WorldWideScience

Sample records for total mass loss

  1. Main sequence mass loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunish, W.M.; Guzik, J.A.; Willson, L.A.; Bowen, G.

    1987-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that variable stars may experience mass loss, driven, at least in part, by oscillations. The class of stars we are discussing here are the δ Scuti variables. These are variable stars with masses between about 1.2 and 2.25 M/sub θ/, lying on or very near the main sequence. According to this theory, high rotation rates enhance the rate of mass loss, so main sequence stars born in this mass range would have a range of mass loss rates, depending on their initial rotation velocity and the amplitude of the oscillations. The stars would evolve rapidly down the main sequence until (at about 1.25 M/sub θ/) a surface convection zone began to form. The presence of this convective region would slow the rotation, perhaps allowing magnetic braking to occur, and thus sharply reduce the mass loss rate. 7 refs

  2. Change in fat-free mass assessed by bioelectrical impedance, total body potassium and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry during prolonged weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendel, H W; Gotfredsen, A; Højgaard, L

    1996-01-01

    A total of 16 obese women (body mass index (BMI) 30-43 kg m(-2)) participated in a weight reduction study. Before and after a weight loss of 11.7 +/- 7.4 kg (mean +/- SD), body composition was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and total body potassium counting (TBK). These measu...

  3. Mass loss from S stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jura, M.

    1988-01-01

    The mass-loss process in S stars is studied using 65 S stars from the listing of Wing and Yorka (1977). The role of pulsations in the mass-loss process is examined. It is detected that stars with larger mass-loss rates have a greater amplitude of pulsations. The dust-to-gas ratio for the S stars is estimated as 0.002 and the average mass-loss rate is about 6 x 10 to the -8th solar masses/yr. Some of the properties of the S stars, such as scale height, surface density, and lifetime, are measured. It is determined that scale height is 200 pc; the total duration of the S star phase is greater than or equal to 30,000 yr; and the stars inject 3 x 10 to the -6th solar masses/sq kpc yr into the interstellar medium. 46 references

  4. Change in fat-free mass assessed by bioelectrical impedance, total body potassium and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry during prolonged weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendel, H W; Gotfredsen, A; Højgaard, L

    1996-01-01

    A total of 16 obese women (body mass index (BMI) 30-43 kg m(-2)) participated in a weight reduction study. Before and after a weight loss of 11.7 +/- 7.4 kg (mean +/- SD), body composition was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and total body potassium counting (TBK). These measu......A total of 16 obese women (body mass index (BMI) 30-43 kg m(-2)) participated in a weight reduction study. Before and after a weight loss of 11.7 +/- 7.4 kg (mean +/- SD), body composition was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and total body potassium counting (TBK......). These measurements were compared with bioimpedance analysis (BIA) by applying 11 predictive BIA equations published in the literature. Predictive equations for the present study population were developed, with the use of fat-free mass (FFM) as assessed by TBK and DXA as references in multiple regression analysis....... The results of the BIA equations varied widely; FFM was generally overestimated by BIA as compared with DXA and TBK before and after weight loss. During weight loss, the FFM did not change, as estimated by DXA (1.3 +/- 2.3 kg, p > 0.05) and TBK (0.9 +/- 2.9 kg, p > 0.05). The recorded change in impedance (R...

  5. Total body calcium by neutron activation analysis in normals and osteoporotic populations: a discriminator of significant bone mass loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, S.M.; Murano, R.; Lewellen, T.K.; Nelp, W.B.; Chesnut, C.M.

    1983-01-01

    Measurements of total body calcium by neutron activation (TBC) in 94 normal individuals and 86 osteoporotic patients are reported. The ability of TBC to discriminate normal from osteoporotic females was evaluated with decision analysis. Bone mineral content (BMC) by single-photon absorptiometry was also measured. TBC was higher in males (range 826 to 1363 gm vs 537 to 1054 in females) and correlated with height in all normals. In females over age 55 there was a negative correlation with age. Thus, for normals an algorithm was derived to allow comparison between measured TBC and that predicted by sex, age, and height (TBCp). In the 28 normal females over age 55, the TBC was 764 +/- 115 gm vs. 616 +/- 90 in the osteoporotics. In 63 of the osteoporotic females an estimated height, from tibial length, was used to predict TBC. In normals the TBC/TBCp ratio was 1.00 +/- 0.12, whereas in osteoporotic females it was 0.80 +/- 0.12. A receiver operating characteristic curve showed better discrimination of osteoporosis with TBC/TBCp than with wrist BMC. By using Bayes' theorem, with a 25% prevalence of osteoporosis (estimate for postmenopausal women), the posttest probability of disease was 90% when the TBC/TBCp ratio was less than 0.84. The authors conclude that a low TBC/TBCp ratio is very helpful in determining osteoporosis

  6. Global Drought Total Economic Loss Risk Deciles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Drought Total Economic Loss Risk Deciles is a 2.5 minute grid of global drought total economic loss risks. A process of spatially allocating Gross Domestic...

  7. Global Landslide Total Economic Loss Risk Deciles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Landslide Total Economic Loss Risk Deciles is a 2.5 minute grid of global landslide total economic loss risks. A process of spatially allocating Gross...

  8. Mass loss and cepheid pulsation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, C.G. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Two purposes are served: to discuss the latest improvements in nonlinear pulsation theory indicating the ability to resolve features such as the ''Christy bump'' on the light curves and to show from the results of a bump model and recent observations that mass loss is one of the possible explanations for the mass discrepancy problem between evolutionary and pulsation theories. Recent observations by Sanford and Gow of Los Alamos and Bernat (McDonald Observatory) show that extensive mass loss has occurred in the evolution of the M supergiant α Orionis

  9. Mass loss from Eta Carinae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andriesse, C.D.; Viotti, R.

    1979-01-01

    This high luminosity (5x10 6 solar luminosity) star since 1840 is losing mass at the rate of 7.5x10 -2 solar masses per year. The large mass loss could be the result of vibrational instabilities produced in the CNO hydrogen burning phase of a very massive (160 solar masses) star. The presence of high excitation lines in the ultraviolet spectrum of Eta Car suggests the idea of a hot zone excited by dissipation of the supersonic turbulent flow. (Auth.)

  10. A phylogenetic approach to total evaporative water loss in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Sant, Matthew J; Oufiero, Christopher E; Muñoz-Garcia, Agustí; Hammond, Kimberly A; Williams, Joseph B

    2012-01-01

    Maintaining appropriate water balance is a constant challenge for terrestrial mammals, and this problem can be exacerbated in desiccating environments. It has been proposed that natural selection has provided desert-dwelling mammals physiological mechanisms to reduce rates of total evaporative water loss. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between total evaporative water loss and body mass in mammals by using a recent phylogenetic hypothesis. We compared total evaporative water loss in 80 species of arid-zone mammals to that in 56 species that inhabit mesic regions, ranging in size from 4 g to 3,500 kg, to test the hypothesis that mammals from arid environments have lower rates of total evaporative water loss than mammals from mesic environments once phylogeny is taken into account. We found that arid species had lower rates of total evaporative water loss than mesic species when using a dichotomous variable to describe habitat (arid or mesic). We also found that total evaporative water loss was negatively correlated with the average maximum and minimum environmental temperature as well as the maximum vapor pressure deficit of the environment. Annual precipitation and the variable Q (a measure of habitat aridity) were positively correlated with total evaporative water loss. These results support the hypothesis that desert-dwelling mammals have lower rates of total evaporative water loss than mesic species after controlling for body mass and evolutionary relatedness regardless of whether categorical or continuous variables are used to describe habitat.

  11. Mass loss on the Asymptotic Giant Branch

    OpenAIRE

    Zijlstra, Albert

    2006-01-01

    Mass loss on the Asymptotic Giant Branch provides the origin of planetary nebulae. This paper reviews several relevant aspects of AGB evolution: pulsation properties, mass loss formalisms and time variable mass loss, evidence for asymmetries on the AGB, binarity, ISM interaction, and mass loss at low metallicity. There is growing evidence that mass loss on the AGB is already asymmetric, but with spherically symmetric velocity fields. The origin of the rings may be in pulsational instabilities...

  12. Change in fat-free mass assessed by bioelectrical impedance, total body potassium and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry during prolonged weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendel, H W; Gotfredsen, A; Højgaard, L

    1996-01-01

    ). These measurements were compared with bioimpedance analysis (BIA) by applying 11 predictive BIA equations published in the literature. Predictive equations for the present study population were developed, with the use of fat-free mass (FFM) as assessed by TBK and DXA as references in multiple regression analysis....... The results of the BIA equations varied widely; FFM was generally overestimated by BIA as compared with DXA and TBK before and after weight loss. During weight loss, the FFM did not change, as estimated by DXA (1.3 +/- 2.3 kg, p > 0.05) and TBK (0.9 +/- 2.9 kg, p > 0.05). The recorded change in impedance (R......) was also insignificant. Three BIA equations from the literature, which were not specific for the degree of obesity in the present study group, predicted changes in FFM (from 0.5 + 3.6 to 2.4 +/- 4.4kg, p > 0.05) that were comparable with those estimated by the reference methods. Eight equations from...

  13. Mass loss from Wolf-Rayet stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, A.J.

    1982-01-01

    Recent results relating to the stellar winds and mass loss rates of the WR stars are reviewed, emphasising new data and their interpretation acquired at UV, IR and Radio wavelengths. The subject is discussed under the headings: physical and chemical properties of WR stars (effective temperatures and radiative luminosities; masses; chemical abundances); velocity, ionisation and excitation structure of WR winds; mass loss rates of WR stars; mass loss properties of WR stars in the LMC; comparisons with theoretical models of mass loss; ring nebulae around WR stars; conclusions. (author)

  14. Evolutionary effects of mass loss in low-mass stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renzini, A.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of mass loss on the evolution of low-mass stars (actual mass smaller than 1.4 solar masses) are reviewed. The case of globular cluster stars is discussed in some detail, and it is shown that evolutionary theory sets quite precise limits to the mass-loss rate in population II red giants. The effects of mass loss on the final evolutionary stages of stars producing white dwarfs is also discussed. In particular, the interaction of the wind from the hot central star with the surrounding planetary nebula is considered. Finally, the problem of the origin of hydrogen-deficient stars is briefly discussed. (Auth.)

  15. The Cepheid mass discrepancy and pulsation-driven mass loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neilson, H.R.; Cantiello, M.; Langer, N.

    2011-01-01

    Context. A longstanding challenge for understanding classical Cepheids is the Cepheid mass discrepancy, where theoretical mass estimates using stellar evolution and stellar pulsation calculations have been found to differ by approximately 10−20%. Aims. We study the role of pulsation-driven mass loss

  16. Total evaporation in thermal ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callis, E.L.; Cappis, J.H.

    1996-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to assess the effects of impurities on the total evaporation method for mass spectrometric measurement of the isotope ratio of uranium. Standard samples were spiked with Na, Ca, Fe, Zr and Ba. The results indicated that only Fe, and possible Na, displayed any interference, and then only at high concentrations. One problem limiting the accuracy of the method is the determination of the relative efficiency of the collectors in the multicollector system. 3 refs., 1 tab

  17. Increasing mass loss from Greenland's Mittivakkat Gletscher

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasholt, Bent; Mernild, S.H.; Knudsen, N.T.

    2011-01-01

    Warming in the Arctic during the past several decades has caused glaciers to thin and retreat, and recent mass loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet is well documented. Local glaciers peripheral to the ice sheet are also retreating, but few mass-balance observations are available to quantify that ret...... a local phenomenon, but are indicative of glacier changes in the broader region. Mass-balance observations for the MG therefore provide unique documentation of the general retreat of Southeast Greenland's local glaciers under ongoing climate warming....

  18. Mass-loss rates of cool stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katrien Els Decin, Leen

    2015-08-01

    Over much of the initial mass function, stars lose a significant fraction of their mass through a stellar wind during the late stages of their evolution when being a (super)giant star. As of today, we can not yet predict the mass-loss rate during the (super)giant phase for a given star with specific stellar parameters from first principles. This uncertainty directly impacts the accuracy of current stellar evolution and population synthesis models that predict the enrichment of the interstellar medium by these stellar winds. Efforts to establish the link between the initial physical and chemical conditions at stellar birth and the mass-loss rate during the (super)giant phase have proceeded on two separate tracks: (1) more detailed studies of the chemical and morpho-kinematical structure of the stellar winds of (super)giant stars in our own Milky Way by virtue of the proximity, and (2) large scale and statistical studies of a (large) sample of stars in other galaxies (such as the LMC and SMC) and globular clusters eliminating the uncertainty on the distance estimate and providing insight into the dependence of the mass-loss rate on the metallicity. In this review, I will present recent results of both tracks, will show how recent measurements confirm (some) theoretical predictions, but also how results from the first track admonish of common misconceptions inherent in the often more simplified analysis used to analyse the large samples from track 2.

  19. A Triple Iron Triathlon Leads to a Decrease in Total Body Mass but Not to Dehydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas; Oliver, Senn

    2010-01-01

    A loss in total body mass during an ultraendurance performance is usually attributed to dehydration. We identified the changes in total body mass, fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, and selected markers of hydration status in 31 male nonprofessional ultratriathletes participating in a Triple Iron triathlon involving 11.4 km swimming, 540 km cycling…

  20. Mass Loss Rates of Fasting Polar Bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilfold, Nicholas W; Hedman, Daryll; Stirling, Ian; Derocher, Andrew E; Lunn, Nicholas J; Richardson, Evan

    2016-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) have adapted to an annual cyclic regime of feeding and fasting, which is extreme in seasonal sea ice regions of the Arctic. As a consequence of climate change, sea ice breakup has become earlier and the duration of the open-water period through which polar bears must rely on fat reserves has increased. To date, there is limited empirical data with which to evaluate the potential energetic capacity of polar bears to withstand longer fasts. We measured the incoming and outgoing mass of inactive polar bears (n = 142) that were temporarily detained by Manitoba Conservation and Water Stewardship during the open-water period near the town of Churchill, Manitoba, Canada, in 2009-2014. Polar bears were given access to water but not food and held for a median length of 17 d. Median mass loss rates were 1.0 kg/d, while median mass-specific loss rates were 0.5%/d, similar to other species with high adiposity and prolonged fasting capacities. Mass loss by unfed captive adult males was identical to that lost by free-ranging individuals, suggesting that terrestrial feeding contributes little to offset mass loss. The inferred metabolic rate was comparable to a basal mammalian rate, suggesting that while on land, polar bears can maintain a depressed metabolic rate to conserve energy. Finally, we estimated time to starvation for subadults and adult males for the on-land period. Results suggest that at 180 d of fasting, 56%-63% of subadults and 18%-24% of adult males in this study would die of starvation. Results corroborate previous assessments on the limits of polar bear capacity to withstand lengthening ice-free seasons and emphasize the greater sensitivity of subadults to changes in sea ice phenology.

  1. Original Article Blood Loss and Influencing Factors in Primary Total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KIGZ

    aid the surgeon in the African region estimate the expected blood loss after total hip replacement. We conducted a study to quantify the blood loss following total hip arthroplasty and to determine the factors .... Hemoglobin European Overview (OSTHEO) study: blood management in elective knee and hip arthroplasty in ...

  2. First stars. II. Evolution with mass loss

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bahena, David; Hadrava, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 337, č. 2 (2012), s. 651-663 ISSN 0004-640X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC506; GA ČR GA202/09/0772 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : first stars * evolution * mass loss Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 2.064, year: 2012

  3. MASS LOSS IN PRE-MAIN-SEQUENCE STARS VIA CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR ANGULAR MOMENTUM LOSS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aarnio, Alicia N. [Astronomy Department, University of Michigan, 830 Dennison Building, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Matt, Sean P. [Laboratoire AIM Paris-Saclay, CEA/Irfu Universite Paris-Diderot CNRS/INSU, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Stassun, Keivan G., E-mail: aarnio@umich.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States)

    2012-11-20

    We develop an empirical model to estimate mass-loss rates via coronal mass ejections (CMEs) for solar-type pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars. Our method estimates the CME mass-loss rate from the observed energies of PMS X-ray flares, using our empirically determined relationship between solar X-ray flare energy and CME mass: log (M {sub CME}[g]) = 0.63 Multiplication-Sign log (E {sub flare}[erg]) - 2.57. Using masses determined for the largest flaring magnetic structures observed on PMS stars, we suggest that this solar-calibrated relationship may hold over 10 orders of magnitude in flare energy and 7 orders of magnitude in CME mass. The total CME mass-loss rate we calculate for typical solar-type PMS stars is in the range 10{sup -12}-10{sup -9} M {sub Sun} yr{sup -1}. We then use these CME mass-loss rate estimates to infer the attendant angular momentum loss leading up to the main sequence. Assuming that the CME outflow rate for a typical {approx}1 M {sub Sun} T Tauri star is <10{sup -10} M {sub Sun} yr{sup -1}, the resulting spin-down torque is too small during the first {approx}1 Myr to counteract the stellar spin-up due to contraction and accretion. However, if the CME mass-loss rate is {approx}> 10{sup -10} M {sub Sun} yr{sup -1}, as permitted by our calculations, then the CME spin-down torque may influence the stellar spin evolution after an age of a few Myr.

  4. Human local and total heat losses in different temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijuan; Yin, Hui; Di, Yuhui; Liu, Yanfeng; Liu, Jiaping

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the effects of operative temperature on the local and total heat losses, and the relationship between the heat loss and thermal sensation. 10 local parts of head, neck, chest, abdomen, upper arm, forearm, hand, thigh, leg and foot are selected. In all these parts, convection, radiation, evaporation, respiration, conduction and diffusion heat losses are analyzed when operative temperature is 23, 28, 33 and 37 °C. The local heat losses show that the radiation and convection heat losses are mainly affected by the area of local body, and the heat loss of the thigh is the most in the ten parts. The evaporation heat loss is mainly affected by the distribution of sweat gland, and the heat loss of the chest is the most. The total heat loss of the local body shows that in low temperature, the thigh, leg and chest have much heat loss, while in high temperature, the chest, abdomen, thigh and head have great heat loss, which are useful for clothing design. The heat losses of the whole body show that as the operative temperature increases, the radiation and convection heat losses decrease, the heat losses of conduction, respiration, and diffusion are almost constant, and the evaporation heat loss increases. By comparison, the heat loss ratios of the radiation, convection and sweat evaporation, are in agreement with the previous researches. At last, the formula about the heat loss ratio of convection and radiation is derived. It's useful for thermal comfort evaluation and HVAC (heating, ventilation and air conditioning) design. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Pulsation, Mass Loss and the Upper Mass Limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapp, J.; Corona-Galindo, M. G.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. La existencia de estrellas con masas en exceso de 100 M0 ha sido cuestionada por mucho tiempo. Lfmites superiores para la masa de 100 M0 han sido obtenidos de teorfas de pulsaci6n y formaci6n estelar. En este trabajo nosotros primero investigamos la estabilidad radial de estrellas masivas utilizando la aproximaci6n clasica cuasiadiabatica de Ledoux, la aproximaci6n cuasiadiabatica de Castor y un calculo completamente no-adiabatico. Hemos encontrado que los tres metodos de calculo dan resultados similares siempre y cuando una pequefia regi6n de las capas externas de la estrella sea despreciada para la aproximaci6n clasica. La masa crftica para estabilidad de estrellas masivas ha sido encontrada en acuerdo a trabajos anteriores. Explicamos Ia discrepancia entre este y trabajos anteriores por uno de los autores. Discunmos calculos no-lineales y perdida de masa con respecto a) lfmite superior de masa. The existence of stars with masses in excess of 100 M0 has been questioned for a very long time. Upper mass limits of 100 Me have been obtained from pulsation and star formation theories. In this work we first investigate the radial stability of massive stars using the classical Ledoux's quasiadiabatic approximation. the Castor quasiadiabatic approximation and a fully nonadiabatic calculation. We have found that the three methods of calculation give similar results provided that a small region in outer layers of the star be neglected for the classical approximation. The critical mass for stability of massive stars is found to be in agreement with previous work. We explain the reason for the discrepancy between this and previous work by one of the authors. We discuss non-linear calculations and mass loss with regard to the upper mass limit. Key words: STARS-MASS FUNCTION - STARS-MASS LOSS - STARS-PULSATION

  6. Constraining the Stellar Mass Function in the Galactic Center via Mass Loss from Stellar Collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Rubin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The dense concentration of stars and high-velocity dispersions in the Galactic center imply that stellar collisions frequently occur. Stellar collisions could therefore result in significant mass loss rates. We calculate the amount of stellar mass lost due to indirect and direct stellar collisions and find its dependence on the present-day mass function of stars. We find that the total mass loss rate in the Galactic center due to stellar collisions is sensitive to the present-day mass function adopted. We use the observed diffuse X-ray luminosity in the Galactic center to preclude any present-day mass functions that result in mass loss rates >10-5M⨀yr−1 in the vicinity of ~1″. For present-day mass functions of the form, dN/dM∝M-α, we constrain the present-day mass function to have a minimum stellar mass ≲7M⨀ and a power-law slope ≳1.25. We also use this result to constrain the initial mass function in the Galactic center by considering different star formation scenarios.

  7. 'Shrink' losses in commercially sized corn silage piles: Quantifying total losses and where they occur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, P H; Swanepoel, N; Heguy, J M; Price, T; Meyer, D M

    2016-01-15

    Silage 'shrink' (i.e., loss of fresh chopped crop between ensiling and feedout) represents a nutrient loss which can degrade air quality as volatile carbon compounds, degrade surface waterways due to seepage, or degrade aquifers due to seepage. Virtually no research has documented shrink in large silage piles. The term 'shrink' is often ill defined, but can be expressed as losses of wet weight (WW), oven dry matter (oDM), and oDM corrected for volatiles lost in the drying oven (vcoDM). Corn silage piles (4 wedge, 2 rollover/wedge, 1 bunker) from 950 to 12,204 tonnes as built, on concrete (4), soil (2) and a combination (1) in California's San Joaquin Valley, using a bacterial inoculant, covered within 24 h with an oxygen barrier inner film and black/white outer plastic, fed out using large front end loaders through an electronic feed tracking system, and from the 2013 crop year, were used. Shrink as WW, oDM and vcoDM were 90±17, 68±18 and 28±21 g/kg, suggesting that much WW shrink is water and much oDM shrink is volatiles lost during analytical oven drying. Most shrink occurred in the silage mass with losses from exposed silage faces, as well as between exposed face silage removal and the total mixed ration mixer, being low. Silage bulk density, exposed silage face management and face use rate did not have obvious impacts on any shrink measure, but age of the silage pile during silage feedout impacted shrink losses ('older' silage piles being higher), but most strongly for WW shrink. Real shrink losses (i.e., vcoDM) of large well managed corn silage piles are low, the exposed silage face is a small portion of losses, and many proposed shrink mitigations appeared ineffective, possibly because shrink was low overall and they are largely directed at the exposed silage face. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Allometric relationship between changes of visceral fat and total fat mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallgreen, C. E.; Hall, K. D.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To elucidate the mathematical relationship between changes of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and total body fat mass (FM) during weight loss. Design: We hypothesized that changes of VAT mass are allometrically related to changes of FM, regardless of the type of weight-loss intervention...

  9. Clouds enhance Greenland ice sheet mass loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Tricht, Kristof; Gorodetskaya, Irina V.; L'Ecuyer, Tristan; Lenaerts, Jan T. M.; Lhermitte, Stef; Noel, Brice; Turner, David D.; van den Broeke, Michiel R.; van Lipzig, Nicole P. M.

    2015-04-01

    Clouds have a profound influence on both the Arctic and global climate, while they still represent one of the key uncertainties in climate models, limiting the fidelity of future climate projections. The potentially important role of thin liquid-containing clouds over Greenland in enhancing ice sheet melt has recently gained interest, yet current research is spatially and temporally limited, focusing on particular events, and their large scale impact on the surface mass balance remains unknown. We used a combination of satellite remote sensing (CloudSat - CALIPSO), ground-based observations and climate model (RACMO) data to show that liquid-containing clouds warm the Greenland ice sheet 94% of the time. High surface reflectivity (albedo) for shortwave radiation reduces the cloud shortwave cooling effect on the absorbed fluxes, while not influencing the absorption of longwave radiation. Cloud warming over the ice sheet therefore dominates year-round. Only when albedo values drop below ~0.6 in the coastal areas during summer, the cooling effect starts to overcome the warming effect. The year-round excess of energy due to the presence of liquid-containing clouds has an extensive influence on the mass balance of the ice sheet. Simulations using the SNOWPACK snow model showed not only a strong influence of these liquid-containing clouds on melt increase, but also on the increased sublimation mass loss. Simulations with the Community Earth System Climate Model for the end of the 21st century (2080-2099) show that Greenland clouds contain more liquid water path and less ice water path. This implies that cloud radiative forcing will be further enhanced in the future. Our results therefore urge the need for improving cloud microphysics in climate models, to improve future projections of ice sheet mass balance and global sea level rise.

  10. Mass loss from interacting close binary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plavec, M. J.

    1981-01-01

    The three well-defined classes of evolved binary systems that show evidence of present and/or past mass loss are the cataclysmic variables, the Algols, and Wolf-Rayet stars. It is thought that the transformation of supergiant binary systems into the very short-period cataclysmic variables must have been a complex process. The new evidence that has recently been obtained from the far ultraviolet spectra that a certain subclass of the Algols (the Serpentids) are undergoing fairly rapid evolution is discussed. It is thought probable that the remarkable mass outflow observed in them is connected with a strong wind powered by accretion. The origin of the circumbinary clouds or flat disks that probably surround many strongly interacting binaries is not clear. Attention is also given to binary systems with hot white dwarf or subdwarf components, such as the symbiotic objects and the BQ stars; it is noted that in them both components may be prone to an enhanced stellar wind.

  11. Total Blood Loss After Transfemoral Amputations Is Twice the Intraoperative Loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wied, Christian; Tengberg, Peter T; Kristensen, Morten T

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Underestimation of the actual blood loss in patients undergoing nontraumatic transfemoral amputation (TFA) can impact negatively on outcome in these often frail patients, with very limited physiological reserves. The primary aim of this study is to estimate the total blood loss (TBL...

  12. Low-mass stars with mass loss and low-luminosity carbon star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boothroyd, A.I.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of large carbon enrichments in static stellar envelopes were investigated, using new Los Alamos opacities (including low-temperature carbon and molecular opacities) and including carbon ionizations. To search for the production of low-mass,low-luminosity carbon stars, detailed stellar evolutionary computations were carried out for a grid of low-mass stars of two different metallicities. The stars were evolved from the main sequence through all intermediate stages and through helium-shell flashes on the asymptotic giant branch. The effects of the latest nuclear reaction rates, the new Los Alamos opacities, Reimers-type wind mass loss, and detailed treatment of convection and semi-convection were investigated. Two low-luminosity carbon stars were achieved, in excellent agreement with observations. Conditions favoring dredge-up (and thus carbon-star production) include a reasonably large convective mixing length, low metallicity, relatively large envelope mass, and high flash strength. Mass loss was of major importance, tending to oppose dredge-up; the total mass-loss amounts inferred from observations suffice to prevent formation of high-mass, high-luminosity carbon stars

  13. Surface Mass Balance Contributions to Acceleration of Antarctic Ice Mass Loss during 2003- 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, K. W.; Wilson, C. R.; Scambos, T. A.; Kim, B. M.; Waliser, D. E.; Tian, B.; Kim, B.; Eom, J.

    2015-12-01

    Recent observations from satellite gravimetry (the GRACE mission) suggest an acceleration of ice mass loss from the Antarctic Ice Sheet (AIS). The contribution of surface mass balance changes (due to variable precipitation) is compared with GRACE-derived mass loss acceleration by assessing the estimated contribution of snow mass from meteorological reanalysis data. We find that over much of the continent, the acceleration can be explained by precipitation anomalies. However, on the Antarctic Peninsula and other parts of West Antarctica mass changes are not explained by precipitation and are likely associated with ice discharge rate increases. The total apparent GRACE acceleration over all of the AIS between 2003 and 2013 is -13.6±7.2 GTon/yr2. Of this total, we find that the surface mass balance component is -8.2±2.0 GTon/yr2. However, the GRACE estimate appears to contain errors arising from the atmospheric pressure fields used to remove air mass effects. The estimated acceleration error from this effect is about 9.8±5.8 GTon/yr2. Correcting for this yields an ice discharge acceleration of -15.1±6.5 GTon/yr2.

  14. Increase of Total Body Water with Decrease of Body Mass while Running 100 km Nonstop--Formation of Edema?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knechtle, Beat; Wirth, Andrea; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    We investigated whether ultraendurance runners in a 100-km run suffer a decrease of body mass and whether this loss consists of fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, or total body water. Male ultrarunners were measured pre- and postrace to determine body mass, fat mass, and skeletal muscle mass by using the anthropometric method. In addition,…

  15. Protein Losses and Urea Nitrogen Underestimate Total Nitrogen Losses in Peritoneal Dialysis and Hemodialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salame, Clara; Eaton, Simon; Grimble, George; Davenport, Andrew

    2018-04-28

    Muscle wasting is associated with increased mortality and is commonly reported in dialysis patients. Hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) treatments lead to protein losses in effluent dialysate. We wished to determine whether changes in current dialysis practice had increased therapy-associated nitrogen losses. Cross-sectional cohort study. Measurement of total protein, urea and total nitrogen in effluent dialysate from 24-hour collections from PD patients, and during haemodiafiltration (HDF) and haemodialysis (HD) sessions. One hundred eight adult dialysis patients. Peritoneal dialysis, high-flux haemodialysis and haemodiafiltration. Total nitrogen and protein losses. Dialysate protein losses were measured in 68 PD and 40 HD patients. Sessional losses of urea (13.9 [9.2-21.1] vs. 4.8 [2.8-7.8] g); protein (8.6 [7.2-11.1] vs. 6.7 [3.9-11.1] g); and nitrogen (11.5 [8.7-17.7] vs. 4.9 [2.6-9.5] g) were all greater for HD than PD, P losses were lower with HD 25.9 (21.5-33.4) versus 46.6 (27-77.6) g/week, but nitrogen losses were similar. We found no difference between high-flux HD and HDF: urea (13.5 [8.8-20.6] vs. 15.3 [10.5-25.5] g); protein (8.8 [7.3-12.2] vs. 7.6 [5.8-9.0] g); and total nitrogen (11.6 [8.3-17.3] vs. 10.8 [8.9-22.5] g). Urea nitrogen (UN) only accounted for 45.1 (38.3-51.0)% PD and 63.0 (55.3-62.4)% HD of total nitrogen losses. Although sessional losses of protein and UN were greater with HD, weekly losses were similar between modalities. We found no differences between HD and HDF. However, total nitrogen losses were much greater than the combination of protein and UN, suggesting greater nutritional losses with dialysis than previously reported. Copyright © 2018 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Stringent limits on the ionized mass loss from A and F dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, A.; Veale, A.; Judge, P.; Bookbinder, J.A.; Hubeny, I.

    1990-01-01

    Following the suggestion of Willson et al. (1987) that A- and F-type main-sequence stars might undergo significant mass loss due to pulsationally driven winds, upper limits to the ionized mass loss from A and F dwarfs have been obtained using VLA observations. These stringent upper limits show that the level of ionized mass loss would have at most only a small effect on stellar evolution. Radiative-equilibrium atmospheric and wind models for early A dwarfs indicate that it is highly likely that a wind flowing from such stars would be significantly ionized. In addition, late A and early F dwarfs exhibit chromospheric emission indicative of significant nonradiative heating. The present mass-loss limits are thus representative of the total mass-loss rates for these stars. It is concluded that A and F dwarfs are not losing sufficient mass to cause A dwarfs to evolve into G dwarfs. 24 refs

  17. Greenland Ice Sheet Mass Loss from GRACE Monthly Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Louise Sandberg; Forsberg, René

    2010-01-01

    The Greenland ice sheet is currently experiencing a net mass loss. There are however large discrepancies between the published qualitative mass loss estimates, based on different data sets and methods. There are even large differences between the results based on the same data sources, as is the ...

  18. Increased protein intake reduces lean body mass loss during weight loss in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mettler, Samuel; Mitchell, Nigel; Tipton, Kevin D

    2010-02-01

    To examine the influence of dietary protein on lean body mass loss and performance during short-term hypoenergetic weight loss in athletes. In a parallel design, 20 young healthy resistance-trained athletes were examined for energy expenditure for 1 wk and fed a mixed diet (15% protein, 100% energy) in the second week followed by a hypoenergetic diet (60% of the habitual energy intake), containing either 15% (approximately 1.0 g x kg(-1)) protein (control group, n = 10; CP) or 35% (approximately 2.3 g x kg(-1)) protein (high-protein group, n = 10; HP) for 2 wk. Subjects continued their habitual training throughout the study. Total, lean body, and fat mass, performance (squat jump, maximal isometric leg extension, one-repetition maximum (1RM) bench press, muscle endurance bench press, and 30-s Wingate test) and fasting blood samples (glucose, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), glycerol, urea, cortisol, free testosterone, free Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and growth hormone), and psychologic measures were examined at the end of each of the 4 wk. Total (-3.0 +/- 0.4 and -1.5 +/- 0.3 kg for the CP and HP, respectively, P = 0.036) and lean body mass loss (-1.6 +/- 0.3 and -0.3 +/- 0.3 kg, P = 0.006) were significantly larger in the CP compared with those in the HP. Fat loss, performance, and most blood parameters were not influenced by the diet. Urea was higher in HP, and NEFA and urea showed a group x time interaction. Fatigue ratings and "worse than normal" scores on the Daily Analysis of Life Demands for Athletes were higher in HP. These results indicate that approximately 2.3 g x kg(-1) or approximately 35% protein was significantly superior to approximately 1.0 g x kg(-1) or approximately 15% energy protein for maintenance of lean body mass in young healthy athletes during short-term hypoenergetic weight loss.

  19. Mass loss in early stages of stellar evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dearborn, D.S.P.; Kozlowski, M.; Schramm, D.

    1976-01-01

    It is known that stars lose mass between their birth on the main sequence and their death as white dwarfs, or as neutron stars or black holes for more massive stars. Solar wind considerations indicate that not all of the mass loss occurs in a 'last gasp' to form a planetary nebula. Mass loss has be observed in O-B stars and in red giants, but the mass loss observed in these stages do not appear sufficient to account for all the loss required for stars to become white dwarfs. The problem is at what stages and in what manner the excess mass is lost. Suggestions have tended to favour He flashes for stars with M < 2.25 M. and possibly double shell instability flashes for stars in the range from 2.25 M. to 8 M. Although is is possible that significant mass is lost during these stages, there appears to be no quantitative support for this suggestion, and in particular none for the He flash. It is shown here that there is increasing evidence for substantial mass loss during the immediate post main sequence stages when the star is moving from the main sequence to the giant branch. Mass loss at these early stages of evolution may have implications on the subsequent evolution of the star and the amount of nuclearly processed material that is ejected into the interstellar-medium. The behaviour of Arcturus is discussed in these connections. (U.K.)

  20. Evolution of a 30 solar mass star: the interplay of nuclear burning and mass loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falk, H.J.; Mitalas, R.

    1981-01-01

    Evolutionary tracks for a 30 solar mass star with various mass loss rates (MLR) were evolved to core He exhaustion. The 'overluminosity' of mass losing (ML) stars is explained in terms of the well known mass-luminosity (M-L) law. A critical ZAMS MLR above which mass loss leads to evolution to fainter luminosities is derived. Two tracks showed reversals in their direction of evolution across the HR diagram. These have been shown to be a consequence of mass loss dominating over the effects of the shell source. An analytic criterion for this condition has been derived. (Auth.)

  1. Epsilon Aminocaproic Acid to Reduce Blood Loss and Transfusion After Total Hip and Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Juliann C; Welsby, Ian J; Green, Cynthia L; Dhakal, Ishwori B; Wellman, Samuel S

    2018-01-01

    Total hip and knee arthroplasty (THA and TKA) are associated with significant blood loss and some patients require postoperative blood transfusion. While tranexamic acid has been studied extensively among this population, we tested the hypothesis that epsilon aminocaproic acid (EACA) can reduce blood loss and transfusion after joint arthroplasty. In April 2014, our Veterans Affairs Medical Center introduced a protocol to administer EACA during THA and TKA. No antifibrinolytics were used previously. We retrospectively compared blood loss and incidence of transfusion among patients who underwent primary arthroplasty in the year before standardized administration of EACA with patients having the same procedures the following year. Blood loss was measured as delta hemoglobin (preoperative hemoglobin - hemoglobin on postoperative day 1). All patients undergoing primary THA or TKA were included. Patients having revision surgery were excluded. We identified 185 primary arthroplasty patients from the year before and 184 from the year after introducing the EACA protocol. There were no changes in surgical technique or attending surgeons during this period. Delta hemoglobin was significantly lower in the EACA group (2.7 ± 0.8 mg/dL) compared to the control group (3.4 ± 1.1 mg/dL) (P blood transfusion was also significantly lower in the EACA group (2.7%) compared to the control group (25.4%) (P transfusion following introduction of the EACA protocol in patients undergoing primary arthroplasty. EACA offers a lower cost alternative to TXA for reducing blood loss and transfusion in this population. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Constraining the Mass Loss Geometry of Beta Lyrae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie R. Lomax

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Massive binary stars lose mass by two mechanisms: jet-driven mass loss during periods of active mass transfer and by wind-driven mass loss. Beta Lyrae is an eclipsing, semi-detached binary whose state of active mass transfer provides a unique opportunity to study how the evolution of binary systems is affected by jet-driven mass loss. Roche lobe overflow from the primary star feeds the thick accretion disk which almost completely obscures the mass-gaining star. A hot spot predicted to be on the edge of the accretion disk may be the source of beta Lyrae’s bipolar outflows. I present results from spectropolarimetric data taken with the University of Wisconsin’s Half-Wave Spectropolarimeter and the Flower and Cook Observatory’s photoelastic modulating polarimeter instrument which have implications for our current understanding of the system’s disk geometry. Using broadband polarimetric analysis, I derive new information about the structure of the disk and the presence and location of a hot spot. These results place constraints on the geometrical distribution of material in beta Lyrae and can help quantify the amount of mass lost from massive interacting binary systems during phases of mass transfer and jet-driven mass loss.

  3. ‘Shrink’ losses in commercially sized corn silage piles: Quantifying total losses and where they occur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, P.H.; Swanepoel, N.; Heguy, J.M.; Price, T.; Meyer, D.M., E-mail: phrobinson@ucdavis.edu [Department of Animal Science, UCCE Stanislaus, San Joaquin & Merced Counties, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Silage ‘shrink’ (i.e., loss of fresh chopped crop between ensiling and feedout) represents a nutrient loss which can degrade air quality as volatile carbon compounds, degrade surface waterways due to seepage, or degrade aquifers due to seepage. Virtually no research has documented shrink in large silage piles. The term ‘shrink’ is often ill defined, but can be expressed as losses of wet weight (WW), oven dry matter (oDM), and oDM corrected for volatiles lost in the drying oven (vcoDM). Corn silage piles (4 wedge, 2 rollover/wedge, 1 bunker) from 950 to 12,204 tonnes as built, on concrete (4), soil (2) and a combination (1) in California's San Joaquin Valley, using a bacterial inoculant, covered within 24 h with an oxygen barrier inner film and black/white outer plastic, fed out using large front end loaders through an electronic feed tracking system, and from the 2013 crop year, were used. Shrink as WW, oDM and vcoDM were 90 ± 17, 68 ± 18 and 28 ± 21 g/kg, suggesting that much WW shrink is water and much oDM shrink is volatiles lost during analytical oven drying. Most shrink occurred in the silage mass with losses from exposed silage faces, as well as between exposed face silage removal and the total mixed ration mixer, being low. Silage bulk density, exposed silage face management and face use rate did not have obvious impacts on any shrink measure, but age of the silage pile during silage feedout impacted shrink losses (‘older’ silage piles being higher), but most strongly for WW shrink. Real shrink losses (i.e., vcoDM) of large well managed corn silage piles are low, the exposed silage face is a small portion of losses, and many proposed shrink mitigations appeared ineffective, possibly because shrink was low overall and they are largely directed at the exposed silage face. - Highlights: • Corn silage piles were used to measure ‘shrink’ from construction to feedout • Shrink was wet weight, dry weight (oDM) and oDM volatiles corrected

  4. Surface mass balance contributions to acceleration of Antarctic ice mass loss during 2003-2013

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Ki-Weon; Wilson, Clark R.; Scambos, Ted; Kim, Baek-Min; Waliser, Duane E.; Tian, Baijun; Kim, Byeong-Hoon; Eom, Jooyoung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Recent observations from satellite gravimetry (the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission) suggest an acceleration of ice mass loss from the Antarctic Ice Sheet (AIS). The contribution of surface mass balance changes (due to variable precipitation) is compared with GRACE?derived mass loss acceleration by assessing the estimated contribution of snow mass from meteorological reanalysis data. We find that over much of the continent, the acceleration can be explained by ...

  5. Mass loss rates of OB stars derived from infrared observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanzi, E.G.; Tarenghi, M.; Panagia, N.

    1981-01-01

    In this paper the authors report briefly on a study of the mass loss of early type stars in the infrared. Up to now near infrared (1.25 - 4.8 μ) broad band photometry of 70 southern OB stars of various luminosity class has been secured. Program stars have been selected, among those bright enough in the infrared to give a suitable photometric accuracy, in order to cover a wide range of spectral types. 37 stars are found to exhibit emission in excess over a blackbody photospheric continuum, which is interpreted in terms of gas ejected in the form of an accelerated wind. By means of model calculations the corresponding mass loss rates are derived. The obtained values compare well with those determined independently by various authors for stars in common. Their data show that mass loss rates increase with luminosity and are a decreasing function of surface gravity. (Auth.)

  6. A Mass Loss Penetration Model to Investigate the Dynamic Response of a Projectile Penetrating Concrete considering Mass Abrasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NianSong Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A study on the dynamic response of a projectile penetrating concrete is conducted. The evolutional process of projectile mass loss and the effect of mass loss on penetration resistance are investigated using theoretical methods. A projectile penetration model considering projectile mass loss is established in three stages, namely, cratering phase, mass loss penetration phase, and remainder rigid projectile penetration phase.

  7. Effects of mass loss on the evolution of massive stars. I. Main-sequence evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dearborn, D.S.P.; Blake, J.B.; Hainebach, K.L.; Schramm, D.N.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of mass loss on the evolution and surface composition of massive stars during main-sequence evolution are examined. While some details of the evolutionary track depend on the formula used for the mass loss, the results appear most sensitive to the total mass removed during the main-sequence lifetime. It was found that low mass-loss rates have very little effect on the evolution of a star; the track is slightly subluminous, but the lifetime is almost unaffected. High rates of mass loss lead to a hot, high-luminosity stellar model with a helium core surrounded by a hydrogen-deficient (Xapprox.0.1) envelope. The main-sequence lifetime is extended by a factor of 2--3. These models may be identified with Wolf-Rayet stars. Between these mass-loss extremes are intermediate models which appear as OBN stars on the main sequence. The mass-loss rates required for significant observable effects range from 8 x 10 -7 to 10 -5 M/sub sun/ yr -1 , depending on the initial stellar mass. It is found that observationally consistent mass-loss rates for stars with M> or =30 M/sub sun/ may be sufficiently high that these stars lose mass on a time scale more rapidly than their main-sequence core evolution time. This result implies that the helium cores resulting from the main-sequence evolution of these massive stars may all be very similar to that of a star of Mapprox.30 M/sub sun/ regardless of the zero-age mass

  8. CONNECTING FLARES AND TRANSIENT MASS-LOSS EVENTS IN MAGNETICALLY ACTIVE STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osten, Rachel A. [Space Telescope Science Institute 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Wolk, Scott J., E-mail: osten@stsci.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge MA 02138 (United States)

    2015-08-10

    We explore the ramification of associating the energetics of extreme magnetic reconnection events with transient mass-loss in a stellar analogy with solar eruptive events. We establish energy partitions relative to the total bolometric radiated flare energy for different observed components of stellar flares and show that there is rough agreement for these values with solar flares. We apply an equipartition between the bolometric radiated flare energy and kinetic energy in an accompanying mass ejection, seen in solar eruptive events and expected from reconnection. This allows an integrated flare rate in a particular waveband to be used to estimate the amount of associated transient mass-loss. This approach is supported by a good correspondence between observational flare signatures on high flaring rate stars and the Sun, which suggests a common physical origin. If the frequent and extreme flares that young solar-like stars and low-mass stars experience are accompanied by transient mass-loss in the form of coronal mass ejections, then the cumulative effect of this mass-loss could be large. We find that for young solar-like stars and active M dwarfs, the total mass lost due to transient magnetic eruptions could have significant impacts on disk evolution, and thus planet formation, and also exoplanet habitability.

  9. Massive stars with mass loss: Evolution, nucleosynthesis, and astrophysical implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prantzos, N.

    1986-06-01

    Evolution and nucleosynthesis of mass loss WR stars is studied, particularly evolution of stars with initial mass between 50 and 100 solar masses, during combustion of H and He. A semi-empirical mass loss formalism, the Roxburgh criterion for convection, and nuclear data are used. Composition of the stellar surface and ejecta (and ejecta contribution to cosmic ray composition) are derived. The contribution of these stars to s elements in our solar system is shown. Their production of 26 Al is compared to the quantity in the galaxy. Gamma ray emission at 1.8 MeV from the decay of this radionuclide is estimated in galactic longitude. The stars evolve as 0 and 0f stars during H combustion and spend 20% of their He combustion period as WN stars and 80% as WC-W0. Evolution always occurs in the blue part of the HR diagram, and satisfies observational constraints on its upper part [fr

  10. Mass loss by stars on the asymptotic giant branch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frantsman, Yu.L.

    1986-01-01

    The theoretical populations of white dwarfs and carbon stars were generated for Salpeter initial mass function and constant stellar birth rate history. The effect of very strong mass loss on the mass distribution of white dwarfs and luminosity distribution of carbon stars is discussed and the results are compared with observations. This comparison suggested that a signioficant mass loss by stars on the asymptotic giant branch occurs besides stellar wind and planetary nebulae ejection. Thus it is possible to explain the absence of carbon stars with Msub(bol) 1.0 Msub(sun). The luminosity of asymptotic giant branch stars in the globular clusters of the Magellanic Clouds appears to be a very good indicator of the age

  11. DUST PRODUCTION AND MASS LOSS IN THE GALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTER NGC 362

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyer, Martha L.; Gordon, Karl D.; Meixner, Margaret; Sewilo, Marta; Shiao, Bernie; Whitney, Barbara; McDonald, Iain; Van Loon, Jacco Th.; Oliveira, Joana M.; Babler, Brian; Bracker, Steve; Meade, Marilyn; Block, Miwa; Engelbracht, Charles; Misselt, Karl; Hora, Joe; Indebetouw, Remy

    2009-01-01

    We investigate dust production and stellar mass loss in the Galactic globular cluster NGC 362. Due to its close proximity to the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), NGC 362 was imaged with the Infrared Array Camera and Multiband Imaging Photometer cameras onboard the Spitzer Space Telescope as part of the Surveying the Agents of Galaxy Evolution (SAGE-SMC) Spitzer Legacy program. We detect several cluster members near the tip of the red giant branch (RGB) that exhibit infrared excesses indicative of circumstellar dust and find that dust is not present in measurable quantities in stars below the tip of the RGB. We modeled the spectral energy distribution (SED) of the stars with the strongest IR excess and find a total cluster dust mass-loss rate of 3.0 +2.0 -1.2 x 10 -9 M sun yr -1 , corresponding to a gas mass-loss rate of 8.6 +5.6 -3.4 x 10 -6 M sun yr -1 , assuming [Fe/H] =-1.16. This mass loss is in addition to any dustless mass loss that is certainly occurring within the cluster. The two most extreme stars, variables V2 and V16, contribute up to 45% of the total cluster dust-traced mass loss. The SEDs of the more moderate stars indicate the presence of silicate dust, as expected for low-mass, low-metallicity stars. Surprisingly, the SED shapes of the stars with the strongest mass-loss rates appear to require the presence of amorphous carbon dust, possibly in combination with silicate dust, despite their oxygen-rich nature. These results corroborate our previous findings in ω Centauri.

  12. Counteracting age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechshøft, Rasmus; Reitelseder, Søren; Højfeldt, Grith

    2016-01-01

    Background Aging is associated with decreased muscle mass and functional capacity, which in turn decrease quality of life. The number of citizens over the age of 65 years in the Western world will increase by 50 % over the next four decades, and this demographic shift brings forth new challenges...... at both societal and individual levels. Only a few longitudinal studies have been reported, but whey protein supplementation seems to improve muscle mass and function, and its combination with heavy strength training appears even more effective. However, heavy resistance training may reduce adherence...... Intervention Study will generate scientific evidence and recommendations to counteract age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass in elderly individuals....

  13. The coupling between pulsation and mass loss in massive stars

    OpenAIRE

    Townsend, Rich

    2007-01-01

    To what extent can pulsational instabilities resolve the mass-loss problem of massive stars? How important is pulsation in structuring and modulating the winds of these stars? What role does pulsation play in redistributing angular momentum in massive stars? Although I cannot offer answers to these questions, I hope at the very least to explain how they come to be asked.

  14. Effect of mass loss on the. beta. Cephei instability strip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiosi, C [Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Astronomia

    1980-07-01

    In this paper we aim to suggest on a speculative basis that the existence of mass loss by stellar wind in massive stars (M > 10 Msub(sun)) may affect the properties of the ..beta.. Cephei instability strip, and remove some of the difficulties encountered in the interpretation of their pulsation.

  15. Inflammatory markers and loss of muscle mass (sarcopenia) and strength

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaap, Laura A; Pluijm, Saskia M F; Deeg, Dorly J H; Visser, Marjolein

    PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to investigate whether high levels of serum interleukin (IL)-6, C-reactive protein (CRP), and alpha1-antichymotrypsin (ACT) were associated with the loss of muscle strength or muscle mass (sarcopenia) in older persons. SUBJECTS: The study included 986 men and

  16. Mass loss rates in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jager, C. de; Nieuwenhuijzen, H.; Hucht, K.A. van der

    1988-01-01

    From the literature we collected values for the rate of mass loss for 271 stars, nearly all of population I, and of spectral types 0 through M. Rates of stellar mass loss determined according to six different methods were compared and appear to yield the same result per star within the limits of errors; this is true regardless of the star's position in the HR-diagram. Thus average rates of mass loss were determined, and weights were allocated to the M-determinations for each star. In addition we studied some groups of other stars: fast rotators (22 Be-type stars), and chemically evolved stars (31 Wolf-Rayet stars; 11 C- and 4 S-type stars and 15 nuclei of planetary nebulae). The chemically evolved stars have rates of mass loss which are larger than those of ''normal'' stars occupying the same positions in the Hertzprung-Russel diagram, by factors: 160 for Wolf-Rayet stars; 11 for C-type stars, and by estimated factors of 10 3 to 10 4 for the nuclei of planetary nebulae

  17. Ethamsylate and blood loss in total hip replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, I

    1979-01-01

    Nineteen consecutive patients undergoing total hip replacement under epidural anaesthesia were randomly divided into two groups. The treatment group received 1000 mg of ethamsylate intravenously before induction of anaesthesia. Blood lost during surgery was measured by a colorimetric technique. Closed suction drains were used and all blood lost after operation collected for measurement. Ethamsylate did not decrease the average volumes of blood lost during or after the operation. Neither did it reduce the requirements for blood transfusion. Although there were no side-effects attributable to ethamyslate, there seems to be no indication for its use in total hip replacement under epidural anaesthesia.

  18. The Role of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) on Recent Greenland Surface Mass Loss and Mass Partitioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, M.; Alexander, P.; Porter, D. F.; Fettweis, X.; Luthcke, S. B.; Mote, T. L.; Rennermalm, A.; Hanna, E.

    2017-12-01

    Despite recent changes in Greenland surface mass losses and atmospheric circulation over the Arctic, little attention has been given to the potential role of large-scale atmospheric processes on the spatial and temporal variability of mass loss and partitioning of the GrIS mass loss. Using a combination of satellite gravimetry measurements, outputs of the MAR regional climate model and reanalysis data, we show that changes in atmospheric patterns since 2013 over the North Atlantic region of the Arctic (NAA) modulate total mass loss trends over Greenland together with the spatial and temporal distribution of mass loss partitioning. For example, during the 2002 - 2012 period, melting persistently increased, especially along the west coast, as a consequence of increased insulation and negative NAO conditions characterizing that period. Starting in 2013, runoff along the west coast decreased while snowfall increased substantially, when NAO turned to a more neutral/positive state. Modeled surface mass balance terms since 1950 indicate that part of the GRACE-period, specifically the period between 2002 and 2012, was exceptional in terms of snowfall over the east and northeast regions. During that period snowfall trend decreased to almost 0 Gt/yr from a long-term increasing trend, which presumed again in 2013. To identify the potential impact of atmospheric patterns on mass balance and its partitioning, we studied the spatial and temporal correlations between NAO and snowfall/runoff. Our results indicate that the correlation between summer snowfall and NAO is not stable during the 1950 - 2015 period. We further looked at changes in patterns of circulation using self organizing maps (SOMs) to identify the atmospheric patterns characterizing snowfall during different periods. We discuss potential implications for past changes and future GCM and RCM simulations.

  19. The fluctuation theory of the stellar mass loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andriesse, C.D.

    1981-01-01

    The idea that fluctuations in the mass flow are as significant as the very existence of the flow has led to the development of a fluctuation theory of the stellar mass loss. A general theory for fluctuations in non-equilibrium systems - and such are stellar atmospheres - was developed long ago. In developing the general theory to a specific stellar theory, however, the arguments have not come up in their logical order. The present sketch of this theory improves on that order and is offered as a framework for further study. (Auth.)

  20. Chlorine loss and mass loss from polyvinylchloride and polyvinylidenchloride under the electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindberg, K.A.H.; Bertilsson, H.E.

    1985-01-01

    The loss of chlorine during the irradiation of PVC and PVDC in the electron microscope has been measured by the decay of the X-ray chlorine Kα signal. A number of factors affecting the measured beam damage curves have been considered and the experimental errors reduced to +- 10%. The results show that the chlorine decay curves can be best described by the sum of two exponentials, corresponding to the two different chlorine decay processes, these being: the dehydrochlorination of the polymer molecules and the dehydrochlorination of the polyene structure formed by the beam damage. The higher initial chlorine content of PVDC compared to PVC will result in a larger amount of chlorine atoms reacting with the polyene structure, which is more stable in the electron beam than the undamaged polymer. The chlorine loss, measured by X-ray analysis, has been compared to the mass loss, measured by energy loss analysis, and also with the volume changes of isolated spherical PVC particles. It has been concluded that the mass loss is almost entirely due to chlorine loss and that the residual structure has a density similar to the undamaged PVC. (author)

  1. Prevalence of skeletal muscle mass loss and its association with swallowing function after cardiovascular surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Hidetaka; Takahashi, Rimiko; Watanabe, Naoko; Oritsu, Hideyuki; Shimizu, Yoshitaka

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of skeletal muscle mass loss and its association with swallowing function in patients with dysphagia after cardiovascular surgery. A retrospective cohort study was performed in 65 consecutive patients with dysphagia after cardiovascular surgery who were prescribed speech therapy. Skeletal muscle index (SMI) was calculated as total psoas muscle area assessed via abdominal computed tomography divided by height squared. Cutoff values were 6.36 cm 2 /m 2 for men and 3.92 cm 2 /m 2 for women. The Food Intake Level Scale (FILS) was used to assess the swallowing function. Univariate and ordered logistic regression analyses were applied to examine the associations between skeletal muscle mass loss and dysphagia. The study included 50 men and 15 women (mean age 73 ± 8 y). The mean SMI was 4.72 ± 1.37 cm 2 /m 2 in men and 3.33 ± 1.42 cm 2 /m 2 in women. Skeletal muscle mass loss was found in 53 (82%) patients. Twelve had tracheostomy cannula. Thirteen were non-oral feeding (FILS levels 1-3), 5 were oral food intake and alternative nutrition (levels 4-6), and 47 were oral food intake alone (levels 7-9) at discharge. The FILS at discharge was significantly lower in patients with skeletal muscle mass loss. Ordered logistic regression analysis of swallowing function showed that skeletal muscle mass loss and tracheostomy cannula were associated independently with the FILS at discharge. The prevalence of skeletal muscle mass loss is very high, and skeletal muscle mass loss is associated with swallowing function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Exploring the Relationship between Skeletal Mass and Total Body Mass in Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Silverstone, Elizabeth; Vincze, Orsolya; McCann, Ria; Jonsson, Carl H W; Palmer, Colin; Kaiser, Gary; Dyke, Gareth

    2015-01-01

    Total body mass (TBM) is known to be related to a number of different osteological features in vertebrates, including limb element measurements and total skeletal mass. The relationship between skeletal mass and TBM in birds has been suggested as a way of estimating the latter in cases where only the skeleton is known (e.g., fossils). This relationship has thus also been applied to other extinct vertebrates, including the non-avian pterosaurs, while other studies have used additional skeletal correlates found in modern birds to estimate TBM. However, most previous studies have used TBM compiled from the literature rather than from direct measurements, producing values from population averages rather than from individuals. Here, we report a new dataset of 487 extant birds encompassing 79 species that have skeletal mass and TBM recorded at the time of collection or preparation. We combine both historical and new data for analyses with phylogenetic control and find a similar and well-correlated relationship between skeletal mass and TBM. Thus, we confirm that TBM and skeletal mass are accurate proxies for estimating one another. We also look at other factors that may have an effect on avian body mass, including sex, ontogenetic stage, and flight mode. While data are well-correlated in all cases, phylogeny is a major control on TBM in birds strongly suggesting that this relationship is not appropriate for estimating the total mass of taxa outside of crown birds, Neornithes (e.g., non-avian dinosaurs, pterosaurs). Data also reveal large variability in both bird skeletal and TBM within single species; caution should thus be applied when using published mass to test direct correlations with skeletal mass and bone lengths.

  3. Effects of total flavonoids from Drynariae Rhizoma prevent bone loss in vivo and in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang-hong Song

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Estrogen deficiency is one of the major causes of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Drynariae Rhizoma is a widely used traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of bone diseases. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic effects of the total Drynariae Rhizoma flavonoids (DRTF on estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss using an ovariectomized rat model and osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells. Our results indicated that DRTF produced osteo-protective effects on the ovariectomized rats in terms of bone loss reduction, including decreased levels of bone turnover markers, enhanced biomechanical femur strength and trabecular bone microarchitecture deterioration prevention. In vitro experiments revealed that the actions of DRTF on regulating osteoblastic activities were mediated by the estrogen receptor (ER dependent pathway. Our data also demonstrated that DRTF inhibited osteoclastogenesis via up-regulating osteoprotegrin (OPG, as well as down-regulating receptor activator of NF–κB ligand (RANKL expression. In conclusion, this study indicated that DRTF treatment effectively suppressed bone mass loss in an ovariectomized rat model, and in vitro evidence suggested that the effects were exerted through actions on both osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Keywords: Osteoporosis, Osteoblast, Osteoclast, Ovariectomy, Drynariae Rhizoma

  4. Convection and mass loss through the chromosphere of Betelgeuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, Stephen

    2011-10-01

    Betelgeuse is well suited for detailed study of the mass loss process in a massive red supergiant. We have engaged in a multi-scale, multi-color study to trace the ejected material from the photosphere to the interstellar medium, and understand its chemical evolution {formation of molecules and dust}. Infrared interferometry already gave us a detailed image of the photosphere, compatible with large convective cells. Adaptive optics spectro-imaging {1.0-2.2 microns} allowed us to detect the presence of the CN molecule and mass loss plume structures up to at least 6 R*. At larger distances, we observed silicate-rich dust in thermal IR {8-20 microns}. From the surface to 100 R*, we therefore have a continuous coverage with multicolor imagery. The chromosphere lies at a key location, between the photosphere and the molecular envelope. As shown by STIS spatially resolved spectroscopy {Lobel & Dupree 2001}, it contains rising and falling gases. Such structure is supported by our 3D modeling of the convection. In order to probe the dynamics of the envelope and its relation to photospheric spots and mass loss plumes, we propose to obtain UV imaging with STIS at 3 epochs to complement our coordinated ground-based effort as well as the earlier HST UV snapshots. We will use this imagery to correlate structures at different radii and temperatures, and to explore the time-scales of evolution. With the support of our 3D models, this information will answer specific questions including deciding between convective and polar explanations for bright spots and plumes. Our infrared imaging observations will be repeated contemporaneously with the requested HST/STIS images.

  5. Galactic chemical evolution with main-sequence mass loss and the distribution of F and G dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzik, J.A.; Struck-Marcell, C.

    1988-01-01

    Simple closed galactic chemical-evolution models incorporating early main-sequence stellar mass loss have been developed for disk ages of 5, 10, and 15 Gyr. Relative to models without stellar mass loss, the models are shown to produce a 30-60 percent increase in the present mass ratio of dwarfs to dwarfs plus remnants, and a 200-250 percent increase in the total mass of late F dwarfs remaining on the main sequence at the current disk age. For present disk ages 5 and 10 Gyr, the total mass of mid-F dwarfs remaining on the main sequence is also shown to increase by 90-120 percent. It is concluded that models with main-sequence mass loss have a slightly reduced gas metallicity and slightly increased gas fraction midway through the evolution. 30 references

  6. Delta progradation in Greenland driven by increasing glacial mass loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Mette; Iversen, Lars Lonsmann; Bjork, Anders Anker

    2017-01-01

    imagery. We find that delta progradation was driven by high freshwater runoff from the Greenland Ice Sheet coinciding with periods of open water. Progradation was controlled by the local initial environmental conditions (that is, accumulated air temperatures above 0 degrees C per year, freshwater runoff...... of erosion and accretion along the large deltas of the main rivers in the Arctic5-7. Our results improve the understanding of Arctic coastal evolution in a changing climate, and reveal the impacts on coastal areas of increasing ice mass loss and the associated freshwater runoff and lengthening of open-water...

  7. Mass loss from the K dwarf in V471 Tauri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullan, D.J.; Bruhweiler, F.; Sion, E.M.

    1988-01-01

    Spectra of MgII h and k have been obtained for V471 Tau at phases zero (K dwarf in front) and 0.5 (white dwarf in front). At phase zero, strong blueshifted absorption is present, suggestive of a wind from the K dwarf with terminal velocity 600-700 km/sec and mass loss rate at least three orders of magnitude greater than solar. Discrete blue-shifted absorption features occur at velocities of about 200 and 500 km/sec. At phase 0.5, the blueshifted absorption is much weaker, although still detectable

  8. Evidence for Pulsation-Driven Mass Loss from δ Cephei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marengo, M.; Evans, N. R.; Matthews, L. D.; Bono, G.; Barmby, P.; Welch, D. L.; Romaniello, M.; Su, K. Y. L.; Fazio, G. G.; Huelsman, D.

    We found the first direct evidence that the Cepheid class namesake, δ Cephei, is currently losing mass. These observations are based on data obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope in the infrared, and with the Very Large Array in the radio. We found that δ Cephei is associated with a vast circumstellar structure, reminiscent of a bow shock. This structure is created as the wind from the star interacts with the local interstellar medium. We measure an outflow velocity of ≈ 35. 5 km s- 1 and a mass loss rate of ≈ 10- 7-10- 6 M ⊙ year- 1. The very low dust content of the outflow suggests that the wind is possibly pulsation-driven, rather than dust-driven as common for other classes of evolved stars.

  9. Relationship between oxidative stress and muscle mass loss in early postmenopause: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacarías-Flores, Mariano; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Martha A; García-Anaya, Oswaldo Daniel; Correa-Muñoz, Elsa; Mendoza-Núñez, Víctor Manuel

    2018-04-09

    Endocrine changes due to menopause have been associated to oxidative stress and muscle mass loss. The study objective was to determine the relationship between both variables in early postmenopause. An exploratory, cross-sectional study was conducted in 107 pre- and postmenopausal women (aged 40-57 years). Levels of serum lipid peroxides and uric acid and enzymes superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, as well as total plasma antioxidant capacity were measured as oxidative stress markers. Muscle mass using bioelectrical impedance and muscle strength using dynamometry were also measured. Muscle mass, skeletal muscle index, fat-free mass, and body mass index were calculated. More than 90% of participants were diagnosed with overweight or obesity. Postmenopausal women had lower values of muscle mass and strength markers, with a negative correlation between lipid peroxide level and skeletal muscle index (r= -0.326, p<.05), and a positive correlation between uric acid and skeletal muscle index (r=0.295, p<.05). A multivariate model including oxidative stress markers, age, and waist circumference showed lipid peroxide level to be the main contributor to explain the decrease in skeletal muscle mass in postmenopause, since for every 0.1μmol/l increase in lipid peroxide level, skeletal muscle index decreases by 3.03 units. Our findings suggest an association between increased oxidative stress and muscle mass loss in early postmenopause. Copyright © 2018 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Asymptotically simple spacetimes and mass loss due to gravitational waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, Vee-Liem

    The cosmological constant Λ used to be a freedom in Einstein’s theory of general relativity (GR), where one had a proclivity to set it to zero purely for convenience. The signs of Λ or Λ being zero would describe universes with different properties. For instance, the conformal structure of spacetime directly depends on Λ: null infinity ℐ is a spacelike, null, or timelike hypersurface, if Λ > 0, Λ = 0, or Λ 0 in Einstein’s theory of GR. A quantity that depends on the conformal structure of spacetime, especially on the nature of ℐ, is the Bondi mass which in turn dictates the mass loss of an isolated gravitating system due to energy carried away by gravitational waves. This problem of extending the Bondi mass to a universe with Λ > 0 has spawned intense research activity over the past several years. Some aspects include a closer inspection on the conformal properties, working with linearization, attempts using a Hamiltonian formulation based on “linearized” asymptotic symmetries, as well as obtaining the general asymptotic solutions of de Sitter-like spacetimes. We consolidate on the progress thus far from the various approaches that have been undertaken, as well as discuss the current open problems and possible directions in this area.

  11. Maternal obesity influences the relationship between location of neonate fat mass and total fat mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, H R; Thornton, J; Paley, C; Navder, K; Gallagher, D

    2015-08-01

    It is suggested that maternal obesity perpetuates offspring obesity to future generations. To determine whether location of neonate fat mass (FM: central vs. peripheral) is related to total neonate FM and whether maternal obesity influences this relationship. Neonate body composition and skin-fold thicknesses were assessed in healthy neonates (n = 371; 1-3 days old). Linear regression models examined the relationship between total FM and location of FM (central vs. peripheral). Location of FM was calculated by skin-folds: peripheral was the sum of (biceps and triceps)/2 and central was represented by the subscapular skin-fold. A significant interaction was found for location of FM and maternal obesity. Holding all predictors constant, in offspring born to non-obese mothers, a 0.5 mm increase in central FM predicted a 15 g greater total FM, whereas a 0.5 mm increase in peripheral FM predicted a 66 g greater total FM. However, in offspring born to obese mothers, a 0.5 mm increase in central FM predicted a 56 g total FM, whereas a 0.5 mm increase in peripheral FM predicted a 14 g greater total FM. The relationship between total FM and location of FM is influenced by maternal obesity. © 2014 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2014 World Obesity.

  12. Blood loss associated with Ring uncemented total knee replacement: comparison between continuous and intermittent suction drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, F W; Ring, P A

    1984-01-01

    In a retrospective comparison of blood loss following uncemented total knee replacement, in which either continuous or intermittent suction drainage was used, measured blood loss was significantly greater with continuous drainage. However, a method of calculating actual blood loss demonstrated no significant difference. With intermittent drainage, more blood remains undetected around the knee joint; this technique should therefore be abandoned in favour of continuous suction drainage. PMID:6747978

  13. Acceleration of the GrIS mass loss as observed by GRACE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Peter Limkilde; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2012-01-01

    The mass loss of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) has previously been analysed in a variety of ways, including altimetry, gravimetry and mass budget calculations, establishing a continuing decrease in the ice mass, with a number of studies finding acceleration in the mass loss. Here, we examine...

  14. Mass loss from red giants - A simple evolutionary model for NGC 7027

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jura, M.

    1984-01-01

    NGC 7027 is a young planetary nebula with the remnants of a red giant circumstellar envelope surrounding the central, ionized region. By comparing the outer molecular envelope with the inner ionized material, it is argued that the mass loss rate has decreased by at least a factor of 3, and more probably by about a factor of 10, during the past 1000 years. From this result, it is argued that the luminosity of the central star has also decreased substantially during the same time, consistent with models for the rapid evolution of stars just after they evolve off the asymptotic giant branch. In this picture, the distance to NGC 7027 is less than 1300 pc. NGC 7027 was the last (and best) example of a star where apparently the momentum in the outflowing mass /M(dot)v/ is considerably greater than the momentum in the radiation field (L/c). With the above description of this object, the evidence is now strong that quite often the mass lost from late-type giants is ultimately driven to infinity by radiation pressure on grains. If M(dot)v is as large as L/c for asymptotic branch stars, then it is expected that the total amount of mass lost during this stage of evolution is of the same magnitude as the initial mass of the star, and therefore this mass loss can profoundly affect the star's ultimate fate.

  15. Probing the mass-loss history of AGB and red supergiant stars from CO rotational line profiles - I. Theoretical model - Mass-loss history unravelled in VYCMa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Decin, L.; Hony, S.; de Koter, A.; Justtanont, K.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Waters, L. B. F. M.

    Context. Mass loss plays a dominant role in the evolution of low mass stars while they are on the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB). The gas and dust ejected during this phase are a major source in the mass budget of the interstellar medium. Recent studies have pointed towards the importance of

  16. Global-scale hydrological response to future glacier mass loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huss, Matthias; Hock, Regine

    2018-01-01

    Worldwide glacier retreat and associated future runoff changes raise major concerns over the sustainability of global water resources1-4, but global-scale assessments of glacier decline and the resulting hydrological consequences are scarce5,6. Here we compute global glacier runoff changes for 56 large-scale glacierized drainage basins to 2100 and analyse the glacial impact on streamflow. In roughly half of the investigated basins, the modelled annual glacier runoff continues to rise until a maximum (`peak water') is reached, beyond which runoff steadily declines. In the remaining basins, this tipping point has already been passed. Peak water occurs later in basins with larger glaciers and higher ice-cover fractions. Typically, future glacier runoff increases in early summer but decreases in late summer. Although most of the 56 basins have less than 2% ice coverage, by 2100 one-third of them might experience runoff decreases greater than 10% due to glacier mass loss in at least one month of the melt season, with the largest reductions in central Asia and the Andes. We conclude that, even in large-scale basins with minimal ice-cover fraction, the downstream hydrological effects of continued glacier wastage can be substantial, but the magnitudes vary greatly among basins and throughout the melt season.

  17. An Evaluation of Intra‑ and Post‑operative Blood Loss in Total Hip ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-05-18

    May 18, 2017 ... Results: The mean intra‑ and post‑operative blood losses were 1222.7 ... To evaluate blood loss after total hip replacement. 2. To evaluate the .... 12.3. 4.2. 0.1. Median. 400.0. 150.0. 20.0. 3.0. Mode. 400.0. 100.0. 0.0. 3.0. SD.

  18. Eddy current and total power loss separation in the iron-phosphate-polyepoxy soft magnetic composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taghvaei, A.H.; Shokrollahi, H.; Janghorban, K.; Abiri, H.

    2009-01-01

    This work investigates the magnetic properties of iron-phosphate-polyepoxy soft magnetic composite materials. FTIR spectra, EDX analysis, distribution maps, X-ray diffraction pattern and density measurements show that the particles surface layer contains a thin layer of nanocrystalline/amorphous phosphate with high coverage of powders surface. In this paper, a formula for calculating the eddy current loss and total loss components by loss separation method is presented and finally the different parts of power losses are calculated. The results show that, the contribution of eddy current in the bulk material for single coating layer (k b = 0.18) is higher in comparison with double coating layer (k b = 0.09). Moreover, iron-phosphate-polyepoxy composites (P = 0.000004f 2 ) have lower power loss in comparison with iron-phosphate composites (P = 0.00002f 2 ).

  19. Animal board invited review: Dairy cow lameness expenditures, losses and total cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolecheck, K; Bewley, J

    2018-03-20

    Lameness is one of the most costly dairy cow diseases, yet adoption of lameness prevention strategies remains low. Low lameness prevention adoption might be attributable to a lack of understanding regarding total lameness costs. In this review, we evaluated the contribution of different expenditures and losses to total lameness costs. Evaluated expenditures included labor for treatment, therapeutic supplies, lameness detection and lameness control and prevention. Evaluated losses included non-saleable milk, reduced milk production, reduced reproductive performance, increased animal death, increased animal culling, disease interrelationships, lameness recurrence and reduced animal welfare. The previous literature on total lameness cost estimates was also summarized. The reviewed studies indicated that previous estimates of total lameness costs are variable and inconsistent in the expenditures and losses they include. Many of the identified expenditure and loss categories require further research to accurately include in total lameness cost estimates. Future research should focus on identifying costs associated with specific lameness conditions, differing lameness severity levels, and differing stages of lactation at onset of lameness to provide better total lameness cost estimates that can be useful for decision making at both the herd and individual cow level.

  20. Variation in body mass dynamics among sites in Black Brant Branta bernicla nigricans supports adaptivity of mass loss during moult

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fondell, Thomas F.; Flint, Paul L.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Schamber, Jason L.; Nicolai, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    Birds employ varying strategies to accommodate the energetic demands of moult, one important example being changes in body mass. To understand better their physiological and ecological significance, we tested three hypotheses concerning body mass dynamics during moult. We studied Black Brant in 2006 and 2007 moulting at three sites in Alaska which varied in food availability, breeding status and whether geese undertook a moult migration. First we predicted that if mass loss during moult were simply the result of inadequate food resources then mass loss would be highest where food was least available. Secondly, we predicted that if mass loss during moult were adaptive, allowing birds to reduce activity during moult, then birds would gain mass prior to moult where feeding conditions allowed and mass loss would be positively related to mass at moult initiation. Thirdly, we predicted that if mass loss during moult were adaptive, allowing birds to regain flight sooner, then across sites and groups, mass at the end of the flightless period would converge on a theoretical optimum, i.e. the mass that permits the earliest possible return to flight. Mass loss was greatest where food was most available and thus our results did not support the prediction that mass loss resulted from inadequate food availability. Mass at moult initiation was positively related to both food availability and mass loss. In addition, among sites and years, variation in mass was high at moult initiation but greatly reduced at the end of the flightless period, appearing to converge. Thus, our results supported multiple predictions that mass loss during moult was adaptive and that the optimal moulting strategy was to gain mass prior to the flightless period, then through behavioural modifications use these body reserves to reduce activity and in so doing also reduce wing loading. Geese that undertook a moult migration initiated moult at the highest mass, indicating that they were more than able to

  1. THE MASS-LOSS RETURN FROM EVOLVED STARS TO THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD. VI. LUMINOSITIES AND MASS-LOSS RATES ON POPULATION SCALES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riebel, D.; Meixner, M.; Srinivasan, S.; Sargent, B.

    2012-01-01

    We present results from the first application of the Grid of Red Supergiant and Asymptotic Giant Branch ModelS (GRAMS) model grid to the entire evolved stellar population of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). GRAMS is a pre-computed grid of 80,843 radiative transfer models of evolved stars and circumstellar dust shells composed of either silicate or carbonaceous dust. We fit GRAMS models to ∼30,000 asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and red supergiant (RSG) stars in the LMC, using 12 bands of photometry from the optical to the mid-infrared. Our published data set consists of thousands of evolved stars with individually determined evolutionary parameters such as luminosity and mass-loss rate. The GRAMS grid has a greater than 80% accuracy rate discriminating between oxygen- and carbon-rich chemistry. The global dust injection rate to the interstellar medium (ISM) of the LMC from RSGs and AGB stars is on the order of 2.1 × 10 –5 M ☉ yr –1 , equivalent to a total mass injection rate (including the gas) into the ISM of ∼6 × 10 –3 M ☉ yr –1 . Carbon stars inject two and a half times as much dust into the ISM as do O-rich AGB stars, but the same amount of mass. We determine a bolometric correction factor for C-rich AGB stars in the K s band as a function of J – K s color, BC K s = -0.40(J-K s ) 2 + 1.83(J-K s ) + 1.29. We determine several IR color proxies for the dust mass-loss rate (M-dot d ) from C-rich AGB stars, such as log M-dot d = (-18.90/((K s -[8.0])+3.37) - 5.93. We find that a larger fraction of AGB stars exhibiting the 'long-secondary period' phenomenon are more O-rich than stars dominated by radial pulsations, and AGB stars without detectable mass loss do not appear on either the first-overtone or fundamental-mode pulsation sequences.

  2. The Influence of Coronal Mass Ejections on the Mass-loss Rates of Hot-Jupiters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherenkov, A.; Bisikalo, D. [Institute of Astronomy of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 48 Pyatnitskaya St. 119017, Moscow (Russian Federation); Fossati, L.; Möstl, C., E-mail: bisikalo@inasan.ru [Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Schmiedlstrasse 6, A-8042 Graz (Austria)

    2017-09-01

    Hot-Jupiters are subject to extreme radiation and plasma flows coming from their host stars. Past ultraviolet Hubble Space Telescope observations, supported by hydrodynamic models, confirmed that these factors lead to the formation of an extended envelope, part of which lies beyond the Roche lobe. We use gas-dynamic simulations to study the impact of time variations in the parameters of the stellar wind, namely that of coronal mass ejections (CMEs), on the envelope of the typical hot-Jupiter HD 209458b. We consider three CMEs characterized by different velocities and densities, taking their parameters from typical CMEs observed for the Sun. The perturbations in the ram-pressure of the stellar wind during the passage of each CME tear off most of the envelope that is located beyond the Roche lobe. This leads to a substantial increase of the mass-loss rates during the interaction with the CME. We find that the mass lost by the planet during the whole crossing of a CME is of ≈10{sup 15} g, regardless of the CME taken into consideration. We also find that over the course of 1 Gyr, the mass lost by the planet because of CME impacts is comparable to that lost because of high-energy stellar irradiation.

  3. A model on CME/Flare initiation: Loss of Equilibrium caused by mass loss of quiescent prominences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miley, George; Chon Nam, Sok; Kim, Mun Song; Kim, Jik Su

    2015-08-01

    Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) model should give an answer to enough energy storage for giant bulk plasma into interplanetary space to escape against the sun’s gravitation and its explosive eruption. Advocates of ‘Mass Loading’ model (e.g. Low, B. 1996, SP, 167, 217) suggested a simple mechanism of CME initiation, the loss of mass from a prominence anchoring magnetic flux rope, but they did not associate the mass loss with the loss of equilibrium. The catastrophic loss of equilibrium model is considered as to be a prospective CME/Flare model to explain sudden eruption of magnetic flux systems. Isenberg, P. A., et al (1993, ApJ, 417, 368)developed ideal magnetohydrodynamic theory of the magnetic flux rope to show occurrence of catastrophic loss of equilibrium according to increasing magnetic flux transported into corona.We begin with extending their study including gravity on prominence’s material to obtain equilibrium curves in case of given mass parameters, which are the strengths of the gravitational force compared with the characteristic magnetic force. Furthermore, we study quasi-static evolution of the system including massive prominence flux rope and current sheet below it to obtain equilibrium curves of prominence’s height according to decreasing mass parameter in a properly fixed magnetic environment. The curves show equilibrium loss behaviors to imply that mass loss result in equilibrium loss. Released fractions of magnetic energy are greater than corresponding zero-mass case. This eruption mechanism is expected to be able to apply to the eruptions of quiescent prominences, which is located in relatively weak magnetic environment with 105 km of scale length and 10G of photospheric magnetic field.

  4. MPAI (mass probes aided ionization) method for total analysis of biomolecules by mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Aki; Hayashi, Shinichiro; Hifumi, Hiroki; Honma, Yuya; Tanji, Noriyuki; Iwasawa, Naoko; Suzuki, Yoshio; Suzuki, Koji

    2007-01-01

    We have designed and synthesized various mass probes, which enable us to effectively ionize various molecules to be detected with mass spectrometry. We call the ionization method using mass probes the "MPAI (mass probes aided ionization)" method. We aim at the sensitive detection of various biological molecules, and also the detection of bio-molecules by a single mass spectrometry serially without changing the mechanical settings. Here, we review mass probes for small molecules with various functional groups and mass probes for proteins. Further, we introduce newly developed mass probes for proteins for highly sensitive detection.

  5. Mass and loss analysis of a space-type radiation cooled insulated DC transmission line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarze, g.E.

    1986-01-01

    As both the power levels and transmission distances increase such as for large future nuclear power systems, the transmission line becomes an important element in the power chain between the source and load bus. Thus, the transmission line's characteristics must be determined so that the effect of these characteristics on the total power system can be assessed. These design characteristics include the specific mass, percent power loss, size, voltage and power levels, and operating temperatures of the conductor and insulating materials. In a previous paper, the dc transmission line's characteristics of a noninsulated solid cylindrical conductor were determined. In that analysis the expression derived for the transmission line's mass only included the conductor mass and the operating temperature of the line was that of the conductor. In the analysis of this paper, a single layer of insulation is added to the solid cylindrical conductor. In this analysis the dependency of the dc transmission line's mass, loss, and size on the power and voltage levels, conductor and insulation surface temperatures, transmission distance, and conductor and insulation material properties is determined. This analysis can be extended to multi-layers of insulation but the complexity of the analysis increases as the number of layers increase

  6. Radio Photosphere and Mass-Loss Envelope of VY Canis Majoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipscy, S. J.; Jura, M.; Reid, M. J.

    2005-06-01

    We have used the VLA to detect emission from the supergiant VY CMa at radio wavelengths and have constructed 3000-4500 K isothermal outer atmospheres constrained by the data. These models produce a radio photosphere at 1.5-2 R*. An extrapolation of the model can account for the observed total mass-loss rate of the star. We also present mid-infrared imaging of the supergiant which suggests that warm dust is extended in the same direction as the near-infrared reflection nebula around VY CMa. The origin of the asymmetries in the outflow remains an unsolved problem.

  7. Decisions with Uncertain Consequences-A Total Ordering on Loss-Distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rass, Stefan; König, Sandra; Schauer, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Decisions are often based on imprecise, uncertain or vague information. Likewise, the consequences of an action are often equally unpredictable, thus putting the decision maker into a twofold jeopardy. Assuming that the effects of an action can be modeled by a random variable, then the decision problem boils down to comparing different effects (random variables) by comparing their distribution functions. Although the full space of probability distributions cannot be ordered, a properly restricted subset of distributions can be totally ordered in a practically meaningful way. We call these loss-distributions, since they provide a substitute for the concept of loss-functions in decision theory. This article introduces the theory behind the necessary restrictions and the hereby constructible total ordering on random loss variables, which enables decisions under uncertainty of consequences. Using data obtained from simulations, we demonstrate the practical applicability of our approach.

  8. Decisions with Uncertain Consequences-A Total Ordering on Loss-Distributions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Rass

    Full Text Available Decisions are often based on imprecise, uncertain or vague information. Likewise, the consequences of an action are often equally unpredictable, thus putting the decision maker into a twofold jeopardy. Assuming that the effects of an action can be modeled by a random variable, then the decision problem boils down to comparing different effects (random variables by comparing their distribution functions. Although the full space of probability distributions cannot be ordered, a properly restricted subset of distributions can be totally ordered in a practically meaningful way. We call these loss-distributions, since they provide a substitute for the concept of loss-functions in decision theory. This article introduces the theory behind the necessary restrictions and the hereby constructible total ordering on random loss variables, which enables decisions under uncertainty of consequences. Using data obtained from simulations, we demonstrate the practical applicability of our approach.

  9. Combined Intra-Articular and Intravenous Tranexamic Acid Reduces Blood Loss in Total Knee Arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian Skovgaard; Jans, Øivind; Ørsnes, Thue

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In total knee arthroplasty, both intravenous (IV) and intra-articular (IA) administration of tranexamic acid (TXA) have been shown to reduce blood loss in several randomized controlled trials, although routine use of systemic TXA is considerably more common. However, to our knowledge...

  10. Influence of Endurance Training During Childhood on Total Hemoglobin Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prommer, Nicole; Wachsmuth, Nadine; Thieme, Ina; Wachsmuth, Christian; Mancera-Soto, Erica M; Hohmann, Andreas; Schmidt, Walter F J

    2018-01-01

    Elite endurance athletes are characterized by markedly increased hemoglobin mass (Hbmass). It has been hypothesized that this adaptation may occur as a response to training at a very young age. Therefore, the aim of this study was to monitor changes in Hbmass in children aged 8-14 years following systematic endurance training. In the first study, Hbmass, VO2max, and lean body mass (LBM) were measured in 17 endurance-trained children (13 boys and 4 girls; aged 9.7 ± 1.3 years; training history 1.5±1.8 years; training volume 3.5 ± 1.6 h) twice a year for up to 3.5 years. The same parameters were measured once in a control group of 18 age-matched untrained children. Hbmass and blood volume (BV) were measured using the optimized CO-rebreathing technique, VO2max by an incremental test on a treadmill, and LBM by skin-fold measurements. In the second pilot study, the same parameters were measured in 9 young soccer athletes (aged 7.8 ± 0.2 years), and results were assessed in relation to soccer performance 2.5 years later. The increase in mean Hbmass during the period of study was 50% which was closely related to changes in LBM ( r = 0.959). A significant impact of endurance training on Hbmass was observed in athletes exercising more than 4 h/week [+25.4 g compared to the group with low training volume (LBM (11.4 g·kg -1 LBM) and overlapped with the effects of age. A strong relationship was present between absolute Hbmass and VO2max ( r = 0.939), showing that an increase of 1 g hemoglobin increases VO2max by 3.6 ml·min -1 . Study 2 showed a positive correlation between Hbmass and soccer performance 2.5 years later at age 10.3 ± 0.3 years ( r = 0.627, p = 0.035). In conclusion, children with a weekly training volume of more than 4 h show a 7% higher Hbmass than untrained children. Although this training effect is significant and independent of changes in LBM, the major factor driving the increase in Hbmass is still LBM.

  11. A path model of sarcopenia on bone mass loss in elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondanelli, M; Guido, D; Opizzi, A; Faliva, M A; Perna, S; Grassi, M

    2014-01-01

    Aging is associated with decreases in muscle mass, strength, power (sarcopenia) and bone mineral density (BMD). The aims of this study were to investigate in elderly the role of sarcopenia on BMD loss by a path model, including adiposity, inflammation, and malnutrition associations. Body composition and BMD were measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry in 159 elderly subjects (52 male/107 female; mean age 80.3 yrs). Muscle strength was determined with dynamometer. Serum albumin and PCR were also assessed. Structural equations examined the effect of sarcopenia (measured by Relative Skeletal Muscle Mass, Total Muscle Mass, Handgrip, Muscle Quality Score) on osteoporosis (measured by Vertebral and Femoral T-scores) in a latent variable model including adiposity (measured by Total Fat Mass, BMI, Ginoid/Android Fat), inflammation (PCR), and malnutrition (serum albumin). The sarcopenia assumed a role of moderator in the adiposity-osteoporosis relationship. Specifically, increasing the sarcopenia, the relationship adiposity-osteoporosis (β: -0.58) decrease in intensity. Adiposity also influences sarcopenia (β: -0.18). Malnutrition affects the inflammatory and the adiposity states (β: +0.61, and β: -0.30, respectively), while not influencing the sarcopenia. Thus, adiposity has a role as a mediator of the effect of malnutrition on both sarcopenia and osteoporosis. Malnutrition decreases adiposity; decreasing adiposity, in turn, increase the sarcopenia and osteoporosis. This study suggests such as in a group of elderly sarcopenia affects the link between adiposity and BMD, but not have a pure independent effect on osteoporosis.

  12. Reconciliation of Halogen-Induced Ozone Loss with the Total-Column Ozone Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, T. G.; Plummer, D. A.; Scinocca, J. F.; Hegglin, M. I.; Fioletov, V. E.; Reader, M. C.; Remsberg, E.; von Clarmann, T.; Wang, H. J.

    2014-01-01

    The observed depletion of the ozone layer from the 1980s onwards is attributed to halogen source gases emitted by human activities. However, the precision of this attribution is complicated by year-to-year variations in meteorology, that is, dynamical variability, and by changes in tropospheric ozone concentrations. As such, key aspects of the total-column ozone record, which combines changes in both tropospheric and stratospheric ozone, remain unexplained, such as the apparent absence of a decline in total-column ozone levels before 1980, and of any long-term decline in total-column ozone levels in the tropics. Here we use a chemistry-climate model to estimate changes in halogen-induced ozone loss between 1960 and 2010; the model is constrained by observed meteorology to remove the eects of dynamical variability, and driven by emissions of tropospheric ozone precursors to separate out changes in tropospheric ozone. We show that halogen-induced ozone loss closely followed stratospheric halogen loading over the studied period. Pronounced enhancements in ozone loss were apparent in both hemispheres following the volcanic eruptions of El Chichon and, in particular, Mount Pinatubo, which significantly enhanced stratospheric aerosol loads. We further show that approximately 40% of the long-term non-volcanic ozone loss occurred before 1980, and that long-term ozone loss also occurred in the tropical stratosphere. Finally, we show that halogeninduced ozone loss has declined by over 10% since stratospheric halogen loading peaked in the late 1990s, indicating that the recovery of the ozone layer is well underway.

  13. Modelling historical and recent mass loss of McCall Glacier, Alaska, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Delcourt

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Volume loss of valley glaciers is now considered to be a significant contribution to sea level rise. Understanding and identifying the processes involved in accelerated mass loss are necessary to determine their impact on the global system. Here we present results from a series of model experiments with a higher-order thermomechanically coupled flowline model (Pattyn, 2002. Boundary conditions to the model are parameterizations of surface mass balance, geothermal heating, observed surface and 10 m ice depth temperatures. The time-dependent experiments aim at simulating the glacier retreat from its LIA expansion to present according to different scenarios and model parameters. Model output was validated against measurements of ice velocity, ice surface elevation and terminus position at different stages. Results demonstrate that a key factor in determining the glacier retreat history is the importance of internal accumulation (>50% in the total mass balance. The persistence of a basal temperate zone characteristic for this polythermal glacier depends largely on its contribution. Accelerated glacier retreat since the early nineties seems directly related to the increase in ELA and the sudden reduction in AAR due to the fact that a large lower elevation cirque – previously an important accumulation area – became part of the ablation zone.

  14. Effects of main-sequence mass loss on stellar and galactic chemical evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzik, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    L.A. Willson, G.H. Bowen and C. Struck-Marcell have proposed that 1 to 3 solar mass stars may experience evolutionarily significant mass loss during the early part of their main-sequence phase. The suggested mass-loss mechanism is pulsation, facilitated by rapid rotation. Initial mass-loss rates may be as large as several times 10 -9 M mass of sun/yr, diminishing over several times 10 8 years. The author attempts to test this hypothesis by comparing some theoretical implications with observations. Three areas are addressed: Solar models, cluster HR diagrams, and galactic chemical evolution. Mass-losing solar models were evolved that match the Sun's luminosity and radius at its present age. The most extreme viable models have initial mass 2.0 M 0 , and mass-loss rates decreasing exponentially over 2-3 x 10 8 years. Evolution calculations incorporating main-sequence mass loss were completed for a grid of models with initial masses 1.25 to 2.0 M mass of sun and mass loss timescales 0.2 to 2.0 Gry. Cluster HR diagrams synthesized with these models confirm the potential for the hypothesis to explain observed spreads or bifurcations in the upper main sequence, blue stragglers, anomalous giants, and poor fits of main-sequence turnoffs by standard isochrones. Simple closed galactic chemical evolution models were used to test the effects of main-sequence mass loss on the F and G dwarf distribution. Stars between 3.0 M mass of sun and a metallicity-dependent lower mass are assumed to lose mass. The models produce a 30 to 60% increase in the stars to stars-plus-remnants ratio, with fewer early-F dwarfs and many more late-F dwarfs remaining on the main sequence to the present

  15. Atmospheric mass-loss of extrasolar planets orbiting magnetically active host stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalitha, Sairam; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Dash, Spandan

    2018-06-01

    Magnetic stellar activity of exoplanet hosts can lead to the production of large amounts of high-energy emission, which irradiates extrasolar planets, located in the immediate vicinity of such stars. This radiation is absorbed in the planets' upper atmospheres, which consequently heat up and evaporate, possibly leading to an irradiation-induced mass-loss. We present a study of the high-energy emission in the four magnetically active planet-bearing host stars, Kepler-63, Kepler-210, WASP-19, and HAT-P-11, based on new XMM-Newton observations. We find that the X-ray luminosities of these stars are rather high with orders of magnitude above the level of the active Sun. The total XUV irradiation of these planets is expected to be stronger than that of well-studied hot Jupiters. Using the estimated XUV luminosities as the energy input to the planetary atmospheres, we obtain upper limits for the total mass- loss in these hot Jupiters.

  16. Irreversible mass loss of Canadian Arctic Archipelago glaciers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenaerts, J.T.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314850163; van Angelen, J.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/325922470; van den Broeke, M.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073765643; Gardner, A.S.; Wouters, Bert|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304120146; van Meijgaard, E.

    2013-01-01

    The Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA) contains the largest volume of glacier ice on Earth outside of Antarctica and Greenland. In the absence of significant calving, CAA glacier mass balance is governed by the difference between surface snow accumulation and meltwater runoff—surface mass balance.

  17. The evolution of massive stars with mass loss: the H- and the He-burning phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chieffi, Alessandro; Limongi, Marco

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of a massive star to its final fate is strongly modified by the efficient mass loss episodes it experiences during its lifetime. In the following, we will briefly summarize how the H- and the He- burning phases depend on the adopted mass loss rate.

  18. Preoperative methylprednisolone does not reduce loss of knee-extension strength after total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg-Larsen, Viktoria; Bandholm, Thomas Q; Zilmer, Camilla K

    2017-01-01

    tests, rescue analgesic requirements, and plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) changes. Results - 61 patients completed the follow-up. The loss in quadriceps muscle strength was similar between groups; group MP 1.04 (0.22-1.91) Nm/kg (-89%) vs. group C 1.02 (0.22-1.57) Nm/kg (-88%). Also between......-265) mg/L (p loss of knee-extension strength or other functional outcomes at discharge after fast-track TKA despite a reduced systemic inflammatory response.......Background and purpose - Patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) face challenges related to postoperative reduction in knee-extension strength. We evaluated whether inhibition of the inflammatory response by a single preoperative dose of methylprednisolone (MP) reduces the pronounced loss...

  19. Staged Custom, Intramedullary Antibiotic Spacers for Severe Segmental Bone Loss in Infected Total Hip Arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul F. Kamath

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Total hip arthroplasty (THA infections with severe bone loss pose significant reconstructive challenges. We present our experience with two-stage hip reimplantation using an intramedullary, antibiotic-impregnated nail. Methods. Three patients with infected THA with severe proximal femoral bone loss (Mallory type IIIB or greater were treated using a custom antibiotic spacer. Clinical outcomes and any complications were recorded. Average followup was 49 months from final reimplantation. Results. Mean age at spacer placement (stage 1 was 53 years. The mean Harris Hip Score at final followup was 80. Two patients had asymptomatic heterotopic ossification, and one patient had a 2 cm leg-length discrepancy. Conclusions. A custom intramedullary nail antibiotic spacer is a reliable option in the staged management of the infected THA with severe proximal femoral bone loss. Benefits of this technique include limb salvage with maintenance of leg length, soft tissue tension, and functional status.

  20. Tolerance to bovine clinical mastitis: Total, direct, and indirect milk losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detilleux, J

    2018-04-01

    The objectives of this paper were to estimate direct and indirect milk losses associated with mastitis. Indirect losses, linked to indirect tolerance, are mediated by the increase in milk somatic cell count (SCC) in response to bacterial infection. Direct losses, linked to weak direct tolerance, are not mediated by the increase in SCC. So far, studies have evaluated milk loss associated with clinical mastitis without considering both components, which may lead to biased estimates of their sum; that is, the total loss in milk. A total of 43,903 test-day records on milk and SCC from 3,716 cows and 5,858 lactations were analyzed with mediation mixed models and health trajectories to estimate the amount of direct, indirect, and total milk losses after adjustment for known and potentially unmeasured (sensitivity analyses) confounding factors. Estimates were formalized under the counterfactual causal theory of causation. In this study, milk losses were mostly mediated by an increase in SCC. They were highest in the first month of lactation, when SCC were highest. Milk losses were estimated at 0.5, 0.8, and 1.1 kg/d in first, second, and third and greater parity, respectively. Two phases described how changes in milk were associated with changes in SCC: on average, one occurred before and one after the day preceding the clinical diagnosis. In both phases, changes in milk were estimated at 1 mg/d per 10 3 cells/mL. After adjusting for known confounders, cow effect accounted for 20.7 and 64.2% of the variation in milk in the first and second phases, respectively. This suggests that deviations from the resilient path were highest during the second phase of inflammation and that selection for cows more tolerant to mastitis is feasible. As discussed herein, epigenetic regulation of macrophage polarization may contribute to the variation in milk observed in the second phase. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Carbon input belowground is the major C flux contributing to leaf litter mass loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubino, Mauro; Dungait; Evershed

    2010-01-01

    and analysed for their total C and 13C content. Gas chromatography (GC), GC–mass spectrometry (MS) and GC-combustion-isotope ratio (GC/C/IRMS) were used to analyse phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) extracted from soil samples to identify the groups of soil micro-organisms that had incorporated litter-derived C...... and to determine the quantity of C incorporated by the soil microbial biomass (SMB). By the end of the experiment, the litter had lost about 80% of its original weight. The fraction of litter C lost as an input into the soil (67 ± 12% of the total C loss) was found to be twice as much as the fraction released...

  2. Quantifying Blood Loss and Transfusion Risk After Primary vs Conversion Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Jared M; Webb, Matthew R; Klika, Alison K; Murray, Trevor G; Barsoum, Wael K; Higuera, Carlos A

    2017-06-01

    Primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) and conversion THA may result in substantial blood loss, sometimes necessitating transfusion. Despite the complexities of the latter, both are grouped in the same category for quality assessment and reimbursement. This study's purpose was to compare both blood loss and transfusion risk in primary and conversion THA and identify their associated predictors. A total of 1616 patients who underwent primary and conversion THA at a single hospital from 2009-2013 were reviewed (primary THA = 1575; conversion THA = 41). Demographics, comorbidities, and perioperative data were collected from electronic records. Blood loss was calculated using a validated method. Transfusion triggers were based on standardized criteria. Separate multivariable regression models for blood loss and transfusion were performed. Conversion THA patients were younger (P = .002), had lower age-adjusted Charlson scores (P = .006), longer surgeries (P quantified in the present study and showed consistent results between the 2 metrics. The differences between these procedures should be addressed during quality assurance because conversion THA is associated with higher resource utilization, which is important in the allocation of resources and tiered reimbursement strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Associations of Infant Subcutaneous Fat Mass with Total and Abdominal Fat Mass at School-Age: The Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Susana; Gaillard, Romy; Oliveira, Andreia; Barros, Henrique; Abrahamse-Berkeveld, Marieke; van der Beek, Eline M; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V

    2016-09-01

    Skinfold thickness enables the measurement of overall and regional subcutaneous fatness in infancy and may be associated with total and abdominal body fat in later childhood. We examined the associations of subcutaneous fat in infancy with total and abdominal fat at school-age. In a population-based prospective cohort study among 821 children, we calculated total subcutaneous fat (sum of biceps, triceps, suprailiacal, and subscapular skinfold thicknesses) and central-to-total subcutaneous fat ratio (sum of suprailiacal and subscapular skinfold thicknesses/total subcutaneous fat) at 1.5 and 24 months. At 6 years, we measured fat mass index (total fat/height(3) ), central-to-total fat ratio (trunk fat/total fat), and android-to-gynoid fat ratio (android fat/gynoid fat) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and preperitoneal fat mass area by abdominal ultrasound. Central-to-total subcutaneous fat ratio at 1.5 months was positively associated with fat mass index and central-to-total fat ratio at 6 years, whereas both total and central-to-total subcutaneous fat ratio at 24 months were positively associated with all childhood adiposity measures. A 1-standard-deviation scores higher total subcutaneous fat at 24 months was associated with an increased risk of childhood overweight (odds ratio 1.70, 95% confidence interval 1.36, 2.12). These associations were weaker than those for body mass index and stronger among girls than boys. Subcutaneous fat in infancy is positively associated with total and abdominal fat at school-age. Our results also suggest that skinfold thicknesses add little value to estimate later body fat, as compared with body mass index. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Total glucosides of paeony prevents juxta-articular bone loss in experimental arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Chen Chao; You, Fan Tian; Mei, Li Yu; Jian, Sun; Qiang, Chen Yong

    2013-01-01

    Background Total glucosides of paeony (TGP) is a biologically active compound extracted from Paeony root. TGP has been used in rheumatoid arthritis therapy for many years. However, the mechanism by which TGP prevents bone loss has been less explored. Methods TGP was orally administered for 3?months to New Zealand rabbits with antigen-induced arthritis (AIA). Digital x-ray knee images and bone mineral density (BMD) measurements of the subchondral knee bone were performed before sacrifice. Chon...

  5. Assessment of Corrosion, Fretting, and Material Loss of Retrieved Modular Total Knee Arthroplasties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Audrey J; Seagers, Kirsten A; Van Citters, Douglas W

    2017-07-01

    Modular junctions in total hip arthroplasties have been associated with fretting, corrosion, and debris release. The purpose of this study is to analyze damage severity in total knee arthroplasties of a single design by qualitative visual assessment and quantitative material loss measurements to evaluate implant performance and patient impact via material loss. Twenty-two modular knee retrievals of the same manufacturer were identified from an institutional review board-approved database. Junction designs included tapers with an axial screw and tapers with a radial screw. Constructs consisted of 2 metal alloys: CoCr and Ti6Al4V. Components were qualitatively scored and quantitatively measured for corrosion and fretting. Negative values represent adhered material. Statistical differences were analyzed using sign tests. Correlations were tested with a Spearman rank order test (P corrosion than other components, suggesting preferential corrosion when interfacing with Ti6Al4V. Overall, although corrosion was noted in this series, material loss was low, and none were revised for clinical metal-related reaction. This suggests the clinical impact from corrosion in total knee arthroplasty is low. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Associations of infant subcutaneous fat mass with total and abdominal fat mass at school-age. The Generation R Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Susana; Gaillard, Romy; Oliveira, Andreia; Barros, Henrique; Abrahamse-Berkeveld, Marieke; van der Beek, Eline M; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent WV

    2017-01-01

    Background Skinfold thickness enables the measurement of overall and regional subcutaneous fatness in infancy and may be associated with total and abdominal body fat in later childhood. We examined the associations of subcutaneous fat in infancy with total and abdominal fat at school-age. Methods In a population-based prospective cohort study among 821 children, we calculated total subcutaneous fat (sum of biceps, triceps, suprailiacal and subscapular skinfold thicknesses) and central-to-total subcutaneous fat ratio (sum of suprailiacal and subscapular skinfold thicknesses/total subcutaneous fat) at 1.5 and 24 months. At 6 years, we measured fat mass index (total fat/height3), central-to-total fat ratio (trunk fat/total fat) and android-to-gynoid fat ratio (android fat/gynoid fat) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and preperitoneal fat mass area by abdominal ultrasound. Results Central-to-total subcutaneous fat ratio at 1.5 months was positively associated with fat mass index and central-to-total fat ratio at 6 years, whereas both total and central-to-total subcutaneous fat ratio at 24 months were positively associated with all childhood adiposity measures (pfat at 24 months was associated with an increased risk of childhood overweight (Odds Ratio 1.70 [95% Confidence Interval 1.36, 2.12]). These associations were weaker than those for body mass index and stronger among girls than boys. Conclusions Subcutaneous fat in infancy is positively associated with total and abdominal fat at school-age. Our results also suggest that skinfold thicknesses add little value to estimate later body fat, as compared to body mass index. PMID:27225335

  7. Effect of High-Intensity Interval Training on Total, Abdominal and Visceral Fat Mass: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillard, Florie; Pereira, Bruno; Boisseau, Nathalie

    2018-02-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is promoted as a time-efficient strategy to improve body composition. The aim of this meta-analysis was to assess the efficacy of HIIT in reducing total, abdominal, and visceral fat mass in normal-weight and overweight/obese adults. Electronic databases were searched to identify all related articles on HIIT and fat mass. Stratified analysis was performed using the nature of HIIT (cycling versus running, target intensity), sex and/or body weight, and the methods of measuring body composition. Heterogeneity was also determined RESULTS: A total of 39 studies involving 617 subjects were included (mean age 38.8 years ± 14.4, 52% females). HIIT significantly reduced total (p = 0.003), abdominal (p = 0.007), and visceral (p = 0.018) fat mass, with no differences between the sexes. A comparison showed that running was more effective than cycling in reducing total and visceral fat mass. High-intensity (above 90% peak heart rate) training was more successful in reducing whole body adiposity, while lower intensities had a greater effect on changes in abdominal and visceral fat mass. Our analysis also indicated that only computed tomography scan or magnetic resonance imaging showed significant abdominal and/or visceral fat-mass loss after HIIT interventions. HIIT is a time-efficient strategy to decrease fat-mass deposits, including those of abdominal and visceral fat mass. There was some evidence of the greater effectiveness of HIIT running versus cycling, but owing to the wide variety of protocols used and the lack of full details about cycling training, further comparisons need to be made. Large, multicenter, prospective studies are required to establish the best HIIT protocols for reducing fat mass according to subject characteristics.

  8. Tranexamic acid for control of blood loss in bilateral total knee replacement in a single stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandeep S Dhillon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tranexamic acid (TEA reduces blood loss and red cell transfusions in patients undergoing unilateral total knee arthroplasty (TKA. However, there is not much literature regarding the use of TEA in patients undergoing bilateral TKA in a single stage and the protocols for administration of TEA in such patients are ill-defined. Materials and Methods: We carried out a case control study evaluating the effect of TEA on postoperative hemoglobin (Hb, total drain output, and number of blood units transfused in 52 patients undergoing bilateral TKA in a single stage, and compared it with 56 matched controls who did not receive TEA. Two doses of TEA were administered in doses of 10 mg / kg each (slow intravenous (IV infusion, with the first dose given just before tourniquet release of the first knee and the second dose three hours after the first one. Results: A statistically significant reduction in the total drain output and requirement of allogenic blood transfusion in cases who received TEA, as compared to the controls was observed. The postoperative Hb and Hb at the time of discharge were found to be lower in the control group, and this result was found to be statistically significant. Conclusion: TEA administered in patients undergoing single stage bilateral TKA helped reduce total blood loss and decreased allogenic blood transfusion requirements. This might be particularly relevant, where facilities such as autologous reinfusion might not be available.

  9. How Acute Total Sleep Loss Affects the Attending Brain: A Meta-Analysis of Neuroimaging Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ning; Dinges, David F.; Basner, Mathias; Rao, Hengyi

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Attention is a cognitive domain that can be severely affected by sleep deprivation. Previous neuroimaging studies have used different attention paradigms and reported both increased and reduced brain activation after sleep deprivation. However, due to large variability in sleep deprivation protocols, task paradigms, experimental designs, characteristics of subject populations, and imaging techniques, there is no consensus regarding the effects of sleep loss on the attending brain. The aim of this meta-analysis was to identify brain activations that are commonly altered by acute total sleep deprivation across different attention tasks. Design: Coordinate-based meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies of performance on attention tasks during experimental sleep deprivation. Methods: The current version of the activation likelihood estimation (ALE) approach was used for meta-analysis. The authors searched published articles and identified 11 sleep deprivation neuroimaging studies using different attention tasks with a total of 185 participants, equaling 81 foci for ALE analysis. Results: The meta-analysis revealed significantly reduced brain activation in multiple regions following sleep deprivation compared to rested wakefulness, including bilateral intraparietal sulcus, bilateral insula, right prefrontal cortex, medial frontal cortex, and right parahippocampal gyrus. Increased activation was found only in bilateral thalamus after sleep deprivation compared to rested wakefulness. Conclusion: Acute total sleep deprivation decreases brain activation in the fronto-parietal attention network (prefrontal cortex and intraparietal sulcus) and in the salience network (insula and medial frontal cortex). Increased thalamic activation after sleep deprivation may reflect a complex interaction between the de-arousing effects of sleep loss and the arousing effects of task performance on thalamic activity. Citation: Ma N, Dinges DF, Basner M, Rao H. How acute total

  10. Blood Loss and Transfusion After Topical Tranexamic Acid Administration in Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Shen, Bin; Zeng, Yi

    2015-11-01

    There has been much debate and controversy about the safety and efficacy of the topical use of tranexamic acid in primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The purpose of this study was to perform a meta-analysis to evaluate whether there is less blood loss and lower rates of transfusion after topical tranexamic acid administration in primary TKA. A systematic review of the electronic databases PubMed, CENTRAL, Web of Science, and Embase was undertaken. All randomized, controlled trials and prospective cohort studies evaluating the effectiveness of topical tranexamic acid during primary TKA were included. The focus of the analysis was on the outcomes of blood loss results, transfusion rate, and thromboembolic complications. Subgroup analysis was performed when possible. Of 387 studies identified, 16 comprising 1421 patients (1481 knees) were eligible for data extraction and meta-analysis. This study indicated that when compared with the control group, topical application of tranexamic acid significantly reduced total drain output (mean difference, -227.20; 95% confidence interval, -347.11 to -107.30; Ptranexamic acid in primary TKA. Furthermore, the currently available evidence does not support an increased risk of deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism due to tranexamic acid administration. Topical tranexamic acid was effective for reducing postoperative blood loss and transfusion requirements without increasing the prevalence of thromboembolic complications. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. STELLAR AND TOTAL BARYON MASS FRACTIONS IN GROUPS AND CLUSTERS SINCE REDSHIFT 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giodini, S.; Pierini, D.; Finoguenov, A.; Pratt, G. W.; Boehringer, H.; Leauthaud, A.; Guzzo, L.; Aussel, H.; Bolzonella, M.; Capak, P.; Elvis, M.; Hasinger, G.; Ilbert, O.; Kartaltepe, J. S.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Lilly, S. J.; Massey, R.; Rhodes, J.; Salvato, M.; McCracken, H. J.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate if the discrepancy between estimates of the total baryon mass fraction obtained from observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and of galaxy groups/clusters persists when a large sample of groups is considered. To this purpose, 91 candidate X-ray groups/poor clusters at redshift 0.1 ≤ z ≤ 1 are selected from the COSMOS 2 deg 2 survey, based only on their X-ray luminosity and extent. This sample is complemented by 27 nearby clusters with a robust, analogous determination of the total and stellar mass inside R 500 . The total sample of 118 groups and clusters with z ≤ 1 spans a range in M 500 of ∼10 13 -10 15 M sun . We find that the stellar mass fraction associated with galaxies at R 500 decreases with increasing total mass as M -0.37±0.04 500 , independent of redshift. Estimating the total gas mass fraction from a recently derived, high-quality scaling relation, the total baryon mass fraction (f stars+gas 500 = f stars 500 + f gas 500 ) is found to increase by ∼25%, when M 500 increases from (M) = 5 x 10 13 M sun to (M) = 7 x 10 14 M sun . After consideration of a plausible contribution due to intracluster light (11%-22% of the total stellar mass) and gas depletion through the hierarchical assembly process (10% of the gas mass), the estimated values of the total baryon mass fraction are still lower than the latest CMB measure of the same quantity (WMAP5), at a significance level of 3.3σ for groups of (M) = 5 x 10 13 M sun . The discrepancy decreases toward higher total masses, such that it is 1σ at (M) = 7 x 10 14 M sun . We discuss this result in terms of nongravitational processes such as feedback and filamentary heating.

  12. Tranexamic acid administration to older patients undergoing primary total hip arthroplasty conserves hemoglobin and reduces blood loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Beheiry, Hossam; Lubberdink, Ashley; Clements, Nigel; Dihllon, Kiran; Sharma, Vicky

    2018-06-01

    Tranexamic acid effects in older people are difficult to predict. This study investigated the following research questions: 1) Is tranexamic acid effective in older patients undergoing primary total hip arthroplasty (THA)? and 2) Is there a difference in the effect of tranexamic acid between younger and older patients? This was a 2-phase retrospective matched-pair study of patients who underwent THA in 2007-2013. All procedures were performed by surgeons with at least 10 years' experience as senior consultant. In the first phase, 58 patients aged 65 years or more who received tranexamic acid were matched 1:1 with patients who did not receive tranexamic acid for age, sex, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification and body mass index. In the second phase, 58 patients aged 65 years or more who received tranexamic acid were matched 1:1 with patients less than 65 years of age who received tranexamic acid for sex, ASA classification and body mass index. The primary outcome measures were percent maximum decrease in hemoglobin level and estimated blood loss after surgery. In the first phase, patients who received tranexamic acid conserved postoperative hemoglobin by a mean of 10.26 g/L (standard deviation [SD] 9.89 g/L) compared to the control group ( p Tranexamic acid reduced the postoperative decrease in hemoglobin level and blood loss in older patients. Moreover, the significant hemoglobin-sparing effect of tranexamic acid in older patients was similar to that observed in younger patients.

  13. Loss of P53 Function in Colon Cancer Cells Results in Increased Phosphocholine and Total Choline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriko Mori

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the p53 gene are the most frequently observed genetic lesions in human cancers. Human cancers that contain a p53 mutation are more aggressive, more apt to metastasize, and more often fatal. p53 controls numerous downstream targets that can influence various outcomes such as apoptosis, growth arrest, and DNA repair. Based on previous observations using 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS, we have identified choline phospholipid metabolite intensities typical of increased malignancy. Here we have used 1H MRS to characterize the choline phospholipid metabolite levels of p53+/+ and p53−/– cells, and demonstrated that loss of p53 function results in increased phosphocholine and total choline. These data suggest that the increased malignancy of cancer cells resulting from loss of p53 may be mediated, in part, through the choline phospholipid pathway.

  14. ALMA observations of anisotropic dust mass loss in the inner circumstellar environment of the red supergiant VY Canis Majoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gorman, E.; Vlemmings, W.; Richards, A. M. S.; Baudry, A.; De Beck, E.; Decin, L.; Harper, G. M.; Humphreys, E. M.; Kervella, P.; Khouri, T.; Muller, S.

    2015-01-01

    The processes leading to dust formation and the subsequent role it plays in driving mass loss in cool evolved stars is an area of intense study. Here we present high resolution ALMA Science Verification data of the continuum emission around the highly evolved oxygen-rich red supergiant VY CMa. These data enable us to study the dust in its inner circumstellar environment at a spatial resolution of 129 mas at 321 GHz and 59 mas at 658 GHz, thus allowing us to trace dust on spatial scales down to 11 R⋆ (71 AU). Two prominent dust components are detected and resolved. The brightest dust component, C, is located 334 mas (61 R⋆) southeast of the star and has a dust mass of at least 2.5 × 10-4 M⊙. It has a dust emissivity spectral index of β = -0.1 at its peak, implying that it is optically thick at these frequencies with a cool core of Td ≲ 100 K. Interestingly, not a single molecule in the ALMA data has emission close to the peak of this massive dust clump. The other main dust component, VY, is located at the position of the star and contains a total dust mass of 4.0 × 10-5 M⊙. It also contains a weaker dust feature extending over 60 R⋆ to the north with the total component having a typical dust emissivity spectral index of β = 0.7. We find that at least 17% of the dust mass around VY CMa is located in clumps ejected within a more quiescent roughly spherical stellar wind, with a quiescent dust mass loss rate of 5 × 10-6 M⊙yr-1. The anisotropic morphology of the dust indicates a continuous, directed mass loss over a few decades, suggesting that this mass loss cannot be driven by large convection cells alone. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  15. Evolution of massive stars with mass loss: surface abundances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greggio, L.

    1984-01-01

    The location of theoretical stellar models in the upper part of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram depends on a variety of poorly understood physical processes which may occur during the evolution of massive stars. The comparison between theoretical predictions and observations of the surface chemical composition of these objects can help in understanding their evolution and to set more stringent limits to the mentioned parameters. To this end, evolutionary sequences corresponding to 20, 40 and 60 solar masses have been computed up to core He exhaustion, following in detail the abundance variations of CNO, Ne and Mg isotopes. (Auth.)

  16. Volcanic eruptions on Io - Implications for surface evolution and mass loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, T. V.; Soderblom, L. A.

    1982-01-01

    Active volcanism on Io results in a continual resurfacing of the satellite. Analysis of required burial rates to erase impact craters, the mass production in the observed plumes, and the energy requirements for the volcanic activity suggest resurfacing rates of 0.001 to 10 cm/yr in recent geologic time. If this rate is typical of the last 4.5 Gyr, then extensive recycling of the upper crust and mantle must have occurred. The currently estimated loss rate of S, O, and Na from Io into the magnetosphere corresponds to only a small fraction of the resurfacing rate and should not have resulted in either extensive erosion or total depletion of any of the escaping species.

  17. ATWS analysis for total loss of feedwater sequence in UCN 3 and 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S. H.; Song, Y. M.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, S. D.; Park, S. Y.

    1999-01-01

    ATWS is a trip-failed severe accident initiated from the transients like a turbine trip, a control bank withdrawal, and a loss of feedwater which are expected to occur comparatively often (one or two occurrences / year). In this study, an ATWS sequence in Ulchin 3 and 4 is analyzed and the effects of the important systems are studied for accident management purpose using a MIDAS/PK computer code. The MIDAS/PK code has been developed via coupling a point kinetics module with the MELCOR code. The code calculates a primary peak pressure of about 24MPa at 240 seconds for the ATWS initiated by a TLOF (Total Loss of Feedwater) transient. Along with the basic ATWS analysis, several sensitivity runs are performed. From these, the turbines and the safety depressurization system (SDS) are judged to be important. The turbine trip resulting in a loss of offsite power and a RCP trip, degrades primary heat transfer to the secondary sides, and in turn, increases primary coolant temperature which reduces the reactor power due to the negative moderator temperature coefficient. Manual operation of SDS has an effect to lower the primary peak pressure considerably via supplementary depressurization in addition to the PORVs

  18. Stop of loss of cognitive performance during rehabilitation after total hip arthroplasty-prospective controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brem, Matthias H; Lehrl, Siegfried; Rein, Anna K; Massute, Sylvia; Schulz-Drost, Stefan; Gelse, Kolja; Schlechtweg, Phillip M; Hennig, Friedrich F; Olk, Alexander; Jacob, Harald J; Gusinde, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    Prolonged hospitalization is known to be associated with a loss of cognitive performance. Does playing video games (VGs) developed to improve cognitive properties delay this loss or even lead to an increase in cognitive performance? We performed a 10-day longitudinal study of patients who received total hip arthroplasty. We compared 16 patients (6 male) aged 66 ± 9 years (mean ± standard deviation) who played Dr. Kawashima's Brain Training: How Old Is Your Brain? (Nintendo; Redmond, Washington) on a Nintendo DS handheld console with 16 control patients (6 male) aged 69 ± 14 years. We measured cognitive performance 1 day preoperation, as well as on days 2 and 9 postoperation. With the daily exercise of a specific VG by the play group, the patients' fluid intelligence (median intelligence quotient 99-106), working memory capacity, and rate of information processing significantly improved over the course of 7 postoperative days. The cognitive performance of the control group did not increase. However, the memory spans of both groups did not systematically change. Exercise with VGs can prevent the loss of cognitive performance during prolonged hospitalization.

  19. The Total Mass of the Early-Type Galaxy NGC 4649 (M60

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirković, M. M.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the problem of the total mass and the total mass-to-light ratio of the early-type galaxy NGC~4649 (M60 is analyzed. Use is made of two independent techniques: the X-ray methodology which is based on the temperature of the X-ray halo of NGC~4649 and the tracer mass estimator (TME which uses globular clusters (GCs observed in this galaxy. The mass is calculated in Newtonian and MOdified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND approaches and it is found that inside 3 effective radii ($R_e$ there is no need for large amounts of dark matter. Beyond $3R_e$ the dark matter starts to play important dynamical role. The possible reasons for the discrepancy between the estimates of the total mass based on X-rays and TME in the outer regions of NGC~4649 are also discussed.

  20. Mass loss due to gravitational waves with Λ > 0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, Vee-Liem

    2017-07-01

    The theoretical basis for the energy carried away by gravitational waves that an isolated gravitating system emits was first formulated by Hermann Bondi during the ’60s. Recent findings from the observation of distant supernovae revealed that the rate of expansion of our universe is accelerating, which may be well explained by sticking a positive cosmological constant into the Einstein field equations for general relativity. By solving the Newman-Penrose equations (which are equivalent to the Einstein field equations), we generalize this notion of Bondi mass-energy and thereby provide a firm theoretical description of how an isolated gravitating system loses energy as it radiates gravitational waves, in a universe that expands at an accelerated rate. This is in line with the observational front of LIGO’s first announcement in February 2016 that gravitational waves from the merger of a binary black hole system have been detected.

  1. Mass-loss Rates from Coronal Mass Ejections: A Predictive Theoretical Model for Solar-type Stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cranmer, Steven R. [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

    2017-05-10

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are eruptive events that cause a solar-type star to shed mass and magnetic flux. CMEs tend to occur together with flares, radio storms, and bursts of energetic particles. On the Sun, CME-related mass loss is roughly an order of magnitude less intense than that of the background solar wind. However, on other types of stars, CMEs have been proposed to carry away much more mass and energy than the time-steady wind. Earlier papers have used observed correlations between solar CMEs and flare energies, in combination with stellar flare observations, to estimate stellar CME rates. This paper sidesteps flares and attempts to calibrate a more fundamental correlation between surface-averaged magnetic fluxes and CME properties. For the Sun, there exists a power-law relationship between the magnetic filling factor and the CME kinetic energy flux, and it is generalized for use on other stars. An example prediction of the time evolution of wind/CME mass-loss rates for a solar-mass star is given. A key result is that for ages younger than about 1 Gyr (i.e., activity levels only slightly higher than the present-day Sun), the CME mass loss exceeds that of the time-steady wind. At younger ages, CMEs carry 10–100 times more mass than the wind, and such high rates may be powerful enough to dispel circumstellar disks and affect the habitability of nearby planets. The cumulative CME mass lost by the young Sun may have been as much as 1% of a solar mass.

  2. Equation of Motion of an Interstellar Bussard Ramjet with Radiation and Mass Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semay, Claude; Silvestre-Brac, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    An interstellar Bussard ramjet is a spaceship using the protons of the interstellar medium in a fusion engine to produce thrust. In recent papers, it was shown that the relativistic equation of motion of an ideal ramjet and that of a ramjet with radiation loss are analytical. When a mass loss appears, the limit speed of the ramjet is more strongly…

  3. Mass loss from OH/IR stars - Models for the infrared emission of circumstellar dust shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justtanont, K.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.

    1992-01-01

    The IR emission of a sample of 24 OH/IR stars is modeled, and the properties of circumstellar dust and mass-loss rate of the central star are derived. It is shown that for some sources the observations of the far-IR emission is well fitted with a lambda exp -1 law, while some have a steeper index of 1.5. For a few sources, the presence of circumstellar ice grains is inferred from detailed studies of the observed 10-micron feature. Dust mass-loss rates are determined from detailed studies for all the stars in this sample. They range from 6.0 x 10 exp -10 solar mass/yr for an optically visible Mira to 2.2 x 10 exp -6 solar mass/yr for a heavily obscured OH/IR star. These dust mass-loss rates are compared to those calculated from IRAS photometry using 12-, 25-, and 60-micron fluxes. The dust mass-loss rates are also compared to gas mass-loss rates determined from OH and CO observations. For stars with tenuous shells, a dust-to-gas ratio of 0.001 is obtained.

  4. Massive stars evolution with mass-loss. 20-100 M(sun) models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiosi, C; Sreenivasan, S R [Calgary Univ., Alberta (Canada). Dept. of Physics; Nasi, E [Padua Univ. (Italy). Istituto di Astronomia

    1978-02-01

    The evolution of stars with initial masses 20, 30, 40, 60, 80, 100 M(sun) and Population I chemical composition (X = 0.700, Z = 0.02) is calculated, taking into account mass-loss due to stellar winds, from the main sequence up to the early stages of central He-burning. This study incorporates mass-loss rates predicted by the theory of Castor et al. (1975) for the early type phases and a novel way of treating mass-loss rates due to acoustic energy flux driven winds in the later stages analogous to the work of Fusi-Pecci and Renzini (1975a). The results are presented in terms of evolutionary tracks, isochrones, loci of constant mass-loss rates and loci of constant mass in the HR diagram. The effects of mass-loss on the internal structure of the models as well as on the occurrence of semiconvection are also investigated. A detailed comparison of the theoretical predictions and observational results is made and possible implications for O, Of, Wolf-Rayet stars and red supergiants are brought out.

  5. Use of tranexamic acid in primary total knee replacement: effects on perioperative blood loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volquind, Daniel; Zardo, Remi Antônio; Winkler, Bruno Costamilan; Londero, Bruno Bertagnolli; Zanelatto, Natália; Leichtweis, Gisele Perondi

    2016-01-01

    The use of tranexamic acid in primary total knee replacement surgeries has been the subject of constant study. The strategies to reduce bleeding are aimed at reducing the need for blood transfusion due to the risks involved. In this study we evaluated the use of tranexamic acid in reducing bleeding, need for blood transfusion, and prevalence of postoperative deep vein thrombosis in primary total knee replacement. 62 patients undergoing primary total knee replacement were enrolled in the study, from June 2012 to May 2013, and randomized to receive a single dose of 2.5g of intravenous tranexamic acid (Group TA) or saline (Group GP), 5min before opening the pneumatic tourniquet, respectively. Hemoglobin, hematocrit, and blood loss were recorded 24h after surgery. Deep vein thrombosis was investigated during patient's hospitalization and 15 and 30 days after surgery in review visits. There was no demographic difference between groups. Group TA had 13.89% decreased hematocrit (p=0.925) compared to placebo. Group TA had a decrease of 12.28% (p=0.898) in hemoglobin compared to Group GP. Group TA had a mean decrease of 187.35mL in blood loss (25.32%) compared to group GP (p=0.027). The number of blood transfusions was higher in Group GP (p=0.078). Thromboembolic events were not seen in this study. Tranexamic acid reduced postoperative bleeding without promoting thromboembolic events. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. How acute total sleep loss affects the attending brain: a meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ning; Dinges, David F; Basner, Mathias; Rao, Hengyi

    2015-02-01

    Attention is a cognitive domain that can be severely affected by sleep deprivation. Previous neuroimaging studies have used different attention paradigms and reported both increased and reduced brain activation after sleep deprivation. However, due to large variability in sleep deprivation protocols, task paradigms, experimental designs, characteristics of subject populations, and imaging techniques, there is no consensus regarding the effects of sleep loss on the attending brain. The aim of this meta-analysis was to identify brain activations that are commonly altered by acute total sleep deprivation across different attention tasks. Coordinate-based meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies of performance on attention tasks during experimental sleep deprivation. The current version of the activation likelihood estimation (ALE) approach was used for meta-analysis. The authors searched published articles and identified 11 sleep deprivation neuroimaging studies using different attention tasks with a total of 185 participants, equaling 81 foci for ALE analysis. The meta-analysis revealed significantly reduced brain activation in multiple regions following sleep deprivation compared to rested wakefulness, including bilateral intraparietal sulcus, bilateral insula, right prefrontal cortex, medial frontal cortex, and right parahippocampal gyrus. Increased activation was found only in bilateral thalamus after sleep deprivation compared to rested wakefulness. Acute total sleep deprivation decreases brain activation in the fronto-parietal attention network (prefrontal cortex and intraparietal sulcus) and in the salience network (insula and medial frontal cortex). Increased thalamic activation after sleep deprivation may reflect a complex interaction between the de-arousing effects of sleep loss and the arousing effects of task performance on thalamic activity. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  7. Effects of Main-Sequence Mass Loss on Stellar and Galactic Chemical Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzik, Joyce Ann

    1988-06-01

    L. A. Willson, G. H. Bowen and C. Struck -Marcell have proposed that 1 to 3 solar mass stars may experience evolutionarily significant mass loss during the early part of their main-sequence phase. The suggested mass-loss mechanism is pulsation, facilitated by rapid rotation. Initial mass-loss rates may be as large as several times 10^{-9}M o/yr, diminishing over several times 10^8 years. We attempted to test this hypothesis by comparing some theoretical implications with observations. Three areas are addressed: Solar models, cluster HR diagrams, and galactic chemical evolution. Mass-losing solar models were evolved that match the Sun's luminosity and radius at its present age. The most extreme viable models have initial mass 2.0 M o, and mass-loss rates decreasing exponentially over 2-3 times 10^8 years. Compared to a constant -mass model, these models require a reduced initial ^4He abundance, have deeper envelope convection zones and higher ^8B neutrino fluxes. Early processing of present surface layers at higher interior temperatures increases the surface ^3He abundance, destroys Li, Be and B, and decreases the surface C/N ratio following first dredge-up. Evolution calculations incorporating main-sequence mass loss were completed for a grid of models with initial masses 1.25 to 2.0 Mo and mass loss timescales 0.2 to 2.0 Gyr. Cluster HR diagrams synthesized with these models confirm the potential for the hypothesis to explain observed spreads or bifurcations in the upper main sequence, blue stragglers, anomalous giants, and poor fits of main-sequence turnoffs by standard isochrones. Simple closed galactic chemical evolution models were used to test the effects of main-sequence mass loss on the F and G dwarf distribution. Stars between 3.0 M o and a metallicity -dependent lower mass are assumed to lose mass. The models produce a 30 to 60% increase in the stars to stars-plus -remnants ratio, with fewer early-F dwarfs and many more late-F dwarfs remaining on the main

  8. Total body skeletal muscle mass: estimation by creatine (methyl-d3) dilution in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Ann C.; O'Connor-Semmes, Robin L.; Leonard, Michael S.; Miller, Ram R.; Stimpson, Stephen A.; Turner, Scott M.; Ravussin, Eric; Cefalu, William T.; Hellerstein, Marc K.; Evans, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Current methods for clinical estimation of total body skeletal muscle mass have significant limitations. We tested the hypothesis that creatine (methyl-d3) dilution (D3-creatine) measured by enrichment of urine D3-creatinine reveals total body creatine pool size, providing an accurate estimate of total body skeletal muscle mass. Healthy subjects with different muscle masses [n = 35: 20 men (19–30 yr, 70–84 yr), 15 postmenopausal women (51–62 yr, 70–84 yr)] were housed for 5 days. Optimal tracer dose was explored with single oral doses of 30, 60, or 100 mg D3-creatine given on day 1. Serial plasma samples were collected for D3-creatine pharmacokinetics. All urine was collected through day 5. Creatine and creatinine (deuterated and unlabeled) were measured by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Total body creatine pool size and muscle mass were calculated from D3-creatinine enrichment in urine. Muscle mass was also measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and traditional 24-h urine creatinine. D3-creatine was rapidly absorbed and cleared with variable urinary excretion. Isotopic steady-state of D3-creatinine enrichment in the urine was achieved by 30.7 ± 11.2 h. Mean steady-state enrichment in urine provided muscle mass estimates that correlated well with MRI estimates for all subjects (r = 0.868, P creatine dose determined by urine D3-creatinine enrichment provides an estimate of total body muscle mass strongly correlated with estimates from serial MRI with less bias than total lean body mass assessment by DXA. PMID:24764133

  9. Plant litter functional diversity effects on litter mass loss depend on the macro-detritivore community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patoine, Guillaume; Thakur, Madhav P; Friese, Julia; Nock, Charles; Hönig, Lydia; Haase, Josephine; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael; Eisenhauer, Nico

    2017-11-01

    A better understanding of the mechanisms driving litter diversity effects on decomposition is needed to predict how biodiversity losses affect this crucial ecosystem process. In a microcosm study, we investigated the effects of litter functional diversity and two major groups of soil macro-detritivores on the mass loss of tree leaf litter mixtures. Furthermore, we tested the effects of litter trait community means and dissimilarity on litter mass loss for seven traits relevant to decomposition. We expected macro-detritivore effects on litter mass loss to be most pronounced in litter mixtures of high functional diversity. We used 24 leaf mixtures differing in functional diversity, which were composed of litter from four species from a pool of 16 common European tree species. Earthworms, isopods, or a combination of both were added to each litter combination for two months. Litter mass loss was significantly higher in the presence of earthworms than in that of isopods, whereas no synergistic effects of macro-detritivore mixtures were found. The effect of functional diversity of the litter material was highest in the presence of both macro-detritivore groups, supporting the notion that litter diversity effects are most pronounced in the presence of different detritivore species. Species-specific litter mass loss was explained by nutrient content, secondary compound concentration, and structural components. Moreover, dissimilarity in N concentrations increased litter mass loss, probably because detritivores having access to nutritionally diverse food sources. Furthermore, strong competition between the two macro-detritivores for soil surface litter resulted in a decrease of survival of both macro-detritivores. These results show that the effects of litter functional diversity on decomposition are contingent upon the macro-detritivore community and composition. We conclude that the temporal dynamics of litter trait diversity effects and their interaction with

  10. THE EFFECT OF MASS LOSS ON THE TIDAL EVOLUTION OF EXTRASOLAR PLANET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, J. H.

    2010-01-01

    By combining mass loss and tidal evolution of close-in planets, we present a qualitative study on their tidal migrations. We incorporate mass loss in tidal evolution for planets with different masses and find that mass loss could interfere with tidal evolution. In an upper limit case (β = 3), a significant portion of mass may be evaporated in a long evolution timescale. Evidence of greater modification of the planets with an initial separation of about 0.1 AU than those with a = 0.15 AU can be found in this model. With the assumption of a large initial eccentricity, the planets with initial mass ≤1 M J and initial distance of about 0.1 AU could not survive. With the supposition of β = 1.1, we find that the loss process has an effect on the planets with low mass at a ∼ 0.05 AU. In both cases, the effect of evaporation on massive planets can be neglected. Also, heating efficiency and initial eccentricity have significant influence on tidal evolution. We find that even low heating efficiency and initial eccentricity have a significant effect on tidal evolution. Our analysis shows that evaporation on planets with different initial masses can accelerate (decelerate) the tidal evolution due to the increase (decrease) in tide of the planet (star). Consequently, the effect of evaporation cannot be neglected in evolutionary calculations of close-in planets. The physical parameters of HD 209458b can be fitted by our model.

  11. SYNTHETIC AGB EVOLUTION .3. THE INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT MASS-LOSS LAWS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GROENEWEGEN, MAT; DEJONG, T

    In Paper I of this series we presented a model to calculate in a synthetic way the evolution of thermal-pulsing AGB stars. The model was applied to the LMC and values were derived for the minimum core mass for third dredge-up and the dredge-up efficiency. In Paper I mass loss on the AGB was

  12. Accelerated mass loss from Greenland ice sheet : Links to atmospheric circulation in the North Atlantic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seo, Ki-Weon; Waliser, Duane E.; Lee, Choon-Ki; Tian, Baijun; Scambos, Ted; Kim, Baek-Min; van Angelen, Jan H.; van den Broeke, Michiel R.

    Understanding the mechanisms that drive the mass imbalance of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) is critical to the accurate projection of its contribution to future sea level rise. Greenland's ice mass loss has been accelerating recently. Using satellite Earth-gravity and regional climate model data,

  13. Isotopes of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen as probes of nucleosynthesis, stellar mass losses and galactic evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audouze, J.; Lequeux, J.; Vigroux, L.

    1975-01-01

    Evidences for a 12 C/ 13 C ratio different in the interstellar medium and in the solar system (40 instead of 89) and for a large N/O ratio in the centers of galaxies are reviewed and are explained by an enrichment of the interstellar medium in 13 C and N by mass loss of stars of various masses [fr

  14. Mass fragmentographic analysis of total cholesterol in serum using a heptadeuterated internal standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolthers, B.G.; Hindriks, F.R.; Muskiet, F.A.J.; Groen, A.

    1980-01-01

    A mass fragmentographic method for the determination of total cholesterol in serum using heptadeuterated [25,26,26,26,27,27,27- 2 H] cholesterol as internal standard is presented. The results obtained are compared with a colorimetric and gas chromatographic method which were previously proposed as reference methods. Criteria for the development of absolute measurement by means of mass fragmentography and stable isotopically labelled internal standards are given. The conclusion is drawn that, at present, mass fragmentographic methods for the determination of total cholesterol in serum do not fulfil the criteria required for absolute methods. (Auth.)

  15. The loss of skeletal muscle strength, mass, and quality in older adults : the health, aging and body composition study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goodpaster, Bret H; Park, Seok Won; Harris, Tamara B; Kritchevsky, Steven B; Nevitt, Michael; Schwartz, Ann V; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Tylavsky, Frances A; Visser, Marjolein; Newman, Anne B

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The loss of muscle mass is considered to be a major determinant of strength loss in aging. However, large-scale longitudinal studies examining the association between the loss of mass and strength in older adults are lacking. METHODS: Three-year changes in muscle mass and strength were

  16. Simulation of total loss of feed water in ATLAS test facility using SPACE code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Minhee; Kim, Seyun [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of). Central Research Inst.

    2017-08-15

    A total loss of feedwater (TLOFW) with additional failures in ATLAS test facility was analyzed using SPACE code, which is an advanced thermal-hydraulic system analysis code developed by the Korea nuclear industry. Partial failure of the safety injection pumps (SIPs) and the pilot-operated safety relief valves (POSRVs) of pressurizer were selected as additional failures. In order to assess the capability of SPACE code, partial failure was modeled, and compared with results of OECD-ATLAS A3.1 results. Reasonably good agreement with major thermal-hydraulic parameters was obtained by analyzing the transient behavior. From the results, this indicated that SPACE code has capabilities to design extension conditions, and feed and bleed operation using POSRVs and SIPs were effective for RCS cooling capability during TLOFW.

  17. Tourniquets do not increase the total blood loss or re-amputation risk in transtibial amputations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wied, Christian; Tengberg, Peter T; Holm, Gitte

    2017-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the total blood loss (TBL) and the safety with respect to the re-amputation rate after transtibial amputation (TTA) conducted with and without a tourniquet. METHODS: The study was a single-centre retrospective cohort study of patients with a primary TTA admitted between January...... 2013 and April 2015. All patients with a primary TTA were assessed for inclusion if the amputation was performed because of arteriosclerosis or diabetic complications. All patients underwent a standardized TTA procedure that was performed approximately 10 cm below the knee joint and performed...... portion, which equals 55 g/L of haemoglobin. The TBL during the first four postoperative days was calculated based on the haemoglobin level and the estimated blood volume. The re-amputation rate was evaluated within 30 d. RESULTS: Seventy-four out of 86 consecutive patients who underwent TTA within...

  18. Evaluation of total loss of feedwater accident/recovery phase and investigation of the associated EOP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, Young Seok; Seul, Kwang Won; Kim, Hho Jung

    1993-01-01

    To evaluate the sequence of event and the thermohydraulic behavior during total loss of feedwater accident and recovery procedure, a RELAP5/MOD3 calculation is performed and compared with the LOFT L9-1/L3-3 experiment. Also, the predictability of the code for the major thermohydraulic phenomena following the accident is assessed. As a result, it is found that a pressure control using the spray until the time the water level reaches the top of the pressurizer, an overpressure protection by pressurizer PORV, a recovery of the secondary heat removal capability by refilling steam generator, and an effective cooldown by the continued natural circulation can be perfomed without core uncovery. It is also found that the plantspecific evaluation is necessary to confirm the effectiveness of the current symptom-oriented emergency operating procedure, especially in an overpressure protection performance and steam generator recovery performance. (Author)

  19. Comparative study of topical vs. intravenous tranexamic acid regarding blood loss in total knee arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Zekcer

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To compare topical vs. intravenous tranexamic acid (TA in total knee arthroplasty regarding blood loss and transfusion., Methods: Ninety patients were randomized to receive TA intravenously (20 mg/kg in 100 mL of saline; group IV, topically (1.5 g in 50 mL of saline, sprayed over the operated site, before release of the tourniquet; topical group, or intravenous saline (100 mL with anesthesia; control group. The volume of drained blood in 48, h, the amount of transfused blood, and the serum levels of hemoglobin and hematocrit before and after surgery were evaluated., Results: The groups were similar for gender, age, weight, laterality, and preoperative hemoglobin and hematocrit levels (p> 0.2. The hemoglobin level dropped in all groups when comparing the preoperative and the 48-h evaluations: the control group decreased 3.8 mg/dL on average, while the IV, group had a decrease of 3.0, and the topical group, of 3.2 (p= 0.019. The difference between the control and IV, groups was confirmed by Bonferroni test (p= 0.020. The difference between the control group and the topical group was not significant (p= 0.130, although there was less reduction in hemoglobin in the topical group; the comparison between the IV, group and the topical group was also not significant (p= 1.000. Conclusion: Using topic and IV, tranexamic acid decreased blood loss and the need for transfusion in total knee arthroplasty. Topical application showed results similar to IV use regarding the need for blood transfusion, but without the possible side effects of IV, administration.

  20. [Single intravenous tranexamic acid dose to reduce blood loss in primary total knee replacement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Reig, J; Parra Ruiz, B; Ferrández Martínez, J; Martínez López, J F

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of a single intravenous dose of tranexamic acid in order to reduce blood loss in total knee replacement. Prospective observational study of the administration of tranexamic acid in patients undergoing primary total knee arthroplasty from November 2013 to February 2015, in which an autologous blood recovery system was used. The study included 98 patients, distributed into two groups of 49 patients according to whether or not they received intravenous tranexamic acid. The primary endpoint was the number of patients requiring autologous transfusion from the recovery system autologous blood recovery system. No drop-outs were recorded during follow-up. There were no significant differences between groups as regards the preoperative and hospital variables. The mean preoperative haemoglobin and haematocrit at 24 and 48 hours postoperatively were similar in both groups. The average volume of bleeding in the autologous blood recovery system and estimated average blood loss was lower in patients who had been administered tranexamic acid, with significant differences. No patients in the group that was administered tranexamic acid required blood autotransfusion. The transfusion rate was zero in the two groups. No adverse events related to the administration of tranexamic acid were recorded. Intravenous administration of tranexamic acid, according to the described protocol, has presented a non-autotransfusion or allo-transfusion rate of 100%, with no increased incidence of thrombotic events. Thus, its use in this group of patients is recommended. The indication should be individualized, its use justified in the patient medical records, and informed consent is mandatory. Copyright © 2015 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Evolution of Mass Functions of Coeval Stars through Wind Mass Loss and Binary Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, F.R.N.; Izzard, R.G.; Langer, N.; de Mink, S.E.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate determinations of stellar mass functions and ages of stellar populations are crucial to much of astrophysics. We analyze the evolution of stellar mass functions of coeval main-sequence stars, including all relevant aspects of single and binary star evolution. We show that the slope of the

  2. Spatial and temporal distribution of mass loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet since AD 1900

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Kristian Kjellerup; Korsgaard, Niels J.; Bjørk, Anders A

    2015-01-01

    the mass balance into a term for surface mass balance (that is, total precipitation minus total sublimation minus runoff) and a dynamic term. We find that many areas currently undergoing change are identical to those that experienced considerable thinning throughout the twentieth century. We also reveal...

  3. Continuing versus discontinuing antiplatelet drugs, vasodilators, and/or cerebral ameliorators on perioperative total blood loss in total knee arthroplasty without pneumatic tourniquet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachiyuki Tsukada, MD

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although studies have supported the utility of perioperative continuation of antiplatelet drugs, vasodilators, and cerebral ameliorators in most procedures, no study compared total volume of blood loss after total knee arthroplasty (TKA in patients continuing and discontinuing these drugs. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 266 consecutive patients undergoing TKA, and included 67 patients (25.2% taking antiplatelet drugs, vasodilators, or cerebral ameliorators in this study. All TKAs were performed without a pneumatic tourniquet. The primary outcome was perioperative total blood loss calculated from blood volume and change in hemoglobin. As subgroup analysis, we compared perioperative total blood loss in patients taking antiplatelet drugs. Results: There was no significant difference between the continuing group (n = 38 and discontinuing group (n = 29 in terms of the perioperative total blood loss (1025 ± 364 vs 1151 ± 327 mL, respectively; mean difference 126 mL; 95% confidence interval −45 to 298 mL; P = .15. No major bleeding or thrombotic events occurred in either group until postoperative 3-month follow-up. In patients taking antiplatelet drugs (n = 51, no significant difference was observed in the total blood loss between the continuing group (n = 30 and discontinuing group (n = 21 (1056 ± 287 vs 1151 ± 305 mL, respectively; mean difference 95 mL; 95% confidence interval −75 to 264 mL; P = .27. Conclusions: No significant differences in terms of perioperative total blood loss were observed between patients continuing and discontinuing study drugs. Continuing these drugs may be preferable in the perioperative period of TKA. Keywords: Knee, Primary arthroplasty, Bleeding events, Thrombotic events, Noncardiac surgery

  4. PULSATION-TRIGGERED MASS LOSS FROM AGB STARS: THE 60 DAY CRITICAL PERIOD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, I.; Zijlstra, A. A.

    2016-01-01

    Low- and intermediate-mass stars eject much of their mass during the late, red giant branch (RGB) phase of evolution. The physics of their strong stellar winds is still poorly understood. In the standard model, stellar pulsations extend the atmosphere, allowing a wind to be driven through radiation pressure on condensing dust particles. Here, we investigate the onset of the wind, using nearby RGB stars drawn from the Hipparcos catalog. We find a sharp onset of dust production when the star first reaches a pulsation period of 60 days. This approximately coincides with the point where the star transitions to the first overtone pulsation mode. Models of the spectral energy distributions show stellar mass-loss rate suddenly increasing at this point, by a factor of ∼10 over the existing (chromospherically driven) wind. The dust emission is strongly correlated with both pulsation period and amplitude, indicating stellar pulsation is the main trigger for the strong mass loss, and determines the mass-loss rate. Dust emission does not strongly correlate with stellar luminosity, indicating radiation pressure on dust has little effect on the mass-loss rate. RGB stars do not normally appear to produce dust, whereas dust production by asymptotic giant branch stars appears commonplace, and is probably ubiquitous above the RGB-tip luminosity. We conclude that the strong wind begins with a step change in mass-loss rate and is triggered by stellar pulsations. A second rapid mass-loss-rate enhancement is suggested when the star transitions to the fundamental pulsation mode at a period of ∼300 days.

  5. Antarctic Mass Loss from GRACE from Space- and Time-Resolved Modeling with Slepian Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, F. J.; Harig, C.

    2013-12-01

    The melting of polar ice sheets is a major contributor to global sea-level rise. Antarctica is of particular interest since most of the mass loss has occurred in West Antarctica, however updated glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) models and recent mass gains in East Antarctica have reduced the continent-wide integrated decadal trend of mass loss. Here we present a spatially and temporally resolved estimation of the Antarctic ice mass change using Slepian localization functions. With a Slepian basis specifically for Antarctica, the basis functions maximize their energy on the continent and we can project the geopotential fields into a sparse set of orthogonal coefficients. By fitting polynomial functions to the limited basis coefficients we maximize signal-to-noise levels and need not perform smoothing or destriping filters common to other approaches. In addition we determine an empirical noise covariance matrix from the GRACE data to estimate the uncertainty of mass estimation. When applied to large ice sheets, as in our own recent Greenland work, this technique is able to resolve both the overall continental integrated mass trend, as well as the spatial distribution of the mass changes over time. Using CSR-RL05 GRACE data between Jan. 2003 and Jan 2013, we estimate the regional accelerations in mass change for several sub-regions and examine how the spatial pattern of mass has changed. The Amundsen Sea coast of West Antarctica has experienced a large acceleration in mass loss (-26 Gt/yr^2). While mass loss is concentrated near Pine Island and Thwaites glaciers, it has also increased along the coast further towards the Ross ice shelf.

  6. Using a mass balance to determine the potency loss during the production of a pharmaceutical blend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackaplow, Michael B

    2010-09-01

    The manufacture of a blend containing the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and inert excipients is a precursor for the production of most pharmaceutical capsules and tablets. However, if there is a net water gain or preferential loss of API during production, the potency of the final drug product may be less than the target value. We use a mass balance to predict the mean potency loss during the production of a blend via wet granulation and fluidized bed drying. The result is an explicit analytical equation for the change in blend potency a function of net water gain, solids losses (both regular and high-potency), and the fraction of excipients added extragranularly. This model predicts that each 1% gain in moisture content (as determined by a loss on drying test) will decrease the API concentration of the final blend at least 1% LC. The effect of pre-blend solid losses increases with their degree of superpotency. This work supports Quality by Design by providing a rational method to set the process design space to minimize blend potency losses. When an overage is necessary, the model can help justify it by providing a quantitative, first-principles understanding of the sources of potency loss. The analysis is applicable to other manufacturing processes where the primary sources of potency loss are net water gain and/or mass losses.

  7. Reduced Operating Time but Not Blood Loss With Cruciate Retaining Total Knee Arthroplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermesan, Dinu; Trocan, Ilie; Prejbeanu, Radu; Poenaru, Dan V; Haragus, Horia; Gratian, Damian; Marrelli, Massimo; Inchingolo, Francesco; Caprio, Monica; Cagiano, Raffaele; Tatullo, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Background There is no consensus regarding the use of retaining or replacing cruciate implants for patients with limited deformity who undergo a total knee replacement. Scope of this paper is to evaluate whether a cruciate sparing total knee replacement could have a reduced operating time compared to a posterior stabilized implant. Methods For this purpose, we performed a randomized study on 50 subjects. All procedures were performed by a single surgeon in the same conditions to minimize bias and only knees with a less than 20 varus deviation and/or maximum 15° fixed flexion contracture were included. Results Surgery time was significantly shorter with the cruciate retaining implant (P = 0.0037). The mean duration for the Vanguard implant was 68.9 (14.7) and for the NexGen II Legacy was 80.2 (11.3). A higher range of motion, but no significant Knee Society Scores at 6 months follow-up, was used as controls. Conclusions In conclusion, both implants had the potential to assure great outcomes. However, if a decision has to be made, choosing a cruciate retaining procedure could significantly reduce the surgical time. When performed under tourniquet, this gain does not lead to reduced blood loss. PMID:25584102

  8. Fission fragment mass and total kinetic energy distributions of spontaneously fissioning plutonium isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomorski, K.; Nerlo-Pomorska, B.; Bartel, J.; Schmitt, C.

    2018-03-01

    The fission-fragment mass and total kinetic energy (TKE) distributions are evaluated in a quantum mechanical framework using elongation, mass asymmetry, neck degree of freedom as the relevant collective parameters in the Fourier shape parametrization recently developed by us. The potential energy surfaces (PES) are calculated within the macroscopic-microscopic model based on the Lublin-Strasbourg Drop (LSD), the Yukawa-folded (YF) single-particle potential and a monopole pairing force. The PES are presented and analysed in detail for even-even Plutonium isotopes with A = 236-246. They reveal deep asymmetric valleys. The fission-fragment mass and TKE distributions are obtained from the ground state of a collective Hamiltonian computed within the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, in the WKB approach by introducing a neck-dependent fission probability. The calculated mass and total kinetic energy distributions are found in good agreement with the data.

  9. Growth hormone mitigates loss of periosteal bone formation and muscle mass in disuse osteopenic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grubbe, M-C; Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus; Nyengaard, J R

    2014-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is a potent anabolic agent capable of increasing both bone and muscle mass. The aim was to investigate whether GH could counteract disuse-induced loss of bone and muscle mass in a rat model. Paralysis was induced by injecting 4 IU Botox (BTX) into the muscles of the right hind...... of periosteal BFR/BS (2-fold increase vs. BTX, Pmuscle mass (+29% vs. BTX, Pmuscle CSA (+11%, P=0.064). In conclusion, GH mitigates disuse......BMD, -13%, Pmuscle mass (-69%, Pmuscle cell cross sectional area (CSA) (-73%, P

  10. Beyond deficit or compensation: new insights on postural control after long-term total visual loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Maitê M; Lemos, Thiago; Imbiriba, Luís A; Ribeiro, Nathalia L; Vargas, Claudia D

    2017-02-01

    Loss of vision is well known to affect postural control in blind subjects. This effect has classically been framed in terms of deficit or compensation depending on whether body sway increases or decreases in comparison with that of sighted subjects with the eyes open. However, studies have shown that postural responses can be modulated by the context and that changes in postural sway may not necessarily mean a worsened or improved postural control. The goal of our study was to test whether balance is affected by the context in blind subjects. Additional to the quantification of center of pressure (COP) displacement, measurements of body motion (COG) and the correspondent net neuromuscular response (COP-COG) were evaluated in anterior-posterior and medial-lateral directions. Thirty-eight completely blind and thirty-two sighted subjects participated of this study. The volunteers were asked to stand barefoot on a force platform for 60 s in two different conditions: feet apart and feet together. Sighted participants performed the tests with both the eyes open and eyes closed. Results showed that the COP-COG displacements in the blind group were greater than those of the sighted group with eyes open in almost all conditions tested, but not in eyes closed condition. However, the COP and COG results confirmed that the postural responses were context dependent. Together these results suggest that total visual loss does not just lead to a balance deficit or compensation, but to a specific postural signature that might imply in enhancing COP, COG and/or COP-COG in specific postural conditions.

  11. Total glucosides of paeony prevents juxta-articular bone loss in experimental arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chen Chao; You, Fan Tian; Mei, Li Yu; Jian, Sun; Qiang, Chen Yong

    2013-07-21

    Total glucosides of paeony (TGP) is a biologically active compound extracted from Paeony root. TGP has been used in rheumatoid arthritis therapy for many years. However, the mechanism by which TGP prevents bone loss has been less explored. TGP was orally administered for 3 months to New Zealand rabbits with antigen-induced arthritis (AIA). Digital x-ray knee images and bone mineral density (BMD) measurements of the subchondral knee bone were performed before sacrifice. Chondrocytes were observed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Histological analysis and mRNA expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor-B ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) were evaluated in joint tissues. The BMD value in TGP rabbits was significantly higher compared with that seen in the AIA model rabbits. In addition, the subchondral bone plate was almost completely preserved by TGP treatment, while there was a decrease in bone plate integrity in AIA rabbits. There was less damage to the chondrocytes of the TGP treated group. Immunohistochemical examination of the TGP group showed that a higher percentage of TGP treated chondrocytes expressed OPG as compared to the chondrocytes isolated from AIA treated animals. In contrast, RANKL expression was significantly decreased in the TGP treated group compared to the AIA group. In support of the immunohistochemistry data, the expression of RANKL mRNA was decreased and OPG mRNA expression was enhanced in the TGP group when compared to that of the AIA model group. These results reveal that TGP suppresses juxta-articular osteoporosis and prevents subchondral bone loss. The decreased RANKL and increased OPG expression seen in TGP treated animals could explain how administration of TGP maintains higher BMD.

  12. Benefits of bariatric surgery before elective total joint arthroplasty: is there a role for weight loss optimization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearing, Emanuel E; Santos, Tyler M; Topolski, Mark S; Borgert, Andrew J; Kallies, Kara J; Kothari, Shanu N

    2017-03-01

    The association between obesity and osteoarthritis is well established, as is the increased risk of postoperative complications after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and total hip arthroplasty (THA) among patients with obesity. To evaluate the outcomes after TKA/THA based on whether the surgery was performed before or after bariatric surgery. Integrated, multispecialty, community teaching hospital. The medical records of all patients who underwent bariatric surgery from 2001 to 2014 were reviewed. Statistical analysis included χ 2 test and t tests. A P valuebariatric procedure, 66 underwent TKA/THA after their bariatric procedure. TKAs/THAs were performed at a mean of 4.9±3.2 years before and 4.3±3.3 years after bariatric surgery. Body mass index for those undergoing TKA/THA after bariatric surgery was lower than those with TKA/THA before bariatric surgery (37.6±7.4 versus 43.7±5.7 kg/m 2 ; Pbariatric surgery: 81.7±33.9 min versus 117±38.1 min; Pbariatric surgery. Patients who underwent TKA/THA after bariatric surgery had lower body mass index before and 1 year after TKA/THA. Postoperative complication rates were similar. Benefits of bariatric surgery and subsequent weight loss should be considered among patients with obesity requiring TKA/THA. Optimal timing of TKA/THA and bariatric surgery has yet to be established. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Total serum bilirubin levels and sensorineural hearing loss in the US adolescents: NHANES 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guoli; Fu, Wenjiang

    2018-02-01

    We aimed to investigate whether current levels of total serum bilirubin are associated with different subtypes of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in adolescents. A set of cross-sectional data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) (2007-2010) was used. A subset of 1404 adolescents was sampled for measurements of total serum bilirubin, tympanometry, and average pure tone threshold at low-frequencies (LPTA: 500, 1000, 2000 Hz) or high-frequencies (HPTA: 3000, 4000, 6000, and 8000 Hz). SNHL was defined as the hearing loss that had type A tympanograms with a peak admittance of 0.3 ml or greater. Associations between serum bilirubin (square-root transformed) and different subtypes of SNHL were evaluated using binary or multinomial logistic regression models with 4-year sampling weights. The bootstrap method was used for estimation of variance and 10-fold cross-validation for assessment of overfitting issue. Total serum bilirubin levels were found to be associated with any high-frequency (HPTA>15 dB in at least one ear, adjusted odds-ratio (OR a )(bootstrap 95% confidence interval) = 3.29(1.31-8.19), p = 0.011), but not with any low-frequency (LPTA>15 dB in at least one ear), SNHL in the US adolescents. Furthermore, high-frequency SNHL with HPTA>15 dB in both ears (bilateral) or HPTA≥25 dB in at least one ear, compared to that with HPTA>15 dB in one ear only (unilateral) or HPTA = 15-25 dB in at least one ear, had a stronger association with total serum bilirubin levels (OR a  = 5.37(1.27-22.65), p = 0.022 for bilateral; OR a  = 2.64(0.84-8.25), p = 0.094 for unilateral; OR a  = 5.00(0.95-26.58), p = 0.058 for HPTA≥25 dB in at least one ear; as well as OR a  = 3.06(1.15-8.25), p = 0.025 for HPTA = 15-25 dB in at least one ear). No severe overfitting problems were found. Our findings suggest that current levels of total serum bilirubin may be informative in predicting and/or targeting high-frequency SNHL

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Adiabatic mass loss in binary stars. II. (Ge+, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, H.; Webbink, R. F.; Chen, X.; Han, Z.

    2016-02-01

    In the limit of extremely rapid mass transfer, the response of a donor star in an interacting binary becomes asymptotically one of adiabatic expansion. We survey here adiabatic mass loss from Population I stars (Z=0.02) of mass 0.10M⊙-100M⊙ from the zero-age main sequence to the base of the giant branch, or to central hydrogen exhaustion for lower main sequence stars. The logarithmic derivatives of radius with respect to mass along adiabatic mass-loss sequences translate into critical mass ratios for runaway (dynamical timescale) mass transfer, evaluated here under the assumption of conservative mass transfer. For intermediate- and high-mass stars, dynamical mass transfer is preceded by an extended phase of thermal timescale mass transfer as the star is stripped of most of its envelope mass. The critical mass ratio qad (throughout this paper, we follow the convention of defining the binary mass ratio as q{equiv}Mdonor/Maccretor) above which this delayed dynamical instability occurs increases with advancing evolutionary age of the donor star, by ever-increasing factors for more massive donors. Most intermediate- or high-mass binaries with nondegenerate accretors probably evolve into contact before manifesting this instability. As they approach the base of the giant branch, however, and begin developing a convective envelope, qad plummets dramatically among intermediate-mass stars, to values of order unity, and a prompt dynamical instability occurs. Among low-mass stars, the prompt instability prevails throughout main sequence evolution, with qad declining with decreasing mass, and asymptotically approaching qad=2/3, appropriate to a classical isentropic n=3/2 polytrope. Our calculated qad values agree well with the behavior of time-dependent models by Chen & Han (2003MNRAS.341..662C) of intermediate-mass stars initiating mass transfer in the Hertzsprung gap. Application of our results to cataclysmic variables, as systems that must be stable against rapid mass

  15. Chemical effect on total mass attenuation coefficients of V, Cr, Mn, Co and Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soeguet, Oe.; Colak, S.; Bueyuekkasap, E.; Kuecuekoender, A.

    2002-01-01

    Detailed interpretation of data obtained from X-ray transmission measurements usually depends on the assumption that the contribution of each element is additive. This assumption yields the mixture rule for X-ray attenuation coefficients which is valid if molecular and chemical effects are negligible. Total mass attenuation coefficients of V, Cr, Mn, Co and Ni in various their compounds was measured. Absorption corrections were carried on data for ligands in the compounds. It was found that V, Cr, Mn, Co and Ni had different total mass attenuation coefficients in the different compounds. Results were compared with theoretical values of HUBBELL and SELTZER. (author)

  16. Effects of main-sequence mass loss on the turnoff ages of globular clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzik, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Willson, Bowen, and Struck-Marcell have proposed that globular cluster main-sequence turnoff ages can be reconciled with the lower ages of the Galaxy and universe deduced from other methods by incorporating an epoch of early main-sequence mass-loss by stars of spectral types A through early-F. The proposed mass loss is pulsation-driven, and facilitated by rapid rotation. This paper presents stellar evolution calculations of Pop. II (Z = 0.001) mass-losing stars of initial mass 0.8 to 1.6 M circle dot , with exponentially-decreasing mass loss rates of e-folding times 0.5 to 2.0 Gyr, evolving to a final mass of 0.7 M circle dot . The calculations indicate that a globular cluster with apparent turnoff age 18 Gyr could have an actual age as low as ∼12 Gyr. Observational implications that may help to verify the hypothesis, e.g. low C/N abundance ratios among red giants following first dredge-up, blue stragglers, red giant deficiencies, and signatures in cluster mass/luminosity functions, are also discussed.25 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  17. STEAM GENERATOR TUBE INTEGRITY ANALYSIS OF A TOTAL LOSS OF ALL HEAT SINKS ACCIDENT FOR WOLSONG NPP UNIT 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HEOK-SOON LIM

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A total loss of all heat sinks is considered a severe accident with a low probability of occurrence. Following a total loss of all heat sinks, the degasser/condenser relief valves (DCRV become the sole means available for the depressurization of the primary heat transport system. If a nuclear power plant has a total loss of heat sinks accident, high-temperature steam and differential pressure between the primary heat transport system (PHTS and the steam generator (SG secondary side can cause a SG tube creep rupture. To protect the PHTS during a total loss of all heat sinks accident, a sufficient depressurization capability of the degasser/condenser relief valve and the SG tube integrity is very important. Therefore, an accurate estimation of the discharge through these valves is necessary to assess the impact of the PHTS overprotection and the SG tube integrity of the primary circuit. This paper describes the analysis of DCRV discharge capacity and the SG tube integrity under a total loss of all heat sink using the CATHENA code. It was found that the DCRV's discharge capacity is enough to protect the overpressure in the PHTS, and the SG tube integrity is maintained in a total loss of all heat accident.

  18. Steam Generator Tube Integrity Analysis of A Total Loss of all Heat Sinks Accident for Wolsong NPP Unit 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Heoksoon; Song, Taeyoung; Chi, Moongoo [Korea Htydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seoungrae [Nuclear Engineering Service and Solution, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-15

    A total loss of all heat sinks is considered a severe accident with a low probability of occurrence. Following a total loss of all heat sinks, the degasser/condenser relief valves (DCRV) become the sole means available for the depressurization of the primary heat transport system. If a nuclear power plant has a total loss of heat sinks accident, high-temperature steam and differential pressure between the primary heat transport system (PHTS) and the steam generator (SG) secondary side can cause a SG tube creep rupture. To protect the PHTS during a total loss of all heat sinks accident, a sufficient depressurization capability of the degasser/condenser relief valve and the SG tube integrity is very important. Therefore, an accurate estimation of the discharge through these valves is necessary to assess the impact of the PHTS overprotection and the SG tube integrity of the primary circuit. This paper describes the analysis of DCRV discharge capacity and the SG tube integrity under a total loss of all heat sink using the CATHENA code. It was found that the DCRV's discharge capacity is enough to protect the overpressure in the PHTS, and the SG tube integrity is maintained in a total loss of all heat accident.

  19. Steam Generator Tube Integrity Analysis of A Total Loss of all Heat Sinks Accident for Wolsong NPP Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Heoksoon; Song, Taeyoung; Chi, Moongoo; Kim, Seoungrae

    2014-01-01

    A total loss of all heat sinks is considered a severe accident with a low probability of occurrence. Following a total loss of all heat sinks, the degasser/condenser relief valves (DCRV) become the sole means available for the depressurization of the primary heat transport system. If a nuclear power plant has a total loss of heat sinks accident, high-temperature steam and differential pressure between the primary heat transport system (PHTS) and the steam generator (SG) secondary side can cause a SG tube creep rupture. To protect the PHTS during a total loss of all heat sinks accident, a sufficient depressurization capability of the degasser/condenser relief valve and the SG tube integrity is very important. Therefore, an accurate estimation of the discharge through these valves is necessary to assess the impact of the PHTS overprotection and the SG tube integrity of the primary circuit. This paper describes the analysis of DCRV discharge capacity and the SG tube integrity under a total loss of all heat sink using the CATHENA code. It was found that the DCRV's discharge capacity is enough to protect the overpressure in the PHTS, and the SG tube integrity is maintained in a total loss of all heat accident

  20. Effect of mass loss on the driving of g-modes in B supergiant stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godart, Melanie; Noels, Arlette [Institut d' Astrophysique et de Geophysique, Liege (Belgium); Dupret, Marc-Antoine [Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, LESIA (France)], E-mail: Helanie.Godart@ulg.ac.be, E-mail: Arlette.Noels@ulg.ac.be, E-mail: ma.dupret@obspm.fr

    2008-10-15

    MOST has detected p and g-modes in the B supergiant star HD163899. Saio et al. (2006) have explained the driving of g-modes in a post main sequence star by the presence of a convective shell which prevents some modes from entering the damping radiative core. We show that this scenario depends on the evolution of the star, with or without mass loss. If the mass loss rate is high enough, the convective shell disappears and all the g-modes are stable.

  1. Effect of mass loss on the driving of g-modes in B supergiant stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godart, Melanie; Noels, Arlette; Dupret, Marc-Antoine

    2008-01-01

    MOST has detected p and g-modes in the B supergiant star HD163899. Saio et al. (2006) have explained the driving of g-modes in a post main sequence star by the presence of a convective shell which prevents some modes from entering the damping radiative core. We show that this scenario depends on the evolution of the star, with or without mass loss. If the mass loss rate is high enough, the convective shell disappears and all the g-modes are stable.

  2. Total loss of CNA1 steam generators feed water simulated with RELAP5/MOD3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marino, Edgardo J.L.

    2000-01-01

    The results of the calculations are presented carried out by utilizing the code RELAP5/MOD3, upon the basis of the postulated initial event of total loss of feed water to the two steam generators in the nuclear power plant Atucha 1, CNA1. The evolution of the installation systems during the transient was analyzed in different conditions of availability: condenser, relief valve and safety valves in the secondary system, safety valves in the primary system and system of long-term subsequent cooling. Located in the primary and secondary systems of the installation they turn out to be prominent in this event. Upon this basis the sequences of possible evolution were calculated and those that would conduct the system toward the setting called 'damage to the core' were determined. Also those in which would arrive to a state of 'safe shutdown' were determined. These results were utilized in the verification of the tree of events utilized in the Final Report of the Probabilistic Safety Analysis for the sequence of event T9, made from calculations carried out with the code DINETZ. From this compare some differences were determined and are presented in the modified version of tree of events. (author)

  3. Analysis of Total Loss of Feedwater for APR1400 using SPACE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seong Min; Park, Seok Jeong; Park, Chan Eok; Choi, Jong Ho; Lee, Gyu Cheon [KEPCO Engineering and Construction, Deajeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The Total Loss of FeedWater (TLOFW) event is an accident that main feedwater and auxiliary feedwater of secondary side are not supplied to steam generators. APR1400 uses the Safety Depressurization and Vent System (SDVS) for the F and B operation and SDVS is designed to perform the rapid depressurization function of Reactor Coolant System (RCS) through the remote manual operation when TLOFW is occurred. If RCS pressure falls below a Safety Injection Pump (SIP) working pressure, it can be possible to start the F and B operation which injects SIP flow to RCS and releases the RCS vapor and two-phase flow through Pilot Operated Safety Relief Valves (POSRVs) by opening the POSRVs, and then it can be possible to remove the decay heat. The design requirement of SDVS is that the core water level should be maintained at higher than 2 feet from the top of active core during the F and B operation. The TLOFW analysis was carried out to evaluate the capability of decay heat removal for APR1400 using newly developed SPACE code. The analysis results show that the F and B operation with 2 POSRVs and 2 SIPs and the F and B operation with 4 POSRVs and 4 SIPs meet the SDVS design requirement for the fuel cladding temperature. The comparison with RELAP5 shows good agreement and it validates the applicability of SPACE code for this type of accident analysis.

  4. Thermal-hydraulic analysis of total loss of steam generator feed water in WWER-440

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabotinov, L.; Cadet-Mercier, S.

    2001-01-01

    The analysis is carried out for a WWER-440/V270 with upgraded primary safety valves (replacement of the existing PRZ safety valves with Pilot Operated Relief Valves (PORV) of the type SEBIM (France)) The current analysis is focused on the scenario 'Total Loss of SGs Feed Water' with application of the operator action of primary system 'Feed and Bleed' in order to check the effectiveness of the installed pressurizer SEBIM valves and to verify that the operator can cool down the reactor system and cope with this accident. The calculations have been performed at the Institute of Protection and Nuclear Safety (IPSN) in Fontenay-aux-Roses with the computer code CATHARE 2 Version 1.3L1. CATHARE is a French best estimate thermal-hydraulic program for accident analysis in the light water nuclear reactors, developed with the participation of the IPSN (Institut de Protection et Surete Nucleaire), CEA (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique), Framatome and EdF (Electricite de France). (author)

  5. Mass loss of the Greenland Ice Sheet since the Little Ice Age, implications on sea level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, K. K.; Bjork, A. A.; Khan, Shfaqat Abbas

    The impact of mass loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) on 20th Century sea level rise (SLR) has long been subject to intense discussions. While globally distributed tide gauges suggest a global mean SLR of 15-20 cm, quantifying the separate components is of great concern - in particular...... for modeling sea level projections into the 21st Century. Estimates of the past GrIS contribution to SLR have been derived using a number of different approaches, e.g. surface mass balance (SMB) calculations combined with estimates of ice discharge found by in correlating SMB anomalies and calving rates. Here......-2010, NASA's Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) from 2003-2009, and NASA's Land, Vegetation, and Ice Sensor (LVIS) from 2010, to estimate mass loss throughout the 20th and early 21st Century. We present mass balance estimates of the GrIS since retreat commence from the maximum extent...

  6. Spread of ice mass loss into northwest Greenland observed by GRACE and GPS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Wahr, John; Bevis, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements from three long-term sites on bedrock adjacent to the ice sheet. The GRACE results provide a direct measure of mass loss averaged over scales of a few hundred km. The GPS data are used to monitor crustal uplift caused by ice mass loss close to the sites....... The GRACE results can be used to predict crustal uplift, which can be compared with the GPS data. In addition to showing that the northwest ice sheet margin is now losing mass, the uplift results from both the GPS measurements and the GRACE predictions show rapid acceleration in southeast Greenland in late...... 2003, followed by a moderate deceleration in 2006. Because that latter deceleration is weak, southeast Greenland still appears to be losing ice mass at a much higher rate than it was prior to fall 2003. In a more general sense, the analysis described here demonstrates that GPS uplift measurements can...

  7. Investigation of Electron Beam Induced Mass Loss of Embedding Media in the Low Voltage STEM

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novotná, V.; Hrubanová, Kamila; Nebesářová, J.; Krzyžánek, Vladislav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 20, S3 (2014), s. 1270-1271 ISSN 1431-9276 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EE.2.3.20.0103; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-20012S; GA TA ČR TE01020118 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : mass loss * mass -thickness measurement * low voltage STEM Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.877, year: 2014

  8. A mathematical model of weight loss under total starvation: evidence against the thrifty-gene hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Speakman

    2013-01-01

    The thrifty-gene hypothesis (TGH posits that the modern genetic predisposition to obesity stems from a historical past where famine selected for genes that promote efficient fat deposition. It has been previously argued that such a scenario is unfeasible because under such strong selection any gene favouring fat deposition would rapidly move to fixation. Hence, we should all be predisposed to obesity: which we are not. The genetic architecture of obesity that has been revealed by genome-wide association studies (GWAS, however, calls into question such an argument. Obesity is caused by mutations in many hundreds (maybe thousands of genes, each with a very minor, independent and additive impact. Selection on such genes would probably be very weak because the individual advantages they would confer would be very small. Hence, the genetic architecture of the epidemic may indeed be compatible with, and hence support, the TGH. To evaluate whether this is correct, it is necessary to know the likely effects of the identified GWAS alleles on survival during starvation. This would allow definition of their advantage in famine conditions, and hence the likely selection pressure for such alleles to have spread over the time course of human evolution. We constructed a mathematical model of weight loss under total starvation using the established principles of energy balance. Using the model, we found that fatter individuals would indeed survive longer and, at a given body weight, females would survive longer than males, when totally starved. An allele causing deposition of an extra 80 g of fat would result in an extension of life under total starvation by about 1.1–1.6% in an individual with 10 kg of fat and by 0.25–0.27% in an individual carrying 32 kg of fat. A mutation causing a per allele effect of 0.25% would become completely fixed in a population with an effective size of 5 million individuals in 6000 selection events. Because there have probably been about 24

  9. Elastic uplift in southeast Greenland due to rapid ice mass loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Van dam, Tonie; Hamilton, Gordon S.

    2007-01-01

    The rapid unloading of ice from the southeastern sector of the Greenland ice sheet between 2001 and 2006 caused an elastic uplift of 35 mm at a GPS site in Kulusuk. Most of the uplift results from ice dynamic-induced volume losses on two nearby outlet glaciers. Volume loss from Helheim Glacier...... between 62N and 66N. Citation: Khan, S. A., J. Wahr, L. A. Stearns, G. S. Hamilton, T. van Dam, K. M. Larson, and O. Francis (2007), Elastic uplift in southeast Greenland due to rapid ice mass loss....

  10. New method to determine the total carbonyl functional group content in extractable particulate organic matter by tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dron, J; Zheng, W; Marchand, N; Wortham, H

    2008-08-01

    A functional group analysis method was developed to determine the quantitative content of carbonyl functional groups in atmospheric particulate organic matter (POM) using constant neutral loss scanning-tandem mass spectrometry (CNLS-MS/MS). The neutral loss method consists in monitoring the loss of a neutral fragment produced by the fragmentation of a precursor ion in a collision cell. The only ions detected are the daughter ions resulting from the loss of the neutral fragment under study. Then, scanning the loss of a neutral fragment characteristic of a functional group enables the selective detection of the compounds bearing the chemical function under study within a complex mixture. The selective detection of carbonyl functional groups was achieved after derivatization with pentafluorophenylhydrazine (PFPH) by monitoring the neutral loss of C(6)F(5)N (181 amu), which was characteristic of a large panel of derivatized carbonyl compounds. The method was tested on 25 reference mixtures of different composition, all containing 24 carbonyl compounds at randomly determined concentrations. The repeatability and calibration tests were satisfying as they resulted in a relative standard deviation below 5% and a linear range between 0.01 and 0.65 mM with a calculated detection limit of 0.0035 mM. Also, the relative deviation induced by changing the composition of the mixture while keeping the total concentration of carbonyl functional groups constant was less than 20%. These reliability experiments demonstrate the high robustness of the developed procedure for accurate carbonyl functional group measurement, which was applied to atmospheric POM samples. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Total cholesterol in serum determined by isotope dilution/mass spectrometry, with liquid-chromatographic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takatsu, Akiko; Nishi, Sueo

    1988-01-01

    We describe an accurate, precise method for determination of total serum cholesterol by isotope dilution/mass spectrometry (IDMS) with liquid chromatographic separation. After adding [3,4- 13 C] cholesterol to serum and hydrolyzing the cholesterol esters, we extract the total cholesterol. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is used to separate the extracted cholesterol for measurement by electron-impact mass spectrometry with use of a direct-insertion device. To evaluate the specificity and the accuracy of this method, we also studied the conventional IDMS method, which involves converting cholesterol to the trimethylsilyl ether and assay by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with use of a capillary column. The coefficient of variation for the HPLC method was a little larger than for the conventional method, but mean values by each method agreed within 1% for all sera tested. (author)

  12. ACUTE EFFECTS OF SELF-SELECTED REGIMEN OF RAPID BODY MASS LOSS IN COMBAT SPORTS ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaan Ereline

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to assess the acute effects of the self-selected regimen of rapid body mass loss (RBML on muscle performance and metabolic response to exercise in combat sports athletes. Seventeen male athletes (20.8 ± 1.0 years; mean ± SD reduced their body mass by 5.1 ± 1.1% within 3 days. The RBML was achieved by a gradual reduction of energy and fluid intake and mild sauna procedures. A battery of tests was performed before (Test 1 and immediately after (Test 2 RBML. The test battery included the measurement of the peak torque of knee extensors for three different speeds, assessment of total work (Wtot performed during a 3-min intermittent intensity knee extension exercise and measurements of blood metabolites (ammonia, lactate, glucose and urea. Absolute peak torque was lower in Test 2 compared with Test 1 at angular velocities of 1.57 rad·s-1 (218.6 ± 40.9 vs. 234.4 ± 42.2 N·m; p = 0.013 and 3.14 rad·s-1 (100.3 ± 27.8 vs. 111.7 ± 26.2 N·m; p = 0.008. The peak torque in relation to body mass remained unchanged for any speed. Absolute Wtot was lower in Test 2 compared with Test 1 (6359 ± 2326 vs. 7452 ± 3080 J; p = 0.003 as well as Wtot in relation to body mass (89.1 ± 29.9 vs. 98.6 ± 36.4 J·kg-1; p = 0.034, respectively. As a result of RBML, plasma urea concentration increased from 4.9 to 5.9 mmol·l-1 (p = 0.003. The concentration of ammonia in a post-test sample in Test 2 tended to be higher in comparison with Test 1 (80.9 ± 29.1 vs. 67.6 ± 26.5 mmol·l-1; p = 0.082. The plasma lactate and glucose responses to exercise were similar in Test 1 and Test 2. We conclude that the self-selected regimen of RBML impairs muscle performance in 3-min intermittent intensity exercise and induces an increase in blood urea concentration in experienced male combat sports athletes

  13. Correlation between the Total Gravitating Mass of Groups and Clusters and the Supermassive Black Hole Mass of Brightest Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdán, Ákos; Lovisari, Lorenzo; Volonteri, Marta; Dubois, Yohan

    2018-01-01

    Supermassive black holes (BHs) residing in the brightest cluster galaxies are over-massive relative to the stellar bulge mass or central stellar velocity dispersion of their host galaxies. As BHs residing at the bottom of the galaxy cluster’s potential well may undergo physical processes that are driven by the large-scale characteristics of the galaxy clusters, it is possible that the growth of these BHs is (indirectly) governed by the properties of their host clusters. In this work, we explore the connection between the mass of BHs residing in the brightest group/cluster galaxies (BGGs/BCGs) and the virial temperature, and hence total gravitating mass, of galaxy groups/clusters. To this end, we investigate a sample of 17 BGGs/BCGs with dynamical BH mass measurements and utilize XMM-Newton X-ray observations to measure the virial temperatures and infer the {M}500 mass of the galaxy groups/clusters. We find that the {M}{BH}{--}{kT} relation is significantly tighter and exhibits smaller scatter than the {M}{BH}{--}{M}{bulge} relations. The best-fitting power-law relations are {{log}}10({M}{BH}/{10}9 {M}ȯ )=0.20+1.74{{log}}10({kT}/1 {keV}) and {{log}}10({M}{BH}/{10}9 {M}ȯ ) = -0.80+1.72{{log}}10({M}{bulge}/{10}11 {M}ȯ ). Thus, the BH mass of BGGs/BCGs may be set by physical processes that are governed by the properties of the host galaxy group/cluster. These results are confronted with the Horizon-AGN simulation, which reproduces the observed relations well, albeit the simulated relations exhibit notably smaller scatter.

  14. Sustained mass loss of the northeast Greenland ice sheet triggered by regional warming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Kjaer, Kurt H.; Bevis, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The Greenland ice sheet has been one of the largest contributors to global sea-level rise over the past 20 years, accounting for 0.5 mm yr(-1) of a total of 3.2 mm yr(-1). A significant portion of this contribution is associated with the speed-up of an increased number of glaciers in southeast...... and northwest Greenland. Here, we show that the northeast Greenland ice stream, which extends more than 600 km into the interior of the ice sheet, is now undergoing sustained dynamic thinning, linked to regional warming, after more than a quarter of a century of stability. This sector of the Greenland ice sheet...... is of particular interest, because the drainage basin area covers 16% of the ice sheet (twice that of Jakobshavn Isbrae) and numerical model predictions suggest no significant mass loss for this sector, leading to an under-estimation of future global sea-level rise. The geometry of the bedrock and monotonic trend...

  15. Correlation of total body potassium and leukemic cell mass in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, P.; Sawitsky, A.; Chanana, A.D.; Chikkappa, G.; Cohn, S.H.; Rai, K.R.; Cronkity, E.P.

    1979-01-01

    Total body leukemic mass in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) was measured by quantitation of total body potassium (TBK) with a whole-body counter. In addition, the predicted normal total body potassium (Kp) for each patient was calculated from an empirically derived relationship involving height, weight age, and sex. Both the absolute TBK and the relative excess of total body potassium (TBK/Kp) were related to the stage of disease. Patients in the early stages of CLL were found to have lower TBK and TBK/Kp than patients in the late stages of disease. Both of these parameters increased with the successively advanced stages of the disease. The clinically monitored reduction of leukemic cell mass following therapy was accompanied by reductions in TBK and TBK/Kp. Data presented support the notion that TBK/Kp is a useful indicator of the total body leukemic mass. Futhermore, the results of these studies quantitatively validate the proposed clinical staging system for CLL. Quantitation of TBK by a whole-body counter is an accurate and noninvasive procedure and does not require administration of isotopes

  16. HRR Upgrade to mass loss calorimeter and modified Schlyter test for FR Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Dietenberger; Charles R. Boardman

    2013-01-01

    Enhanced Heat Release Rate (HRR) methodology has been extended to the Mass Loss Calorimeter (MLC) and the Modified Schlyter flame spread test to evaluate fire retardant effectiveness used on wood based materials. Modifications to MLC include installation of thermopile on the chimney walls to correct systematic errors to the sensible HRR calculations to account for...

  17. Observations of mass loss from OB and Wolf-Rayet stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlow, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    In this review, three observationally accessible parameters of the winds of OB and Wolf-Rayet stars are discussed: (1) Terminal velocities, (2) Velocity laws, (3) Mass loss rates. In addition, some discussion of the ionisation structure of the winds is included. In general, only the most recent results for OB stars are mentioned. (Auth.)

  18. Core-powered mass-loss and the radius distribution of small exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginzburg, Sivan; Schlichting, Hilke E.; Sari, Re'em

    2018-05-01

    Recent observations identify a valley in the radius distribution of small exoplanets, with planets in the range 1.5-2.0 R⊕ significantly less common than somewhat smaller or larger planets. This valley may suggest a bimodal population of rocky planets that are either engulfed by massive gas envelopes that significantly enlarge their radius, or do not have detectable atmospheres at all. One explanation of such a bimodal distribution is atmospheric erosion by high-energy stellar photons. We investigate an alternative mechanism: the luminosity of the cooling rocky core, which can completely erode light envelopes while preserving heavy ones, produces a deficit of intermediate sized planets. We evolve planetary populations that are derived from observations using a simple analytical prescription, accounting self-consistently for envelope accretion, cooling and mass-loss, and demonstrate that core-powered mass-loss naturally reproduces the observed radius distribution, regardless of the high-energy incident flux. Observations of planets around different stellar types may distinguish between photoevaporation, which is powered by the high-energy tail of the stellar radiation, and core-powered mass-loss, which depends on the bolometric flux through the planet's equilibrium temperature that sets both its cooling and mass-loss rates.

  19. Mid-Pleistocene climate transition drives net mass loss from rapidly uplifting St. Elias mountains, Alaska

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gulick, S.P.S.; Jaeger, J.M.; Mix, A.C.; Asahi, H.; Bahlburg, H.; Belanger, C.L.; Berbel, G.B.B.; Childress, L.; Cowan, E.; Drab, L.; Forwick, M.; Fukumura, A.; Ge, S.; Gupta, S.M.; Kioka, A.; Konno, S.; LeVay, L.J.; Marz, C.; Matsuzaki, K.M.; McClymont, E.L.; Moy, C.; Muller, J.; Nakamura, A.; Ojima, T.; Ribeiro, F.R.; Ridgway, K.D.; Romero, O.E.; Slagle, A.L.; Stoner, J.S.; St-Onge, G.; Suto, I.; Walczak, M.D.; Worthington, L.L.; Bailey, I.; Enkelmann, E.; Reece, R.; Swartz, J.M.

    the onset of quasi-periodic (~100-ky) glacial cycles in the mid-Pleistocene climate transition (1.2–0.7 Ma). Since then, erosion and transport of material out of the orogen has outpaced tectonic influx by 50–80%. Such a rapid net mass loss explains apparent...

  20. AGB mass-loss variations: What can we learn from (sub)millimetre observations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dehaes, S.; Groenewegen, M.A.T.; Decin, L.; Hony, S.; Raskin, G.; Blommaert, J.A.D.L.

    2008-01-01

    It is generally acknowledged that the mass loss of Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars undergoes variations on different time scales. We address here the question of the influence of these variations on the spectral energy distribution (SED) of these sources. We therefore constructed models for the

  1. Mass loss of evolved massive stars: the circumstellar environment at high angular resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montarges, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Mass loss of evolved stars is still largely mysterious, despite its importance as the main evolution engine for the chemical composition of the interstellar medium. For red supergiants (RSG), the triggering of the outflow and the mechanism of dust condensation remain unknown. Concerning red giant stars, we still do not know how their mass loss is able to form a bipolar planetary nebula. During my PhD thesis, I observed evolved stars with high angular resolution techniques. They allowed us to study the surface and the close environment of these stars, from where mass loss originates. With near-infrared interferometric observations, I characterized the water vapor and carbon monoxide envelope of the nearby RSG Betelgeuse. I also monitored a hot spot on its surface and analyzed the structure of its convection, as well as that of Antares (another very nearby supergiant) thanks to radiative hydrodynamical simulations. Diffraction-limited imaging techniques (near-infrared adaptive optics, ultraviolet space telescope) allowed me to observe the evolution of inhomogeneities in the circumstellar envelope of Betelgeuse and to discover a circumstellar disk around L2 Puppis, an asymptotic giant branch star. These multi-scale and multi-wavelength observations obtained at several epochs allowed us to monitor the evolution of the structures and to derive information on the dynamics of the stellar environment. With a wider stellar sample expected in the next few years, this observing program will allow a better understanding of the mass loss of evolved stars. (author)

  2. Postoperative loss of skeletal muscle mass, complications and quality of life in patients undergoing cardiac surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Venrooij, Lenny M. W.; Verberne, Hein J.; de Vos, Rien; Borgmeijer-Hoelen, Mieke M. M. J.; van Leeuwen, Paul A. M.; de Mol, Bas A. J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to describe postoperative undernutrition in terms of postoperative losses of appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASMM) with respect to complications, quality of life, readmission, and 1-y mortality after cardiac surgery. Methods: Patients undergoing cardiac

  3. The influence of loss and gain of body mass on ovarian activity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ovarian activity was studied in 36 dry, Bos taurus cows fed to achieve different rates of body mass loss and gain in a 2 x 2 factorial experiment. Cows were fed hay to supply either 70% (Treatments 1, 2) or 40% (Treatments. 3,4) of their ME requirements for maintenance until they became anoestrus. Following a 90-day ...

  4. Growth hormone mitigates loss of periosteal bone formation and muscle mass in disuse osteopenic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubbe, M-C; Thomsen, J S; Nyengaard, J R; Duruox, M; Brüel, A

    2014-12-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is a potent anabolic agent capable of increasing both bone and muscle mass. The aim was to investigate whether GH could counteract disuse-induced loss of bone and muscle mass in a rat model. Paralysis was induced by injecting 4 IU Botox (BTX) into the muscles of the right hind limb. Sixty female Wistar rats, 14 weeks old, were divided into the following groups: baseline, controls, BTX, BTX+GH, and GH. GH was given at a dosage of 5 mg/kg/d for 4 weeks. Compared with controls, BTX resulted in lower periosteal bone formation rate (BFR/BS,-79%, Pbone mineral density (aBMD, -13%, Pbone volume (BV/TV, -26%, Pbone strength (-12%, Pbone strength was found. In addition, GH partly prevented loss of muscle mass (+29% vs. BTX, P<0.001), and tended to prevent loss of muscle CSA (+11%, P=0.064). In conclusion, GH mitigates disuse-induced loss of periosteal BFR/BS at the mid-femur and rectus femoris muscle mass.

  5. Mass loss by stars at the stage of the asymptotic giant branch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frantsman, Y.L.

    1986-01-01

    For a given initial stellar mass function, star formation function, and initial chemical composition, distributions have been constructed for stars of the asymptotic giant branch by luminosity, and for white dwarfs by mass, by calculating the approximate evolution of a large number of stars. Variants are calculated with different assumptions about the mass loss in the asymptotic branch. Theory can be reconciled with observation only if it is assumed that at this stage there is also a still large mass loss in addition to the stellar wind and the ejection of a planetary nebula shell. This provides the explanation for the absence in the Magellanic clouds of carbon stars with M /sub bol/ 1.0M /sub ./. The degenerate carbon-oxygen nuclei of stars evolving along the asymptotic giant branch cannot attain the Chandrasekhar limit on account of the great mass loss by the stars. The luminosity of stars of the asymptotic giant branch in the globular clusters of the Magellanic Clouds is a good indicator of the age of the clusters

  6. Evidence for mass loss at moderate to high velocity in Be stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, T. P., Jr.; Marlborough, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    Ultraviolet spectra of intermediate resolution have been obtained with Copernicus for 12 objects classified as Be or shell stars and for 19 additional early B dwarfs. Some of these spectra show marked asymmetries in certain resonance lines, especially the Si IV doublet at 1400 A, indicating the presence in some cases of outflowing material with maximum velocities of nearly 1000 km/s. Direct evidence for mass loss at these velocities is seen for the first time in dwarf stars as late as B1.5; the only objects later than B0.5 which show this effect are Be or shell stars. Among the stars considered, there is a correlation between the presence of mass-loss effects and projected rotational velocity, suggesting that the ultraviolet flux from B1-B2 dwarfs is sufficient to drive high-velocity stellar winds only if rotational effects reduce the effective gravity near the equator. The mass-loss rate for one of the most active Be stars, 59 Cyg, is crudely estimated to be one billionth or one ten-billionth of a solar mass per year. The data suggest that the extended atmospheres associated with Be-star phenomena may be formed by mass ejection.

  7. Accelerated ice-sheet mass loss in Antarctica from 18-year satellite laser ranging measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuanggen Jin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Accurate estimate of the ice-sheet mass balance in Antarctic is very difficult due to complex ice sheet condition and sparse in situ measurements. In this paper, the low-degree gravity field coefficients of up to degree and order 5 derived from Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR measurements are used to determine the ice mass variations in Antarctica for the period 1993–2011. Results show that the ice mass is losing with -36±13 Gt/y in Antarctica, -42±11 Gt/y in the West Antarctica and 6±10 Gt/y in the East Antarctica from 1993 to 2011. The ice mass variations from the SLR 5×5 have a good agreement with the GRACE 5×5, GRACE 5×5 (1&2 and GRACE (60×60 for the entire continent since 2003, but degree 5 from SLR is not sufficient to quantify ice losses in West and East Antarctica, respectively. The rate of ice loss in Antarctica is -28±17 Gt/y for 1993-2002 and -55±17 Gt/y for 2003-2011, indicating significant accelerated ice mass losses since 2003. Furthermore, the results from SLR are comparable with GRACE measurements.

  8. DUST PRODUCTION AND MASS LOSS IN THE GALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTER 47 TUCANAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, I.; Zijlstra, A. A.; Boyer, M. L.; Van Loon, J. Th.

    2011-01-01

    Dust production among post-main-sequence stars is investigated in the Galactic globular cluster 47 Tucanae (NGC 104) based on infrared photometry and spectroscopy. We identify metallic iron grains as the probable dominant opacity source in these winds. Typical evolutionary timescales of asymptotic giant branch stars suggest the mass-loss rates we report are too high. We suggest that this is because the iron grains are small or elongated and/or that iron condenses more efficiently than at solar metallicity. Comparison to other works suggests metallic iron is observed to be more prevalent toward lower metallicities. The reasons for this are explored, but remain unclear. Meanwhile, the luminosity at which dusty mass loss begins is largely invariant with metallicity, but its presence correlates strongly with long-period variability. This suggests that the winds of low-mass stars have a significant driver that is not radiation pressure, but may be acoustic driving by pulsations.

  9. The Colorado Ultraviolet Transit Experiment (CUTE): Observing Mass Loss on Short-Period Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Arika; Fleming, Brian; France, Kevin

    2018-06-01

    The Colorado Ultraviolet Transit Experiment (CUTE) is an NUV spectrograph packaged into a 6U CubeSat, designed to characterize the interaction between exoplanetary atmospheres and their host stars. CUTE will conduct a transit spectroscopy survey, gathering data over multiple transits on more than 12 short-period exoplanets with a range of masses and radii. The instrument will characterize the spectral properties of the transit light curves to atomic and molecular absorption features predicted to exist in the upper atmospheres of these planets, including Mg I, Mg II, Fe II, and OH. The shape and evolution of these spectral light curves will be used to quantify mass loss rates, the stellar drives of that mass loss, and the possible existence of exoplanetary magnetic fiends. This poster presents the science motivation for CUTE, planned observation and data analysis methods, and expected results.

  10. Explaining individual variation in patterns of mass loss in breeding birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuthill Innes C

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies of birds have a disproportionate representation in the literature on life-history evolution, because of the (apparent ease with which the costs and benefits can be quantified and manipulated. During reproduction, birds frequently show a highly conserved pattern of mass change and changes in mass loss during breeding have been widely considered to be a valid short-term measure of the costs of reproduction. Experimental manipulations of the breeding attempts of birds usually argue that the presence of a response shows that a cost of reproduction exists, but there is little consensus as to how the size of these costs can be measured. Results We model this mass loss by considering how a parent can maximise its lifetime reproductive success, using a theoretical framework that is particularly suited to modelling parental care in altricial birds. If lifetime reproductive success is taken to be the sum of a parent's current and future reproductive success, we show that the exact forms of these components will influence the optimal amount of mass a parent should lose. In particular, we demonstrate that the shape of the relationship between parental investment and chick survival will lead to differing degrees of investment between parents of different initial qualities: parents with initially high levels of energy reserves could conceivably invested a lesser, similar or greater amount of resources than parents with initially low reserves, and these initially 'heavy' parents could potentially end up being lighter than the initially 'lighter' individuals. Conclusion We argue that it is difficult to make predictions about the dependence of a parent's final mass on its initial mass, and therefore mass loss should only be used as a short-term measure of the costs of reproduction with caution. The model demonstrates that we require a better understanding of the relationship between mass loss and both current and future reproductive

  11. Comparision of blood loss between computer assisted and conventional total knee arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paras Kumar Mohanlal

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: These results suggest that there is no significant difference in blood loss in CAS TKA and conventional TKA. This study also highlights the heterogeneity of methods used in studies related to CAS TKA. We believe that there is a need for a large multicenter prospective randomized controlled trial to be performed before a consensus can be reached on the influence of CAS techniques on blood loss during primary TKA.

  12. Greenland Ice Sheet Mass Balance: Distribution of Increased Mass Loss with Climate Warming; 2003-07 Versus 1992-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwally, H. Jay; Li, Jun; Benner, Anita C.; Beckley, Matthew; Cornejo, Helen G.; DiMarzio, John; Giovinetto, Mario B.; Neumann, Thomas A.; Robbins, John; Saba, Jack L.; hide

    2011-01-01

    We derive mass changes of the Greenland ice sheet (GIS) for 2003-07 from ICESat laser altimetry and compare them with results for 1992-2002 from ERS radar and airborne laser altimetry. The GIS continued to grow inland and thin at the margins during 2003 07, but surface melting and accelerated flow significantly increased the marginal thinning compared with the 1990s. The net balance changed from a small loss of 7 plus or minus 3 Gt a 1(sup -1) in the 1990s to 171 plus or minus 4 Gt a (sup -1) for 2003-07, contributing 0.5 mm a(sup -1) to recent global sea-level rise. We divide the derived mass changes into two components: (1) from changes in melting and ice dynamics and (2) from changes in precipitation and accumulation rate. We use our firn compaction model to calculate the elevation changes driven by changes in both temperature and accumulation rate and to calculate the appropriate density to convert the accumulation-driven changes to mass changes. Increased losses from melting and ice dynamics (17-206 Gt a(sup-1) are over seven times larger than increased gains from precipitation (10 35 Gt a(sup-1) during a warming period of approximately 2 K (10 a)(sup -1) over the GIS. Above 2000m elevation, the rate of gain decreased from 44 to 28 Gt a(sup-1), while below 2000m the rate of loss increased from 51 to 198 Gt a(sup-1). Enhanced thinning below the equilibrium line on outlet glaciers indicates that increased melting has a significant impact on outlet glaciers, as well as accelerating ice flow. Increased thinning at higher elevations appears to be induced by dynamic coupling to thinning at the margins on decadal timescales.

  13. Evidence for mass loss at moderate to high velocity in Be stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snow, T.P. Jr.; Marlborough, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    Ultraviolet spectra of intermediate resolution have been obtained with Copernicus of 12 objects classified as Be or shell stars, and 19 additional early B dwarfs. Some of these spectra show marked asymmetries in certain resonance lines, especially the Si iv doublet at 1400 A, indicating the presence in some cases of outflowing material with maximum velocities of nearly 1000 km s -1 . Direct evidence for mass loss at these velocities is seen for the first time in dwarf stars as late as B1.5; the only objects later than B0.5 which show this effect are Be or shell stars. Among the stars considered there is a correlation between the presence of mass-loss effects and projected rotational velocity, suggesting that the ultraviolet flux from B1-B2 dwarfs is sufficient to drive high-velocity stellar winds only if rotation effects reduce the effective gravity near the equator. The mass loss rate for one of the most active Be stars, 59 Cyg, is crudely estimated to be 10 -10 --10 -9 M/sub sun/ yr -1 . The data are suggestive that the extended atmospheres associated with Be star phenomena may be formed by mass ejection

  14. Winter reduction in body mass in a very small, nonhibernating mammal: consequences for heat loss and metabolic rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jan R E; Rychlik, Leszek; Churchfield, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Low temperatures in northern winters are energetically challenging for mammals, and a special energetic burden is expected for diminutive species like shrews, which are among the smallest of mammals. Surprisingly, shrews shrink their body size in winter and reduce body and brain mass, an effect known as Dehnel's phenomenon, which is suggested to lower absolute energy intake requirements and thereby enhance survival when food availability is low. Yet reduced body size coupled with higher body-surface-to-mass ratio in these tiny mammals may result in thermoregulatory heat production at a given temperature constituting a larger proportion of the total energy expenditure. To evaluate energetic consequences of reduced body size in winter, we investigated common shrews Sorex araneus in northeastern Poland. Average body mass decreased by 19.0% from summer to winter, and mean skull depth decreased by 13.1%. There was no difference in Dehnel's phenomenon between years despite different weather conditions. The whole-animal thermal conductance (proportional to absolute heat loss) in shrews was 19% lower in winter than in summer; the difference between the two seasons remained significant after correcting for body mass and was caused by improved fur insulation in winter. Thermogenic capacity of shrews, although much enhanced in winter, did not reach its full potential of increase, and this corresponded with relatively mild subnivean temperatures. These findings indicate that, despite their small body size, shrews effectively decrease their costs of thermoregulation. The recorded decrease in body mass from summer to winter resulted in a reduction of overall resting metabolic rate (in thermoneutrality) by 18%. This, combined with the reduced heat loss, should translate to food requirements that are substantially lower than would be the case if shrews did not undergo seasonal decrease in body mass.

  15. Sharply increased mass loss from glaciers and ice caps in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Alex S; Moholdt, Geir; Wouters, Bert; Wolken, Gabriel J; Burgess, David O; Sharp, Martin J; Cogley, J Graham; Braun, Carsten; Labine, Claude

    2011-05-19

    Mountain glaciers and ice caps are contributing significantly to present rates of sea level rise and will continue to do so over the next century and beyond. The Canadian Arctic Archipelago, located off the northwestern shore of Greenland, contains one-third of the global volume of land ice outside the ice sheets, but its contribution to sea-level change remains largely unknown. Here we show that the Canadian Arctic Archipelago has recently lost 61 ± 7 gigatonnes per year (Gt yr(-1)) of ice, contributing 0.17 ± 0.02 mm yr(-1) to sea-level rise. Our estimates are of regional mass changes for the ice caps and glaciers of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago referring to the years 2004 to 2009 and are based on three independent approaches: surface mass-budget modelling plus an estimate of ice discharge (SMB+D), repeat satellite laser altimetry (ICESat) and repeat satellite gravimetry (GRACE). All three approaches show consistent and large mass-loss estimates. Between the periods 2004-2006 and 2007-2009, the rate of mass loss sharply increased from 31 ± 8 Gt yr(-1) to 92 ± 12 Gt yr(-1) in direct response to warmer summer temperatures, to which rates of ice loss are highly sensitive (64 ± 14 Gt yr(-1) per 1 K increase). The duration of the study is too short to establish a long-term trend, but for 2007-2009, the increase in the rate of mass loss makes the Canadian Arctic Archipelago the single largest contributor to eustatic sea-level rise outside Greenland and Antarctica.

  16. Total and Lower Extremity Lean Mass Percentage Positively Correlates With Jump Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Mitchell L; Smith, Derek T; Heinbaugh, Erika M; Moynes, Rebecca C; Rockey, Shawn S; Thomas, Joi J; Dai, Boyi

    2015-08-01

    Strength and power have been identified as valuable components in both athletic performance and daily function. A major component of strength and power is the muscle mass, which can be assessed with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The primary purpose of this study was to quantify the relationship between total body lean mass percentage (TBLM%) and lower extremity lean mass percentage (LELM%) and lower extremity force/power production during a countermovement jump (CMJ) in a general population. Researchers performed a DXA analysis on 40 younger participants aged 18-35 years, 28 middle-aged participants aged 36-55 years, and 34 older participants aged 56-75 years. Participants performed 3 CMJ on force platforms. Correlations revealed significant and strong relationships between TBLM% and LELM% compared with CMJ normalized peak vertical ground reaction force (p lean mass percentages. The findings have implications in including DXA-assessed lean mass percentage as a component for evaluating lower extremity strength and power. A paired DXA analysis and CMJ jump test may be useful for identifying neuromuscular deficits that limit performance.

  17. Limited influence of climate change mitigation on short-term glacier mass loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzeion, Ben; Kaser, Georg; Maussion, Fabien; Champollion, Nicolas

    2018-04-01

    Glacier mass loss is a key contributor to sea-level change1,2, slope instability in high-mountain regions3,4 and the changing seasonality and volume of river flow5-7. Understanding the causes, mechanisms and time scales of glacier change is therefore paramount to identifying successful strategies for mitigation and adaptation. Here, we use temperature and precipitation fields from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 output to force a glacier evolution model, quantifying mass responses to future climatic change. We find that contemporary glacier mass is in disequilibrium with the current climate, and 36 ± 8% mass loss is already committed in response to past greenhouse gas emissions. Consequently, mitigating future emissions will have only very limited influence on glacier mass change in the twenty-first century. No significant differences between 1.5 and 2 K warming scenarios are detectable in the sea-level contribution of glaciers accumulated within the twenty-first century. In the long-term, however, mitigation will exert strong control, suggesting that ambitious measures are necessary for the long-term preservation of glaciers.

  18. [Total dream loss secondary to left temporo-occipital brain injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poza, J J; Martí Massó, J F

    2006-04-01

    Recently the case of a woman who reported cessation of dreaming after a bilateral PCA stroke but without REM sleep loss has been reported, suggesting that deep bilateral occipital lobe damage including the right inferior lingual gyrus may represent the "minimal lesion extension" necessary for dream loss. We report the case of a 24-year-old man who ceased dreaming after a unilateral left temporo- occipital hematoma. The polysomnographic characteristics in rapid eyes movements (REM) sleep were otherwise normal. Our patient demonstrates that a unilateral left temporo-occipital injury could be sufficient for losing dreams.

  19. THE TRANSITION MASS-LOSS RATE: CALIBRATING THE ROLE OF LINE-DRIVEN WINDS IN MASSIVE STAR EVOLUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vink, Jorick S.; Graefener, Goetz, E-mail: jsv@arm.ac.uk [Armagh Observatory, College Hill, BT61 9DG Armagh (United Kingdom)

    2012-06-01

    A debate has arisen regarding the importance of stationary versus eruptive mass loss for massive star evolution. The reason is that stellar winds have been found to be clumped, which results in the reduction of unclumped empirical mass-loss rates. Most stellar evolution models employ theoretical mass-loss rates which are already reduced by a moderate factor of {approx_equal}2-3 compared to non-corrected empirical rates. A key question is whether these reduced rates are of the correct order of magnitude, or if they should be reduced even further, which would mean that the alternative of eruptive mass loss becomes necessary. Here we introduce the transition mass-loss rate M-dot{sub trans} between O and Wolf-Rayet stars. Its novelty is that it is model independent. All that is required is postulating the spectroscopic transition point in a given data set, and determining the stellar luminosity, which is far less model dependent than the mass-loss rate. The transition mass-loss rate is subsequently used to calibrate stellar wind strength by its application to the Of/WNh stars in the Arches cluster. Good agreement is found with two alternative modeling/theoretical results, suggesting that the rates provided by current theoretical models are of the right order of magnitude in the {approx}50 M{sub Sun} mass range. Our results do not confirm the specific need for eruptive mass loss as luminous blue variables, and current stellar evolution modeling for Galactic massive stars seems sound. Mass loss through alternative mechanisms might still become necessary at lower masses, and/or metallicities, and the quantification of alternative mass loss is desirable.

  20. THE TRANSITION MASS-LOSS RATE: CALIBRATING THE ROLE OF LINE-DRIVEN WINDS IN MASSIVE STAR EVOLUTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vink, Jorick S.; Gräfener, Götz

    2012-01-01

    A debate has arisen regarding the importance of stationary versus eruptive mass loss for massive star evolution. The reason is that stellar winds have been found to be clumped, which results in the reduction of unclumped empirical mass-loss rates. Most stellar evolution models employ theoretical mass-loss rates which are already reduced by a moderate factor of ≅2-3 compared to non-corrected empirical rates. A key question is whether these reduced rates are of the correct order of magnitude, or if they should be reduced even further, which would mean that the alternative of eruptive mass loss becomes necessary. Here we introduce the transition mass-loss rate M-dot trans between O and Wolf-Rayet stars. Its novelty is that it is model independent. All that is required is postulating the spectroscopic transition point in a given data set, and determining the stellar luminosity, which is far less model dependent than the mass-loss rate. The transition mass-loss rate is subsequently used to calibrate stellar wind strength by its application to the Of/WNh stars in the Arches cluster. Good agreement is found with two alternative modeling/theoretical results, suggesting that the rates provided by current theoretical models are of the right order of magnitude in the ∼50 M ☉ mass range. Our results do not confirm the specific need for eruptive mass loss as luminous blue variables, and current stellar evolution modeling for Galactic massive stars seems sound. Mass loss through alternative mechanisms might still become necessary at lower masses, and/or metallicities, and the quantification of alternative mass loss is desirable.

  1. Mass loss and asymmetries in the lines of Iota Coronae Borealis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapp, A.H.

    1976-01-01

    Recent observations by Smith and Parsons of the Hg--Mn star iota CrB have revealed slight asymmetries in the absorption lines. While these asymmetries are near the limits of detection at the resolution used, their appearance in several lines indicates that they are real. Proposed explanations of this phenomenon are not completely satisfactory. In this Letter it will be shown that the asymmetries are consistent with an accelerating radial flow of material in the photosphere of this star. The velocity needed to reproduce the observed asymmetry corresponds to a mass loss rate of roughly 10 -7 M/sub solar mass/ yr -1

  2. Evolutionary calculations for planetary nebula nuclei with continuing mass loss and realistic starting conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faulkner, D.J.; Wood, P.R.

    1984-01-01

    Evolutionary calculations for nuclei of planetary nebulae are described. They were made using assumptions regarding mass of the NPN, phase in the He shell flash cycle at which the NPN leaves the AGB, and time variation of the mass loss rate. Comparison of the evolutionary tracks with the observational Harman-Seaton sequence indicates that some recently published NPN luminosities may be too low by a factor of three. Comparison of the calculated timescales with the observed properties of NPN and of white dwarfs provides marginal evidence for the PN ejection being initiated by the helium shell flash itself

  3. Is intraarticular administration of tranexamic acid better than its intravenous administration in reducing blood loss after total knee arthroplasty?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameet Pispati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: It has been well-established now that intravenous (IV tranexamic acid (TXA is a potent agent to control postoperative blood loss following total knee arthroplasty (TKA. Recently, intraarticular administration of this agent has also shown good efficacy for the same. Aims: Comparison of postoperative blood loss between IV and topical administration of TXA in TKAs. Materials and Design: Eighty-six TKAs on knees were included in this study. Randomization was done so that 40 TKA received 1 g of IV TXA, while 46 had intraarticular administration of 1 g TXA. Subjets and Methods: We compared the postoperative blood loss by calculating the difference in pre- and postop hemoglobin and need for blood transfusion. Functional assessment was done on basis of Western Ontario McMaster Osteo-Arthritis Index (WOMAC scores and complications like postoperative infection, oozing from the wound site and thromboembolic manifestations. Results: Blood loss was significantly less in the intraarticular administration group as compared to the IV injection group. Total blood loss, blood transfusion group, and drain output was also less but the difference was not significant. The functional assessment (WOMAC scores were equivocal and so were the complications including thromboembolic manifestations (two cases each of deep vein thrombosis (DVT and no cases of pulmonary embolism (PE. Conclusion: Intraarticular administration of TXA to prevent postoperative blood loss in TKA is a safe and effective alternative/adjunct to its IV administration.

  4. Impact of energy loss index on left ventricular mass regression after aortic valve replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Terumasa; Okura, Hiroyuki; Kume, Teruyoshi; Fukuhara, Kenzo; Imai, Koichiro; Hayashida, Akihiro; Neishi, Yoji; Kawamoto, Takahiro; Tanemoto, Kazuo; Yoshida, Kiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the energy loss index (ELI) has been proposed as a new functional index to assess the severity of aortic stenosis (AS). The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the ELI on left ventricular mass (LVM) regression in patients after aortic valve replacement (AVR) with mechanical valves. A total of 30 patients with severe AS who underwent AVR with mechanical valves was studied. Echocardiography was performed to measure the LVM before AVR (pre-LVM) (n = 30) and repeated 12 months later (post-LVM) (n = 19). The ELI was calculated as [effective orifice area (EOA) × aortic cross sectional area]/(aortic cross sectional area - EOA) divided by the body surface area. The LVM regression rate (%) was calculated as 100 × (post-LVM - pre-LVM)/(pre-LVM). A cardiac event was defined as a composite of cardiac death and heart failure requiring hospitalization. LVM regressed significantly (245.1 ± 84.3 to 173.4 ± 62.6 g, P regression rate negatively correlated with the ELI (R = -0.67, P regression rates (area under the curve = 0.825; P = 0.030). Patients with ELI regression after AVR with mechanical valves. Whether the ELI is a stronger predictor of clinical events than EOAI is still unclear, and further large-scale study is necessary to elucidate the clinical impact of the ELI in patients with AVR.

  5. Loss of mass and performance in skeletal muscle tissue: a continuum model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giantesio Giulia

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a continuum hyperelastic model which describes the mechanical response of a skeletal muscle tissue when its strength and mass are reduced by aging. Such a reduction is typical of a geriatric syndrome called sarcopenia. The passive behavior of the material is described by a hyperelastic, polyconvex, transversely isotropic strain energy function, and the activation of the muscle is modeled by the so called active strain approach. The loss of ability of activating of an elder muscle is then obtained by lowering of some percentage the active part of the stress, while the loss of mass is modeled through a multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient. The obtained stress-strain relations are graphically represented and discussed in order to study some of the effects of sarcopenia.

  6. Effect of mass loss on the chemical yields from massive stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiosi, C; Caimmi, R [Padua Univ. (Italy). Istituto di Astronomia

    1979-01-01

    Recent results on the calculation of the chemical yields from massive stars, are rediscussed by taking into account the occurrence of mass loss by stellar wind during the core H- and He-burning phases. The new yields are found to be compatible with the observed distribution of chemical abundances in the solar system, except for He. The net enrichment of several elements over the galaxy's lifetime is found to be consistent with the current estimate of the star formation rate, if we adopt a two phase process of galaxy formation (halodisk). The relative He to heavy element enrichment rate ..delta..Y/..delta..Z turns out to agree with the observational value when mass loss by stellar wind is taken into account.

  7. Reverse total shoulder glenoid baseplate stability with superior glenoid bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Elise J; Duquin, Thomas R; Ehrensberger, Mark T

    2017-10-01

    Superior wear of the glenoid bone is common in patients with rotator cuff arthropathy. This can become a treatment challenge for patients who require shoulder arthroplasty. In reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA), glenoid bone loss may affect the stability of baseplate fixation. The primary purpose of this biomechanical laboratory study was to assess the initial fixation stability of RSA glenosphere baseplates in the presence of variable amounts of superior glenoid bone loss. High-density solid rigid polyurethane foam (30 pounds/cubic foot) was machined to model the glenoid with variable superior defects that provided different levels of support (100%, 90%, 75%, and 50%) for the glenosphere baseplate. The samples were cyclically loaded (0-750 N at 1 Hz for 5000 cycles) at a 60° glenohumeral angle. The micromotion and migration of the baseplate were calculated from displacement data captured during the loading tests with an array of 3 linear variable differential transformers mounted around the baseplate. Micromotion was significantly greater in samples with 50% defects compared with those with smaller defects. Migration was significantly greater after testing for all defect sizes. Initial fixation of RSA glenosphere baseplates was significantly reduced in models with 50% bone loss on the superior edge compared with models with less bone loss in this high-density bone foam model. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Computational Modelling of the Structural Integrity following Mass-Loss in Polymeric Charred Cellular Solids

    OpenAIRE

    J. P. M. Whitty; J. Francis; J. Howe; B. Henderson

    2014-01-01

    A novel computational technique is presented for embedding mass-loss due to burning into the ANSYS finite element modelling code. The approaches employ a range of computational modelling methods in order to provide more complete theoretical treatment of thermoelasticity absent from the literature for over six decades. Techniques are employed to evaluate structural integrity (namely, elastic moduli, Poisson’s ratios, and compressive brittle strength) of honeycomb systems known to approximate t...

  9. Model atmospheres with periodic shocks. [pulsations and mass loss in variable stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, G. H.

    1989-01-01

    The pulsation of a long-period variable star generates shock waves which dramatically affect the structure of the star's atmosphere and produce conditions that lead to rapid mass loss. Numerical modeling of atmospheres with periodic shocks is being pursued to study the processes involved and the evolutionary consequences for the stars. It is characteristic of these complex dynamical systems that most effects result from the interaction of various time-dependent processes.

  10. Fire spread in chaparral: comparison of data with flame-mass loss relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    David R. Weise; Thomas H. Fletcher; Shankar Mahalingam; Xiangyang Zhou; Lulu Sun

    2017-01-01

    The relationships between flame length, mass loss rate, and the Froude number have become well-established for many different fuels over the past 60 years. Chaparral, a mixture of shrub plants from the Mediterranean climate zone of southwestern North America, represents a fuel type—living plants—that has seldom been included in the development of these relationships....

  11. Effect of rotational mixing and metallicity on the hot star wind mass-loss rates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krtička, J.; Kubát, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 567, July (2014), A63/1-A63/7 ISSN 0004-6361 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-10589S Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) LM2010005 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : stars: winds * outflows * stars: mass-loss Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.378, year: 2014

  12. The longitudinal trajectory of post-surgical % total weight loss among middle-aged women who had undergone bariatric surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Chul Seo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Middle-aged women are at a higher risk of being obese. We examined the trajectory of post-surgical % total weight loss (%TWL among middle-aged female bariatric patients. We fitted sequential generalized estimating equations models to analyze a sample of women who received bariatric surgery in 1995–2012, aged 40–65 years at the time of surgery (N = 158,292 whose pre-operative body mass index (BMI was ≥30 kg/m2 in the Bariatric Outcomes Longitudinal Database. The %TWL computed by 100% × (pre-surgery BMI − post-surgery BMI / pre-surgery BMI showed different trajectories depending on type of surgery. For gastric banding, %TWL increased rapidly right after bariatric surgery and started to decrease around 1 year after surgery. For Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB and sleeve gastrectomy, %TWL overall did not show remarkable changes from around 1 year after surgery. The highest increase in %TWL was observed in patients whose pre-operative BMI was 40 or higher and those who had undergone RYGB (ps < 0.001. Whereas the trajectories of %TWL among patients with sleeve gastrectomy and gastric banding did not differ much between different pre-operative BMI groups, the trajectories for RYGB were notably different between different pre-operative BMI groups (ps < 0.001. Middle-aged female bariatric patients are likely to achieve the highest %TWL if they receive RYGB and if their pre-operative BMI is 40 or higher. Further research is warranted to corroborate the present study's finding on the long-term effect of different types of bariatric surgery on %TWL among middle-aged women.

  13. Application of the integrated analysis of safety (ISA) to sequences of Total loss of feed water in a PWR Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno Chamorro, P.; Gallego Diaz, C.

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this work is to show the current status of the implementation of integrated analysis of safety (ISA) methodology and its SCAIS associated tool (system of simulation codes for ISA) to the sequence analysis of total loss of feedwater in a PWR reactor model Westinghouse of three loops with large, dry containment.

  14. Using Vertical Structure to Infer the Total Mass Hidden in a Debris Disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Cail; Hughes, A. Meredith; Carter, Evan; Flaherty, Kevin; Stafford Lambros, Zachary; Pan, Margaret; Schlichting, Hilke; Chiang, Eugene; Wilner, David; Dent, Bill; Carpenter, John; Andrews, Sean; MacGregor, Meredith Ann; Moor, Attila; Kospal, Agnes

    2018-01-01

    Disks of optically thin debris dust surround ≥ 20% of main sequence stars and mark the final stage of planetary system evolution. The features of debris disks encode dynamical interactions between the dust and any unseen planets embedded in the disk. The vertical distribution of the dust is particularly sensitive to the total mass of planetesimal bodies in the disk, and is therefore well suited for constraining the prevalence of otherwise unobservable Uranus and Neptune analogs. Inferences of mass from debris disk vertical structure have previously been applied to infrared and optical observations of several systems, but the smaller particles traced by short-wavelength observations are ‘puffed up’ by radiation pressure, yielding only upper limits on the total embedded mass. The large grains that dominate the emission at millimeter wavelengths are essentially impervious to the effects of stellar radiation, and therefore trace the underlying mass distribution more directly. Here we present 1.3mm dust continuum observations of the debris disk around the nearby M star AU Mic with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). The 3 au spatial resolution of the observations, combined with the favorable edge-on geometry of the system, allows us to measure the vertical structure of a debris disk at millimeter wavelengths for the first time. We analyze the data using a ray-tracing code that translates a 2-D density and temperature structure into a model sky image of the disk. This model image is then compared directly to the interferometric data in the visibility domain, and the model parameters are explored using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo routine. We measure a scale height-to-radius ratio of 0.03, which we then compare to a theoretical model of steady-state, size-dependent velocity distributions in the collisional cascade to infer a total mass within the disk of ∼ 1.7 Earth masses. These measurements rule out the presence of a gas giant or Neptune

  15. Can a mathematical model predict an individual's trait-like response to both total and partial sleep loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Sridhar; Lu, Wei; Laxminarayan, Srinivas; Wesensten, Nancy J; Rupp, Tracy L; Balkin, Thomas J; Reifman, Jaques

    2015-06-01

    Humans display a trait-like response to sleep loss. However, it is not known whether this trait-like response can be captured by a mathematical model from only one sleep-loss condition to facilitate neurobehavioural performance prediction of the same individual during a different sleep-loss condition. In this paper, we investigated the extent to which the recently developed unified mathematical model of performance (UMP) captured such trait-like features for different sleep-loss conditions. We used the UMP to develop two sets of individual-specific models for 15 healthy adults who underwent two different sleep-loss challenges (order counterbalanced; separated by 2-4 weeks): (i) 64 h of total sleep deprivation (TSD) and (ii) chronic sleep restriction (CSR) of 7 days of 3 h nightly time in bed. We then quantified the extent to which models developed using psychomotor vigilance task data under TSD predicted performance data under CSR, and vice versa. The results showed that the models customized to an individual under one sleep-loss condition accurately predicted performance of the same individual under the other condition, yielding, on average, up to 50% improvement over non-individualized, group-average model predictions. This finding supports the notion that the UMP captures an individual's trait-like response to different sleep-loss conditions. © 2014 European Sleep Research Society.

  16. Comparison of the Heat Release Rate from the Mass Loss Calorimeter to the Cone Calorimeter for Wood-based Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura E. Hasburgh; Robert H. White; Mark A. Dietenberger; Charles R. Boardman

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing demand for material properties to be used as inputs in fi re behavior models designed to address building fire safety. This comparative study evaluates using the mass loss calorimeter as an alternative to the cone calorimeter for obtaining heat release rates of wood-based materials. For this study, a modified mass loss calorimeter utilized an...

  17. Loss of knee-extension strength is related to knee swelling after total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bente; Kristensen, Morten T; Bencke, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    To examine whether changes in knee-extension strength and functional performance are related to knee swelling after total knee arthroplasty (TKA).......To examine whether changes in knee-extension strength and functional performance are related to knee swelling after total knee arthroplasty (TKA)....

  18. Accelerated modern human–induced species losses: Entering the sixth mass extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Gerardo; Ehrlich, Paul R.; Barnosky, Anthony D.; García, Andrés; Pringle, Robert M.; Palmer, Todd M.

    2015-01-01

    The oft-repeated claim that Earth’s biota is entering a sixth “mass extinction” depends on clearly demonstrating that current extinction rates are far above the “background” rates prevailing between the five previous mass extinctions. Earlier estimates of extinction rates have been criticized for using assumptions that might overestimate the severity of the extinction crisis. We assess, using extremely conservative assumptions, whether human activities are causing a mass extinction. First, we use a recent estimate of a background rate of 2 mammal extinctions per 10,000 species per 100 years (that is, 2 E/MSY), which is twice as high as widely used previous estimates. We then compare this rate with the current rate of mammal and vertebrate extinctions. The latter is conservatively low because listing a species as extinct requires meeting stringent criteria. Even under our assumptions, which would tend to minimize evidence of an incipient mass extinction, the average rate of vertebrate species loss over the last century is up to 100 times higher than the background rate. Under the 2 E/MSY background rate, the number of species that have gone extinct in the last century would have taken, depending on the vertebrate taxon, between 800 and 10,000 years to disappear. These estimates reveal an exceptionally rapid loss of biodiversity over the last few centuries, indicating that a sixth mass extinction is already under way. Averting a dramatic decay of biodiversity and the subsequent loss of ecosystem services is still possible through intensified conservation efforts, but that window of opportunity is rapidly closing. PMID:26601195

  19. Accelerated modern human-induced species losses: Entering the sixth mass extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Gerardo; Ehrlich, Paul R; Barnosky, Anthony D; García, Andrés; Pringle, Robert M; Palmer, Todd M

    2015-06-01

    The oft-repeated claim that Earth's biota is entering a sixth "mass extinction" depends on clearly demonstrating that current extinction rates are far above the "background" rates prevailing between the five previous mass extinctions. Earlier estimates of extinction rates have been criticized for using assumptions that might overestimate the severity of the extinction crisis. We assess, using extremely conservative assumptions, whether human activities are causing a mass extinction. First, we use a recent estimate of a background rate of 2 mammal extinctions per 10,000 species per 100 years (that is, 2 E/MSY), which is twice as high as widely used previous estimates. We then compare this rate with the current rate of mammal and vertebrate extinctions. The latter is conservatively low because listing a species as extinct requires meeting stringent criteria. Even under our assumptions, which would tend to minimize evidence of an incipient mass extinction, the average rate of vertebrate species loss over the last century is up to 100 times higher than the background rate. Under the 2 E/MSY background rate, the number of species that have gone extinct in the last century would have taken, depending on the vertebrate taxon, between 800 and 10,000 years to disappear. These estimates reveal an exceptionally rapid loss of biodiversity over the last few centuries, indicating that a sixth mass extinction is already under way. Averting a dramatic decay of biodiversity and the subsequent loss of ecosystem services is still possible through intensified conservation efforts, but that window of opportunity is rapidly closing.

  20. Predicting Factors for Allogeneic Blood Transfusion and Excessive Postoperative Blood Loss after Single Low-Dosage Intra-Articular Tranexamic Acid Application in Total Knee Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paphon Sa-ngasoongsong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recently, intra-articular tranexamic acid (IA-TXA application has become a popular method for perioperative blood loss (PBL reduction in total knee replacement (TKR. Nevertheless, through our knowledge, no previous studies had shown the correlation perioperative factors and the risk of excessive PBL or need of blood transfusion (BT after IA-TXA. Materials and Methods. A retrospective study was conducted in patients underwent 299 primary TKRs, using IA-TXA, during 2-year period (2013-2014. Patient’s characteristic and perioperative data were reviewed and collected. PBL was measured as total hemoglobin loss (THL, estimated total blood loss (ETBL, and drainage volume per kg (DV/kg. Excessive PBL was defined as PBL that exceeded 90th percentile. Results. From multivariate analysis, low preoperative hemoglobin (Hb level and body mass index (BMI were the significant predictors of postoperative BT (p<0.0001 and 0.003, resp.. Excessive THL significant associated with preoperative Hb (p<0.0001. Excessive ETBL significantly associated with preoperative Hb, height, preoperative range-of-motion, and creatinine clearance (p<0.05 all. Low BMI and large prosthesis size were the significant predictors of excessive DV/kg (p=0.0001 and 0.002, resp.. Conclusions. Low preoperative Hb and BMI were the significant risks of postoperative transfusion after TKR with IA-TXA. Moreover, multiple perioperative factors could result in higher PBL.

  1. Total β-decay energies and atomic masses in regions far from β-stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleklett, K.

    1977-01-01

    This thesis is a summary of experimental investigations on total β-decay energies and deduced atomic masses of nuclei far from the region of β-stability. The Qsub(β) values are given for isotopes of Zn, Ga, Ge, As, Br, Rb, In, Sn, Sb, Te, Cs, Fr, Ra and Ac, with β-unstable nuclei. These unstable nuclei have very short half-lives, often below 10s, and the experimental techniques for the production, separation and collection of these short-lived nuclei are described. Neutron deficient nuclides were produced by spallation, in the ISOLDE facility, and neutron deficient nuclides were produced by thermal neutron induced fission of 235 U in the OSIRIS facility. β-spectra were recorded using an Si(Li)-detector and a coincidence system. Qsub(β) values obtained from mass formulae have been compared with experimental values obtained in different mass regions and a comparison made between results obtained from different droplet mass formulae. (B.D.)

  2. Helium Mass Spectrometer Leak Detection: A Method to Quantify Total Measurement Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Janice L.; Taylor, Shawn C.

    2015-01-01

    In applications where leak rates of components or systems are evaluated against a leak rate requirement, the uncertainty of the measured leak rate must be included in the reported result. However, in the helium mass spectrometer leak detection method, the sensitivity, or resolution, of the instrument is often the only component of the total measurement uncertainty noted when reporting results. To address this shortfall, a measurement uncertainty analysis method was developed that includes the leak detector unit's resolution, repeatability, hysteresis, and drift, along with the uncertainty associated with the calibration standard. In a step-wise process, the method identifies the bias and precision components of the calibration standard, the measurement correction factor (K-factor), and the leak detector unit. Together these individual contributions to error are combined and the total measurement uncertainty is determined using the root-sum-square method. It was found that the precision component contributes more to the total uncertainty than the bias component, but the bias component is not insignificant. For helium mass spectrometer leak rate tests where unit sensitivity alone is not enough, a thorough evaluation of the measurement uncertainty such as the one presented herein should be performed and reported along with the leak rate value.

  3. Total loss of the covering of a metallic stent during esophageal leak treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.J. Villarreal-Galvan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 41-year-old man underwent a Heller myotomy due to achalasia. An unexpected puncture in the esophageal wall was identified during the procedure. A partially covered 15 cm stent (PSEMS (UltraFlex was placed at the mucosal defect. It was removed 26 days later and the endoscopic image showed esophageal tissue embedded in the covered portion of the stent. PSEMS covering loss is a rare complication that can have serious consequences.

  4. Individualized performance prediction during total sleep deprivation: accounting for trait vulnerability to sleep loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Sridhar; Laxminarayan, Srinivas; Thorsley, David; Wesensten, Nancy J; Balkin, Thomas J; Reifman, Jaques

    2012-01-01

    Individual differences in vulnerability to sleep loss can be considerable, and thus, recent efforts have focused on developing individualized models for predicting the effects of sleep loss on performance. Individualized models constructed using a Bayesian formulation, which combines an individual's available performance data with a priori performance predictions from a group-average model, typically need at least 40 h of individual data before showing significant improvement over the group-average model predictions. Here, we improve upon the basic Bayesian formulation for developing individualized models by observing that individuals may be classified into three sleep-loss phenotypes: resilient, average, and vulnerable. For each phenotype, we developed a phenotype-specific group-average model and used these models to identify each individual's phenotype. We then used the phenotype-specific models within the Bayesian formulation to make individualized predictions. Results on psychomotor vigilance test data from 48 individuals indicated that, on average, ∼85% of individual phenotypes were accurately identified within 30 h of wakefulness. The percentage improvement of the proposed approach in 10-h-ahead predictions was 16% for resilient subjects and 6% for vulnerable subjects. The trade-off for these improvements was a slight decrease in prediction accuracy for average subjects.

  5. [Contribution of soil fauna to the mass loss of Betula albosinensis leaf litter at early decomposition stage of subalpine forest litter in western Sichuan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Lei; Wu, Fu-Zhong; Yang, Wan-Qin; Tan, Bo

    2012-02-01

    In order to quantify the contribution of soil fauna to the decomposition of birch (Betula albosinensis) leaf litter in subalpine forests in western Sichuan of Southwest China during freeze-thaw season, a field experiment with different mesh sizes (0.02, 0.125, 1 and 3 mm) of litterbags was conducted in a representative birch-fir (Abies faxoniana) forest to investigate the mass loss rate of the birch leaf litter from 26 October, 2010 to 18 April, 2011, and the contributions of micro-, meso- and macro-fauna to the decomposition of the leaf litter. Over the freeze-thaw season, 11.8%, 13.2%, 15.4% and 19.5% of the mass loss were detected in the litterbags with 0.02, 0. 125, 1 and 3 mm mesh sizes, respectively. The total contribution of soil fauna to the litter decomposition accounted for 39.5% of the mass loss, and the taxa and individual relative density of the soil fauna in the litterbags had the similar variation trend with that of the mass loss rate. The contribution rate of soil fauna to the leaf litter mass loss showed the order of micro- soil fauna played an important role in the litter decomposition in subalpine forests of western Sichuan during freeze-thaw season.

  6. Constraints on continental crustal mass loss via chemical weathering using lithium and its isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnick, R. L.; Liu, X. M.

    2012-04-01

    The continental crust has an "intermediate" bulk composition that is distinct from primary melts of peridotitic mantle (basalt or picrite). This mismatch between the "building blocks" and the "edifice" that is the continental crust points to the operation of processes that preferentially remove mafic to ultramafic material from the continents. Such processes include lower crustal recycling (via density foundering or lower crustal subduction - e.g., relamination, Hacker et al., 2011, EPSL), generation of evolved melts via slab melting, and/or chemical weathering. Stable isotope systems point to the influence of chemical weathering on the bulk crust composition: the oxygen isotope composition of the bulk crust is distinctly heavier than that of primary, mantle-derived melts (Simon and Lecuyer, 2005, G-cubed) and the Li isotopic composition of the bulk crust is distinctly lighter than that of mantle-derive melts (Teng et al., 2004, GCA; 2008, Chem. Geol.). Both signatures mark the imprint of chemical weathering on the bulk crust composition. Here, we use a simple mass balance model for lithium inputs and outputs from the continental crust to quantify the mass lost due to chemical weathering. We find that a minimum of 15%, a maximum of 60%, and a best estimate of ~40% of the original juvenile rock mass may have been lost via chemical weathering. The accumulated percentage of mass loss due to chemical weathering leads to an average global chemical weathering rate (CWR) of ~ 1×10^10 to 2×10^10 t/yr since 3.5 Ga, which is about an order of magnitude higher than the minimum estimates based on modern rivers (Gaillardet et al., 1999, Chem. Geol.). While we cannot constrain the exact portion of crustal mass loss via chemical weathering, given the uncertainties of the calculation, we can demonstrate that the weathering flux is non-zero. Therefore, chemical weathering must play a role in the evolution of the composition and mass of the continental crust.

  7. Luminosities and mass-loss rates of Local Group AGB stars and red supergiants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenewegen, M. A. T.; Sloan, G. C.

    2018-01-01

    Context. Mass loss is one of the fundamental properties of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, and through the enrichment of the interstellar medium, AGB stars are key players in the life cycle of dust and gas in the universe. However, a quantitative understanding of the mass-loss process is still largely lacking. Aims: We aim to investigate mass loss and luminosity in a large sample of evolved stars in several Local Group galaxies with a variety of metalliticies and star-formation histories: the Small and Large Magellanic Cloud, and the Fornax, Carina, and Sculptor dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs). Methods: Dust radiative transfer models are presented for 225 carbon stars and 171 oxygen-rich evolved stars in several Local Group galaxies for which spectra from the Infrared Spectrograph on Spitzer are available. The spectra are complemented with available optical and infrared photometry to construct spectral energy distributions. A minimization procedure was used to determine luminosity and mass-loss rate (MLR). Pulsation periods were derived for a large fraction of the sample based on a re-analysis of existing data. Results: New deep K-band photometry from the VMC survey and multi-epoch data from IRAC (at 4.5 μm) and AllWISE and NEOWISE have allowed us to derive pulsation periods longer than 1000 days for some of the most heavily obscured and reddened objects. We derive (dust) MLRs and luminosities for the entire sample. The estimated MLRs can differ significantly from estimates for the same objects in the literature due to differences in adopted optical constants (up to factors of several) and details in the radiative transfer modelling. Updated parameters for the super-AGB candidate MSX SMC 055 (IRAS 00483-7347) are presented. Its current mass is estimated to be 8.5 ± 1.6 M⊙, suggesting an initial mass well above 8 M⊙ in agreement with estimates based on its large Rubidium abundance. Using synthetic photometry, we present and discuss colour-colour and

  8. Increased body mass index is a predisposition for treatment by total hip replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Steffen; Sonne-Holm, Stig

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the radiological and epidemiological data of 4,151 subjects followed up from 1976 to 2003 to determine individual risk factors for hip osteoarthritis (OA), hip pain and/or treatment by total hip replacement (THR). Pelvic radiographs recorded in 1992 were assessed for evidence of hip......-joint degeneration and dysplasia. Sequential body mass index (BMI) measurements from 1976 to 1992, age, exposure to daily lifting and hip dysplasia were entered into logistic regression analyses. The prevalence of hip dysplasia ranged from 5.4% to 12.8% depending on the radiographical index used. Radiological hip OA...

  9. Measuring the total and baryonic mass profiles of the very massive CASSOWARY 31 strong lens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grillo, Claudio; Christensen, L.; Gallazzi, A.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the total and baryonic mass distributions in deflector number 31 (CSWA 31) of the Cambridge And Sloan Survey Of Wide ARcs in the skY (CASSOWARY). We confirm spectroscopically a four-image lensing system at redshift 1.4870 with Very Large Telescope/X-shooter observations. The lensed...... find that the CSWA 31 deflector has properties suggesting it to be among the most distant and massive fossil systems studied so far. The unusually strong central dark matter dominance and the possible fossil nature of this system render it an interesting target for detailed tests of cosmological models...

  10. Which Route of Tranexamic Acid Administration is More Effective to Reduce Blood Loss Following Total Knee Arthroplasty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyhani, Sohrab; Esmailiejah, Ali Akbar; Abbasian, Mohammad Reza; Safdari, Farshad

    2016-01-01

    The most appropriate route of tranexamic acid administration is controversial. In the current study, we compared the efficacy of intravenous (IV) and topical intra-articular tranexamic acid in reducing blood loss and transfusion rate in patients who underwent primary total knee arthroplasty. One hundred twenty 120 patients were scheduled to undergo primary total knee arthroplasty. Patients were randomly allocated to three equal groups: IV tranexamic acid (500 mg), topical tranexamic acid (3 g in 100 mL normal saline) and the control. In the topical group, half of the volume was used to irrigate the joint and the other half was injected intra-articularly. The volume of blood loss, hemoglobin (Hb) level at 24 hours postoperative, and rate of transfusion was compared between groups. The blood loss and Hb level were significantly greater and lower in the control group, respectively (P=0.031). Also, the rate of transfusion was significantly greater in the control group (P=0.013). However, IV and topical groups did not differ significantly in terms of measured variables. No patient experienced a thromboembolic event in our study. Tranexamic acid is a useful antifibrinolytic drug to reduce postoperative blood loss, Hb drop, and rate of blood transfusion in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty. The route of tranexamic acid administration did not affect the efficacy and safety.

  11. Predictors of fat-free mass loss 1 year after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guida, B; Cataldi, M; Busetto, L; Aiello, M L; Musella, M; Capone, D; Parolisi, S; Policastro, V; Ragozini, G; Belfiore, A

    2018-03-24

    Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is one of the most frequently performed bariatric surgery interventions because of its safety and efficacy. Nevertheless, concerns have been raised on its detrimental effect on patient nutritional state that can ultimately lead to the loss of fat-free mass (FFM). There is interest in identifying predictors for the early identification of patients at risk of this highly unwanted adverse because they could benefit of nutritional preventive interventions. Therefore, we investigated whether anthropometric parameters, body composition or resting energy expenditure (REE) measured before surgery could predict FFM loss 1 year after LSG. Study design was retrospective observational. We retrieved data on body weight, BMI, body composition and REE before and 1 year after LSG from the medical files of 36 patients operated on by LSG at our institutions. Simple regression, the Oldham's method and multilevel analysis were used to identify predictors of FFM loss. Averaged percentage FFM loss 1 year after LSG was 17.0 ± 7.7% with significant differences between sexes (20.8 ± 6.6 in males and 12.2 ± 6.1% in females, p FFM loss was strongly predicted by pre-surgery FFM and this effect persisted also after correcting for the contribution of sex. High FFM values before surgery predict a more severe FFM loss after LSG. This factor could also account for the higher FFM loss in men than in women. Our finding could help in the early identification of patient requiring a nutritional support after LSG.

  12. Increase in transmission loss of single panels by addition of mass inclusions to a poro-elastic layer: Experimental investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidner, M. R. F.; Fuller, C. R.; Gardner, B.

    2006-06-01

    The insertion loss of standard acoustic blankets can be significantly improved at low frequencies by the addition of randomly placed mass inclusions to the poro-elastic layers. The improvement is much greater than that due to the mass effect alone. The mass inclusions act as resonant systems and so increase the structure impedance. This paper reports the results of experimental investigations into this phenomenon. Increases in insertion loss of 15 dB in the 100 Hz third octave band are reported.

  13. Quality control for total evaporation technique by surface/thermal ionization mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Seikou; Inoue, Sinichi; Yamaguchi, Katsuyuki; Tsutaki, Yasuhiro

    2007-01-01

    For the measurement of uranium and plutonium isotopic composition, the surface/thermal ionization mass spectrometry is widely used at the both nuclear facilities and safeguards verification laboratories. The progress of instrument specification makes higher sensitivity. The total evaporation technique is one of the latest measurement techniques by using this progress, in which all of uranium or plutonium on the filament would be evaporated by increasing the filament current. The accuracy and precision of this technique is normally checked by using the certified isotope reference materials measurement. But the fluctuation of ion beam is very different by each filament, depending on the chemical form of evaporation. So, it should be considered how to check the measurement quality of unknown samples which has no certified values. This presentation is focused on the monitoring of ion yields and pattern of isotope ratio fluctuation to attain the traceability between reference material and unknown sample as quality control approach of total evaporation technique. (author)

  14. Episodic mass loss from the hydrogen-deficient central star of the planetary nebula Longmore 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, Howard E., E-mail: heb11@psu.edu [Current address: Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA. (United States)

    2014-09-01

    A spectacular transient mass-loss episode from the extremely hot, hydrogen-deficient central star of the planetary nebula (PN) Longmore 4 (Lo 4) was discovered in 1992 by Werner et al. During that event, the star temporarily changed from its normal PG 1159 spectrum to that of an emission-line low-luminosity early-type Wolf-Rayet [WCE] star. After a few days, Lo 4 reverted to its normal, predominantly absorption-line PG 1159 type. To determine whether such events recur, and if so how often, I monitored the optical spectrum of Lo 4 from early 2003 to early 2012. Out of 81 spectra taken at random dates, 4 of them revealed mass-loss outbursts similar to that seen in 1992. This indicates that the episodes recur approximately every 100 days (if the recurrence rate has been approximately constant and the duration of a typical episode is ∼5 days), and that the star is in a high-mass-loss state about 5% of the time. Since the enhanced stellar wind is hydrogen-deficient, it arises from the photosphere and is unlikely to be related to phenomena such as a binary or planetary companion or infalling dust. I speculate on plausible mechanisms for these unique outbursts, including the possibility that they are related to the non-radial GW Vir-type pulsations exhibited by Lo 4. The central star of the PN NGC 246 has stellar parameters similar to those of Lo 4, and it is also a GW Vir-type pulsator with similar pulsation periods. I obtained 167 spectra of NGC 246 between 2003 and 2011, but no mass ejections were found.

  15. [Intra-Articular Application of Tranexamic Acid Significantly Reduces Blood Loss and Transfusion Requirement in Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lošťák, J; Gallo, J; Špička, J; Langová, K

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The aim of this prospective study was to investigate the effect of topical application of tranexamic acid (TXA, Exacyl) on the amount of post-operative blood loss, and blood transfusion requirement in patients undergoing primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Attention was paid to early complications potentially associated with TXA administration, such as haematoma, wound exudate, or knee swelling. In addition, the economic benefit of TXA treatment was also taken into account. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study included 238 patients (85 men and 153 women) who underwent primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) at our department between January 2013 and November 2015. A group of 119 patients (41 men and 78 women) received intraarticular TXA injections according to the treatment protocol (TXA group). A control group matched in basic characteristics to the TXA group also consisted of 119 patients. The average age in the TXA group was 69.8 years, and the most frequent indication for TKA surgery was primary knee osteoarthritis (81.5%). In each patient, post-operative volume of blood lost from drains and total blood loss including hidden blood loss were recorded, as well as post-operative haemoglobin and haematocrit levels. On discharge of each patient from hospital, the size and site of a haematoma; wound exudate, if present after post-operative day 4; joint swelling; range of motion and early revision surgery, if performed, were evaluated. Requirements of analgesic drugs after surgery were also recorded. RESULTS In the TXA group, blood losses from drains were significantly lower than in the control group (456.7 ± 270.8 vs 640.5 ±448.2; p = 0.004). The median value for blood losses from drains was lower by 22% and the average value for total blood loss, including hidden losses, was also lower than in the control group (762.4 ± 345.2 ml vs 995.5 ± 457.3 ml). The difference in the total amount of blood loss between the two groups was significant (p = 0

  16. Mass flow discharge and total temperature characterisation of a pyrotechnic gas generator formulation for airbag systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neutz, Jochen; Koenig, Andreas [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Chemische Technologie ICT, Pfinztal (Germany); Knauss, Helmut; Jordan, Sebastian; Roediger, Tim; Smorodsky, Boris [Universitaet Stuttgart (Germany). Institut fuer Aerodynamik und Gasdynamik; Bluemcke, Erich Walter [AUDI AG, Department I/EK-523, Ingolstadt (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    The mass flow characteristics of gas generators for airbag applications have to comply with a number of requirements for an optimal deployment of the airbag itself. Up to now, the mass flow was determined from pressure time histories of so-called can tests. This procedure suffers from the missing knowledge on the temperature of the generated gas entering the can. A new test setup described in this paper could overcome this problem by providing highly time resolved information on the gas's total temperature and the mass flow of the generator. The test setup consisted of a combustion chamber with a specially designed Laval nozzle in combination with a temperature sensor of high time resolution. The results showed a high time resolved temperature signal, which was disturbed by the formation of a slag layer on the sensor. Plausibility considerations with experimentally and thermodynamically determined combustion temperatures led to satisfying results for the overall temperature as characteristic parameter of airbag inflating gases flows from pyrotechnics. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  17. Determining total hemoglobin mass by means of {sup 13}CO breath analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowa, Marcus; Hering, Peter [Institut fuer Lasermedizin, Universitaetsklinikum Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The aim of our investigations is the development of a non-invasive method for the determination of the total hemoglobin mass in the human body by means of Cavity Leak-Out Spectroscopy (CALOS). The mentioned CALOS system utilizes a CO gas laser in the mid infrared region around 5{mu}m. This system allows isotopologue selective online measurements of {sup 13}CO with a sensitivity of 7 ppb.Hz{sup -1/2}. {sup 13}CO is a non radioactive isotopologue occurring in a ratio of about 1.1 % of the natural CO composition. CO is commonly known as a highly toxic gas but it is also endogenously produced during heme degradation. About 80 % of this CO is exhaled yielding to CO concentrations between 1 ppm to 4 ppm in healthy humans. Transportation of CO through the body is established by hemoglobin which has a high affinity towards CO. Because of this fact inhaled CO is taken up by the blood until equilibrium between the alveolar air and the blood is reached. By determining the exhaled CO concentrations before and after the inhalation of a certain amount of CO a measure for the t-Hb mass can be calculated. The enormous advantage of the isotopologue measurement is the very small amount of {sup 13}CO which can be used for harmless CO inhalation. All data necessary for calculating the t-Hb mass are obtained from breath measurements making this method non invasive.

  18. A regional mass balance model based on total ammoniacal nitrogen for estimating ammonia emissions from beef cattle in Alberta Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Lilong; Kröbel, Roland; Janzen, H. Henry; Beauchemin, Karen A.; McGinn, Sean M.; Bittman, Shabtai; Atia, Atta; Edeogu, Ike; MacDonald, Douglas; Dong, Ruilan

    2014-08-01

    Animal feeding operations are primary contributors of anthropogenic ammonia (NH3) emissions in North America and Europe. Mathematical modeling of NH3 volatilization from each stage of livestock manure management allows comprehensive quantitative estimates of emission sources and nutrient losses. A regionally-specific mass balance model based on total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) content in animal manure was developed for estimating NH3 emissions from beef farming operations in western Canada. Total N excretion in urine and feces was estimated from animal diet composition, feed dry matter intake and N utilization for beef cattle categories and production stages. Mineralization of organic N, immobilization of TAN, nitrification, and denitrification of N compounds in manure, were incorporated into the model to account for quantities of TAN at each stage of manure handling. Ammonia emission factors were specified for different animal housing (feedlots, barns), grazing, manure storage (including composting and stockpiling) and land spreading (tilled and untilled land), and were modified for temperature. The model computed NH3 emissions from all beef cattle sub-classes including cows, calves, breeding bulls, steers for slaughter, and heifers for slaughter and replacement. Estimated NH3 emissions were about 1.11 × 105 Mg NH3 in Alberta in 2006, with a mean of 18.5 kg animal-1 yr-1 (15.2 kg NH3-N animal-1 yr-1) which is 23.5% of the annual N intake of beef cattle (64.7 kg animal-1 yr-1). The percentage of N intake volatilized as NH3-N was 50% for steers and heifers for slaughter, and between 11 and 14% for all other categories. Steers and heifers for slaughter were the two largest contributors (3.5 × 104 and 3.9 × 104 Mg, respectively) at 31.5 and 32.7% of total NH3 emissions because most growing animals were finished in feedlots. Animal housing and grazing contributed roughly 63% of the total NH3 emissions (feedlots, barns and pastures contributed 54.4, 0.2 and 8.1% of

  19. Transient Mass-loss Analysis of Solar Observations Using Stellar Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosley, M. K.; Norman, C. [Johns Hopkins University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 3400 N. Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Osten, R. A. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2017-08-10

    Low-frequency dynamic spectra of radio bursts from nearby stars offer the best chance to directly detect the stellar signature of transient mass loss on low-mass stars. Crosley et al. (2016) proposes a multi-wavelength methodology to determine coronal mass ejection (CME) parameters, such as speed, mass, and kinetic energy. We test the validity and accuracy of the results derived from the methodology by using Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite X-ray observations and Bruny Island Radio Spectrometer radio observations. These are analogous observations to those that would be found in the stellar studies. Derived results from these observations are compared to direct white light measurements of the Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph. We find that, when a pre-event temperature can be determined, the accuracy of CME speeds are within a few hundred km s{sup −1}, and are reliable when specific criteria has been met. CME mass and kinetic energies are only useful in determining the approximate order of magnitude measurements when considering the large errors associated to them. These results will be directly applicable to the interpretation of any detected stellar events and the derivation of stellar CME properties.

  20. Total molecular gas masses of Planck - Herschel selected strongly lensed hyper luminous infrared galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, K. C.; Yun, M. S.; Magnelli, B.; Frayer, D. T.; Karim, A.; Weiß, A.; Riechers, D.; Jiménez-Andrade, E. F.; Berman, D.; Lowenthal, J.; Bertoldi, F.

    2018-03-01

    We report the detection of CO(1-0) line emission from seven Planck and Herschel selected hyper luminous ({L_{IR (8-1000{μ m})} > 10^{13} L_{⊙}) infrared galaxies with the Green Bank Telescope (GBT). CO(1-0) measurements are a vital tool to trace the bulk molecular gas mass across all redshifts. Our results place tight constraints on the total gas content of these most apparently luminous high-z star-forming galaxies (apparent IR luminosities of LIR > 1013 - 14 L⊙), while we confirm their predetermined redshifts measured using the Large Millimeter Telescope, LMT (zCO = 1.33-3.26). The CO(1-0) lines show similar profiles as compared to Jup = 2-4 transitions previously observed with the LMT. We report enhanced infrared to CO line luminosity ratios of = 110 ± 22 L_{⊙} (K km s^{-1} pc^{-2})^{-1} compared to normal star-forming galaxies, yet similar to those of well-studied IR-luminous galaxies at high-z. We find average brightness temperature ratios of 〈 r21〉 = 0.93 (2 sources), 〈 r31〉 = 0.34 (5 sources), and 〈 r41〉 = 0.18 (1 source). The r31 and r41 values are roughly half the average values for SMGs. We estimate the total gas mass content as {μ M_{H2} = (0.9-27.2) × 10^{11} (α _CO/0.8) M_{⊙}, where μ is the magnification factor and αCO is the CO line luminosity to molecular hydrogen gas mass conversion factor. The rapid gas depletion times, = 80} Myr, reveal vigorous starburst activity, and contrast the Gyr depletion time-scales observed in local, normal star-forming galaxies.

  1. GAS LOSS BY RAM PRESSURE STRIPPING AND INTERNAL FEEDBACK FROM LOW-MASS MILKY WAY SATELLITES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emerick, Andrew; Low, Mordecai-Mark Mac [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Grcevich, Jana [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY (United States); Gatto, Andrea [Max-Planck-Institute für Astrophysik, Garching, bei München (Germany)

    2016-08-01

    The evolution of dwarf satellites in the Milky Way (MW) is affected by a combination of ram pressure stripping (RPS), tidal stripping, and internal feedback from massive stars. We investigate gas loss processes in the smallest satellites of the MW using three-dimensional, high-resolution, idealized wind tunnel simulations, accounting for gas loss through both ram pressure stripping and expulsion by supernova feedback. Using initial conditions appropriate for a dwarf galaxy like Leo T, we investigate whether or not environmental gas stripping and internal feedback can quench these low-mass galaxies on the expected timescales, shorter than 2 Gyr. We find that supernova feedback contributes negligibly to the stripping rate for these low star formation rate galaxies. However, we also find that RPS is less efficient than expected in the stripping scenarios we consider. Our work suggests that although RPS can eventually completely strip these galaxies, other physics is likely at play to reconcile our computed stripping times with the rapid quenching timescales deduced from observations of low-mass MW dwarf galaxies. We discuss the roles additional physics may play in this scenario, including host-satellite tidal interactions, cored versus cuspy dark matter profiles, reionization, and satellite preprocessing. We conclude that a proper accounting of these physics together is necessary to understand the quenching of low-mass MW satellites.

  2. Total 'shrink' losses, and where they occur, in commercially sized silage piles constructed from immature and mature cereal crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, P H; Swanepoel, N; Heguy, J M; Price, P; Meyer, D M

    2016-07-15

    Silage 'shrink' (i.e., fresh chop crop lost between ensiling and feedout) represents losses of potential animal nutrients which degrade air quality as volatile carbon compounds. Regulatory efforts have, in some cases, resulted in semi-mandatory mitigations (i.e., dairy farmers select a minimum number of mitigations from a list) to reduce silage shrink, mitigations often based on limited data of questionable relevance to large commercial silage piles where silage shrink may or may not be a problem of a magnitude equal to that assumed. Silage 'shrink' is generally ill defined, but can be expressed as losses of wet weight (WW), oven dry matter (oDM), and oDM corrected for volatiles lost during oven drying (vcoDM). As no research has documented shrink in large cereal silage piles, 6 piles ranging from 1456 to 6297tonnes (as built) were used. Three used cereal cut at an immature stage and three at a mature stage. Physiologically immature silages had generally higher (Plosses (vcoDM) of large well managed cereal silage piles were relatively low, and a lower potential contributor to aerosol emissions of volatile carbon compounds than has often been assumed. Losses from the silage mass and the exposed silage face were approximately equal contributors to vcoDM shrink. Mitigations to reduce these relatively low emission levels of volatile organic compounds from cereal silage piles should focus on the ensiled mass and the exposed silage face. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Advantages and Challenges of Dried Blood Spot Analysis by Mass Spectrometry Across the Total Testing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Rosita; Allen, Katrina J.; Koplin, Jennifer J.; Roche, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Through the introduction of advanced analytical techniques and improved throughput, the scope of dried blood spot testing utilising mass spectrometric methods, has broadly expanded. Clinicians and researchers have become very enthusiastic about the potential applications of dried blood spot based mass spectrometric applications. Analysts on the other hand face challenges of sensitivity, reproducibility and overall accuracy of dried blood spot quantification. In this review, we aim to bring together these two facets to discuss the advantages and current challenges of non-newborn screening applications of dried blood spot quantification by mass spectrometry. Methods To address these aims we performed a key word search of the PubMed and MEDLINE online databases in conjunction with individual manual searches to gather information. Keywords for the initial search included; “blood spot” and “mass spectrometry”; while excluding “newborn”; and “neonate”. In addition, databases were restricted to English language and human specific. There was no time period limit applied. Results As a result of these selection criteria, 194 references were identified for review. For presentation, this information is divided into: 1) clinical applications; and 2) analytical considerations across the total testing process; being pre-analytical, analytical and post-analytical considerations. Conclusions DBS analysis using MS applications is now broadly applied, with drug monitoring for both therapeutic and toxicological analysis being the most extensively reported. Several parameters can affect the accuracy of DBS measurement and further bridge experiments are required to develop adjustment rules for comparability between dried blood spot measures and the equivalent serum/plasma values. Likewise, the establishment of independent reference intervals for dried blood spot sample matrix is required. PMID:28149263

  4. Nitrogen losses from dairy manure estimated through nitrogen mass balance and chemical markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristov, Alexander N.; Zaman, S.; Vander Pol, M.; Ndegwa, P.; Campbell, L.; Silva, S.

    2009-01-01

    Ammonia is an important air and water pollutant, but the spatial variation in its concentrations presents technical difficulties in accurate determination of ammonia emissions from animal feeding operations. The objectives of this study were to investigate the relationship between ammonia volatilization and ??15N of dairy manure and the feasibility of estimating ammonia losses from a dairy facility using chemical markers. In Exp. 1, the N/P ratio in manure decreased by 30% in 14 d as cumulative ammonia losses increased exponentially. Delta 15N of manure increased throughout the course of the experiment and ??15N of emitted ammonia increased (p < 0.001) quadratically from -31??? to -15 ???. The relationship between cumulative ammonia losses and ??15N of manure was highly significant (p < 0.001; r2 = 0.76). In Exp. 2, using a mass balance approach, approximately half of the N excreted by dairy cows (Bos taurus) could not be accounted for in 24 h. Using N/P and N/K ratios in fresh and 24-h manure, an estimated 0.55 and 0.34 (respectively) of the N excreted with feces and urine could not be accounted for. This study demonstrated that chemical markers (P, K) can be successfully used to estimate ammonia losses from cattle manure. The relationship between manure ??15N and cumulative ammonia loss may also be useful for estimating ammonia losses. Although promising, the latter approach needs to be further studied and verified in various experimental conditions and in the field. Copyright ?? 2009 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  5. The relationship of endogenous plasma concentrations of β-Hydroxy β-Methyl Butyrate (HMB) to age and total appendicular lean mass in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriyan, Rebecca; Lokesh, Deepa P; Selvam, Sumithra; Jayakumar, J; Philip, Mamatha G; Shreeram, Sathyavageeswaran; Kurpad, Anura V

    2016-08-01

    The maintenance of muscle mass and muscle strength is important for reducing the risk of chronic diseases. The age- related loss of muscle mass and strength is associated with adverse outcomes of physical disability, frailty and death. β-Hydroxy β-Methyl Butyrate (HMB), a metabolite of leucine, has beneficial effects on muscle mass and strength under various catabolic conditions. The objectives of the present study were to determine if age- related differences existed in endogenous plasma HMB levels, and to assess if HMB levels correlated to total appendicular lean mass and forearm grip strength. Anthropometry, dietary and physical activity assessment, and the estimation of fasting plasma HMB concentrations and handgrip strength were performed on the 305 subjects (children, young adults and older adults). Lean mass, which serves as a surrogate for muscle mass was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Mean plasma HMB concentrations were significantly lower with increasing age groups, with children having highest mean HMB concentration (pHMB concentrations. A significant positive correlation between HMB concentrations and appendicular lean mass normalized for body weight (%), appendicular lean mass (r=0.37; pHMB concentrations in young adults (r=0.58; pHMB concentrations in humans and the HMB concentrations were positively correlated with appendicular lean mass and hand grip strength in young adults and older adults group. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Development of a totally computer-controlled triple quadrupole mass spectrometer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, C.M.; Crawford, R.W.; Barton, V.C.; Brand, H.R.; Neufeld, K.W.; Bowman, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    A totally computer-controlled triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (TQMS) is described. It has a number of unique features not available on current commercial instruments, including: complete computer control of source and all ion axial potentials; use of dual computers for data acquisition and data processing; and capability for self-adaptive control of experiments. Furthermore, it has been possible to produce this instrument at a cost significantly below that of commercial instruments. This triple quadrupole mass spectrometer has been constructed using components commercially available from several different manufacturers. The source is a standard Hewlett-Packard 5985B GC/MS source. The two quadrupole analyzers and the quadrupole CAD region contain Balzers QMA 150 rods with Balzers QMG 511 rf controllers for the analyzers and a Balzers QHS-511 controller for the CAD region. The pulsed-positive-ion-negative-ion-chemical ionization (PPINICI) detector is made by Finnigan Corporation. The mechanical and electronics design were developed at LLNL for linking these diverse elements into a functional TQMS as described. The computer design for total control of the system is unique in that two separate LSI-11/23 minicomputers and assorted I/O peripherals and interfaces from several manufacturers are used. The evolution of this design concept from totally computer-controlled instrumentation into future self-adaptive or ''expert'' systems for instrumental analysis is described. Operational characteristics of the instrument and initial results from experiments involving the analysis of the high explosive HMX (1,3,5,7-Tetranitro-1,3,5,7-Tetrazacyclooctane) are presented

  7. Equation of motion of an interstellar Bussard ramjet with radiation and mass losses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semay, Claude; Silvestre-Brac, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    An interstellar Bussard ramjet is a spaceship using the protons of the interstellar medium in a fusion engine to produce thrust. In recent papers, it was shown that the relativistic equation of motion of an ideal ramjet and that of a ramjet with radiation loss are analytical. When a mass loss appears, the limit speed of the ramjet is more strongly reduced. However, the parametric equations in terms of the ramjet's speed for the position of the ramjet in the inertial frame of the interstellar medium, the time in this frame and the proper time indicated by the clocks on board the spaceship can still be obtained in an analytical form. The non-relativistic motion and the motion near the limit speed are studied

  8. Equation of motion of an interstellar Bussard ramjet with radiation and mass losses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semay, Claude [Groupe de Physique Nucleaire Theorique, Universite de Mons-Hainaut, Academie universitaire Wallonie-Bruxelles, Place du Parc 20, B-7000 Mons (Belgium); Silvestre-Brac, Bernard [LPSC, Universite Joseph Fourier, Grenoble 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut Polytechnique de Grenoble, Avenue des Martyrs 53, F-38026 Grenoble-Cedex (France)], E-mail: claude.semay@umh.ac.be, E-mail: silvestre@lpsc.in2p3.fr

    2008-11-15

    An interstellar Bussard ramjet is a spaceship using the protons of the interstellar medium in a fusion engine to produce thrust. In recent papers, it was shown that the relativistic equation of motion of an ideal ramjet and that of a ramjet with radiation loss are analytical. When a mass loss appears, the limit speed of the ramjet is more strongly reduced. However, the parametric equations in terms of the ramjet's speed for the position of the ramjet in the inertial frame of the interstellar medium, the time in this frame and the proper time indicated by the clocks on board the spaceship can still be obtained in an analytical form. The non-relativistic motion and the motion near the limit speed are studied.

  9. A new topical hemostatic agent TT-173 reduces blood loss in a sheep model of total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centeno, Alberto; Rojas, Santiago; Arias, Belén; Miquel, Ignasi; Sánchez, Pilar; Ureta, Claudia; Rincón, Esther; López, Ramón; Murat, Jesús

    2017-12-01

    Total knee arthroplasty is associated with blood loss during the intervention and may require allogenic blood transfusion. Treatments such as tranexamic acid and fibrin sealants improved the bleeding control in several clinical trials, but the hemorrhage associated with the intervention is still significant. Thus far, very few studies have evaluated hemostatic treatments in animal models of total knee arthroplasty. This work describes a sheep model of bleeding associated with total knee arthroplasty and investigates a new class of hemostatic treatment based on recombinant tissue factor. Sheep were treated with the anticoagulant heparin, and the joint was accessed by a paramedial incision. Ligaments and menisci were eliminated and femoral condyles and tibia plateau were sectioned exposing the trabecular bone. An intra-articular drain was used to recover and quantify the blood loss during the 90-min period after treatment. The efficacy of one milligram and three milligrams of TT-173 was evaluated and compared with tranexamic acid. The occurrence of analytical alterations and systemic absorption was also investigated. Treatment with TT-173 reduced the blood loss in comparison with control or tranexamic acid. No significant differences were observed between the two doses evaluated. Moreover, a dose of six milligrams of TT-173 did not induce any clinical or analytical alteration, and significant systemic absorption was not observed. Data obtained strongly suggest that TT-173 could be useful in reducing the blood loss associated with total knee arthroplasty and without safety concerns derived from the systemic absorption of the product. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Determination of total and isotopic uranium by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry at the Fernald Environmental Management Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, F.L.; Bolin, R.N.; Feller, M.T.; Danahy, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    At the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) in southwestern Ohio, ICP-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), with sample introduction by peristaltic pumping, is used to determine total and isotopic uranium (U-234, U-235, U-236 and U-238) in soil samples. These analyses are conducted in support of the environmental cleanup of the FEMP site. Various aspects of the sample preparation and instrumental analysis will be discussed. Initial sample preparation consists of oven drying to determine moisture content, and grinding and rolling to homogenize the sample. This is followed by a nitric/hydrofluoric acid digestion to bring the uranium in the sample into solution. Bismuth is added to the sample prior to digestion to monitor for losses. The total uranium (U-238) content of this solution and the U 235 /U 238 ratio are measured on the first pass through the ICP-MS. To determine the concentration of the less abundant U 234 and U 236 isotopes, the digestate is further concentrated by using Eichrom TRU-Spec extraction columns before the second pass through the ICP-MS. Quality controls for both the sample preparation and instrumental protocols will also be discussed. Finally, an explanation of the calculations used to report the data in either weight percent or activity units will be given

  11. A Conceptual Analysis of Mass Loss and Frequency Redistribution in Wolf-Rayet Winds

    OpenAIRE

    Onifer, A. J.; Gayley, K. G.

    2007-01-01

    To better understand Wolf-Rayet stars as progenitors of gamma-ray bursts, an understanding of the effect metallicity has on Wolf-Rayet mass loss is needed. Using simple analytic models, we study the Mdot - Z relation of a WN star and compare the results to similar models. We find that Mdot roughly follows a power law in Z with index 0.88 from -2.5 < log Z/Z_sun < -1 and appears to flatten by log Z/Z_sun ~ -0.5.

  12. THREE-PHASE ENERGY SUPPLY SYSTEMS SIMULATION FOR THE TOTAL POWER LOSSES COMPONENTS ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V. Tugay

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The goal is to optimize a structure of Matlab-model of the three-phase energy supply system with power active filter. The mathematical model that describes the energy supply system modes of operation which contains additional losses is proposed. Methodology. We have applied concepts of the electrical circuits theory, mathematical modeling elements based on linear algebra and vector calculus, mathematical simulation in Matlab package. Results. We have developed two models of three-phase energy supply system. The first one is based on a vector representation, and the second one on the matrix representation of energy processes. Using these models we have solved the problem of maintaining unchanged the average useful power for 279 cases of energy supply system modes of operation. Originality. We have developed methods of mathematical analysis of a three-phase energy supply systems with polyharmonic voltages and currents in the symmetric and asymmetric modes. Practical value. We have created Matlab-model of a three-phase energy supply system with automated calculation of a correction factor. It allows reducing more than one order the time for energy processes elucidation in multiphase systems.

  13. Mass-loss evolution of close-in exoplanets: Evaporation of hot Jupiters and the effect on population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurokawa, H.; Nakamoto, T.

    2014-01-01

    During their evolution, short-period exoplanets may lose envelope mass through atmospheric escape owing to intense X-ray and extreme ultraviolet (XUV) radiation from their host stars. Roche-lobe overflow induced by orbital evolution or intense atmospheric escape can also contribute to mass loss. To study the effects of mass loss on inner planet populations, we calculate the evolution of hot Jupiters considering mass loss of their envelopes and thermal contraction. Mass loss is assumed to occur through XUV-driven atmospheric escape and the following Roche-lobe overflow. The runaway effect of mass loss results in a dichotomy of populations: hot Jupiters that retain their envelopes and super Earths whose envelopes are completely lost. Evolution primarily depends on the core masses of planets and only slightly on migration history. In hot Jupiters with small cores (≅ 10 Earth masses), runaway atmospheric escape followed by Roche-lobe overflow may create sub-Jupiter deserts, as observed in both mass and radius distributions of planetary populations. Comparing our results with formation scenarios and observed exoplanets populations, we propose that populations of closely orbiting exoplanets are formed by capturing planets at/inside the inner edges of protoplanetary disks and subsequent evaporation of sub-Jupiters.

  14. Mass-loss evolution of close-in exoplanets: Evaporation of hot Jupiters and the effect on population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurokawa, H. [Department of Physics, Nagoya Univsersity, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8602 (Japan); Nakamoto, T., E-mail: kurokawa@nagoya-u.jp [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)

    2014-03-01

    During their evolution, short-period exoplanets may lose envelope mass through atmospheric escape owing to intense X-ray and extreme ultraviolet (XUV) radiation from their host stars. Roche-lobe overflow induced by orbital evolution or intense atmospheric escape can also contribute to mass loss. To study the effects of mass loss on inner planet populations, we calculate the evolution of hot Jupiters considering mass loss of their envelopes and thermal contraction. Mass loss is assumed to occur through XUV-driven atmospheric escape and the following Roche-lobe overflow. The runaway effect of mass loss results in a dichotomy of populations: hot Jupiters that retain their envelopes and super Earths whose envelopes are completely lost. Evolution primarily depends on the core masses of planets and only slightly on migration history. In hot Jupiters with small cores (≅ 10 Earth masses), runaway atmospheric escape followed by Roche-lobe overflow may create sub-Jupiter deserts, as observed in both mass and radius distributions of planetary populations. Comparing our results with formation scenarios and observed exoplanets populations, we propose that populations of closely orbiting exoplanets are formed by capturing planets at/inside the inner edges of protoplanetary disks and subsequent evaporation of sub-Jupiters.

  15. A drop in the pond: the effect of rapid mass-loss on the dynamics and interaction rate of collisionless particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penoyre, Zephyr; Haiman, Zoltán

    2018-01-01

    In symmetric gravitating systems experiencing rapid mass-loss, particle orbits change almost instantaneously, which can lead to the development of a sharply contoured density profile, including singular caustics for collisionless systems. This framework can be used to model a variety of dynamical systems, such as accretion discs following a massive black hole merger and dwarf galaxies following violent early star formation feedback. Particle interactions in the high-density peaks seem a promising source of observable signatures of these mass-loss events (i.e. a possible EM counterpart for black hole mergers or strong gamma-ray emission from dark matter annihilation around young galaxies), because the interaction rate depends on the square of the density. We study post-mass-loss density profiles, both analytic and numerical, in idealized cases and present arguments and methods to extend to any general system. An analytic derivation is presented for particles on Keplerian orbits responding to a drop in the central mass. We argue that this case, with initially circular orbits, gives the most sharply contoured profile possible. We find that despite the presence of a set of singular caustics, the total particle interaction rate is reduced compared to the unperturbed system; this is a result of the overall expansion of the system dominating over the steep caustics. Finally, we argue that this result holds more generally, and the loss of central mass decreases the particle interaction rate in any physical system.

  16. Total adiponectin and adiponectin multimeric complexes in relation to weight loss-induced improvements in insulin sensitivity in obese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polak, J.; Kovacova, Z.; Holst, C.

    2008-01-01

    , and LMW). The HMW form was suggested to be closely associated with insulin sensitivity. This study investigated whether diet-induced changes in insulin sensitivity were associated with changes in adiponectin multimeric complexes. SUBJECTS: Twenty obese women with highest and twenty obese women with lowest...... diet induced changes in insulin sensitivity (responders and non-responders respectively), matched for weight loss (body mass index (BMI)=34.5 (s.d. 2.9) resp. 36.5 kg/m(2) (s.d. 4.0) for responders and non-responders), were selected from 292 women who underwent a 10-week low-caloric diet (LCD; 600 kcal...

  17. The role of pyridoxine as a countermeasure for in-flight loss of lean body mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Joyce A.

    1992-01-01

    Ground based and in flight research has shown that humans, under conditions of microgravity, sustain a loss of lean body tissue (protein) and changes in several biological processes including, reductions in red blood cell mass, and neurotransmitters. The maintenance of muscle mass, the major component of lean body mass, is required to meet the needs of space station EVAs. Central to the biosynthesis of amino acids, the building blocks of protein, is pyridoxine (vitamin B-6). Muscle mass integrity requires the availability of vitamin B-6 for protein metabolism and neurotransmitter synthesis. Furthermore, the formation of red blood cells require pyridoxine as a cofactor in the biosynthesis of hemoglobin, a protein that carries oxygen to tissues. In its active form, pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP), vitamin B-6 serves as a link between amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism through intermediates of glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. In addition to its role in energy metabolism, PLP is involved in the biosynthesis of hemoglobin and neurotransmitter which are necessary for neurological functions. Alterations in pyridoxine metabolism may affect countermeasures designed to overcome some of these biochemical changes. The focus of this research is to determine the effects of microgravity on the metabolic utilization of vitamin B-6, integrating nutrition as an integral component of the countermeasure (exercise) to maintain lean body mass and muscle strength. The objectives are: 1) to determine whether microgravity effects the metabolic utilization of pyridoxine and 2) to quantitate changes in B-6 vitamer distribution in tissue and excreta relative to loss of lean body tissue. The rationale for this study encompasses the unique challenge to control biochemical mechanisms effected during space travel and the significance of pyridoxine to maintain and counter muscle integrity for EVA activities. This experiment will begin to elucidate the importance of biochemical

  18. Factors affecting bone mineral mass loss after lower-limb fractures in a pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceroni, Dimitri; Martin, Xavier; Kherad, Omar; Salvo, Davide; Dubois-Ferrière, Victor

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of the durations of cast immobilization and non-weight-bearing periods, and decreases in vigorous physical activity (VPA) on bone mineral parameters in a pediatric population treated for a lower-limb fracture. Fifty children and teenagers who had undergone a cast-mediated immobilization for a leg or ankle fracture were prospectively recruited. The durations of cast immobilization and non-weight-bearing periods were recorded for each participant. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scans were performed at the time of fracture treatment (baseline) and at cast removal. Physical activity during cast immobilization was assessed using accelerometers. A strong negative correlation was found between the total duration of cast immobilization and decreases in both calcaneal bone mineral density (BMD) (r=-0.497) and total lower-limb bone mineral content (BMC) (r=-0.405). A strong negative correlation was also noted between the durations of the non-weight-bearing periods and alterations in calcaneal BMD (r=-0.420). No apparent correlations were found between lower BMD and BMC and decreased VPA. Bone mineral loss was correlated to the total duration of cast immobilization for all measurement sites on the affected leg, whereas it was only correlated to the durations of non-weight-bearing periods for calcaneal BMD and total lower-limb BMC. However, no correlations were noted between bone mineral loss and decreased VPA.

  19. Increased body mass index is a predisposition for treatment by total hip replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Steffen; Sonne-Holm, Stig

    2005-01-01

    -joint degeneration and dysplasia. Sequential body mass index (BMI) measurements from 1976 to 1992, age, exposure to daily lifting and hip dysplasia were entered into logistic regression analyses. The prevalence of hip dysplasia ranged from 5.4% to 12.8% depending on the radiographical index used. Radiological hip OA...... prevalence was 1.0--2.5% in subjects or=60 years of age. While radiological OA was significantly influenced by hip dysplasia in men and hip dysplasia and age in women, the risk of THR being performed was only influenced by BMI assessed in 1976. Hip......We investigated the radiological and epidemiological data of 4,151 subjects followed up from 1976 to 2003 to determine individual risk factors for hip osteoarthritis (OA), hip pain and/or treatment by total hip replacement (THR). Pelvic radiographs recorded in 1992 were assessed for evidence of hip...

  20. Increased meal frequency attenuates fat-free mass losses and some markers of health status with a portion-controlled weight loss diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar, Michelle K; Beam, Jason R; McCormick, James J; White, Ailish C; Salgado, Roy M; Kravitz, Len R; Mermier, Christine M; Gibson, Ann L; Conn, Carole A; Kolkmeyer, Deborah; Ferraro, Robert T; Kerksick, Chad M

    2015-05-01

    Increased meal frequency (MF) may be associated with improvements in blood markers of health and body composition during weight loss; however, this claim has not been validated. The purpose of the study was to determine if either a 2-meal (2 MF) or 6-meal frequency (6 MF) regimen can improve body composition and blood-based markers of health while consuming a portion-controlled equihypocaloric diet. Eleven (N=11) obese women (52 ± 7 years, 101.7 ± 22.6 kg, 39.1 ± 7.6 kg/m(2)) were randomized into treatment condition (2 MF or 6 MF) for 2 weeks, completed a 2-week washout, and alternated treatment conditions. In pre/post fashion, changes in body composition, glucose, insulin, and lipid components were measured in response to a test meal. Body mass was successfully lost (P ≤ .05) under both feeding regimens (2 MF: -2.8 ± 1.5 vs 6 MF: -1.9 ± 1.5 kg). Altering MF did not impact glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P>.05). On average, fat-free mass (FFM) decreased by -3.3% ± 2.6% following the 2 MF condition and, on average, increased by 1.2% ± 1.7% following the 6 MF condition (P ≤ .05). Fasting high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) percentage increased during the 2 MF condition; this was significantly greater than that in the 6 MF condition (1.3% ± 12.2% vs 0.12% ± 10.3%) (P ≤ .05). Overall, reductions in MF (2 MF) were associated with improved HDL-C levels; but the clinical significance is not clear. Alternatively, increased MF (6 MF) did appear to favorably preserve FFM during weight loss. In conclusion, caloric restriction was effective in reducing body mass and attenuating FFM changes in body composition; however, glucose, insulin, and lipid metabolism had no significant differences between MF. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Influence of altitude training modality on performance and total haemoglobin mass in elite swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Clare E; Saunders, Philo U; Fowlie, John; Savage, Bernard; Pyne, David B; Anson, Judith M; Wachsmuth, Nadine; Prommer, Nicole; Gore, Christopher J

    2012-09-01

    We compared changes in performance and total haemoglobin mass (tHb) of elite swimmers in the weeks following either Classic or Live High:Train Low (LHTL) altitude training. Twenty-six elite swimmers (15 male, 11 female, 21.4 ± 2.7 years; mean ± SD) were divided into two groups for 3 weeks of either Classic or LHTL altitude training. Swimming performances over 100 or 200 m were assessed before altitude, then 1, 7, 14 and 28 days after returning to sea-level. Total haemoglobin mass was measured twice before altitude, then 1 and 14 days after return to sea-level. Changes in swimming performance in the first week after Classic and LHTL were compared against those of Race Control (n = 11), a group of elite swimmers who did not complete altitude training. In addition, a season-long comparison of swimming performance between altitude and non-altitude groups was undertaken to compare the progression of performances over the course of a competitive season. Regardless of altitude training modality, swimming performances were substantially slower 1 day (Classic 1.4 ± 1.3% and LHTL 1.6 ± 1.6%; mean ± 90% confidence limits) and 7 days (0.9 ± 1.0% and 1.9 ± 1.1%) after altitude compared to Race Control. In both groups, performances 14 and 28 days after altitude were not different from pre-altitude. The season-long comparison indicated that no clear advantage was obtained by swimmers who completed altitude training. Both Classic and LHTL elicited ~4% increases in tHb. Although altitude training induced erythropoeisis, this physiological adaptation did not transfer directly into improved competitive performance in elite swimmers.

  2. Implementation of a method to visualize noise-induced hearing loss in mass stranded cetaceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morell, Maria; Brownlow, Andrew; McGovern, Barry; Raverty, Stephen A.; Shadwick, Robert E.; André, Michel

    2017-02-01

    Assessment of the impact of noise over-exposure in stranded cetaceans is challenging, as the lesions that lead to hearing loss occur at the cellular level and inner ear cells are very sensitive to autolysis. Distinguishing ante-mortem pathology from post-mortem change has been a major constraint in diagnosing potential impact. Here, we outline a methodology applicable to the detection of noise-induced hearing loss in stranded cetaceans. Inner ears from two mass strandings of long-finned pilot whales in Scotland were processed for scanning electron microscopy observation. In one case, a juvenile animal, whose ears were fixed within 4 hours of death, revealed that many sensory cells at the apex of the cochlear spiral were missing. In this case, the absence of outer hair cells would be compatible with overexposure to underwater noise, affecting the region which transduces the lowest frequencies of the pilot whales hearing spectrum. Perfusion of cochlea with fixative greatly improved preservation and enabled diagnostic imaging of the organ of Corti, even 30 hours after death. This finding supports adopting a routine protocol to detect the pathological legacy of noise overexposure in mass stranded cetaceans as a key to understanding the complex processes and implications that lie behind such stranding events.

  3. Mass loss, levitation, accretion, and the sharp-lined features in hot white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruhweiler, F.C.; Kondo, Y.

    1983-01-01

    We have studied eight white dwarfs, seven DA and one He-rich types, observed at a high resolution (lambda/Δlambdaroughly-equal10 4 ) with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE). Of the seven DA white dwarfs, three show spectral signatures of ionized heavy elements, such as Si II, SI III, C IV, Si IV, and N V, arising in the immediate environment of these stars. The shortward-shifted lines in two (G191--B2B and 2111+49) of the three DA types showing metallic lines are tentatively interpreted as an indication of mass loss from these stars. The He-rich white dwarf shows the features due to C cV and He II, which also arise in the immediate environment of that star. Although the statistical sample presented here is limited, we tentatively suggest a temperature and effective gravity range (T/sub eff/> or approx. =20,000 K and log (g) < or approx. =8.0) in DA white dwarfs within which metallic lines are present either in the photosphere or in the halo of the stars. We examine the physical processes relevant to the appearance of such metallic lines. We tentatively propose that radiative levitation can explain the appearance of the observed lines in the hot DA white dwarfs, although the role of radiation forces in mass loss is not clear

  4. Carboxylic acid functional group analysis using constant neutral loss scanning-mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dron, Julien [Laboratoire de Chimie et Environnement, Marseille Universites (case 29), 3 place Victor Hugo, 13331 Marseille Cedex 3 (France)], E-mail: julien.dron@up.univ-mrs.fr; Eyglunent, Gregory; Temime-Roussel, Brice; Marchand, Nicolas; Wortham, Henri [Laboratoire de Chimie et Environnement, Marseille Universites (case 29), 3 place Victor Hugo, 13331 Marseille Cedex 3 (France)

    2007-12-12

    The present study describes the development of a new analytical technique for the functional group determination of the carboxylic moiety using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (APCI-MS/MS) operated in the constant neutral loss scanning (CNLS) mode. Carboxylic groups were first derivatized into their corresponding methyl esters by reacting with BF{sub 3}/methanol mix and the reaction mixture was then directly injected into the APCI chamber. The loss of methanol (m/z = 32 amu) resulting from the fragmentation of the protonated methyl esters was then monitored. Applying this method together with a statistical approach to reference mixtures containing 31 different carboxylic acids at randomly calculated concentrations demonstrated its suitability for quantitative functional group measurements with relative standard deviations below 15% and a detection limit of 0.005 mmol L{sup -1}. Its applicability to environmental matrices was also shown through the determination of carboxylic acid concentrations inside atmospheric aerosol samples. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time that the tandem mass spectrometry was successfully applied to functional group analysis, offering great perspectives in the characterization of complex mixtures which are prevailing in the field of environmental analysis as well as in the understanding of the chemical processes occurring in these matrices.

  5. Carboxylic acid functional group analysis using constant neutral loss scanning-mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dron, Julien; Eyglunent, Gregory; Temime-Roussel, Brice; Marchand, Nicolas; Wortham, Henri

    2007-01-01

    The present study describes the development of a new analytical technique for the functional group determination of the carboxylic moiety using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (APCI-MS/MS) operated in the constant neutral loss scanning (CNLS) mode. Carboxylic groups were first derivatized into their corresponding methyl esters by reacting with BF 3 /methanol mix and the reaction mixture was then directly injected into the APCI chamber. The loss of methanol (m/z = 32 amu) resulting from the fragmentation of the protonated methyl esters was then monitored. Applying this method together with a statistical approach to reference mixtures containing 31 different carboxylic acids at randomly calculated concentrations demonstrated its suitability for quantitative functional group measurements with relative standard deviations below 15% and a detection limit of 0.005 mmol L -1 . Its applicability to environmental matrices was also shown through the determination of carboxylic acid concentrations inside atmospheric aerosol samples. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time that the tandem mass spectrometry was successfully applied to functional group analysis, offering great perspectives in the characterization of complex mixtures which are prevailing in the field of environmental analysis as well as in the understanding of the chemical processes occurring in these matrices

  6. Impaired physical function, loss of muscle mass and assessment of biomechanical properties in critical ill patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Jesper Brøndum

    2012-01-01

    Intensive care unit (ICU) admission is associated with muscle weakness and ICU survivors report sustained limitation of physical capacity for years after discharge. Limited information is available on the underlying biomechanical properties responsible for this muscle function impairment. A plaus......Intensive care unit (ICU) admission is associated with muscle weakness and ICU survivors report sustained limitation of physical capacity for years after discharge. Limited information is available on the underlying biomechanical properties responsible for this muscle function impairment....... A plausible contributor to the accentuated catabolic drive in ICU patients is a synergistic response to inflammation and inactivity leading to loss of muscle mass. As these entities are predominantly present in the early phase of ICU stay, interventions employed during this time frame may exhibit the greatest...... potential to counteract loss of muscle mass. Despite the obvious clinical significance of muscle atrophy for the functional impairment observed in ICU survivors, no preventive therapies have been identified as yet. The overall aim of the present dissertation is to characterize aspects of physical function...

  7. The circumstellar shells and mass loss rates of four M supergiants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernat, A.P.

    1977-01-01

    A reanalysis of the physical structure of the circumstellar gas shells of four bright M supergiants, Betelgeuse, Antares, α Herculis, and μ Cephei, has been undertaken. The observational data include old Hale Observatories plates, recent McDonald Struve telescope plates, and McDonald 2.7 m photoelectric scans. These data are analyzed in the full expanding spherical geometry formulation of the radiative transfer equation.The results of the present analysis indicate that column densities in the gas shells must be revised downward compared with the previous plane-parallel results. However, the physical extents of the shells are considerably larger than previously assumed. These extents are inferred through ionization modeling, Weymann's Ca II technique, and direct observation. Also inferred are schematic wavelength-dependent chromospheric color temperatures. These results lead to much larger mass loss rates (in the range 6.7 x 10 -7 to 4.2 x 10 -4 M/sub sun/ yr -2 ) than previously inferred. The influence of these large rates of mass loss on the evolution of both stars and the Galaxy is briefly discussed

  8. Evolution of thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch stars. IV. Constraining mass loss and lifetimes of low mass, low metallicity AGB stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenfield, Philip; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Weisz, Daniel; Williams, Benjamin F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Marigo, Paola [Department of Physics and Astronomy G. Galilei, University of Padova, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 3, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Girardi, Léo; Gullieuszik, Marco [Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova—INAF, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Bressan, Alessandro [Astrophysics Sector, SISSA, Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste (Italy); Dolphin, Andrew [Raytheon Company, 1151 East Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Aringer, Bernhard [Department of Astrophysics, University of Vienna, Turkenschanzstraße 17, A-1180 Wien (Austria)

    2014-07-20

    The evolution and lifetimes of thermally pulsating asymptotic giant branch (TP-AGB) stars suffer from significant uncertainties. In this work, we analyze the numbers and luminosity functions of TP-AGB stars in six quiescent, low metallicity ([Fe/H] ≲ –0.86) galaxies taken from the ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury sample, using Hubble Space Telescope (HST) photometry in both optical and near-infrared filters. The galaxies contain over 1000 TP-AGB stars (at least 60 per field). We compare the observed TP-AGB luminosity functions and relative numbers of TP-AGB and red giant branch (RGB) stars, N{sub TP-AGB}/N{sub RGB}, to models generated from different suites of TP-AGB evolutionary tracks after adopting star formation histories derived from the HST deep optical observations. We test various mass-loss prescriptions that differ in their treatments of mass loss before the onset of dust-driven winds (pre-dust). These comparisons confirm that pre-dust mass loss is important, since models that neglect pre-dust mass loss fail to explain the observed N{sub TP-AGB}/N{sub RGB} ratio or the luminosity functions. In contrast, models with more efficient pre-dust mass loss produce results consistent with observations. We find that for [Fe/H] ≲ –0.86, lower mass TP-AGB stars (M ≲ 1 M{sub ☉}) must have lifetimes of ∼0.5 Myr and higher masses (M ≲ 3 M{sub ☉}) must have lifetimes ≲ 1.2 Myr. In addition, assuming our best-fitting mass-loss prescription, we show that the third dredge-up has no significant effect on TP-AGB lifetimes in this mass and metallicity range.

  9. Custom total knee replacement in a dog with femoral condylar bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liska, William D; Marcellin-Little, Denis J; Eskelinen, Esa V; Sidebotham, Christopher G; Harrysson, Ola L A; Hielm-Björkman, Anna K

    2007-06-01

    To report surgical planning, technique, and outcome of custom total knee replacement (TKR) performed to manage a medial femoral condylar nonunion in a dog. Clinical case report. A 3-year-old, 20 kg Karelian Bear Hound. Computed tomographic scan of the left pelvic limb was used to build a stereolithography model of the distal portion of the femur. The model was used to create a custom augment to replace the missing medial femoral condyle and a custom stem for intramedullary condylar cemented fixation. The augment and stem were adapted to femoral and tibial components already available. The model was used to rehearse the surgery and then the custom prosthesis was implanted. Weight bearing returned 8 hours after surgery and improved thereafter. Joint alignment was normal and prosthetic joint motion was 60-165 degrees postoperatively. The dog resumed moose hunting 3 months after surgery. Peak vertical force and impulse of the operated limb measured 17 months after surgery were 65% and 47% of the normal, contralateral limb. Based on short-term follow-up, cemented canine TKR was successfully achieved for management of a severely abnormal stifle joint. With further refinement and development of commercially available prostheses, TKR should be possible for canine patients.

  10. The Roles of Tidal Evolution and Evaporative Mass Loss in the Origin of CoRoT-7 b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Brian; Miller, Neil; Barnes, Rory; Raymond, Sean N.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Greenberg, Richard

    2010-01-01

    CoRoT-7 b is the first confirmed rocky exoplanet, but, with an orbital semimajor axis of 0.0172 au, its origins may be unlike any rocky planet in our Solar System. In this study, we consider the roles of tidal evolution and evaporative mass loss in CoRoT-7 b's history, which together have modified the planet's mass and orbit. If CoRoT-7 b has always been a rocky body, evaporation may have driven off almost half its original mass, but the mass loss may depend sensitively on the extent of tidal decay of its orbit. As tides caused CoRoT-7 b's orbit to decay, they brought the planet closer to its host star, thereby enhancing the mass loss rate. Such a large mass loss also suggests the possibility that CoRoT-7 b began as a gas giant planet and had its original atmosphere completely evaporated. In this case, we find that CoRoT-7 b's original mass probably did not exceed 200 Earth masses (about two-third of a Jupiter mass). Tides raised on the host star by the planet may have significantly reduced the orbital semimajor axis, perhaps causing the planet to migrate through mean-motion resonances with the other planet in the system, CoRoT-7 c. The coupling between tidal evolution and mass loss may be important not only for CoRoT-7 b but also for other close-in exoplanets, and future studies of mass loss and orbital evolution may provide insight into the origin and fate of close-in planets, both rocky and gaseous.

  11. Comparison of topical and intravenous administration of tranexamic acid for blood loss control during total joint replacement: Review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgi P. Georgiev

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Many randomised controlled trials and meta-analysis studies have presented the efficacy of tranexamic acid (TXA without an increase of complications. However, questions still remain about the type of administration, optimal dose and secondary outcomes of TXA in total hip arthroplasty and total knee arthroplasty. The aim of this review is to summarise the existing information in literature concerning the pharmacological characteristics of TXA, forms, doses, types of application and contraindications for its use. Methods: A literature review containing 63 articles from the PubMed data starting from the first description of tranexamic acid until now was made in trying to present the existing information in a simple and effective way. Results: TXA leads to statistically significant reduction of peri and postoperative bleeding and in that way decreases blood transfusion rates and the infection risk. Topical and intravenous (IV use of TXA revealed similar results, with no increase of deep venous thrombosis. Therefore, topical TXA could be a reasonable alternative in patients with contraindications for IV application of TXA. Conclusions: Blood loss control with TXA, a synthetic analogue of the amino acid lysine, may be an excellent and safe alternative to allogeneic blood transfusion after total hip arthroplasty and total knee arthroplasty. Further studies are needed to establish the efficacy of combined IV and topical administration of TXA with regard to diminishing blood loss and reducing hospital stay. The Translational Potential of this Article: This review briefly presents the pharmacological characteristics of TXA, forms, doses, types of application and contraindications for its use with regard to diminishing blood loss and reducing hospital stay for better therapeutic strategies in orthopaedics. Keywords: Arthroplasty, Review, Tranexamic acid

  12. Mass loss of stars on the asymptotic giant branch. Mechanisms, models and measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höfner, Susanne; Olofsson, Hans

    2018-01-01

    As low- and intermediate-mass stars reach the asymptotic giant branch (AGB), they have developed into intriguing and complex objects that are major players in the cosmic gas/dust cycle. At this stage, their appearance and evolution are strongly affected by a range of dynamical processes. Large-scale convective flows bring newly-formed chemical elements to the stellar surface and, together with pulsations, they trigger shock waves in the extended stellar atmosphere. There, massive outflows of gas and dust have their origin, which enrich the interstellar medium and, eventually, lead to a transformation of the cool luminous giants into white dwarfs. Dust grains forming in the upper atmospheric layers play a critical role in the wind acceleration process, by scattering and absorbing stellar photons and transferring their outward-directed momentum to the surrounding gas through collisions. Recent progress in high-angular-resolution instrumentation, from the visual to the radio regime, is leading to valuable new insights into the complex dynamical atmospheres of AGB stars and their wind-forming regions. Observations are revealing asymmetries and inhomogeneities in the photospheric and dust-forming layers which vary on time-scales of months, as well as more long-lived large-scale structures in the circumstellar envelopes. High-angular-resolution observations indicate at what distances from the stars dust condensation occurs, and they give information on the chemical composition and sizes of dust grains in the close vicinity of cool giants. These are essential constraints for building realistic models of wind acceleration and developing a predictive theory of mass loss for AGB stars, which is a crucial ingredient of stellar and galactic chemical evolution models. At present, it is still not fully possible to model all these phenomena from first principles, and to predict the mass-loss rate based on fundamental stellar parameters only. However, much progress has been made

  13. Mass ablation and magnetic flux losses through a magnetized plasma-liner wall interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rubio, F.; Sanz, J.

    2017-07-01

    The understanding of energy and magnetic flux losses in a magnetized plasma medium confined by a cold wall is of great interest in the success of magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF). In a MagLIF scheme, the fuel is magnetized and subsonically compressed by a cylindrical liner. Magnetic flux conservation is degraded by the presence of gradient-driven transport processes such as thermoelectric effects (Nernst) and magnetic field diffusion. In previous publications [Velikovich et al., Phys. Plasmas 22, 042702 (2015)], the evolution of a hot magnetized plasma in contact with a cold solid wall (liner) was studied using the classical collisional Braginskii's plasma transport equations in one dimension. The Nernst term degraded the magnetic flux conservation, while both thermal energy and magnetic flux losses were reduced with the electron Hall parameter ωeτe with a power-law asymptotic scaling (ωeτe)-1/2. In the analysis made in the present paper, we consider a similar situation, but with the liner being treated differently. Instead of a cold solid wall acting as a heat sink, we model the liner as a cold dense plasma with low thermal conduction (that could represent the cryogenic fuel layer added on the inner surface of the liner in a high-gain MagLIF configuration). Mass ablation comes into play, which adds notably differences to the previous analysis. The direction of the plasma motion is inverted, but the Nernst term still convects the magnetic field towards the liner. Magnetization suppresses the Nernst velocity and improves the magnetic flux conservation. Thermal energy in the hot plasma is lost in heating the ablated material. When the electron Hall parameter is large, mass ablation scales as (ωeτe)-3/10, while both the energy and magnetic flux losses are reduced with a power-law asymptotic scaling (ωeτe)-7/10.

  14. Process Improvement Project Using Tranexamic Acid Is Cost-Effective in Reducing Blood Loss and Transfusions After Total Hip and Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demos, Harry A; Lin, Zilan X; Barfield, William R; Wilson, Sylvia H; Robertson, Dawn C; Pellegrini, Vincent D

    2017-08-01

    Tranexamic acid (TXA) has been associated with decreased blood loss and transfusion after total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The purpose of this study was to examine both transfusion utilization and the economic impact of a Process Improvement Project implementing TXA for THA and TKA. After standardization of TXA administration in THA and TKA patients, retrospective data were compared from 12 consecutive months before (group A, n = 336 procedures) and after (group B, n = 436 procedures) project initiation. TXA administration increased with project implementation (group A = 3.57%, group B = 86.01%) and was associated with reductions in perioperative hemoglobin decrement (20.2%), patients transfused (45%), and number of units transfused per patient (61.9%). Cost savings were notable per patient ($128) and annually program wide ($55,884) with the primary THA subgroup contributing the most to the savings. No increase in adverse effects was observed. Standardized administration of TXA is an effective and economically favorable blood-reduction strategy for patients undergoing elective THA or TKA. Although reduction in transfusions with TXA may be greater after TKA, the economic and clinical impact of transfusion reduction is more substantial in THA patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Possibilities and consequences of the Total Cumulative Exergy Loss method in improving the sustainability of power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stougie, Lydia; Kooi, Hedzer J. van der

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The TCExL method can be applied to all kinds of technological systems. • All exergy losses during the lifetime of a technological system are considered. • The results of the TCExL method are independent of time and weighting factors. • Applying the TCExL method can improve the sustainability of power generation. • The system with the lowest TCExL score is not always economically favourable. - Abstract: It is difficult to decide which power generation system is the most sustainable when environmental, economic and social sustainability aspects are taken into account. Problems with conventional environmental sustainability assessment methods are that no consensus exists about the applied models and weighting factors and that exergy losses are not considered. Economic sustainability assessment methods do not lead to results that are independent of time because they are influenced by market developments, while social sustainability assessment methods suffer from the availability and qualitative or semi-quantitative nature of data. Existing exergy analysis methods do not take into account all exergy losses and/or are extended with factors or equations that are not commonly accepted. The new Total Cumulative Exergy Loss (TCExL) method is based on fundamental thermodynamic equations and takes into account all exergy losses caused by a technological system during its life cycle, i.e. internal exergy losses, exergy losses caused by emission abatement and exergy losses related to land use. The development of the TCExL method is presented as well as the application of this method and environmental, economic and social sustainability assessment methods to two case studies: power generation in combination with LNG evaporation and Fossil versus renewable energy sources for power generation. According to the results of the assessments, large differences exist between the environmental sustainability assessment and TCExL methods in the sense that different

  16. Quantification of total hexose on dry blood spot by tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zhenhua; Tian, Guoli; Huang, Qiwei; Wang, Yanmin; Ge, Qingwei

    2012-12-01

    Because hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia are harmful and not always associated with overt clinical signs, it is necessary to have methods available to screen for glucose levels to detect hypoglycemia and diabetes as early as possible. A new method for such screening and the clinical determination of blood total hexose on a dry blood spot (DBS) using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) was developed. The serum glucose controls and blood were prepared as DBS and then extracted into a methanol solution containing isotope-labeled internal standards. The methanolic extraction was subjected to HPLC, followed by MS/MS in positive ion mode. Multiple-reaction monitoring of m/z 203.1→23 was used to detect hexose, and m/z 209.0→23 was used for 13C6-D-glucose. The recoveries of blood glucose by MS/MS were 90%-102% with an R(2) value of 0.999 after linear regression (pblood total hexose in neonates aged 3-7 days (6.41±1.46 mmol/L) was lower than that in neonates aged 8-30 days (6.66±1.38 mmol/L), and it was lower in neonates than in children aged 1-72 months (7.19±1.87 mmol/L). Quantification of total hexose on a dry blood spot by MS/MS is accurate, reliable and feasible for screening and clinical tests. Copyright © 2012 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The evolution of low-mass close binary systems. IV. 0.80 M/sub sun/+0.40 M/sub sun/: Catastrophic mass loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webbink, R.F.

    1977-01-01

    The evolution of both components of a 0.80 M/sub sun/+0.40 M/sub sun/ binary with initial separation 1.60 R/sub sun/ is presented. This system reaches mass transfer during core hydrogen burning in the primary. The primary has such a deep convective envelope that mass transfer proceeds on a dynamical time scale. Mass exchange is followed through the first 6.25 x 10 -3 M/sub sun/, by which time the transfer rate has reached 8.33 x 10 -4 M/sub sun/ yr -1 .It is shown that mass transfer on a dynamical time scale leads to supercritical accretion by the secondary component, and hence is presumably accompanied by extensive mass and angular momentum losses. Stability against such rapid mass transfer may impose severe limitations on the masses and mass ratios of cataclysmic variables

  18. Decreasing cloud cover drives the recent mass loss on the Greenland Ice Sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Stefan; Tedstone, Andrew J; Fettweis, Xavier; Bamber, Jonathan L

    2017-06-01

    The Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) has been losing mass at an accelerating rate since the mid-1990s. This has been due to both increased ice discharge into the ocean and melting at the surface, with the latter being the dominant contribution. This change in state has been attributed to rising temperatures and a decrease in surface albedo. We show, using satellite data and climate model output, that the abrupt reduction in surface mass balance since about 1995 can be attributed largely to a coincident trend of decreasing summer cloud cover enhancing the melt-albedo feedback. Satellite observations show that, from 1995 to 2009, summer cloud cover decreased by 0.9 ± 0.3% per year. Model output indicates that the GrIS summer melt increases by 27 ± 13 gigatons (Gt) per percent reduction in summer cloud cover, principally because of the impact of increased shortwave radiation over the low albedo ablation zone. The observed reduction in cloud cover is strongly correlated with a state shift in the North Atlantic Oscillation promoting anticyclonic conditions in summer and suggests that the enhanced surface mass loss from the GrIS is driven by synoptic-scale changes in Arctic-wide atmospheric circulation.

  19. Total homocysteine is positively correlated with body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, and fat mass among overweight reproductive women: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bayyari, Nahla; Hamadneh, Jehan; Hailat, Rae'd; Hamadneh, Shereen

    2017-12-01

    Conflicting associations between total homocysteine (tHcy), body mass index (BMI) lean body mass, and fat mass in the general population have been reported. We investigated the hypothesis that elevated tHcy levels are associated with increased BMI, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and body fat mass percent. In Jordan, obesity and overweight are prevalent among reproductive women and hyperhomocysteinemia, along with obesity and overweight, are independent risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. The participants used in this cross-sectional study were 325 overweight Jordanian women aged between 18 and 49 years old. The main outcome measures were tHcy, BMI, WHR, fat mass, fat-free mass, and total body water. Serum tHcy was analyzed using a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrophotometry (LC-MS/MS) complete kit. The body compositions were measured using a bioelectrical impedance analyzer. Study participants were stratified according to their tHcy level into two groups, ≤10 μmol/L and >10 μmol/L, and the difference between mean values of body compositions was evaluated. The tHcy was significantly and negatively correlated with age, fat-free mass, and total body water, and significantly and positively correlated with BMI, hip circumference, WHR, fat mass, and dry lean weight. The chi-square and the independent sample t-tests showed statistically significant (P ≤ .05) differences between tHcy and BMI, WHR, fat and fat-free mass, and total body water percentages. In conclusion, BMI, WHR and body fat mass were found to be associated with elevated tHcy levels among overweight reproductive women, and they might be used as independent predictors of the tHcy level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Thermal hydraulic analysis of aggressive secondary cooldown in a small break loss of coolant accident with a total loss of high pressure safety injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Seok Jung; Lim, Ho Gon; Yang, Joon Eon

    2003-01-01

    To support the development of a Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) model usable in Riskinformed Applications (RIA) for Korea Standard Nuclear power Plants (KSNP), we have performed a thermal hydraulic analysis of Aggressive Secondary Cooldown (ASC) in a 2-inch Small Break Loss Of Coolant Accident (SBLOCA) with a total loss of High Pressure Safety Injection (HPSI). The present study focuses on the estimation of the success criteria of ASC, and the enhanced understanding of the detailed thermal hydraulic behavior and phenomena. The results have shown that the Reactor Coolant System (RCS) pressure can be reduced to the Low Pressure Safety Injection (LPSI) operation conditions without core damage. It was also shown that more relaxed success criteria compared to those in the previous PSA models of KSNP could be used in the new PSA model. However, it was found that the results could be affected by various parameters related with ASC operation, i.e., reference temperature for the calculation of the cooldown rate and its control method

  1. Thermal hydraulic analysis of aggressive secondary cooldown in small break loss of coolant accident with total loss of high pressure safety injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, S. J.; Im, H. K.; Yang, J. U.

    2003-01-01

    Recently, Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) has being applied to various fields as a basic technique of Risk-Informed Applications (RIA). To use RIA, the present study focuses on the detailed thermal hydraulic analyses for major accident sequences and success criteria to support a development of PSA model for Korea Standard Nuclear Power plant (KSNP). The primary purpose of the present study is to evaluate the success criteria of Aggressive Secondary Cooldown (ASC) in Small Break Loss Of Coolant Accident (SBLOCA) with total loss of High Pressure Safety Injection (HPSI) and to enhance the understanding of related thermal hydraulic behavior and phenomena. The accident scenario was 2 inch coldleg break LOCA without HPSI, with 1/2 Low Pressure Safety Injection (LPSI), and performing ASC limited by 55.6 .deg. C /hr (100 .deg. F/hr) cooldown rate at 15 minute after reactor trip, which successively reaches the LPSI condition for about 1.5hr after starting ASC operation with the Peak Cladding Temperature (PCT) of the hottest rod below the core damage criteria 1204.4 .deg. C (2200 .deg. F). In the present study, more relaxed success criteria than the previous PSA for KSNP could be generated under an assumption that operator should maintain the adequate ASC operation. However, it is necessary to evaluate uncertainties arisen from the related parameters of the ASC operation

  2. Total β-decay energies and masses of tin, antimony and tellurium isotopes in the vicinity of 50132Sn82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, E.; Aleklett, K.; Rudstam, G.

    1977-01-01

    Experimental β-decay energies for short-lived isotopes of tin, antimony and tellurium are presented. Mass-separated sources were produced at the on-line isotope separator OSIRIS. By applying β-γ coincidence methods, total β-decay energies have been determined for the following nuclides: 127-131 Sn, 128 130 131 134 Sb and 134 135 Te. The atomic mass excess has been derived for these nuclei, and comparisons are made with mass formula predictions. (Auth.)

  3. Mass number dependence of total neutron cross section; a discussion based on the semi-classical optical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angeli, Istvan

    1990-01-01

    The dependence of total neutron cross section on mass number can be calculated by the black nucleus formula, according to the optical model. The fine structure of mass number dependence is studied, and a correction factor formula is given on the basis of a semi-classical optical model. Yielding results in good agreement with experimental data. In addition to the mass number dependence, the neutron-energy dependence can also be calculated using this model. (K.A.)

  4. Comparison of Two Methods of Bolus and Infusion of Tranexamic Acid in Reduction of Blood Loss in Total Knee Arthroplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadreza Moshari; Bahman Malek; Mohammadreza Minator-Sajjadi; Maryam Vosoghian; Mastaneh Dahi; Mahshid Ghasemi; Razieh Shekari

    2018-01-01

    AbstractBackground: So far, many studies have been performed to determine the optimal dose and regimen of tranexamic acid to reduce preoperative and postoperative blood loss in primary total knee arthroplasty. In the present study, two different methods of administration (bolus and infusion), were compared.Materials and Methods: Forty patients were randomized in the two groups (A and B) of 20 patients each. All patients received 500 mg tranexamic acid before inflation of tourniquet. Group A (...

  5. Total projectile electron loss cross sections of U^{28+} ions in collisions with gaseous targets ranging from hydrogen to krypton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Weber

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Beam lifetimes of stored U^{28+} ions with kinetic energies of 30 and 50  MeV/u, respectively, were measured in the experimental storage ring of the GSI accelerator facility. By using the internal gas target station of the experimental storage ring, it was possible to obtain total projectile electron loss cross sections for collisions with several gaseous targets ranging from hydrogen to krypton from the beam lifetime data. The resulting experimental cross sections are compared to predictions by two theoretical approaches, namely the CTMC method and a combination of the DEPOSIT code and the RICODE program.

  6. Evaluation of feed and bleed cooling mode in case of total loss of feedwater on 900 MWe PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champ, M.; Cornille, Y.

    1989-07-01

    The physical studies carried out with the CATHARE code to assess the feed and bleed procedure developed in order to cope with the total loss of feed water on a 900 MWe PWR are presented. These studies allowed the definition of the maximum delays of intervention which would prevent the core from uncovering. Different cases of equipment availability are considered. The data generated will be used in the 900 MWe Probabilistic Safety Assessment which is under way at the Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire

  7. Measurement of spinal or peripheral bone mass to estimate early postmenopausal bone loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riis, B.J.; Christiansen, C.

    1988-01-01

    This report presents data from 153 healthy, early postmenopausal women who were randomly allocated to two years of treatment with estrogen or placebo. Bone mineral content in the forearms was measured by single-photon absorptiometry, and bone mineral density of the lumbar spine and total-body bone mineral by dual-photon absorptiometry, before and after one and two years of treatment. At the end of the two years, there were highly significant differences of 6 to 7 percent between the estrogen and the placebo groups at all sites measured. The range of the changes of the spine measurement was twice that of the forearm and total-body measurements. It is concluded that measurement of the forearm by single-photon absorptiometry is superior to measurement of the spine by dual-photon absorptiometry both in clinical studies and in the individual patient for detecting estrogen-dependent bone loss and its treatment by estrogen replacement

  8. Resource loss as a predictor of posttrauma symptoms among college women following the mass shooting at Virginia Tech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littleton, Heather; Grills-Taquechel, Amie; Axsom, Danny

    2009-01-01

    We examined risk factors for posttrauma symptomatology, 2 and 6 months following the April 2007 mass shooting at Virginia Tech. Using a conservation of resources framework and a Web-based survey methodology, we prospectively evaluated the relations among preshooting distress, social support, resource loss, and posttrauma symptomatology in a sample of 293 female students enrolled at the university at the time of the shootings. Structural equation modeling supported that preshooting social support and distress predicted resource loss postshooting. Resource loss predicted symptomatology 2 months and 6 months after the shooting. Implications of the results for research and intervention following mass trauma are discussed.

  9. Premature loss of muscle mass and function in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, N; Bunout, D; Hirsch, S; Barrera, G; Leiva, L; Henríquez, S; De la Maza, M P

    2016-07-01

    Muscle mass and function are among the most relevant factors that contribute to an optimal quality of life, and are strong predictors of mortality in the elderly. Loss of lean tissues and deterioration of muscle function have been described as one of the many complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2), but most studies do not isolate age as an intervening factor. To study whether adult DM2 patients up to 60years of age have decreased muscle mass and function compared with healthy non-diabetic (ND) subjects of similar age. Appendicular fat-free mass (ApFFM) by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), handgrip strength (HS), quadriceps strength (QS), 12 min walking capacity (12MW) and the Timed Up and Go test (TUG) were measured in 100 DM2 patients and 39 ND controls. Muscle quality, or the ratio between lean mass and muscle strength of upper and lower limbs, and the functional limitations associated with pain and stiffness assessed according to the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthrosis Index (WOMAC) were also recorded. Specific tests were performed to rule out microvascular diabetic complications (retinal and peripheral nerves), metabolic control, kidney function and vitamin D status and examine their association with ApFFM and function. ApFFM was significantly higher among DM2 female patients and lower among diabetic men. However opposite results were obtained when individual values were corrected for body mass index (BMI), specifically among women, who were more likely to be obese. As for muscle strength and global functionality tests, significantly better performances in TUG, 12MW, QS and HS were observed among ND subjects of both sexes. These differences prevailed even after excluding diabetic patients with microvascular complications as well as those with more than 10years of diabetes. Muscle quality was also significantly better among ND women. Higher scores of pain and stiffness in the WOMAC scale correlated with 12MW and TUG in both groups but

  10. Spatial pattern of mass loss processes across the Greenland Ice Sheet from the Little Ice Age to 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, K. H.; Korsgaard, N. J.; Kjeldsen, K. K.

    The Greenland Ice Sheet loses mass through surface meltwater runoff and discharge from marine terminating outlet glaciers. The spatial variability and magnitude of these processes have been studied and described in detail for the past decades. Here, we combine the mass loss between the LIA to 2010...... these components are variable between the different sectors of the GrIS, e.g. in the southeast sector of the GrIS we find substantial mass loss, possibly driven by high precipitation rates but also the presence of a large number of marine terminating glaciers. Furthermore many areas currently undergoing changes...

  11. Body mass and weight thresholds for increased prosthetic joint infection rates after primary total joint arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lübbeke, Anne; Zingg, Matthieu; Vu, Diemlan; Miozzari, Hermes H; Christofilopoulos, Panayiotis; Uçkay, Ilker; Harbarth, Stephan; Hoffmeyer, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Obesity increases the risk of deep infection after total joint arthroplasty (TJA). Our objective was to determine whether there may be body mass index (BMI) and weight thresholds indicating a higher prosthetic joint infection rate. We included all 9,061 primary hip and knee arthroplasties (mean age 70 years, 61% women) performed between March 1996 and December 2013 where the patient had received intravenous cefuroxime (1.5 g) perioperatively. The main exposures of interest were BMI (5 categories: prosthetic joint infection. The mean follow-up time was 6.5 years (0.5-18 years). 111 prosthetic joint infections were observed: 68 postoperative, 16 hematogenous, and 27 of undetermined cause. Incidence rates were similar in the first 3 BMI categories (infection from the early postoperative period onward (adjusted HR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.3-3.6). BMI ≥ 35 or weight ≥ 100 kg may serve as a cutoff for higher perioperative dosage of antibiotics.

  12. Comparison of Two Methods of Bolus and Infusion of Tranexamic Acid in Reduction of Blood Loss in Total Knee Arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Moshari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground: So far, many studies have been performed to determine the optimal dose and regimen of tranexamic acid to reduce preoperative and postoperative blood loss in primary total knee arthroplasty. In the present study, two different methods of administration (bolus and infusion, were compared.Materials and Methods: Forty patients were randomized in the two groups (A and B of 20 patients each. All patients received 500 mg tranexamic acid before inflation of tourniquet. Group A (mean age, 64± 6.1 years received 500 mg tranexamic acid 10 minutes before loosening of tourniquet and group B (mean age, 63.5 ± 7.7 years received 500 mg tranexamic acid through IV infusion during 6 hours from the time of tourniquet loosening (total dose of TA, 1 g in both groups. Intraoperative blood loss,postoperative drainage (in 6 and 12 hours, blood transfusion (in 48 hours, and decrease in hematocrit and hemoglobin (6 and 12 hours later, were compared between the two groups.Results: The patients in group B had lower intra- and postoperative blood loss in 6 and 12 hours and also had lower decrease in hemoglobin, and their packed cell transfusion rate was significantly lower compared to the group A.Conclusion: The findings of this study indicated that infusion administration of tranexamic acid in primary total knee arthroplasty, was more effective in the reduction of perioperative blood loss as well as need for blood transfusion in 48 hours.

  13. Contributions of natural and anthropogenic radiative forcing to mass loss of Northern Hemisphere mountain glaciers and quantifying their uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirabayashi, Yukiko; Nakano, Kazunari; Zhang, Yong; Watanabe, Satoshi; Tanoue, Masahiro; Kanae, Shinjiro

    2016-07-20

    Observational evidence indicates that a number of glaciers have lost mass in the past. Given that glaciers are highly impacted by the surrounding climate, human-influenced global warming may be partly responsible for mass loss. However, previous research studies have been limited to analyzing the past several decades, and it remains unclear whether past glacier mass losses are within the range of natural internal climate variability. Here, we apply an optimal fingerprinting technique to observed and reconstructed mass losses as well as multi-model general circulation model (GCM) simulations of mountain glacier mass to detect and attribute past glacier mass changes. An 8,800-year control simulation of glaciers enabled us to evaluate detectability. The results indicate that human-induced increases in greenhouse gases have contributed to the decreased area-weighted average masses of 85 analyzed glaciers. The effect was larger than the mass increase caused by natural forcing, although the contributions of natural and anthropogenic forcing to decreases in mass varied at the local scale. We also showed that the detection of anthropogenic or natural influences could not be fully attributed when natural internal climate variability was taken into account.

  14. Contributions of natural and anthropogenic radiative forcing to mass loss of Northern Hemisphere mountain glaciers and quantifying their uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirabayashi, Yukiko; Nakano, Kazunari; Zhang, Yong; Watanabe, Satoshi; Tanoue, Masahiro; Kanae, Shinjiro

    2016-07-01

    Observational evidence indicates that a number of glaciers have lost mass in the past. Given that glaciers are highly impacted by the surrounding climate, human-influenced global warming may be partly responsible for mass loss. However, previous research studies have been limited to analyzing the past several decades, and it remains unclear whether past glacier mass losses are within the range of natural internal climate variability. Here, we apply an optimal fingerprinting technique to observed and reconstructed mass losses as well as multi-model general circulation model (GCM) simulations of mountain glacier mass to detect and attribute past glacier mass changes. An 8,800-year control simulation of glaciers enabled us to evaluate detectability. The results indicate that human-induced increases in greenhouse gases have contributed to the decreased area-weighted average masses of 85 analyzed glaciers. The effect was larger than the mass increase caused by natural forcing, although the contributions of natural and anthropogenic forcing to decreases in mass varied at the local scale. We also showed that the detection of anthropogenic or natural influences could not be fully attributed when natural internal climate variability was taken into account.

  15. Deviation from goal pace, body temperature and body mass loss as predictors of road race performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, William M; Hosokawa, Yuri; Belval, Luke N; Huggins, Robert A; Stearns, Rebecca L; Casa, Douglas J

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between pacing, gastrointestinal temperature (T GI ), and percent body mass loss (%BML) on relative race performance during a warm weather 11.3km road race. Observational study of a sample of active runners competing in the 2014 Falmouth Road Race. Participants ingested a T GI pill and donned a GPS enabled watch with heart rate monitoring capabilities prior to the start of the race. Percent off predicted pace (% OFF ) was calculated for seven segments of the race. Separate linear regression analyses were used to assess the relationship between pace, T ​GI , and %BML on relative race performance. One-way ANOVA was used to analyse post race T GI (≥40°C vs 0.05). There was a trend in a slower pace (p=0.055) and greater % OFF (p=0.056) in runners finishing the race with a T GI >40°C. Overall, finish time was influenced by greater variations in pace during the first two miles of the race. In addition, runners who minimized fluid losses and had lower T GI were associated with meeting self-predicted goals. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Tidal heating and mass loss in neutron star binaries - Implications for gamma-ray burst models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meszaros, P.; Rees, M. J.

    1992-01-01

    A neutron star in a close binary orbit around another neutron star (or stellar-mass black hole) spirals inward owing to gravitational radiation. We discuss the effects of tidal dissipation during this process. Tidal energy dissipated in the neutron star's core escapes mainly as neutrinos, but heating of the crust, and outward diffusion of photons, blows off the outer layers of the star. This photon-driven mass loss precedes the final coalescence. The presence of this eject material impedes the escape of gamma-rays created via neutrino interactions. If an e(+) - e(-) fireball, created in the late stages of coalescence, were loaded with (or surrounded by) material with the mean column density of the ejecta, it could not be an efficient source of gamma-rays. Models for cosmologically distant gamma-rays burst that involve neutron stars must therefore be anisotropic, so that the fireball expands preferentially in directions where the column density of previously blown-off material is far below the spherically averaged value which we have calculated. Some possible 'scenarios' along these lines are briefly discussed.

  17. Exploring the effect of East Antarctic ice mass loss on GIA-induced horizontal bedrock motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konfal, S. A.; Whitehouse, P. L.; Hermans, T.; van der Wal, W.; Wilson, T. J.; Bevis, M. G.; Kendrick, E. C.; Dalziel, I.; Smalley, R., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    Ice history inputs used in Antarctic models of GIA include major centers of ice mass loss in West Antarctica. In the Transantarctic Mountains (TAM) region spanning the boundary between East and West Antarctica, horizontal crustal motions derived from GPS observations from the Antarctic Network (ANET) component of the Polar Earth Observing Network (POLENET) are towards these West Antarctic ice mass centers, opposite to the pattern of radial crustal motion expected in an unloading scenario. We investigate alternative ice history and earth structure inputs to GIA models in an attempt to reproduce observed crustal motions in the region. The W12 ice history model is altered to create scenarios including ice unloading in the Wilkes Subglacial Basin based on available glaciological records. These altered ice history models, along with the unmodified W12 ice history model, are coupled with 60 radially varying (1D) earth model combinations, including approximations of optimal earth profiles identified in published GIA models. The resulting model-predicted motions utilizing both the modified and unmodified ice history models fit ANET GPS-derived crustal motions in the northern TAM region for a suite of earth model combinations. Further south, where the influence of simulated Wilkes unloading is weakest and West Antarctic unloading is strongest, observed and predicted motions do not agree. The influence of simulated Wilkes ice unloading coupled with laterally heterogeneous earth models is also investigated. The resulting model-predicted motions do not differ significantly between the original W12 and W12 with simulated Wilkes unloading ice histories.

  18. Standard test method for analysis of total and isotopic uranium and total thorium in soils by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the measurement of total uranium (U) and thorium (Th) concentrations in soils, as well as the determination of the isotopic weight percentages of 234U, 235U, 236U, and 238U, thereby allowing for the calculation of individual isotopic uranium activity or total uranium activity. This inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) method is intended as an alternative analysis to methods such as alpha spectroscopy or thermal ionization mass spectroscopy (TIMS). Also, while this test method covers only those isotopes listed above, the instrumental technique may be expanded to cover other long-lived radioisotopes since the preparation technique includes the preconcentration of the actinide series of elements. The resultant sample volume can be further reduced for introduction into the ICP-MS via an electrothermal vaporization (ETV) unit or other sample introduction device, even though the standard peristaltic pump introduction is applied for this test method. The sample preparatio...

  19. Unprecedented Mass Bleaching and Loss of Coral across 12° of Latitude in Western Australia in 2010–11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, James A. Y.; Bellchambers, Lynda M.; Depczynski, Martial R.; Evans, Richard D.; Evans, Scott N.; Field, Stuart N.; Friedman, Kim J.; Gilmour, James P.; Holmes, Thomas H.; Middlebrook, Rachael; Radford, Ben T.; Ridgway, Tyrone; Shedrawi, George; Taylor, Heather; Thomson, Damian P.; Wilson, Shaun K.

    2012-01-01

    Background Globally, coral bleaching has been responsible for a significant decline in both coral cover and diversity over the past two decades. During the summer of 2010–11, anomalous large-scale ocean warming induced unprecedented levels of coral bleaching accompanied by substantial storminess across more than 12° of latitude and 1200 kilometers of coastline in Western Australia (WA). Methodology/Principal Findings Extreme La-Niña conditions caused extensive warming of waters and drove considerable storminess and cyclonic activity across WA from October 2010 to May 2011. Satellite-derived sea surface temperature measurements recorded anomalies of up to 5°C above long-term averages. Benthic surveys quantified the extent of bleaching at 10 locations across four regions from tropical to temperate waters. Bleaching was recorded in all locations across regions and ranged between 17% (±5.5) in the temperate Perth region, to 95% (±3.5) in the Exmouth Gulf of the tropical Ningaloo region. Coincident with high levels of bleaching, three cyclones passed in close proximity to study locations around the time of peak temperatures. Follow-up surveys revealed spatial heterogeneity in coral cover change with four of ten locations recording significant loss of coral cover. Relative decreases ranged between 22%–83.9% of total coral cover, with the greatest losses in the Exmouth Gulf. Conclusions/Significance The anomalous thermal stress of 2010–11 induced mass bleaching of corals along central and southern WA coral reefs. Significant coral bleaching was observed at multiple locations across the tropical-temperate divide spanning more than 1200 km of coastline. Resultant spatially patchy loss of coral cover under widespread and high levels of bleaching and cyclonic activity, suggests a degree of resilience for WA coral communities. However, the spatial extent of bleaching casts some doubt over hypotheses suggesting that future impacts to coral reefs under forecast

  20. Unprecedented mass bleaching and loss of coral across 12° of latitude in Western Australia in 2010-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, James A Y; Bellchambers, Lynda M; Depczynski, Martial R; Evans, Richard D; Evans, Scott N; Field, Stuart N; Friedman, Kim J; Gilmour, James P; Holmes, Thomas H; Middlebrook, Rachael; Radford, Ben T; Ridgway, Tyrone; Shedrawi, George; Taylor, Heather; Thomson, Damian P; Wilson, Shaun K

    2012-01-01

    Globally, coral bleaching has been responsible for a significant decline in both coral cover and diversity over the past two decades. During the summer of 2010-11, anomalous large-scale ocean warming induced unprecedented levels of coral bleaching accompanied by substantial storminess across more than 12° of latitude and 1200 kilometers of coastline in Western Australia (WA). Extreme La-Niña conditions caused extensive warming of waters and drove considerable storminess and cyclonic activity across WA from October 2010 to May 2011. Satellite-derived sea surface temperature measurements recorded anomalies of up to 5°C above long-term averages. Benthic surveys quantified the extent of bleaching at 10 locations across four regions from tropical to temperate waters. Bleaching was recorded in all locations across regions and ranged between 17% (±5.5) in the temperate Perth region, to 95% (±3.5) in the Exmouth Gulf of the tropical Ningaloo region. Coincident with high levels of bleaching, three cyclones passed in close proximity to study locations around the time of peak temperatures. Follow-up surveys revealed spatial heterogeneity in coral cover change with four of ten locations recording significant loss of coral cover. Relative decreases ranged between 22%-83.9% of total coral cover, with the greatest losses in the Exmouth Gulf. The anomalous thermal stress of 2010-11 induced mass bleaching of corals along central and southern WA coral reefs. Significant coral bleaching was observed at multiple locations across the tropical-temperate divide spanning more than 1200 km of coastline. Resultant spatially patchy loss of coral cover under widespread and high levels of bleaching and cyclonic activity, suggests a degree of resilience for WA coral communities. However, the spatial extent of bleaching casts some doubt over hypotheses suggesting that future impacts to coral reefs under forecast warming regimes may in part be mitigated by southern thermal refugia.

  1. Variation in C-reactive protein following weight loss in obese insulin resistant postmenopausal women: is there an independent contribution of lean body mass?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsalani, R; Riesco, É; Perreault, K; Imbeault, P; Brochu, M; Dionne, I J

    2015-03-01

    We showed that obese insulin resistant postmenopausal women are characterized by higher lean body mass and elevated C-reactive protein. Although counterintuitive, we hypothesized that losses in muscle mass following caloric restriction and increase in muscle quality will be associated with improvements in glucose homeostasis through decreases in C-reactive protein. To determine 1) if improvements in C-reactive protein concentrations occurs through losses in lean body mass; and 2) if decreases in C-reactive protein levels contribute to improvements in insulin sensitivity. 50 postmenopausal women (body mass index>26 kg/m(²)) with impaired glucose disposal (program. Outcome measures were: Glucose disposal rate: M value (by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp), body composition (total, trunk, and appendicluar). LBM and FM by DXA), LBM index (LBM (kg)/height (m(2)), body fat distribution (VAT and SAT by CT scan) and plasma high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and interleukin-6 (Il-6). Significant correlations were observed between Δ hsCRP levels with Δ Il-6 (r=0.33, p≤0.05), Δ total LBM index (r=0.44, p≤0.01), Δ trunk LBM (r=0.38, p≤0.01) Δ SAT (r=0.35, p≤0.05) and ∆ glucose disposal rate (r=- 0.44, p≤0.01). After including all the correlated variables in Stepwise linear regression model, Δ LBM index was the only independent predictor of the reduction in hsCRP levels (R(2)=0.20, p≤0.01). Losses in total lean body mass are independently associated with improvements in inflammatory state (CRP levels) in obese postmenopausal women with impaired glucose disposal. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. The Impact of Atmospheric Modeling Errors on GRACE Estimates of Mass Loss in Greenland and Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Ryan A.; Nerem, R. Steven; Wiese, David N.

    2017-12-01

    Systematic errors in Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) monthly mass estimates over the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets can originate from low-frequency biases in the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Operational Analysis model, the atmospheric component of the Atmospheric and Ocean Dealising Level-1B (AOD1B) product used to forward model atmospheric and ocean gravity signals in GRACE processing. These biases are revealed in differences in surface pressure between the ECMWF Operational Analysis model, state-of-the-art reanalyses, and in situ surface pressure measurements. While some of these errors are attributable to well-understood discrete model changes and have published corrections, we examine errors these corrections do not address. We compare multiple models and in situ data in Antarctica and Greenland to determine which models have the most skill relative to monthly averages of the dealiasing model. We also evaluate linear combinations of these models and synthetic pressure fields generated from direct interpolation of pressure observations. These models consistently reveal drifts in the dealiasing model that cause the acceleration of Antarctica's mass loss between April 2002 and August 2016 to be underestimated by approximately 4 Gt yr-2. We find similar results after attempting to solve the inverse problem, recovering pressure biases directly from the GRACE Jet Propulsion Laboratory RL05.1 M mascon solutions. Over Greenland, we find a 2 Gt yr-1 bias in mass trend. While our analysis focuses on errors in Release 05 of AOD1B, we also evaluate the new AOD1B RL06 product. We find that this new product mitigates some of the aforementioned biases.

  3. Greenland Ice Sheet Surface Temperature, Melt, and Mass Loss: 2000-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Williams, Richard S., Jr.; Luthcke, Scott B.; DiGirolamo, Nocolo

    2007-01-01

    Extensive melt on the Greenland Ice Sheet has been documented by a variety of ground and satellite measurements in recent years. If the well-documented warming continues in the Arctic, melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet will likely accelerate, contributing to sea-level rise. Modeling studies indicate that an annual or summer temperature rise of 1 C on the ice sheet will increase melt by 20-50% therefore, surface temperature is one of the most important ice-sheet parameters to study for analysis of changes in the mass balance of the ice-sheet. The Greenland Ice Sheet contains enough water to produce a rise in eustatic sea level of up to 7.0 m if the ice were to melt completely. However, even small changes (centimeters) in sea level would cause important economic and societal consequences in the world's major coastal cities thus it is extremely important to monitor changes in the ice-sheet surface temperature and to ultimately quantify these changes in terms of amount of sea-level rise. We have compiled a high-resolution, daily time series of surface temperature of the Greenland Ice Sheet, using the I-km resolution, clear-sky land-surface temperature (LST) standard product from the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), from 2000 - 2006. We also use Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data, averaged over 10-day periods, to measure change in mass of the ice sheet as it melt and snow accumulates. Surface temperature can be used to determine frequency of surface melt, timing of the start and the end of the melt season, and duration of melt. In conjunction with GRACE data, it can also be used to analyze timing of ice-sheet mass loss and gain.

  4. Role of protein and amino acids in promoting lean mass accretion with resistance exercise and attenuating lean mass loss during energy deficit in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchward-Venne, Tyler A; Murphy, Caoileann H; Longland, Thomas M; Phillips, Stuart M

    2013-08-01

    Amino acids are major nutrient regulators of muscle protein turnover. After protein ingestion, hyperaminoacidemia stimulates increased rates of skeletal muscle protein synthesis, suppresses muscle protein breakdown, and promotes net muscle protein accretion for several hours. These acute observations form the basis for strategized protein intake to promote lean mass accretion, or prevent lean mass loss over the long term. However, factors such as protein dose, protein source, and timing of intake are important in mediating the anabolic effects of amino acids on skeletal muscle and must be considered within the context of evaluating the reported efficacy of long-term studies investigating protein supplementation as part of a dietary strategy to promote lean mass accretion and/or prevent lean mass loss. Current research suggests that dietary protein supplementation can augment resistance exercise-mediated gains in skeletal muscle mass and strength and can preserve skeletal muscle mass during periods of diet-induced energy restriction. Perhaps less appreciated, protein supplementation can augment resistance training-mediated gains in skeletal muscle mass even in individuals habitually consuming 'adequate' (i.e., >0.8 g kg⁻¹ day⁻¹) protein. Additionally, overfeeding energy with moderate to high-protein intake (15-25 % protein or 1.8-3.0 g kg⁻¹ day⁻¹) is associated with lean, but not fat mass accretion, when compared to overfeeding energy with low protein intake (5 % protein or ~0.68 g kg⁻¹ day⁻¹). Amino acids represent primary nutrient regulators of skeletal muscle anabolism, capable of enhancing lean mass accretion with resistance exercise and attenuating the loss of lean mass during periods of energy deficit, although factors such as protein dose, protein source, and timing of intake are likely important in mediating these effects.

  5. Modeling of Camembert-type cheese mass loss in a ripening chamber: main biological and physical phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hélias, A; Mirade, P-S; Corrieu, G

    2007-11-01

    A model of the mass loss of Camembert-type cheese was established with data obtained from 2 experimental ripening trials carried out in 2 pilot ripening chambers. During these experiments, a cheese was continuously weighed and the relative humidity, temperature, oxygen, and carbon dioxide concentrations in the ripening chamber were recorded online. The aim was to establish a simple but accurate model that would predict cheese mass changes according to available online measurements. The main hypotheses were that 1) the cheese water activity was constant during ripening, 2) the respiratory activity of the microflora played a major role by inducing heat production, combined with important water evaporation, 3) the temperature gradient existing inside the cheese was negligible, and the limiting phenomenon was the convective transfer. The water activity and the specific heat of the cheeses were assessed by offline measurements. The others parameters in the model were obtained from the literature. This dynamic model was built with 2 state variables: the cheese mass and the surface temperature of the cheese. In this way, only the heat transfer coefficient had to be fitted, and it was strongly determined by the airflow characteristics close to the cheeses. Model efficiency was illustrated by comparing the estimated and measured mass and the mass loss rate for the 2 studied runs; the relative errors were less than 1.9 and 3.2% for the mass loss and the mass loss rate, respectively. The dynamic effects of special events, such as room defrosting or changes in chamber relative humidity, were well described by the model, especially in terms of kinetics (mass loss rates).

  6. Fermented dairy products consumption is associated with attenuated cortical bone loss independently of total calcium, protein, and energy intakes in healthy postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biver, E; Durosier-Izart, C; Merminod, F; Chevalley, T; van Rietbergen, B; Ferrari, S L; Rizzoli, R

    2018-05-03

    A longitudinal analysis of bone microstructure in postmenopausal women of the Geneva Retirees Cohort indicates that age-related cortical bone loss is attenuated at non-bearing bone sites in fermented dairy products consumers, not in milk or ripened cheese consumers, independently of total energy, calcium, or protein intakes. Fermented dairy products (FDP), including yogurts, provide calcium, phosphorus, and proteins together with prebiotics and probiotics, all being potentially beneficial for bone. In this prospective cohort study, we investigated whether FDP, milk, or ripened cheese consumptions influence age-related changes of bone mineral density (BMD) and microstructure. Dietary intakes were assessed at baseline and after 3.0 ± 0.5 years with a food frequency questionnaire in 482 postmenopausal women enrolled in the Geneva Retirees Cohort. Cortical (Ct) and trabecular (Tb) volumetric (v) BMD and microstructure at the distal radius and tibia were assessed by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computerized tomography, in addition to areal (a) BMD and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, at the same time points. At baseline, FDP consumers had lower abdominal fat mass and larger bone size at the radius and tibia. Parathyroid hormone and β-carboxyterminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen levels were inversely correlated with FDP consumption. In the longitudinal analysis, FDP consumption (mean of the two assessments) was associated with attenuated loss of radius total vBMD and of Ct vBMD, area, and thickness. There was no difference in aBMD and at the tibia. These associations were independent of total energy, calcium, or protein intakes. For other dairy products categories, only milk consumption was associated with lower decrease of aBMD and of failure load at the radius. In this prospective cohort of healthy postmenopausal women, age-related Ct bone loss was attenuated at non-bearing bone sites in FDP consumers, not in milk

  7. FUNDAMENTAL PARAMETERS, INTEGRATED RED GIANT BRANCH MASS LOSS, AND DUST PRODUCTION IN THE GALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTER 47 TUCANAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, I.; Zijlstra, A. A.; Boyer, M. L.; Gordon, K.; Meixner, M.; Sewilo, M.; Shiao, B.; Whitney, B.; Van Loon, J. Th.; Hora, J. L.; Robitaille, T.; Babler, B.; Meade, M.; Block, M.; Misselt, K.

    2011-01-01

    Fundamental parameters and time evolution of mass loss are investigated for post-main-sequence stars in the Galactic globular cluster 47 Tucanae (NGC 104). This is accomplished by fitting spectral energy distributions (SEDs) to existing optical and infrared photometry and spectroscopy, to produce a true Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. We confirm the cluster's distance as d = 4611 +213 -200 pc and age as 12 ± 1 Gyr. Horizontal branch models appear to confirm that no more red giant branch mass loss occurs in 47 Tuc than in the more metal-poor ω Centauri, though difficulties arise due to inconsistencies between the models. Using our SEDs, we identify those stars that exhibit infrared excess, finding excess only among the brightest giants: dusty mass loss begins at a luminosity of ∼1000 L sun , becoming ubiquitous above L = 2000 L sun . Recent claims of dust production around lower-luminosity giants cannot be reproduced, despite using the same archival Spitzer imagery.

  8. Fast Winds and Mass Loss from Metal-Poor Field Giants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupree, A. K.; Smith, Graeme H.; Strader, Jay

    2009-11-01

    Echelle spectra of the infrared He I λ10830 line were obtained with NIRSPEC on the Keck 2 telescope for 41 metal-deficient field giant stars including those on the red giant branch (RGB), asymptotic giant branch (AGB), and red horizontal branch (RHB). The presence of this He I line is ubiquitous in stars with T effgsim 4500 K and MV fainter than -1.5, and reveals the dynamics of the atmosphere. The line strength increases with effective temperature for T effgsim 5300 K in RHB stars. In AGB and RGB stars, the line strength increases with luminosity. Fast outflows (gsim 60 km s-1) are detected from the majority of the stars and about 40% of the outflows have sufficient speed as to allow escape of material from the star as well as from a globular cluster. Outflow speeds and line strengths do not depend on metallicity for our sample ([Fe/H]= -0.7 to -3.0), suggesting the driving mechanism for these winds derives from magnetic and/or hydrodynamic processes. Gas outflows are present in every luminous giant, but are not detected in all stars of lower luminosity indicating possible variability. Mass loss rates ranging from ~3 × 10-10 to ~6 × 10-8 M sun yr-1 estimated from the Sobolev approximation for line formation represent values with evolutionary significance for red giants and RHB stars. We estimate that 0.2 M sun will be lost on the RGB, and the torque of this wind can account for observations of slowly rotating RHB stars in the field. About 0.1-0.2 M sun will be lost on the RHB itself. This first empirical determination of mass loss on the RHB may contribute to the appearance of extended horizontal branches in globular clusters. The spectra appear to resolve the problem of missing intracluster material in globular clusters. Opportunities exist for "wind smothering" of dwarf stars by winds from the evolved population, possibly leading to surface pollution in regions of high stellar density. Data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which

  9. Suppressed Far-UV Stellar Activity and Low Planetary Mass Loss in the WASP-18 System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossati, L.; Koskinen, T.; France, K.; Cubillos, P. E.; Haswell, C. A.; Lanza, A. F.; Pillitteri, I.

    2018-03-01

    WASP-18 hosts a massive, very close-in Jupiter-like planet. Despite its young age (extinction (E(B-V) ≈ 0.01 mag) and then the interstellar medium (ISM) column density for a number of ions, concluding that ISM absorption is not the origin of the anomaly. We measure the flux of the four stellar emission features detected in the COS spectrum (C II, C III, C IV, Si IV). Comparing the C II/C IV flux ratio measured for WASP-18 with that derived from spectra of nearby stars with known age, we see that the far-UV spectrum of WASP-18 resembles that of old (>5 Gyr), inactive stars, in stark contrast with its young age. We conclude that WASP-18 has an intrinsically low activity level, possibly caused by star–planet tidal interaction, as suggested by previous studies. Re-scaling the solar irradiance reference spectrum to match the flux of the Si IV line, yields an XUV integrated flux at the planet orbit of 10.2 erg s‑1 cm‑2. We employ the rescaled XUV solar fluxes to models of the planetary upper atmosphere, deriving an extremely low thermal mass-loss rate of 10‑20 M J Gyr‑1. For such high-mass planets, thermal escape is not energy limited, but driven by Jeans escape. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from MAST at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with program #13859. Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programme ID 092.D-0587.

  10. Thermal hydraulic analysis of aggressive secondary cooldown in a small break loss of coolant accident with a total loss of high pressure safety injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Seok Jung; Lim, Ho Gon; Yang, Joon Eon

    2003-03-01

    Recently, Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) has being applied to various fields as a basic technique of Risk-Informed Applications (RIA). The present study focuses on detailed thermal hydraulic analyses for major accident sequences and success criteria to support a development of PSA model using RIA for Korea Standard Nuclear Power plant (KSNP). The primary purpose of the present study in this year is to evaluate the success cri-teria of Aggressive Secondary Cooldown (ASC) in a Small Size Loss Of Coolant Accident (SBLOCA) without HPSI and to enhance the understanding of related thermal hydraulic behavior and phenomena. An effort was made to evaluate the system success criteria and a mission time for the recovery action by an operator to prevent the core damage for that accident scenario. The accident scenario for KSNP was a 2 inch coldleg break LOCA with a total loss of High Pressure Safety Injection (HPSI) and 1/2 Low Pressure Safety Injection (LPSI) available and perform-ing ASC limited by 55.6 .deg. C/hr (100 .deg. F/hr) cooldown rate at 15 minute after reactor trip. It successively reached the LPSI condition for about 1.5hr after starting the ASC operation with the Peak Cladding Temperature (PCT) of the hottest rod below the core damage criteria of 1204.4 .deg. C (2200 .deg. F). Sensitivity studies were performed for (1) cool-ant average temperature parameters, (2) ASC operation control method, (3) operation start time, (4) 1 inch break size. The present analysis identified thermal hydraulic phenomena and parameters affecting on the behavior, which consist of coolant break flow and inventory, parameters governing secondary heat removal, ASC operation control method, and its reference temperature parameters. In the present study, more relaxed success criteria than the previous PSA for KSNP could be generated under an assumption that an operator should maintain the ade-quate ASC operation. However, it is necessary to evaluate the uncertainties arisen from the

  11. Changes in fat-free mass in obese subjects after weight loss : a comparison of body composition measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kooy, K; Leenen, R; Deurenberg, P.; Seidell, J C; Westerterp, K R; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.

    Estimates of body composition by densitometry were made in 84 apparently healthy subjects (42 men, 42 women) with a mean age of 40 +/- 6 years (mean +/- s.d.), before and after weight loss. The initial body mass index (BMI) was 30.7 +/- 2.3 kg/m2 and the achieved weight loss on a 4.2 MJ/day energy

  12. In-vivo determination of total body water and lean body mass in subjects by deuterium dilution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blagojevic, N; Allen, B J; Baur, L; Gaskin, K

    1988-12-01

    Total body water (TBW) estimation is one of a number of basic techniques required for the determination of body composition in normal and malnourished subjects. When combined with total body nitrogen (TBN) analysis by prompt gamma neutron activation, an accurate compartmental model of in vivo body composition can be formed, providing valuable nutritional and other data. This study examines the role of TBW on its own in evaluating lean body mass. Total body water was studied in six male and five female subjects using deuterium oxide and a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The lean body mass calculated from the results was compared with the lean body mass deduced from established total body nitrogen measurements. A four-compartment model was also used to calculate lean body mass. Excellent agreement was shown between lean body mass derived from TBW, the four-compartment model and TBN. Hence, TBW can provide a fast, cost-efficient method for evaluating normal subjects. However, for disease-induced malnutrition, or highly developed athletes, both TBN and TBW measurements are essential to establish an accurate picture of their body composition. TBW measurements alone can monitor the hydration state of patients and as such have a useful diagnostic value.

  13. In-vivo determination of total body water and lean body mass in subjects by deuterium dilution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blagojevic, N.; Allen, B.J.; Baur, L.; Gaskin, K.

    1988-01-01

    Total body water (TBW) estimation is one of a number of basic techniques required for the determination of body composition in normal and malnourished subjects. When combined with total body nitrogen (TBN) analysis by prompt gamma neutron activation, an accurate compartmental model of in vivo body composition can be formed, providing valuable nutritional and other data. This study examines the role of TBW on its own in evaluating lean body mass. Total body water was studied in six male and five female subjects using deuterium oxide and a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The lean body mass calculated from the results was compared with the lean body mass deduced from established total body nitrogen measurements. A four-compartment model was also used to calculate lean body mass. Excellent agreement was shown between lean body mass derived from TBW, the four-compartment model and TBN. Hence, TBW can provide a fast, cost-efficient method for evaluating normal subjects. However, for disease-induced malnutrition, or highly developed athletes, both TBN and TBW measurements are essential to establish an accurate picture of their body composition. TBW measurements alone can monitor the hydration state of patients and as such have a useful diagnostic value

  14. Tandem mass spectrometric identification of dextrose markers in dried-blood spots from infants receiving total parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chace, Donald H; De Jesús, Víctor R; Lim, Timothy H; Hannon, W Harry; Spitzer, Alan R

    2010-11-11

    The false positive rate for the newborn screening of disorders of amino acid metabolism for premature infants is higher than full term infants. This may be due to very low birth weight infants receiving high concentrations of amino acids from total parenteral nutrition (TPN) administration and/or immature metabolism. An investigation of the possible influence of TPN on screening of premature infants resulted in the detection of three unusual peaks in the tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) acylcarnitine profile. These markers were closely correlated with the detection of very high multiple amino acid increases in the profiles of newborns administered with TPN and who were ultimately found to be normal and free of inherited metabolic disorders. TPN solutions contain a concentrated mixture of amino acids and dextrose and other nutrients in saline. Due to its high concentration and suggestion of a carbohydrate, it was hypothesized that dextrose (D-glucose) was the contaminant and source of the markers detected. Dextrose, stable isotope-labeled 13C6-dextrose and various TPN solutions were analyzed directly or after enrichment in whole blood by multiple MS/MS acquisition modes including MS-only, product and precursor ion and neutral loss scans. Analysis of dried-blood spots (DBS) prepared from whole blood spiked with TPN solutions containing 12.5% dextrose and amino acid formulations designed to deliver 2.5 gm/kg/day of an amino acid mixture had moderate increases of all 3 dextrose markers detected at m/z 325, 399 and 473 as compared to controls. MS-only scans, product and precursor ion scans of dextrose and 13C6-dextrose in positive ion mode confirmed that these 3 peaks are derived from dextrose. Mass spectral analysis of labeled and unlabeled dextrose suggested that these peaks were dimers derived from dextrose. The identification of dextrose markers in DBS indicates that high concentrations of dextrose were present in blood and the likely source was contamination by TPN

  15. The spatial variable glacier mass loss over the southeast Tibet Plateau and the climate cause analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, L.; Ding, X.; Song, C.; Sheng, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Temperate glaciers can be highly sensitive to global climate change due to relatively humid and warm local climate. Numerous temperate glaciers are distributed in the southeastern Tibet Plateau (SETP) and their changes are still poorly represented. Based on a latest glacier inventory and ICESat altimetry measurements, we examine the spatial heterogeneity of glacier change in the SETP (including the central and eastern Nyainqêntanglha ranges) and further analyze its relation with climate change by using station-based and gridded meteorological data. Our results show that SETP glaciers experienced drastic surface lowering at about -0.84±0.26 m a-1 on average over 2003-2008. Debris-covered ice thinned at an average rate of -1.13±0.32 m a-1, in comparison with -0.92±0.17 m a-1 over the debris-free ice areas. The thinning rate is the strongest in the southeastern sub-region (up to -1.24 m a-1 ) and moderate ( -0.45 m a-1 ) in the central and northwestern parts, which is in general agreement with the pattern of surface mass changes based on the GRACE gravimetry observation. Long-term climate data at weather stations show that, in comparison with the period of 1992-2002, mean temperature increased by 0.46 °C - 0.59 °C in the recent decade (2003-2013); while the change of summer precipitation exhibited remarkably spatial variability, following a southeast-northwest contrasting pattern (decreasing by over 10% in the southeast, to stable level in the central region, and increment up to 10% in the northwest). This spatially variable precipitation change is consistent with results from CN05 grid data and ERA re-analysis data, and agrees well with the spatial pattern of glacier surface elevation changes. The results suggest that overall negative glacier mass balances in SETP are governed by temperature rising, while the different precipitation change could contribute to inconsistent glacier thinning rates. The spatial pattern of precipitation decrease and mass loss might

  16. Biological annihilation via the ongoing sixth mass extinction signaled by vertebrate population losses and declines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Gerardo; Ehrlich, Paul R; Dirzo, Rodolfo

    2017-07-25

    The population extinction pulse we describe here shows, from a quantitative viewpoint, that Earth's sixth mass extinction is more severe than perceived when looking exclusively at species extinctions. Therefore, humanity needs to address anthropogenic population extirpation and decimation immediately. That conclusion is based on analyses of the numbers and degrees of range contraction (indicative of population shrinkage and/or population extinctions according to the International Union for Conservation of Nature) using a sample of 27,600 vertebrate species, and on a more detailed analysis documenting the population extinctions between 1900 and 2015 in 177 mammal species. We find that the rate of population loss in terrestrial vertebrates is extremely high-even in "species of low concern." In our sample, comprising nearly half of known vertebrate species, 32% (8,851/27,600) are decreasing; that is, they have decreased in population size and range. In the 177 mammals for which we have detailed data, all have lost 30% or more of their geographic ranges and more than 40% of the species have experienced severe population declines (>80% range shrinkage). Our data indicate that beyond global species extinctions Earth is experiencing a huge episode of population declines and extirpations, which will have negative cascading consequences on ecosystem functioning and services vital to sustaining civilization. We describe this as a "biological annihilation" to highlight the current magnitude of Earth's ongoing sixth major extinction event.

  17. Photometry of SN 2002ic and implications for the progenitor mass-loss history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood-Vasey, W.M.; Wang, L.; Aldering, G.

    2004-01-01

    We present new pre-maximum and late-time optical photometry of the Type Ia/IIn supernova 2002ic. These observations are combined with the published V-band magnitudes of Hamuy et al. (2003) and the VLT spectrophotometry of Wang et al. (2004) to construct the most extensive light curve to date of this unusual supernova. The observed flux at late time is significantly higher relative to the flux at maximum than that of any other observed Type Ia supernova and continues to fade very slowly a year after explosion. Our analysis of the light curve suggests that a non-Type Ia supernova component becomes prominent ∼20 days after explosion. Modeling of the non-Type Ia supernova component as heating from the shock interaction of the supernova ejecta with pre-existing circumstellar material suggests the presence of a ∼1.7 x 1015 cm gap or trough between the progenitor system and the surrounding circumstellar material. This gap could be due to significantly lower mass-loss ∼15 (nu omega /10 km/s) -1 years prior to explosion or evacuation of the circumstellar material by a low-density fast wind. The latter is consistent with observed properties of proto-planetary nebulae and with models of white-dwarf + asymptotic giant branch star progenitor systems with the asymptotic giant branch star in the proto-planetary nebula phase

  18. The role of total body fat mass and trunk fat mass, combined with other endocrine factors, in menstrual recovery and psychopathology of adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karountzos, Vasileios; Lambrinoudaki, Irene; Tsitsika, Artemis; Deligeoroglou, Efthimios

    2017-10-01

    To determine the threshold of total body and trunk fat mass required for menstrual recovery and to assess the impact of body composition in psychopathology of adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa (AN). Prospective study of 60 adolescents presented with secondary amenorrhea and diagnosed with AN. Anthropometrics, body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, hormonal studies and responses to mental health screens (EAT-26), were obtained at the beginning and at complete weight restoration, in all adolescents, independently of menstrual recovery (Group A) or not (Group B). At weight restoration, Group A total body fat mass, trunk fat mass, and trunk/extremities fat ratio were significantly higher (p psychopathology of adolescents with AN.

  19. A well-balanced diet combined or not with exercise induces fat mass loss without any decrease of bone mass despite bone micro-architecture alterations in obese rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbaix, Maude; Metz, Lore; Mac-Way, Fabrice; Lavet, Cédric; Guillet, Christelle; Walrand, Stéphane; Masgrau, Aurélie; Vico, Laurence; Courteix, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    The association of a well-balanced diet with exercise is a key strategy to treat obesity. However, weight loss is linked to an accelerated bone loss. Furthermore, exercise is known to induce beneficial effects on bone. We investigated the impact of a well-balanced isoenergetic reducing diet (WBR) and exercise on bone tissue in obese rats. Sixty male rats had previously been fed with a high fat/high sucrose diet (HF/HS) for 4months to induce obesity. Then, 4 regimens were initiated for 2months: HF/HS diet plus exercise (treadmill: 50min/day, 5days/week), WBR diet plus exercise, HF/HS diet plus inactivity and WBR diet plus inactivity. Body composition and total BMD were assessed using DXA and visceral fat mass was weighed. Tibia densitometry was assessed by Piximus. Bone histomorphometry was performed on the proximal metaphysis of tibia and on L2 vertebrae (L2). Trabecular micro-architectural parameters were measured on tibia and L2 by 3D microtomography. Plasma concentration of osteocalcin and CTX were measured. Both WBR diet and exercise had decreased global weight, global fat and visceral fat mass (pdiet alone failed to alter total and tibia bone mass and BMD. However, Tb.Th, bone volume density and degree of anisotropy of tibia were decreased by the WBR diet (pdiet had involved a significant lower MS/BS and BFR/BS in L2 (pdiet inducing weight and fat mass losses did not affected bone mass and BMD of obese rats despite alterations of their bone micro-architecture. The moderate intensity exercise performed had improved the tibia BMD of obese rats without any trabecular and cortical adaptation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Changes in total and central fat mass after a hypocaloric diet associate with changes of apoC-I in postmenopausal obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassef, Hanny; Davignon, Jean; Prud'homme, Denis; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi; Faraj, May

    2014-01-01

    We previously reported the secretion of apolipoprotein apoC-I, apoC-II, apoC-III, and apoE from adipose tissue in postmenopausal obese women, suggesting their potential regulation by energy balance in humans. We examined the changes of these apolipoproteins, in relation to changes in cardiometabolic risks, following a hypocaloric diet in overweight/obese women. A total of 137 postmenopausal overweight/obese women who were free of chronic disease were examined at baseline, 56 women of whom were reevaluated following a 6-month hypocaloric diet. At baseline, there was no association between the plasma transferable apolipoproteins with any index of adiposity, insulin sensitivity, lipids, or inflammation, except for apoE with peripheral fat mass (r = 0.18, P hypocaloric diet reduced adiposity, insulin resistance, and inflammatory markers but had no significant effects on plasma transferable apolipoproteins or lipids, whose average concentrations were within normal range at baseline. The changes in total and central, but not peripheral, fat mass associated with changes of apoC-I only (r = 0.28 and r = 0.43; respectively, P < .05). Post-weight-loss apoC-I increased in some women (52%) yet it decreased in others, however there were no differences in cardiometabolic risk factors between the 2 groups. Plasma apoC-I, apoC-II, apoC-III, and apoE are not associated with adiposity, insulin sensitivity, or inflammation in obese but healthy postmenopausal women. Post-weight-loss changes of total and central fat mass associate with changes of apoC-I. Copyright © 2014 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of protein supplementation on fat-free mass in response to different weight loss programs in obese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andiara Schwingel

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate whether protein supplementation helps prevent the loss of fat-free mass during weight loss. The sample was composed of seventy-eight obese adult Japanese women, assigned into four different programs: diet-alone (D, n=24, diet-alone with protein supplementation (DP, n=16, diet-plusexercise (DE, n=17, and diet-plus-exercise with protein supplementation (DEP, n=21. All participants restricted their energy intakes to 1200 kcal/day, and participants in DE and DEP had the exercise session including aerobic exercise of approximately 90 min/day, 3 day/week. Participants enrolled in protein supplementation groups received an additional 14 g/day of protein. Measures on body composition were conducted before and after the program by DXA. All programs yielded significant weight (6.9 to 9.5 kg and fat (4.1 to 7.6% reduction. Total fat-free mass significantly decreased in D, DP and DE groups, whereas for DEP group the decrease was not significant. Regionalfat-free mass lowered for D and DP groups in leg, arms and trunk. For those in DE group, fat-free mass in trunk was not significantly decreased, and for those in DEP group, fat-free mass in leg and trunk did not differ significantly after the program. However, no significant differences of changes in fat-free mass were observed in comparisons among all groups. Our results confirmed the efficiency of weight loss intervention on fat-mass reduction through diet and exercise. However, fat-free mass does not appear to be preserved by protein supplementation, suggesting that its influence on a short-term weight reduction program is not apparent. RESUMO O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a influência da suplementação protéica na preservação da massa magra durante programas de emagrecimento. Setenta e oito mulheres adultas japonesas e obesas foram submetidas a quatro programas diferentes: dieta (D, n=24, dieta com suplementação proteica (DP, n=16, dieta com exerc

  2. A randomized trial of the effect of low dose epinephrine infusion in addition to tranexamic acid on blood loss during total hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jans, Ø.; Grevstad, U.; Mandoe, H.

    2016-01-01

    procedure. Intraoperative tranexamic acid (TXA) was administered to all subjects. The primary outcome was intraoperative blood loss directly measured by drains and weighing swabs. Secondary outcome was total blood loss at 24 h postoperatively calculated using the Gross formula. Results: Of 106 subjects...

  3. The Study of Prompt and Delayed Muon Induced Fission. I.Total kinetic energies and mass distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    David, P; Hartfiel, J.; Janszen, H.; Petitjean, C.; Reist, H.W.; Polikanov, S.M.; Konijn, J.; Laat, de C.T.A.M.; Taal, A.; Krogulski, T.; Johansson, T.; Tibell, G.; Achard van Enschut, d' J.F.M.

    1987-01-01

    Mass yield and total kinetic energy release (TKE) distributions of fragments from prompt and delayed muon induced fission, separately, have been measured for the isotopes235U,238U,237Np and242Pu. The distributions from prompt muon induced fission are compared with the corresponding distributions

  4. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay for the quantification of free and total sialic acid in human cerebrospinal fluid.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ham, M. van der; Koning, T.J. de; Lefeber, D.J.; Fleer, A.; Prinsen, B.H.; Sain-van der Velden, M.G. de

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Analysis of sialic acid (SA) metabolites in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is important for clinical diagnosis. In the present study, a high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS) method for free sialic acid (FSA) and total sialic acid (TSA) in human CSF was

  5. Changes in mass loss and chemistry of AG-80 epoxy resin after 160 keV proton irradiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao Yu [Space Materials and Environment Engineering Lab, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001 (China)]. E-mail: czq04@yahoo.com.cn; Sun Mingren [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001 (China); Yang Dezhuang [Space Materials and Environment Engineering Lab, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001 (China); He Shiyu [Space Materials and Environment Engineering Lab, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001 (China); Wang Jinhe [Precision Engineering Research Institute, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001 (China); Xiao Jingdong [Space Materials and Environment Engineering Lab, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001 (China); Li Zhijun [39th Institute, China Electronic Science and Technology Groups Inc., Xi-an 710065 (China)

    2005-06-01

    The AG-80 resin is a new type of thermosetting matrix for advanced carbon/epoxy composites. Mass loss effect and the related outgassing are major concerns for its application in space. The changes in mass loss, outgassing and chemical structure under 160 keV proton exposure were investigated for the AG-80 epoxy resin. The variation in chemistry was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Experimental results show that with increasing the proton fluence, the surface colour of specimens is getting darker. Mass loss ratios ascend remarkably until the fluence of approximately 5.5 x 10{sup 15} cm{sup -2}, and then tend to leveling off. The surface roughness of specimens exhibits an increasing trend followed by decreasing as a function of proton fluence. Under the exposure, the C-C, C-H, C-N and C-O bonds are broken, a variety of molecule ions with smaller molecule weight are formed, and carbon is enriched in the surface layer of specimens. The changes in mass loss and surface roughness of the AG-80 epoxy resin could be attributed to the formation of the molecule ions and the enrichment of carbon content in the surface layer due to proton radiation.

  6. ALMA observations of anisotropic dust mass loss in the inner circumstellar environment of the red supergiant VY Canis Majoris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Gorman, E.; Vlemmings, W.; Richards, A.M.S.; Baudry, A.; De Beck, E.; Decin, L.; Harper, G.M.; Humphreys, E.M.; Kervella, P.; Khouri, T.; Muller, S.

    2015-01-01

    The processes leading to dust formation and the subsequent role it plays in driving mass loss in cool evolved stars is an area of intense study. Here we present high resolution ALMA Science Verification data of the continuum emission around the highly evolved oxygen-rich red supergiant VY CMa. These

  7. A Post-Harvest Prediction Mass Loss Model for Tomato Fruit Using A Numerical Methodology Centered on Approximation Error Minimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Bucio

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to its nutritional and economic value, the tomato is considered one of the main vegetables in terms of production and consumption in the world. For this reason, an important case study is the fruit maturation parametrized by its mass loss in this study. This process develops in the fruit mainly after harvest. Since that parameter affects the economic value of the crop, the scientific community has been progressively approaching the issue. However, there is no a state-of-the-art practical model allowing the prediction of the tomato fruit mass loss yet. This study proposes a prediction model for tomato mass loss in a continuous and definite time-frame using regression methods. The model is based on a combination of adjustment methods such as least squares polynomial regression leading to error estimation, and cross validation techniques. Experimental results from a 50 fruit of tomato sample studied over a 54 days period were compared to results from the model using a second-order polynomial approach found to provide optimal data fit with a resulting efficiency of ~97%. The model also allows the design of precise logistic strategies centered on post-harvest tomato mass loss prediction usable by producers, distributors, and consumers.

  8. Preoperative unintended weight loss and low body mass index in relation to complications and length of stay after cardiac surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Venrooij, Lenny M. W.; de Vos, Rien; Borgmeijer-Hoelen, Mieke M. M. J.; Haaring, Cees; de Mol, Bas A. J. M.

    Background: Several studies reported increased adverse outcomes after cardiac surgery in patients with low body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)). Little is known yet, however, about the effect of preoperative unintended weight loss (UWL) in cardiac surgery patients. Objective: We explored the prevalence

  9. Preoperative unintended weight loss and low body mass index in relation to complications and length of stay after cardiac surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Venrooij, Lenny M. W.; de Vos, Rien; Borgmeijer-Hoelen, Mieke M. M. J.; Haaring, Cees; de Mol, Bas A. J. M.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several studies reported increased adverse outcomes after cardiac surgery in patients with low body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)). Little is known yet, however, about the effect of preoperative unintended weight loss (UWL) in cardiac surgery patients. OBJECTIVE: We explored the prevalence

  10. Mass loss and flammability of insulation materials used in sandwich panels during the pre-flashover phase of fire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giunta d'Albani, A.W.; de Kluiver, L.L.; de Korte, A.C.J.; van Herpen, R.; Weewer, R.; Brouwers, H.J.H.

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, buildings contain more and more synthetic insulation materials in order to meet the increasing energy-performance demands. These synthetic insulation materials have a different response to fire. In this study, the mass loss and flammability limits of different sandwich panels and their

  11. Controls on mass loss and nitrogen dynamics of oak leaf litter along an urban-rural land-use gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard V. Pouyat; Margaret M. Carreiro

    2003-01-01

    Using reciprocal leaf litter transplants, we investigated the effects of contrasting environments (urban vs. rural) and intraspecific variations in oak leaf litter quality on mass loss rates and nitrogen (N) dynamics along an urban-rural gradient in the New York City metropolitan area. Differences in earthworm abundances and temperature had previously been documented...

  12. Macroclumping as solution of the discrepancy between Hα and P v mass loss diagnostics for O-type stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šurlan, B.; Hamann, W.-R.; Aret, A.; Kubát, J.; Oskinova, L. M.; Torres, A. F.

    2013-11-01

    Context. Recent studies of O-type stars have demonstrated that discrepant mass-loss rates are obtained when different diagnostic methods are employed. Fitting the unsaturated UV resonance lines (e.g., P v) gives drastically lower values than obtained from the Hα emission. Wind inhomogeneity (so-called "clumping") may be the main cause of this discrepancy. Aims: In a previous paper, we presented 3D Monte-Carlo calculations for the formation of scattering lines in a clumped stellar wind. In the present paper we select five O-type supergiants (from O4 to O7) and test whether the reported discrepancies can be resolved this way. Methods: In the first step, the analyses started with simulating the observed spectra with Potsdam Wolf-Rayet (PoWR) non-LTE model atmospheres. The mass-loss rates are adjusted to fit to the observed Hα emission lines best. For the unsaturated UV resonance lines (i.e., P v) we then applied our 3D Monte-Carlo code, which can account for wind clumps of any optical depths ("macroclumping"), a non-void interclump medium, and a velocity dispersion inside the clumps. The ionization stratifications and underlying photospheric spectra were adopted from the PoWR models. The properties of the wind clumps were constrained by fitting the observed resonance line profiles. Results: Our results show that with the mass-loss rates that fit Hα (and other Balmer and He ii lines), the UV resonance lines (especially the unsaturated doublet of P v) can also be reproduced with no problem when macroclumping is taken into account. There is no need to artificially reduce the mass-loss rates or to assume a subsolar phosphorus abundance or an extremely high clumping factor, unlike what was claimed by other authors. These consistent mass-loss rates are lower by a factor of 1.3 to 2.6, compared to the mass-loss rate recipe from Vink et al. Conclusions: Macroclumping resolves the previously reported discrepancy between Hα and P v mass-loss diagnostics. Based on

  13. New Mass-Conserving Bedrock Topography for Pine Island Glacier Impacts Simulated Decadal Rates of Mass Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nias, I. J.; Cornford, S. L.; Payne, A. J.

    2018-04-01

    High-resolution ice flow modeling requires bedrock elevation and ice thickness data, consistent with one another and with modeled physics. Previous studies have shown that gridded ice thickness products that rely on standard interpolation techniques (such as Bedmap2) can be inconsistent with the conservation of mass, given observed velocity, surface elevation change, and surface mass balance, for example, near the grounding line of Pine Island Glacier, West Antarctica. Using the BISICLES ice flow model, we compare results of simulations using both Bedmap2 bedrock and thickness data, and a new interpolation method that respects mass conservation. We find that simulations using the new geometry result in higher sea level contribution than Bedmap2 and reveal decadal-scale trends in the ice stream dynamics. We test the impact of several sliding laws and find that it is at least as important to accurately represent the bedrock and initial ice thickness as the choice of sliding law.

  14. THE MASS LOSS RETURN FROM EVOLVED STARS TO THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD: EMPIRICAL RELATIONS FOR EXCESS EMISSION AT 8 AND 24 μm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, Sundar; Meixner, Margaret; Leitherer, Claus; Vijh, Uma; Gordon, Karl D.; Sewilo, Marta; Volk, Kevin; Blum, Robert D.; Harris, Jason; Babler, Brian L.; Bracker, Steve; Meade, Marilyn; Block, Miwa; Engelbracht, Charles W.; For, Bi-Qing; Misselt, Karl A.; Cohen, Martin; Hora, Joseph L.; Indebetouw, Remy; Markwick-Kemper, Francisca

    2009-01-01

    We present empirical relations describing excess emission from evolved stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) using data from the Spitzer Space Telescope Surveying the Agents of a Galaxy's Evolution (SAGE) survey which includes the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 μm and Multiband Imaging Photometer (MIPS) 24, 70, and 160 μm bands. We combine the SAGE data with the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS; J, H, and K s ) and the optical Magellanic Cloud Photometric Survey (MCPS; U, B, V, and I) point source catalogs in order to create complete spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) star candidates in the LMC. AGB star outflows are among the main producers of dust in a galaxy, and this mass loss results in an excess in the fluxes observed in the 8 and 24 μm bands. The aim of this work is to investigate the mass loss return by AGB stars to the interstellar medium of the LMC by studying the dependence of the infrared excess flux on the total luminosity. We identify oxygen-rich, carbon-rich, and extreme AGB star populations in our sample based on their 2MASS and IRAC colors. The SEDs of oxygen- and carbon-rich AGB stars are compared with appropriate stellar photosphere models to obtain the excess flux in all the IRAC bands and the MIPS 24 μm band. Extreme AGB stars are dominated by circumstellar emission at 8 and 24 μm; thus we approximate their excesses with the flux observed in these bands. We find about 16,000 O-rich, 6300 C-rich, and 1000 extreme sources with reliable 8 μm excesses, and about 4500 O-rich, 5300 C-rich, and 960 extreme sources with reliable 24 μm excesses. The excesses are in the range 0.1 mJy to 5 Jy. The 8 and 24 μm excesses for all three types of AGB candidates show a general increasing trend with luminosity. The color temperature of the circumstellar dust derived from the ratio of the 8 and 24 μm excesses decreases with an increase in excess, while the 24 μm optical depth increases with

  15. Determination of total uranium by mass spectrometry utilizing the isotopic dilution technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cretella, R.F.; Noutary, C.J.; Servant, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    The isotopic dilution associated to mass spectrometry is a high-sensitivity technique that allows to work with microquantities of the sample, making it possible to analize the content in highly radioactive solutions with excellent accuracy and minimum risk. The proposed technique is described and its results are discussed through the analysis of: 1) A synthetic sample that simulates dissolved spent fuel elements; 2) Uranium dioxide of nuclear purity and 3) Uranium concentrate. 233 U(ORNL) was employed as a tracer and a Nuclide 12-90-SU mass spectrometer of simple magnetic focus as measurement instrument. The accuracy reached in the analyses is better than 0.5% with a reliability of 95%. The analysis of the errors shows that their main contributing source are the errors in the measurement of the isotopic ratios. (M.E.L.) [es

  16. Loss of lean body mass affects low bone mineral density in patients with rheumatoid arthritis - results from the TOMORROW study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, Tadashi; Inui, Kentaro; Tada, Masahiro; Sugioka, Yuko; Mamoto, Kenji; Wakitani, Shigeyuki; Koike, Tatsuya; Nakamura, Hiroaki

    2017-11-01

    Osteoporosis is one of the complications for patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Rheumatoid cachexia, the loss of lean body mass, is another. However, the relationship between decreased lean body mass and reduced bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with RA has not been well studied. This study included 413 participants, comprising 208 patients with RA and 205 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers. Clinical data, BMD, bone metabolic markers (BMM) and body composition, such as lean body mass and percent fat, were collected. Risk factors for osteoporosis in patients with RA including the relationship BMD and body composition were analyzed. Patients with RA showed low BMD and high BMM compared with controls. Moreover, lean body mass was lower and percent fat was higher in patients with RA. Lean body mass correlated positively and percent fat negatively with BMD. Lean body mass was a positive and disease duration was a negative independent factor for BMD in multivariate statistical analysis. BMD and lean body mass were significantly lower in patients with RA compared to healthy controls. Lean body mass correlated positively with BMD and decreased lean body mass and disease duration affected low BMD in patients with RA. [UMIN Clinical Trials Registry, http://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/ , UMIN000003876].

  17. Effects of 4 weight-loss diets differing in fat, protein, and carbohydrate on fat mass, lean mass, visceral adipose tissue, and hepatic fat: results from the POUNDS LOST trial123

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Russell J; Carey, Vincent J; Hall, Kevin D; LeBoff, Meryl S; Loria, Catherine M; Laranjo, Nancy M; Sacks, Frank M; Smith, Steven R

    2012-01-01

    Background: Weight loss reduces body fat and lean mass, but whether these changes are influenced by macronutrient composition of the diet is unclear. Objective: We determined whether energy-reduced diets that emphasize fat, protein, or carbohydrate differentially reduce total, visceral, or hepatic fat or preserve lean mass. Design: In a subset of participants in a randomized trial of 4 weight-loss diets, body fat and lean mass (n = 424; by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) and abdominal and hepatic fat (n = 165; by using computed tomography) were measured after 6 mo and 2 y. Changes from baseline were compared between assigned amounts of protein (25% compared with 15%) and fat (40% compared with 20%) and across 4 carbohydrate amounts (35% through 65%). Results: At 6 mo, participants lost a mean (±SEM) of 4.2 ± 0.3 kg (12.4%) fat and 2.1 ± 0.3 kg (3.5%) lean mass (both P fat (P ≥ 0.34), or 65% and 35% carbohydrate (P ≥ 0.27). Participants lost 2.3 ± 0.2 kg (13.8%) abdominal fat: 1.5 ± 0.2 kg (13.6%) subcutaneous fat and 0.9 ± 0.1 kg (16.1%) visceral fat (all P fat than did men relative to total-body fat loss. Participants regained ∼40% of these losses by 2 y, with no differences between diets (P ≥ 0.23). Weight loss reduced hepatic fat, but there were no differences between groups (P ≥ 0.28). Dietary goals were not fully met; self-reported contrasts were closer to 2% protein, 8% fat, and 14% carbohydrate at 6 mo and 1%, 7%, and 10%, respectively, at 2 y. Conclusion: Participants lost more fat than lean mass after consumption of all diets, with no differences in changes in body composition, abdominal fat, or hepatic fat between assigned macronutrient amounts. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00072995. PMID:22258266

  18. Effects of 4 weight-loss diets differing in fat, protein, and carbohydrate on fat mass, lean mass, visceral adipose tissue, and hepatic fat: results from the POUNDS LOST trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Russell J; Bray, George A; Carey, Vincent J; Hall, Kevin D; LeBoff, Meryl S; Loria, Catherine M; Laranjo, Nancy M; Sacks, Frank M; Smith, Steven R

    2012-03-01

    Weight loss reduces body fat and lean mass, but whether these changes are influenced by macronutrient composition of the diet is unclear. We determined whether energy-reduced diets that emphasize fat, protein, or carbohydrate differentially reduce total, visceral, or hepatic fat or preserve lean mass. In a subset of participants in a randomized trial of 4 weight-loss diets, body fat and lean mass (n = 424; by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) and abdominal and hepatic fat (n = 165; by using computed tomography) were measured after 6 mo and 2 y. Changes from baseline were compared between assigned amounts of protein (25% compared with 15%) and fat (40% compared with 20%) and across 4 carbohydrate amounts (35% through 65%). At 6 mo, participants lost a mean (±SEM) of 4.2 ± 0.3 kg (12.4%) fat and 2.1 ± 0.3 kg (3.5%) lean mass (both P fat (P ≥ 0.34), or 65% and 35% carbohydrate (P ≥ 0.27). Participants lost 2.3 ± 0.2 kg (13.8%) abdominal fat: 1.5 ± 0.2 kg (13.6%) subcutaneous fat and 0.9 ± 0.1 kg (16.1%) visceral fat (all P fat than did men relative to total-body fat loss. Participants regained ~40% of these losses by 2 y, with no differences between diets (P ≥ 0.23). Weight loss reduced hepatic fat, but there were no differences between groups (P ≥ 0.28). Dietary goals were not fully met; self-reported contrasts were closer to 2% protein, 8% fat, and 14% carbohydrate at 6 mo and 1%, 7%, and 10%, respectively, at 2 y. Participants lost more fat than lean mass after consumption of all diets, with no differences in changes in body composition, abdominal fat, or hepatic fat between assigned macronutrient amounts. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00072995.

  19. Iatrogenic hyperthyroidism does not promote weight loss or prevent ageing-related increases in body mass in thyroid cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polotsky, Hanah N; Brokhin, Matvey; Omry, Gal; Polotsky, Alex J; Tuttle, R Michael

    2012-04-01

    Thyroid cancer survivors represent a unique population in which the potential long-term effects of brief periods of intentional thyroid hormone withdrawal and/or prolonged periods of iatrogenic hyperthyroidism on body weight and body mass were evaluated. The objectives of this study were to characterize body mass changes over several years in a cohort of thyroid cancer patients with iatrogenic hyperthyroidism and to compare these changes with the expected weight gain in age-matched healthy control populations. We also evaluated the possibility that the method of preparation [thyroid hormone withdrawal (THW) vs recombinant human TSH (rhTSH)] for radioactive iodine remnant ablation may be associated with differences in body mass at the time of the final follow-up. DESIGN/SETTING/PATIENTS/INTERVENTIONS: A retrospective review identified 153 patients with thyroid cancer who underwent total thyroidectomy at one major medical centre. Of the 153 patients, 143 also had radioactive iodine remnant ablation: 70 after THW and 73 after rhTSH. Change in weight and BMI at 1-2 and 3-5 years of follow-up points were examined. Annualized weight variation within the cohort was compared with age-matched population controls expressed in kilogram/year. Significant weight gain was noted for the full cohort after 3-5 years of follow-up as compared to baseline (76 ± 21 kg at baseline vs 79 ± 23 kg at 3-5 years of follow-up, P weight, respectively, which is similar or somewhat higher than previously published age-matched population controls (ranging from 0·23 to 0·34 kg/year). When expressed as per cent change and comparing the final weight to the pre-operative baseline, the rhTSH group experienced approximately a 1·7% increase in weight compared with the 3·9% increase seen with THW patients (P = 0·02). When expressed as kg/year change, the rhTSH cohort had 0·34 kg/year change compared with the 0·64 kg/year change seen in the thyroid hormone withdrawal patients (P = 0·02). In

  20. Performance evaluation of a biomass boiler on the basis of heat loss method and total heat values of steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munir, A.; Alvi, J.Z.; Ashfaq, S.; Ghafoor, A.

    2014-01-01

    Pakistan being an agricultural country has large resources of biomass in the form of crop residues like wood, wheat straw, rice husk, cotton sticks and bagasse. Power generation using biomass offers an excellent opportunity to overcome current scenario of energy crises. Of the all biomass resources, bagasse is one of the potential energy sources which can be successfully utilized for power generation. During the last decade, bagasse fired boilers attained major importance due to increasing prices of primary energy (e.g. fossil fuels). Performance of a bagasse fired boiler was evaluated at Shakarganj Sugar Mill, Bhone-Jhang having steam generation capacity of 80 tons h/sup -1/at 25 bar working pressure. The unit was forced circulation and bi-drum type water tube boiler which was equipped with all accessories like air heater, economizer and super-heater. Flue gas analyzer and thermocouples were used to record percent composition and temperature of flue gases respectively. Physical analysis of bagasse showed gross calorific value of bagasse as 2326 kCal kg/sup -1/. Ultimate analysis of bagasse was performed and the actual air supplied to the boiler was calculated to be 4.05 kg per kg of bagasse under the available resources of the plant. Performance evaluation of the boiler was carried out and a complete heat balance sheet was prepared to investigate the different sources of heat losses. The efficiency of the boiler was evaluated on the basis of heat losses through boiler and was found to be 56.08%. It was also determined that 2 kg of steam produced from 1 kg of bagasse under existing condition of the boiler. The performance evaluation of the boiler was also done on the basis of total heat values of steam and found to be 55.98%. The results obtained from both the methods were found almost similar. Effects of excess air, stack and ambient temperature on the efficiency of boiler have also been evaluated and presented in the manuscript. (author)

  1. A totally automated data acquisition/reduction system for routine treatment of mass spectroscopic data by factor analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tway, P.C.; Love, L.J.C.; Woodruff, H.B.

    1980-01-01

    Target transformation factor analysis is applied to typical data from gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and solid-probe mass spectrometry to determine rapidly the number of components in unresolved or partially resolved peaks. This technique allows the detection of hidden impurities which often make interpretation or quantification impossible. The error theory of Malinowski is used to assess the reliability of the results. The totally automated system uses a commercially available g.c.-m.s. data system interfaced to the large computer, and the number of components under a peak can be determined routinely and rapidly. (Auth.)

  2. A phylogenetic analysis of basal metabolism, total evaporative water loss, and life-history among foxes from desert and mesic regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J B; Muñoz-Garcia, A; Ostrowski, S; Tieleman, B I

    2004-01-01

    We measured basal metabolic rate (BMR) and total evaporative water loss (TEWL) of species of foxes that exist on the Arabian Peninsula, Blanford's fox (Vulpes cana) and two subspecies of Red fox (Vulpes vulpes). Combining these data with that on other canids from the literature, we searched for specialization of physiological traits among desert foxes using both conventional least squares regression and regressions based on phylogenetic independent contrasts. Further, we explored the consequences of reduced body size of foxes on life history parameters such as litter size and neonate mass. For Blanford's foxes, Red foxes from the central desert of Arabia, and Red foxes from the more mesic Asir mountains, body mass averaged 1,285 +/- 52 g, 1,967 +/- 289 g, and 3,060 +/- 482 g, respectively, whereas mean BMR, during summer, was 304.5 +/- 32.3 kJ/day, 418.0 +/- 32.4 kJ/day, and 724.1 +/- 120.2 kJ/day (+/- SD). An analysis of covariance with body mass as a covariate showed no statistical differences in BMR among foxes. Analysis of covariance indicated that Red fox from the Asir mountains had a higher TEWL than Red foxes from central Arabia or than Blanford's foxes also from the mountains. Comparisons of all species of desert and mesic foxes showed no significant differences in BMR, nor did desert foxes have a significantly lower BMR than other carnivores. TEWL of desert foxes was lower than other more mesic carnivores; deviations in TEWL ranged from -17.7% for the Fennec fox (Fennecus zerda) to -57.4% for the Kit fox (Vulpes velox). Although desert foxes have a BMR comparable to other more mesic species, it appears that desert foxes do have a smaller body mass, lowering overall energy requirements. We attribute this reduction in body size to the "resource limitation hypothesis" whereby natural selection favors smaller individuals in a resource-limited environment, especially during periods of severe food shortage. However, until common garden experiments are performed

  3. Total radiative width (Γγ) as a function of mass number A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huynh, V.D.; Barros, S. De; Chevillon, P.L.; Julien, J.; Poittevin, G. Le; Morgenstern, J.; Samour, C.

    1967-01-01

    The total radiative width Γ γ was measured accurately for a large number of nuclei. These values, which are important for reactor calculations, are difficult to determine. The fluctuations in Γ γ from resonance to resonance in the same nucleus are discussed in terms of level parity and the de-excitation scheme. The authors compare the experimental values with those predicted by theory. (author) [fr

  4. Factors which modulate the rates of skeletal muscle mass loss in non-small cell lung cancer patients: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlan, Philippe; Bayar, Mohamed Amine; Lanoy, Emilie; Besse, Benjamin; Planchard, David; Ramon, Jordy; Raynard, Bruno; Antoun, Sami

    2017-11-01

    Advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is associated with weight loss which may reflect skeletal muscle mass (SMM) and/or total adipose tissue (TAT) depletion. This study aimed to describe changes in body composition (BC) parameters and to identify the factors unrelated to the tumor which modulate them. SMM, TAT, and the proportion of SMM to SMM + TAT were assessed with computed tomography. Estimates of each BC parameter at follow-up initiation and across time were derived from a mixed linear model of repeated measurements with a random intercept and a random slope. The same models were used to assess the independent effect of gender, age, body mass index (BMI), and initial values on changes in each BC parameter. Sixty-four patients with stage III or IV NSCLC were reviewed. The mean ± SD decreases in body weight and SMM were respectively 59 ± 3 g/week (P SMM to SMM + TAT, estimated at 37 ± 2% at baseline. SMM loss was influenced by initial BMI (P SMM values (P = 0.0002): the higher the initial BMI or SMM values, the greater the loss observed. Weight loss was greater when the initial weight was heavier (P SMM wasting in NSCLC is lower when initial SMM and BMI values are low. These exploratory findings after our attempt to better understand the intrinsic factors associated with muscle mass depletion need to be confirmed in larger studies.

  5. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry determination of total budesonide levels in dog plasma after inhalation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Seija; Melamies, Marika; Rajamäki, Minna; Vainio, Outi; Peltonen, Kimmo

    2012-01-01

    A sensitive and selective method to quantify budesonide in dog plasma samples was developed and fully validated. Liquid-liquid extraction was followed by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization. After reconstitution of the analytes in the mobile phase, samples were analysed by reversed-phase liquid chromatography with isocratic elution. d8-Budesonide was used as an internal standard, and characteristic transitions of d8-budesonide and budesonide were used for quantification. The method was validated with respect to selectivity, specificity, linearity, recovery, repeatability, reproducibility and limits of detection and quantification. The validated method was successfully applied to monitor the plasma levels of budesonide in dogs exposed to clinical doses of inhaled and intravenous drug.

  6. Can mountain glacier melting explains the GRACE-observed mass loss in the southeast Tibetan Plateau: From a climate perspective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chunqiao; Ke, Linghong; Huang, Bo; Richards, Keith S.

    2015-01-01

    The southeast Tibetan Plateau (SETP) includes the majority of monsoonal temperate glaciers in High Mountain Asia (HMA), which is an important source of water for the upper reaches of several large Asian river systems. Climatic change and variability has substantial impacts on cryosphere and hydrological processes in the SETP. The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) gravimetry observations between 2003 and 2009 suggest that there was an average mass loss rate of - 5.99 ± 2.78 Gigatonnes (Gt)/yr in this region. Meanwhile, the hydrological data by model calculations from the GLDAS/Noah and CPC are used to estimate terrestrial water storage (TWS) changes with a slight negative trend of about - 0.3 Gt/yr. The recent studies (Kääb et al., 2012; Gardner et al., 2013) reported the thinning rates of mountain glaciers in HMA based on the satellite laser altimetry, and an approximate estimation of the glacier mass budget in the SETP was 4.69 ± 2.03 Gt/yr during 2003-2009. This estimate accounted for a large proportion ( 78.3%) of the difference between the GRACE TWS and model-calculated TWS changes. To better understand the cause of sharp mass loss existing in the SETP, the correlations between key climatic variables (precipitation and temperature) and the GRACE TWS changes are examined at different timescales between 2003 and 2011. The results show that precipitation is the leading factors of abrupt, seasonal and multi-year undulating signals of GRACE TWS anomaly time series, but with weak correlations with the inter-annual trend and annual mass budget of GRACE TWS. In contrast, the annual mean temperature is tightly associated with the annual net mass budget (r = 0.81, p < 0.01), which indirectly suggests that the GRACE-observed mass loss in the SETP may be highly related to glacial processes.

  7. Accelerated modern human?induced species losses: Entering the sixth mass extinction

    OpenAIRE

    Ceballos, Gerardo; Ehrlich, Paul R.; Barnosky, Anthony D.; Garc?a, Andr?s; Pringle, Robert M.; Palmer, Todd M.

    2015-01-01

    The oft-repeated claim that Earth?s biota is entering a sixth ?mass extinction? depends on clearly demonstrating that current extinction rates are far above the ?background? rates prevailing between the five previous mass extinctions. Earlier estimates of extinction rates have been criticized for using assumptions that might overestimate the severity of the extinction crisis. We assess, using extremely conservative assumptions, whether human activities are causing a mass extinction. First, we...

  8. An altered hormonal profile and elevated rate of bone loss are associated with low bone mass in professional horse-racing jockeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Eimear; McGoldrick, Adrian; Davenport, Colin; Kelleher, Grainne; Byrne, Brendan; Tormey, William; Smith, Diarmuid; Warrington, Giles D

    2012-09-01

    Horse-racing jockeys are a group of weight-restricted athletes, who have been suggested as undertaking rapid and extreme weight cycling practices in order to comply with stipulated body-mass standards. The aim of this study was to examine bone mass, turnover and endocrine function in jockeys and to compare this group with age, gender and body mass index matched controls. Twenty male professional jockeys and 20 healthy male controls participated. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scans and early morning fasting blood and urine samples were used to measure bone mass, turnover and a hormonal profile. Total body bone mineral density (BMD) was significantly lower in jockeys (1.143 ± 0.05 vs. 1.27 ± 0.06 g cm(-3), p professional jockeys have an elevated rate of bone loss and reduced bone mass that appears to be associated with disrupted hormonal activity. It is likely that this may have occurred in response to the chronic weight cycling habitually experienced by this group.

  9. Role of rs1501299 variant in the adiponectin gene on total adiponectin levels, insulin resistance and weight loss after a Mediterranean hypocaloric diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luis, Daniel Antonio; Izaola, Olatz; Primo, David; Aller, Rocio

    2017-11-14

    Several adiponectin gene (ADIPOQ) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPS) have been related with adiponectin levels and risk for obesity. Our aim was to analyze the effects of rs1501299 ADIPOQ gene polymorphism on total adiponectin levels, insulin resistance and weight loss after a Mediterranean hypocaloric diet in obese subjects. A Caucasian population of 82 obese patients was analyzed, before and after 3 months on a Mediterranean hypocaloric diet. Before and after 3 months on a hypocaloric diet, an anthropometric evaluation, an assessment of nutritional intake and a biochemical analysis were performed. After dietary treatment and in wild type group, weight, BMI, fat mass, leptin levels, systolic blood pressure and waist circumference decreases were similar to the mutant type group. In wild type group, the decrease in total cholesterol was -28.1±15.3 mg/dl (mutant group: -12.6±16.7 mg/dl:p=0.009), LDL- cholesterol was -31.8±20.5 mg/dl (-12.2±11.5 mg/dl:p=0.006), fasting glucose plasma -4.8±2.5 mg/dL (-0.5±0.1 mg/dL:p=0.02), insulin -3.6±1.5 mUI/L (+0.6±1.1 mUI/L:p=0.02) and HOMA-IR -1.2±0.9 (-0.1±1.1:p=0.03). The present study suggests that T allele of ADIPO (rs1501299) could be a predictor of a lack of response of HOMA-IR, insulin, fasting glucose and LDL cholesterol secondary to a Mediterranean hypocaloric diet in obese subjects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. High Whey Protein Intake Delayed the Loss of Lean Body Mass in Healthy Old Rats, whereas Protein Type and Polyphenol/Antioxidant Supplementation Had No Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosoni, Laurent; Gatineau, Eva; Gatellier, Philippe; Migné, Carole; Savary-Auzeloux, Isabelle; Rémond, Didier; Rocher, Emilie; Dardevet, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Our aim was to compare and combine 3 nutritional strategies to slow down the age-related loss of muscle mass in healthy old rats: 1) increase protein intake, which is likely to stimulate muscle protein anabolism; 2) use leucine rich, rapidly digested whey proteins as protein source (whey proteins are recognized as the most effective proteins to stimulate muscle protein anabolism). 3) Supplement animals with a mixture of chamomile extract, vitamin E, vitamin D (reducing inflammation and oxidative stress is also effective to improve muscle anabolism). Such comparisons and combinations were never tested before. Nutritional groups were: casein 12% protein, whey 12% protein, whey 18% protein and each of these groups were supplemented or not with polyphenols/antioxidants. During 6 months, we followed changes of weight, food intake, inflammation (plasma fibrinogen and alpha-2-macroglobulin) and body composition (DXA). After 6 months, we measured muscle mass, in vivo and ex-vivo fed and post-absorptive muscle protein synthesis, ex-vivo muscle proteolysis, and oxidative stress parameters (liver and muscle glutathione, SOD and total antioxidant activities, muscle carbonyls and TBARS). We showed that although micronutrient supplementation reduced inflammation and oxidative stress, the only factor that significantly reduced the loss of lean body mass was the increase in whey protein intake, with no detectable effect on muscle protein synthesis, and a tendency to reduce muscle proteolysis. We conclude that in healthy rats, increasing protein intake is an effective way to delay sarcopenia. PMID:25268515

  11. Mass loss from OB supergiants in x-ray binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alme, M.L.; Wilson, J.R.

    1975-01-01

    A study of the atmospheres of OB supergiants in x-ray binary systems indicates that when the stellar surface is close enough to the saddle in the gravitational potential to provide a mass transfer rate adequate to power a compact x-ray source, large-amplitude variations in the rate of mass flow occur. 9 references

  12. DLK1 is a novel regulator of bone mass that mediates estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Basem M; Ditzel, Nicholas; Mahmood, Amer

    2011-01-01

    . In a number of in vitro culture systems, Dlk1 stimulated osteoclastogenesis indirectly through osteoblast-dependent increased production of proinflammatory bone-resorbing cytokines (eg, Il7, Tnfa, and Ccl3). We found that ovariectomy (ovx)-induced bone loss was associated with increased production of Dlk1...... in the bone marrow by activated T cells. Interestingly, Dlk1(-/-) mice were significantly protected from ovx-induced bone loss compared with wild-type mice. Thus we identified Dlk1 as a novel regulator of bone mass that functions to inhibit bone formation and to stimulate bone resorption. Increasing DLK1...... production by T cells under estrogen deficiency suggests its possible use as a therapeutic target for preventing postmenopausal bone loss....

  13. Impact of Weight Loss on Physical Function with Changes in Strength, Muscle Mass, and Muscle Fat Infiltration in Overweight to Moderately Obese Older Adults: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J. Santanasto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Evaluate the effects of weight loss on muscle mass and area, muscle fat infiltration, strength, and their association with physical function. Methods. Thirty-six overweight to moderately obese, sedentary older adults were randomized into either a physical activity plus weight loss (PA+WL or physical activity plus successful aging health education (PA+SA program. Measurements included body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, computerized tomography, knee extensor strength, and short physical performance battery (SPPB. Results. At 6 months, PA+WL lost greater thigh fat and muscle area compared to PA+SA. PA+WL lost 12.4% strength; PA+SA lost 1.0%. Muscle fat infiltration decreased significantly in PA+WL and PA+SA. Thigh fat area decreased 6-fold in comparison to lean area in PA+WL. Change in total SPPB score was strongly inversely correlated with change in fat but not with change in lean or strength. Conclusion. Weight loss resulted in additional improvements in function over exercise alone, primarily due to loss of body fat.

  14. Intra-articular injection of tranexamic acid via a drain plus drain-clamping to reduce blood loss in cementless total knee arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutsuzaki Hirotaka

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients undergoing cementless total knee arthroplasty (TKA sometimes suffer large blood loss. In a retrospective study, we explored whether postoperative intra-articular retrograde injection of tranexamic acid (TA and leaving a drain clamp in place for 1 h reduced blood loss. Patients and methods Patients (n = 140 treated with unilateral primary cementless TKA (posterior cruciate ligament retained were divided into two groups: those who had an intra-articular injection of TA (1000 mg and drain clamping for 1 h postoperatively (study group, n = 70 and those who were not given TA and did not undergo clamping of their drains (control group, n = 70. Postoperative total blood loss, volume of drainage, hemoglobin level, transfusion amounts and rates, D-dimer level at postoperative day (POD 7, and complications were recorded. Results Total blood loss, total drainage, mean transfusion volume, and transfusion rates were lower in the study group than in controls (P P P  Conclusions Immediately postoperative intra-articular retrograde injection of TA and 1 h of drain-clamping effectively reduced blood loss and blood transfusion after cementless TKA. We believe that this method is simple, easy, and suitable for these patients.

  15. Comparison of nodal staging with lean body mass based and with total body weight based in lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H. Y.; Chung, J. K.; Kang, W. J.; So, Y.; Lee, D. S.; Lee, M. C.

    2004-01-01

    The standardized uptake (SUV) is semiquantitative evaluation parameter in positron emission tomography (PET). But there is no consensus about the application or process of SUV measurement. In this study, we used measured lean body mass (LBM) and total weight for application in SUV measurement. Also we compared the each nodal staging with SUV between measured LBM, and total weight, in non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Total 21 patients with lung cancer were enrolled (M:F=17:4, age 45[+-]8 years). PET-CT was done before operation with Gemini (Philips, Milpitas, U.S.). Each image was reconstructed twice with measured weight and lean body mass. Maximum SUVs of 103 dissected lymph nodes were measured and compared with histological result. For the deciding on the cut off value, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was done. 14 lymph nodes in the 103 dissected lymph nodes were metastatic lesions. From the ROC analysis, the cut off value of SUV was 1.7 with measured LBM and 2.3 with total weight. With measured LBM, Sensitivity and specificity were 92.5%. 78.2% and area under curve was 0.881. With total weight, sensitivity and specificity was 92.5% and 77%, Area under curve was 0.859. The normalization of SUV could be done with measured LBM. With the normalization of SUV with LBM, the nodal staging of NSCLC using SUV could be more accurate than using total weight in the reconstruction and measurement of SUV for lymph node lesions

  16. Evaluation of seasonality on total water intake, water loss and water balance in the general population in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malisova, O; Bountziouka, V; Panagiotakos, D Β; Zampelas, A; Kapsokefalou, M

    2013-07-01

    Water balance is achieved when water intake from solid and fluid foods and drinking water meets water losses, mainly in sweat, urine and faeces. Seasonality, particularly in Mediterranean countries that have a hot summer, may affect water loss and consequently water balance. Water balance has not been estimated before on a population level and the effect of seasonality has not been evaluated. The present study aimed to compare water balance, intake and loss in summer and winter in a sample of the general population in Greece. The Water Balance Questionnaire (WBQ) was used to evaluate water balance, estimating water intake and loss in summer (n = 480) and in winter (n = 412) on a stratified sample of the general population in Athens, Greece. In winter, mean (SD) water balance was -63 (1478) mL/day(-1) , mean (SD)water intake was 2892 (987) mL/day(-1) and mean (quartile range) water loss was 2637 (1810-3922) mL/day(-1) . In summer, mean (SD) water balance was -58 (2150) mL/day(-1) , mean (SD) water intake was 3875 (1373) mL/day(-1) and mean (quartile range) water loss was 3635 (2365-5258) mL/day(-1) . Water balance did not differ between summer and winter (P = 0.96); however, the data distribution was different; in summer, approximately 8% more participants were falling in the low and high water balance categories. Differences in water intake from different sources were identified (P balance in summer and winter was not different. However, water intake and loss were approximately 40% higher in summer than in winter. More people were falling in the low and high water balance categories in summer when comparing the distribution on water balance in winter. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  17. Application of the integrated analysis of safety (IAS) to sequences of Total loss of feed water in a PWR Reactor; Aplicacion del Analisis Integrado de Seguridad (ISA) a Secuencias de Perdidas Total de Agua de Alimentacion en un Reactor PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno Chamorro, P.; Gallego Diaz, C.

    2011-07-01

    The main objective of this work is to show the current status of the implementation of integrated analysis of safety (IAS) methodology and its SCAIS associated tool (system of simulation codes for IAS) to the sequence analysis of total loss of feedwater in a PWR reactor model Westinghouse of three loops with large, dry containment.

  18. Measuring Two Decades of Ice Mass Loss using GRACE and SLR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, J. A.; Chambers, D. P.

    2016-12-01

    We use Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) to extend the time series of ice mass change back in time to 1994. The SLR series is of far lesser spatial resolution than GRACE, so we apply a constrained inversion technique to better localize the signal. We approximate the likely errors due to SLR's measurement errors combined with the inversion errors from using a low-resolution series, then estimate the interannual mass change over Greenland and Antarctica.

  19. Nitrogen losses from dairy manure estimated through nitrogen mass balance and chemical markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristov, Alexander N.; Zaman, S.; Vander Pol, M.; Ndegwa, P.; Campbell, L.; Silva, S.

    2009-01-01

    Ammonia is an important air and water pollutant, but the spatial variation in its concentrations presents technical difficulties in accurate determination of ammonia emissions from animal feeding operations. The objectives of this study were to investigate the relationship between ammonia volatilization and ??15N of dairy manure and the feasibility of estimating ammonia losses from a dairy facility using chemical markers. In Exp. 1, the N/P ratio in manure decreased by 30% in 14 d as cumulative ammonia losses increased exponentially. Delta 15N of manure increased throughout the course of the experiment and ??15N of emitted ammonia increased (p rights reserved.

  20. Body composition during weight loss in obese patients estimated by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and by total body potassium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendel, H W; Gotfredsen, A; Andersen, T

    1996-01-01

    for FFM were strong (r = 0.92 and 0.93). Bland and Altman plots showed limits of agreement of +/-9 kg before and after weight loss; DXA underestimated FFM in women and overestimated FFM in men. DXA accounted for 80% of the lost body weight. The composition of the lost body mass did not differ from...... that estimated by TBK (7.6% FFM and 92.4% FM by TBK; 11% FFM and 89% FM by DXA). CONCLUSION: DXA estimates accurately the body composition and the composition of weight loss in groups of obese subjects. However, the scan table may be too small for patients weighing more than 95 kg....

  1. The role of seasonal migration in the near-total loss of caribou on south-central Canadian Arctic Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank L. Miller

    2007-04-01

    estimated 5097 1+ yr-old caribou in 1980 to fewer than 100 1+ yr-old caribou in 1995 (Gunn & Decker, 1984; Miller, 1997; Gunn & Dragon, 1998; Gunn et al., 2006. This loss of caribou on those islands amounts to a near-total loss of a genetically distinctive group of Arctic-island caribou (e.g., Zittlau, 2004. In contrast, the estimated number of caribou in the geographic population on Boothia Peninsula appeared to increase by 1.4-fold from 4831 to 6658 1+ yr-old caribou between 1985 and 1995, although annual harvesting pressure was heavy. It was biologically impossible for the Boothia Peninsula geographic population at its 1985 estimated size to have persisted until 1995, let alone to have increased, under the estimated average annual harvest regime of 1100 1+ yr-old caribou • yr-1. There is no evidence that the Boothia Peninsula population was underestimated in 1985. It would have required a population in 1985 at least twice as great as the calculated estimate to sustain the estimated annual harvest between 1985 and 1995. An underestimate of such magnitude is too great to be probable. In our examination of the survey results, we could find no reason to question that the calculated population estimates were not reasonable approximations. The fixed-wing aerial surveys in 1980 (Gunn & Decker, 1984, 1985 (Gunn & Ashevak, 1990, and 1995 (Gunn & Dragon, 1998 were highly comparable, well designed and executed, using standard procedures for a fixed-width, strip-transect, systematic aerial survey of caribou. One of the two observers was the same experienced survey biologist in all 3 years, the second observer in 1980 was an experienced survey biologist and in 1985 and 1995 was an experienced Inuit hunter familiar with the area, and the pilot was the same on all surveys and had flown many systematic surveys of caribou on the Canadian Arctic Archipelago and mainland Canada. Helicopter searches of known caribou ranges on Prince of Wales, Russell, and Somerset islands that were

  2. DXA, bioelectrical impedance, ultrasonography and biometry for the estimation of fat and lean mass in cats during weight loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borges Naida C

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few equations have been developed in veterinary medicine compared to human medicine to predict body composition. The present study was done to evaluate the influence of weight loss on biometry (BIO, bioimpedance analysis (BIA and ultrasonography (US in cats, proposing equations to estimate fat (FM and lean (LM body mass, as compared to dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA as the referenced method. For this were used 16 gonadectomized obese cats (8 males and 8 females in a weight loss program. DXA, BIO, BIA and US were performed in the obese state (T0; obese animals, after 10% of weight loss (T1 and after 20% of weight loss (T2. Stepwise regression was used to analyze the relationship between the dependent variables (FM, LM determined by DXA and the independent variables obtained by BIO, BIA and US. The better models chosen were evaluated by a simple regression analysis and means predicted vs. determined by DXA were compared to verify the accuracy of the equations. Results The independent variables determined by BIO, BIA and US that best correlated (p r2, 19 equations were selected (12 for FM, 7 for LM; however, only 7 equations accurately predicted FM and one LM of cats. Conclusions The equations with two variables are better to use because they are effective and will be an alternative method to estimate body composition in the clinical routine. For estimated lean mass the equations using body weight associated with biometrics measures can be proposed. For estimated fat mass the equations using body weight associated with bioimpedance analysis can be proposed.

  3. Missing mass spectra in pp inelastic scattering at total energies of 23 GeV and 31 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Albrow, M G; Barber, D P; Bogaerts, A; Bosnjakovic, B; Brooks, J R; Clegg, A B; Erné, F C; Gee, C N P; Locke, D H; Loebinger, F K; Murphy, P G; Rudge, A; Sens, Johannes C; Van der Veen, F

    1974-01-01

    Results are reported of measurements of the momentum spectra of protons emitted at small angles in inelastic reactions at the CERN ISR. The data are for total energies s/sup 1///sub 2/ of 23 GeV and 31 GeV. The structure of the peak at low values of the missing mass M (of the system recoiling against the observed proton) is studied. The missing mass distributions have the form (M/sup 2/)-/sup B(t)/ where t is the four-momentum transfer squared. B(t) drops from 0.98+or-0.06 at t=-0.15 GeV/sup 2/ to 0.20+or-0.15 at t=-1.65 GeV/sup 2/. The results are compared with a simple triple-Regge formula. (12 refs).

  4. High-Resolution, Long-Slit Spectroscopy of VY Canis Majoris: The Evidence for Localized High Mass Loss Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Roberta M.; Davidson, Kris; Ruch, Gerald; Wallerstein, George

    2005-01-01

    High spatial and spectral resolution spectroscopy of the OH/IR supergiant VY CMa and its circumstellar ejecta reveals evidence for high mass loss events from localized regions on the star occurring over the past 1000 yr. The reflected absorption lines and the extremely strong K I emission lines show a complex pattern of velocities in the ejecta. We show that the large, dusty northwest arc, expanding at ~50 km s-1 with respect to the embedded star, is kinematically distinct from the surrounding nebulosity and was ejected about 400 yr ago. Other large, more filamentary loops were probably expelled as much as 800-1000 yr ago, whereas knots and small arcs close to the star resulted from more recent events 100-200 yr ago. The more diffuse, uniformly distributed gas and dust is surprisingly stationary, with little or no velocity relative to the star. This is not what we would expect for the circumstellar material from an evolved red supergiant with a long history of mass loss. We therefore suggest that the high mass loss rate for VY CMa is a measure of the mass carried out by these specific ejections accompanied by streams or flows of gas through low-density regions in the dust envelope. VY CMa may thus be our most extreme example of stellar activity, but our results also bring into question the evolutionary state of this famous star. In a separate appendix, we discuss the origin of the very strong K I and other rare emission lines in its spectrum.

  5. Tranexamic acid reduces blood loss and blood transfusions in primary total hip arthroplasty: a prospective randomized double-blind study in 40 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Henrik; Blønd, Lars; Sonne-Holm, Stig

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We performed a prospective, randomized, double-blind study on 40 patients scheduled for primary total hip arthroplasty due to arthrosis or osteonecrosis to determine the effect of tranexamic acid on per- and postoperative blood losses and on the number of blood transfusions needed...... blood losses at removal of the drain 24 hours after the operation and the number of blood transfusions. RESULTS: Patients receiving tranexamic acid had a mean peroperative blood loss of 480 mL versus 622 mL in patients receiving placebo (p = 0.3), a postoperative blood loss of 334 mL versus 609 mL (p...... = 0.001), a total blood loss of 814 mL versus 1231 mL (p = 0.001) and a total need for 4 blood transfusions versus 25 (p = 0.04). No patient in either group had symptoms of deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism or prolonged wound drainage. INTERPRETATION: Transemic acid is effective in reducing...

  6. Analysis of total productive maintenance (TPM) implementation using overall equipment effectiveness (OEE) and six big losses: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martomo, Zenithia Intan; Laksono, Pringgo Widyo

    2018-02-01

    In improving the productivity of the machine, the management of the decision or maintenance policy must be appropriate. In Spinning II unit at PT Apac Inti Corpora, there are 124 ring frame machines that often have breakdown and cause a high downtime so that the production target is not achieved, so this research was conducted on the ring frame machine. This study aims to measure the value of equipment effectiveness, find the root cause of the problem and provide suggestions for improvement. This research begins with measuring the achievement of overall equipment effectiveness (OEE) value, then identifying the six big losses that occur. The results show that the average value of OEE in the ring frame machine is 79.96%, the effectiveness value is quite low because the standard of OEE value for world class company ideally is 85%. The biggest factor that influences the low value of OEE is performance rate with percentage factor six big losses at reduced speed losses of 17.303% of all time loss. Proposed improvement actions are the application of autonomous maintenance, providing training for operators and maintenance technicians and supervising operators in the workplace.

  7. Timing and origin of recent regional ice-mass loss in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasgen, Ingo; van den Broeke, Michiel; Bamber, J.L.Jonathan L.

    2012-01-01

    and Kanagaratnam, 2006) together with output of the regional atmospheric climate modelling (RACMO2/GR; Ettema et al., 2009), and surface-elevation changes from the Ice, cloud and land elevation satellite (ICESat; Sørensen et al., 2011). We show that changing ice discharge (D), surface melting and subsequent run-off...... (M/R) and precipitation (P) all contribute, in a complex and regionally variable interplay, to the increasingly negative mass balance of the GrIS observed within the last decade. Interannual variability in P along the northwest and west coasts of the GrIS largely explains the apparent regional mass...

  8. Tranexamic acid reduces blood loss and blood transfusions in primary total hip arthroplasty: a prospective randomized double-blind study in 40 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Henrik; Blønd, Lars; Sonne-Holm, Stig

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We performed a prospective, randomized, double-blind study on 40 patients scheduled for primary total hip arthroplasty due to arthrosis or osteonecrosis to determine the effect of tranexamic acid on per- and postoperative blood losses and on the number of blood transfusions needed....... PATIENTS AND METHODS: 40 patients were randomized to tranexamic acid (10 mg/kg given as a bolus intravenous injection, followed by a continuous infusion of 1 mg/kg/hour for 10 hours) or placebo (20 mL saline given intravenously) 15 minutes before the incision. We recorded the peroperative and postoperative...... blood losses at removal of the drain 24 hours after the operation and the number of blood transfusions. RESULTS: Patients receiving tranexamic acid had a mean peroperative blood loss of 480 mL versus 622 mL in patients receiving placebo (p = 0.3), a postoperative blood loss of 334 mL versus 609 mL (p...

  9. A phylogenetic analysis of basal metabolism, total evaporative water loss, and life-history among foxes from desert and mesic regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, JB; Munoz-Garcia, A; Ostrowski, S; Tieleman, BI

    We measured basal metabolic rate (BMR) and total evaporative water loss (TEWL) of species of foxes that exist on the Arabian Peninsula, Blanford's fox (Vulpes cana) and two subspecies of Red fox (Vulpes vulpes). Combining these data with that on other canids from the literature, we searched for

  10. Repeatability and individual correlates of basal metabolic rate and total evaporative water loss in birds : A case study in European stonechats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteegh, Maaike A.; Heim, Barbara; Dingemanse, Niels J.; Tieleman, B. Irene

    Basal metabolic rate (BMR) and total evaporative water loss (TEWL) are thought to have evolved in conjunction with life history traits and are often assumed to be characteristic features of an animal. Physiological traits can show large intraindividual variation at short and long timescales, yet

  11. The photometric evolution of star clusters and the preferential loss of low-mass bodies – with an application to globular clusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruijssen, J.M.D.; Lamers, H.J.G.L.M.

    2008-01-01

    Context. To obtain an accurate description of broad-band photometric star cluster evolution, certain effects should be accounted for. Energy equipartition leads to mass segregation and the preferential loss of low-mass stars, while stellar remnants severely influence cluster mass-to-light ratios.

  12. Comparison of 15N analysis by optical emission spectrometry and mass spectrometry for clinical studies during total parenteral nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragon, A.; Reynier, J.P.; Guiraud, G.

    1985-01-01

    During total and stable parenteral nutrition, a branched chain amino acid enriched solution containing [ 15 N]leucine was infused into a patient to determine the fate of the nitrogen administered through this formulation. Measurements of 15 N isotopic enrichments were performed on the same biological samples (urinary urea, total plasma proteins and albumin) by optical emission spectrometry (OES) and mass spectrometry (MS) to determine if OES with its specific advantages (cost, handling maintenance) constituted even with low enrichments a useful alternative technique to MS considered as the reference method. The results show that OES constituted a very useful analytical technique to obtain reliable information in clinical metabolic studies when low 15 N enrichments must be determined. (Auth.)

  13. Tranexamic acid reduces intraoperative occult blood loss and tourniquet time in obese knee osteoarthritis patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yutong; Li, Zhirui; Gong, Ke; An, Xiao; Dong, Jiyuan; Tang, Peifu

    2018-01-01

    Obesity can result in increased blood loss, which is correlated with poor prognosis in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Clinical application of tranexamic acid is effective in reducing blood loss in TKA. However, most previous studies focused on the effect of tranexamic acid in the whole population, neglecting patients with specific health conditions, such as obesity. We hypothesized that tranexamic acid would reduce blood loss to a greater extent in obese patients than in those of normal weight. A total of 304 patients with knee osteoarthritis treated with TKA from October 2013 to March 2015 were separated into tranexamic, non-tranexamic, obese, and non-obese groups. The demographic characteristics, surgical indices, and hematological indices were all recorded. We first investigated the ability of intravenous tranexamic acid to reduce intraoperative blood loss in knee osteoarthritis patients undergoing unilateral TKA. Second, we performed subgroup analysis to compare the effects of tranexamic acid between obese and non-obese patients separately. Of the 304 patients, 146 (52.0%) received tranexamic acid and 130 (42.8%) were obese. In the analysis of the whole group, both the actual and occult blood loss volume were lower in the tranexamic acid group (both P tranexamic acid group ( P tranexamic acid was shown to reduce theoretical and actual blood loss in both the obese and non-obese groups ( P Tranexamic acid reduced occult blood loss and tourniquet time in the obese group ( P 0.05). Tranexamic acid can reduce occult blood loss and tourniquet time in obese patients to a greater extent than in patients of normal weight. Therefore, obese knee osteoarthritis patients undergoing TKA can benefit more from tranexamic acid.

  14. Physical activity as intervention for age-related loss of muscle mass and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Christian Skou; Garde, Ellen; Reislev, Nina Linde

    2016-01-01

    insights into training-induced promotion of functional ability and independency after retirement and will help to formulate national recommendations regarding physical activity schemes for the growing population of older individuals in western societies. Results will be published in scientific peer......INTRODUCTION: Physical and cognitive function decline with age, accelerating during the 6th decade. Loss of muscle power (force×velocity product) is a dominant physical determinant for loss of functional ability, especially if the lower extremities are affected. Muscle strength training is known...... to maintain or even improve muscle power as well as physical function in older adults, but the optimal type of training for beneficial long-term training effects over several years is unknown. Moreover, the impact of muscle strength training on cognitive function and brain structure remains speculative...

  15. The Search for Signatures of Transient Mass Loss in Active Stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crosley, M.K.; Osten, R.A.; Broderick, J.W.; Corbel, S.; Eislöffel, J.; Grießmeier, J.-M.; van Leeuwen, J.; Rowlinson, A.; Zarka, P.; Norman, C.

    2016-01-01

    The habitability of an exoplanet depends on many factors. One such factor is the impact of stellar eruptive events on nearby exoplanets. Currently this is poorly constrained due to heavy reliance on solar scaling relationships and a lack of experimental evidence. Potential impacts of coronal mass

  16. Biological annihilation via the ongoing sixth mass extinction signaled by vertebrate population losses and declines

    OpenAIRE

    Ceballos, Gerardo; Ehrlich, Paul R.; Dirzo, Rodolfo

    2017-01-01

    The strong focus on species extinctions, a critical aspect of the contemporary pulse of biological extinction, leads to a common misimpression that Earth’s biota is not immediately threatened, just slowly entering an episode of major biodiversity loss. This view overlooks the current trends of population declines and extinctions. Using a sample of 27,600 terrestrial vertebrate species, and a more detailed analysis of 177 mammal species, we show the extremely high degree of population decay in...

  17. Synergistic effects of intravenous and intra-articular tranexamic acid on reducing hemoglobin loss in revision total knee arthroplasty: a prospective, randomized, controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiangwei; Wang, Jiaxing; Wang, Qiaojie; Zhang, Xianlong

    2018-04-01

    Tranexamic acid decreases blood loss in primary total knee arthroplasty, and no related prospective randomized clinical trials have been conducted to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of tranexamic acid in revision total knee arthroplasty. Thus, we conducted this work to evaluate the synergistic effects of intravenous plus intra-articular tranexamic acid on reducing hemoglobin loss compared with intra-articular tranexamic acid alone in revision total knee arthroplasty. This prospective, controlled study randomized 96 patients undergoing revision total knee arthroplasty into two groups: an intravenous plus intra-articular tranexamic acid group (48 patients who received 20 mg/kg intravenous tranexamic acid and 3.0 g intra-articular tranexamic acid); and an intra-articular tranexamic acid alone group (48 patients who received the same intravenous volume of normal saline and 3.0 g intra-articular tranexamic acid). The primary outcome was hemoglobin loss. Secondary outcomes included the volume of drain output, the percentage of patients who received transfusions, the number of units transfused, and thromboembolic events. The baseline data, preoperative hemoglobin, and tourniquet time were similar in both groups. There was significantly less hemoglobin loss in the intravenous plus intra-articular tranexamic acid group compared with the intra-articular tranexamic acid alone group (2.7 ± 0.6 g/dL and 3.7 ± 0.7 g/dL; p tranexamic acid alone group, the intravenous plus intra-articular tranexamic acid group also had significantly less drain output, fewer patients who received transfusions, and fewer units transfused (all p tranexamic acid alone, combined intravenous plus intra-articular tranexamic acid significantly reduced hemoglobin loss and the need for transfusion without an apparent increase in thromboembolic events in patients who underwent revision total knee arthroplasty. © 2018 AABB.

  18. Search for substructure in anti pp total cross section in the 2200 MeV mass region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peaslee, D.C.; DeMarzo, C.; Guerriero, L.

    1975-01-01

    The anti pp total cross section is measured in an apparatus with a small target and high resolution beam in order to supplement previous work by looking for narrow structure that might be hidden in broad-mass bins. One could set limits on the partial widths of bosons coupling to the anti pp system. The product of an unknown production cross section and a partial width was determined. From the data the existence of resolution-sized structure above the smooth fit with the product of cross section and width greater than 7 MeV mb. It can be shown that a Breit--Wigner resonance of spin J coupled to the anti pp system in this region must have partial width GAMMA/sub anti pp/ less than 1.8/(2J + 1) MeV. Also it is found that the broad enhancement observed in the anti pp total cross section persists without modification in an observation with mass resolution six times that of previous work

  19. Automatic control of the NMB level in general anaesthesia with a switching total system mass control strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Miguel; Mendonça, Teresa; Rocha, Paula; Rabiço, Rui

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a model based switching control strategy to drive the neuromuscular blockade (NMB) level of patients undergoing general anesthesia to a predefined reference. A single-input single-output Wiener system with only two parameters is used to model the effect of two different muscle relaxants, atracurium and rocuronium, and a switching controller is designed based on a bank of total system mass control laws. Each of such laws is tuned for an individual model from a bank chosen to represent the behavior of the whole population. The control law to be applied at each instant corresponds to the model whose NMB response is closer to the patient's response. Moreover a scheme to improve the reference tracking quality based on the analysis of the patient's response, as well as, a comparison between the switching strategy and the Extended Kalman Kilter (EKF) technique are presented. The results are illustrated by means of several simulations, where switching shows to provide good results, both in theory and in practice, with a desirable reference tracking. The reference tracking improvement technique is able to produce a better reference tracking. Also, this technique showed a better performance than the (EKF). Based on these results, the switching control strategy with a bank of total system mass control laws proved to be robust enough to be used as an automatic control system for the NMB level.

  20. [Loss of total 5-methylcytosine from the genome during cell culture aging coincides with the Hayflick limit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazin, A L

    1993-01-01

    Analyzing the data about the age-related 5-methylcytosine (5mC) loss from DNA of cell cultures, the following conclusions have been made: 1. The rate of 5mC loss from DNA does not depend on the cell donor age; it remains constant during the logarithmic phase of cell growth, and may vary significantly in different cell lines. 2. The rate is inversely proportional to their Hayflick limit and to the species lifespan of cell donors. 3. In immortal cell lines the 5mC content in DNA is stable or increases with aging. 4. Hayflick limit estimations coincide with or are lower than the number of cell population doublings that corresponds to all 5mC loss from cell genome. A simple and fast method has been proposed for Hayflick limit prognostication by analysis of the rate of DNA hypomethylation. It may be used for early diagnosis of precrisis and immortal cell lines. Evidence has been obtained that age-dependent 5mC loss from DNA is the result of accumulating 5mC-->T+C substitutions that occur during DNA methylation in every cell division. The loss of all genomic 5mC residues during the lifespan may correspond to accumulation of about 3 x 10(6) 5mC-->T transitions or, on average, one mutation per gene. This may be one of the main reasons of the "catastrophe of errors" and cessation of cell proliferation. It is calculated that the rate of 5mC-->T transitions in normal cells may be 2.3 x 10(-5) per site in each cell doubling in human, 6 x 10(-5) in hamster, and 4.6 x 10(-4) in mouse. DNA methylation as a generator of mutations may be a "counter" of cell divisions and thus be one of the molecular mechanisms of the Hayflick phenomenon. The conclusion is made that the DNA methylation system may be considered as a genetically programmed mechanism for accumulating mutations during cell aging.

  1. A new analysis of the momentum and mass-loss rates of stellar jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raga, A.C.

    1991-01-01

    A very important question in the theory of bipolar outflows from young stars is posed by the still not understood relation between molecular outflows and optical outflows (i.e., stellar jets and Herbig-Haro objects). In some past studies, estimates of mass and momentum rates associated with these outflows indicated that stellar jets have approximately 2 orders of magnitude smaller values for these parameters than the molecular outflows associated with the same sources. However, a reanalysis of observations of stellar jets in the light of new theoretical jet models yields values of mass and momentum rates comparable to the ones of molecular outflows. From this result it can be tentatively speculated that stellar jets (or Herbig-Haro objects) and molecular outflows might be different manifestations of basically the same flow. 21 refs

  2. Auditory Training for Adults Who Have Hearing Loss: A Comparison of Spaced Versus Massed Practice Schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tye-Murray, Nancy; Spehar, Brent; Barcroft, Joe; Sommers, Mitchell

    2017-08-16

    The spacing effect in human memory research refers to situations in which people learn items better when they study items in spaced intervals rather than massed intervals. This investigation was conducted to compare the efficacy of meaning-oriented auditory training when administered with a spaced versus massed practice schedule. Forty-seven adult hearing aid users received 16 hr of auditory training. Participants in a spaced group (mean age = 64.6 years, SD = 14.7) trained twice per week, and participants in a massed group (mean age = 69.6 years, SD = 17.5) trained for 5 consecutive days each week. Participants completed speech perception tests before training, immediately following training, and then 3 months later. In line with transfer appropriate processing theory, tests assessed both trained tasks and an untrained task. Auditory training improved the speech recognition performance of participants in both groups. Benefits were maintained for 3 months. No effect of practice schedule was found on overall benefits achieved, on retention of benefits, nor on generalizability of benefits to nontrained tasks. The lack of spacing effect in otherwise effective auditory training suggests that perceptual learning may be subject to different influences than are other types of learning, such as vocabulary learning. Hence, clinicians might have latitude in recommending training schedules to accommodate patients' schedules.

  3. The extraordinary mass-loss bubble G2.4 + 1.4 and its central star

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dopita, M.A.; Mcgregor, P.J.; Rawlings, S.J.; Lozinskaia, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    Data are presented on the WR 102 star and the surrounding nebula (G2.4 + 1.4). It is shown that WR 102 and the nebula are associated, the nebula being a mass-loss bubble powered by the central star. From a photoionization analysis of the surrounding nebula, the star was determined to have the following parameters: log T(ion) = 5.20 + or - 0.05; log (R/solar R) = about 0.05; and log (L/solar L) = 5.85 + or - 0.20. 42 refs

  4. Total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF) - a tool to obtain information about different air masses and air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmeling, M.

    2000-01-01

    Aerosols are solid particles dissolved in the atmosphere and have strong influence in the earth climate. Their solid surfaces are the only atmospheric medium for condensation of water leading to cloud formation and ultimately to precipitation. Besides their role in cloud formation, the elemental composition of aerosols reveals useful information about air masses and their transport patterns as well as air pollution. The elemental composition can be considered like a fingerprint of an air mass telling the story about its origin and fate. The presence of Al, Ti and Fe for instance indicates a source located in a highly exposed soil or often desert region, whereas Ni, V and Pb can be traced back to anthropogenic activities like fuel combustion or industrial processes. Other important source regions are the oceans, which emit the main aerosol constituents Na, Cl, and S. The concentrations of these elements in the atmosphere are extremely low and long sampling times are necessary to gain reliable results with most of the common analysis techniques. In contrast to this total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF), as a technique capable to cope with tiny sample amounts, offers the unique possibility to reduce collection times to a minimum of minutes to hours. Such short sampling times in turn render it possible to monitor different air masses either passing through a ground based station or -in the ideal case- flown into by a small research aircraft. Different aerosol samples were taken by aircraft during the second aerosol characterization experiment (ACE-2) with sampling times ranging from 15 minutes up to one hour. These filter samples were analyzed by TXRF for trace elements subsequently. Together with background information about back trajectories and size distribution covering the time of sampling the presence of different air masses could be detected. In another project, short-term samples in the Chicago/Lake Michigan area are collected to study the air mass

  5. Total energy intake according to the level of skeletal muscle mass in Korean adults aged 30 years and older: an analysis of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) 2008-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Bo Young; Bu, So Young

    2018-06-01

    Since gain or loss of skeletal muscle mass is a gradual event and occurs due to a combination of lifestyle factors, assessment of dietary factors related to skeletal muscle is complicated. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in total energy intake according to the level of skeletal muscle mass. A total of 8,165 subjects ≥ 30 years of age from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) 2008-2011 were included in the analysis, and multivariate-adjusted regression analyses were performed to analyze the association of the quartiles of sarcopenia index (SI) with energy intake of the study population after adjusting for age and metabolic parameters. The increase in SI quartile was in proportion to the gradual decrease in systemic lipids and the anthropometric measurement of fat accumulation ( P energy and energy-producing nutrients than those in lower quartiles ( P energy intake gradually increased according to the increase in SI quartile, and the association between total energy intake and SI was more pronounced in men. However, the risk (odd ratio) of having a low SI was not affected by any single macronutrient intake. In this study, total energy intake was positively associated with SI and relative skeletal mass in both men and women. However, no significant association or a weak association was observed between any single macronutrient intake and skeletal muscle mass. The data indicated that acquiring more energy intake within the normal range of energy consumption may help to maintain skeletal muscle mass.

  6. Numerical analysis of Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla heat-treatment: A dynamically detecting method of mass loss during the process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zijian; Ma, Qing; Mu, Jun; Yi, Songlin; He, Zhengbin

    Eucalyptus particles, lamellas and boards were applied to explore a simply-implemented method with neglected heat and mass transfer to inspect the mass loss during the heat-treatment course. The results revealed that the mass loss of a certain period was theoretically the definite integration of loss rate to time in this period, and a monitoring model for mass loss speed was developed with the particles and validated with the lamellas and boards. The loss rate was correlated to the temperature and temperature-evolving speed in the model which was composed of three functions during different temperature-evolving period. The sample mass loss was calculated in the MATLAB for the lamellas and boards and the model was validated and adjusted based on the difference between the computed results and the practically measured loss values. The error ranges of the new models were -16.30% to 18.35% for wood lamellas and -9.86% to 6.80% for wood boards. This method made it possible to acquire the instantaneous loss value through continuously detecting the wood temperature evolution. This idea could provide a reference for the Eucalyptus heat-treatment to detect the treating course and control the final material characteristics.

  7. Infrared observations and mass loss of the binary system V861 Sco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanzi, E.G.; Maraschi, L.; Tarenghi, M.; Treves, A.

    1981-01-01

    V 861 Sco (HD 152667) is a well known single line binary. The proposed association with a variable X-ray source has triggered renewed interest in the system. Here the authors report on a series of photometric observations in the infrared (from 1.25 to 4.8 μ) taken at various orbital phases which improve and extend previous measurements by Tanzi et al. The results give evidence of a phase modulated infrared excess which can be interpreted in terms of a non isotropic mass flow in the system or, alternately, of a contribution from a colder secondary component. (Auth.)

  8. Effect of mass loss by stellar wind on the chemical enrichment of the galaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiosi, C [Padua Univ. (Italy). Istituto di Astronomia

    1979-01-01

    The rate of production of heavy elements is rediscussed using the models of Arnett (1978) for late stage nucleosynthesis in massive stars, the M(M,) relationship of Chiosi et al. (1978b) for losing mass models in the core H and He-Burning phases, and the stellar birth rate of Miller and Scalo (1978). Contrary to that found by Wheeler et al (1978), we do not encounter the difficulty of heavy element overproduction. The explosive nucleosynthesis from massive stars is still compatible with the observed abundance distribution of the solar system, and a stellar birth rate decreasing over the history of the galactic disk.

  9. The effect of mass loss by stellar wind on the chemical enrichment of the galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiosi, C.

    1979-01-01

    The rate of production of heavy elements is rediscussed using the models of Arnett (1978) for late stage nucleosynthesis in massive stars, the M(M,) relationship of Chiosi et al. (1978b) for losing mass models in the core H and He-Burning phases, and the stellar birth rate of Miller and Scalo (1978). Contrary to that found by Wheeler et al (1978), we do not encounter the difficulty of heavy element overproduction. The explosive nucleosynthesis from massive stars is still compatible with the observed abundance distribution of the solar system, and a stellar birth rate decreasing over the history of the galactic disk. (orig.)

  10. A Motivational Model of Physical Education and Links to Enjoyment, Knowledge, Performance, Total Physical Activity and Body Mass Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arto Gråstén, Anthony Watt

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper examined the full sequence of the Hierarchical Model of Motivation in physical education (PE including motivational climate, basic psychological needs, intrinsic motivation, and related links to contextual enjoyment, knowledge, performance, and total moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA. Gender differences and correlations with body mass index (BMI were also analyzed. Cross-sectional data was represented by self-reports and objective assessments of 770 middle school students (52% of girls in North-East Finland. The results showed that task-involving climate in girls’ PE classes was related to enjoyment and knowledge through physical competence and intrinsic motivation, whereas task-involving climate was associated with enjoyment and knowledge via competence and autonomy, and total MVPA via autonomy, intrinsic motivation, and knowledge within boys. This may indicate that girls and boys perceive PE classes in a different way. Graded PE assessments appeared to be essential in motivating both girls and boys to participate in greater total MVPA, whereas BMI was negatively linked with competence and social relatedness only among girls. Although, the current and previous empirical findings supported task-involving teaching methods in PE, in some cases, ego-involving climate should be considered. Therefore, both task- and ego-involving teaching practices can be useful ways of developing preferred behaviors in PE classes.

  11. Relative contributions of wind and water erosion to total soil loss and its effect on soil properties in sloping croplands of the Chinese Loess Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuo, Dengfeng; Xu, Mingxiang; Gao, Guangyao

    2018-08-15

    Wind and water erosion are two dominant types of erosion that lead to soil and nutrient losses. Wind and water erosion may occur simultaneously to varying extents in semi-arid regions. The contributions of wind and water erosion to total erosion and their effects on soil quality, however, remains elusive. We used cesium-137 ( 137 Cs) inventories to estimate the total soil erosion and used the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) to quantify water erosion in sloping croplands. Wind erosion was estimated from the subtraction of the two. We also used 137 Cs inventories to calculate total soil erosion and validate the relationships of the soil quality and erosion at different slope aspects and positions. The results showed that wind erosion (1460tkm -2 a -1 ) on northwest-facing slope was responsible for approximately 39.7% of the total soil loss, and water erosion (2216tkm -2 a -1 ) accounted for approximately 60.3%. The erosion rates were 58.8% higher on northwest- than on southeast-facing slopes. Northwest-facing slopes had lower soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, clay, and silt contents than southeast-facing slopes, and thus, the 137 Cs inventories were lower, and the total soil erosions were higher on the northwest-facing slopes. The variations in soil physicochemical properties were related to total soil erosion. The lowest 137 Cs inventories and nutrient contents were recorded at the upper positions on the northwest-facing slopes due to the successive occurrence of more severe wind and water erosion at the same site. The results indicated that wind and water could accelerate the spatial variability of erosion rate and soil properties and cause serious decreases in the nutrient contents in sloping fields. Our research could help researchers develop soil strategies to reduce soil erosion according to the dominant erosion type when it occurs in a hilly agricultural area. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Measurement of total and free docetaxel concentration in human plasma by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigo-Bonnin, Raül; Cobo-Sacristán, Sara; Gonzalo-Diego, Núria; Colom, Helena; Muñoz-Sánchez, Carmen; Urruticoechea, Ander; Falo, Catalina; Alía, Pedro

    2016-01-05

    Docetaxel is a semi-synthetic taxane with cytotoxic anti-neoplastic activity and, currently used as anticancer agent in several types of cancer. Docetaxel is highly bound to plasma proteins, and this significantly determines its clearance and activity. Therefore, measurement of free docetaxel in plasma is pharmacologically important when pharmacokinetics is investigated. We developed and validated chromatographic methods by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to measure total and free docetaxel concentration in human plasma. The final validated methods involved liquid-liquid extraction followed by dryness under nitrogen evaporation. To measure free docetaxel concentration, sample preparation was preceded by ultrafiltration. Chromatographic separation was achieved using an Acquity(®) UPLC(®) BEH™ (2.1×100 mm id, 1.7 μm) reverse-phase C18 column at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min, using isocratic elution mode containing ammonium acetate/formic acid in water/methanol (30:70 v/v) as mobile phase. Docetaxel and its internal standard (paclitaxel) were detected by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry in positive ion multiple reaction monitoring mode using mass-to-charge (m/z) transitions of 808.3→527.0 (quantifier) and 808.3→509.0 (qualifier); and 854.3→569.0 (quantifier) and 854,3→509,0 (qualifier), respectively. The run time per sample was 3.5 min. The limits of quantification were 1,95 and 0.42 μg/L and linearity was observed between 1.95 and 1000 and 0.42-100 μg/L for total and free docetaxel, respectively. Coefficients of variation and absolute relative biases were less than 13.8% and 10.0%. Recovery values were greater than 79.4%. Evaluation of the matrix effect showed ion suppression and no carry-over was observed. The validated methods could be useful for both therapeutic drug monitoring and pharmacokinetic studies. They could be applied to daily clinical laboratory practice to measure the concentration of total and free

  13. Modelling Energy Loss Mechanisms and a Determination of the Electron Energy Scale for the CDF Run II W Mass Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riddick, Thomas [Univ. College London, Bloomsbury (United Kingdom)

    2012-06-15

    The calibration of the calorimeter energy scale is vital to measuring the mass of the W boson at CDF Run II. For the second measurement of the W boson mass at CDF Run II, two independent simulations were developed. This thesis presents a detailed description of the modification and validation of Bremsstrahlung and pair production modelling in one of these simulations, UCL Fast Simulation, comparing to both geant4 and real data where appropriate. The total systematic uncertainty on the measurement of the W boson mass in the W → eve channel from residual inaccuracies in Bremsstrahlung modelling is estimated as 6.2 ±3.2 MeV/c2 and the total systematic uncertainty from residual inaccuracies in pair production modelling is estimated as 2.8± 2.7 MeV=c2. Two independent methods are used to calibrate the calorimeter energy scale in UCL Fast Simulation; the results of these two methods are compared to produce a measurement of the Z boson mass as a cross-check on the accuracy of the simulation.

  14. Method for the elucidation of the elemental composition of low molecular mass chemicals using exact masses of product ions and neutral losses: application to environmental chemicals measured by liquid chromatography with hybrid quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shigeru; Ishii, Tetsuko; Yasuhara, Akio; Sakai, Shinichi

    2005-01-01

    A method for elucidating the elemental compositions of low molecular weight chemicals, based primarily on mass measurements made using liquid chromatography (LC) with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) and quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/QTOFMS), was developed and tested for 113 chemicals of environmental interest with molecular masses up to approximately 400 Da. As the algorithm incorporating the method is not affected by differences in the instrument used, or by the ionization method and other ionization conditions, the method is useful not only for LC/TOFMS, but also for all kinds of mass spectra measured with higher accuracy and precision (uncertainties of a few mDa) employing all ionization methods and on-line separation techniques. The method involves calculating candidate compositions for intact ionized molecules (ionized forms of the sample molecule that have lost or gained no more than a proton, i.e., [M+H](+) or [M-H](-)) as well as for fragment ions and corresponding neutral losses, and eliminating those atomic compositions for the molecules that are inconsistent with the corresponding candidate compositions of fragment ions and neutral losses. Candidate compositions were calculated for the measured masses of the intact ionized molecules and of the fragment ions and corresponding neutral losses, using mass uncertainties of 2 and 5 mDa, respectively. Compositions proposed for the ionized molecule that did not correspond to the sum of the compositions of a candidate fragment ion and its corresponding neutral loss were discarded. One, 2-5, 6-10, 11-20, and >20 candidate compositions were found for 65%, 39%, 1%, 1%, and 0%, respectively, for the 124 ionized molecules formed from the 113 chemicals tested (both positive and negative ions were obtained from 11 of the chemicals). However, no candidate composition was found for 2% of the test cases (i.e., 3 chemicals), for each of which the measured mass of one of the product ions was in

  15. Outcome of revision total knee arthroplasty with the use of trabecular metal cone for reconstruction of severe bone loss at the proximal tibia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Claus L; Olsen, Nikolaj Winther; Schrøder, Henrik M

    2014-01-01

    technology (TMT) cones for the reconstruction of tibial bone loss at the time of rTKA. METHODS: Thirty-six patients had rTKA with the use of a TMT Cone. Bone loss was classified according to the AORI classification and 25% of the patients suffered from T3 AORI defects and 75% of the patients from T2 AORI...... defects. Implants used were from the NexGen series. At follow-up, radiographs were evaluated according to the Knee Society Roentgenographic Scoring System. Knee and function score was calculated using the Knee Society Clinical Rating System. Average follow-up time was 47 months (range 3-84 months......BACKGROUND: The relative effectiveness of different methods for reconstructing large bone loss at the proximal tibia in revision total knee arthroplasty (rTKA) has not been established. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and radiological outcome after the use of trabecular metal...

  16. Mass loss and chemical structures of wheat and maize straws in response to ultraviolet-B radiation and soil contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guixiang; Zhang, Jiabao; Mao, Jingdong; Zhang, Congzhi; Chen, Lin; Xin, Xiuli; Zhao, Bingzi

    2015-01-01

    The role of photodegradation, an abiotic process, has been largely overlooked during straw decomposition in mesic ecosystems. We investigated the mass loss and chemical structures of straw decomposition in response to elevated UV-B radiation with or without soil contact over a 12-month litterbag experiment. Wheat and maize straw samples with and without soil contact were exposed to three radiation levels: a no-sunlight control, ambient solar UV-B, and artificially elevated UV-B radiation. A block control with soil contact was not included. Compared with the no-sunlight control, UV-B radiation increased the mass loss by 14–19% and the ambient radiation by 9–16% for wheat and maize straws without soil contact after 12 months. Elevated UV-B exposure decreased the decomposition rates of both wheat and maize straws when in contact with soil. Light exposure resulted in decreased O-alkyl carbons and increased alkyl carbons for both the wheat and maize straws compared with no-sunlight control. The difference in soil contact may influence the contribution of photodegradation to the overall straw decomposition process. These results indicate that we must take into account the effects of photodegradation when explaining the mechanisms of straw decomposition in mesic ecosystems. PMID:26423726

  17. Mass loss and chemical structures of wheat and maize straws in response to ultraviolet-B radiation and soil contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guixiang; Zhang, Jiabao; Mao, Jingdong; Zhang, Congzhi; Chen, Lin; Xin, Xiuli; Zhao, Bingzi

    2015-10-01

    The role of photodegradation, an abiotic process, has been largely overlooked during straw decomposition in mesic ecosystems. We investigated the mass loss and chemical structures of straw decomposition in response to elevated UV-B radiation with or without soil contact over a 12-month litterbag experiment. Wheat and maize straw samples with and without soil contact were exposed to three radiation levels: a no-sunlight control, ambient solar UV-B, and artificially elevated UV-B radiation. A block control with soil contact was not included. Compared with the no-sunlight control, UV-B radiation increased the mass loss by 14-19% and the ambient radiation by 9-16% for wheat and maize straws without soil contact after 12 months. Elevated UV-B exposure decreased the decomposition rates of both wheat and maize straws when in contact with soil. Light exposure resulted in decreased O-alkyl carbons and increased alkyl carbons for both the wheat and maize straws compared with no-sunlight control. The difference in soil contact may influence the contribution of photodegradation to the overall straw decomposition process. These results indicate that we must take into account the effects of photodegradation when explaining the mechanisms of straw decomposition in mesic ecosystems.

  18. Balanced conditions or slight mass gain of glaciers in the Lahaul and Spiti region (northern India, Himalaya during the nineties preceded recent mass loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Vincent

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The volume change of the Chhota Shigri Glacier (India, 32° 20 N, 77° 30' E between 1988 and 2010 has been determined using in situ geodetic measurements. This glacier has experienced only a slight mass loss between 1988 and 2010 (−3.8 ± 2.0 m w.e. (water equivalent corresponding to −0.17 ± 0.09 m w.e. yr−1. Using satellite digital elevation models (DEM differencing and field measurements, we measure a negative mass balance (MB between 1999 and 2010 (−4.8 ± 1.8 m w.e. corresponding to −0.44 ± 0.16 m w.e. yr−1. Thus, we deduce a slightly positive or near-zero MB between 1988 and 1999 (+1.0 ± 2.7 m w.e. corresponding to +0.09 ± 0.24 m w.e. yr−1. Furthermore, satellite DEM differencing reveals that the MB of the Chhota Shigri Glacier (−0.39 ± 0.15 m w.e. yr−1 has been only slightly less negative than the MB of a 2110 km2 glaciarized area in the Lahaul and Spiti region (−0.44 ± 0.09 m w.e. yr−1 during 1999−2011. Hence, we conclude that the ice wastage is probably moderate in this region over the last 22 yr, with near equilibrium conditions during the nineties, and an ice mass loss after. The turning point from balanced to negative mass budget is not known but lies probably in the late nineties and at the latest in 1999. This positive or near-zero MB for Chhota Shigri Glacier (and probably for the surrounding glaciers of the Lahaul and Spiti region during at least part of the 1990s contrasts with a recent compilation of MB data in the Himalayan range that indicated ice wastage since 1975. However, in agreement with this compilation, we confirm more negative balances since the beginning of the 21st century.

  19. Stellar Evolution in NGC 6791: Mass Loss on the Red Giant Branch and the Formation of Low-Mass White Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalirai, Jasonjot S.; Bergeron, P.; Hansen, Brad M. S.; Kelson, Daniel D.; Reitzel, David B.; Rich, R. Michael; Richer, Harvey B.

    2007-12-01

    We present the first detailed study of the properties (temperatures, gravities, and masses) of the NGC 6791 white dwarf population. This unique stellar system is both one of the oldest (8 Gyr) and most metal-rich ([Fe/H]~+0.4) open clusters in our Galaxy and has a color-magnitude diagram (CMD) that exhibits both a red giant clump and a much hotter extreme horizontal branch. Fitting the Balmer lines of the white dwarfs in the cluster using Keck/LRIS spectra suggests that most of these stars are undermassive, =0.43+/-0.06 Msolar, and therefore could not have formed from canonical stellar evolution involving the helium flash at the tip of the red giant branch. We show that at least 40% of NGC 6791's evolved stars must have lost enough mass on the red giant branch to avoid the flash and therefore did not convert helium into carbon-oxygen in their core. Such increased mass loss in the evolution of the progenitors of these stars is consistent with the presence of the extreme horizontal branch in the CMD. This unique stellar evolutionary channel also naturally explains the recent finding of a very young age (2.4 Gyr) for NGC 6791 from white dwarf cooling theory; helium-core white dwarfs in this cluster will cool ~3 times slower than carbon-oxygen-core stars, and therefore the corrected white dwarf cooling age is in fact >~7 Gyr, consistent with the well-measured main-sequence turnoff age. These results provide direct empirical evidence that mass loss is much more efficient in high-metallicity environments and therefore may be critical in interpreting the ultraviolet upturn in elliptical galaxies. Data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. Based on observations obtained at the

  20. Trace analysis of total naphthenic acids in aqueous environmental matrices by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry-quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry direct injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunswick, Pamela; Shang, Dayue; van Aggelen, Graham; Hindle, Ralph; Hewitt, L Mark; Frank, Richard A; Haberl, Maxine; Kim, Marcus

    2015-07-31

    A rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight method has been established for the determination of total naphthenic acid concentrations in aqueous samples. This is the first methodology that has been adopted for routine, high resolution, high throughput analysis of total naphthenic acids at trace levels in unprocessed samples. A calibration range from 0.02 to 1.0μgmL(-1) total Merichem naphthenic acids was validated and demonstrated excellent accuracy (97-111% recovery) and precision (1.9% RSD at 0.02μgmL(-1)). Quantitative validation was also demonstrated in a non-commercial oil sands process water (OSPW) acid extractable organics (AEOs) fraction containing a higher percentage of polycarboxylic acid isomers than the Merichem technical mix. The chromatographic method showed good calibration linearity of ≥0.999 RSQ to 0.005μgmL(-1) total naphthenic acids with a precision <3.1% RSD and a calculated detection limit of 0.0004μgmL(-1) employing Merichem technical mix reference material. The method is well suited to monitoring naturally occurring and industrially derived naphthenic acids (and other AEOs) present in surface and ground waters in the vicinity of mining developments. The advantage of the current method is its direct application to unprocessed environmental samples and to examine natural naphthenic acid isomer profiles. It is noted that where the isomer profile of samples differs from that of the reference material, results should be considered semi-quantitative due to the lack of matching isomer content. The fingerprint profile of naphthenic acids is known to be transitory during aging and the present method has the ability to adapt to monitoring of these changes in naphthenic acid content. The method's total ion scan approach allows for data previously collected to be examined retrospectively for specific analyte mass ions of interest. A list of potential naphthenic acid isomers that decrease in response with aging is proposed

  1. Proton-proton total cross sections and the neglect of masses in data fitting in the Regge region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamran, M.

    1981-01-01

    It is shown by taking the example of pp total cross sections that the use of the approximation s is appoximately equal to 2qsup(1/2) while fitting data in the Regge region can be misleading. Several standard fits to sigmasub(tot)pp data are based on the assumption of weak rho-f-ω-A 2 exchange degeneracy (EXD). However, these fits involve the use of the approximation mentioned. It is found that it is impossible to fit the sigmasub(tot)pp data in the range 6 2 EXD. This investigation shows that sigmasub(tot)pp data alone seem to indicate either a breaking of weak rho-f-ω-A 2 EXD or the presence of low-lying contributions, or both, provided the masses of the interacting particles in data fitting in the Regge region ((Pi)ab>=5GeV/c) are not ignored

  2. Measurement of total acid number (TAN) and TAN boiling point distribution in petroleum products by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Kuangnan; Edwards, Kathleen E; Dechert, Gary J; Jaffe, Stephen B; Green, Larry A; Olmstead, William N

    2008-02-01

    We report a new method for rapid measurement of total acid number (TAN) and TAN boiling point (BP) distribution for petroleum crude and products. The technology is based on negative ion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) for selective ionization of petroleum acid and quantification of acid structures and molecular weight distributions. A chip-based nanoelectrospray system enables microscale (boiling point distributions of TAN values can be calculated from the composition. The rapid measurement of TAN BP distributions by ESI is demonstrated for a series of high-TAN crudes and distillation cuts. TAN values determined by the technique agree well with those by the titration method. The distributed properties compare favorably with those measured by distillation and measurement of TAN of corresponding cuts.

  3. Total and species-specific quantitative analyses of trace elements in sediment by isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, Kazumi; Takatsu, Akiko; Yarita, Takashi; Okamoto, Kensaku; Chiba, Koichi

    2009-01-01

    Isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-MS) is one of the reliable methods for total and species-specific quantitative analysis of trace elements. However, several technical problems (e.g. spectral interference caused from sample constituents) should be overcome to obtain reliable analytical results when environmental samples are analyzed by ID-ICP-MS. In our laboratory, various methods based on ID-ICP-MS have been investigated for reliable quantitative analyses of trace elements in environmental samples. In this paper, coprecipitate separation/ID-ICP-MS for the determination of trace elements in sediment, cation exchange disk filtration/ID-ICP-MS for the determination of selenium in sediment, species-specific ID-ICP-MS using 118 Sn/labeled organotin compounds for the determination of butyltins and phenyltins, and the application of the ID-ICP-MS methods to the certification of sediment reference materials are described. (author)

  4. The organic contamination level based on the total soil mass is not a proper index of the soil contamination intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, H.-W.; Daniel, Sheng G.; Lin, T.-F.; Su, Y.; Chiou, C.T.

    2009-01-01

    Concentrations of organic contaminants in common productive soils based on the total soil mass give a misleading account of actual contamination effects. This is attributed to the fact that productive soils are essentially water-saturated, with the result that the soil uptake of organic compounds occurs principally by partition into the soil organic matter (SOM). This report illustrates that the soil contamination intensity of a compound is governed by the concentration in the SOM (Com) rather than by the concentration in whole soil (Cs). Supporting data consist of the measured levels and toxicities of many pesticides in soils of widely differing SOM contents and the related levels in in-situ crops that defy explanation by the Cs values. This SOM-based index is timely needed for evaluating the contamination effects of food crops grown in different soils and for establishing a dependable priority ranking for intended remediation of numerous contamination sites.

  5. Measurement of total and partial photon proton cross sections at 180 GeV center of mass energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derrick, M.; Krakauer, D.; Magill, S.

    1994-03-01

    Photon proton cross sections for elastic light vector meson production, σ el γp , inelastic diffractive production, σ d γp , non-diffractive procution, σ nd γp , as well as the total cross section, σ γp tot , have been measured at an average γp center of mass energy of 180 GeV with the ZEUS detector at HERA. The resulting values are σ el γp =18±7 μb, σ d γp =33±8 μb, σ nd γp =91±11 μb, and σ γp tot =143±17 μb, where the errors include statistical and systematic errors added in quadrature. (orig.)

  6. Mass loss of Greenland from GRACE, IceSat and CryoSat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsberg, René; Sørensen, Louise Sandberg; Fredenslund Levinsen, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    CryoSat data over the Greenland Ice Sheet are used to continue elevation height change data over the Greenland ice sheet, following a decade of detailed monitoring of ice sheet changes with GRACE and IceSat. The combination and validation of the different data for measuring changes is quantified...... by using available airborne lidar data from IceBridge and CryoVEx. There is a special challenge of using CryoSat as fill-in between EnviSat and Sentinel-3 for the longterm measurements of surface elevation changes, a key essential climate variable in the ESA Climate Change Initiative. Another challenge...... is the joint utilization of both altimetry and gravity field change measurements for consistent estimates of regional change patterns. In the paper we analyze GRACE, IceSat and CryoSat data since 2003, and present consistent estimates of overall mass changes with average values around -220 GT/year, showing...

  7. Mass fractionation during transonic escape and implications for loss of water from Mars and Venus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahnle, K.J.; Kasting, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    Hydrodynamic escape of hydrogen from a planetary atmosphere can remove heavier gases as well as hydrogen, provided that the escape rate is sufficiently large. Analytic approximations for the degree of mass fractionation of a trace species during hydrodynamic escape are compared with accurate numerical solutions for the case of transonic outflow. The analytic approximations are most accurate when the ratio of molecular weights of the heavier and lighter constituents is large so that nonlinear terms in the momentum equation for the heavy constituent become small. The simplest analytic formula is readily generalized to the case where a heavy constituent is also a major species. Application of the generalized formula to hypothetical episodes of hydrodynamic escape from Venus and Mars suggests that both hydrogen and oxygen could have escaped; thus, substantial quantities of water may have been lost without the need to oxidize large amounts of the crust. 29 references

  8. Non-targeted glycosidic profiling of international wines using neutral loss-high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnaba, C; Dellacassa, E; Nicolini, G; Nardin, T; Serra, M; Larcher, R

    2018-07-06

    Many metabolites naturally occur as glycosides, since sugar moieties can be crucial for their biological activity and increase their water solubility. In the plant kingdom they may occur as glycosides or sugar esters, depending on precursor chemical structure, and in wine they have traditionally attracted attention due to their organoleptic properties, such as astringency and bitterness, and because they affect the colour and aroma of wines. A new approach directed at detailed description of glycosides in a large selection of monovarietal wines (8 samples each of Pinot Blanc, Muller Thurgau, Riesling, Traminer, Merlot, Pinot Noir and Cabernet Sauvignon) was developed by combining high performance liquid chromatography with high resolution tandem mass spectrometry. Analytical separation was performed on an Accucore™ Polar Premium LC column, while mass analysis was performed in negative ion mode with an non-targeted screening approach, using a Full MS/AIF/NL dd-MS 2 experiment at a resolving power of 140,000 FWHM. Over 280 glycoside-like compounds were detected, of which 133 (including low-molecular weight phenols, flavonoids and monoterpenols) were tentatively identified in the form of pentose (6), deoxyhexose (17), hexose (73), hexose-pentose (16), hexose-deoxyhexose (7), dihexose (5) and hexose ester (9) derivatives. It was not possible to univocally define the corresponding chemical structure for the remaining 149 glycosides. Non-parametric statistical analysis showed it was possible to well characterise the glycosylated profile of all red and Traminer wines, while the identified glycosides were almost entirely lacking in Pinot Blanc, Riesling and Muller Thurgau wines. Also Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference test (p wines from each other according to their glycosylated profile. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Mass loss from the proto-sun: Formation and evolution of the solar nebula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivedi, B.M.P.

    1984-01-01

    We consider the formation and evolution of the solar nebula in the light of observations of T Tauri stars, oxygen-isotopic anomalies in meteorites, and the mass and angular momentum distribution in the present solar system. It is argued that the solar nebula formed from the mass lost by the proto-Sun. The outflow of initially partially ionized material in the presence of a strong proto-solar magnetic field would lead to the transfer of angular momentum from the central Sun to the outflowing matter. This explains the present angular momentum distribution between the Sun and the planetary system. When the outflowing matter cooled sufficiently, to less than 2000 K, approx. l0 12 cm from the Sun, the material would neutralize, and the magnetic field would then decouple from the outflowing matter. Further motion would be governed by the gravitational field of the proto-Sun, the gas pressure, and the centrifugal force. When these forces balance, the radial flow would stop, and a rotating solar nebula would form. Chemical condensation would occur in the outflowing matter when suitable pressure-temperature conditions would develop. The condensation of the refractory mineral Al 2 O 3 would start at a distance of approx.2 x l0 12 cm from the Sun, where the pressure would be approx. 3 x l0 8 atm, and temperature approx. l450 K. The condensation sequence of other lower temperature minerals would follow this. All the refractory minerals and iron would condense within the orbit of the planet Mercury. All the volatiles would condense before the outflowing matter crossed the asteroid region. The grains would move to the outer part of the nebula along with the outflowing gas

  10. The SLUGGS survey: a comparison of total-mass profiles of early-type galaxies from observations and cosmological simulations, to ˜4 effective radii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellstedt, Sabine; Forbes, Duncan A.; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Remus, Rhea-Silvia; Stevens, Adam R. H.; Brodie, Jean P.; Poci, Adriano; McDermid, Richard; Alabi, Adebusola; Chevalier, Leonie; Adams, Caitlin; Ferré-Mateu, Anna; Wasserman, Asher; Pandya, Viraj

    2018-06-01

    We apply the Jeans Anisotropic Multi-Gaussian Expansion dynamical modelling method to SAGES Legacy Unifying Globulars and GalaxieS (SLUGGS) survey data of early-type galaxies in the stellar mass range 1010 physical processes shaping the mass distributions of galaxies in cosmological simulations are still incomplete. For galaxies with M* > 1010.7 M⊙ in the Magneticum simulations, we identify a significant anticorrelation between total-mass density profile slopes and the fraction of stellar mass formed ex situ (i.e. accreted), whereas this anticorrelation is weaker for lower stellar masses, implying that the measured total-mass density slopes for low-mass galaxies are less likely to be determined by merger activity.

  11. Simultaneous measurement of total Estradiol and Testosterone in human serum by isotope dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hui; Wang, Yuesong; Gatcombe, Matthew; Farris, Jacob; Botelho, Julianne C.; Caudill, Samuel P.; Vesper, Hubert W.

    2017-01-01

    Reliable measurement of total testosterone and estradiol is critical for their use as biomarkers of hormone related disorders in patient care and translation research. We developed and validated a mass spectrometry method to simultaneously quantify these analytes in human serum without chemical derivatization. Serum is equilibrated with isotopic internal standards and treated with acidic buffer to release hormones from their binding proteins. Lipids are isolated and polar impurities are removed by two serial liquid-liquid extraction steps. Total testosterone and estradiol are measured using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in combination of positive and negative electrospray ionization modes. The method shows broad analytical measurement range for both testosterone 0.03–48.5 nM (0.75–1400 ng/dL) and estradiol 11.0–5138 pM (2.99–1400 pg/mL) and excellent agreement with certified reference materials (mean bias less than 2.1% to SRM 971, BCR 576, 577, and 578) and a high order reference method (mean bias 1.25% for testosterone and −0.84% for estradiol). The high accuracy of the method was monitored and certified by CDC Hormone Standardization (HoSt) Program for two years with mean bias −0.7% (95%CI: −1.6% to 0.2%) for testosterone and 0.1% (95%CI: −2.2% to 2.3%) for estradiol. The method precision over a 2-year period for Quality Control pools at low, medium and high concentrations was 2.7–2.9% for testosterone and 3.3–5.3% for estradiol. With the consistently excellent accuracy and precision, this method is readily applicable for high-throughput clinical and epidemiological studies. PMID:28801832

  12. Analysis of cell flow and cell loss following X-irradiation using sequential investigation of the total number of cells in the various parts of the cell cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skog, S.; Tribukait, B.

    1985-01-01

    The cell flow and cell loss of an in vivo growing Ehrlich ascites tumour were calculated by sequential estimation of changes in total number of cells in the cell cycle compartments. Normal growth was compared with the grossly disturbed cell flow evident after a 5 Gy X-irradiation. The doubling time of normal, exponentially growing cells was 24 hr. The generation time was 21 hr and the potential doubling time was 21 hr. Thus, the growth fraction was 1.0 and the cell loss rate about 0.5%/hr. Following irradiation, a transiently increased relative outflow rate from all cell cycle compartments was found at about 3 and 40 hr, and from S phase at 24 hr after irradiation. Increase in cell loss as well as non-viable cells was observed at 24 hr after irradiation at the time of release of the irradiation-induced G 2 blockage. The experiments show the applicability and limitations of cell flow and cell loss calculations by sequential analysis of the total number of cells in the various parts of the cell cycle. (author)

  13. The efficiency and safety of fibrin sealant for reducing blood loss in primary total hip arthroplasty: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiyuan; Xiao, Lin; Guo, Hao; Zhao, Guanghui; Ma, Jianbing

    2017-01-01

    Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is associated with substantial blood loss. The objective of present systematic review and meta-analysis is to provide evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the efficiency and safety of administration of fibrin sealant (FS) for reducing blood loss in patients undergoing primary THA. Potential relevant studies were identified from electronic databases including Medline, PubMed, Embase, ScienceDirect, web of science and Cochrane Library. Gray academic studies were also identified from the reference list of included studies. There was no language restriction. Pooling of data was carried out by using RevMan 5.1. Six randomized controlled trials (RCTs) met the inclusion criteria. Current meta-analysis indicated that there were significant differences in terms of total blood loss (MD = -153.77, 95% CI: -287.21 to -20.34, P = 0.02), postoperative hemoglobin level (MD = -0.25, 95% CI: -0.46 to -0.05, P = 0.02) and transfusion rate (RD = -0.12, 95% CI: -0.22 to -0.03, P = 0.01) between groups. No significant differences were found regarding the incidence of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) (RD = 0.00, 95% CI: -0.01to 0.01, P = 0.51) or other side effects. Administration of fibrin sealant in total hip arthroplasty may reduce total blood loss, postoperative hemoglobin decline and transfusion requirements. Moreover, no adverse effect was related to FS. Due to the limited quality of the evidence currently available, higher quality RCTs are required. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Secret Lives of Cepheids: Evolution, Mass-Loss, and Ultraviolet Emission of the Long-period Classical Cepheid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilson, Hilding R.; Engle, Scott G.; Guinan, Edward F.; Bisol, Alexandra C.; Butterworth, Neil

    2016-06-01

    The classical Cepheid l Carinae is an essential calibrator of the Cepheid Leavitt Law as a rare long-period Galactic Cepheid. Understanding the properties of this star will also constrain the physics and evolution of massive (M ≥ 8 M ⊙) Cepheids. The challenge, however, is precisely measuring the star's pulsation period and its rate of period change. The former is important for calibrating the Leavitt Law and the latter for stellar evolution modeling. In this work, we combine previous time-series observations spanning more than a century with new observations to remeasure the pulsation period and compute the rate of period change. We compare our new rate of period change with stellar evolution models to measure the properties of l Car, but find models and observations are, at best, marginally consistent. The results imply that l Car does not have significantly enhanced mass-loss rates like that measured for δ Cephei. We find that the mass of l Car is about 8-10 M ⊙. We present Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Origins Spectrograph observations that also differ from measurements for δ Cep and β Dor. These measurements further add to the challenge of understanding the physics of Cepheids, but do hint at the possible relation between enhanced mass-loss and ultraviolet emission, perhaps both due to the strength of shocks propagating in the atmospheres of Cepheids. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with program #13019. This work is also based on observations obtained with XMM-Newton, an ESA science mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member States and the USA (NASA), associated with program #060374.

  15. Time-Course of Muscle Mass Loss, Damage, and Proteolysis in Gastrocnemius following Unloading and Reloading: Implications in Chronic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacon-Cabrera, Alba; Lund-Palau, Helena; Gea, Joaquim; Barreiro, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Background Disuse muscle atrophy is a major comorbidity in patients with chronic diseases including cancer. We sought to explore the kinetics of molecular mechanisms shown to be involved in muscle mass loss throughout time in a mouse model of disuse muscle atrophy and recovery following immobilization. Methods Body and muscle weights, grip strength, muscle phenotype (fiber type composition and morphometry and muscle structural alterations), proteolysis, contractile proteins, systemic troponin I, and mitochondrial content were assessed in gastrocnemius of mice exposed to periods (1, 2, 3, 7, 15 and 30 days) of non-invasive hindlimb immobilization (plastic splint, I cohorts) and in those exposed to reloading for different time-points (1, 3, 7, 15, and 30 days, R cohorts) following a seven-day period of immobilization. Groups of control animals were also used. Results Compared to non-exposed controls, muscle weight, limb strength, slow- and fast-twitch cross-sectional areas, mtDNA/nDNA, and myosin content were decreased in mice of I cohorts, whereas tyrosine release, ubiquitin-proteasome activity, muscle injury and systemic troponin I levels were increased. Gastrocnemius reloading following splint removal improved muscle mass loss, strength, fiber atrophy, injury, myosin content, and mtDNA/nDNA, while reducing ubiquitin-proteasome activity and proteolysis. Conclusions A consistent program of molecular and cellular events leading to reduced gastrocnemius muscle mass and mitochondrial content and reduced strength, enhanced proteolysis, and injury, was seen in this non-invasive mouse model of disuse muscle atrophy. Unloading of the muscle following removal of the splint significantly improved the alterations seen during unloading, characterized by a specific kinetic profile of molecular events involved in muscle regeneration. These findings have implications in patients with chronic diseases including cancer in whom physical activity may be severely compromised. PMID

  16. The evaluation of tissue mass loss in the incision line of prostate with benign hyperplasia performed using holmium laser and cutting electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szewczyk, Mariusz; Jesionek-Kupnicka, Dorota; Lipiński, Marek Ireneusz; Lipinski, Piotr; Różański, Waldemar

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the changes in the incision line of prostatic adenoma using a monopolar cutting electrode and holmium laser, as well as the assessment of associated tissue mass and volume loss of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The material used in this study consisted of 74 preparations of prostatic adenoma obtained via open retropubic adenomectomy, with an average volume of 120.7 ml. The material obtained cut in vitro before fixation in formaldehyde. One lobe was cut using holmium laser, the other using a monopolar cutting electrode. After the incision was made, tissue mass and volume loss were evaluated. Thermocoagulation changes in the incision line were examinedunder light microscope. In the case of the holmium laser incision, the average tissue mass loss was 1.73 g, tissue volume loss 3.57 ml and the depth of thermocoagulation was 1.17 mm. When the monopolar cutting electrode was used average tissue mass loss was 0.807 g, tissue volume loss 2.48 ml and the depth of thermocoagulation was 0.19 mm. Where holmium laser was used, it was observed that the layer of tissue with thermocoagulation changes was deeper than in the case of the monopolar cutting electrode. Moreover, it was noticed that holmium laser caused bigger tissue mass and volume loss than the cutting electrode.

  17. Relationship of total body fat mass to weight-bearing bone volumetric density, geometry, and strength in young girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Joshua N; Chen, Zhao; Lisse, Jeffrey R; Lohman, Timothy G; Going, Scott B

    2010-04-01

    Understanding the influence of total body fat mass (TBFM) on bone during the peri-pubertal years is critical for the development of future interventions aimed at improving bone strength and reducing fracture risk. Thus, we evaluated the relationship of TBFM to volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), geometry, and strength at metaphyseal and diaphyseal sites of the femur and tibia of young girls. Data from 396 girls aged 8-13 years from the "Jump-In: Building Better Bones" study were analyzed. Bone parameters were assessed using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) at the 4% and 20% distal femur and 4% and 66% distal tibia of the non-dominant leg. Bone parameters at the 4% sites included trabecular vBMD, periosteal circumference, and bone strength index (BSI), while at the 20% femur and 66% tibia, parameters included cortical vBMD, periosteal circumference, and strength-strain index (SSI). Multiple linear regression analyses were used to assess associations between bone parameters and TBFM, controlling for muscle cross-sectional area (MCSA). Regression analyses were then repeated with maturity, bone length, physical activity, and ethnicity as additional covariates. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to compare bone parameters among tertiles of TBFM. In regression models with TBFM and MCSA, associations between TBFM and bone parameters at all sites were not significant. TBFM explained very little variance in all bone parameters (0.2-2.3%). In contrast, MCSA was strongly related (p<0.001) to all bone parameters, except cortical vBMD. The addition of maturity, bone length, physical activity, and ethnicity did not alter the relationship between TBFM and bone parameters. With bone parameters expressed relative to total body mass, ANCOVA showed that all outcomes were significantly (p<0.001) greater in the lowest compared to the middle and highest tertiles of TBFM. Although TBFM is correlated with femur and tibia vBMD, periosteal circumference, and

  18. Chronologically scheduled snacking with high-protein products within the habitual diet in type-2 diabetes patients leads to a fat mass loss: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez J Alfredo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is the most relevant overnutrition disease worldwide and is associated to different metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes. Low glycemic load foods and diets and moderately high protein intake have been shown to reduce body weight and fat mass, exerting also beneficial effects on LDL-cholesterol, triglyceride concentrations, postprandial glucose curve and HDL-cholesterol levels. The present study aimed at studying the potential functionality of a series of low glycemic index products with moderately high protein content, as possible coadjuvants in the control of type-2 diabetes and weight management following a chronologically planned snacking offer (morning and afternoon. Methods The current trial followed a single group, sequential, longitudinal design, with two consecutive periods of 4 weeks each. A total of 17 volunteers participated in the study. The first period was a free living period, with volunteers' habitual ad libitum dietary pattern, while the second period was a free-living period with structured meal replacements at breakfast, morning snack and afternoon snack, which were exchanged by specific products with moderately high protein content and controlled low glycemic index, following a scheduled temporal consumption. Blood extractions were performed at the beginning and at the end of each period (free-living and intervention. Parameters analysed were: fasting glucose, insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin, total-, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol, triglyceride, C - reactive protein and Homocysteine concentrations. Postprandial glucose and insulin were also measured. Anthropometrical parameters were monitored each 2 weeks during the whole study. Results A modest but significant (p = 0.002 reduction on body weight (1 kg was observed during the intervention period, mainly due to the fat mass loss (0.8 kg, p = 0.02. This weight reduction was observed without apparently associated changes in

  19. Use of Tranexamic acid is a cost effective method in preventing blood loss during and after total knee replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umer Chaudhry Muhammad

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & Purpose Allogenic blood transfusion in elective orthopaedic surgery is best avoided owing to its associated risks. Total knee replacement often requires blood transfusion, more so when bilateral surgery is performed. Many strategies are currently being employed to reduce the amount of peri-operative allogenic transfusions. Anti-fibrinolytic compounds such as aminocaproic acid and tranexamic acid have been used systemically in perioperative settings with promising results. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of tranexamic acid in reducing allogenic blood transfusion in total knee replacement surgery. Methodology This was a retrospective cohort study conducted on patients undergoing total knee replacement during the time period November 2005 to November 2008. Study population was 99 patients, of which 70 underwent unilateral and 29 bilateral knee replacement. Forty-seven patients with 62 (49.5% knees (group-I had received tranexamic acid (by surgeon preference while the remaining fifty-two patients with 66 (51.5% knees (group-II had did not received any tranexamic acid either pre- or post-operatively. Results The mean drop in the post-operative haemoglobin concentration in Group-II for unilateral and bilateral cases was 1.79 gm/dl and 2.21 gm/dl, with a mean post-operative drainage of 1828 ml (unilateral and 2695 ml (bilateral. In comparison, the mean drop in the post-op haemoglobin in Group-I was 1.49 gm/dl (unilateral and 1.94 gm/dl (bilateral, with a mean drainage of 826 ml (unilateral and 1288 ml (bilateral (p-value Interpretation Tranexamic acid is effective in reducing post-operative drainage and requirement of blood transfusion after knee replacement.

  20. Perceptual and Brain Response to Odors Is Associated with Body Mass Index and Postprandial Total Ghrelin Reactivity to a Meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xue; Veldhuizen, Maria G; Babbs, Amanda E; Sinha, Rajita; Small, Dana M

    2016-03-01

    Animal studies have shown that olfactory sensitivity is greater when fasted than when fed. However, human research has generated inconsistent results. One possible explanation for these conflicting findings is metabolic health. Many metabolic peptides, including ghrelin, are moderated by adiposity and influence olfaction and olfactory-guided behaviors. We tested whether the effect of a meal on the perceived intensity of suprathreshold chemosensory stimuli is influenced by body mass index and/or metabolic response to a meal. We found that overweight or obese (n = 13), but not healthy weight (n = 20) subjects perceived odors, but not flavored solutions, as more intense when hungry than when sated. This effect was correlated with reduced postprandial total ghrelin suppression (n = 23) and differential brain response to odors in the cerebellum, as measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging. In contrast, it was unrelated to circulating leptin, glucose, insulin, triglycerides, or free fatty acids; or to odor pleasantness or sniffing (n = 24). These findings demonstrate that the effect of a meal on suprathreshold odor intensity perception is associated with metabolic measures such as body weight and total ghrelin reactivity, supporting endocrine influences on olfactory perception. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Stable Isotope Mass Balance of the Laurentian Great Lakes to Constrain Evaporative Losses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasechko, S. [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario and Alberta Innovates, Technology Futures, Victoria, British Columbia (Canada); Gibson, J. J. [Canada Alberta Innovates, Technology Futures, Victoria, British Columbia and Department of Geography, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia (Canada); Pietroniro, A. [National Water Research Institute, Environment Canada, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Edwards, T.W D. [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-15

    Evaporation is an important yet poorly constrained component of the water budget of the Laurentian Great Lakes, but is known historically to have a significant impact on regional climate, including enhanced humidity and downwind lake effect precipitation. Sparse over lake climate monitoring continues to limit ability to quantify bulk lake evaporation and precipitation rates by physical measurements, impeded by logistical difficulties and costs of instrumenting large areas of open water (10{sup 3}-10{sup 5} km2). Measurements of stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen in water samples of precipitation and surface waters within the great lakes basin are used to better understand the controls on the region's water cycle. A stable isotope mass balance approach to calculate long term evaporation as a proportion of input to each lake is discussed. The approach capitalizes on the well understood systematic isotopic separation of an evaporating water body, but includes added considerations for internal recycling of evaporated moisture in the overlying atmosphere that should be incorporated for surface waters sufficiently large to significantly influence surrounding climate. (author)

  2. Role of Protein Carbonylation in Skeletal Muscle Mass Loss Associated with Chronic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Barreiro

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Muscle dysfunction, characterized by a reductive remodeling of muscle fibers, is a common systemic manifestation in highly prevalent conditions such as chronic heart failure (CHF, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, cancer cachexia, and critically ill patients. Skeletal muscle dysfunction and impaired muscle mass may predict morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic diseases, regardless of the underlying condition. High levels of oxidants may alter function and structure of key cellular molecules such as proteins, DNA, and lipids, leading to cellular injury and death. Protein oxidation including protein carbonylation was demonstrated to modify enzyme activity and DNA binding of transcription factors, while also rendering proteins more prone to proteolytic degradation. Given the relevance of protein oxidation in the pathophysiology of many chronic conditions and their comorbidities, the current review focuses on the analysis of different studies in which the biological and clinical significance of the modifications induced by reactive carbonyls on proteins have been explored so far in skeletal muscles of patients and animal models of chronic conditions such as COPD, disuse muscle atrophy, cancer cachexia, sepsis, and physiological aging. Future research will elucidate the specific impact and sites of reactive carbonyls on muscle protein content and function in human conditions.

  3. Avaliação da perda sanguínea na artroplastia total do joelho com e sem soltura do torniquete Blood loss in total knee arthroplasty with and without tourniquet release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Wanderley Vasconcelos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a perda sanguínea em pacientes submetidos à artroplastia total cimentada do joelho com e sem soltura trans-operatória do torniquete pneumático para a hemostasia. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 72 pacientes submetidos à artroplastia total, num total de 80 joelhos, divididos em dois grupos: Grupo 1 onde se manteve o torniquete pneumático até a sutura e curativo da ferida operatória, e Grupo 2 onde foi realizada a soltura do torniquete pneumático após a cimentação da prótese, com realização de hemostasia direta, antes da sutura e curativo. Os pacientes foram avaliados quanto ao sangramento pelo dreno de sucção e à contagem de hemoglobina e hematócrito, considerando os intervalos de duas, 24 e 48 horas de pós-operatório. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença significante entre os dois grupos quanto ao sangramento pós-operatório e decréscimo dos parâmetros hematimétricos. Somente um paciente do Grupo 2 necessitou transfusão de concentrado de hemáceas no pós-operatório. CONCLUSÃO: O sangramento pós-operatório na ATJ mostrou-se igual com e sem a soltura do torniquete pneumático para a realização da hemostasia.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate blood loss in patients submitted to cemented total knee arthroplasty with and without perioperative tourniquet release for hemostasis. METHODS: Seventy-two patients (eighty knees were submitted to total knee arthroplasty, allocated into two groups: in Group 1, in which the pneumatic tourniquet was maintained until suture and dressing of the operated wound, and Group 2, in which the pneumatic tourniquet was released intraoperatively after cementing the prosthesis, with direct hemostasis, before the suture and dressing. The patients were evaluated for blood loss by the suction drain, and hemoglobin and hematocrit counts, at intervals of 2, 24 and 48 hours in the postoperative period tube. RESULTS: There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of postoperative blood

  4. Evaluation of effect of body mass index and weight loss on survival of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Yu-Hsuan; Chang, Kuo-Ping; Lin, Yaoh-Shiang; Chang, Ting-Shou

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies report body-mass index (BMI) and percent weight loss (WL) to have prognostic significance when treating patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). However, most of these investigations studied patients treated using different radiotherapeutic techniques. We evaluated the predictive effect of these two nutrition-related measurements on therapeutic outcome in NPC patients who only received intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) as part of their total treatment program. We retrospectively studied NPC patients treated with IMRT from January 2006 to February 2012. Cox proportional hazards was used to test the association of pretreatment BMI (<23 kg/m 2 vs. ≥23 kg/m 2 ) and percent weight loss (≥5 % vs. <5 %) during therapy and related survival rates while controlling for various potential confounders. Eighty-one (34 %) of the 238 patients had BMIs ≥23 kg/m 2 at pretreatment and 150 (63 %) had significant (≥5 %) weight loss. Median follow-up time was 41.71 months; median radiotherapy was 7.46 ± 0.77 weeks. Those with BMIs ≥23 kg/m 2 did not have a better 3-year overall survival (p = 0.672), 3-year disease specific survival (p = 0.341), 3-year locoregional free survival (p = 0.281), or 3-year distant metastatic free survival (p = 0.134). Those with significant WL (≥5 %) did not have worse 3-year clinical endpoints, even after stratifying magnitude of weight loss by BMI category. In sensitivity test, the adjusted hazard ratio remained statistically insignificant using different cutoffs for BMIs and percent weight loss. This study found no significant relationship between BMI and percent weight loss on survival of NPC patients receiving IMRT based therapy. Further studies might want to consider other nutrition related factors as prognostic indicators when studying the correlate between malnutrition and survival in this population. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13014-015-0443-3) contains supplementary material, which

  5. Peri-Implant Distribution of Polyethylene Debris in Postmortem-Retrieved Knee Arthroplasties: Can Polyethylene Debris Explain Loss of Cement-Bone Interlock in Successful Total Knee Arthroplasties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyndari, Karen I; Goodheart, Jacklyn R; Miller, Mark A; Oest, Megan E; Damron, Timothy A; Mann, Kenneth A

    2017-07-01

    Loss of mechanical interlock between cement and bone with in vivo service has been recently quantified for functioning, nonrevised, cemented total knee arthroplasties (TKAs). The cause of interlocking trabecular resorption is not known. The goal of this study is to quantify the distribution of PE debris at the cement-bone interface and determine if polyethylene (PE) debris is locally associated with loss of interlock. Fresh, nonrevised, postmortem-retrieved TKAs (n = 8) were obtained en bloc. Laboratory-prepared constructs (n = 2) served as negative controls. The intact cement-bone interface of each proximal tibia was embedded in Spurr's resin, sectioned, and imaged under polarized light to identify birefringent PE particles. PE wear particle number density was quantified at the cement-bone interface and distal to the interface, and then compared with local loss of cement-bone interlock. The average PE particle number density for postmortem-retrieved TKAs ranged from 8.6 (1.3) to 24.9 (3.1) particles/mm 2 (standard error) but was weakly correlated with years in service. The average particle number density was twice as high as distal (>5mm) to the interface compared to at the interface. The local loss of interlock at the interface was not related to the presence, absence, or particle density of PE. PE debris can migrate extensively along the cement-bone interface of well-fixed tibial components. However, the amount of local bone loss at the cement-bone interface was not correlated with the amount of PE debris at the interface, suggesting that the observed loss of trabecular interlock in these well-fixed TKAs may be due to alternative factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Interdependence of physical inactivity, loss of muscle mass and low dietary intake: Extrapulmonary manifestations in older chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Kazuya; Sato, Susumu; Muro, Shigeo; Yamada, Minoru; Hasegawa, Koichi; Kiyokawa, Hirofumi; Mishima, Michiaki; Aoyama, Tomoki

    2018-01-01

    Extrapulmonary manifestations, such as reductions in skeletal muscle and physical inactivity, are important clinical features of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and might depend on the severity of COPD. As it is still unclear whether the relationship between muscle loss and physical inactivity is dominated by a disease-specific relationship or caused by patient factors, including physiological aging, we aimed to investigate the pulmonary or extrapulmonary factors associated with physical inactivity among older COPD patients. A total of 38 older male COPD patients (aged ≥65 years) were enrolled, and were evaluated cross-sectionally. Skeletal muscle mass was measured using bioelectrical impedance, and physical activity and energy intake were recorded for 2 weeks using a pedometer and diary. Daily step counts were successfully evaluated in 28 participants (mean forced expiratory volume in 1 s [%predicted; %FEV 1 ]; 49.5%), and ranged widely. The mean step counts was 5166 steps/day, and found to have a significant relationship with dyspnea (r = -0.46), diffusing capacity (r = 0.47), %FEV1 (r = 0.44), skeletal muscle index (r = 0.59) and total dietary intake (r = 0.47), but not with age (P = 0.14). A stepwise multivariate analysis showed that the skeletal muscle index (β = 0.50) and total dietary intake (β = 0.35) were significant determinants of the daily step count (R 2 = 0.46, p physical activity, skeletal muscle mass and dietary intake are more closely correlated with physical activity in COPD patients. Because physical inactivity might be the strongest predictor of prognosis, the present results suggest that a comprehensive treatment strategy must be considered for older COPD patients to improve their extrapulmonary manifestations and pulmonary dysfunction. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2018; 18: 88-94. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  7. Mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigg, Chris

    2007-01-01

    In the classical physics we inherited from Isaac Newton, mass does not arise, it simply is. The mass of a classical object is the sum of the masses of its parts. Albert Einstein showed that the mass of a body is a measure of its energy content, inviting us to consider the origins of mass. The protons we accelerate at Fermilab are prime examples of Einsteinian matter: nearly all of their mass arises from stored energy. Missing mass led to the discovery of the noble gases, and a new form of missing mass leads us to the notion of dark matter. Starting with a brief guided tour of the meanings of mass, the colloquium will explore the multiple origins of mass. We will see how far we have come toward understanding mass, and survey the issues that guide our research today.

  8. Influence of body mass index (BMI on functional improvements at 3 years following total knee replacement: a retrospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Baker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The number of patients presenting for total knee replacement who are classified as obese is increasing. The functional benefits of performing TKR in these patients are unclear. AIM: To assess the influence pre-operative body mass index has upon knee specific function, general health status and patient satisfaction at 3 years following total knee replacement. DESIGN: Retrospective comparative cohort study using prospectively collected data from an institutional arthroplasty register. METHODS: 1367 patients were assessed using the Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC and Medical Outcomes Trust Short Form-36 (SF-36 scores supplemented by a validated measure of satisfaction pre-operatively and subsequently at 1,2 and 3 year post-operatively. Comparisons were made by dividing the cohort into 4 groups based on body mass index (BMI 18.5-25.0 kg/m(2 (n = 253;>25.0-30.0 kg/m(2 (n = 559;>30.0-35.0 kg/m(2 (n = 373;>35.0 kg/m(2 (n = 182. RESULTS: Despite lower pre-operative, 1 and 3 year WOMAC and SF-36 scores patients with the highest BMIs >35.0 kg/m(2 experienced similar improvements to patients with a 'normal' BMI (18.5-25.0 kg/m(2 at 1 year (Difference in WOMAC improvement = 0.0 (95%CI -5.2 to 5.2, p = 1.00 and this improvement was sustained at up to 3 years (Difference in 1 year to 3 year improvement = 2.2 (95%CI: -2.1 to 6.5, p = 1.00. This effect was also observed for the SF-36 mental and physical component scores. Despite equivalent functional improvements levels of satisfaction in the >35.0 kg/m(2 group were lower than for any other BMI group (>35.0 kg/m(2 = 84.6% satisfied versus 18.5-5.0 kg/m(2 = 93.3% satisfied,p = 0.01 as was the proportion of patients who stated they would have the operation again (>35.0 kg/m(2 = 69.6% versus 18.5-25.0 kg/m(2 = 82.2%,p = 0.01. CONCLUSION: Obese and morbidly obese patients gain as much functional benefit from

  9. Fitness-related differences in the rate of whole-body total heat loss in exercising young healthy women are heat-load dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamarche, Dallon T; Notley, Sean R; Poirier, Martin P; Kenny, Glen P

    2018-03-01

    What is the central question of this study? Aerobic fitness modulates heat loss, albeit the heat load at which fitness-related differences occur in young healthy women remains unclear. What is the main finding and its importance? We demonstrate using direct calorimetry that fitness modulates heat loss in a heat-load dependent manner, with differences occurring between young women of low and high fitness and matched physical characteristics when the metabolic heat load is at least 400 W in hot, dry conditions. Although fitness has been known for some time to modulate heat loss, our findings define the metabolic heat load at which fitness-related differences occur. Aerobic fitness has recently been shown to alter heat loss capacity in a heat-load dependent manner in young men. However, given that sex-related differences in heat loss capacity exist, it is unclear whether this response is consistent in women. We therefore assessed whole-body total heat loss in young (21 ± 3 years old) healthy women matched for physical characteristics, but with low (low-fit; 35.8 ± 4.5 ml O 2  kg -1  min -1 ) or high aerobic fitness (high-fit; 53.1 ± 5.1 ml O 2  kg -1  min -1 ; both n = 8; indexed by peak oxygen consumption), during three 30 min bouts of cycling performed at increasing rates of metabolic heat production of 250 (Ex1), 325 (Ex2) and 400 W (Ex3), each separated by a 15 min recovery, in hot, dry conditions (40°C, 11% relative humidity). Whole-body total heat loss (evaporative ± dry heat exchange) and metabolic heat production were measured using direct and indirect calorimetry, respectively. Body heat content was measured as the temporal summation of heat production and loss. Total heat loss did not differ during Ex1 (low-fit, 215 ± 16 W; high-fit, 231 ± 20 W; P > 0.05) and Ex2 (low-fit, 278 ± 15 W; high-fit, 301 ± 20 W; P > 0.05), but was lower in the low-fit (316 ± 21 W) compared with the high-fit women (359 ± 32

  10. Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex N-acetylaspartate/total creatine (NAA/tCr) loss in male recreational cannabis users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Derik; Sartorius, Alexander; Welzel, Helga; Walter, Sigrid; Skopp, Gisela; Ende, Gabriele; Mann, Karl

    2007-06-01

    Cannabinoids present neurotoxic and neuroprotective properties in in vitro studies, inconsistent alterations in human neuroimaging studies, neuropsychological deficits, and an increased risk for psychotic episodes. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS), neuropsychological testing, and hair analysis for cannabinoids was performed in 13 male nontreatment-seeking recreational cannabis users and 13 male control subjects. A significantly diminished N-acetylaspartate/total creatine (NAA/tCr) ratio in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) was observed in cannabis users (p = .0003). The NAA/tCr in the putamen/globus pallidum region correlated significantly with cannabidiol (R(2) = .66, p = .004). Results of the Wisconsin Card Sorting test, Trail making Test, and D2 test for attention were influenced by cannabinoids. Chronic recreational cannabis use is associated with an indication of diminished neuronal and axonal integrity in the DLPFC in this study. As chronic cannabis use is a risk factor for psychosis, these results are interesting because diminished NAA/tCr ratios in the DLPFC and neuropsychological deficits were also reported in schizophrenia. The strong positive correlation of NAA/tCr and cannabidiol in the putamen/globus pallidum is in line with neuroprotective properties of cannabidiol, which were also observed in in vitro model studies of Parkinson's disease.

  11. Optimizing the supply chain of biomass and biogas for a single plant considering mass and energy losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ida Græsted; Münster, Marie; Pisinger, David

    2017-01-01

    plants. In this paper, a mixed integer programming (MIP) model for finding the optimal production and investment plan for a biogas supply chain is presented to ensure better economy for the full chain hopefully stimulating future investments in biogas. The model makes use of step-wise linear functions...... to represent capital and operational expenditures at the biogas plant; considers the chain from the farmer to the end market; and includes changes of mass and energy content along the chain by modeling the losses and gains for all processes in the chain. Biomass inputs are scheduled on a weekly basis whereas...... energy outputs are scheduled on an hourly basis to better capture the changes of energy prices and potentially take advantage of these changes. The model is tested on a case study with co-digestion of straw, sugar beet and manure, considering natural gas, heat, and electricity as end products. The model...

  12. Tranexamic acid reduces blood loss and need of blood transfusion in total knee arthroplasty: A prospective, randomized, double-blind study in Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Shinde

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: For quite a few years, tranexamic acid (TEA has been used during total knee arthroplasty (TKA to reduce blood loss. However, no consensus exits regarding its timing and doses. Materials and Methods: We conducted a prospective, randomized double-blinded study of 56 patients in the Indian population undergoing TKA from 2011 to 2012. A dose of 10 mg/kg body weight of TEA (three doses was given in one group and normal saline was administered in the other. Results: The mean blood loss in the TEA unilateral group was 295 mL ± 218 mL and in the placebo group was 482 mL ± 186 mL (P < 0.005. In the bilateral TEA group, the mean blood loss was 596 mL ± 235 mL and in the placebo group was 1349 mL ± 41 mL (P < 0.005. Conclusion: The number of patients requiring blood transfusion reduced substantially. There was no increase in the risk of deep vein thrombosis (DVT and pulmonary embolism. TEA reduces intraoperative and postoperative blood loss and thus reduces the need of allogenic blood transfusion.

  13. No Effect of a Bipolar Sealer on Total Blood Loss or Blood Transfusion in Nonseptic Revision Knee Arthroplasty-A Prospective Study With Matched Retrospective Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Christian Skovgaard; Gromov, Kirill; Jans, Øivind; Troelsen, Anders; Husted, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Postoperative anemia is frequent after revision of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) with reported transfusion rates up to 83%. Despite increased efforts of reducing blood loss and enhancing fast recovery within the fast-track setup, a considerable transfusion rate is still evident. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the effect of a bipolar sealer on blood loss and transfusion in revision TKA. In this single-center prospective cohort study with retrospective controls, 51 patients were enrolled in a fast-track setup for revision TKA without the use of a tourniquet. Twenty-five prospectively enrolled patients received treatment with both a bipolar sealer and electrocautery, whereas 26 patients had received treatment with a conventional electrocautery only in the retrospective group. No significant differences were found neither for calculated blood loss, with 1397 (standard deviation, ± 452) mL in the bipolar sealer group vs 1452 (SD, ± 530) mL in the control group (P = .66), nor for blood transfusion rates of 53% and 46% (P = .89), respectively. Four controls were readmitted within 90 days follow-up. The use of a bipolar sealer in a TKA revision setting without the use of a tourniquet did not reduce blood loss or blood transfusion rates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. HOW THERMAL EVOLUTION AND MASS-LOSS SCULPT POPULATIONS OF SUPER-EARTHS AND SUB-NEPTUNES: APPLICATION TO THE KEPLER-11 SYSTEM AND BEYOND

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Eric D.; Miller, Neil; Fortney, Jonathan J.

    2012-01-01

    We use models of thermal evolution and extreme ultraviolet (XUV) driven mass loss to explore the composition and history of low-mass, low-density transiting planets. We investigate the Kepler-11 system in detail and provide estimates of both the current and past planetary compositions. We find that an H/He envelope on Kepler-11b is highly vulnerable to mass loss. By comparing to formation models, we show that in situ formation of the system is extremely difficult. Instead we propose that it is a water-rich system of sub-Neptunes that migrated from beyond the snow line. For the broader population of observed planets, we show that there is a threshold in bulk planet density and incident flux above which no low-mass transiting planets have been observed. We suggest that this threshold is due to the instability of H/He envelopes to XUV-driven mass loss. Importantly, we find that this mass-loss threshold is well reproduced by our thermal evolution/contraction models that incorporate a standard mass-loss prescription. Treating the planets' contraction history is essential because the planets have significantly larger radii during the early era of high XUV fluxes. Over time low-mass planets with H/He envelopes can be transformed into water-dominated worlds with steam envelopes or rocky super-Earths. Finally, we use this threshold to provide likely minimum masses and radial-velocity amplitudes for the general population of Kepler candidates. Likewise, we use this threshold to provide constraints on the maximum radii of low-mass planets found by radial-velocity surveys.

  15. Intranasal insulin influences the olfactory performance of patients with smell loss, dependent on the body mass index: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöpf, V; Kollndorfer, K; Pollak, M; Mueller, C A; Freiherr, J

    2015-12-01

    The application of intranasal insulin in healthy humans has been linked to improved memory function, reduced food intake, and increased olfactory thresholds. There has also been some correlation between the morbidities associated with central nervous system (CNS) insulin resistance, such as type II diabetes mellitus, Alzheimer's disease, obesity, and impaired odour recognition. Given that impaired odour recognition is an important component of olfactory performance, mechanisms that govern these effects may account for impaired olfactory functions in anosmic patients. Ten patients with post-infectious olfactory loss received intranasal administration of 40 IU insulin or a placebo solution, as well as olfactory performance tests before and after administration. When administered insulin, patients exhibited an immediate performance improvement with regard to olfactory sensitivity and olfactory intensity ratings. In addition, more odours were correctly identified. Furthermore, an improvement in the odour identification task was detected in patients with higher body mass index. Results of this pilot study shed light on the link between cerebral insulin level and an impaired sense of smell. This research line might provide a better understanding of olfactory loss in relation to eating and dietary behavior, and could offer opportunities to develop faster therapeutic intervention for patients with olfactory dysfunction.

  16. Gender differences in body mass index, body weight perception and weight loss strategies among undergraduates in Universiti Malaysia Sarawak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, P X; Ho, H L; Shuhaili, M S; Siti, A A; Gudum, H R

    2011-04-01

    This study was carried out among undergraduate students in Universiti Malaysia Sarawak with the objective of examining gender differences in body mass index (BMI), body weight perception, eating attitudes and weightloss strategies. Subjects consisted of 600 undergraduates (300 males and 300 females) recruited from the various faculties between September 2008 until mid-November 2008. The Original Figure Rating Scale: Body Weight Perception, Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) and Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26) were used as assessment tools. Overall, 52.8% of students had normal BMI, with approximately an equal number of both sexes. More males than females were overweight (33.7%), while more females were underweight (25.3%). Males were more likely to perceive themselves as overweight, and fail to see themselves as underweight. More than half of the females preferred their ideal figure to be underweight, whereas about 30% males chose an overweight figure as their ideal model. Females were generally more concerned about body weight, body shape and eating than males. They diet more frequently, had self-induced vomiting, and used laxatives and exercise as their weight-loss strategies. Issues pertaining to body weight perception, eating attitudes and weight-loss strategies exist with differences among male and female undergraduates. Thus, in order to correct misperceptions among young adults, a more tailored intervention programme and more in-depth studies into the various factors involved are required.

  17. Gender-specific association between dietary acid load and total lean body mass and its dependency on protein intake in seniors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Sarcopenia, the age-related decline of muscle mass, is one of the most important causes of loss of physical function and falls in seniors. Causes of sarcopenia are multiple, but there is evidence that diet-related mild metabolic acidosis may play a role in the development of skeletal mus...

  18. Effect of Body Mass Index and Psychosocial Traits on Total Knee Replacement Costs in Patients with Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waimann, Christian A; Fernandez-Mazarambroz, Rodrigo J; Cantor, Scott B; Lopez-Olivo, Maria A; Barbo, Andrea G; Landon, Glenn C; Siff, Sherwin J; Lin, Heather; Suarez-Almazor, Maria E

    2016-08-01

    Clinical and psychosocial attributes are associated with clinical outcomes after total knee replacement (TKR) surgery in patients with osteoarthritis (OA), but their relationship with TKR-related costs is less clear. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of clinical and psychosocial attributes on TKR costs. We conducted a 6-month prospective cohort study of patients with knee OA who underwent TKR. We examined baseline demographic, clinical [body mass index (BMI) and comorbidities], and psychosocial attributes (social support, locus of control, coping, depression, anxiety, stress, and self-efficacy); baseline and 6-month OA clinical outcomes [Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) pain and function]; and 6-month direct and indirect TKR-related costs. Multiple regression was performed to identify determinants of TKR-related costs. We included 212 patients; 66% were women, 71% were white, and the mean age was 65.2 years. The mean baseline WOMAC pain score was 55 (SD 19) and WOMAC function score was 54 (SD 20). Mean total TKR-related costs were US$30,831 (SD $9893). Multivariate regression analyses showed that increasing BMI and anxiety levels and decreasing levels of positive social interactions were associated with increased costs. A lower cost scenario with a lower range of normal BMI (19.5), highest positive social interaction, and no anxiety predicted TKR costs to be $22,247. Predicted costs in obese patients (BMI 36) with lowest positive social interaction and highest anxiety were $58,447. Increased baseline BMI, anxiety, and poor social support lead to higher TKR-related costs in patients with knee OA. Preoperative interventions targeting these factors may reduce TKR-related costs, and therefore be cost-effective.

  19. The kinetic of mass loss of grades A and B of melted TNT by isothermal and non-isothermal gravimetric methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Pouretedal

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The kinetic and activation energy of mass loss of two grades of melted TNT explosive, grade A and grade B, with freezing points of 80.57 and 78.15 °C, respectively, were studied by isothermal and non-isothermal gravimetric methods. In isothermal method, the mass loss of samples in containers of glass and aluminum was followed in temperatures of 80, 90 and 100 °C. The kinetic of the mass loss of the samples in the aluminum container was higher than the kinetic of it in the glass container that can be related to the effects of heat transfer and catalytic of aluminum metal. Also, the presence of impurities in grade B was due to increasing of kinetic of mass loss of it versus grade A. The non-isothermal curves were obtained in range of 30–330 °C at heating rates of 10, 15 and 20 °C⋅min−1. The TG/DTG data were used for determination of activation energy (Ea of mass loss of TNT samples upon degradation by using Ozawa, Kissinger, Ozawa-Flynn-Wall (OFW and Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS methods as model free methods. The activation energies of grades of A and B of TNT was obtained 99–120 and 66–70 kJ mol−1, respectively. The lower values of activation energy of the degradation reaction of grade B confirm the effect of impurities in the kinetics of mass loss of this grade. Keywords: TNT, Isothermal, Non-isothermal, Kinetic, Mass loss

  20. No Effect of a Bipolar Sealer on Total Blood Loss or Blood Transfusion in Nonseptic Revision Knee Arthroplasty-A Prospective Study With Matched Retrospective Controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian Skovgaard; Gromov, Kirill; Jans, Øivind

    2017-01-01

    deviation, ± 452) mL in the bipolar sealer group vs 1452 (SD, ± 530) mL in the control group (P = .66), nor for blood transfusion rates of 53% and 46% (P = .89), respectively. Four controls were readmitted within 90 days follow-up. CONCLUSION: The use of a bipolar sealer in a TKA revision setting without......BACKGROUND: Postoperative anemia is frequent after revision of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) with reported transfusion rates up to 83%. Despite increased efforts of reducing blood loss and enhancing fast recovery within the fast-track setup, a considerable transfusion rate is still evident. The aim......-five prospectively enrolled patients received treatment with both a bipolar sealer and electrocautery, whereas 26 patients had received treatment with a conventional electrocautery only in the retrospective group. RESULTS: No significant differences were found neither for calculated blood loss, with 1397 (standard...

  1. A liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method for quantitating total and unbound ceritinib in patient plasma and brain tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun Bao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A rapid, sensitive, and robust reversed-phase liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the determination of total and unbound ceritinib, a second-generation ALK inhibitor, in patient plasma and brain tumor tissue samples. Sample preparation involved simple protein precipitation with acetonitrile. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Waters ACQUITY UPLC BEH C18 column using a 4-min gradient elution consisting of mobile phase A (0.1% formic acid in water and mobile phase B (0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile, at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. Ceritinib and the internal standard ([13C6]ceritinib were monitored using multiple reaction monitoring mode under positive electrospray ionization. The lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ was 1 nM of ceritinib in plasma. The calibration curve was linear over ceritinib concentration range of 1–2000 nM in plasma. The intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy were within the generally accepted criteria for bioanalytical method (<15%. The method was successfully applied to assess ceritinib brain tumor penetration, as assessed by the unbound drug brain concentration to unbound drug plasma concentration ratio, in patients with brain tumors.

  2. Measuring the level of public understanding of total solar eclipse from the mass media: Palembang as sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwati, F. G.; Ekawanti, N.; Luthfiandari; Premadi, P. W.

    2016-11-01

    The Total Solar Eclipse (TSE) on the 9th March 2016 received a huge attention from the mass media. Some of them intensively write articles about it even months before the TSE day. As we know media plays strategic role not only in raising public awareness but also interest. The aim of this project is to study the relation between the number of accesses to the media information and how well public learned the information delivered by the media. We prepared questionnaire consisting of seven semi-multiple choices on how public got information about TSE. We gave them choices of what they had heard to measure their basic understanding of TSE. Furthermore we add two “wrong” choices in the last questions to identify less serious respondents. We analyze 60 respondents of Palembang who visited Ampera bridge area. Our result shows no correlation between the number of information access and the level of understanding about TSE. We also found that local media did not provide the scientific content of TSE as well as the national media.

  3. How much can Greenland melt? An upper bound on mass loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet through surface melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X.; Bassis, J. N.

    2015-12-01

    With observations showing accelerated mass loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet due to surface melt, the Greenland Ice Sheet is becoming one of the most significant contributors to sea level rise. The contribution of the Greenland Ice Sheet o sea level rise is likely to accelerate in the coming decade and centuries as atmospheric temperatures continue to rise, potentially triggering ever larger surface melt rates. However, at present considerable uncertainty remains in projecting the contribution to sea level of the Greenland Ice Sheet both due to uncertainty in atmospheric forcing and the ice sheet response to climate forcing. Here we seek an upper bound on the contribution of surface melt from the Greenland to sea level rise in the coming century using a surface energy balance model coupled to an englacial model. We use IPCC Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP8.5, RCP6, RCP4.5, RCP2.6) climate scenarios from an ensemble of global climate models in our simulations to project the maximum rate of ice volume loss and related sea-level rise associated with surface melting. To estimate the upper bound, we assume the Greenland Ice Sheet is perpetually covered in thick clouds, which maximize longwave radiation to the ice sheet. We further assume that deposition of black carbon darkens the ice substantially turning it nearly black, substantially reducing its albedo. Although assuming that all melt water not stored in the snow/firn is instantaneously transported off the ice sheet increases mass loss in the short term, refreezing of retained water warms the ice and may lead to more melt in the long term. Hence we examine both assumptions and use the scenario that leads to the most surface melt by 2100. Preliminary models results suggest that under the most aggressive climate forcing, surface melt from the Greenland Ice Sheet contributes ~1 m to sea level by the year 2100. This is a significant contribution and ignores dynamic effects. We also examined a lower bound

  4. Topical fibrin sealant versus intravenous tranexamic acid for reducing blood loss following total knee arthroplasty: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fuqiang; Ma, Jinhui; Sun, Wei; Guo, Wanshou; Li, Zirong; Wang, Weiguo

    2016-08-01

    Efficacy and safety of topical application of a fibrin sealant (FS) compared with intravenous administration of tranexamic acid (TXA) for reducing blood loss after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is controversial. We undertook a meta-analysis to compare the effects of topical application of FS or intravenous administration of TXA on blood loss after TKA. PubMed, Medline, Embase, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library were searched to identify studies comparing FS with TXA for TKA patients. The mean difference (MD) of blood loss, hemoglobin value, and odds ratios (ORs) of transfusion requirements and adverse events in FS and TXA groups were pooled throughout the study. Relevant data were analyzed using RevMan v5.3. Five studies involving 359 patients were included (181 FS vs. 178 TXA). TXA use had a significantly lower prevalence of blood transfusion (OR = 3.14; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.67 to 5.90, P = 0.0004) and higher hemoglobin level (MD = -1.23; 95% CI, -2.19 to -0.27, P = 0.01) than FS in the early postoperative period. No significant difference was seen in total blood loss between the two groups (MD = 198.06; 95% CI, -267.45 to 663.57; P = 0.40). There were no significant differences in adverse events, superficial infections, or deep-vein thrombosis among study groups. Our meta-analysis suggests that intravenous administration of TXA for patients undergoing TKA may reduce blood-transfusion requirements and maintain higher hemoglobin levels compared with topical application of FS in the early postoperative period. There were no significant differences in total calculated blood loss and prevalence of complications between the two groups. However, owing to the variation of included studies, no firm conclusions can be drawn. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Extensive Loss of Islet Mass Beyond the First Day After Intraportal Human Islet Transplantation in a Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liljebäck, Hanna; Grapensparr, Liza; Olerud, Johan; Carlsson, Per-Ola

    2016-01-01

    Clinical islet transplantation is characterized by a progressive deterioration of islet graft function, which renders many patients once again dependent on exogenous insulin administration within a couple of years. In this study, we aimed to investigate possible engraftment factors limiting the survival and viability of experimentally transplanted human islets beyond the first day after their transplantation to the liver. Human islets were transplanted into the liver of nude mice and characterized 1 or 30 days after transplantation by immunohistochemistry. The factors assessed were endocrine mass, cellular death, hypoxia, vascular density and amyloid formation in the transplanted islets. One day posttransplantation, necrotic cells, as well as apoptotic cells, were commonly observed. In contrast to necrotic death, apoptosis rates remained high 1 month posttransplantation, and the total islet mass was reduced by more than 50% between 1 and 30 days posttransplantation. Islet mass at 30 days posttransplantation correlated negatively to apoptotic death. Vascular density within the transplanted islets remained less than 30% of that in native human islets up to 30 days posttransplantation and was associated with prevailing hypoxia. Amyloid formation was rarely observed in the 1-day-old transplants, but was commonly observed in the 30-day-old islet transplants. We conclude that substantial islet cell death occurs beyond the immediate posttransplantation phase, particularly through apoptotic events. Concomitant low vascularization with prevailing hypoxia and progressive amyloid development was observed in the human islet grafts. Strategies to improve engraftment at the intraportal site or change of implantation site in the clinical setting are needed.

  6. Total mass difference statistics algorithm: a new approach to identification of high-mass building blocks in electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron mass spectrometry data of natural organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunenkov, Erast V; Kononikhin, Alexey S; Perminova, Irina V; Hertkorn, Norbert; Gaspar, Andras; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Popov, Igor A; Garmash, Andrew V; Nikolaev, Evgeniy N

    2009-12-15

    The ultrahigh-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrum of natural organic matter (NOM) contains several thousand peaks with dozens of molecules matching the same nominal mass. Such a complexity poses a significant challenge for automatic data interpretation, in which the most difficult task is molecular formula assignment, especially in the case of heavy and/or multielement ions. In this study, a new universal algorithm for automatic treatment of FTICR mass spectra of NOM and humic substances based on total mass difference statistics (TMDS) has been developed and implemented. The algorithm enables a blind search for unknown building blocks (instead of a priori known ones) by revealing repetitive patterns present in spectra. In this respect, it differs from all previously developed approaches. This algorithm was implemented in designing FIRAN-software for fully automated analysis of mass data with high peak density. The specific feature of FIRAN is its ability to assign formulas to heavy and/or multielement molecules using "virtual elements" approach. To verify the approach, it was used for processing mass spectra of sodium polystyrene sulfonate (PSS, M(w) = 2200 Da) and polymethacrylate (PMA, M(w) = 3290 Da) which produce heavy multielement and multiply-charged ions. Application of TMDS identified unambiguously monomers present in the polymers consistent with their structure: C(8)H(7)SO(3)Na for PSS and C(4)H(6)O(2) for PMA. It also allowed unambiguous formula assignment to all multiply-charged peaks including the heaviest peak in PMA spectrum at mass 4025.6625 with charge state 6- (mass bias -0.33 ppm). Application of the TMDS-algorithm to processing data on the Suwannee River FA has proven its unique capacities in analysis of spectra with high peak density: it has not only identified the known small building blocks in the structure of FA such as CH(2), H(2), C(2)H(2)O, O but the heavier unit at 154.027 amu. The latter was

  7. Fasting gall bladder volume and lithogenicity in relation to glucose tolerance, total and intra-abdominal fat masses in obese non-diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendel, H W; Højgaard, L; Andersen, T

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether total body fat mass or fat distribution and associated metabolic disturbances in glucose and lipid metabolism influence the well known gallstone pathogenetic factors in obese subjects in order to explain why some obese subjects develop gallstones and some do not...... with a specific radioimmunoassay. Insulin sensitivity was measured by the Minimal Model and glucose tolerance by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Serum lipid concentrations were measured by standard methods. RESULTS: The gallbladder volume in the fasting state increased with increasing intra-abdominal fat...... mass (P=0.006) and was increased in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (41 vs 27 ml, P=0.001). The lithogenic index was > 1 in all subjects and correlated with total fat mass (P=0.04). CONCLUSION: Gallstone pathogenesis in obesity seems to be influenced by the total body fat mass and its regional...

  8. HST/WFC3 OBSERVATIONS OF LOW-MASS GLOBULAR CLUSTERS AM 4 AND PALOMAR 13: PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND IMPLICATIONS FOR MASS LOSS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamren, Katherine M.; Smith, Graeme H.; Guhathakurta, Puragra [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon, 1151 East Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Weisz, Daniel R. [Department of Astronomy, Box 351580, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Rajan, Abhijith [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, 781 East Terrace Road, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Grillmair, Carl J., E-mail: khamren@ucolick.org [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Mail Stop 220-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2013-11-01

    We investigate the loss of low-mass stars in two of the faintest globular clusters known, AM 4 and Palomar 13 (Pal 13), using HST/WFC3 F606W and F814W photometry. To determine the physical properties of each cluster—age, mass, metallicity, extinction, and present day mass function (MF)—we use the maximum likelihood color-magnitude diagram (CMD) fitting program MATCH and the Dartmouth, Padova, and BaSTI stellar evolution models. For AM 4, the Dartmouth models provide the best match to the CMD and yield an age of >13 Gyr, metallicity log Z/Z {sub ☉} = –1.68 ± 0.08, a distance modulus (m – M) {sub V} = 17.47 ± 0.03, and reddening A{sub V} = 0.19 ± 0.02. For Pal 13 the Dartmouth models give an age of 13.4 ± 0.5 Gyr, log Z/Z {sub ☉} = –1.55 ± 0.06, (m – M) {sub V} = 17.17 ± 0.02, and A{sub V} = 0.43 ± 0.01. We find that the systematic uncertainties due to choice in assumed stellar model greatly exceed the random uncertainties, highlighting the importance of using multiple stellar models when analyzing stellar populations. Assuming a single-sloped power-law MF, we find that AM 4 and Pal 13 have spectral indices α = +0.68 ± 0.34 and α = –1.67 ± 0.25 (where a Salpeter MF has α = +1.35), respectively. Comparing our derived slopes with literature measurements of cluster integrated magnitude (M{sub V} ) and MF slope indicates that AM 4 is an outlier. Its MF slope is substantially steeper than clusters of comparable luminosity, while Pal 13 has an MF in line with the general trend. We discuss both primordial and dynamical origins for the unusual MF slope of AM 4 and tentatively favor the dynamical scenario. However, MF slopes of more low luminosity clusters are needed to verify this hypothesis.

  9. HST/WFC3 OBSERVATIONS OF LOW-MASS GLOBULAR CLUSTERS AM 4 AND PALOMAR 13: PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND IMPLICATIONS FOR MASS LOSS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamren, Katherine M.; Smith, Graeme H.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Weisz, Daniel R.; Rajan, Abhijith; Grillmair, Carl J.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the loss of low-mass stars in two of the faintest globular clusters known, AM 4 and Palomar 13 (Pal 13), using HST/WFC3 F606W and F814W photometry. To determine the physical properties of each cluster—age, mass, metallicity, extinction, and present day mass function (MF)—we use the maximum likelihood color-magnitude diagram (CMD) fitting program MATCH and the Dartmouth, Padova, and BaSTI stellar evolution models. For AM 4, the Dartmouth models provide the best match to the CMD and yield an age of >13 Gyr, metallicity log Z/Z ☉ = –1.68 ± 0.08, a distance modulus (m – M) V = 17.47 ± 0.03, and reddening A V = 0.19 ± 0.02. For Pal 13 the Dartmouth models give an age of 13.4 ± 0.5 Gyr, log Z/Z ☉ = –1.55 ± 0.06, (m – M) V = 17.17 ± 0.02, and A V = 0.43 ± 0.01. We find that the systematic uncertainties due to choice in assumed stellar model greatly exceed the random uncertainties, highlighting the importance of using multiple stellar models when analyzing stellar populations. Assuming a single-sloped power-law MF, we find that AM 4 and Pal 13 have spectral indices α = +0.68 ± 0.34 and α = –1.67 ± 0.25 (where a Salpeter MF has α = +1.35), respectively. Comparing our derived slopes with literature measurements of cluster integrated magnitude (M V ) and MF slope indicates that AM 4 is an outlier. Its MF slope is substantially steeper than clusters of comparable luminosity, while Pal 13 has an MF in line with the general trend. We discuss both primordial and dynamical origins for the unusual MF slope of AM 4 and tentatively favor the dynamical scenario. However, MF slopes of more low luminosity clusters are needed to verify this hypothesis

  10. Weight loss of 5% or more predicts loss of fat-free mass during palliative chemotherapy in patients with advanced cancer: a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buskermolen, Susanne; Langius, Jacqueline A. E.; Kruizenga, Hinke M.; Ligthart-Melis, Gerdien C.; Heymans, Martijn W.; Verheul, Henk M. W.

    2012-01-01

    The cutoff value of critical weight loss is still subject of discussion. In this pilot study, we investigated whether ≥ 5% weight loss in the past year predicts changes in nutritional status in patients with advanced cancer during treatment with palliative chemotherapy. In 20 patients with advanced

  11. Weight Loss Composition is One-Fourth Fat-Free Mass: A Critical Review and Critique of This Widely Cited Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymsfield, Steven B.; Cristina Gonzalez, M. C.; Shen, Wei; Redman, Leanne; Thomas, Diana

    2014-01-01

    Maximizing fat loss while preserving lean tissue mass and function is a central goal of modern obesity treatments. A widely cited rule guiding expected loss of lean tissue as fat-free mass (FFM) states that approximately one-fourth of weight loss will be FFM (i.e., ΔFFM/ΔWeight = ~0.25) with the remaining three-fourths fat mass. This review examines the dynamic relations between FFM, fat mass, and weight changes that follow induction of negative energy balance with hypocaloric dieting and/or exercise. Historical developments in the field are traced with the “Quarter FFM Rule” used as a framework to examine evolving concepts on obesity tissue, excess weight, and what is often cited as “Forbes’ Rule”. Temporal effects in the fractional contribution of FFM to changes in body weight are examined as are lean tissue moderating effects such as aging, inactivity, and exercise that frequently accompany structured low-calorie diet weight loss protocols. Losses of lean tissue with dieting typically tend to be small, raising questions about study design, power, and applied measurement method reliability. Our review elicits important questions related to the fractional loss of lean tissues with dieting and provides a foundation for future research on this topic. PMID:24447775

  12. MTOR signaling and ubiquitin-proteosome gene expression in the preservation of fat free mass following high protein, calorie restricted weight loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McIver Cassandra M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Caloric restriction is one of the most efficient ways to promote weight loss and is known to activate protective metabolic pathways. Frequently reported with weight loss is the undesirable consequence of fat free (lean muscle mass loss. Weight loss diets with increased dietary protein intake are popular and may provide additional benefits through preservation of fat free mass compared to a standard protein, high carbohydrate diet. However, the precise mechanism by which a high protein diet may mitigate dietary weight loss induced reductions in fat free mass has not been fully elucidated. Maintenance of fat free mass is dependent upon nutrient stimulation of protein synthesis via the mTOR complex, although during caloric restriction a decrease (atrophy in skeletal muscle may be driven by a homeostatic shift favouring protein catabolism. This review evaluates the relationship between the macronutrient composition of calorie restricted diets and weight loss using metabolic indicators. Specifically we evaluate the effect of increased dietary protein intake and caloric restricted diets on gene expression in skeletal muscle, particularly focusing on biosynthesis, degradation and the expression of genes in the ubiquitin-proteosome (UPP and mTOR signaling pathways, including MuRF-1, MAFbx/atrogin-1, mTORC1, and S6K1.

  13. The influence of carbon monoxide bolus on the measurement of total haemoglobin mass using the optimized CO-rebreathing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, G; Richardson, A J; Maxwell, N S; Pringle, J S M; Ingham, S A; Fudge, B W

    2014-01-01

    The optimized carbon monoxide (CO) rebreathing method (oCOR-method) is routinely used to measure total haemoglobin mass (tHbmass). The tHbmass measure is subject to a test-retest typical error of ∼2%, mostly from the precision of carboxyhaemoglobin (HbCO) measurement. We hypothesized that tHbmass would be robust to differences in the bolus of CO administered during the oCOR-method. Twelve participants (ten males and two females; age 27 ± 6 yr, height 177 ± 11 cm and mass 73.9 ± 12.1 kg) completed the oCOR-method on four occasions. Different bolus of CO were administered (LOW: 0.6 ml kg −1 ; MED 1 : 1.0 ml kg −1  and HIGH: 1.4 ml kg −1 ); to determine the reliability of MED 1 , a second trial was conducted (MED 2 ). tHbmass was found to be significantly less from the HIGH CO bolus (776 ± 148 g) when compared to the LOW CO (791 ± 149 g) or MED 1  CO (788 ± 149 g) trials. MED 2  CO was 785 ± 150 g. The measurement of tHbmass is repeatable to within 0.8%, but a small and notable difference was seen when using a HIGH CO bolus (1.4 to 1.9% less), potentially due to differences in CO uptake kinetics. Previously, an improved precision of the oCOR-method was thought to require a higher bolus of CO (i.e. larger ▵%HbCO), as commercial hemoximeters only estimate %HbCO levels to a single decimal place (usually ± 0.1%). With the new hemoximeter used in this study, a bolus of 1.0 ml kg −1  allows adequate precision with acceptable safety. (note)

  14. The impact of pre-operative weight loss on incidence of surgical site infection and readmission rates after total joint arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inacio, Maria C S; Kritz-Silverstein, Donna; Raman, Rema; Macera, Caroline A; Nichols, Jeanne F; Shaffer, Richard A; Fithian, Donald C

    2014-03-01

    This study characterized a cohort of obese total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) patients (1/1/2008-12/31/2010) and evaluated whether a clinically significant amount of pre-operative weight loss (5% decrease in body weight) is associated with a decreased risk of surgical site infections (SSI) and readmissions post-surgery. 10,718 TKAs and 4066 THAs were identified. During the one year pre-TKA 7.6% of patients gained weight, 12.4% lost weight, and 79.9% remained the same. In the one year pre-THA, 6.3% of patients gained weight, 18.0% lost weight, and 75.7% remained the same. In TKAs and THAs, after adjusting for covariates, the risk of SSI and readmission was not significantly different in the patients who gained or lost weight pre-operatively compared to those who remained the same. © 2013.

  15. Effect of ensiling process of total mixed ration on fermentation profile, nutrient loss and in situ ruminal degradation characteristics of diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaji, Makoto; Matsuyama, Hiroki; Nonaka, Kazuhisa

    2017-01-01

    This experiment aimed to determine the changes in chemical composition, fermentation profile, in situ disappearance characteristics, and nutrient losses of ensiled total mixed ration (TMR) containing steam-flaked corn or brown rice (BR) during storage. TMRs for dairy cows, containing either steam-flaked corn or BR at 31.9% with 15.2% rye silage, 40.5% alfalfa silage, 5.0% beet pulp and 7.0% soybean meal, were prepared (dry matter (DM) basis). Each TMR was placed in a plastic drum silo, stored at 23°C in an air-conditioned room and sampled 0, 7, 14, 30, 90 and 210 days after preparation. In both grain sources, the fermentation products increased, while DM and starch storage losses increased and starch content greatly decreased during storage. The rapidly degradable fraction and effective ruminal degradability of DM, crude protein and starch increased during storage. These changes of dietary characteristics were large during 30 days of storage, but small after 90 days of storage. Replacing corn with BR led to increased fermentation products, starch loss and effective ruminal degradability of the ensiled TMR. These results indicate that the ensiling process of TMR changes the dietary characteristics and replacing corn with BR in TMR had a large impact on these dietary characteristics. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  16. Comparison of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and colorimetric determination of total and extractable phosphorus in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Krasimir; Zaprjanova, Penka; Petkova, Milena; Stefanova, Violeta; Kmetov, Veselin; Georgieva, Deyana; Angelova, Violina

    2012-01-01

    The most widely used method for determination of total phosphorus in soils is perchloric acid digestion, followed by a colorimetric assay to measure the concentration of P in solution. The first part of this study compares an alternative digestion method, using aqua regia (ISO 11466 and EPA Method 3052), with perchloric acid digestion procedure, and also compares inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) with colorimetry for the measurement of P on the basis of five internationally certified standard soils and 20 real-life soils with widely different extractability of phosphorus. The phosphorus concentration was determined by means of the reduced phosphomolybdenum blue and ICP-MS. The relationship between methods has been examined statistically. Good agreement of the results from colorimetry and ICP-MS was established for all certified soils. The microwave-assisted digestion with aqua regia was comparable, both in precision and accuracy, with the hot plate aqua regia method. The phosphorus concentration found with the HF + HClO 4 digestion method was in good agreement with the certified mean values, while the superiority in extracting phosphorus, when compared to other methods, was obvious. Soil testing for plant-available phosphorus in Bulgaria and many European countries is most commonly conducted using acid Ca-lactate extraction (Egner–Riehm test) and alkaline sodium bicarbonate extraction (BDS ISO 11263:2002), based on Olsen test, followed by a colorimetric assay to measure the concentration of P in solution. The second part of this study reports the differences between Egner–Riehm test and BDS ISO 11263:2002 measured colorimetrically and by ICP-MS. Fifty soils were selected from South Bulgaria to represent a wide range of soil properties. It was established that ICP-MS consistently yielded significantly higher P concentrations than the colorimetric method in both extraction tests, and the relative differences were greatest in soils with lower P

  17. Comparison of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and colorimetric determination of total and extractable phosphorus in soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, Krasimir, E-mail: kivanov1@abv.bg [Department of Chemistry, University of Agriculture, Plovdiv (Bulgaria); Zaprjanova, Penka [Tobacco and Tobacco Products Institute, Plovdiv (Bulgaria); Petkova, Milena [Department of Chemistry, University of Agriculture, Plovdiv (Bulgaria); Stefanova, Violeta; Kmetov, Veselin; Georgieva, Deyana [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Plovdiv University ' Paisii Hilendarski,' Plovdiv (Bulgaria); Angelova, Violina [Department of Chemistry, University of Agriculture, Plovdiv (Bulgaria)

    2012-05-15

    The most widely used method for determination of total phosphorus in soils is perchloric acid digestion, followed by a colorimetric assay to measure the concentration of P in solution. The first part of this study compares an alternative digestion method, using aqua regia (ISO 11466 and EPA Method 3052), with perchloric acid digestion procedure, and also compares inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) with colorimetry for the measurement of P on the basis of five internationally certified standard soils and 20 real-life soils with widely different extractability of phosphorus. The phosphorus concentration was determined by means of the reduced phosphomolybdenum blue and ICP-MS. The relationship between methods has been examined statistically. Good agreement of the results from colorimetry and ICP-MS was established for all certified soils. The microwave-assisted digestion with aqua regia was comparable, both in precision and accuracy, with the hot plate aqua regia method. The phosphorus concentration found with the HF + HClO{sub 4} digestion method was in good agreement with the certified mean values, while the superiority in extracting phosphorus, when compared to other methods, was obvious. Soil testing for plant-available phosphorus in Bulgaria and many European countries is most commonly conducted using acid Ca-lactate extraction (Egner-Riehm test) and alkaline sodium bicarbonate extraction (BDS ISO 11263:2002), based on Olsen test, followed by a colorimetric assay to measure the concentration of P in solution. The second part of this study reports the differences between Egner-Riehm test and BDS ISO 11263:2002 measured colorimetrically and by ICP-MS. Fifty soils were selected from South Bulgaria to represent a wide range of soil properties. It was established that ICP-MS consistently yielded significantly higher P concentrations than the colorimetric method in both extraction tests, and the relative differences were greatest in soils with lower

  18. Investigation of forced and total degradation products of amlodipine besylate by liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoiljković Zora Ž.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An isocratic, reversed-phase liquid chromatographic method was applied for the investigation of the degradation products of amlodipine besylate under the stressed conditions in solution. Amlodipine besylate stock solutions were subjected to acid and alkali hydrolysis, chemical oxidation and photodegradation as well as to the electrochemical degradation by cyclic voltammetry in 0.05 mol/L NaHCO3 on gold electrode. The total degradation of amlodipine besylate was achieved in 5 mol/L NaOH at 80°C for 6 h and the compound with molecular formula C15H16NOCl was identified as a main degradation product. Under acidic (5 mol/L HCl at 80°C for 6 h stress conditions 75.2% of amlodipine besylate degradation was recorded. Oxidative degradation in the solution of 3% H2O2-methanol 80:20 at 80°C for 6 h showed that amlodipine besylate degraded to 80.1%. After 14 days of expose in photostability chamber amlodipine besylate solution showed degradation of 32.2%. In electrochemical degradation after 9 hours of cyclization the beginning of amlodipine oxidation was shifted for 200 mV to more negative potentials, with the degradation of 66.5%. Mass spectrometry analysis confirmed the presence of dehydro amlodipine derivate with molecular formula C20H23N2O5Cl in oxidative and acidic conditions while in electrochemical degradation was detected in traces. [Projekat Ministarsva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172013

  19. Determining eligibility for antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings using total lymphocyte counts, hemoglobin and body mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solberg Peter

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CD4+ T lymphocyte (CD4 cell count testing is the standard method for determining eligibility for antiretroviral therapy (ART, but is not widely available in sub-Saharan Africa. Total lymphocyte counts (TLCs have not proven sufficiently accurate in identifying subjects with low CD4 counts. We developed clinical algorithms using TLCs, hemoglobin (Hb, and body mass index (BMI to identify patients who require ART. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of HIV-infected adults in Uganda, who presented for assessment for ART-eligibility with WHO clinical stages I, II or III. Two by two tables were constructed to examine TLC thresholds, which maximized sensitivity for CD4 cell counts ≤ 200 cells μL, while minimizing the number offered ART with counts > 350 cells μL. Hb and BMI values were then examined to try to improve model performance. Results 1787 subjects were available for analysis. Median CD4 cell counts and TLCs, were 239 cells/μL and 1830 cells/μL, respectively. Offering ART to all subjects with a TLCs ≤ 2250 cells/μL produced a sensitivity of 0.88 and a false positive ratio of 0.21. Algorithms that treated all patients with a TLC 3000 cells/μL, and used Hb and/or BMI values to determine eligibility for those with TLC values between 2000 and 3000 cells/μL, marginally improved accuracy. Conclusion TLCs appear useful in predicting who would be eligible for ART based on CD4 cell count criteria. Hb and BMI values may be useful in prioritizing patients for ART, but did not improve model accuracy.

  20. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay for the quantification of free and total sialic acid in human cerebrospinal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ham, Maria; de Koning, Tom J; Lefeber, Dirk; Fleer, André; Prinsen, Berthil H C M T; de Sain-van der Velden, Monique G M

    2010-05-01

    Analysis of sialic acid (SA) metabolites in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is important for clinical diagnosis. In the present study, a high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS) method for free sialic acid (FSA) and total sialic acid (TSA) in human CSF was validated. The method utilized a simple sample-preparation procedure of protein precipitation for FSA and acid hydrolysis for TSA. Negative electrospray ionisation was used to monitor the transitions m/z 308.2-->87.0 (SA) and m/z 311.2--> 90.0 ((13)C(3)-SA). Conjugated sialic acid (CSA) was calculated by subtracting FSA from TSA. We established reference intervals for FSA, TSA and CSA in CSF in 217 control subjects. The method has been applied to patients' samples with known differences in SA metabolites like meningitis (n=6), brain tumour (n=2), leukaemia (n=5), and Salla disease (n=1). Limit of detection (LOD) was 0.54 microM for FSA and 0.45 mM for TSA. Intra- and inter-assay variation for FSA (21.8 microM) were 4.8% (n=10) and 10.4% (n=40) respectively. Intra- and inter-assay variation for TSA (35.6 microM) were 9.7% (n=10) and 12.8% (n=40) respectively. Tested patients showed values of TSA above established reference value. The validated method allows sensitive and specific measurement of SA metabolites in CSF and can be applied for clinical diagnoses. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. THE MASS-LOSS RETURN FROM EVOLVED STARS TO THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD. II. DUST PROPERTIES FOR OXYGEN-RICH ASYMPTOTIC GIANT BRANCH STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sargent, Benjamin A.; Meixner, M.; Gordon, Karl D.; Srinivasan, S.; Kemper, F.; Woods, Paul M.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Speck, A. K.; Matsuura, M.; Bernard, J.-Ph.; Hony, S.; Indebetouw, R.; Marengo, M.; Sloan, G. C.

    2010-01-01

    900 K and 430 K, respectively, and with optical depths at 10 μm through the shells of 0.095 and 0.012, respectively. The models compute the dust mass-loss rates for the two stars to be 2.0 x 10 -9 M sun yr -1 and 2.3 x 10 -9 M sun yr -1 , respectively. When a dust-to-gas mass ratio of 0.002 is assumed for SSTSAGE052206 and HV 5715, the dust mass-loss rates imply total mass-loss rates of 1.0 x 10 -6 M sun yr -1 and 1.2 x 10 -6 M sun yr -1 , respectively. These properties of the dust shells and stars, as inferred from our models of the two stars, are found to be consistent with properties observed or assumed by detailed studies of other O-rich AGB stars in the LMC and elsewhere.

  2. Tranexamic Acid Safely Reduced Blood Loss in Hemi- and Total Hip Arthroplasty for Acute Femoral Neck Fracture: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Chad D; Houdek, Matthew T; Sems, S Andrew; Cross, William W; Pagnano, Mark W

    2017-07-01

    We aimed to determine whether (1) tranexamic acid (TXA) reduces the incidence of transfusion (2) TXA reduces the calculated blood loss, and (3) there are any observable differences in 30- and 90-day complications with TXA administration during arthroplasty for femoral neck fracture (FNF). Prospective, double-blinded, randomized controlled trial. Level 1 Academic Trauma Center. One hundred thirty-eight patients who presented with a low-energy, isolated, FNF (AO 31B) treated with either hemi- or total hip arthroplasty within 72 hours of injury were randomized to either the TXA group (69 patients) or placebo group (69 patients). In the TXA group, patients received 2 doses of 15 mg/kg intravenous TXA dissolved in 100 mL of saline, each administered over 10 minutes; 1 dose just before incision, and the second at wound closure. In the placebo group, 100 mL of saline solution was administered in a similar fashion. Perioperative care was otherwise standardized including conservative transfusion criteria. Our primary outcome was to determine the proportion of patients who underwent blood transfusion during hospitalization. Secondary outcomes were calculated blood loss, number of units transfused during hospitalization, and incidence of adverse events at 30 and 90 days including thromboembolic event, wound complications, reoperation, hospital readmission, and all-cause mortality. TXA reduced mean incidence of transfusion by 305 mL (P = 0.0005). There was a trend toward decreased transfusion rate in the TXA group (17% vs. 26%, P = 0.22). TXA was safe with no differences in adverse events at 30 and 90 days. This randomized clinical trial found that TXA administration safely reduced blood loss with a tendency for decreased transfusion rate and total blood product consumption for patients undergoing hip arthroplasty for acute FNF. More studies are needed to further ascertain the role of TXA in the management of patients with FNF. Therapeutic Level I. See Instructions for Authors

  3. Disparities in total knee replacement: Population losses in quality-adjusted life years due to differential offer, acceptance, and complication rates for Black Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerman, Hannah M; Smith, Savannah R; Smith, Karen C; Collins, Jamie E; Suter, Lisa G; Katz, Jeffrey N; Losina, Elena

    2018-01-24

    Total knee replacement (TKR) is an effective treatment for end-stage knee osteoarthritis (OA). American racial minorities undergo fewer TKRs than Whites. We estimated quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) lost for Black knee OA patients due to differences in TKR offer, acceptance, and complication rates. We used the Osteoarthritis Policy Model, a computer simulation of knee OA, to predict QALY outcomes for Black and White knee OA patients with and without TKR. We estimated per-person QALYs gained from TKR as the difference between QALYs with current TKR use and QALYs when no TKR was performed. We estimated average, per-person QALY losses in Blacks as the difference between QALYs gained with White rates of TKR and QALYs gained with Black rates of TKR. We calculated population-level QALY losses by multiplying per-person QALY losses by the number of persons with advanced knee OA. Finally, we estimated QALYs lost specifically due to lower TKR offer and acceptance and higher complications among Black knee OA patients. Black men and women gain 64,100 QALYs from current TKR use. With white offer and complications rates, they would gain an additional 72,000 QALYs. Because these additional gains are unrealized, we call this a loss of 72,000 QALYs. Black Americans lose 67,500 QALYs because of lower offer, 15,800 QALYs because of lower acceptance, and 2,600 QALYs because of higher complications. Black Americans lose 72,000 QALYs due to disparities in TKR offer and complication rates. Programs to decrease disparities in TKR use are urgently needed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. A 7-day high protein hypocaloric diet promotes cellular metabolic adaptations and attenuates lean mass loss in healthy males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Furber

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial quantity and density are associated with increased oxidative metabolism. It has been demonstrated that a hypocaloric high fat/low carbohydrate (HF/LC diet can up-regulate transcriptional markers of mitochondrial biogenesis; this was yet to be explored in vivo subsequent to a high protein/low carbohydrate (HP/LC diet. Thus the aims of the study were to explore such diets on transcriptional markers or mitochondrial biogenesis, body composition and resting metabolic rate (RMR. Forty-five healthy male participants were randomly assigned one of four intervention diets: eucaloric high protein low carbohydrate (PRO-EM, hypocaloric high protein low carbohydrate (PRO-ER, eucaloric high carbohydrate (CHO-EM or hypocaloric high carbohydrate (CHO-ER. The macronutrient ratio of the high protein diet and high carbohydrate diets was 40:30:30% and 10:60:30% (PRO:CHO:FAT respectively. Energy intake for the hypocaloric diets were calculated to match resting metabolic rate. Participants visited the laboratory on 3 occasions each separated by 7 days. On each visit body composition, resting metabolic rate and a muscle biopsy from the vastus lateralis was collected. Prior to visit 1 and 2 habitual diet was consumed which was used as a control, between visit 2 and 3 the intervention diet was consumed continuously for 7-days. No group × time effect was observed, however in the PRO-ER group a significant increase in AMPK, PGC-1α, SIRT1 and SIRT3 mRNA expression was observed post diet intervention groups (p < 0.05. No change was observed in any of the transcriptional markers in the other 3 groups. Despite ∼30% reduction in calorie intake no difference in lean mass (LM loss was observed between the PRO-ER and CHO-EM groups. The results from this study suggest that a 7-day a high protein low carbohydrate hypocaloric diet increased AMPK, SIRT1 and PGC-1 α mRNA expression at rest, and also suggest that increased dietary protein may attenuate LM mass

  5. The Association between Total Protein and Vegetable Protein Intake and Low Muscle Mass among the Community-Dwelling Elderly Population in Northern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ru-Yi Huang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sarcopenia, highly linked with fall, frailty, and disease burden, is an emerging problem in aging society. Higher protein intake has been suggested to maintain nitrogen balance. Our objective was to investigate whether pre-sarcopenia status was associated with lower protein intake. A total of 327 community-dwelling elderly people were recruited for a cross-sectional study. We adopted the multivariate nutrient density model to identify associations between low muscle mass and dietary protein intake. The general linear regression models were applied to estimate skeletal muscle mass index across the quartiles of total protein and vegetable protein density. Participants with diets in the lowest quartile of total protein density (<13.2% were at a higher risk for low muscle mass (odds ratio (OR 3.03, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.37–6.72 than those with diets in the highest quartile (≥17.2%. Similarly, participants with diets in the lowest quartile of vegetable protein density (<5.8% were at a higher risk for low muscle mass (OR 2.34, 95% CI 1.14–4.83 than those with diets in the highest quartile (≥9.4%. Furthermore, the estimated skeletal muscle mass index increased significantly across the quartiles of total protein density (p = 0.023 and vegetable protein density (p = 0.025. Increasing daily intakes of total protein and vegetable protein densities appears to confer protection against pre-sarcopenia status.

  6. Perinatal, sociodemographic and lifestyle correlates of increased total and visceral fat mass levels in schoolchildren in Greece: the Healthy Growth Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschonis, George; Kaliora, Adriana C; Karatzi, Kalliopi; Michaletos, Aggelos; Lambrinou, Christina-Paulina; Karachaliou, Alexandra K; Chrousos, George P; Lionis, Christos; Manios, Yannis

    2017-03-01

    To identify possibly independent associations of perinatal, sociodemographic and lifestyle factors with childhood total and visceral body fat. A representative sample of 2655 schoolchildren (9-13 years) participated in the Healthy Growth Study, a cross-sectional epidemiological study. Seventy-seven primary schools in four large regions in Greece. A sample of 1228 children having full data on total and visceral fat mass levels, as well as on anthropometric, dietary, physical activity, physical examination, socio-economic and perinatal indices, was examined. Maternal (OR=3·03 and 1·77) and paternal obesity (OR=1·62 and 1·78), maternal smoking during pregnancy (OR=1·72 and 1·93) and rapid infant weight gain (OR=1·42 and 1·96) were significantly and positively associated with children's increased total and visceral fat mass levels, respectively. Children's television watching for >2 h/d (OR=1·40) and maternal pre-pregnancy obesity (OR=2·46) were associated with children's increased total and visceral fat mass level, respectively. Furthermore, increased children's physical activity (OR=0·66 and 0·47) were significantly and negatively associated with children's total and visceral fat mass levels, respectively. Lastly, both father's age >46 years (OR=0·57) and higher maternal educational level (OR=0·45) were associated with children's increased total visceral fat mass level. Parental sociodemographic characteristics, perinatal indices and pre-adolescent lifestyle behaviours were associated with children's abnormal levels of total and visceral fat mass. Any future programme for childhood prevention either from the perinatal age or at late childhood should take these indices into consideration.

  7. Magnetic confinement, Alfven wave reflection, and the origins of X-ray and mass-loss 'dividing lines' for late-type giants and supergiants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, R.; An, C.-H.; Musielak, Z. E.; Moore, R. L.; Suess, S. T.

    1991-01-01

    A simple qualitative model for the origin of the coronal and mass-loss dividing lines separating late-type giants and supergiants with and without hot, X-ray-emitting corona, and with and without significant mass loss is discussed. The basic physical effects considered are the necessity of magnetic confinement for hot coronal material on the surface of such stars and the large reflection efficiency for Alfven waves in cool exponential atmospheres. The model assumes that the magnetic field geometry of these stars changes across the observed 'dividing lines' from being mostly closed on the high effective temperature side to being mostly open on the low effective temperature side.

  8. The Colorado Ultraviolet Transit Experiment (CUTE): a dedicated cubesat mission for the study of exoplanetary mass loss and magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Brian T.; France, Kevin; Nell, Nicholas; Kohnert, Richard; Pool, Kelsey; Egan, Arika; Fossati, Luca; Koskinen, Tommi; Vidotto, Aline A.; Hoadley, Keri; Desert, Jean-Michel; Beasley, Matthew; Petit, Pascal

    2017-08-01

    The Colorado Ultraviolet Transit Experiment (CUTE) is a near-UV (2550 - 3300 Å) 6U cubesat mission designed to monitor transiting hot Jupiters to quantify their atmospheric mass loss and magnetic fields. CUTE will probe both atomic (Mg and Fe) and molecular (OH) lines for evidence of enhanced transit absorption, and to search for evidence of early ingress due to bow shocks ahead of the planet's orbital motion. As a dedicated mission, CUTE will observe > 60 spectroscopic transits of hot Jupiters over a nominal seven month mission. This represents the equivalent of > 700 orbits of the only other instrument capable of these measurements, the Hubble Space Telescope. CUTE efficiently utilizes the available cubesat volume by means of an innovative optical design to achieve a projected effective area of ˜ 22 cm2 , low instrumental background, and a spectral resolving power of R ˜ 3000 over the entire science bandpass. These performance characteristics enable CUTE to discern a transit depth of motivation and expected results, and an overview of the projected fabrication, calibration and launch timeline.

  9. Colorado Ultraviolet Transit Experiment: a dedicated CubeSat mission to study exoplanetary mass loss and magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Brian T.; France, Kevin; Nell, Nicholas; Kohnert, Richard; Pool, Kelsey; Egan, Arika; Fossati, Luca; Koskinen, Tommi; Vidotto, Aline A.; Hoadley, Keri; Desert, Jean-Michel; Beasley, Matthew; Petit, Pascal M.

    2018-01-01

    The Colorado Ultraviolet Transit Experiment (CUTE) is a near-UV (2550 to 3300 Å) 6U CubeSat mission designed to monitor transiting hot Jupiters to quantify their atmospheric mass loss and magnetic fields. CUTE will probe both atomic (Mg and Fe) and molecular (OH) lines for evidence of enhanced transit absorption, and to search for evidence of early ingress due to bow shocks ahead of the planet's orbital motion. As a dedicated mission, CUTE will observe ≳100 spectroscopic transits of hot Jupiters over a nominal 7-month mission. This represents the equivalent of >700 orbits of the only other instrument capable of these measurements, the Hubble Space Telescope. CUTE efficiently utilizes the available CubeSat volume by means of an innovative optical design to achieve a projected effective area of ˜28 cm2, low instrumental background, and a spectral resolving power of R˜3000 over the primary science bandpass. These performance characteristics enable CUTE to discern transit depths between 0.1% and 1% in individual spectral absorption lines. We present the CUTE optical and mechanical design, a summary of the science motivation and expected results, and an overview of the projected fabrication, calibration, and launch timeline.

  10. Titanium Mass-balance Analysis of Paso Robles Soils: Elemental Gains and Losses as Affected by Acid Alteration Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, Brad; Ming, Douglas W.

    2010-01-01

    The Columbia Hills soils have been exposed to aqueous alteration in alkaline [1] as well as acid conditions [2,3]. The Paso Robles class soils are bright soils that possess the highest S concentration of any soil measured on Mars [2]. Ferric-sulfate detection by Moessbauer analysis indicated that acid solutions were involved in forming these soils [4]. These soils are proposed to have formed by alteration of nearby rock by volcanic hydrothermal or fumarolic activity. The Paso Robles soils consist of the original Paso Robles-disturbed-Pasadena (PR-dist), Paso Robles- PasoLight (PR-PL), Arad-Samra, Arad-Hula, Tyrone- Berker Island1 and Tyrone-MountDarwin [2 ,3. ]Chemical characteristics indicate that the PR-dist and PR-PL soils could be derived from acid weathering of local Wishstone rocks while the Samra and Hula soils are likely derived from local Algonquin-Iroquet rock [3]. The Paso Robles soils were exposed to acidic sulfur bearing fluids; however, little else is known about the chemistry of the alteration fluid and its effects on the alteration of the proposed parent materials. The objectives of this work are to conduct titanium normalized mass-balance analysis to1) assess elemental gains and losses from the parent materials in the formation of the Paso Robles soils and 2) utilize this information to indicate the chemical nature of the alteration fluids.

  11. Metabolic study of paeoniflorin and total paeony glucosides from Paeoniae Radix Rubra in rats by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with sequential mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lijun; Sun, Shanshan; Hu, Yanxi; Liu, Yufeng

    2018-04-01

    A clear understanding of the metabolism of Traditional Chinese Medicines is extremely important in their rational clinical application and effective material foundation research. A novel and reliable strategy was performed to find more metabolites of paeoniflorin, determine the metabolites of total paeony glucosides (TPG) by means of determining those metabolites of paeoniflorin, and compare the metabolism differences between paeoniflorin and TPG by intragastric administration. This strategy was characterized as follows. Firstly, the rats were divided into two groups (the paeoniflorin group and the TPG group) to find differences in metabolism mechanisms between paeoniflorin and TPG. Secondly, UPLC-FT-ICR MS and UPLC-Q-TOF MS 2 were applied to obtain accurate molecular weight and structural information, respectively. Thirdly, the metabolites were tentatively identified by a combination of data-processing methods including mass defect screening, characteristic neutral loss screening and product ion screening. Finally, a comparative study was employed in the metabolism of paeoniflorin and TPG. Based on the strategy, 18 metabolites of paeoniflorin (including four new compounds) and 11 metabolites of TPG (including two new compounds) were identified. In all of the identified metabolites of paeoniflorin, two metabolites in rat plasma, four metabolites in rat urine and six metabolites in rat feces were found for the first time after paeoniflorin administration. The results indicate that hydrolyzation of the ester bond and glucosidic band and conjugation with glucuronide were the major metabolic pathways of paeoniflorin. The metabolites of paeoniflorin and TPG in rat plasma, urine and feces have been detected for the first time after intragastric administration. The results may contribute to a better understanding of the metabolism mechanism and provide a scientific rationale for researching the material basis of paeoniflorin and TPG in vivo. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley

  12. ESCAPING PARTICLE FLUXES IN THE ATMOSPHERES OF CLOSE-IN EXOPLANETS. II. REDUCED MASS-LOSS RATES AND ANISOTROPIC WINDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, J. H.

    2013-01-01

    In Paper I, we presented a one-dimensional hydrodynamic model for the winds of close-in exoplanets. However, close-in exoplanets are tidally locked and irradiated only on the day sides by their host stars. This requires two-dimensional hydrodynamic models with self-consistent radiative transfer calculations. In this paper, for the tidal-locking (two-dimensional radiative transfer) and non-tidal-locking cases (one-dimensional radiative transfer), we constructed a multi-fluid two-dimensional hydrodynamic model with detailed radiative transfer to depict the escape of particles. We found that the tidal forces (the sum of tidal gravity of the star and centrifugal force due to the planetary rotation) supply significant accelerations and result in anisotropic winds. An important effect of the tidal forces is that it severely depresses the outflow of particles near the polar regions where the density and the radial velocity are a factor of a few (ten) smaller than those of the low-latitude regions. As a consequence, most particles escape the surface of the planet from the regions of low latitude. Comparing the tidal-locking and non-tidal-locking cases, we found that their optical depths are very different so that the flows also emerge with a different pattern. In the case of non-tidal locking, the radial velocities at the base of the wind are higher than the meridional velocities. However, in the case of tidal locking, the meridional velocities dominate the flow at the base of the wind, and they can effectively transfer mass and energy from the day sides to the night sides. Further, we also found that the differences of the winds show a middle extent at large radii. This means that the structure of the wind at the base can be changed by the two-dimensional radiative transfer due to large optical depths, but the extent is reduced with an increase in radius. Because the escape is depressed in the polar regions, the mass-loss rate predicted by the non-tidal-locking model, in

  13. Effect of a high protein diet and/or resistance exercise on the preservation of fat free mass during weight loss in overweight and obese older adults : a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verreijen, Amely M; Engberink, Mariëlle F; Memelink, Robert G; van der Plas, Suzanne E; Visser, Marjolein; Weijs, Peter J M

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intentional weight loss in obese older adults is a risk factor for accelerated muscle mass loss. We investigated whether a high protein diet and/or resistance exercise preserves fat free mass (FFM) during weight loss in overweight and obese older adults. METHODS: We included 100

  14. Long-lasting X-ray emission from type IIb supernova 2011dh and mass-loss history of the yellow supergiant progenitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, Keiichi [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Katsuda, Satoru [RIKEN (The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research) Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Bamba, Aya [Department of Physics and Mathematics, Aoyama Gakuin University, 5-10-1 Fuchinobe, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5258 (Japan); Terada, Yukikatsu [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, Shimo-Okubo 255, Sakura, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Fukazawa, Yasushi, E-mail: keiichi.maeda@kusastro.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Physical Science, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan)

    2014-04-20

    Type IIb supernova (SN) 2011dh, with conclusive detection of an unprecedented yellow supergiant (YSG) progenitor, provides an excellent opportunity to deepen our understanding on the massive star evolution in the final centuries toward the SN explosion. In this paper, we report on detection and analyses of thermal X-ray emission from SN IIb 2011dh at ∼500 days after the explosion on Chandra archival data, providing a solidly derived mass-loss rate of a YSG progenitor for the first time. We find that the circumstellar media should be dense, more than that expected from a Wolf-Rayet (W-R) star by one order of magnitude. The emission is powered by a reverse shock penetrating into an outer envelope, fully consistent with the YSG progenitor but not with a W-R progenitor. The density distribution at the outermost ejecta is much steeper than that expected from a compact W-R star, and this finding must be taken into account in modeling the early UV/optical emission from SNe IIb. The derived mass-loss rate is ∼3 × 10{sup –6} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} for the mass-loss velocity of ∼20 km s{sup –1} in the final ∼1300 yr before the explosion. The derived mass-loss properties are largely consistent with the standard wind mass-loss expected for a giant star. This is not sufficient to be a main driver to expel nearly all the hydrogen envelope. Therefore, the binary interaction, with a huge mass transfer having taken place at ≳ 1300 yr before the explosion, is a likely scenario to produce the YSG progenitor.

  15. Segmental acetabular rim defects, bone loss, oversizing, and press fit cup in total hip arthroplasty evaluated with a probabilistic finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirouche, Farid; Solitro, Giovanni F; Walia, Amit; Gonzalez, Mark; Bobko, Aimee

    2017-08-01

    Management of segmental rim defects and bone mineral density (BMD) loss in the elderly prior to total hip replacement is unclear within classification systems for acetabular bone loss. In this study, our objectives were (1) to understand how a reduction in BMD in the elderly affects the oversizing of a press-fit cup for primary fixation and (2) to evaluate whether the location of the segmental defect affected cup fixation. A finite element (FE) model was used to simulate and evaluate cup insertion and fixation in the context of segmental rim defects. We focused on the distribution of patients over age 70 and used BMD (estimated from CT) as a proxy for aging's implications on THR and used probabilistic FE analysis to understand how BMD loss affects oversizing of a press-fit cup. A cup oversized by 1.10 ± 0.28 mm provides sufficient fixation and lower stresses at the cup-bone interface for elderly patients. Defects in the anterior column and posterior column both required the same mean insertion force for cup seating of 84% (taken as an average of 2 anterior column and 2 posterior column defects) compared to the control configuration, which was 5% greater than the insertion force for a superior rim defect and 12% greater than the insertion force for an inferior rim defect. A defect along the superior or inferior rim had a minimal effect on cup fixation, while a defect in the columns created cup instability and increased stress at the defect location.

  16. Global distribution of GPS losses of phase lock and total electron content slips during the 2005 May 15 and the 2003 November 20 magnetic storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasyukevich, Yuriy; Astafeva, Elvira; Givetev, Ilya; Maksikov, Aleksey

    2015-12-01

    Using data of worldwide network of GPS receivers we investigated losses of GPS phase lock (LoL) during two strong magnetic storms. At fundamental L1 frequency, LoL density is found to increase up to 0.25 % and at L2 frequency the increase is up to 3 %. This is several times as much compared with the background level. During the 2003 November 20 magnetic storm, the number of total electron content (TEC) slips exceeded the background level ~50 times. During superstorms, the most number of GPS LoL is observed at low and high latitudes. At the same time, the area of numerous TEC slips correspond to auroral oval boundaries.

  17. Low vitamin D and high parathyroid hormone levels as determinants of loss of muscle strength and muscle mass (sarcopenia) : the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Marjolein; Deeg, Dorly J H; Lips, Paul

    2003-01-01

    The age-related change in hormone concentrations has been hypothesized to play a role in the loss of muscle mass and muscle strength with aging, also called sarcopenia. The aim of this prospective study was to investigate whether low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) and high serum PTH

  18. Effects of high protein diets on fat-free mass and muscle protein synthesis following weight loss: a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Context: The benefits of high protein diets for sparing lean body mass and sustaining skeletal muscle protein metabolism during short-term weight loss in normal-weight adults are not well described. Objective: Determine the effects of varying levels of dietary protein intake on body compos...

  19. MASS LOSS AND NITROGEN DYNAMICS DURING THE DECOMPOSITION OF A N-LABELED N2-FIXING EPOPHYTIC LICHEN, LOBARIA OREGANA (TUCK.) MULL. ARG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    We studied mass loss and nitrogen dynamics during fall and spring initiated decomposition of an N2-fixing epiphytic lichen, Lobaria oregana (Tuck.) Mull. Arg. using 15N. We developed a method of labeling lichens with 15N that involved spraying lichen material with a nutrient sol...

  20. Mass loss and nutrient concentrations of buried wood as a function of organic matter removal, soil compaction, and vegetation control in a regenerating oak-pine forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix Ponder; John M. Kabrick; Mary Beth Adams; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese; Marty F. Jurgensen

    2017-01-01

    Mass loss and nutrient concentrations of northern red oak (Quercus rubra) and white oak (Q. alba) wood stakes were measured 30 months after their burial in the upper 10 cm of soil in a regenerating forest after harvesting and soil disturbance. Disturbance treatments were two levels of organic matter (OM) removal (only...