) method. A sliding mesh(SM) approach is adopted to solve the rotation of the impeller. The simulated flow patterns and liquid velocities in the agitated tank are verified by experimental data in the literature. The simulation results indicate that the DES method can obtain more flow details than Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes(RANS) model. Local and global mixing time in the agitated tank is predicted by solving a tracer concentration scalar transport equation. The simulated results show that feeding points have great influence on mixing process and mixing time. Mixing efficiency is the highest for the feeding point at location of midway of the two impellers. Two methods are used to determine global mixing time and get close result. Dimensionless global mixing time remains unchanged with increasing of impeller speed. Parallel, merging and diverging flow pattern form in the agitated tank, respectively, by changing the impeller spacing and clearance of lower impeller from the bottom of the tank. The global mixing time is the shortest for the merging flow, followed by diverging flow, and the longest for parallel flow. The research presents helpful references for design, optimization and scale-up of agitated tanks with multi-impeller.

  16. Total cross section measurement of muon neutrinos on isoscalar target. Exact determination of the electroweak mixing parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pain, R.

    1987-09-01

    The work presented in this thesis is concerned with high energy muon-neutrino nucleon interactions. The experiment was performed at CERN in 1984 using the CHARM marble target-calorimeter exposed to the 160 GeV narrow band beam. The experimental analysis is based on an event-by-event classification of neutral currents (NC) and charged currents (CC) interactions and on precise measurements of neutrinos and antineutrinos fluxes. This leads to precise measurements of CC total cross-sections of neutrinos and antineutrinos between 10 and 160 GeV and of NC to CC ratios of total cross-sections of events with hadron energy greater than 4 GeV: R n eutrino and R a ntineutrino. From the measurements of R n eutrino and of the ratio of CC total cross-sections of antineutrinos and neutrinos, we obtain a high precision value of the electroweak mixing angle. Comparison of this result with those obtained in proton-antiproton collisions make it possible to derive a measurement of electroweak radiative corrections and a precise determination of ρ [fr

  17. From rationality to cooperativeness: The totally mixed Nash equilibrium in Markov strategies in the iterated Prisoner's Dilemma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan S Menshikov

    Full Text Available In this research, the social behavior of the participants in a Prisoner's Dilemma laboratory game is explained on the basis of the quantal response equilibrium concept and the representation of the game in Markov strategies. In previous research, we demonstrated that social interaction during the experiment has a positive influence on cooperation, trust, and gratefulness. This research shows that the quantal response equilibrium concept agrees only with the results of experiments on cooperation in Prisoner's Dilemma prior to social interaction. However, quantal response equilibrium does not explain of participants' behavior after social interaction. As an alternative theoretical approach, an examination was conducted of iterated Prisoner's Dilemma game in Markov strategies. We built a totally mixed Nash equilibrium in this game; the equilibrium agrees with the results of the experiments both before and after social interaction.

  18. A Mixed-Ligand Chiral Rhodium(II) Catalyst Enables the Enantioselective Total Synthesis of Piperarborenine B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panish, Robert A; Chintala, Srinivasa R; Fox, Joseph M

    2016-04-11

    A novel, mixed-ligand chiral rhodium(II) catalyst, Rh2(S-NTTL)3(dCPA), has enabled the first enantioselective total synthesis of the natural product piperarborenine B. A crystal structure of Rh2(S-NTTL)3(dCPA) reveals a "chiral crown" conformation with a bulky dicyclohexylphenyl acetate ligand and three N-naphthalimido groups oriented on the same face of the catalyst. The natural product was prepared on large scale using rhodium-catalyzed bicyclobutanation/ copper-catalyzed homoconjugate addition chemistry in the key step. The route proceeds in ten steps with an 8% overall yield and 92% ee. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. On the mixed discretization of the time domain magnetic field integral equation

    KAUST Repository

    Ulku, Huseyin Arda; Bogaert, Ignace; Cools, Kristof; Andriulli, Francesco P.; Bagci, Hakan

    2012-01-01

    Time domain magnetic field integral equation (MFIE) is discretized using divergence-conforming Rao-Wilton-Glisson (RWG) and curl-conforming Buffa-Christiansen (BC) functions as spatial basis and testing functions, respectively. The resulting mixed

  20. Effects of mixed neutron-γ total-body irradiation on physical activity performance of rhesus monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franz, C.G.

    1985-01-01

    Behavioral incapacitation for a physical activity task and its relationship to emesis and survival time following exposure to ionizing radiation were evaluated in 39 male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Subjects were trained to perform a shock avoidance activity task for 6 hr on a 10-min work/5-min rest schedule in a nonmotorized physical activity wheel. Following stabilization of performance, each subject received a single, pulsed dose of mixed neutron-γ, whole-body radiation (n/γ = 3.0) ranging between 1274 and 4862 rad. Performance testing was started 45 sec after exposure. A dose-response function for early transient incapacitation (ETI) during the first 2 hr after irradiation was fitted, and the median effective dose (ED 50 ) was calculated to be 1982 rad. Analysis done on the relationship of dose to ETI, emesis, and survival time found (a) a significant relationship between the radiation dose and the number and duration of ETIs; (b) no correlation between emesis and dose, survival time, or ETI; (c) no relation between survival time and ETI at any dose; and (d) no significant difference in survival time for dose groups between 1766 +/- 9 (SEM) and 2308 +/- 23 rad

  1. Single machine total completion time minimization scheduling with a time-dependent learning effect and deteriorating jobs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji-Bo; Wang, Ming-Zheng; Ji, Ping

    2012-05-01

    In this article, we consider a single machine scheduling problem with a time-dependent learning effect and deteriorating jobs. By the effects of time-dependent learning and deterioration, we mean that the job processing time is defined by a function of its starting time and total normal processing time of jobs in front of it in the sequence. The objective is to determine an optimal schedule so as to minimize the total completion time. This problem remains open for the case of -1 < a < 0, where a denotes the learning index; we show that an optimal schedule of the problem is V-shaped with respect to job normal processing times. Three heuristic algorithms utilising the V-shaped property are proposed, and computational experiments show that the last heuristic algorithm performs effectively and efficiently in obtaining near-optimal solutions.

  2. Stochastic resonance in a time-delayed asymmetric bistable system with mixed periodic signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong-Feng, Guo; Wei, Xu; Liang, Wang

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the phenomenon of stochastic resonance in an asymmetric bistable system with time-delayed feedback and mixed periodic signal by using the theory of signal-to-noise ratio in the adiabatic limit. A general approximate Fokker–Planck equation and the expression of the signal-to-noise ratio are derived through the small time delay approximation at both fundamental harmonics and mixed harmonics. The effects of the additive noise intensity Q, multiplicative noise intensity D, static asymmetry r and delay time τ on the signal-to-noise ratio are discussed. It is found that the higher mixed harmonics and the static asymmetry r can restrain stochastic resonance, and the delay time τ can enhance stochastic resonance. Moreover, the longer the delay time τ is, the larger the additive noise intensity Q and the multiplicative noise intensity D are, when the stochastic resonance appears. (general)

  3. Time-Motion and Biological Responses in Simulated Mixed Martial Arts Sparring Matches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coswig, Victor S; Ramos, Solange de P; Del Vecchio, Fabrício B

    2016-08-01

    Coswig, VS, Ramos, SdP, and Del Vecchio, FB. Time-motion and biological responses in simulated mixed martial arts sparring matches. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2156-2163, 2016-Simulated matches are a relevant component of training for mixed martial arts (MMA) athletes. This study aimed to characterize time-motion responses and investigate physiological stress and neuromuscular changes related to MMA sparring matches. Thirteen athletes with an average age of 25 ± 5 years, body mass of 81.3 ± 9.5 kg, height of 176.2 ± 5.5 cm, and time of practice in MMA of 39 ± 25 months participated in the study. The fighters executed three 5-minute rounds with 1-minute intervals. Blood and salivary samples were collected and physical tests and psychometric questionnaires administered at 3 time points: before (PRE), immediately after (POST), and 48 hours after the combat (48 h). Statistical analysis applied analysis of variance for repeated measurements. In biochemical analysis, significant changes (p ≤ 0.05) were identified between PRE and POST (glucose: 80.3 ± 12.7 to 156.5 ± 19.1 mg·ml; lactate: 4 ± 1.7 to 15.6 ± 4.8 mmol·dl), POST and 48 hours (glucose: 156.5 ± 19.1 to 87.6 ± 15.5 mg·ml; lactate: 15.6 ± 4.8 to 2.9 ± 3.5 mmol·dl; urea: 44.1 ± 8.9 to 36.3 ± 7.8 mg·ml), and PRE and 48 hours (creatine kinase [CK]: 255.8 ± 137.4 to 395.9 ± 188.7 U/L). In addition, time-motion analyses showed a total high:low intensity of 1:2 and an effort:pause ratio of 1:3. In conclusion, simulated MMA sparring matches feature moderate to high intensity and a low degree of musculoskeletal damage, which can be seen by absence of physical performance and decrease in CK. Results of the study indicate that sparring training could be introduced into competitive microcycles to improve technical and tactical aspects of MMA matches, due to the high motor specificity and low muscle damage.

  4. Asymptotic behavior of total times For jobs that must start over if a failure occurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, Søren; Fiorini, Pierre; Lipsky, Lester

    the ready queue, or it may restart the task. The behavior of systems under the first two scenarios is well documented, but the third (RESTART) has resisted detailed analysis. In this paper we derive tight asymptotic relations between the distribution of task times without failures to the total time when...... including failures, for any failure distribution. In particular, we show that if the task time distribution has an unbounded support then the total time distribution H is always heavy-tailed. Asymptotic expressions are given for the tail of H in various scenarios. The key ingredients of the analysis...

  5. Asymptotic behaviour of total times for jobs that must start over if a failure occurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, Søren; Fiorini, Pierre; Lipsky, Lester

    2008-01-01

    the ready queue, or it may restart the task. The behavior of systems under the first two scenarios is well documented, but the third (RESTART) has resisted detailed analysis. In this paper we derive tight asymptotic relations between the distribution of task times without failures and the total time when...... including failures, for any failure distribution. In particular, we show that if the task-time distribution has an unbounded support, then the total-time distribution H is always heavy tailed. Asymptotic expressions are given for the tail of H in various scenarios. The key ingredients of the analysis...

  6. Total Work, Gender and Social Norms in EU and US Time Use

    OpenAIRE

    Burda , Michael C; Hamermesh , Daniel S; Weil , Philippe

    2008-01-01

    Using time-diary data from 27 countries, we demonstrate a negative relationship between real GDP per capita and the female-male difference in total work time--the sum of work for pay and work at home. We also show that in rich non-Catholic countries on four continents men and women do the same amount of total work on average. Our survey results demonstrate that labor economists, macroeconomists, sociologists and the general public consistently believe that women perform more total work. The f...

  7. Profile of Rumen Fermentation and Blood Urea Nitrogen Concentration of Kacang Goat Fed Total Mixed Ration Vs. Roughage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adiwinarti, R.; Kustantinah; Budisatria, I. G. S.; Rusman; Indarto, E.

    2018-02-01

    Kacang goat is usually reared traditionally fed natural grass and having inferior performance. Many researches had been done to improve the performance. Total mixed ration (TMR) containing soybean meal (SBM) and fish meal (FM) could increase the performance of Kacang goat, but the profile of rumen fermentation has not been published. Therefore, this study investigated the profile of rumen fermentation and blood urea Nitrogen concentration (BUN) in Kacang goat fed natural grass (roughage) and TMR. Twelve yearling Kacang buck, 15.2-19.6 kg were arranged in completely randomized design. The treatments were NG (natural grass), FM (TMR containing FM), and SBM (TMR containing SBM). The TMR were formulated containing 15% crude protein and 56-58% TDN. Data were analyzed by one way ANOVA. Rumen pH 6 hours after feeding of NG (7.4) was higher (P<0.01) than that of FM (6.2) and SBM (6.4). This lowering pH of TMR was caused by increasing volatile fatty acids (VFA). The VFA total of FM (129.7 mmol/l) and SBM (153.1 mmol/l) were higher than that of NG (86.4 mmol/l). At 3 and 6 hours after feeding, ammonia in the rumen of SBM was higher than that of NG and FM, indicating higher degraded protein. The BUN at 3 hours after feeding of SBM was higher than that of NG. It can be concluded that protein in SBM was degraded higher than others and the lower pH in rumen of TMR goats was caused by higher VFA produced by TMR goats compared to NG goats.

  8. In vitro fermentation of total mixed diets differing in concentrate proportion: relative effects of inocula and substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serment, Amélie; Giger-Reverdin, Sylvie; Schmidely, Philippe; Dhumez, Ophélie; Broudiscou, Laurent P; Sauvant, Daniel

    2016-01-15

    In vitro techniques are used to predict ruminant feedstuff values or characterise rumen fermentation. As the results are influenced by several factors, such as the relative effects of inocula and substrates, this study aimed to examine in vitro incubation of two total mixed rations (substrates) differing in their proportion of concentrate [low (L): 350 g kg(-1) vs. high (H): 700 g kg(-1)] incubated in inocula provided by goats fed either a L or a H diet. Gas production and composition in carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4 ) and hydrogen (H2), volatile fatty acids (VFAs), soluble carbohydrates (SCs) and ammonia (NH3) concentrations, and pH of the fermentation fluid were measured. In comparison with the L inoculum and L substrate, the H ones produced more CO2 and CH4 gas, which led to higher SCs and VFA concentrations, and lower acetate-to-propionate ratio and NH3 concentration, with a predominant effect of the inoculum. The effects of the inocula and of the substrates were additive using donor animals adapted to the diets. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. New heuristics for the fleet size and mix vehicle routing problem with time windows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullaert, W.; Janssens, Gerrit K.; Sirensen, K.; Vernimmen, Bert

    2002-01-01

    In the Fleet Size and Mix Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows (FSMVRPTW) customers need to be serviced in their time windows at minimal costs by a heterogeneous fleet. In this paper new heuristics for the FSMVRPTW are developed. The performance of the heuristics is shown to be significantly

  10. Total sleep time, alcohol consumption, and the duration and severity of alcohol hangover

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schrojenstein Lantman, Marith; Mackus, Marlou; Roth, Thomas; Verster, Joris C|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/241442702

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: An evening of alcohol consumption often occurs at the expense of sleep time. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between total sleep time and the duration and severity of the alcohol hangover. METHODS: A survey was conducted among Dutch University students to

  11. Increased Total Anesthetic Time Leads to Higher Rates of Surgical Site Infections in Spinal Fusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puffer, Ross C; Murphy, Meghan; Maloney, Patrick; Kor, Daryl; Nassr, Ahmad; Freedman, Brett; Fogelson, Jeremy; Bydon, Mohamad

    2017-06-01

    A retrospective review of a consecutive series of spinal fusions comparing patient and procedural characteristics of patients who developed surgical site infections (SSIs) after spinal fusion. It is known that increased surgical time (incision to closure) is associated with a higher rate of postoperative SSIs. We sought to determine whether increased total anesthetic time (intubation to extubation) is a factor in the development of SSIs as well. In spine surgery for deformity and degenerative disease, SSI has been associated with operative time, revealing a nearly 10-fold increase in SSI rates in prolonged surgery. Surgical time is associated with infections in other surgical disciplines as well. No studies have reported whether total anesthetic time (intubation to extubation) has an association with SSIs. Surgical records were searched in a retrospective fashion to identify all spine fusion procedures performed between January 2010 and July 2012. All SSIs during that timeframe were recorded and compared with the list of cases performed between 2010 and 2012 in a case-control design. There were 20 (1.7%) SSIs in this fusion cohort. On univariate analyses of operative factors, there was a significant association between total anesthetic time (Infection 7.6 ± 0.5 hrs vs. no infection -6.0 ± 0.1 hrs, P operative time (infection 5.5 ± 0.4 hrs vs. no infection - 4.4 ± 0.06 hrs, P infections, whereas level of pathology and emergent surgery were not significant. On multivariate logistic analysis, BMI and total anesthetic time remained independent predictors of SSI whereas ASA status and operative time did not. Increasing BMI and total anesthetic time were independent predictors of SSIs in this cohort of over 1000 consecutive spinal fusions. 3.

  12. Mixing time study to select suitable stirrer for electrorefiner. Contributed Paper RD-03

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, Sourabh; Mythili, M; Joseph, Joby; Nandakumar, V.; Muralidharan, B.; Padmakumar, G.; Rajan, K.K.

    2014-01-01

    Pyro-processing is an alternative to conventional methods of aqueous reprocessing of nuclear fuels. Electrorefining is an important process step in pyro-processing, carried out in a high temperature molten salt bath in an Electrorefiner. The recovery of actinides from the spent fuels has to be high. One of the methods to achieve this is to ensure proper mixing of the molten salt in the electrorefiner. The optimum design of the stirrer should ensure efficient mixing with minimum mixing time. Studies have been carried out in an engineering scale model of the electrorefiner to study the mixing phenomena. This paper brings outs the series of experiments conducted on an ambient temperature electrorefiner to select a suitable stirrer. (author)

  13. On the mixed discretization of the time domain magnetic field integral equation

    KAUST Repository

    Ulku, Huseyin Arda

    2012-09-01

    Time domain magnetic field integral equation (MFIE) is discretized using divergence-conforming Rao-Wilton-Glisson (RWG) and curl-conforming Buffa-Christiansen (BC) functions as spatial basis and testing functions, respectively. The resulting mixed discretization scheme, unlike the classical scheme which uses RWG functions as both basis and testing functions, is proper: Testing functions belong to dual space of the basis functions. Numerical results demonstrate that the marching on-in-time (MOT) solution of the mixed discretized MFIE yields more accurate results than that of classically discretized MFIE. © 2012 IEEE.

  14. Finite time synchronization of memristor-based Cohen-Grossberg neural networks with mixed delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Finite time synchronization, which means synchronization can be achieved in a settling time, is desirable in some practical applications. However, most of the published results on finite time synchronization don’t include delays or only include discrete delays. In view of the fact that distributed delays inevitably exist in neural networks, this paper aims to investigate the finite time synchronization of memristor-based Cohen-Grossberg neural networks (MCGNNs) with both discrete delay and distributed delay (mixed delays). By means of a simple feedback controller and novel finite time synchronization analysis methods, several new criteria are derived to ensure the finite time synchronization of MCGNNs with mixed delays. The obtained criteria are very concise and easy to verify. Numerical simulations are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of our theoretical results. PMID:28931066

  15. Finite time synchronization of memristor-based Cohen-Grossberg neural networks with mixed delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuan; Li, Lixiang; Peng, Haipeng; Yang, Yixian

    2017-01-01

    Finite time synchronization, which means synchronization can be achieved in a settling time, is desirable in some practical applications. However, most of the published results on finite time synchronization don't include delays or only include discrete delays. In view of the fact that distributed delays inevitably exist in neural networks, this paper aims to investigate the finite time synchronization of memristor-based Cohen-Grossberg neural networks (MCGNNs) with both discrete delay and distributed delay (mixed delays). By means of a simple feedback controller and novel finite time synchronization analysis methods, several new criteria are derived to ensure the finite time synchronization of MCGNNs with mixed delays. The obtained criteria are very concise and easy to verify. Numerical simulations are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of our theoretical results.

  16. Finite time synchronization of memristor-based Cohen-Grossberg neural networks with mixed delays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Chen

    Full Text Available Finite time synchronization, which means synchronization can be achieved in a settling time, is desirable in some practical applications. However, most of the published results on finite time synchronization don't include delays or only include discrete delays. In view of the fact that distributed delays inevitably exist in neural networks, this paper aims to investigate the finite time synchronization of memristor-based Cohen-Grossberg neural networks (MCGNNs with both discrete delay and distributed delay (mixed delays. By means of a simple feedback controller and novel finite time synchronization analysis methods, several new criteria are derived to ensure the finite time synchronization of MCGNNs with mixed delays. The obtained criteria are very concise and easy to verify. Numerical simulations are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of our theoretical results.

  17. Mixed butanols addition to gasoline surrogates: Shock tube ignition delay time measurements and chemical kinetic modeling

    KAUST Repository

    AlRamadan, Abdullah S.

    2015-10-01

    The demand for fuels with high anti-knock quality has historically been rising, and will continue to increase with the development of downsized and turbocharged spark-ignition engines. Butanol isomers, such as 2-butanol and tert-butanol, have high octane ratings (RON of 105 and 107, respectively), and thus mixed butanols (68.8% by volume of 2-butanol and 31.2% by volume of tert-butanol) can be added to the conventional petroleum-derived gasoline fuels to improve octane performance. In the present work, the effect of mixed butanols addition to gasoline surrogates has been investigated in a high-pressure shock tube facility. The ignition delay times of mixed butanols stoichiometric mixtures were measured at 20 and 40bar over a temperature range of 800-1200K. Next, 10vol% and 20vol% of mixed butanols (MB) were blended with two different toluene/n-heptane/iso-octane (TPRF) fuel blends having octane ratings of RON 90/MON 81.7 and RON 84.6/MON 79.3. These MB/TPRF mixtures were investigated in the shock tube conditions similar to those mentioned above. A chemical kinetic model was developed to simulate the low- and high-temperature oxidation of mixed butanols and MB/TPRF blends. The proposed model is in good agreement with the experimental data with some deviations at low temperatures. The effect of mixed butanols addition to TPRFs is marginal when examining the ignition delay times at high temperatures. However, when extended to lower temperatures (T < 850K), the model shows that the mixed butanols addition to TPRFs causes the ignition delay times to increase and hence behaves like an octane booster at engine-like conditions. © 2015 The Combustion Institute.

  18. Does antegrade JJ stenting affect the total operative time during laparoscopic pyeloplasty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolat, Mustafa Suat; Çınar, Önder; Akdeniz, Ekrem

    2017-12-01

    We aimed to show the effect of retrograde JJ stenting and intraoperative antegrade JJ stenting techniques on operative time in patients who underwent laparoscopic pyeloplasty. A total of 34 patients were retrospectively investigated (15 male and 19 female) with ureteropelvic junction obstruction. Of the patients stentized under local anesthesia preoperatively, as a part of surgery, 15 were retrogradely stentized at the beginning of the procedure (Group 1), and 19 were antegradely stentized during the procedure (Group 2). A transperitoneal dismembered pyeloplasty technique was performed in all patients. The two groups were retrospectively compared in terms of complications, the mean total operative time, and the mean stenting times. The mean ages of the patients were 31.5±15.5 and 33.2±15.5 years (p=0.09), and the mean body mass indexes were 25.8±5.6 and 26.2.3±8.4 kg/m 2 in Group 1 and Group 2, respectively. The mean total operative times were 128.9±38.9 min and 112.7±21.9 min (p=0.04); the mean stenting times were 12.6±5.4 min and 3.5±2.4 min (p=0.02); and the mean rates of catheterization-to-total surgery times were 0.1 and 0.03 (p=0.01) in Group 1 and 2, respectively. The mean hospital stays and the mean anastomosis times were similar between the two groups (p>0.05). Antegrade JJ stenting during laparoscopic pyeloplasty significantly decreased the total operative time.

  19. Objectively Measured Total and Occupational Sedentary Time in Three Work Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dommelen, Paula; Coffeng, Jennifer K.; van der Ploeg, Hidde P.; van der Beek, Allard J.; Boot, Cécile R. L.; Hendriksen, Ingrid J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Sedentary behaviour increases the risk for morbidity. Our primary aim is to determine the proportion and factors associated with objectively measured total and occupational sedentary time in three work settings. Secondary aim is to study the proportion of physical activity and prolonged sedentary bouts. Methods Data were obtained using ActiGraph accelerometers from employees of: 1) a financial service provider (n = 49 men, 31 women), 2) two research institutes (n = 30 men, 57 women), and 3) a construction company (n = 38 men). Total (over the whole day) and occupational sedentary time, physical activity and prolonged sedentary bouts (lasting ≥30 minutes) were calculated by work setting. Linear regression analyses were performed to examine general, health and work-related factors associated with sedentary time. Results The employees of the financial service provider and the research institutes spent 76–80% of their occupational time in sedentary behaviour, 18–20% in light intensity physical activity and 3–5% in moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity. Occupational time in prolonged sedentary bouts was 27–30%. Total time was less sedentary (64–70%), and had more light intensity physical activity (26–33%). The employees of the construction company spent 44% of their occupational time in sedentary behaviour, 49% in light, and 7% in moderate intensity physical activity, and spent 7% in sedentary bouts. Total time spent in sedentary behavior was 56%, 40% in light, and 4% in moderate intensity physical behaviour, and 12% in sedentary bouts. For women, low to intermediate education was the only factor that was negatively associated with occupational sedentary time. Conclusions Sedentary behaviour is high among white-collar employees, especially in highly educated women. A relatively small proportion of sedentary time was accrued in sedentary bouts. It is recommended that worksite health promotion efforts should focus on reducing sedentary

  20. Effect of fermented total mixed rations on the growth performance, carcass and meat quality characteristics of Hanwoo steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Il; Mayakrishnan, Vijayakumar; Lim, Dong-Hyun; Yeon, Jeong-Ha; Baek, Kwang-Soo

    2018-03-01

    This study was conducted to assess the effects of fermented total mixed ration (FTMR) on the growth performance, carcass and meat quality traits of Hanwoo steers. The present study evidenced that the FTMR had a strong effect on dry matter intake, body weight, daily gain, slaughter weight and carcass characteristics compared with control animals. The results showed that the dry matter intake (7.17 ± 0.13 kg), average body weight (615.20 ± 112.82 kg), and daily gain (0.56 ± 0.16 kg) were greater in animals receiving FTMR than in control animals (P quality characteristics indicated that cooking loss and the pH values did not vary between control and FTMR treated animals; however, animals in the treated groups (FTMR) had higher meat quality grades, carcass weight (396.13 ± 18.35), fat thickness (13.25 ± 1.75), marbling score (5.63 ± 0.56), meat color (40.06 ± 1.23), crude fat (18.39 ± 1.32) and sensory characteristics (flavor 5.03 ± 0.17; tenderness 4.42 ± 0.33; juiciness 5.10 ± 0.16). Nevertheless, the shear force values decreased significantly in FTMR-treated animals compared with control group steers. Overall, FTMR may not only improve the growth performance, biochemical metabolites, and fatty and acetic acid profiles of steers, but may also enhance the carcass and meat quality characteristics of Hanwoo steers. Regarding economics, our research findings suggest that FTMR-based feeds may enhance Hanwoo steer meat quality at a low cost. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  1. Evaluating the time-dependent and bond characteristics of lightweight concrete mixes for Kansas prestressed concrete bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    This report details results from testing that was conducted to determine the bond and time-dependent : characteristics of two lightweight concrete mixes. The lightweight mixes were evaluated to possibly : provide a more cost-effective solution to rep...

  2. Measurements of spin-lattice relaxation time in mixed alkali halide crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tannus, A.

    1983-01-01

    Using magneto-optic techniques the ground state spin-lattice relaxation times (T1) of 'F' centers in mixed Alkali Halide cristals (KCl-KBr), was studied. A computer assisted system to optically measure short relaxation times (approx. = 1mS), was described. The technique is based on the measurement of the Magnetic Circular Dicroism (MCD) presented by F centers. The T1 magnetic field dependency at 2 K (up to 65 KGauss), was obtained as well as the MCD spectra for different relative concentration at the mixed matrices. The theory developed by Panepucci and Mollenauer for F centers spin-lattice relaxation in pure matrices was modified to explain the behaviour of T1 in mixed cristals. The Direct Process results (T approx. = 2.0 K) compared against that theory shows that the main relaxation mecanism, up to 25 KGauss, continues to be phonon modulation of the hiperfine iteraction between F electrons and surrounding nuclei. (Author) [pt

  3. Self-Intersection Local Times of Generalized Mixed Fractional Brownian Motion as White Noise Distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suryawan, Herry P.; Gunarso, Boby

    2017-01-01

    The generalized mixed fractional Brownian motion is defined by taking linear combinations of a finite number of independent fractional Brownian motions with different Hurst parameters. It is a Gaussian process with stationary increments, posseses self-similarity property, and, in general, is neither a Markov process nor a martingale. In this paper we study the generalized mixed fractional Brownian motion within white noise analysis framework. As a main result, we prove that for any spatial dimension and for arbitrary Hurst parameter the self-intersection local times of the generalized mixed fractional Brownian motions, after a suitable renormalization, are well-defined as Hida white noise distributions. The chaos expansions of the self-intersection local times in the terms of Wick powers of white noises are also presented. (paper)

  4. Minimizing Total Completion Time For Preemptive Scheduling With Release Dates And Deadline Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Cheng

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available It is known that the single machine preemptive scheduling problem of minimizing total completion time with release date and deadline constraints is NP- hard. Du and Leung solved some special cases by the generalized Baker's algorithm and the generalized Smith's algorithm in O(n2 time. In this paper we give an O(n2 algorithm for the special case where the processing times and deadlines are agreeable. Moreover, for the case where the processing times and deadlines are disagreeable, we present two properties which could enable us to reduce the range of the enumeration algorithm

  5. State estimation for discrete-time Markovian jumping neural networks with mixed mode-dependent delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yurong; Wang Zidong; Liu Xiaohui

    2008-01-01

    In this Letter, we investigate the state estimation problem for a new class of discrete-time neural networks with Markovian jumping parameters as well as mode-dependent mixed time-delays. The parameters of the discrete-time neural networks are subject to the switching from one mode to another at different times according to a Markov chain, and the mixed time-delays consist of both discrete and distributed delays that are dependent on the Markovian jumping mode. New techniques are developed to deal with the mixed time-delays in the discrete-time setting, and a novel Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional is put forward to reflect the mode-dependent time-delays. Sufficient conditions are established in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) that guarantee the existence of the state estimators. We show that both the existence conditions and the explicit expression of the desired estimator can be characterized in terms of the solution to an LMI. A numerical example is exploited to show the usefulness of the derived LMI-based conditions

  6. Performance, behaviour and meat quality of beef heifers fed concentrate and straw offered as total mixed ration or free-choice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iraira, S.P.; Madruga, A.; Pérez-Juan, M.; Ruíz-de-la-Torre, J.; Rodríguez-Prado, M.; Calsamiglia, S.; Manteca, X.; Ferret, A.

    2015-07-01

    Eighteen Simmental heifers were fed concentrate and barley straw offered as a total mixed ration (TMR) or separately as a free choice (FCH) to compare performance, behaviour, and meat quality. The heifers were assigned to treatments in a randomized complete block design. Animals were allotted to roofed pens with 3 animals per pen, and 3 pens per treatment. Intake of concentrate, average daily gain, and gain to feed ratio were not different between diets, being on average 7.6 kg/day, 1.38 kg/day and 0.18 kg/kg, respectively. Straw intake was greater in TMR than in FCH treatment (0.7 vs 0.3 kg/day, respectively; p<0.001). Crude protein intake, neutral detergent fibre intake and water consumption did not differ between treatments. Time spent eating was longer in FCH than in TMR (p=0.001), whereas time spent ruminating and total chewing time were longer (p<0.01) in TMR than in FCH. The number of displacements resulting from competition for feed in the main feeder in TMR treatment tended to be greater than in FCH treatment. There were no differences in the carcass characteristics and quality of meat of animals assigned to the different feeding methods, but the percentage of 18:2 n-6 was higher in FCH treatment. In summary, these results suggest that the use of TMR as a feeding method in beef cattle fed high concentrate diets did not affect performance and increased time spent ruminating with a potential decrease of ruminal acidosis incidence. (Author)

  7. Timing of Re-Transfusion Drain Removal Following Total Knee Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeman, MF; Costa, ML; Costello, E; Edwards, D

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The use of postoperative drains following total knee replacement (TKR) has recently been modified by the use of re-transfusion drains. The aim of our study was to investigate the optimal time for removal of re-transfusion drains following TKR. PATIENTS AND METHODS The medical records of 66 patients who had a TKR performed between October 2003 and October 2004 were reviewed; blood drained before 6 h and the total volume of blood drained was recorded. RESULTS A total of 56 patients had complete records of postoperative drainage. The mean volume of blood collected in the drain in the first 6 h was 442 ml. The mean total volume of blood in the drain was 595 ml. Therefore, of the blood drained, 78% was available for transfusion. CONCLUSION Re-transfusion drains should be removed after 6 h, when no further re-transfusion is permissible. PMID:16551400

  8. Discrete-Time Mixing Receiver Architecture for RF-Sampling Software-Defined Radio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ru, Z.; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Nauta, Bram

    2010-01-01

    Abstract—A discrete-time (DT) mixing architecture for RF-sampling receivers is presented. This architecture makes RF sampling more suitable for software-defined radio (SDR) as it achieves wideband quadrature demodulation and wideband harmonic rejection. The paper consists of two parts. In the first

  9. A polynomial time algorithm for checking regularity of totally normed process algebra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, F.; Huang, H.

    2015-01-01

    A polynomial algorithm for the regularity problem of weak and branching bisimilarity on totally normed process algebra (PA) processes is given. Its time complexity is O(n 3 +mn) O(n3+mn), where n is the number of transition rules and m is the maximal length of the rules. The algorithm works for

  10. Complexities of the storm-time characteristics of ionospheric total electron content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kane, R.P.

    1982-01-01

    The complexities of the storm-time variations of the ionospheric total electron content are briefly reviewed. It is suggested that large variations from storm to storm may be due to irregular flows from the auroral region towards equator. A proper study of such flows needs an elaborate network of TEC measuring instruments. The need of planning and organizing such a network is emphasized

  11. Objectively measured total and occupational sedentary time in three work settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dommelen, P. van; Coffeng, J. K.; Ploeg, H.P. van der; Beek, A.J. van der; Boot, C.R.; Hendriksen, I.J.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Sedentary behaviour increases the risk for morbidity. Our primary aim is to determine the proportion and factors associated with objectively measured total and occupational sedentary time in three work settings. Secondary aim is to study the proportion of physical activity and prolonged

  12. Effect of total mixed ration composition and daily grazing pattern on milk production, composition and fatty acids profile of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Ortega, Martha; Martínez-Fernández, Adela; Soldado, Ana; González, Amelia; Arriaga-Jordán, Carlos M; Argamentería, Alejandro; de la Roza-Delgado, Begoña; Vicente, Fernando

    2014-11-01

    The possibilities of using high quality pastures in conjunction with total mixed ration (TMR) during the grazing season have been examined. An experiment with sixteen Holstein cows blocked and randomly assigned to four treatments in a factorial arrangement was conducted in order to evaluate the influence of grazing time of day (day or night) and type of silage (maize or Italian ryegrass) included in the TMR of dairy cows grazing 12 h daily on milk yield, composition and fatty acid profile. The silage type had no effect on the dry matter intake, milk yield and fat and protein proportions. However, cows grazing during the night ate more grass than cows grazing during the day (8·53 vs. 5·65 kg DM/d; Pdairy cows grazing at night-time than grazing at day-time, especially 18:2n-6 (2·37 vs. 2·12 g/100 g FA respectively, P<0·05) and 18:2cis9trans11 (2·08 vs. 1·74 g/100 g FA respectively, P<0·05).

  13. Effects of particle size and dry matter content of a total mixed ration on intraruminal equilibration and net portal flux of volatile fatty acids in lactating dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Adam Christian; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

    2010-01-01

    Effects of physical changes in consistency of ruminal contents on intraruminal equilibration and net portal fluxes of volatile fatty acids (VFA) in dairy cows were studied. Four Danish Holstein cows (121 ± 17 d in milk, 591 ± 24 kg of body weight, mean ± SD) surgically fitted with a ruminal cannula...... and permanent indwelling catheters in the major splanchnic blood vessels were used. The experimental design was a 4 × 4 Latin square with a 2 × 2 factorial design of treatments. Treatments differed in forage (grass hay) particle size (FPS; 3.0 and 30 mm) and feed dry matter (DM) content of the total mixed...... ration (44.3 and 53.8%). The feed DM did not affect chewing time, ruminal variables, or net portal flux of VFA. However, decreasing the FPS decreased the overall chewing and rumination times by 151 ± 55 and 135 ± 29 min/d, respectively. No effect of the reduced chewing time was observed on ruminal p...

  14. What are the important manoeuvres for beginners to minimize surgical time in primary total knee arthroplasty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harato, Kengo; Maeno, Shinichi; Tanikawa, Hidenori; Kaneda, Kazuya; Morishige, Yutaro; Nomoto, So; Niki, Yasuo

    2016-08-01

    It was hypothesized that surgical time of beginners would be much longer than that of experts. Our purpose was to investigate and clarify the important manoeuvres for beginners to minimize surgical time in primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) as a multicentre study. A total of 300 knees in 248 patients (averaged 74.6 years) were enrolled. All TKAs were done using the same instruments and the same measured resection technique at 14 facilities by 25 orthopaedic surgeons. Surgeons were divided into three surgeon groups (four experts, nine medium-volume surgeons and 12 beginners). The surgical technique was divided into five phases. Detailed surgical time and ratio of the time in each phase to overall surgical time were recorded and compared among the groups in each phase. A total of 62, 119, and 119 TKAs were done by beginners, medium-volume surgeons, and experts, respectively. Significant differences in surgical time among the groups were seen in each phase. Concerning the ratio of the time, experts and medium-volume surgeons seemed cautious in fixation of the permanent component compared to other phases. Interestingly, even in ratio, beginners and medium-volume surgeons took more time in exposure of soft tissue compared to experts. (0.14 in beginners, 0.13 in medium-volume surgeons, 0.11 in experts, P time in exposure and closure of soft tissue compared to experts. Improvement in basic technique is essential to minimize surgical time among beginners. First of all, surgical instructors should teach basic techniques in primary TKA for beginners. Therapeutic studies, Level IV.

  15. Data on copula modeling of mixed discrete and continuous neural time series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Meng; Li, Mingyao; Li, Wu; Liang, Hualou

    2016-06-01

    Copula is an important tool for modeling neural dependence. Recent work on copula has been expanded to jointly model mixed time series in neuroscience ("Hu et al., 2016, Joint Analysis of Spikes and Local Field Potentials using Copula" [1]). Here we present further data for joint analysis of spike and local field potential (LFP) with copula modeling. In particular, the details of different model orders and the influence of possible spike contamination in LFP data from the same and different electrode recordings are presented. To further facilitate the use of our copula model for the analysis of mixed data, we provide the Matlab codes, together with example data.

  16. Design of Mixed-Criticality Applications on Distributed Real-Time Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamas-Selicean, Domitian

    the concept of virtual links, and temporal separation, enforced through schedule tables for TT messages and bandwidth allocation for RC messages. The objective of this thesis is to develop methods and tools for distributed mixed-criticality real-time systems. At the processor level, we are interested......A mixed-criticality system implements applications of different safety-criticality levels onto the same platform. In such cases, the certification standards require that applications of different criticality levels are protected so they cannot influence each other. Otherwise, all tasks have...

  17. Evaluation of scalar mixing and time scale models in PDF simulations of a turbulent premixed flame

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoellinger, Michael; Heinz, Stefan [Department of Mathematics, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)

    2010-09-15

    Numerical simulation results obtained with a transported scalar probability density function (PDF) method are presented for a piloted turbulent premixed flame. The accuracy of the PDF method depends on the scalar mixing model and the scalar time scale model. Three widely used scalar mixing models are evaluated: the interaction by exchange with the mean (IEM) model, the modified Curl's coalescence/dispersion (CD) model and the Euclidean minimum spanning tree (EMST) model. The three scalar mixing models are combined with a simple model for the scalar time scale which assumes a constant C{sub {phi}}=12 value. A comparison of the simulation results with available measurements shows that only the EMST model calculates accurately the mean and variance of the reaction progress variable. An evaluation of the structure of the PDF's of the reaction progress variable predicted by the three scalar mixing models confirms this conclusion: the IEM and CD models predict an unrealistic shape of the PDF. Simulations using various C{sub {phi}} values ranging from 2 to 50 combined with the three scalar mixing models have been performed. The observed deficiencies of the IEM and CD models persisted for all C{sub {phi}} values considered. The value C{sub {phi}}=12 combined with the EMST model was found to be an optimal choice. To avoid the ad hoc choice for C{sub {phi}}, more sophisticated models for the scalar time scale have been used in simulations using the EMST model. A new model for the scalar time scale which is based on a linear blending between a model for flamelet combustion and a model for distributed combustion is developed. The new model has proven to be very promising as a scalar time scale model which can be applied from flamelet to distributed combustion. (author)

  18. Adding liquid feed to a total mixed ration reduces feed sorting behavior and improves productivity of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVries, T J; Gill, R M

    2012-05-01

    This study was designed to determine the effect of adding a molasses-based liquid feed (LF) supplement to a total mixed ration (TMR) on the feed sorting behavior and production of dairy cows. Twelve lactating Holstein cows (88.2±19.5 DIM) were exposed, in a crossover design with 21-d periods, to each of 2 treatment diets: 1) control TMR and 2) control TMR with 4.1% dietary dry matter LF added. Dry matter intake (DMI), sorting, and milk yield were recorded for the last 7 d of each treatment period. Milk samples were collected for composition analysis for the last 3 d of each treatment period; these data were used to calculate 4% fat-corrected milk and energy-corrected milk yield. Sorting was determined by subjecting fresh feed and orts samples to particle separation and expressing the actual intake of each particle fraction as a percentage of the predicted intake of that fraction. Addition of LF did not noticeably change the nutrient composition of the ration, with the exception of an expected increase in dietary sugar concentration (from 4.0 to 5.4%). Liquid feed supplementation affected the particle size distribution of the ration, resulting in a lesser amount of short and a greater amount of fine particles. Cows sorted against the longest ration particles on both treatment diets; the extent of this sorting was greater on the control diet (55.0 vs. 68.8%). Dry matter intake was 1.4 kg/d higher when cows were fed the LF diet as compared with the control diet, resulting in higher acid-detergent fiber, neutral-detergent fiber, and sugar intakes. As a result of the increased DMI, cows tended to produce 1.9 kg/d more milk and produced 3.1 and 3.2 kg/d more 4% fat-corrected milk and energy-corrected milk, respectively, on the LF diet. As a result, cows tended to produce more milk fat (0.13 kg/d) and produced more milk protein (0.09 kg/d) on the LF diet. No difference between treatments was observed in the efficiency of milk production. Overall, adding a molasses

  19. Batch Scheduling for Hybrid Assembly Differentiation Flow Shop to Minimize Total Actual Flow Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulidya, R.; Suprayogi; Wangsaputra, R.; Halim, A. H.

    2018-03-01

    A hybrid assembly differentiation flow shop is a three-stage flow shop consisting of Machining, Assembly and Differentiation Stages and producing different types of products. In the machining stage, parts are processed in batches on different (unrelated) machines. In the assembly stage, each part of the different parts is assembled into an assembly product. Finally, the assembled products will further be processed into different types of final products in the differentiation stage. In this paper, we develop a batch scheduling model for a hybrid assembly differentiation flow shop to minimize the total actual flow time defined as the total times part spent in the shop floor from the arrival times until its due date. We also proposed a heuristic algorithm for solving the problems. The proposed algorithm is tested using a set of hypothetic data. The solution shows that the algorithm can solve the problems effectively.

  20. Television viewing, computer use and total screen time in Canadian youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Amy E; Boyce, William F; Janssen, Ian

    2006-11-01

    Research has linked excessive television viewing and computer use in children and adolescents to a variety of health and social problems. Current recommendations are that screen time in children and adolescents should be limited to no more than 2 h per day. To determine the percentage of Canadian youth meeting the screen time guideline recommendations. The representative study sample consisted of 6942 Canadian youth in grades 6 to 10 who participated in the 2001/2002 World Health Organization Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children survey. Only 41% of girls and 34% of boys in grades 6 to 10 watched 2 h or less of television per day. Once the time of leisure computer use was included and total daily screen time was examined, only 18% of girls and 14% of boys met the guidelines. The prevalence of those meeting the screen time guidelines was higher in girls than boys. Fewer than 20% of Canadian youth in grades 6 to 10 met the total screen time guidelines, suggesting that increased public health interventions are needed to reduce the number of leisure time hours that Canadian youth spend watching television and using the computer.

  1. Different but Equal: Total Work, Gender and Social Norms in EU and US Time Use

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel S Hamermesh; Michael C Burda; Philippe Weil

    2008-01-01

    Using time-diary data from 27 countries, we demonstrate a negative relationship between real GDP per capita and the female-male difference in total work time—the sum of work for pay and work at home. We also show that in rich non-Catholic countries on four continents men and women do the same amount of total work on average. Our survey results demonstrate that labor economists, macroeconomists, sociologists and the general public consistently believe that women perform more tot...

  2. Investing in biogas: Timing, technological choice and the value of flexibility from input mix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Corato, Luca; Moretto, Michele

    2011-01-01

    In a stochastic dynamic frame, we study the technology choice problem of a continuous co-digestion biogas plant where input factors are substitutes but need to be mixed together to provide output. Given any initial rule for the composition of the feedstock, we consider the possibility of revising it if economic circumstances make it profitable. Flexibility in the mix is an advantage under randomly fluctuating input costs and comes at a higher investment cost. We show that the degree of flexibility in the productive technology installed depends on the value of the option to profitably re-arrange the input mix. Such option adds value to the project in that it provides a device for hedging against fluctuations in the input relative convenience. Accounting for such value we discuss the trade-off between investment timing and profit smoothing flexibility. - Research highlights: ► We study the technology choice problem of a continuous co-digestion biogas plant where input factors are substitutes but need to be mixed together to provide output. ► We show that the degree of flexibility in the productive technology installed depends on the value of the option to profitably re-arrange the input mix. ► Such option adds value to the project in that it provides a device for hedging against fluctuations in the input relative convenience.

  3. The recovery of bone marrow derived GM-CFU in baboons unilaterally exposed to a total body LD50/30d mixed neutron-gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herodin, F.; Orfeuvre, H.; Janodet, D.; Mestries, J.C.; Fatome, M.

    1990-01-01

    The unilateral exposure of baboons to a total body LD 50/30d mixed neutron/gamma irradiation was characterized to be non uniform in dose distribution. The pattern of recovery of granulocyte-macrophage progenitors in bone marrow samples collected from entrance and exit sides respectively is consistent with this observed heterogeneity [fr

  4. Co-Mn-Al Mixed Oxides on Anodized Aluminum Supports and Their Use as Catalysts in the Total Oxidation of Ethanol

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kovanda, F.; Jirátová, Květa; Ludvíková, Jana; Raabová, H.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 464, AUG 15 (2013), s. 181-190 ISSN 0926-860X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP106/10/1762 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : layered double hydroxides * hydrothermal reaction * mixed oxides * supported catalysts * ethanol total oxidation Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 3.674, year: 2013

  5. Physiotherapy Exercise After Fast-Track Total Hip and Knee Arthroplasty: Time for Reconsideration?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandholm, Thomas; Kehlet, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Bandholm T, Kehlet H. Physiotherapy exercise after fast-track total hip and knee arthroplasty: time for reconsideration? Major surgery, including total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA), is followed by a convalescence period, during which the loss of muscle strength......-track methodology or enhanced recovery programs. It is the nature of this methodology to systematically and scientifically optimize all perioperative care components, with the overall goal of enhancing recovery. This is also the case for the care component "physiotherapy exercise" after THA and TKA. The 2 latest...... meta-analyses on the effectiveness of physiotherapy exercise after THA and TKA generally conclude that physiotherapy exercise after THA and TKA either does not work or is not very effective. The reason for this may be that the "pill" of physiotherapy exercise typically offered after THA and TKA does...

  6. Effects of Physically Effective Neutral Detergent Fiber Content on Intake, Digestibility, and Chewing Activity in Fattening Heifer Fed Total Mixed Ration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Rae Oh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effects of physically effective neutral detergent fiber (peNDF content in total mixed ration (TMR on dry matter intake, digestibility, and chewing activity in fattening Hanwoo (Bos taurus coreanae heifers. The experiment was designed as a replicated 3×3 Latin square using 12 heifers. Fattening heifers were offered one of three diets [high (T1, medium (T2, and low (T3 peNDF] obtained by different mixing times (3, 10, and 25 min for the same TMR feed. The peNDF content of TMR was determined by multiplying the proportion of dry matter retained by a 1.18 mm-screen in a Penn State Particle Separator by the dietary NDF content. The peNDF1.18 content was 30.36%, 29.20%, and 27.50% for the T1, T2, and T3 diets, respectively (p<0.05. Dry matter intake was not affected by peNDF content in TMR. Total weight gain in T1 group was significantly higher (p<0.05 than in T2 and T3 groups. However, weight gain did not differ between T2 and T3 groups. The feed conversion ratio decreased with an increase in the peNDF content (T1: 12.18, T2: 14.17, and T3: 14.01 g/g. An increase in the peNDF content of TMR was associated with a linear increase in the digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, crude fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber (p<0.05. Also, an increase in peNDF content of the TMR resulted in a linear increase in the number of chews in eating and ruminating (p<0.05, and consequently in the number of total chews (p<0.05. These results indicate that peNDF content affects digestibility and chewing activity. Consequently, the peNDF content of TMR should be considered for improving feed efficiency, digestibility, body weight gain, and performance in fattening heifers.

  7. Time-based analysis of total cost of patient episodes: a case study of hip replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltokorpi, Antti; Kujala, Jaakko

    2006-01-01

    Healthcare in the public and private sectors is facing increasing pressure to become more cost-effective. Time-based competition and work-in-progress have been used successfully to measure and improve the efficiency of industrial manufacturing. Seeks to address this issue. Presents a framework for time based management of the total cost of a patient episode and apply it to the six sigma DMAIC-process development approach. The framework is used to analyse hip replacement patient episodes in Päijät-Häme Hospital District in Finland, which has a catchment area of 210,000 inhabitants and performs an average of 230 hip replacements per year. The work-in-progress concept is applicable to healthcare--notably that the DMAIC-process development approach can be used to analyse the total cost of patient episodes. Concludes that a framework, which combines the patient-in-process and the DMAIC development approach, can be used not only to analyse the total cost of patient episode but also to improve patient process efficiency. Presents a framework that combines patient-in-process and DMAIC-process development approaches, which can be used to analyse the total cost of a patient episode in order to improve patient process efficiency.

  8. Just In Time Value Chain Total Quality Management Part Of Technical Strategic Management Accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesi Hertati

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to determine Just In Time Value Chain Total Quality Management tqm as a technique in management accounting stategis.Tujuan Just In Time value chain or value chain Total Quality Management TQM is strategic for customer satisfaction in the long term obtained from the information. Quality information is the way to continuous improvement in order to increase the companys financial performance in the long term to increase competitive advantage. Strategic Management Accounting process gather competitor information explore opportunities to reduce costs integrate accounting with emphasis on the strategic position of the competition is a great plan. An overall strategic plan interrelated and serves as the basis for achieving targets or goals ahead.

  9. Estimation of total bacteria by real-time PCR in patients with periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brajović, Gavrilo; Popović, Branka; Puletić, Miljan; Kostić, Marija; Milasin, Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Periodontal diseases are associated with the presence of elevated levels of bacteria within the gingival crevice. The aim of this study was to evaluate a total amount of bacteria in subgingival plaque samples in patients with a periodontal disease. A quantitative evaluation of total bacteria amount using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was performed on 20 samples of patients with ulceronecrotic periodontitis and on 10 samples of healthy subjects. The estimation of total bacterial amount was based on gene copy number for 16S rRNA that was determined by comparing to Ct values/gene copy number of the standard curve. A statistically significant difference between average gene copy number of total bacteria in periodontal patients (2.55 x 10⁷) and healthy control (2.37 x 10⁶) was found (p = 0.01). Also, a trend of higher numbers of the gene copy in deeper periodontal lesions (> 7 mm) was confirmed by a positive value of coefficient of correlation (r = 0.073). The quantitative estimation of total bacteria based on gene copy number could be an important additional tool in diagnosing periodontitis.

  10. Objectively Measured Total and Occupational Sedentary Time in Three Work Settings

    OpenAIRE

    van Dommelen, Paula; Coffeng, Jennifer K.; van der Ploeg, Hidde P.; van der Beek, Allard J.; Boot, C?cile R. L.; Hendriksen, Ingrid J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Sedentary behaviour increases the risk for morbidity. Our primary aim is to determine the proportion and factors associated with objectively measured total and occupational sedentary time in three work settings. Secondary aim is to study the proportion of physical activity and prolonged sedentary bouts. Methods. Data were obtained using ActiGraph accelerometers from employees of: 1) a financial service provider (n = 49 men, 31 women), 2) two research institutes (n = 30 men, 57 wom...

  11. Memory controllers for mixed-time-criticality systems architectures, methodologies and trade-offs

    CERN Document Server

    Goossens, Sven; Akesson, Benny; Goossens, Kees

    2016-01-01

    This book discusses the design and performance analysis of SDRAM controllers that cater to both real-time and best-effort applications, i.e. mixed-time-criticality memory controllers. The authors describe the state of the art, and then focus on an architecture template for reconfigurable memory controllers that addresses effectively the quickly evolving set of SDRAM standards, in terms of worst-case timing and power analysis, as well as implementation. A prototype implementation of the controller in SystemC and synthesizable VHDL for an FPGA development board are used as a proof of concept of the architecture template.

  12. Exponential stability of uncertain stochastic neural networks with mixed time-delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zidong; Lauria, Stanislao; Fang Jian'an; Liu Xiaohui

    2007-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the global exponential stability analysis problem for a class of stochastic neural networks with mixed time-delays and parameter uncertainties. The mixed delays comprise discrete and distributed time-delays, the parameter uncertainties are norm-bounded, and the neural networks are subjected to stochastic disturbances described in terms of a Brownian motion. The purpose of the stability analysis problem is to derive easy-to-test criteria under which the delayed stochastic neural network is globally, robustly, exponentially stable in the mean square for all admissible parameter uncertainties. By resorting to the Lyapunov-Krasovskii stability theory and the stochastic analysis tools, sufficient stability conditions are established by using an efficient linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach. The proposed criteria can be checked readily by using recently developed numerical packages, where no tuning of parameters is required. An example is provided to demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed criteria

  13. Design Optimization of Mixed-Criticality Real-Time Applications on Cost-Constrained Partitioned Architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamas-Selicean, Domitian; Pop, Paul

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we are interested to implement mixed-criticality hard real-time applications on a given heterogeneous distributed architecture. Applications have different criticality levels, captured by their Safety-Integrity Level (SIL), and are scheduled using static-cyclic scheduling. Mixed......-criticality tasks can be integrated onto the same architecture only if there is enough spatial and temporal separation among them. We consider that the separation is provided by partitioning, such that applications run in separate partitions, and each partition is allocated several time slots on a processor. Tasks...... slots on each processor and (iv) the schedule tables, such that all the applications are schedulable and the development costs are minimized. We have proposed a Tabu Search-based approach to solve this optimization problem. The proposed algorithm has been evaluated using several synthetic and real...

  14. Collection and evaluation of salt mixing data with the real time data acquisition system. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glazer, S.; Chiu, C.; Todreas, N.E.

    1977-09-01

    A minicomputer based real time data acquisition system was designed and built to facilitate data collection during salt mixing tests in mock ups of LMFBR rod bundles. The system represents an expansion of data collection capabilities over previous equipment. It performs steady state and transient monitoring and recording of up to 512 individual electrical resistance probes. Extensive real time software was written to govern all phases of the data collection procedure, including probe definition, probe calibration, salt mixing test data acquisition and storage, and data editing. Offline software was also written to permit data examination and reduction to dimensionless salt concentration maps. Finally, the computer program SUPERENERGY was modified to permit rapid extraction of parameters from dimensionless salt concentration maps. The document describes the computer system, and includes circuit diagrams of all custom built components. It also includes descriptions and listings of all software written, as well as extensive user instructions.

  15. Mechanical & morphological properties of attapulgite/NR composites: Effect of mixing time variation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nor, Nor Aina Mohd, E-mail: ayena90@yahoo.com; Othman, Nadras, E-mail: srnadras@usm.my; Ismail, Hanafi, E-mail: ihanafi@usm.my [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Seri Ampangan, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    The development of composite material based on attapulgite clay (ATP) as a filler and natural rubber (NR) matrices were prepared by combination of melt mixing and latex compounding methods. Sonication technique was chosen in this work to disperse the attapulgite suspension. 6 phr of attapulgite loading was fabricated using different time of mixing ranging from 30 minutes until 2 hours and sonication time was kept constant at 15 minutes. Then, co-coagulating HA latex with attapulgite clay suspension through latex compounding method produced the masterbatch. The masterbatch was compounded with natural rubber by melt mixing method. The mechanical and morphological characteristics were investigated in this work. From mechanical testing, M1 showed the highest value of tensile and tear strength. By comparing with M30 and M2, M1 shows high 300% tensile modulus and lower crosslink density. However, when the time of mixing was prolonged to 2 hours, the results for tensile strength, elongation at break and tear strength were decreased. This is due to flocculation of attapulgite particles. Sonication techniques also proved that the tensile strength and elongation at break of these three samples were higher compared to gum NR (NR) and attapulgite compounded with NR using a conventional method (in-situ 6). From field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) results, it revealed that M1 had good dispersion in the NR system. It is proved that the higher tensile strength was due to good dispersion of attapulgite clay in the NR matrix. It was also supported from crosslink density, which is lower than NR and in-situ 6 results. It showed that the penetration of toluene solvent into rubber compound was restricted. The optimum time, M1 give the best results, which can be compared to control the sample.

  16. Mixed-state bipolar I and II depression: time to remission and clinical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, In Hee; Woo, Young Sup; Jun, Tae-Youn; Bahk, Won-Myong

    2014-01-01

    We compared the time to achieve remission and the clinical characteristics of patients with bipolar depressive mixed state and those with bipolar depressive non-mixed state. The subjects (N=131) were inpatients diagnosed between 2006 and 2012 with bipolar I or II disorder, depression and were classified into the following three groups: "pure depressive state" (PD, n=70), "sub-threshold mixed state" (SMX, n=38), and "depressive mixed state" (DMX, n=23). Diagnosis of a DMX was in accordance with Benazzi's definition: three or more manic symptoms in a depressive episode. The subjects' charts were retrospectively reviewed to ascertain the time to achieve remission from the index episode and to identify other factors, such as demographic and clinical characteristics, specific manic symptoms, and pharmacological treatment, that may have contributed to remission. The time to achieve remission was significantly longer in the DMX (p=0.022) and SMX (p=0.035) groups than in the PD group. Adjustment for covariates using a Cox proportional hazards model did not change these results. Clinically, subjects with a DMX were more likely to have manic symptoms in the index episode, especially inflated self-esteem and psychomotor agitation than those in the PD. We investigated only inpatients and therefore could not comment on outpatients. These findings showed that sub-syndromal manic symptoms in bipolar depression had different clinical characteristics and a more severe illness course, including a longer time to achieve remission, than did a pure depressive state. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Mechanical & morphological properties of attapulgite/NR composites: Effect of mixing time variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nor, Nor Aina Mohd; Othman, Nadras; Ismail, Hanafi

    2015-01-01

    The development of composite material based on attapulgite clay (ATP) as a filler and natural rubber (NR) matrices were prepared by combination of melt mixing and latex compounding methods. Sonication technique was chosen in this work to disperse the attapulgite suspension. 6 phr of attapulgite loading was fabricated using different time of mixing ranging from 30 minutes until 2 hours and sonication time was kept constant at 15 minutes. Then, co-coagulating HA latex with attapulgite clay suspension through latex compounding method produced the masterbatch. The masterbatch was compounded with natural rubber by melt mixing method. The mechanical and morphological characteristics were investigated in this work. From mechanical testing, M1 showed the highest value of tensile and tear strength. By comparing with M30 and M2, M1 shows high 300% tensile modulus and lower crosslink density. However, when the time of mixing was prolonged to 2 hours, the results for tensile strength, elongation at break and tear strength were decreased. This is due to flocculation of attapulgite particles. Sonication techniques also proved that the tensile strength and elongation at break of these three samples were higher compared to gum NR (NR) and attapulgite compounded with NR using a conventional method (in-situ 6). From field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) results, it revealed that M1 had good dispersion in the NR system. It is proved that the higher tensile strength was due to good dispersion of attapulgite clay in the NR matrix. It was also supported from crosslink density, which is lower than NR and in-situ 6 results. It showed that the penetration of toluene solvent into rubber compound was restricted. The optimum time, M1 give the best results, which can be compared to control the sample

  18. First passage times in homogeneous nucleation: Dependence on the total number of particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yvinec, Romain; Bernard, Samuel; Pujo-Menjouet, Laurent; Hingant, Erwan

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by nucleation and molecular aggregation in physical, chemical, and biological settings, we present an extension to a thorough analysis of the stochastic self-assembly of a fixed number of identical particles in a finite volume. We study the statistics of times required for maximal clusters to be completed, starting from a pure-monomeric particle configuration. For finite volumes, we extend previous analytical approaches to the case of arbitrary size-dependent aggregation and fragmentation kinetic rates. For larger volumes, we develop a scaling framework to study the first assembly time behavior as a function of the total quantity of particles. We find that the mean time to first completion of a maximum-sized cluster may have a surprisingly weak dependence on the total number of particles. We highlight how higher statistics (variance, distribution) of the first passage time may nevertheless help to infer key parameters, such as the size of the maximum cluster. Finally, we present a framework to quantify formation of macroscopic sized clusters, which are (asymptotically) very unlikely and occur as a large deviation phenomenon from the mean-field limit. We argue that this framework is suitable to describe phase transition phenomena, as inherent infrequent stochastic processes, in contrast to classical nucleation theory

  19. Empirical forecast of quiet time ionospheric Total Electron Content maps over Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badeke, Ronny; Borries, Claudia; Hoque, Mainul M.; Minkwitz, David

    2018-06-01

    An accurate forecast of the atmospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) is helpful to investigate space weather influences on the ionosphere and technical applications like satellite-receiver radio links. The purpose of this work is to compare four empirical methods for a 24-h forecast of vertical TEC maps over Europe under geomagnetically quiet conditions. TEC map data are obtained from the Space Weather Application Center Ionosphere (SWACI) and the Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC). The time-series methods Standard Persistence Model (SPM), a 27 day median model (MediMod) and a Fourier Series Expansion are compared to maps for the entire year of 2015. As a representative of the climatological coefficient models the forecast performance of the Global Neustrelitz TEC model (NTCM-GL) is also investigated. Time periods of magnetic storms, which are identified with the Dst index, are excluded from the validation. By calculating the TEC values with the most recent maps, the time-series methods perform slightly better than the coefficient model NTCM-GL. The benefit of NTCM-GL is its independence on observational TEC data. Amongst the time-series methods mentioned, MediMod delivers the best overall performance regarding accuracy and data gap handling. Quiet-time SWACI maps can be forecasted accurately and in real-time by the MediMod time-series approach.

  20. Real-time 3D human capture system for mixed-reality art and entertainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ta Huynh Duy; Qui, Tran Cong Thien; Xu, Ke; Cheok, Adrian David; Teo, Sze Lee; Zhou, ZhiYing; Mallawaarachchi, Asitha; Lee, Shang Ping; Liu, Wei; Teo, Hui Siang; Thang, Le Nam; Li, Yu; Kato, Hirokazu

    2005-01-01

    A real-time system for capturing humans in 3D and placing them into a mixed reality environment is presented in this paper. The subject is captured by nine cameras surrounding her. Looking through a head-mounted-display with a camera in front pointing at a marker, the user can see the 3D image of this subject overlaid onto a mixed reality scene. The 3D images of the subject viewed from this viewpoint are constructed using a robust and fast shape-from-silhouette algorithm. The paper also presents several techniques to produce good quality and speed up the whole system. The frame rate of our system is around 25 fps using only standard Intel processor-based personal computers. Besides a remote live 3D conferencing and collaborating system, we also describe an application of the system in art and entertainment, named Magic Land, which is a mixed reality environment where captured avatars of human and 3D computer generated virtual animations can form an interactive story and play with each other. This system demonstrates many technologies in human computer interaction: mixed reality, tangible interaction, and 3D communication. The result of the user study not only emphasizes the benefits, but also addresses some issues of these technologies.

  1. Supported Layered Double Hydroxide-Related Mixed Oxides and Their Application in the Total Oxidation of Volatile Organic Compounds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kovanda, F.; Jirátová, Květa

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 2 (2011), s. 305-316 ISSN 0169-1317 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP106/10/1762; GA ČR GA106/09/1664 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : layered double hydroxides * hydrothermal reaction * mixed oxides Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.474, year: 2011

  2. Reduced Operating Time but Not Blood Loss With Cruciate Retaining Total Knee Arthroplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermesan, Dinu; Trocan, Ilie; Prejbeanu, Radu; Poenaru, Dan V; Haragus, Horia; Gratian, Damian; Marrelli, Massimo; Inchingolo, Francesco; Caprio, Monica; Cagiano, Raffaele; Tatullo, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Background There is no consensus regarding the use of retaining or replacing cruciate implants for patients with limited deformity who undergo a total knee replacement. Scope of this paper is to evaluate whether a cruciate sparing total knee replacement could have a reduced operating time compared to a posterior stabilized implant. Methods For this purpose, we performed a randomized study on 50 subjects. All procedures were performed by a single surgeon in the same conditions to minimize bias and only knees with a less than 20 varus deviation and/or maximum 15° fixed flexion contracture were included. Results Surgery time was significantly shorter with the cruciate retaining implant (P = 0.0037). The mean duration for the Vanguard implant was 68.9 (14.7) and for the NexGen II Legacy was 80.2 (11.3). A higher range of motion, but no significant Knee Society Scores at 6 months follow-up, was used as controls. Conclusions In conclusion, both implants had the potential to assure great outcomes. However, if a decision has to be made, choosing a cruciate retaining procedure could significantly reduce the surgical time. When performed under tourniquet, this gain does not lead to reduced blood loss. PMID:25584102

  3. Effects of physically effective neutral detergent fiber content on dry matter intake, digestibility, and chewing activity in Korean native goats ( fed with total mixed ration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se Young Jang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective This experiment was to determine proper physical traits in the diet for goats by investigating the effects of physically effective neutral detergent fiber (peNDF content on dry matter intake (DMI, digestibility, and chewing activity in black goats fed with total mixed ration (TMR. Methods Six growing wethers of Korean native black goats (Capra hircus coreanae aged 8 months and weighing between 26.9 kg and 27.1 kg (27.03±5.05 kg were used in this experiment. Three diets of varying peNDF content were obtained by original TMR (T1, 12,000 rpm grinding (T2, and 15,500 rpm grinding (T3 of the same TMR diet. The peNDF1.18 content of the experimental diets was 23.85%, 21.71%, and 16.22% for T1, T2, and T3, respectively. Results Average daily gain (ADG was higher in T2 group compared to those of the control and T3 groups, but ADG and DMI were not affected by the dietary particle size and peNDF content. Also, there was no difference between apparent nutrient digestibility of dry matter, crude fiber, ether extract, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber. Although there was no significant difference, rumination and total chewing time were associated with decreased peNDF content. Conclusion The feeding of peNDF-based TMR showed no impact on apparent nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance. Further studies are required with a wider range of dietary peNDF level and particle size to better identify the effect of dietary peNDF and particle size on chewing activity and performance in goats.

  4. Time scales of magma transport and mixing at Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai’i

    OpenAIRE

    Rae, Auriol S.P.; Edmonds, Marie; Maclennan, John; Morgan, Daniel; Houghton, Bruce; Hartley, Margaret E.; Sides, Isobel

    2016-01-01

    Modeling of volcanic processes is limited by a lack of knowledge of the time scales of storage, mixing, and final ascent of magmas into the shallowest portions of volcanic plumbing systems immediately prior to eruption. It is impossible to measure these time scales directly; however, micro-analytical techniques provide indirect estimates based on the extent of diffusion of species through melts and crystals. We use diffusion in olivine phenocrysts from the A.D. 1959 Kīlauea Iki (Hawai‘i, USA)...

  5. Rapid-mixing studies on the time-scale of radiation damage in cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, G.E.; Michael, B.D.; Asquith, J.C.; Shenoy, M.A.; Watts, M.E.; Whillans, D.W.

    1975-01-01

    Rapid mixing studies were performed to determine the time scale of radiation damage in cells. There is evidence that the sensitizing effects of oxygen and other chemical dose-modifying agents on the response of cells to ionizing radiation involve fast free-radical processes. Fast response technique studies in bacterial systems have shown that extremely fast processes occur when the bacteria are exposed to oxygen or other dose-modifying agents during irradiation. The time scales observed were consistent with the involvement of fast free-radical reactions in the expression of these effects

  6. Improving the Prediction of Total Surgical Procedure Time Using Linear Regression Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelman, Eric R; van Kuijk, Sander M J; Hamaekers, Ankie E W; de Korte, Marcel J M; van Merode, Godefridus G; Buhre, Wolfgang F F A

    2017-01-01

    For efficient utilization of operating rooms (ORs), accurate schedules of assigned block time and sequences of patient cases need to be made. The quality of these planning tools is dependent on the accurate prediction of total procedure time (TPT) per case. In this paper, we attempt to improve the accuracy of TPT predictions by using linear regression models based on estimated surgeon-controlled time (eSCT) and other variables relevant to TPT. We extracted data from a Dutch benchmarking database of all surgeries performed in six academic hospitals in The Netherlands from 2012 till 2016. The final dataset consisted of 79,983 records, describing 199,772 h of total OR time. Potential predictors of TPT that were included in the subsequent analysis were eSCT, patient age, type of operation, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status classification, and type of anesthesia used. First, we computed the predicted TPT based on a previously described fixed ratio model for each record, multiplying eSCT by 1.33. This number is based on the research performed by van Veen-Berkx et al., which showed that 33% of SCT is generally a good approximation of anesthesia-controlled time (ACT). We then systematically tested all possible linear regression models to predict TPT using eSCT in combination with the other available independent variables. In addition, all regression models were again tested without eSCT as a predictor to predict ACT separately (which leads to TPT by adding SCT). TPT was most accurately predicted using a linear regression model based on the independent variables eSCT, type of operation, ASA classification, and type of anesthesia. This model performed significantly better than the fixed ratio model and the method of predicting ACT separately. Making use of these more accurate predictions in planning and sequencing algorithms may enable an increase in utilization of ORs, leading to significant financial and productivity related benefits.

  7. Improving the Prediction of Total Surgical Procedure Time Using Linear Regression Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric R. Edelman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available For efficient utilization of operating rooms (ORs, accurate schedules of assigned block time and sequences of patient cases need to be made. The quality of these planning tools is dependent on the accurate prediction of total procedure time (TPT per case. In this paper, we attempt to improve the accuracy of TPT predictions by using linear regression models based on estimated surgeon-controlled time (eSCT and other variables relevant to TPT. We extracted data from a Dutch benchmarking database of all surgeries performed in six academic hospitals in The Netherlands from 2012 till 2016. The final dataset consisted of 79,983 records, describing 199,772 h of total OR time. Potential predictors of TPT that were included in the subsequent analysis were eSCT, patient age, type of operation, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA physical status classification, and type of anesthesia used. First, we computed the predicted TPT based on a previously described fixed ratio model for each record, multiplying eSCT by 1.33. This number is based on the research performed by van Veen-Berkx et al., which showed that 33% of SCT is generally a good approximation of anesthesia-controlled time (ACT. We then systematically tested all possible linear regression models to predict TPT using eSCT in combination with the other available independent variables. In addition, all regression models were again tested without eSCT as a predictor to predict ACT separately (which leads to TPT by adding SCT. TPT was most accurately predicted using a linear regression model based on the independent variables eSCT, type of operation, ASA classification, and type of anesthesia. This model performed significantly better than the fixed ratio model and the method of predicting ACT separately. Making use of these more accurate predictions in planning and sequencing algorithms may enable an increase in utilization of ORs, leading to significant financial and productivity related

  8. Time-dependent density functional theory description of total photoabsorption cross sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenorio, Bruno Nunes Cabral; Nascimento, Marco Antonio Chaer; Rocha, Alexandre Braga

    2018-02-01

    The time-dependent version of the density functional theory (TDDFT) has been used to calculate the total photoabsorption cross section of a number of molecules, namely, benzene, pyridine, furan, pyrrole, thiophene, phenol, naphthalene, and anthracene. The discrete electronic pseudo-spectra, obtained in a L2 basis set calculation were used in an analytic continuation procedure to obtain the photoabsorption cross sections. The ammonia molecule was chosen as a model system to compare the results obtained with TDDFT to those obtained with the linear response coupled cluster approach in order to make a link with our previous work and establish benchmarks.

  9. Linear matrix inequality approach for synchronization control of fuzzy cellular neural networks with mixed time delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramaniam, P.; Kalpana, M.; Rakkiyappan, R.

    2012-01-01

    Fuzzy cellular neural networks (FCNNs) are special kinds of cellular neural networks (CNNs). Each cell in an FCNN contains fuzzy operating abilities. The entire network is governed by cellular computing laws. The design of FCNNs is based on fuzzy local rules. In this paper, a linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach for synchronization control of FCNNs with mixed delays is investigated. Mixed delays include discrete time-varying delays and unbounded distributed delays. A dynamic control scheme is proposed to achieve the synchronization between a drive network and a response network. By constructing the Lyapunov—Krasovskii functional which contains a triple-integral term and the free-weighting matrices method an improved delay-dependent stability criterion is derived in terms of LMIs. The controller can be easily obtained by solving the derived LMIs. A numerical example and its simulations are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  10. Extending DIII-D Neutral Beam Modulated Operations with a Camac Based Total on Time Interlock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baggest, D.S.; Broesch, J.D.; Phillips, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    A new total-on-time interlock has increased the operational time limits of the Neutral Beam systems at DIII-D. The interlock, called the Neutral Beam On-Time-Limiter (NBOTL), is a custom built CAMAC module utilizing a Xilinx 9572 Complex Programmable Logic Device (CPLD) as its primary circuit. The Neutral Beam Injection Systems are the primary source of auxiliary heating for DIII-D plasma discharges and contain eight sources capable of delivering 20MW of power. The delivered power is typically limited to 3.5 s per source to protect beam-line components, while a DIII-D plasma discharge usually exceeds 5 s. Implemented as a hardware interlock within the neutral beam power supplies, the NBOTL limits the beam injection time. With a continuing emphasis on modulated beam injections, the NBOTL guards against command faults and allows the beam injection to be safely spread over a longer plasma discharge time. The NBOTL design is an example of incorporating modern circuit design techniques (CPLD) within an established format (CAMAC). The CPLD is the heart of the NBOTL and contains 90% of the circuitry, including a loadable, 1 MHz, 28 bit, BCD count down timer, buffers, and CAMAC communication circuitry. This paper discusses the circuit design and implementation. Of particular interest is the melding of flexible modern programmable logic devices with the CAMAC format

  11. Time delay and duration of ionospheric total electron content responses to geomagnetic disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Liu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Although positive and negative signatures of ionospheric storms have been reported many times, global characteristics such as the time of occurrence, time delay and duration as well as their relations to the intensity of the ionospheric storms have not received enough attention. The 10 years of global ionosphere maps (GIMs of total electron content (TEC retrieved at Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL were used to conduct a statistical study of the time delay of the ionospheric responses to geomagnetic disturbances. Our results show that the time delays between geomagnetic disturbances and TEC responses depend on season, magnetic local time and magnetic latitude. In the summer hemisphere at mid- and high latitudes, the negative storm effects can propagate to the low latitudes at post-midnight to the morning sector with a time delay of 4–7 h. As the earth rotates to the sunlight, negative phase retreats to higher latitudes and starts to extend to the lower latitude toward midnight sector. In the winter hemisphere during the daytime and after sunset at mid- and low latitudes, the negative phase appearance time is delayed from 1–10 h depending on the local time, latitude and storm intensity compared to the same area in the summer hemisphere. The quick response of positive phase can be observed at the auroral area in the night-side of the winter hemisphere. At the low latitudes during the dawn-noon sector, the ionospheric negative phase responses quickly with time delays of 5–7 h in both equinoctial and solsticial months.

    Our results also manifest that there is a positive correlation between the intensity of geomagnetic disturbances and the time duration of both the positive phase and negative phase. The durations of both negative phase and positive phase have clear latitudinal, seasonal and magnetic local time (MLT dependence. In the winter hemisphere, long durations for the positive phase are 8–11 h and 12–14 h during the daytime at

  12. Time delay and duration of ionospheric total electron content responses to geomagnetic disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Liu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Although positive and negative signatures of ionospheric storms have been reported many times, global characteristics such as the time of occurrence, time delay and duration as well as their relations to the intensity of the ionospheric storms have not received enough attention. The 10 years of global ionosphere maps (GIMs of total electron content (TEC retrieved at Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL were used to conduct a statistical study of the time delay of the ionospheric responses to geomagnetic disturbances. Our results show that the time delays between geomagnetic disturbances and TEC responses depend on season, magnetic local time and magnetic latitude. In the summer hemisphere at mid- and high latitudes, the negative storm effects can propagate to the low latitudes at post-midnight to the morning sector with a time delay of 4–7 h. As the earth rotates to the sunlight, negative phase retreats to higher latitudes and starts to extend to the lower latitude toward midnight sector. In the winter hemisphere during the daytime and after sunset at mid- and low latitudes, the negative phase appearance time is delayed from 1–10 h depending on the local time, latitude and storm intensity compared to the same area in the summer hemisphere. The quick response of positive phase can be observed at the auroral area in the night-side of the winter hemisphere. At the low latitudes during the dawn-noon sector, the ionospheric negative phase responses quickly with time delays of 5–7 h in both equinoctial and solsticial months. Our results also manifest that there is a positive correlation between the intensity of geomagnetic disturbances and the time duration of both the positive phase and negative phase. The durations of both negative phase and positive phase have clear latitudinal, seasonal and magnetic local time (MLT dependence. In the winter hemisphere, long durations for the positive phase are 8–11 h and 12–14 h during the daytime at middle

  13. Can a surgery-first orthognathic approach reduce the total treatment time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Woo Shik; Choi, Jong Woo; Kim, Do Yeon; Lee, Jang Yeol; Kwon, Soon Man

    2017-04-01

    Although pre-surgical orthodontic treatment has been accepted as a necessary process for stable orthognathic correction in the traditional orthognathic approach, recent advances in the application of miniscrews and in the pre-surgical simulation of orthodontic management using dental models have shown that it is possible to perform a surgery-first orthognathic approach without pre-surgical orthodontic treatment. This prospective study investigated the surgical outcomes of patients with diagnosed skeletal class III dentofacial deformities who underwent orthognathic surgery between December 2007 and December 2014. Cephalometric landmark data for patients undergoing the surgery-first approach were analyzed in terms of postoperative changes in vertical and horizontal skeletal pattern, dental pattern, and soft tissue profile. Forty-five consecutive Asian patients with skeletal class III dentofacial deformities who underwent surgery-first orthognathic surgery and 52 patients who underwent conventional two-jaw orthognathic surgery were included. The analysis revealed that the total treatment period for the surgery-first approach averaged 14.6 months, compared with 22.0 months for the orthodontics-first approach. Comparisons between the immediate postoperative and preoperative and between the postoperative and immediate postoperative cephalometric data revealed factors that correlated with the total treatment duration. The surgery-first orthognathic approach can dramatically reduce the total treatment time, with no major complications. Copyright © 2016 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Time-driven Activity-based Cost of Fast-Track Total Hip and Knee Arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Signe E; Holm, Henriette B; Jørgensen, Mira

    2017-01-01

    this between 2 departments with different logistical set-ups. METHODS: Prospective data collection was analyzed using the time-driven activity-based costing method (TDABC) on time consumed by different staff members involved in patient treatment in the perioperative period of fast-track THA and TKA in 2 Danish...... orthopedic departments with standardized fast-track settings, but different logistical set-ups. RESULTS: Length of stay was median 2 days in both departments. TDABC revealed minor differences in the perioperative settings between departments, but the total cost excluding the prosthesis was similar at USD......-track methodology, the result could be a more cost-effective pathway altogether. As THA and TKA are potentially costly procedures and the numbers are increasing in an economical limited environment, the aim of this study is to present baseline detailed economical calculations of fast-track THA and TKA and compare...

  15. Minimizing the Total Service Time of Discrete Dynamic Berth Allocation Problem by an Iterated Greedy Heuristic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Berth allocation is the forefront operation performed when ships arrive at a port and is a critical task in container port optimization. Minimizing the time ships spend at berths constitutes an important objective of berth allocation problems. This study focuses on the discrete dynamic berth allocation problem (discrete DBAP), which aims to minimize total service time, and proposes an iterated greedy (IG) algorithm to solve it. The proposed IG algorithm is tested on three benchmark problem sets. Experimental results show that the proposed IG algorithm can obtain optimal solutions for all test instances of the first and second problem sets and outperforms the best-known solutions for 35 out of 90 test instances of the third problem set. PMID:25295295

  16. Minimizing the Total Service Time of Discrete Dynamic Berth Allocation Problem by an Iterated Greedy Heuristic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Wei Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Berth allocation is the forefront operation performed when ships arrive at a port and is a critical task in container port optimization. Minimizing the time ships spend at berths constitutes an important objective of berth allocation problems. This study focuses on the discrete dynamic berth allocation problem (discrete DBAP, which aims to minimize total service time, and proposes an iterated greedy (IG algorithm to solve it. The proposed IG algorithm is tested on three benchmark problem sets. Experimental results show that the proposed IG algorithm can obtain optimal solutions for all test instances of the first and second problem sets and outperforms the best-known solutions for 35 out of 90 test instances of the third problem set.

  17. Decreasing Postanesthesia Care Unit to Floor Transfer Times to Facilitate Short Stay Total Joint Replacements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibia, Udai S; Grover, Jennifer; Turcotte, Justin J; Seanger, Michelle L; England, Kimberly A; King, Jennifer L; King, Paul J

    2018-04-01

    We describe a process for studying and improving baseline postanesthesia care unit (PACU)-to-floor transfer times after total joint replacements. Quality improvement project using lean methodology. Phase I of the investigational process involved collection of baseline data. Phase II involved developing targeted solutions to improve throughput. Phase III involved measured project sustainability. Phase I investigations revealed that patients spent an additional 62 minutes waiting in the PACU after being designated ready for transfer. Five to 16 telephone calls were needed between the PACU and the unit to facilitate each patient transfer. The most common reason for delay was unavailability of the unit nurse who was attending to another patient (58%). Phase II interventions resulted in transfer times decreasing to 13 minutes (79% reduction, P care at other institutions. Copyright © 2016 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Time-gated scintillator imaging for real-time optical surface dosimetry in total skin electron therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruza, Petr; Gollub, Sarah L.; Andreozzi, Jacqueline M.; Tendler, Irwin I.; Williams, Benjamin B.; Jarvis, Lesley A.; Gladstone, David J.; Pogue, Brian W.

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure surface dose by remote time-gated imaging of plastic scintillators. A novel technique for time-gated, intensified camera imaging of scintillator emission was demonstrated, and key parameters influencing the signal were analyzed, including distance, angle and thickness. A set of scintillator samples was calibrated by using thermo-luminescence detector response as reference. Examples of use in total skin electron therapy are described. The data showed excellent room light rejection (signal-to-noise ratio of scintillation SNR  ≈  470), ideal scintillation dose response linearity, and 2% dose rate error. Individual sample scintillation response varied by 7% due to sample preparation. Inverse square distance dependence correction and lens throughput error (8% per meter) correction were needed. At scintillator-to-source angle and observation angle  <50°, the radiant energy fluence error was smaller than 1%. The achieved standard error of the scintillator cumulative dose measurement compared to the TLD dose was 5%. The results from this proof-of-concept study documented the first use of small scintillator targets for remote surface dosimetry in ambient room lighting. The measured dose accuracy renders our method to be comparable to thermo-luminescent detector dosimetry, with the ultimate realization of accuracy likely to be better than shown here. Once optimized, this approach to remote dosimetry may substantially reduce the time and effort required for surface dosimetry.

  19. Aerobic Stability and Effects of Yeasts during Deterioration of Non-fermented and Fermented Total Mixed Ration with Different Moisture Levels

    OpenAIRE

    W. Hao; H. L. Wang; T. T. Ning; F. Y. Yang; C. C. Xu

    2015-01-01

    The present experiment evaluated the influence of moisture level and anaerobic fermentation on aerobic stability of total mixed ration (TMR). The dynamic changes in chemical composition and microbial population that occur after air exposure were examined, and the species of yeast associated with the deterioration process were also identified in both non-fermented and fermented TMR to deepen the understanding of aerobic deterioration. The moisture levels of TMR in this experiment were adjusted...

  20. The effects of a ration change from a total mixed ration to pasture on rumen fermentation, volatile fatty acid absorption characteristics, and morphology of dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schären, M.; Seyfang, G.M.; Steingass, H.; Dieho, K.; Dijkstra, J.; Hüther, L.; Frahm, J.; Beineke, A.; Soosten, von D.; Meyer, U.; Breves, G.; Dänicke, S.

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the effect of the change from a concentrate and silage-based ration (total mixed ration, TMR) to a pasture-based ration, a 10-wk trial (wk 1-10) was performed, including 10 rumen- and duodenum-fistulated German Holstein dairy cows (182 ± 24 d in milk, 23.5 ± 3.5 kg of milk/d; mean

  1. Near-real-time Estimation and Forecast of Total Precipitable Water in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholy, J.; Kern, A.; Barcza, Z.; Pongracz, R.; Ihasz, I.; Kovacs, R.; Ferencz, C.

    2013-12-01

    Information about the amount and spatial distribution of atmospheric water vapor (or total precipitable water) is essential for understanding weather and the environment including the greenhouse effect, the climate system with its feedbacks and the hydrological cycle. Numerical weather prediction (NWP) models need accurate estimations of water vapor content to provide realistic forecasts including representation of clouds and precipitation. In the present study we introduce our research activity for the estimation and forecast of atmospheric water vapor in Central Europe using both observations and models. The Eötvös Loránd University (Hungary) operates a polar orbiting satellite receiving station in Budapest since 2002. This station receives Earth observation data from polar orbiting satellites including MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Direct Broadcast (DB) data stream from satellites Terra and Aqua. The received DB MODIS data are automatically processed using freely distributed software packages. Using the IMAPP Level2 software total precipitable water is calculated operationally using two different methods. Quality of the TPW estimations is a crucial question for further application of the results, thus validation of the remotely sensed total precipitable water fields is presented using radiosonde data. In a current research project in Hungary we aim to compare different estimations of atmospheric water vapor content. Within the frame of the project we use a NWP model (DBCRAS; Direct Broadcast CIMSS Regional Assimilation System numerical weather prediction software developed by the University of Wisconsin, Madison) to forecast TPW. DBCRAS uses near real time Level2 products from the MODIS data processing chain. From the wide range of the derived Level2 products the MODIS TPW parameter found within the so-called mod07 results (Atmospheric Profiles Product) and the cloud top pressure and cloud effective emissivity parameters from the so

  2. Smoking is associated with earlier time to revision of total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chin Tat; Goodman, Stuart B; Huddleston, James I; Harris, Alex H S; Bhowmick, Subhrojyoti; Maloney, William J; Amanatullah, Derek F

    2017-10-01

    Smoking is associated with early postoperative complications, increased length of hospital stay, and an increased risk of revision after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, the effect of smoking on time to revision TKA is unknown. A total of 619 primary TKAs referred to an academic tertiary center for revision TKA were retrospectively stratified according to the patient smoking status. Smoking status was then analyzed for associations with time to revision TKA using a Chi square test. The association was also analyzed according to the indication for revision TKA. Smokers (37/41, 90%) have an increased risk of earlier revision for any reason compared to non-smokers (274/357, 77%, p=0.031). Smokers (37/41, 90%) have an increased risk of earlier revision for any reason compared to ex-smokers (168/221, 76%, p=0.028). Subgroup analysis did not reveal a difference in indication for revision TKA (p>0.05). Smokers are at increased risk of earlier revision TKA when compared to non-smokers and ex-smokers. The risk for ex-smokers was similar to that of non-smokers. Smoking appears to have an all-or-none effect on earlier revision TKA as patients who smoked more did not have higher risk of early revision TKA. These results highlight the need for clinicians to urge patients not to begin smoking and encourage smokers to quit smoking prior to primary TKA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Time-driven activity based costing of total knee replacement surgery at a London teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Alvin; Sabharwal, Sanjeeve; Akhtar, Kashif; Makaram, Navnit; Gupte, Chinmay M

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a time-driven activity based costing (TDABC) analysis of the clinical pathway for total knee replacement (TKR) and to determine where the major cost drivers lay. The in-patient pathway was prospectively mapped utilising a TDABC model, following 20 TKRs. The mean age for these patients was 73.4 years. All patients were ASA grade I or II and their mean BMI was 30.4. The 14 varus knees had a mean deformity of 5.32° and the six valgus knee had a mean deformity of 10.83°. Timings were prospectively collected as each patient was followed through the TKR pathway. Pre-operative costs including pre-assessment and joint school were £ 163. Total staff costs for admission and the operating theatre were £ 658. Consumables cost for the operating theatre were £ 1862. The average length of stay was 5.25 days at a total cost of £ 910. Trust overheads contributed £ 1651. The overall institutional cost of a 'noncomplex' TKR in patients without substantial medical co-morbidities was estimated to be £ 5422, representing a profit of £ 1065 based on a best practice tariff of £ 6487. The major cost drivers in the TKR pathway were determined to be theatre consumables, corporate overheads, overall ward cost and operating theatre staffing costs. Appropriate discounting of implant costs, reduction in length of stay by adopting an enhanced recovery programme and control of corporate overheads through the use of elective orthopaedic treatment centres are proposed approaches for reducing the overall cost of treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Mix and Inject: Reaction Initiation by Diffusion for Time-Resolved Macromolecular Crystallography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Schmidt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Time-resolved macromolecular crystallography unifies structure determination with chemical kinetics, since the structures of transient states and chemical and kinetic mechanisms can be determined simultaneously from the same data. To start a reaction in an enzyme, typically, an initially inactive substrate present in the crystal is activated. This has particular disadvantages that are circumvented when active substrate is directly provided by diffusion. However, then it is prohibitive to use macroscopic crystals because diffusion times become too long. With small micro- and nanocrystals diffusion times are adequately short for most enzymes and the reaction can be swiftly initiated. We demonstrate here that a time-resolved crystallographic experiment becomes feasible by mixing substrate with enzyme nanocrystals which are subsequently injected into the X-ray beam of a pulsed X-ray source.

  5. Mixing times towards demographic equilibrium in insect populations with temperature variable age structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damos, Petros

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we use entropy related mixing rate modules to measure the effects of temperature on insect population stability and demographic breakdown. The uncertainty in the age of the mother of a randomly chosen newborn, and how it is moved after a finite act of time steps, is modeled using a stochastic transformation of the Leslie matrix. Age classes are represented as a cycle graph and its transitions towards the stable age distribution are brought forth as an exact Markov chain. The dynamics of divergence, from a non equilibrium state towards equilibrium, are evaluated using the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy. Moreover, Kullback-Leibler distance is applied as information-theoretic measure to estimate exact mixing times of age transitions probabilities towards equilibrium. Using empirically data, we show that on the initial conditions and simulated projection's trough time, that population entropy can effectively be applied to detect demographic variability towards equilibrium under different temperature conditions. Changes in entropy are correlated with the fluctuations of the insect population decay rates (i.e. demographic stability towards equilibrium). Moreover, shorter mixing times are directly linked to lower entropy rates and vice versa. This may be linked to the properties of the insect model system, which in contrast to warm blooded animals has the ability to greatly change its metabolic and demographic rates. Moreover, population entropy and the related distance measures that are applied, provide a means to measure these rates. The current results and model projections provide clear biological evidence why dynamic population entropy may be useful to measure population stability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Setting time and flowability of accelerated Portland cement mixed with polycarboxylate superplasticizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongkornchaowalit, Norachai; Lertchirakarn, Veera

    2011-03-01

    Important limitations of mineral trioxide aggregate for use in clinical procedures are extended setting time and difficult handling characteristics. The removal of gypsum at the end stage of the Portland cement manufacturing process and polycarboxylate superplasticizer admixture may solve these limitations. Different concentrations of polycarboxylate superplasticizer (0%, 1.2%, 1.8%, and 2.4% by volume) and liquid-to-powder ratios (0.27, 0.30, and 0.33 by weight) were mixed with white Portland cement without gypsum (AWPC-experimental material). Type 1 ordinary white Portland cement mixed with distilled water at the same ratios as the experimental material was used as controls. All samples were tested for setting time and flowability according to the International Organization for Standardization 6876:2001 guideline. The data were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance. Then, one-way analysis of variance and multiple comparison tests were used to analyze the significance among groups. The data are presented in mean ± standard deviation values. In all experimental groups, the setting times were in the range of 4.2 ± 0.4 to 11.3 ± 0.2 minutes, which were significantly (p setting time and increased flowability of cement, which would be beneficial for clinical use. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Vibrational frequencies and dephasing times in excited electronic states by femtosecond time-resolved four-wave mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Taiha; Albrecht, A. C.

    1993-06-01

    Time-resolved degenerate four-wave mixing (TRDFWM) for an electronically resonant system in a phase-matching configuration that measures population decay is reported. Because the spectral width of input light exceeds the vibrational Bohr frequency of a strong Raman active mode, the vibrational coherence produces strong oscillations in the TRDFWM signal together with the usual population decay from the excited electronic state. The data are analyzed in terms of a four-level system: ground and excited electronic states each split by a vibrational quantum of a Raman active mode. Absolute frequencies and their dephasing times of the vibrational modes at ≈590 cm -1 are obtained for the excited as well as the ground electronic state. The vibrational dephasing rate in the excited electronic state is about an order of magnitude faster than that in the ground state, the origin of which is speculated upon.

  8. Total vaginectomy and urethral lengthening at time of neourethral prelamination in transgender men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Carlos A; Fein, Lydia A; Salgado, Christopher J

    2017-11-29

    For transgender men (TGM), gender-affirmation surgery (GAS) is often the final stage of their gender transition. GAS involves creating a neophallus, typically using tissue remote from the genital region, such as radial forearm free-flap phalloplasty. Essential to this process is vaginectomy. Complexity of vaginal fascial attachments, atrophy due to testosterone use, and need to preserve integrity of the vaginal epithelium for tissue rearrangement add to the intricacy of the procedure during GAS. We designed the technique presented here to minimize complications and contribute to overall success of the phalloplasty procedure. After obtaining approval from the Institutional Review Board, our transgender (TG) database at the University of Miami Hospital was reviewed to identify cases with vaginectomy and urethral elongation performed at the time of radial forearm free-flap phalloplasty prelamination. Surgical technique for posterior vaginectomy and anterior vaginal wall-flap harvest with subsequent urethral lengthening is detailed. Six patients underwent total vaginectomy and urethral elongation at the time of radial forearm free-flap phalloplasty prelamination. Mean estimated blood loss (EBL) was 290 ± 199.4 ml for the vaginectomy and urethral elongation, and no one required transfusion. There were no intraoperative complications (cystotomy, ureteral obstruction, enterotomy, proctotomy, or neurological injury). One patient had a urologic complication (urethral stricture) in the neobulbar urethra. Total vaginectomy and urethral lengthening procedures at the time of GAS are relatively safe procedures, and using the described technique provides excellent tissue for urethral prelamination and a low complication rate in both the short and long term.

  9. Timing of urinary catheter removal after uncomplicated total abdominal hysterectomy: a prospective randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Magdy R; Sayed Ahmed, Waleed A; Atwa, Khaled A; Metwally, Lobna

    2014-05-01

    To assess whether immediate (0h), intermediate (after 6h) or delayed (after 24h) removal of an indwelling urinary catheter after uncomplicated abdominal hysterectomy can affect the rate of re-catheterization due to urinary retention, rate of urinary tract infection, ambulation time and length of hospital stay. Prospective randomized controlled trial conducted at Suez Canal University Hospital, Egypt. Two hundred and twenty-one women underwent total abdominal hysterectomy for benign gynecological diseases and were randomly allocated into three groups. Women in group A (73 patients) had their urinary catheter removed immediately after surgery. Group B (81 patients) had the catheter removed 6h post-operatively while in group C (67 patients) the catheter was removed after 24h. The main outcome measures were the frequency of urinary retention, urinary tract infections, ambulation time and length of hospital stay. There was a significantly higher number of urinary retention episodes requiring re-catheterization in the immediate removal group compared to the intermediate and delayed removal groups (16.4% versus 2.5% and 0% respectively). Delayed urinary catheter removal was associated with a higher incidence of urinary tract infections (15%), delayed ambulation time (10.3h) and longer hospital stay (5.6 days) compared to the early (1.4%, 4.1h and 3.2 days respectively) and intermediate (3.7%, 6.8h and 3.4 days respectively) removal groups. Removal of the urinary catheter 6h postoperatively appears to be more advantageous than early or late removal in cases of uncomplicated total abdominal hysterectomy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Teachers’ Beliefs about Differentiated Instructions in Mixed Ability Classrooms: A Case of Time Limitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaweria Aftab

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Students in today’s mixed ability classrooms come from diverse backgrounds with needs. In such a scenario, differentiated instructions are of prime importance for teachers to deal with in mixed ability classrooms. The teaching experiences and academic life mould perceptions of teachers which effects their teaching style; therefore, it is important to know teachers’ beliefs and perceptions regarding teaching in a mixed ability classroom at middle school level so as to guide educators and heads inside and outside the institution. For this study, quantitative research method was used to explore and understand the beliefs and perceptions of the teachers of middle schools regarding implementing differentiated instructions. The sample size included 120 teachers who were sent a survey questionnaire through online Google form and was constructed by customizing the questionnaire from Ballone and Czerniak (2001. The analysis of quantitative inquiry revealed that there is a positive association between teachers’ beliefs about their intentions and stakeholders’ expectations to implement differentiated instruction. It was highlighted that all stakeholders wanted teachers to implement differentiated strategies; however, the teachers were found to be short of planning and instructional time for differentiation.

  11. Effect of Mixing Time and Storage Condition on Characterization of Heparinoid Admixtures with Corticosteroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Ikumi; Takahashi, Namiki; Sadzuka, Yasuyuki

    2016-01-01

    In dermatologic therapy, several external preparations formulated as ointments or creams are prescribed. And they are often admixture to improve patient compliance. In this study, we prepared admixtures of moisturizer with steroids and examined their usability and the amount of principal agent in formulations, particularly focusing on the moisturizer content. Four heparinoid semisolid formulations were selected: Hirudoid ® soft ointment 0.3% (Formulation A) and 3 generic agents [(Besoften ® oil-based cream 0.3% (Formulation B), Kuradoido ® ointment 0.3% (Formulation C), and Hepadaerm ointment 0.3% (Formulation D)], and Antebate ® ointment 0.05% (Formulation E) were used as steroids. Formulation A and B are water-in-oil emulsions, and Formulation C and D are oil-in-water emulsions. Admixtures looked like to be mixed uniformly by visual observation. In the examination of heparinoid amount, admixture A+E and B+E were mixed uniformly. On the other hand, admixture C+E was remarkable un-uniformly. It was speculated that the emulsification of formulation C was broken. The phenomenon was supported by the result of malleability. After 8 weeks storage, the heparinoid ratio in each formulation could be expressed as follows: Admixture B≥Admixture A>Admixture C=Admixture D. A suitable storage temperature was 4°C. The results of physicochemical data analysis reveal the formulations composed of water-in-oil cream, i.e., Formulation A and Formulation B, to be the optimal choices for mixing with steroid ointments. Mixing time and storage conditions may be optimized to solve pharmaceutical problems. Moreover, understanding the emulsion type and character of semisolid formulations can expand the range of formulation options.

  12. Experimental Evaluation of a Mixed Controller That Amplifies Spatial Errors and Reduces Timing Errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Marchal-Crespo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Research on motor learning suggests that training with haptic guidance enhances learning of the timing components of motor tasks, whereas error amplification is better for learning the spatial components. We present a novel mixed guidance controller that combines haptic guidance and error amplification to simultaneously promote learning of the timing and spatial components of complex motor tasks. The controller is realized using a force field around the desired position. This force field has a stable manifold tangential to the trajectory that guides subjects in velocity-related aspects. The force field has an unstable manifold perpendicular to the trajectory, which amplifies the perpendicular (spatial error. We also designed a controller that applies randomly varying, unpredictable disturbing forces to enhance the subjects’ active participation by pushing them away from their “comfort zone.” We conducted an experiment with thirty-two healthy subjects to evaluate the impact of four different training strategies on motor skill learning and self-reported motivation: (i No haptics, (ii mixed guidance, (iii perpendicular error amplification and tangential haptic guidance provided in sequential order, and (iv randomly varying disturbing forces. Subjects trained two motor tasks using ARMin IV, a robotic exoskeleton for upper limb rehabilitation: follow circles with an ellipsoidal speed profile, and move along a 3D line following a complex speed profile. Mixed guidance showed no detectable learning advantages over the other groups. Results suggest that the effectiveness of the training strategies depends on the subjects’ initial skill level. Mixed guidance seemed to benefit subjects who performed the circle task with smaller errors during baseline (i.e., initially more skilled subjects, while training with no haptics was more beneficial for subjects who created larger errors (i.e., less skilled subjects. Therefore, perhaps the high functional

  13. Observed and simulated time evolution of HCl, ClONO2, and HF total column abundances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.-M. Sinnhuber

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Time series of total column abundances of hydrogen chloride (HCl, chlorine nitrate (ClONO2, and hydrogen fluoride (HF were determined from ground-based Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectra recorded at 17 sites belonging to the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC and located between 80.05° N and 77.82° S. By providing such a near-global overview on ground-based measurements of the two major stratospheric chlorine reservoir species, HCl and ClONO2, the present study is able to confirm the decrease of the atmospheric inorganic chlorine abundance during the last few years. This decrease is expected following the 1987 Montreal Protocol and its amendments and adjustments, where restrictions and a subsequent phase-out of the prominent anthropogenic chlorine source gases (solvents, chlorofluorocarbons were agreed upon to enable a stabilisation and recovery of the stratospheric ozone layer. The atmospheric fluorine content is expected to be influenced by the Montreal Protocol, too, because most of the banned anthropogenic gases also represent important fluorine sources. But many of the substitutes to the banned gases also contain fluorine so that the HF total column abundance is expected to have continued to increase during the last few years. The measurements are compared with calculations from five different models: the two-dimensional Bremen model, the two chemistry-transport models KASIMA and SLIMCAT, and the two chemistry-climate models EMAC and SOCOL. Thereby, the ability of the models to reproduce the absolute total column amounts, the seasonal cycles, and the temporal evolution found in the FTIR measurements is investigated and inter-compared. This is especially interesting because the models have different architectures. The overall agreement between the measurements and models for the total column abundances and the seasonal cycles is good. Linear trends of HCl, ClONO2, and HF are calculated from both

  14. The influence of tourniquet use and operative time on the incidence of deep vein thrombosis in total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Arnaldo José; Almeida, Adriano Marques de; Fávaro, Edmar; Sguizzato, Guilherme Turola

    2012-09-01

    To evaluate the association between tourniquet and total operative time during total knee arthroplasty and the occurrence of deep vein thrombosis. Seventy-eight consecutive patients from our institution underwent cemented total knee arthroplasty for degenerative knee disorders. The pneumatic tourniquet time and total operative time were recorded in minutes. Four categories were established for total tourniquet time: 120 minutes. Three categories were defined for operative time: 150 minutes. Between 7 and 12 days after surgery, the patients underwent ascending venography to evaluate the presence of distal or proximal deep vein thrombosis. We evaluated the association between the tourniquet time and total operative time and the occurrence of deep vein thrombosis after total knee arthroplasty. In total, 33 cases (42.3%) were positive for deep vein thrombosis; 13 (16.7%) cases involved the proximal type. We found no statistically significant difference in tourniquet time or operative time between patients with or without deep vein thrombosis. We did observe a higher frequency of proximal deep vein thrombosis in patients who underwent surgery lasting longer than 120 minutes. The mean total operative time was also higher in patients with proximal deep vein thrombosis. The tourniquet time did not significantly differ in these patients. We concluded that surgery lasting longer than 120 minutes increases the risk of proximal deep vein thrombosis.

  15. Wait time management strategies for total joint replacement surgery: sustainability and unintended consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomey, Marie-Pascale; Clavel, Nathalie; Amar, Claudia; Sabogale-Olarte, Juan Carlos; Sanmartin, Claudia; De Coster, Carolyn; Noseworthy, Tom

    2017-09-07

    In Canada, long waiting times for core specialized services have consistently been identified as a key barrier to access. Governments and organizations have responded with strategies for better access management, notably for total joint replacement (TJR) of the hip and knee. While wait time management strategies (WTMS) are promising, the factors which influence their sustainable implementation at the organizational level are understudied. Consequently, this study examined organizational and systemic factors that made it possible to sustain waiting times for TJR within federally established limits and for at least 18 months or more. The research design is a multiple case study of WTMS implementation. Five cases were selected across five Canadian provinces. Three success levels were pre-defined: 1) the WTMS maintained compliance with requirements for more than 18 months; 2) the WTMS met requirements for 18 months but could not sustain the level thereafter; 3) the WTMS never met requirements. For each case, we collected documents and interviewed key informants. We analyzed systemic and organizational factors, with particular attention to governance and leadership, culture, resources, methods, and tools. We found that successful organizations had specific characteristics: 1) management of the whole care continuum, 2) strong clinical leadership; 3) dedicated committees to coordinate and sustain strategy; 4) a culture based on trust and innovation. All strategies led to relatively similar unintended consequences. The main negative consequence was an initial increase in waiting times for TJR and the main positive consequence was operational enhancement of other areas of specialization based on the TJR model. This study highlights important differences in factors which help to achieve and sustain waiting times. To be sustainable, a WTMS needs to generate greater synergies between contextual-level strategy (provincial or regional) and organizational objectives and

  16. Solution of the atmospheric diffusion equation with a realistic diffusion coefficient and time dependent mixing height

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayhoub, A.B.; Etman, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    One dimensional model for the dispersion of a passive atmospheric contaminant (neglecting chemical reactions) in the atmospheric boundary layer is introduced. The differential equation representing the dispersion of pollutants is solved on the basis of gradient-transfer theory (K- theory). The present approach deals with a more appropriate and realistic profile for the diffusion coefficient K, which is expressed in terms of the friction velocity U, the vertical coordinate z and the depth of the mixing layer h, which is taken time dependent. After some mathematical simplification, the equation analytic obtained solution can be easily applied to case study concerning atmospheric dispersion of pollutants

  17. Generalized Projective Synchronization between Two Different Neural Networks with Mixed Time Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefei Wu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The generalized projective synchronization (GPS between two different neural networks with nonlinear coupling and mixed time delays is considered. Several kinds of nonlinear feedback controllers are designed to achieve GPS between two different such neural networks. Some results for GPS of these neural networks are proved theoretically by using the Lyapunov stability theory and the LaSalle invariance principle. Moreover, by comparison, we determine an optimal nonlinear controller from several ones and provide an adaptive update law for it. Computer simulations are provided to show the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed methods.

  18. Real-time terahertz imaging through self-mixing in a quantum-cascade laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wienold, M., E-mail: martin.wienold@dlr.de; Rothbart, N.; Hübers, H.-W. [Institute of Optical Sensor Systems, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Rutherfordstr. 2, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Department of Physics, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Newtonstr. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Hagelschuer, T. [Institute of Optical Sensor Systems, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Rutherfordstr. 2, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Schrottke, L.; Biermann, K.; Grahn, H. T. [Paul-Drude-Institut für Festkörperelektronik, Leibniz-Institut im Forschungsverbund Berlin e. V., Hausvogteiplatz 5-7, 10117 Berlin (Germany)

    2016-07-04

    We report on a fast self-mixing approach for real-time, coherent terahertz imaging based on a quantum-cascade laser and a scanning mirror. Due to a fast deflection of the terahertz beam, images with frame rates up to several Hz are obtained, eventually limited by the mechanical inertia of the employed scanning mirror. A phase modulation technique allows for the separation of the amplitude and phase information without the necessity of parameter fitting routines. We further demonstrate the potential for transmission imaging.

  19. Real-time tunability of chip-based light source enabled by microfluidic mixing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Brian Bilenberg; Rasmussen, Torben; Balslev, Søren

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrate real-time tunability of a chip-based liquid light source enabled by microfluidic mixing. The mixer and light source are fabricated in SU-8 which is suitable for integration in SU-8-based laboratory-on-a-chip microsystems. The tunability of the light source is achieved by changing...... the concentration of rhodamine 6G dye inside two integrated vertical resonators, since both the refractive index and the gain profile are influenced by the dye concentration. The effect on the refractive index and the gain profile of rhodamine 6G in ethanol is investigated and the continuous tuning of the laser...

  20. Time Series Model of Wind Speed for Multi Wind Turbines based on Mixed Copula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nie Dan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Because wind power is intermittent, random and so on, large scale grid will directly affect the safe and stable operation of power grid. In order to make a quantitative study on the characteristics of the wind speed of wind turbine, the wind speed time series model of the multi wind turbine generator is constructed by using the mixed Copula-ARMA function in this paper, and a numerical example is also given. The research results show that the model can effectively predict the wind speed, ensure the efficient operation of the wind turbine, and provide theoretical basis for the stability of wind power grid connected operation.

  1. Entropy-based critical reaction time for mixing-controlled reactive transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiogna, Gabriele; Rolle, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    Entropy-based metrics, such as the dilution index, have been proposed to quantify dilution and reactive mixing in solute transport problems. In this work, we derive the transient advection dispersion equation for the entropy density of a reactive plume. We restrict our analysis to the case where...... the concentration distribution of the transported species is Gaussian and we observe that, even in case of an instantaneous complete bimolecular reaction, dilution caused by dispersive processes dominates the entropy balance at early times and results in the net increase of the entropy density of a reactive species...

  2. Time delay control of power converters: Mixed frame and stationary-frame variants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Loh, P.C.; Tang, Y.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a mixed-frame and a stationary-frame time delay current controller are proposed for high precision reference tracking and disturbance rejection of power converters. In particular, the controllers use a proportional-resonant regulator in the stationary frame for regulating...... the positive and negative-sequence fundamental currents, which are known to directly influence the flow of active and reactive power in most energy conversion systems. Moreover, for the tracking or compensation of harmonics, the controllers include a time delay control path in either the synchronous...... or stationary frame, whose inherent feedback and feedforward structure can be proven to resemble a bank of resonant filters in either reference frames. Unlike other existing controllers, the proposed time delay controllers function by introducing multiple resonant peaks at only those harmonic frequencies...

  3. The Electric Fleet Size and Mix Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows and Recharging Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiermann, Gerhard; Puchinger, Jakob; Røpke, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Due to new regulations and further technological progress in the field of electric vehicles, the research community faces the new challenge of incorporating the electric energy based restrictions into vehicle routing problems. One of these restrictions is the limited battery capacity which makes...... detours to recharging stations necessary, thus requiring efficient tour planning mechanisms in order to sustain the competitiveness of electric vehicles compared to conventional vehicles. We introduce the Electric Fleet Size and Mix Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows and Recharging Stations (E......-FSMFTW) to model decisions to be made with regards to fleet composition and the actual vehicle routes including the choice of recharging times and locations. The available vehicle types differ in their transport capacity, battery size and acquisition cost. Furthermore, we consider time windows at customer...

  4. A rapid infusion protocol is safe for total dose iron polymaltose: time for change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, M; Morrison, G; Friedman, A; Lau, A; Lau, D; Gibson, P R

    2011-07-01

    Intravenous correction of iron deficiency by total dose iron polymaltose is inexpensive and safe, but current protocols entail prolonged administration over more than 4 h. This results in reduced patient acceptance, and hospital resource strain. We aimed to assess prospectively the safety of a rapid intravenous protocol and compare this with historical controls. Consecutive patients in whom intravenous iron replacement was indicated were invited to have up to 1.5 g iron polymaltose by a 58-min infusion protocol after an initial 15-min test dose without pre-medication. Infusion-related adverse events (AE) and delayed AE over the ensuing 5 days were also prospectively documented and graded as mild, moderate or severe. One hundred patients, 63 female, mean age 54 (range 18-85) years were studied. Thirty-four infusion-related AE to iron polymaltose occurred in a total of 24 patients--25 mild, 8 moderate and 1 severe; higher than previously reported for a slow protocol iron infusion. Thirty-one delayed AE occurred in 26 patients--26 mild, 3 moderate and 2 severe; similar to previously reported. All but five patients reported they would prefer iron replacement through the rapid protocol again. The presence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) predicted infusion-related reactions (54% vs 14% without IBD, P cost, resource utilization and time benefits for the patient and hospital system. © 2011 The Authors. Internal Medicine Journal © 2011 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  5. Optimum filters with time width constraints for liquid argon total-absorption detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatti, E.; Radeka, V.

    1977-10-01

    Optimum filter responses are found for triangular current input pulses occurring in liquid argon ionization chambers used as total absorption detectors. The filters considered are subject to the following constraints: finite width of the output pulse having a prescribed ratio to the width of the triangular input current pulse and zero area of a bipolar antisymmetrical pulse or of a three lobe pulse, as required for high event rates. The feasibility of pulse shaping giving an output equal to, or shorter than, the input one is demonstrated. It is shown that the signal-to-noise ratio remains constant for the chamber interelectrode gap which gives an input pulse width (i.e., electron drift time) greater than one third of the required output pulse width

  6. Simplified neural networks for solving linear least squares and total least squares problems in real time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichocki, A; Unbehauen, R

    1994-01-01

    In this paper a new class of simplified low-cost analog artificial neural networks with on chip adaptive learning algorithms are proposed for solving linear systems of algebraic equations in real time. The proposed learning algorithms for linear least squares (LS), total least squares (TLS) and data least squares (DLS) problems can be considered as modifications and extensions of well known algorithms: the row-action projection-Kaczmarz algorithm and/or the LMS (Adaline) Widrow-Hoff algorithms. The algorithms can be applied to any problem which can be formulated as a linear regression problem. The correctness and high performance of the proposed neural networks are illustrated by extensive computer simulation results.

  7. Exact and Heuristic Solutions to Minimize Total Waiting Time in the Blood Products Distribution Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Salehipour

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel application of operations research to support decision making in blood distribution management. The rapid and dynamic increasing demand, criticality of the product, storage, handling, and distribution requirements, and the different geographical locations of hospitals and medical centers have made blood distribution a complex and important problem. In this study, a real blood distribution problem containing 24 hospitals was tackled by the authors, and an exact approach was presented. The objective of the problem is to distribute blood and its products among hospitals and medical centers such that the total waiting time of those requiring the product is minimized. Following the exact solution, a hybrid heuristic algorithm is proposed. Computational experiments showed the optimal solutions could be obtained for medium size instances, while for larger instances the proposed hybrid heuristic is very competitive.

  8. Estimating time-based instantaneous total mortality rate based on the age-structured abundance index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingbin; Jiao, Yan

    2015-05-01

    The instantaneous total mortality rate ( Z) of a fish population is one of the important parameters in fisheries stock assessment. The estimation of Z is crucial to fish population dynamics analysis, abundance and catch forecast, and fisheries management. A catch curve-based method for estimating time-based Z and its change trend from catch per unit effort (CPUE) data of multiple cohorts is developed. Unlike the traditional catch-curve method, the method developed here does not need the assumption of constant Z throughout the time, but the Z values in n continuous years are assumed constant, and then the Z values in different n continuous years are estimated using the age-based CPUE data within these years. The results of the simulation analyses show that the trends of the estimated time-based Z are consistent with the trends of the true Z, and the estimated rates of change from this approach are close to the true change rates (the relative differences between the change rates of the estimated Z and the true Z are smaller than 10%). Variations of both Z and recruitment can affect the estimates of Z value and the trend of Z. The most appropriate value of n can be different given the effects of different factors. Therefore, the appropriate value of n for different fisheries should be determined through a simulation analysis as we demonstrated in this study. Further analyses suggested that selectivity and age estimation are also two factors that can affect the estimated Z values if there is error in either of them, but the estimated change rates of Z are still close to the true change rates. We also applied this approach to the Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua) fishery of eastern Newfoundland and Labrador from 1983 to 1997, and obtained reasonable estimates of time-based Z.

  9. A space-time mixed galerkin marching-on-in-time scheme for the time-domain combined field integral equation

    KAUST Repository

    Beghein, Yves

    2013-03-01

    The time domain combined field integral equation (TD-CFIE), which is constructed from a weighted sum of the time domain electric and magnetic field integral equations (TD-EFIE and TD-MFIE) for analyzing transient scattering from closed perfect electrically conducting bodies, is free from spurious resonances. The standard marching-on-in-time technique for discretizing the TD-CFIE uses Galerkin and collocation schemes in space and time, respectively. Unfortunately, the standard scheme is theoretically not well understood: stability and convergence have been proven for only one class of space-time Galerkin discretizations. Moreover, existing discretization schemes are nonconforming, i.e., the TD-MFIE contribution is tested with divergence conforming functions instead of curl conforming functions. We therefore introduce a novel space-time mixed Galerkin discretization for the TD-CFIE. A family of temporal basis and testing functions with arbitrary order is introduced. It is explained how the corresponding interactions can be computed efficiently by existing collocation-in-time codes. The spatial mixed discretization is made fully conforming and consistent by leveraging both Rao-Wilton-Glisson and Buffa-Christiansen basis functions and by applying the appropriate bi-orthogonalization procedures. The combination of both techniques is essential when high accuracy over a broad frequency band is required. © 2012 IEEE.

  10. Total and domain-specific sitting time among employees in desk-based work settings in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennie, Jason A; Pedisic, Zeljko; Timperio, Anna; Crawford, David; Dunstan, David; Bauman, Adrian; van Uffelen, Jannique; Salmon, Jo

    2015-06-01

    To describe the total and domain-specific daily sitting time among a sample of Australian office-based employees. In April 2010, paper-based surveys were provided to desk-based employees (n=801) in Victoria, Australia. Total daily and domain-specific (work, leisure-time and transport-related) sitting time (minutes/day) were assessed by validated questionnaires. Differences in sitting time were examined across socio-demographic (age, sex, occupational status) and lifestyle characteristics (physical activity levels, body mass index [BMI]) using multiple linear regression analyses. The median (95% confidence interval [CI]) of total daily sitting time was 540 (531-557) minutes/day. Insufficiently active adults (median=578 minutes/day, [95%CI: 564-602]), younger adults aged 18-29 years (median=561 minutes/day, [95%CI: 540-577]) reported the highest total daily sitting times. Occupational sitting time accounted for almost 60% of total daily sitting time. In multivariate analyses, total daily sitting time was negatively associated with age (unstandardised regression coefficient [B]=-1.58, pphysical activity (minutes/week) (B=-0.03, pemployees reported that more than half of their total daily sitting time was accrued in the work setting. Given the high contribution of occupational sitting to total daily sitting time among desk-based employees, interventions should focus on the work setting. © 2014 Public Health Association of Australia.

  11. Total variation regularization for a backward time-fractional diffusion problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Liyan; Liu, Jijun

    2013-01-01

    Consider a two-dimensional backward problem for a time-fractional diffusion process, which can be considered as image de-blurring where the blurring process is assumed to be slow diffusion. In order to avoid the over-smoothing effect for object image with edges and to construct a fast reconstruction scheme, the total variation regularizing term and the data residual error in the frequency domain are coupled to construct the cost functional. The well posedness of this optimization problem is studied. The minimizer is sought approximately using the iteration process for a series of optimization problems with Bregman distance as a penalty term. This iteration reconstruction scheme is essentially a new regularizing scheme with coupling parameter in the cost functional and the iteration stopping times as two regularizing parameters. We give the choice strategy for the regularizing parameters in terms of the noise level of measurement data, which yields the optimal error estimate on the iterative solution. The series optimization problems are solved by alternative iteration with explicit exact solution and therefore the amount of computation is much weakened. Numerical implementations are given to support our theoretical analysis on the convergence rate and to show the significant reconstruction improvements. (paper)

  12. Nonlinear mixed effect models for predicting relationships between total height and diameter of oriental beech trees in Kestel, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilker Ercanli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Modelos estadísticos no lineales de efectos mixtos se utilizaron para predecir las relaciones entre la altura total y el diámetro a la altura del pecho (DAP en rodales de árboles de haya oriental (Fagus orientalis Lipsky en Kestel, Bursa, al noroeste de Turquía. Un total de 124 parcelas de muestreo se seleccionaron para representar la calidad de sitio, edad y densidad de rodal. Nueve modelos no lineales generalizados de altura-diámetro se ajustaron y evaluaron con base en el criterio de información de Akaike, el criterio de información bayesiana de Schwarz, la raíz del cuadrado medio del error (RMSE por sus siglas en inglés, el sesgo absoluto y el coeficiente de determinación ajustado (R2adj. El modelo no lineal de Schnute se seleccionó como el mejor modelo predictivo. El modelo de altura-diámetro basado en el enfoque del modelo no lineal de efectos mixtos representó 90.6 % de la varianza total en las relaciones de altura-diámetro y los valores de RMSE de 1.48 m. Varios escenarios que difieren en el diseño de muestreo y el tamaño de los árboles submuestra, seleccionados del conjunto de datos de validación, revelaron que cuatro árboles submuestra seleccionados al azar produjeron los mejores resultados predictivos (reducción de 43.3 % de la suma de errores cuadrados, 98.4 % del sesgo absoluto y 36.9 % de la RMSE en relación con las predicciones de los efectos fijos.

  13. A mixed-mode traffic assignment model with new time-flow impedance function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Gui-Hua; Hu, Yu; Zou, Yuan-Yang

    2018-01-01

    Recently, with the wide adoption of electric vehicles, transportation network has shown different characteristics and been further developed. In this paper, we present a new time-flow impedance function, which may be more realistic than the existing time-flow impedance functions. Based on this new impedance function, we present an optimization model for a mixed-mode traffic network in which battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and gasoline vehicles (GVs) are chosen. We suggest two approaches to handle the model: One is to use the interior point (IP) algorithm and the other is to employ the sequential quadratic programming (SQP) algorithm. Three numerical examples are presented to illustrate the efficiency of these approaches. In particular, our numerical results show that more travelers prefer to choosing BEVs when the distance limit of BEVs is long enough and the unit operating cost of GVs is higher than that of BEVs, and the SQP algorithm is faster than the IP algorithm.

  14. Models of mixed irradiation with a 'reciprocal-time' pattern of the repair function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Shozo; Miura, Yuri; Mizuno, Shoichi [Tokyo Metropolitan Inst. of Gerontology (Japan); Furusawa, Yoshiya [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    2002-09-01

    Suzuki presented models for mixed irradiation with two and multiple types of radiation by extending the Zaider and Rossi model, which is based on the theory of dual radiation action. In these models, the repair function was simply assumed to be semi-logarithmically linear (i.e., monoexponential), or a first-order process, which has been experimentally contradicted. Fowler, however, suggested that the repair of radiation damage might be largely a second-order process rather than a first-order one, and presented data in support of this hypothesis. In addition, a second-order repair function is preferred to an n-exponential repair function for the reason that only one parameter is used in the former instead of 2n-1 parameters for the latter, although both repair functions show a good fit to the experimental data. However, according to a second-order repair function, the repair rate depends on the dose, which is incompatible with the experimental data. We, therefore, revised the models for mixed irradiation by Zaider and Rossi and by Suzuki, by substituting a 'reciprocal-time' pattern of the repair function, which is derived from the assumption that the repair rate is independent of the dose in a second-order repair function, for a first-order one in reduction and interaction factors of the models, although the underlying mechanism for this assumption cannot be well-explained. The reduction factor, which reduces the contribution of the square of a dose to cell killing in the linear-quadratic model and its derivatives, and the interaction factor, which also reduces the contribution of the interaction of two or more doses of different types of radiation, were formulated by using a 'reciprocal-time' patterns of the repair function. Cell survivals calculated from the older and the newly modified models were compared in terms of the dose-rate by assuming various types of single and mixed irradiation. The result implies that the newly modified models for

  15. Effects of forage ensiling and ration fermentation on total mixed ration pH, ruminal fermentation and performance of growing Holstein-Zebu cross steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meenongyai, Watcharawit; Pattarajinda, Virote; Stelzleni, Alexander M; Sethakul, Jutarat; Duangjinda, Monchai

    2017-09-01

    Our objective was to determine the effect of forage ensiling and ration fermentation on total mixed ration pH, ruminal fermentation and animal performance. Thirty Holstein-Zebu cross steers were allotted to feeding treatments for 188 days in a randomized complete block design including: fresh grass-total mixed ration (GTMR; pH 4.7), grass silage-TMR (STMR; pH 4.0) and fermented-TMR (FTMR; pH 3.5). Average daily gain for STMR was greatest during the first 3 months period; however, that for FTMR tended to be greater than GTMR during the second 3 months period (P ruminal NH 3 -N content than STMR. Total volatile fatty acids post-feeding was greatest for GTMR (P Ruminal proportions of acetic and butyric acids were greater for FTMR than GTMR (P ruminal pH. STMR and FTMRs can be used to maintain performance of growing crossbred Holstein steers. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  16. Method for Determining the Time Constants Characterizing the Intensity of Steel Mixing in Continuous Casting Tundish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieprzyca J.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A common method used in identification of hydrodynamics phenomena occurring in Continuous Casting (CC device's tundish is to determine the RTD curves of time. These curves allows to determine the way of the liquid steel flowing and mixing in the tundish. These can be identified either as the result of numerical simulation or by the experiments - as the result of researching the physical models. Special problem is to objectify it while conducting physical research. It is necessary to precisely determine the time constants which characterize researched phenomena basing on the data acquired in the measured change of the concentration of the tracer in model liquid's volume. The mathematical description of determined curves is based on the approximate differential equations formulated in the theory of fluid mechanics. Solving these equations to calculate the time constants requires a special software and it is very time-consuming. To improve the process a method was created to calculate the time constants with use of automation elements. It allows to solve problems using algebraic method, which improves interpretation of the research results of physical modeling.

  17. Effect of a time varying power level in EBR-II on mixed-oxide fuel burnup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, I.Z.; Jost, J.W.; Baker, R.B.

    1979-01-01

    A refined prediction of burnup of mixed-oxide fuel in EBR-2 is compared with measured data. The calculation utilizes a time-varying power factor and results in a general improvement to previous calculations

  18. Determination of time-dependent uncertainty of the total solar irradiance records from 1978 to present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fröhlich Claus

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. The existing records of total solar irradiance (TSI since 1978 differ not only in absolute values, but also show different trends. For the study of TSI variability these records need to be combined and three composites have been devised; however, the results depend on the choice of the records and the way they are combined. A new composite should be based on all existing records with an individual qualification. It is proposed to use a time-dependent uncertainty for weighting of the individual records. Methods. The determination of the time-dependent deviation of the TSI records is performed by comparison with the square root of the sunspot number (SSN. However, this correlation is only valid for timescales of the order of a year or more because TSI and SSN react quite differently to solar activity changes on shorter timescales. Hence the results concern only periods longer than the one-year-low-pass filter used in the analysis. Results. Besides the main objective to determine an investigator-independent uncertainty, the comparison of TSI with √SSN turns out to be a powerful tool for the study of the TSI long-term changes. The correlation of √SSN with TSI replicates very well the TSI minima, especially the very low value of the recent minimum. The results of the uncertainty determination confirm not only the need for adequate corrections for degradation, but also show that a rather detailed analysis is needed. The daily average of all TSI values available on that day, weighted with the correspondingly determined uncertainty, is used to construct a “new” composite, which, overall, compares well with the Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos (PMOD composite. Finally, the TSI − √SSN comparison proves to be an important diagnostic tool not only for estimating uncertainties of observations, but also for a better understanding of the long-term variability of TSI.

  19. Enhanced responses to tumor immunization following total body irradiation are time-dependent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Diab

    Full Text Available The development of successful cancer vaccines is contingent on the ability to induce effective and persistent anti-tumor immunity against self-antigens that do not typically elicit immune responses. In this study, we examine the effects of a non-myeloablative dose of total body irradiation on the ability of tumor-naïve mice to respond to DNA vaccines against melanoma. We demonstrate that irradiation followed by lymphocyte infusion results in a dramatic increase in responsiveness to tumor vaccination, with augmentation of T cell responses to tumor antigens and tumor eradication. In irradiated mice, infused CD8(+ T cells expand in an environment that is relatively depleted in regulatory T cells, and this correlates with improved CD8(+ T cell functionality. We also observe an increase in the frequency of dendritic cells displaying an activated phenotype within lymphoid organs in the first 24 hours after irradiation. Intriguingly, both the relative decrease in regulatory T cells and increase in activated dendritic cells correspond with a brief window of augmented responsiveness to immunization. After this 24 hour window, the numbers of dendritic cells decline, as does the ability of mice to respond to immunizations. When immunizations are initiated within the period of augmented dendritic cell activation, mice develop anti-tumor responses that show increased durability as well as magnitude, and this approach leads to improved survival in experiments with mice bearing established tumors as well as in a spontaneous melanoma model. We conclude that irradiation can produce potent immune adjuvant effects independent of its ability to induce tumor ablation, and that the timing of immunization and lymphocyte infusion in the irradiated host are crucial for generating optimal anti-tumor immunity. Clinical strategies using these approaches must therefore optimize such parameters, as the correct timing of infusion and vaccination may mean the difference

  20. Parallel algorithm of real-time infrared image restoration based on total variation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ran; Li, Miao; Long, Yunli; Zeng, Yaoyuan; An, Wei

    2015-10-01

    Image restoration is a necessary preprocessing step for infrared remote sensing applications. Traditional methods allow us to remove the noise but penalize too much the gradients corresponding to edges. Image restoration techniques based on variational approaches can solve this over-smoothing problem for the merits of their well-defined mathematical modeling of the restore procedure. The total variation (TV) of infrared image is introduced as a L1 regularization term added to the objective energy functional. It converts the restoration process to an optimization problem of functional involving a fidelity term to the image data plus a regularization term. Infrared image restoration technology with TV-L1 model exploits the remote sensing data obtained sufficiently and preserves information at edges caused by clouds. Numerical implementation algorithm is presented in detail. Analysis indicates that the structure of this algorithm can be easily implemented in parallelization. Therefore a parallel implementation of the TV-L1 filter based on multicore architecture with shared memory is proposed for infrared real-time remote sensing systems. Massive computation of image data is performed in parallel by cooperating threads running simultaneously on multiple cores. Several groups of synthetic infrared image data are used to validate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed parallel algorithm. Quantitative analysis of measuring the restored image quality compared to input image is presented. Experiment results show that the TV-L1 filter can restore the varying background image reasonably, and that its performance can achieve the requirement of real-time image processing.

  1. Brake response time before and after total knee arthroplasty: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niederseer David

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the numbers of total knee arthroplasty (TKA are increasing, there is only a small number of studies investigating driving safety after TKA. The parameter 'Brake Response Time (BRT' is one of the most important criteria for driving safety and was therefore chosen for investigation. The present study was conducted to test the hypotheses that patients with right- or left-sided TKA show a significant increase in BRT from pre-operative (pre-op, 1 day before surgery to post-operative (post-op, 2 weeks post surgery, and a significant decrease in BRT from post-op to the follow-up investigation (FU, 8 weeks post surgery. Additionally, it was hypothesized that the BRT of patients after TKA is significantly higher than that of healthy controls. Methods 31 of 70 consecutive patients (mean age 65.7 +/- 10.2 years receiving TKA were tested for their BRT pre-op, post-op and at FU. BRT was assessed using a custom-made driving simulator. We used normative BRT data from 31 healthy controls for comparison. Results There were no significant increases between pre-op and post-op BRT values for patients who had undergone left- or right-sided TKA. Even the proportion of patients above a BRT threshold of 700 ms was not significantly increased postop. Controls had a BRT which was significantly better than the BRT of patients with right- or left-sided TKA at all three time points. Conclusion The present study showed a small and insignificant postoperative increase in the BRT of patients who had undergone right- or left-sided TKA. Therefore, we believe it is not justified to impair the patient's quality of social and occupational life post-surgery by imposing restrictions on driving motor vehicles beyond an interval of two weeks after surgery.

  2. Modulation of Total Sleep Time by Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frase, Lukas; Piosczyk, Hannah; Zittel, Sulamith; Jahn, Friederike; Selhausen, Peter; Krone, Lukas; Feige, Bernd; Mainberger, Florian; Maier, Jonathan G; Kuhn, Marion; Klöppel, Stefan; Normann, Claus; Sterr, Annette; Spiegelhalder, Kai; Riemann, Dieter; Nitsche, Michael A; Nissen, Christoph

    2016-09-01

    Arousal and sleep are fundamental physiological processes, and their modulation is of high clinical significance. This study tested the hypothesis that total sleep time (TST) in humans can be modulated by the non-invasive brain stimulation technique transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) targeting a 'top-down' cortico-thalamic pathway of sleep-wake regulation. Nineteen healthy participants underwent a within-subject, repeated-measures protocol across five nights in the sleep laboratory with polysomnographic monitoring (adaptation, baseline, three experimental nights). tDCS was delivered via bi-frontal target electrodes and bi-parietal return electrodes before sleep (anodal 'activation', cathodal 'deactivation', and sham stimulation). Bi-frontal anodal stimulation significantly decreased TST, compared with cathodal and sham stimulation. This effect was location specific. Bi-frontal cathodal stimulation did not significantly increase TST, potentially due to ceiling effects in good sleepers. Exploratory resting-state EEG analyses before and after the tDCS protocols were consistent with the notion of increased cortical arousal after anodal stimulation and decreased cortical arousal after cathodal stimulation. The study provides proof-of-concept that TST can be decreased by non-invasive bi-frontal anodal tDCS in healthy humans. Further elucidating the 'top-down' pathway of sleep-wake regulation is expected to increase knowledge on the fundamentals of sleep-wake regulation and to contribute to the development of novel treatments for clinical conditions of disturbed arousal and sleep.

  3. On the Laws of Total Local Times for -Paths and Bridges of Symmetric Lévy Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masafumi Hayashi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The joint law of the total local times at two levels for -paths of symmetric Lévy processes is shown to admit an explicit representation in terms of the laws of the squared Bessel processes of dimensions two and zero. The law of the total local time at a single level for bridges is also discussed.

  4. Extended residence time centrifugal contactor design modification and centrifugal contactor vane plate valving apparatus for extending mixing zone residence time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardle, Kent E.

    2017-06-06

    The present invention provides an annular centrifugal contactor, having a housing adapted to receive a plurality of flowing liquids; a rotor on the interior of the housing; an annular mixing zone, wherein the annular mixing zone has a plurality of fluid retention reservoirs with ingress apertures near the bottom of the annular mixing zone and egress apertures located above the ingress apertures of the annular mixing zone; and an adjustable vane plate stem, wherein the stem can be raised to restrict the flow of a liquid into the rotor or lowered to increase the flow of the liquid into the rotor.

  5. Surgical time and complications of total transvaginal (total-NOTES, single-port laparoscopic-assisted and conventional ovariohysterectomy in bitches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.M. Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The recently developed minimally invasive techniques of ovariohysterectomy (OVH have been studied in dogs in order to optimize their benefits and decrease risks to the patients. The purpose of this study was to compare surgical time, complications and technical difficulties of transvaginal total-NOTES, single-port laparoscopic-assisted and conventional OVH in bitches. Twelve bitches were submitted to total-NOTES (NOTES group, while 13 underwent single-port laparoscopic-assisted (SPLA group and 15 were submitted to conventional OVH (OPEN group. Intra-operative period was divided into 7 stages: (1 access to abdominal cavity; (2 pneumoperitoneum; approach to the right (3 and left (4 ovarian pedicle and uterine body (5; (6 abdominal or vaginal synthesis, performed in 6 out of 12 patients of NOTES; (7 inoperative time. Overall and stages operative times, intra and postoperative complications and technical difficulties were compared among groups. Mean overall surgical time in NOTES (25.7±6.8 minutes and SPLA (23.1±4.0 minutes groups were shorter than in the OPEN group (34.0±6.4 minutes (P<0.05. The intraoperative stage that required the longest time was the approach to the uterine body in the NOTES group and abdominal and cutaneous sutures in the OPEN group. There was no difference regarding the rates of complications. Major complications included postoperative bleeding requiring reoperation in a bitch in the OPEN group, while minor complications included mild vaginal discharge in four patients in the NOTES group and seroma in three bitches in the SPLA group. In conclusion, total-NOTES and SPLA OVH were less time-consuming then conventional OVH in bitches. All techniques presented complications, which were properly managed.

  6. Time-varying mixed logit model for vehicle merging behavior in work zone merging areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Jinxian; Du, Gang; Li, Dan; Yu, Yao

    2018-08-01

    This study aims to develop a time-varying mixed logit model for the vehicle merging behavior in work zone merging areas during the merging implementation period from the time of starting a merging maneuver to that of completing the maneuver. From the safety perspective, vehicle crash probability and severity between the merging vehicle and its surrounding vehicles are regarded as major factors influencing vehicle merging decisions. Model results show that the model with the use of vehicle crash risk probability and severity could provide higher prediction accuracy than previous models with the use of vehicle speeds and gap sizes. It is found that lead vehicle type, through lead vehicle type, through lag vehicle type, crash probability of the merging vehicle with respect to the through lag vehicle, crash severities of the merging vehicle with respect to the through lead and lag vehicles could exhibit time-varying effects on the merging behavior. One important finding is that the merging vehicle could become more and more aggressive in order to complete the merging maneuver as quickly as possible over the elapsed time, even if it has high vehicle crash risk with respect to the through lead and lag vehicles. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Efficient Metaheuristics for the Mixed Team Orienteering Problem with Time Windows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damianos Gavalas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Given a graph whose nodes and edges are associated with a profit, a visiting (or traversing time and an admittance time window, the Mixed Team Orienteering Problem with Time Windows (MTOPTW seeks for a specific number of walks spanning a subset of nodes and edges of the graph so as to maximize the overall collected profit. The visit of the included nodes and edges should take place within their respective time window and the overall duration of each walk should be below a certain threshold. In this paper we introduce the MTOPTW, which can be used for modeling a realistic variant of the Tourist Trip Design Problem where the objective is the derivation of near-optimal multiple-day itineraries for tourists visiting a destination which features several points of interest (POIs and scenic routes. Since the MTOPTW is a NP-hard problem, we propose the first metaheuristic approaches to tackle it. The effectiveness of our algorithms is validated through a number of experiments on POI and scenic route sets compiled from the city of Athens (Greece.

  8. Joint association of physical activity in leisure and total sitting time with metabolic syndrome amongst 15,235 Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christina Bjørk; Nielsen, Asser Jon; Bauman, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    and total daily sitting time were assessed by self-report in 15,235 men and women in the Danish Health Examination Survey 2007-2008. Associations between leisure time physical activity, total sitting time and metabolic syndrome were investigated in logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Adjusted odds ratios......BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that physical inactivity as well as sitting time are associated with metabolic syndrome. Our aim was to examine joint associations of leisure time physical activity and total daily sitting time with metabolic syndrome. METHODS: Leisure time physical activity...... (OR) for metabolic syndrome were 2.14 (95% CI: 1.88-2.43) amongst participants who were inactive in leisure time compared to the most active, and 1.42 (95% CI: 1.26-1.61) amongst those who sat for ≥10h/day compared to physical activity, sitting time...

  9. Mixed-integrator-based bi-quad cell for designing a continuous time filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yong; Zhou Yumei

    2010-01-01

    A new mixed-integrator-based bi-quad cell is proposed. An alternative synthesis mechanism of complex poles is proposed compared with source-follower-based bi-quad cells which is designed applying the positive feedback technique. Using the negative feedback technique to combine different integrators, the proposed bi-quad cell synthesizes complex poles for designing a continuous time filter. It exhibits various advantages including compact topology, high gain, no parasitic pole, no CMFB circuit, and high capability. The fourth-order Butterworth lowpass filter using the proposed cells has been fabricated in 0.18 μm CMOS technology. The active area occupied by the filter with test buffer is only 200 x 170 μm 2 . The proposed filter consumes a low power of 201 μW and achieves a 68.5 dB dynamic range. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  10. A mapping closure for turbulent scalar mixing using a time-evolving reference field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girimaji, Sharath S.

    1992-01-01

    A general mapping-closure approach for modeling scalar mixing in homogeneous turbulence is developed. This approach is different from the previous methods in that the reference field also evolves according to the same equations as the physical scalar field. The use of a time-evolving Gaussian reference field results in a model that is similar to the mapping closure model of Pope (1991), which is based on the methodology of Chen et al. (1989). Both models yield identical relationships between the scalar variance and higher-order moments, which are in good agreement with heat conduction simulation data and can be consistent with any type of epsilon(phi) evolution. The present methodology can be extended to any reference field whose behavior is known. The possibility of a beta-pdf reference field is explored. The shortcomings of the mapping closure methods are discussed, and the limit at which the mapping becomes invalid is identified.

  11. Simulation of Iranian total mixed diets and their analysis for essential and toxic trace elements using nuclear and complementary analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharib, A.G.; Ahmadiniar, A.; Aminpour, A.A.

    2001-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis, inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry (ICP-ES) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) have been used to determine actual daily dietary intakes of minerals and trace elements in the Iranian population. Trace elemental analysis of daily diets of the Iranian population differentiated with respect to food habits, geographical variability, literacy and income is examined. Three study groups in five regions were defined. Thirty total daily diet samples were prepared based on the method of dietary records. Also a few samples representing the intakes of two other study groups, males and females, were prepared by the duplicate diet method. Therefore, not only representative dietary patterns of almost all adult people in Iran are covered in a pilot study, but also the validity of the sampling methodology for total mixed diet simulation is checked. (author)

  12. Observed and simulated time evolution of HCl, ClONO2, and HF total columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhnke, Roland; Geomon, Ndacc Infrared, Modelling Working Group

    2010-05-01

    Institute of Technology (KIT), IMK-IFU, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany, (16) University of Denver, Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Denver, CO, USA, (17) National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), Boulder, CO, USA, (18) NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA, USA, (19) Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Steinbuch Centre for Computing, Karlsruhe, Germany Total column abundances of HCl and ClONO2, the primary components of the stratospheric inorganic chlorine (Cly) budget, and of HF have been retrieved from ground-based, high-resolution infrared solar absorption spectra recorded at 17 sites of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC) located at latitudes between 80.05°N and 77.82°S. These data extend over more than 20 years (through 2007) during a period when the growth in atmospheric halogen loading has slowed in response to the Montreal Protocol (and ammendments). These observed time series are interpreted with calculations performed with a 2-D model, the 3-D chemistry-transport models (CTMs) KASIMA and SLIMCAT, and the 3-D chemistry-climate models (CCMs) EMAC and SOCOLv2.0. The observed Cly and in particular HCl column abundances decreases significantely since the end of the nineties at all stations, which is consistent with the observed changes in the halocarbon source gases, with an increasing rate in the last years. In contrast to Cly, the trend values for total column HF at the different stations show a less consistent behaviour pointing to the fact that the time development of the HF columns is peaking. There is a good overall qualitative agreement regarding trends between models and data. With respect to the CTMs the agreement improves if simulation results for measurement days only are used in the trend analysis instead of simulation results for each day.

  13. Storm-time total electron content and its response to penetration electric fields over South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. de Siqueira

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work the response of the ionosphere due to the severe magnetic storm of 7–10 November 2004 is investigated by analyzing GPS Total Electron Content (TEC maps constructed for the South America sector. In order to verify the disturbed zonal electric fields in South America during the superstorm, ionospheric vertical drift data obtained from modeling results are used in the analysis. The vertical drifts were inferred from ΔH magnetometer data (Jicamarca-Piura following the methodology presented by Anderson et al. (2004. Also used were vertical drifts measured by the Jicamarca ISR. Data from a digisonde located at São Luís, Brazil (2.33° S, 44.2° W, dip latitude 0.25° are presented to complement the Jicamarca equatorial data. Penetration electric fields were observed by the comparison between the equatorial vertical drifts and the Interplanetary Electric Field (IEF. The TEC maps obtained from GPS data reflect the ionospheric response over the South America low-latitude and equatorial region. They reveal unexpected plasma distributions and TEC levels during the main phase of the superstorm on 7 November, which is coincident with the local post-sunset hours. At this time an increase in the pre-reversal enhancement was expected to develop the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA but we observed the absence of EIA. The results also reveal well known characteristics of the plasma distributions on 8, 9, and 10 November. The emphasized features are the expansion and intensification of EIA due to prompt penetration electric fields on 9 November and the inhibition of EIA during post-sunset hours on 7, 8, and 10 November. One important result is that the TEC maps provided a bi-dimensional view of the ionospheric changes offering a spatial description of the electrodynamics involved, which is an advantage over TEC measured by isolated GPS receivers.

  14. Fermentation quality and nutritive value of total mixed ration silages based on desert wormwood (Artemisia desertorum Spreng.) combining with early stage corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Guomei; Bai, Chunsheng; Sun, Juanjuan; Sun, Lin; Xue, Yanlin; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Heping; Yu, Zhu; Liu, Sibo; Zhang, Kewei

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the fermentation quality and nutritive value of total mixed ration (TMR) silages based on desert wormwood (DW) combined with early stage corn (ESC) as forage and determine an optimum formula. Desert wormwood and ESC were harvested, chopped, and mixed with other ingredients according to a formula, packed into laboratory silos at densities of 500-550 g/L, and stored in the dark for 60 days. The DW proportions in the forage of TMR were 1, 0.75, 0.50, 0.25 and 0, based on fresh weight. As the proportion of DW decreased, the pH also decreased (P total nitrogen in the TMR silages with DW proportions of 0.75, 0.25 and 0 in the forage was more than 10%. These results indicated that the quality of the TMR silage containing DW alone as forage was poor, TMR silages containing DW proportions of 0.75 and 0.25, and ESC alone, in the forage were not well preserved. The optimum TMR silage formula contained a DW proportion of 0.5 in the forage. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  15. Long term carbon dioxide exchange above a mixed forest in the Belgian Ardennes: evaluation of different approaches to deduce total ecosystem respiration from Eddy covariance measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jérôme, Elisabeth; Aubinet, Marc; Heinesch, Bernard

    2010-05-01

    The general aim of this research is to analyze inter annual variability of carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes exchanged by a mixed forest located at the Vielsalm experimental site in Belgium. At this site, CO2 flux measurements started in 1996 and are still going on. Thirteen complete years of measurements are thus available. Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) inter annual variability may be driven by gross primary productivity (GPP) or Total Ecosystem Respiration (TER), which should thus be both quantified. Using flux partitioning methods, TER is deduced from NEE measurements. GPP is then obtained by subtracting TER from NEE. Initially, a robust estimation of TER is required. This work seeks to compare two independent approaches to assess TER in order to quantify the implications on inter-annual variability. The comparison was performed on twelve complete years. TER estimates can be deduced by extrapolating to the whole day NEE measurements taken during selected night or day periods. In both case, the extrapolation is performed by using a respiration response to temperature. The first approach, referred as the night-time approach, consisted in calculating TER using a temperature response function derived from night-time data sets (Reichstein et al., 2005). The second approach, referred as the daytime approach, consisted in assessing TER from the intercept of the NEE/Photosynthetically Photon Flux Density (PPFD) response (Wohlfahrt et al., 2005). For each approach, different modalities were compared: the use of long term (annual) or short term (15 days) data sets for the night-time approach and the use of different types of regression for the daytime approach. In addition, the impact of the temperature choice was studied for each of the approaches. For the night-time approach, main results showed that air temperature sensitivity of ecosystem respiration derived from annual data did not reflect the short-term air temperature sensitivity. Vielsalm is a summer active ecosystem

  16. When is it safe to resume driving after total hip and total knee arthroplasty? a meta-analysis of literature on post-operative brake reaction times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velden, C A; Tolk, J J; Janssen, R P A; Reijman, M

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the current available evidence about when patients might resume driving after elective, primary total hip (THA) or total knee arthroplasty (TKA) undertaken for osteoarthritis (OA). In February 2016, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Web of Science, Scopus, Cochrane, PubMed Publisher, CINAHL, EBSCO and Google Scholar were searched for clinical studies reporting on 'THA', 'TKA', 'car driving', 'reaction time' and 'brake response time'. Two researchers (CAV and JJT) independently screened the titles and abstracts for eligibility and assessed the risk of bias. Both fixed and random effects were used to pool data and calculate mean differences (MD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) between pre- and post-operative total brake response time (TBRT). A total of 19 studies were included. The assessment of the risk of bias showed that one study was at high risk, six studies at moderate risk and 12 studies at low risk. Meta-analysis of TBRT showed a MD decrease of 25.54 ms (95% CI -32.02 to 83.09) two weeks after right-sided THA, and of 18.19 ms (95% CI -6.13 to 42.50) four weeks after a right-sided TKA, when compared with the pre-operative value. The TBRT returned to baseline two weeks after a right-sided THA and four weeks after a right-sided TKA. These results may serve as guidelines for orthopaedic surgeons when advising patients when to resume driving. However, the advice should be individualised. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:566-76. ©2017 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  17. Effect of cycle time on polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) production in aerobic mixed cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Sebnem; Akman, Dilek; Cirik, Kevser; Cinar, Ozer

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cycle time on polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) production under aerobic dynamic feeding system. The acetate-fed feast and famine sequencing batch reactor was used to enrich PHB accumulating microorganism. Sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was operated in four different cycle times (12, 8, 4, and 2 h) fed with a synthetic wastewater. The system performance was determined by monitoring total dissolved organic carbon, dissolved oxygen, oxidation-reduction potential, and PHB concentration. In this study, under steady-state conditions, the feast period of the SBR was found to allow the PHB storage while a certain part of stored PHB was used for continued growth in famine period. The percentage PHB storages by aerobic microorganism were at 16, 18, 42, and 55% for the 12, 8, 4, and 2-h cycle times, respectively. The PHB storage was increased as the length of the cycle time was decreased, and the ratio of the feast compared to the total cycle length was increased from around 13 to 33% for the 12 and 2-h cycle times, respectively.

  18. Methodology of mixed load customized bus lines and adjustment based on time windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Rui

    2018-01-01

    Custom bus routes need to be optimized to meet the needs of a customized bus for personalized trips of different passengers. This paper introduced a customized bus routing problem in which trips for each depot are given, and each bus stop has a fixed time window within which trips should be completed. Treating a trip as a virtual stop was the first consideration in solving the school bus routing problem (SBRP). Then, the mixed load custom bus routing model was established with a time window that satisfies its requirement and the result were solved by Cplex software. Finally, a simple network diagram with three depots, four pickup stops, and five delivery stops was structured to verify the correctness of the model, and based on the actual example, the result is that all the buses ran 124.42 kilometers, the sum of kilometers was 10.35 kilometers less than before. The paths and departure times of the different busses that were provided by the model were evaluated to meet the needs of the given conditions, thus providing valuable information for actual work. PMID:29320505

  19. Numerical Analysis of an H1-Galerkin Mixed Finite Element Method for Time Fractional Telegraph Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinfeng Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss and analyze an H1-Galerkin mixed finite element (H1-GMFE method to look for the numerical solution of time fractional telegraph equation. We introduce an auxiliary variable to reduce the original equation into lower-order coupled equations and then formulate an H1-GMFE scheme with two important variables. We discretize the Caputo time fractional derivatives using the finite difference methods and approximate the spatial direction by applying the H1-GMFE method. Based on the discussion on the theoretical error analysis in L2-norm for the scalar unknown and its gradient in one dimensional case, we obtain the optimal order of convergence in space-time direction. Further, we also derive the optimal error results for the scalar unknown in H1-norm. Moreover, we derive and analyze the stability of H1-GMFE scheme and give the results of a priori error estimates in two- or three-dimensional cases. In order to verify our theoretical analysis, we give some results of numerical calculation by using the Matlab procedure.

  20. Optical imaging through turbid media with a degenerate four wave mixing correlation time gate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sappey, A.D.

    1994-01-01

    A novel method for detection of ballistic light and rejection of unwanted diffusive light to image structures inside highly scattering media is demonstrated. Degenerate four wave mixing (DFWM) of a doubled YAG laser in Rhodamine 6G is used to provide an ultrafast correlation time gate to discriminate against light that has undergone multiple scattering and therefore lost memory of the structures inside the scattering medium. We present preliminary results that determine the nature of the DFWM grating, confirm the coherence time of the laser, prove the phase-conjugate nature of the signal beam, and determine the dependence of the signal (reflectivity) on dye concentration and laser intensity. Finally, we have obtained images of a test cross-hair pattern through highly turbid suspensions of whole milk in water that are opaque to the naked eye. These imaging experiments demonstrate the utility of DFWM for imaging through turbid media. Based on our results, the use of DFWM as an ultrafast time gate for the detection of ballistic light in optical mammography appears to hold great promise for improving the current state of the art

  1. Ultrafast Dynamics in Vanadium Dioxide: Separating Spatially Segregated Mixed Phase Dynamics in the Time-domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, David

    2011-10-01

    In correlated electronic systems, observed electronic and structural behavior results from the complex interplay between multiple, sometimes competing degrees-of- freedom. One such material used to study insulator-to-metal transitions is vanadium dioxide, which undergoes a phase transition from a monoclinic-insulating phase to a rutile-metallic phase when the sample is heated to 340 K. The major open question with this material is the relative influence of this structural phase transition (Peirels transition) and the effects of electronic correlations (Mott transition) on the observed insulator-to-metal transition. Answers to these major questions are complicated by vanadium dioxide's sensitivity to perturbations in the chemical structure in VO2. For example, related VxOy oxides with nearly a 2:1 ratio do not demonstrate the insulator-to- metal transition, while recent work has demonstrated that W:VO2 has demonstrated a tunable transition temperature controllable with tungsten doping. All of these preexisting results suggest that the observed electronic properties are exquisitely sensitive to the sample disorder. Using ultrafast spectroscopic techniques, it is now possible to impulsively excite this transition and investigate the photoinduced counterpart to this thermal phase transition in a strongly nonequilibrium regime. I will discuss our recent results studying the terahertz-frequency conductivity dynamics of this photoinduced phase transition in the poorly understood near threshold temperature range. We find a dramatic softening of the transition near the critical temperature, which results primarily from the mixed phase coexistence near the transition temperature. To directly study this mixed phase behavior, we directly study the nucleation and growth rates of the metallic phase in the parent insulator using non-degenerate optical pump-probe spectroscopy. These experiments measure, in the time- domain, the coexistent phase separation in VO2 (spatially

  2. A time dependent mixing model to close PDF equations for transport in heterogeneous aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüler, L.; Suciu, N.; Knabner, P.; Attinger, S.

    2016-10-01

    Probability density function (PDF) methods are a promising alternative to predicting the transport of solutes in groundwater under uncertainty. They make it possible to derive the evolution equations of the mean concentration and the concentration variance, used in moment methods. The mixing model, describing the transport of the PDF in concentration space, is essential for both methods. Finding a satisfactory mixing model is still an open question and due to the rather elaborate PDF methods, a difficult undertaking. Both the PDF equation and the concentration variance equation depend on the same mixing model. This connection is used to find and test an improved mixing model for the much easier to handle concentration variance. Subsequently, this mixing model is transferred to the PDF equation and tested. The newly proposed mixing model yields significantly improved results for both variance modelling and PDF modelling.

  3. PADDY DRYING IN MIXED ADSORPTION DRYER WITH ZEOLITE: DRYING RATE AND TIME ESTIMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochammad Djaeni

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the main problem of the rice stock and distribution in Indonesia is the quality degradation as indicated in unpleasant odor (smelly, stained, yellowness, and high percentage of broken rice. This is due to the low of paddy quality dried by from either direct sunlight or conventional fluidized bed dryer. As a result, the paddy cracks and breaks easily during milling in which causes the storage life being shorter as the enzymatic degradation by germ or fungi occurs. Air dehumidified with zeolite at drying medium temperature is potential to improve the quality of paddy. Zeolite is a material having high affinity to water vapor. In this case, the paddy and zeolite was mixed and fluidized with the air. The air will evaporate water from paddy, and at same time, the zeolite will adsorb water from air. Hence, the humidity of dryer can be kept low in which improves the driving force for drying. This work discusses the effect of presence of zeolite in the dryer, operational drying temperature, air velocity and relative humidity on drying rate of paddy. The results showed that increasing of zeolite as well as operational temperature increased the drying rate. In addition, using the model, the air dehumidification with zeolite and increase of air velocity can speed up drying time significantly at operational temperature below 80oC. This condition is very suitable for paddy drying since the quality degradation can be avoided.

  4. Time-dependent mixed convection heat transfer from a sphere in a micro-gravity environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hommel, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    A fundamental problem of interest for crystal growth in micro-gravity applications involves the mixed convection heat transfer from a sphere in a uniform flow of fluid at a differing temperature. Under the combined influence of the imposed free stream as well as an induced buoyancy force due to thermal expansion of the fluid, the heat transfer from the sphere will be different from that of either the pure forced convection flow or the pure free convection flow. For the present study, the method of matched asymptotic expansions is applied to the laminar flow problem of an impulsively heated, impulsively started sphere in an originally quiescent fluid. Time series expansions are developed for the dependent variables by acknowledging the existence of two district regions: one, an inner region, near the sphere, in which viscous effects are significant; and two, an outer region in which the fluid may be treated as inviscid. The time series expansions are developed in terms of the Reynolds number and Richardson number (Buoyancy Parameter), and the relevant heat transfer and drag coefficients are calculated and plotted

  5. Mixing Time, Inversion and Multiple Emulsion Formation in a Limonene and Water Pickering Emulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Sawiak

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available It has previously been demonstrated that particle-stabilized emulsions comprised of limonene, water and fumed silica particles exhibit complex emulsification behavior as a function of composition and the duration of the emulsification step. Most notably the system can invert from being oil-continuous to being water-continuous under prolonged mixing. Here we investigate this phenomenon experimentally for the regime where water is the majority liquid. We prepare samples using a range of different emulsification times and we examine the final properties in bulk and via confocal microscopy. We use the images to quantitatively track the sizes of droplets and clusters of particles. We find that a dense emulsion of water droplets forms initially which is transformed, in time, into a water-in-oil-in-water multiple emulsion with concomitant changes in droplet and cluster sizes. In parallel we carry out rheological studies of water-in-limonene emulsions using different concentrations of fumed silica particles. We unite our observations to propose a mechanism for inversion based on the changes in flow properties and the availability of particles during emulsification.

  6. Effect of mixing techniques on bacterial attachment and disinfection time of polyether impression material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guler, Umut; Budak, Yasemin; Ruh, Emrah; Ocal, Yesim; Canay, Senay; Akyon, Yakut

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was 2-fold. The first aim was to evaluate the effects of mixing technique (hand-mixing or auto-mixing) on bacterial attachment to polyether impression materials. The second aim was to determine whether bacterial attachment to these materials was affected by length of exposure to disinfection solutions. Polyether impression material samples (n = 144) were prepared by hand-mixing or auto-mixing. Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were used in testing. After incubation, the bacterial colonies were counted and then disinfectant solution was applied. The effect of disinfection solution was evaluated just after the polymerization of impression material and 30 min after polymerization. Differences in adherence of bacteria to the samples prepared by hand-mixing and to those prepared by auto-mixing were assessed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-tests. For evaluating the efficiency of the disinfectant, Kruskal-Wallis multiple comparisons test was used. E. coli counts were higher in hand-mixed materials (P 2.394). The methods used for mixing polyether impression material did not affect bacterial attachment to impression surfaces. In contrast, the disinfection procedure greatly affects decontamination of the impression surface.

  7. Feeling Happy and Sad at the Same Time? Subcultural Differences in Experiencing Mixed Emotions between Han Chinese and Mongolian Chinese

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Xinmei; Ding, Xuechen; Cheng, Chen; Chou, Hiu Mei

    2016-01-01

    In some occasions, people experience pleasant and unpleasant emotions at the same time in a single emotional event. Previous cross-cultural studies indicated that such mixed emotions are more prevalent in China and highly related to the attitudes toward happiness and individual’s affective motivation. However, as a multi-ethnic country, not much is known about the subcultural differences in mixed emotions in China. Thus, we examined the role that implicit attitudes toward happiness and affect...

  8. Dynamic compensation temperatures in a mixed spin-1 and spin-3/2 Ising system under a time-dependent oscillating magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keskin, Mustafa, E-mail: keskin@erciyes.edu.t [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Kantar, Ersin [Institute of Science, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)

    2010-09-15

    We study the existence of dynamic compensation temperatures in the mixed spin-1 and spin-3/2 Ising ferrimagnetic system Hamiltonian with bilinear and crystal-field interactions in the presence of a time-dependent oscillating external magnetic field on a hexagonal lattice. We employ the Glauber transitions rates to construct the mean-field dynamic equations. We investigate the time dependence of an average sublattice magnetizations, the thermal behavior of the dynamic sublattice magnetizations and the total magnetization. From these studies, we find the phases in the system, and characterize the nature (continuous or discontinuous) of transitions as well as obtain the dynamic phase transition (DPT) points and the dynamic compensation temperatures. We also present dynamic phase diagrams, including the compensation temperatures, in the five different planes. A comparison is made with the results of the available mixed spin Ising systems.

  9. Dynamic compensation temperatures in a mixed spin-1 and spin-3/2 Ising system under a time-dependent oscillating magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keskin, Mustafa; Kantar, Ersin

    2010-01-01

    We study the existence of dynamic compensation temperatures in the mixed spin-1 and spin-3/2 Ising ferrimagnetic system Hamiltonian with bilinear and crystal-field interactions in the presence of a time-dependent oscillating external magnetic field on a hexagonal lattice. We employ the Glauber transitions rates to construct the mean-field dynamic equations. We investigate the time dependence of an average sublattice magnetizations, the thermal behavior of the dynamic sublattice magnetizations and the total magnetization. From these studies, we find the phases in the system, and characterize the nature (continuous or discontinuous) of transitions as well as obtain the dynamic phase transition (DPT) points and the dynamic compensation temperatures. We also present dynamic phase diagrams, including the compensation temperatures, in the five different planes. A comparison is made with the results of the available mixed spin Ising systems.

  10. Robust stability of uncertain Markovian jumping Cohen-Grossberg neural networks with mixed time-varying delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng Li; Yang Huizhong

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers the robust stability of a class of uncertain Markovian jumping Cohen-Grossberg neural networks (UMJCGNNs) with mixed time-varying delays. The parameter uncertainties are norm-bounded and the mixed time-varying delays comprise discrete and distributed time delays. Based on the Lyapunov stability theory and linear matrix inequality (LMI) technique, some robust stability conditions guaranteeing the global robust convergence of the equilibrium point are derived. An example is given to show the effectiveness of the proposed results.

  11. Time Out-of-Home and Cognitive, Physical, and Emotional Wellbeing of Older Adults: A Longitudinal Mixed Effects Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Petersen

    Full Text Available Time out-of-home has been linked with numerous health outcomes, including cognitive decline, poor physical ability and low emotional state. Comprehensive characterization of this important health metric would potentially enable objective monitoring of key health outcomes. The objective of this study is to determine the relationship between time out-of-home and cognitive status, physical ability and emotional state.Participants included 85 independent older adults, age 65-96 years (M = 86.36; SD = 6.79 who lived alone, from the Intelligent Systems for Assessing Aging Changes (ISAAC and the ORCATECH Life Laboratory cohorts. Factors hypothesized to affect time out-of-home were assessed on three different temporal levels: yearly (cognitive status, loneliness, clinical walking speed, weekly (pain and mood or daily (time out-of-home, in-home walking speed, weather, and season. Subject characteristics including age, race, and gender were assessed at baseline. Total daily time out-of-home in hours was assessed objectively and unobtrusively for up to one year using an in-home activity sensor platform. A longitudinal tobit mixed effects regression model was used to relate daily time out-of-home to cognitive status, physical ability and emotional state. More hours spend outside the home was associated with better cognitive function as assessed using the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR Scale, where higher scores indicate lower cognitive function (βCDR = -1.69, p<0.001. More hours outside the home was also associated with superior physical ability (βPain = -0.123, p<0.001 and improved emotional state (βLonely = -0.046, p<0.001; βLow mood = -0.520, p<0.001. Weather, season, and weekday also affected the daily time out-of-home.These results suggest that objective longitudinal monitoring of time out-of-home may enable unobtrusive assessment of cognitive, physical and emotional state. In addition, these results indicate that the factors affecting out

  12. Understanding the Effects of Time on Collaborative Learning Processes in Problem Based Learning: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hommes, J.; Van den Bossche, P.; de Grave, W.; Bos, G.; Schuwirth, L.; Scherpbier, A.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known how time influences collaborative learning groups in medical education. Therefore a thorough exploration of the development of learning processes over time was undertaken in an undergraduate PBL curriculum over 18 months. A mixed-methods triangulation design was used. First, the quantitative study measured how various learning…

  13. Feeling Happy and Sad at the Same Time? Subcultural Differences in Experiencing Mixed Emotions between Han Chinese and Mongolian Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xinmei; Ding, Xuechen; Cheng, Chen; Chou, Hiu Mei

    2016-01-01

    Sometimes people experience pleasant and unpleasant emotions at the same time in a single emotional event. Previous cross-cultural studies indicated that such mixed emotions are more prevalent in China and related to the attitudes toward happiness and individual's regulatory motivation. However, China is a multi-ethnic country and not much is known about subcultural differences in mixed emotions. The aim of this study was to examine the role that implicit attitudes toward happiness and regulatory motivation played in regard of the subcultural differences in mixed emotions between Han ( N = 61) and Mongolian Chinese ( N = 46). Results indicated that, compared with Mongolian Chinese, Han Chinese showed stronger associations between implicit contra-hedonic attitudes toward happiness and mixed emotions during pleasant emotional events. Also, Han Chinese who reported contra-hedonic motivation during pleasant emotional events had higher levels of mixed emotions than those who had hedonic motivation. No significant differences were found in terms of mixed emotions between Mongolian Chinese who had contra-hedonic and hedonic motivation. These results suggest that the psychological mechanisms underlying differences in mixed emotions also require a more comprehensive understanding from a subcultural perspective.

  14. Feeling Happy and Sad at the Same Time? Subcultural Differences in Experiencing Mixed Emotions between Han Chinese and Mongolian Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xinmei; Ding, Xuechen; Cheng, Chen; Chou, Hiu Mei

    2016-01-01

    Sometimes people experience pleasant and unpleasant emotions at the same time in a single emotional event. Previous cross-cultural studies indicated that such mixed emotions are more prevalent in China and related to the attitudes toward happiness and individual’s regulatory motivation. However, China is a multi-ethnic country and not much is known about subcultural differences in mixed emotions. The aim of this study was to examine the role that implicit attitudes toward happiness and regulatory motivation played in regard of the subcultural differences in mixed emotions between Han (N = 61) and Mongolian Chinese (N = 46). Results indicated that, compared with Mongolian Chinese, Han Chinese showed stronger associations between implicit contra-hedonic attitudes toward happiness and mixed emotions during pleasant emotional events. Also, Han Chinese who reported contra-hedonic motivation during pleasant emotional events had higher levels of mixed emotions than those who had hedonic motivation. No significant differences were found in terms of mixed emotions between Mongolian Chinese who had contra-hedonic and hedonic motivation. These results suggest that the psychological mechanisms underlying differences in mixed emotions also require a more comprehensive understanding from a subcultural perspective. PMID:27833582

  15. Feeling Happy and Sad at the Same Time? Subcultural Differences in Experiencing Mixed Emotions between Han Chinese and Mongolian Chinese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinmei Deng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In some occasions, people experience pleasant and unpleasant emotions at the same time in a single emotional event. Previous cross-cultural studies indicated that such mixed emotions are more prevalent in China and highly related to the attitudes toward happiness and individual’s affective motivation. However, as a multi-ethnic country, not much is known about the subcultural differences in mixed emotions in China. Thus, we examined the role that implicit attitudes toward happiness and affective motivation may play in regard of the subcultural differences in mixed emotions between Han (N = 61 and Mongolian Chinese (N = 46. Results indicated that, compared with Mongolian Chinese, Han Chinese had a stronger association between implicit contra-hedonic attitudes toward happiness and mixed emotions in a pleasant emotional event. Also, Han Chinese who reported contra-hedonic motivation in a pleasant emotional event had higher level of mixed emotions than who had hedonic motivation. No significant difference was found in the mixed emotions between Mongolian Chinese who had contra-hedonic and hedonic motivation. These results suggested that the psychological mechanisms underlying the differences in mixed emotions require a comprehensive understanding not only in cross-cultural context but also from subcultural perspective.

  16. Chemical homogeneity and particle size distribution of dairy cow TMR along the feeding alley with different mixing times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Perricone

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Following the concepts of precision feeding, the right components balance (Sova et al., 2014 and the correct particle size distribution (PSD, Khan et al., 2014 of total mixed ration (TMR are essential for a complete homogeneity of the diet and are strongly influenced by adopted mixing time (MT, Humer et al., 2018, Schingoethe et al.,2017. The aim of the trial was to determine the influence of two MTs (MT1≤7min and MT2>7min on the chemical homogeneity and PSD along the feeding alley. Diets were performed with a horizontal cutter-mixer wagon (Gulliver 4016, Sgariboldi, and TMR samples were collected from the beginning, middle and end of the feeding alley after discharge. Triplicate samples of the diet were collected for chemical composition analyses (moisture, CP, Ash, EE, NDF and ADF and PSD evaluation (Heinrichs and Kononoff, 2002 over two months (two sampling/week. Statistical analysis was performed by a PROC MIXED for repeated measurements of SAS. MT1 evidenced a non-uniform distribution of moisture content along the feeding alley (P=0.05: lower moisture was found at the end than at the beginning and in the middle (47.55 vs 51.13 and 51.00%, respectively; P<0.01. No significant effects of MTs were recorded for other chemical parameters. The PSD showed trend to a higher retained amount of fibre in MT1 upper sieve (14.79 vs. 10.14%; P=0.06, while lower amount of feed was found in middle and bottom sieve than MT2 (38.9 and 12.81 vs 42.17 and 14.32%, respectively; P=0.08 and P=0.06. With respect to TMR distribution along the feeding alley, no differences were found between MT1 and MT2. Day of sampling evidenced significant variation both in chemical and physical composition (P<0.05. Obtained preliminary data evidenced the influence of MTs on composition and on PSD of the provided diet; results suggest to daily measure moisture of raw material in order to avoid negative changes in dry matter intake.

  17. U Isotope Systematics on Groundwaters from Southwestern France : Mixing Processes and Residence Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innocent, C.; Malcuit, E.; Négrel, P.

    2011-12-01

    The Eocene Sands Aquifer of the Aquitanian Basin (Southwestern France) has been extensively studied for its hydrology, hydrogeochemistry and also for stable isotopes (André, 2002; André et al., 2005). 14C dates were also obtained in the southern part of the aquifer (André, 2002). Recently, in the framework of the CARISMEAU research project (Négrel et al., 2007), groundwaters have been analyzed for their U activity ratio in order to put some constraints on their residence time in the aquifer. A excellent correlation has been found between 234U/238U ratios (which can be as high as 13.5) and 14C dates, which allowed to propose residence times for the analyzed groundwaters at the scale of the whole aquifer (including the city of Bordeaux and its suburb) (Innocent and Négrel, 2008; submitted). The second step of the CARISMEAU research project (CARISMEAU 2) now focusses on the restricted "Entre-Deux-Mers" area. New groundwaters have been recovered and analyzed for their U isotopic composition. As for previous data, U activity ratios are typically very high, ranging from 2.9 to 8.6. Owing to additional 14C ages from the northern part of the aquifer, it is shown that most of the measured uranium activity ratios correlate with these 14C dates and fall on or close to the straight line defined previously (see above). As a consequence, residence times derived from U isotopic compositions fairly agree with 14C data, with only one exception from a groundwater which plots apart from the correlation line. Pumping tests have been done at a selected site (EMZM 7), involving pumping times of 1 hour, 8 hours and 16 hours. For each pumping time, waters have been recovered at different, increasing pumping rates of 80 m3 per hour, 120 m3 per hour, 160 m3 per hour, and 120 m3 per hour. The chemical composition of these twelve waters has not been found to vary significantly. Uranium activities are constant for ten of the twelve groundwaters (around 6.5, with a U concentration around

  18. Bulk metal concentrations versus total suspended solids in rivers: Time-invariant & catchment-specific relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrabadi, Touraj; Ruegner, Hermann; Schwientek, Marc; Bennett, Jeremy; Fazel Valipour, Shahin; Grathwohl, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Suspended particles in rivers can act as carriers of potentially bioavailable metal species and are thus an emerging area of interest in river system monitoring. The delineation of bulk metals concentrations in river water into dissolved and particulate components is also important for risk assessment. Linear relationships between bulk metal concentrations in water (CW,tot) and total suspended solids (TSS) in water can be used to easily evaluate dissolved (CW, intercept) and particle-bound metal fluxes (CSUS, slope) in streams (CW,tot = CW + CSUS TSS). In this study, we apply this principle to catchments in Iran (Haraz) and Germany (Ammer, Goldersbach, and Steinlach) that show differences in geology, geochemistry, land use and hydrological characteristics. For each catchment, particle-bound and dissolved concentrations for a suite of metals in water were calculated based on linear regressions of total suspended solids and total metal concentrations. Results were replicable across sampling campaigns in different years and seasons (between 2013 and 2016) and could be reproduced in a laboratory sedimentation experiment. CSUS values generally showed little variability in different catchments and agree well with soil background values for some metals (e.g. lead and nickel) while other metals (e.g. copper) indicate anthropogenic influences. CW was elevated in the Haraz (Iran) catchment, indicating higher bioavailability and potential human and ecological health concerns (where higher values of CSUS/CW are considered as a risk indicator).

  19. Total factor productivity (TFP) growth agriculture in pakistan: trends in different time horizons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.; Mushtaq, K.; Ashfaq, M.

    2008-01-01

    The present study estimated total factor productivity (TFP) growth of agriculture sector of Pakistan for the period 1971-2006 by employing Tornqvist-Theil (T-T) index number methodology. Most of the conventional inputs were used in constructing the input index. The output index includes major crops, minor crops, important fruits and vegetables and four categories of livestock products. The study estimated TFP growth rates for different decades. The results showed that TFP growth rate was lowest during the decade of 70s (0.96 percent) and highest during the last six years of the study period (2.86 percent). The decade of 80s and 90s registered TFP growth rate of 2.24 percent and 2.46 percent, respectively. The results also explained that TFP growth contributed about 33 percent to total agricultural output growth during the decade of 70s and this contribution increased up to 83 percent during the last six years of the study period. The contribution of TFP growth to total agricultural output growth was 53 and 81 percent during the decades of 80s and 90s, respectively. The study observed that macro level government policies, institutional factors and weather conditions are the major key factors that influenced TFP growth. (author)

  20. Critical Care Admissions following Total Laryngectomy: Is It Time to Change Our Practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walijee, Hussein; Morgan, Alexandria; Gibson, Bethan; Berry, Sandeep; Jaffery, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Critical Care Unit (CCU) beds are a limited resource and in increasing demand. Studies have shown that complex head and neck patients can be safely managed on a ward setting given the appropriate staffing and support. This retrospective case series aims to quantify the CCU care received by patients following total laryngectomy (TL) at a District General Hospital (DGH) and compare patient outcomes in an attempt to inform current practice. Data relating to TL were collected over a 5-year period from 1st January 2010 to 31st December 2015. A total of 22 patients were included. All patients were admitted to CCU postoperatively for an average length of stay of 25.5 hours. 95% of these patients were admitted to CCU for the purpose of close monitoring only, not requiring any active treatment prior to discharge to the ward. 73% of total complications were encountered after the first 24 hours postoperatively at which point patients had been stepped down to ward care. Avoiding the use of CCU beds and instead providing the appropriate level of care on the ward would result in a potential cost saving of approximately £8,000 with no influence on patient morbidity and mortality.

  1. Moderate reagent mixing on an orbital shaker reduces the incubation time of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Saroj; Ahirwar, Rajesh; Rehman, Ishita; Nahar, Pradip

    2017-07-01

    Rapid diagnostic tests can be developed using ELISA for detection of diseases in emergency conditions. Conventional ELISA takes 1-2 days, making it unsuitable for rapid diagnostics. Here, we report the effect of reagents mixing via shaking or vortexing on the assay timing of ELISA. A 48-min protocol of ELISA involving 12-min incubations with reagent mixing at 750 rpm for every step was optimized. Contrary to this, time-optimized control ELISA performed without mixing produced similar results in 8 h, leaving a time gain of 7 h using the developed protocol. Collectively, the findings suggest the development of ELISA-based rapid diagnostics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Correlates of occupational, leisure and total sitting time in working adults: results from the Singapore multi-ethnic cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uijtdewilligen, Léonie; Yin, Jason Dean-Chen; van der Ploeg, Hidde P; Müller-Riemenschneider, Falk

    2017-12-13

    Evidence on the health risks of sitting is accumulating. However, research identifying factors influencing sitting time in adults is limited, especially in Asian populations. This study aimed to identify socio-demographic and lifestyle correlates of occupational, leisure and total sitting time in a sample of Singapore working adults. Data were collected between 2004 and 2010 from participants of the Singapore Multi Ethnic Cohort (MEC). Medical exclusion criteria for cohort participation were cancer, heart disease, stroke, renal failure and serious mental illness. Participants who were not working over the past 12 months and without data on sitting time were excluded from the analyses. Multivariable regression analyses were used to examine cross-sectional associations of self-reported age, gender, ethnicity, marital status, education, smoking, caloric intake and moderate-to-vigorous leisure time physical activity (LTPA) with self-reported occupational, leisure and total sitting time. Correlates were also studied separately for Chinese, Malays and Indians. The final sample comprised 9384 participants (54.8% male): 50.5% were Chinese, 24.0% Malay, and 25.5% Indian. For the total sample, mean occupational sitting time was 2.71 h/day, mean leisure sitting time was 2.77 h/day and mean total sitting time was 5.48 h/day. Sitting time in all domains was highest among Chinese. Age, gender, education, and caloric intake were associated with higher occupational sitting time, while ethnicity, marital status and smoking were associated with lower occupational sitting time. Marital status, smoking, caloric intake and LTPA were associated with higher leisure sitting time, while age, gender and ethnicity were associated with lower leisure sitting time. Gender, marital status, education, caloric intake and LTPA were associated with higher total sitting time, while ethnicity was associated with lower total sitting time. Stratified analyses revealed different associations within

  3. Total donor ischemic time: relationship to early hemodynamics and intensive care morbidity in pediatric cardiac transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Warren; Carr, Michelle; Ridout, Deborah; Carter, Katherine; Hulme, Sara Louise; Simmonds, Jacob; Elliott, Martin; Hoskote, Aparna; Burch, Michael; Brown, Kate L

    2011-11-01

    Single-center studies have failed to link modest increases in total donor ischemic time to mortality after pediatric orthotopic heart transplant. We aimed to investigate whether prolonged total donor ischemic time is linked to pediatric intensive care morbidity after orthotopic heart transplant. Retrospective cohort review. Tertiary pediatric transplant center in the United Kingdom. Ninety-three pediatric orthotopic heart transplants between 2002 and 2006. Total donor ischemic time was investigated for association with early post-orthotopic heart transplant hemodynamics and intensive care unit morbidities. Of 43 males and 50 females with median age 7.2 (interquartile range 2.2, 13.0) yrs, 62 (68%) had dilated cardiomyopathy, 20 (22%) had congenital heart disease, and nine (10%) had restrictive cardiomyopathy. The mean total donor ischemic time was 225.9 (sd 65.6) mins. In the first 24 hrs after orthotopic heart transplant, age-adjusted mean arterial blood pressure increased (p total donor ischemic time was significantly associated with lower mean arterial blood pressure (p care unit (p = .004), and longer post-orthotopic heart transplant stay in hospital (p = .02). Total donor ischemic time was not related to levels of mean pulmonary arterial pressure (p = .62), left atrial pressure (p = .38), or central venous pressure (p = .76) early after orthotopic heart transplant. Prolonged total donor ischemic time has an adverse effect on the donor organ, contributing to lower mean arterial blood pressure, as well as more prolonged ventilation and intensive care unit and hospital stays post-orthotopic heart transplant, reflecting increased morbidity.

  4. Imageless navigation total hip arthroplasty – an evaluation of operative time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valsamis Epaminondas Markos

    2018-01-01

    Discussion: This is the first study that demonstrates no added operative time when using imageless navigation in THA, achieved with an improved workflow. The results also demonstrate a very reasonable learning curve.

  5. 20 Years of Total and Tropical Ozone Time Series Based on European Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyola, D. G.; Heue, K. P.; Coldewey-Egbers, M.

    2016-12-01

    Ozone is an important trace gas in the atmosphere, while the stratospheric ozone layer protects the earth surface from the incident UV radiation, the tropospheric ozone acts as green house gas and causes health damages as well as crop loss. The total ozone column is dominated by the stratospheric column, the tropospheric columns only contributes about 10% to the total column.The ozone column data from the European satellite instruments GOME, SCIAMACHY, OMI, GOME-2A and GOME-2B are available within the ESA Climate Change Initiative project with a high degree of inter-sensor consistency. The tropospheric ozone columns are based on the convective cloud differential algorithm. The datasets encompass a period of more than 20 years between 1995 and 2015, for the trend analysis the data sets were harmonized relative to one of the instruments. For the tropics we found an increase in the tropospheric ozone column of 0.75 ± 0.12 DU decade^{-1} with local variations between 1.8 and -0.8. The largest trends were observed over southern Africa and the Atlantic Ocean. A seasonal trend analysis led to the assumption that the increase is caused by additional forest fires.The trend for the total column was not that certain, based on model predicted trend data and the measurement uncertainty we estimated that another 10 to 15 years of observations will be required to observe a statistical significant trend. In the mid latitudes the trends are currently hidden in the large variability and for the tropics the modelled trends are low. Also the possibility of diverging trends at different altitudes must be considered; an increase in the tropospheric ozone might be accompanied by decreasing stratospheric ozone.The European satellite data record will be extended over the next two decades with the atmospheric satellite missions Sentinel 5 Precursor (launch end of 2016), Sentinel 4 and Sentinel 5.

  6. Total sitting time, leisure time physical activity and risk of hospitalization due to low back pain: The Danish Health Examination Survey cohort 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balling, Mie; Holmberg, Teresa; Petersen, Christina B; Aadahl, Mette; Meyrowitsch, Dan W; Tolstrup, Janne S

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to test the hypotheses that a high total sitting time and vigorous physical activity in leisure time increase the risk of low back pain and herniated lumbar disc disease. A total of 76,438 adults answered questions regarding their total sitting time and physical activity during leisure time in the Danish Health Examination Survey 2007-2008. Information on low back pain diagnoses up to 10 September 2015 was obtained from The National Patient Register. The mean follow-up time was 7.4 years. Data were analysed using Cox regression analysis with adjustment for potential confounders. Multiple imputations were performed for missing values. During the follow-up period, 1796 individuals were diagnosed with low back pain, of whom 479 were diagnosed with herniated lumbar disc disease. Total sitting time was not associated with low back pain or herniated lumbar disc disease. However, moderate or vigorous physical activity, as compared to light physical activity, was associated with increased risk of low back pain (HR = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.03-1.30 and HR = 1.45, 95% CI: 1.15-1.83). Moderate, but not vigorous physical activity was associated with increased risk of herniated lumbar disc disease. The results suggest that total sitting time is not associated with low back pain, but moderate and vigorous physical activity is associated with increased risk of low back pain compared with light physical activity.

  7. Assessment of Tandem Measurements of pH and Total Gut Transit Time in Healthy Volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Mikolajczyk, Adam E; Watson, Sydeaka; Surma, Bonnie L; Rubin, David T

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The variation of luminal pH and transit time in an individual is unknown, yet is necessary to interpret single measurements. This study aimed to assess the intrasubject variability of gut pH and transit time in healthy volunteers using SmartPill devices (Covidien, Minneapolis, MN). Methods: Each subject (n=10) ingested two SmartPill devices separated by 24?h. Mean pH values were calculated for 30?min after gastric emptying (AGE), before the ileocecal (BIC) valve, after the ileocec...

  8. Development of a 3D circular microfluidic centrifuge for the separation of mixed particles by using their different centrifuge times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, H J; Kim, D I; Kim, M J; Nguyen, X D; Park, D H; Go, J S

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a circular microfluidic centrifuge with two inlets and two outlets to separate mixed microparticles with a specially designed sample injection hole. To separate the mixed particles, it uses a rotational flow, generated in a chamber by counter primary flows in the microchannels. The shape and sizes of the circular microfluidic centrifuge have been designed through numerical evaluation to have a large relative centrifugal force. The difference of centrifuge times of the mixed particles of 1 μm and 6 μm was determined to be 8.2 s at an inlet Reynolds number of 500 and a sample Reynolds number of 20. In the experiment, this was measured to be about 10 s. From the separation of the two polymer particles analogous to the representative sizes of platelets and red blood cells, the circular microfluidic centrifuge shows a potential to separate human blood cells size-selectively by using the difference of centrifuge times. (paper)

  9. Determinantal Representation of the Time-Dependent Stationary Correlation Function for the Totally Asymmetric Simple Exclusion Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay M. Bogoliubov

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The basic model of the non-equilibrium low dimensional physics the so-called totally asymmetric exclusion process is related to the 'crystalline limit' (q → ∞ of the SU_q(2 quantum algebra. Using the quantum inverse scattering method we obtain the exact expression for the time-dependent stationary correlation function of the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process on a one dimensional lattice with the periodic boundary conditions.

  10. Effects of sludge recirculation rate and mixing time on performance of a prototype single-stage anaerobic digester for conversion of food wastes to biogas and energy recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanatamskul, Chavalit; Saleart, Tawinan

    2016-04-01

    Food wastes have been recognized as the largest waste stream and accounts for 39.25 % of total municipal solid waste in Thailand. Chulalongkorn University has participated in the program of in situ energy recovery from food wastes under the Ministry of Energy (MOE), Thailand. This research aims to develop a prototype single-stage anaerobic digestion system for biogas production and energy recovery from food wastes inside Chulalongkorn University. Here, the effects of sludge recirculation rate and mixing time were investigated as the main key parameters for the system design and operation. From the results obtained in this study, it was found that the sludge recirculation rate of 100 % and the mixing time of 60 min per day were the most suitable design parameters to achieve high efficiencies in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total solids (TS), and total volatile solid (TVS) removal and also biogas production by this prototype anaerobic digester. The obtained biogas production was found to be 0.71 m(3)/kg COD and the composition of methane was 61.6 %. Moreover, the efficiencies of COD removal were as high as 82.9 % and TVS removal could reach 83.9 % at the optimal condition. Therefore, the developed prototype single-stage anaerobic digester can be highly promising for university canteen application to recover energy from food wastes via biogas production.

  11. Total time on test processes and applications to failure data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlow, R.E.; Campo, R.

    1975-01-01

    This paper describes a new method for analyzing data. The method applies to non-negative observations such as times to failure of devices and survival times of biological organisms and involves a plot of the data. These plots are useful in choosing a probabilistic model to represent the failure behavior of the data. They also furnish information about the failure rate function and aid in its estimation. An important feature of these data plots is that incomplete data can be analyzed. The underlying random variables are, however, assumed to be independent and identically distributed. The plots have a theoretical basis, and converge to a transform of the underlying probability distribution as the sample size increases

  12. Effect of temperature, time, and milling process on yield, flavonoid, and total phenolic content of Zingiber officinale water extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriyani, R.; Kosasih, W.; Ningrum, D. R.; Pudjiraharti, S.

    2017-03-01

    Several parameters such as temperature, time of extraction, and size of simplicia play significant role in medicinal herb extraction. This study aimed to investigate the effect of those parameters on yield extract, flavonoid, and total phenolic content in water extract of Zingiber officinale. The temperatures used were 50, 70 and 90°C and the extraction times were 30, 60 and 90 min. Z. officinale in the form of powder and chips were used to study the effect of milling treatment. The correlation among those variables was analysed using ANOVA two-way factors without replication. The result showed that time and temperature did not influence the yield of extract of Powder simplicia. However, time of extraction influenced the extract of simplicia treated without milling process. On the other hand, flavonoid and total phenolic content were not influenced by temperature, time, and milling treatment.

  13. Time- and dose-dependent effects of total-body ionizing radiation on muscle stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Shinya; Hisamatsu, Tsubasa; Seko, Daiki; Urata, Yoshishige; Goto, Shinji; Li, Tao-Sheng; Ono, Yusuke

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to high levels of genotoxic stress, such as high-dose ionizing radiation, increases both cancer and noncancer risks. However, it remains debatable whether low-dose ionizing radiation reduces cellular function, or rather induces hormetic health benefits. Here, we investigated the effects of total-body γ-ray radiation on muscle stem cells, called satellite cells. Adult C57BL/6 mice were exposed to γ-radiation at low- to high-dose rates (low, 2 or 10 mGy/day; moderate, 50 mGy/day; high, 250 mGy/day) for 30 days. No hormetic responses in proliferation, differentiation, or self-renewal of satellite cells were observed in low-dose radiation-exposed mice at the acute phase. However, at the chronic phase, population expansion of satellite cell-derived progeny was slightly decreased in mice exposed to low-dose radiation. Taken together, low-dose ionizing irradiation may suppress satellite cell function, rather than induce hormetic health benefits, in skeletal muscle in adult mice. PMID:25869487

  14. Fall Risk Score at the Time of Discharge Predicts Readmission Following Total Joint Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, Bheeshma; Nan, Zhang; Schwartz, Adam J; Clarke, Henry D

    2017-07-01

    Readmission among Medicare recipients is a leading driver of healthcare expenditure. To date, most predictive tools are too coarse for direct clinical application. Our objective in this study is to determine if a pre-existing tool to identify patients at increased risk for inpatient falls, the Hendrich Fall Risk Score, could be used to accurately identify Medicare patients at increased risk for readmission following arthroplasty, regardless of whether the readmission was due to a fall. This study is a retrospective cohort study. We identified 2437 Medicare patients who underwent a primary elective total joint arthroplasty (TJA) of the hip or knee for osteoarthritis between 2011 and 2014. The Hendrich Fall Risk score was recorded for each patient preoperatively and postoperatively. Our main outcome measure was hospital readmission within 30 days of discharge. Of 2437 eligible TJA recipients, there were 226 (9.3%) patients who had a score ≥6. These patients were more likely to have an unplanned readmission (unadjusted odds ratio 2.84, 95% confidence interval 1.70-4.76, P 3 days (49.6% vs 36.6%, P = .0001), and were less likely to be sent home after discharge (20.8% vs 35.8%, P fall risk score after TJA is strongly associated with unplanned readmission. Application of this tool will allow hospitals to identify these patients and plan their discharge. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A well-scalable metaheuristic for the fleet size and mix vehicle routing problem with time windows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bräysy, Olli; Porkka, Pasi P.; Dullaert, Wout; Repoussis, Panagiotis P.; Tarantilis, Christos D.

    This paper presents an efficient and well-scalable metaheuristic for fleet size and mix vehicle routing with time windows. The suggested solution method combines the strengths of well-known threshold accepting and guided local search metaheuristics to guide a set of four local search heuristics. The

  16. Progress Toward Analytic Predictions of Supersonic Hydrocarbon-Air Combustion: Computation of Ignition Times and Supersonic Mixing Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Scott Michael

    Combustion in scramjet engines is faced with the limitation of brief residence time in the combustion chamber, requiring fuel and preheated air streams to mix and ignite in a matter of milliseconds. Accurate predictions of autoignition times are needed to design reliable supersonic combustion chambers. Most efforts in estimating non-premixed autoignition times have been devoted to hydrogen-air mixtures. The present work addresses hydrocarbon-air combustion, which is of interest for future scramjet engines. Computation of ignition in supersonic flows requires adequate characterization of ignition chemistry and description of the flow, both of which are derived in this work. In particular, we have shown that activation energy asymptotics combined with a previously derived reduced chemical kinetic mechanism provides analytic predictions of autoignition times in homogeneous systems. Results are compared with data from shock tube experiments, and previous expressions which employ a fuel depletion criterion. Ignition in scramjet engines has a strong dependence on temperature, which is found by perturbing the chemically frozen mixing layer solution. The frozen solution is obtained here, accounting for effects of viscous dissipation between the fuel and air streams. We investigate variations of thermodynamic and transport properties, and compare these to simplified mixing layers which neglect these variations. Numerically integrating the mixing layer problem reveals a nonmonotonic temperature profile, with a peak occurring inside the shear layer for sufficiently high Mach numbers. These results will be essential in computation of ignition distances in supersonic combustion chambers.

  17. Saddlepoint approximation to the distribution of the total distance of the continuous time random walk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatto, Riccardo

    2017-12-01

    This article considers the random walk over Rp, with p ≥ 2, where a given particle starts at the origin and moves stepwise with uniformly distributed step directions and step lengths following a common distribution. Step directions and step lengths are independent. The case where the number of steps of the particle is fixed and the more general case where it follows an independent continuous time inhomogeneous counting process are considered. Saddlepoint approximations to the distribution of the distance from the position of the particle to the origin are provided. Despite the p-dimensional nature of the random walk, the computations of the saddlepoint approximations are one-dimensional and thus simple. Explicit formulae are derived with dimension p = 3: for uniformly and exponentially distributed step lengths, for fixed and for Poisson distributed number of steps. In these situations, the high accuracy of the saddlepoint approximations is illustrated by numerical comparisons with Monte Carlo simulation. Contribution to the "Topical Issue: Continuous Time Random Walk Still Trendy: Fifty-year History, Current State and Outlook", edited by Ryszard Kutner and Jaume Masoliver.

  18. A close-form solution to predict the total melting time of an ablating slab in contact with a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, F.-B.

    2007-01-01

    An exact melt-through time is derived for a one-dimensional heated slab in contact with a plasma when the melted material is immediately removed. The plasma is composed of a collisionless presheath and sheath on a slab, which partially reflects and secondarily emits ions and electrons. The energy transport from plasma to the surface accounting for the presheath and sheath is determined from the kinetic analysis. This work proposes a semi-analytical model to calculate the total melting time of a slab based on a direct integration of the unsteady heat conduction equation, and provides quantitative results applicable to control the total melting time of the slab. The total melting time as a function of plasma parameters and thermophysical properties of the slab are obtained. The predicted energy transmission factor as a function of dimensionless wall potential agrees well with the experimental data. The effects of reflectivities of the ions and electrons on the wall, electron-to-ion source temperature ratio at the presheath edge, charge number, ion-to-electron mass ratio, ionization energy, plasma flow work-to-heat conduction ratios, Stefan number, melting temperature, Biot number and bias voltage on the total melting time of the slab are quantitatively provided in this work

  19. Does the brake response time of the right leg change after left total knee arthroplasty? A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Carlos J; Barreiros, João; Cabri, Jan; Carita, Ana I; Friesecke, Christian; Loehr, Jochen F

    2008-08-01

    Patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty often ask when they can safely resume car driving. There is little evidence available on which physicians can rely when advising patients on this issue. In a prospective study we assessed the brake response time of 24 patients admitted to the clinic for left total knee arthroplasty preoperatively and then 10 days after surgery. On each measurement day the patients performed two tasks, a simple and a complex brake response time task in a car simulator. Ten days after left TKA the brake response time for the simple task had decreased by 3.6% (p=0.24), the reaction time by 3.1% (p=0.34) and the movement time by 6.6% (p=0.07). However, the performance improvement was not statistically significant. Task complexity increased brake response time at both time points. A 5.8% increase was significant (p=0.01) at 10 days after surgery. Based on our results, we suggest that patients who have undergone left total knee arthroplasty may resume car driving 10 days after surgery as long as they drive a car with automatic transmission.

  20. Binding and relaxation behavior of Coumarin-153 in lecithin-taurocholate mixed micelles: A time resolved fluorescence spectroscopic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarty, Debdeep; Chakraborty, Anjan; Seth, Debabrata; Hazra, Partha; Sarkar, Nilmoni

    2005-09-01

    The microenvironment of the bile salt-lecithin mixed aggregates has been investigated using steady state and picosecond time resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. The steady state spectra show that the polarity of the bile salt is higher compared to lecithin vesicles or the mixed aggregates. We have observed slow solvent relaxation in bile salt micelles and lecithin vesicles. The solvation time is gradually slowed down due to gradual addition of the bile salt in lecithin vesicles. Addition of bile salt leads to the tighter head group packing in lecithin. Thus, mobility of the water molecules becomes slower and consequently the solvation time is also retarded. We have observed bimodal slow rotational relaxation time in all these systems.

  1. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for the real-time analysis of mixed waste samples containing Sr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barefield, J.E. II; Koskelo, A.C.; Multari, R.A.; Cremers, D.A.; Gamble, T.K.; Han, C.Y.

    1995-01-01

    In this report, the use of Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy to analyze mixed waste samples containing Sr is discussed. The mixed waste samples investigated include vitrified waste glass and contaminated soil. Compared to traditional analysis techniques, the laser-based method is fast (i.e., analysis times on the order of minutes) and essentially waste free since little or no sample preparation is required. Detection limits on the order of pmm Sr were determined. Detection limits obtained using a fiber optic cable to deliver laser pulses to soil samples containing Cr, Zr, Pb, Be, Cu, and Ni will also be discussed

  2. Characterization of Time-Dependent Contact Angles for Oleic Acid Mixed Sands with Different Particle Size Fractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wijewardana, Y. N. S.; Kawamoto, Ken; Komatsu, Toshiko

    2014-01-01

    ) mixed sands representing four different particle size fractions ranging from 0.105 to 0.84 mm. Initial soil-water contact angle (αi), and the time dependence of contact angle were measured by the sessile drop method. Results showed that the αi value for fine and middle sand fractions increased rapidly...... in contact angle (α), well captured the time dependence of α....

  3. [Total quality management in times of crisis. The case of Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larroca, Norberto

    2003-01-01

    Healthcare organizations were faced with so great a challenge following the financial slump that they were forced to 'sharpen their wits' in order to survive. Integrated Quality Management (in Spanish GIC), proved the ideal instrument. GIC has four foundational elements, the application of which allow for successful management of crisis situations. They are as follows: TRAINING of human resources EVALUATION of healthcare institutions SELF-EVALUATION by institutions QUALITY ACCREDITATION of institutions All our organizations have the appropriate tools to carry out these activities which form the basis of our project: CAES (Argentinean Chamber of Healthcare Institutions) -training-, CIDCAM (Inter-institutional Committee for Quality Development in Medical Care) -evaluation and self-evaluation-, CENAS (Specialist Centre for the Standardization and Accreditation in Health Care)-accreditation-. In times of crisis, we play an active part, that is, instead of withdrawing our efforts, we do our best to achieve the best and most adequate objective in order to meet the needs of the population through Integrated Quality Management. Eventually, when the results are examined, medical care that meets the best quality standards is found to be, after all, the most economical (that is best results, better satisfaction of healthcare users and providers as well as less mistakes).

  4. Degree of Schedulability of Mixed-Criticality Real-time Systems with Probabilistic Sporadic Tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boudjadar, Jalil; David, Alexandre; Kim, Jin Hyun

    2014-01-01

    We present the concept of degree of schedulability for mixed-criticality scheduling systems. This concept is given in terms of the two factors 1) Percentage of Missed Deadlines (PoMD), and 2) Degradation of the Quality of Service (DoQoS). The novel aspect is that we consider task arrival patterns...

  5. Effects of water addition to total mixed ration on water intake, nutrient digestibility, wool cortisol and blood indices in Corriedale ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejad, Jalil Ghassemi; Kim, Byong-Wan; Lee, Bae-Hun; Kim, Ji-Yung; Sung, Kyung-Il

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of adding water to total mixed ration (TMR) on fresh water intake, nutrient digestibility, wool cortisol, and blood indices in Corriedale ewes under hot and humid conditions. Nine non-pregnant Corriedale ewes (ave. body weight = 41±3.5 kg) were individually fed diets based on maintenance requirements in metabolic crates. Ewes were assigned to three treatment groups according to a triplicate 3×3 Latin Square design for 3 periods of 21 days duration each (9 ewes per treatment, 27 replications). Treatments were TMR (crude protein [CP] = 16.1, total digestible nutrients = 69.1%) moisture levels for 40%, 50%, and 60%. No differences were found in body weight gain among all treatment groups (p>0.05). Nitrogen balance including digestible N, retained N, and urinary and fecal N showed no change among the treatment groups (p>0.05). Fresh water intake was the lower in 50% TMR moisture group than in the other groups (p0.05). No significant difference was observed for serum protein, blood urea nitrogen, glucose, and triglyceride among the treatment groups (p>0.05). Wool and blood cortisol were not different among the treatment groups (p>0.05). Blood hematology including red blood cell, white blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit, basophils, and eosinophils were not different among the treatment groups (p>0.05). It is concluded that TMR moisture at 40%, 50%, and 60% had no effects on N balance parameters, and nutrient digestibilities except for the ether extract under hot and humid conditions. Additionally there were no effects on stress conditions include wool cortisol, as well as blood cortisol levels of ewes.

  6. Effects of water addition to total mixed ration on water intake, nutrient digestibility, wool cortisol and blood indices in Corriedale ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalil Ghassemi Nejad

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective The objective of this study was to determine the effect of adding water to total mixed ration (TMR on fresh water intake, nutrient digestibility, wool cortisol, and blood indices in Corriedale ewes under hot and humid conditions. Methods Nine non-pregnant Corriedale ewes (ave. body weight = 41±3.5 kg were individually fed diets based on maintenance requirements in metabolic crates. Ewes were assigned to three treatment groups according to a triplicate 3×3 Latin Square design for 3 periods of 21 days duration each (9 ewes per treatment, 27 replications. Treatments were TMR (crude protein [CP] = 16.1, total digestible nutrients = 69.1% moisture levels for 40%, 50%, and 60%. Results No differences were found in body weight gain among all treatment groups (p>0.05. Nitrogen balance including digestible N, retained N, and urinary and fecal N showed no change among the treatment groups (p>0.05. Fresh water intake was the lower in 50% TMR moisture group than in the other groups (p0.05. No significant difference was observed for serum protein, blood urea nitrogen, glucose, and triglyceride among the treatment groups (p>0.05. Wool and blood cortisol were not different among the treatment groups (p>0.05. Blood hematology including red blood cell, white blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit, basophils, and eosinophils were not different among the treatment groups (p>0.05. Conclusion It is concluded that TMR moisture at 40%, 50%, and 60% had no effects on N balance parameters, and nutrient digestibilities except for the ether extract under hot and humid conditions. Additionally there were no effects on stress conditions include wool cortisol, as well as blood cortisol levels of ewes.

  7. Effect of Applying Molasses and Propionic Acid on Fermentation Quality and Aerobic Stability of Total Mixed Ration Silage Prepared with Whole-plant Corn in Tibet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Chen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of molasses and propionic acid on the fermentation quality and aerobic stability of total mixed ration (TMR silages prepared with whole-plant corn in Tibet. TMR (354 g/kg DM was ensiled with four different treatments: no additive (control, molasses (M, propionic acid (P, and molasses+propionic acid (PM, in laboratory silos (250 mL and fermented for 45 d. Silos were opened and silages were subjected to an aerobic stability test for 12 days, in which chemical and microbiological parameters of TMR silages were measured to determined the aerobic deterioration. After 45 d of ensiling, the four TMR silages were of good quality with low pH value and ammonia/total N (AN, and high lactic acid (LA content and V-scores. M silage showed the highest (p105 cfu/g FM, however, it appeared to be more stable as indicated by a delayed pH value increase. P and PM silages showed fewer yeasts (<105 cfu/g FM (p<0.05 and were more stable than the control and M silages during aerobic exposure. It was concluded that M application increased LA content and improved aerobic stability of TMR silage prepared with whole-plant corn in Tibet. P application inhibited lactic acid production during ensiling, and apparently preserved available sugars which stimulated large increases in lactic acid during aerobic exposure stage, which resulted in greater aerobic stability of TMR silage.

  8. Total testosterone levels are often more than three times elevated in patients with androgen-secreting tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Dorte; Lambaa Altinok, Magda; Petersen, Kresten Rubeck

    2015-01-01

    surgery. Terminal hair growth on lip and chin gradually increases after menopause, which complicates distinction from normal physiological variation. Precise testosterone assays have just recently become available in the daily clinic. We present three women diagnosed with testosterone-producing tumours...... when total testosterone levels are above three times the upper reference limit....

  9. Effect of ensiling process of total mixed ration on fermentation profile, nutrient loss and in situ ruminal degradation characteristics of diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaji, Makoto; Matsuyama, Hiroki; Nonaka, Kazuhisa

    2017-01-01

    This experiment aimed to determine the changes in chemical composition, fermentation profile, in situ disappearance characteristics, and nutrient losses of ensiled total mixed ration (TMR) containing steam-flaked corn or brown rice (BR) during storage. TMRs for dairy cows, containing either steam-flaked corn or BR at 31.9% with 15.2% rye silage, 40.5% alfalfa silage, 5.0% beet pulp and 7.0% soybean meal, were prepared (dry matter (DM) basis). Each TMR was placed in a plastic drum silo, stored at 23°C in an air-conditioned room and sampled 0, 7, 14, 30, 90 and 210 days after preparation. In both grain sources, the fermentation products increased, while DM and starch storage losses increased and starch content greatly decreased during storage. The rapidly degradable fraction and effective ruminal degradability of DM, crude protein and starch increased during storage. These changes of dietary characteristics were large during 30 days of storage, but small after 90 days of storage. Replacing corn with BR led to increased fermentation products, starch loss and effective ruminal degradability of the ensiled TMR. These results indicate that the ensiling process of TMR changes the dietary characteristics and replacing corn with BR in TMR had a large impact on these dietary characteristics. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  10. Effects of Varying Levels of Fungal ( sp. Treated Wheat Straw as an Ingredient of Total Mixed Ration on Growth Performance and Nutrient Digestibility in Nili Ravi Buffalo Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Shahzad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to explore the effects of replacing wheat straw with fungal treated wheat straw as an ingredient of total mixed ration (TMR on the growth performance and nutrient digestibility in Nili Ravi buffalo male calves. Fungal treated wheat straw was prepared using Arachniotus sp. Four TMRs were formulated where wheat straw was replaced with 0 (TMR1, 33 (TMR2, 67 (TMR3, and 100% (TMR4 fungal treated wheat straw in TMR. All TMRs were iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous. The experimental TMRs were randomly assigned to four groups of male calves (n = 6 according to completely randomized design and the experiment continued for four months. The calves fed TMR2 exhibited a significant improve in dry matter intake, average daily weight gain, feed conversion ratio and feed economics compared to other groups. The same group also showed higher digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, neutral-, and acid detergent fibers than those fed on other TMRs. It is concluded that TMR with 33% fungal-treated wheat straw replacement has a potential to give an enhanced growth performance and nutrient digestibility in male Nili Ravi buffalo calves.

  11. Independent and combined associations of total sedentary time and television viewing time with food intake patterns of 9- to 11-year-old Canadian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghese, Michael M; Tremblay, Mark S; Leduc, Genevieve; Boyer, Charles; Bélanger, Priscilla; LeBlanc, Allana G; Francis, Claire; Chaput, Jean-Philippe

    2014-08-01

    The relationships among sedentary time, television viewing time, and dietary patterns in children are not fully understood. The aim of this paper was to determine which of self-reported television viewing time or objectively measured sedentary time is a better correlate of the frequency of consumption of healthy and unhealthy foods. A cross-sectional study was conducted of 9- to 11-year-old children (n = 523; 57.1% female) from Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Accelerometers were used to determine total sedentary time, and questionnaires were used to determine the number of hours of television watching and the frequency of consumption of foods per week. Television viewing was negatively associated with the frequency of consumption of fruits, vegetables, and green vegetables, and positively associated with the frequency of consumption of sweets, soft drinks, diet soft drinks, pastries, potato chips, French fries, fruit juices, ice cream, fried foods, and fast food. Except for diet soft drinks and fruit juices, these associations were independent of covariates, including sedentary time. Total sedentary time was negatively associated with the frequency of consumption of sports drinks, independent of covariates, including television viewing. In combined sedentary time and television viewing analyses, children watching >2 h of television per day consumed several unhealthy food items more frequently than did children watching ≤2 h of television, regardless of sedentary time. In conclusion, this paper provides evidence to suggest that television viewing time is more strongly associated with unhealthy dietary patterns than is total sedentary time. Future research should focus on reducing television viewing time, as a means of improving dietary patterns and potentially reducing childhood obesity.

  12. Influence of different maceration time and temperatures on total phenols, colour and sensory properties of Cabernet Sauvignon wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şener, Hasan; Yildirim, Hatice Kalkan

    2013-12-01

    Maceration and fermentation time and temperatures are important factors affecting wine quality. In this study different maceration times (3 and 6 days) and temperatures (15  and 25 ) during production of red wine (Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon) were investigated. In all wines standard wine chemical parameters and some specific parameters as total phenols, tartaric esters, total flavonols and colour parameters (CD, CI, T, dA%, %Y, %R, %B, CIELAB values) were determined. Sensory evaluation was performed by descriptive sensory analysis. The results demonstrated not only the importance of skin contact time and temperature during maceration but also the effects of transition temperatures (different maceration and fermentation temperatures) on wine quality as a whole. The results of sensory descriptive analyses revealed that the temperature significantly affected the aroma and flavour attributes of wines. The highest scores for 'cassis', 'clove', 'fresh fruity' and 'rose' characters were obtained in wines produced at low temperature (15 ) of maceration (6 days) and fermentation.

  13. Effect of high and low roughage total mixed ration diets on rumen metabolites and enzymatic profiles in crossbred cattle and buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Sinha

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: A comparative study was conducted on crossbred cattle and buffaloes to investigate the effect of feeding high and low roughage total mixed ration (TMR diets on rumen metabolites and enzymatic profiles. Materials and Methods: Three rumen-fistulated crossbred cattle and buffalo were randomly assigned as per 3x3 switch over design for 21-days. Three TMR diets consisting of concentrate mixture, wheat straw and green maize fodder in the ratios of (T1 60:20:20, (T2 40:30:30, and (T3 20:40:40, respectively, were fed to the animals ad libitum. Rumen liquor samples were collected at 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 h post feeding for the estimation of rumen biochemical parameters on 2 consecutive days in each trial. Results: The lactic acid concentration and pH value were comparable in both species and treatments. Feed intake (99.77±2.51 g/kg body weight, ruminal ammonia nitrogen, and total nitrogen were significantly (p0.05 among treatments and significantly (p<0.05 greater in crossbred cattle than buffaloes. Molar proportions of individual VFAs propionate (C3, propionate:butyrate (C3:C4, and (acetate+butyrate:propionate ([C2+C4]:C3 ratio in both crossbred cattle and buffalo were not affected by high or low roughage diet, but percentage of acetate and butyrate varied significantly (p<0.05 among treatment groups. Activities of microbial enzymes were comparable among species and different treatment groups. A total number of rumen protozoa were significantly (p<0.05 higher in crossbred cattle than buffaloes along with significantly (p<0.05 higher population in animal fed with high concentrate diet (T1. Conclusion: Rumen microbial population and fermentation depend on constituents of the treatment diet. However, microbial enzyme activity remains similar among species and different treatments. High concentrate diet increases number of rumen protozoa, and the number is higher in crossbred cattle than buffaloes.

  14. Effect of lime treatment of olive meal on in vitro utilization of total mixed ration containing olive meal as partial maize replacer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajmal Ashraf

    Full Text Available Aim: Present study pertains to lime treatment of olive meal to improve its digestibility. The objective of the present study was to assess the in vitro dry matter degradability of total mixed ration containing lime treated olive meal at varied levels of maize replacement to know the optimum level of lime and treated olive meal as maize replacement in small ruminant diets. Materials and methods: Study was carried out in two phases. In phase I, A complete diet was formulated and treated with lime at variable concentrations (0-8% at 25% of maize replacement and subjected to in vitro studies as per Tilley and Terry. On the basis of the results of this phase, a concentration of lime for olive treatment was selected and tested at variable levels of maize replacement (0-50% by treated olive cake in phase II. Data was analyzed as per the procedures suggested by Snedecor and Cochran. Results: The in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD of composite diet increased from 43.95% at 0% lime treatment to 48.68% on treating with 8% lime with significant (P<0.05 increase at 6% treatment level. Lime treatment beyond 6% had no further significant effect on improving the digestibility. Graded levels of maize replacement by olive meal treated with 6% lime (lime percentage selected from phase I showed that the in vitro digestibility of mixed ration was not compromised up to 40% replacement level of maize by treated olive meal. Improved digestibility with lime treatment may be due to weakening of internal Hydrogen bonding, thereby disrupting the fiber structure in olive meal. Further lime may be saponifying the high level of fat present in olive meal, which may otherwise negatively impact the digestibility values. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the treatment with up to 6% of lime can effectively increase the digestibility of olive meal. Treated olive meal can replace up to 40% of maize from daily ration without affecting the digestibility of composite ration

  15. Brake response time is significantly impaired after total knee arthroplasty: investigation of performing an emergency stop while driving a car.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Maurice; Hofmann, Ulf-Krister; Rondak, Ina; Götze, Marco; Kluba, Torsten; Ipach, Ingmar

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether total knee arthroplasty (TKA) impairs the ability to perform an emergency stop. An automatic transmission brake simulator was developed to evaluate total brake response time. A prospective repeated-measures design was used. Forty patients (20 left/20 right) were measured 8 days and 6, 12, and 52 wks after surgery. Eight days postoperative total brake response time increased significantly by 30% in right TKA and insignificantly by 2% in left TKA. Brake force significantly decreased by 35% in right TKA and by 25% in left TKA during this period. Baseline values were reached at week 12 in right TKA; the impairment of outcome measures, however, was no longer significant at week 6 compared with preoperative values. Total brake response time and brake force in left TKA fell below baseline values at weeks 6 and 12. Brake force in left TKA was the only outcome measure significantly impaired 8 days postoperatively. This study highlights that categorical statements cannot be provided. This study's findings on automatic transmission driving suggest that right TKA patients may resume driving 6 wks postoperatively. Fitness to drive in left TKA is not fully recovered 8 days postoperatively. If testing is not available, patients should refrain from driving until they return from rehabilitation.

  16. Influence of overall treatment time in a fractionated total lymphoid irradiation as an immunosuppressive therapy in allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waer, M.; Ang, K.K.; Vandeputte, M.; Van der Schueren, E.

    1982-01-01

    Three groups of C 57 /BL/Ka mice received total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) in a total dose of 34 Gy in three different fractionation schedules. The tolerance of all different schedules was excellent. No difference in the peripheral white blood cell and lymphocyte counts nor the degree of immunosuppression as measured by phytohaemaglutinin or concanavalin A induced blastogenesis and mixed lymphocyte reaction were observed at the end of the treatment and up to 200 days. When bone marrow transplantation was performed one day after the end of each schedule, chimerism without signs of graft versus host disease was induced in all the groups. However, from the results in a limited number of animals it seems that concentrated schedules were less effective for chimerism induction. It has been demonstrated that it is possible to reduce drastically the overall treatment time for TLI before bone marrow transplantation. Further investigations are necessary in order to determine the optimal time-dose-fractionation factors and the different perameters involved in the transplantation

  17. Associations of Total and Domain-Specific Sedentary Time With Type 2 Diabetes in Taiwanese Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Chun Hsueh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes in older adults has become a public health concern. We investigated the associations of total and domain-specific sedentary time with risk of type 2 diabetes in older adults. Methods: The sample comprised 1046 older people (aged ≥65 years. Analyses were performed using crosssectional data collected via computer-assisted telephone-based interviews in 2014. Data on six self-reported domains of sedentary time (Measure of Older Adults’ Sedentary Time, type 2 diabetes status, and sociodemographic variables were included in the study. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to calculate the adjusted odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs for total and individual sedentary behavior components and likelihood of type 2 diabetes. Results: A total of 17.5% of the participants reported type 2 diabetes. No significant associations were found between total sitting time and risk of type 2 diabetes, after controlling for confounding factors. After total sedentary behavior was stratified into six domains, only watching television for more than 2 hours per day was associated with higher odds of type 2 diabetes (OR 1.56; 95% CI, 1.10–2.21, but no significant associations were found between other domains of sedentary behavior (computer use, reading, socializing, transport, and hobbies and risk of type 2 diabetes. Conclusions: These findings suggest that, among domain-specific sedentary behavior, excessive television viewing might increase the risk of type 2 diabetes among older adults more than other forms of sedentary behavior.

  18. Trace analysis of total naphthenic acids in aqueous environmental matrices by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry-quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry direct injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunswick, Pamela; Shang, Dayue; van Aggelen, Graham; Hindle, Ralph; Hewitt, L Mark; Frank, Richard A; Haberl, Maxine; Kim, Marcus

    2015-07-31

    A rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight method has been established for the determination of total naphthenic acid concentrations in aqueous samples. This is the first methodology that has been adopted for routine, high resolution, high throughput analysis of total naphthenic acids at trace levels in unprocessed samples. A calibration range from 0.02 to 1.0μgmL(-1) total Merichem naphthenic acids was validated and demonstrated excellent accuracy (97-111% recovery) and precision (1.9% RSD at 0.02μgmL(-1)). Quantitative validation was also demonstrated in a non-commercial oil sands process water (OSPW) acid extractable organics (AEOs) fraction containing a higher percentage of polycarboxylic acid isomers than the Merichem technical mix. The chromatographic method showed good calibration linearity of ≥0.999 RSQ to 0.005μgmL(-1) total naphthenic acids with a precision <3.1% RSD and a calculated detection limit of 0.0004μgmL(-1) employing Merichem technical mix reference material. The method is well suited to monitoring naturally occurring and industrially derived naphthenic acids (and other AEOs) present in surface and ground waters in the vicinity of mining developments. The advantage of the current method is its direct application to unprocessed environmental samples and to examine natural naphthenic acid isomer profiles. It is noted that where the isomer profile of samples differs from that of the reference material, results should be considered semi-quantitative due to the lack of matching isomer content. The fingerprint profile of naphthenic acids is known to be transitory during aging and the present method has the ability to adapt to monitoring of these changes in naphthenic acid content. The method's total ion scan approach allows for data previously collected to be examined retrospectively for specific analyte mass ions of interest. A list of potential naphthenic acid isomers that decrease in response with aging is proposed

  19. Maximizing profit on New England organic dairy farms: an economic comparison of 4 total mixed rations for organic Holsteins and Jerseys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, S P; Clark, G W; Anderson, G W; Kersbergen, R J; Lunak, M; Marcinkowski, D P; Murphy, M R; Schwab, C G; Erickson, P S

    2011-06-01

    The objective of these experiments was to compare 4 total mixed rations fed to USDA-certified organic dairy cows in New England. Forty-eight Jersey cows from the University of New Hampshire (UNH) and 64 Holstein cows from the University of Maine (UMaine) were assigned to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments testing the main effects of corn silage versus grass silage as the forage base and commodity concentrates versus a complete pelleted concentrate mixture. Treatment diets were fed as a total mixed ration for 8 wk during the winter and spring months of 2007, 2008, and 2009. Milk yield, component, and quality data were recorded and used to calculate the value of the milk produced for each cow. The dry matter intake (DMI) was recorded and used to calculate the average cost per cow per day of each diet. Income over feed costs were calculated for each diet using milk value and feed cost data. Feed cost and income over feed cost data were resampled using bootstrap methodology to examine potential patterns. Milk yield, milk fat and true protein concentrations, and SCC were similar among treatments. Cows at UNH fed corn silage tended to have higher DMI and lower milk urea nitrogen than did cows fed grass silage, whereas cows fed pellets had higher DMI than cows fed commodities. Cows at UNH fed commodities tended to have higher body condition scores than those fed pellets. Cows at UMaine fed commodities tended to have higher DMI than did cows fed pellets, and cows fed corn silage had lower milk urea nitrogen than did cows fed grass silage. Body weights and body condition scores were not different for cows at UMaine. Feed costs were significantly higher for corn silage diets and diets at UNH containing pellets, but not at UMaine. The calculated value of the milk and income over feed costs did not differ among treatments at either university. Bootstrap replications indicated that the corn silage with commodities diet generally had the highest feed cost at both UNH

  20. Lot-Order Assignment Applying Priority Rules for the Single-Machine Total Tardiness Scheduling with Nonnegative Time-Dependent Processing Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Gon Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lot-order assignment is to assign items in lots being processed to orders to fulfill the orders. It is usually performed periodically for meeting the due dates of orders especially in a manufacturing industry with a long production cycle time such as the semiconductor manufacturing industry. In this paper, we consider the lot-order assignment problem (LOAP with the objective of minimizing the total tardiness of the orders with distinct due dates. We show that we can solve the LOAP optimally by finding an optimal sequence for the single-machine total tardiness scheduling problem with nonnegative time-dependent processing times (SMTTSP-NNTDPT. Also, we address how the priority rules for the SMTTSP can be modified to those for the SMTTSP-NNTDPT to solve the LOAP. In computational experiments, we discuss the performances of the suggested priority rules and show the result of the proposed approach outperforms that of the commercial optimization software package.

  1. Aerobic Stability and Effects of Yeasts during Deterioration of Non-fermented and Fermented Total Mixed Ration with Different Moisture Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Hao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment evaluated the influence of moisture level and anaerobic fermentation on aerobic stability of total mixed ration (TMR. The dynamic changes in chemical composition and microbial population that occur after air exposure were examined, and the species of yeast associated with the deterioration process were also identified in both non-fermented and fermented TMR to deepen the understanding of aerobic deterioration. The moisture levels of TMR in this experiment were adjusted to 400 g/kg (low moisture level, LML, 450 g/kg (medium moisture level, MML, and 500 g/kg (high moisture level, HML, and both non-fermented and 56-d-fermented TMR were subjected to air exposure to determine aerobic stability. Aerobic deterioration resulted in high losses of nutritional components and largely reduced dry matter digestibility. Non-fermented TMR deteriorated during 48 h of air exposure and the HML treatment was more aerobically unstable. On dry matter (DM basis, yeast populations significantly increased from 107 to 1010 cfu/g during air exposure, and Candida ethanolica was the predominant species during deterioration in non-fermented TMR. Fermented TMR exhibited considerable resistance to aerobic deterioration. Spoilage was only observed in the HML treatment and its yeast population increased dramatically to 109 cfu/g DM when air exposure progressed to 30 d. Zygosaccharomyces bailii was the sole yeast species isolated when spoilage occurred. These results confirmed that non-fermented and fermented TMR with a HML are more prone to spoilage, and fermented TMR has considerable resistance to aerobic deterioration. Yeasts can trigger aerobic deterioration in both non-fermented and fermented TMR. C. ethanolica may be involved in the spoilage of non-fermented TMR and the vigorous growth of Z. bailii can initiate aerobic deterioration in fermented TMR.

  2. Amino acid profiles of rumen undegradable protein: a comparison between forages including cereal straws and alfalfa and their respective total mixed rations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B; Jiang, L S; Liu, J X

    2018-06-01

    Optimizing the amino acid (AA) profile of rumen undegradable protein (RUP) can positively affect the amount of milk protein. This study was conducted to improve knowledge regarding the AA profile of rumen undegradable protein from corn stover, rice straw and alfalfa hay as well as the total mixed ratio diets (TMR) based on one of them as forage source [forage-to-concentrate ratio of 45:55 (30% of corn stover (CS), 30% of rice straw (RS), 23% of alfalfa hay (AH) and dry matter basis)]. The other ingredients in the three TMR diets were similar. The RUP of all the forages and diets was estimated by incubation for 16 hr in the rumen of three ruminally cannulated lactating cows. All residues were corrected for microbial colonization, which was necessary in determining the AA composition of RUP from feed samples using in situ method. Compared with their original AA composition, the AA pattern of forages and forage-based diets changed drastically after rumen exposure. In addition, the extent of ruminal degradation of analysed AA was not constant among the forages. The greatest individual AA degradability of alfalfa hay and corn stover was Pro, but was His of rice straw. A remarkable difference was observed between microbial attachment corrected and uncorrected AA profiles of RUP, except for alfalfa hay and His in the three forages and TMR diets. The ruminal AA degradability of cereal straws was altered compared with alfalfa hay but not for the TMR diets. In summary, the AA composition of forages and TMR-based diets changed significantly after ruminal exposure, indicating that the original AA profiles of the feed cannot represent its AA composition of RUP. The AA profile of RUP and ruminal AA degradability for corn stover and rice straw contributed to missing information in the field. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Aerobic Stability and Effects of Yeasts during Deterioration of Non-fermented and Fermented Total Mixed Ration with Different Moisture Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, W; Wang, H L; Ning, T T; Yang, F Y; Xu, C C

    2015-06-01

    The present experiment evaluated the influence of moisture level and anaerobic fermentation on aerobic stability of total mixed ration (TMR). The dynamic changes in chemical composition and microbial population that occur after air exposure were examined, and the species of yeast associated with the deterioration process were also identified in both non-fermented and fermented TMR to deepen the understanding of aerobic deterioration. The moisture levels of TMR in this experiment were adjusted to 400 g/kg (low moisture level, LML), 450 g/kg (medium moisture level, MML), and 500 g/kg (high moisture level, HML), and both non-fermented and 56-d-fermented TMR were subjected to air exposure to determine aerobic stability. Aerobic deterioration resulted in high losses of nutritional components and largely reduced dry matter digestibility. Non-fermented TMR deteriorated during 48 h of air exposure and the HML treatment was more aerobically unstable. On dry matter (DM) basis, yeast populations significantly increased from 10(7) to 10(10) cfu/g during air exposure, and Candida ethanolica was the predominant species during deterioration in non-fermented TMR. Fermented TMR exhibited considerable resistance to aerobic deterioration. Spoilage was only observed in the HML treatment and its yeast population increased dramatically to 10(9) cfu/g DM when air exposure progressed to 30 d. Zygosaccharomyces bailii was the sole yeast species isolated when spoilage occurred. These results confirmed that non-fermented and fermented TMR with a HML are more prone to spoilage, and fermented TMR has considerable resistance to aerobic deterioration. Yeasts can trigger aerobic deterioration in both non-fermented and fermented TMR. C. ethanolica may be involved in the spoilage of non-fermented TMR and the vigorous growth of Z. bailii can initiate aerobic deterioration in fermented TMR.

  4. Effect of weaning age on feed intake and ruminal fermentation patterns of calves fed a dry total mixed ration with ad libitum access to grass hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ackeren, Caroline; Steingass, Herbert; Hartung, Karin; Funk, Rainer; Drochner, Winfried

    2010-08-01

    To study the effect of weaning age on average daily gain (ADG), dry matter intake (DMI) and ruminal fermentation, 10 rumen-cannulated male Holstein calves were randomly assigned to one of two treatments: (i) early weaned at 8 weeks of age (235 l milk); (ii) conventionally weaned at 12 weeks of age (347 l milk). Twice daily grass hay (9.0 MJ ME x kg(-1) DM) and a dry total mixed ration (TMR) (11.6 MJ ME x kg(-1) DM) containing 15% alfalfa hay and 85% concentrates were offered separately. Water was available ad libitum. Ruminal fluid was collected via cannulas at weeks 9, 11, 13 and 15, twice weekly just prior to as well as 1, 3, 5 and 7 h after morning feeding. Calves of both treatments achieved adequate ADG (947 vs. 959 g; p > 0.05). Just-weaned calves rapidly increased DMI (1.1-2.5 kg TMR and 2.4-3.6 kg TMR for early- and conventionally-weaned calves, respectively). From weeks 10-12 early-weaned calves consumed significantly more dry feed than conventionally-weaned calves (week 10: 2.5 vs. 1.6 kg/d; week 12: 3.4 vs. 2.4 kg/d). Early weaning stimulates DMI supporting ruminal fermentation intensity, indicated by lower ruminal pH. After weaning, only early-weaned calves achieved critical average ruminal pH (week 9: 5.7 vs. 6.0, p = 0.017; week 11: 5.9 vs. 6.2, p = 0.007). Experimental treatment did not affect the concentration of ruminal short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). For all calves, the effects of the concentrate-rich TMR were shown by a high SCFA level (daily average: 137-152 mmol x l(-1)) and an acetate to propionate to butyrate ratio between 51:36:9 and 54:33:10.

  5. Terahertz time-domain attenuated total reflection spectroscopy applied to the rapid discrimination of the botanical origin of honeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen; Zhang, Yuying; Yang, Si; Han, Donghai

    2018-05-01

    A new technique to identify the floral resources of honeys is demanded. Terahertz time-domain attenuated total reflection spectroscopy combined with chemometrics methods was applied to discriminate different categorizes (Medlar honey, Vitex honey, and Acacia honey). Principal component analysis (PCA), cluster analysis (CA) and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) have been used to find information of the botanical origins of honeys. Spectral range also was discussed to increase the precision of PLS-DA model. The accuracy of 88.46% for validation set was obtained, using PLS-DA model in 0.5-1.5 THz. This work indicated terahertz time-domain attenuated total reflection spectroscopy was an available approach to evaluate the quality of honey rapidly.

  6. Quantifying Fire's Impacts on Total and Pyrogenic Carbon Stocks in Mixed-Conifer Forests: Results from Pre- and Post-Fire Measurements in Active Wildfire Incidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miesel, J. R.; Reiner, A. L.; Ewell, C. M.; Sanderman, J.; Maestrini, B.; Adkins, J.

    2016-12-01

    Widespread US fire suppression policy has contributed to an accumulation of vegetation in many western forests relative to historic conditions, and these changes can exacerbate wildfire severity and carbon (C) emissions. Serious concern exists about positive feedbacks between wildfire emissions and global climate; however, fires not only release C from terrestrial to atmospheric pools, they also create "black" or pyrogenic C (PyC) which contributes to longer-term C stability. Our objective was to quantify wildfire impacts on aboveground and belowground total C and PyC stocks in California mixed-conifer forests. We worked with incident management teams to access five active wildfires to establish and measure plots within days before and after fire. We measured pre- and post-fire aboveground forest structure and woody fuels to calculate aboveground biomass, biomass C, and PyC, and we collected pre- and post-fire forest floor and 0-5 cm mineral soil samples to measure belowground C and PyC stocks. Our preliminary results show that fire had minimal impact on the number of trees per hectare, whereas C losses from the tree layer occurred via consumption of foliage, and PyC gain occurred in tree bark. Fire released 54% to 100% of surface fuel C. In the forest floor layer, we observed 33 to 100% C loss, whereas changes in PyC stocks ranged from 100% loss to 186% gain relative to pre-fire samples. In general, fire had minimal to no impact on 0-5 cm mineral soil C. We will present relationships between total C, PyC and post-fire C and N dynamics in one of the five wildfire sites. Our data are unique because they represent nearly immediate pre- and post-fire measurements in major wildfires in a widespread western U.S. forest type. This research advances understanding of the role of fire on forest C fluxes and C sequestration potential as PyC.

  7. Total and segmental colon transit time in constipated children assessed by scintigraphy with 111In-DTPA given orally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vattimo, A; Burroni, L; Bertelli, P; Messina, M; Meucci, D; Tota, G

    1993-12-01

    Serial colon scintigraphy using 111In-DTPA (2 MBq) given orally was performed in 39 children referred for constipation, and the total and segmental colon transit times were measured. The bowel movements during the study were recorded and the intervals between defecations (ID) were calculated. This method proved able to identify children with normal colon morphology (no. = 32) and those with dolichocolon (no. = 7). Normal children were not included for ethical reasons and we used the normal range determined by others using x-ray methods (29 +/- 4 hours). Total and segmental colon transit times were found to be prolonged in all children with dolichocolon (TC: 113.55 +/- 41.20 hours; RC: 39.85 +/- 26.39 hours; LC: 43.05 +/- 18.30 hours; RS: 30.66 +/- 26.89 hours). In the group of children with a normal colon shape, 13 presented total and segmental colon transit times within the referred normal value (TC: 27.79 +/- 4.10 hours; RC: 9.11 +/- 2.53 hours; LC: 9.80 +/- 3.50 hours; RS: 8.88 +/- 4.09 hours) and normal bowel function (ID: 23.37 +/- 5.93 hours). In the remaining children, 5 presented prolonged retention in the rectum (RS: 53.36 +/- 29.66 hours), and 14 a prolonged transit time in all segments. A good correlation was found between the transit time and bowel function. From the point of view of radiation dosimetry, the most heavily irradiated organs were the lower large intestine and the ovaries, and the level of radiation burden depended on the colon transit time. We can conclude that the described method results safe, accurate and fully diagnostic.

  8. The impact of case mix on timely access to appointments in a primary care group practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozen, Asli; Balasubramanian, Hari

    2013-06-01

    At the heart of the practice of primary care is the concept of a physician panel. A panel refers to the set of patients for whose long term, holistic care the physician is responsible. A physician's appointment burden is determined by the size and composition of the panel. Size refers to the number of patients in the panel while composition refers to the case-mix, or the type of patients (older versus younger, healthy versus chronic patients), in the panel. In this paper, we quantify the impact of the size and case-mix on the ability of a multi-provider practice to provide adequate access to its empanelled patients. We use overflow frequency, or the probability that the demand exceeds the capacity, as a measure of access. We formulate problem of minimizing the maximum overflow for a multi-physician practice as a non-linear integer programming problem and establish structural insights that enable us to create simple yet near optimal heuristic strategies to change panels. This optimization framework helps a practice: (1) quantify the imbalances across physicians due to the variation in case mix and panel size, and the resulting effect on access; and (2) determine how panels can be altered in the least disruptive way to improve access. We illustrate our methodology using four test practices created using patient level data from the primary care practice at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota. An important advantage of our approach is that it can be implemented in an Excel Spreadsheet and used for aggregate level planning and panel management decisions.

  9. Objectively measured physical environmental neighbourhood factors are not associated with accelerometer-determined total sedentary time in adults

    OpenAIRE

    Compernolle, Sofie; De Cocker, Katrien; Mackenbach, Joreintje D.; Van Nassau, Femke; Lakerveld, Jeroen; Cardon, Greet; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2017-01-01

    Background: The physical neighbourhood environment may influence adults' sedentary behaviour. Yet, most studies examining the association between the physical neighbourhood environment and sedentary behaviour rely on self-reported data of either the physical neighbourhood environment and/or sedentary behaviour. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between objectively measured physical environmental neighbourhood factors and accelerometer-determined total sedentary time in...

  10. Supplementation of increasing amounts of linseed oil to dairy cows fed total mixed rations: effects on digestion, ruminal fermentation characteristics, protozoal populations, and milk fatty acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benchaar, C; Romero-Pérez, G A; Chouinard, P Y; Hassanat, F; Eugene, M; Petit, H V; Côrtes, C

    2012-08-01

    The effect of linseed oil (LO) supplementation on nutrient digestibility, forage (i.e., timothy hay) in sacco ruminal degradation, ruminal fermentation characteristics, protozoal populations, milk production, and milk fatty acid (FA) profile in dairy cows was investigated. Four ruminally cannulated, primiparous lactating cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design (28-d periods). They were fed a total mixed ration (50:50 forage:concentrate (F:C) ratio [dry matter (DM) basis] without supplementation (control, CTL), or supplemented (wt/wt; DM basis) with LO at 2, 3, or 4%. Supplementation with LO had no effect on DM intake (19 kg/d) and apparent total-tract digestibility of nutrients (organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, starch, and gross energy). Ruminal pH, ammonia, and total volatile FA concentrations were not changed by LO supplementation to diets. Extent of changes in volatile FA pattern and effective ruminal degradability of DM of timothy hay were minor. Neither the total numbers nor the genera distribution of protozoa was changed by the addition of increasing amounts of LO to the diet. Milk yield increased linearly (26.1, 27.3, 27.4, and 28.4 kg/d for CTL to LO4, respectively) as the amount of LO added to the diet increased. Milk fat content was not affected by LO supplementation, whereas milk protein content decreased linearly with increasing amounts of LO in the diet. Milk fat proportions of several intermediates of ruminal biohydrogenation of polyunsaturated FA (i.e., trans-10 18:1, trans-11 18:1, cis-9,trans-11 18:2, trans-11,cis-15 18:2, and cis-9,trans-11,cis-15 18:3) increased linearly with LO addition to the diet. The proportion of cis-9,cis-12 18:2 decreased linearly (2.06, 1.99, 1.91, and 1.83% for CTL to LO4, respectively) as the amount of LO in the diet increased. Milk fat content of cis-9,cis-12,cis-15 18:3 increased as the level of LO in the diet increased up to 3% but no further increase was observed when 4% of LO

  11. Minimizing total weighted tardiness for the single machine scheduling problem with dependent setup time and precedence constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Haddad

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper tackles the single machine scheduling problem with dependent setup time and precedence constraints. The primary objective of this paper is minimization of total weighted tardiness. Since the complexity of the resulted problem is NP-hard we use metaheuristics method to solve the resulted model. The proposed model of this paper uses genetic algorithm to solve the problem in reasonable amount of time. Because of high sensitivity of GA to its initial values of parameters, a Taguchi approach is presented to calibrate its parameters. Computational experiments validate the effectiveness and capability of proposed method.

  12. Clinical responses after total body irradiation by over permissible dose of γ-rays in one time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Benrong; Wang Guilin; Liu Huilan; Tang Xingsheng; Ai Huisheng

    1990-01-01

    The clinical responses of patients after total body over permissilbe dose γ-ray irradiation were observed and analysed. The results showed: when the dose was above 5 cGy, there was some immunological depression, but no significant change in hematopoietic functions. 5 cases showed some transient changes of ECG, perhaps due to vagotonia caused by psychological imbalance, One case vomitted 3-4 times after 28 cGy irradiation, this suggested that a few times of vomitting had no significance in the estimation of the irradiated dose and the whole clinical manifestations must be concretely analysed

  13. Towards RTOS support for mixed time-triggered and event-triggered task sets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, van den M.M.H.P.; Bril, R.J.; Lukkien, J.J.; Isovic, D.; Sankar Ramachandran, G.

    2012-01-01

    Many embedded systems have complex timing constraints and, at the same time, have flexibility requirements which prohibit offline planning of the entire system. To support a mixture of time-triggered and event-triggered tasks, some industrial systems deploy a real-time operating system (RTOS) with a

  14. Iterated greedy algorithms to minimize the total family flow time for job-shop scheduling with job families and sequence-dependent set-ups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Su; Park, Jung-Hyeon; Lee, Dong-Ho

    2017-10-01

    This study addresses a variant of job-shop scheduling in which jobs are grouped into job families, but they are processed individually. The problem can be found in various industrial systems, especially in reprocessing shops of remanufacturing systems. If the reprocessing shop is a job-shop type and has the component-matching requirements, it can be regarded as a job shop with job families since the components of a product constitute a job family. In particular, sequence-dependent set-ups in which set-up time depends on the job just completed and the next job to be processed are also considered. The objective is to minimize the total family flow time, i.e. the maximum among the completion times of the jobs within a job family. A mixed-integer programming model is developed and two iterated greedy algorithms with different local search methods are proposed. Computational experiments were conducted on modified benchmark instances and the results are reported.

  15. Finite time synchronization of memristor-based Cohen-Grossberg neural networks with mixed delays

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Chuan; Li, Lixiang; Peng, Haipeng; Yang, Yixian

    2017-01-01

    Finite time synchronization, which means synchronization can be achieved in a settling time, is desirable in some practical applications. However, most of the published results on finite time synchronization don't include delays or only include discrete delays. In view of the fact that distributed delays inevitably exist in neural networks, this paper aims to investigate the finite time synchronization of memristor-based Cohen-Grossberg neural networks (MCGNNs) with both discrete delay and di...

  16. MIXED REALITY: THE DECONSTRUCTION OF TIME/THE RESTRUCTURE OF THE FUTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Alaa Mandour

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The information age has led us to experience our environment in innovative ways, especially after the emergence of virtual spaces. Our senses have been triggered and our perceptions have been significantly altered through our experience of ever developing virtual spaces, comprising of spatial metaphors coded through an abstract flow of electronic signals, or physical spaces, comprising of zones adapted to activities and channels of communication providing links between zones, or a combination of both. Using the two types of spaces, an architect can more easily interact and communicate with fellow architects as well as clients. This paper intends to explicate the concept of shared mixed realities in the field of architecture based on the construction of transparent boundaries between real and virtual spaces. In order to manage their communication, participants can utilize spatial properties (i.e. containments and movement through the use of shared space technologies which aim to create electronic environments.

  17. Limited preemptive scheduling of mixed time-triggered and event-triggered tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, van den M.M.H.P.; Bril, R.J.; Zhang, X.; Abdullah, S.M.J.; Isovic, D.

    2013-01-01

    Many embedded systems have complex timing constraints and, at the same time, have flexibility requirements which prohibit offline planning of the entire system. To support a mixture of time-triggered and event-triggered tasks, some industrial systems deploy a table-driven dispatcher for

  18. Real-time disk scheduling in a mixed-media file system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, H.G.P.; Mullender, Sape J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents our real-time disk scheduler called the Delta L scheduler, which optimizes unscheduled best-effort disk requests by giving priority to best-effort disk requests while meeting real-time request deadlines. Our scheduler tries to execute real-time disk requests as much as possible

  19. Real-Time Disk Scheduling in a Mixed-Media File System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, H.G.P.; Mullender, Sape J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents our real-time disk scheduler called the L scheduler, which optimizes unscheduled best-effort disk requests by giving priority to best-effort disk requests while meeting real-time request deadlines. Our scheduler tries to execute real-time disk requests as much as possible in the

  20. Some consequences of assuming simple patterns for the treatment effect over time in a linear mixed model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamia, Christina; White, Ian R; Kenward, Michael G

    2013-07-10

    Linear mixed models are often used for the analysis of data from clinical trials with repeated quantitative outcomes. This paper considers linear mixed models where a particular form is assumed for the treatment effect, in particular constant over time or proportional to time. For simplicity, we assume no baseline covariates and complete post-baseline measures, and we model arbitrary mean responses for the control group at each time. For the variance-covariance matrix, we consider an unstructured model, a random intercepts model and a random intercepts and slopes model. We show that the treatment effect estimator can be expressed as a weighted average of the observed time-specific treatment effects, with weights depending on the covariance structure and the magnitude of the estimated variance components. For an assumed constant treatment effect, under the random intercepts model, all weights are equal, but in the random intercepts and slopes and the unstructured models, we show that some weights can be negative: thus, the estimated treatment effect can be negative, even if all time-specific treatment effects are positive. Our results suggest that particular models for the treatment effect combined with particular covariance structures may result in estimated treatment effects of unexpected magnitude and/or direction. Methods are illustrated using a Parkinson's disease trial. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. A planning model with a solution algorithm for ready mixed concrete production and truck dispatching under stochastic travel times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, S.; Lin, H. C.; Jiang, X. Y.

    2012-04-01

    In this study the authors employ network flow techniques to construct a systematic model that helps ready mixed concrete carriers effectively plan production and truck dispatching schedules under stochastic travel times. The model is formulated as a mixed integer network flow problem with side constraints. Problem decomposition and relaxation techniques, coupled with the CPLEX mathematical programming solver, are employed to develop an algorithm that is capable of efficiently solving the problems. A simulation-based evaluation method is also proposed to evaluate the model, coupled with a deterministic model, and the method currently used in actual operations. Finally, a case study is performed using real operating data from a Taiwan RMC firm. The test results show that the system operating cost obtained using the stochastic model is a significant improvement over that obtained using the deterministic model or the manual approach. Consequently, the model and the solution algorithm could be useful for actual operations.

  2. Nondestructive evaluation of differently doped InP wafers by time-resolved four-wave mixing technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadys, A.; Sudzius, M.; Jarasiunas, K.; Mao Luhong; Sun Niefeng

    2006-01-01

    Photoelectric properties of semi-insulating, differently doped, and undoped indium phosphide wafers, grown by the liquid encapsulation Czochralski method, have been investigated by time-resolved picosecond four-wave mixing technique. Deep defect related carrier generation, recombination, and transport properties were investigated experimentally by measuring four-wave mixing kinetics and exposure characteristics. The presence of deep donor states in undoped InP was confirmed by a pronounced effect of a space charge electric field to carrier transport. On the other hand, the recharging dynamics of electrically active residual impurities was observed in undoped and Fe-doped InP through the process of efficient trapping of excess carriers. The bipolar diffusion coefficients and mobilities were determined for the all wafers

  3. Optimum composite flour, water and mixing time of dough for crispy snack containing fish-head protein hydrolysate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitbunjerdkul, S.

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The properties of dough are responsible to the final quality of crispy snack. The effect of flour, water and mixing time on dough quality were evaluated. The simplex-centroid design for mixture of three flours (A, B and C in a composite flour of 30-70, 25-65 and 5-45%, respectively was used in this study. Contour plot of hedonic scores and the predictive regression models were calculated, using Design-Expert version 7.0.3 (Stat-Ease, Inc. MN, USA. The result revealed that the predictive regression model and goodness-of-fit for the correlation between different composite flours and sensory properties showed adj. R2 0.87-0.96 and lack of fit, p>0.05 in the attribute of color, odor, taste and overall liking. The optimum amount of flour A, B and C that would yield the crispy snack with 9-point hedonic score of the all terms in the range of 6.0-9.0 was 45, 25 and 30% respectively. The optimum mixing conditions of dough using the optimum composite flour were studied. Factorial design of 56, 58, 60 and 62% water and mixing time 5, 10 and 15 min was used. When the physical properties were evaluated, this results showed elasticity, cohesion and adhesion of dough increased with increasing water at mixing time ranging from 5 to 10 min. The crispy snack containing 5% fish-head protein hydrolysate, using the composite flour with flours A, B and C in the ratio of 45 : 25 :30, 62% water and mixing time 10 min obtained bulk density 16.17 g/100 ml, water absorption index 5.15 g/g dried sample, maximum force (hardness 141.74 g and numbers of major peak (crispness 8.2 peaks. The acceptance scores of color, odor, taste, crispness and overall liking of the final product evaluated by 9-point hedonic scales, were 6.84, 6.50 , 6.38, 7.68 and 6.64, respectively.

  4. Optimization of scan time in MRI for total hip prostheses. SEMAC tailoring for prosthetic implants containing different types of metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deligianni, X. [University of Basel Hospital, Basel (Switzerland). Div. of Radiological Physics; Merian Iselin Klinik, Basel (Switzerland). Inst. of Radiology; Bieri, O. [University of Basel Hospital, Basel (Switzerland). Div. of Radiological Physics; Elke, R. [Orthomerian, Basel (Switzerland); Wischer, T.; Egelhof, T. [Merian Iselin Klinik, Basel (Switzerland). Inst. of Radiology

    2015-12-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of soft tissues after total hip arthroplasty is of clinical interest for the diagnosis of various pathologies that are usually invisible with other imaging modalities. As a result, considerable effort has been put into the development of metal artifact reduction MRI strategies, such as slice encoding for metal artifact correction (SEMAC). Generally, the degree of metal artifact reduction with SEMAC directly relates to the overall time spent for acquisition, but there is no specific consensus about the most efficient sequence setup depending on the implant material. The aim of this article is to suggest material-tailored SEMAC protocol settings. Five of the most common total hip prostheses (1. Revision prosthesis (S-Rom), 2. Titanium alloy, 3. Mueller type (CoNiCRMo alloy), 4. Old Charnley prosthesis (Exeter/Stryker), 5. MS-30 stem (stainless-steel)) were scanned on a 1.5 T MRI clinical scanner with a SEMAC sequence with a range of artifact-resolving slice encoding steps (SES: 2 - 23) along the slice direction (yielding a total variable scan time ranging from 1 to 10 min). The reduction of the artifact volume in comparison with maximal artifact suppression was evaluated both quantitatively and qualitatively in order to establish a recommended number of steps for each case. The number of SES that reduced the artifact volume below approximately 300 mm{sup 3} ranged from 3 to 13, depending on the material. Our results showed that although 3 SES steps can be sufficient for artifact reduction for titanium prostheses, at least 11 SES should be used for prostheses made of materials such as certain alloys of stainless steel. Tailoring SES to the implant material and to the desired degree of metal artifact reduction represents a simple tool for workflow optimization of SEMAC imaging near total hip arthroplasty in a clinical setting.

  5. Optimization of scan time in MRI for total hip prostheses. SEMAC tailoring for prosthetic implants containing different types of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deligianni, X.; Wischer, T.; Egelhof, T.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of soft tissues after total hip arthroplasty is of clinical interest for the diagnosis of various pathologies that are usually invisible with other imaging modalities. As a result, considerable effort has been put into the development of metal artifact reduction MRI strategies, such as slice encoding for metal artifact correction (SEMAC). Generally, the degree of metal artifact reduction with SEMAC directly relates to the overall time spent for acquisition, but there is no specific consensus about the most efficient sequence setup depending on the implant material. The aim of this article is to suggest material-tailored SEMAC protocol settings. Five of the most common total hip prostheses (1. Revision prosthesis (S-Rom), 2. Titanium alloy, 3. Mueller type (CoNiCRMo alloy), 4. Old Charnley prosthesis (Exeter/Stryker), 5. MS-30 stem (stainless-steel)) were scanned on a 1.5 T MRI clinical scanner with a SEMAC sequence with a range of artifact-resolving slice encoding steps (SES: 2 - 23) along the slice direction (yielding a total variable scan time ranging from 1 to 10 min). The reduction of the artifact volume in comparison with maximal artifact suppression was evaluated both quantitatively and qualitatively in order to establish a recommended number of steps for each case. The number of SES that reduced the artifact volume below approximately 300 mm 3 ranged from 3 to 13, depending on the material. Our results showed that although 3 SES steps can be sufficient for artifact reduction for titanium prostheses, at least 11 SES should be used for prostheses made of materials such as certain alloys of stainless steel. Tailoring SES to the implant material and to the desired degree of metal artifact reduction represents a simple tool for workflow optimization of SEMAC imaging near total hip arthroplasty in a clinical setting.

  6. Effect of water volume based on water absorption and mixing time on physical properties of tapioca starch – wheat composite bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prameswari, I. K.; Manuhara, G. J.; Amanto, B. S.; Atmaka, W.

    2018-05-01

    Tapioca starch application in bread processing change water absorption level by the dough, while sufficient mixing time makes the optimal water absorption. This research aims to determine the effect of variations in water volume and mixing time on physical properties of tapioca starch – wheat composite bread and the best method for the composite bread processing. This research used Complete Randomized Factorial Design (CRFD) with two factors: variations of water volume (111,8 ml, 117,4 ml, 123 ml) and mixing time (16 minutes, 17 minutes 36 seconds, 19 minutes 12 seconds). The result showed that water volume significantly affected on dough volume, bread volume and specific volume, baking expansion, and crust thickness. Mixing time significantly affected on dough volume and specific volume, bread volume and specific volume, baking expansion, bread height, and crust thickness. While the combination of water volume and mixing time significantly affected for all physical properties parameters except crust thickness.

  7. The effects of a ration change from a total mixed ration to pasture on rumen fermentation, volatile fatty acid absorption characteristics, and morphology of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schären, M; Seyfang, G M; Steingass, H; Dieho, K; Dijkstra, J; Hüther, L; Frahm, J; Beineke, A; von Soosten, D; Meyer, U; Breves, G; Dänicke, S

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the effect of the change from a concentrate and silage-based ration (total mixed ration, TMR) to a pasture-based ration, a 10-wk trial (wk 1-10) was performed, including 10 rumen- and duodenum-fistulated German Holstein dairy cows (182±24 d in milk, 23.5±3.5kg of milk/d; mean ± standard deviation). The cows were divided in either a pasture group (PG, n=5) or a confinement group (CG, n=5). The CG stayed on a TMR-based ration (35% corn silage, 35% grass silage, 30% concentrate; dry matter basis), whereas the PG was gradually transitioned from a TMR to a pasture-based ration (wk 1: TMR only; wk 2: 3 h/d on pasture wk 3 and 4: 12 h/d on pasture wk 5-10: pasture only). Ruminal pH, volatile fatty acids (VFA), NH3-N, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) concentrations were measured in rumen fluid samples collected medially and ventrally on a weekly basis. Ruminal pH was continuously recorded during 1 to 4 consecutive days each week using ruminal pH measuring devices. In wk 1, 5, and 10, rumen contents were evacuated and weighed, papillae were collected from 3 locations in the rumen, and subsequently a VFA absorption test was performed. In the PG, mean rumen pH and molar acetate proportions decreased, and molar butyrate proportions increased continuously over the course of the trial, which can most likely be ascribed to an increased intake of rapidly fermentable carbohydrates. During the first weeks on a full grazing ration (wk 5-7), variation of rumen pH decreased, and in wk 5 a lower rumen content, papillae surface area, and potential for VFA absorption were observed. In wk 8 to 10, variation of rumen pH and total VFA concentrations increased again, and acetate/propionate ratio decreased. In wk-10 rumen content, papillae area and VFA absorption characteristics similar to initial levels were observed. Although continuous rumen pH assessments and LPS concentrations did not reveal an increased risk for subacute rumen acidosis (SARA) during the adaption period

  8. Impact of operative time on early joint infection and deep vein thrombosis in primary total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, B W; Sheppard, E D; Smith, W R; Staggers, J R; Li, P; Shah, A; Lee, S R; Naranje, S M

    2018-03-22

    Infections and deep vein thrombosis (DVT) after total hip arthroplasty (THA) are challenging problems for both the patient and surgeon. Previous studies have identified numerous risk factors for infections and DVT after THA but have often been limited by sample size. We aimed to evaluate the effect of operative time on early postoperative infection as well as DVT rates following THA. We hypothesized that an increase in operative time would result in increased odds of acquiring an infection as well as a DVT. We conducted a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data using the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) database from 2006 to 2015 for all patients undergoing primary THA. Associations between operative time and infection or DVT were evaluated with multivariable logistic regressions controlling for demographics and several known risks factors for infection. Three different types of infections were evaluated: (1) superficial surgical site infection (SSI), an infection involving the skin or subcutaneous tissue, (2) deep SSI, an infection involving the muscle or fascial layers beneath the subcutaneous tissue, and (3) organ/space infection, an infection involving any part of the anatomy manipulated during surgery other than the incisional components. In total, 103,044 patients who underwent THA were included in our study. Our results suggested a significant association between superficial SSIs and operative time. Specifically, the adjusted odds of suffering a superficial SSI increased by 6% (CI=1.04-1.08, ptime. When using dichotomized operative time (90minutes), the adjusted odds of suffering a superficial SSI was 56% higher for patients with prolonged operative time (CI=1.05-2.32, p=0.0277). The adjusted odds of suffering a deep SSI increased by 7% for every 10-minute increase in operative time (CI=1.01-1.14, p=0.0335). No significant associations were detected between organ/space infection, wound

  9. Robust outer synchronization between two nonlinear complex networks with parametric disturbances and mixed time-varying delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuan; Wang, Xingyuan; Luo, Chao; Li, Junqiu; Wang, Chunpeng

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we focus on the robust outer synchronization problem between two nonlinear complex networks with parametric disturbances and mixed time-varying delays. Firstly, a general complex network model is proposed. Besides the nonlinear couplings, the network model in this paper can possess parametric disturbances, internal time-varying delay, discrete time-varying delay and distributed time-varying delay. Then, according to the robust control strategy, linear matrix inequality and Lyapunov stability theory, several outer synchronization protocols are strictly derived. Simple linear matrix controllers are designed to driver the response network synchronize to the drive network. Additionally, our results can be applied on the complex networks without parametric disturbances. Finally, by utilizing the delayed Lorenz chaotic system as the dynamics of all nodes, simulation examples are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of our theoretical results.

  10. Mixing of photons with light pseudoscalars in time-dependent magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arias, Paola; Arza, Ariel; Gamboa, Jorge [Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Departmento de Fisica, Santiago (Chile)

    2016-11-15

    The effects of an external time-dependent magnetic field in the conversion probability of photon- to axion-like particles are studied. Our findings show that for a certain time regime, the amplitude of the produced axion-like field can be enlarged with respect to the static case, thus enhancing the probability of conversion. (orig.)

  11. Mixing and flushing time scales in the Azhikode Estuary, southwest coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Revichandran, C.; Pylee, A.

    Flushing time scales of the Azhikode Estuary, Kerala, India showed pronounced dry season and wet season signals as well as large inter-annual variation. Cumulative flushing time of the estuary varies from 4.8 tide cycles in April to 1.22 tide cycles...

  12. Time Management Profiles of Cypriot School Principals: A Mixed-Methods Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouali, Georgia; Pashiardis, Petros

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a piece of research concerning the time management of Cypriot primary school principals. Time management refers to the interrelation of five independent variables: the various tasks principals perform, their frequency, the degree of accomplishment of those tasks, the use of time…

  13. A combined time-of-flight and depth-of-interaction detector for total-body positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Eric, E-mail: eberg@ucdavis.edu; Roncali, Emilie; Du, Junwei; Cherry, Simon R. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Kapusta, Maciej [Molecular Imaging, Siemens Healthcare, Knoxville, Tennessee 37932 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Purpose: In support of a project to build a total-body PET scanner with an axial field-of-view of 2 m, the authors are developing simple, cost-effective block detectors with combined time-of-flight (TOF) and depth-of-interaction (DOI) capabilities. Methods: This work focuses on investigating the potential of phosphor-coated crystals with conventional PMT-based block detector readout to provide DOI information while preserving timing resolution. The authors explored a variety of phosphor-coating configurations with single crystals and crystal arrays. Several pulse shape discrimination techniques were investigated, including decay time, delayed charge integration (DCI), and average signal shapes. Results: Pulse shape discrimination based on DCI provided the lowest DOI positioning error: 2 mm DOI positioning error was obtained with single phosphor-coated crystals while 3–3.5 mm DOI error was measured with the block detector module. Minimal timing resolution degradation was observed with single phosphor-coated crystals compared to uncoated crystals, and a timing resolution of 442 ps was obtained with phosphor-coated crystals in the block detector compared to 404 ps without phosphor coating. Flood maps showed a slight degradation in crystal resolvability with phosphor-coated crystals; however, all crystals could be resolved. Energy resolution was degraded by 3%–7% with phosphor-coated crystals compared to uncoated crystals. Conclusions: These results demonstrate the feasibility of obtaining TOF–DOI capabilities with simple block detector readout using phosphor-coated crystals.

  14. A combined time-of-flight and depth-of-interaction detector for total-body positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, Eric; Roncali, Emilie; Du, Junwei; Cherry, Simon R.; Kapusta, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In support of a project to build a total-body PET scanner with an axial field-of-view of 2 m, the authors are developing simple, cost-effective block detectors with combined time-of-flight (TOF) and depth-of-interaction (DOI) capabilities. Methods: This work focuses on investigating the potential of phosphor-coated crystals with conventional PMT-based block detector readout to provide DOI information while preserving timing resolution. The authors explored a variety of phosphor-coating configurations with single crystals and crystal arrays. Several pulse shape discrimination techniques were investigated, including decay time, delayed charge integration (DCI), and average signal shapes. Results: Pulse shape discrimination based on DCI provided the lowest DOI positioning error: 2 mm DOI positioning error was obtained with single phosphor-coated crystals while 3–3.5 mm DOI error was measured with the block detector module. Minimal timing resolution degradation was observed with single phosphor-coated crystals compared to uncoated crystals, and a timing resolution of 442 ps was obtained with phosphor-coated crystals in the block detector compared to 404 ps without phosphor coating. Flood maps showed a slight degradation in crystal resolvability with phosphor-coated crystals; however, all crystals could be resolved. Energy resolution was degraded by 3%–7% with phosphor-coated crystals compared to uncoated crystals. Conclusions: These results demonstrate the feasibility of obtaining TOF–DOI capabilities with simple block detector readout using phosphor-coated crystals

  15. Real-time fusion of coronary CT angiography with x-ray fluoroscopy during chronic total occlusion PCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoshhajra, Brian B; Takx, Richard A P; Stone, Luke L; Girard, Erin E; Brilakis, Emmanouil S; Lombardi, William L; Yeh, Robert W; Jaffer, Farouc A

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of real-time fusion of coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) centreline and arterial wall calcification with x-ray fluoroscopy during chronic total occlusion (CTO) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Patients undergoing CTO PCI were prospectively enrolled. Pre-procedural CT scans were integrated with conventional coronary fluoroscopy using prototype software. We enrolled 24 patients who underwent CTO PCI using the prototype CT fusion software, and 24 consecutive CTO PCI patients without CT guidance served as a control group. Mean age was 66 ± 11 years, and 43/48 patients were men. Real-time CTA fusion during CTO PCI provided additional information regarding coronary arterial calcification and tortuosity that generated new insights into antegrade wiring, antegrade dissection/reentry, and retrograde wiring during CTO PCI. Overall CTO success rates and procedural outcomes remained similar between the two groups, despite a trend toward higher complexity in the fusion CTA group. This study demonstrates that real-time automated co-registration of coronary CTA centreline and calcification onto live fluoroscopic images is feasible and provides new insights into CTO PCI, and in particular, antegrade dissection reentry-based CTO PCI. • Real-time semi-automated fusion of CTA/fluoroscopy is feasible during CTO PCI. • CTA fusion data can be toggled on/off as desired during CTO PCI • Real-time CT calcium and centreline overlay could benefit antegrade dissection/reentry-based CTO PCI.

  16. Time and motion study for alternative mixed low-level waste treatment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biagi, C.; Vetromile, J.; Teheranian, B.

    1997-02-01

    The time and motion study was developed to look at time-related aspects of the technologies and systems studied in the Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems (ITTS) and Integrated Nonthermal Treatment Systems (INTS) studies. The INTS and ITTS studies combined technologies into systems and subsystems for evaluation. The system approach provides DOE a method of measuring advantages and disadvantages of the many technologies currently being researched. For example, technologies which are more likely to create secondary waste or require extensive pretreatment handling may be less desirable than technologies which require less support from other processes. The time and motion study was designed to address the time element in the INTS and ITTS systems studies. Previous studies have focused on material balance, cost, technical effectiveness, regulatory issues, community acceptance, and operability. This study looks at system dynamics by estimating the treatment time required for a unit of waste, from receipt to certification for shipping. Labor estimates are also developed, based on the time required to do each task for each process. This focus on time highlights critical path processes and potential bottlenecks in the INTS and ITTS systems

  17. The Time Course of Knee Swelling Post Total Knee Arthroplasty and Its Associations with Quadriceps Strength and Gait Speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pua, Yong-Hao

    2015-07-01

    This study examines the time course of knee swelling post total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and its associations with quadriceps strength and gait speed. Eighty-five patients with unilateral TKA participated. Preoperatively and on post-operative days (PODs) 1, 4, 14, and 90, knee swelling was measured using bioimpedance spectrometry. Preoperatively and on PODs 14 and 90, quadriceps strength was measured using isokinetic dynamometry while fast gait speed was measured using the timed 10-meter walk. On POD1, knee swelling increased ~35% from preoperative levels after which, knee swelling reduced but remained at ~11% above preoperative levels on POD90. In longitudinal, multivariable analyses, knee swelling was associated with quadriceps weakness (P<0.01) and slower gait speed (P=0.03). Interventions to reduce post-TKA knee swelling may be indicated to improve quadriceps strength and gait speed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Optimization of mixed quantum-classical dynamics: Time-derivative coupling terms and selected couplings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pittner, Jiri; Lischka, Hans; Barbatti, Mario

    2009-01-01

    The usage of time-derivative non-adiabatic coupling terms and partially coupled time-dependent equations are investigated to accelerate non-adiabatic dynamics simulations at multireference configuration interaction (MRCI) level. The quality of the results and computational costs are compared against non-adiabatic benchmark dynamics calculations using non-adiabatic coupling vectors. In the comparison between the time-derivative couplings and coupling vectors, deviations in the adiabatic population of individual trajectories were observed in regions of rapid variation of the coupling terms. They, however, affected the average adiabatic population to only about 5%. For small multiconfiguration spaces, dynamics with time-derivative couplings are significantly faster than those with coupling vectors. This relation inverts for larger configuration spaces. The use of the partially coupled equations approach speeds up the simulations significantly while keeping the deviations in the population below few percent. Imidazole and the methaniminium cation are used as test examples

  19. Task Mapping and Partition Allocation for Mixed-Criticality Real-Time Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamas-Selicean, Domitian; Pop, Paul

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we address the mapping of mixedcriticality hard real-time applications on distributed embedded architectures. We assume that the architecture provides both spatial and temporal partitioning, thus enforcing enough separation between applications. With temporal partitioning, each...

  20. Flexible DWDM Grid Manipulation Using Four Wave Mixing-based Time Lenses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røge, Kasper Meldgaard; Guan, Pengyu; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen

    2014-01-01

    An experimental demonstration of dense wavelength-division multiplexing (DWDM) grid manipulation is carried out using two time lenses. A DWDM spectrum is compressed from a 100-GHz to a 28-GHz grid with error-free performance.......An experimental demonstration of dense wavelength-division multiplexing (DWDM) grid manipulation is carried out using two time lenses. A DWDM spectrum is compressed from a 100-GHz to a 28-GHz grid with error-free performance....

  1. The total length of myocytes and capillaries, and total number of myocyte nuclei in the rat heart are time-dependently increased by growth hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brüel, Annemarie; Oxlund, Hans; Nyengaard, Jens Randel

    2005-01-01

    /kg/day) or vehicle for 5, 10, 20, 40, or 80 days. From the left ventricle (LV) histological sections were made and stereological methods applied. Linear regression showed that GH time-dependently increased: LV volume (r=0.96, P

  2. Self-mixing laser Doppler vibrometry with high optical sensitivity application to real-time sound reproduction

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, K; Ko, J Y

    2003-01-01

    Nanometre vibration measurement of an audio speaker and a highly sensitive sound reproduction experiment have been successfully demonstrated by a self-aligned optical feedback vibrometry technique using the self-mixing modulation effect in a laser-diode-pumped microchip solid-state laser. By applying nanometre vibrations to the speaker, which produced nearly inaudible music below 20 dB (200 mu Pa) sound pressure level, we could reproduce clear sound in real time by the use of a simple frequency modulated wave demodulation circuit with a -120 dB light-intensity feedback ratio.

  3. Self-mixing laser Doppler vibrometry with high optical sensitivity: application to real-time sound reproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Kazutaka; Otsuka, Kenju; Ko, Jing-Yuan

    2003-01-01

    Nanometre vibration measurement of an audio speaker and a highly sensitive sound reproduction experiment have been successfully demonstrated by a self-aligned optical feedback vibrometry technique using the self-mixing modulation effect in a laser-diode-pumped microchip solid-state laser. By applying nanometre vibrations to the speaker, which produced nearly inaudible music below 20 dB (200 μPa) sound pressure level, we could reproduce clear sound in real time by the use of a simple frequency modulated wave demodulation circuit with a -120 dB light-intensity feedback ratio

  4. Self-mixing laser Doppler vibrometry with high optical sensitivity: application to real-time sound reproduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, Kazutaka [Department of Human and Information Science, Tokai University, 1117 Kitakaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa (Japan); Otsuka, Kenju [Department of Human and Information Science, Tokai University, 1117 Kitakaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa (Japan); Ko, Jing-Yuan [Department of Physics, Tunghai University, 181 Taichung-kang Road, Section 3, Taichung 407, Taiwan (China)

    2003-01-01

    Nanometre vibration measurement of an audio speaker and a highly sensitive sound reproduction experiment have been successfully demonstrated by a self-aligned optical feedback vibrometry technique using the self-mixing modulation effect in a laser-diode-pumped microchip solid-state laser. By applying nanometre vibrations to the speaker, which produced nearly inaudible music below 20 dB (200 {mu}Pa) sound pressure level, we could reproduce clear sound in real time by the use of a simple frequency modulated wave demodulation circuit with a -120 dB light-intensity feedback ratio.

  5. Stability of Almost Periodic Solution for a General Class of Discontinuous Neural Networks with Mixed Time-Varying Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingwei Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The global exponential stability issues are considered for almost periodic solution of the neural networks with mixed time-varying delays and discontinuous neuron activations. Some sufficient conditions for the existence, uniqueness, and global exponential stability of almost periodic solution are achieved in terms of certain linear matrix inequalities (LMIs, by applying differential inclusions theory, matrix inequality analysis technique, and generalized Lyapunov functional approach. In addition, the existence and asymptotically almost periodic behavior of the solution of the neural networks are also investigated under the framework of the solution in the sense of Filippov. Two simulation examples are given to illustrate the validity of the theoretical results.

  6. Study on time-varying velocity measurement with self-mixing laser diode based on Discrete Chirp-Fourier Transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhaoyun; Gao Yang; Zhao Xinghai; Zhao Xiang

    2011-01-01

    Laser's optical output power and frequency are modulated when the optical beam is back-scattered into the active cavity of the laser. By signal processing, the Doppler frequency can be acquired, and the target's velocity can be calculated. Based on these properties, an interferometry velocity sensor can be designed. When target move in time-varying velocity mode, it is difficult to extract the target's velocity. Time-varying velocity measurement by self-mixing laser diode is explored. A mathematics model was proposed for the time-varying velocity (invariable acceleration) measurement by self-mixing laser diode. Based on this model, a Discrete Chirp-Fourier Transform (DCFT) method was applied, DCFT is analogous to DFT. We show that when the signal length N is prime, the magnitudes of all the side lobes are 1, whereas the magnitudes of the main lobe is √N, And the coordinates of the main lobe shows the target's velocity and acceleration information. The simulation results prove the validity of the algorithm even in the situation of low SNR when N is prime.

  7. A Study of Mexican Free-Tailed Bat Chirp Syllables: Bayesian Functional Mixed Models for Nonstationary Acoustic Time Series

    KAUST Repository

    Martinez, Josue G.; Bohn, Kirsten M.; Carroll, Raymond J.; Morris, Jeffrey S.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a new approach to analyze chirp syllables of free-tailed bats from two regions of Texas in which they are predominant: Austin and College Station. Our goal is to characterize any systematic regional differences in the mating chirps and assess whether individual bats have signature chirps. The data are analyzed by modeling spectrograms of the chirps as responses in a Bayesian functional mixed model. Given the variable chirp lengths, we compute the spectrograms on a relative time scale interpretable as the relative chirp position, using a variable window overlap based on chirp length. We use 2D wavelet transforms to capture correlation within the spectrogram in our modeling and obtain adaptive regularization of the estimates and inference for the regions-specific spectrograms. Our model includes random effect spectrograms at the bat level to account for correlation among chirps from the same bat, and to assess relative variability in chirp spectrograms within and between bats. The modeling of spectrograms using functional mixed models is a general approach for the analysis of replicated nonstationary time series, such as our acoustical signals, to relate aspects of the signals to various predictors, while accounting for between-signal structure. This can be done on raw spectrograms when all signals are of the same length, and can be done using spectrograms defined on a relative time scale for signals of variable length in settings where the idea of defining correspondence across signals based on relative position is sensible.

  8. A Study of Mexican Free-Tailed Bat Chirp Syllables: Bayesian Functional Mixed Models for Nonstationary Acoustic Time Series

    KAUST Repository

    Martinez, Josue G.

    2013-06-01

    We describe a new approach to analyze chirp syllables of free-tailed bats from two regions of Texas in which they are predominant: Austin and College Station. Our goal is to characterize any systematic regional differences in the mating chirps and assess whether individual bats have signature chirps. The data are analyzed by modeling spectrograms of the chirps as responses in a Bayesian functional mixed model. Given the variable chirp lengths, we compute the spectrograms on a relative time scale interpretable as the relative chirp position, using a variable window overlap based on chirp length. We use 2D wavelet transforms to capture correlation within the spectrogram in our modeling and obtain adaptive regularization of the estimates and inference for the regions-specific spectrograms. Our model includes random effect spectrograms at the bat level to account for correlation among chirps from the same bat, and to assess relative variability in chirp spectrograms within and between bats. The modeling of spectrograms using functional mixed models is a general approach for the analysis of replicated nonstationary time series, such as our acoustical signals, to relate aspects of the signals to various predictors, while accounting for between-signal structure. This can be done on raw spectrograms when all signals are of the same length, and can be done using spectrograms defined on a relative time scale for signals of variable length in settings where the idea of defining correspondence across signals based on relative position is sensible.

  9. A new acoustic method to determine the setting time of calcium sulfate bone cement mixed with antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, J J; Brayford, M J; Laycock, P A

    2014-08-01

    A new method is described which can be used to determine the setting times of small amounts of high value bone cements. The test was developed to measure how the setting times of a commercially available synthetic calcium sulfate cement (Stimulan, Biocomposites, UK) in two forms (standard and Rapid Cure) varies with the addition of clinically relevant antibiotics. The importance of being able to accurately quantify these setting times is discussed. The results demonstrate that this new method, which is shown to correlate to the Vicat needle, gives reliable and repeatable data with additional benefits expressed in the article. The majority of antibiotics mixed were found to retard the setting reaction of the calcium sulfate cement.

  10. A new acoustic method to determine the setting time of calcium sulfate bone cement mixed with antibiotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, J J; Brayford, M J; Laycock, P A

    2014-01-01

    A new method is described which can be used to determine the setting times of small amounts of high value bone cements. The test was developed to measure how the setting times of a commercially available synthetic calcium sulfate cement (Stimulan, Biocomposites, UK) in two forms (standard and Rapid Cure) varies with the addition of clinically relevant antibiotics. The importance of being able to accurately quantify these setting times is discussed. The results demonstrate that this new method, which is shown to correlate to the Vicat needle, gives reliable and repeatable data with additional benefits expressed in the article. The majority of antibiotics mixed were found to retard the setting reaction of the calcium sulfate cement. (paper)

  11. IMU-based Real-time Pose Measurement system for Anterior Pelvic Plane in Total Hip Replacement Surgeries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhe Cao; Shaojie Su; Hao Tang; Yixin Zhou; Zhihua Wang; Hong Chen

    2017-07-01

    With the aging of population, the number of Total Hip Replacement Surgeries (THR) increased year by year. In THR, inaccurate position of the implanted prosthesis may lead to the failure of the operation. In order to reduce the failure rate and acquire the real-time pose of Anterior Pelvic Plane (APP), we propose a measurement system in this paper. The measurement system includes two parts: Initial Pose Measurement Instrument (IPMI) and Real-time Pose Measurement Instrument (RPMI). IPMI is used to acquire the initial pose of the APP, and RPMI is used to estimate the real-time pose of the APP. Both are composed of an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) and magnetometer sensors. To estimate the attitude of the measurement system, the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) is adopted in this paper. The real-time pose of the APP could be acquired together with the algorithm designed in the paper. The experiment results show that the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) is within 1.6 degrees, which meets the requirement of THR operations.

  12. Reconstruction of MODIS total suspended matter time series maps by DINEOF and validation with autonomous platform data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechad, Bouchra; Alvera-Azcaràte, Aida; Ruddick, Kevin; Greenwood, Naomi

    2011-08-01

    In situ measurements of total suspended matter (TSM) over the period 2003-2006, collected with two autonomous platforms from the Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences (Cefas) measuring the optical backscatter (OBS) in the southern North Sea, are used to assess the accuracy of TSM time series extracted from satellite data. Since there are gaps in the remote sensing (RS) data, due mainly to cloud cover, the Data Interpolating Empirical Orthogonal Functions (DINEOF) is used to fill in the TSM time series and build a continuous daily "recoloured" dataset. The RS datasets consist of TSM maps derived from MODIS imagery using the bio-optical model of Nechad et al. (Rem Sens Environ 114: 854-866, 2010). In this study, the DINEOF time series are compared to the in situ OBS measured in moderately to very turbid waters respectively in West Gabbard and Warp Anchorage, in the southern North Sea. The discrepancies between instantaneous RS, DINEOF-filled RS data and Cefas data are analysed in terms of TSM algorithm uncertainties, space-time variability and DINEOF reconstruction uncertainty.

  13. Backward-in-time methods to simulate large-scale transport and mixing in the ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prants, S. V.

    2015-06-01

    In oceanography and meteorology, it is important to know not only where water or air masses are headed for, but also where they came from as well. For example, it is important to find unknown sources of oil spills in the ocean and of dangerous substance plumes in the atmosphere. It is impossible with the help of conventional ocean and atmospheric numerical circulation models to extrapolate backward from the observed plumes to find the source because those models cannot be reversed in time. We review here recently elaborated backward-in-time numerical methods to identify and study mesoscale eddies in the ocean and to compute where those waters came from to a given area. The area under study is populated with a large number of artificial tracers that are advected backward in time in a given velocity field that is supposed to be known analytically or numerically, or from satellite and radar measurements. After integrating advection equations, one gets positions of each tracer on a fixed day in the past and can identify from known destinations a particle positions at earlier times. The results provided show that the method is efficient, for example, in estimating probabilities to find increased concentrations of radionuclides and other pollutants in oceanic mesoscale eddies. The backward-in-time methods are illustrated in this paper with a few examples. Backward-in-time Lagrangian maps are applied to identify eddies in satellite-derived and numerically generated velocity fields and to document the pathways by which they exchange water with their surroundings. Backward-in-time trapping maps are used to identify mesoscale eddies in the altimetric velocity field with a risk to be contaminated by Fukushima-derived radionuclides. The results of simulations are compared with in situ mesurement of caesium concentration in sea water samples collected in a recent research vessel cruise in the area to the east of Japan. Backward-in-time latitudinal maps and the corresponding

  14. Effect of water addition to a total mixed ration on feed temperature, feed intake, sorting behavior, and milk production of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felton, C A; DeVries, T J

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of water addition to a high-moisture total mixed ration (TMR) on feed temperature, feed intake, feed sorting behavior, and milk production of dairy cows. Twelve lactating Holstein cows (155.8+/-60.1 DIM), individually fed once daily at 1000 h, were exposed to 3 diets in a Latin square design with 28-d treatment periods. Diets had the same ingredient composition [30.9% corn silage, 30.3% alfalfa haylage, 21.2% high-moisture corn, and 17.6% protein supplement; dry matter (DM) basis] and differed only in DM concentration, which was reduced by the addition of water. Treatment diets averaged 56.3, 50.8, and 44.1% DM. The study was conducted between May and August when environmental temperature was 18.2+/-3.6 degrees C and ambient temperature in the barn was 24.4+/-3.3 degrees C. Dry matter intake (DMI) was monitored for each animal for the last 14 d of each treatment period. For the final 7 d of each period, milk production was monitored, feed temperature and ambient temperature and humidity were recorded (daily at 1000, 1300, and 1600 h), and fresh feed and orts were sampled for determination of sorting. For the final 4 d of each period, milk samples were taken for composition analysis. Samples taken for determining sorting were separated using a Penn State Particle Separator that had 3 screens (19, 8, and 1.18 mm) and a bottom pan, resulting in 4 fractions (long, medium, short, and fine). Sorting was calculated as the actual intake of each particle size fraction expressed as a percentage of the predicted intake of that fraction. Greater amounts of water added to the TMR resulted in greater increases in feed temperature in the hours after feed delivery, greater sorting against long particles, and decreased DMI, reducing the overall intake of starch and neutral detergent fiber. Milk production and composition were not affected by the addition of water to the TMR. Efficiency of production of milk was, however

  15. A Mixed Model for Real-Time, Interactive Simulation of a Cable Passing Through Several Pulleys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Fernandez, Ignacio; Pla-Castells, Marta; Martinez-Dura, Rafael J.

    2007-01-01

    A model of a cable and pulleys is presented that can be used in Real Time Computer Graphics applications. The model is formulated by the coupling of a damped spring and a variable coefficient wave equation, and can be integrated in more complex mechanical models of lift systems, such as cranes, elevators, etc. with a high degree of interactivity

  16. A Mixed Model for Real-Time, Interactive Simulation of a Cable Passing Through Several Pulleys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Fernandez, Ignacio; Pla-Castells, Marta; Martinez-Dura, Rafael J [Instituto de Robotica. Universidad de Valencia (Spain)

    2007-09-06

    A model of a cable and pulleys is presented that can be used in Real Time Computer Graphics applications. The model is formulated by the coupling of a damped spring and a variable coefficient wave equation, and can be integrated in more complex mechanical models of lift systems, such as cranes, elevators, etc. with a high degree of interactivity.

  17. Real-Time Animation Using a Mix of Physical Simulation and Kinematics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Welbergen, H.; Zwiers, Jakob; Ruttkay, Z.M.

    2009-01-01

    Expressive animation (such as gesturing or conducting) is typically generated using procedural animation techniques. These techniques offer precision in both timing and limb placement, but they lack physical realism. On the other hand, physical simulation offers physical realism, but does not

  18. Time resolved flow-field measurements of a turbulent mixing layer over a rectangular cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Shiyao; Driscoll, James F.; Elbing, Brian R.; Ceccio, Steven L.

    2011-07-01

    High Reynolds number, low Mach number, turbulent shear flow past a rectangular, shallow cavity has been experimentally investigated with the use of dual-camera cinematographic particle image velocimetry (CPIV). The CPIV had a 3 kHz sampling rate, which was sufficient to monitor the time evolution of large-scale vortices as they formed, evolved downstream and impinged on the downstream cavity wall. The time-averaged flow properties (velocity and vorticity fields, streamwise velocity profiles and momentum and vorticity thickness) were in agreement with previous cavity flow studies under similar operating conditions. The time-resolved results show that the separated shear layer quickly rolled-up and formed eddies immediately downstream of the separation point. The vortices convect downstream at approximately half the free-stream speed. Vorticity strength intermittency as the structures approach the downstream edge suggests an increase in the three-dimensionality of the flow. Time-resolved correlations reveal that the in-plane coherence of the vortices decays within 2-3 structure diameters, and quasi-periodic flow features are present with a vortex passage frequency of ~1 kHz. The power spectra of the vertical velocity fluctuations within the shear layer revealed a peak at a non-dimensional frequency corresponding to that predicted using linear, inviscid instability theory.

  19. Differences by Ending Rounds and Other Rounds in Time-Motion Analysis of Mixed Martial Arts: Implications for Assessment and Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miarka, Bianca; Brito, Ciro J; Moreira, Danilo G; Amtmann, John

    2018-02-01

    Miarka, B, Brito, CJ, Moreira, DG, and Amtmann, J. Differences by ending rounds and other rounds in time-motion analysis of mixed martial arts: implications for assessment and training. J Strength Cond Res 32(2): 534-544, 2018-This study aimed to support training program development through the comparison of performance analysis of professionals mixed martial art (MMA) athletes in the bouts that were not finished by points. Using digital recordings of each bout, we analyzed 1,564 rounds (678 bouts) which were separated by ending and other rounds. Our results indicated that knockout/technical knockout is the main outcome that defines the ending round (≈60%); however, there is a higher frequency of ending by submission on the first and second rounds (>30%). Bouts ending during the first or second rounds had shorter total time and standing combat with low intensity than ending in the third round (91.5 ± 71.4, 93.4 ± 67.5, and 143.2 ± 87.4; for low intensity in the first, second, and third rounds, respectively; p ≤ 0.05), whereas standing combat time with high intensity was longer in the last round in comparison to bouts that finished in the first or second rounds (7.4 ± 9.2, 9.7 ± 18.0, and 17.7 ± 29.1 for high intensity in the first, second, and third rounds, respectively; p ≤ 0.05). The lower time dedicated to low-intensity stand-up combat actions, regardless of round, and forcefulness of the actions in groundwork in the first and second rounds seem to be elements that increase the probability of success in professional MMA bouts; these factors have essential implications related to training program design.

  20. Analysis of hourly crash likelihood using unbalanced panel data mixed logit model and real-time driving environmental big data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng; Chen, Suren; Ma, Xiaoxiang

    2018-06-01

    Driving environment, including road surface conditions and traffic states, often changes over time and influences crash probability considerably. It becomes stretched for traditional crash frequency models developed in large temporal scales to capture the time-varying characteristics of these factors, which may cause substantial loss of critical driving environmental information on crash prediction. Crash prediction models with refined temporal data (hourly records) are developed to characterize the time-varying nature of these contributing factors. Unbalanced panel data mixed logit models are developed to analyze hourly crash likelihood of highway segments. The refined temporal driving environmental data, including road surface and traffic condition, obtained from the Road Weather Information System (RWIS), are incorporated into the models. Model estimation results indicate that the traffic speed, traffic volume, curvature and chemically wet road surface indicator are better modeled as random parameters. The estimation results of the mixed logit models based on unbalanced panel data show that there are a number of factors related to crash likelihood on I-25. Specifically, weekend indicator, November indicator, low speed limit and long remaining service life of rutting indicator are found to increase crash likelihood, while 5-am indicator and number of merging ramps per lane per mile are found to decrease crash likelihood. The study underscores and confirms the unique and significant impacts on crash imposed by the real-time weather, road surface, and traffic conditions. With the unbalanced panel data structure, the rich information from real-time driving environmental big data can be well incorporated. Copyright © 2018 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Time-resolved four-wave mixing in InAs/InGaAs quantum-dot amplifiers under electrical injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borri, Paola; Langbein, Wolfgang Werner; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    2000-01-01

    Time-resolved four-wave mixing in an InAs/InGaAs/GaAs electrically pumped quantum-dot amplifier is measured at room temperature for different applied bias currents going from optical absorption to gain of the device. The four-wave mixing signal from 140 fs pulses shows a transition from a delayed...

  2. Design Optimization of Mixed-Criticality Real-Time Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamas-Selicean, Domitian; Pop, Paul

    2015-01-01

    is allocated several time slots on a processor. Tasks of different SILs can share a partition only if they are all elevated to the highest SIL among them. Such elevation leads to increased development costs, which increase dramatically with each SIL. Tasks of higher SILs can be decomposed into redundant...... structures of lower SIL tasks. We are interested to determine (i) the mapping of tasks to processors, (ii) the assignment of tasks to partitions, (iii) the decomposition of tasks into redundant lower SIL tasks, (iv) the sequence and size of the partition time slots on each processor, and (v) the schedule...... tables, such that all the applications are schedulable and the development costs are minimized. We have proposed a Tabu Search-based approach to solve this optimization problem. The proposed algorithm has been evaluated using several synthetic and real-life benchmarks....

  3. Synchronization of nonidentical chaotic neural networks with leakage delay and mixed time-varying delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Jinde

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, an integral sliding mode control approach is presented to investigate synchronization of nonidentical chaotic neural networks with discrete and distributed time-varying delays as well as leakage delay. By considering a proper sliding surface and constructing Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, as well as employing a combination of the free-weighting matrix method, Newton-Leibniz formulation and inequality technique, a sliding mode controller is designed to achieve the asymptotical synchronization of the addressed nonidentical neural networks. Moreover, a sliding mode control law is also synthesized to guarantee the reachability of the specified sliding surface. The provided conditions are expressed in terms of linear matrix inequalities, and are dependent on the discrete and distributed time delays as well as leakage delay. A simulation example is given to verify the theoretical results.

  4. Meta-Analysis of Effect Sizes Reported at Multiple Time Points Using General Linear Mixed Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musekiwa, Alfred; Manda, Samuel O. M.; Mwambi, Henry G.; Chen, Ding-Geng

    2016-01-01

    Meta-analysis of longitudinal studies combines effect sizes measured at pre-determined time points. The most common approach involves performing separate univariate meta-analyses at individual time points. This simplistic approach ignores dependence between longitudinal effect sizes, which might result in less precise parameter estimates. In this paper, we show how to conduct a meta-analysis of longitudinal effect sizes where we contrast different covariance structures for dependence between effect sizes, both within and between studies. We propose new combinations of covariance structures for the dependence between effect size and utilize a practical example involving meta-analysis of 17 trials comparing postoperative treatments for a type of cancer, where survival is measured at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months post randomization. Although the results from this particular data set show the benefit of accounting for within-study serial correlation between effect sizes, simulations are required to confirm these results. PMID:27798661

  5. Observation of the time dependence of B0d-B0d mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buskulic, D.; de Bonis, I.; Decamp, D.; Ghez, P.; Goy, C.; Lees, J.-P.; Minard, M.-N.; Pietrzyk, B.; Ariztizabal, F.; Comas, P.; Crespo, J. M.; Delfino, M.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Fernandez, E.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Gaitan, V.; Garrido, Ll.; Mattison, T.; Pacheco, A.; Padilla, C.; Pascual, A.; Creanza, D.; de Palma, M.; Farilla, A.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Natali, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Quattromini, M.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Romano, F.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Zito, G.; Chai, Y.; Hu, H.; Huang, D.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, D.; Xu, R.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, W.; Blucher, E.; Bonvicini, G.; Boudreau, J.; Casper, D.; Drevermann, H.; Forty, R. W.; Ganis, G.; Gay, C.; Hagelberg, R.; Harvey, J.; Hilgart, J.; Jacobsen, R.; Jost, B.; Knobloch, J.; Lehraus, I.; Lohse, T.; Maggi, M.; Markou, C.; Martinez, M.; Mato, P.; Meinhard, H.; Minten, A.; Miotto, A.; Miquel, R.; Moser, H.-G.; Palazzi, P.; Pater, J. R.; Perlas, J. A.; Pusztaszeri, J.-F.; Ranjard, F.; Redlinger, G.; Rolandi, L.; Rothberg, J.; Ruan, T.; Saich, M.; Schlatter, D.; Schmelling, M.; Sefkow, F.; Tejessy, W.; Tomalin, I. R.; Veenhof, R.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wasserbaech, S.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wildish, T.; Witzeling, W.; Wotschack, J.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Badaud, F.; Bardadin-Otwinowska, M.; El Fellous, R.; Falvard, A.; Gay, P.; Guicheney, C.; Henrard, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Montret, J.-C.; Pallin, D.; Perret, P.; Podlyski, F.; Proriol, J.; Prulhière, F.; Saadi, F.; Fearnley, T.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, P. H.; Møllerud, R.; Nilsson, B. S.; Kyriakis, A.; Simopoulou, E.; Siotis, I.; Vayaki, A.; Zachariadou, K.; Badier, J.; Blondel, A.; Bonneaud, G.; Brient, J. C.; Fouque, G.; Orteu, S.; Rougé, A.; Rumpf, M.; Tanaka, R.; Verderi, M.; Videau, H.; Candlin, D. J.; Parsons, M. I.; Veitch, E.; Focardi, E.; Moneta, L.; Parrini, G.; Corden, M.; Georgiopoulos, C.; Ikeda, M.; Levinthal, D.; Antonelli, A.; Baldini, R.; Bencivenni, G.; Bologna, G.; Bossi, F.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Cerutti, F.; Chiarella, V.; D'Ettorre-Piazzoli, B.; Felici, G.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, F.; Murtas, G. P.; Passalacqua, L.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Picchi, P.; Colrain, P.; Ten Have, I.; Lynch, J. G.; Maitland, W.; Morton, W. T.; Raine, C.; Reeves, P.; Scarr, J. M.; Smith, K.; Smith, M. G.; Thompson, A. S.; Turnbull, R. M.; Brandl, B.; Braun, O.; Geweniger, C.; Hanke, P.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E. E.; Maumary, Y.; Putzer, A.; Rensch, B.; Stahl, A.; Tittel, K.; Wunsch, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Binnie, D. M.; Cameron, W.; Cattaneo, M.; Colling, D. J.; Dornan, P. J.; Greene, A. M.; Hassard, J. F.; Lieske, N. M.; Moutoussi, A.; Nash, J.; Patton, S.; Payne, D. G.; Phillips, M. J.; San Martin, G.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Wright, A. G.; Girtler, P.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Vogl, R.; Bowdery, C. K.; Brodbeck, T. J.; Finch, A. J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Jackson, D.; Keemer, N. R.; Nuttall, M.; Patel, A.; Sloan, T.; Snow, S. W.; Whelan, E. P.; Kleinknecht, K.; Raab, J.; Renk, B.; Sander, H.-G.; Schmidt, H.; Steeg, F.; Walther, S. M.; Wanke, R.; Wolf, B.; Bencheikh, A. M.; Benchouk, C.; Bonissent, A.; Carr, J.; Coyle, P.; Drinkard, J.; Etienne, F.; Nicod, D.; Papalexiou, S.; Payre, P.; Roos, L.; Rousseau, D.; Schwemling, P.; Talby, M.; Adlung, S.; Assmann, R.; Bauer, C.; Blum, W.; Brown, D.; Cattaneo, P.; Dehning, B.; Dietl, H.; Dydak, F.; Frank, M.; Halley, A. W.; Jakobs, K.; Lauber, J.; Lütjens, G.; Lutz, G.; Männer, W.; Richter, R.; Schröder, J.; Schwarz, A. S.; Settles, R.; Seywerd, H.; Stierlin, U.; Stiegler, U.; Denis, R. St.; Wolf, G.; Alemany, R.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Cordier, A.; Davier, M.; Duflot, L.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Heusse, Ph.; Jaffe, D. E.; Janot, P.; Kim, D. W.; Le Diberder, F.; Lefrançois, J.; Lutz, A.-M.; Schune, M.-H.; Veillet, J.-J.; Videau, I.; Zhang, Z.; Abbaneo, D.; Bagliesi, G.; Batignani, G.; Bottigli, U.; Bozzi, C.; Calderini, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Ciocci, M. A.; Ciulli, V.; dell'Orso, R.; Ferrante, I.; Fidecaro, F.; Foà, L.; Forti, F.; Giassi, A.; Giorgi, M. A.; Gregorio, A.; Ligabue, F.; Lusiani, A.; Mannelli, E. B.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzo, G.; Sanguinetti, G.; Spagnolo, P.; Steinberger, J.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Triggiani, G.; Valassi, A.; Vannini, C.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Walsh, J.; Betteridge, A. P.; Gao, Y.; Green, M. G.; March, P. V.; Mir, Ll. M.; Medcalf, T.; Quazi, I. S.; Strong, J. A.; West, L. R.; Botterill, D. R.; Clifft, R. W.; Edgecock, T. R.; Haywood, S.; Norton, P. R.; Thompson, J. C.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Colas, P.; Duarte, H.; Emery, S.; Kozanecki, W.; Lançon, E.; Lemaire, M. C.; Locci, E.; Marx, B.; Perez, P.; Rander, J.; Renardy, J.-F.; Rosowsky, A.; Roussarie, A.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schwindling, J.; Si Mohand, D.; Vallage, B.; Johnson, R. P.; Litke, A. M.; Taylor, G.; Wear, J.; Ashman, J. G.; Babbage, W.; Booth, C. N.; Buttar, C.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Dawson, I.; Thompson, L. F.; Barberio, E.; Böhrer, A.; Brandt, S.; Cowan, G.; Grupen, C.; Lutters, G.; Rivera, F.; Schäfer, U.; Smolik, L.; Bosisio, L.; della Marina, R.; Giannini, G.; Gobbo, B.; Ragusa, F.; Bellantoni, L.; Chen, W.; Conway, J. S.; Feng, Z.; Ferguson, D. P. S.; Gao, Y. S.; Grahl, J.; Harton, J. L.; Hayes, O. J.; Nachtman, J. M.; Pan, Y. B.; Saadi, Y.; Schmitt, M.; Scott, I.; Sharma, V.; Shi, Z. H.; Turk, J. D.; Walsh, A. M.; Weber, F. V.; Sau, Lan, Wu; Zheng, M.; Zobernig, G.

    1993-09-01

    The time dependence of B0d-B0d oscillations has been observed using events with a d*, decaying into a D0π+, and a lepton in opposite hemispheres. The time dependence of the oscillations is derived from the displacement of the D0 vertex and the D*-lepton charge correlation. From a fit for the oscillation frequency the mass difference of the B0d states is measured: Δm = [3.44+0.65-0.70(stat.)+0.26-0.20(syst.)] × 10-4 eV/c2. Supported by the US Department of Energy, contract DE-AC02-76ER00881.

  6. Real-time fusion of coronary CT angiography with X-ray fluoroscopy during chronic total occlusion PCI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghoshhajra, Brian B.; Takx, Richard A.P. [Harvard Medical School, Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Radiology and Division of Cardiology, Boston, MA (United States); Stone, Luke L.; Yeh, Robert W.; Jaffer, Farouc A. [Harvard Medical School, Cardiac Cathetrization Laboratory, Cardiology Division, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Girard, Erin E. [Siemens Healthcare, Princeton, NJ (United States); Brilakis, Emmanouil S. [Cardiology Division, Dallas VA Medical Center and UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States); Lombardi, William L. [University of Washington, Cardiology Division, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2017-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of real-time fusion of coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) centreline and arterial wall calcification with X-ray fluoroscopy during chronic total occlusion (CTO) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Patients undergoing CTO PCI were prospectively enrolled. Pre-procedural CT scans were integrated with conventional coronary fluoroscopy using prototype software. We enrolled 24 patients who underwent CTO PCI using the prototype CT fusion software, and 24 consecutive CTO PCI patients without CT guidance served as a control group. Mean age was 66 ± 11 years, and 43/48 patients were men. Real-time CTA fusion during CTO PCI provided additional information regarding coronary arterial calcification and tortuosity that generated new insights into antegrade wiring, antegrade dissection/reentry, and retrograde wiring during CTO PCI. Overall CTO success rates and procedural outcomes remained similar between the two groups, despite a trend toward higher complexity in the fusion CTA group. This study demonstrates that real-time automated co-registration of coronary CTA centreline and calcification onto live fluoroscopic images is feasible and provides new insights into CTO PCI, and in particular, antegrade dissection reentry-based CTO PCI. (orig.)

  7. A Hybrid Metaheuristic Approach for Minimizing the Total Flow Time in A Flow Shop Sequence Dependent Group Scheduling Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Costa

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Production processes in Cellular Manufacturing Systems (CMS often involve groups of parts sharing the same technological requirements in terms of tooling and setup. The issue of scheduling such parts through a flow-shop production layout is known as the Flow-Shop Group Scheduling (FSGS problem or, whether setup times are sequence-dependent, the Flow-Shop Sequence-Dependent Group Scheduling (FSDGS problem. This paper addresses the FSDGS issue, proposing a hybrid metaheuristic procedure integrating features from Genetic Algorithms (GAs and Biased Random Sampling (BRS search techniques with the aim of minimizing the total flow time, i.e., the sum of completion times of all jobs. A well-known benchmark of test cases, entailing problems with two, three, and six machines, is employed for both tuning the relevant parameters of the developed procedure and assessing its performances against two metaheuristic algorithms recently presented by literature. The obtained results and a properly arranged ANOVA analysis highlight the superiority of the proposed approach in tackling the scheduling problem under investigation.

  8. A Flexible Job Shop Scheduling Problem with Controllable Processing Times to Optimize Total Cost of Delay and Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Mokhtari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the flexible job shop scheduling problem with machine flexibility and controllable process times is studied. The main idea is that the processing times of operations may be controlled by consumptions of additional resources. The purpose of this paper to find the best trade-off between processing cost and delay cost in order to minimize the total costs. The proposed model, flexible job shop scheduling with controllable processing times (FJCPT, is formulated as an integer non-linear programming (INLP model and then it is converted into an integer linear programming (ILP model. Due to NP-hardness of FJCPT, conventional analytic optimization methods are not efficient. Hence, in order to solve the problem, a Scatter Search (SS, as an efficient metaheuristic method, is developed. To show the effectiveness of the proposed method, numerical experiments are conducted. The efficiency of the proposed algorithm is compared with that of a genetic algorithm (GA available in the literature for solving FJSP problem. The results showed that the proposed SS provide better solutions than the existing GA.

  9. CMOS time-to-digital converters for mixed-mode signal processing

    OpenAIRE

    Fei Yuan

    2014-01-01

    This study provides an in-depth review of the principles, architectures and design techniques of CMOS time-to-digital converters (TDCs). The classification of TDCs is introduced. It is followed by the examination of the parameters quantifying the performance of TDCs. Sampling TDCs including direct-counter TDCs, tapped delay-line TDCs, pulse-shrinking delay-line TDCs, cyclic pulse-shrinking TDCs, direct-counter TDCs with interpolation, vernier TDCs, flash TDCs, successive approximation TDCs an...

  10. Neighbourhood walkability, leisure-time and transport-related physical activity in a mixed urban-rural area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sa, Eric; Ardern, Chris I

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To develop a walkability index specific to mixed rural/suburban areas, and to explore the relationship between walkability scores and leisure time physical activity. Methods. Respondents were geocoded with 500 m and 1,000 m buffer zones around each address. A walkability index was derived from intersections, residential density, and land-use mix according to built environment measures. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to quantify the association between the index and physical activity levels. Analyses used cross-sectional data from the 2007-2008 Canadian Community Health Survey (n = 1158; ≥18 y). Results. Respondents living in highly walkable 500 m buffer zones (upper quartiles of the walkability index) were more likely to walk or cycle for leisure than those living in low-walkable buffer zones (quartile 1). When a 1,000 m buffer zone was applied, respondents in more walkable neighbourhoods were more likely to walk or cycle for both leisure-time and transport-related purposes. Conclusion. Developing a walkability index can assist in exploring the associations between measures of the built environment and physical activity to prioritize neighborhood change.

  11. Neighbourhood walkability, leisure-time and transport-related physical activity in a mixed urban–rural area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric de Sa

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To develop a walkability index specific to mixed rural/suburban areas, and to explore the relationship between walkability scores and leisure time physical activity.Methods. Respondents were geocoded with 500 m and 1,000 m buffer zones around each address. A walkability index was derived from intersections, residential density, and land-use mix according to built environment measures. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to quantify the association between the index and physical activity levels. Analyses used cross-sectional data from the 2007–2008 Canadian Community Health Survey (n = 1158; ≥18 y.Results. Respondents living in highly walkable 500 m buffer zones (upper quartiles of the walkability index were more likely to walk or cycle for leisure than those living in low-walkable buffer zones (quartile 1. When a 1,000 m buffer zone was applied, respondents in more walkable neighbourhoods were more likely to walk or cycle for both leisure-time and transport-related purposes.Conclusion. Developing a walkability index can assist in exploring the associations between measures of the built environment and physical activity to prioritize neighborhood change.

  12. The effect of organic solvent, temperature and mixing time on the production of oil from Moringa oleifera seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, Q.; Yasin, N. H. M.

    2016-06-01

    The effect of three different organic solvent, temperature and mixing time on the production of oil from M.oleifera seeds were studied to evaluate the effectiveness in obtaining the high oil yield based on the percentage of oil production. The modified version of Soxhlet extraction method was carried out to extract the oil from M.oleifera seeds by using hexane, heptane and ethanol as the organic solvent. Among the three solvents, it is found that heptane yield higher oil from M.oleifera seeds with maximum oil yield of 36.37% was obtained followed by hexane and ethanol with 33.89% and 18.46%, respectively. By using heptane as a solvent, the temperature (60oC, 70oC, 80oC) and mixing time (6 h, 7 h, and 8 h) were investigated to ensure the high oil yield over the experimental ranges employed and high oil yield was obtained at 600C for 6 h with percentage oil yield of 36.37%. The fatty acid compositions of M.oleifera seeds oil were analyzed using Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The main components of fatty acid contained in the oil extracted from M.oleifera seeds was oleic acid, followed by palmitic acid and arachidic acid, and small amount of behenic acid and margaric acid.

  13. Dissociated time course between peak torque and total work recovery following bench press training in resistance trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Diogo V; Gentil, Paulo; Ferreira-Junior, João B; Soares, Saulo R S; Brown, Lee E; Bottaro, Martim

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the time course of peak torque and total work recovery after a resistance training session involving the bench press exercise. Repeated measures with a within subject design. Twenty-six resistance-trained men (age: 23.7±3.7years; height: 176.0±5.7cm; mass: 79.65±7.61kg) performed one session involving eight sets of the bench press exercise performed to momentary muscle failure with 2-min rest between sets. Shoulder horizontal adductors peak torque (PT), total work (TW), delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) and subjective physical fitness were measured pre, immediately post, 24, 48, 72 and 96h following exercise. The exercise protocol resulted in significant pectoralis major DOMS that lasted for 72h. Immediately after exercise, the reduction in shoulder horizontal adductors TW (25%) was greater than PT (17%). TW, as a percentage of baseline values, was also less than PT at 24, 48 and 96h after exercise. Additionally, PT returned to baseline at 96h, while TW did not. Resistance trained men presented dissimilar PT and TW recovery following free weight bench press exercise. This indicates that recovery of maximal voluntary contraction does not reflect the capability to perform multiple contractions. Strength and conditioning professionals should be cautious when evaluating muscle recovery by peak torque, since it can lead to the repetition of a training session sooner than recommended. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Total neutron-counting plutonium inventory measurement systems (PIMS) and their potential application to near real time materials accountancy (NRTMA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driscall, I.; Fox, G.H.; Orr, C.H.; Whitehouse, K.R.

    1988-01-01

    A radiometric method of determining the inventory of an operating plutonium plant is described. An array of total neutron counters distributed across the plant is used to estimate hold-up at each plant item. Corrections for the sensitivity of detectors to plutonium in adjacent plant items are achieved through a matrix approach. This paper describes our experience in design, calibration and operation of a Plutonium Inventory Measurement System (PIMS) on an oxalate precipitation plutonium finishing line. Data from a recent trial of Near-Real-Time Materials Accounting (NRTMA) using the PIMS are presented and used to illustrate its present performance and problem areas. The reader is asked to consider what role PIMS might have in future accountancy systems

  15. Why older adults spend time sedentary and break their sedentary behaviour: a mixed methods approach using life-logging equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manon L Dontje

    2015-10-01

    It can be concluded that a mixed methods approach, by combining objective data of an activity monitor with contextual information from time-lapse photos and subjective information from people regarding their own behaviour, is an useful method to provide indepth information about (breaking sedentary behaviour in older adults. The results of this study showed that there is a difference in what older adults believe that are reasons for them to remain sedentary or break their sedentary time and what their actual reasons are. A personal story board based on objective measurements of sedentary behaviour can be a useful method to raise awareness and find individual and tailored ways to reduce sedentary behaviour and to increase the number of breaks in sedentary behaviour without much interference in daily routine.

  16. Global exponential stability of neutral high-order stochastic Hopfield neural networks with Markovian jump parameters and mixed time delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haiying; Du, Qiaosheng; Kang, Xibing

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, a class of neutral high-order stochastic Hopfield neural networks with Markovian jump parameters and mixed time delays is investigated. The jumping parameters are modeled as a continuous-time finite-state Markov chain. At first, the existence of equilibrium point for the addressed neural networks is studied. By utilizing the Lyapunov stability theory, stochastic analysis theory and linear matrix inequality (LMI) technique, new delay-dependent stability criteria are presented in terms of linear matrix inequalities to guarantee the neural networks to be globally exponentially stable in the mean square. Numerical simulations are carried out to illustrate the main results. © 2013 ISA. Published by ISA. All rights reserved.

  17. Infrared optical constants of aqueous sulfate-nitrate-ammonium multi-component tropospheric aerosols from attenuated total reflectance measurements: Part II. An examination of mixing rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boer, Gregory J.; Sokolik, Irina N.; Martin, Scot T.

    2007-01-01

    We examine the performance of several mixing rules that are commonly used in modeling optical constants of aerosol mixtures either in remote sensing or radiation transfer/climate studies employing the new refractive index data reported in Part I. We demonstrate that the optical constants of the considered mixtures are not accurately modeled using pure solute optical constants (e.g., ammonium sulfate optical constants and the optical constants of pure water) due to the complex ion-ion and ion-water interactions. On the other hand, we do find that ternary and quaternary mixtures can be well modeled by applying the mixing rules to lower order multi-component optical constants data, e.g., binary data to determine ternary optical constants, or binary and ternary data to determine quaternary optical constants. By using lower order optical constants data sets, much of the ion-ion and ion-water effects are captured. Both mass-fraction and volume-fraction weighting of the 'component' optical constants yield satisfactory results, performing as well or better than the more complicated mixing rules. These findings will be of practical use in remote sensing and radiation transfer/climate studies as well as help guide the decision on what optical constants measurements will be required

  18. Quantification of mixed chimerism by real time PCR on whole blood-impregnated FTA cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzoli, N; Silvy, M; Woronko, A; Le Treut, T; Lévy-Mozziconacci, A; Reviron, D; Gabert, J; Picard, C

    2007-09-01

    This study has investigated quantification of chimerism in sex-mismatched transplantations by quantitative real time PCR (RQ-PCR) using FTA paper for blood sampling. First, we demonstrate that the quantification of DNA from EDTA-blood which has been deposit on FTA card is accurate and reproducible. Secondly, we show that fraction of recipient cells detected by RQ-PCR was concordant between the FTA and salting-out method, reference DNA extraction method. Furthermore, the sensitivity of detection of recipient cells is relatively similar with the two methods. Our results show that this innovative method can be used for MC assessment by RQ-PCR.

  19. Extending total parenteral nutrition hang time in the neonatal intensive care unit: is it safe and cost effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balegar V, Kiran Kumar; Azeem, Mohammad Irfan; Spence, Kaye; Badawi, Nadia

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effects of prolonging hang time of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) fluid on central line-associated blood stream infection (CLABSI), TPN-related cost and nursing workload. A before-after observational study comparing the practice of hanging TPN bags for 48 h (6 February 2009-5 February 2010) versus 24 h (6 February 2008-5 February 2009) in a tertiary neonatal intensive care unit was conducted. The main outcome measures were CLABSI, TPN-related expenses and nursing workload. One hundred thirty-six infants received 24-h TPN bags and 124 received 48-h TPN bags. Median (inter-quartile range) gestation (37 weeks (33,39) vs. 36 weeks (33,39)), mean (±standard deviation) admission weight of 2442 g (±101) versus 2476 g (±104) and TPN duration (9.7 days (±12.7) vs. 9.9 days (±13.4)) were similar (P > 0.05) between the 24- and 48-h TPN groups. There was no increase in CLABSI with longer hang time (0.8 vs. 0.4 per 1000 line days in the 24-h vs. 48-h group; P < 0.05). Annual cost saving using 48-h TPN was AUD 97,603.00. By using 48-h TPN, 68.3% of nurses indicated that their workload decreased and 80.5% indicated that time spent changing TPN reduced. Extending TPN hang time from 24 to 48 h did not alter CLABSI rate and was associated with a reduced TPN-related cost and perceived nursing workload. Larger randomised controlled trials are needed to more clearly delineate these effects. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2012 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  20. Highly Integrated Mixed-Mode Electronics for the readout of Time Projection Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    França Santos, Hugo Miguel; Musa, Luciano

    Time Projection Chambers (TPCs) are one of the most prevalent particle trackers for high-energy physics experiments. Future planed TPCs for the International Linear Collider (ILC) and the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) entail very high spatial resolution in large gas volumes, but impose low material budget for the end caps of the TPC cylinder. This constraint is not accomplished with the state-of-the-art front-end electronics because of its unsuited relatively large mass and of its associated water cooling system. To reach the required material budget, highly compact and power efficient dedicated TPC front-end electronics should be developed. This project aims at re-designing the different electronic elements with significant improvements in terms of performance, power efficiency and versatility, and developing an integrated circuit that merges all components of the front-end electronics. This chip ambitions a large volume production at low unitary cost and its employment in multiple detectors. The design of ...

  1. A space-time mixed galerkin marching-on-in-time scheme for the time-domain combined field integral equation

    KAUST Repository

    Beghein, Yves; Cools, Kristof; Bagci, Hakan; De Zutter, Danië l

    2013-01-01

    electrically conducting bodies, is free from spurious resonances. The standard marching-on-in-time technique for discretizing the TD-CFIE uses Galerkin and collocation schemes in space and time, respectively. Unfortunately, the standard scheme is theoretically

  2. The Challenges of Creating a Real-Time Data Management System for TRU-Mixed Waste at the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paff, S. W; Doody, S.

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses the challenges associated with creating a data management system for waste tracking at the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Plant (AMWTP) at the Idaho National Engineering Lab (INEEL). The waste tracking system combines data from plant automation systems and decision points. The primary purpose of the system is to provide information to enable the plant operators and engineers to assess the risks associated with each container and determine the best method of treating it. It is also used to track the transuranic (TRU) waste containers as they move throughout the various processes at the plant. And finally, the goal of the system is to support paperless shipments of the waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This paper describes the approach, methodologies, the underlying design of the database, and the challenges of creating the Data Management System (DMS) prior to completion of design and construction of a major plant. The system was built utilizing an Oracle database platform, and Oracle Forms 6i in client-server mode. The underlying data architecture is container-centric, with separate tables and objects for each type of analysis used to characterize the waste, including real-time radiography (RTR), non-destructive assay (NDA), head-space gas sampling and analysis (HSGS), visual examination (VE) and coring. The use of separate tables facilitated the construction of automatic interfaces with the analysis instruments that enabled direct data capture. Movements are tracked using a location system describing each waste container's current location and a history table tracking the container's movement history. The movement system is designed to interface both with radio-frequency bar-code devices and the plant's integrated control system (ICS). Collections of containers or information, such as batches, were created across the various types of analyses, which enabled a single, cohesive approach to be developed for verification and

  3. Latitude-Time Total Electron Content Anomalies as Precursors to Japan's Large Earthquakes Associated with Principal Component Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyh-Woei Lin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to determine whether principal component analysis (PCA can be used to process latitude-time ionospheric TEC data on a monthly basis to identify earthquake associated TEC anomalies. PCA is applied to latitude-time (mean-of-a-month ionospheric total electron content (TEC records collected from the Japan GEONET network to detect TEC anomalies associated with 18 earthquakes in Japan (M≥6.0 from 2000 to 2005. According to the results, PCA was able to discriminate clear TEC anomalies in the months when all 18 earthquakes occurred. After reviewing months when no M≥6.0 earthquakes occurred but geomagnetic storm activity was present, it is possible that the maximal principal eigenvalues PCA returned for these 18 earthquakes indicate earthquake associated TEC anomalies. Previously PCA has been used to discriminate earthquake-associated TEC anomalies recognized by other researchers, who found that statistical association between large earthquakes and TEC anomalies could be established in the 5 days before earthquake nucleation; however, since PCA uses the characteristics of principal eigenvalues to determine earthquake related TEC anomalies, it is possible to show that such anomalies existed earlier than this 5-day statistical window.

  4. Time-series MODIS image-based retrieval and distribution analysis of total suspended matter concentrations in Lake Taihu (China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuchao; Lin, Shan; Liu, Jianping; Qian, Xin; Ge, Yi

    2010-09-01

    Although there has been considerable effort to use remotely sensed images to provide synoptic maps of total suspended matter (TSM), there are limited studies on universal TSM retrieval models. In this paper, we have developed a TSM retrieval model for Lake Taihu using TSM concentrations measured in situ and a time series of quasi-synchronous MODIS 250 m images from 2005. After simple geometric and atmospheric correction, we found a significant relationship (R = 0.8736, N = 166) between in situ measured TSM concentrations and MODIS band normalization difference of band 3 and band 1. From this, we retrieved TSM concentrations in eight regions of Lake Taihu in 2007 and analyzed the characteristic distribution and variation of TSM. Synoptic maps of model-estimated TSM of 2007 showed clear geographical and seasonal variations. TSM in Central Lake and Southern Lakeshore were consistently higher than in other regions, while TSM in East Taihu was generally the lowest among the regions throughout the year. Furthermore, a wide range of TSM concentrations appeared from winter to summer. TSM in winter could be several times that in summer.

  5. A Novel Ant Colony Algorithm for the Single-Machine Total Weighted Tardiness Problem with Sequence Dependent Setup Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fardin Ahmadizar

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the NP-hard single-machine total weighted tardiness problem with sequence dependent setup times. Incorporating fuzzy sets and genetic operators, a novel ant colony optimization algorithm is developed for the problem. In the proposed algorithm, artificial ants construct solutions as orders of jobs based on the heuristic information as well as pheromone trails. To calculate the heuristic information, three well-known priority rules are adopted as fuzzy sets and then aggregated. When all artificial ants have terminated their constructions, genetic operators such as crossover and mutation are applied to generate new regions of the solution space. A local search is then performed to improve the performance quality of some of the solutions found. Moreover, at run-time the pheromone trails are locally as well as globally updated, and limited between lower and upper bounds. The proposed algorithm is experimented on a set of benchmark problems from the literature and compared with other metaheuristics.

  6. The effect of water volume and mixing time on physical properties of bread made from modified cassava starch-wheat composite flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srirejeki, S.; Manuhara, G. J.; Amanto, B. S.; Atmaka, W.; Laksono, P. W.

    2018-03-01

    Modification of cassava starch with soaking in the whey (by product on cheese production) resulted in changes of the flour characteristics. Adjustments of processing condition are important to be studied in the making of bread from modified cassava starch and wheat composite flour (30:70). This research aims to determine the effect of water volume and mixing time on the physical properties of the bread. The experimental design of this research was Completely Randomized Factorial Design (CRFD) with two factors which were water volume and mixing time. The variation of water volume significantly affected on bread height, dough volume, dough specific volume, and crust thickness. The variation of mixing time had a significant effect on the increase of dough volume and dough specific volume. The combination of water volume and mixing time had a significant effect on dough height, bread volume, bread specific volume, baking expansion, and weight loss.

  7. Modeling of RFID-Enabled Real-Time Manufacturing Execution System in Mixed-Model Assembly Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhixin Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To quickly respond to the diverse product demands, mixed-model assembly lines are well adopted in discrete manufacturing industries. Besides the complexity in material distribution, mixed-model assembly involves a variety of components, different process plans and fast production changes, which greatly increase the difficulty for agile production management. Aiming at breaking through the bottlenecks in existing production management, a novel RFID-enabled manufacturing execution system (MES, which is featured with real-time and wireless information interaction capability, is proposed to identify various manufacturing objects including WIPs, tools, and operators, etc., and to trace their movements throughout the production processes. However, being subject to the constraints in terms of safety stock, machine assignment, setup, and scheduling requirements, the optimization of RFID-enabled MES model for production planning and scheduling issues is a NP-hard problem. A new heuristical generalized Lagrangian decomposition approach has been proposed for model optimization, which decomposes the model into three subproblems: computation of optimal configuration of RFID senor networks, optimization of production planning subjected to machine setup cost and safety stock constraints, and optimization of scheduling for minimized overtime. RFID signal processing methods that could solve unreliable, redundant, and missing tag events are also described in detail. The model validity is discussed through algorithm analysis and verified through numerical simulation. The proposed design scheme has important reference value for the applications of RFID in multiple manufacturing fields, and also lays a vital research foundation to leverage digital and networked manufacturing system towards intelligence.

  8. Real-time observational evidence of changing Asian dust morphology with the mixing of heavy anthropogenic pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, X.; Uno, I.; Wang, Z.; Nishizawa, T.; Sugimoto, N.; Yamamoto, S.; Kobayashi, H.; Sun, Y.; Fu, P.; Tang, X.; Wang, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Natural mineral dust and heavy anthropogenic pollution and its complex interactions cause significant environmental problems in East Asia. Due to restrictions of observing technique, real-time morphological change in Asian dust particles owing to coating process of anthropogenic pollutants is still statistically unclear. Here, we first used a newly developed, single-particle polarization detector and quantitatively investigate the evolution of the polarization property of backscattering light reflected from dust particle as they were mixing with anthropogenic pollutants in North China. The decrease in observed depolarization ratio is mainly attributed to the decrease of aspect ratio of the dust particles as a result of continuous coating processes. Hygroscopic growth of Calcium nitrate (Ca(NO3)2) on the surface of the dust particles played a vital role, particularly when they are stagnant in the polluted region with high RH conditions. Reliable statistics highlight the significant importance of internally mixed, `quasi-spherical' Asian dust particles, which markedly act as cloud condensation nuclei and exert regional climate change.

  9. Time-dependent earthquake hazard evaluation in seismogenic systems using mixed Markov Chains: An application to the Japan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, C.; Nava, F. A.; Lomnitz, C.

    2006-08-01

    A previous work introduced a new method for seismic hazard evaluation in a system (a geographic area with distinct, but related seismogenic regions) based on modeling the transition probabilities of states (patterns of presence or absence of seismicity, with magnitude greater or equal to a threshold magnitude Mr, in the regions of the system, during a time interval Δt) as a Markov chain. Application of this direct method to the Japan area gave very good results. Given that the most important limitation of the direct method is the relative scarcity of large magnitude events, we decided to explore the possibility that seismicity with magnitude M ≥ Mmr contains information about the future occurrence of earthquakes with M ≥ Mmr > Mmr. This mixed Markov chain method estimates the probabilities of occurrence of a system state for M ≥ MMr on the basis of the observed state for M ≥ Mmr in the previous Δt. Application of the mixed method to the area of Japan gives better hazard estimations than the direct method; in particular for large earthquakes. As part of this study, the problem of performance evaluation of hazard estimation methods is addressed, leading to the use of grading functions.

  10. A continuous-time adaptive particle filter for estimations under measurement time uncertainties with an application to a plasma-leucine mixed effects model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krengel, Annette; Hauth, Jan; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Adiels, Martin; Jirstrand, Mats

    2013-01-19

    When mathematical modelling is applied to many different application areas, a common task is the estimation of states and parameters based on measurements. With this kind of inference making, uncertainties in the time when the measurements have been taken are often neglected, but especially in applications taken from the life sciences, this kind of errors can considerably influence the estimation results. As an example in the context of personalized medicine, the model-based assessment of the effectiveness of drugs is becoming to play an important role. Systems biology may help here by providing good pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) models. Inference on these systems based on data gained from clinical studies with several patient groups becomes a major challenge. Particle filters are a promising approach to tackle these difficulties but are by itself not ready to handle uncertainties in measurement times. In this article, we describe a variant of the standard particle filter (PF) algorithm which allows state and parameter estimation with the inclusion of measurement time uncertainties (MTU). The modified particle filter, which we call MTU-PF, also allows the application of an adaptive stepsize choice in the time-continuous case to avoid degeneracy problems. The modification is based on the model assumption of uncertain measurement times. While the assumption of randomness in the measurements themselves is common, the corresponding measurement times are generally taken as deterministic and exactly known. Especially in cases where the data are gained from measurements on blood or tissue samples, a relatively high uncertainty in the true measurement time seems to be a natural assumption. Our method is appropriate in cases where relatively few data are used from a relatively large number of groups or individuals, which introduce mixed effects in the model. This is a typical setting of clinical studies. We demonstrate the method on a small artificial example

  11. Effect of mixing time and speed on experimental baking and dough testing with a 200g pin-mixer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under mixing or over mixing the dough results in varied experimental loaf volumes. Bread preparation requires a trained baker to evaluate dough development and determine stop points of mixer. Instrumentation and electronic control of the dough mixer would allow for automatic mixing. This study us...

  12. Optimisation of high-quality total ribonucleic acid isolation from cartilaginous tissues for real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, M; Huang, C L; Vonk, L A; Lu, Z F; Bank, R A; Helder, M N; Doulabi, B Zandieh

    2016-11-01

    Studies which consider the molecular mechanisms of degeneration and regeneration of cartilaginous tissues are seriously hampered by problematic ribonucleic acid (RNA) isolations due to low cell density and the dense, proteoglycan-rich extracellular matrix of cartilage. Proteoglycans tend to co-purify with RNA, they can absorb the full spectrum of UV light and they are potent inhibitors of polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Therefore, the objective of the present study is to compare and optimise different homogenisation methods and RNA isolation kits for an array of cartilaginous tissues. Tissue samples such as the nucleus pulposus (NP), annulus fibrosus (AF), articular cartilage (AC) and meniscus, were collected from goats and homogenised by either the MagNA Lyser or Freezer Mill. RNA of duplicate samples was subsequently isolated by either TRIzol (benchmark), or the RNeasy Lipid Tissue, RNeasy Fibrous Tissue, or Aurum Total RNA Fatty and Fibrous Tissue kits. RNA yield, purity, and integrity were determined and gene expression levels of type II collagen and aggrecan were measured by real-time PCR. No differences between the two homogenisation methods were found. RNA isolation using the RNeasy Fibrous and Lipid kits resulted in the purest RNA (A260/A280 ratio), whereas TRIzol isolations resulted in RNA that is not as pure, and show a larger difference in gene expression of duplicate samples compared with both RNeasy kits. The Aurum kit showed low reproducibility. For the extraction of high-quality RNA from cartilaginous structures, we suggest homogenisation of the samples by the MagNA Lyser. For AC, NP and AF we recommend the RNeasy Fibrous kit, whereas for the meniscus the RNeasy Lipid kit is advised.Cite this article: M. Peeters, C. L. Huang, L. A. Vonk, Z. F. Lu, R. A. Bank, M. N. Helder, B. Zandieh Doulabi. Optimisation of high-quality total ribonucleic acid isolation from cartilaginous tissues for real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. Bone Joint Res 2016

  13. The Impact of a Health IT Changeover on Medical Imaging Department Work Processes and Turnaround Times: A mixed method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, A; Prgomet, M; Lymer, S; Hordern, A; Ridley, L; Westbrook, J

    2015-01-01

    To assess the impact of introducing a new Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) and Radiology Information System (RIS) on: (i) Medical Imaging work processes; and (ii) turnaround times (TATs) for x-ray and CT scan orders initiated in the Emergency Department (ED). We employed a mixed method study design comprising: (i) semi-structured interviews with Medical Imaging Department staff; and (ii) retrospectively extracted ED data before (March/April 2010) and after (March/April 2011 and 2012) the introduction of a new PACS/RIS. TATs were calculated as: processing TAT (median time from image ordering to examination) and reporting TAT (median time from examination to final report). Reporting TAT for x-rays decreased significantly after introduction of the new PACS/RIS; from a median of 76 hours to 38 hours per order (pMedical Imaging staff reported that the changeover to the new PACS/RIS led to gains in efficiency, particularly regarding the accessibility of images and patient-related information. Nevertheless, assimilation of the new PACS/RIS with existing Departmental work processes was considered inadequate and in some instances unsafe. Issues highlighted related to the synchronization of work tasks (e.g., porter arrangements) and the material set up of the work place (e.g., the number and location of computers). The introduction of new health IT can be a "double-edged sword" providing improved efficiency but at the same time introducing potential hazards affecting the effectiveness of the Medical Imaging Department.

  14. Using time-dependent indirect CP asymmetries to measure T and CPT violation in B0-Bbar0 mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karan, Anirban; Nayak, Abinash Kumar; Sinha, Rahul; London, David

    2018-06-01

    Quantum field theory, which is the basis for all of particle physics, requires that all processes respect CPT invariance. It is therefore of paramount importance to test the validity of CPT conservation. In this Letter, we show that the time-dependent, indirect CP asymmetries involving B decays to a CP eigenstate contain enough information to measure T and CPT violation in B0-Bbar0 mixing, in addition to the standard CP-violating weak phases. Entangled B0Bbar0 states are not required (so that this analysis can be carried out at LHCb, as well as at the B factories), penguin pollution need not be neglected, and the measurements can be made using Bd0 or Bs0 mesons.

  15. Applications and Optimization of Optical Time Lenses based on Four-Wave Mixing in Highly Nonlinear Fibre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillieholm, Mads

    2017-01-01

    Optical Fourier transformations enabled by the versatile time lens (quadratic phase modulator), have been demonstrated for numerous optical signal processing applications. Applications include ultrafast optical oscilloscopes, high resolution spectralanalysers, and the processing of ultrahigh......-speed communication signals, to enable e.g. such varied applications as phase regeneration for wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) signals, conversion between spectrally efficient formats and receivers with reduced complexity for advanced optical multiplexing formats. Four-wave mixing (FWM) is showing promise...... of HNLF for different applications, and to a novel generic method based on only two tunable CW lasers, which allows for accurate prediction of the FWM performance in HNLF with chirped pump pulses.Then, a composite dispersion-flattened HNLF (DF-HNLF) is proposed and assembled to mitigate the effects...

  16. Short-time fourth-order squeezing effects in spontaneous and stimulated four- and six-wave mixing processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giri, Dilip Kumar; Gupta, P S

    2003-01-01

    The concept of fourth-order squeezing of the electromagnetic field is investigated in the fundamental mode in spontaneous and stimulated four- and six-wave mixing processes under the short-time approximation based on a fully quantum mechanical approach. The coupled Heisenberg equations of motion involving real and imaginary parts of the quadrature operators are established. The possibility of obtaining fourth-order squeezing is studied. The dependence of fourth-order squeezing on the number of photons is also investigated. It is shown that fourth-order squeezing, which is a higher-order squeezing, allows a much larger fractional noise reduction than lower-order squeezing. It is shown that squeezing is greater in a stimulated process than the corresponding squeezing in spontaneous interaction. The conditions for obtaining maximum and minimum squeezing are obtained. We have also established the non-classical nature of squeezed radiation using the Glauber-Sudarshan representation

  17. New Delay-Dependent Stability Criteria for Uncertain Neutral Systems with Mixed Time-Varying Delays and Nonlinear Perturbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Karimi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of stability analysis for a class of neutral systems with mixed time-varying neutral, discrete and distributed delays and nonlinear parameter perturbations is addressed. By introducing a novel Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional and combining the descriptor model transformation, the Leibniz-Newton formula, some free-weighting matrices, and a suitable change of variables, new sufficient conditions are established for the stability of the considered system, which are neutral-delay-dependent, discrete-delay-range-dependent, and distributed-delay-dependent. The conditions are presented in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs and can be efficiently solved using convex programming techniques. Two numerical examples are given to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed method.

  18. Time Dependent MHD Nano-Second Grade Fluid Flow Induced by Permeable Vertical Sheet with Mixed Convection and Thermal Radiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ramzan

    Full Text Available The aim of present paper is to study the series solution of time dependent MHD second grade incompressible nanofluid towards a stretching sheet. The effects of mixed convection and thermal radiation are also taken into account. Because of nanofluid model, effects Brownian motion and thermophoresis are encountered. The resulting nonlinear momentum, heat and concentration equations are simplified using appropriate transformations. Series solutions have been obtained for velocity, temperature and nanoparticle fraction profiles using Homotopy Analysis Method (HAM. Convergence of the acquired solution is discussed critically. Behavior of velocity, temperature and concentration profiles on the prominent parameters is depicted and argued graphically. It is observed that temperature and concentration profiles show similar behavior for thermophoresis parameter Νt but opposite tendency is noted in case of Brownian motion parameter Νb. It is further analyzed that suction parameter S and Hartman number Μ depict decreasing behavior on velocity profile.

  19. Mixed H-Infinity and Passive Filtering for Discrete Fuzzy Neural Networks With Stochastic Jumps and Time Delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Peng; Zhang, Yingqi; Chadli, Mohammed; Agarwal, Ramesh K

    2016-04-01

    In this brief, the problems of the mixed H-infinity and passivity performance analysis and design are investigated for discrete time-delay neural networks with Markovian jump parameters represented by Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy model. The main purpose of this brief is to design a filter to guarantee that the augmented Markovian jump fuzzy neural networks are stable in mean-square sense and satisfy a prescribed passivity performance index by employing the Lyapunov method and the stochastic analysis technique. Applying the matrix decomposition techniques, sufficient conditions are provided for the solvability of the problems, which can be formulated in terms of linear matrix inequalities. A numerical example is also presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed techniques.

  20. State estimation for neural neutral-type networks with mixed time-varying delays and Markovian jumping parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakshmanan, S.; Park, Ju H.; Jung, H. Y.; Balasubramaniam, P.

    2012-01-01

    This paper is concerned with a delay-dependent state estimator for neutral-type neural networks with mixed time-varying delays and Markovian jumping parameters. The addressed neural networks have a finite number of modes, and the modes may jump from one to another according to a Markov process. By construction of a suitable Lyapunov—Krasovskii functional, a delay-dependent condition is developed to estimate the neuron states through available output measurements such that the estimation error system is globally asymptotically stable in a mean square. The criterion is formulated in terms of a set of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs), which can be checked efficiently by use of some standard numerical packages

  1. Exponential Synchronization for Stochastic Neural Networks with Mixed Time Delays and Markovian Jump Parameters via Sampled Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingwei Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The exponential synchronization issue for stochastic neural networks (SNNs with mixed time delays and Markovian jump parameters using sampled-data controller is investigated. Based on a novel Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, stochastic analysis theory, and linear matrix inequality (LMI approach, we derived some novel sufficient conditions that guarantee that the master systems exponentially synchronize with the slave systems. The design method of the desired sampled-data controller is also proposed. To reflect the most dynamical behaviors of the system, both Markovian jump parameters and stochastic disturbance are considered, where stochastic disturbances are given in the form of a Brownian motion. The results obtained in this paper are a little conservative comparing the previous results in the literature. Finally, two numerical examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  2. Five times sit-to-stand test in subjects with total knee replacement: Reliability and relationship with functional mobility tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Mirapeix, Francesc; Vivo-Fernández, Iván; López-Cañizares, Juan; García-Vidal, José A; Benítez-Martínez, Josep Carles; Del Baño-Aledo, María Elena

    2018-01-01

    The objective was to determine the inter-observer and test/retest reliability of the "Five-repetition sit-to-stand" (5STS) test in patients with total knee replacement (TKR). To explore correlation between 5STS and two mobility tests. A reliability study was conducted among 24 (mean age 72.13, S.D. 10.67; 50% were women) outpatients with TKR. They were recruited from a traumatology unit of a public hospital via convenience sampling. A physiotherapist and trauma physician assessed each patient at the same time. The same physiotherapist realized a 5STS second measurement 45-60min after the first one. Reliability was assessed with intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and Bland-Altman plots. Pearson coefficient was calculated to assess the correlation between 5STS, time up to go test (TUG) and four meters gait speed (4MGS). ICC for inter-observer and test-retest reliability of the 5STS were 0.998 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.995-0.999) and 0.982 (95% CI, 0.959-0.992). Bland-Altman plot inter-observer showed limits between -0.82 and 1.06 with a mean of 0.11 and no heteroscedasticity within the data. Bland-Altman plot for test-retest showed the limits between 1.76 and 4.16, a mean of 1.20 and heteroscedasticity within the data. Pearson correlation coefficient revealed significant correlation between 5STS and TUG (r=0.7, ptest-retest reliability when it is used in people with TKR, and also significant correlation with other functional mobility tests. These findings support the use of 5STS as outcome measure in TKR population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Performance evaluation of linear time-series ionospheric Total Electron Content model over low latitude Indian GPS stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabbakuti, J. R. K. Kumar; Venkata Ratnam, D.

    2017-10-01

    Precise modeling of the ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) is a critical aspect of Positioning, Navigation, and Timing (PNT) services intended for the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) applications as well as Earth Observation System (EOS), satellite communication, and space weather forecasting applications. In this paper, linear time series modeling has been carried out on ionospheric TEC at two different locations at Koneru Lakshmaiah University (KLU), Guntur (geographic 16.44° N, 80.62° E; geomagnetic 7.55° N) and Bangalore (geographic 12.97° N, 77.59° E; geomagnetic 4.53° N) at the northern low-latitude region, for the year 2013 in the 24th solar cycle. The impact of the solar and geomagnetic activity on periodic oscillations of TEC has been investigated. Results confirm that the correlation coefficient of the estimated TEC from the linear model TEC and the observed GPS-TEC is around 93%. Solar activity is the key component that influences ionospheric daily averaged TEC while periodic component reveals the seasonal dependency of TEC. Furthermore, it is observed that the influence of geomagnetic activity component on TEC is different at both the latitudes. The accuracy of the model has been assessed by comparing the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) 2012 model TEC and TEC measurements. Moreover, the absence of winter anomaly is remarkable, as determined by the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) between the linear model TEC and GPS-TEC. On the contrary, the IRI2012 model TEC evidently failed to predict the absence of winter anomaly in the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA) crest region. The outcome of this work will be useful for improving the ionospheric now-casting models under various geophysical conditions.

  4. Characterizing the hydration state of L-threonine in solution using terahertz time-domain attenuated total reflection spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huachuan; Liu, Qiao; Zhu, Liguo; Li, Zeren

    2018-01-01

    The hydration of biomolecules is closely related to the dynamic process of their functional expression, therefore, characterizing hydration phenomena is a subject of keen interest. However, direct measurements on the global hydration state of biomolecules couldn't have been acquired using traditional techniques such as thermodynamics, ultrasound, microwave spectroscopy or viscosity, etc. In order to realize global hydration characterization of amino acid such as L-threonine, terahertz time-domain attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy (THz-TDS-ATR) was adopted in this paper. By measuring the complex permittivity of L-threonine solutions with various concentrations in the THz region, the hydration state and its concentration dependence were obtained, indicating that the number of hydrous water decreased with the increase of concentration. The hydration number was evaluated to be 17.8 when the molar concentration of L-threonine was 0.34 mol/L, and dropped to 13.2 when the molar concentration increased to 0.84 mol/L, when global hydration was taken into account. According to the proposed direct measurements, it is believed that the THz-TDS-ATR technique is a powerful tool for studying the picosecond molecular dynamics of amino acid solutions.

  5. Cross-sectional associations of total sitting and leisure screen time with cardiometabolic risk in adults. Results from the HUNT Study, Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chau, J.Y.; Grunseit, A.; Midthjell, K.; Holmen, J.; Holmen, T.L.; Bauman, A.E.; van der Ploeg, H.P.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To examine associations of total sitting time, TV-viewing and leisure-time computer use with cardiometabolic risk biomarkers in adults. Design: Population based cross-sectional study. Methods: Waist circumference, BMI, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, blood pressure, non-fasting

  6. Time motion study using mixed methods to assess service delivery by frontline health workers from South India: methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Samiksha; Upadhyaya, Sanjeev; Deshmukh, Pradeep; Dongre, Amol; Dwivedi, Neha; Dey, Deepak; Kumar, Vijay

    2018-04-02

    In India, amidst the increasing number of health programmes, there are concerns about the performance of frontline health workers (FLHW). We assessed the time utilisation and factors affecting the work of frontline health workers from South India. This is a mixed methods study using time and motion (TAM) direct observations and qualitative enquiry among frontline/community health workers. These included 43 female and 6 male multipurpose health workers (namely, auxiliary nurse midwives (ANMs) and male-MPHWs), 12 nutrition and health workers (Anganwadi workers, AWWs) and 53 incentive-based community health workers (accredited social health activists, ASHAs). We conducted the study in two phases. In the formative phase, we conducted an in-depth inductive investigation to develop observation checklists and qualitative tools. The main study involved deductive approach for TAM observations. This enabled us to observe a larger sample to capture variations across non-tribal and tribal regions and different health cadres. For the main study, we developed GPRS-enabled android-based application to precisely record time, multi-tasking and field movement. We conducted non-participatory direct observations (home to home) for consecutively 6 days for each participant. We conducted in-depth interviews with all the participants and 33 of their supervisors and relevant officials. We conducted six focus group discussions (FGDs) with ASHAs and one FGD with ANMs to validate preliminary findings. We established a mechanism for quality assurance of data collection and analysis. We analysed the data separately for each cadre and stratified for non-tribal and tribal regions. On any working day, the ANMs spent median 7:04 h, male-MPHWs spent median 5:44 h and AWWs spent median 6:50 h on the job. The time spent on the job was less among the FLHWs from tribal areas as compared to those from non-tribal areas. ANMs and AWWs prioritised maternal and child health, while male-MPHWs were

  7. Predicting the mean cycle time as a function of throughput and product mix for cluster tool workstations using EPT-based aggregate modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeger, C.P.L.; Etman, L.F.P.; Herk, van J.; Rooda, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    Predicting the mean cycle time as a function of throughput and product mix is helpful in making the production planning for cluster tools. To predict the mean cycle time, detailed simulation models may be used. However, detailed models require much development time, and it may not be possible to

  8. A mixed-method analysis of free-time involvement and motivation among adolescents in Cape Town, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palen, Lori-Ann; Caldwell, Linda L.; Smith, Edward A.; Gleeson, Sarah L.; Patrick, Megan E.

    2012-01-01

    Using focus group (N = 114) and survey (N = 946) data, this study employed Self-Determination Theory (SDT) as an organizing framework to examine free-time use and motivation among predominantly mixed-race adolescents from one area in South Africa. Adolescents reported participating in a broad range of activities, with socializing, media use, sports, risk behaviour, and performing arts being most frequently mentioned. All of the motivation types proposed by SDT were spontaneously mentioned by focus group participants. Free time was most strongly characterized by intrinsic motivations, such as competence, relatedness, and positive affect. Activities were also seen as a way to achieve outside goals. With few exceptions, multiple motivations were identified for the same activities, and specific motivations were reported across multiple activity types. The findings suggest that positive motivational experiences were not limited to a specific subset of activities. However, future longitudinal research on participation, motivation, and outcomes is needed to determine the developmental implications of different forms of free-time motivation. PMID:23055820

  9. Understanding the effects of time on collaborative learning processes in problem based learning: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hommes, J; Van den Bossche, P; de Grave, W; Bos, G; Schuwirth, L; Scherpbier, A

    2014-10-01

    Little is known how time influences collaborative learning groups in medical education. Therefore a thorough exploration of the development of learning processes over time was undertaken in an undergraduate PBL curriculum over 18 months. A mixed-methods triangulation design was used. First, the quantitative study measured how various learning processes developed within and over three periods in the first 1,5 study years of an undergraduate curriculum. Next, a qualitative study using semi-structured individual interviews focused on detailed development of group processes driving collaborative learning during one period in seven tutorial groups. The hierarchic multilevel analyses of the quantitative data showed that a varying combination of group processes developed within and over the three observed periods. The qualitative study illustrated development in psychological safety, interdependence, potency, group learning behaviour, social and task cohesion. Two new processes emerged: 'transactive memory' and 'convergence in mental models'. The results indicate that groups are dynamic social systems with numerous contextual influences. Future research should thus include time as an important influence on collaborative learning. Practical implications are discussed.

  10. Accurate, safe, and rapid method of intraoperative tumor identification for totally laparoscopic distal gastrectomy: injection of mixed fluid of sodium hyaluronate and patent blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Masatoshi; Ehara, Kazuhisa; Ueno, Masaki; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Kaida, Sachiko; Udagawa, Harushi

    2014-04-01

    In totally laparoscopic distal gastrectomy, determining the resection line with safe proximal margins is often difficult, particularly for tumors located in a relatively upper area. This is because, in contrast to open surgery, identifying lesions by palpating or opening the stomach is essentially impossible. This study introduces a useful method of tumor identification that is accurate, safe, and rapid. On the operation day, after inducing general anesthesia, a mixture of sodium hyaluronate and patent blue is injected into the submucosal layer of the proximal margin. When resecting stomach, all marker spots should be on the resected side. In all cases, the proximal margin is examined histologically by using frozen sections during the operation. From October 2009 to September 2011, a prospective study that evaluated this method was performed. A total of 34 patients who underwent totally laparoscopic distal gastrectomy were enrolled in this study. Approximately 5 min was required to complete the procedure. Proximal margins were negative in all cases, and the mean ± standard deviation length of the proximal margin was 23.5 ± 12.8 mm. No side effects, such as allergy, were encountered. As a method of tumor identification for totally laparoscopic distal gastrectomy, this procedure appears accurate, safe, and rapid.

  11. Estimating Surface NO2 and SO2 Mixing Ratios from Fast-Response Total Column Observations and Potential Application to Geostationary Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Total-column nitrogen dioxide (NO2) data collected by a ground-based sun-tracking spectrometer system 21 (Pandora) and an photolytic-converter-based in-situ instrument collocated at NASA’s Langley Research Center in 22 Hampton, Virginia were analyzed to study the relationship bet...

  12. The effects of and interactions between the maturity of grass silage and concentrate starch source when offered as total mixed rations on the performance of dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tahir, M.N.; Lund, Peter; Hetta, M.

    2013-01-01

    identical proportions of forage (51%) and concentrate (49%). Total tract digestibility was estimated by determining indigestible NDF (iNDF) concentrations in feeds and faeces and using iNDF as an internal marker. The feeds’ ruminal degradation parameters were determined using both in situ (nylon bag...

  13. Physico-Chemical and Biochemical Characteristics of Mixed Saliva in Patients at Various Time After Dental Implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zekiy A.O.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available he study deals with comparison of physico-chemical (pH, buffer capacity, viscosity and biochemical (concentration of albumin, calcium, phosphate, the activity of aamylase and alkaline phosphatase variables in the mixed saliva (oral fluid, OF in persons with dental implants depending on its number (1-2 or 3 and more and time after installation (2-4 and 5-11 months, and those with satisfactory state of oral health and without implants. The pH value in OF was almost similar in patients of group comparison and at different times after implantation and at different number of implants. The OF buffer capacity in different periods after the installation of single implants varied, been typical for the comparison group. A 2.4-fold decrease of buffer capacity was character at 2-4 months after installation of three or more implants, later this decline has not recovered fully. The installation of a single implant was not accompanied by changes in the OF viscosity, while multiple dental implant installation let to increase of viscosity 2.1 times less than in the comparison group at 2-4 months terms. The alterations of some biochemical properties of OF after dental implantation were shown to depend on the number and timing since the load on the installed constructions. Thus, more significant changes in oral fluid are to reduce the buffer capacity and viscosity of oral fluid, the concentration of calcium ions and the activity of a-amylase, they may be stored at the time of 5-11 months after implantation. These changes are associated with possible functional properties of oral fluid, which may affect the adaptation of dental system to new functional conditions connected to dental implant installation.

  14. Winter-time size distribution and source apportionment of total suspended particulate matter and associated metals in Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Arun; Gupta, Sandeep; Jain, V. K.

    2009-03-01

    A study of the winter time size distribution and source apportionment of total suspended particulate matter (TSPM) and associated heavy metal concentrations have been carried out for the city of Delhi. This study is important from the point of view of implementation of compressed natural gas (CNG) as alternate of diesel fuel in the public transport system in 2001 to reduce the pollution level. TSPM were collected using a five-stage cascade impactor at six sites in the winters of 2005-06. The results of size distribution indicate that a major portion (~ 40%) of TSPM concentration is in the form of PM0.7 (heavy metals associated with various size fractions of TSPM. A very good correlation between coarse and fine size fraction of TSPM was observed. It was also observed that the metals associated with coarse particles have more chances of correlation with other metals; rather they are associated with fine particles. Source apportionment was carried out separately in coarse and fine size modes of TSPM by Chemical Mass Balance Receptor Model (CMB8) as well as by Principle Component Analysis (PCA) of SPSS. Source apportionment by PCA reveals that there are two major sources (possibly vehicular and crustal re-suspension) in both coarse and fine size fractions. Results obtained by CMB8 show the dominance of vehicular pollutants and crustal dust in fine and coarse size mode respectively. Noticeably the dominance of vehicular pollutants are now confined to fine size only whilst during pre CNG era it dominated both coarse and fine size mode. An increase of 42.5, 44.4, 48.2, 38.6 and 38.9% in the concentrations of TSPM, PM10.9, coarse particles, fine particles and lead respectively was observed during pre (2001) to post CNG (2005-06) period.

  15. iFLOOD: A Real Time Flood Forecast System for Total Water Modeling in the National Capital Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumi, S. J.; Ferreira, C.

    2017-12-01

    Extreme flood events are the costliest natural hazards impacting the US and frequently cause extensive damages to infrastructure, disruption to economy and loss of lives. In 2016, Hurricane Matthew brought severe damage to South Carolina and demonstrated the importance of accurate flood hazard predictions that requires the integration of riverine and coastal model forecasts for total water prediction in coastal and tidal areas. The National Weather Service (NWS) and the National Ocean Service (NOS) provide flood forecasts for almost the entire US, still there are service-gap areas in tidal regions where no official flood forecast is available. The National capital region is vulnerable to multi-flood hazards including high flows from annual inland precipitation events and surge driven coastal inundation along the tidal Potomac River. Predicting flood levels on such tidal areas in river-estuarine zone is extremely challenging. The main objective of this study is to develop the next generation of flood forecast systems capable of providing accurate and timely information to support emergency management and response in areas impacted by multi-flood hazards. This forecast system is capable of simulating flood levels in the Potomac and Anacostia River incorporating the effects of riverine flooding from the upstream basins, urban storm water and tidal oscillations from the Chesapeake Bay. Flood forecast models developed so far have been using riverine data to simulate water levels for Potomac River. Therefore, the idea is to use forecasted storm surge data from a coastal model as boundary condition of this system. Final output of this validated model will capture the water behavior in river-estuary transition zone far better than the one with riverine data only. The challenge for this iFLOOD forecast system is to understand the complex dynamics of multi-flood hazards caused by storm surges, riverine flow, tidal oscillation and urban storm water. Automated system

  16. Microbial release of ferulic and p-coumaric acids from forages and their digestibility in lactating cows fed total mixed rations with different forage combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Bin-Bin; Jin, Xin; Yang, Hong-Jian; Li, Sheng-Li; Jiang, Lin-Shu

    2016-01-30

    Ferulic acid (FA) and p-coumaric acid (PCA) are widely distributed in graminaceous plant cell walls. This study investigated the in vitro and in vivo digestibility of ester-linked FA (FAest) and PCA (PCAest) in lactating dairy cows. Regarding corn stover, ensiled corn stover, whole corn silage, Chinese wild ryegrass and alfalfa hay with different phenolic acid profiles, the in vitro rumen digestibility of forage FAest and PCAest was negatively correlated with the ether-linked FA content and original PCA/FA ratio in the forages. The concentration of both phenolic acids in culture fluids was low after a 72 h incubation, and the mixed rumen microorganisms metabolized nearly all phenolic acids released into the culture fluids. FAest digestibility in the whole digestive tract was negatively correlated with dietary PCA/FA ratio, but a converse result occurred with dietary PCAest digestibility. The digestibility in either the rumen or the whole digestive tract was greater for FAest than for PCAest. Forage PCAest in comparison with FAest is not easily digested in either the rumen or the whole digestive tract, and they were negatively affected by forage FAeth content and lignification extent indicated by the original dietary PCA/FA ratio. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Real-Time Monitoring of Low-Level Mixed-Waste Loading during Polyethylene Microencapsulation using Transient Infrared Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Roger W.; Kalb, Paul D.; McClelland, John F.; Ochiai, Shukichi

    1999-01-01

    In polyethylene microencapsulation, low-level mixed waste (LLMW) is homogenized with molten polyethylene and extruded into containers, resulting in a lighter, lower-volume waste form than cementation and grout methods produce. Additionally, the polyethylene-based waste form solidifies by cooling, with no risk of the waste interfering with cure, as may occur with cementation and grout processes. We have demonstrated real-time monitoring of the polyethylene encapsulation process stream using a noncontact device based on transient infrared spectroscopy (TIRS). TIRS can acquire mid-infrared spectra from solid or viscous liquid process streams, such as the molten, waste-loaded polyethylene stream that exits the microencapsulation extruder. The waste loading in the stream was determined from the TIRS spectra using partial least squares techniques. The monitor has been demonstrated during the polyethylene microencapsulation of nitrate-salt LLMW and its surrogate, molten salt oxidation LLMW and its surrogate, and flyash. The monitor typically achieved a standard error of prediction for the waste loading of about 1% by weight with an analysis time under 1 minute

  18. Residence times and mixing of water in river banks: implications for recharge and groundwater - surface water exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unland, N. P.; Cartwright, I.; Cendón, D. I.; Chisari, R.

    2014-02-01

    The residence time of groundwater within 50 m of the Tambo River, South East Australia, has been estimated through the combined use of 3H and 14C. Groundwater residence times increase towards the Tambo River which implies a gaining river system and not increasing bank storage with proximity to the Tambo River. Major ion concentrations and δ2H and δ18O values of bank water also indicate that bank infiltration does not significantly impact groundwater chemistry under baseflow and post-flood conditions, suggesting that the gaining nature of the river may be driving the return of bank storage water back into the Tambo River within days of peak flood conditions. The covariance between 3H and 14C indicates the leakage and mixing between old (~17 200 yr) groundwater from a semi-confined aquifer and younger groundwater (bank storage, as rapid pressure propagation into the semi-confined aquifer during flooding will minimise bank infiltration. This study illustrates the complex nature of river groundwater interactions and the potential downfall in assuming simple or idealised conditions when conducting hydrogeological studies.

  19. Mixed-time parallel evolution in multiple quantum NMR experiments: sensitivity and resolution enhancement in heteronuclear NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying Jinfa; Chill, Jordan H.; Louis, John M.; Bax, Ad

    2007-01-01

    A new strategy is demonstrated that simultaneously enhances sensitivity and resolution in three- or higher-dimensional heteronuclear multiple quantum NMR experiments. The approach, referred to as mixed-time parallel evolution (MT-PARE), utilizes evolution of chemical shifts of the spins participating in the multiple quantum coherence in parallel, thereby reducing signal losses relative to sequential evolution. The signal in a given PARE dimension, t 1 , is of a non-decaying constant-time nature for a duration that depends on the length of t 2 , and vice versa, prior to the onset of conventional exponential decay. Line shape simulations for the 1 H- 15 N PARE indicate that this strategy significantly enhances both sensitivity and resolution in the indirect 1 H dimension, and that the unusual signal decay profile results in acceptable line shapes. Incorporation of the MT-PARE approach into a 3D HMQC-NOESY experiment for measurement of H N -H N NOEs in KcsA in SDS micelles at 50 o C was found to increase the experimental sensitivity by a factor of 1.7±0.3 with a concomitant resolution increase in the indirectly detected 1 H dimension. The method is also demonstrated for a situation in which homonuclear 13 C- 13 C decoupling is required while measuring weak H3'-2'OH NOEs in an RNA oligomer

  20. The Impact of Total Ischemic Time, Donor Age and the Pathway of Donor Death on Graft Outcomes After Deceased Donor Kidney Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Germaine; Teixeira-Pinto, Armando; Chapman, Jeremy R; Craig, Jonathan C; Pleass, Henry; McDonald, Stephen; Lim, Wai H

    2017-06-01

    Prolonged ischemia is a known risk factor for delayed graft function (DGF) and its interaction with donor characteristics, the pathways of donor death, and graft outcomes may have important implications for allocation policies. Using data from the Australian and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant registry (1994-2013), we examined the relationship between total ischemic time with graft outcomes among recipients who received their first deceased donor kidney transplants. Total ischemic time (in hours) was defined as the time of the donor renal artery interruption or aortic clamp, until the time of release of the clamp on the renal artery in the recipient. A total of 7542 recipients were followed up over a median follow-up time of 5.3 years (interquartile range of 8.2 years). Of these, 1823 (24.6%) experienced DGF and 2553 (33.9%) experienced allograft loss. Recipients with total ischemic time of 14 hours or longer experienced an increased odd of DGF compared with those with total ischemic time less than 14 hours. This effect was most marked among those with older donors (P value for interaction = 0.01). There was a significant interaction between total ischemic time, donor age, and graft loss (P value for interaction = 0.03). There was on average, a 9% increase in the overall risk of graft loss per hour increase in the total ischemic time (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.09; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.18; P = 0.02) in recipients with older donation after circulatory death grafts. There is a clinically important interaction between donor age, the pathway of donor death, and total ischemic time on graft outcomes, such that the duration of ischemic time has the greatest impact on graft survival in recipients with older donation after circulatory death kidneys.

  1. Cross-sectional associations of total sitting and leisure screen time with cardiometabolic risk in adults. Results from the HUNT Study, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Josephine Y; Grunseit, Anne; Midthjell, Kristian; Holmen, Jostein; Holmen, Turid L; Bauman, Adrian E; van der Ploeg, Hidde P

    2014-01-01

    To examine associations of total sitting time, TV-viewing and leisure-time computer use with cardiometabolic risk biomarkers in adults. Population based cross-sectional study. Waist circumference, BMI, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, blood pressure, non-fasting glucose, gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT) and triglycerides were measured in 48,882 adults aged 20 years or older from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study 2006-2008 (HUNT3). Adjusted multiple regression models were used to test for associations between these biomarkers and self-reported total sitting time, TV-viewing and leisure-time computer use in the whole sample and by cardiometabolic disease status sub-groups. In the whole sample, reporting total sitting time ≥10 h/day was associated with poorer BMI, waist circumference, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, diastolic blood pressure, systolic blood pressure, non-fasting glucose, GGT and triglyceride levels compared to those reporting total sitting time Leisure-time computer use ≥1 h/day was associated with poorer BMI, total cholesterol, diastolic blood pressure, GGT and triglycerides compared with those reporting no leisure-time computing. Sub-group analyses by cardiometabolic disease status showed similar patterns in participants free of cardiometabolic disease, while similar albeit non-significant patterns were observed in those with cardiometabolic disease. Total sitting time, TV-viewing and leisure-time computer use are associated with poorer cardiometabolic risk profiles in adults. Reducing sedentary behaviour throughout the day and limiting TV-viewing and leisure-time computer use may have health benefits. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of varying levels of formaldehyde treatment of mustard oil cake on rumen fermentation, digestibility in wheat straw based total mixed diets in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahima; Kumar, Vinod; Tomar, S. K.; Roy, Debashis; Kumar, Muneendra

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the current study was to protect the protein in mustard cake by different levels of formaldehyde treatment with a view to optimize the level of formaldehyde. Materials and Methods: Different levels of formaldehyde treatment (0, 1, 1.5 and 2% of crude protein) containing concentrate and roughages diet in 40:60 ratio were tested for their effect on nutrients digestibility, in vitro ammonia release, in vitro gas production and change in protein fractions. Non-significant (p≤0.05) effect on pH, microbial biomass, partitioning factor, total gas production (TGP), TGP per g dry matter and TGP per g digestible dry matter (ml/g) was observed in almost all the treatments. Results: Total volatile fatty acids at 2% formaldehyde treatment level of mustard cake was lower (p<0.05) as compared to other groups, while in vitro dry matter digestibility and in vitro organic matter digestibility were reported to be low in 1% formaldehyde treated group. Conclusion: On a holistic view, it could be considered that formaldehyde treatment at 1.5% level was optimal for protection of mustard oil cake protein. PMID:27047133

  3. Effect of varying levels of formaldehyde treatment of mustard oil cake on rumen fermentation, digestibility in wheat straw based total mixed diets in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahima

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the current study was to protect the protein in mustard cake by different levels of formaldehyde treatment with a view to optimize the level of formaldehyde. Materials and Methods: Different levels of formaldehyde treatment (0, 1, 1.5 and 2% of crude protein containing concentrate and roughages diet in 40:60 ratio were tested for their effect on nutrients digestibility, in vitro ammonia release, in vitro gas production and change in protein fractions. Non-significant (p≤0.05 effect on pH, microbial biomass, partitioning factor, total gas production (TGP, TGP per g dry matter and TGP per g digestible dry matter (ml/g was observed in almost all the treatments. Results: Total volatile fatty acids at 2% formaldehyde treatment level of mustard cake was lower (p<0.05 as compared to other groups, while in vitro dry matter digestibility and in vitro organic matter digestibility were reported to be low in 1% formaldehyde treated group. Conclusion: On a holistic view, it could be considered that formaldehyde treatment at 1.5% level was optimal for protection of mustard oil cake protein.

  4. A stabilized Runge–Kutta–Legendre method for explicit super-time-stepping of parabolic and mixed equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Chad D.; Balsara, Dinshaw S.; Aslam, Tariq D.

    2014-01-01

    Parabolic partial differential equations appear in several physical problems, including problems that have a dominant hyperbolic part coupled to a sub-dominant parabolic component. Explicit methods for their solution are easy to implement but have very restrictive time step constraints. Implicit solution methods can be unconditionally stable but have the disadvantage of being computationally costly or difficult to implement. Super-time-stepping methods for treating parabolic terms in mixed type partial differential equations occupy an intermediate position. In such methods each superstep takes “s” explicit Runge–Kutta-like time-steps to advance the parabolic terms by a time-step that is s 2 times larger than a single explicit time-step. The expanded stability is usually obtained by mapping the short recursion relation of the explicit Runge–Kutta scheme to the recursion relation of some well-known, stable polynomial. Prior work has built temporally first- and second-order accurate super-time-stepping methods around the recursion relation associated with Chebyshev polynomials. Since their stability is based on the boundedness of the Chebyshev polynomials, these methods have been called RKC1 and RKC2. In this work we build temporally first- and second-order accurate super-time-stepping methods around the recursion relation associated with Legendre polynomials. We call these methods RKL1 and RKL2. The RKL1 method is first-order accurate in time; the RKL2 method is second-order accurate in time. We verify that the newly-designed RKL1 and RKL2 schemes have a very desirable monotonicity preserving property for one-dimensional problems – a solution that is monotone at the beginning of a time step retains that property at the end of that time step. It is shown that RKL1 and RKL2 methods are stable for all values of the diffusion coefficient up to the maximum value. We call this a convex monotonicity preserving property and show by examples that it is very useful

  5. Deliberate practice predicts performance over time in adolescent chess players and drop-outs: a linear mixed models analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, Anique B H; Smits, Niels; Rikers, Remy M J P; Schmidt, Henk G

    2008-11-01

    In this study, the longitudinal relation between deliberate practice and performance in chess was examined using a linear mixed models analysis. The practice activities and performance ratings of young elite chess players, who were either in, or had dropped out of the Dutch national chess training, were analysed since they had started playing chess seriously. The results revealed that deliberate practice (i.e. serious chess study alone and serious chess play) strongly contributed to chess performance. The influence of deliberate practice was not only observable in current performance, but also over chess players' careers. Moreover, although the drop-outs' chess ratings developed more slowly over time, both the persistent and drop-out chess players benefited to the same extent from investments in deliberate practice. Finally, the effect of gender on chess performance proved to be much smaller than the effect of deliberate practice. This study provides longitudinal support for the monotonic benefits assumption of deliberate practice, by showing that over chess players' careers, deliberate practice has a significant effect on performance, and to the same extent for chess players of different ultimate performance levels. The results of this study are not in line with critique raised against the deliberate practice theory that the factors deliberate practice and talent could be confounded.

  6. A review of time-motion analysis and combat development in mixed martial arts matches at regional level tournaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Vecchio, Fabrício Boscolo; Hirata, Sérgio Masashi; Franchini, Emerson

    2011-04-01

    Mixed martial arts (MMA) have become a fast-growing worldwide expansion of martial arts competition, requiring high level of skill, physical conditioning, and strategy, and involving a synthesis of combat while standing or on the ground. This study quantified the effort-pause ratio (EP), and classified effort segments of stand-up or groundwork development to identify the number of actions performed per round in MMA matches. 52 MMA athletes participated in the study (M age = 24 yr., SD = 5; average experience in MMA = 5 yr., SD = 3). A one-way analysis of variance with repeated measurements was conducted to compare the type of action across the rounds. A chi-squared test was applied across the percentages to compare proportions of different events. Only one significant difference (p < .05) was observed among rounds: time in groundwork of low intensity was longer in the second compared to the third round. When the interval between rounds was not considered, the EP ratio (between high-intensity effort to low-intensity effort plus pauses) was 1:2 to 1:4. This ratio is between ratios typical for judo, wrestling, karate, and taekwondo and reflects the combination of ground and standup techniques. Most of the matches ended in the third round, involving high-intensity actions, predominantly executed during groundwork combat.

  7. Effect of Long Time Oxygen Exposure on Power Generation of Microbial Fuel Cell with Enriched Mixed Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mimi Hani Abu Bakar; Mimi Hani Abu Bakar; Mimi Hani Abu Bakar; Pasco, N.F.; Gooneratne, R.; Hong, K.B.; Hong, K.B.; Hong, K.B.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we are interested in the effect of long time exposure of the microbial fuel cells (MFCs) to air on the electrochemical performance. Here, MFCs enriched using an effluent from a MFC operated for about eight months. After 30 days, the condition of these systems was reversed from aerobic to anaerobic and vice versa, and their effects were observed for 11 days. The results show that for anaerobic MFCs, power generation was reduced when the anodes were exposed to dissolved oxygen of 7.5 ppm. The long exposure of anodic biofilm to air led to poor electrochemical performance. The power generation recovered fully when air supply stopped entering the anode compartment with a reduction of internal resistance up to 53 %. The study was able to show that mixed facultative microorganism able to strive through the aerobic condition for about a month at 7.5 ppm oxygen or less. The anaerobic condition was able to turn these microbes into exoelectrogen, producing considerable power in relative to their aerobic state. (author)

  8. Residence times and mixing of water in river banks: implications for recharge and groundwater-surface water exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unland, N. P.; Cartwright, I.; Cendón, D. I.; Chisari, R.

    2014-12-01

    Bank exchange processes within 50 m of the Tambo River, southeast Australia, have been investigated through the combined use of 3H and 14C. Groundwater residence times increase towards the Tambo River, which suggests the absence of significant bank storage. Major ion concentrations and δ2H and δ18O values of bank water also indicate that bank infiltration does not significantly impact groundwater chemistry under baseflow and post-flood conditions, suggesting that the gaining nature of the river may be driving the return of bank storage water back into the Tambo River within days of peak flood conditions. The covariance between 3H and 14C indicates the leakage and mixing between old (~17 200 years) groundwater from a semi-confined aquifer and younger groundwater (bank infiltration. Furthermore, the more saline deeper groundwater likely controls the geochemistry of water in the river bank, minimising the chemical impact that bank infiltration has in this setting. These processes, coupled with the strongly gaining nature of the Tambo River are likely to be the factors reducing the chemical impact of bank storage in this setting. This study illustrates the complex nature of river groundwater interactions and the potential downfall in assuming simple or idealised conditions when conducting hydrogeological studies.

  9. Budget- and Priority-Setting Criteria at State Health Agencies in Times of Austerity: A Mixed-Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Beth; Kass, Nancy; Sellers, Katie; Young, Jessica; Bernet, Patrick; Jarris, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined critical budget and priority criteria for state health agencies to identify likely decision-making factors, pressures, and opportunities in times of austerity. Methods. We have presented findings from a 2-stage, mixed-methods study with state public health leaders regarding public health budget- and priority-setting processes. In stage 1, we conducted hour-long interviews in 2011 with 45 health agency executive and division or bureau leaders from 6 states. Stage 2 was an online survey of 207 executive and division or bureau leaders from all state health agencies (66% response rate). Results. Respondents identified 5 key criteria: whether a program was viewed as “mission critical,” the seriousness of the consequences of not funding the program, financing considerations, external directives and mandates, and the magnitude of the problem the program addressed. Conclusions. We have presented empirical findings on criteria used in state health agency budgetary decision-making. These criteria suggested a focus and interest on core public health and the largest public health problems with the most serious ramifications. PMID:24825212

  10. Experimental Investigation of the Heat Transfer in a Room using Night-Time Coling by Mixing Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Nørgaard, Jesper; Daniels, Ole

    2011-01-01

    of full-scale measurements. The efficiency of night-time ventilation depends on the outdoor temperature and the heat transfer between the room air and the building constructions. In a full-scale test room the heat transfer was investigated during 12 hour of discharging by night-time ventilation. Three...... areas and the convective heat transfer coefficient ranged between 5 and 30 W/m2. The ratio of convective to total heat flow from the ceiling depends on the air change rate, ranging from approximately 40% at the low air change rates to approximately 70% at the high air change rate. Even though radiation......For many years focus has been on reducing the energy need for heating in buildings. This has lead to buildings with low energy demands for heating but often at the expense of the need for cooling of the building. In order to design buildings with low or zero energy need energy efficient strategies...

  11. DEA environmental assessment in a time horizon: Malmquist index on fuel mix, electricity and CO2 of industrial nations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sueyoshi, Toshiyuki; Goto, Mika

    2013-01-01

    Climate change and global warming become a major policy issue in the world. Economic activities produce not only desirable outputs (e.g., electricity) but also undesirable outputs (e.g., CO 2 emission). The important policy issue is how each nation can balance between economic development and environmental protection to attain a sustainable society. In attaining the sustainable society, environmental assessment is increasingly important because it can serve as an initial step toward the green growth of each nation. For the purpose, this study proposes a new use of DEA (Data Environment Analysis) for environmental assessment in a time horizon. The proposed use of DEA incorporates Malmquist index to examine the degree of a frontier shift among multiple periods. The frontier shift indicates a technology progress and/or managerial innovation during an observed period. The index is conceptually separated into six subcomponents, which are further divided into twelve different subcomponents (six subcomponents × two disposability concepts) under the natural and managerial disposability. In the index measurement, it is necessary for us to consider a frontier crossover among different periods because technology innovation usually has a time lag until it really appears. As an empirical application, this study utilizes the proposed approach to identify the relationship among fuel mix, electricity and CO 2 of ten industrial nations. This study finds three important empirical findings. First, there is a time lag in technology innovation on electricity generation and CO 2 emission reduction. Consequently, it is necessary to consider the existence of a frontier crossover in assessing the electric power industry. Second, nuclear generation, as found in France, as well as hydro and renewable energy, as found in Netherlands, are important for the development of a sustainable society although the former is associated with a very high level of risk and the latter has a limited

  12. Mixed H∞ and passive projective synchronization for fractional-order memristor-based neural networks with time delays via adaptive sliding mode control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shuai; Song, Xiaona; Balsera, Ines Tejado

    2017-05-01

    This paper investigates the mixed H∞ and passive projective synchronization problem for fractional-order (FO) memristor-based neural networks with time delays. Our aim is to design a controller such that, though the unavoidable phenomena of time delay and external disturbances is fully considered, the resulting closed-loop system is stable with a mixed H∞ and passive performance level. By combining sliding mode control and adaptive control methods, a novel adaptive sliding mode control strategy is designed for the synchronization of time-delayed FO dynamic networks. Via the application of FO system stability theory, the projective synchronization conditions are addressed in terms of linear matrix inequalities. Based on the conditions, a desired controller which can guarantee the stability of the closed-loop system and also ensure a mixed H∞ and passive performance level is designed. Finally, two simulation examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  13. Synchronization of a Class of Memristive Stochastic Bidirectional Associative Memory Neural Networks with Mixed Time-Varying Delays via Sampled-Data Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manman Yuan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the issue of synchronization of memristive bidirectional associative memory neural networks (MBAMNNs with mixed time-varying delays and stochastic perturbation via a sampled-data controller. First, we propose a new model of MBAMNNs with mixed time-varying delays. In the proposed approach, the mixed delays include time-varying distributed delays and discrete delays. Second, we design a new method of sampled-data control for the stochastic MBAMNNs. Traditional control methods lack the capability of reflecting variable synaptic weights. In this paper, the methods are carefully designed to confirm the synchronization processes are suitable for the feather of the memristor. Third, sufficient criteria guaranteeing the synchronization of the systems are derived based on the derive-response concept. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed mechanism is validated with numerical experiments.

  14. Effect of total solid content and pretreatment on the production of lactic acid from mixed culture dark fermentation of food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousuf, Ahasa; Bastidas-Oyanedel, Juan-Rodrigo; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2018-04-28

    Food waste landfilling causes environmental degradation, and this work assesses a sustainable food valorization technique. In this study, food waste is converted into lactic acid in a batch assembly by dark fermentation without pH control and without the addition of external inoculum at 37 °C. The effect of total solid (TS), enzymatic and aeration pretreatment was investigated on liquid products concentration and product yield. The maximum possible TS content was 34% of enzymatic pretreated waste, and showed the highest lactic acid concentration of 52 g/L, with a lactic acid selectivity of 0.6 g lactic /g totalacids . The results indicated that aeration pretreatment does not significantly improve product concentration or yield. Non-pretreated waste in a 29% TS system showed a lactic acid concentration of 31 g/L. The results showed that enzymatic pretreated waste at TS of 34% results in the highest production of lactic acid. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. 38 CFR 3.22 - DIC benefits for survivors of certain veterans rated totally disabled at time of death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... benefits under paragraph (a) of this section receives any money or property pursuant to a judicial... amount of money received and the fair market value of the property received. The provisions of this... veteran. The amount to be reported is the total of the amount of money received and the fair market value...

  16. A real-time PCR method for quantification of the total and major variant strains of the deformed wing virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma L Bradford

    Full Text Available European honey bees (Apis mellifera are critically important to global food production by virtue of their pollination services but are severely threatened by deformed wing virus (DWV especially in the presence of the external parasite Varroa destructor. DWV exists as many viral strains with the two major variants (DWV-A and DWV-B varying in virulence. A single plasmid standard was constructed containing three sections for the specific determination of DWV-A (VP2 capsid region, DWV-B (IRES and a conserved region suitable for total DWV (helicase region. The assays were confirmed as specific and discriminatory with limits of detections of 25, 25 and 50 genome equivalents for DWV-A, DWV-B and total-DWV, respectively. The methods were successfully tested on Apis mellifera and V. destructor samples with varying DWV profiles. The new method determined a more accurate total DWV titre in samples with substantial DWV-B than the method currently described in the COLOSS Beebook. The proposed assays could be utilized for the screening of large quantities of bee material for both a total DWV load overview along with more detailed investigations into DWV-A and DWV-B profiles.

  17. Total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy for real-time imaging of nanoparticle-cell plasma membrane interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parhamifar, Ladan; Moghimi, Seyed Moien

    2012-01-01

    Nanoparticulate systems are widely used for site-specific drug and gene delivery as well as for medical imaging. The mode of nanoparticle-cell interaction may have a significant effect on the pathway of nanoparticle internalization and subsequent intracellular trafficking. Total internal reflection...

  18. Effects of graded levels of liquid brewer's yeast on chemical composition and fermentation quality in cassava pulp and rice straw-based total mixed ration silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphayae, Sukanya; Kumagai, Hajime; Bureenok, Smerjai; Narmseelee, Ramphrai; Butcha, Patima

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of liquid brewer's yeast (LBY) addition on chemical composition and fermentation quality of mixture of LBY and cassava pulp (CVP) with rice straw (RS) in different ratios during preservation periods. Four mixtures of LBY, CVP and RS were made, that is mixture ratio of LBY : CVP : RS of 0% LBY, 20% LBY, 35% LBY and 50% LBY were 0:70:30, 20:50:30, 35:35:30 and 50:20:30 as fresh matter, respectively. The bags were opened at weeks 0, 1, 2, 4 and 8 after storage. The contents of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber ranged 36.4-40.0, 88.9-90.8, 4.0-12.0, 1.1-1.3, 58.8-61.6 and 37.6-40.0, respectively, and the contents of CP and EE increased and the other components decreased in proportion to LBY inclusion (P < 0.01). 50% LBY had the highest (P < 0.05) pH (4.81) and ammonia nitrogen per total nitrogen (NH 3 -N/TN) (7.40%) and the lowest V-score (90.3). Propionic and butyric acid contents were 0.01% or lower in each mixture and storage period. There were rapid pH decrease and NH 3 -N/TN increase during the first week of the storage period. The increases of NH 3 -N/TN and acetic acid content and decreases of pH, lactic acid content and V-score during the preservation were more drastic as LBY inclusion increased. Although higher proportion of LBY produced higher CP and lower fiber contents in the mixture, attention should be paid for the reduction of fermentation quality during longer storage periods. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  19. High-resolution time-resolved Experiments on mixing and entrainment of buoyant jets in stratified environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manera, Annalisa; Bardet, Philippe; Petrov, Victor

    2018-03-29

    Fluid jets interacting with a stratified layer play an important role in the safety of several reactor designs. In the containment of nuclear power plants, fluid jets dominate the transport and mixing of gaseous species and consequent hydrogen distribution in case of a severe accident. The mixing phenomena in the containment are driven by buoyant high-momentum injections (jets) and low momentum injection plumes. Mixing near the postulated break is initially dominated by high flow velocities. Plumes with moderate flow velocities are instead relevant in the break compartment during the long-term pressurization phase, or in any of the apertures between two connected compartments if the mass flows are sufficiently high and the density differences between efflux and ambient are sufficiently low. Phenomena of interest include free plumes (as produced by the efflux from the break compartment in a larger room or directly from a break flow), wall plumes (such those produced by low mass flows through inter-compartment apertures), and propagating stratification fronts in the ambient (for any stably stratified conditions). These phenomena have been highly ranked about nuclear reactor design, especially regarding of safety protocols. During a Pressurized Thermal Shock (PTS) scenario, the interaction between the cold ECCS injection plume and the stratified fluid present in the cold (or hot) leg is important in order to determine the temperature at the time-dependent temperature at the inlet of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and the potential to cause a thermal shock on the RPV wall. In sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFRs), core channels are typically hydro-dynamically isolated so that there exists a considerable temperature variation at the exit of adjacent fuel assemblies. All the above phenomena are characterized by the interaction of buoyant jets with the stratified flow. In stratified layers baroclinic forces create significant redistribution of turbulent kinetic energy and

  20. The "Nursing Home Compare" measure of urinary/fecal incontinence: cross-sectional variation, stability over time, and the impact of case mix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue; Schnelle, John; Spector, William D; Glance, Laurent G; Mukamel, Dana B

    2010-02-01

    To assess the impact of facility case mix on cross-sectional variations and short-term stability of the "Nursing Home Compare" incontinence quality measure (QM) and to determine whether multivariate risk adjustment can minimize such impacts. Retrospective analyses of the 2005 national minimum data set (MDS) that included approximately 600,000 long-term care residents in over 10,000 facilities in each quarterly sample. Mixed logistic regression was used to construct the risk-adjusted QM (nonshrinkage estimator). Facility-level ordinary least-squares models and adjusted R(2) were used to estimate the impact of case mix on cross-sectional and short-term longitudinal variations of currently published and risk-adjusted QMs. At least 50 percent of the cross-sectional variation and 25 percent of the short-term longitudinal variation of the published QM are explained by facility case mix. In contrast, the cross-sectional and short-term longitudinal variations of the risk-adjusted QM are much less susceptible to case-mix variations (adjusted R(2)case-mix variations across facilities and over time, and therefore it may be biased. This issue can be largely addressed by multivariate risk adjustment using risk factors available in the MDS.

  1. An evaluation of total disintegration time for three different doses of sublingual fentanyl tablets in patients with breakthrough pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalamachu, Srinivas

    2013-12-01

    Breakthrough pain is common among patients with cancer and presents challenges to effective pain management. Breakthrough pain is characterized by rapid onset, severe intensity, and duration typically lasting disintegration time of three different doses of sublingual fentanyl tablets in opioid-tolerant patients. This was a single-center, non-randomized, open-label study. Opioid-tolerant adult patients (N = 30) with chronic pain were assigned to one of three dose groups and self-administered a single 100, 200, or 300 μg sublingual fentanyl tablet (Abstral(®), Galena Biopharma, Portland, OR, USA). Time to complete disintegration was measured by each patient with a stopwatch and independently verified by study personnel. Disintegration time (mean ± SD) for sublingual fentanyl tablets (all doses) was 88.2 ± 55.1 s. Mean disintegration times tended to be slightly longer for the 200 μg (96.7 ± 57.9 s) and 300 μg doses (98.6 ± 64.8 s) compared to the 100 μg dose (69.5 ± 40.5 s). Differences were not statistically significant. Disintegration time was not significantly different between men and women and was not affected by age. Sublingual fentanyl tablets dissolved rapidly (average time <2 min) in all patients, with the higher doses taking slightly more time to dissolve.

  2. Time evolution of the coarse-graining-smoothed Wigner operator in an amplitude dissipative channel: from a pure state to a mixed state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Rui; Fan, Hong-yi

    2014-01-01

    Based on the solution to the master equation of the density operator describing the amplitude dissipative channel, we derive the time evolution law of the coarse-graining-smoothed Wigner operator in this channel, which demonstrates how an initial pure state evolves into a mixed state, exhibiting decoherence

  3. The setting time of a clay-slag geopolymer matrix: the influence of blast-furnace-slag addition and the mixing method

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Perná, Ivana; Hanzlíček, Tomáš

    112, Part 1, JAN 20 (2016), s. 1150-1155 ISSN 0959-6526 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : blast-furnace slag * geopolymer * setting time * mixing method * solidification * recycling Subject RIV: DM - Solid Waste and Recycling Impact factor: 5.715, year: 2016

  4. [High time for a total ban on smoking in the hotel, restaurant and catering industry: the arguments are mounting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassink, R J; Franke, L J A

    2007-02-24

    Active and passive smoking are well-known causes of disease, including respiratory and cardiovascular disease and cancer. In 2004 the Dutch government introduced new legislation to regulate smoking in the workplace. However, smoking is still allowed in hotels, bars and restaurants, despite the fact that two-thirds of the Dutch population support a total ban on smoking in public places. Several other European countries and American states have banned smoking in public places. Studies performed in these regions show that the new smoking regulations have had no negative economic effects. Moreover, various studies have shown that smoking bans have a positive impact on public health, even in the short-term, including a significant decrease in respiratory and cardiovascular disease. There is therefore no reason to continue to exclude hotels, bars and restaurants from the smoking ban in all public places in The Netherlands.

  5. Simulated effect of timing and Pt quantity injected on On-line NobleChem application on total fuel liftoff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pop, M.G.; Riddle, J.M.; Lamanna, L.S.; Gregorich, C.; Hoornik, A.

    2015-01-01

    Total liftoff is a measure of fuel performance and a risk indicator for fuel reliability. Fuel operability and license limits are directly related to the expected total lifetime liftoff. AREVA's continued commitment to zero fuel failure is expressed, among other efforts, in the continued development and improvement of its fuel cladding corrosion and crud risk assessment tools. The AREVA models used to assess and predict crud deposition on BWR cores over their lifespan have been refined by the development and incorporation of the PEZOG tool in response to the move in the industry to the On-Line NobleChem TM (OLNC) technology. PEZOG models the platinum-enhanced zirconium oxide growth of fuel cladding when exposed to platinum during operation. Depending on the local chemistry and radiation condition, noble metals act as catalysts for many reactions, including but not limited to hydrogen oxidation and oxygen reduction. OLNC's intention is to catalyze the hydrogen and oxygen recombination reaction for core internals protection. However, research has indicated that noble metals catalyze the oxygen reduction under the chemistry and radiation conditions as experienced in the pores of crud deposits, and hence, can increase the corrosion rate of zirconium alloy cladding. The developed PEZOG module calculates the oxide thickness as a function of platinum injection strategy. The stratified nature of oxide and crud layers formed on fuel cladding surfaces is reflected in the calculations as are the different platinum interaction in each of the layers. This paper presents examples of the evaluation of various aspects of the platinum injection strategies and their influence on the oxide growth enhancement as applied to conditions of a U.S. plant. (authors)

  6. Effect of the ionizing radiation and aging time on total flavonoids contents in Brazilian sugarcane spirit composed with green propolis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baptista, Antonio S.; Alencar, Severino M. de; Tiveron, Ana P.; Prado, Adna; Bergamaschi, Keityane B.; Veiga, Lucimara F. da; Aguiar, Claudio L. de; Baptista, Aparecido S.; Horii, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    Propolis is a natural product from vegetable origin, but, this substance, in general, is collected in the beehives. This product is largely known because its heath benefit attributed to its biological properties. On the other hand, Brazilian sugarcane spirit, 'cachaca', is an interesting alcoholic beverage with an increasing importance in the segment in many markets in the world. Therefore, was evaluating the addition of the propolis into cachaca and the effect of ionizing radiation on propolis compounds with biological properties. Samples of cachaca with propolis used in irradiation experiments were prepared from cachaca (40 deg GL) composed with propolis (0.1%). Eight treatments, with four repetitions each, were considered in this study. Three doses of ionizing energy from electron beam and gamma radiation from 60 Co were applied on the cachaca samples, i.e. 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 kGy, with the goal to accelerate the aging time of the cachaca. The sugarcane spirits samples were storage during two periods (immediately after the radiation treatment and 30 months after the treatments) and their flavonoids contents were analyzed. Flavonoids contents in sugarcane spirit were statistically different between both storage time. The samples of cachaca treated with electron beam at 2.0 kGy presented the highest reduction in flavonoids contents, approximately 30.0 % in relation to the first analysis time. In conclusion, the time of storage to promote reduction on the flavonoids contents and the ionizing radiation also promoted reduction on the contents of these compounds, mainly in the first period of storage. (author)

  7. Effect of the ionizing radiation and aging time on total flavonoids contents in Brazilian sugarcane spirit composed with green propolis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, Antonio S.; Alencar, Severino M. de; Tiveron, Ana P.; Prado, Adna; Bergamaschi, Keityane B.; Veiga, Lucimara F. da; Aguiar, Claudio L. de; Baptista, Aparecido S.; Horii, Jorge [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Agroindustria, Alimentos e Nutricao], e-mail: asbaptis@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: alencar@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: anptiver@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: adprado@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: kbergamas@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: lcfernan@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: claguiar@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: pmatao@gmail.com, e-mail: jhorii@esalq.usp.br; Arthur, Valter [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br

    2009-07-01

    Propolis is a natural product from vegetable origin, but, this substance, in general, is collected in the beehives. This product is largely known because its heath benefit attributed to its biological properties. On the other hand, Brazilian sugarcane spirit, 'cachaca', is an interesting alcoholic beverage with an increasing importance in the segment in many markets in the world. Therefore, was evaluating the addition of the propolis into cachaca and the effect of ionizing radiation on propolis compounds with biological properties. Samples of cachaca with propolis used in irradiation experiments were prepared from cachaca (40 deg GL) composed with propolis (0.1%). Eight treatments, with four repetitions each, were considered in this study. Three doses of ionizing energy from electron beam and gamma radiation from {sup 60}Co were applied on the cachaca samples, i.e. 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 kGy, with the goal to accelerate the aging time of the cachaca. The sugarcane spirits samples were storage during two periods (immediately after the radiation treatment and 30 months after the treatments) and their flavonoids contents were analyzed. Flavonoids contents in sugarcane spirit were statistically different between both storage time. The samples of cachaca treated with electron beam at 2.0 kGy presented the highest reduction in flavonoids contents, approximately 30.0 % in relation to the first analysis time. In conclusion, the time of storage to promote reduction on the flavonoids contents and the ionizing radiation also promoted reduction on the contents of these compounds, mainly in the first period of storage. (author)

  8. Linear and nonlinear attributes of ultrasonic time series recorded from experimentally loaded rock samples and total failure prediction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rudajev, Vladimír; Číž, R.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 3 (2007), s. 457-467 ISSN 1365-1609 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/06/0906 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516; CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : ultrasonic emission * microfracturing * time series * autocorrelation * fractal dimensions * neural networks Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 0.735, year: 2007

  9. Distributed Task Rescheduling With Time Constraints for the Optimization of Total Task Allocations in a Multirobot System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Joanna; Meng, Qinggang; Schaefer, Gerald; Whitbrook, Amanda; Soltoggio, Andrea

    2017-09-28

    This paper considers the problem of maximizing the number of task allocations in a distributed multirobot system under strict time constraints, where other optimization objectives need also be considered. It builds upon existing distributed task allocation algorithms, extending them with a novel method for maximizing the number of task assignments. The fundamental idea is that a task assignment to a robot has a high cost if its reassignment to another robot creates a feasible time slot for unallocated tasks. Multiple reassignments among networked robots may be required to create a feasible time slot and an upper limit to this number of reassignments can be adjusted according to performance requirements. A simulated rescue scenario with task deadlines and fuel limits is used to demonstrate the performance of the proposed method compared with existing methods, the consensus-based bundle algorithm and the performance impact (PI) algorithm. Starting from existing (PI-generated) solutions, results show up to a 20% increase in task allocations using the proposed method.

  10. Integer batch scheduling problems for a single-machine with simultaneous effect of learning and forgetting to minimize total actual flow time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinto Yusriski

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This research discusses an integer batch scheduling problems for a single-machine with position-dependent batch processing time due to the simultaneous effect of learning and forgetting. The decision variables are the number of batches, batch sizes, and the sequence of the resulting batches. The objective is to minimize total actual flow time, defined as total interval time between the arrival times of parts in all respective batches and their common due date. There are two proposed algorithms to solve the problems. The first is developed by using the Integer Composition method, and it produces an optimal solution. Since the problems can be solved by the first algorithm in a worst-case time complexity O(n2n-1, this research proposes the second algorithm. It is a heuristic algorithm based on the Lagrange Relaxation method. Numerical experiments show that the heuristic algorithm gives outstanding results.

  11. Characterizing Methane Emissions at Local Scales with a 20 Year Total Hydrocarbon Time Series, Imaging Spectrometry, and Web Facilitated Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Eliza Swan

    Methane is an important greenhouse gas for which uncertainty in local emission strengths necessitates improved source characterizations. Although CH4 plume mapping did not motivate the NASA Airborne Visible InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) design and municipal air quality monitoring stations were not intended for studying marine geological seepage, these assets have capabilities that can make them viable for studying concentrated (high flux, highly heterogeneous) CH4 sources, such as the Coal Oil Point (COP) seep field (˜0.015 Tg CH4 yr-1) offshore Santa Barbara, California. Hourly total hydrocarbon (THC) data, spanning 1990 to 2008 from an air pollution station located near COP, were analyzed and showed geologic CH4 emissions as the dominant local source. A band ratio approach was developed and applied to high glint AVIRIS data over COP, resulting in local-scale mapping of natural atmospheric CH4 plumes. A Cluster-Tuned Matched Filter (CTMF) technique was applied to Gulf of Mexico AVIRIS data to detect CH4 venting from offshore platforms. Review of 744 platform-centered CTMF subsets was facilitated through a flexible PHP-based web portal. This dissertation demonstrates the value of investigating municipal air quality data and imaging spectrometry for gathering insight into concentrated methane source emissions and highlights how flexible web-based solutions can help facilitate remote sensing research.

  12. Mixed H ∞ and Passive Projective Synchronization for Fractional Order Memristor-Based Neural Networks with Time-Delay and Parameter Uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Xiao-Na; Song Shuai; Liu Lei-Po; Tejado Balsera, Inés

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the mixed H ∞ and passive projective synchronization problem for fractional-order (FO) memristor-based neural networks. Our aim is to design a controller such that, though the unavoidable phenomena of time-delay and parameter uncertainty are fully considered, the resulting closed-loop system is asymptotically stable with a mixed H ∞ and passive performance level. By combining active and adaptive control methods, a novel hybrid control strategy is designed, which can guarantee the robust stability of the closed-loop system and also ensure a mixed H ∞ and passive performance level. Via the application of FO Lyapunov stability theory, the projective synchronization conditions are addressed in terms of linear matrix inequality techniques. Finally, two simulation examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. (paper)

  13. Mixed H2/Hinfinity output-feedback control of second-order neutral systems with time-varying state and input delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Hamid Reza; Gao, Huijun

    2008-07-01

    A mixed H2/Hinfinity output-feedback control design methodology is presented in this paper for second-order neutral linear systems with time-varying state and input delays. Delay-dependent sufficient conditions for the design of a desired control are given in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). A controller, which guarantees asymptotic stability and a mixed H2/Hinfinity performance for the closed-loop system of the second-order neutral linear system, is then developed directly instead of coupling the model to a first-order neutral system. A Lyapunov-Krasovskii method underlies the LMI-based mixed H2/Hinfinity output-feedback control design using some free weighting matrices. The simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

  14. Deliberate practice predicts performance throughout time in adolescent chess players and dropouts: A linear mixed models analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, A.B.H.; Smits, N.; Rikers, R.M.J.P.; Schmidt, H.G.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the longitudinal relation between deliberate practice and performance in chess was examined using a linear mixed models analysis. The practice activities and performance ratings of young elite chess players, who were either in, or had dropped out of the Dutch national chess training,

  15. Tree response and mountain pine beetle attack preference, reproduction, and emergence timing in mixed whitebark and lodgepole pines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara J. Bentz; Celia Boone; Kenneth F. Raffa

    2015-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) is an important disturbance agent in Pinus ecosystems of western North America, historically causing significant tree mortality. Most recorded outbreaks have occurred in mid elevation lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta). In warm years, tree mortality also occurs at higher elevations in mixed species stands.

  16. Ichnotaxa for bite traces of thetrapods : A new area of research or a total waste of time?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Aase Roland; Bromley, Richard Granville

    to the naming of biting trace fossils in bone substrates. Study of tetrapod bite trace fossils has revealed feeding behaviour, jaw mechanism, face-biting behaviour, social behaviour etc., as well as palaeoenvironmental conditions. But should naming of scratches and holes produced by teeth be considered...... a worthless waste of time? Is naming of this group of trace fossils considered a productive move? We have extended this work, suggesting new ichnotaxa for bite traces to focus on their potential value for identifying the tracemaker and thereby feeding behaviour. Bite traces also have a great potential...

  17. MID-VASTUS VS MEDIAL PARA-PATELLAR APPROACH IN TOTAL KNEE REPLACEMENT—TIME TO DISCHARGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, P.; Press, J.; Hockings, M.

    2009-01-01

    Background It has been shown before that when compared with the medial para-patellar approach, the mid-vastus approach for TKR results in less post-operative pain for patients and more rapid recovery of straight leg raise. As far as we are aware the post-operative length of stay of the two groups of patients has not been compared. We postulated that the reduced pain and more rapid recovery of straight leg raise would translate into an earlier, safe, discharge home for the mid-vastus patients compared with those who underwent a traditional medial para-patellar approach. Methods Twenty patients operated on by each of five established knee arthroplasty surgeons were evaluated prospectively with regard to their pre and post-operative range of movement, time to achieve straight leg raise post-operatively and length of post-operative hospital stay. Only one of the surgeons performed the mid-vastus approach, and the measurements were recorded by physiotherapists who were blinded as to the approach used on each patient. Results The results were analysed using a standard statistical software package, and although the mean length of stay was lower for the mid-vastus patients, the difference did not reach a level of significance (p = 0.13). The time taken to achieve straight leg raise post-operatively was significantly less in the mid-vastus group (p<0.001). Conclusion Although this study confirms previous findings that the mid-vastus approach reduces the time taken for patients to achieve straight leg raise, when compared with the medial para-patellar approach, on its own it does not translate into a significantly shorter length of hospital stay. In order to reduce the length of post-operative hospital stay with an accelerated rehabilitation program for TKR, a multi-disciplinary approach is required. Patient expectations, GP support, physiotherapists and nursing staff all have a role to play and the mid-vastus approach, in permitting earlier straight leg raising

  18. Effects of adding food by-products mainly including noodle waste to total mixed ration silage on fermentation quality, feed intake, digestibility, nitrogen utilization and ruminal fermentation in wethers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Kyohei; Yani, Srita; Kitagawa, Masayuki; Oishi, Kazato; Hirooka, Hiroyuki; Kumagai, Hajime

    2012-11-01

    Four wethers were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment to evaluate the applicability of two types of total mixed ration (TMR) silage with food by-products. Four food by-products (i.e., potato waste, soy sauce cake, soybean curd residue and noodle waste) were obtained and mixed with commercial concentrate (CC) as TMR silage. The two types of TMR silage, T1 and T2, each contained CC, in addition to all by-products for T1 (TRE1), and soy sauce cake and noodle waste for T2 (TRE2) on a dry matter (DM) basis. The silage was well-fermented with low pH values and high lactic acid concentration. As the experimental treatments, T1, T2 and CC (CTL) were fed with a basal diet. The result showed that the digestibility of DM and organic matter (OM) were higher for T1 than for CC (P < 0.05), while crude protein digestibility was not significantly different among T1, T2 and CC. The retained nitrogen was not affected by inclusion of food by-products. Ruminal pH in TRE1 and TRE2 immediately decreased compared to that in CTL. The study suggested that the two types of TMR silage, including food by-products, might be used as a substitute for commercial concentrate. © 2012 The Authors. Animal Science Journal © 2012 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  19. Effect of ionizing radiation and aging time on total phenolics in Brazilian sugarcane spirit with green propolis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguiar, Claudio L. de; Baptista, Antonio S.; Alencar, Severino M. de; Tiveron, Ana P.; Prado, Adna; Bergamaschi, Keityane B.; Veiga, Lucimara F. da; Baptista, Aparecido S.; Horii, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    Propolis is a natural product from vegetable origin that is generally collected from beehives. This product is well-known for its heath benefits attributed to its biological properties. On the other hand, Brazilian sugarcane spirit, cachaca, shows increasing interest and importance in the alcoholic beverage segment in many markets in the world. Therefore, it was evaluated the addition of propolis into cachaca and the effect of ionizing radiation on propolis compounds with biological activity. Samples of cachaca with propolis used in irradiation experiments were prepared from cachaca (40 deg GL) composed with propolis (0,1 %). Eight treatments, with four repetitions each, were carried out in this study. Three doses of ionizing radiation from electron beam and gamma radiation by 60 Co were applied on the cachaca samples, i.e. 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 kGy, aiming to accelerate the aging of the cachaca samples. The spirits samples were stored for two periods (immediately after the radiation treatment and 30 months after the treatments) and their phenolic compounds contents were analyzed. Phenolic compounds contents were statistically different between both storage times of the cachaca. The samples of cachaca treated with electron beam at 2.0 kGy presented higher reduction in phenolic compounds contents, approximately 6 % in the first analysis and 11 % in the second analysis. In conclusion, the time of storage to promote reduction on the phenolics compounds and the ionizing radiations from electron beams affect more the contents of these compounds than gamma radiation. (author)

  20. Effect of ionizing radiation and aging time on total phenolics in Brazilian sugarcane spirit with green propolis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, Claudio L. de; Baptista, Antonio S.; Alencar, Severino M. de; Tiveron, Ana P.; Prado, Adna; Bergamaschi, Keityane B.; Veiga, Lucimara F. da; Baptista, Aparecido S.; Horii, Jorge [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Agroindustria, Alimentos e Nutricao], e-mail: claguiar@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: asbaptis@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: alencar@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: anptiver@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: adprado@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: kbergamas@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: lcfernan@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: pmatao@gmail.com, e-mail: jhorii@esalq.usp.br; Arthur, Valter [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br

    2009-07-01

    Propolis is a natural product from vegetable origin that is generally collected from beehives. This product is well-known for its heath benefits attributed to its biological properties. On the other hand, Brazilian sugarcane spirit, cachaca, shows increasing interest and importance in the alcoholic beverage segment in many markets in the world. Therefore, it was evaluated the addition of propolis into cachaca and the effect of ionizing radiation on propolis compounds with biological activity. Samples of cachaca with propolis used in irradiation experiments were prepared from cachaca (40 deg GL) composed with propolis (0,1 %). Eight treatments, with four repetitions each, were carried out in this study. Three doses of ionizing radiation from electron beam and gamma radiation by {sup 60}Co were applied on the cachaca samples, i.e. 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 kGy, aiming to accelerate the aging of the cachaca samples. The spirits samples were stored for two periods (immediately after the radiation treatment and 30 months after the treatments) and their phenolic compounds contents were analyzed. Phenolic compounds contents were statistically different between both storage times of the cachaca. The samples of cachaca treated with electron beam at 2.0 kGy presented higher reduction in phenolic compounds contents, approximately 6 % in the first analysis and 11 % in the second analysis. In conclusion, the time of storage to promote reduction on the phenolics compounds and the ionizing radiations from electron beams affect more the contents of these compounds than gamma radiation. (author)

  1. Gender differences in total cholesterol levels in patients with acute heart failure and its importance for short and long time prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinarova, Lenka; Spinar, Jindrich; Vitovec, Jiri; Linhart, Ales; Widimsky, Petr; Fedorco, Marian; Malek, Filip; Cihalik, Cestmir; Miklik, Roman; Dusek, Ladislav; Zidova, Klaudia; Jarkovsky, Jiri; Littnerova, Simona; Parenica, Jiri

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether there are gender differences in total cholesterol levels in patients with acute heart failure and if there is an association of this parameter with short and long time mortality. The AHEAD MAIN registry is a database conducted in 7 university hospitals, all with 24 h cath lab service, in 4 cities in the Czech Republic. The database included 4 153 patients hospitalised for acute heart failure in the period 2006-2009. 2 384 patients had a complete record of their total cholesterol levels. 946 females and 1437 males were included in this analysis. According to the admission total cholesterol levels, patients were divided into 5 groups: 6.0 mmol/l (group E). The median total cholesterol levels were 4.24 in males and 4.60 in females (Ppercentage of women with total cholesterol levels above 6 mmol/l and lower percentage in the group below 4.5 mmol/l than in men. In all, total cholesterol categories women were older than men. Total cholesterol levels are important for in- hospital mortality and long term survival of patients admitted for acute heart failure.

  2. A Perceptual Pathway to Bias: Interracial Exposure Reduces Abrupt Shifts in Real-Time Race Perception That Predict Mixed-Race Bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Jonathan B; Pauker, Kristin; Sanchez, Diana T

    2016-04-01

    In two national samples, we examined the influence of interracial exposure in one's local environment on the dynamic process underlying race perception and its evaluative consequences. Using a mouse-tracking paradigm, we found in Study 1 that White individuals with low interracial exposure exhibited a unique effect of abrupt, unstable White-Black category shifting during real-time perception of mixed-race faces, consistent with predictions from a neural-dynamic model of social categorization and computational simulations. In Study 2, this shifting effect was replicated and shown to predict a trust bias against mixed-race individuals and to mediate the effect of low interracial exposure on that trust bias. Taken together, the findings demonstrate that interracial exposure shapes the dynamics through which racial categories activate and resolve during real-time perceptions, and these initial perceptual dynamics, in turn, may help drive evaluative biases against mixed-race individuals. Thus, lower-level perceptual aspects of encounters with racial ambiguity may serve as a foundation for mixed-race prejudice. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Effect of fermentation time of mixture of solid and liquid wastes from tapioca industry to percentage reduction of TSS (Total Suspended Solids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandia, S.; Tanata, S.; Rachel, M.; Octiva, C.; Sialagan, N.

    2018-02-01

    The waste from tapioca industry is as an organic waste that contains many important compounds such as carbohydrate, protein, and glucose. This research as aimed to know the effect of fermentation time from solid waste combined with waste-water from the tapioca industry to percentage reduction of TSS. The study was started by mixing the solid and liquid wastes from tapioca industry at a ratio of 70:30, 60:40, 50:50, 40:60, and 30:70 (w/w) with a starter from solid waste of cattle in a batch anaerobic digester. The percentage reduction of TSS was 72.2289 at a ratio by weight of the composition of solid and liquid wastes from tapioca industry was 70:30 after 30 days of fermentation time.

  4. THE MARKETING MIX OPTIMIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    SABOU FELICIA

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents the marketing mix and the necessity of the marketing mix optimization. In the marketing mix a particularly important issue is to choose the best combination of its variables, this lead to the achievement objectives, in time. Choosing the right marketing mix is possible only by reporting information to some clear benchmarks, these criteria a related to the objective of the company at the time of analyze. The study shows that the companies must give a great importance to opti...

  5. Mixed dimers, ch. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deursen, A.P.J. van; Reuss, J.

    1976-01-01

    An attempt has been made to detect mixed dimers in nozzle beams of mixtures; NeAr and HeNe dimers were observed with sufficient intensity to determine the total collision cross section. A similar attempt for H 2 Ar was partially hampered by the circumstance that the corresponding HAr + ion must be detected on the wing of the thousand times larger Ar + peak. The search for H 2 He, H 2 Ne and HeAr dimers was not successful, due to masking ion peaks, H 5 + for HHe + , 21 Ne + for H 20 Ne + , and CO 2 + for HeAr + . (Auth.)

  6. Coupled Heuristic Prediction of Long Lead-Time Accumulated Total Inflow of a Reservoir during Typhoons Using Deterministic Recurrent and Fuzzy Inference-Based Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Lin Huang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study applies Real-Time Recurrent Learning Neural Network (RTRLNN and Adaptive Network-based Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS with novel heuristic techniques to develop an advanced prediction model of accumulated total inflow of a reservoir in order to solve the difficulties of future long lead-time highly varied uncertainty during typhoon attacks while using a real-time forecast. For promoting the temporal-spatial forecasted precision, the following original specialized heuristic inputs were coupled: observed-predicted inflow increase/decrease (OPIID rate, total precipitation, and duration from current time to the time of maximum precipitation and direct runoff ending (DRE. This study also investigated the temporal-spatial forecasted error feature to assess the feasibility of the developed models, and analyzed the output sensitivity of both single and combined heuristic inputs to determine whether the heuristic model is susceptible to the impact of future forecasted uncertainty/errors. Validation results showed that the long lead-time–predicted accuracy and stability of the RTRLNN-based accumulated total inflow model are better than that of the ANFIS-based model because of the real-time recurrent deterministic routing mechanism of RTRLNN. Simulations show that the RTRLNN-based model with coupled heuristic inputs (RTRLNN-CHI, average error percentage (AEP/average forecast lead-time (AFLT: 6.3%/49 h can achieve better prediction than the model with non-heuristic inputs (AEP of RTRLNN-NHI and ANFIS-NHI: 15.2%/31.8% because of the full consideration of real-time hydrological initial/boundary conditions. Besides, the RTRLNN-CHI model can promote the forecasted lead-time above 49 h with less than 10% of AEP which can overcome the previous forecasted limits of 6-h AFLT with above 20%–40% of AEP.

  7. Ultrafast Single-Shot Optical Oscilloscope based on Time-to-Space Conversion due to Temporal and Spatial Walk-Off Effects in Nonlinear Mixing Crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Yoshihiro; Yamada, Yoshifumi; Ishikawa, Kiyoshi; Shimizu, Seiji; Sakabe, Shuji

    2005-09-01

    A simple method for single-shot sub-picosecond optical pulse diagnostics has been demonstrated by imaging the time evolution of the optical mixing onto the beam cross section of the sum-frequency wave when the interrogating pulse passes over the tested pulse in the mixing crystal as a result of the combined effect of group-velocity difference and walk-off beam propagation. A high linearity of the time-to-space projection is deduced from the process solely dependent upon the spatial uniformity of the refractive indices. A snap profile of the accidental coincidence between asynchronous pulses from separate mode-locked lasers has been detected, which demonstrates the single-shot ability.

  8. Phase diagrams of a nonequilibrium mixed spin-1/2 and spin-2 Ising ferrimagnetic system under a time-dependent oscillating magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keskin, M.; Canko, O.; Gueldal, S.

    2009-01-01

    We present phase diagrams for a nonequilibrium mixed spin-1/2 and spin-2 Ising ferrimagnetic system on a square lattice in the presence of a time dependent oscillating external magnetic field. We employ the Glauber transition rates to construct the mean-field dynamical equations. The time variation of the average magnetizations and the thermal behavior of the dynamic magnetizations are investigated, extensively. The nature (continuous or discontinuous) of the transitions is characterized by studying the thermal behaviors of the dynamic magnetizations. The dynamic phase transition points are obtained and the phase diagrams are presented in two different planes. Phase diagrams contain paramagnetic (p) and ferrimagnetic (i) phases, and one coexistence or mixed phase region, namely the i+p, that strongly depend on interaction parameters. The system exhibits the dynamic tricritical point and the reentrant behaviors.

  9. Phase diagrams of a nonequilibrium mixed spin-1/2 and spin-2 Ising ferrimagnetic system under a time-dependent oscillating magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keskin, M., E-mail: keskin@erciyes.edu.t [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Canko, O. [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Gueldal, S. [Institute of Science, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)

    2009-12-14

    We present phase diagrams for a nonequilibrium mixed spin-1/2 and spin-2 Ising ferrimagnetic system on a square lattice in the presence of a time dependent oscillating external magnetic field. We employ the Glauber transition rates to construct the mean-field dynamical equations. The time variation of the average magnetizations and the thermal behavior of the dynamic magnetizations are investigated, extensively. The nature (continuous or discontinuous) of the transitions is characterized by studying the thermal behaviors of the dynamic magnetizations. The dynamic phase transition points are obtained and the phase diagrams are presented in two different planes. Phase diagrams contain paramagnetic (p) and ferrimagnetic (i) phases, and one coexistence or mixed phase region, namely the i+p, that strongly depend on interaction parameters. The system exhibits the dynamic tricritical point and the reentrant behaviors.

  10. Total protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003483.htm Total protein To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes ...

  11. A new system of computer-assisted navigation leading to reduction in operating time in uncemented total hip replacement in a matched population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Fouad A; Ismail, Sanaa Z; Davis, Edward T

    2018-05-01

    Computer-assisted navigation techniques are used to optimise component placement and alignment in total hip replacement. It has developed in the last 10 years but despite its advantages only 0.3% of all total hip replacements in England and Wales are done using computer navigation. One of the reasons for this is that computer-assisted technology increases operative time. A new method of pelvic registration has been developed without the need to register the anterior pelvic plane (BrainLab hip 6.0) which has shown to improve the accuracy of THR. The purpose of this study was to find out if the new method reduces the operating time. This was a retrospective analysis of comparing operating time in computer navigated primary uncemented total hip replacement using two methods of registration. Group 1 included 128 cases that were performed using BrainLab versions 2.1-5.1. This version relied on the acquisition of the anterior pelvic plane for registration. Group 2 included 128 cases that were performed using the newest navigation software, BrainLab hip 6.0 (registration possible with the patient in the lateral decubitus position). The operating time was 65.79 (40-98) minutes using the old method of registration and was 50.87 (33-74) minutes using the new method of registration. This difference was statistically significant. The body mass index (BMI) was comparable in both groups. The study supports the use of new method of registration in improving the operating time in computer navigated primary uncemented total hip replacements.

  12. Description of the signal and background event mixing as implemented in the Marlin processor OverlayTiming

    CERN Document Server

    Schade, P

    2011-01-01

    This note documents OverlayTiming, a processor in the Marlin software frame- work. OverlayTiming can model the timing structure of a linear collider bunch train and offers the possibility to merge simulated physics events with beam-beam background events. In addition, a realistic structure of the detector readout can be imitated by defining readout time windows for each subdetector.

  13. A HOS-based blind deconvolution algorithm for the improvement of time resolution of mixed phase low SNR seismic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hani, Ahmad Fadzil M; Younis, M Shahzad; Halim, M Firdaus M

    2009-01-01

    A blind deconvolution technique using a modified higher order statistics (HOS)-based eigenvector algorithm (EVA) is presented in this paper. The main purpose of the technique is to enable the processing of low SNR short length seismograms. In our study, the seismogram is assumed to be the output of a mixed phase source wavelet (system) driven by a non-Gaussian input signal (due to earth) with additive Gaussian noise. Techniques based on second-order statistics are shown to fail when processing non-minimum phase seismic signals because they only rely on the autocorrelation function of the observed signal. In contrast, existing HOS-based blind deconvolution techniques are suitable in the processing of a non-minimum (mixed) phase system; however, most of them are unable to converge and show poor performance whenever noise dominates the actual signal, especially in the cases where the observed data are limited (few samples). The developed blind equalization technique is primarily based on the EVA for blind equalization, initially to deal with mixed phase non-Gaussian seismic signals. In order to deal with the dominant noise issue and small number of available samples, certain modifications are incorporated into the EVA. For determining the deconvolution filter, one of the modifications is to use more than one higher order cumulant slice in the EVA. This overcomes the possibility of non-convergence due to a low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the observed signal. The other modification conditions the cumulant slice by increasing the power of eigenvalues of the cumulant slice, related to actual signal, and rejects the eigenvalues below the threshold representing the noise. This modification reduces the effect of the availability of a small number of samples and strong additive noise on the cumulant slices. These modifications are found to improve the overall deconvolution performance, with approximately a five-fold reduction in a mean square error (MSE) and a six

  14. Neither pre-operative education or a minimally invasive procedure have any influence on the recovery time after total hip replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biau, David Jean; Porcher, Raphael; Roren, Alexandra; Babinet, Antoine; Rosencher, Nadia; Chevret, Sylvie; Poiraudeau, Serge; Anract, Philippe

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate pre-operative education versus no education and mini-invasive surgery versus standard surgery to reach complete independence. We conducted a four-arm randomized controlled trial of 209 patients. The primary outcome criterion was the time to reach complete functional independence. Secondary outcomes included the operative time, the estimated total blood loss, the pain level, the dose of morphine, and the time to discharge. There was no significant effect of either education (HR: 1.1; P = 0.77) or mini-invasive surgery (HR: 1.0; 95 %; P = 0.96) on the time to reach complete independence. The mini-invasive surgery group significantly reduced the total estimated blood loss (P = 0.0035) and decreased the dose of morphine necessary for titration in the recovery (P = 0.035). Neither pre-operative education nor mini-invasive surgery reduces the time to reach complete functional independence. Mini-invasive surgery significantly reduces blood loss and the need for morphine consumption.

  15. An Integer Batch Scheduling Model for a Single Machine with Simultaneous Learning and Deterioration Effects to Minimize Total Actual Flow Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusriski, R.; Sukoyo; Samadhi, T. M. A. A.; Halim, A. H.

    2016-02-01

    In the manufacturing industry, several identical parts can be processed in batches, and setup time is needed between two consecutive batches. Since the processing times of batches are not always fixed during a scheduling period due to learning and deterioration effects, this research deals with batch scheduling problems with simultaneous learning and deterioration effects. The objective is to minimize total actual flow time, defined as a time interval between the arrival of all parts at the shop and their common due date. The decision variables are the number of batches, integer batch sizes, and the sequence of the resulting batches. This research proposes a heuristic algorithm based on the Lagrange Relaxation. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is determined by comparing the resulting solutions of the algorithm to the respective optimal solution obtained from the enumeration method. Numerical experience results show that the average of difference among the solutions is 0.05%.

  16. An Integer Batch Scheduling Model for a Single Machine with Simultaneous Learning and Deterioration Effects to Minimize Total Actual Flow Time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusriski, R; Sukoyo; Samadhi, T M A A; Halim, A H

    2016-01-01

    In the manufacturing industry, several identical parts can be processed in batches, and setup time is needed between two consecutive batches. Since the processing times of batches are not always fixed during a scheduling period due to learning and deterioration effects, this research deals with batch scheduling problems with simultaneous learning and deterioration effects. The objective is to minimize total actual flow time, defined as a time interval between the arrival of all parts at the shop and their common due date. The decision variables are the number of batches, integer batch sizes, and the sequence of the resulting batches. This research proposes a heuristic algorithm based on the Lagrange Relaxation. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is determined by comparing the resulting solutions of the algorithm to the respective optimal solution obtained from the enumeration method. Numerical experience results show that the average of difference among the solutions is 0.05%. (paper)

  17. SPORT MARKETING MIX STRATEGIES

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandru Lucian MIHAI

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a brief overview of a significant element of the sport marketing management model called the marketing mix. The marketing mix is crucial because it defines the sport business, and much of the sport marketer’s time is spent on various functions within the marketing mix. The marketing mix is the strategic combination of the product, price, place and promotion elements. These elements are typically called the four Ps of marketing. Decisions and strategies for each are importa...

  18. Relation between size-distribution of Si nanoparticles and oscillation-stabilization time of the mixed region produced during laser ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yinglong; Li Yanli; Fu Guangsheng

    2006-01-01

    Assuming Si particles and ambient atoms are elastic hard-spheres, the transportation in ambient gas of Si particles obtained by single-pulsed laser ablation is numerically simulated via Monte Carlo method to investigate the influence of the ambient species and the target-to-substrate distance on the oscillation-stabilization time (OST) of the mixed region. It is found that the ambient gas whose atomic weight is close to that of Si atom can induce the shortest OST; with increasing of the target-to-substrate distance, the OST at first decreases to its minimum, and then begins to increase. Incorporating with some experimental results on size-consistency of Si nanoparticles in pulsed laser ablation, it may be concluded that the shorter the OST of the mixed region, the more uniform the as-formed Si nanoparticles in size

  19. Quantification of submarine groundwater discharge and its short-term dynamics by linking time-variant end-member mixing analysis and isotope mass balancing (222-Rn)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petermann, Eric; Knöller, Kay; Stollberg, Reiner; Scholten, Jan; Rocha, Carlos; Weiß, Holger; Schubert, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) plays a crucial role for the water quality of coastal waters due to associated fluxes of nutrients, organic compounds and/or heavy-metals. Thus, the quantification of SGD is essential for evaluating the vulnerability of coastal water bodies with regard to groundwater pollution as well as for understanding the matter cycles of the connected water bodies. Here, we present a scientific approach for quantifying discharge of fresh groundwater (GWf) and recirculated seawater (SWrec), including its short-term temporal dynamics, into the tide-affected Knysna estuary, South Africa. For a time-variant end-member mixing analysis we conducted time-series observations of radon (222Rn) and salinity within the estuary over two tidal cycles in combination with estimates of the related end-members for seawater, river water, GWf and SWrec. The mixing analysis was treated as constrained optimization problem for finding an end-member mixing ratio that simultaneously fits the observed data for radon and salinity best for every time-step. Uncertainty of each mixing ratio was quantified by Monte Carlo simulations of the optimization procedure considering uncertainty in end-member characterization. Results reveal the highest GWf and SWrec fraction in the estuary during peak low tide with averages of 0.8 % and 1.4 %, respectively. Further, we calculated a radon mass balance that revealed a daily radon flux of 4.8 * 108 Bq into the estuary equivalent to a GWf discharge of 29.000 m3/d (9.000-59.000 m3/d for 25th-75th percentile range) and a SWrec discharge of 80.000 m3/d (45.000-130.000 m3/d for 25th-75th percentile range). The uncertainty of SGD reflects the end-member uncertainty, i.e. the spatial heterogeneity of groundwater composition. The presented approach allows the calculation of mixing ratios of multiple uncertain end-members for time-series measurements of multiple parameters. Linking these results with a tracer mass balance allows conversion

  20. A Real Time PCR Platform for the Simultaneous Quantification of Total and Extrachromosomal HIV DNA Forms in Blood of HIV-1 Infected Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canovari, Benedetta; Scotti, Maddalena; Acetoso, Marcello; Valentini, Massimo; Petrelli, Enzo; Magnani, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Background The quantitative measurement of various HIV-1 DNA forms including total, unintegrated and integrated provirus play an increasingly important role in HIV-1 infection monitoring and treatment-related research. We report the development and validation of a SYBR Green real time PCR (TotUFsys platform) for the simultaneous quantification of total and extrachromosomal HIV-1 DNA forms in patients. This innovative technique makes it possible to obtain both measurements in a single PCR run starting from frozen blood employing the same primers and standard curve. Moreover, due to identical amplification efficiency, it allows indirect estimation of integrated level. To specifically detect 2-LTR a qPCR method was also developed. Methodology/Findings Primers used for total HIV-1 DNA quantification spanning a highly conserved region were selected and found to detect all HIV-1 clades of group M and the unintegrated forms of the same. A total of 195 samples from HIV-1 patients in a wide range of clinical conditions were analyzed with a 100% success rate, even in patients with suppressed plasma viremia, regardless of CD4+ or therapy. No significant correlation was observed between the two current prognostic markers, CD4+ and plasma viremia, while a moderate or high inverse correlation was found between CD4+ and total HIV DNA, with strong values for unintegrated HIV DNA. Conclusions/Significance Taken together, the results support the use of HIV DNA as another tool, in addition to traditional assays, which can be used to estimate the state of viral infection, the risk of disease progression and to monitor the effects of ART. The TotUFsys platform allowed us to obtain a final result, expressed as the total and unintegrated HIV DNA copy number per microgram of DNA or 104 CD4+, for 12 patients within two working days. PMID:25364909

  1. The Attributable Proportion of Specific Leisure-Time Physical Activities to Total Leisure Activity Volume Among US Adults, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Kathleen Bachtel; Dai, Shifan; Paul, Prabasaj; Carlson, Susan A; Carroll, Dianna D; Fulton, Janet

    2016-11-01

    Previous studies have examined participation in specific leisure-time physical activities (PA) among US adults. The purpose of this study was to identify specific activities that contribute substantially to total volume of leisure-time PA in US adults. Proportion of total volume of leisure-time PA moderate-equivalent minutes attributable to 9 specific types of activities was estimated using self-reported data from 21,685 adult participants (≥ 18 years) in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2006. Overall, walking (28%), sports (22%), and dancing (9%) contributed most to PA volume. Attributable proportion was higher among men than women for sports (30% vs. 11%) and higher among women than men for walking (36% vs. 23%), dancing (16% vs. 4%), and conditioning exercises (10% vs. 5%). The proportion was lower for walking, but higher for sports, among active adults than those insufficiently active and increased with age for walking. Compared with other racial/ethnic groups, the proportion was lower for sports among non-Hispanic white men and for dancing among non-Hispanic white women. Walking, sports, and dance account for the most activity time among US adults overall, yet some demographic variations exist. Strategies for PA promotion should be tailored to differences across population subgroups.

  2. Milk production, nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance in lactating cows fed total mixed ration silages containing steam-flaked brown rice as substitute for steam-flaked corn, and wet food by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaji, Makoto; Matsuyama, Hiroki; Hosoda, Kenji; Nonaka, Kazuhisa

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of substituting brown rice grain for corn grain in total mixed ration (TMR) silage containing food by-products on the milk production, whole-tract nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance in dairy cows. Six multiparous Holstein cows were used in a crossover design with two dietary treatments: a diet containing 30.9% steam-flaked corn (corn TMR) or 30.9% steam-flaked brown rice (rice TMR) with wet soybean curd residue and wet soy sauce cake. Dietary treatment did not affect the dry matter intake, milk yield and compositions in dairy cows. The dry matter and starch digestibility were higher, and the neutral detergent fiber digestibility was lower for rice TMR than for corn TMR. The urinary nitrogen (N) excretion as a proportion of the N intake was lower for rice TMR than for corn TMR with no dietary effect on N secretion in milk and fecal N excretion. These results indicated that the replacement of corn with brown rice in TMR silage relatively reduced urinary N loss without adverse effects on feed intake and milk production, when food by-products such as soybean curd residue were included in the TMR silage as dietary crude protein sources. © 2013 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  3. Multipurpose assessment for the quantification of Vibrio spp. and total bacteria in fish and seawater using multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Yeun; Lee, Jung-Lim

    2014-01-01

    Background This study describes the first multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction assay developed, as a multipurpose assessment, for the simultaneous quantification of total bacteria and three Vibrio spp. (V. parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus and V. anguillarum) in fish and seawater. The consumption of raw finfish as sushi or sashimi has been increasing the chance of Vibrio outbreaks in consumers. Freshness and quality of fishery products also depend on the total bacterial populations present. Results The detection sensitivity of the specific targets for the multiplex assay was 1 CFU mL−1 in pure culture and seawater, and 10 CFU g−1 in fish. While total bacterial counts by the multiplex assay were similar to those obtained by cultural methods, the levels of Vibrio detected by the multiplex assay were generally higher than by cultural methods of the same populations. Among the natural samples without Vibrio spp. inoculation, eight out of 10 seawater and three out of 20 fish samples were determined to contain Vibrio spp. Conclusion Our data demonstrate that this multiplex assay could be useful for the rapid detection and quantification of Vibrio spp. and total bacteria as a multipurpose tool for surveillance of fish and water quality as well as diagnostic method. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture published by JohnWiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:24752974

  4. Time- and radiation-dose dependent changes in the plasma proteome after total body irradiation of non-human primates: Implications for biomarker selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie D Byrum

    Full Text Available Acute radiation syndrome (ARS is a complex multi-organ disease resulting from total body exposure to high doses of radiation. Individuals can be exposed to total body irradiation (TBI in a number of ways, including terrorist radiological weapons or nuclear accidents. In order to determine whether an individual has been exposed to high doses of radiation and needs countermeasure treatment, robust biomarkers are needed to estimate radiation exposure from biospecimens such as blood or urine. In order to identity such candidate biomarkers of radiation exposure, high-resolution proteomics was used to analyze plasma from non-human primates following whole body irradiation (Co-60 at 6.7 Gy and 7.4 Gy with a twelve day observation period. A total of 663 proteins were evaluated from the plasma proteome analysis. A panel of plasma proteins with characteristic time- and dose-dependent changes was identified. In addition to the plasma proteomics study reported here, we recently identified candidate biomarkers using urine from these same non-human primates. From the proteomic analysis of both plasma and urine, we identified ten overlapping proteins that significantly differentiate both time and dose variables. These shared plasma and urine proteins represent optimal candidate biomarkers of radiation exposure.

  5. Mixing ratio sensor of alcohol mixed fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyata, Shigeru; Matsubara, Yoshihiro

    1987-08-07

    In order to improve combustion efficiency of an internal combustion engine using gasoline-alcohol mixed fuel and to reduce harmful substance in its exhaust gas, it is necessary to control strictly the air-fuel ratio to be supplied and the ignition timing and change the condition of control depending upon the mixing ratio of the mixed fuel. In order to detect the mixing ratio of the mixed fuel, the above mixing ratio has so far been detected by casting a ray of light to the mixed fuel and utilizing a change of critical angle associated with the change of the composition of the fluid of the mixed fuel. However, in case when a light emitting diode is used for the light source above, two kinds of sensors are further needed. Concerning the two kinds of sensors above, this invention offers a mixing ratio sensor for the alcohol mixed fuel which can abolish a temperature sensor to detect the environmental temperature by making a single compensatory light receiving element deal with the compensation of the amount of light emission of the light emitting element due to the temperature change and the compensation of the critical angle caused by the temperature change. (6 figs)

  6. Total algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tel, G.

    We define the notion of total algorithms for networks of processes. A total algorithm enforces that a "decision" is taken by a subset of the processes, and that participation of all processes is required to reach this decision. Total algorithms are an important building block in the design of

  7. Leaching of boron, arsenic and selenium from sedimentary rocks: I. Effects of contact time, mixing speed and liquid-to-solid ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabelin, Carlito Baltazar, E-mail: carlito@trans-er.eng.hokudai.ac.jp [Laboratory of Soil Environment Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Hashimoto, Ayaka, E-mail: a.hashimoto@diaconsult.co.jp [DIA Consultants Co. Ltd., Sapporo (Japan); Igarashi, Toshifumi, E-mail: tosifumi@eng.hokudai.ac.jp [Laboratory of Groundwater and Mass Transport, Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Yoneda, Tetsuro, E-mail: yonet@eng.hokudai.ac.jp [Laboratory of Soil Environment Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)

    2014-02-01

    Sedimentary rocks of marine origin excavated in tunnel projects were recently identified as potentially hazardous because they could release significant amounts of toxic trace elements when exposed to the environment. This study investigated the leaching characteristics of B, As, Se and the major coexisting ions under various conditions to identify the factors and processes controlling their evolution in the leachate. In addition, we evaluated whether the parameters of the currently used leachability test for excavated rocks were adequate. Although the leachabilities of B, As and Se similarly increased at longer contact times, only those of B and As were influenced by the mixing speed and/or liquid-to-solid ratio (L/S). The majority of trace elements dissolved in the leachate originated from the dissolution of soluble salts formed from seawater of the Cretaceous trapped during the formation of the sedimentary rocks. Moreover, the alkaline pH of the leachates could be attributed to the simultaneous dissolutions at varying degrees of the mineral components of the rocks as well as the precipitation of clay minerals. In the leaching test of excavated rocks for regulatory purposes, the best values of contact time and mixing speed should represent conditions of the highest trace element extractabilities, which in this study were found at longer contact times ( > 48 h) and the fastest mixing speed (200 rpm). The most appropriate L/S for the leaching test is 10 because it was around this L/S that the extractabilities and leaching concentrations of the trace elements were simultaneously observed at their highest values. - Highlights: • B, As and Se leaching increased with time reaching equilibrium after ca. 48 h. • Effect of L/S on B and As leaching was strong but not that much on Se. • All leachates were alkaline regardless of the contact time, mixing speed and L/S. • Na{sup +}–SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} and Na{sup +}–HCO{sub 3}{sup −} type leachates were produced

  8. Total and isoform-specific quantitative assessment of circulating Fibulin-1 using selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry and time-resolved immunofluorometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Martin; Cangemi, Claudia; Jensen, Martin L

    2015-01-01

    biomarker fibulin-1 and its circulating isoforms in human plasma. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:: We used bioinformatics analysis to predict total and isoform-specific tryptic peptides for absolute quantitation using SRM-MS. Fibulin-1 was quantitated in plasma by nanoflow-LC-SRM-MS in undepleted plasma and time......PURPOSE:: Targeted proteomics using SRM-MS combined with stable isotope dilution has emerged as a promising quantitative technique for the study of circulating protein biomarkers. The purpose of this study was to develop and characterize robust quantitative assays for the emerging cardiovascular......-resolved immunofluorometric assay (TRIFMA). Both methods were validated and compared to a commercial ELISA (CircuLex). Molecular size determination was performed under native conditions by SEC analysis coupled to SRM-MS and TRIFMA. RESULTS:: Absolute quantitation of total fibulin-1, isoforms -1C and -1D was performed by SRM...

  9. Mixed H ∞ and Passive Projective Synchronization for Fractional Order Memristor-Based Neural Networks with Time-Delay and Parameter Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiao-Na; Song, Shuai; Tejado Balsera, Inés; Liu, Lei-Po

    2017-10-01

    This paper investigates the mixed H ∞ and passive projective synchronization problem for fractional-order (FO) memristor-based neural networks. Our aim is to design a controller such that, though the unavoidable phenomena of time-delay and parameter uncertainty are fully considered, the resulting closed-loop system is asymptotically stable with a mixed H ∞ and passive performance level. By combining active and adaptive control methods, a novel hybrid control strategy is designed, which can guarantee the robust stability of the closed-loop system and also ensure a mixed H ∞ and passive performance level. Via the application of FO Lyapunov stability theory, the projective synchronization conditions are addressed in terms of linear matrix inequality techniques. Finally, two simulation examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. U1604146, U1404610, 61473115, 61203047, Science and Technology Research Project in Henan Province under Grant Nos. 152102210273, 162102410024, and Foundation for the University Technological Innovative Talents of Henan Province under Grant No. 18HASTIT019

  10. STiC — a mixed mode silicon photomultiplier readout ASIC for time-of-flight applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harion, T; Briggl, K; Chen, H; Gil, A; Kiworra, V; Schultz-Coulon, H-C; Shen, W; Stankova, V; Fischer, P; Ritzert, M

    2014-01-01

    STiC is an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) for the readout of silicon photomultipliers. The chip has been designed to provide a very high timing resolution for time-of-flight applications in medical imaging and particle physics. It is dedicated in particular to the EndoToFPET-US project, which is developing an endoscopic PET detector combined with ultrasound imaging for early pancreas and prostate cancer detection. This PET system aims to provide a spatial resolution of 1 mm and a time-of-flight resolution of 200 ps FWHM. The analog frontend of STiC can use either a differential or single ended connection to the SiPM. The time and energy information of the detector signal is encoded into two time stamps. A special linearized time-over-threshold method is used to obtain a linear relation between the signal charge and the measured signal width, improving the energy resolution. The trigger signals are digitized by an integrated TDC module with a resolution of less than 20 ps. The TDC data is stored in an internal memory and transfered over a 160 MBit/s serial link using 8/10 bit encoding. First coincidence measurements using a 3.1 × 3.1 × 15 mm 3 LYSO crystal and a S10362-33-50 Hamamtsu MPPC show a coincidence time resolution of less than 285 ps. We present details on the chip design as well as first characterization measurements

  11. Preoperative management of surgical patients by "shortened fasting time": a study on the amount of total body water by multi-frequency impedance method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Hideki; Sasaki, Toshio; Fujita, Hisae

    2012-01-01

    Preoperative fasting is an established procedure to be practiced for patients before surgery, but optimal preoperative fasting time still remains controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of "shortened preoperative fasting time" on the change in the amount of total body water (TBW) in elective surgical patients. TBW was measured by multi-frequency impedance method. The patients, who were scheduled to undergo surgery for stomach cancer, were divided into two groups of 15 patients each. Before surgery, patients in the control group were managed with conventional preoperative fasting time, while patients in the "enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS)" group were managed with "shortened preoperative fasting time" and "reduced laxative medication." TBW was measured on the day before surgery and the day of surgery before entering the operating room. Defecation times and anesthesia-related vomiting and aspiration were monitored. TBW values on the day of surgery showed changes in both groups as compared with those on the day before surgery, but the rate of change was smaller in the ERAS group than in the control group (2.4±6.8% [12 patients] vs. -10.6±4.6% [14 patients], pfasting time" and "reduced administration of laxatives" is effective in the maintenance of TBW in elective surgical patients.

  12. Robust stability analysis of Takagi—Sugeno uncertain stochastic fuzzy recurrent neural networks with mixed time-varying delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M. Syed

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the global stability of Takagi—Sugeno (TS) uncertain stochastic fuzzy recurrent neural networks with discrete and distributed time-varying delays (TSUSFRNNs) is considered. A novel LMI-based stability criterion is obtained by using Lyapunov functional theory to guarantee the asymptotic stability of TSUSFRNNs. The proposed stability conditions are demonstrated through numerical examples. Furthermore, the supplementary requirement that the time derivative of time-varying delays must be smaller than one is removed. Comparison results are demonstrated to show that the proposed method is more able to guarantee the widest stability region than the other methods available in the existing literature. (general)

  13. Real-time use of the iPad by third-year medical students for clinical decision support and learning: a mixed methods study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuss, Michelle A.; Hill, Janette R.; Cervero, Ronald M.; Gaines, Julie K.; Middendorf, Bruce F.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Despite widespread use of mobile technology in medical education, medical students’ use of mobile technology for clinical decision support and learning is not well understood. Three key questions were explored in this extensive mixed methods study: 1) how medical students used mobile technology in the care of patients, 2) the mobile applications (apps) used and 3) how expertise and time spent changed overtime. Methods This year-long (July 2012–June 2013) mixed methods study explored the use of the iPad, using four data collection instruments: 1) beginning and end-of-year questionnaires, 2) iPad usage logs, 3) weekly rounding observations, and 4) weekly medical student interviews. Descriptive statistics were generated for the questionnaires and apps reported in the usage logs. The iPad usage logs, observation logs, and weekly interviews were analyzed via inductive thematic analysis. Results Students predominantly used mobile technology to obtain real-time patient data via the electronic health record (EHR), to access medical knowledge resources for learning, and to inform patient care. The top four apps used were Epocrates®, PDF Expert®, VisualDx®, and Micromedex®. The majority of students indicated that their use (71%) and expertise (75%) using mobile technology grew overtime. Conclusions This mixed methods study provides substantial evidence that medical students used mobile technology for clinical decision support and learning. Integrating its use into the medical student's daily workflow was essential for achieving these outcomes. Developing expertise in using mobile technology and various apps was critical for effective and efficient support of real-time clinical decisions. PMID:25317266

  14. Real-time use of the iPad by third-year medical students for clinical decision support and learning: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuss, Michelle A; Hill, Janette R; Cervero, Ronald M; Gaines, Julie K; Middendorf, Bruce F

    2014-01-01

    Despite widespread use of mobile technology in medical education, medical students' use of mobile technology for clinical decision support and learning is not well understood. Three key questions were explored in this extensive mixed methods study: 1) how medical students used mobile technology in the care of patients, 2) the mobile applications (apps) used and 3) how expertise and time spent changed overtime. This year-long (July 2012-June 2013) mixed methods study explored the use of the iPad, using four data collection instruments: 1) beginning and end-of-year questionnaires, 2) iPad usage logs, 3) weekly rounding observations, and 4) weekly medical student interviews. Descriptive statistics were generated for the questionnaires and apps reported in the usage logs. The iPad usage logs, observation logs, and weekly interviews were analyzed via inductive thematic analysis. Students predominantly used mobile technology to obtain real-time patient data via the electronic health record (EHR), to access medical knowledge resources for learning, and to inform patient care. The top four apps used were Epocrates(®), PDF Expert(®), VisualDx(®), and Micromedex(®). The majority of students indicated that their use (71%) and expertise (75%) using mobile technology grew overtime. This mixed methods study provides substantial evidence that medical students used mobile technology for clinical decision support and learning. Integrating its use into the medical student's daily workflow was essential for achieving these outcomes. Developing expertise in using mobile technology and various apps was critical for effective and efficient support of real-time clinical decisions.

  15. Development of an optimised 1:1 physiotherapy intervention post first-time lumbar discectomy: a mixed-methods study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, A; White, L; Heap, A; Heneghan, N; Goodwin, P

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To develop an optimised 1:1 physiotherapy intervention that reflects best practice, with flexibility to tailor management to individual patients, thereby ensuring patient-centred practice. Design Mixed-methods combining evidence synthesis, expert review and focus groups. Setting Secondary care involving 5 UK specialist spinal centres. Participants A purposive panel of clinical experts from the 5 spinal centres, comprising spinal surgeons, inpatient and outpatient physiotherapists, provided expert review of the draft intervention. Purposive samples of patients (n=10) and physiotherapists (n=10) (inpatient/outpatient physiotherapists managing patients with lumbar discectomy) were invited to participate in the focus groups at 1 spinal centre. Methods A draft intervention developed from 2 systematic reviews; a survey of current practice and research related to stratified care was circulated to the panel of clinical experts. Lead physiotherapists collaborated with physiotherapy and surgeon colleagues to provide feedback that informed the intervention presented at 2 focus groups investigating acceptability to patients and physiotherapists. The focus groups were facilitated by an experienced facilitator, recorded in written and tape-recorded forms by an observer. Tape recordings were transcribed verbatim. Data analysis, conducted by 2 independent researchers, employed an iterative and constant comparative process of (1) initial descriptive coding to identify categories and subsequent themes, and (2) deeper, interpretive coding and thematic analysis enabling concepts to emerge and overarching pattern codes to be identified. Results The intervention reflected best available evidence and provided flexibility to ensure patient-centred care. The intervention comprised up to 8 sessions of 1:1 physiotherapy over 8 weeks, starting 4 weeks postsurgery. The intervention was acceptable to patients and physiotherapists. Conclusions A rigorous process informed an

  16. Exponential Antisynchronization Control of Stochastic Memristive Neural Networks with Mixed Time-Varying Delays Based on Novel Delay-Dependent or Delay-Independent Adaptive Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghui Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The global exponential antisynchronization in mean square of memristive neural networks with stochastic perturbation and mixed time-varying delays is studied in this paper. Then, two kinds of novel delay-dependent and delay-independent adaptive controllers are designed. With the ability of adapting to environment changes, the proposed controllers can modify their behaviors to achieve the best performance. In particular, on the basis of the differential inclusions theory, inequality theory, and stochastic analysis techniques, several sufficient conditions are obtained to guarantee the exponential antisynchronization between the drive system and response system. Furthermore, two numerical simulation examples are provided to the validity of the derived criteria.

  17. New Delay-Dependent Robust Exponential Stability Criteria of LPD Neutral Systems with Mixed Time-Varying Delays and Nonlinear Perturbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirada Pinjai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the problem of robust exponential stability for linear parameter-dependent (LPD neutral systems with mixed time-varying delays and nonlinear perturbations. Based on a new parameter-dependent Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, Leibniz-Newton formula, decomposition technique of coefficient matrix, free-weighting matrices, Cauchy’s inequality, modified version of Jensen’s inequality, model transformation, and linear matrix inequality technique, new delay-dependent robust exponential stability criteria are established in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs. Numerical examples are given to show the effectiveness and less conservativeness of the proposed methods.

  18. High-frequency Total Focusing Method (TFM) imaging in strongly attenuating materials with the decomposition of the time reversal operator associated with orthogonal coded excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaverde, Eduardo Lopez; Robert, Sébastien; Prada, Claire

    2017-02-01

    In the present work, the Total Focusing Method (TFM) is used to image defects in a High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) pipe. The viscoelastic attenuation of this material corrupts the images with a high electronic noise. In order to improve the image quality, the Decomposition of the Time Reversal Operator (DORT) filtering is combined with spatial Walsh-Hadamard coded transmissions before calculating the images. Experiments on a complex HDPE joint demonstrate that this method improves the signal-to-noise ratio by more than 40 dB in comparison with the conventional TFM.

  19. A real-time monitoring and assessment method for calculation of total amounts of indoor air pollutants emitted in subway stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, TaeSeok; Kim, MinJeong; Lim, JungJin; Kang, OnYu; Shetty, K Vidya; SankaraRao, B; Yoo, ChangKyoo; Park, Jae Hyung; Kim, Jeong Tai

    2012-05-01

    Subway systems are considered as main public transportation facility in developed countries. Time spent by people in indoors, such as underground spaces, subway stations, and indoor buildings, has gradually increased in the recent past. Especially, operators or old persons who stay in indoor environments more than 15 hr per day usually influenced a greater extent by indoor air pollutants. Hence, regulations on indoor air pollutants are needed to ensure good health of people. Therefore, in this study, a new cumulative calculation method for the estimation of total amounts of indoor air pollutants emitted inside the subway station is proposed by taking cumulative amounts of indoor air pollutants based on integration concept. Minimum concentration of individual air pollutants which naturally exist in indoor space is referred as base concentration of air pollutants and can be found from the data collected. After subtracting the value of base concentration from data point of each data set of indoor air pollutant, the primary quantity of emitted air pollutant is calculated. After integration is carried out with these values, adding the base concentration to the integration quantity gives the total amount of indoor air pollutant emitted. Moreover the values of new index for cumulative indoor air quality obtained for 1 day are calculated using the values of cumulative air quality index (CAI). Cumulative comprehensive indoor air quality index (CCIAI) is also proposed to compare the values of cumulative concentrations of indoor air pollutants. From the results, it is clear that the cumulative assessment approach of indoor air quality (IAQ) is useful for monitoring the values of total amounts of indoor air pollutants emitted, in case of exposure to indoor air pollutants for a long time. Also, the values of CCIAI are influenced more by the values of concentration of NO2, which is released due to the use of air conditioners and combustion of the fuel. The results obtained in

  20. Synthesis of Flexible Fault-Tolerant Schedules with Preemption for Mixed Soft and Hard Real-Time Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Izosimov, Viacheslav; Pop, Paul; Eles, Petru

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present an approach for scheduling with preemption for fault-tolerant embedded systems composed of soft and hard real-time processes. We are interested to maximize the overall utility for average, most likely to happen, scenarios and to guarantee the deadlines for the hard...