WorldWideScience

Sample records for total materials budgets

  1. Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller) > Budget Materials > Budget1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    functionalStatements OUSD(C) History FMR Budget Materials Budget Execution Financial Management Improving Financial Performance Reports Regulations banner DoD Budget Request 2019 | 2018 | 2017 |2016 | 2015 | 2014 | 2013 | 2012 President's Budget request for the Department of Defense sustains the President's commitment to invest in

  2. FY1990 Nuclear-related budget demand totals 398 billion yen, up 2.7%

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    Funds needed to promote the development and utilization of nuclear energy in fiscal 1990 in a planned and integrated way total yen398,427 million on a cash basis, up 2.7% over fiscal 1989. The Science and Technology Agency, which has two major nuclear RandD organizations -- the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp. -- within its jurisdiction, has asked for a total of yen297,765 million (up 5.7%), about three-fourths of the total nuclear-related budget demand. The budget demand of the Ministry of International Trade and Industry aggregates yen96.375 million, down 5.1%. The budget demand of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs is yen2,962 million, including subscriptions and contributions to IAEA, and that of the Ministry of Transport, yen42 million, including research and analysis costs for setting safety standards for the transportation of radioactive materials. The budget demand of the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries is yen167 million, including costs for the prevention and elimination of melon-flies in the Amami Islands, and for the Tsukuba Agriculture and Forestry Research Exchange Center. (N.K.)

  3. Le budget total du CERN restera plus ou moins constant

    CERN Document Server

    Van der Boon, J E

    2002-01-01

    The Director of Administration at CERN has written to the paper following an article titled "Licenciements chez les sous-traitants du CERN" : dismissals amongst CERN sub-contractors. As the CERN budget will remain constant and a greater part will be devoted to building the LHC, changes will be made to staffing balances (0.5 page)

  4. Materials management: stretching the "household" budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpe, R H; Carroll, P E

    1987-11-01

    As CFOs assume responsibility for the materials management function because of the potential to maximize cash flow, achieve economies of scale, decrease costs, and streamline operations, they look for guidelines to evaluate performance. Conducting a systems operations audit can aid in assessing that performance. CFOs can determine whether materials management processes are working "smarter, nor harder."

  5. Selective Sequential Zero-Base Budgeting Procedures Based on Total Factor Productivity Indicators

    OpenAIRE

    A. Ishikawa; E. F. Sudit

    1981-01-01

    The authors' purpose in this paper is to develop productivity-based sequential budgeting procedures designed to expedite identification of major problem areas in bugetary performance, as well as to reduce the costs associated with comprehensive zero-base analyses. The concept of total factor productivity is reviewed and its relations to ordinary and zero-based budgeting are discussed in detail. An outline for a selective sequential analysis based on monitoring of three key indicators of (a) i...

  6. Government's nuclear draft budget for fiscal 1995 totals 480 billion yen, up 5.2%

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Japanese government's nuclear draft budget for fiscal 1995 totals 480,756 million yen (excluding the nuclear-related budget for universities under the auspices of the Ministry of Education, Culture and Science), 5.2% increase from the last year. The figure can be broken down into 194,793 million yen general account mainly assigned to research and development projects, and 295,963 million yen special account for power resource development. The total nuclear-related draft budget can be broken down into 344,201 million yen (6.2% increase) for the Science and Technology Agency which governs the various projects on the research and utilization of nuclear energy, and 133,430 million yen (4.6% increase) for the Ministry of International Trade and Industry which controls the development of and the regulation concerning commercial nuclear power plants. As for other ministries, 3,909 million yen for the contribution to IAEA and 283 million yen for OECD/NEA are allocated to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The nuclear draft budget of other ministries and agencies than STA and MITI totals 5,443 million yen (3.8% increase over fiscal 1994). The details of the nuclear-related draft budget of STA and MITI are listed. (K.I.)

  7. Power budget analysis of image-plane storage in spectral hole-burning materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neifeld, M.A.; Randall Babbitt, W.; Krishna Mohan, R.; Craig, A.E.

    2004-01-01

    We analyze the power requirements of a volumetric storage system based on hole-burning materials. We consider an image-plane architecture that uses ultra-fine wavelength addressing. We perform an optimization study in which hole-depth, material thickness, and spot size are selected to minimize the system power budget. We find that a data rate of 10 Gbps and a latency of 10 μs can be achieved in a read-once system based on Eu-YSO with a total power budget of only 23 mW. The same material system designed to tolerate 1000 read cycles would require only a factor of 15 increase in power

  8. FY97 nuclear-related budgets total 493 billion yen (4.4 billion dollars)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    On September 13, the Atomic Energy Commission of Japan announced the estimated nuclear-related budget requests for FY1997 (April, 1997 - Mach, 1998), giving the breakdowns for eight ministries and agencies. The total amount requested by the government bodies was 493.3 billion yen, 0.8% increase as compared with FY96. this figure includes the budget requests of the Science and Technology Agency (STA), the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI), the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Transport, the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, the Okinawa Development Agency, and the Ministry of Home Affairs, but excludes the budget request made by the Ministry of Education. The budget requests of STA and MITI are 360 billion yen and 126 billion yen, respectively. On August 29, STA released its estimated FY97 budget request. The nuclear-related 360.4 billion yen is 0.9% more than that in year before. Of this sum, 199.9 billion yen is in the general account, and 160.6 billion yen is in the special account for power source development. The details of the nuclear-related amounts are explained. On August 26, MITI released its estimated budget request for FY97, and of the nuclear-related 125.7 billion yen (0.1% increase from FY96), 200 million yen is in the general account, and 98.9 billion yen and 26.6 billion yen are in the special accounts for power resource development and power source diversification, respectively. (K.I.)

  9. Material Science in Cervical Total Disc Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Martin H.; Mehta, Vivek A.; Tuchman, Alexander; Hsieh, Patrick C.

    2015-01-01

    Current cervical total disc replacement (TDR) designs incorporate a variety of different biomaterials including polyethylene, stainless steel, titanium (Ti), and cobalt-chrome (CoCr). These materials are most important in their utilization as bearing surfaces which allow for articular motion at the disc space. Long-term biological effects of implanted materials include wear debris, host inflammatory immune reactions, and osteolysis resulting in implant failure. We review here the most common materials used in cervical TDR prosthetic devices, examine their bearing surfaces, describe the construction of the seven current cervical TDR devices that are approved for use in the United States, and discuss known adverse biological effects associated with long-term implantation of these materials. It is important to appreciate and understand the variety of biomaterials available in the design and construction of these prosthetics and the considerations which guide their implementation. PMID:26523281

  10. Material Science in Cervical Total Disc Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin H. Pham

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Current cervical total disc replacement (TDR designs incorporate a variety of different biomaterials including polyethylene, stainless steel, titanium (Ti, and cobalt-chrome (CoCr. These materials are most important in their utilization as bearing surfaces which allow for articular motion at the disc space. Long-term biological effects of implanted materials include wear debris, host inflammatory immune reactions, and osteolysis resulting in implant failure. We review here the most common materials used in cervical TDR prosthetic devices, examine their bearing surfaces, describe the construction of the seven current cervical TDR devices that are approved for use in the United States, and discuss known adverse biological effects associated with long-term implantation of these materials. It is important to appreciate and understand the variety of biomaterials available in the design and construction of these prosthetics and the considerations which guide their implementation.

  11. Material Science in Cervical Total Disc Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Martin H; Mehta, Vivek A; Tuchman, Alexander; Hsieh, Patrick C

    2015-01-01

    Current cervical total disc replacement (TDR) designs incorporate a variety of different biomaterials including polyethylene, stainless steel, titanium (Ti), and cobalt-chrome (CoCr). These materials are most important in their utilization as bearing surfaces which allow for articular motion at the disc space. Long-term biological effects of implanted materials include wear debris, host inflammatory immune reactions, and osteolysis resulting in implant failure. We review here the most common materials used in cervical TDR prosthetic devices, examine their bearing surfaces, describe the construction of the seven current cervical TDR devices that are approved for use in the United States, and discuss known adverse biological effects associated with long-term implantation of these materials. It is important to appreciate and understand the variety of biomaterials available in the design and construction of these prosthetics and the considerations which guide their implementation.

  12. Low material budget floating strip Micromegas for ion transmission radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bortfeldt, J., E-mail: jonathan.bortfeldt@cern.ch [LMU Munich, LS Schaile, Am Coulombwall 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Biebel, O.; Flierl, B.; Hertenberger, R.; Klitzner, F.; Lösel, Ph. [LMU Munich, LS Schaile, Am Coulombwall 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Magallanes, L. [LMU Munich, LS Parodi, Am Coulombwall 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 672, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Müller, R. [LMU Munich, LS Schaile, Am Coulombwall 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Parodi, K. [LMU Munich, LS Parodi, Am Coulombwall 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld 450, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Schlüter, T. [LMU Munich, Excellence Cluster Universe, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Voss, B. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstr. 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Zibell, A. [JMU Würzburg, Sanderring 2, D-97070 Würzburg (Germany)

    2017-02-11

    Floating strip Micromegas are high-accuracy and discharge insensitive gaseous detectors, able to track single particles at fluxes of 7 MHz/cm{sup 2} with 100 μm resolution. We developed low-material-budget detectors with one-dimensional strip readout, suitable for tracking at highest particle rates as encountered in medical ion transmission radiography or inner tracker applications. Recently we additionally developed Kapton-based floating strip Micromegas with two-dimensional strip readout, featuring an overall thickness of 0.011 X{sub 0}. These detectors were tested in high-rate proton and carbon-ion beams at the tandem accelerator in Garching and the Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center, operated with an optimized Ne:CF{sub 4} gas mixture. By coupling the Micromegas detectors to a new scintillator based range detector, ion transmission radiographies of PMMA and tissue-equivalent phantoms were acquired. The range detector with 18 layers is read out via wavelength shifting fibers, coupled to a multi-anode photomultiplier. We present the performance of the Micromegas detectors with respect to timing and single plane track reconstruction using the μTPC method. We discuss the range resolution of the scintillator range telescope and present the image reconstruction capabilities of the combined system.

  13. Total scattering of disordered crystalline functional materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamoto, Shin-Ichi; Kodama, Katsuaki; Iikubo, Satoshi; Taguchi, Tomitsugu

    2009-01-01

    There are disorders in some modern functional materials. As an example, the crystalline phase of an optical recording material has low thermal conductivity but high electrical conductivity, simultaneously. This contradiction is a challenge to material scientists in designing good functional materials, which should have at least two types of crystallographic sites. One site limits thermal conductivity while the other site carries electrons or holes with high mobility. This problem exists with not only optical recording materials but also thermoelectric materials. The periodic boundary condition gets lost in the disordered parts. This therefore, makes atomic pair distribution function (PDF) analysis with a wide range of real space suitable for investigating the form and size of crystalline parts as well as disordered parts in the material. Pulsed neutron powder diffraction is one of the best tools for use in this new type of emerging research, together with synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction and electron diffraction.

  14. Predicting the distribution of bed material accumulation using river network sediment budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Scott N.; Prosser, Ian P.; Hughes, Andrew O.

    2006-10-01

    Assessing the spatial distribution of bed material accumulation in river networks is important for determining the impacts of erosion on downstream channel form and habitat and for planning erosion and sediment management. A model that constructs spatially distributed budgets of bed material sediment is developed to predict the locations of accumulation following land use change. For each link in the river network, GIS algorithms are used to predict bed material supply from gullies, river banks, and upstream tributaries and to compare total supply with transport capacity. The model is tested in the 29,000 km2 Murrumbidgee River catchment in southeast Australia. It correctly predicts the presence or absence of accumulation in 71% of river links, which is significantly better performance than previous models, which do not account for spatial variability in sediment supply and transport capacity. Representing transient sediment storage is important for predicting smaller accumulations. Bed material accumulation is predicted in 25% of the river network, indicating its importance as an environmental problem in Australia.

  15. Total Scattering Analysis of Disordered Nanosheet Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Peter C.

    Two dimensional materials are of increasing interest as building blocks for functional coatings, catalysts, and electrochemical devices. While increasingly sophisticated processing routes have been designed to obtain high-quality exfoliated nanosheets and controlled, self-assembled mesostructures, structural characterization of these materials remains challenging. This work presents a novel method of analyzing pair distribution function (PDF) data for disordered nanosheet ensembles, where supercell stacking models are used to infer atom correlations over as much as 50 A. Hierarchical models are used to reduce the parameter space of the refined model and help eliminate strongly correlated parameters. Three data sets for restacked nanosheet assemblies with stacking disorder are analyzed using these methods: simulated data for graphene-like layers, experimental data for 1 nm thick perovskite layers, and experimental data for highly defective delta-MnO2 layers. In each case, the sensitivity of the PDF to the real-space distribution of layer positions is demonstrated by exploring the fit residual as a function of stacking vectors. The refined models demonstrate that nanosheets tend towards local interlayer ordering, which is hypothesized to be driven by the electrostatic potential of the layer surfaces. Correctly accounting for interlayer atom correlations permits more accurate refinement of local structural details including local structure perturbations and defect site occupancies. In the delta-MnO2 nanosheet material, the new modeling approach identified 14% Mn vacancies while application of 3D periodic crystalline models to the < 7 A PDF region suggests a 25% vacancy concentration. In contrast, the perovskite nanosheet material is demonstrated to exhibit almost negligible structural relaxation in contrast with the bulk crystalline material from which it is derived.

  16. What's Your Money Worth? Materials Budgets and the Selection and Evaluation of Book and Serial Vendors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Joseph W.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses budgets for library materials and how to select and evaluate book and serial vendors. Trends in automation, publishing, and economics that affect both libraries and vendors are discussed; and examples from the University of California at Berkeley that include serials service charges and approval plan discounts are presented. (six…

  17. Evolution of Safeguards over Time: Past, Present, and Projected Facilities, Material, and Budget

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kollar, Lenka; Mathews, Caroline E.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the past trends and evolution of safeguards over time and projects growth through 2030. The report documents the amount of nuclear material and facilities under safeguards from 1970 until present, along with the corresponding budget. Estimates for the future amount of facilities and material under safeguards are made according to non-nuclear-weapons states (NNWS) plans to build more nuclear capacity and sustain current nuclear infrastructure. Since nuclear energy is seen as a clean and economic option for base load electric power, many countries are seeking to either expand their current nuclear infrastructure, or introduce nuclear power. In order to feed new nuclear power plants and sustain existing ones, more nuclear facilities will need to be built, and thus more nuclear material will be introduced into the safeguards system. The projections in this study conclude that a zero real growth scenario for the IAEA safeguards budget will result in large resource gaps in the near future.

  18. Evolution of Safeguards over Time: Past, Present, and Projected Facilities, Material, and Budget

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kollar, Lenka; Mathews, Caroline E.

    2009-07-01

    This study examines the past trends and evolution of safeguards over time and projects growth through 2030. The report documents the amount of nuclear material and facilities under safeguards from 1970 until present, along with the corresponding budget. Estimates for the future amount of facilities and material under safeguards are made according to non-nuclear-weapons states’ (NNWS) plans to build more nuclear capacity and sustain current nuclear infrastructure. Since nuclear energy is seen as a clean and economic option for base load electric power, many countries are seeking to either expand their current nuclear infrastructure, or introduce nuclear power. In order to feed new nuclear power plants and sustain existing ones, more nuclear facilities will need to be built, and thus more nuclear material will be introduced into the safeguards system. The projections in this study conclude that a zero real growth scenario for the IAEA safeguards budget will result in large resource gaps in the near future.

  19. Impact of the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha invasion on the budget of suspended material in a shallow lagoon ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daunys, Darius; Zemlys, Petras; Olenin, Sergej; Zaiko, Anastasija; Ferrarin, Christian

    2006-05-01

    The role of the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha in redistribution of total particulate material (TPM) between the water column and bottom sediment was estimated using the TPM budget for a mussel bed in the Curonian lagoon, the Baltic Sea. Seasonal clearance rates were derived from the TPM budget assuming two resuspension scenarios: no resuspension and full resuspension of biodeposits. Estimated clearance rates for both scenarios were compared with the rates calculated from the population clearance rate model. Seasonal clearance rates estimated using the population model (1.1 and 11.8 l g-1 SFDW day-1) fitted well into the interval of seasonal clearance rates calculated from TPM budgets assuming no resuspension of biodeposits (3.2 and 21.4 l g SFDW-1 day-1). In the scenario with biodeposits resuspension clearance rates were much higher (57.4 and 148.9 g SFDW-1 day-1). The ratio of clearance to residence time was highly dependent on the fate of biodeposits. Therefore its use in interpretation of the species impact on TPM was limited. An alternative measure based on the ratio of the amount of TPM biodeposited to TPM transported into the bed was used. It was found that zebra mussels are able to deposit between 10 and 30% of the incoming TPM, and the amount of biodeposited material was correlated with water residence time. Results indicate that the impact of zebra mussels on TPM in the lagoon is small relative to the high transport rates of TPM over the bed. However, annual biosedimentation rate (~590 g m-2) in the mussel bed was higher than physical deposition rate (~380 g m-2) in accumulation areas devoid of large suspension feeders. We suggest that a local impact due to enhanced availability of organic material to other trophic groups of associated benthic organisms may be more significant than effects on TPM pathways at an ecosystem scale.

  20. Considering the role of time budgets on copy-error rates in material culture traditions: an experimental assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillinger, Kerstin; Mesoudi, Alex; Lycett, Stephen J

    2014-01-01

    Ethnographic research highlights that there are constraints placed on the time available to produce cultural artefacts in differing circumstances. Given that copying error, or cultural 'mutation', can have important implications for the evolutionary processes involved in material culture change, it is essential to explore empirically how such 'time constraints' affect patterns of artefactual variation. Here, we report an experiment that systematically tests whether, and how, varying time constraints affect shape copying error rates. A total of 90 participants copied the shape of a 3D 'target handaxe form' using a standardized foam block and a plastic knife. Three distinct 'time conditions' were examined, whereupon participants had either 20, 15, or 10 minutes to complete the task. One aim of this study was to determine whether reducing production time produced a proportional increase in copy error rates across all conditions, or whether the concept of a task specific 'threshold' might be a more appropriate manner to model the effect of time budgets on copy-error rates. We found that mean levels of shape copying error increased when production time was reduced. However, there were no statistically significant differences between the 20 minute and 15 minute conditions. Significant differences were only obtained between conditions when production time was reduced to 10 minutes. Hence, our results more strongly support the hypothesis that the effects of time constraints on copying error are best modelled according to a 'threshold' effect, below which mutation rates increase more markedly. Our results also suggest that 'time budgets' available in the past will have generated varying patterns of shape variation, potentially affecting spatial and temporal trends seen in the archaeological record. Hence, 'time-budgeting' factors need to be given greater consideration in evolutionary models of material culture change.

  1. Development of total medical material distribution management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uto, Y; Kumamoto, I

    1994-07-01

    Since September 1992, attempts have been made at Kagoshima University Hospital to develop the Medical Material Distribution Management System which helps to realize optimal hospital management as a subsystem of the Total Hospital Information System of Kagoshima University (THINK). As this system has been established, it has become possible for us to have an accurate grasp of the flow and stock of medical materials at our hospital. Furthermore, since September 1993, the Medical Material Distribution Management System has been improved and the Total Medical Material Distribution Management System has been smoothly introduced into the site of clinical practice. This system enables automatic demands for fees for treatment with specific instruments and materials covered by health insurance. It was difficult to predict the effect of this system, because no similar system had been developed in Japan. However, more satisfactory results than expected have been obtained since its introduction.

  2. Deriving an atmospheric budget of total organic bromine using airborne in-situ measurements from the Western Pacific during SHIVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, S.; Bönisch, H.; Keber, T.; Oram, D. E.; Mills, G.; Engel, A.

    2014-02-01

    During the SHIVA (Stratospheric Ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere) project an extensive dataset of all halogen species relevant for the atmospheric budget of total organic bromine has been collected in the West Pacific region using the FALCON aircraft operated by the German Aerospace agency DLR (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt) covering a vertical range from the planetary boundary layer up to the ceiling altitude of the aircraft of 13 km. In total, more than 700 measurements were performed with the newly developed fully-automated in-situ instrument GHOST-MS (Gas cHromatograph for the Observation of Tracers - coupled with a Mass Spectrometer) by the Goethe University of Frankfurt (GUF) and with the onboard whole-air sampler WASP with subsequent ground based state-of-the-art GC/MS analysis by the University of East Anglia (UEA). Both instruments yield good agreement for all major (CHBr3 and CH2Br2) and minor (CHBrCl, CHBrCl2 and CHBr2Cl) VSLS (very short-lived substances), at least at the level of their 2 σ measurement uncertainties. In contrast to the suggestion that the Western Pacific could be a major source region for VSLS (Pyle et al., 2011), we found only slightly enhanced mixing ratios of brominated halogen source gases relative to the levels reported in Montzka et al. (2011) for other tropical regions. A budget for total organic bromine, including all four halons,CH3Br and the VSLS, is derived for the upper troposphere, the input region for the TTL and thus also for the stratosphere, compiled from the SHIVA dataset. With exception of the two minor VSLS CHBrCl2 and CHBr2Cl, excellent agreement with the values reported in Montzka et al. (2011) is found, while being slightly higher than previous studies from our group based on balloon-borne measurements.

  3. Compulsive buying and credit card misuse among credit card holders: the roles of self-esteem, materialism, impulsive buying and budget constraint

    OpenAIRE

    Omar, Nor Asiah; Rahim, Ruzita Abdul; Wel, Che Aniza Che; Alam, Syed Shah

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to examine the factors that influence credit card misuse among working adults in Klang Valley, Malaysia. The relationship among self-esteem, materialism, impulsive buying, budget constraint, compulsive buying and credit card misuse are explored in this study. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 186 questionnaires was collected via convenience sampling from credit card users of working adults in Malaysia. A structural equation model that assesses the relationship b...

  4. Deriving an atmospheric budget of total organic bromine using airborne in situ measurements from the western Pacific area during SHIVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, S.; Bönisch, H.; Keber, T.; Oram, D. E.; Mills, G.; Engel, A.

    2014-07-01

    During the recent SHIVA (Stratospheric Ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere) project an extensive data set of all halogen species relevant for the atmospheric budget of total organic bromine was collected in the western Pacific region using the Falcon aircraft operated by the German Aerospace agency DLR (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt) covering a vertical range from the planetary boundary layer up to the ceiling altitude of the aircraft of 13 km. In total, more than 700 measurements were performed with the newly developed fully automated in situ instrument GHOST-MS (Gas chromatograph for the Observation of Tracers - coupled with a Mass Spectrometer) by the Goethe University of Frankfurt (GUF) and with the onboard whole-air sampler WASP with subsequent ground-based state-of-the-art GC / MS analysis by the University of East Anglia (UEA). Both instruments yield good agreement for all major (CHBr3 and CH2Br2) and minor (CH2BrCl, CHBrCl2 and CHBr2Cl) VSLS (very short-lived substances), at least at the level of their 2σ measurement uncertainties. In contrast to the suggestion that the western Pacific could be a region of strongly increased atmospheric VSLS abundance (Pyle et al., 2011), we found only in the upper troposphere a slightly enhanced amount of total organic bromine from VSLS relative to the levels reported in Montzka and Reimann et al. (2011) for other tropical regions. From the SHIVA observations in the upper troposphere, a budget for total organic bromine, including four halons (H-1301, H-1211, H-1202, H-2402), CH3Br and the VSLS, is derived for the level of zero radiative heating (LZRH), the input region for the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) and thus also for the stratosphere. With the exception of the two minor VSLS CHBrCl2 and CHBr2Cl, excellent agreement with the values reported in Montzka and Reimann et al. (2011) is found, while being slightly higher than previous studies from our group based on balloon-borne measurements.

  5. 78 FR 70326 - Rigging Equipment for Material Handling; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ...] Rigging Equipment for Material Handling; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB) Approval... on Rigging Equipment for Material Handling (29 CFR 1926.251). These paragraphs require affixing... automated or other technological information collection and transmission techniques. III. Proposed Actions...

  6. Compulsive buying and credit card misuse among credit card holders: The roles of self-esteem, materialism, impulsive buying and budget constraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Asiah Omar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study aims to examine the factors that influence credit card misuse among working adults in Klang Valley, Malaysia. The relationship among self-esteem, materialism, impulsive buying, budget constraint, compulsive buying and credit card misuse are explored in this study. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 186 questionnaires was collected via convenience sampling from credit card users of working adults in Malaysia. A structural equation model that assesses the relationship between the proposed variables is tested using AMOS 20. Findings: The findings reveal that budget constraints, impulsive buying and materialism have a statistically significant influence on compulsive buying. In terms of credit card misuse, it is influenced negatively by self-esteem while positively by compulsive buying. Originality/value: Despite vast research on compulsive buying and credit card misuse, very few studies have examined it in the non-Western context.

  7. Think the way to measure the Earth Radiation Budget and the Total Solar Irradiance with a small satellites constellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meftah, M.; Keckhut, P.; Damé, L.; Bekki, S.; Sarkissian, A.; Hauchecorne, A.

    2018-05-01

    Within the past decade, satellites constellations have become possible and practical. One of the interest to use a satellites constellation is to measure the true Earth Radiation Imbalance, which is a crucial quantity for testing climate models and for predicting the future course of global warming. This measurement presents a high interest because the 2001-2010 decade has not shown the accelerating pace of global warming that most models predict, despite the fact that the greenhouse-gas radiative forcing continues to rise. All estimates (ocean heat content and top of atmosphere) show that over the past decade the Earth radiation imbalance ranges between 0.5 to 1W-2. Up to now, the Earth radiation imbalance has not been measured directly. The only way to measure the imbalance with sufficient accuracy is to measure both the incoming solar radiations (total solar irradiance) and the outgoing terrestrial radiations (top of atmosphere outgoing longwave radiations and shortwave radiations) onboard the same satellite, and ideally, with the same instrument. The incoming solar radiations and the outgoing terrestrial radiations are of nearly equal magnitude of the order of 340.5W-2. The objective is to measure these quantities over time by using differential Sun-Earth measurements (to counter calibration errors) with an accuracy better than 0.05Wm-2 at 1σ. It is also necessary to have redundant instruments to track aging in space in order to measure during a decade and to measure the global diurnal cycle with a dozen satellites. Solar irradiance and Earth Radiation Budget (SERB) is a potential first in orbit demonstration satellite. The SERB nano-satellite aims to measure on the same platform the different components of the Earth radiation budget and the total solar irradiance. Instrumental payloads (solar radiometer and Earth radiometers) can acquire the technical maturity for the future large missions (constellation that insure global measurement cover) by flying in a

  8. The budget between transportation and accumulation of organic carbon and total nitrogen in black soil at a sloping farmland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Huajun; Zhang Xiaoping; Liang Aizhen

    2006-01-01

    Based on the rate of soil redistribution at a sloping farmland using 137 Cs tracer technique and spatial variation of soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN), the spatial distribution of SOC and TN loss and the budget between transportation and accumulation for recently 50 years was calculated. The results showed that the rate of soil redistribution ranged from -24.61 t/hm 2 /a to 33.56 t/hm 2 /a, most of study area was in medium and weakly erosion phase and accounted for 83.66%; and the area of soil deposition accounted for 15.62%; The variation of the loss of SOC and TN was consistent with that of soil redistribution, shoulder-slope had the most serious loss with the rate of 407.57 kg/hm 2 /a for SOC and 39.94 kg/hm 2 /a for TN, back-slope and summit had the secondly loss with the average rate of 244.2 kg/hm 2 /a for SOC and -20.56 kg/hm 2 /a for TN. For the whole area, relative loss of SOC and TN more than 50% accounted for 10.45% and 11.21%, respectively; The net loss of sediment in the study area was 45.54 t/a for recent 48 years, among which SOC and TN were 612.62 kg/a and 47.20 kg/a, respectively, which was 52% more than that of without consideration of the enrichment of sediment on soil organic matter. (authors)

  9. Plan Your Advertising Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, Steuart-Henderson

    1979-01-01

    Methods for establishing an advertising budget are reviewed. They include methods based on percentage of sales or profits, unit of sales, and objective and task. Also discussed are ways to allocate a promotional budget. The most common breakdowns are: departmental budgets, total budget, calendar periods, media, and sales area. (JMD)

  10. Total focusing method (TFM) robustness to material deviations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painchaud-April, Guillaume; Badeau, Nicolas; Lepage, Benoit

    2018-04-01

    The total focusing method (TFM) is becoming an accepted nondestructive evaluation method for industrial inspection. What was a topic of discussion in the applied research community just a few years ago is now being deployed in critical industrial applications, such as inspecting welds in pipelines. However, the method's sensitivity to unexpected parametric changes (material and geometric) has not been rigorously assessed. In this article, we investigate the robustness of TFM in relation to unavoidable deviations from modeled nominal inspection component characteristics, such as sound velocities and uncertainties about the parts' internal and external diameters. We also review TFM's impact on the standard inspection modes often encountered in industrial inspections, and we present a theoretical model supported by empirical observations to illustrate the discussion.

  11. Alternative materials to improve total hip replacement tribology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santavirta, Seppo; Böhler, Max; Harris, William H; Konttinen, Yrjö T; Lappalainen, Reijo; Muratoglu, Orhun; Rieker, Claude; Salzer, Martin

    2003-08-01

    An improvement in tribology of bearing surfaces is an effective means of increasing the longevity of total hip replacement (THR). Currently, 3 approaches are available to achieve this aim: first, use of highly cross-linked UHMWPE; second, aluminum oxide ceramic bearings, and third, metal-on-metal bearings. Cross-linking reduces the wear resistance of UHMWPE markedly without impairment of other significant properties of the material. Simulator studies and some clinical long-term (10-22 years) follow-up surveys suggest an almost immeasurable wear of the highly cross-linked UHMWPE-based acetabular components during an expected clinical life span. Bioinert alumina ceramic (aluminum oxide) was introduced 3 decades ago for THR-bearing surfaces to improve performance and longevity. Alumina ceramic is entirely biostable and bioinert and has good mechanical properties. For correctly positioned alumina-on-alumina bearings, the annual linear wear rate has been reported to be 3.9 microm. Alumina heads have been successfully used in combination with polyethylene sockets, but as regards wear, the best results have been obtained with alumina-on-alumina bearings. In ceramic THR bearings, precise manufacture and contact surface geometry, including optimal clearance, are most important. For the currently available products, the component fracture risk is almost nonexistent (less than 1 per 1000). Metal-on-metal bearings were used in the early stage of THR surgery, although not all old designs were successful. More recent analyses of the early series have shown the advantages of metal-on-metal to be better and have led to a renaissance of this articulation. Initially, stainless steel was used because it was easy to manufacture and polish. Current metal-on-metal bearings are based on cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloys with varying carbon contents. Such bearings are self-polishing. Linear wear rates remain at the level of a few microm a year. An improvement in technology has increased

  12. Deriving an atmospheric budget of total organic bromine using airborne in-situ measurements of brominated hydrocarbons in the Western Pacific during SHIVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Stephan; Bönisch, Harald; Keber, Timo; Oram, Dave; Mills, Graham; Engel, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Halogenated hydrocarbons play a major role as precursors for stratospheric ozone depletion. Released from the surface in the troposphere, the halocarbons reach the stratosphere via transport through the tropical tropopause layer. The contribution of the so called very short lived species (VSLS), having atmospheric lifetimes of less than half a year as sources gases for stratospheric bromine is significant. Source gas observations of long-lived bromine compounds and VSLS have so far not been able to explain the amount of bromine derived in the stratosphere from observations of BrO and modeling of the ratio of BrO to total bromine. Due to the short lifetimes and the high atmospheric variability, the representativeness of the available observations of VSLS source gases remains unclear, as these may vary with region and display seasonal variability. During the SHIVA (Stratospheric Ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere) project an extensive dataset with over 700 samples of ambient air of all halogen species relevant for the atmospheric budget of total organic bromine (long lived halocarbons: H-1301, H-1211, H-1202, H-2402 and CH3Br, very short lived substances: CHBr3, CH2Br2, CHBr2Cl, CHBrCl2 and CHBrCl) have been collected from onboard the FALCON aircraft in the West Pacific region. Measurements were performed with the newly developed fully-automated in-situ instrument GHOST-MS (Gas chromatograph for the Observation of Tracers - coupled with a Mass Spectrometer) by the Goethe University of Frankfurt and with the onboard whole-air sampler WASP with subsequent ground based state-of-the-art GC/MS analysis by the University of East Anglia. We will present the datasets, compare these to other observation, derive a bromine budget for the West Pacific and derive an estimate of the amount of bromine from VSLS reaching the stratosphere. Using the mean mixing ratios in the upper troposphere of the halocarbons mentioned above, the calculated budget of the total organic

  13. Atmospheric behavior, deposition, and budget of radioactive materials from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in March 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morino, Y.; Ohara, T.; Nishizawa, M.

    2011-12-01

    To understand the atmospheric behavior of radioactive materials emitted from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant after the nuclear accident that accompanied the great Tohoku earthquake and tsunami on 11 March 2011, we simulated the transport and deposition of iodine-131 and cesium-137 using a chemical transport model. The model roughly reproduced the observed temporal and spatial variations of deposition rates over 15 Japanese prefectures (60-400 km from the plant), including Tokyo, although there were some discrepancies between the simulated and observed rates. These discrepancies were likely due to uncertainties in the simulation of emission, transport, and deposition processes in the model. A budget analysis indicated that approximately 13% of iodine-131 and 22% of cesium-137 were deposited over land in Japan, and the rest was deposited over the ocean or transported out of the model domain (700 × 700 km2). Radioactivity budgets are sensitive to temporal emission patterns. Accurate estimation of emissions to the air is important for estimation of the atmospheric behavior of radionuclides and their subsequent behavior in land water, soil, vegetation, and the ocean.

  14. Budget Options

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    This volume-part of the Congressional Budget Office's (CBO's) annual report to the House and Senate Committees on the Budget-is intended to help inform policymakers about options for the federal budget...

  15. Venous thrombo-embolism (VTE prevention of patients undergoing total hip and knee replacement: budget impact analysis of apixaban in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Giovanni Mantovani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism (VTE is a common and burdensome cardiovascular condition, frequently leading to severe complications and requiring high-cost healthcare interventions. New oral anticoagulants (nOACs have demonstrated to be efficacious and safe in VTE prevention of patients undergoing total hip replacement (THR and total knee replacement (TKR, a condition that is typically associated to cardiovascular disease. The Italian Healthcare Service (SSN has recently approved the latest nOAC, apixaban. The present article aims to evaluate its economic impact in the perspective of the Italian SSN.METHODS: We conducted a budget impact analysis to estimate clinical outcomes and economic consequences associated to the reimbursement of apixaban, in the prevention of VTE as a consequence of major orthopedic surgery, over a three-year time horizon. In our analysis we compared two alternative scenarios, with apixaban either reimbursed (Scenario B or not reimbursed (Scenario A by the Italian SSN, and estimated the difference of healthcare costs between the two scenarios. Only direct healthcare costs have been considered.RESULTS: According to market assumptions, it is estimated that 1.2%, 3.7%, and 6.5% of THR patients, and 1.2%, 3.8% and 6.7% of TKR patients, would be treated with apixaban over the first three years since launch. At the estimated daily cost of apixaban (€2.48/die, this would translate into a budget impact of €14.3 mln, €45.5 mln, and €81.4 mln at years 1, 2 and 3 since launch, respectively. This expenditure would be more than offset by savings, due to: i reduction of prescriptions of alternative treatment options (other nOACs, low-molecular weight heparins, fondaparinux; ii reduction of the economic burden attributable of CV complications of VTE. Finally, Scenario B resulted slightly favourable compared to Scenario A, leading to economic savings for about €50 thousands over three years. Sensitivity analyses confirmed

  16. A Guide for Using Geochemical Methods in Dredged Material, Sediment Tracking, and Sediment Budget Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-26

    geochemical markers such as radioisotopes and stable isotopes, organic matter, and mineralogy/elemental composition are recognized and established methods ...further elucidate the original erosion source of accumulating sediment (Hoefs 2009). 2.3 Radioisotopes Radioisotopic dating is based on measuring the...ER D C TR -1 7- 3 Dredging Operations and Environmental Research Program A Guide for Using Geochemical Methods in Dredged Material

  17. Mechanical design and material budget of the CMS barrel pixel detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amsler, C; Boesiger, K; Chiochia, V; Maier, R; Meyer, Hp; Robmann, P; Scherr, S; Schmidt, A; Steiner, S [Universitaet Zuerich, Physik-Institut, Winterthurerstr. 190, CH-8057 Zuerich (Switzerland); Erdmann, W; Gabathuler, K; Horisberger, R; Koenig, S; Kotlinski, D; Meier, B; Streuli, S [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Rizzi, A [ETH Zuerich, Institute for Particle Physics, CH-8093 Zuerich (Switzerland)], E-mail: Alexander.Schmidt@cern.ch

    2009-05-15

    The Compact Muon Solenoid experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN includes a silicon pixel detector as its innermost component. Its main task is the precise reconstruction of charged particles close to the primary interaction vertex. This paper gives an overview of the mechanical requirements and design choices for the barrel pixel detector. The distribution of material in the detector as well as its description in the Monte Carlo simulation are discussed in detail.

  18. Mechanical Design and Material Budget of the CMS Barrel Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Amsler, C; Chiochia, V; Erdmann, W; Gabathuler, K; Horisberger, R; König, S; Kotlinski, D; Maier, R; Meyer, H; Meier, B; Meyer, Hp; Rizzi, A; Robmann, P; Scherr, S; Schmidt, A; Steiner, S; Erdmann, W; Gabathuler, K; Horisberger, R; König, S; Kotlinski, D; Meier, B; Streuli, S; Rizzi, A

    2009-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN includes a silicon pixel detector as its innermost component. Its main task is the precise reconstruction of charged particles close to the primary interaction vertex. This paper gives an overview of the mechanical requirements and design choices for the barrel pixel detector. The distribution of material in the detector as well as its description in the Monte Carlo simulation are discussed in detail.

  19. Structure analysis of liquids and disordered materials using pulsed neutron diffraction and total scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuya, Kentaro

    2011-01-01

    Neutron diffraction·total scattering at pulsed neutron source is a powerful method to analyze the complex structure of disordered materials: liquids, glasses, amorphous materials and disordered crystals. The basic idea of the structure of disordered materials, the fundamental diffraction theory for disordered materials, and structure analysis of disordered materials using pulsed neutron diffraction·total scattering technique (TOF method) are described in detail. In addition, the precise information of the world highest class J-PARC MLF spallation neutron source and typical J-PARC neutron total scattering instrument NOVA are also given. Recent structural modelling methods of disordered materials such like reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) simulation method is briefly described using an example of the analysis of a typical disordered material silica glass. (author)

  20. Assessment of total polar materials in Frying fats from Czech restaurants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mlcek

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Deep-frying is commonly used as convenient technique for the preparation of foods. The frying oils and fats are absorbed by fried food and become a part of diet. The content of total polar materials was determined in frying oils and fats in 46 restaurants from South Moravia and the Olomouc regions. Twenty-eight samples were found with total polar materials with limit of rejection over 24%. The highest total polar materials values were observed in cooking fat; the lowest one was in vegetable shortening oil. This conclusion corresponds with frying temperatures, which were highest in cooking fat.

  1. Compendium of Materials on Zero-Base Budgeting in the States. 95th Congress; 1st Session. Committee Print.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S. , Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Government Operations.

    This is a collection of 16 articles on zero-based budgeting (ZBB), dealing primarily with the practice as it occurs in the states. Included is a lengthy report on ZBB practices in the states based on a survey conducted by the National Association of State Budget Officers and the Congressional Research Service. (IRT)

  2. Late Budgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Asger Lau; Lassen, David Dreyer; Nielsen, Lasse Holbøll Westh

    are negative rather than positive; and when there is divided government. We test the hypotheses of the model using a unique data set of late budgets for US state governments, based on dates of budget approval collected from news reports and a survey of state budget o¢ cers for the period 1988...

  3. Total scattering investigation of materials for clean energy applications: the importance of the local structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavasi, Lorenzo

    2011-04-21

    In this Perspective article we give an account of the application of total scattering methods and pair distribution function (PDF) analysis to the investigation of materials for clean energy applications such as materials for solid oxide fuel cells and lithium batteries, in order to show the power of this technique in providing new insights into the structure-property correlation in this class of materials.

  4. Total gamma activity measurements for determining the radioactivity of residual materials from nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auler, I.; Meyer, M.; Stickelmann, J.

    1995-01-01

    Large amounts of residual materials from retrofitting measures and from decommissioning of nuclear power stations shows such a weak level of radioactivity that they could be released after decision measurements. Expenses incurred with complex geometry cannot be taken with common methods. NIS developed a Release Measurement Facility (RMF) based on total gamma activity measurements especially for these kind of residual materials. The RMF has been applied for decision measurements in different nuclear power plants. Altogether about 2,000 Mg of various types of materials have been measured up to now. More than 90 % of these materials could be released 0 without any restriction after decision measurements

  5. The Agency's budget

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1964-01-01

    A total Agency Budget of $10 406 000 for 1965 was approved by the General Conference at its session of September 1964; the Budget for the year 1964 amounted to $9 812 000. The consolidated Budget figures are shown in the table at the end of this article. The Budget falls into two parts - the Regular Budget and the Operational Budget. The Regular Budget provides for the ordinary administrative expenses of the Agency, and for expert panels, special missions, symposia and conferences, distribution of information, and scientific and technical services. In conformity with the Agency's Statute, these expenses are met by contributions made according to Voluntary contributions are paid initially into a General Fund established for this purpose, and money for operations is transferred to the respective Operating Funds as appropriate, and as approved by the Board of Governors. The scale of assessments for 1965 is based on the United Nations scale for 1964. The assessments are estimated to yield $7 713 000 - an increase of 6.8 per cent; however, more than three quarters of this increase will be offset by credits which Member States will receive as a result of a cash surplus brought forward. The Operational Budget is financed by voluntary contributions and is divided into two parts - Operating Fund I, devoted to certain laboratory and research projects, and Operating Fund II, for technical assistance, training and research contracts.

  6. Collection assessment and acquisitions budgets

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Sul H

    2013-01-01

    This invaluable new book contains timely information about the assessment of academic library collections and the relationship of collection assessment to acquisition budgets. The rising cost of information significantly influences academic libraries'abilities to acquire the necessary materials for students and faculty, and public libraries'abilities to acquire material for their clientele. Collection Assessment and Acquisitions Budgets examines different aspects of the relationship between the assessment of academic library collections and the management of library acquisition budgets. Librar

  7. Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller) > Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    functionalStatements OUSD(C) History FMR Budget Materials Budget Execution Financial Management Improving Financial Performance Reports Regulations Press Release | Budget Briefing | Transcripts: David L. Norquist, Under PDF document. Click on Excel icon for Excel document Overview - FY2019 Defense Budget Performance

  8. System Budgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Palle

    1996-01-01

    The lecture note is aimed at introducing system budgets for optical communication systems. It treats optical fiber communication systems (six generations), system design, bandwidth effects, other system impairments and optical amplifiers.......The lecture note is aimed at introducing system budgets for optical communication systems. It treats optical fiber communication systems (six generations), system design, bandwidth effects, other system impairments and optical amplifiers....

  9. 24 CFR 968.225 - Budget revisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Budget revisions. 968.225 Section... Fewer Than 250 Units) § 968.225 Budget revisions. (a) A PHA shall not incur any modernization cost in excess of the total HUD-approved CIAP budget. A PHA shall submit a budget revision, in a form prescribed...

  10. DCS Budget Tracking System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — DCS Budget Tracking System database contains budget information for the Information Technology budget and the 'Other Objects' budget. This data allows for monitoring...

  11. Assessment of Corrosion, Fretting, and Material Loss of Retrieved Modular Total Knee Arthroplasties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Audrey J; Seagers, Kirsten A; Van Citters, Douglas W

    2017-07-01

    Modular junctions in total hip arthroplasties have been associated with fretting, corrosion, and debris release. The purpose of this study is to analyze damage severity in total knee arthroplasties of a single design by qualitative visual assessment and quantitative material loss measurements to evaluate implant performance and patient impact via material loss. Twenty-two modular knee retrievals of the same manufacturer were identified from an institutional review board-approved database. Junction designs included tapers with an axial screw and tapers with a radial screw. Constructs consisted of 2 metal alloys: CoCr and Ti6Al4V. Components were qualitatively scored and quantitatively measured for corrosion and fretting. Negative values represent adhered material. Statistical differences were analyzed using sign tests. Correlations were tested with a Spearman rank order test (P corrosion than other components, suggesting preferential corrosion when interfacing with Ti6Al4V. Overall, although corrosion was noted in this series, material loss was low, and none were revised for clinical metal-related reaction. This suggests the clinical impact from corrosion in total knee arthroplasty is low. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Budget Options

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    ... (including the off-budget Social Security trust funds) to $281 billion. That surplus would be the largest in history in nominal dollars and the largest since 1948 as a percentage of gross domestic product (GDP...

  13. NCTN Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the budget for the National Clinical Trials Network (NCTN), a National Cancer Institute program that gives funds and other support to cancer research organizations to conduct cancer clinical trials.

  14. Anastomose cavo-pulmonar total sem uso de material protético

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdester C. PINTO Jr.

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Demonstrar a viabilidade na feitura de túnel cava inferior-cava superior com retalho da parede atrial direita, evitando o emprego de material protético. Casuística e Métodos: Foram operados 2 pacientes nos quais se empregou a técnica de anastomose cavo-pulmonar total, sem uso de material protético. O primeiro caso, A.L.M., masc, 4 anos, 15 kg, era portador de atresia tricúspide (EP, com comunicação interventricular (CIV restritiva. O segundo caso, M.E.N.O., fem, 15 anos, 47 kg, tinha doença de Ebstein. O controle pós-operatório dos pacientes foi feito com ecocardiograma e cateterismo cardíaco. As operações foram realizadas com o emprego de circulação extracorpórea (CEC, e cardioplegia sangüínea como método de proteção miocárdica. A canulação das cavas foi o mais distal possível. A tunelização foi realizada com retalho de tecido atrial direito, suturado ao septo interatrial, deixando-se o seio coronariano e a comunicação interatrial (CIA para a esquerda. Resultados: Ambos os pacientes evoluíram, sem complicações, na UTI. O primeiro apresentou derrame pleural discreto à direita, e o segundo mantém-se em estimulação artificial (VVI,R. Conclusões: A tunelização intra-atrial para anastomose cavo-pulmonar total pode ser realizada sem o uso de material protético, evitando-se os riscos advindos do seu emprego (calcificação, retração, embolização.The authors describe two cases (one tricuspid atresia without TGA or pulmonary stenosis, but with a restrictive IVC: the second of an Ebstein disease of total cavo-pulmonary anastomosis using only the tissue of the atrial wall, avoiding any prosthetic material. Both cases were done under cardiopulmonary bypass and cold blood cardioplegia. A flap of the right atrial wall was used to re-direct the blood flow. Pleural effusion in one patient and complete AV block in the other were the complications found. They conclude that right intra-atrial tunneling for

  15. Effects of Material Properties on the Total Stored Energy of a Hybrid Flywheel Rotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, S.K.; Yoon, Y.B. [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea); Han, S.C. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    2000-05-01

    A numerical method based on an assumption of a generalized plane strain (GPS) state is presented for calculating the stress and strength ratio distributions of the rotating composite flywheel rotor of varying material properties in the radial direction. The rotor is divided into many rings and each ring has constant material properties. All the rings are assumed to expand and have the same axial strain. A three-dimensional finite element method is then used to verify the accuracy of the present method for various height ratios and ply angles. This method gives a better solution for most of the rotors than other methods of a plane stress or plane strain state. After verification, the effects of material properties on the total stored energy (TSE) of the composite flywheel rotor are investigated. For this purpose, the material properties of the rotor, i.e., circumferential and radial Youngs moduli, ply angles and mass densities, are expressed by power functions of the radius and the rotor is analyzed. The analysis shows that TSE can be most effectively increased by changing the circumferential Youngs moduli along the radius, which amounts to over 300% of TSE of the constant material properties. The variation of ply angles along the radius can increase TSE by about 30% at most. The method of changing the mass densities along the radius could be also effective but its effects are not so noticeable in the rotor where the circumferential stiffness is properly arranged. (author). 24 refs., 7 figs.

  16. BEYOND BUDGETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edo Cvrkalj

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional budgeting principles, with strictly defined business goals, have been, since 1998, slowly growing into more sophisticated and organization-adjusted alternative budgeting concepts. One of those alternative concepts is the “Beyond budgeting” model with an implemented performance effects measuring process. In order for the model to be practicable, budget planning and control has to be reoriented to the “bottom up” planning and control approach. In today’s modern business surroundings one has to take both present and future opportunities and threats into consideration, by valorizing them in a budget which would allow a company to realize a whole pallet of advantages over the traditional budgeting principles which are presented later in the article. It is essential to emphasize the importance of successfully implementing the new budgeting principles within an organization. If the implementation has been lacking and done without a higher goal in mind, it is easily possible that the process has been implemented without coordination, planning and control framework within the organization itself. Further in the article we present an overview of managerial techniques and instruments within the “Beyond budgeting” model such as balanced scorecard, rolling forecast, dashboard, KPI and other supporting instruments. Lastly we define seven steps for implementing the “Beyond budgeting” model and offer a comparison of “Beyond budgeting” model against traditional budgeting principles which lists twelve reasons why “Beyond budgeting” is better suited to modern and market-oriented organizations. Each company faces those challenges in their own characteristic way but implementing new dynamic planning models will soon become essential for surviving in the market.

  17. CDO budgeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesladek, Pavel; Wiswesser, Andreas; Sass, Björn; Mauermann, Sebastian

    2008-04-01

    The Critical dimension off-target (CDO) is a key parameter for mask house customer, affecting directly the performance of the mask. The CDO is the difference between the feature size target and the measured feature size. The change of CD during the process is either compensated within the process or by data correction. These compensation methods are commonly called process bias and data bias, respectively. The difference between data bias and process bias in manufacturing results in systematic CDO error, however, this systematic error does not take into account the instability of the process bias. This instability is a result of minor variations - instabilities of manufacturing processes and changes in materials and/or logistics. Using several masks the CDO of the manufacturing line can be estimated. For systematic investigation of the unit process contribution to CDO and analysis of the factors influencing the CDO contributors, a solid understanding of each unit process and huge number of masks is necessary. Rough identification of contributing processes and splitting of the final CDO variation between processes can be done with approx. 50 masks with identical design, material and process. Such amount of data allows us to identify the main contributors and estimate the effect of them by means of Analysis of variance (ANOVA) combined with multivariate analysis. The analysis does not provide information about the root cause of the variation within the particular unit process, however, it provides a good estimate of the impact of the process on the stability of the manufacturing line. Additionally this analysis can be used to identify possible interaction between processes, which cannot be investigated if only single processes are considered. Goal of this work is to evaluate limits for CDO budgeting models given by the precision and the number of measurements as well as partitioning the variation within the manufacturing process. The CDO variation splits according to

  18. Evaluation of automated analysis of 15N and total N in plant material and soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1991-01-01

    Simultaneous determination of N-15 and total N using an automated nitrogen analyser interfaced to a continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometer (ANA-MS method) was evaluated. The coefficient of variation (CV) of repeated analyses of homogeneous standards and samples at natural abundance...... was lower than 0.1%. The CV of repeated analyses of N-15-labelled plant material and soil samples varied between 0.3% and 1.1%. The reproducibility of repeated total N analyses using the automated method was comparable to results obtained with a semi-micro Kjeldahl procedure. However, the automated method...... analysis showed that the recovery of inorganic N in the NH3 trap was lower when the N was diffused from water than from 2 M KCl. The results also indicated that different proportions of the NO3- and the NH4+ in aqueous solution were recovered in the trap after combined diffusion. The method is most suited...

  19. Total mineral material, acidity, sulphur, and nitrogen in rain and snow at Kentville, Nova Scotia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, F A; Gorham, E

    1957-01-01

    Analyses of total ash, sulphur, ph, ammonia, and nitrate nitrogen have been made on 23 monthly precipitation samples and 17 individual snow samples collected between June 1952 and May 1954 at Kentville, Nova Scotia, in a predominantly agricultural area. Mean annual supply of total mineral ash was 95 kg/ha, of sulphur 9.1 hg/ha, of ammonia nitrogen 2.8 kg/ha, and of nitrate nitrogen 1.1 kg/ha. Average pH was 5.7, and rains more acid than this exhibited higher levels of both nitrate and sulphur, and a marked correlation between the latter and ammonia. Snow samples had much lower concentrations of ash, sulphur, and nitrogen than rain samples collected in the same months, which may perhaps indicate a lower efficiency of snow flakes in removing materials from the atmosphere.

  20. BRICKS WITH TOTAL REPLACEMENT OF CLAY BY FLY ASH MIXED WITH DIFFERENT MATERIALS

    OpenAIRE

    J.N Akhtar; J.Alam; M.N Akhtar

    2011-01-01

    Fly ash is a powdery substance obtained from the dust collectors in the Thermal power plants that use coal as fuel. From the cement point of view the mineralogy of Fly ash is important as it contains 80% - 90% of glass. The impurities in coal-mostly clays, shale’s, limestone & dolomite; they cannot be burned so they turn up as ash. The Fly ash of class C category was used as a raw material to total replacement of clay for making Fly ash bricks. In present study the effect of Fly ash with high...

  1. Lambert-Beer law in ocean waters: optical properties of water and of dissolved/suspended material, optical energy budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavn, R H

    1988-01-15

    The role of the Lambert-Beer law in ocean optics is critically examined. The Lambert-Beer law and the three-parameter model of the submarine light field are used to construct an optical energy budget for any hydrosol. It is further applied to the analytical exponential decay coefficient of the light field and used to estimate the optical properties and effects of the dissolved/suspended component in upper ocean layers. The concepts of the empirical exponential decay coefficient (diffuse attenuation coefficient) of the light field and a constant exponential decay coefficient for molecular water are analyzed quantitatively. A constant exponential decay coefficient for water is rejected. The analytical exponential decay coefficient is used to analyze optical gradients in ocean waters.

  2. Total flavonoids content in the raw material and aqueous extractives from Bauhinia monandra Kurz (Caesalpiniaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Ana Josane Dantas; Ferreira, Magda Rhayanny Assunção; Randau, Karina Perrelli; de Souza, Tatiane Pereira; Soares, Luiz Alberto Lira

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the spectrophotometric methodology for determining the total flavonoid content (TFC) in herbal drug and derived products from Bauhinia monandra Kurz. Several analytical parameters from this method grounded on the complex formed between flavonoids and AlCl₃ were evaluated such as herbal amount (0.25 to 1.25 g); solvent composition (ethanol 40 to 80%, v/v); as well as the reaction time and AlCl₃ concentration (2 to 9%, w/v). The method was adjusted to aqueous extractives and its performance studied through precision, linearity and preliminary robustness. The results showed an important dependence of the method response from reaction time, AlCl₃ concentration, sample amount, and solvent mixture. After choosing the optimized condition, the method was applied for the matrixes (herbal material and extractives), showing precision lower than 5% (for both parameters repeatability and intermediate precision), coefficient of determination higher than 0.99, and no important influence could be observed for slight variations from wavelength or AlCl₃ concentration. Thus, it could be concluded that the evaluated analytical procedure was suitable to quantify the total flavonoid content in raw material and aqueous extractives from leaves of B. monandra.

  3. Evaluation of the Total Cost of Ownership of Fuel Cell-Powered Material Handling Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsden, T.

    2013-04-01

    This report discusses an analysis of the total cost of ownership of fuel cell-powered and traditional battery-powered material handling equipment (MHE, or more typically 'forklifts'). A number of fuel cell MHE deployments have received funding support from the federal government. Using data from these government co-funded deployments, DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has been evaluating the performance of fuel cells in material handling applications. NREL has assessed the total cost of ownership of fuel cell MHE and compared it to the cost of ownership of traditional battery-powered MHE. As part of its cost of ownership assessment, NREL looked at a range of costs associated with MHE operation, including the capital costs of battery and fuel cell systems, the cost of supporting infrastructure, maintenance costs, warehouse space costs, and labor costs. Considering all these costs, NREL found that fuel cell MHE can have a lower overall cost of ownership than comparable battery-powered MHE.

  4. Total Flavonoids Content in the Raw Material and Aqueous Extractives from Bauhinia monandra Kurz (Caesalpiniaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Josane Dantas Fernandes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the spectrophotometric methodology for determining the total flavonoid content (TFC in herbal drug and derived products from Bauhinia monandra Kurz. Several analytical parameters from this method grounded on the complex formed between flavonoids and AlCl3 were evaluated such as herbal amount (0.25 to 1.25 g; solvent composition (ethanol 40 to 80%, v/v; as well as the reaction time and AlCl3 concentration (2 to 9%, w/v. The method was adjusted to aqueous extractives and its performance studied through precision, linearity and preliminary robustness. The results showed an important dependence of the method response from reaction time, AlCl3 concentration, sample amount, and solvent mixture. After choosing the optimized condition, the method was applied for the matrixes (herbal material and extractives, showing precision lower than 5% (for both parameters repeatability and intermediate precision, coefficient of determination higher than 0.99, and no important influence could be observed for slight variations from wavelength or AlCl3 concentration. Thus, it could be concluded that the evaluated analytical procedure was suitable to quantify the total flavonoid content in raw material and aqueous extractives from leaves of B. monandra.

  5. Budget Pressures Churn Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2011-01-01

    When the budget-cutting ended this year in one rural North Texas school district, the people-moving began. Forced to chop its total staff to 55 employees from 64, the Perrin-Whitt Consolidated Independent school system went the route of many districts across the country: It made the majority of its reductions by encouraging early retirements and…

  6. Total dose radiation effects of pressure sensors fabricated on uni-bond-SOI materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Shiyang; Huang Yiping; Wang Jin; Li Anzhen; Shen Shaoqun; Bao Minhang

    2001-01-01

    Piezoresistive pressure sensors with a twin-island structure were successfully fabricated using high quality Uni-bond-SOI (On Insulator) materials. Since the piezoresistors were structured by the single crystalline silicon overlayer of the SOI wafer and were totally isolated by the buried SiO 2 , the sensors are radiation-hard. The sensitivity and the linearity of the pressure sensors keep their original values after being irradiated by 60 Co γ-rays up to 2.3 x 10 4 Gy(H 2 O). However, the offset voltage of the sensor has a slight drift, increasing with the radiation dose. The absolute value of the offset voltage deviation depends on the pressure sensor itself. For comparison, corresponding polysilicon pressure sensors were fabricated using the similar process and irradiated at the same condition

  7. Modeling river total bed material load discharge using artificial intelligence approaches (based on conceptual inputs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roushangar, Kiyoumars; Mehrabani, Fatemeh Vojoudi; Shiri, Jalal

    2014-06-01

    This study presents Artificial Intelligence (AI)-based modeling of total bed material load through developing the accuracy level of the predictions of traditional models. Gene expression programming (GEP) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS)-based models were developed and validated for estimations. Sediment data from Qotur River (Northwestern Iran) were used for developing and validation of the applied techniques. In order to assess the applied techniques in relation to traditional models, stream power-based and shear stress-based physical models were also applied in the studied case. The obtained results reveal that developed AI-based models using minimum number of dominant factors, give more accurate results than the other applied models. Nonetheless, it was revealed that k-fold test is a practical but high-cost technique for complete scanning of applied data and avoiding the over-fitting.

  8. Effect of dental restorative materials on total antioxidant capacity and calcium concentration of unstimulated saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezani, Gholam H; Moghadam, Mona-Momeni; Saghiri, Mohammad-Ali; Garcia-Godoy, Franklin; Asatourian, Armen; Aminsobhani, Mohsen; Scarbecz, Mark; Sheibani, Nader

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of dental amalgam and composite restorations on total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and calcium (Ca) ion concentration of unstimulated saliva. Forty-eight children aged 6-10 years selected and divided into three groups of sixteen (8 males, 8 females). In group A and B, samples consisted of two class II dental composite or amalgam restorations, while in group C samples were caries-free (control group). Unstimulated saliva from all samples was collected and TAC was measured by spectrophotometry using an adaptation of 2, 2'-azino-di-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonate) (ABTS) assay. The Ca ion level was estimated by an auto- analyzer. Data were analyzed with one- and two-way ANOVA test, at a p difference between groups ( p differences within and between groups ( p Gender is an effective factor in changes induced in oral cavity as females showed more emphatic reaction to dental filling materials than males. Patients who have dental restorations, especially dental composites, should pay more attention to their dental hygiene, because dental restorations can increase oxidative stress and decrease Ca ion level in saliva, which might jeopardize remineralization process of tooth structures after demineralization. Key words: Amalgam, caries, composite, saliva, total antioxidant capacity.

  9. Pure Nash Equilibria in Restricted Budget Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drees, Maximilian Werner; Feldotto, Matthias; Riechers, Sören; Skopalik, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    In budget games, players compete over resources with finite budgets. For every resource, a player has a specific demand and as a strategy, he chooses a subset of resources. If the total demand on a resource does not exceed its budget, the utility of each player who chose that resource equals his

  10. Home - House Budget Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Initiatives Hearings Full Menu About Toggle Links Members History Staff Rules & Budget Law News Toggle Links Press Releases Budget Digests HBC Publications Op-Eds Speeches & Statements Budgets Toggle Links FY 2018 Budget FY 2017 Budget FY 2017 Reconciliation FY 2016 Budget FY 2016 Reconciliation FY 2015

  11. Total emissivity and spectral emissivity of high-temperature materials; Gesamtemissionsgrad und spektraler Emissionsgrad von Hochtemperaturmaterialien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuer, G.; Pohlmann, P.; Schreiber, E.

    1998-05-01

    A new emissivity measurement device with inductive sample heating is described. The disc shaped samples can be measured between 800 C and 2000 C in vacuum or in each available gas atmosphere. Two kinds of surface temperature measurement methods are described, one by measuring in a blackbody hole and one by measuring at the surface without additional measures to correct emissivity. Total normal and spectral emissivity at wavelengths between 0,5 {mu}m and 8,3 {mu}m of various high temperature materials like platinum and Pt-Rh-alloys, siliconcarbide and molybdenum disilicide have been measured. From the investigated materials a few have been selected as reference samples for comparative emissivity measurements fullfilling the requirement of stability on air up to 400 C to 1000 C in order to ensure reproducibility of the results at different measurement conditions in air and in vacuum. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der Aufbau einer neuen Messapparatur fuer Emissionsgradmessungen bei Temperaturen zwischen 1000 C und 2000 C wird beschrieben. Die scheibenfoermigen Proben werden induktiv beheizt, und die Messungen koennen entweder in Vakuum oder einer beliebigen Gasatmosphaere durchgefuehrt werden. Es werden zwei verschiedene Verfahren zur Bestimmung der Oberflaechentemperatur bechrieben, wobei entweder in einer oder direkt an der Oberflaeche ohne zusaetzliche Massnahmen zur Emissionsgradkorrektur gemessen wird. An verschiedenen Hochtemperaturwerkstoffen wie Platin und Platin-Rhodium-Legierungen, Siliziumkarbid mit unterschiedlichen Herstellungsarten und Molybdaen-Disilizid wurden der Gesamtemissionsgrad und der spektrale Emissionsgrad bei Wellenlaengen von 0,5 {mu}m bis 8,3 {mu}m senkrecht zur Oberflaeche gemessen. Aus den untersuchten Materialien wurden solche als Referenzmaterialien fuer vergleichende Emissionsgradmessungen ausgewaehlt, die sowohl im Vakuum als auch in Luft und bei Temperaturen von 1400 C bis 1600 C unter verschiedenen Messbedingungen reproduzierbare Ergebnisse

  12. The evolving energy budget of accretionary wedges

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBeck, Jessica; Cooke, Michele; Maillot, Bertrand; Souloumiac, Pauline

    2017-04-01

    The energy budget of evolving accretionary systems reveals how deformational processes partition energy as faults slip, topography uplifts, and layer-parallel shortening produces distributed off-fault deformation. The energy budget provides a quantitative framework for evaluating the energetic contribution or consumption of diverse deformation mechanisms. We investigate energy partitioning in evolving accretionary prisms by synthesizing data from physical sand accretion experiments and numerical accretion simulations. We incorporate incremental strain fields and cumulative force measurements from two suites of experiments to design numerical simulations that represent accretionary wedges with stronger and weaker detachment faults. One suite of the physical experiments includes a basal glass bead layer and the other does not. Two physical experiments within each suite implement different boundary conditions (stable base versus moving base configuration). Synthesizing observations from the differing base configurations reduces the influence of sidewall friction because the force vector produced by sidewall friction points in opposite directions depending on whether the base is fixed or moving. With the numerical simulations, we calculate the energy budget at two stages of accretion: at the maximum force preceding the development of the first thrust pair, and at the minimum force following the development of the pair. To identify the appropriate combination of material and fault properties to apply in the simulations, we systematically vary the Young's modulus and the fault static and dynamic friction coefficients in numerical accretion simulations, and identify the set of parameters that minimizes the misfit between the normal force measured on the physical backwall and the numerically simulated force. Following this derivation of the appropriate material and fault properties, we calculate the components of the work budget in the numerical simulations and in the

  13. Building information modeling in budgeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strnad, Michal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Construction activity is one of the financially demanding and ever-changing locations of implementation. The basic idea of the budget is to determine all the possible costs that will arise during construction work. The budget must be a transparent and effective way of communication in the context of supplier-customer relationships. For this reason it is essential to give the budget the structure that is now represented by the price system. It is important to adhere to the principles of budgeting and technical standards. It is necessary to have good documentation for budgeting such as project documentation and much more. However, the construction product range is one of the most extensive, the product group can be changed several times in the investment phase not only materially but also cost-effectively because of the longest production cycle in the construction industry.

  14. Online Condition Monitoring of Bearings to Support Total Productive Maintenance in the Packaging Materials Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gligorijevic, Jovan; Gajic, Dragoljub; Brkovic, Aleksandar; Savic-Gajic, Ivana; Georgieva, Olga; Di Gennaro, Stefano

    2016-03-01

    The packaging materials industry has already recognized the importance of Total Productive Maintenance as a system of proactive techniques for improving equipment reliability. Bearing faults, which often occur gradually, represent one of the foremost causes of failures in the industry. Therefore, detection of their faults in an early stage is quite important to assure reliable and efficient operation. We present a new automated technique for early fault detection and diagnosis in rolling-element bearings based on vibration signal analysis. Following the wavelet decomposition of vibration signals into a few sub-bands of interest, the standard deviation of obtained wavelet coefficients is extracted as a representative feature. Then, the feature space dimension is optimally reduced to two using scatter matrices. In the reduced two-dimensional feature space the fault detection and diagnosis is carried out by quadratic classifiers. Accuracy of the technique has been tested on four classes of the recorded vibrations signals, i.e., normal, with the fault of inner race, outer race, and ball operation. The overall accuracy of 98.9% has been achieved. The new technique can be used to support maintenance decision-making processes and, thus, to increase reliability and efficiency in the industry by preventing unexpected faulty operation of bearings.

  15. Online Condition Monitoring of Bearings to Support Total Productive Maintenance in the Packaging Materials Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovan Gligorijevic

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The packaging materials industry has already recognized the importance of Total Productive Maintenance as a system of proactive techniques for improving equipment reliability. Bearing faults, which often occur gradually, represent one of the foremost causes of failures in the industry. Therefore, detection of their faults in an early stage is quite important to assure reliable and efficient operation. We present a new automated technique for early fault detection and diagnosis in rolling-element bearings based on vibration signal analysis. Following the wavelet decomposition of vibration signals into a few sub-bands of interest, the standard deviation of obtained wavelet coefficients is extracted as a representative feature. Then, the feature space dimension is optimally reduced to two using scatter matrices. In the reduced two-dimensional feature space the fault detection and diagnosis is carried out by quadratic classifiers. Accuracy of the technique has been tested on four classes of the recorded vibrations signals, i.e., normal, with the fault of inner race, outer race, and ball operation. The overall accuracy of 98.9% has been achieved. The new technique can be used to support maintenance decision-making processes and, thus, to increase reliability and efficiency in the industry by preventing unexpected faulty operation of bearings.

  16. A data reduction program for the linac total-scattering amorphous materials spectrometer (LINDA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, J.H.

    1976-01-01

    A computer program has been written to reduce the data collected on the A.E.R.E., Harwell linac total-scattering spectrometer (TSS) to the differential scattering cross-section. This instrument, used for studying the structure of amorphous materials such as liquids and glasses, has been described in detail. Time-of-flight spectra are recorded by several arrays of detectors at different angles using a pulsed incident neutron beam with a continuous distribution of wavelengths. The program performs all necessary background and container subtractions and also absorption corrections using the method of Paalman and Pings. The incident neutron energy distribution is obtained from the intensity recorded from a standard vanadium sample, enabling the observed differential scattering cross-section dsigma/dΩ (theta, lambda) and the structure factor S(Q) to be obtained. Various sample and vanadium geometries can be analysed by the program and facilities exist for the summation of data sets, smoothing of data, application of Placzek corrections and the output of processed data onto magnetic tape or punched cards. A set of example data is provided and some structure factors are shown with absorption corrections. (author)

  17. Determination of the total attenuation coefficient for six contact lens materials using the Beer-Lambert law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, C C; Crofts, N C

    1996-03-01

    The Beer-Lambert law has been used to determine the total attenuation coefficient, mu t, of three hard and three soft contact lens materials. The three hard contact lens materials were PMMA, Polycon II and Boston IV whereas the 3 soft materials were chosen with differing water contents of 38, 55 and 70%, respectively. The total attenuation coefficients of all six materials were obtained from measurements of the axial transmission at 632.8 nm of a series of plano powered lenses varying in axial thickness from 0.5 to 3.5 mm. The value of the total attenuation coefficient depends on both scattering and absorption and hence PMMA and Boston IV, which both incorporated a handling tint, showed significantly higher values (P 0.5) was found between any of the hydrated soft contact lens materials tested.

  18. Estimation of uncertainty of a reference material for proficiency testing for the determination of total mercury in fish in nature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santana, L V; Sarkis, J E S; Ulrich, J C; Hortellani, M A

    2015-01-01

    We provide an uncertainty estimates for homogeneity and stability studies of reference material used in proficiency test for determination of total mercury in fish fresh muscle tissue. Stability was estimated by linear regression and homogeneity by ANOVA. The results indicate that the reference material is both homogeneous and chemically stable over the short term. Total mercury concentration of the muscle tissue, with expanded uncertainty, was 0.294 ± 0.089 μg g −1

  19. A rolling-gliding wear simulator for the investigation of tribological material pairings for application in total knee arthroplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Richter, Berna I; Ostermeier, Sven; Turger, Anke; Denkena, Berend; Hurschler, Christof

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Material wear testing is an important technique in the development and evaluation of materials for use in implant for total knee arthroplasty. Since a knee joint induces a complex rolling-gliding movement, standardised material wear testing devices such as Pin-on-Disc or Ring-on-Disc testers are suitable to only a limited extent because they generate pure gliding motion only. Methods A rolling-gliding wear simulator was thus designed, constructed and implemented, which sim...

  20. Control Analysis Of Tobacco Raw Material Supplies Using Eoq Method Economic Order Quantity To Reach Efficiency Total Costs Of Raw Material In Pr. Sukun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwik Sudarwati

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The raw material inventory control system determines and guarantees the availability of raw material stock in the right quantity quality and timing. The problem in this research is the procurement of raw materials of tobacco. PR. Sukun still often experiences the excess. This is related to the frequency of raw material purchases and the quantity of raw material purchases which can lead to waste of working capital embedded in raw material inventory raw material ordering costs and raw material storage costs. The purpose of this research is to know how to make an efficiency level in procurement of raw material inventory between EOQ method compared with policy of PR. Sukun. The type of research used is analytic descriptive type. Data analysis begins by analyzing raw material quantity comparison total raw material inventory cost and raw material cost between PR Sukun policy with EOQ method. Based on the results of research known that by using EOQ method can be much more efficient compared to policy of PR. Sukun. The quantity and frequency of purchasing raw materials is less but still take into account the safety stock and reorder point so the production process is not disturbed. In addition the cost of purchasing ordering costs and raw materials storage costs less so as to create efficiencies on the cost of raw materials inventory. PR. Sukun in the procurement of raw material inventory should use EOQ method to be more efficient and take into account the safety stock and reorder point to avoid the inventory excess of raw materials.

  1. Budgeting for School Media Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drott, M. Carl

    1978-01-01

    Describes various forms of budgets and discusses concepts in budgeting useful to supervisors of school media centers: line item budgets, capital budgets, creating budgets, the budget calendar, innovations, PPBS (Planning, Programing, Budgeting System), zero-based budgeting, cost-benefit analysis, benefits, benefit guidelines, and budgeting for the…

  2. Size, Stability and Incremental Budgeting Outcomes in Public Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, Allen G.; Hills, Frederick S.

    1982-01-01

    Examined the influence of relative size in the analysis of total dollar and workforce budgets, and changes in total dollar and workforce budgets when correlational/regression methods are used. Data suggested that size dominates the analysis of total budgets, and is not a factor when discretionary dollar increments are analyzed. (JAC)

  3. Research report of fiscal 1997. Study on total energy and material control (feasibility study on circulating society); 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Total energy and material control ni kansuru chosa (junkangata shakai kochiku kanosei chosa) chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    In order to construct real sustainable global environment and human society in the 21st century called the century of environment, not only the innovation of manufacturing processes technically supporting such the construction but also the conception including the innovation of the whole society from a wide viewpoint are essential. As a total energy and material control system (TEMCOS) concept, the view of an energy-saving circulating society is attempted which minimizes a total energy and material flow in Japan, and the role and issue of manufacturing industry, in particular, material industry are extracted. As one of the targets of such a concept, the conception of an eco-town is also described. Paying attention on some important material industries including a mass material flow and consuming a large amount of energy such as metal, plastics and automobile industries, the study result on a material flow for every industry is arranged, and some effective issues contributing to minimize a material flow and control energy consumption and CO2 emission are extracted. 80 refs., 67 figs., 30 tabs.

  4. Automated Budget System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Automated Budget System (ABS) automates management and planning of the Mike Monroney Aeronautical Center (MMAC) budget by providing enhanced capability to plan,...

  5. California Budget Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallinson, Daniel J.

    2018-01-01

    The California Budget Challenge produced by Next10 provides a useful and intuitive tool for instructors to introduce students to public budgeting. Students will reason through a series of budgeting decisions using information provided on the fiscal and practical implications of their choices. The Challenge is updated with each budget cycle, so it…

  6. Automated atomic absorption spectrometric determination of total arsenic in water and streambed materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, M.

    1977-01-01

    An automated method to determine both inorganic and organic forms of arsenic In water, water-suspended mixtures, and streambed materials Is described. Organic arsenic-containing compounds are decomposed by either ultraviolet radiation or by suHurlc acid-potassium persulfate digestion. The arsenic liberated, with Inorganic arsenic originally present, is reduced to arsine with sodium borohydrlde. The arable Is stripped from the solution with the aid of nitrogen and Is then decomposed In a tube furnace heated to 800 ??C which Is placed in the optical path of an atomic absorption spectrometer. Thirty samples per hour can be analyzed to levels of 1 ??g arsenic per liter.

  7. Characterization of high viscosity materials by total reflection x-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Custo, G.; Boeykens, S.; Vazquez, C.

    2000-01-01

    Gel are soft, solid or solid-like materials of two or more components, one of which is a liquid present in substantial amount. It consists of three-dimensional polymer network and solvent and is an important state of matter. Polymer is a long-chain molecule that is composed of a large number of repeating units of identical structure. These macromolecules assemblies recently developed have interesting properties, which depends of their structure. Their impurities change these physical properties. The great inconvenient of these systems is their high viscosity that difficult sample preparation and analysis by most common chemical techniques. The purpose of this work is to explore the applicability of the TRXRF for the multi-elemental and structural analysis of synthetic and natural aqueous gels (mean polymer molecular weight greater than 10 3 ). The polymers investigated are scleroglucan, polyacrilamide, polyoxyethylene and xhantan. (author)

  8. The total amounts of radioactively contaminated materials in forests in Fukushima, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Shoji; Ugawa, Shin; Nanko, Kazuki; Shichi, Koji

    2012-01-01

    There has been leakage of radioactive materials from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. A heavily contaminated area (≥ 134, 137Cs 1000 kBq m−2) has been identified in the area northwest of the plant. The majority of the land in the contaminated area is forest. Here we report the amounts of biomass, litter (small organic matter on the surface of the soil), coarse woody litter, and soil in the contaminated forest area. The estimated overall volume and weight were 33 Mm3 (branches, leaves, litter, and coarse woody litter are not included) and 21 Tg (dry matter), respectively. Our results suggest that removing litter is an efficient method of decontamination. However, litter is being continuously decomposed, and contaminated leaves will continue to fall on the soil surface for several years; hence, the litter should be removed promptly but continuously before more radioactive elements are transferred into the soil. PMID:22639724

  9. Single/total-economy aspects of production and utilization of energy from renewable raw materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinhold, K

    1982-01-01

    ''Biosprit (biologically produced gasohol) can compete with synthetically produced ethanol for use in commerce and industries but not fully so with petrol due to the present refinery selling prices. Nevertheless, a 10% admixture will increase the price of one litre of petrol only slightly. If the consumer is not meant to cover this price increase, it could be covered by a small proportion of those expenditures which will be saved through a changeover to biogasohol production and which have been payed for necessary export refunding so far. Even at present, there is a considerable benefit involved for the overall national economy if there was a changeover to biogasohol production. In terms of total economy, transitional or initial subsidization would be just as justified as it is with initial promotion by the government with the introduction of new technologies.

  10. Applications of Total Scattering & Pair Distribution Function Analysis in Metal-Organic Framework Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Hui; Birgisson, Steinar; Sommer, Sanna

    structure. At the same time, there is an ongoing debate on whether the SBU is present prior, or during MOF crystallization in MOF chemistry. However, little is known about MOFs formation mechanism. Currently techniques to study the in situ MOF formation process mainly focused on after......-crystallization process, for example in situ XRD and SAXS/WAXS study on MOF formation. However, the pre-crystallization process in the early stage of MOF formation is still unexplored. In this project, total scattering and PDF study will be carried out to explore the MOF formation process in early stage. This includes......Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) is constructed by metal-oxide nodes and organic ligands. The formation of different structures of metal-oxide nodes (also called secondary building units, SBU) is crucial for MOF final structures, because the connectivity of SBU greatly influence the final MOF...

  11. FY 1996 Congressional budget request: Budget highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-02-01

    The FY 1996 budget presentation is organized by the Department`s major business lines. An accompanying chart displays the request for new budget authority. The report compares the budget request for FY 1996 with the appropriated FY 1995 funding levels displayed on a comparable basis. The FY 1996 budget represents the first year of a five year plan in which the Department will reduce its spending by $15.8 billion in budget authority and by $14.1 billion in outlays. FY 1996 is a transition year as the Department embarks on its multiyear effort to do more with less. The Budget Highlights are presented by business line; however, the fifth business line, Economic Productivity, which is described in the Policy Overview section, cuts across multiple organizational missions, funding levels and activities and is therefore included in the discussion of the other four business lines.

  12. Total phytosterol content in drug materials and extracts from roots of Acanthospermum hispidum by UV-VIS spectrophotometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa B. D. C. Araújo

    Full Text Available Acanthospermum hispidum DC., Asteraceae, is widely used in folk medicine in Brazil to treat respiratory diseases; this biological property has been attributed to its phytosterol content. This study evaluated the spectrophotometric assay method to quantify the total phytosterol content in raw materials and extracts from roots of A. hispidum. The procedure was based on the quantification at 625 nm after the Liebermann-Burchard reaction. The method was evaluated for linearity, repeatability, intermediate precision, accuracy and robustness. The date indicated that the procedure is a valid analytical tool for materials and herbal derivatives from A. hispidum.

  13. Stowing of radioactive materials package during road transport on vehicles of a total weight under 38 tons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilles, P.; Chevalier, G.; Pouard, M.

    1985-01-01

    Results of testing allow the formulation of recommendations for stowing radioactive material packaging for severe accidental conditions during land transport. For frontal impact kinetic energy acquired by deceleration should be totally absorbed by the packaging, as this energy is proportional to its mass it will stay on the vehicle. For side impact, the packaging should yield because kinetic energy to absorb, if fasteners are not deformed before rupture, can be largely over the packaging mass and damage could be very severe

  14. Visual and colorimetric methods for rapid determination of total tannins in vegetable raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Kalinkina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the development of rapid colorimetric method for determining the amount of tannins in aqueous extracts of vegetable raw materials. The sorption-based colorimetric test is determining sorption tannins polyurethane foam, impregnated of FeCl3, receiving on its surface painted in black and green color of the reaction products and the determination of their in sorbent matrix. Selectivity is achieved by determining the tannins specific interaction of polyphenols with iron ions (III. The conditions of sorption-colorimetric method: the concentration of ferric chloride (III, impregnated in the polyurethane foam; sorbent mass in the analytical cartridge; degree of loading his agent; the contact time of the phases. color scales have been developed for the visual determination of the amount of tannins in terms of gallic acid. Spend a digitized image obtained scales using computer program “Sorbfil TLC”, excluding a subjective assessment of the intensity of the color scale of the test. The results obtained determine the amount of tannins in aqueous extracts of vegetable raw rapid method using tablets and analytical cartridges. The results of the test determination of tannins with visual and densitometric analytical signal registration are compared to known methods. Spend a metrological evaluation of the results of determining the amount of tannins sorption rapid colorimetric methods. Time visual and densitometric rapid determination of tannins, taking into account the sample preparation is 25–30 minutes, the relative error does not exceed 28 %. The developed test methods for quantifying the content of tannins allow to exclude the use of sophisticated analytical equipment, carry out the analysis in non-laboratory conditions do not require highly skilled personnel.

  15. Children's Budget 2016. 10th Anniversary Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsif, John, Ed.; Gluck, Elliott, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    Federal spending dedicated to children represents just 7.83 percent of the federal budget in fiscal year 2016, and total spending on children's programs has decreased by five percent in the last two years, according to "Children's Budget 2016." The federal government makes more than 200 distinct investments in children. These include…

  16. A rolling-gliding wear simulator for the investigation of tribological material pairings for application in total knee arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denkena Berend

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Material wear testing is an important technique in the development and evaluation of materials for use in implant for total knee arthroplasty. Since a knee joint induces a complex rolling-gliding movement, standardised material wear testing devices such as Pin-on-Disc or Ring-on-Disc testers are suitable to only a limited extent because they generate pure gliding motion only. Methods A rolling-gliding wear simulator was thus designed, constructed and implemented, which simulates and reproduces the rolling-gliding movement and loading of the knee joint on specimens of simplified geometry. The technical concept was to run a base-plate, representing the tibia plateau, against a pivoted cylindrical counter-body, representing one femur condyle under an axial load. A rolling movement occurs as a result of the friction and pure gliding is induced by limiting the rotation of the cylindrical counter-body. The set up also enables simplified specimens handling and removal for gravimetrical wear measurements. Long-term wear tests and gravimetrical wear measurements were carried out on the well known material pairings: cobalt chrome-polyethylene, ceramic-polyethylene and ceramic-ceramic, over three million motion cycles to allow material comparisons to be made. Results The observed differences in wear rates between cobalt-chrome on polyethylene and ceramic on polyethylene pairings were similar to the differences of published data for existing material-pairings. Test results on ceramic-ceramic pairings of different frontal-plane geometry and surface roughness displayed low wear rates and no fracture failures. Conclusions The presented set up is able to simulate the rolling-gliding movement of the knee joint, is easy to use, and requires a minimum of user intervention or monitoring. It is suitable for long-term testing, and therefore a useful tool for the investigation of new and promising materials which are of interest for application in

  17. A rolling-gliding wear simulator for the investigation of tribological material pairings for application in total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Berna I; Ostermeier, Sven; Turger, Anke; Denkena, Berend; Hurschler, Christof

    2010-06-15

    Material wear testing is an important technique in the development and evaluation of materials for use in implant for total knee arthroplasty. Since a knee joint induces a complex rolling-gliding movement, standardised material wear testing devices such as Pin-on-Disc or Ring-on-Disc testers are suitable to only a limited extent because they generate pure gliding motion only. A rolling-gliding wear simulator was thus designed, constructed and implemented, which simulates and reproduces the rolling-gliding movement and loading of the knee joint on specimens of simplified geometry. The technical concept was to run a base-plate, representing the tibia plateau, against a pivoted cylindrical counter-body, representing one femur condyle under an axial load. A rolling movement occurs as a result of the friction and pure gliding is induced by limiting the rotation of the cylindrical counter-body. The set up also enables simplified specimens handling and removal for gravimetrical wear measurements. Long-term wear tests and gravimetrical wear measurements were carried out on the well known material pairings: cobalt chrome-polyethylene, ceramic-polyethylene and ceramic-ceramic, over three million motion cycles to allow material comparisons to be made. The observed differences in wear rates between cobalt-chrome on polyethylene and ceramic on polyethylene pairings were similar to the differences of published data for existing material-pairings. Test results on ceramic-ceramic pairings of different frontal-plane geometry and surface roughness displayed low wear rates and no fracture failures. The presented set up is able to simulate the rolling-gliding movement of the knee joint, is easy to use, and requires a minimum of user intervention or monitoring. It is suitable for long-term testing, and therefore a useful tool for the investigation of new and promising materials which are of interest for application in knee joint replacement implants.

  18. A rolling-gliding wear simulator for the investigation of tribological material pairings for application in total knee arthroplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Material wear testing is an important technique in the development and evaluation of materials for use in implant for total knee arthroplasty. Since a knee joint induces a complex rolling-gliding movement, standardised material wear testing devices such as Pin-on-Disc or Ring-on-Disc testers are suitable to only a limited extent because they generate pure gliding motion only. Methods A rolling-gliding wear simulator was thus designed, constructed and implemented, which simulates and reproduces the rolling-gliding movement and loading of the knee joint on specimens of simplified geometry. The technical concept was to run a base-plate, representing the tibia plateau, against a pivoted cylindrical counter-body, representing one femur condyle under an axial load. A rolling movement occurs as a result of the friction and pure gliding is induced by limiting the rotation of the cylindrical counter-body. The set up also enables simplified specimens handling and removal for gravimetrical wear measurements. Long-term wear tests and gravimetrical wear measurements were carried out on the well known material pairings: cobalt chrome-polyethylene, ceramic-polyethylene and ceramic-ceramic, over three million motion cycles to allow material comparisons to be made. Results The observed differences in wear rates between cobalt-chrome on polyethylene and ceramic on polyethylene pairings were similar to the differences of published data for existing material-pairings. Test results on ceramic-ceramic pairings of different frontal-plane geometry and surface roughness displayed low wear rates and no fracture failures. Conclusions The presented set up is able to simulate the rolling-gliding movement of the knee joint, is easy to use, and requires a minimum of user intervention or monitoring. It is suitable for long-term testing, and therefore a useful tool for the investigation of new and promising materials which are of interest for application in knee joint replacement

  19. SOME ASPECTS OF STATE BUDGET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VEZURE OANA SABINA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the modern economy, the market, the public purse money materialized in fact all relations that are contained in the sphere of public finances. The state budget is an economic category that is expressed in the form of values, which mobilizes economic relations, is distributed and used the funds of the state. The state budget is a fundamental category of financial sciences. We can address the legal and economic terms. In terms of its legal budget is an act that are set and approved annual revenue and expenditure of the state. Economic activity takes place in each country according to its own mechanism, called the economic mechanism. This is a system of economic management methods for determining management objectives and organizational structures (institutional, superstructure, legal means for driving

  20. Beyond Zero Based Budgeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Daniel M., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Suggests that the most practical budgeting system for most managers is a formalized combination of incremental and zero-based analysis because little can be learned about most programs from an annual zero-based budget. (Author/IRT)

  1. Fiscal Year 2015 Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This dataset includes the Fiscal Year 2015 Council-approved operating budget for Montgomery County. The dataset does not include revenues and detailed agency budget...

  2. Budgeting and Beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Carsten

    Budgets and budget control has been known since the early 19th century1. However the use of budget control was until the beginning of the 1920ies in US primarily related to governmental units and states and to a minor extent to business units in practice. At that time James McKinsey describes...

  3. Between Bedside and Budget

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.L.T. Blank; E. Eggink

    1998-01-01

    Original title: Tussen bed en budget. The report Between bedside and budget (Tussen bed en budget) describes an extensive empirical study of the efficiency of general and university hospitals in the Netherlands. A policy summary recaps the main findings of the study. Those findings

  4. Library Budget Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Alice Sizer

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the advantages and disadvantages of six types of budgets commonly used by many different kinds of libraries. The budget types covered are lump-sum; formula; line or line-item; program; performance or function; and zero-based. Accompanying figures demonstrate the differences between four of the budget types. (three references) (KRN)

  5. Probing Amorphous Components in High Temperature TE Materials by in situ Total Scattering and the Pair Distribution Function (PDF) Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reardon, Hazel; Iversen, Bo Brummerstedt; Blichfeld, Anders Bank

    -I clathrate Ba8Ga16Ge30. This suggests that local structure reorientations in the cage are likely to be the root cause of the degradation of the structure. This deepens our understanding of disordered clathrates, and provides evidence that the PDF technique is an effective method for probing local structure.......e., by measuring both the Bragg and diffuse scattering from a sample. This method has rarely been exploited by the non-oxide thermoelectrics community. , , Treating total scattering data by the Pair Distribution Function method is a logical approach to understanding defects, disorder and amorphous components...... to heating cycles, then we are closer to distinguishing how we may generate materials that do not undergo specific structure reorientation processes, and/or how we may mitigate them before they occur. Here, we will present a total scattering and PDF study that probes the local structure of the Type...

  6. 7 CFR 3402.14 - Budget and budget narrative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget and budget narrative. 3402.14 Section 3402.14... GRADUATE AND POSTGRADUATE FELLOWSHIP GRANTS PROGRAM Preparation of an Application § 3402.14 Budget and budget narrative. Applicants must prepare the Budget, Form CSREES-2004, and a budget narrative...

  7. Use of INAA in the preparation of a set soil Reference Materials with certified values of total element contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucera, J.; Horakova, J.; Soukal, L.

    1997-01-01

    A set of certified Reference Materials was prepared consisting of four natural agricultural soils with normal (n) and elevated (e) levels of element contents: CRM 7001 Light Sandy Soil (n), CRM 7002 Light Sandy Soil (e), CRM 7003 Silty Clay Loam (n), and CRM 7004 Loam (e). In these materials, certified and/or information values of the total contents of the elements As, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, V and Zn, and their fractions extractable by aqua regia, boiling and cold 2M nitric acid were derived from an interlaboratory comparison in which 28 laboratories participated. Highly precise and accurate procedures of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) were employed for homogeneity testing and also for certification of the total element contents. For comparation purposes, NIST SRM-2704 Buffalo River Sediment was analyzed by INAA, as well. The INAA results obtained compared very well with the certified and/or information values for four soil CRMs and also with NIST values for SRM-2704. From this agreement, a very high reliability of the new soil CRMs can be inferred. (author)

  8. Global Carbon Budget 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Quéré, Corinne; Andrew, Robbie M.; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Sitch, Stephen; Pongratz, Julia; Manning, Andrew C.; Korsbakken, Jan Ivar; Peters, Glen P.; Canadell, Josep G.; Jackson, Robert B.; Boden, Thomas A.; Tans, Pieter P.; Andrews, Oliver D.; Arora, Vivek K.; Bakker, Dorothee C. E.; Barbero, Leticia; Becker, Meike; Betts, Richard A.; Bopp, Laurent; Chevallier, Frédéric; Chini, Louise P.; Ciais, Philippe; Cosca, Catherine E.; Cross, Jessica; Currie, Kim; Gasser, Thomas; Harris, Ian; Hauck, Judith; Haverd, Vanessa; Houghton, Richard A.; Hunt, Christopher W.; Hurtt, George; Ilyina, Tatiana; Jain, Atul K.; Kato, Etsushi; Kautz, Markus; Keeling, Ralph F.; Klein Goldewijk, Kees; Körtzinger, Arne; Landschützer, Peter; Lefèvre, Nathalie; Lenton, Andrew; Lienert, Sebastian; Lima, Ivan; Lombardozzi, Danica; Metzl, Nicolas; Millero, Frank; Monteiro, Pedro M. S.; Munro, David R.; Nabel, Julia E. M. S.; Nakaoka, Shin-ichiro; Nojiri, Yukihiro; Padin, X. Antonio; Peregon, Anna; Pfeil, Benjamin; Pierrot, Denis; Poulter, Benjamin; Rehder, Gregor; Reimer, Janet; Rödenbeck, Christian; Schwinger, Jörg; Séférian, Roland; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Stocker, Benjamin D.; Tian, Hanqin; Tilbrook, Bronte; Tubiello, Francesco N.; van der Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid T.; van der Werf, Guido R.; van Heuven, Steven; Viovy, Nicolas; Vuichard, Nicolas; Walker, Anthony P.; Watson, Andrew J.; Wiltshire, Andrew J.; Zaehle, Sönke; Zhu, Dan

    2018-03-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere - the global carbon budget - is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and methodology to quantify the five major components of the global carbon budget and their uncertainties. CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, respectively, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on land-cover change data and bookkeeping models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) and terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) are estimated with global process models constrained by observations. The resulting carbon budget imbalance (BIM), the difference between the estimated total emissions and the estimated changes in the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere, is a measure of imperfect data and understanding of the contemporary carbon cycle. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ. For the last decade available (2007-2016), EFF was 9.4 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, ELUC 1.3 ± 0.7 GtC yr-1, GATM 4.7 ± 0.1 GtC yr-1, SOCEAN 2.4 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, and SLAND 3.0 ± 0.8 GtC yr-1, with a budget imbalance BIM of 0.6 GtC yr-1 indicating overestimated emissions and/or underestimated sinks. For year 2016 alone, the growth in EFF was approximately zero and emissions remained at 9.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1. Also for 2016, ELUC was 1.3 ± 0.7 GtC yr-1, GATM was 6.1 ± 0.2 GtC yr-1, SOCEAN was 2.6 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, and SLAND was 2.7 ± 1.0 GtC yr-1, with a small BIM of -0.3 GtC. GATM continued to be higher in 2016 compared to the past decade (2007-2016), reflecting in part the high fossil emissions and the small SLAND

  9. Global Carbon Budget 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Le Quéré

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere – the global carbon budget – is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and methodology to quantify the five major components of the global carbon budget and their uncertainties. CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry (EFF are based on energy statistics and cement production data, respectively, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC, mainly deforestation, are based on land-cover change data and bookkeeping models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN and terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND are estimated with global process models constrained by observations. The resulting carbon budget imbalance (BIM, the difference between the estimated total emissions and the estimated changes in the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere, is a measure of imperfect data and understanding of the contemporary carbon cycle. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ. For the last decade available (2007–2016, EFF was 9.4 ± 0.5 GtC yr−1, ELUC 1.3 ± 0.7 GtC yr−1, GATM 4.7 ± 0.1 GtC yr−1, SOCEAN 2.4 ± 0.5 GtC yr−1, and SLAND 3.0 ± 0.8 GtC yr−1, with a budget imbalance BIM of 0.6 GtC yr−1 indicating overestimated emissions and/or underestimated sinks. For year 2016 alone, the growth in EFF was approximately zero and emissions remained at 9.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr−1. Also for 2016, ELUC was 1.3 ± 0.7 GtC yr−1, GATM was 6.1 ± 0.2 GtC yr−1, SOCEAN was 2.6 ± 0.5 GtC yr−1, and SLAND was 2.7 ± 1.0 GtC yr−1, with a small BIM of −0.3 GtC. GATM continued to be

  10. The USDA's Healthy Eating on a Budget Program: Making Better Eating Decisions on a Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Alexandra M.; Hongu, Nobuko

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture has launched a new interactive online program titled Healthy Eating on a Budget. It is an addition to the popular ChooseMyPlate.gov programs, such as the SuperTracker program. The Healthy Eating on a Budget program helps consumers plan, purchase, and prepare healthful meals. This article discusses materials and…

  11. Understanding the Budget Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesut Yalvaç

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Many different budgeting techniques can be used in libraries, and some combination of these will be appropriate for almost any individual situation. Li-ne-item, program, performance, formula, variable, and zero-base budgets all have features that may prove beneficial in the preparation of a budget. Budgets also serve a variety of functions, providing for short-term and long-term financial planning as well as for cash management over a period of time. Short-term plans are reflected in the operating budget, while long-term plans are reflected in the capital budget. Since the time when cash is available to an organization does not usually coincide with the time that disbursements must be made, it is also important to carefully plan for the inflow and outflow of funds by means of a cash budget.      During the budget process an organization selects its programs and activities by providing the necessary funding; the library, along with others in the organization, must justify its requests. Because of the cyclical nature of the budget process, it is possible continually to gather information and evaluate alternatives for the next budget period so that the library may achieve its maximum potential for service to its patrons.

  12. Total neutron-counting plutonium inventory measurement systems (PIMS) and their potential application to near real time materials accountancy (NRTMA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driscall, I.; Fox, G.H.; Orr, C.H.; Whitehouse, K.R.

    1988-01-01

    A radiometric method of determining the inventory of an operating plutonium plant is described. An array of total neutron counters distributed across the plant is used to estimate hold-up at each plant item. Corrections for the sensitivity of detectors to plutonium in adjacent plant items are achieved through a matrix approach. This paper describes our experience in design, calibration and operation of a Plutonium Inventory Measurement System (PIMS) on an oxalate precipitation plutonium finishing line. Data from a recent trial of Near-Real-Time Materials Accounting (NRTMA) using the PIMS are presented and used to illustrate its present performance and problem areas. The reader is asked to consider what role PIMS might have in future accountancy systems

  13. Determination of total fluorine in five coal reference materials by proton-induced gamma-ray emission spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roelandts, I.; Robaye, G.; Delbrouck-Habaru, J.M.; Weber, G. [University of Liege, Sart (Belgium). Dept. of Geology, Petrology and Geochemistry

    1996-03-01

    The direct non-destructive proton-induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE) technique with a germanium detector was applied to the determination of total fluorine concentration in five coal reference materials (BCR 30, NIST 1632b, NIST 1635, SARM 20 and USGS CLB-1). Duplicate analyses were made from five randomly selected bottles of each coal. Individual data are presented and some problems (calibration, proton stopping power, effects of sample heating by the proton beam, background estimation) which were encountered during this study are discussed. Sensitivity and reproducibility of the determinations, and homogeneity of the coal samples with respect to fluorine contents by analysis of variance were investigated. The present data are also compared with the few published values for these reference samples, including other PIGE data. The use of synthetic standards and spiked samples in the present study suggested that the PIGE method was more accurate than other techniques.

  14. Budget impact of vildagliptin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orietta Zaniolo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: to evaluate the impact on the Italian National Health Service (NHS budget of the recent introduction of the DPP-4 inhibitor vildagliptin in combination treatment for NIDDM patients. Methods: NIDDM patients eligible to vildagliptin treatment were identified and quantified based on approved indications and prevalence data review; adequate alternative strategies were identified; direct medical costs associated with competing strategies were calculated according to national practice and prices (drug acquisition, therapeutic monitoring, cost for managing severe adverse events – severe hypoglycemia events, fractures, new heart failure cases and the NHS budgetary impact was estimated according to market penetration assumptions (base-case: 5% and 10% for the first and second year, respectively. Results: patients estimated eligible for vildagliptin in Italy are about 237,500: pts inadequately controlled with metformin monotherapy (166,500, pts inadequately controlled with sulfonylurea monotherapy and intolerant/contraindicated to metformin (70,200, and those inadequately controlled with thiazolidinedione monotherapy (800. Costing and comparing of the vildagliptin-based and competing strategies revealed differences in both directions, depending on patient subgroup. Assuming uniform penetration among identified patient subgroups, vildagliptin introduction is expected to raise NHS costs by 2,750,000 Euro in the first and by 5,500,000 Euro in the second year, respectively representing 1,6% and 3,2% of the estimated total management cost of this patient population. Conclusions: the introduction of vildagliptin in the treatment of Italian NIDDM patients offers a new therapeutic option for three inadequately controlled NIDDM subpopulations; the financial impact on Italian NHS expenditures depends on patient selection and can be expected not to exceed 2-3% of the currently dedicated budget in the first two years.

  15. Budget estimates: Fiscal years, 1990--1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The budget estimates for the NRC for fiscal year 1990 provide for obligations of $475,000,000, to be funded in total by two new appropriations---one is NRC's Salaries and Expenses appropriation for $472,100,000 and the other is NRC's Office of the Inspector General appropriation of $2,900,000. Of the funds appropriated to the NRC's Salaries and Expenses, $23,195,000 shall be derived from the Nuclear Waste Fund. The sum appropriated to the NRC's Salaries and Expenses shall be reduced by the amount of revenues received during fiscal year 1990 from licensing fees, inspection services, other services and collections, and from the Nuclear Waste Fund, excluding those moneys received for the cooperative nuclear safety research program, services rendered to foreign governments and international organizations, and the material and information access authorization programs, so as to result in a final fiscal year 1990 appropriation estimated at not more than $292,155,000

  16. Modeling Budget Optimum Allocation of Khorasan Razavi Province Agriculture Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Fahimifard

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Stock shortage is one of the development impasses in developing countries and trough it the agriculture sector has faced with the most limitation. The share of Iran’s agricultural sector from total investments after the Islamic revolution (1979 has been just 5.5 percent. This fact causes low efficiency in Iran’s agriculture sector. For instance per each 1 cubic meter of water in Iran’s agriculture sector, less that 1 kilogram dry food produced and each Iranian farmer achieves less annual income and has less mechanization in comparison with similar countries in Iran’s 1404 perspective document. Therefore, it is clear that increasing investment in agriculture sector, optimize the budget allocation for this sector is mandatory however has not been adequately and scientifically revised until now. Thus, in this research optimum budget allocation of Iran- Khorasan Razavi province agriculture sector was modeled. Materials and Methods: In order to model the optimum budget allocation of Khorasan Razavi province’s agriculture sector at first optimum budget allocation between agriculture programs was modeled with compounding three indexes: 1. Analyzing the priorities of Khorasan Razavi province’s agriculture sector experts with the application of Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP, 2. The average share of agriculture sector programs from 4th country’s development program for Khorasan Razavi province’s agriculture sector, and 3.The average share of agriculture sector programs from 5th country’s development program for Khorasan Razavi province’s agriculture sector. Then, using Delphi technique potential indexes of each program was determined. After that, determined potential indexes were weighted using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP and finally, using numerical taxonomy model to optimize allocation of the program’s budget between cities based on two scenarios. Required data, also was gathered from the budget and planning

  17. Understanding the Budget Process

    OpenAIRE

    Mesut Yalvaç

    2000-01-01

    Many different budgeting techniques can be used in libraries, and some combination of these will be appropriate for almost any individual situation. Li-ne-item, program, performance, formula, variable, and zero-base budgets all have features that may prove beneficial in the preparation of a budget. Budgets also serve a variety of functions, providing for short-term and long-term financial planning as well as for cash management over a period of time. Short-term plans are reflected in the oper...

  18. Budget performance reporting and construction work packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strong, M.G.; Weyers, L.L.

    1976-01-01

    A changing financial, technological, and regulatory environment has increased the complexity, costliness, and risk involved in constructing new generating facilities. A primary challenge facing utility executives is to hold down costs on these construction projects. New construction management techniques are required to accomplish this. Commonwealth Edison has responded by implementing a new Budget Performance Reporting System and a Construction Work Packaging System. The new systems are being used successfully on four major construction projects with budgets totaling over $4 billion

  19. Budgeting Approaches in Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, James C.

    2014-01-01

    Several budgeting approaches have been initiated as alternatives to the traditional, incremental process. These include formula budgeting; zero-base budgeting; planning, programming, and budgeting systems; and responsibility center budgeting. Each is premised on assumptions about how organizations might best make resource allocation decisions.…

  20. CEA budget in 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-12-01

    In 1982, the amount of the CEA budget will be 13.4 billions French Francs. The main characteristics are the priority for employment and investments. In this budget programs are adapted to fit R and D to the government policy: innovation, industrial valorization and fundamental research especially thermonuclear fusion and in the electronuclear field to safety, reprocessing and radioactive waste management.

  1. Budgeting in Nonprofit Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Lauren

    1985-01-01

    This description of the role of budgets in nonprofit organizations uses libraries as an example. Four types of budgets--legislative, management, cash, and capital--are critiqued in terms of cost effectiveness, implementation, and facilitation of organizational control and objectives. (CLB)

  2. Colorado Children's Budget 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The "Children's Budget 2010" is intended to be a resource guide for policymakers and advocates who are interested in better understanding how Colorado funds children's programs and services. It attempts to clarify often confusing budget information and describe where the state's investment trends are and where those trends will lead the…

  3. Colorado Children's Budget 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Beverly; Baker, Robin

    2013-01-01

    The "Colorado Children's Budget" presents and analyzes investments and spending trends during the past five state fiscal years on services that benefit children. The "Children's Budget" focuses mainly on state investment and spending, with some analysis of federal investments and spending to provide broader context of state…

  4. A total cost perspective on use of polymeric materials in solar collectors – Importance of environmental performance on suitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, Bo; Persson, Helena; Meir, Michaela; Rekstad, John

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A polymeric solar collector system was compared with two traditional ones. • It was found the best in terms of climatic performance per solar heat collected. • The differences in climatic cost between the systems compared however are small. • The low climatic cost makes solar heating better compared to natural gas heating. • Use of Ecoindicator 99 for environmental cost makes solar heating even better. - Abstract: To assess the suitability of solar collector systems in which polymeric materials are used versus those in which more traditional materials are used, a case study was undertaken. In this case study a solar heating system with polymeric solar collectors was compared with two equivalent but more traditional solar heating systems: one with flat plate solar collectors and one with evacuated tube solar collectors. To make the comparison, a total cost accounting approach was adopted. The life cycle assessment (LCA) results clearly indicated that the polymeric solar collector system is the best as regards climatic and environmental performance when they are expressed in terms of the IPPC 100 a indicator and the Ecoindicator 99, H/A indicator, respectively. In terms of climatic and environmental costs per amount of solar heat collected, the differences between the three kinds of collector systems were small when compared with existing energy prices. With the present tax rates, it seems unlikely that the differences in environmental and climatic costs will have any significant influence on which system is the most favoured, from a total cost point of view. In the choice between a renewable heat source and a heat source based on the use of a fossil fuel, the conclusion was that for climatic performance to be an important economic factor, the tax or trade rate of carbon dioxide emissions must be increased significantly, given the initial EU carbon dioxide emission trade rate. The rate would need to be at least of the same order of magnitude

  5. Budget institutions and taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaskoven, Lasse

    2018-01-01

    While a number of different studies have explored the effects of budgetary procedures and the centralization of the budget process on government debt, deficits and spending, few of them have explored whether such fiscal institutions matter for public revenue. This article argues that centralizing...... the budget process raises the levels of taxation by limiting the ability of individual government officials to veto tax increases in line with common-pool-problem arguments regarding public finances. Using detailed data on budgetary procedures from 15 EU countries, the empirical analysis shows that greater...... centralization of the budget process increases taxation as a share of GDP and that both the type of budget centralization and level of government fractionalization matter for the size of this effect. The results suggest that further centralizing the budget process limits government debt and deficits...

  6. Preparing the operating budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R B

    1983-12-01

    The process of preparing a hospital pharmacy budget is presented. The desired characteristics of a budget and the process by which it is developed and approved are described. Fixed, flexible, and zero-based budget types are explained, as are the major components of a well-developed budget: expense, workload, productivity, revenue, and capital equipment and other expenditures. Specific methods for projecting expenses and revenues, based on historical data, are presented along with a discussion of variables that must be considered in order to achieve an accurate and useful budget. The current shift in emphasis away from revenue capture toward critical analysis of pharmacy costs underscores the importance of budgetary analysis for hospital pharmacy managers.

  7. Onlay bone augmentation on mouse calvarial bone using a hydroxyapatite/collagen composite material with total blood or platelet-rich plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohba, Seigo; Sumita, Yoshinori; Umebayashi, Mayumi; Yoshimura, Hitoshi; Yoshida, Hisato; Matsuda, Shinpei; Kimura, Hideki; Asahina, Izumi; Sano, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess newly formed onlay bone on mouse calvarial bone using a new artificial bone material, a hydroxyapatite/collagen composite, with total blood or platelet-rich plasma. The hydroxyapatite/collagen composite material with normal saline, total blood or platelet-rich plasma was transplanted on mouse calvarial bone. The mice were sacrificed and the specimens were harvested four weeks after surgery. The newly formed bone area was measured on hematoxylin and eosin stained specimens using Image J software. The hydroxyapatite/collagen composite materials with total blood or platelet-rich plasma induced a significantly greater amount of newly formed bone than that with normal saline. Moreover, bone marrow was observed four weeks after surgery in the transplanted materials with total blood or platelet-rich plasma but not with normal saline. However, there were no significant differences in the amount of newly formed bone between materials used with total blood versus platelet-rich plasma. The hydroxyapatite/collagen composite material was valid for onlay bone augmentation and this material should be soaked in total blood or platelet-rich plasma prior to transplantation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Determination of total tin in geological materials by electrothermal atomic-absorption spectrophotometry using a tungsten-impregnated graphite furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, L.; Chao, T.T.; Meier, A.L.

    1984-01-01

    An electrothermal atomic-absorption spectrophotometric method is described for the determination of total tin in geological materials, with use of a tungsten-impregnated graphite furnace. The sample is decomposed by fusion with lithium metaborate and the melt is dissolved in 10% hydrochloric acid. Tin is then extracted into trioctylphosphine oxide-methyl isobutyl ketone prior to atomization. Impregnation of the furnace with a sodium tungstate solution increases the sensitivity of the determination and improves the precision of the results. The limits of determination are 0.5-20 ppm of tin in the sample. Higher tin values can be determined by dilution of the extract. Replicate analyses of eighteen geological reference samples with diverse matrices gave relative standard deviations ranging from 2.0 to 10.8% with an average of 4.6%. Average tin values for reference samples were in general agreement with, but more precise than, those reported by others. Apparent recoveries of tin added to various samples ranged from 95 to 111% with an average of 102%. ?? 1984.

  9. Impact of orphan drugs on Latvian budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logviss, Konstantins; Krievins, Dainis; Purvina, Santa

    2016-05-11

    Number of orphan medicinal products on the market and number of rare disease patients, taking these usually expensive products, are increasing. As a result, budget impact of orphan drugs is growing. This factor, along with the cost-effectiveness of orphan drugs, is often considered in the reimbursement decisions, directly affecting accessibility of rare disease therapies. The current study aims to assess the budget impact of orphan drugs in Latvia. Our study covered a 5-year period, from 2010 to 2014. Impact of orphan drugs on Latvian budget was estimated from the National Health Service's perspective. It was calculated in absolute values and relative to total pharmaceutical market and total drug reimbursement budget. A literature review was performed for comparison with other European countries. Orphan drug annual expenditure ranged between EUR 2.065 and 3.065 million, with total 5-year expenditure EUR 12.467 million. It constituted, on average, 0.84 % of total pharmaceutical market and 2.14 % of total drug reimbursement budget, respectively. Average annual per patient expenditures varied widely, from EUR 1 534 to EUR 580 952. The most costly treatment was enzyme replacement therapy (Elaprase) for MPS II. Glivec had the highest share (34 %) of the total orphan drug expenditure. Oncological drugs represented more than a half of the total orphan drug expenditure, followed by drugs for metabolic and endocrine conditions and medicines for cardiopulmonary diseases. Three indications: Ph+ CML, MPS II, and PAH accounted for nearly 90 % of the total orphan drug expenditure. Budget impact of orphan drugs in Latvia is very small. It increased slightly over a period of five years, due to the slight increase in the number of patients and the number of orphan drugs reimbursed. Current Latvian drug reimbursement system is not sufficient for most orphan drugs.

  10. Budget estimates fiscal year 1989: Appropriation, Salaries and expenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-02-01

    The budget estimates for Salaries and Expenses for FY 1989 provide for obligations of $450,000,000 to be funded in total by a new appropriation. The sum appropriated shall be reduced by the amount of revenues received during fiscal year 1989 from licensing fees, inspection services, and other services and collections, excluding those monies received for the cooperative nuclear safety research program, services rendered to foreign governments and international organizations, and the material and information access authorization programs, so as to result in a final fiscal year 1989 appropriation estimated at not more than $247,500,000

  11. Verification of uncertainty budgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj; Madsen, B.S.

    2005-01-01

    , and therefore it is essential that the applicability of the overall uncertainty budget to actual measurement results be verified on the basis of current experimental data. This should be carried out by replicate analysis of samples taken in accordance with the definition of the measurand, but representing...... the full range of matrices and concentrations for which the budget is assumed to be valid. In this way the assumptions made in the uncertainty budget can be experimentally verified, both as regards sources of variability that are assumed negligible, and dominant uncertainty components. Agreement between...

  12. FY 1997 congressional budget request: Budget highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This is an overview of the 1997 budget request for the US DOE. The topics of the overview include a policy overview, the budget by business line, business lines by organization, crosswalk from business line to appropriation, summary by appropriation, energy supply research and development, uranium supply and enrichment activities, uranium enrichment decontamination and decommissioning fund, general science and research, weapons activities, defense environmental restoration and waste management, defense nuclear waste disposal, departmental administration, Office of the Inspector General, power marketing administrations, Federal Energy Regulatory commission, nuclear waste disposal fund, fossil energy research and development, naval petroleum and oil shale reserves, energy conservation, economic regulation, strategic petroleum reserve, energy information administration, clean coal technology and a Department of Energy Field Facilities map.

  13. USGS budget request up for 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, M. Catherine

    The president's U.S. Geological Survey budget request for fiscal year 1994 totals $598 million—up $20 million from the current budget. This would restore about half of the $42.46 million cut from its budget in fiscal 1993.In releasing the budget, Bruce Babbitt, Secretary of the Department of the Interior, said, “The USGS reflects the new administration's understanding that investing in America requires investing in a strong Earth science capability,” and that “we need high-quality scientific information on natural hazards and on our water, mineral, energy, and land resources to serve as the building blocks for making intelligent decisions and planning future growth.”

  14. Budget Automation System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — BAS is the central Agency system used to integrate strategic planning, annual planning, budgeting and financial management. BAS contains resource (dollars and FTE),...

  15. Water Budget Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you're designing a new landscape or rethinking your current one, the WaterSense Water Budget Tool will tell you if you have designed a landscape that will use an appropriate amount of water for your climate.

  16. Global Carbon Budget 2017

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Quere, Corinne; Andrew, Robbie M.; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Sitch, Stephen; Pongratz, Julia; Manning, Andrew C.; Korsbakken, Jan Ivar; Peters, Glen P.; Canadell, Josep G.; Jackson, Robert B.; Boden, Thomas A.; Tans, Pieter P.; Andrews, Oliver D.; Arora, Vivek K.; Bakker, Dorothee C. E.; Barbero, Leticia; Becker, Meike; Betts, Richard A.; Bopp, Laurent; Chevallier, Frederic; Chini, Louise P.; Ciais, Philippe; Cosca, Catherine E.; Cross, Jessica; Currie, Kim; Gasser, Thomas; Harris, Ian; Hauck, Judith; Haverd, Vanessa; Houghton, Richard A.; Hunt, Christopher W.; Hurtt, George; Ilyina, Tatiana; Jain, Atul K.; Kato, Etsushi; Kautz, Markus; Keeling, Ralph F.; Goldewijk, Kees Klein; Koertzinger, Arne; Landschuetzer, Peter; Lefevre, Nathalie; Lenton, Andrew; Lienert, Sebastian; Lima, Ivan; Lombardozzi, Danica; Metzl, Nicolas; Millero, Frank; Monteiro, Pedro M. S.; Munro, David R.; Nabel, Julia E. M. S.; Nakaoka, Shin-ichiro; Nojiri, Yukihiro; Padin, X. Antonio; Peregon, Anna; Pfeil, Benjamin; Pierrot, Denis; Poulter, Benjamin; Rehder, Gregor; Reimer, Janet; Roedenbeck, Christian; Schwinger, Jorg; Seferian, Roland; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Stocker, Benjamin D.; Tian, Hanqin; Tilbrook, Bronte; Tubiello, Francesco N.; van der Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid T.; van der Werf, Guido R.; van Heuven, Steven; Viovy, Nicolas; Vuichard, Nicolas; Walker, Anthony P.; Watson, Andrew J.; Wiltshire, Andrew J.; Zaehle, Soenke; Zhu, Dan

    2018-01-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere - the "global carbon budget" - is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project

  17. Jackson Revenue Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    City of Jackson, Mississippi — This dataset shows the City of Jackson's FY2017 revenue budget, revenue collected to date, and the balance remaining to be collected. The data can be broken down by...

  18. Budget and Actuals

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — This dataset contains the Town's Year-to-Date Budget and Actuals for Fiscal Years 2016, 2017, and 2018. Fiscal years run from July 1 to June 30. The data comes from...

  19. A New Approach in Public Budgeting: Citizens' Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilge, Semih

    2015-01-01

    Change and transformation in the understanding and definition of citizenship has led to the emergence of citizen-oriented public service approach. This approach also raised a new term and concept in the field of public budgeting because of the transformation in the processes of public budgeting: citizens' budget. The citizens' budget which seeks…

  20. The Budget as a Management Tool: Zero Base Budgeting, Panacea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria has been experiencing difficulties in Budget implementation. The objective of this article is to present alternative forms of budgeting and after exposition on them, to recommend one that could mitigate budget implementation problem for Nigeria. Two types of budgeting addressed are incremental and zero-base.

  1. European Union Budget Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele

    2015-01-01

    The marginal involvement of the European Union (EU) in redistributive policies and its limited fiscal resources have led to a notable lack of attention by EU scholars towards the EU budget and its dynamics. Yet the nature of the budgetary data and their high usability for statistical analysis make...... to form winning coalitions in the Council, the ideological positioning of the co-legislators and the inclusion of the cohesion countries have played a significant role in driving budget change....

  2. Reactor safety and radiation protection. Draft of the BMU deparmental budget 16 of the 1998 German federal budget

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    The expenditures earmarked for reactor safety and radiation protection in the 1998 budget of the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, and Reactor Safety (BMU) total DM 101 million. The expenditures of the German Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) are to amount to a total of DM 579 million. These are the figures included in departmental budget 16 of the 1998 federal budget, which was discussed by the Federal Parliament in September 1997. The atw compilation singles out a number of significant items of the departmental budget. (orig.) [de

  3. Water budget analysis and management for Bangkok Metropolis, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singkran, Nuanchan

    2017-09-01

    The water budget of the Bangkok Metropolis system was analyzed using a material flow analysis model. Total imported flows into the system were 80,080 million m 3 per year (Mm 3 y -1 ) including inflows from the Chao Phraya and Mae Klong rivers and rainwater. Total exported flows out of the system were 78,528 Mm 3 y -1 including outflow into the lower Chao Phraya River and tap water (TW) distributed to suburbs. Total rates of stock exchange (1,552 Mm 3 y -1 ) were found in the processes of water recycling, TW distribution, domestic use, swine farming, aquaculture, and paddy fields. Only 21% of the total amount of wastewater (1,255 Mm 3 y -1 ) was collected, with insufficient treatment capacity of about 415 Mm 3 y -1 . Domestic and business (industrial and commercial sectors) areas were major point sources, whereas paddy fields were a major non-point source of wastewater. To manage Bangkok's water budget, critical measures have to be considered. Wastewater treatment capacity and efficiency of wastewater collection should be improved. On-site wastewater treatment plants for residential areas should be installed. Urban planning and land use zoning are suggested to control land use activities. Green technology should be supported to reduce wastewater from farming.

  4. BUDGET AND PUBLIC DEBT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morar Ioan Dan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of public budgeting is an important issue for public policy of the state, for the simple reason that no money from the state budget can not promote public policy. Budgetary policy is official government Doctrine vision mirror and also represents a starting point for other public policies, which in turn are financed by the public budget. Fiscal policy instruments at its disposal handles the public sector in its structure, and the private sector. Tools such as grant, budgetary allocation, tax, welfare under various forms, direct investments and not least the state aid is used by the state through their budgetary policies to directly and indirectly infuence sector, and the private. Fiscal policies can be grouped according to the structure of the public sector in these components, namely fiscal policy, budgeting and resource allocation policies for financing the budget deficit. An important issue is the financing of the budget deficit budgetary policies. There are two funding possibilities, namely, the higher taxes or more axles site and enter the second call to public loans. Both options involve extra effort from taxpayers in the current fiscal year when they pay higher taxes or a future period when public loans will be repaid. We know that by virtue of "fiscal pact" structural deficits of the member countries of the EU are limited by the European Commission, according to the macro structural stability and budget of each Member State. This problem tempers to some extent the governments of the Member States budgetary appetite, but does not solve the problem of chronic budget deficits. Another issue addressed in this paper is related to the public debt, the absolute amount of its relative level of public datoriri, about the size of GDP, public debt financing and its repayment sources. Sources of public debt issuance and monetary impact on the budget and monetary stability are variables that must underpin the justification of budgetary

  5. Budget estimates. Fiscal year 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-02-01

    The U.S. Congress has determined that the safe use of nuclear materials for peaceful purposes is a legitimate and important national goal. It has entrusted the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with the primary Federal responsibility for achieving that goal. The NRC's mission, therefore, is to regulate the Nation's civilian use of byproduct, source, and special nuclear materials to ensure adequate protection of public health and safety, to promote the common defense and security, and to protect the environment. The NRC's FY 1998 budget requests new budget authority of $481,300,000 to be funded by two appropriations - one is the NRC's Salaraies and Expenses appropriation for $476,500,000, and the other is NRC's Office of Inspector General appropriation for $4,800,000. Of the funds appropriated to the NRC's Salaries and Expenses, $17,000,000, shall be derived from the Nuclear Waste Fund and $2,000,000 shall be derived from general funds. The proposed FY 1998 appropriation legislation would also exempt the $2,000,000 for regulatory reviews and other assistance provided to the Department of Energy from the requirement that the NRC collect 100 percent of its budget from fees. The sums appropriated to the NRC's Salaries and Expenses and NRC's Office of Inspector General shall be reduced by the amount of revenues received during FY 1998 from licensing fees, inspection services, and other services and collections, so as to result in a final FY 1998 appropriation for the NRC of an estimated $19,000,000 - the amount appropriated from the Nuclear Waste Fund and from general funds. Revenues derived from enforcement actions shall be deposited to miscellaneous receipts of the Treasury

  6. Budget estimates. Fiscal year 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    The U.S. Congress has determined that the safe use of nuclear materials for peaceful purposes is a legitimate and important national goal. It has entrusted the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with the primary Federal responsibility for achieving that goal. The NRC`s mission, therefore, is to regulate the Nation`s civilian use of byproduct, source, and special nuclear materials to ensure adequate protection of public health and safety, to promote the common defense and security, and to protect the environment. The NRC`s FY 1998 budget requests new budget authority of $481,300,000 to be funded by two appropriations - one is the NRC`s Salaraies and Expenses appropriation for $476,500,000, and the other is NRC`s Office of Inspector General appropriation for $4,800,000. Of the funds appropriated to the NRC`s Salaries and Expenses, $17,000,000, shall be derived from the Nuclear Waste Fund and $2,000,000 shall be derived from general funds. The proposed FY 1998 appropriation legislation would also exempt the $2,000,000 for regulatory reviews and other assistance provided to the Department of Energy from the requirement that the NRC collect 100 percent of its budget from fees. The sums appropriated to the NRC`s Salaries and Expenses and NRC`s Office of Inspector General shall be reduced by the amount of revenues received during FY 1998 from licensing fees, inspection services, and other services and collections, so as to result in a final FY 1998 appropriation for the NRC of an estimated $19,000,000 - the amount appropriated from the Nuclear Waste Fund and from general funds. Revenues derived from enforcement actions shall be deposited to miscellaneous receipts of the Treasury.

  7. Budget estimates, fiscal year 1984/85. Appropriation: salaries and expenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This report contains the fiscal year budget justifications to Congress. The budget estimates for salaries and expenses for fiscal year 1984 to 1985 provide for obligations of $466,800,000 to be funded in total by a new appropriation

  8. Political Budget Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaskoven, Lasse; Lassen, David Dreyer

    2017-01-01

    The political budget cycle—how elections affect government fiscal policy—is one of the most studied subjects in political economy and political science. The key theoretical question is whether incumbent governments can time or structure public finances in ways that improve their chances of reelec......The political budget cycle—how elections affect government fiscal policy—is one of the most studied subjects in political economy and political science. The key theoretical question is whether incumbent governments can time or structure public finances in ways that improve their chances...... on political budget cycles have recently focused on conditions under which such cycles are likely to obtain. Much recent research focuses on subnational settings, allowing comparisons of governments in similar institutional environments, and a consensus on the presences of cycles in public finances...

  9. Bulk Fuel: Actions Needed to Improve DODs Fuel Consumption Budget Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    be reimbursed with more cash than it anticipated. DOD and military service financial management officials prepare budget justification materials...Overseas Contingency Operations OMB Office of Management and Budget OUSD Office of the Under Secretary of Defense This is a work of the U.S...military service budget and financial management offices, and DLA to determine how O&M budget justification materials generally, and fuel

  10. A reactive nitrogen budget for Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    The reactive nitrogen budget for Lake Michigan was reviewed and updated, making use of recent estimates of watershed and atmospheric nitrogen loads. The updated total N load to Lake Michigan was approximately double the previous estimate from the Lake Michigan Mass Balance study ...

  11. Survey of total error of precipitation and homogeneous HDL-cholesterol methods and simultaneous evaluation of lyophilized saccharose-containing candidate reference materials for HDL-cholesterol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. Cobbaert (Christa); H. Baadenhuijsen; L. Zwang (Louwerens); C.W. Weykamp; P.N. Demacker; P.G.H. Mulder (Paul)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Standardization of HDL-cholesterol is needed for risk assessment. We assessed for the first time the accuracy of HDL-cholesterol testing in The Netherlands and evaluated 11 candidate reference materials (CRMs). METHODS: The total error (TE) of

  12. Truly Absorbed Microbial Protein Synthesis, Rumen Bypass Protein, Endogenous Protein, and Total Metabolizable Protein from Starchy and Protein-Rich Raw Materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parand, Ehsan; Vakili, Alireza; Mesgaran, Mohsen Danesh; Duinkerken, Van Gert; Yu, Peiqiang

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to measure truly absorbed microbial protein synthesis, rumen bypass protein, and endogenous protein loss, as well as total metabolizable protein, from starchy and protein-rich raw feed materials with model comparisons. Predictions by the DVE2010 system as a more

  13. Public Budget Database - Budget Authority and offsetting receipts 1976-Current

    Data.gov (United States)

    Executive Office of the President — This file contains historical budget authority and offsetting receipts for 1976 through the current budget year, as well as four years of projections. It can be used...

  14. Certification of a reference material for determination of total cyanide in soil to support implementation of the International Standard ISO 11262:2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Holger; Bremser, Wolfram

    2015-04-01

    Cyanides are among the most important inorganic pollutants to be tested and monitored in environmental compartments. They can be distinguished and determined as free cyanide, weak acid dissociable cyanide or as total cyanide. However, in any case obtained, measurement results are operationally defined referring to the applied analytical method. In 2011, the International Standard ISO 11262 has been published which specifies a normative analytical method for the determination of total cyanide in soil. The objective of the project described in this paper was to provide the first soil reference material (CRM) certified for its mass fraction of total cyanide on the basis of this standard. A total of 12 German laboratories with proven experience in the determination of cyanides in environmental samples participated in the certification study. Measurement results were evaluated in full compliance with the requirements of ISO Guide 35. Taking into account the results of the inter-laboratory comparison as well as the outcome of the homogeneity and stability studies, a certified mass fraction of total cyanide of 21.1 mg/kg and an expanded uncertainty (k = 2) of 1.3 mg/kg were assigned to the material. The reference material has been issued as CRM BAM-U114.

  15. AGF program budget 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The present program budget of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Grossforschungseinrichtungen (AGF) (Cooperative of Major Research Establishments) describes its research and development objectives and the progress of work in the major research establishments involved and states the medium-term annual financial and personnel effort. (orig.) [de

  16. AGF program budget 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The program budget of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Grossforschungseinrichtungen (AGF) (Cooperative of Major Research Establishments) describes its research and development objectives and the progress of work in the major research establishments involved and states the medium-term annual financial and personnel effort. (orig.)

  17. Implementing Responsibility Centre Budgeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonasek, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Recently, institutes of higher education (universities) have shown a renewed interest in organisational structures and operating methodologies that generate productivity and innovation; responsibility centre budgeting (RCB) is one such process. This paper describes the underlying principles constituting RCB, its origin and structural elements, and…

  18. Budgeting Academic Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Watson

    2011-01-01

    There are many articles about space management, including those that discuss space calculations, metrics, and categories. Fewer articles discuss the space budgeting processes used by administrators to allocate space. The author attempts to fill this void by discussing her administrative experiences with Middle Tennessee State University's (MTSU)…

  19. Integrated Budget Office Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushing, Douglas A.; Blakeley, Chris; Chapman, Gerry; Robertson, Bill; Horton, Allison; Besser, Thomas; McCarthy, Debbie

    2010-01-01

    The Integrated Budget Office Toolbox (IBOT) combines budgeting, resource allocation, organizational funding, and reporting features in an automated, integrated tool that provides data from a single source for Johnson Space Center (JSC) personnel. Using a common interface, concurrent users can utilize the data without compromising its integrity. IBOT tracks planning changes and updates throughout the year using both phasing and POP-related (program-operating-plan-related) budget information for the current year, and up to six years out. Separating lump-sum funds received from HQ (Headquarters) into separate labor, travel, procurement, Center G&A (general & administrative), and servicepool categories, IBOT creates a script that significantly reduces manual input time. IBOT also manages the movement of travel and procurement funds down to the organizational level and, using its integrated funds management feature, helps better track funding at lower levels. Third-party software is used to create integrated reports in IBOT that can be generated for plans, actuals, funds received, and other combinations of data that are currently maintained in the centralized format. Based on Microsoft SQL, IBOT incorporates generic budget processes, is transportable, and is economical to deploy and support.

  20. Reforming the EU Budget

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele

    The marginal involvement of the EU in redistributive policies and its limited fiscal resources have led to a lack of attention to the EU budget and its determinants. In this paper I analyse an original dataset containing yearly data on the main macrocategories of expenditure and how they have...

  1. Zero-Based Budgeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichowski, Chester

    1979-01-01

    The zero-based budgeting approach is designed to achieve the greatest benefit with the fewest undesirable consequences. Seven basic steps make up the zero-based decision-making process: (1) identifying program goals, (2) classifying goals, (3) identifying resources, (4) reviewing consequences, (5) developing decision packages, (6) implementing a…

  2. Budgeting and Finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.K.M. van Nispen tot Pannerden (Frans)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe Call for a Budgetary Theory: The appeal of Valdimer Key for a budgetary theory marks the interest in public budgeting in modern history. He clearly referred to a normative theory, raising the question: ‘on what basis shall it be decided to allocate X dollars to activity A instead of

  3. Kinetic energy budget details

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. This paper presents the detailed turbulent kinetic energy budget and higher order statistics of flow behind a surface-mounted rib with and without superimposed acoustic excitation. Pattern recognition technique is used to determine the large-scale structure magnitude. It is observed that most of the turbulence ...

  4. A Better Budget Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dothan, Michael; Thompson, Fred

    2009-01-01

    Debt limits, interest coverage ratios, one-off balanced budget requirements, pay-as-you-go rules, and tax and expenditure limits are among the most important fiscal rules for constraining intertemporal transfers. There is considerable evidence that the least costly and most effective of such rules are those that focus directly on the rate of…

  5. Global Carbon Budget 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Quéré, Corinne; Andrew, Robbie M.; Canadell, Josep G.; Sitch, Stephen; Ivar Korsbakken, Jan; Peters, Glen P.; Manning, Andrew C.; Boden, Thomas A.; Tans, Pieter P.; Houghton, Richard A.; Keeling, Ralph F.; Alin, Simone; Andrews, Oliver D.; Anthoni, Peter; Barbero, Leticia; Bopp, Laurent; Chevallier, Frédéric; Chini, Louise P.; Ciais, Philippe; Currie, Kim; Delire, Christine; Doney, Scott C.; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Gkritzalis, Thanos; Harris, Ian A; Hauck, Judith; Haverd, Vanessa; Hoppema, Mario; Klein Goldewijk, Kees; Jain, Atul K.; Kato, Etsushi; Körtzinger, Arne; Landschützer, Peter; Lefèvre, Nathalie; Lenton, Andrew; Lienert, Sebastian; Lombardozzi, Danica; Melton, Joe R.; Metzl, Nicolas; Millero, Frank; Monteiro, Pedro M S; Munro, David R.; Nabel, Julia E M S; Nakaoka, Shin Ichiro; O'Brien, Kevin; Olsen, Are; Omar, Abdirahman M.; Ono, Tsuneo; Pierrot, Denis; Poulter, Benjamin; Rödenbeck, Christian; Salisbury, Joe; Schuster, Ute; Schwinger, Jörg; Séférian, Roland; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Stocker, Benjamin D.; Sutton, Adrienne J.; Takahashi, Taro; Tian, Hanqin; Tilbrook, Bronte; Van Der Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid T.; Van Der Werf, Guido R.; Viovy, Nicolas; Walker, Anthony P.; Wiltshire, Andrew J.; Zaehle, Sönke

    2016-01-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere-the "global carbon budget"-is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future

  6. Sabotage in Capital Budgeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunner, Markus; Ostermaier, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    for honesty inhibits sabotage. Moreover, honesty suppresses negative reciprocity and thus reduces sabotage not only directly but also indirectly. Our findings warn firms to consider the sabotage of investments as a hidden cost of control in budgeting. They show that honesty has a spill-over effect...

  7. Fiscal 2000 report on result of R and D of nonmetallic material recycling promotion technology (demonstration test and research, total system technology); 2000 nendo hitetsu kinzokukei sozai recycle sokushin gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Jissho shiken kenkyu, total system gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    R and D was conducted on advanced recycling technology for aluminum and base metal/rare metal based materials, with fiscal 2000 results compiled. In the research of aluminum recycling technology, on a continuous fractional crystallization process and a purification by zinc removal process, the existing facilities for each demonstrated that they could simulate an aluminum scrap melting process capacity of 1,000 t/month, with a series of initial conditions determined. In the research of total system technology, combined test facilities were completed in which a purification process and a melt cleaning process were integrated. In the research of the recycling technology for base metal/rare metal based materials, a test was carried out by demonstrative facilities, with the aim of establishing copper regeneration technology in which high grade copper is produced using metal/resin based scraps such as shredder dust of automobiles as the materials. In structuring the total system technology, a preliminary survey and environmental load measures were carried out toward the practicability of a comprehensive copper metal collection recycling system. (NEDO)

  8. PUBLIC EXPENDITURE ON HEALTH IN LOCAL BUDGETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristinel ICHIM

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper entitled "Public expenditure on health in local budgets" aims analysing and deepening major spending categories that public authorities finance at local level, namely health expenditure. In the first part of the article we have specified the content and role of this category of expenditure in local budgets and also made some feedback on decentralization in health. In the second part of the work, based on data available in Statistical Yearbook of Romania, we have carried out an analysis of the dynamics of health spending from local budgets to emphasize their place and role in the health care expenses. The research carried out follows that the evolution and structure of health expenditure financed from local budgets is determined, along with the legislative framework in the field, by several variables that differ from one territorial administrative unit to another: the existence of sanitary units, their type, the involving of local public authorities in their development and modernization, the number and the social structure of the population. The research shows that over the period 1993-2015, the dynamics of the share of health spending in total expenditures of local budgets is sinusoidal, with a minimum threshold in 2000 of only 0.3%.

  9. EXPENSES FOR ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES FROM LOCAL BUDGETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTINEL ICHIM

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present article we propose to analyze and deepen significant categories of costs funded from the local budgets, namely the expenditure for economic activities. Our scientific approach begins with determining the place occupied by such expenses in local public expenditure by specifying their content and role. The center of gravity of the study is to treat and deepen the three subgroups of expenses that we consider representative: "The expenses for production, transportation, distribution and supply of heat in a centralized system", "Transport Costs" and Expenditure for agriculture and forestry ". The reaserch is based on the quantitative analysis of the expenses for economic actions, in local budgets, based on the existing data from the Statistical Yearbook of Romania, and highlights the structure of this type of expenses as well as the place they hold in the expediture of local budgets.The study includes an analysis of the dynamics of the share held by economic costs within total expenses from local budgets. From the reaserch carried out, it is shown that the evolution and structure of the expenditures for economic actions from local budgets is determined by the action of certain economical and social factors that vary from one administrative teritorial unit to another: the ray of economical develpoment of the administrative ter itorial unit, urbanization, the number and social structure of the population. The reaserch shows that in the field of expenses for economic actions, the largest share is held by expenditures for transportation (almost 80%, far away from the expenses for fuel and energy (13,66%. During the 1999-2013 the dynamic of expenses for economical actions in the total of expenditures of local budgets, is sinusoidal due to the intervention of certain legislative changes.

  10. Estimation of uncertainty of a reference material for proficiency testing for the determination of total mercury in fish in natura; Estimativa da incerteza de um material de referencia para ensaios de proficiencia para a determinacao de mercurio total em pescado in natura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana, L.V.; Sarkis, J.E.S.; Ulrich, J.C.; Hortellani, M.A., E-mail: santana-luciana@ig.com.br, E-mail: jesarkis@ipen.br, E-mail: jculrich@ipen.br, E-mail: mahortel@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    This study presents the uncertainty estimate for characterization, study of homogeneity and stability study obtained in the preparation of a reference material for the determination of total mercury in fish fresh muscle tissue for proficiency testing. The test results for stability were obtained by linear regression and to homogeneity study was obtained by ANOVA-one way showed that the material is homogeneous and stable. The value of total mercury concentration with expanded uncertainty for the material was 0,294 ± 0,089 μg g{sup -}. (author)

  11. budgeting as a strategic tool for development in the arts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    KEYWORDS: Budgeting, Visual Arts, Management, Arts organizations. INTRODUCTION ... materials, equipment and personnel training .... development in any artistic firm is based on the strategies and ... expenses. The structure ought to also.

  12. Measuring Earth's Radiation Budget from the Vicinity of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, W. H.; Lorentz, S. R.; Erlandson, R. E.; Cahalan, R. F.; Huang, P. M.

    2018-02-01

    We propose to measure Earth's radiation budget (integrated total and solar-reflected shortwave) using broadband radiometers and other technology demonstrated in space. The instrument is compact, autonomous, and has modest resource requirements.

  13. NATURE AND CLASSIFICATION ASPECTS OF LOCAL BUDGET REVENUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Vinnytska

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to determine the essential characteristics of local budgets and justify their classification aspects. Methodology. In the course of writing used general scientific and special methods of knowledge: dialectical and systemic-functional – to summarize the theoretical concepts of income of local budgets; analysis and synthesis – to detail the subject of research and study its components; logic synthesis – to justify approaches and proposals for the formulation of local budgets. Results. Proved that today there is no single view on the interpretation of economic categories “revenues of local budgets.” A refined concept of “local budget revenues” from the standpoint of material content, form, organizational structure and nature of local budgets. Local budget revenues determined as part of the financial resources of society, which is accumulated by local authorities to enforce their tasks and functions to implement current and future challenges of social infrastructure in the regions. Proved that the revenues of local budgets are derived from their own, and assigned to the established order of state taxes, fees and other mandatory payments. The main feature of their own revenues is the direct subordination of local government. The main feature is the fixed income long-term nature of their attachment to the appropriate budget. Value/originality. Proved that the presence in the economic literature of different classification criteria of local budget on various grounds provides multi classification that reflects all the features of the formation, use and functional differences revenues of local budgets. This approach provides the basis for improving the functioning of the theoretical foundations of the budget process in Ukraine at the level of local authorities.

  14. Bounded Rationality and Budgeting

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Mukdad

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the theory of bounded rationality which had been introduced by Herbert Simon in the 1950s. Simon introduced the notion of bounded rationality stating that while decision-makers strive for rationality, they are limited by the effect of the environment, their information process capacity and by the constraints on their information storage and retrieval capabilities. Moreover, this article tries to specifically blend this notion into budgeting, using the foundations of inc...

  15. Programme budget 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    There are 11 main fields of KfK R + D activities which are connected with one or more of the research goals of a) assurance of nuclear fuel supply, b) nuclear waste management, c) safety of nuclear facilities, d) basic research and research on new technologies. The scientific and technical tasks connected with these goals in 1981 and on a medium-term basis as well as the financial requirements are presented in the programme budget. (orig.) [de

  16. The Incredible Shrinking Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.H.E. Journal, 2013

    2013-01-01

    If district technology leaders had a nickel for every time they heard the phrase "the new normal," they'd have all the money they need to run their IT departments. In an effort to help readers think about their budgets in creative and practical ways, "T.H.E. Journal" and the Consortium for School Networking (CoSN) recently convened a panel of CTOs…

  17. Proposed NOAA Budget Includes Hefty Increase for Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2010-03-01

    The Obama administration's proposed fiscal year (FY) 2011 budget for the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) would provide the agency with $5.55 billion, which represents a total increase of $806.1 million, or 17% above the FY 2010 budget enacted by Congress. At a February briefing about the budget, NOAA administrator Jane Lubchenco said the budget is a very good package for the agency and that it reflects the administration's commitment to the environment, science, public safety, and job creation. Noting that the agency's budget remained essentially flat between FY 2005 and FY 2008 during the George W. Bush administration, Lubchenco said, “the increasing demand for NOAA's services, coupled with a static budget, created a major challenge for NOAA in delivering on expectations.” She said the funding picture for the agency improved with the FY 2009 and FY 2010 enacted budgets. Lubchenco noted that the proposed budget would include $949 million for research and development, an $82 million increase, adding, “Our 2011 request for each line office [within NOAA] is higher than it was in 2010, and we are better aligned with congressional funding levels than in previous budgets.”

  18. Budget Constraints Affect Male Rats’ Choices between Differently Priced Commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalenscher, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Demand theory can be applied to analyse how a human or animal consumer changes her selection of commodities within a certain budget in response to changes in price of those commodities. This change in consumption assessed over a range of prices is defined as demand elasticity. Previously, income-compensated and income-uncompensated price changes have been investigated using human and animal consumers, as demand theory predicts different elasticities for both conditions. However, in these studies, demand elasticity was only evaluated over the entirety of choices made from a budget. As compensating budgets changes the number of attainable commodities relative to uncompensated conditions, and thus the number of choices, it remained unclear whether budget compensation has a trivial effect on demand elasticity by simply sampling from a different total number of choices or has a direct effect on consumers’ sequential choice structure. If the budget context independently changes choices between commodities over and above price effects, this should become apparent when demand elasticity is assessed over choice sets of any reasonable size that are matched in choice opportunities between budget conditions. To gain more detailed insight in the sequential choice dynamics underlying differences in demand elasticity between budget conditions, we trained N=8 rat consumers to spend a daily budget by making a number of nosepokes to obtain two liquid commodities under different price regimes, in sessions with and without budget compensation. We confirmed that demand elasticity for both commodities differed between compensated and uncompensated budget conditions, also when the number of choices considered was matched, and showed that these elasticity differences emerge early in the sessions. These differences in demand elasticity were driven by a higher choice rate and an increased reselection bias for the preferred commodity in compensated compared to uncompensated budget

  19. Budget Constraints Affect Male Rats' Choices between Differently Priced Commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wingerden, Marijn; Marx, Christine; Kalenscher, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Demand theory can be applied to analyse how a human or animal consumer changes her selection of commodities within a certain budget in response to changes in price of those commodities. This change in consumption assessed over a range of prices is defined as demand elasticity. Previously, income-compensated and income-uncompensated price changes have been investigated using human and animal consumers, as demand theory predicts different elasticities for both conditions. However, in these studies, demand elasticity was only evaluated over the entirety of choices made from a budget. As compensating budgets changes the number of attainable commodities relative to uncompensated conditions, and thus the number of choices, it remained unclear whether budget compensation has a trivial effect on demand elasticity by simply sampling from a different total number of choices or has a direct effect on consumers' sequential choice structure. If the budget context independently changes choices between commodities over and above price effects, this should become apparent when demand elasticity is assessed over choice sets of any reasonable size that are matched in choice opportunities between budget conditions. To gain more detailed insight in the sequential choice dynamics underlying differences in demand elasticity between budget conditions, we trained N=8 rat consumers to spend a daily budget by making a number of nosepokes to obtain two liquid commodities under different price regimes, in sessions with and without budget compensation. We confirmed that demand elasticity for both commodities differed between compensated and uncompensated budget conditions, also when the number of choices considered was matched, and showed that these elasticity differences emerge early in the sessions. These differences in demand elasticity were driven by a higher choice rate and an increased reselection bias for the preferred commodity in compensated compared to uncompensated budget conditions

  20. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 97 - Final Section 126 Rule: Trading Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Final Section 126 Rule: Trading Budget... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS Pt. 97, App. C Appendix C to Part 97—Final Section 126 Rule: Trading Budget ST F126-EGU F126-NEGU Total DC 207 26...

  1. The carbon budget of California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    The carbon budget of a region can be defined as the sum of annual fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and methane (CH 4 ) greenhouse gases (GHGs) into and out of the regional surface coverage area. According to the state government's recent inventory, California's carbon budget is presently dominated by 115 MMTCE per year in fossil fuel emissions of CO 2 (>85% of total annual GHG emissions) to meet energy and transportation requirements. Other notable (non-ecosystem) sources of carbon GHG emissions in 2004 were from cement- and lime-making industries (7%), livestock-based agriculture (5%), and waste treatment activities (2%). The NASA-CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) simulation model based on satellite observations of monthly vegetation cover (including those from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, MODIS) was used to estimate net ecosystem fluxes and vegetation biomass production over the period 1990-2004. California's annual NPP for all ecosystems in the early 2000s (estimated by CASA at 120 MMTCE per year) was roughly equivalent to its annual fossil fuel emission rates for carbon. However, since natural ecosystems can accumulate only a small fraction of this annual NPP total in long-term storage pools, the net ecosystem sink flux for atmospheric carbon across the state was estimated at a maximum rate of about 24 MMTCE per year under favorable precipitation conditions. Under less favorable precipitation conditions, such as those experienced during the early 1990s, ecosystems statewide were estimated to have lost nearly 15 MMTCE per year to the atmosphere. Considering the large amounts of carbon estimated by CASA to be stored in forests, shrublands, and rangelands across the state, the importance of protection of the natural NPP capacity of California ecosystems cannot be overemphasized.

  2. The effect of agency budgets on minimizing greenhouse gas emissions from road rehabilitation policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reger, Darren; Madanat, Samer; Horvath, Arpad

    2015-01-01

    Transportation agencies are being urged to reduce their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. One possible solution within their scope is to alter their pavement management system to include environmental impacts. Managing pavement assets is important because poor road conditions lead to increased fuel consumption of vehicles. Rehabilitation activities improve pavement condition, but require materials and construction equipment, which produce GHG emissions as well. The agency’s role is to decide when to rehabilitate the road segments in the network. In previous work, we sought to minimize total societal costs (user and agency costs combined) subject to an emissions constraint for a road network, and demonstrated that there exists a range of potentially optimal solutions (a Pareto frontier) with tradeoffs between costs and GHG emissions. However, we did not account for the case where the available financial budget to the agency is binding. This letter considers an agency whose main goal is to reduce its carbon footprint while operating under a constrained financial budget. A Lagrangian dual solution methodology is applied, which selects the optimal timing and optimal action from a set of alternatives for each segment. This formulation quantifies GHG emission savings per additional dollar of agency budget spent, which can be used in a cap-and-trade system or to make budget decisions. We discuss the importance of communication between agencies and their legislature that sets the financial budgets to implement sustainable policies. We show that for a case study of Californian roads, it is optimal to apply frequent, thin overlays as opposed to the less frequent, thick overlays recommended in the literature if the objective is to minimize GHG emissions. A promising new technology, warm-mix asphalt, will have a negligible effect on reducing GHG emissions for road resurfacing under constrained budgets. (letter)

  3. The forgotten R and D budget

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, R.; Mohsberg, J.

    1992-01-01

    The research and development budget for hydropower has dwindled in recent years. Increased R and D funding could improve hydropower's effectiveness. Of the $1.5 trillion US budget for 1992, only $1 million was devoted to research and development (R and D) for hydroelectric generation. This is because hydropower has been branded a mature technology no longer in need of R and D. Nevertheless, as the source of nearly 10 percent of all US electricity, hydropower offers the nation's best opportunity for significant increased renewable energy production in the near future. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has estimated an additional 50,000 MW of hydropower capacity is potentially developable. Of the total $3 billion R and D budget for all DOE programs in 1992, the combined R and D amount for the other primary renewable energy resources was $161.3 million. Whether mature or not, all methods of producing electricity have attendant problems and development needs that must be addressed with sufficient R and D if the US is to remain energy independent, competitive and safe as a nation. In comparing R and D budget trends for electrical generating resources during the past 10 years there are several questions to be asked: Are other mature technologies, such as coal and nuclear power, receiving budget treatment similar to hydropower? What is the intended use of the R and D funds for these mature technologies? Is any technology - medical, communications, electrical generating or other - ever so mature as to be unable to benefit from R and D? What use could the hydropower industry make of additional R and D funding? What is the commitment of the administration and Congress to developing renewable energy resources when the source of 85 percent of current renewable energy receives only $1 million for R and D of the $3 billion DOE R and D budget? This article addresses these questions

  4. Global carbon budget 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Quere, C.; Moriarty, R.; Jones, S.D.; Boden, T.A.; Peters, G.P.; Andrew, R.M.; Andres, R.J.; Ciais, P.; Bopp, L.; Maignan, F.; Viovy, N.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates, consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO 2 emissions from fossil-fuel combustion and cement production (EFF) are based on energy statistics, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO 2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO 2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990's, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated for the first time in this budget with data products based on surveys of ocean CO 2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO 2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO 2 and land cover change (some including nitrogen-carbon interactions). All uncertainties are reported as ±1, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global carbon budget. For the last decade available (2003-2012), EFF was 8.6±0.4 GtC yr -1 , ELUC 0.9±0.5 GtC yr -1 , GATM 4.3±0

  5. 78 FR 11686 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for the Office of Management and Budget (OMB...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ...: Submission for the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Review; Comment Request AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... introduction of byproduct material into products or materials and transfer of the products or materials to..., Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs (3150-0001), NEOB-10202, Office of Management and Budget...

  6. Marketing with limited budget

    OpenAIRE

    Smirnova, Daria

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research-based thesis was to get an idea how managers of two small resembling hotels of a specific region deal with marketing process with a limited budget. In addition, the aim of the thesis was to examine if hotel managers who were interviewed perceive marketing only in the way of ‘promotion’ rather than marketing research, marketing mix and marketing environment theories. It was also found out if hotel managers of those hotels consider marketing as a key to successful h...

  7. The Australian terrestrial carbon budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Haverd

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a study of the full carbon (C-CO2 budget of the Australian continent, focussing on 1990–2011 in the context of estimates over two centuries. The work is a contribution to the RECCAP (REgional Carbon Cycle Assessment and Processes project, as one of numerous regional studies. In constructing the budget, we estimate the following component carbon fluxes: net primary production (NPP; net ecosystem production (NEP; fire; land use change (LUC; riverine export; dust export; harvest (wood, crop and livestock and fossil fuel emissions (both territorial and non-territorial. Major biospheric fluxes were derived using BIOS2 (Haverd et al., 2012, a fine-spatial-resolution (0.05° offline modelling environment in which predictions of CABLE (Wang et al., 2011, a sophisticated land surface model with carbon cycle, are constrained by multiple observation types. The mean NEP reveals that climate variability and rising CO2 contributed 12 ± 24 (1σ error on mean and 68 ± 15 TgC yr−1, respectively. However these gains were partially offset by fire and LUC (along with other minor fluxes, which caused net losses of 26 ± 4 TgC yr−1 and 18 ± 7 TgC yr−1, respectively. The resultant net biome production (NBP is 36 ± 29 TgC yr−1, in which the largest contributions to uncertainty are NEP, fire and LUC. This NBP offset fossil fuel emissions (95 ± 6 TgC yr−1 by 38 ± 30%. The interannual variability (IAV in the Australian carbon budget exceeds Australia's total carbon emissions by fossil fuel combustion and is dominated by IAV in NEP. Territorial fossil fuel emissions are significantly smaller than the rapidly growing fossil fuel exports: in 2009–2010, Australia exported 2.5 times more carbon in fossil fuels than it emitted by burning fossil fuels.

  8. Environmental budget and policy goal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Sang Hwan [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    The assigned budget for environmental sector is quite insufficient to meet enormous environmental demand. Under this circumstance, there is only one way to solve environmental problems efficiently, i.e. to use a given budget efficiently. Therefore, the study on efficient utilization of a given environmental invested finance is needed by customizing a diagnosis of present condition on the operation of environmental budget and environmental investment analysis. In this respect, an entire national budget of 1999 and environmental budget were analyzed in this study. By analyzing economic efficiency of sewage disposal program, integrated septic tank system, VOC regulation, incinerator construction program, food waste disposal program, and recycling program, an efficient budget policy was presented. 19 refs., 18 figs., 169 tabs.

  9. Baseline budgeting for continuous improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilty, G L

    1999-05-01

    This article is designed to introduce the techniques used to convert traditionally maintained department budgets to baseline budgets. This entails identifying key activities, evaluating for value-added, and implementing continuous improvement opportunities. Baseline Budgeting for Continuous Improvement was created as a result of a newly named company president's request to implement zero-based budgeting. The president was frustrated with the mind-set of the organization, namely, "Next year's budget should be 10 to 15 percent more than this year's spending." Zero-based budgeting was not the answer, but combining the principles of activity-based costing and the Just-in-Time philosophy of eliminating waste and continuous improvement did provide a solution to the problem.

  10. BUDGET PLANNING IN FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Nataliya Melnichuk

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to determine the nature, targets, functions, principles and methods of budget planning and development of classifications due to its types. The essence of budget planning presented by various authors, is own interpretation (the process of developing a plan of formation, distribution and redistribution of financial funds according to budget system units during the reporting period based on budgetary purposes and targets defined by socio-economic development strategy...

  11. Budget 2002: business taxation measures

    OpenAIRE

    Blow, L.; Hawkins, M.; Klemm, A.; McCrae, J.; Simpson, H.

    2002-01-01

    Following the 2002 Budget, this Briefing Note examines some of the Chancellor's changes to business taxation. A number of Budget measures, including the research and development tax credit for large companies and the exemption of capital gains on the sale of subsidiaries, are welcome and should improve the efficiency of the UK's tax system. All of these measures were subject to extensive prior consultation. A number of other measures were not foreshadowed in the Pre-Budget Report. Three of th...

  12. COST BUDGETING WITH THE ROMANIAN BAKERY UNITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RĂSCOLEAN ILIE

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A primary objective of management accounting is the possibility to estimate the total costs of a product or service works, which determines the development and implementation of specific managerial accounting systems that in addition to quantifying the immediate results aimed at achieving objectives such as customer orientation, labor productivity growth, the improvement of economic entities’ performance, establishing optimal outlets and prices and abandoning production-manufacture products that generate losses. Based on the progress of the investigations undertaken in the literature, the authors article demonstrates the need for achieving cost budgeting in the context of economic entities from the milling and bakeries industry, as mean of management control - by the example of S.C. AVANTI SRL Lupeni. The research in the field has led to the conduct of the study are awaited, being capable of demonstrating the viability of the management accounting organization at economic entities in the milling and bakery industry from Romania, in order to increase their performances. The results obtained by applying the costs budgeting allowed a rigorous cost control, which ultimately leads to an increase in the performance of the economic entity under study, as well as to the economic entities in the field that will apply the costs budgeting. At the end, the authors conclude regarding the importance of extending the framework for successfully implementing cost budgeting in the context of economic entities across the country.

  13. Dose budget for exposure control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, P.S.

    1999-01-01

    Dose budget is an important management tool to effectively control the collective dose incurred in a nuclear facility. The budget represents a set of yardsticks or guidelines for use in controlling the internal activities, involving radiation exposure in the organisation. The management, through budget can evaluate the radiation protection performance at every level of the organisation where a number of independent functional groups work on routine and non-routine jobs. The discrepancy between the plan and the actual performance is high lighted through the budgets. The organisation may have to change the course of its operation in a particular area or revise its plan with due focus on appropriate protective measures. (author)

  14. High-frequency Total Focusing Method (TFM) imaging in strongly attenuating materials with the decomposition of the time reversal operator associated with orthogonal coded excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaverde, Eduardo Lopez; Robert, Sébastien; Prada, Claire

    2017-02-01

    In the present work, the Total Focusing Method (TFM) is used to image defects in a High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) pipe. The viscoelastic attenuation of this material corrupts the images with a high electronic noise. In order to improve the image quality, the Decomposition of the Time Reversal Operator (DORT) filtering is combined with spatial Walsh-Hadamard coded transmissions before calculating the images. Experiments on a complex HDPE joint demonstrate that this method improves the signal-to-noise ratio by more than 40 dB in comparison with the conventional TFM.

  15. Operational budgeting using fuzzy goal programming

    OpenAIRE

    Saeed Mohammadi; Kamran Feizi; Ali Khatami Firouz Abadi

    2013-01-01

    Having an efficient budget normally has different advantages such as measuring the performance of various organizations, setting appropriate targets and promoting managers based on their achievements. However, any budgeting planning requires prediction of different cost components. There are various methods for budgeting planning such as incremental budgeting, program budgeting, zero based budgeting and performance budgeting. In this paper, we present a fuzzy goal programming to estimate oper...

  16. Budgeting Time to Teach about the School Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Dale

    2011-01-01

    As a teacher in the Milwaukee Public Schools (MPS) for the past 16 years, the author has grown used to dismal budget cut news arriving each February. Although cuts are always frustrating and their results burdensome, the school has been able to "hang on" reasonably well. This year, however, the budget cuts were extreme. In this article,…

  17. BUDGET PLANNING IN FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya Melnichuk

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to determine the nature, targets, functions, principles and methods of budget planning and development of classifications due to its types. The essence of budget planning presented by various authors, is own interpretation (the process of developing a plan of formation, distribution and redistribution of financial funds according to budget system units during the reporting period based on budgetary purposes and targets defined by socio-economic development strategy is proposed. Methodology. The following methods such as cognition, induction, deduction, analysis and synthesis have been used in the process of survey. Results of the survey proves that budget planning plays an essential role in the financial management. On condition business environment changing even the best management system can become obsolete. The immediate reaction to the new trends in the financial system as a whole, in the industry is possible with budget planning as well. It also allows to make appropriate adjustments to the plans. Adjustment of long-term, medium-term and short-term plans makes it possible, without changing goals, to change ways of their achievement and thus to raise the level of efficiency of budget funds formation and use. It is necessary to revise the whole system plans, including their mission and goals in the case of global changes in the external and internal environment. Practical implications. The proposed approach to the classification of budget planning types allows to cope with the shortcomings of modern planning in the public sector (the development of the targets according to the state budget expenditures in Ukraine remains a formality and it rarely complies with realities. Value/originality is specified in the proposed interpretation which differs from existing ones that provides clarification of budget planning purpose in financial management; classification of budget planning principles, which differs from previous

  18. O the Determination of the Complex Refractive Index of Powdered Materials in the 9 TO 11 Micrometer Spectral Region Utilizing AN Attenuated Total Reflectance Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, James Bryce

    1982-03-01

    A specific method of determining the complex refractive index of powdered materials using attenuated total reflectance (ATR) spectroscopy was investigated. A very precise laser/goniometric ATR system was assembled and applied to powdered samples of carbon blacks, graphite, kaolin clay, quartz, calcite, and sodalime glass beads. The reflectivity data fell into two categories: (1) data representative of a medium having a unique effective refractive index and (2) data representative of a scattering medium having no unique refractive index. Data of the first kind were obtained from all the carbon black, graphite, and kaolin clay samples. The Fahrenfort-Visser solution of the Fresnel equations was applied to the goniometric reflectivity data for these samples to obtain the complex refractive index of these effective media. The complex refractive index obtained in this manner is not that of the bulk material but is instead a value which may be related to the bulk material value through some refractive index mixing rule. A systematic experiment using carbon black of particle size 0.0106 mm diameter was conducted to determine the applicability of several mixture rules for the volume packing fraction range of .2 to .6 which is most often encountered. The Bruggemann effective medium theory produced credible results while the Lorentz-Lorenz rule and the empirical Biot-Arago rule were invalid in this volume packing region. The Bruggemann rule was applied to lampblack, Mogul-L carbon black, graphite, and kaolin clay to obtain the complex refractive indices of these materials from the ATR spectroscopy data. Goniometric reflectivity data representative of an inhomogeneous scattering medium were obtained from all the powdered quartz, powdered calcite, and sodalime glass beads samples. These samples all contained particles with diameters nearly as large as the wavelength. These data demonstrate that the ATR technique, coupled with an effective medium analysis, may be used to obtain

  19. Operational budgeting using fuzzy goal programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Mohammadi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Having an efficient budget normally has different advantages such as measuring the performance of various organizations, setting appropriate targets and promoting managers based on their achievements. However, any budgeting planning requires prediction of different cost components. There are various methods for budgeting planning such as incremental budgeting, program budgeting, zero based budgeting and performance budgeting. In this paper, we present a fuzzy goal programming to estimate operational budget. The proposed model uses fuzzy triangular as well as interval number to estimate budgeting expenses. The proposed study of this paper is implemented for a real-world case study in province of Qom, Iran and the results are analyzed.

  20. Motivation in Beyond Budgeting: A Motivational Paradox?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandalgaard, Niels; Bukh, Per Nikolaj

    In this paper we discuss the role of motivation in relation to budgeting and we analyse how the Beyond Budgeting model functions compared with traditional budgeting. In the paper we focus on budget related motivation (and motivation in general) and conclude that the Beyond Budgeting model...

  1. Zero-Base Budgeting:; An Institutional Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Donald L.; Anderson, Roger C.

    Zero-base budgeting as it is used at Allegany College is described. Zero-based budgeting is defined as a budgeting and planning approach that requires the examination of every item in a budget request as if the request were being proposed for the first time. Budgets (decision packages) are first made up for decision units (i.e., a course for the…

  2. An analysis of the impact of native oxide, surface contamination and material density on total electron yield in the absence of surface charging effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iida, Susumu, E-mail: susumu.iida@toshiba.co.jp [EUVL Infrastructure Development Center, Inc., 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki-ken, 305-8569 (Japan); Ohya, Kaoru [Institute of Technology and Science, The University of Tokushima, 2-1 Minamijyousanjima-cho,Tokushima, 770-8506 (Japan); Hirano, Ryoichi; Watanabe, Hidehiro [EUVL Infrastructure Development Center, Inc., 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki-ken, 305-8569 (Japan)

    2016-10-30

    Highlights: • Total electron yields were assessed in the absence of any surface charging effect. • Experimental and simulation results showed a low native oxide energy barrier. • The yield enhancement effect of a native oxide layer was confirmed. • The yield enhancement effect of a thin surface contamination layer was confirmed. • Deviations in the material density from the theoretical values were evaluated. - Abstract: The effects of the presence of a native oxide film or surface contamination as well as variations in material density on the total electron yield (TEY) of Ru and B{sub 4}C were assessed in the absence of any surface charging effect. The experimental results were analyzed using semi-empirical Monte Carlo simulations and demonstrated that a native oxide film increased the TEY, and that this effect varied with film thickness. These phenomena were explained based on the effect of the backscattered electrons (BSEs) at the interface between Ru and RuO{sub 2}, as well as the lower potential barrier of RuO{sub 2}. Deviations in the material density from the theoretical values were attributed to the film deposition procedure based on fitting simulated TEY curves to experimental results. In the case of B{sub 4}C, the TEY was enhanced by the presence of a 0.8-nm-thick surface contamination film consisting of oxygenated hydrocarbons. The effect of the low potential barrier of the contamination film was found to be significant, as the density of the B{sub 4}C was much lower than that of the Ru. Comparing the simulation parameters generated in the present work with Joy’s database, it was found that the model and the input parameters used in the simulations were sufficiently accurate.

  3. Laboratory administration--capital budgeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butros, F

    1997-01-01

    The process of capital budgeting varies among different health-care institutions. Understanding the concept of present value of money, incremental cash flow statements, and the basic budgeting techniques will enable the laboratory manager to make the rational and logical decisions that are needed in today's competitive health-care environment.

  4. Implementing Site-based Budgeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sielke, Catherine C.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses five questions that must be answered before implementing site-based budgeting: Why are we doing this? What budgeting decisions will be devolved to the school site? How do dollars flow from the central office to the site? Who will be involved at the site? How will accountability be achieved? (Author/PKP)

  5. The CEA budget in 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    In 1982, the amount of the CEA budget will be 13.4 billions French Francs. The main characteristics are the priority for employment and investments. In this budget programs are adapted to fit R and D to the government policy: innovation, industrial valorization and fundamental research especially thermonuclear fusion and in the electronuclear field to safety, reprocessing and radioactive waste management [fr

  6. Budgeting for Efficiency and Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereus, Steven C.

    2012-01-01

    For most districts, budgeting has become a cost-cutting exercise designed to close the gap between revenues and expenses. During this process, decision makers inherently assume that existing operations are efficient and effective--an assumption that is rarely validated by facts. Cutting programs and services balances budgets but does not…

  7. THE BUDGETING PROCESS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TURCIN MARIUS CATALIN

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the stages of the budgeting process in Romania and the institutions involved in its carry out, having regard to the recent legislative amendments in the field. The study describes the importance of some state institutions in achieving the economic and social policy objectives. According to practice, the institution specializing in drafting the budget bill is the Government, who submits the budget bill annually to the Parliament for adopting the national budget, accompanied by the explanatory statement, annexes and interpretative calculations. The preparatory works are fulfilled by the Ministry of Public Finance and in parallel, by the ministries, authorities, local administrations or other public institutions to prepare their own drafts budget.

  8. FLEXIBLE BUDGET OF SPORT COMPETITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Vukasović

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Manager of sport competition has right to decide and also to take responsibility for costs, income and financial results. From economic point of wiev flexible budget and planning cost calculations is top management base for analyzing success level of sport competition. Flexible budget is made before sport competition with few output level, where one is always from static plan-master plan. At the end of competition when we have results, we make report of plan executing and we also analyzing plan variances. Results of comparation between achieved and planning level of static budget can be acceptable if achieved level is approximate to budget level or if we analyzing results from gross or net income. Flexible budget become very important in case of world eco- nomic crises

  9. Global Carbon Budget 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quéré, Corinne Le; Andrew, Robbie M.; Canadell, Josep G.; Sitch, Stephen; Korsbakken, Jan Ivar; Peters, Glen P.; Manning, Andrew C.; Boden, Thomas A.; Tans, Pieter P.; Houghton, Richard A.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere the global carbon budget is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates and consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, respectively, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models. We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as +/- 1(sigma), reflecting the current capacity to characterize the annual estimates of each component of the global carbon budget. For the last decade available (2006-2015), EFF was 9

  10. Global Carbon Budget 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Quéré, Corinne; Andrew, Robbie M.; Canadell, Josep G.; Sitch, Stephen; Korsbakken, Jan Ivar; Peters, Glen P.; Manning, Andrew C.; Boden, Thomas A.; Tans, Pieter P.; Houghton, Richard A.; Keeling, Ralph F.; Alin, Simone; Andrews, Oliver D.; Anthoni, Peter; Barbero, Leticia; Bopp, Laurent; Chevallier, Frédéric; Chini, Louise P.; Ciais, Philippe; Currie, Kim; Delire, Christine; Doney, Scott C.; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Gkritzalis, Thanos; Harris, Ian; Hauck, Judith; Haverd, Vanessa; Hoppema, Mario; Klein Goldewijk, Kees; Jain, Atul K.; Kato, Etsushi; Körtzinger, Arne; Landschützer, Peter; Lefèvre, Nathalie; Lenton, Andrew; Lienert, Sebastian; Lombardozzi, Danica; Melton, Joe R.; Metzl, Nicolas; Millero, Frank; Monteiro, Pedro M. S.; Munro, David R.; Nabel, Julia E. M. S.; Nakaoka, Shin-ichiro; O'Brien, Kevin; Olsen, Are; Omar, Abdirahman M.; Ono, Tsuneo; Pierrot, Denis; Poulter, Benjamin; Rödenbeck, Christian; Salisbury, Joe; Schuster, Ute; Schwinger, Jörg; Séférian, Roland; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Stocker, Benjamin D.; Sutton, Adrienne J.; Takahashi, Taro; Tian, Hanqin; Tilbrook, Bronte; van der Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid T.; van der Werf, Guido R.; Viovy, Nicolas; Walker, Anthony P.; Wiltshire, Andrew J.; Zaehle, Sönke

    2016-11-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere - the "global carbon budget" - is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates and consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, respectively, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models. We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global carbon budget. For the last decade available (2006-2015), EFF was 9

  11. Materialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnyk, Andrew

    2012-05-01

    Materialism is nearly universally assumed by cognitive scientists. Intuitively, materialism says that a person's mental states are nothing over and above his or her material states, while dualism denies this. Philosophers have introduced concepts (e.g., realization and supervenience) to assist in formulating the theses of materialism and dualism with more precision, and distinguished among importantly different versions of each view (e.g., eliminative materialism, substance dualism, and emergentism). They have also clarified the logic of arguments that use empirical findings to support materialism. Finally, they have devised various objections to materialism, objections that therefore serve also as arguments for dualism. These objections typically center around two features of mental states that materialism has had trouble in accommodating. The first feature is intentionality, the property of representing, or being about, objects, properties, and states of affairs external to the mental states. The second feature is phenomenal consciousness, the property possessed by many mental states of there being something it is like for the subject of the mental state to be in that mental state. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:281-292. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1174 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. CO 2 Capture Capacity and Swelling Measurements of Liquid-like Nanoparticle Organic Hybrid Materials via Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Youngjune

    2012-01-12

    Novel nanoparticle organic hybrid materials (NOHMs), which are comprised of organic oligomers or polymers tethered to an inorganic nanosized cores of various sizes, have been synthesized, and their solvating property for CO 2 was investigated using attenuated total reflectance (ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Simultaneous measurements of CO 2 capture capacity and swelling behaviors of polyetheramine (Jeffamine M-2070) and its corresponding NOHMs (NOHM-I-PE2070) were reported at temperatures of (298, 308, 323 and 353) K and CO 2 pressure conditions ranging from (0 to 5.5) MPa. The polymeric canopy, or polymer bound to the nanoparticle surface, showed significantly less swelling behavior with enhanced or comparable CO 2 capture capacity compared to pure unbound polyetheramine. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  13. Disadvantages of legal engineering of the disclosure of certain norms of the Budget Code of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Світлана Миколаївна Клімова

    2017-09-01

    the Budget Code of Ukraine states as follows: “The total amount of financial resources for each type of intergovernmental transfers specified in paragraphs 6-8 of part one of Article 97 of this Code shall be calculated on the basis of state social standards and norms established by law and Other normative-legal acts “. Determine the ways (techniques of presenting this rule of law: – by the degree of abstract presentation – casuistic; – by degree of completeness of presentation – blanket; – in the form of the proposal – in the form of narrative proposal. This clause of Article 94 of the BCU can not be implemented by public administration bodies without the adoption of another, special law or by-law normative-legal act. Secondly, the integrity of the public finance management process is impossible without systematic and qualitative control. Article 113 of the BCU determines the powers of the state financial control bodies to control compliance with budget legislation. The control functions of the public administration bodies of Ukraine should be stated as follows: 1 The Budget Code of Ukraine does not specify specific directions and objects of control, but the system, principles and tasks of public financial control (in Article 113; 2 determine, in a special law, the system, forms, methods, types of public financial control; 3 by subordinate acts to establish specific rules for carrying out control activities by a specific public administration body in relation to a particular object. Thirdly, the norms of the Budget Code of Ukraine on legal liability for violation of budget legislation are set out in a non-systematic way in violation of the rules of legal technique. Conclusions of the research. 1. The legal electronics industry covers knowledge of the rules of law and the creation of a process of various legal documents outlining the content written regulations, preparing legal documents, legal analysis of the expression of legal rights and duties of

  14. Global Carbon Budget 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Canadell, J. G.; Sitch, S.; Korsbakken, J. I.; Friedlingstein, P.; Peters, G. P.; Andres, R. J.; Boden, T. A.; Houghton, R. A.; House, J. I.; Keeling, R. F.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; Bakker, D. C. E.; Barbero, L.; Bopp, L.; Chang, J.; Chevallier, F.; Chini, L. P.; Ciais, P.; Fader, M.; Feely, R. A.; Gkritzalis, T.; Harris, I.; Hauck, J.; Ilyina, T.; Jain, A. K.; Kato, E.; Kitidis, V.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Koven, C.; Landschützer, P.; Lauvset, S. K.; Lefèvre, N.; Lenton, A.; Lima, I. D.; Metzl, N.; Millero, F.; Munro, D. R.; Murata, A.; Nabel, J. E. M. S.; Nakaoka, S.; Nojiri, Y.; O'Brien, K.; Olsen, A.; Ono, T.; Pérez, F. F.; Pfeil, B.; Pierrot, D.; Poulter, B.; Rehder, G.; Rödenbeck, C.; Saito, S.; Schuster, U.; Schwinger, J.; Séférian, R.; Steinhoff, T.; Stocker, B. D.; Sutton, A. J.; Takahashi, T.; Tilbrook, B.; van der Laan-Luijkx, I. T.; van der Werf, G. R.; van Heuven, S.; Vandemark, D.; Viovy, N.; Wiltshire, A.; Zaehle, S.; Zeng, N.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates as well as consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover-change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO2, and land-cover change (some including nitrogen-carbon interactions). We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global

  15. Budgeting in an imaging Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyalla, A. M.

    2006-01-01

    budgeting form an integral part of an imaging department. It is a plan to cope with necessary expenses in the future. It involves identifying the needs and income sources required to cover the needs.Covers specific items and time-usually a year and is expressed in monetary terms. The micro budget is put in the macro budget of the hospital. defines financial support for the department. Considers: a fiscal year, projection of patients, types of examinations, type of equipment, monetary exchange, and inflation rate

  16. Development of Total Reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry quantitative methodologies for elemental characterization of building materials and their degradation products

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Florentino, Cristina; Maguregui, Maite; Marguí, Eva; Torrent, Laura; Queralt, Ignasi; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2018-05-01

    In this work, a Total Reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometry based quantitative methodology for elemental characterization of liquid extracts and solids belonging to old building materials and their degradation products from a building of the beginning of 20th century with a high historic cultural value in Getxo, (Basque Country, North of Spain) is proposed. This quantification strategy can be considered a faster methodology comparing to traditional Energy or Wavelength Dispersive X-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF and WD-XRF) spectrometry based methodologies or other techniques such as Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). In particular, two kinds of liquid extracts were analysed: (i) water soluble extracts from different mortars and (ii) acid extracts from mortars, black crusts, and calcium carbonate formations. In order to try to avoid the acid extraction step of the materials and their degradation products, it was also studied the TXRF direct measurement of the powdered solid suspensions in water. With this aim, different parameters such as the deposition volume and the measuring time were studied for each kind of samples. Depending on the quantified element, the limits of detection achieved with the TXRF quantitative methodologies for liquid extracts and solids were set around 0.01-1.2 and 2-200 mg/L respectively. The quantification of K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Zn, Rb, Sr, Sn and Pb in the liquid extracts was proved to be a faster alternative to other more classic quantification techniques (i.e. ICP-MS), accurate enough to obtain information about the composition of the acidic soluble part of the materials and their degradation products. Regarding the solid samples measured as suspensions, it was quite difficult to obtain stable and repetitive suspensions affecting in this way the accuracy of the results. To cope with this problem, correction factors based on the quantitative results obtained using ED-XRF were calculated to improve the accuracy of

  17. Nuclear budget up 9.6% for fiscal 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    After reviewing the overall governmental budgets for fiscal 1981 including energy budget, the nuclear budget for the Science and Technology Agency and the Ministry of International Trade and Industry is described. The 1981 nuclear budget amounts to 178,013 million yen in general account, 4.2% increase over the previous year; and 93,237 million yen, increase of 17.3%, in the special account for power source development. The total is 271,250 million yen. For the STA, budgetary allocations were made for researches on nuclear power safety, a multi-purpose high temperature gas-cooled reactor and nuclear fusion in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, developments of FBR and ATR and nuclear fuel cycle in Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation, and so on. For the MITI, allocations were made for nuclear plant safety, nuclear fuel cycle, and others. (Mori, K.)

  18. GEWEX Surface Radiation Budget (SRB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NASA/GEWEX Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) Release-3.0 data sets contains global 3-hourly, daily, monthly/3-hourly, and monthly averages of surface and top-of...

  19. US science spared budget axe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2017-06-01

    Despite initial fears of significant funding cuts, America’s 2017 budget largely maintains support for research. But as Peter Gwynne reports, the relief may only be temporary and funding for science may be slashed next year instead

  20. Congress smiles on research budgets

    CERN Multimedia

    Reichhardt, T

    1998-01-01

    Congress has agreed to match or exceed most of the funding requests for the major science agencies requested by President Clinton in February. Many of them will receive their largest budget increases for years (11 paragraphs).

  1. FINANCIAL EQUALIZATION TRANSFERS BETWEEN PUBLIC AUTHORITIES BUDGETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Cornelia STOICA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents financial balancing mechanisms that it is applied by the most of the states with competitive market economy, in order to ensure equity between local authorities, as well as the stability of the entire national tax and budgetary system. In this regard, it is described the concept of financial equalization and its structure according to two fundamental criteria: - equalization in accordance with the financial transfers orientation, distinguishing thus (1 horizontal equalization, which is carried out between local authorities and consists in assigning a part of the richest territorial collectivities resources to the disadvantaged ones; (2 vertical financial equalization, achieved through consolidated transfers the state / federal budget to the budgets by territorial administrative units, both for the operating budget section and for the development one; - financial equalization according to the regional or local disparities observed as a result of territorial-level analyzes: (1 financial equalization based on balancing public revenues of the administrative-territorial units, which tries to correct the differences between the financial resources of each local authority and (2 the financial balancing based on the costs, which aims to reduce differences between standard costs of public services per capita. Financial equalization mechanisms have as main objective the reduction as far as the total elimination of the regional or local disparities, which are also described in this article.

  2. Materials

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available . It is generally included as part of a structurally insulated panel (SIP) where the foam is sandwiched between external skins of steel, wood or cement. Cement composites Cement bonded composites are an important class of building materials. These products... for their stone buildings, including the Egyptians, Aztecs and Inca’s. As stone is a very dense material it requires intensive heating to become warm. Rocks were generally stacked dry but mud, and later cement, can be used as a mortar to hold the rocks...

  3. Total protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003483.htm Total protein To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes ...

  4. Cycle-Based Budgeting Toolkit: A Primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Bo

    2016-01-01

    At the core, budgeting is about distributing and redistributing limited financial resources for continuous improvement. Incremental budgeting is limited in achieving the goal due to lack of connection between outcomes and budget decisions. Zero-based budgeting fills the gap, but is cumbersome to implement, especially for large urban school…

  5. 42 CFR 457.140 - Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Budget. 457.140 Section 457.140 Public Health... Child Health Insurance Programs and Outreach Strategies § 457.140 Budget. The State plan, or plan amendment that has a significant impact on the approved budget, must include a budget that describes the...

  6. 7 CFR 1744.64 - Budget adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget adjustment. 1744.64 Section 1744.64... Disbursement of Funds § 1744.64 Budget adjustment. (a) If more funds are required than are available in a budget account, the borrower may request RUS's approval of a budget adjustment to use funds from another...

  7. The prevalence of Beyond Budgeting in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandalgaard, Niels

      The annual budget has been criticised in recent years. The critics claim, among other things, that the annual budget is not suitable for today's business environment, that annual budgets stimulate dysfunctional behaviour and furthermore that the use of budgets is too costly. This paper examines...... this critique as well as the current status of the traditional annual budget in a contingency perspective by using data from a survey among the largest Danish companies. The conclusion is that only 4% of the companies claim to have abandoned the traditional, annual budget, 2% have decided or are in the process...... of doing so and 11% are considering abandoning it. These "Beyond Budgeting" companies are more critical towards the traditional budget than other companies. The study also shows that the critical attitude towards annual budgets as well as the decision of abandoning the budget cannot be associated...

  8. The critical micelle concentration of lecithin in bulk oils and medium chain triacylglycerol is influenced by moisture content and total polar materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, JiSu; Kim, Mi-Ja; Lee, JaeHwan

    2018-09-30

    Effects of different moisture contents and oxidised compounds on the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of lecithin were determined in bulk oils and in medium-chain triacylglycerols (MCT). CMC of lecithin in MCT was significantly higher than that in other vegetable oils including olive, soybean, corn, and rapeseed oils (p < 0.05). Presence of moisture significantly affected the CMC of lecithin in MCT (p < 0.05). CMC of lecithin was high when the moisture content was below 900 ppm, whereas at a moisture content of 1000 ppm, CMC of lecithin decreased significantly (p < 0.05), and then started to increase. Addition of total polar materials (TPM), which are oxidation products, at 3 and 5% concentrations, decreased CMC of lecithin significantly (p < 0.05) in MCT, compared to when 0, 1, and 1.5% of TPM was added to MCT. As the degree of oxidation increased in corn oil, CMC of lecithin gradually decreased. Additionally, under different moisture contents, corn oils showed a similar pattern of CMC of lecithin in MCT, whereas oxidised corn oil had a little lower CMC of lecithin than unoxidised corn oil. The results clearly showed that the concentration of lecithin for the formation of micelles is greatly influenced by the presence of oxidation products and the moisture content in bulk oils. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Report on a survey in fiscal 1999. Part 3. Survey on total energy and material control (Survey on feasibility of structuring a circulation type society); 1999 nendo total energy and material control ni kansuru chosa hokokusho. 3. Junkangata shakai kochiku kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Structuring a circulation type society indispensably requires effective utilization of energies and resources, to which approaches have been taken by industries independently. An approach upon structuring an industry crossing network may be taken effective for further effective utilization of the energies and resources. The present survey is intended to extract problems therefrom. It is also intended to perform surveys and studies on the following three points: (1) process-linking with different industries aimed at zero wasting in industrial complexes and electric furnaces dispersed adequately nationwide, (2) effective use and cascading utilization of energies and resources, and (3) a circulating type economic system simulation using metallic material industry as the core. It is further intended that problems shall be extracted; the results are compiled as the 'basic technology development for the metallic material circulating type economic system'; technological development themes are extracted; and the draft proposal shall be prepared. The total energy and materials control system (TECOS) activities are aimed at structuring a circulation type industrial structure, in which the following requirements are executed: the process-linking transcending the conventional industrial boundaries is performed; substances included in respective materials and discharges, and energies used in the processes are controlled comprehensively; the energies are utilized at ultra-high efficiency; and minimization of all the discharges is realized. (NEDO)

  10. Report on a survey in fiscal 1999. Part 3. Survey on total energy and material control (Survey on feasibility of structuring a circulation type society); 1999 nendo total energy and material control ni kansuru chosa hokokusho. 3. Junkangata shakai kochiku kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Structuring a circulation type society indispensably requires effective utilization of energies and resources, to which approaches have been taken by industries independently. An approach upon structuring an industry crossing network may be taken effective for further effective utilization of the energies and resources. The present survey is intended to extract problems therefrom. It is also intended to perform surveys and studies on the following three points: (1) process-linking with different industries aimed at zero wasting in industrial complexes and electric furnaces dispersed adequately nationwide, (2) effective use and cascading utilization of energies and resources, and (3) a circulating type economic system simulation using metallic material industry as the core. It is further intended that problems shall be extracted; the results are compiled as the 'basic technology development for the metallic material circulating type economic system'; technological development themes are extracted; and the draft proposal shall be prepared. The total energy and materials control system (TECOS) activities are aimed at structuring a circulation type industrial structure, in which the following requirements are executed: the process-linking transcending the conventional industrial boundaries is performed; substances included in respective materials and discharges, and energies used in the processes are controlled comprehensively; the energies are utilized at ultra-high efficiency; and minimization of all the discharges is realized. (NEDO)

  11. Generic Advertising Optimum Budget for Iran’s Milk Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Shahbazi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction One of the main targets of planners, decision makers and governments is increasing society health with promotion and production of suitable and healthy food. One of the basic commodities that have important role in satisfaction of required human food is milk. So, some part of government and producer healthy budget allocate to milk consumption promotion by using generic advertising. If effectiveness of advertising budget on profitability is more, producer will have more willing to spend for advertising. Determination of optimal generic advertising budget is one of important problem in managerial decision making in producing firm as well as increase in consumption and profit and decrease in wasting and non-optimality of budget. Materials and Methods: In this study, optimal generic advertising budget intensity index (advertising budget share of production cost was estimated under two different scenarios by using equilibrium replacement model. In equilibrium replacement model, producer surplus are maximized in respect to generic advertising in retail level. According to market where two levels of farm and processing before retail exist and there is trade in farm and retail level, we present different models. Fixed and variable proportion hypothesis is another one. Finally, eight relations are presented for determination of milk generic advertising optimum budget. So, we use data from several resources such as previous studies, national (Iran Static center and international institute (Fao formal data and own estimation. Because there are several estimations in previous studies, we identify some scenarios (in two general scenarios for calculation of milk generic advertising optimum budget. Results and Discussion: Estimation of milk generic advertising optimum budget in scenario 1 shows that in case of one market level, fixed supplies and no trade, optimum budget is 0.4672539 percent. In case of one market level and no trade, optimum

  12. A Structural VAR Approach to Estimating Budget Balance Targets

    OpenAIRE

    Robert A Buckle; Kunhong Kim; Julie Tam

    2001-01-01

    The Fiscal Responsibility Act 1994 states that, as a principle of responsible fiscal management, a New Zealand government should ensure total Crown debt is at a prudent level by ensuring total operating expenses do not exceed total operating revenues. In this paper a structural VAR model is estimated to evaluate the impact on the government's cash operating surplus (or budget balance) of four independent disturbances: supply, fiscal, real private demand, and nominal disturbances. Based on the...

  13. Energia total de ruptura: um teste biomecânico para avaliação de material biológico com propriedade viscoelástica não linear Total energy of rupture: a biomechanical test to evaluate non-linear viscoelastic biological material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Chung Wu

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Apresentação do teste biomecânico Energia Total de Ruptura para o estudo da resistência intrínseca de material biológico com propriedade viscoelástica não-linear representado neste trabalho por segmento íntegro de cólon descendente de rato. Métodos: Implementação do teste biomecânico Energia Total de Ruptura e do Sistema de Aquisição e Análise de dados Biomecânicos - SABI 2.0. Para esse fim, foram utilizados conceitos físico-mecânicos, computacionais e biomecânicos e como corpos de teste, 15 espécimes de cólon descendente de ratos. Resultados: O teste biomecânico Energia Total de Ruptura permitiu o cálculo da energia total acumulada necessária para promover a ruptura dos corpos de prova durante os ensaios mecânicos. Por meio da automatização e gerenciamento da aquisição e análise dos dados capturados foi possível a geração de gráficos e relatórios descritivos e estatísticos. Conclusão: Fundamentado em conceitos físico-mecânicos, computacionais e biomecânicos, o teste Energia Total de Ruptura pôde proporcionar análise matemática do comportamento dos segmentos de cólon descendente de ratos durante os ensaios, demonstrando ser um possível método de medição da resistência intrínseca desse material biológico com propriedade viscoelástica não-linear.Purpose: Presentation of the Total Energy of Rupture biomechanical test to evaluate the intrinsic resistance of the rat’s left colon which presents a non-linear viscoelastic property. Methods: Implementation of Total Energy of Rupture test (ETR and the Biomechanical Data Acquisition and Analysis System (SABI 2.0 based on physic-mechanical, computational and biomechanical concepts. Fifteen specimens of Wistar adults rat’s left colon where considered for experiments. Results: Using the TER biomechanical test it was possible calculate the accumulated total energy necessary to promote the specimens rupture during the mechanical trial. It was

  14. A landscape-scale study of land use and parent material effects on soil organic carbon and total nitrogen in the Konya Basin, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, M. T.; Marin-Spiotta, E.; Ozdogan, M.; Erdogan, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    In ecosystems where intensive farming and grazing have been occurring for millennia, there is poor understanding of how present-day soil biogeochemical properties relate to factors associated with soil parent materials (e.g. texture, mineralogy), and the net effects of long-term land use practices. Soil organic carbon (SOC) and total soil nitrogen (TN) are important for their roles in maintaining soil structure, moisture, fertility and contributing to carbon sequestration. Our research used a state factor approach (Jenny 1981) to study effects of soil parent materials and land use practices on SOC, TN, and other properties across thirty-five sites in the Konya Basin, an arid region in south-central Turkey farmed and grazed for over 8,000 years. This project is one of the first to study land use impacts on soils at a landscape scale (500 km2) in south-central Turkey, and incorporate geospatial data (e.g. a satellite imagery-derived land cover map we developed) to aid selection of field sites. Focusing on the plough layer (0-25cm) in two depth intervals, we compared effects of agriculture, orchard cultivation and grazing land use practices and clay-loam alluvial, sandy-loam volcanic and lacustrine clay soils on soil properties using standard least squares regression analyses. SOC and TN depended strongly on parent materials, but not on land use. Averaged across both depth intervals, alluvial soil SOC and TN concentrations (19.4 ± 1.32 Mg/ha SOC, 2.86 ± 1.23 Mg/ha TN) were higher and significantly different than lacustrine (9.72 ± 3.01 Mg/ha SOC, 1.57 ± 0.69 Mg/ha TN) and volcanic soil concentrations (7.40 ± 1.72 Mg/ha SOC, 1.02 ± 0.35 Mg/ha TN). Land use significantly affected SOC and TN on alluvial soils, but not on volcanic or lacustrine soils. Our results demonstrate the potential for land use to have different effects on different soils in this region. Our data on SOC, TN and other soil properties illustrate patterns in regional SOC and TN variability not

  15. High frequency circular translation pin-on-disk method for accelerated wear testing of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene as a bearing material in total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikko, Vesa

    2015-01-21

    The temporal change of the direction of sliding relative to the ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) component of prosthetic joints is known to be of crucial importance with respect to wear. One complete revolution of the resultant friction vector is commonly called a wear cycle. It was hypothesized that in order to accelerate the wear test, the cycle frequency may be substantially increased if the circumference of the slide track is reduced in proportion, and still the wear mechanisms remain realistic and no overheating takes place. This requires an additional slow motion mechanism with which the lubrication of the contact is maintained and wear particles are conveyed away from the contact. A three-station, dual motion high frequency circular translation pin-on-disk (HF-CTPOD) device with a relative cycle frequency of 25.3 Hz and an average sliding velocity of 27.4 mm/s was designed. The pins circularly translated at high frequency (1.0 mm per cycle, 24.8 Hz, clockwise), and the disks at low frequency (31.4mm per cycle, 0.5 Hz, counter-clockwise). In a 22 million cycle (10 day) test, the wear rate of conventional gamma-sterilized UHMWPE pins against polished CoCr disks in diluted serum was 1.8 mg per 24 h, which was six times higher than that in the established 1 Hz CTPOD device. The wear mechanisms were similar. Burnishing of the pin was the predominant feature. No overheating took place. With the dual motion HF-CTPOD method, the wear testing of UHMWPE as a bearing material in total hip arthroplasty can be substantially accelerated without concerns of the validity of the wear simulation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Approach for determining the contributions of phytoplankton, colored organic material, and nonalgal particles to the total spectral absorption in marine waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Junfang; Cao, Wenxi; Wang, Guifeng; Hu, Shuibo

    2013-06-20

    Using a data set of 1333 samples, we assess the spectral absorption relationships of different wave bands for phytoplankton (ph) and particles. We find that a nonlinear model (second-order quadratic equations) delivers good performance in describing their spectral characteristics. Based on these spectral relationships, we develop a method for partitioning the total absorption coefficient into the contributions attributable to phytoplankton [a(ph)(λ)], colored dissolved organic material [CDOM; a(CDOM)(λ)], and nonalgal particles [NAP; a(NAP)(λ)]. This method is validated using a data set that contains 550 simultaneous measurements of phytoplankton, CDOM, and NAP from the NASA bio-Optical Marine Algorithm Dataset. We find that our method is highly efficient and robust, with significant accuracy: the relative root-mean-square errors (RMSEs) are 25.96%, 38.30%, and 19.96% for a(ph)(443), a(CDOM)(443), and the CDOM exponential slope, respectively. The performance is still satisfactory when the method is applied to water samples from the northern South China Sea as a regional case. The computed and measured absorption coefficients (167 samples) agree well with the RMSEs, i.e., 18.50%, 32.82%, and 10.21% for a(ph)(443), a(CDOM)(443), and the CDOM exponential slope, respectively. Finally, the partitioning method is applied directly to an independent data set (1160 samples) derived from the Bermuda Bio-Optics Project that contains relatively low absorption values, and we also obtain good inversion accuracy [RMSEs of 32.37%, 32.57%, and 11.52% for a(ph)(443), a(CDOM)(443), and the CDOM exponential slope, respectively]. Our results indicate that this partitioning method delivers satisfactory performance for the retrieval of a(ph), a(CDOM), and a(NAP). Therefore, this may be a useful tool for extracting absorption coefficients from in situ measurements or remotely sensed ocean-color data.

  17. Good Bye Traditional Budgeting, Hello Rolling Forecast: Has the Time Come?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, Thomas L.; Metzger, Lawrence M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper argues for a new approach to accounting textbook budgeting material. The business environment is not stable. Change is continuous, for large and small business alike. A business must act and react to generate shareholder value. The rolling forecast provides the necessary navigational insight. The traditional annual static budget does…

  18. 75 FR 47855 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for the Office of Management and Budget (OMB...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-09

    ...: Submission for the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Review; Comment Request AGENCY: U.S. Nuclear... public comment. SUMMARY: The NRC has recently submitted to Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for... receive special nuclear material access authorization. Personal history information which is submitted on...

  19. Zero-Based Budgeting: Application to Chicano Studies at a Community College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Pete R.

    Enrollment trends and zero-based budgeting techniques are employed to justify continued support of Rio Hondo College's Mexican American Cultural Institute. After introductory material discussing the usefulness of zero-based budgeting in assuring fiscal accountability, the report identifies three Chicano Studies alternatives: an Associate of Arts…

  20. Total algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tel, G.

    We define the notion of total algorithms for networks of processes. A total algorithm enforces that a "decision" is taken by a subset of the processes, and that participation of all processes is required to reach this decision. Total algorithms are an important building block in the design of

  1. Budget Brief: 2015 Proposed Budget Milwaukee Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Vanessa; Chapman, Anne; Henken, Rob

    2014-01-01

    In this report, the authors provide a detailed analysis of the major changes in revenue and expenditures in the Milwaukee Public Schools (MPS) 2015 proposed budget, and the manner in which MPS has responded to recent legislative changes and turbulent workforce challenges. The objective is to provide an independent assessment of the district's…

  2. Football Sticker Markets: An Insight into Pocket Money Budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, Stephen J.

    1985-01-01

    Formal and informal markets for football stickers and children's pocket money budgets are discussed. Included is a questionnaire that can be used by junior high school students to investigate these topics locally. The materials have been successfully used in the classroom. (Author/RM)

  3. Budget. School Business Management Handbook No. 3. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debus, Richard C.

    The material in this handbook has been designed for continuous reference and use by administrators and school board members in formulating sound school budgets. Statements of practices and policy express the general situation and simply provide a starting point. Practical applications in union free, central, and city school districts in cities of…

  4. The Kjeldahl method as a primary reference procedure for total protein in certified reference materials used in clinical chemistry. II. Selection of direct Kjeldahl analysis and its preliminary performance parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinklárková, Bára; Chromý, Vratislav; Šprongl, Luděk; Bittová, Miroslava; Rikanová, Milena; Ohnútková, Ivana; Žaludová, Lenka

    2015-01-01

    To select a Kjeldahl procedure suitable for the determination of total protein in reference materials used in laboratory medicine, we reviewed in our previous article Kjeldahl methods adopted by clinical chemistry and found an indirect two-step analysis by total Kjeldahl nitrogen corrected for its nonprotein nitrogen and a direct analysis made on isolated protein precipitates. In this article, we compare both procedures on various reference materials. An indirect Kjeldahl method gave falsely lower results than a direct analysis. Preliminary performance parameters qualify the direct Kjeldahl analysis as a suitable primary reference procedure for the certification of total protein in reference laboratories.

  5. THE IMPACT OF SYSTEM OF BUDGET EQUILIBRATION ON MACROECONOMIC INDEXES OF RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V. Peshina

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical regulations of basic conceptions of budget equilibration are considered in the article and the position of budget deficit/proficit in a system of socioeconomics relations is grounded. Estimation of control mechanism of budget deficit and proficit in the system of socioeconomics relations was conducted. This estimation confirmed an analysis inference about large discontinuity and fragmentation, that is outboard, first of all in respect of strategy of financial policy, sum-total of using, at present, principles, methods and regulations of budgetary management. The article contains a description of basic directions of budgetary policy about optimization of budget deficit/proficit in Russian Federation.

  6. Do budget balance rules anchor budget balance expectations? -- Some international evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Rülke, Jan-Christoph; Frenkel, Michael; Lis, Eliza

    2013-01-01

    This is the first study that analyzes whether budget balance expectations are anchored and whether budget balance rules effectively anchor expectations. To this end, we use a unique data set which covers budget balance expectations in 17 countries that implemented a budget balance rules. While our results are mixed concerning the general impact of budget balance rules on anchoring expectations, we do find that specific features of budget balance rules are important to successfully anchor budg...

  7. Digital Marketing Budgets for Independent Hotels: Continuously Shifting to Remain Competitive in the Online World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leora Halpern Lanz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The hotel marketing budget, typically amounting to approximately 4-5% of an asset’s total revenue, must remain fluid, so that the marketing director can constantly adapt the marketing tools to meet consumer communications methods and demands. This article suggests how an independent hotel can maximize their marketing budget by using multiple channels and strategies.

  8. Budget constraint and vaccine dosing: A mathematical modelling exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Standaert, Baudouin A.; Curran, Desmond; Postma, Maarten J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Increasing the number of vaccine doses may potentially improve overall efficacy. Decision-makers need information about choosing the most efficient dose schedule to maximise the total health gain of a population when operating under a constrained budget. The objective of this study is to

  9. Water budget for SRP burial ground area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, J.E.; Emslie, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    Radionuclide migration from the SRP burial ground for solid low-level waste has been studied extensively. Most of the buried radionuclides are fixed on the soil and show negligible movement. The major exception is tritium, which when leached from the waste by percolating rainfall, forms tritiated water and moves with the groundwater. The presence of tritium has been useful in tracing groundwater flow paths to outcrop. A subsurface tritium plume moving from the southwest corner of the burial ground toward an outcrop near Four Mile Creek has been defined. Groundwater movement is so slow that much of the tritium decays before reaching the outcrop. The burial ground tritium plume defined to date is virtually all in the uppermost sediment layer, the Barnwell Formation. The purpose of the study reported in this memorandum was to investigate the hypothesis that deeper flow paths, capable of carrying substantial amounts of tritium, may exist in the vicinity of the burial ground. As a first step in seeking deeper flow paths, a water budget was constructed for the burial ground site. The water budget, a materials balance used by hydrologists, is expressed in annual area inches of rainfall. Components of the water budget for the burial ground area were analyzed to determine whether significant flow paths may exist below the tan clay. Mean annual precipitation was estimated as 47 inches, with evapotranspiration, run-off, and groundwater recharge estimated as 30, 2, and 15 inches, respectively. These estimates, when combined with groundwater discharge data, suggest that 5 inches of the groundwater recharge flow above the tan clay and that 10 inches flow below the tan clay. Therefore, two-thirds of the groundwater recharge appears to follow flow paths that are deeper than those previously found. 13 references, 10 figures, 5 tables

  10. Feminism, Budgeting and Gender Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, S. N.; Ghadai, Sanjaya Kumar

    2017-01-01

    The Fourth Conference on Women at Beijing (1995) underlined the importance of gender mainstreaming; spurring India to provide for separate Gender Budgeting in 2005-06. The Constitution tries to make fine balance between right to equality and positive discrimination for promoting gender justice in India. Yet high levels of Gender Inequality Index…

  11. Kollektiivne vastutus ja gender budgeting

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Vestlusringi teemad: riigieelarve koostamisel ei arvestata soolist võrdõiguslikkust; gender budgeting kui üks soolise võrdõiguslikkuse jälgimise viise; vabaabielu võib osutuda naisele palju ebasoodsamaks kui mehele; kogukonna kollektiivne vastutus perevägivalla korral. Vt. samas: Aasta 2004 suurte mõtlejate auhinnad

  12. Constituency Input into Budget Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Norman E.

    1995-01-01

    Presents techniques for ensuring constituency involvement in district- and site-level budget management. Outlines four models for securing constituent input and focuses on strategies to orchestrate the more complex model for staff and community participation. Two figures are included. (LMI)

  13. Monitoring personal budgets and restrictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ab van der Torre; Ingrid Ooms; Mirjam de Klerk

    2013-01-01

    The personal budget is a sum of money which recipients can use to arrange and pay for their own care provider. Since its introduction, demand for this provision, which is funded through the Exceptional Medical Expenses Act (AWBZ) has grown rapidly, prompting the Dutch government to take a number

  14. Pain Relief for Budget Cuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fultz, David A.

    1983-01-01

    The Grand Blanc (Michigan) Community School District sets budget priorities by (1) surveying students, taxpayers, and teachers to learn their preferences for current programs and services; (2) determining the costs of state-mandated programs; (3) listing nonmandated programs and determining their costs; and (4) considering proposed new programs.…

  15. Planning-Programming-Budgeting Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudor, Dean

    Planning Programming and Budgeting Systems (PPBS) have been considered as either synonymous with abstract, advanced, mathematical systems analysis or as an advanced accounting and control system. If PPBS is to perform a useful function, both viewpoints must be combined such that a number of standardized procedures and reports are required and…

  16. Technology support for participatory budgeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jeremy; Rios, Jesus; Lippa, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Participatory budgeting is a reasonably well-established governance practice, particularly in South America. It is information and communication rich - making it well suited for modern technology support; in addition, the widespread participation of many citizens is difficult to achieve without...

  17. Zero-Based Budgeting Redux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Philip E.

    1993-01-01

    Zero-based, programmatic budgeting involves four basic steps: (1) define what needs to be done; (2) specify the resources required; (3) determine the assessment procedures and standards to use in evaluating the effectiveness of various programs; and (4) assign dollar figures to this information. (MLF)

  18. Geology on a Sand Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Jacqueline

    2004-01-01

    Earth science teachers know how frustrating it can be to spend hundreds of dollars on three-dimensional (3-D) models of Earth's geologic features, to use the models for only a few class periods. To avoid emptying an already limited science budget, the author states that teachers can use a simple alternative to the expensive 3-D models--sand. She…

  19. Dual-energy CT and ceramic or titanium prostheses material reduce CT artifacts and provide superior image quality of total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasparek, Maximilian F; Töpker, Michael; Lazar, Mathias; Weber, Michael; Kasparek, Michael; Mang, Thomas; Apfaltrer, Paul; Kubista, Bernd; Windhager, Reinhard; Ringl, Helmut

    2018-06-07

    To evaluate the influence of different scan parameters for single-energy CT and dual-energy CT, as well as the impact of different material used in a TKA prosthesis on image quality and the extent of metal artifacts. Eight pairs of TKA prostheses from different vendors were examined in a phantom set-up. Each pair consisted of a conventional CoCr prosthesis and the corresponding anti-allergic prosthesis (full titanium, ceramic, or ceramic-coated) from the same vendor. Nine different (seven dual-energy CT and two single-energy CT) scan protocols with different characteristics were used to determine the most suitable CT protocol for TKA imaging. Quantitative image analysis included assessment of blooming artifacts (metal implants appear thicker on CT than they are, given as virtual growth in mm in this paper) and streak artifacts (thick dark lines around metal). Qualitative image analysis was used to investigate the bone-prosthesis interface. The full titanium prosthesis and full ceramic knee showed significantly fewer blooming artifacts compared to the standard CoCr prosthesis (mean virtual growth 0.6-2.2 mm compared to 2.9-4.6 mm, p energy CT protocols showed less blooming (range 3.3-3.8 mm) compared to single-energy protocols (4.6-5.5 mm). The full titanium and full ceramic prostheses showed significantly fewer streak artifacts (mean standard deviation 77-86 Hounsfield unit (HU)) compared to the standard CoCr prosthesis (277-334 HU, p energy CT protocols had fewer metal streak artifacts (215-296 HU compared to single-energy CT protocols (392-497 HU)). Full titanium and ceramic prostheses were ranked superior with regard to the image quality at the bone/prosthesis interface compared to a standard CoCr prosthesis, and all dual-energy CT protocols were ranked better than single-energy protocols. Dual-energy CT and ceramic or titanium prostheses reduce CT artifacts and provide superior image quality of total knee arthroplasty at the bone/prosthesis interface

  20. Fulfill Your Digital Preservation Goals with a Budget Studio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongli Zhou

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to fulfill digital preservation goals, many institutions use high-end scanners for in-house scanning of historical print and oversize materials. However, high-end scanners’ prices do not fit in many small institutions’ budget. As digital single-lens reflex (DSLR camera technologies advance and camera prices drop quickly, a budget photography studio can help to achieve institutions’ preservation goals.  This paper compares images delivered by a high-end overhead scanner and a consumer level DSLR camera, discusses pros and cons of using each method, demonstrates how to set up a cost efficient shooting studio, and presents a budget estimate for a studio.

  1. Totally James

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Tom

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an interview with James Howe, author of "The Misfits" and "Totally Joe". In this interview, Howe discusses tolerance, diversity and the parallels between his own life and his literature. Howe's four books in addition to "The Misfits" and "Totally Joe" and his list of recommended books with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender,…

  2. Budget estimates, fiscal years 1994--1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    This report contains the fiscal year budget justification to Congress. The budget provides estimates for salaries and expenses and for the Office of the Inspector General for fiscal years 1994 and 1995

  3. Happiness, Leisure and Tourism vs Household Budget in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Mohammad Taghi Sheykhi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to explore how happiness, leisure and tourism play role in modern life, and how they are related to household budget. While in the past household budget was totally allotted to the necessities of food, clothing and shelter, nowadays, some portion of the household budget needs to be allotted to leisure and tourism activities ___ leading to happiness. While in the West it is done so, in the developing countries, there is still a long way to go, to achieve that goal. However, tourism has become a popular global happiness and leisure activity. As reported, in 2011, there were over 983 million international tourist arrivals worldwide (UNTWO, 2012. Tourism as a way to happiness is important and vital in some cases. It brings large amount of income in payment for goods and services available. The present paper partly investigates happiness, leisure and tourism in Tehran, Iran through assessing household budget. In that, 623 households were empirically studied to find out happiness, leisure and tourism vs household budget in Iran.

  4. Fiscal Year 2010 Budget Request. Summary Justification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    SERVICES AND DEFENSE AGENCIES INTRODUCTION Services and Defense Agencies HIGHLIGHTS Overview The FY 2010 budget request organizes, trains...DoD FY 2010 Budget Request Summary Justification SPECIAL TOPICS INTRODUCTION Special Topics HIGHLIGHTS Overview The FY 2010 budget... MANGEMENT 2-48 DoD FY 2010 Budget Request Summary Justification SPECIAL TOPICS FINANCIAL MANGEMENT 2-49 While DoD has made progress in

  5. Budget estimates fiscal year 1995: Volume 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    This report contains the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) fiscal year budget justification to Congress. The budget provides estimates for salaries and expenses and for the Office of the Inspector General for fiscal year 1995. The NRC 1995 budget request is $546,497,000. This is an increase of $11,497,000 above the proposed level for FY 1994. The NRC FY 1995 budget request is 3,218 FTEs. This is a decrease of 75 FTEs below the 1994 proposed level

  6. Budget estimates fiscal year 1995: Volume 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    This report contains the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) fiscal year budget justification to Congress. The budget provides estimates for salaries and expenses and for the Office of the Inspector General for fiscal year 1995. The NRC 1995 budget request is $546,497,000. This is an increase of $11,497,000 above the proposed level for FY 1994. The NRC FY 1995 budget request is 3,218 FTEs. This is a decrease of 75 FTEs below the 1994 proposed level.

  7. Should Corrupt Countries receive Budget Support?

    OpenAIRE

    Kolstad, Ivar

    2005-01-01

    Corruption makes budget support ineffective, and sometimes counter-productive. Budget support is particularly unsuitable in partner countries where political corruption is rampant. As donors increase budget support, it is a paradox that corruption is not more of an issue in evaluations and public financial management assessment methods.

  8. Strategic plan creates a blueprint for budgeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, D

    1990-05-01

    Effective healthcare organizations develop budgets that reflect and support a strategic plan. Senior managers set a framework that expresses the hospital's future strategic objectives. The budget enables executives to determine which specific service lines are profitable or unprofitable. Administrators and clinicians at all levels are involved in the budgeting process.

  9. The carbon budget of the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, H.; Bozec, Y.; Baar, H.J.W. de; Elkalay, K.; Frankignoulle, M.; Schiettecatte, L.-S.; Kattner, G.; Borges, A.V.; Gattuso, J.-P.

    2005-01-01

    A carbon budget has been established for the North Sea, a shelf sea on the NW European continental shelf. The carbon exchange fluxes with the North Atlantic Ocean dominate the gross carbon budget. The net carbon budget – more relevant to the issue of the contribution of the coastal ocean to the

  10. 7 CFR 956.41 - Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget. 956.41 Section 956.41 Agriculture Regulations... OF SOUTHEAST WASHINGTON AND NORTHEAST OREGON Expenses and Assessments § 956.41 Budget. Prior to each fiscal period and as may be necessary thereafter, the committee shall prepare an estimated budget of...

  11. 7 CFR 945.41 - Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget. 945.41 Section 945.41 Agriculture Regulations... COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Budget, Expenses and Assessments § 945.41 Budget. At the beginning of each fiscal period, and as may be necessary thereafter, the...

  12. 25 CFR 41.12 - Annual budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Annual budget. 41.12 Section 41.12 Indians BUREAU OF... NAVAJO COMMUNITY COLLEGE Tribally Controlled Community Colleges § 41.12 Annual budget. Appropriations... identified in the Bureau of Indian Affairs Budget Justification. Funds appropriated for grants under this...

  13. 7 CFR 958.41 - Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget. 958.41 Section 958.41 Agriculture Regulations... Budget. Prior to each fiscal period, and as may be necessary thereafter the committee shall prepare a budget of estimated income and expenditures necessary for the administration of this part. The committee...

  14. 7 CFR 966.41 - Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget. 966.41 Section 966.41 Agriculture Regulations... Handling Expenses and Assessments § 966.41 Budget. At the beginning of each fiscal period and as may be necessary thereafter, the committee shall prepare an estimated budget of income and expenditures necessary...

  15. 7 CFR 948.76 - Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget. 948.76 Section 948.76 Agriculture Regulations... Regulating Handling Expenses and Assessments § 948.76 Budget. As soon as practicable after the beginning of... budget of income and expenditures necessary for its administration of this part. Each area committee may...

  16. 25 CFR 122.7 - Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Budget. 122.7 Section 122.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... § 122.7 Budget. (a) By August 1 of each year, the Osage Tribal Education Committee will submit a proposed budget to the Assistant Secretary or to his/her designated representative for formal approval...

  17. 7 CFR 955.41 - Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget. 955.41 Section 955.41 Agriculture Regulations... Assessments § 955.41 Budget. At least 60 days prior to each fiscal period, or such other date as may be... budget of income and expenditures necessary for the administration of this part. The committee may...

  18. 40 CFR 35.9035 - Budget period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Budget period. 35.9035 Section 35.9035... ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9035 Budget period. An applicant may choose its budget period in consultation with and subject to the approval of the Regional Administrator. ...

  19. 7 CFR 906.33 - Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget. 906.33 Section 906.33 Agriculture Regulations... GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Expenses and Assessments § 906.33 Budget. At the... budget of income and expenditures necessary for the administration of this part. The committee shall...

  20. Defense.gov Special Report: Fiscal Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Defense Submit Search 2012 Fiscal Budget Published Feb. 15, 2011 Top Stories Commanders Cite Department is losing billions of dollars by Congress' failure to pass the department's fiscal 2011 budget . Gates told a Senate committee. Story Gates, Mullen Take Budget to Senate WASHINGTON, Feb. 17, 2011 - The

  1. 7 CFR 959.41 - Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget. 959.41 Section 959.41 Agriculture Regulations... Handling Expenses and Assessments § 959.41 Budget. As soon as practicable after the beginning of each fiscal period and as may be necessary thereafter, the committee shall prepare an estimated budget of...

  2. Program Budgeting for a Graduate School Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerman, Mel

    Program budgeting, a method founded in the systems approach, allows control, management, and planning in the library system, and avoids the more comprehensive analysis required by zero-based budgeting. By evaluation of the impacts of the work accomplished by the library staff, the budgeted amounts can be justified or adjusted in subsequent years.…

  3. FINANCIAL WORKBOOK Quick Reference -Budget Preparation 1 ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Alexandra Eustache

    FINANCIAL WORKBOOK. Quick Reference -Budget Preparation. 6. Enter detailed budget notes for each line item. Use the “add new row “ button if more rows are needed. (Refer to page 7 on user guider for more information on budget notes). 7. On the “indirect cost” sheet, enter a fixed percentage or amount(s) a. For fixed ...

  4. 7 CFR 3015.115 - Budget revisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget revisions. 3015.115 Section 3015.115..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE UNIFORM FEDERAL ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS Programmatic Changes and Budget Revisions § 3015.115 Budget revisions. (a) Nonconstruction projects. (1) Except as provided in paragraph (a)(2) of...

  5. 42 CFR 441.472 - Budget methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Budget methodology. 441.472 Section 441.472 Public... Self-Directed Personal Assistance Services Program § 441.472 Budget methodology. (a) The State shall set forth a budget methodology that ensures service authorization resides with the State and meets the...

  6. 12 CFR 917.8 - Budget preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget preparation. 917.8 Section 917.8 Banks... POWERS AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF BANK BOARDS OF DIRECTORS AND SENIOR MANAGEMENT § 917.8 Budget preparation. (a) Adoption of budgets. Each Bank's board of directors shall be responsible for the adoption of an...

  7. The Economic and Budget Outlook: An Update

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    .... It satisfies the requirement of section 202(e) of the Congressional Budget Act of 1974 for CBO to submit periodic reports to the Committees on the Budget with respect to fiscal policy and to provide five-year baseline projections of the federal budget...

  8. Public Budgeting: The Compromises Among the Sound Budgeting Principles in Contingency Funding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    funding for major aircraft using supplemental appropriations in place of incremental funding as intended for normal budgeting practices. This was a prime... incrementally funded on an annual basis. This change in budgeting practices lacked predictability because it allowed last-minute budget requests with low...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release. Distribution is unlimited. PUBLIC BUDGETING

  9. Teaching the Federal Budget, National Debt, and Budget Deficit: Findings from High School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marri, Anand R.; Ahn, Meesuk; Crocco, Margaret Smith; Grolnick, Maureen; Gaudelli, William; Walker, Erica N.

    2011-01-01

    The issues surrounding the federal budget, national debt, and budget deficit are complex, but not beyond the reach of young students. This study finds scant treatment of the federal budget, national debt, and budget deficit in high schools today. It is hardly surprising that high school teachers spend so little time discussing these topics in…

  10. Is Zero-Based Budgeting Different from Planning--Programming--Budgeting Systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentschke, Guilbert C.

    1977-01-01

    Successful adoption of zero-base budgeting (ZBB) will be greater than that of planning-programming-budgeting-systems (PPBS) because perceived problems inherent in PPBS are largely missing in ZBB; ZBB appears to fit current school district budgeting behavior; and ZBB seems to improve communication about the need for budget reform. (Author/IRT)

  11. CO 2 Capture Capacity and Swelling Measurements of Liquid-like Nanoparticle Organic Hybrid Materials via Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Youngjune; Shin, Dolly; Jang, Young Nam; Park, Ah-Hyung Alissa

    2012-01-01

    attenuated total reflectance (ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Simultaneous measurements of CO 2 capture capacity and swelling behaviors of polyetheramine (Jeffamine M-2070) and its corresponding NOHMs (NOHM-I-PE2070) were reported

  12. The Kjeldahl method as a primary reference procedure for total protein in certified reference materials used in clinical chemistry. I. A review of Kjeldahl methods adopted by laboratory medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chromý, Vratislav; Vinklárková, Bára; Šprongl, Luděk; Bittová, Miroslava

    2015-01-01

    We found previously that albumin-calibrated total protein in certified reference materials causes unacceptable positive bias in analysis of human sera. The simplest way to cure this defect is the use of human-based serum/plasma standards calibrated by the Kjeldahl method. Such standards, commutative with serum samples, will compensate for bias caused by lipids and bilirubin in most human sera. To find a suitable primary reference procedure for total protein in reference materials, we reviewed Kjeldahl methods adopted by laboratory medicine. We found two methods recommended for total protein in human samples: an indirect analysis based on total Kjeldahl nitrogen corrected for its nonprotein nitrogen and a direct analysis made on isolated protein precipitates. The methods found will be assessed in a subsequent article.

  13. The effect of N-2-cyano-ethylamphetamine. HCl on total lipid contents of placenta and some material and fetal tissues of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulay, L; Oliveira-Filho, R M; Siciliano, S F; Kulay, M N

    1978-12-01

    Female rats received 1.25 mg/kg body weight of N-2-cyano-ethylamphetamine. HCl (Fenproporex chlorhydrate) by oral route, once daily from the 5th to the 21st day of pregnancy, and compared to untreated pregnant rats, showed an increased total lipid content in maternal blood and fetal hearts; liver and heart have had total lipids decrease, while in placenta and fetal livers they were not observed significant differences.

  14. Capital budgeting practices in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo de Andrés

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to shed further light on the capital budgeting techniques used by Spanish companies. Our paper posits that the gap between theory and practice might be related to the nature of sources of value and to the efficiency of mechanisms aligning managerial and shareholder incentives, rather than to resource restrictions or model misinterpretation. We analyze data from a survey conducted in 2011, the final sample comprising 140 non-financial Spanish firms. Our findings show a behaviour pattern similar to that reported in prior research for firms in other countries. Particularly noteworthy is that payback appears to be the most widely used tool, while real options are used relatively little. Our results confirm that size and industry are related to the frequency of use of certain capital budgeting techniques. Further, we find that the relevance of growth opportunities and flexibility is an important factor explaining the use of real options.

  15. Legislative Bargaining and Incremental Budgeting

    OpenAIRE

    Dhammika Dharmapala

    2002-01-01

    The notion of 'incrementalism', formulated by Aaron Wildavsky in the 1960's, has been extremely influential in the public budgeting literature. In essence, it entails the claim that legislators engaged in budgetary policymaking accept past allocations, and decide only on the allocation of increments to revenue. Wildavsky explained incrementalism with reference to the cognitive limitations of lawmakers and their desire to reduce conflict. This paper uses a legislative bargaining framework to u...

  16. Soft Budgets And Highway Franchising

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Engel; Ronald Fischer; Alexander Galetovic

    2004-01-01

    Latin American governments progressively substituted build–operate–and–transfer (BOT) contracts for government–provided highways during the nineties. Because under BOT a private franchise holder finances and operates the road in exchange for tolls, it is often claimed that BOT represents a privatization of highways. We argue that, as currently applied, the BOT model is an imperfect and incomplete privatization, because the franchise holders’ budget constraint has been soft, with losses being ...

  17. Five countries pioneering accrual budgeting and accounting in central government

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dees, M.; Neelissen, P.A.

    2004-01-01

    In its 2001 Budget Memorandum, the Dutch government announced that accrual budgeting and accounting would replace the current obligation-cash budgeting and accounting system in ministerial budgets and accounts in several years’ time.

  18. Capital Construction Fund Program :: Office of Management and Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaders Budget Policy Work for NOAA Fisheries Contact Us Programs Sustainable Fisheries Protected Regional Fishery Management Councils Congress Activities Budget Testimony Educators and Students Education Budget Home Appeals Division Budget FOIA Financial Services Saltonstall-Kennedy Grant Program Fisheries

  19. Zero-base budgeting and the library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, C W

    1978-01-01

    This paper describes the application of zero-base budgeting to libraries and the procedures involved in setting up this type of budget. It describes the "decision packages" necessary when this systmem is employed, as well as how to rank the packages and the problems which are related to the process. Zero-base budgeting involves the entire staff of a library, and the incentive engendered makes for a better and more realistic budget. The paper concludes with the problems which one might encounter in zero-base budgeting and the major benefits of the system. PMID:626795

  20. Polity age and political budget cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaskoven, Lasse

    2018-01-01

    Incumbent incentive for competence-signaling and lack of voter information are generally thought to be factors that increase the prevalence of political budget cycles. These mechanisms should be more prevalent in new political units. Since the creation of new political units is rarely exogenous......-experimental to study whether political budget cycles are larger in new political units. Contrary to theoretical predictions, political budget cycles seem to be of a smaller scale in the new municipalities, but only regarding budget cycles in budgetary overruns. The findings are of wider interest for discussions about...... the mechanisms behind context-conditional political budget cycles....

  1. Political Budget Cycle: Mexican Town Halls Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Alfredo Nande Vazque

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the current economic context, one of the issues of concern is the growth of public spending of municipalities of Mexico and thus increasing public debt. This combines the traditional interest that literature has been devoted to the relationship between economics and politics from the perspective of Political Budget Cycle. The aim of this paper is to analyze the effect of elections in public expenditure management. To this end, a system based on the Generalized Method of Moments (GMM, which uses instrumental variables based on delays and differences of all variables in the model estimator was used. Our findings indicate that there is an expansion of total expenditure, spending on public works and infrastructure and current expenditure contracted work, indicating the preference of politicians for using investment spending to influence voter behavior. The work also notes that citizens value the policies of public expenditure management when making their voting decisions.

  2. Innovative Concepts of Budgeting in the Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Bąk

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the current concepts of budgeting with the special focus on innovative budgets. It includes the evolution of the budgeting concept starting from the traditional one which was applied in the second half of the 20th Century and assumed the budget as the main tool for the achievement of company’s goals. The next presented method is Better Budgeting. It arouse at the nineties as the resposne for the critics of the traditional method which was accused for the fixed assumptions which were no longer matching with the fast changing competitive environment. This method assumed the high level of budget preparation as he opposite to the detailed level as well as shorter planning period. The Beyond Budgeting was the most radical method and eliminated budget as the tool supporting the management; the concept has been used from the nineties until today, by more than seventy multinational companies from beyond budgeting round table. However, Beyond Budgeting was also criticised for not being applied in the industrial sector and too theoretical approach. Therefore, Ronald Gleicha from European Business School, established a working group, which icludes the scientists and managers, in order to create by mid of 2009, the new and opitimal method, which is called Modern Budgeting.

  3. Soft Budget Constraints in Public Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Donald J

    2016-05-01

    A soft budget constraint arises when a government is unable to commit to not 'bailout' a public hospital if the public hospital exhausts its budget before the end of the budget period. It is shown that if the political costs of a 'bailout' are relatively small, then the public hospital exhausts the welfare-maximising budget before the end of the budget period and a 'bailout' occurs. In anticipation, the government offers a budget to the public hospital that may be greater than or less than the welfare-maximising budget. In either case, the public hospital treats 'too many' elective patients before the 'bailout' and 'too few' after. The introduction of a private hospital reduces the size of any 'bailout' and increases welfare. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Corrosion of graphitic high temperature reactor materials in steam/helium mixtures at total pessures of 3-55 bar and temperatures of 900-1150 C (1173-1423K)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinssen, H.K.; Loenissen, K.J.; Katscher, W.; Moormann, R.

    1993-03-01

    In course of accident examination for (HTR), experiments on the corrosion behavior of graphitic reactor materials in steam have been performed a total pressures of 3-55bar and temperatures of 900-1150 C (1173-1423K); these experiments and their evaluation are documented here. Reactor materials examined are the structure graphite V483T2 and the fuel element matrices A3-27 and A3-3. In all experiments, the steam partial pressure was 474mbar (inert gas helium). The dependence of reaction rates and density profiles on burn-off, total pressure and temperature has been examined. Experimental reaction rates depending on burn-off are fitted by theoretical curves, a procedure, which allows rate comparison for a well defined burn-off. Comparing rates as a function of total pressure, V483T2 shows a linear dependence on 1√p total , whereas for matrix materials a pressure independent rate was found for p total 4mm for A3-3. (orig.) [de

  5. Analysis of local budgets revenues in the Republic of Moldova: level, structure and dynamics for 2008-2014 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei PETROIA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper consist largely of analysis of the local budgets revenues of the Republic of Moldova for the period of 2008-2014. The analysis can not offer many information in dynamics due to the few number of years, but we tried to make an analyze of the situation. Informational support of the work are the laws and regulations of the country; data provided by the Ministry of Finance, National Bureau of Statistics and the literature. The purpose of this paper is to approach each category of income and part of it, the time evolution of local budget revenues over several consecutive years of budget income distribution in the directions of the Republic of Moldova, and analysis of each component of the local budget. In this paper, we have analyzed in dynamics structure in total revenues of local budgets, in national public budget, in state budget and in GDP. The main components analyzed were: tax and non-tax revenues, revenues without grants and transfers, grants and transfers from the state budget. Also we have attracted special attention to direct and indirect taxes, as well as their components.The necessity of this study is to present a clear and concise form of the administrative-territorial units' budget feature, conceptual notions, policies which are reflected on local revenues in Moldova. This paper aims possibility of revising the budget system structure, improve financial relations within it and its evolution, but it does not reflect fully all matters related to the budget system.

  6. Transcatheter embolization of renal neoplasms. A comparison of the merits of the radio-active infarct implant versus total embolization with inert material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, E.K.; Pisco, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    Transcatheter embolization with radio-active infarct particles and inert embolic material has been proposed for adjuvant therapy in the management of renal cell carcinoma. Transcatheter embolization with inert embolic material has been advocated in preparation for surgical resection of renal tumours. Embolization with radio-active infarct particles is undertaken to deliver a tumouricidal dose to the primary neoplasm. The resultant interstitial implant offers the advantage of a high dose to the primary tumour, choice of time of delivery of the radiant energy by selection of a radio-isotope with appropriate half-life, and limitation of the integral dose to the patient by selection of appropriate physical characteristics of the radio-isotope utilized. Transcatheter embolization with radio-active infarct particles is advocated either as definitive therapy for clearly inoperable neoplasms, or in hope to make an initially inoperable neoplasm operable. (Auth.)

  7. A study of total measurement error in tomographic gamma scanning to assay nuclear material with emphasis on a bias issue for low-activity samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burr, T.L.; Mercer, D.J.; Prettyman, T.H.

    1998-01-01

    Field experience with the tomographic gamma scanner to assay nuclear material suggests that the analysis techniques can significantly impact the assay uncertainty. For example, currently implemented image reconstruction methods exhibit a positive bias for low-activity samples. Preliminary studies indicate that bias reduction could be achieved at the expense of increased random error variance. In this paper, the authors examine three possible bias sources: (1) measurement error in the estimated transmission matrix, (2) the positivity constraint on the estimated mass of nuclear material, and (3) improper treatment of the measurement error structure. The authors present results from many small-scale simulation studies to examine this bias/variance tradeoff for a few image reconstruction methods in the presence of the three possible bias sources

  8. A seasonal nitrogen deposition budget for Rocky Mountain National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, K B; Carrico, C M; Kreidenweis, S M; Schichtel, B; Malm, W C; Collett, J L

    2013-07-01

    Nitrogen deposition is a concern in many protected ecosystems around the world, yet few studies have quantified a complete reactive nitrogen deposition budget including all dry and wet, inorganic and organic compounds. Critical loads that identify the level at which nitrogen deposition negatively affects an ecosystem are often defined using incomplete reactive nitrogen budgets. Frequently only wet deposition of ammonium and nitrate are considered, despite the importance of other nitrogen deposition pathways. Recently, dry deposition pathways including particulate ammonium and nitrate and gas phase nitric acid have been added to nitrogen deposition budgets. However, other nitrogen deposition pathways, including dry deposition of ammonia and wet deposition of organic nitrogen, still are rarely included. In this study, a more complete seasonal nitrogen deposition budget was constructed based on observations during a year-long study period from November 2008 to November 2009 at a location on the east side of Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP), Colorado, USA. Measurements included wet deposition of ammonium, nitrate, and organic nitrogen, PM2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 microm, nitrate, and ammonium) concentrations of ammonium, nitrate, and organic nitrogen, and atmospheric gas phase concentrations of ammonia, nitric acid, and NO2. Dry deposition fluxes were determined from measured ambient concentrations and modeled deposition velocities. Total reactive nitrogen deposition by all included pathways was found to be 3.65 kg N x ha(-1) yr(-1). Monthly deposition fluxes ranged from 0.06 to 0.54 kg N x ha(-1)yr(-1), with peak deposition in the month of July and the least deposition in December. Wet deposition of ammonium and nitrate were the two largest deposition pathways, together contributing 1.97 kg N x ha(-1)yr(-1) or 54% of the total nitrogen deposition budget for this region. The next two largest deposition pathways were wet

  9. PLE in the analysis of plant compounds. Part II: One-cycle PLE in determining total amount of analyte in plant material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Wianowska, Dorota

    2005-04-29

    Pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) is recognised as one of the most effective sample preparation methods. Despite the enhanced extraction power of PLE, the full recovery of an analyte from plant material may require multiple extractions of the same sample. The presented investigations show the possibility of estimating the true concentration value of an analyte in plant material employing one-cycle PLE in which plant samples of different weight are used. The performed experiments show a linear dependence between the reciprocal value of the analyte amount (E*), extracted in single-step PLE from a plant matrix, and the ratio of plant material mass to extrahent volume (m(p)/V(s)). Hence, time-consuming multi-step PLE can be replaced by a few single-step PLEs performed at different (m(p)/V(s)) ratios. The concentrations of rutin in Sambucus nigra L. and caffeine in tea and coffee estimated by means of the tested procedure are almost the same as their concentrations estimated by multiple PLE.

  10. Using tracer-based sediment budgets to quantify erosion and deposition within harvested forests in south-east NSW, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallbrink, P.J.; Roddy, B.P.; Olley, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The total impact of forest operations on the store of soil material within harvested coupes can be difficult to quantify. A study was recently undertaken in a small (∼12 ha) basin near Bombala, south-east NSW to measure both the net amount of soil erosion from the basin, and the redistribution of eroded soils and sediments within it. The dry sclerophyll study area was divided into several distinct elements: log landings, snig tacks, general harvest area (GHA), cross banks, and the filter strip of native vegetation left adjacent to the major streamline Measurements of two radionuclide tracers ( 137 Cs and 210 Pb-excess) in each of these locations were then integrated into budgets describing the movement of soil within and between the various landscape elements. The 137 Cs budget showed that no net loss of soil material had occurred from within the study area, with retention of 109 ± 14 %. Conversely, the 210 Pb-excess budget showed a total retention of 78 ± 12 %. The deficit of 2 10 Pb compared to that of 137 Cs was explained by a combination of analytical and sampling uncertainties, losses of 2 10 Pb associated with combustion and/or transport of litter and organic matter from the site, and some small loss of surface soil (to a depth of 2 mm). However, no evidence of surface-derived topsoil material was found in sediments currently being transported from the site. Both tracer budgets showed that a net loss of soil from the snig tracks and log landings had occurred. This was quantified to be 28 ± 13 mm and 48 ± 29 mm depth from these land forms respectively. Up to 30 % of this loss could be directly attributable to the creation of the cross banks by bulldozer blading. The remainder was associated with mechanical losses due to export on truck tyres and bark, dust during the dry summer harvesting phase, and losses associated with sheet and rill erosion during storm events over the intervening years. Soil material eroded from the log landings was

  11. The effect of motivation profile and participative budgeting on budget goal commitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandalgaard, Niels; Bukh, Per Nikolaj; Poulsen, Carsten Stig

    2009-01-01

    The effect of participative budgeting on motivation is often considered in management accounting research. In this study we focus on dispositional factors of motivation rooted in personality that affect budgeting. Especially we focus on the effect of personality traits in the form of achievement......, power and affiliation motives on budget goal commitment in interaction with participative budgeting. The study is based on a survey among bank managers at different organizational levels of a Scandinavian regional bank and the results indicate that the effect of participative budgeting on budget goal...... commitment is moderated by the implicit power motivation of the bank manager....

  12. Redwoods, restoration, and implications for carbon budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madej, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    The coast redwoods (Sequoia sempervirens) of California have several unique characteristics that influence interactions between vegetation and geomorphic processes. Case studies, using a combination of in-channel wood surveys and an air photo inventory of landslides, illustrate current conditions in a redwood-dominated watershed undergoing restoration work, and the influence of wood loading and landslides on the carbon budget. Redwood trees have extremely large biomass (trunk wood volumes of 700 to 1000 m3) and are very decay-resistant; consequently, they have a large and persistent influence on in-channel wood loading. Large wood surveys indicate high wood loading in streams in uncut forests (0.3-0.5 m3/m2 of channel), but also show that high wood loading can persist in logged basin with unlogged riparian buffers because of the slow decay of fallen redwoods. Through a watershed restoration program, Redwood National Park increases in-channel wood loading in low-order streams, but the effectiveness of this technique has not yet been tested by a large flood. Another unique characteristic of redwood is its ability to resprout from basal burls after cutting, so that root strength may not decline as sharply following logging as in other types of forests. An air photo inventory of landslides following a large storm in 1997 indicated: 1) that in the Redwood Creek watershed the volume of material displaced by landslides in harvested areas was not related to the time elapsed since logging, suggesting that the loss of root strength was not a decisive factor in landslide initiation, 2) landslide production on decommissioned logging roads was half that of untreated roads, and 3) landslides removed an estimated 28 Mg of organic carbon/km2 from hillslopes. The carbon budget of a redwood-dominated catchment is dominated by the vegetative component, but is also influenced by the extent of mass movement, erosion control work, and in-channel storage of wood.

  13. Farm, land, and soil nitrogen budgets for agriculture in Europe calculated with CAPRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leip, Adrian; Britz, Wolfgang; Weiss, Franz; Vries, Wim de

    2011-01-01

    We calculated farm, land, and soil N-budgets for countries in Europe and the EU27 as a whole using the agro-economic model CAPRI. For EU27, N-surplus is 55 kg N ha -1 yr -1 in a soil budget and 65 kg N 2 O-N ha -1 yr -1 and 67 kg N ha -1 yr -1 in land and farm budgets, respectively. NUE is 31% for the farm budget, 60% for the land budget and 63% for the soil budget. NS values are mainly related to the excretion (farm budget) and application (soil and land budget) of manure per hectare of total agricultural land. On the other hand, NUE is best explained by the specialization of the agricultural system toward animal production (farm NUE) or the share of imported feedstuff (soil NUE). Total N input, intensive farming, and the specialization to animal production are found to be the main drivers for a high NS and low NUE. - Highlights: → Farm, land and soil N-budgets are important tools to characterize agricultural systems. → Farm N Use Efficiency (NUE) is lower than soil NUE; farm nitrogen surplus is higher. → On EU27 average, farm NUE is 31%, soil NUE is 63%, N surplus is 55-67 kg N ha -1 yr -1 . → Soil NUE is best explained by the share of imported feedstuff. → Intensive farming and specialization to animal production cause a high NS and low NUE. - Consistent calculations of farm, land and soil N-budgets for agriculture in Europe are presented and discussed at the national level and for EU27.

  14. Does National Culture Impact Capital Budgeting Systems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Graham

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We examine how national culture impacts organisational selection of capital budgeting systems to develop our understanding of what influence a holistic formulation of national culture has on capital budgeting systems. Such an understanding is important as it would not only provide a clearer link between national culture and capital budgeting systems and advance extant literature but would also help multinational firms that have business relationships with Indonesian firms in suitably designing strategies. We conducted semi-structured interviews of selected finance managers of listed firms in Indonesia and Australia. Consistent with the contingency theory, we found that economic, political, legal and social uncertainty impact on the use of capital budgeting systems. The levels of uncertainty were higher in Indonesia than Australia and need to be reckoned in the selection of capital budgeting systems used by firms. We also found that firms are influenced by project size and complexity, when selecting capital budgeting systems.

  15. Determine Daytime Earth's Radiation Budget from DSCOVR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, W.; Thieman, M. M.; Duda, D. P.; Khlopenkov, K. V.; Liang, L.; Sun-Mack, S.; Minnis, P.; SUN, M.

    2017-12-01

    The Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) platform provides a unique perspective for remote sensing of the Earth. With the National Institute of Standards and Technology Advanced Radiometer (NISTAR) and the Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) onboard, it provides full-disk measurements of the broadband shortwave and total radiances reaching the L1 position. Because the satellite orbits around the L1 spot, it continuously observes a nearly full Earth, providing the potential to determine the daytime radiation budget of the globe at the top of the atmosphere. The NISTAR is a single-pixel instrument that measures the broadband radiance from the entire globe, while EPIC is a spectral imager with channels in the UV and visible ranges. The Level 1 NISTAR shortwave radiances are filtered radiances. To determine the daytime TOA shortwave and longwave radiative fluxes, the NISTAR measured shortwave radiances must be unfiltered first. We will describe the algorithm used to un-filter the shortwave radiances. These unfiltered NISTAR radiances are then converted to the full disk shortwave and daytime longwave fluxes, by accounting for the anisotropic characteristics of the Earth-reflected and emitted radiances. These anisotropy factors are determined by using the scene identifications determined from multiple low Earth orbit and geostationary satellites matched into the EPIC field of view. Time series of daytime radiation budget determined from NISTAR will be presented, and methodology of estimating the fluxes from the small unlit crescent of the Earth that comprises part of the field of view will also be described. The daytime shortwave and longwave fluxes from NISTAR will be compared with CERES dataset.

  16. AGU testifies on NASA Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simarski, Lynn Teo

    Witnesses from outside the U.S. government—including Frank Eden, representing AGU—testified about the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's budget on March 12 before the House Science Committee's subcommittee on space. One major topic of the hearing was familiar: what should NASA's top priority be, space science or human exploration of space.“Obviously this committee has a huge job of trying to set priorities—consistent with the budget restraints—that will end up giving the American taxpayer the most bang for his buck, as well as providing direction for our space program,” said F. James Sensenbrenner, Jr. (R-Wis.), the subcommittee's ranking Republican. Another recurring topic, cited by the subcommittee's new chairman, Ralph M. Hall (D-Tex.), as well as by other committee members, was how to translate NASA-developed technologies into commercial gain for the U.S. in the global marketplace. Hall and others also posed a number of questions on a topic the chairman called a special concern of his: whether it would be economically and scientifically plausible for the U.S. to use the Soviet space station Mir for certain activities, such as medical applications.

  17. Voting behavior and budget stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Vicente

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze how the implementation of the Budgetary Stability Law has affected Political Budget Cycles generated by Spanish local governments. Specifically, we study whether the evolution of debt, budget deficit, capital spending and current spending over the electoral cycle has changed after the introduction of this law. We use a sample of 132 Spanish municipalities with more than 50,000 inhabitants (including the provincial capitals during the period 1995–2009. Our results show that the Budgetary Stability Law has avoided electoral cycles in debt. On the contrary, the adoption of this law has not mitigated the incumbents’ incentives to manipulate deficit, capital spending and current spending with electoral aims. Nevertheless, it has caused a change in the way in which mayors manipulate fiscal policy over the electoral cycle. The opportunistic expansion covered both preelectoral year and the electoral year before the implementation of this fiscal rule, while after that, deficit and spending increases are confined in the election year.

  18. Defense: FY2017 Budget Request, Authorization, and Appropriations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-12

    adjusted the limits on defense and non-defense spending —each time adjusting only the limits for the two succeeding years. 13 Nevertheless, each of... employee hour worked . The Bureau of Labor Statistics reports the ECI which is computed from compensation cost data collected from a sample of jobs...with $9.6 billion in mandatory spending , brought the Administration’s total FY2017 National Defense budget request to $619.5 billion. In shaping the

  19. Energy management in the budget proposal for the year 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salminen, P.

    1987-01-01

    In the item 32.55 of the state budget proposal for the year 1988 the total amount of FIM 182 million has been reserved for energy management. This is over FIM 10 million less than the corresponding appropriation in 1987. In addition to this direct financing the state promotes and develops the Finnish energy management indirectly e.g. through energy research funded by the Technical Research Centre of Finland. In the article the use of the appropriation is described

  20. Budget Deficits Effects on Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.C.Risti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The budget deficit can not be analyzed autarchically, as it affects all the macroeconomic processes and, is itself influenced by all other macroeconomic indicators. Most analyses and studies on public finance and budget balance measure the impact that budgetary deficits accumulation has on economy. Therefore, the present paper aims at following and analyzing the mutual impact between budget deficit and another economic macro indicator, namely the economic growth.

  1. Does National Culture Impact Capital Budgeting Systems?

    OpenAIRE

    Peter J. Graham; Milind Sathye

    2017-01-01

    We examine how national culture impacts organisational selection of capital budgeting systems to develop our understanding of what influence a holistic formulation of national culture has on capital budgeting systems. Such an understanding is important as it would not only provide a clearer link between national culture and capital budgeting systems and advance extant literature but would also help multinational firms that have business relationships with Indonesian firms in suita...

  2. Sediment Budget Analysis; Masonboro Inlet, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-15

    ER D C/ CH L TR -1 7- 13 Regional Sediment Management (RSM) Program Sediment Budget Analysis; Masonboro Inlet, North Carolina Co as ta...ERDC/CHL TR-17-13 August 2017 Sediment Budget Analysis; Masonboro Inlet, North Carolina Kevin B. Conner U.S. Army Engineer District, Wilmington P...Engineers Washington, DC 20314-1000 Under Project 454632, “Sediment Budget Analysis, Masonboro Inlet, NC” ERDC/CHL TR-17-13 ii Abstract A

  3. Determination of total ribonucleotide pool in plant materials by high-pH anion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography following extraction with potassium hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riondet, Christophe; Morel, Sylvain; Alcaraz, Gérard

    2005-06-10

    A new, improved method that only requires a potassium hydroxide extraction procedure is presented for the analysis of a full nucleotide pool in plant materials. Quantification was performed by high-pH anion-exchange chromatography (HPAEC) with UV detection after a potassium hydroxide extraction, and allowed the quantification of 13 linear ribonucleotides in a single run. The method has been validated by comparison of six extraction methods and also by measurement of the intracellular nucleotide levels of three plant species (cell cultures and leaves). The evolution of the nucleotide pool of Nicotiana tabacum cell culture during growth has also been measured, and showed an increase in the pool until the fifth day, where the growth rate reaches a maximum, after which a decrease was observed.

  4. Certification of total arsenic in blood and urine standard reference materials by radiochemical neutron activation analysis and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, R.L.; Clay Davis, W.; Lee Yu; Murphy, K.E.; Bryan, C.E.; Vetter, T.W.; Guthrie, W.F.; Leber, D.D.; Gulchekhra Shakirova; Graylin Mitchell

    2014-01-01

    Radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) was used to measure arsenic at four levels in standard reference material (SRM) 955c Toxic Elements in Caprine Blood and at two levels in SRM 2668 Toxic Elements in Frozen Human Urine for the purpose of providing mass concentration values for certification. Samples were freeze-dried prior to analysis followed by neutron irradiation for 3 h at a fluence rate of 1 × 10 14 cm -2 s -1 . After sample dissolution in perchloric and nitric acids, arsenic was separated from the matrix either by retention on hydrated manganese dioxide (urine) or by extraction into zinc diethyldithiocarbamate in chloroform (blood). 76 As was quantified by gamma-ray spectroscopy. Differences in chemical yield and counting geometry between samples and standards were monitored by measuring the count rate of a 77 As tracer added before sample dissolution. RNAA results were combined with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry values from National Institute of Standards and Technology and collaborating laboratories to provide certified values of 10.81 ± 0.54 and 213.1 ± 0.73 μg/L for SRM 2668 Levels I and II, and certified values of 21.66 ± 0.73, 52.7 ± 1.1, and 78.8 ± 4.9 μg/L for SRM 955c Levels II-IV, respectively. Because of discrepancies between values obtained by different methods for SRM 955c Level I, an information value of <5 μg/L was assigned for this material. (author)

  5. STATE BUDGET AND BUDGETARY PROCEDURES IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POPA George Dorel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, the budget process is governed by the Constitution and the Law of Public Finance no. 500/2002, act that includes the elaboration of the draft budget, approving the state budget, budget execution and budget control. All these activities are carried out in a legal way and administrative- institutional way, presenting features from country to country. The budget shows many traits in common: it is a decision process, because its essence consists in allocating budgetary resources for public goods such as education, health, national defence and so on. On the other hand is an essentially political process because allocation decisions budgetary resources are determined by the political groups, the mechanism of representation and voting, is a complex process with many participants (schools, hospitals, ministries, etc.. The budgetary process is a cyclic process, as it follows a well-defined calendar as a consequence of yearly and advertising budget. In conclusion, the budget process is a set of consecutive stages of development, approval, execution, control and reporting of the state budget, which ends with the approval of its execution account.

  6. INSTITUTIONAL SUPPORT OF SECURITY BUDGET OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Onishchenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The institutional framework from positions of different conceptual approaches was examined in the article. The attention was paid the problems of institutional support budget security in Ukraine. The institutionalization of budgetary relations and especially the formation system of institutional support was investigated. The author's approach to the nature of institutional support budget security was suggested. Institutional and legal, institutional and organizational, and staffing budget security were characterized. It is concluded that the process of institutional development budget security characterized by unacceptable levels of institutional strain.

  7. OMB Recommended vs Approved Operating Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This dataset includes the Fiscal Year 2015 County Executive Recommended and County Council Approved operating budgets for Montgomery County, for comparison purposes....

  8. Water and nutrient budgets for Vancouver Lake, Vancouver, Washington, October 2010-October 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheibley, Rich W.; Foreman, James R.; Marshall, Cameron A.; Welch, Wendy B.

    2014-01-01

    Vancouver Lake, a large shallow lake in Clark County, near Vancouver, Washington, has been undergoing water-quality problems for decades. Recently, the biggest concern for the lake are the almost annual harmful cyanobacteria blooms that cause the lake to close for recreation for several weeks each summer. Despite decades of interest in improving the water quality of the lake, fundamental information on the timing and amount of water and nutrients entering and exiting the lake is lacking. In 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a 2-year field study to quantify water flows and nutrient loads in order to develop water and nutrient budgets for the lake. This report presents monthly and annual water and nutrient budgets from October 2010–October 2012 to identify major sources and sinks of nutrients. Lake River, a tidally influenced tributary to the lake, flows into and out of the lake almost daily and composed the greatest proportion of both the water and nutrient budgets for the lake, often at orders of magnitude greater than any other source. From the water budget, we identified precipitation, evaporation and groundwater inflow as minor components of the lake hydrologic cycle, each contributing 1 percent or less to the total water budget. Nutrient budgets were compiled monthly and annually for total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and orthophosphate; and, nitrogen loads were generally an order of magnitude greater than phosphorus loads across all sources. For total nitrogen, flow from Lake River at Felida, Washington, made up 88 percent of all inputs into the lake. For total phosphorus and orthophosphate, Lake River at Felida flowing into the lake was 91 and 76 percent of total inputs, respectively. Nutrient loads from precipitation and groundwater inflow were 1 percent or less of the total budgets. Nutrient inputs from Burnt Bridge Creek and Flushing Channel composed 12 percent of the total nitrogen budget, 8 percent of the total phosphorus budget, and 21 percent

  9. Energy budget of the volcano Stromboli, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgetchin, T. R.; Chouet, B. A.

    1979-01-01

    The results of the analyses of movies of eruptions at Stromboli, Italy, and other available data are used to discuss the question of its energy partitioning among various energy transport mechanisms. Energy is transported to the surface from active volcanoes in at least eight modes, viz. conduction (and convection) of the heat through the surface, radiative heat transfer from the vent, acoustical radiation in blast and jet noise, seismic radiation, thermal energy of ejected particles, kinetic energy of ejected particles, thermal energy of ejected gas, and kinetic energy of ejected gas. Estimated values of energy flux from Stromboli by these eight mechanisms are tabulated. The energy budget of Stromboli in its normal mode of activity appears to be dominated by heat conduction (and convection) through the ground surface. Heat carried by eruption gases is the most important of the other energy transfer modes. Radiated heat from the open vent and heat carried by ejected lava particles also contribute to the total flux, while seismic energy accounts for about 0.5% of the total. All other modes are trivial by comparison.

  10. Total Thyroidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez Moris E

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Total thyroidectomy is a surgery that removes all the thyroid tissue from the patient. The suspect of cancer in a thyroid nodule is the most frequent indication and it is presume when previous fine needle puncture is positive or a goiter has significant volume increase or symptomes. Less frequent indications are hyperthyroidism when it is refractory to treatment with Iodine 131 or it is contraindicated, and in cases of symptomatic thyroiditis. The thyroid gland has an important anatomic relation whith the inferior laryngeal nerve and the parathyroid glands, for this reason it is imperative to perform extremely meticulous dissection to recognize each one of these elements and ensure their preservation. It is also essential to maintain strict hemostasis, in order to avoid any postoperative bleeding that could lead to a suffocating neck hematoma, feared complication that represents a surgical emergency and endangers the patient’s life.It is essential to run a formal technique, without skipping steps, and maintain prudence and patience that should rule any surgical act.

  11. Digital marketing budgets for independent hotels Continuously Shifting to Remain Competitive in the Online World

    OpenAIRE

    Lanz, Leora Halpern; Carmichael, Megan

    2015-01-01

    The hotel marketing budget, typically amounting to approximately 4-5% of an asset’s total revenue, must remain fluid so that the marketing director can constantly adapt the marketing tools to meet consumer communications methods and demands. Though only a small amount of a hotel’s revenue is traditionally allocated for the marketing budget, the hotel’s success is directly reliant on how effectively that budget is utilized. Thus far in 2015, over 55% percent of hotel bookings are happening onl...

  12. Mask characterization for CDU budget breakdown in advanced EUV lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolsky, Peter; Strolenberg, Chris; Nielsen, Rasmus; Nooitgedacht, Tjitte; Davydova, Natalia; Yang, Greg; Lee, Shawn; Park, Chang-Min; Kim, Insung; Yeo, Jeong-Ho

    2012-11-01

    As the ITRS Critical Dimension Uniformity (CDU) specification shrinks, semiconductor companies need to maintain a high yield of good wafers per day and a high performance (and hence market value) of finished products. This cannot be achieved without continuous analysis and improvement of on-product CDU as one of the main drivers for process control and optimization with better understanding of main contributors from the litho cluster: mask, process, metrology and scanner. In this paper we will demonstrate a study of mask CDU characterization and its impact on CDU Budget Breakdown (CDU BB) performed for an advanced EUV lithography with 1D and 2D feature cases. We will show that this CDU contributor is one of the main differentiators between well-known ArFi and new EUV CDU budgeting principles. We found that reticle contribution to intrafield CDU should be characterized in a specific way: mask absorber thickness fingerprints play a role comparable with reticle CDU in the total reticle part of the CDU budget. Wafer CD fingerprints, introduced by this contributor, may or may not compensate variations of mask CD's and hence influence on total mask impact on intrafield CDU at the wafer level. This will be shown on 1D and 2D feature examples in this paper. Also mask stack reflectivity variations should be taken into account: these fingerprints have visible impact on intrafield CDs at the wafer level and should be considered as another contributor to the reticle part of EUV CDU budget. We observed also MEEF-through-field fingerprints in the studied EUV cases. Variations of MEEF may also play a role for the total intrafield CDU and may be taken into account for EUV Lithography. We characterized MEEF-through-field for the reviewed features, the results to be discussed in our paper, but further analysis of this phenomenon is required. This comprehensive approach to characterization of the mask part of EUV CDU characterization delivers an accurate and integral CDU Budget

  13. Dependent-Chance Programming Models for Capital Budgeting in Fuzzy Environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Rui; GAO Jinwu

    2008-01-01

    Capital budgeting is concerned with maximizing the total net profit subject to budget constraints by selecting an appropriate combination of projects. This paper presents chance maximizing models for capital budgeting with fuzzy input data and multiple conflicting objectives. When the decision maker sets a prospec-tive profit level and wants to maximize the chances of the total profit achieving the prospective profit level, a fuzzy dependent-chance programming model, a fuzzy multi-objective dependent-chance programming model, and a fuzzy goal dependent-chance programming model are used to formulate the fuzzy capital budgeting problem. A fuzzy simulation based genetic algorithm is used to solve these models. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the simulation-based genetic algorithm and the po-tential applications of these models.

  14. Entropy Budget for Hawking Evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Alonso-Serrano

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Blackbody radiation, emitted from a furnace and described by a Planck spectrum, contains (on average an entropy of 3 . 9 ± 2 . 5 bits per photon. Since normal physical burning is a unitary process, this amount of entropy is compensated by the same amount of “hidden information” in correlations between the photons. The importance of this result lies in the posterior extension of this argument to the Hawking radiation from black holes, demonstrating that the assumption of unitarity leads to a perfectly reasonable entropy/information budget for the evaporation process. In order to carry out this calculation, we adopt a variant of the “average subsystem” approach, but consider a tripartite pure system that includes the influence of the rest of the universe, and which allows “young” black holes to still have a non-zero entropy; which we identify with the standard Bekenstein entropy.

  15. Fusion power research and development program. Volume IV. 5-year program, budget and milestone summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-07-01

    Budget data are given for each of the tokamak systems, mirror systems, and high density plasma systems for the years 1976 through 1982. All major facilities currently under ERDA contract are included. In addition, budget data are given for the development and technology program consisting of the following; (1) magnetic systems, (2) plasma engineering, (3) fusion reactor materials, (4) fusion systems engineering, (5) environment and safety, and (6) applied plasma physics

  16. Budget perspective in Croatia after accession to the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar Sopek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Upon accession to the European Union, the New Member State’s budget undergoes significant structural changes due to the appearance of new categories of revenues and expenditures. The aim of this paper is to estimate the possible effects of Croatian membership in the EU on changes in the structure and size of budget revenues and expenditures upon the country’s accession to the EU in the second half of 2013, as well as to indicate the possibilities for utilization of EU funds in the new financial perspective up to 2020. It is shown that in 2013 Croatia might realize a positive net financial position in transactions with the EU budget in the amount of approximately 0.28% of GDP, i.e. EUR 136 m. The total net financial position of Croatia due to EU accession, which includes some additional costs and benefits like different harmonization and the need for project co-financing at state and local levels, is also positive in 2013 and amounts to approximately 0.15% of GDP or equivalently EUR 72 m. Total amount of all funds that Croatia might receive in the new EU financial perspective covering the period from 2014 to 2020 amounts to EUR 6.34 bn, whereby annual amounts increase from EUR 0.7 bn in 2014 up to EUR 1.2 bn in 2020. By using exponential regression analysis it is estimated that in 2020 Croatia should be a net recipient of funds from the EU budget in total amount of 1.72% of GDP, i.e. EUR 1.13 bn.

  17. Uncertainty budget in internal monostandard NAA for small and large size samples analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasari, K.B.; Acharya, R.

    2014-01-01

    Total uncertainty budget evaluation on determined concentration value is important under quality assurance programme. Concentration calculation in NAA or carried out by relative NAA and k0 based internal monostandard NAA (IM-NAA) method. IM-NAA method has been used for small and large sample analysis of clay potteries. An attempt was made to identify the uncertainty components in IM-NAA and uncertainty budget for La in both small and large size samples has been evaluated and compared. (author)

  18. Lean Mean Times--Budgeting for School Media Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Doug

    1995-01-01

    Discusses budgeting strategies for school media technology programs. Highlights include sources for school funding, school district budget information, control of the budget, how to write an effective budget, working with other community and school groups, local politics, and sidebars that discuss spreadsheets and maintenance budgets. (LRW)

  19. Budget of the U.S. Government, Fiscal Year 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Management and Budget, Executive Office of the President, 2012

    2012-01-01

    "Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2013" contains the Budget Message of the President, information on the President's priorities, budget overviews organized by agency, and summary tables. The 2013 Budget contains a number of steps to put the country on a fiscally sustainable path. First, this Budget implements the tight…

  20. 7 CFR 1744.63 - The telephone loan budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false The telephone loan budget. 1744.63 Section 1744.63... Disbursement of Funds § 1744.63 The telephone loan budget. When the loan is made, RUS provides the borrower a Telephone Loan Budget, RUS Form 493. This budget divides the loan into budget accounts such as “Engineering...

  1. Decentralized Budgeting: Getting the Most Out of Disbursements of Funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Anne L.

    1995-01-01

    Decentralizing educational budgets allows the disbursement of funds aimed at maximizing student development. Three strategies for decentralizing budgets are program budgeting, which eliminates line-item budgeting and allows administrators to address questions regarding the relative value of educational programs; zero-based budgeting, which allows…

  2. Budget Setting Strategies for the Company's Divisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, M.; Brekelmans, R.C.M.; De Waegenaere, A.M.B.

    1997-01-01

    The paper deals with the issue of budget setting to the divisions of a company. The approach is quantitative in nature both in the formulation of the requirements for the set-budgets, as related to different general managerial objectives of interest, and in the modelling of the inherent

  3. 10 Budget-Savvy Content Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillis, David J.

    2004-01-01

    Facing an overall budget reduction of 10 percent, most colleges or universities would postpone investing in a Web content management system. However, for California State University Monterey Bay (CSUMB), a large budget cut made Web content management even more important. CSUMB found an innovative way to purchase and implement a new Content…

  4. Reading a District Budget: Reporter Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Michele

    2013-01-01

    Every school budget tells a story--about a district's spending plan, its priorities, goals, and financial health. The challenge is to wade through the jargon and numbers to unlock that story. Although budgets can vary significantly from district to district, and state to state, this primer seeks to introduce reporters to the fundamental components…

  5. The Budget. Introduction to Financial Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Dexter K.

    A school budget is a carefully drawn plan to allow for the efficient educational operation of the school. Everyone connected with the management of an independent school has something to learn about a budget, the most obvious person being the new headmaster. Similarly, all department heads, the librarian, the athletic director, the members of the…

  6. Uncertainty Propagation in an Ecosystem Nutrient Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New aspects and advancements in classical uncertainty propagation methods were used to develop a nutrient budget with associated error for a northern Gulf of Mexico coastal embayment. Uncertainty was calculated for budget terms by propagating the standard error and degrees of fr...

  7. CAUT Analysis of Federal Budget 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadian Association of University Teachers, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The 2013 federal Budget was delivered ironically the same day as the Parliamentary Budget Officer was in court seeking more information about the impact of the government's $5.2 billion in spending cuts announced last year. The lack of budgetary transparency and accountability has become a hallmark of the Conservative government. Anyone expecting…

  8. Zero Based Budgeting for Voc Ed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Ying C.

    1977-01-01

    To help vocational education budget planners take a good look each year at where they are going, what they are trying to accomplish, and where to put their money, this article describes the 12 steps in a model commonly used for zero based budgeting. (Author/HD)

  9. Taking Another Path: Community-Based Budgeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowski, Matthew J.; Davis, Darlene G.

    2011-01-01

    Given the current economic constraints facing the country, school districts in the U.S. have been pushed to develop annual budgets through a new lens and to accept the reality that budget adoption is a complex, political process. Whether a school district is rich or poor, growing or declining in enrollment, serving a specialized population or…

  10. Fiscal 1988 draft budget for nuclear energy up 1.9% to yen 369 billion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    AT the cabinet meeting held on December 28, the government approved the fiscal 1988 draft budget, with a general account of yen 56.6 trillion. The nuclear energy related budget is yen 181.124 billion from the general account and yen 186.098 billion from the special account for power sources development, totalling yen 367.222 billion, up 1.9% on the previous year. The largest appropriation goes to the Science and Technology Agency (STA) totaling yen 271 billion. The STA is promoting safety studies and R and D for extensive nuclear energy utilization but the budget shows a 0.7% decrease from the previous year, reflecting completion of the construction of JT-60, which is one of the Agency's major projects. MITI, with its budget of yen 91 billion will carry on policies related to the promotion of commercial nuclear power program as well as support for the industrialization program of the nuclear fuel cycle. Nuclear related budget of Ministry of Foreign Affairs is yen 2.8 billion, consisting mainly of IAEA subscriptions and contributions and OECD/NEA subscriptions. Besides these three government agencies, a large sum of yen 1.2 billion is allocated to the Okinawa Development Agency for the prevention and elimination of melon-flies in Kume Island and islands around Okinawa main island. The draft government budget will be submitted to the ordinary session of the Diet when it resumes towards the end of January. After deliberation in the Budget Committees of the House of Representatives and the House of Councilors, the draft budget will be put to the vote in the plenary session. Assuming that all proceeds smoothly, the budget is expected to be approved by the end of March without any major revision. (author)

  11. A carbon isotope budget for an anoxic marine sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehme, S.E.; Blair, N.E.

    1991-01-01

    A carbon isotope budget has been determined for the coastal marine site, Cape Lookout Bight, NC. Isotope measurements of methane and σCO 2 fluxing out and buried in these sediments were applied to previously measured flux data (Martens et al., in press) to predict the isotopic composition of the incoming metabolizable organic matter. Methane leaves the sediment predominantly via ebullition with an isotopic composition of -60 per mil. Less than 2% of the methane produced is buried with an average diffusional flux value of -17 per mil and a burial value of +11 per mil. The isotope budget predicts a metabolizable organic carbon isotope signature of -19.3 per mil which is in excellent agreement with the measured total organic carbon value of -19.2 ± 0.3 per mil implying that the dominant remineralization processes have been identified

  12. STATE BUDGET APPROPRIATION MANAGERS AS THE SUBJECTS OF BUDGET PLANNING IN THE REPUBLIC OF LITHUANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronius Sudavicius

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject. The article deals with the problem of legal status of the state budget appropriation managers in the process of budget planning in the Republic of Lithuania.The purpose of the article is evaluation of state budget appropriation managers’ role in the process of budget planning in the Republic of Lithuania.The methodology of research is the analysis of the budgetary legislation of the Republic of Lithuania and the scientific literature, using the methods of logical and systematic analysis and other methods of scientific researchMain results, and scope of it’s application. The legal definition and the system of state budget appropriation managers is analyzed in the article. Particular attention is given to the question of role of state budget appropriation managers in the process of budget framework. The role of the Government and Parliament, as well as a special body of management of public finances (in the Republic of Lithuania, the Ministry of Finance – legislative and executive authorities – is emphasized in the scientific literature. But it is often not mentioned what an important place in this process other participants of budgetary relations – state budget appropriation managers – takes. The main participation of state budget appropriation managers in the budget planning process related to the planning of the budget expenditures.Preparation of strategic plans and programmes of budgetary funds by state budget appropriation managers can be considered part of governance activities in general. For budget planning drawn up draft budgets of the programs by state budget appropriation managers is particularly important.Conclusions. The efficiency of the use of state funds depends on the spending of funds, the quality and validity of the developed programmes of activities led by their agencies. State budget appropriation managers are involved, along with other entities, on each stage of the budget planning. They provide the

  13. Voting behavior and budget stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Vicente

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze how the implementation of the Budgetary Stability Law has affectedPolitical Budget Cycles generated by Spanish local governments. Specifically, we study whether the evolutionof debt, budget deficit, capital spending and current spending over the electoral cycle has changed after theintroduction of this law. We use a sample of 132 Spanish municipalities with more than 50,000 inhabitants(including the provincial capitals during the period 1995‑2009. Our results show that the Budgetary StabilityLaw has avoided electoral cycles in debt. On the contrary, the adoption of this law has not mitigated theincumbents’ incentives to manipulate deficit, capital spending and current spending with electoral aims.Nevertheless, it has caused a change in the way in which mayors manipulate fiscal policy over the electoralcycle. The opportunistic expansion covered both preelectoral year and the electoral year before theimplementation of this fiscal rule, while after that, deficit and spending increases are confined in the electionyear.En este trabajo analizamos la influencia de la entrada en vigor de la Ley de Estabilidad Presupuestaria en losCiclos Políticos Presupuestarios generados por los gobiernos locales españoles. En concreto, estudiamos si laevolución de la deuda, del déficit, del gasto de capital y del gasto corriente a lo largo del ciclo electoral se havisto modificada tras la introducción de dicha ley. Para ello utilizamos una muestra formada por132 municipios españoles con más de 50.000 habitantes (incluidas las capitales de provincia durante elperiodo 1995‑2009. Nuestros resultados muestran que la Ley de Estabilidad Presupuestaria ha evitado lacreación de Ciclos Políticos Presupuestarios en la deuda. Por el contrario, la aprobación de dicha ley noha atenuado los incentivos de los políticos para manipular el déficit, el gasto de capital y el gasto corriente conla finalidad de permanecer en el poder

  14. 76 FR 43733 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for the Office of Management and Budget (OMB...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ... done when specified events occur. Recordkeeping for nuclear material accounting and control information... done through the U.S. State system (Nuclear Materials Management and Safeguards System, collected under...: Submission for the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Review; Comment Request AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory...

  15. The Budget and Economic Outlook: Fiscal Years 2006 to 2015

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Holland, Jeffrey; Blom, Barry; Arnold, Robert; Trimarco, Gerard; Booth, Mark; Hays, Ellen; Russek, Frank; Brauer, David; Futrell, Ann; Smith, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    .... It satisfies the requirement of section 202(e) of the Congressional Budget Act of 1974 for CBO to submit to the Committees on the Budget periodic reports about fiscal policy and to provide baseline projections of the federal budget...

  16. STRATEGIC PLANNING AND PROGRAM BUDGETING IN ROMANIA – RECENT DEVELOPMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D#259;nule#539;iu Dan-Constantin

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper emphasizes the efforts of Romanian authorities to implement program budgeting. Based on the first results, authorities decided to establish a link between strategic planning and budgeting, as a condition for implementing multi-annual budgeting.

  17. Developing Carbon Budgets for Cities: Phoenix as a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHale, M. R.; Baker, L. A.; Koerner, B. A.; Grimm, N. B.

    2008-12-01

    Studies have shown that cities can alter regional carbon dynamics through changing ecosystem productivity, overall carbon cycling rate, and total carbon storage in vegetation and soils. Furthermore, people in urban regions import a large amount of carbon in food and fuel, as well as release an exceptional amount of CO2 into the atmosphere. Numerous studies have attempted to quantify some sources and sinks of carbon in urban areas, although a complete carbon budget for a city that accounts for total inputs, outputs, and storage within the ecosystem has yet to be fully accomplished. One challenge is associated with attaining the data necessary to accurately account for all carbon dynamics in these heterogeneous and complex ecosystems. Our goal was to estimate a budget for the Phoenix metropolitan area while developing methodology to calculate carbon dynamics in urban systems that can be applied to cities across the US. Only with comparable carbon budgets for multiple cities will we finally begin to understand the influence of urbanization on carbon dynamics. Our analysis shows when calculating certain variables like transportation emissions, results can vary radically (up to 250%) depending on the data source and methodology implemented (i.e. bottom-up vs. top-down). A common assumption is that productivity and carbon storage will increase with urbanization in arid systems due to water and nutrient inputs, as well as changes in vegetation structure; however, our results indicated that this may not actually be the case in Phoenix where a large number of residents design landscapes to conserve water. Even if all urban expansion was dedicated to landscapes designed for carbon sequestration and storage, vegetation and soils will unlikely have a large effect on the C budget without significant changes in transportation and lifestyle choices.

  18. Estimating Evapotranspiration Using an Observation Based Terrestrial Water Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, Matthew; McWilliams, Eric B.; Famiglietti, James S.; Beaudoing, Hiroko K.; Nigro, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is difficult to measure at the scales of climate models and climate variability. While satellite retrieval algorithms do exist, their accuracy is limited by the sparseness of in situ observations available for calibration and validation, which themselves may be unrepresentative of 500m and larger scale satellite footprints and grid pixels. Here, we use a combination of satellite and ground-based observations to close the water budgets of seven continental scale river basins (Mackenzie, Fraser, Nelson, Mississippi, Tocantins, Danube, and Ubangi), estimating mean ET as a residual. For any river basin, ET must equal total precipitation minus net runoff minus the change in total terrestrial water storage (TWS), in order for mass to be conserved. We make use of precipitation from two global observation-based products, archived runoff data, and TWS changes from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment satellite mission. We demonstrate that while uncertainty in the water budget-based estimates of monthly ET is often too large for those estimates to be useful, the uncertainty in the mean annual cycle is small enough that it is practical for evaluating other ET products. Here, we evaluate five land surface model simulations, two operational atmospheric analyses, and a recent global reanalysis product based on our results. An important outcome is that the water budget-based ET time series in two tropical river basins, one in Brazil and the other in central Africa, exhibit a weak annual cycle, which may help to resolve debate about the strength of the annual cycle of ET in such regions and how ET is constrained throughout the year. The methods described will be useful for water and energy budget studies, weather and climate model assessments, and satellite-based ET retrieval optimization.

  19. Budget-makers and health care systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Joseph

    2013-10-01

    Health programs are shaped by the decisions made in budget processes, so how budget-makers view health programs is an important part of making health policy. Budgeting in any country involves its own policy community, with key players including budgeting professionals and political authorities. This article reviews the typical pressures on and attitudes of these actors when they address health policy choices. The worldview of budget professionals includes attitudes that are congenial to particular policy perspectives, such as the desire to select packages of programs that maximize population health. The pressures on political authorities, however, are very different: most importantly, public demand for health care services is stronger than for virtually any other government activity. The norms and procedures of budgeting also tend to discourage adoption of some of the more enthusiastically promoted health policy reforms. Therefore talk about rationalizing systems is not matched by action; and action is better explained by the need to minimize blame. The budget-maker's perspective provides insight about key controversies in healthcare policy such as decentralization, competition, health service systems as opposed to health insurance systems, and dedicated vs. general revenue finance. It also explains the frequency of various "gaming" behaviors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Analysis of Health Sector Budget of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulal, R K; Magar, A; Karki, S D; Khatiwada, D; Hamal, P K

    2014-01-01

    Primarily, health sector connects two segments - medicine and public health, where medicine deals with individual patients and public health with the population health. Budget enables both the disciplines to function effectively. The Interim Constitution of Nepal, 2007 has adapted the inspiration of federalism and declared the provision of basic health care services free of cost as a fundamental right, which needs strengthening under foreseen federalism. An observational retrospective cohort study, aiming at examining the health sector budget allocation and outcome, was done. Authors gathered health budget figures (2001 to 2013) and facts published from authentic sources. Googling was done for further information. The keywords for search used were: fiscal federalism, health care, public health, health budget, health financing, external development partner, bilateral and multilateral partners and healthcare accessibility. The search was limited to English and Nepali-language report, articles and news published. Budget required to meet the population's need is still limited in Nepal. The health sector budget could not achieve even gainful results due to mismatch in policy and policy implementation despite of political commitment. Since Nepal is transforming towards federalism, an increased complexity under federated system is foreseeable, particularly in the face of changed political scenario and its players. It should have clear goals, financing policy and strict implementation plans for budget execution, task performance and achieving results as per planning. Additionally, collection of revenue, risk pooling and purchasing of services should be better integrated between central government and federated states to horn effectiveness and efficiency.

  1. Radiation Budget Instrument (RBI) for JPSS-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgieva, Elena; Priestley, Kory; Dunn, Barry; Cageao, Richard; Barki, Anum; Osmundsen, Jim; Turczynski, Craig; Abedin, Nurul

    2015-01-01

    Radiation Budget Instrument (RBI) will be one of five instruments flying aboard the JPSS-2 spacecraft, a polar-orbiting sun-synchronous satellite in Low Earth Orbit. RBI is a passive remote sensing instrument that will follow the successful legacy of the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments to make measurement of Earth's short and longwave radiation budget. The goal of RBI is to provide an independent measurement of the broadband reflected solar radiance and Earth's emitted thermal radiance by using three spectral bands (Shortwave, Longwave, and Total) that will have the same overlapped point spread function (PSF) footprint on Earth. To ensure precise NIST-traceable calibration in space the RBI sensor is designed to use a visible calibration target (VCT), a solar calibration target (SCT), and an infrared calibration target (ICT) containing phase change cells (PCC) to enable on-board temperature calibration. The VCT is a thermally controlled integrating sphere with space grade Spectralon covering the inner surface. Two sides of the sphere will have fiber-coupled laser diodes in the UV to IR wavelength region. An electrical substitution radiometer on the integrating sphere will monitor the long term stability of the sources and the possible degradation of the Spectralon in space. In addition the radiometric calibration operations will use the Spectralon diffusers of the SCT to provide accurate measurements of Solar degradation. All those stable on-orbit references will ensure that calibration stability is maintained over the RBI sensor lifetime. For the preflight calibration the RBI will view five calibration sources - two integrating spheres and three CrIS (Cross-track Infrared Sounder ) -like blackbodies whose outputs will be validated with NIST calibration approach. Thermopile are the selected detectors for the RBI. The sensor has a requirement to perform lunar calibration in addition to solar calibration in space in a way similar to CERES

  2. Scientific and theoretical principles of personnel costs’ budgeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.P. Gutsal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The object of this article is to determine the main purpose of company’s budgeting, to study its functions in terms of personnel management, to identify the main advantages and disadvantages of budgeting and to determine the stages of realization budgeting in the company. There have been considered the purpose and aim of budgeting. The main functions of budgeting, which include such ones as: planning, forecasting, information and analysis function, motivational, coordinative, control and involvement function have been identified (determined. In terms of defined functions of budgeting their essence in budgeting personnel costs has been outlined. The main advantages and disadvantages of budgeting have been found. There has been determined the implementing and realization company’s budgeting. The process of budgeting is realized according to the following consecutive stages: preparatory and analytical stage; definition of budget constraints; drafting up the budget; discussion and adjustment of budget indicators; adoption of budget; analysis and control of the budget. There also has been considered budget organization structure which includes budget committee, budget planning and analysis department, financial responsibility center.

  3. WFIRST: Coronagraph Systems Engineering and Performance Budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poberezhskiy, Ilya; cady, eric; Frerking, Margaret A.; Kern, Brian; Nemati, Bijan; Noecker, Martin; Seo, Byoung-Joon; Zhao, Feng; Zhou, Hanying

    2018-01-01

    The WFIRST coronagraph instrument (CGI) will be the first in-space coronagraph using active wavefront control to directly image and characterize mature exoplanets and zodiacal disks in reflected starlight. For CGI systems engineering, including requirements development, CGI performance is predicted using a hierarchy of performance budgets to estimate various noise components — spatial and temporal flux variations — that obscure exoplanet signals in direct imaging and spectroscopy configurations. These performance budgets are validated through a robust integrated modeling and testbed model validation efforts.We present the performance budgeting framework used by WFIRST for the flow-down of coronagraph science requirements, mission constraints, and observatory interfaces to measurable instrument engineering parameters.

  4. Small business, cash budgets and general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, A R

    1991-01-01

    In practice management, general practice falls into the category of small business with all its attendant generic problems. Disciplined planning and good financial management are not often seen in small business. These are required if general practitioners are to continue (or return to) the provision of high quality medical services. An effective budget process, especially cash-flow budgeting, is the key to successful planning and financial management. Budgeting will bring Control, Co-ordination, and Credibility to your practice. It will enable you to set goals and to achieve them.

  5. The uncertainty budget in pharmaceutical industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj

    of their uncertainty, exactly as described in GUM [2]. Pharmaceutical industry has therefore over the last 5 years shown increasing interest in accreditation according to ISO 17025 [3], and today uncertainty budgets are being developed for all so-called critical measurements. The uncertainty of results obtained...... that the uncertainty of a particular result is independent of the method used for its estimation. Several examples of uncertainty budgets for critical parameters based on the bottom-up procedure will be discussed, and it will be shown how the top-down method is used as a means of verifying uncertainty budgets, based...

  6. Loyalty Card Promotional Activity in Budget Hotel

    OpenAIRE

    Teng, Fei

    2010-01-01

    Loyalty card is one of the most commonly used promotional activities in business. Thus far, there are some research has been done on luxury hotel, but very few researches are on budget hotel. So, the purpose of the thesis is finding out the Swedish customers’ attitude and behavior towards budget hotel’s loyalty card; getting to know what factors influence Swedish customers’ response towards the loyalty card and budget hotels. In the thesis, the main research problem is “How do Swedish custome...

  7. Uncertainty measurement evaluation of WDXRF and EDXRF techniques for the Si and U{sub total} determination in U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} used as nuclear fuel material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scapin, Marcos A.; Salvador, Vera L.R.; Cotrim, Marycel E.B.; Pires, Maria Ap. F.; Sato, Ivone M., E-mail: mascapin@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP) Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Quimica e Meio Ambiente

    2009-07-01

    Uranium silicide (U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}), 20% {sup 235}U enriched powder, is an intermetallic compound used as nuclear fuel material; that is the state-of-the-art among nuclear fuel materials used in modern research reactors. It is produced by IPEN and used as nuclear fuel of the IEA-R1 reactor (IPEN/CNEN, Sao Paulo, Brazil); U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} has 92.3%wtU and 7.7%wtSi. The qualification of this material requires chemical and physical tests such as Si and U{sub total} content, isotope ratio, impurities, density, specific surface area and particle size determination. The Si and U{sub total} determination were made by gravimetric and volumetric procedures at the Environment Chemistry Center (CQMA-IPEN/CNEN). Usually, these classical methods require a long time for analyses and are expensive. The objective of this study was to establish a fast and efficient analytical method to meet ISO/IEC 17025:2005 requirements in the Si and U{sub total} determination. The X-ray fluorescence techniques (XRF) were chosen to allow a direct and non-destructive testing, what is a principal advantage faced to other instrumental techniques, since previous chemical treatments are not necessary. In this study, the performance of the wavelength dispersive (WDXRF) and energy dispersive (EDXRF) X- ray fluorescence techniques was evaluated. Furthermore, two different sample preparation procedures, plain powdered and pressed powdered were evaluated. Statistical tools were used to evaluate the results and a comparison between these results and the conventional methods was done. (author)

  8. Physics loses out in UK budget

    CERN Multimedia

    Cartlidge, E

    1998-01-01

    British astronomers are angry that the budget for the Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council will receive only a 0.5% rise above inflation. All the other research councils will get increases of at least 3% (1 page).

  9. FY 2015 Supplement to the Presidents Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — The annual Supplement to the Presidents Budget for the NITRD Program provides a technical summary of the research activities planned and coordinated through NITRD in...

  10. FY 2016 Supplement to the Presidents Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — The annual Supplement to the Presidents Budget for the NITRD Program provides a technical summary of the research activities planned and coordinated through NITRD in...

  11. Radiation budget measurement/model interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonderhaar, T. H.; Ciesielski, P.; Randel, D.; Stevens, D.

    1983-01-01

    This final report includes research results from the period February, 1981 through November, 1982. Two new results combine to form the final portion of this work. They are the work by Hanna (1982) and Stevens to successfully test and demonstrate a low-order spectral climate model and the work by Ciesielski et al. (1983) to combine and test the new radiation budget results from NIMBUS-7 with earlier satellite measurements. Together, the two related activities set the stage for future research on radiation budget measurement/model interfacing. Such combination of results will lead to new applications of satellite data to climate problems. The objectives of this research under the present contract are therefore satisfied. Additional research reported herein includes the compilation and documentation of the radiation budget data set a Colorado State University and the definition of climate-related experiments suggested after lengthy analysis of the satellite radiation budget experiments.

  12. Gender Responsive Community Based Planning and Budgeting ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... Responsive Community Based Planning and Budgeting Tool for Local Governance ... in data collection, and another module that facilitates gender responsive and ... In partnership with UNESCO's Organization for Women in Science for the ...

  13. FY 2014 Supplement to the Presidents Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — The annual Supplement to the Presidents Budget for the NITRD Program provides a technical summary of the research activities planned and coordinated through NITRD in...

  14. Budget Scoring: An Impediment to Alternative Financing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Summers, Donald E; San Miguel, Joseph G

    2007-01-01

    .... One of the major impediments to using alternative forms of procurement financing for acquiring defense capabilities is in the budgetary treatment, or scoring, of these initiatives by the Congressional Budget Office (CBO...

  15. Zero-Based Budgeting in Nursing Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Marie; Eckert, Joseph

    1979-01-01

    Zero-based budgeting (ZBB) refers to a system whereby the entire nursing program is reevaluated yearly and justification for all programs and expenditures must be made. ZBB is compared to the governmental sunset law. (JOW)

  16. Public Budget Database - Governmental receipts 1962-Current

    Data.gov (United States)

    Executive Office of the President — This file contains governmental receipts for 1962 through the current budget year, as well as four years of projections. It can be used to reproduce many of the...

  17. Budget Elements of Economic Security: Specifics of Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. S.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical aspects of economic security in conjunction with budget components such as “budget interests” and “budget necessities” are analyzed. Key positions of the categories “budget interests” and “budget necessities” in the theory of economic security in the budgetary area are substantiated given their priority role in setting up its implementation strategy. The category “budget interests” is defined as the system of budget necessities of the interest holders, implemented through budget activities of entities and aimed at seeking benefits through the budget, in order to guarantee functioning and development of the society, the state, legal entities and physical persons. “Budget necessities” are defined as the need in budget funds to achieve and sustain, at a certain level, life activities of individuals, social groups, society, state and legal entities. Classification of budget interests by various criteria is made in the context of their impact on the economic security of the state. It is demonstrated that the four-tier classification of the budget interests by interest holder is essential to guaranteeing economic security in the budgetary area: budget interests of the state: the interests held by central and local power offices; budget interests of legal entities: the interests of profit and non-profit (public, budgetary, party and other organizations; budget interests of individuals: basic necessities of individuals, met by budget transfers, which stand out of the array of public necessities by their individual character.

  18. A carbon budget for overfishing off Peru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, J.J.

    1981-03-26

    The anchovy harvest off the coast of Peru has decreased from a maximum of about 12 million tons in 1970 to about 1 million tons/year between 1977 and 1979. This rise and collapse of the Peruvian anchovy fishery between the 1950s and the 1970s was accompanied by marked changes in the fluxes of a carbon budget for the upwelling ecosystem. These carbon budget changes are discussed in relation to anchovy production. (JMT)

  19. Budgeting, funding, and managing clinical research projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, Elizabeth; Dicks, Elizabeth; Parfrey, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Large, integrated multidisciplinary teams have become recognized as an efficient means by which to drive innovation and discovery in clinical research. This chapter describes how to budget and fund these large studies and effectively manage the large, often dispersed teams involved. Sources of funding are identified; budget development, justification, reporting, financial governance, and accountability are described; in addition to the creation and management of the multidisciplinary team that will implement the research plan.

  20. Negotiating Creativity on a Small Budget

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Møller

    2018-01-01

    for fiction series, the ambivalent cooperation behind this production exemplifies the low-budget efforts of a traditional public service institution to produce the fiction series that their younger target audience desires. The article uses a narrative-discursive approach to creativity and develops the term...... quite different assumptions about how production conditions can promote creativity, and suggests that a low-budget production can still be labelled as “successful”....

  1. OPTIMIZING LOCAL BUDGET BALANCING IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyorgy Adina Crsitina

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the local public finance is growing in accordance with the increasing proportion of the decentralization process. The mechanism of resource allocation, and especially the allocation criteria used, constitutes subjects of debate. Our objective pursued is to assess whether the avoidance of the first step for balancing the allocation of funds can provide enhanced fairness in balancing the local budgets across the country. Local budgets in Romania receive significant resources from the state budget in the form of amounts and quotas distributed from certain taxes, which are revenues for the state budget. Some of these amounts are designed to balance the local budgets. The distribution of funds from the state budget to the local budgets requires two steps. Firstly, the amounts are divided by county, secondly, these amounts are directed within the county especially towards localities which have a lower financial standing. Given the significant disparities between counties, we believe that this mechanism does not ensure fairness in the allocation because the funds distributed according to the first step may not use fair criteria to meet the requirements for balanced local budgets. Therefore, we intend to simulate a balanced allocation of national funds for eliminating the first step that produces the most significant inequities. Direct application of the second step of allocation, with its two phases, will provide more funds serving those local administrative units for the income tax per capita is lower than the national average. Comparing the values allocated for the year 2011 with those obtained in the simulation we will examine changes that occur after the application of this method which seems to be more equitable and appropriate. This work was supported by CNCSISUEFISCSU, project number PNII-IDEI 1780/2008

  2. Reagan's budget slashes geophysics R&D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    When President Ronald Reagan outlined to a joint session of Congress his proposed revisions to the Carter fiscal 1982 budget (Eos, February 10, p. 49), Congress responded with 13 bursts of applause and one standing ovation. Geophysicists, however, may not greet the budget pruning with equal fanfare. Reagan's across-the-board cuts include proposals for slashing research and development funds. Among those hardest hit are NASA, NOAA, and NSF.

  3. ANTESEN CUSTOMER LOYALTY PADA BUDGET HOTEL

    OpenAIRE

    Latifa Rahma

    2016-01-01

    This research discusses the effects of Service Quality on Customer Satisfaction, Customer Loyalty, and Brand Image Budget hotel (Five Budget Hotel Managed by local chain hotel). The purpose of this study were 1) to analyze the effects of Service Quality on Customer Satisfaction, 2) to analyze the effects of Service Quality on Customer Loyalty, 3) to analyze the effect of Customer Satisfaction to Customer Loyalty, 4) to analyze the effects of Service Quality on the Brand Image, 5 ) to analyze ...

  4. Budget Analysis: Review of the Governor's Proposed Budget, 1999-00.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Office of the Comptroller, Albany.

    This report provides an overview of the 1999-2000 executive budget for New York State. The budget calls for $72.7 billion in all funds spending and proposes that a $1.8 billion surplus from the 1998-99 fiscal year be used to fill budget gaps in fiscal years 2000-01 and 2001-02. The report focuses on spending for education, health and social…

  5. Zero-based budgeting: Pathway to sustainable budget implementation in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Udeh Francis Nnoli; Sopekan Sam Adeyemi; Oraka Azubuike Onuora

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the application of Zero-Based Budgeting (ZBB) system to budget implementation by the Federal Government of Nigeria by ascertaining among others, the relationship between ZBB approach and budget performance indices in Nigeria. To achieve the above, primary data were obtained through questionnaires that were specifically designed for this study. The data obtained were analysed with the SPSS version 21. The statistical tools employed were Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and ...

  6. Research on budget management under IT environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenchang Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available IT technology has become a key element of core competitiveness of enterprises, and also the basis for its daily operation. The budget is a management process of forecasting and planning of the future operation and financial activities under the guidance of the strategic objectives, and completion of the strategic objectives to a maximum extent. Whether both of them can be effectively combined with is the key to effective implementation of the budget. Through analysis of the existing problems of the traditional budget of the enterprise and the budget under the information technology environment, analysis of the internal and external influencing factors of the budget management of the large and medium sized enterprises under the current environment with SWOT, factor quantization and weight with AHP, development of the strategic program according to the priority of weight, and finally verification with a case, this paper concludes that, the budget management work can be more strategic and forward-looking through combination with AHP and SWOT analysis.

  7. Industry adjusts 1992 E and P budgets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that a midyear update of Salomon Bros. survey of the petroleum industry's 1992 exploration and production budgets pinpoints the ways operators are adjusting outlays to match the times. The New York financial firm's latest tally shows: Operators have made deep cuts in their 1992 US and Canadian E and P budgets since yearend 1991. Moderate increases budgeted earlier for E and P outside North America are intact. Many companies substantially underspent their budgets in first half 1992. In Salomon Bros. Largest survey---247 companies responded---operators the they were budgeting a 3.2% year to year decline in their 1992 worldwide E and P spending, compared with a 1.3% increase planned for 1992 in December 1991. The decline in spending falls entirely in North America. Preliminary indications suggest that 1993 E and P spending will be relatively flat in the US and flat to moderately increased in Canada. Elsewhere, spending should continue to rise steadily in 1993, Salomon Bros. The. Budgets exclude producing property purchases and merger or acquisition of other companies when possible

  8. Zero-based budgeting: Pathway to sustainable budget implementation in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udeh Francis Nnoli

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the application of Zero-Based Budgeting (ZBB system to budget implementation by the Federal Government of Nigeria by ascertaining among others, the relationship between ZBB approach and budget performance indices in Nigeria. To achieve the above, primary data were obtained through questionnaires that were specifically designed for this study. The data obtained were analysed with the SPSS version 21. The statistical tools employed were Analysis of Variance (ANOVA and Pearson Correlation Coefficiant (PCC. The Cronbach’s Alpha reliability test was used to test the internal consistency/reliability of the instrument used for the study. On the basis of the analysis, we found that there is significant difference in the effectiveness of ZBB in terms of budget implementation compared to the Traditional Budgeting System (TBS. It was also found that the application of ZBB tend to be performance-driven and is able to detect the redundant programmes/projects and staff, thereby recommending either realignment, discharge, transfer or redeployment of projects or resources. The study therefore, recommends among others that ZBB should be encouraged as a good means of budget implementation and also close monitoring of budget execution should be enshrined in work ethics at every stage of budget preparation and implementation in the country. This is believed would go a long way to strengthen measures aimed at mitigating poor budget implementation in the country.

  9. Nitrogen emission and deposition budget in West and Central Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galy-Lacaux, C; Delon, C

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen depends on land surface exchanges of nitrogen compounds. In Sub Saharan Africa, deposition and emission fluxes of nitrogen compounds are poorly quantified, and are likely to increase in the near future due to land use change and anthropogenic pressure. This work proposes an estimate of atmospheric N compounds budget in West and Central Africa, along an ecosystem transect, from dry savanna to wet savanna and forest, for years 2000−2007. The budget may be considered as a one point in time budget, to be included in long term studies as one of the first reference point for Sub Saharan Africa. Gaseous dry deposition fluxes are estimated by considering N compounds concentrations measured in the frame of the IDAF network (IGAC/DEBITS/AFrica) at the monthly scale and modeling of deposition velocities at the IDAF sites, taking into account the bi directional exchange of ammonia. Particulate dry deposition fluxes are calculated using the same inferential method. Wet deposition fluxes are calculated from measurements of ammonium and nitrate chemical content in precipitations at the IDAF sites combined with the annual rainfall amount. In terms of emission, biogenic NO emissions are simulated at each IDAF site with a surface model coupled to an emission module elaborated from an artificial neural network equation. Ammonia emissions from volatilization are calculated from literature data on livestock quantity in each country and N content in manure. NO x and NH 3 emission from biomass burning and domestic fires are estimated from satellite data and emission factors. The total budget shows that emission sources of nitrogen compounds are in equilibrium with deposition fluxes in dry and wet savannas, with respectively 7.40 (±1.90) deposited and 9.01 (±3.44) kgN ha −1 yr −1 emitted in dry savanna, 8.38 (±2.04) kgN ha −1 yr −1 deposited and 9.60 (±0.69) kgN ha −1 yr −1 emitted in wet savanna. In forested ecosystems, the total budget is dominated

  10. Urban Surface Radiative Energy Budgets Determined Using Aircraft Scanner Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Quattrochi, Dale A.; Rickman, Doug L.; Estes, Maury G.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    It is estimated that by the year 2025, 80% of the world's population will live in cities. The extent of these urban areas across the world can be seen in an image of city lights from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program. In many areas of North America and Europe, it is difficult to separate individual cities because of the dramatic growth and sprawl of urbanized areas. This conversion of the natural landscape vegetation into man-made urban structures such as roads and buildings drastically alter the regional surface energy budgets, hydrology, precipitation patterns, and meteorology. One of the earliest recognized and measured phenomena of urbanization is the urban heat island (UHI) which was reported as early as 1833 for London and 1862 for Paris. The urban heat island results from the energy that is absorbed by man-made materials during the day and is released at night resulting in the heating of the air within the urban area. The magnitude of the air temperature difference between the urban and surrounding countryside is highly dependent on the structure of the urban area, amount of solar immolation received during the day, and atmospheric conditions during the night. These night time air temperature differences can be in the range of 2 to 5 C. or greater. Although day time air temperature differences between urban areas and the countryside exists during the day, atmospheric mixing and stability reduce the magnitude. This phenomena is not limited to large urban areas, but also occurs in smaller metropolitan areas. The UHI has significant impacts on the urban air quality, meteorology, energy use, and human health. The UPI can be mitigated through increasing the amount of vegetation and modification of urban surfaces using high albedo materials for roofs and paved surfaces. To understand why the urban heat island phenomenon exists it is useful to define the surface in terms of the surface energy budget. Surface temperature and albedo is a major component of

  11. Development of analytical procedures for determination of total chromium by quadrupole ICP-MS and high-resolution ICP-MS, and hexavalent chromium by HPLC-ICP-MS, in different materials used in the automotive industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Séby, F; Gagean, M; Garraud, H; Castetbon, A; Donard, O F X

    2003-10-01

    A European directive was recently adopted limiting the use of hazardous substances such as Pb, Hg, Cd, and Cr(VI) in vehicle manufacturing. From July 2003 a maximum of 2 g Cr(VI) will be authorised per vehicle in corrosion-preventing coatings of key components. As no standardised procedures are available to check if produced vehicles are in agreement with this directive, the objective of this work was to develop analytical procedures for total chromium and Cr(VI) determination in these materials. The first step of this study was to optimise digestion procedures for total chromium determination in plastic and metallic materials by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). High resolution (HR) ICP-MS was used to examine the influence of polyatomic interferences on the detection of the (52)Cr(+) and (53)Cr(+) isotopes. If there was strong interference with m/ z 52 for plastic materials, it was possible to use quadrupole ICP-MS for m/ z 53 if digestions were performed with HNO(3)+H(2)O(2). This mixture was also necessary for digestion of chromium from metallic materials. Extraction procedures in alkaline medium (NH(4)(+)/NH(3) buffer solution at pH 8.9) assisted by sonication were developed for determining Cr(VI) in four different corrosion-preventing coatings by HPLC-ICP-MS. After optimisation and validation with the only solid reference material certified for its Cr(VI) content (BCR 545; welding dusts), the efficiency of this extraction procedure for screw coatings was compared with that described in the EN ISO 3613 standard generally used in routine laboratories. For coatings comprising zinc and aluminium passivated in depth with chromium oxides the extraction procedure developed herein enabled determination of higher Cr(VI) concentrations. This was also observed for the screw covered with a chromium passivant layer on zinc-nickel. For coating comprising a chromium passivant layer on alkaline zinc the standardized extraction procedure was more efficient

  12. ANALYSIS OF THE EVOLUTION IN DYNAMICS OF BUDGET INCOMES FROM ALBA COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA FLORINA RADU

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to examine how the main taxes collected in Alba County have evolved over the last seven years and we put in evidence the evolution of total revenue received in Alba County budget. We point out also the taxes that hold the largest share of the total revenue collected. At the same time we observe the ranking of the main taxes in our county, compared to their ranking of the entire country. On the first place in our county we find VAT, the income tax is on the second, and corporate income tax follows. They are therefore the main source of income for the Alba budget.

  13. Budget impact of pasireotide LAR for the treatment of acromegaly, a rare endocrine disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J J; Nellesen, D; Ludlam, W H; Neary, M P

    2016-01-01

    Acromegaly is a rare disorder characterized by the over-production of growth hormone (GH). Patients often experience a range of chronic comorbidities including hypertension, cardiac dysfunction, diabetes, osteoarthropathy, and obstructive sleep apnea. Untreated or inadequately controlled patients incur substantial healthcare costs, while normalization of GH levels may reduce morbidity and mortality rates to be comparable to the general population. To assess the 3-year budget impact of pasireotide LAR on a US managed care health plan following pasireotide LAR availability. Two separate economic models were developed: one from the perspective of an entire health plan and another from the perspective of a pharmacy budget. The total budget impact model includes costs of drug therapies and other costs for treatment, monitoring, management of adverse events, and comorbidities. The pharmacy cost calculator only considers drug costs. The total estimated budget impact associated with the introduction of pasireotide LAR is 0.31 cents ($0.0031) per member per month (PMPM) in the first year, 0.78 cents ($0.0078) in the second year, and 1.42 cents ($0.0142) in the third year following FDA approval. Costs were similar or lower from a pharmacy budget impact perspective. For each patient achieving disease control, cost savings from reduced comorbidities amounted to $10,240 per year. Published data on comorbidities for acromegaly are limited. In the absence of data on acromegaly-related costs for some comorbidities, comorbidity costs for the general population were used (may be under-estimates). The budget impact of pasireotide LAR is expected to be modest, with an expected increase of 1.42 cents PMPM on the total health plan budget in the third year after FDA approval. The efficacy of pasireotide LAR in acromegaly, as demonstrated in head-to-head trials compared with currently available treatment options, is expected to be associated with a reduction of the prevalence of

  14. A Capsule Look at Zero-Base Budgeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, William A., Jr.

    Weaknesses of the traditional incremental budgeting approach are considered as background to indicate the need for a new system of budgeting in educational institutions, and a step-by-step description of zero-based budgeting (ZBB) is presented. Proposed advantages of ZBB include the following: better staff morale due to a budget that is open and…

  15. 40 CFR 96.140 - State trading budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State trading budgets. 96.140 Section...) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Allowance Allocations § 96.140 State trading budgets. The State trading budgets for annual...

  16. 40 CFR 97.140 - State trading budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State trading budgets. 97.140 Section...) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Allowance Allocations § 97.140 State trading budgets. The State trading budgets for annual allocations of CAIR NOX allowances...

  17. Budget Update, November 9, 2010. Report 10-20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfork, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    On October 8, Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger signed the 2010-11 Budget Act for the State of California. This budget was the outcome of many months of negotiation between the Governor and the Legislature. The Governor vetoed $963 million in spending from the Legislature's budget, arriving at a budget that addresses an estimated $19.1 billion…

  18. Defense.gov Special Report: 2015 Fiscal Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Defense Submit Search FY 2015 Fiscal Budget News Stories Dempsey Calls for Budget Increase increase its budget, the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff said. Story James: Air Force Grapples with Congress to Fund Readiness The Air Force fiscal 2015 budget request is shrinking because of Congressional

  19. Defense.gov Special Report: 2013 Fiscal Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Defense Submit Search 2013 Fiscal Budget Published Feb. 13, 2012 Top Stories Budget Proposal Slows Cost Growth, Pentagon Leaders Say The Defense Department's proposed fiscal 2013 budget request Department officials told a Senate panel. Story Officials Seek Construction Funds, More BRAC in Budget

  20. Budget of the U.S. Government, Fiscal Year 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Management and Budget, Executive Office of the President, 2016

    2016-01-01

    "Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2017" contains the Budget Message of the President, information on the President's priorities, and summary tables. President Obama's 2017 Budget makes critical investments while adhering to the bipartisan budget agreement he signed into the previous fall, and it lifts sequestration in…

  1. 40 CFR 96.40 - State trading program budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State trading program budget. 96.40... (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS NOX Allowance Allocations § 96.40 State trading program budget. The State trading program budget...

  2. The Relevance of Budget Preparation in School Administration | Fan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It demands a periodic preparation of the school budget. This paper therefore examines the concept of budgeting, its advantages in our school system and suggests some accounting requirements which are aimed at making the preparation of a budget less cumbersome and more realistic. It highlights four types of budgets: ...

  3. 34 CFR 75.251 - The budget period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The budget period. 75.251 Section 75.251 Education... Multi-Year Projects § 75.251 The budget period. (a) The Secretary usually approves a budget period of... budget period; and (2) Indicates his or her intention to make contination awards to fund the remainder of...

  4. 14 CFR 152.323 - Budget revision: Airport development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget revision: Airport development. 152... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Accounting and Reporting Requirements § 152.323 Budget... change in the budget estimates, the sponsor shall submit a request for budget revision on a form...

  5. 24 CFR 791.405 - Reallocations of budget authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reallocations of budget authority... Allocation of Budget Authority for Housing Assistance § 791.405 Reallocations of budget authority. (a) The field office shall make every reasonable effort to use the budget authority made available for each...

  6. 24 CFR 982.157 - Budget and expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Budget and expenditure. 982.157... and PHA Administration of Program § 982.157 Budget and expenditure. (a) Budget submission. Each PHA fiscal year, the PHA must submit its proposed budget for the program to HUD for approval at such time and...

  7. Fiscal 1987 nuclear budget request amounts to 366 billion yen; increased 2.7 %

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The 1987 budget request was submitted to the Ministry of Finance by the end of August, 1986. Of the total, the nuclear budget request made by eight ministries and agencies totaled 366,896 million yen, 2.7 % increase over the previous year, which consists of 184,715 million yen in the general account, 0.6 % down, and 182,180 million yen in the special account for power resource development, 6.3 % up. The increase rate was kept at a low level in consideration of the tight government financial condition. The request was approved on September 9 by the Atomic Energy Commission, which is responsible for securing the budget for the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. The government draft budget is expected to be finalized by the end of 1986 on the basis of the draft of the Ministry of Finance. The Science and Technology Agency request is 277,934 million yen, 1.0 % increase, and the project costs for Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp. account for its 88.3 %. The 1987 nuclear budget request by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry is mostly on the special account for power resource siting and power resource diversification, totaling 88,400 million yen. (Kako, I.)

  8. Portfolio balancing and risk adjusted values under constrained budget conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKay, J.A.; Lerche, I.

    1996-01-01

    For a given hydrocarbon exploration opportunity, the influences of value, cost, success probability and corporate risk tolerance provide an optimal working interest that should be taken in the opportunity in order to maximize the risk adjusted value. When several opportunities are available, but when the total budget is insufficient to take optimal working interest in each, an analytic procedure is given for optimizing the risk adjusted value of the total portfolio; the relevant working interests are also derived based on a cost exposure constraint. Several numerical illustrations are provided to exhibit the use of the method under different budget conditions, and with different numbers of available opportunities. When value, cost, success probability, and risk tolerance are uncertain for each and every opportunity, the procedure is generalized to allow determination of probable optimal risk adjusted value for the total portfolio and, at the same time, the range of probable working interest that should be taken in each opportunity is also provided. The result is that the computations of portfolio balancing can be done quickly in either deterministic or probabilistic manners on a small calculator, thereby providing rapid assessments of opportunities and their worth to a corporation. (Author)

  9. Fiscal year 1993 budget estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The US Congress has determined that the safe use of nuclear materials for peaceful purposes is a legitimate and important national goal. It has entrusted the NRC with the primary Federal responsibility for achieving that goal. The NRC's mission, therefore, is to ensure adequate protection for the public health and safety, the common defense and security, and the environment in the use of nuclear materials in the United States. The NRC's scope of responsibility incudes regulation of commercial nuclear power plants; research, test, and training reactors; fuel cycle facilities; medical, academic, and industrial uses of nuclear materials; and the transport, storage, and disposal of nuclear materials and wastes. The NRC carries out its mission by setting standards and requirements that licensees must meet to design,construct, and operate safe facilities, in the form of rules, license conditions, and regulatory guidance; inspecting facilities and taking enforcement action, as necessary, to ensure that such standards are followed; and conducting research to support, confirm, or refine judgments used in regulatory decisions. The technologies involved in the use of nuclear energy are relatively new and complex. Regulatory decisions often require conservatism to account for technical uncertainty. Conservatisms should be modified appropriately as increased understanding of physical phenomena and interactions is achieved. Further, essential functions must be maintained through appropriate combinations of high component and system reliability, redundancy, and diversity to provide multiple barriers to the release of radiation (defense-in-depth)

  10. THE DISKMASS SURVEY. II. ERROR BUDGET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bershady, Matthew A.; Westfall, Kyle B.; Verheijen, Marc A. W.; Martinsson, Thomas; Andersen, David R.; Swaters, Rob A.

    2010-01-01

    We present a performance analysis of the DiskMass Survey. The survey uses collisionless tracers in the form of disk stars to measure the surface density of spiral disks, to provide an absolute calibration of the stellar mass-to-light ratio (Υ * ), and to yield robust estimates of the dark-matter halo density profile in the inner regions of galaxies. We find that a disk inclination range of 25 0 -35 0 is optimal for our measurements, consistent with our survey design to select nearly face-on galaxies. Uncertainties in disk scale heights are significant, but can be estimated from radial scale lengths to 25% now, and more precisely in the future. We detail the spectroscopic analysis used to derive line-of-sight velocity dispersions, precise at low surface-brightness, and accurate in the presence of composite stellar populations. Our methods take full advantage of large-grasp integral-field spectroscopy and an extensive library of observed stars. We show that the baryon-to-total mass fraction (F bar ) is not a well-defined observational quantity because it is coupled to the halo mass model. This remains true even when the disk mass is known and spatially extended rotation curves are available. In contrast, the fraction of the rotation speed supplied by the disk at 2.2 scale lengths (disk maximality) is a robust observational indicator of the baryonic disk contribution to the potential. We construct the error budget for the key quantities: dynamical disk mass surface density (Σ dyn ), disk stellar mass-to-light ratio (Υ disk * ), and disk maximality (F *,max disk ≡V disk *,max / V c ). Random and systematic errors in these quantities for individual galaxies will be ∼25%, while survey precision for sample quartiles are reduced to 10%, largely devoid of systematic errors outside of distance uncertainties.

  11. BUDGETING, BUDGETARY CONTROL AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION: Evidence from Hospitality Firms in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Egbunike

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out with the view to address two fundamental issues: first, to determine if there is any association between budget, budgetary control and performance evaluation; second, to ascertain if there is any significant variation in the budget, budgetary control and performance evaluation measures of hospitality firms in Nigeria. The study employed descriptive design and primary data (questionnaire was the major source of data collection. Questionnaire was administered to a total of six hundred (600 employees of ten (10 selected hospitality firms in Nigeria. The data obtained were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Findings indicated that budget and budgetary control could serve as an avenue through which hospitality firms in Nigeria can be evaluated. In addition, it was revealed that there is a significant variation in the budget, budgetary control and performance evaluation of hospitality firms in Nigeria. On the basis of the findings, it was recommended that hospitality firms in Nigeria should carry out performance evaluation on every aspect of their budget and budgetary activities as a way of ensuring that budgeted outcomes are met. Also, budgetary costs should be a basis of choosing the most-fit performance evaluation technique for hospitality firms since such

  12. Analysis of Budget deficit in Romania during 2000-2013

    OpenAIRE

    Moraru Camelia; Popovici Norina

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, over time, the years of economic crisis were defined by significant increases in the levels of budget deficits. Discussions on sizing budget deficits, financing, especially the volume of public debt became more intense, both politically and academically. The impact of budget deficit on economic growth is a common theme found in the economic policies adopted. The present paper aims to analyze the evolution of budget deficit and the structural budget deficit in Romania during 2000-20...

  13. Cost reduction by using budgeting via the Kaizen method

    OpenAIRE

    Dorina Budugan; Iuliana Georgescu

    2009-01-01

    In the current conditions, continuous improvement is one of the main issues faced by the manag-ers of organizations. The Japanese use the term kaizen to designate continuous improvement. Budgeting via the kaizen method explicitly integrates improvement throughout the period budgeted in the budget data. Budget explanation via the kaizen method refers, on the one hand, to budgeting for the purposes of continuously improving the number of work hours per product unit, and, on the other hand, to t...

  14. Participative Budgeting, Budget Evaluation, and Organizational Trust in Post-Secondary Educational Institutions in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Cynthia V.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between a participative budgeting system, the attitudes toward the budget, and levels of organizational trust held by administrators in post-secondary institutions. A 50-item questionnaire was distributed to college and university administrators across Canada. A series of regression…

  15. Key Questions on the Obama Administration's 2013 Education Budget Request: Federal Education Budget Project. Issue Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    New America Foundation, 2012

    2012-01-01

    President Barack Obama submitted his third budget request to Congress on February 13th, 2012. The budget request includes proposed funding levels for all federal programs and agencies in aggregate for the upcoming 10 fiscal years, and specific fiscal year 2013 funding levels for programs subject to the annual appropriations process. It is…

  16. Budget Cuts: Financial Aid Offices Face Budget Cuts and Increasing Workload. Quick Scan Survey Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    The majority of college financial aid offices have seen cuts to their operating budgets this year compared to the 2007-08 academic year when the recession began, according to the National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrator's latest QuickScan Survey. Sixty-two percent of financial aid offices reported operating budget cuts this year…

  17. The 'People's Budget' and Budget Effectiveness:The Case of Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All over the world, participatory budgeting is being advocated. This is based on the belief that stakeholders' participation in the budgeting process improves transparency, accountability and service delivery. Using evidence from 105 Civil Society Organisations (CSOs) in Kabalore and Kamwenge district local governments ...

  18. Age, distribution, and significance within a sediment budget, of in-channel depositional surfaces in the Normanby River, Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietsch, T. J.; Brooks, A. P.; Spencer, J.; Olley, J. M.; Borombovits, D.

    2015-06-01

    We present the results of investigations into alluvial deposition in the catchment of the Normanby River, which flows into Princess Charlotte Bay (PCB) in the northern part of the Great Barrier Reef Lagoon. Our focus is on the fine fraction (bank attached bars or inset or inner floodplains, these more or less flat-lying surfaces within the macro-channel have hitherto received little attention in sediment budgeting models. We use high resolution LiDAR based mapping combined with optical dating of exposures cut into these in-channel deposits to compare their aggradation rates with those found in other depositional zones in the catchment, namely the floodplain and coastal plain. In total 59 single grain OSL dates were produced across 21 stratigraphic profiles at 14 sites distributed though the 24 226 km2 catchment. In-channel storage in these inset features is a significant component of the contemporary fine sediment budget (i.e. recent decades/last century), annually equivalent to more than 50% of the volume entering the channel network from hillslopes and subsoil sources. Therefore, at the very least, in-channel storage of fine material needs to be incorporated into sediment budgeting exercises. Furthermore, deposition within the channel has occurred in multiple locations coincident in time with accelerated sediment production following European settlement. Generally, this has occurred on a subset of the features we have examined here, namely linear bench features low in the channel. This suggests that accelerated aggradation on in-channel depositional surfaces has been in part a response to accelerated erosion within the catchment. The entire contribution of ~ 370 kilotonnes per annum of fine sediment estimated to have been produced by alluvial gully erosion over the last ~ 100 years can be accounted for by that stored as in-channel alluvium. These features therefore can play an important role in mitigating the impact on the receiving water of accelerated erosion.

  19. SAY NO TO NEW BUDGET CUTS !

    CERN Multimedia

    STAFF ASSOCIATION

    2010-01-01

    In June, CERN Finance Committee postponed its proposals for the 2011 budget and the Director-General’s medium-term plan (2012–2015). The Member State delegations asked for a significant reduction in these budgets. The Staff Association condemns this request for new budget cuts which shows a short-term political vision. It is therefore organizing a demonstration on 25th August to defend basic research in Europe. On this day your presence is indispensable. Enough of simply getting by ! We know that budget cuts and the reduction of deficits are topical in several countries. The areas of research and training are also affected. However, in the case of CERN, severe budgetary constraints have been imposed for several years now, in particular since 1996 when the Organization’s budget was reduced by around 10%, just when the construction of the LHC was due to start. Since then, 100 million Swiss francs have been lost each year, reducing CERN’s resources to a minimum. All e...

  20. Budget reforms in times of austerity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Mads Bøge

    In the literature times of austerity is argued to give rise to centralization of decisions making. A recently published article finds evidence of a centralization cascade in times of austerity. Based on a case study of recent changes of the Danish budget institutions, the aim of this pa-per is to......In the literature times of austerity is argued to give rise to centralization of decisions making. A recently published article finds evidence of a centralization cascade in times of austerity. Based on a case study of recent changes of the Danish budget institutions, the aim of this pa......-per is to explore how such a centralization cascade may look like when zooming into a specific case. Another aim is to explore the consequences of the changes of budget institutions. The paper shows that the fiscal crisis was a window of opportunity for the Ministry of Finance to introduce a budget reform...... finally results in a more detailed control and steering carried out by the managing directors in the agencies. The paper also shows that the changes imply a range of consequences; some are functional others are more dysfunction-al. There seems therefore to be a lot of trade-offs when budget institutions...

  1. THE POSITION BUDGETS OF ADMINISTRATIVE AND TERRITORIAL UNITS IN GENERAL CONSOLIDATED BUDGET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHIRCULESCU MARIA FELICIA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The budget is a tool of territorial administrative units of financial and budgetary policy in which the state intervenes in the economy at the local level, having a major impact on general government.Through the decentralization processes that are increasingly debated and applied, the paper aims to highlight the importance of the territorial administrative unit budgets in the consolidated budget in Romania.Thus, the work comprises both theoretical notions concerning the presentation of the consolidated state budget and the budget of the territorial administrative units. The relevance of the work lies in the importance of general government in the regulation of macroeconomic balances by sizing or macroeconomic imbalances, with modern methods that analyze the possibilities and effects of new types of deficits or surpluses in the public sector.

  2. Impact of short-lived non-CO2 mitigation on carbon budgets for stabilizing global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogelj, Joeri; Riahi, Keywan; Meinshausen, Malte; Schaeffer, Michiel; Knutti, Reto

    2015-01-01

    Limiting global warming to any level requires limiting the total amount of CO 2 emissions, or staying within a CO 2 budget. Here we assess how emissions from short-lived non-CO 2 species like methane, hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), black-carbon, and sulphates influence these CO 2 budgets. Our default case, which assumes mitigation in all sectors and of all gases, results in a CO 2 budget between 2011–2100 of 340 PgC for a >66% chance of staying below 2°C, consistent with the assessment of the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Extreme variations of air-pollutant emissions from black-carbon and sulphates influence this budget by about ±5%. In the hypothetical case of no methane or HFCs mitigation—which is unlikely when CO 2 is stringently reduced—the budgets would be much smaller (40% or up to 60%, respectively). However, assuming very stringent CH 4 mitigation as a sensitivity case, CO 2 budgets could be 25% higher. A limit on cumulative CO 2 emissions remains critical for temperature targets. Even a 25% higher CO 2 budget still means peaking global emissions in the next two decades, and achieving net zero CO 2 emissions during the third quarter of the 21st century. The leverage we have to affect the CO 2 budget by targeting non-CO 2 diminishes strongly along with CO 2 mitigation, because these are partly linked through economic and technological factors. (letter)

  3. Rare earth materials research in European Community R and D programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavigan, J.P.

    1992-01-01

    The level of involvement of EC research programmes in rare earth materials research is quite high. A total of 65 projects have been identified representing an involvement of 283 partners from all over Europe. This corresponds to a budget a 63.3 MECU (76MDollars) of which the EC contributes 40.7 MECU (49MDollars). In this paper, the various research activities will be discussed under the main themes of rare earth permanent magnets, high Tc superconductors, optical and other materials, with specific reference to the three main programmes involved, BRITE/EURAM, SCIENCE and ESPRIT. Two other programmes currently involved in rare earth research are RAW MATERIALS and JOULE. (orig.)

  4. Estimating the budget impact of orphan drugs in Sweden and France 2013-2020.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchings, Adam; Schey, Carina; Dutton, Richard; Achana, Felix; Antonov, Karolina

    2014-02-13

    The growth in expenditure on orphan medicinal products (OMP) across Europe has been identified as a concern. Estimates of future expenditure in Europe have suggested that OMPs could account for a significant proportion of total pharmaceutical expenditure in some countries, but few of these forecasts have been well validated. This analysis aims to establish a robust forecast of the future budget impact of OMPs on the healthcare systems in Sweden and France. A dynamic forecasting model was created to estimate the budget impact of OMPs in Sweden and France between 2013 and 2020. The model used historical data on OMP designation and approval rates to predict the number of new OMPs coming to the market. Average OMP sales were estimated for each year post-launch by regression analysis of historical sales data. Total forecast sales were compared with expected sales of all pharmaceuticals in each country to quantify the relative budget impact. The model predicts that by 2020, 152 OMPs will have marketing authorization in Europe. The base case OMP budget impacts are forecast to grow from 2.7% in Sweden and 3.2% in France of total drug expenditure in 2013 to 4.1% in Sweden and 4.9% in France by 2020. The principal driver of expenditure growth is the number of new OMPs obtaining OMP designation. This is tempered by the slowing success rate for new approvals and the loss of intellectual property protection on existing orphan medicines. Given the forward-looking nature of the analysis, uncertainty exists around model parameters and sensitivity analysis found peak year budget impact varying between 2% and 11%. The budget impact of OMPs in Sweden and France is likely to remain sustainable over time and a relatively small proportion of total pharmaceutical expenditure. This forecast could be affected by changes in the success rate for OMP approvals, average cost of OMPs, and the type of companies developing OMPs.

  5. Estimating the budget impact of orphan drugs in Sweden and France 2013–2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The growth in expenditure on orphan medicinal products (OMP) across Europe has been identified as a concern. Estimates of future expenditure in Europe have suggested that OMPs could account for a significant proportion of total pharmaceutical expenditure in some countries, but few of these forecasts have been well validated. This analysis aims to establish a robust forecast of the future budget impact of OMPs on the healthcare systems in Sweden and France. Methods A dynamic forecasting model was created to estimate the budget impact of OMPs in Sweden and France between 2013 and 2020. The model used historical data on OMP designation and approval rates to predict the number of new OMPs coming to the market. Average OMP sales were estimated for each year post-launch by regression analysis of historical sales data. Total forecast sales were compared with expected sales of all pharmaceuticals in each country to quantify the relative budget impact. Results The model predicts that by 2020, 152 OMPs will have marketing authorization in Europe. The base case OMP budget impacts are forecast to grow from 2.7% in Sweden and 3.2% in France of total drug expenditure in 2013 to 4.1% in Sweden and 4.9% in France by 2020. The principal driver of expenditure growth is the number of new OMPs obtaining OMP designation. This is tempered by the slowing success rate for new approvals and the loss of intellectual property protection on existing orphan medicines. Given the forward-looking nature of the analysis, uncertainty exists around model parameters and sensitivity analysis found peak year budget impact varying between 2% and 11%. Conclusion The budget impact of OMPs in Sweden and France is likely to remain sustainable over time and a relatively small proportion of total pharmaceutical expenditure. This forecast could be affected by changes in the success rate for OMP approvals, average cost of OMPs, and the type of companies developing OMPs. PMID:24524281

  6. Total Logistic Plant Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusan Dorcak

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Total Logistics Plant Solutions, plant logistics system - TLPS, based on the philosophy of advanced control processes enables complex coordination of business processes and flows and the management and scheduling of production in the appropriate production plans and planning periods. Main attributes of TLPS is to create a comprehensive, multi-level, enterprise logistics information system, with a certain degree of intelligence, which accepts the latest science and research results in the field of production technology and logistics. Logistic model of company understands as a system of mutually transforming flows of materials, energy, information, finance, which is realized by chain activities and operations

  7. Brazil's Petrobras chops 1992 capital budget

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Brazil's state owned Petroleos Brasileiro SA has slashed its 1992 capital budget by more than half for lack of adequate cash flow. Petrobras Pres. Benedicto Moreira last week disclosed the cut, to $1.4 billion from $2.9 billion earmarked earlier, citing cash flow problems stemming from heavy subsidies for domestic products. Petrobras Association of Engineers (Aepet) disputes the latest amount, claiming without elaboration the state company actually is cutting the current budget to $1 billion. At either level, the severe budget cut bodes ill for Petrobras plans to boost domestic production by a net 300,000 b/d to 1 million b/d by 1995, an ambitious program that calls for outlays of $18 billion

  8. 1985 nuclear budget requests up 12 %

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    The estimates of government agencies for the fiscal 1985 nuclear-related budget were presented to the Ministry of Finance, which amount to 343.76 billion yen (up 12.1 %). The budgetary requests by the Science and Technology Agency are 179.24 billion yen in the general account and 90.21 billion yen in the special account for power resource development, and the budgetary requests by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry are 1.03 billion yen and 70.08 billion yen, respectively. The budget demands by the STA, which supervises Power Reactors and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, etc. are for the continuation of current projects, including the beginning of the construction of the prototype FBR Monju and the neutral beam injector for the fusion device JT-60. The budget demands by MITI are similarly for the safety measures and verification tests for nuclear power generation. (Mori, K.)

  9. Avanços nos materiais e no tratamento endovascular de oclusões arteriais crônicas totais: um relato de caso Advances in materials and endovascular treatment of chronic total arterial occlusions: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Queiroz Neves

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available As oclusões arteriais crônicas totais com forte componente cálcico são ainda nos dias atuais, um fator muitas vezes limitante para o tratamento endovascular devido à dificuldade em transpor estas lesões com fios-guia e cateteres habitualmente utilizados. Revisamos a literatura e descrevemos um caso de tratamento endovascular de uma oclusão total de artéria ilíaca externa, onde o uso de novos materiais desenvolvidos especificamente para o tratamento deste tipo de lesão foi determinante para o sucesso do caso.Chronic arterial occlusions with great calcium component are usually a factor of limitation to endovascular treatment to the difficulty to transpose these lesions with guidewires and catheters commonly used. We reviewed the literature and described a case of endovascular treatment of a total occlusion of external iliac artery, where the use of new materials developed specifically to the treatment of such injuries was critical to the success of the case.

  10. Validation and dosimetric evaluation employing the techniques of TL and OSL of thermoluminescent materials for application in the dosimetry of clinical beams of electrons used in total irradiation of the skin - TSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Shirlane Barbosa de

    2017-01-01

    In vivo dosimetry has become an important role for the treatment of total skin irradiation within a rigorous quality assurance program that should be an integral part of the radiotherapy departments. TSI dosimetry is difficult because of the complexity of the treatment in assessing dose uniformity and measuring the dose absorbed at shallow depths throughout the skin surface extent, resulting in a wide variation in dose distribution. The TLDs have proven to be very useful for the distribution and verification of the dose prescribed for the patient as the dose may differ from place to place due to patient body geometry, overlapping of structures and asymmetries of the radiation field. The use of TLDs in vivo can identify variations in the prescribed dose because its measurement accuracy and great precision. Several types of dosimeters have been used in the radiotherapy sectors, the most commonly used are Lithium Fluride (TLD-100), where it obtains a long history in this type of application. New dosimetric materials have gained great importance in the dosimetry of clinical electron beams, such as Dysprosium-doped Calcium Sulphate (TL) and Carbon doped (OSL) based Aluminum Oxide, This work evaluates the performance of the respective thermoluminescent dosimeters and the optically stimulated luminescence in the dosimetry of clinical electron beams used in total irradiation of the skin. (author)

  11. 1981 research programme and budget of Hahn-Meitner-Institut fuer Kernforschung Berlin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    Hahn-Meitner-Institut fuer Kernforschung Berlin (HMI) is one of the twelve large research centers of the Federal Republic of Germany; like the other centers, it has to present a combined research programme and budget (programme budget) every year. In these programme budgets, as in the medium-term financial planning in the federal budget, planning for the current year is combined with a medium-term plan for the three next years. For the year 1981, the budget of HMI includes a total expenditure of about DM 85 million, DM 71.2 million of which are direct R + D expenditures. This R + D programme is carried by 396 of the total staff of 705. Research is done in the following fields (approximate figures): Heavy ion physics DM 23.0 million. Radiation- and photochemistry DM 11.4 million. Solid state research DM 20.9 million. Nuclear chemistry DM 8.9 million. Data processing/electronics DM 7.0 million. (orig./UA) [de

  12. Revised budget for the oceanic uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento, J.L.; Sundquist, E.T.

    1992-01-01

    TRACER-CALIBRATED models of the total uptake of anthropogenic CO2 by the world's oceans give estimates of about 2 gigatonnes carbon per year1, significantly larger than a recent estimate2 of 0.3-0.8 Gt C yr-1 for the synoptic air-to-sea CO2 influx. Although both estimates require that the global CO2 budget must be balanced by a large unknown terrestrial sink, the latter estimate implies a much larger terrestrial sink, and challenges the ocean model calculations on which previous CO2 budgets were based. The discrepancy is due in part to the net flux of carbon to the ocean by rivers and rain, which must be added to the synoptic air-to-sea CO2 flux to obtain the total oceanic uptake of anthropogenic CO2. Here we estimate the magnitude of this correction and of several other recently proposed adjustments to the synoptic air-sea CO2 exchange. These combined adjustments minimize the apparent inconsistency, and restore estimates of the terrestrial sink to values implied by the modelled oceanic uptake.

  13. The budget process in schools of nursing: a primer for the novice administrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starck, P L; Bailes, B

    1996-01-01

    All administrators are expected to be competent in budget and financial management. Novice administrators of schools of nursing are expected to know about the budgetary process, budgeting techniques, and the various types of budgets that can be used, such as the open-ended budget, incremental budget, alternate-level budget, quota budget, formula budget, intramural budget, zero-based budget, and cost center budget. In addition, administrators are expected to know what key questions need to be asked about how the budget is structured and revenue sources and how to manage and evaluate their budgets.

  14. Soft Budget Constraints in Professional Football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Rasmus K.; Nielsen, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    European professional football clubs go out of business even though they operate chronically on the edge of financial collapse? The paper argues that the paradox can be explained by the fact that professional football clubs operate within soft budget constraints in a way which is similar to the role...... of large companies in socialist economies – a phenomenon which was first identified by the Hungarian Economist János Kornai. More generally, it is argued that our understanding of the peculiar economics of professional team sports can be enhanced significantly by applying the soft budget constrain concept...

  15. Perspectives used for gaining approval of budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks-Joiner, G L

    1990-01-01

    Nurse executives think about problems using a certain perspective which may influence decisions on budgetary matters. The nurse executives' perspective used in decision-making may influence which budget proposals are developed and approved. A study was performed to determine the perspective used by nurse executives in decision-making on supplementary budget item proposals and whether perspective use influenced approval. Findings showed that use of the system view or dual-domain perspective in a proposal may enhance nurse executives' changes of gaining approval.

  16. 76 FR 77560 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for the Office of Management and Budget (OMB...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... medicine, or hospital to possess certain small quantities of byproduct material for in vitro clinical or...: Submission for the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Review; Comment Request AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... required or asked to report: Any physician, veterinarian in the practice of veterinary medicine, clinical...

  17. [The department budget, in the context of the hospital global budget. Initial results in general medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besançon, F

    1984-02-23

    In a general hospital (Hôtel-Dieu, in the center of Paris), run with a global budget, budgets determined for each unit were introduced as an experiment in 1980. Physicians were in charge of certain expenses, mainly: linen, drugs, transportation of patients to and from other hospitals within Paris, and blood fractions. The whole does not exceed 4% of the turnover (FF 20 millions in 1980) of a 67 bed internal medicine unit. Other accounts deal with the stays, admissions, prescriptions of technical acts, laboratory analyses, and X-rays. In 1980, expenses were 11% more than budgeted, but the increase in stays and particularly in admissions was significantly greater. The resulting savings were 8.8% and 18.7% for stays and admissions respectively. Psychic reactions were variable. The subsequent budgets followed the fluctuations of recorded expenses, which were fairly important in both directions. The unit budget may be an advance or a regression, in a restrictive and past-perpetuating context. The coherence between the unit budget and the global hospital budget is questionable. Physicians were willing to take part in accounting and saving. They have good reason for not enlarging their financial responsibilities. Conversely, they may give more attention to diseases of public opinion.

  18. Revisiting global mean sea level budget closure : Preliminary results from an integrative study within ESA's Climate Change Initiative -Sea level Budget Closure-Climate Change Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanisamy, H.; Cazenave, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    The global mean sea level budget is revisited over two time periods: the entire altimetry era, 1993-2015 and the Argo/GRACE era, 2003-2015 using the version '0' of sea level components estimated by the SLBC-CCI teams. The SLBC-CCI is an European Space Agency's project on sea level budget closure using CCI products. Over the entire altimetry era, the sea level budget was performed as the sum of steric and mass components that include contributions from total land water storage, glaciers, ice sheets (Greenland and Antarctica) and total water vapor content. Over the Argo/GRACE era, it was performed as the sum of steric and GRACE based ocean mass. Preliminary budget analysis performed over the altimetry era (1993-2015) results in a trend value of 2.83 mm/yr. On comparison with the observed altimetry-based global mean sea level trend over the same period (3.03 ± 0.5 mm/yr), we obtain a residual of 0.2 mm/yr. In spite of a residual of 0.2 mm/yr, the sea level budget result obtained over the altimetry era is very promising as this has been performed using the version '0' of the sea level components. Furthermore, uncertainties are not yet included in this study as uncertainty estimation for each sea level component is currently underway. Over the Argo/GRACE era (2003-2015), the trend estimated from the sum of steric and GRACE ocean mass amounts to 2.63 mm/yr while that observed by satellite altimetry is 3.37 mm/yr, thereby leaving a residual of 0.7 mm/yr. Here an ensemble GRACE ocean mass data (mean of various available GRACE ocean mass data) was used for the estimation. Using individual GRACE data results in a residual range of 0.5 mm/yr -1.1 mm/yr. Investigations are under way to determine the cause of the vast difference between the observed sea level and the sea level obtained from steric and GRACE ocean mass. One main suspect is the impact of GRACE data gaps on sea level budget analysis due to lack of GRACE data over several months since 2011. The current action plan

  19. Professional Skepticism and Auditors’ Assessment of Misstatement Risks: The Moderating Effect of Experience and Time Budget Pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Sayed Alwee Hussnie Sayed Hussin; Takiah Mohd Iskandar; Norman Mohd Saleh; Romlah Jaffar

    2017-01-01

    Background: This study employs a field experiment to examine the relationship between professional skepticism, experience, and time budget pressure on auditors’ assessment of risk of misstatement. In addition, the study examines the moderating effect of experience and time budget pressure on the relationship between professional skepticism and auditors’ assessment of risk from material misstatements; 2) Method: This study employs a multiple regression analysis on 248 auditors from both Big4 a...

  20. Mass and energy budget of the northern hemisphere. Der Massen- und Energiehaushalt der Nordhemisphaere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hacker, J M

    1981-01-01

    Seasonal budgets of moist static energy, dry static energy, latent energy, and mass m are calculated for mass-equal finite elements (boxes) over the northern hemisphere. For this purpose the hemispheric atmosphere is divided into 4 meridional belts, 12 zonal sectors and 4 vertical layers, which results in 48 atmospheric columns and a total of 192 boxes.

  1. Economic Growth and Budget Constraints: EU Countries Panel Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimčík Petr

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to identify the impacts of different taxes and expenditures on economic growth. The research is focused on 20 selected European Union Member States. These countries are equally divided into four groups based on their average tax burden as presented in the World Tax Index. A comparison of fiscal attributes among these groups is important for the analysis. Annual government finance data from the years 1995 to 2012 are used for an empirical study. The indicators observed are real GDP change, the composition and volume of total government expenditures, tax quotas of individual taxes and total budget balance. These indicators are used within an endogenous growth model together with capital stock and an approximation of human capital. A panel regression with fixed effects is used as an analytic tool. The main results are that an increase in social contributions, property, production and personal income tax quotas has an adverse effect on economic growth.

  2. The nursing human resource budget: design for success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, J B; Cameron, M L; Flarey, D L

    1995-06-01

    As vital as the nursing human resource budget is to the successful achievement of institutional goals, it is very important to present a well-developed budget. Using current automated spreadsheet technology, the nursing human resource budget can be laid out in a format that is easy to understand and easy to present. Using the methods discussed in this article, the nurse executive will be able to perform infinite iterations of the proposed budget with a few simple key strokes, thus allowing for things like zero-based budgeting or addition of programs during the budgeting process or at a later date. Implications for nurse executives are discussed.

  3. Professional Skepticism and Auditors’ Assessment of Misstatement Risks: The Moderating Effect of Experience and Time Budget Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Alwee Hussnie Sayed Hussin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study employs a field experiment to examine the relationship between professional skepticism, experience, and time budget pressure on auditors’ assessment of risk of misstatement. In addition, the study examines the moderating effect of experience and time budget pressure on the relationship between professional skepticism and auditors’ assessment of risk from material misstatements; 2 Method: This study employs a multiple regression analysis on 248 auditors from both Big4 and non-Big4 firms; 3 The results indicate that professional skepticism and experience have positive effects while time budget pressure has a negative effect on auditors’ assessment of risk from material misstatements; and 4 The positive effect of professional skepticism on auditors’ assessment of risk from material misstatement is stronger among more experienced auditors than that among less experienced. On the other hand, the positive effect of professional skepticism on risk assessment is weaker when auditors work under high time budget pressure than that when they work under low time budget pressure. Additional analysis on the samples from the two selected areas, Kuala Lumpur and Selangor, produces consistent results indicating that the use of separate models for different samples is not necessary. Hence, the study uses a single model for the final analysis. The results provide a better understanding on whether the auditors are able to sustain professional skepticism with a given amount of relevant audit experience and under different levels of time budget pressure.

  4. The Budget Can Be a Management Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Keuren, James

    2002-01-01

    Describes how the budget can be used as a management tool (continuous-improvement plan) to help align district financial resources with school-reform efforts. Cites example of a continuous-improvement plan developed by the Ohio Department of Education. (PKP)

  5. Checking and Balancing: Banking and Budgeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thypin, Marilyn; Glasner, Lynne

    A short fictional work for limited English speakers is presented that relates a young couple's experience in learning about managing their money more carefully by budgeting and maintaining a checking account. Since the couple did not have a checking account, they had to go to their savings bank in order to pay each bill and they had to keep cash…

  6. Collegiate Connections: Music Education Budget Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaton, Emily Dawn

    2012-01-01

    Due to the current recession, the American economy within the last few years has taken a nosedive, making it difficult for national, state, and local governments to support all the programs they currently have in place. There are difficult choices that need to be made about where to make sacrifices in their budgets so things can still run…

  7. 25 CFR 276.14 - Budget revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... changes include: (1) The use of grantee funds in furtherance of program objectives over and above the... the objective of the grant-supported program. (2) The revision indicates the need for additional... programs, functions, and activities when budgeted separately for a grant, except that the Bureau shall...

  8. Cern faces 260m euro budget cuts

    CERN Multimedia

    Banks, Michael

    2010-01-01

    "The Cern particle-physics lab near Geneva is to slash about 260m euro ($340m) from its budget for 2011-2015. The cut, which was approved by Cern's council last month, will require the lab to scale back research into future particles accelerators" (0.5 page)

  9. Budgeting For National Economic Consolidation And Progression ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper exemplifies genuine concern and empathy for the perceived unimpressive pace of growth and development of Nigeria\\'s national economy. The 2007 budget aptly directed at consolidation is crystallized as affording stakeholders the potent drive towards meaningful progression in national economic management ...

  10. PARTICULARITIES OF BUDGETING OF INVESTMENTS YIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANCA JARMILA GUŢĂ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some particularities of the budget process of all the investments as a main aspect in taking the best decision according to the main use of all the firms’ resources. As a measure method of the investments yield the main one is that which describes the relationship between the profit and the investment which improves the deccisional process.

  11. 13 CFR 130.460 - Budget justification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget justification. 130.460 Section 130.460 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT...) Cost principles. Principles for determining allowable costs are contained in OMB Circulars A-21 (cost...

  12. ORIGIN AND HISTORY OF PROGRAM BUDGETING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NOVICK, DAVID

    THE ORIGIN AND HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF PROGRAM BUDGETING, WHICH IS CURRENTLY APPLIED TO ALL THE EXECUTIVE OFFICES AND AGENCIES OF THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT, IS TRACED. IT WAS RECOGNIZED AND APPLIED AS EARLY AS 1924 BY INDUSTRY, UTILIZED AS PART OF THE WARTIME CONTROL SYSTEM IN 1942, AND IS USED TODAY BY THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE. THIS IS A…

  13. Zero-Based Budgeting: The Texas Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, William L.

    1982-01-01

    Zero-based budgeting was instituted in all Texas state-funded agencies in 1975-76, including colleges. The first two years of using this procedure are reviewed and its applicability to higher education institutions is examined in light of the need to consider educational quality as well as costs. (MSE)

  14. Budgeting-Based Organization of Internal Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogulenko, Tatiana; Ponomareva, Svetlana; Bodiaco, Anna; Mironenko, Valentina; Zelenov, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    The article suggests methodical approaches to the budgeting-based organization of internal control, determines the tasks and subtasks of control that consist in the construction of an efficient system for the making, implementation, control, and analysis of managerial decisions. The organization of responsibility centers by means of implementing…

  15. Issues in Higher Education Budgeting Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown, Mary P.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews two papers appearing in this "Economics of Education Review" issue. Faults M.J. Bowman, B. Millot, and E. Schiefelbein's tax burden study for excluding background information on educational goals in France, Chile, and Malaysia. Criticizes L. R. Jones, F. Thompson, and W. Zumeta for viewing budgeting as limiting expenditures, rather than…

  16. The Role of Rationality in University Budgeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffee, Ellen Earle

    1983-01-01

    Although empirical accounts of organizational decision making often show that the process is not a rational one, a study of budgeting at Stanford University during the 1970s, while not conclusive or comprehensive, supported the claim that the institution's process was rational and provided a procedure for testing a decision-making model. (MSE)

  17. The European Budget: Consolidation or Modernisation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.K.M. van Nispen tot Pannerden (Frans); R. Blankenstein (Richard)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This chapter first focuses on the unique character of the European budget [section 2]. We then look back on the Dutch position during the negotiations on the Financial Perspectives 2007-2013 [section 3]2. The subsequent sections respectively address the opening

  18. Improving Electronic Resources through Holistic Budgeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusik, James P.; Vargas, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    To establish a more direct link between its collections and the educational goals of Saint Xavier University, the Byrne Memorial Library has adopted a "holistic" approach to collection development. This article examines how traditional budget practices influenced the library's selection of resources and describes how holistic collection…

  19. The 2013 Long-Term Budget Outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    number of years, leading to substantial additional federal spending. For example, the nation could experience a massive earthquake, a nuclear meltdown...budget surpluses remaining after paying down publicly held debt available for redemption . a. For comparison with the current long-term projections, CBO

  20. The Budgeting Mechanism in Development Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovaleva, Tatiana M.; Khvostenko, Oleg A.; Glukhova, Alla G.; Nikeryasova, Veronica V.; Gavrilov, Denis E.

    2016-01-01

    Relevance of the researched problem is caused by the fact that today there is a requirement for a unique, generalized, theoretically and methodically elaborated budgeting mechanism disaggregating the aims of strategic level to the level of structural units of the company. The aim of article is to develop methodical provisions and practical…

  1. Do political budget cycles really exist?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, J.G.; Haan, de J.

    2013-01-01

    Most recent cross-country studies on election-motivated fiscal policy assume that the data can be pooled. As various tests suggest that our data for some 70 democratic countries for the period 1970–2007 cannot be pooled, we use the Pooled Mean Group (PMG) estimator to test whether Political Budget

  2. Private vs. Public Higher Education Budgeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beamer, Sarah A.

    2011-01-01

    Private higher education institutions are those entities owned and operated by the private sector, while public institutions are those established, supported, and controlled by a governmental agency, most often a state. Key differences exist between private and public institutions that affect budgeting in critical ways. Such differences include…

  3. BUDGET IMPACT ANALYSIS OF BELIMUMAB IN TREATING SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierotti, Francesca; Palla, Iaria; Pippo, Lara; Lorenzoni, Valentina; Turchetti, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    The study evaluates the costs of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and the budget impact due to the introduction of belimumab in the Italian setting. Adaptation to the Italian setting of a budget impact model with a time horizon of 4 years (year 0 without belimumab, years 1-3 with belimumab) to compare treatment, administration, and clinical monitoring costs of standard therapy and of the alternative scenario in which belimumab is administered in addition to the standard therapy to the subgroup of patients selected according to the label approved by the European Medicines Agency. The model takes also into account the costs of flares. Over 3 years, belimumab is able to prevent cumulatively 1,111 severe flares and 3,631 nonsevere flares with a total saving for the Italian National Health System (NHS) of approximately €6.2 million. Budget impact ranges from €4.4 million in the first year to €20.3 million in the third year. The decrease in the number of flare partially counterbalances the costs of the new technology (impact attenuation of approximately 16 percent). These data elucidate the importance to control and monitor the disease progression and to prevent exacerbations, which are the major causes of the increase in costs paid by the NHS and by the society. The financial impact could be replicate on a regional basis, to inform local decision makers. Further developments are possible as the model does not consider the additional clinical and economic benefits of reduced damage accrual and slowed disease progression.

  4. The influence of non-CO2 forcings on cumulative carbon emissions budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokarska, Katarzyna B.; Gillett, Nathan P.; Arora, Vivek K.; Lee, Warren G.; Zickfeld, Kirsten

    2018-03-01

    Carbon budgets provide a useful tool for policymakers to help meet the global climate targets, as they specify total allowable carbon emissions consistent with limiting warming to a given temperature threshold. Non-CO2 forcings have a net warming effect in the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) scenarios, leading to reductions in remaining carbon budgets based on CO2 forcing alone. Carbon budgets consistent with limiting warming to below 2.0 °C, with and without accounting for the effects of non-CO2 forcings, were assessed in inconsistent ways by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), making the effects of non-CO2 forcings hard to identify. Here we use a consistent approach to compare 1.5 °C and 2.0 °C carbon budgets with and without accounting for the effects of non-CO2 forcings, using CO2-only and RCP8.5 simulations. The median allowable carbon budgets for 1.5 °C and 2.0 °C warming are reduced by 257 PgC and 418 PgC, respectively, and the uncertainty ranges on the budgets are reduced by more than a factor of two when accounting for the net warming effects of non-CO2 forcings. While our overall results are consistent with IPCC, we use a more robust methodology, and explain the narrower uncertainty ranges of carbon budgets when non-CO2 forcings are included. We demonstrate that most of the reduction in carbon budgets is a result of the direct warming effect of the non-CO2 forcings, with a secondary contribution from the influence of the non-CO2 forcings on the carbon cycle. Such carbon budgets are expected to play an increasingly important role in climate change mitigation, thus understanding the influence of non-CO2 forcings on these budgets and their uncertainties is critical.

  5. GCIP water and energy budget synthesis (WEBS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roads, J.; Lawford, R.; Bainto, E.; Berbery, E.; Chen, S.; Fekete, B.; Gallo, K.; Grundstein, A.; Higgins, W.; Kanamitsu, M.; Krajewski, W.; Lakshmi, V.; Leathers, D.; Lettenmaier, D.; Luo, L.; Maurer, E.; Meyers, T.; Miller, D.; Mitchell, Ken; Mote, T.; Pinker, R.; Reichler, T.; Robinson, D.; Robock, A.; Smith, J.; Srinivasan, G.; Verdin, K.; Vinnikov, K.; Vonder, Haar T.; Vorosmarty, C.; Williams, S.; Yarosh, E.

    2003-01-01

    As part of the World Climate Research Program's (WCRPs) Global Energy and Water-Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Continental-scale International Project (GCIP), a preliminary water and energy budget synthesis (WEBS) was developed for the period 1996-1999 fromthe "best available" observations and models. Besides this summary paper, a companion CD-ROM with more extensive discussion, figures, tables, and raw data is available to the interested researcher from the GEWEX project office, the GAPP project office, or the first author. An updated online version of the CD-ROM is also available at http://ecpc.ucsd.edu/gcip/webs.htm/. Observations cannot adequately characterize or "close" budgets since too many fundamental processes are missing. Models that properly represent the many complicated atmospheric and near-surface interactions are also required. This preliminary synthesis therefore included a representative global general circulation model, regional climate model, and a macroscale hydrologic model as well as a global reanalysis and a regional analysis. By the qualitative agreement among the models and available observations, it did appear that we now qualitatively understand water and energy budgets of the Mississippi River Basin. However, there is still much quantitative uncertainty. In that regard, there did appear to be a clear advantage to using a regional analysis over a global analysis or a regional simulation over a global simulation to describe the Mississippi River Basin water and energy budgets. There also appeared to be some advantage to using a macroscale hydrologic model for at least the surface water budgets. Copyright 2003 by the American Geophysical Union.

  6. Reform of Budgeting for Acquisition: Lessons from Private Sector Capital Budgeting for the Department of Defense

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCaffery, Jerry L; Jones, Lawrence R

    2006-01-01

    .... The governments of New Zealand, Australia, and the United Kingdom, as well as most of the states in the United States have adopted some private budgeting methods with varying degrees of success...

  7. FY 2011 Supplement to the President`s Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — This Supplement to the President`s Fiscal Year FY 2011 Budget provides a technical summary of the budget request for the Networking and Information Technology...

  8. ISLSCP II Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) Radiation Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains global Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) and a few top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiation budget parameters on a 1-degree x 1-degree spatial...

  9. A note on India's water budget and evapotranspiration

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An examination of the budget components indicates that they imply an evapo- transpiration estimate ... India; water budget; evapotranspiration; water policy; water management. J. Earth Syst. Sci. 117 ... L'Environment (2004). California. 0.41.

  10. The Budget Scoring Alternatives Financing Methods for Defense Requirements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leos, Leonard; Rouleau, Paul; Wadsworth, Mark

    2007-01-01

    ...), the Office of Management and Budget (0MB), and the congressional Budget Committees. The current scoring policy that has been applied to many initiatives essentially negates the financial advantage for using alternative forms of financing...

  11. FY 2009 Supplement to the President`s Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — Published: February 2008 Pages: 37 This Supplement to the President`s Fiscal Year FY 2009 Budget provides a technical summary of the budget request for the...

  12. FY 2006 Supplement to the President`s Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — This Supplement to the Presidents Budget for Fiscal Year 2006 offers a brief technical outline of the 2006 budget request for the Networking and Information...

  13. FY 2007 Supplement to the President`s Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — This Supplement to the President`s Fiscal Year FY 2007 Budget provides a technical summary of the budget request for the Networking and Information Technology...

  14. FY 2008 Supplement to the President`s Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — This Supplement to the President`s Fiscal Year FY 2008 Budget provides a technical summary of the budget request for the Networking and Information Technology...

  15. FY 2010 Supplement to the President`s Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — This Supplement to the President`s Fiscal Year FY 2010 Budget provides a technical summary of the budget request for the Networking and Information Technology...

  16. The advantage of using operational budgeting on governmental organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manouchehr Najafi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Budgeting plays an important role on increasing efficiency of organizations. It helps determine targets and possible future chaos a head of time. A good budgeting plan can create motivation among workers and managers. There are different budgeting plans such as traditional and operational. In this paper, we analyze the effects of executing budgeting plan on governmental organizations. The proposed study of this paper designs a questionnaire consists of various questions and selects 94 people out of 125 financial managers who work for various governmental organizations in province of Zanjan, Iran. The results indicate that the operational budgeting could help provide better performance measurement of governmental organizations, it helps us provide a more precise cost of products and services, and it helps government allocate the necessary budget proportion to performance measurement. The results of our survey also indicate that operational budgeting redirect costs towards our objectives and make the overall budgeting crystal clear.

  17. Budget Scoring of Alternative Financing Methods for Defense Requirements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leos, Leonard; Rouleau, Paul; Wadsworth, Mark

    2007-01-01

    ...), the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and the congressional Budget Committees. The current scoring policy that has been applied to many initiatives essentially negates the financial advantage for using alternative forms of financing...

  18. Zero based programming: a viable security budgeting approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roll, Frederick G

    2003-01-01

    To get additional dollars or avoid budget cuts or personnel reductions, healthcare security directors should consider a budget approach that best justifies the needs of the department or organization.

  19. STUDY CONCERNING THE EXECUTION OF LOCAL BUDGETS REVENUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristinel ICHIM

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of local budget revenues is a very important sub-phase of the local budgetary process its correct accomplishment ensures regularity and efficiency in revenue collection, which will cover the local budget expenditures. Through this scientific approach we intended to achieve an analysis of the implementation of revenues mobilized to the local budgets in Romania. The study started with fixing the concept of execution of budget revenues and defining its phases, and followed with the analysis of the implementation of local budget revenues in three levels, namely: the overall local budgets in Romania, at the city level and at the community level. We have to mention that the analysis of the execution of local budgets was done in 2011, based on existing data in the last occurrence of the Romanian Statistical Yearbook for 2012. The paper concluded with some considerations regarding the execution of local budgets revenues and some proposals for improving the collection of local income.

  20. TENDENCIES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF BUDGET REVENUES UNDER THE IMPACT OF TAX POLICY OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOBROTĂ GABRIELA

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the need to ensure sustainable development has become a central point of debates and of the economic policies. Obviously, the influence of the level of financial resources mobilized at the state level is crucial, reason for it is necessary to promote a sustainable fiscal policy. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the influence of fiscal policy measures on budget revenues, in terms of volume and their structure in Romania. Empirical researchs realised, reflected a longitudinal study that targeted budget income trends between 2006-2015, both in terms of total volume and in terms of revenues for each category of taxation. The results of this study demonstrate the use of a pro-cyclical fiscal policy, with negative effects in terms of the impact on the budget deficit and a poor correlation with other components of macroeconomic policy.

  1. Management effects on net ecosystem carbon and GHG budgets at European crop sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceschia, Eric; Bêziat, P; Dejoux, J.F.

    2010-01-01

    The greenhouse gas budgets of 15 European crop sites covering a large climatic gradient and corresponding to 41 site-years were estimated. The sites included a wide range of management practices (organic and/or mineral fertilisation, tillage or ploughing, with or without straw removal....... The variability of the different terms and their relative contributions to the net ecosystem carbon budget (NECB) were analysed for all site-years, and the effect of management on NECB was assessed. To account for greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes that were not directly measured on site, we estimated the emissions...... caused by field operations (EFO) for each site using emission factors from the literature. The EFO were added to the NECB to calculate the total GHG budget (GHGB) for a range of cropping systems and management regimes. N2O emissions were calculated following the IPCC (2007) guidelines, and CH4 emissions...

  2. Report on achievements in fiscal 1998. Research and development of a technology to promote non-ferrous metal based material recycling. (Research on component technologies and a total system); 1998 nendo hitetsu kinzokukei sozai recycle sokushin gijutsu seika hokokusho. Kenkyu kaihatsu yoso gijutsu kenkyu, total system kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This project is intended to research and develop a high level aluminum recycling technology to realize the 'product to product' philosophy to return different aluminum scraps into the original materials, while attempting to develop and unify the aluminum recycling technologies and promote utilization of LNG. This fiscal year has studied the following methods as the component technology research: (1) an inclusion removing method, (2) a crystal sorting method, (3) a vacuum distillation method, and (4) a semi-melting method. The studies on (1), (2) and (3) were performed on identification of basic data and systematization to determine the life and facility specifications, with the full-swing demonstration tests being waited to start in fiscal 1999. The research and development on the item (4) was determined technologically feasible although additional discussions are required on the engineering aspect for practical application. The component technology study thereon will be finished with the current fiscal year. For the demonstration tests among the studies on total system technologies, the crystal sorting method and the vacuum distillation method had the achievements obtained in the research of the component technologies reflected directly to the facility design and fabrication. There has been no large-scale facility fabrication for the inclusion removing method and effective utilization of ash remaining in dross, and the researches were performed as scheduled. (NEDO)

  3. Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) Data Sets for Global Environment and Climate Change Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bess, T. Dale; Carlson, Ann B.; Denn, Fredrick M.

    1997-01-01

    For a number of years there has been considerable interest in the earth's radiation budget (ERB) or energy balance, and entails making the best measurements possible of absorbed solar radiation, reflected shortwave radiation (RSW), thermal outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), and net radiation. ERB data are fundamental to the development of realistic climate models and studying natural and anthropogenic perturbations of the climate. Much of the interest and investigations in the earth's energy balance predated the age of earth-orbiting satellites (Hunt et al., 1986). Beginning in the mid 1960's earth-orbiting satellites began to play an important role in making measurements of the earth's radiation flux although much effort had gone into measuring ERB parameters prior to 1960 (House et al., 1986). Beginning in 1974 and extending until the present time, three different satellite experiments (not all operating at the same time) have been making radiation budget measurements almost continually in time. Two of the experiments were totally dedicated to making radiation budget measurements of the earth, and the other experiment flown on NOAA sun-synchronous AVHRR weather satellites produced radiation budget parameters as a by-product. The heat budget data from the AVHRR satellites began collecting data in June 1974 and have operated almost continuously for 23 years producing valuable data for long term climate monitoring.

  4. PLACE AND ROLE OF THE STRUCTURAL FUNDS IN THE LOCAL BUDGET REVENUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTINEL ICHIM

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study we aim to analyse the place and role manifested within local budgets of Romania by a new category of revenues available to local authorities namely those from the Structural and Cohesion Funds of the EU. At the beginning of our scientific approach we have outlined the scope of local government revenues highlighting that in the section development of local budgets are also set off funds from the European Union. The research continues with a characterization of the structural funds in which, on the one hand, we have emphasized their importance to the development of territorial administrative units in Romania and on the other hand we showed some difficulties arising in the process of absorption of European funds. The analysis of financial resources from the EU funds within the local budgets from Romania is the last part of the article and is based on the quantitative analysis of the budget indicator, "amounts of the EU in the payments made and pre-financing" from existing data in the Statistical Yearbook of Romania, and highlights the place occupied by such income within local public revenues. This analysis shows that local public authorities from Romania have made significant progress in terms of accessing European funds, their share in total revenues of local budgets increased during 2008-2014.

  5. Fiscal 1990 draft nuclear budget up 2.0 % to 395.5 bil. yen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    The Japanese Government on December 29 approved a yen66.27 trillion general account draft budget for fiscal 1990, up 9.7% on fiscal '89, which will soon be sent to the Diet. The nuclear energy related draft budget in the general account is yen179.8 billion, covering expenditures on the implementation of various measures and actions relating to nuclear energy by ministerial agencies. Of the draft special account for power resources development for fiscal 1990, the nuclear power related budget for the Ministry of International Trade and Industry and the Science and Technology Agency is yen215.7 billion. The total amount of the nuclear energy budget in the two accounts is yen395.5 billion, up 2.0%. By Ministries, the Science and Technology Agency, having jurisdiction over the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., the National Institute of Radiological Sciencies and other institutions, is alloted yen296.2 billion, up 5.2%. The draft nuclear related budget for the Ministry of International Trade and Industry, governing commercial nuclear power programs, is yen94.8 billion, down 6.7%. The other ministries are allocated yen4.5 billion, down 2.5%. (N.K.)

  6. Agricultural subsidies in the budget of the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Vesna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors analyse the dynamics of agricultural subsidies, compared to the developments in public revenue and public expenditure and the total subsidies of the republic budget, in the years of 2006-2013. We performed desk research using official statistical data and processing them with standard statistical methods, and studying and quoting a number of scientific papers and documents of national and EU institutions. We also considered the government's projection of the scope and structure of agricultural subsidies by 2024, having in mind the fiscal consolidations and the obligations of adjusting legislation, support policy and institutional framework in agriculture with those of the EU. A three-year fiscal consolidation programme, which includes, among other things, reducing and re-examining agricultural support programmes, should create a healthy basis for stable and growing budget transfers to agriculture. Investment support will still be very important, and producers could expect a more significant growth in direct payments just before and just after joining the EU.

  7. Phosphorus and water budgets in an agricultural basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faridmarandi, Sayena; Naja, Ghinwa M

    2014-01-01

    Water and phosphorus (P) budgets of a large agricultural basin located in South Florida (Everglades Agricultural Area, EAA) were computed from 2005 to 2012. The annual surface outflow P loading from the EAA averaged 157.2 mtons originating from Lake Okeechobee (16.4 mtons, 10.4%), farms (131.0 mtons, 83.4%), and surrounding basins (9.8 mtons, 6.2%) after attenuation. Farms, urban areas, and the adjacent C-139 basin contributed 186.1, 15.6, and 3.8 mtons/yr P to the canals, respectively. The average annual soil P retention was estimated at 412.5 mtons. Water and P budgets showed seasonal variations with high correlation between rainfall and P load in drainage and surface outflows. Moreover, results indicated that the canals acted as a P sink storing 64.8 mtons/yr. To assess the P loading impact of farm drainage on the canals and on the outflow, dimensionless impact factors were developed. Sixty-two farms were identified with a high and a medium impact factor I1 level contributing 44.5% of the total drainage P load to the canals, while their collective area represented less than 23% of the EAA area (172 farms). Optimizing the best management practice (BMP) strategies on these farms could minimize the environmental impacts on the downstream sensitive wetlands areas.

  8. Mass and energy budgets of animals: Behavioral and ecological implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, W.P.

    1993-01-01

    The common goal of these diverse projects is to understand the mechanisms of how animal populations respond to the continual changes in their environment in both time and space. Our models are mechanistic allowing us to explore how a wide array of environmental variables may determine individual performance. Large scale climate change and its effect on animal populations can be seen as quantitative extensions of biological responses to smaller scales of environmental variability. Changes in developmental rates or reproductive levels of individuals, extension or contraction of geographic ranges, and modification of community organization have all been documented in response to previous changes in habitats. We know from our biophysical work that some changes in function are driven by microclimate conditions directly, and some are mediated indirectly through ecological parameters such as the food supply. Our research is guided by a comprehensive conceptual scheme of the interaction of an animal with its environment. The physical and physiological properties of the organism, and the range of available microclimates, set bounds on the performance of organismal function, such as growth, reproduction, storage, and behavior. To leave the most offspring over a lifetime, animals must perform those functions in a way that maximizes the amount of resources devoted to reproduction. Maximizing the total size of the budget and minimizing those budget items not devoted to reproduction are crucial. Animals trade off among expenditures for current and future reproduction. Both water and energy are important, potentially limiting resources. Projects described here include empirical studies and theoretical models.

  9. Does state budget pressure matter for uncompensated care spending in hospitals? Findings from Texas and California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jongwha; Patel, Isha; Suh, Won S; Lin, Hsien-Chang; Kim, Sunjung; Balkrishnan, Rajesh

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the impact of state budget cuts on uncompensated care at general acute care hospital organizations. This study capitalized on the variations in the states of Texas and California to form a natural experiment testing the joint impact of budget cut status on uncompensated care costs, as well as specific charity care costs and bad debt expenses from indigent patients. Budget cuts in the state of Texas occurred in the year 2004. Information was obtained from the Texas Department of Health and the California Department of Health Services regarding financial characteristics of hospitals and from the American Hospital Directory annual survey regarding organizational characteristics of hospitals. We created three dependent variables: R(UC) (the ratio of total uncompensated care costs to gross patient revenue), R(CC) (the ratio of charity care to total patient revenue) and R(BD) (the ratio of bad debt expenses to gross patient revenue). Using a two-period panel data set and individual hospital fixed effects, we captured hospital uncompensated care spending that could also have influenced budget cut status. Additionally, the impact of the state budget cut status on hospitals' uncompensated care spending, charity care spending and bad debt expenses was also estimated using the similar methodology. In this study, we included 416 (in Texas) and 352 (in California) public, not-for-profit (NFP) and for-profit (FP) hospitals that completed the annual survey during the study period 2002-2005. For the state of Texas, results from the fixed effect model confirmed that the year 2005 was directly related to increased R(UC) and R(CC) . The coefficients of 2005 were significantly and positively associated with R(UC) (0.43, p budget cut pressure on uncompensated care provided in Texas general acute care hospitals. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. 50 CFR 600.125 - Budgeting, funding, and accounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Budgeting, funding, and accounting. 600... Councils § 600.125 Budgeting, funding, and accounting. Link to an amendment published at 75 FR 59150, Sept... Budgeting, funding, and accounting. (a) Council grant activities are governed by 15 CFR part 14 (Uniform...

  11. Linking Planning and Budgeting through Business Process Redesign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inman, Marianne E.

    In the wake of an extensive strategic planning process that refocused institutional values at Northland College, Wisconsin, the administration undertook linking the budget with the newly articulated plan. Incremental budgeting was no longer feasible, and the new budget would have to reflect streamlining and new ways of functioning. Consequently…

  12. The interaction between motivational disposition and participative budgeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandalgaard, Niels; Bukh, Per Nikolaj; Poulsen, Carsten Stig

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to report the findings of a study of how dispositional factors of motivation rooted in personality interact with participative budgeting to affect budget goal commitment. The results indicate that the effect of increased budgetary participation on budget goal commitment...

  13. 40 CFR 96.340 - State trading budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State trading budgets. 96.340 Section...) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 96.340 State trading budgets. (a) Except as provided in...

  14. 40 CFR 97.340 - State trading budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State trading budgets. 97.340 Section...) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 97.340 State trading budgets. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the State...

  15. Budget of the U.S. Government, Fiscal Year 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Management and Budget, Executive Office of the President, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2014" contains the Budget Message of the President, information on the President's priorities, budget overviews organized by agency, and summary tables. President Obama believes the country must invest in the true engine of America's economic growth--a rising and thriving middle class.…

  16. 24 CFR 990.300 - Preparation of operating budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preparation of operating budget... Resident Management Corporations (RMCs) § 990.300 Preparation of operating budget. (a) The RMC and the PHA must submit operating budgets and calculations of operating subsidy to HUD for approval in accordance...

  17. ACHP | News | Laura Bush Announces Preserve America Grants Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Search skip specific nav links Home arrow News arrow Laura Bush Announces Preserve America Grants Budget Laura Bush Announces Preserve America Grants Budget First Preserve America Communities Also Announced ) Jan. 15, 2004, Washington, DC—Mrs. Laura Bush announced today that the President's budget for FY 2005

  18. 5 CFR 1320.17 - Information collection budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Information collection budget. 1320.17 Section 1320.17 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET OMB DIRECTIVES CONTROLLING PAPERWORK BURDENS ON THE PUBLIC § 1320.17 Information collection budget. Each agency's Senior Official, or...

  19. Meritorious Budget Award: An Opportunity to Enhance Strategic Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Anne; Bishop, Anna

    2009-01-01

    In times of economic uncertainty, local budgets undergo increased scrutiny. School boards and district administrators must collaborate to ensure the highest standards of budget development, implementation, and oversight. Those charged with the fiscal management of school districts must gain the public's confidence in their budgeting abilities.…

  20. Defense.gov Special Report: 2016 Fiscal Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Defense Submit Search DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE: FY 2016 Budget Proposal Army Reserve Chief Calls for Budget Flexibility The chief of the Army Reserve understands that the U.S. deficit is a threat to effectively. Story Obama Says He Won't Accept Budget That Shortchanges Readiness President Barack Obama