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Sample records for total long-chain acylcarnitine

  1. The impaired change in plasma long-chain acylcarnitine level as a marker of insulin resistence

    OpenAIRE

    Šišmová, Petra

    2018-01-01

    Charles University Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Kralove Department of Biophysics and Physical Chemistry Rīga Stradiņš University Latvian Institute of Organic Synthesis Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Pharmacology Candidate: Petra Šišmová Supervisor: Dr. Pharm. Elina Makarova, assoc. prof. Veronika Nováková, Ph.D. Title of the diploma thesis: The impaired change in plasma long-chain acylcarnitine level as a marker of insulin resistance Insulin resistance presents one of the factors that could le...

  2. A new LC-ESI-MS/MS method to measure long-chain acylcarnitine levels in cultured cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jauregui, Olga; Sierra, Adriana Y.; Carrasco, Patricia; Gratacos, Esther; Hegardt, Fausto G.; Casals, Nuria

    2007-01-01

    The quantitative evaluation of long-chain acylcarnitines in lipid extracts from cultured cells or tissues is a prerequisite to study carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) activity. There is thus a need for the accurate measurement of the concentration of long-chain acylcarnitines at the lowest concentration present in lipid extracts. Here we report a fast and reliable quantitative method based on the use of weak acid extraction and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) to quantify acylcarnitines through hydrophilic interaction chromatography. The method was validated using isotopic dilution and the results allow the analysis of a large number of samples at low concentration levels (down to 0.35 nmol L -1 for palmitoylcarnitine) with good inter- and intra-day precision. The method was used for the quantitative study of changes in concentration of palmitoylcarnitine and other acylcarnitines in PC-12 cells over-expressing CPT1a gene. It was also used to measure CPT1 activity in mitochondria isolated from transfected cells, giving similar results to the more common radiometric method, but with higher sensitivity

  3. A new LC-ESI-MS/MS method to measure long-chain acylcarnitine levels in cultured cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jauregui, Olga [Scientific and Technical Services, University of Barcelona (Spain); Sierra, Adriana Y.; Carrasco, Patricia; Gratacos, Esther [Molecular and Cellular Unit, School of Health Sciences, International University of Catalonia (Spain); Hegardt, Fausto G. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Barcelona, School of Pharmacy (Spain); Casals, Nuria [Molecular and Cellular Unit, School of Health Sciences, International University of Catalonia (Spain)], E-mail: ncasals@csc.uic.es

    2007-09-05

    The quantitative evaluation of long-chain acylcarnitines in lipid extracts from cultured cells or tissues is a prerequisite to study carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) activity. There is thus a need for the accurate measurement of the concentration of long-chain acylcarnitines at the lowest concentration present in lipid extracts. Here we report a fast and reliable quantitative method based on the use of weak acid extraction and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) to quantify acylcarnitines through hydrophilic interaction chromatography. The method was validated using isotopic dilution and the results allow the analysis of a large number of samples at low concentration levels (down to 0.35 nmol L{sup -1} for palmitoylcarnitine) with good inter- and intra-day precision. The method was used for the quantitative study of changes in concentration of palmitoylcarnitine and other acylcarnitines in PC-12 cells over-expressing CPT1a gene. It was also used to measure CPT1 activity in mitochondria isolated from transfected cells, giving similar results to the more common radiometric method, but with higher sensitivity.

  4. Changes in Hepatic TRβ Protein Expression, Lipogenic Gene Expression, and Long-Chain Acylcarnitine Levels During Chronic Hyperthyroidism and Triiodothyronine Withdrawal in a Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohba, Kenji; Sinha, Rohit Anthony; Singh, Brijesh Kumar; Iannucci, Liliana Felicia; Zhou, Jin; Kovalik, Jean-Paul; Liao, Xiao-Hui; Refetoff, Samuel; Sng, Judy Chia Ghee; Leow, Melvin Khee-Shing; Yen, Paul Michael

    2017-06-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) has important roles in regulating hepatic metabolism. It was previously reported that most hepatic genes activated by a single triiodothyronine (T3) injection became desensitized after multiple injections, and that approximately 10% of target genes did not return to basal expression levels after T3 withdrawal, despite normalization of serum TH and thyrotropin (TSH) levels. To determine the possible mechanism(s) for desensitization and incomplete recovery of hepatic target gene transcription and their effects on metabolism, mRNA and/or protein expression levels of key regulators of TH action were measured, as well as metabolomic changes after chronic T3 treatment and withdrawal. Adult male mice were treated with daily injections of T3 (20 μg/100 g body weight) for 14 days followed by the cessation of T3 for 10 days. Livers were harvested at 6 hours, 24 hours, and 14 days after the first T3 injection, and at 10 days after withdrawal, and then analyzed by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and metabolomics. Although TH receptor (TRα and TRβ) mRNAs decreased slightly after chronic T3 treatment, only TRβ protein decreased before returning to basal expression level after withdrawal. The expression of other regulators of TH action was unchanged. TRβ protein expression was also decreased in adult male monocarboxylate transporter-8 (Mct8)-knockout mice, an in vivo model of chronic intrahepatic hyperthyroidism. Previously, increased hepatic long-chain acylcarnitine levels were found after acute TH treatment. However, in this study, long-chain acylcarnitine levels were unchanged after chronic T3, and paradoxically increased after T3 withdrawal. Pathway analyses of the previous microarray results showed upregulation of lipogenic genes after acute T3 treatment and withdrawal. Phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase also decreased after T3 withdrawal. Decreased hepatic TRβ protein expression occurred

  5. Tandem mass spectrometry screening for very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency: the value of second-tier enzyme testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiekerkoetter, Ute; Haussmann, Ulrike; Mueller, Martina; ter Veld, Frank; Stehn, Maren; Santer, Rene; Lukacs, Zoltan

    2010-10-01

    To evaluate newborn screening (NBS) for very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (VLCADD), we further characterized newborns with elevation of one or all C14-carnitine derivatives on NBS from a total of 90 338 newborns. Palmitoyl-CoA oxidation was performed in lymphocytes to define very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase function. Molecular analysis followed in children with residual activitiesvalues and acylcarnitine ratios did not allow correct identification of the newborn as a patient with VLCADD. Reliable diagnosis is not feasible with acylcarnitine analysis alone. Enzyme analysis in lymphocytes is a reliable and rapid method for correctly assessing all newborns with VLCADD and should be carried out in all newborns identified during the first screening, regardless of the results of a later acylcarnitine profile. Copyright (c) 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Tissue carnitine homeostasis in very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase-deficient mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiekerkoetter, Ute; Tokunaga, Chonan; Wendel, Udo; Mayatepek, Ertan; Ijlst, Lodewijk; Vaz, Frederic M.; van Vlies, Naomi; Overmars, Henk; Duran, Marinus; Wijburg, Frits A.; Wanders, Ronald J.; Strauss, Arnold W.

    2005-01-01

    Deficiency of very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) is the most common long-chain fatty acid oxidation defect and presents with heterogeneous clinical manifestations. Accumulation of long-chain acylcarnitines and deficiency of free carnitine have often been proposed to play an important

  7. Genetics Home Reference: long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Management Resources Formal Diagnostic Criteria (1 link) ACT Sheet: Elevated C16-OH +/- C18:1-OH and Other Long Chain Acylcarnitines (PDF) Formal Treatment/Management Guidelines (1 link) New England Consortium of Metabolic ...

  8. Genetics Home Reference: very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Management Resources Formal Diagnostic Criteria (1 link) ACT Sheet: Elevated C14:1 +/- other long-chain acylcarnitines (PDF) Formal Treatment/Management Guidelines (1 link) New England Consortium of Metabolic ...

  9. Functional analysis of mutant human carnitine acylcarnitine translocases in yeast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJlst, L.; van Roermund, C. W.; Iacobazzi, V.; Oostheim, W.; Ruiter, J. P.; Williams, J. C.; Palmieri, F.; Wanders, R. J.

    2001-01-01

    Long chain fatty acids are translocated as carnitine esters across the mitochondrial inner membrane by carnitine acylcarnitine translocase (CACT). We report functional studies on the mutant CACT proteins from a severe and a mild patient with CACT deficiency. CACT activities in fibroblasts of both

  10. Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for determination of long chain free fatty acid concentration in oily wastewater using the double wavenumber extrapolation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long Chain Free Fatty Acids (LCFFAs) from the hydrolysis of fat, oil and grease (FOG) are major components in the formation of insoluble saponified solids known as FOG deposits that accumulate in sewer pipes and lead to sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs). A Double Wavenumber Extrapolative Technique (DW...

  11. Targeted liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis of serum acylcarnitines in acetaminophen toxicity in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Sudeepa; Yan, Ke; Pence, Lisa; Simpson, Pippa M; Gill, Pritmohinder; Letzig, Lynda G; Beger, Richard D; Sullivan, Janice E; Kearns, Gregory L; Reed, Michael D; Marshall, James D; Van Den Anker, John N; James, Laura P

    2014-01-01

    Aim Long-chain acylcarnitines have been postulated to be sensitive biomarkers of acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity in mouse models. In the following study, the relationship of acylcarnitines with other known indicators of APAP toxicity was examined in children receiving low-dose (therapeutic) and high-dose (‘overdose’ or toxic ingestion) exposure to APAP. Materials & methods The study included three subject groups: group A (therapeutic dose, n = 187); group B (healthy controls, n = 23); and group C (overdose, n = 62). Demographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected for each subject. Serum samples were used for measurement of APAP protein adducts, a biomarker of the oxidative metabolism of APAP and for targeted metabolomics analysis of serum acylcarnitines using ultra performance liquid chromatography–triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry. Results Significant increases in oleoyl- and palmitoyl-carnitines were observed with APAP exposure (low dose and overdose) compared with controls. Significant increases in serum ALT, APAP protein adducts and acylcarnitines were observed in overdose children that received delayed treatment (time to treatment from overdose >24 h) with the antidote N-acetylcysteine. Time to peak APAP protein adducts in serum was shorter than that of the acylcarnitines and serum ALT. Conclusion Perturbations in long-chain acylcarnitines in children with APAP toxicity suggest that mitochrondrial injury and associated impairment in the β-oxidation of fatty acids are clinically relevant as biomarkers of APAP toxicity. PMID:24521011

  12. Cloning of the human carnitine-acylcarnitine carrier cDNA and identification of the molecular defect in a patient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizing, M.; Iacobazzi, V.; IJlst, L.; Savelkoul, P.; Ruitenbeek, W.; van den Heuvel, L.; Indiveri, C.; Smeitink, J.; Trijbels, F.; Wanders, R.; Palmieri, F.

    1997-01-01

    The carnitine-acylcarnitine carrier (CAC) catalyzes the translocation of long-chain fatty acids across the inner mitochondrial membrane. We cloned and sequenced the human CAC cDNA, which has an open reading frame of 903 nucleotides. Northern blot studies revealed different expression levels of CAC

  13. Impact of an exercise program on acylcarnitines in obesity: a prospective controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Gutiérrez René

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acylcarnitine (AC transport dysfunction into the mitochondrial matrix is one of the pathophysiological mechanisms of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM. The effect of an aerobic exercise (AE program on this condition in obese subjects without DM is unclear. Methods A prospective, randomized, longitudinal, interventional study in a University Research Center involved a 10-week AE program in 32 women without DM and a body mass index (BMI greater than 27 kg/m2. (Cases n = 17; Controls n = 15. The primary objective was to evaluate the influence of a controlled AE program on beta-oxidation according to modifications in short, medium, and long-chain ACs. Secondary objectives were to define the behavior of amino acids, and the correlation between these modifications with metabolic and anthropometric markers. Results The proportion of dropouts was 17% and 6% in controls and cases, respectively. In cases there was a significant reduction in total carnitine (30.40 [95% CI 28.2 to 35.6] vs. (29.4 [CI 95% 25.1 to 31.7] p = 0.0008 and long-chain AC C14 (0.06 [95% CI 0.05 to 0.08] vs. (0.05 [95% CI 0.05 to 0.09] p = 0.005 and in C18 (0.31 [95% CI 0.27 to 0.45] vs. (0.28 [95% CI 0.22 to 0.32] p = 0.03. Free fatty acid levels remained without change during the study in both groups. Conclusion In conclusion, a controlled 10-week AE program improved beta-oxidation by reducing long-chain ACs. This finding highlights the importance that AE might have in avoiding or reverting lipotoxicity, and in consequence, improving insulin sensitivity and pancreatic beta cell functional reserve.

  14. Very long-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Degtyareva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a case of a baby with a severe infant form of very long-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency, a very rare genetic disorder. The basis for the disease is a disorder of mitochondrial β-oxidation of long-chain fatty acids. Accumulation of acyl-CoA-derived fatty acids causes a toxic effect on the myocardium and cardiac conduction system, liver, skeletal muscles, and other organs. The development of hypoglycemia is typical. Treatment in the acute period involves the immediately ceased delivery of long-chain triglycerides, the provision of the body with medium-chain triglycerides, and the correction of glycemia. In our observation the baby was born at term with a satisfactory condition in a family with a poor history (the first baby had suddenly died at the age of 3,5 months. The disease manifested itself as bradyarrhythmia and cardiac arrest on day 2 of life. The clinical symptom complex also included hepatomegalia, hypoglycemic episodes, lactate acidosis, and elevated blood levels of cytolytic enzymes and creatine phosphokinase. The diagnosis was suspected on the basis of the high blood values of acylcarnitines (primarily C14:1 and verified by a molecular genetic examination. Syndrome therapy and dietotherapy resulted in the abolishment of the abnormality. At the age of 2 years of life, the infant’s physical, motor, mental, and speech development corresponded to his age although he had mild right-sided hemiparesis. Thus, timely therapy determines the favorable prognosis of the disease even in its severe infant forms. 

  15. A severe genotype with favourable outcome in very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Touma, E H; Rashed, M S; Vianey-Saban, C

    2001-01-01

    A patient with very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency is reported. He had a severe neonatal presentation and cardiomyopathy. He was found to be homozygous for a severe mutation with no residual enzyme activity. Tandem mass spectrometry on dried blood spots revealed increased lo...... chain acylcarnitines. VLCAD enzyme activity was severely decreased to 2% of control levels. Dietary management consisted of skimmed milk supplemented with medium chain triglycerides and L-carnitine. Outcome was good and there was no acute recurrence....

  16. Orphan drugs in development for long-chain fatty acid oxidation disorders: challenges and progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun A

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Angela Sun, J Lawrence Merritt II Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA Abstract: Fatty acid oxidation disorders are inborn errors of metabolism resulting in failure of ß-oxidation within or transport of fatty acids into the mitochondria. The long-chain fatty acid oxidation disorders are characterized by variable presentations ranging from newborn cardiomyopathy, to infantile hypoketotic hypoglycemia resulting from liver involvement, to skeletal myopathy often resulting in rhabdomyolysis in adolescents and adults. Treatments for these long-chain fatty acid oxidation disorders have typically focused upon avoidance of fasting with dietary fat restriction and medium-chain triglyceride supplementation. These treatments have resulted in only a partial response with improvements in hypoglycemia, reduction in frequency of rhabdomyolysis, and improvement in cardiomyopathy with early therapy, but significant risk remains. Recent advances in therapies for long-chain fatty acid oxidation disorders are reviewed in this article. These include sodium D,L-3-hydroxybutyrate, triheptanoin, gene therapy, and bezafibrates. Sodium D,L-3-hydroxybutyrate has shown clinical effect, with improvements in muscle tone, neurological abnormalities, and some cases of cardiomyopathy and leukodystrophy. Triheptanoin has been used as an alternative medium-chain triglyceride in a number of fatty acid oxidation disorders and has shown promising findings in the treatment of cardiomyopathy and hypoglycemia. However, it does not significantly reduce episodes of rhabdomyolysis. Gene therapy has been shown to improve acylcarnitine levels in very-long-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency mouse models, with preservation of glucose levels. Bezafibrates have shown improvements in acylcarnitine concentrations in fibroblast studies, but clinical observations have not demonstrated consistent effects. Together, these treatments have shown some

  17. Acylcarnitine Profiles in Acetaminophen Toxicity in the Mouse: Comparison to Toxicity, Metabolism and Hepatocyte Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Hinson

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available High doses of acetaminophen (APAP result in hepatotoxicity that involves metabolic activation of the parent compound, covalent binding of the reactive intermediate N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI to liver proteins, and depletion of hepatic glutathione. Impaired fatty acid β-oxidation has been implicated in previous studies of APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. To better understand relationships between toxicity and fatty acid β-oxidation in the liver in APAP toxicity, metabolomic assays for long chain acylcarnitines were examined in relationship to established markers of liver toxicity, oxidative metabolism, and liver regeneration in a time course study in mice. Male B6C3F1 mice were treated with APAP (200 mg/kg IP or saline and sacrificed at 1, 2, 4, 8, 24 or 48 h after APAP. At 1 h, hepatic glutathione was depleted and APAP protein adducts were markedly increased. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT levels were elevated at 4 and 8 h, while proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA expression, indicative of hepatocyte regeneration, was apparent at 24 h and 48 h. Elevations of palmitoyl, oleoyl and myristoyl carnitine were apparent by 2–4 h, concurrent with the onset of Oil Red O staining in liver sections. By 8 h, acylcarnitine levels were below baseline levels and remained low at 24 and 48 h. A partial least squares (PLS model suggested a direct association of acylcarnitine accumulation in serum to APAP protein adduct and hepatic glutathione levels in mice. Overall, the kinetics of serum acylcarnitines in APAP toxicity in mice followed a biphasic pattern involving early elevation after the metabolism phases of toxicity and later depletion of acylcarnitines.

  18. SHORT COMMUNICATION Repellency property of long chain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Repellency property of long chain aliphatic methyl ketones against Anopheles gambiae s.s ... tained from huge diversity of plant species are an important source of safe .... dry and then introduced with the hand covered by a glove in .... citronellal in repelling bees from basil (Oci- ... Journal of American Mosquito Control As-.

  19. Genetics Home Reference: carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions CACT deficiency Carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase deficiency Printable PDF Open All Close ... Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase (CACT) deficiency is a condition that ...

  20. Free carnitine and acylcarnitines in obese patients with polycystic ovary syndrome and effects of pioglitazone treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigerust, Natalya Filipchuk; Bohov, Pavol; Bjørndal, Bodil

    2012-01-01

    To determine fasting and insulin-stimulated levels of carnitine precursors, total and free carnitine, and acylcarnitines, and evaluate the impact of pioglitazone treatment in obese patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).......To determine fasting and insulin-stimulated levels of carnitine precursors, total and free carnitine, and acylcarnitines, and evaluate the impact of pioglitazone treatment in obese patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)....

  1. Long-chain inulin for stimulating an immune response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vos, Paulus; Vogt, Leonie

    2017-01-01

    The invention relates to a long chain inulin for influencing the immune response against a pathogen. The invention also relates to a combination comprising a long chain inulin and a vaccine for influencing the immune response against a pathogen, wherein the long chain inulin is orally administrated.

  2. Extraction of sulphates by long chain amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boirie, Ch.

    1959-05-01

    The extraction of sulphuric acid by long chain amines in organic solution has been studied with a view to determining the value of the stability constants of the amine sulphates and bi-sulphates formed. We have concentrated chiefly on uranium sulphate and thorium sulphate. The formulae of the complexes extractable with amines have been established, as well as the corresponding dissociation constants. We have observed that for uranium sulphate the formula of the complex depends only on the nature of the amine, whereas for thorium this formula varies with the amine structure. From the formulae determined and the value of the constants calculated, we have been able to establish the best conditions for uranium and thorium extraction and also for a separation of these two elements. Finally we propose an application of this study to the determination of uranium in ores, where the separation of uranium by this method is particularly easy and complete. (author) [fr

  3. Medium chain acylcarnitines dominate the metabolite pattern in humans under moderate intensity exercise and support lipid oxidation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Lehmann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Exercise is an extreme physiological challenge for skeletal muscle energy metabolism and has notable health benefits. We aimed to identify and characterize metabolites, which are components of the regulatory network mediating the beneficial metabolic adaptation to exercise. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: First, we investigated plasma from healthy human subjects who completed two independent running studies under moderate, predominantly aerobic conditions. Samples obtained prior to and immediately after running and then 3 and 24 h into the recovery phase were analyzed by a non-targeted (NT- metabolomics approach applying liquid chromatography-qTOF-mass spectrometry. Under these conditions medium and long chain acylcarnitines were found to be the most discriminant plasma biomarkers of moderately intense exercise. Immediately after a 60 min (at 93% V(IAT or a 120 min run (at 70% V(IAT a pronounced, transient increase dominated by octanoyl-, decanoyl-, and dodecanoyl-carnitine was observed. The release of acylcarnitines as intermediates of partial beta-oxidation was verified in skeletal muscle cell culture experiments by probing (13C-palmitate metabolism. Further investigations in primary human myotubes and mouse muscle tissue revealed that octanoyl-, decanoyl-, and dodecanoyl-carnitine were able to support the oxidation of palmitate, proving more effective than L-carnitine. CONCLUSIONS: Medium chain acylcarnitines were identified and characterized by a functional metabolomics approach as the dominating biomarkers during a moderately intense exercise bout possessing the power to support fat oxidation. This physiological production and efflux of acylcarnitines might exert beneficial biological functions in muscle tissue.

  4. Analysis of acylcarnitine profiles in umbilical cord blood and during the early neonatal period by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Vieira Neto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Acylcarnitine profiling by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS is a potent tool for the diagnosis and screening of fatty acid oxidation and organic acid disorders. Few studies have analyzed free carnitine and acylcarnitines in dried blood spots (DBS of umbilical cord blood (CB and the postnatal changes in the concentrations of these analytes. We have investigated these metabolites in healthy exclusively breastfed neonates and examined possible effects of birth weight and gestational age. DBS of CB were collected from 162 adequate for gestational age neonates. Paired DBS of heel-prick blood were collected 4-8 days after birth from 106 of these neonates, the majority exclusively breastfed. Methanol extracts of DBS with deuterium-labeled internal standards were derivatized before analysis by ESI-MS/MS. Most of the analytes were measured using a full-scan method. The levels of the major long-chain acylcarnitines, palmitoylcarnitine, stearoylcarnitine, and oleoylcarnitine, increased by 27, 12, and 109%, respectively, in the first week of life. Free carnitine and acetylcarnitine had a modest increase: 8 and 11%, respectively. Propionylcarnitine presented a different behavior, decreasing 9% during the period. The correlations between birth weight or gestational age and the concentrations of the analytes in DBS were weak (r £ 0.20 or nonsignificant. Adaptation to breast milk as the sole source of nutrients can explain the increase of these metabolites along the early neonatal period. Acylcarnitine profiling in CB should have a role in the early detection of metabolic disorders in high-risk neonates.

  5. Analysis of acylcarnitine profiles in umbilical cord blood and during the early neonatal period by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira Neto, E. [Serviço de Genética Médica, Instituto de Puericultura e Pediatria Martagão Gesteira, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Laboratório Diagnósticos Laboratoriais Especializados, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Fonseca, A.A.; Almeida, R.F. [Laboratório Diagnósticos Laboratoriais Especializados, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Figueiredo, M.P.; Porto, M.A.S. [Maternidade Escola, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Ribeiro, M.G. [Serviço de Genética Médica, Instituto de Puericultura e Pediatria Martagão Gesteira, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-04-13

    Acylcarnitine profiling by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) is a potent tool for the diagnosis and screening of fatty acid oxidation and organic acid disorders. Few studies have analyzed free carnitine and acylcarnitines in dried blood spots (DBS) of umbilical cord blood (CB) and the postnatal changes in the concentrations of these analytes. We have investigated these metabolites in healthy exclusively breastfed neonates and examined possible effects of birth weight and gestational age. DBS of CB were collected from 162 adequate for gestational age neonates. Paired DBS of heel-prick blood were collected 4-8 days after birth from 106 of these neonates, the majority exclusively breastfed. Methanol extracts of DBS with deuterium-labeled internal standards were derivatized before analysis by ESI-MS/MS. Most of the analytes were measured using a full-scan method. The levels of the major long-chain acylcarnitines, palmitoylcarnitine, stearoylcarnitine, and oleoylcarnitine, increased by 27, 12, and 109%, respectively, in the first week of life. Free carnitine and acetylcarnitine had a modest increase: 8 and 11%, respectively. Propionylcarnitine presented a different behavior, decreasing 9% during the period. The correlations between birth weight or gestational age and the concentrations of the analytes in DBS were weak (r ≤ 0.20) or nonsignificant. Adaptation to breast milk as the sole source of nutrients can explain the increase of these metabolites along the early neonatal period. Acylcarnitine profiling in CB should have a role in the early detection of metabolic disorders in high-risk neonates.

  6. Acylcarnitines as markers of exercise-associated fuel partitioning, xenometabolism, and potential signals to muscle afferent neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Light, Alan R; Hoppel, Charles L; Campbell, Caitlin; Chandler, Carol J; Burnett, Dustin J; Souza, Elaine C; Casazza, Gretchen A; Hughen, Ronald W; Keim, Nancy L; Newman, John W; Hunter, Gary R; Fernandez, Jose R; Garvey, W Timothy; Harper, Mary-Ellen; Fiehn, Oliver; Adams, Sean H

    2017-01-01

    What is the central question of this study? Does improved metabolic health and insulin sensitivity following a weight-loss and fitness intervention in sedentary, obese women alter exercise-associated fuel metabolism and incomplete mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (FAO), as tracked by blood acylcarnitine patterns? What is the main finding and its importance? Despite improved fitness and blood sugar control, indices of incomplete mitochondrial FAO increased in a similar manner in response to a fixed load acute exercise bout; this indicates that intramitochondrial muscle FAO is inherently inefficient and is tethered directly to ATP turnover. With insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes mellitus, mismatches between mitochondrial fatty acid fuel delivery and oxidative phosphorylation/tricarboxylic acid cycle activity may contribute to inordinate accumulation of short- or medium-chain acylcarnitine fatty acid derivatives [markers of incomplete long-chain fatty acid oxidation (FAO)]. We reasoned that incomplete FAO in muscle would be ameliorated concurrent with improved insulin sensitivity and fitness following a ∼14 week training and weight-loss intervention in obese, sedentary, insulin-resistant women. Contrary to this hypothesis, overnight-fasted and exercise-induced plasma C4-C14 acylcarnitines did not differ between pre- and postintervention phases. These metabolites all increased robustly with exercise (∼45% of pre-intervention peak oxygen consumption) and decreased during a 20 min cool-down. This supports the idea that, regardless of insulin sensitivity and fitness, intramitochondrial muscle β-oxidation and attendant incomplete FAO are closely tethered to absolute ATP turnover rate. Acute exercise also led to branched-chain amino acid acylcarnitine derivative patterns suggestive of rapid and transient diminution of branched-chain amino acid flux through the mitochondrial branched-chain ketoacid dehydrogenase complex. We confirmed our prior novel observation

  7. Topological analysis of long-chain branching patterns in polyolefins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonchev, D; Markel, E; Dekmezian, A

    2001-01-01

    Patterns in molecular topology and complexity for long-chain branching are quantitatively described. The Wiener number, the topological complexity index, and a new index of 3-starness are used to quantify polymer structure. General formulas for these indices were derived for the cases of 3-arm star, H-shaped, and B-arm comb polymers. The factors affecting complexity in monodisperse polymer systems are ranked as follows: number of arms > arm length > arm central position approximately equal to arm clustering > total molecular weight approximately equal to backbone molecular weight. Topological indices change rapidly and then plateau as the molecular weight of branches on a polyolefin backbone increases from 0 to 5 kD. Complexity calculations relate 2-arm or 3-arm comb structures to the corresponding 3-arm stars of equivalent complexity but much higher molecular weight. In a subsequent paper, we report the application of topological analysis for developing structure/property relationships for monodisperse polymers. While the focus of the present work is on the description of monodisperse, well-defined architectures, the methods may be extended to the description of polydisperse systems.

  8. Measurement of urinary free and acylcarnitines: quantitative acylcarnitine profiling in normal humans and in several patients with metabolic errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, J.A.; Mamer, O.A.

    1989-01-01

    A method for determining urinary concentrations of carnitine and acylcarnitine esters is described that employs fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry, stable isotope dilution techniques, and a novel deutero-methyl esterification that permits unambiguous identification and quantitation of free carnitine and acylcarnitines. It is rapid, does not require chromatographic or other isolation procedures, and is immune to analyte losses in sample preparation. Urinary concentrations are reported for adult control subjects and for others with various metabolic disorders

  9. One long chain among shorter chains : the Flory approach revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Raphaël , E.; Fredrickson , G.; Pincus , P.

    1992-01-01

    We consider the mean square end-to-end distance of a long chain immersed in a monodisperse, concentrated solution of shorter, chemically identical chains. In contrast with the earlier work of Flory, no simplifying assumption on the wave vector dependence of the effective potential between segments is made. In order to obtain a closed form expression for the dimension of the long chain, we first derive a general expression for the mean square end-to-end distance of a flexible chain with arbitr...

  10. Significance of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in human health

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zárate, R.; El Jaber-Vazdekis, Nabil; Tejera, N.; Pérez, J.A.; Rodrígues, C.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 6, JUL 27 (2017), s. 1-19, č. článku 25. ISSN 2001-1326 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1416 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Lipidomics * Lipids * Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology

  11. On the contraction factors of long-chain branched macromolecules

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kratochvíl, Pavel; Netopilík, Miloš

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 51, February (2014), s. 177-181 ISSN 0014-3057 R&D Projects: GA ČR GCP205/11/J043 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : long- chain branching * contraction factor * radius of gyration Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.005, year: 2014

  12. CONTENT OF LONG CHAIN OMEGA-3 FATTY ACID COMPOSITION IN SOME IRANIAN CANNED FISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahar Nazari

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract    BACKGROUND: Ecological studies have found a negative correlation between the risk of developing heart disease and fish consumption because of their long chain omega-3 fatty acids. This study was undertaken to determine the amounts of the common fatty acid content of several commercial canned fish marketing in Iran, with particular attention to long chain omega-3 fatty acids.    METHODS: The most consumed available brands of canned fish were randomly selected seven times from products available in supermarkets. Total lipids were extracted by using the Folch method and prepared for fatty acid analysis. Individual fatty acids were quantified by gas chromatography (GC with 60 meter capillary column and flame ionization detector.    RESULTS: The most common saturated fatty acids (SFA in Iranian canned fish was palmitic acid (C16:0 followed by stearic acid (C18:0. The amount of all trans fatty acids (TFAs except elaidic acid (C18:1 9t was 0%. The highest amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs related to long chain omega-3 fatty acids include eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. The most abundant monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs were oleic acid (C18:1 9c.     CONCLUSION: This study showed higher contents of EPA and DHA in Iranian commercially available canned fish compared to the canned fish in other countries.      Keywords: Iranian canned fish, fatty acids, long chain omega-3 fatty acids, gas chromatography.  

  13. Accumulation of long-chain bases in yeast promotes their conversion to a long-chain base vinyl ether

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Montañés, Fernando; Lone, Museer A.; Hsu, Fong-Fu; Schneiter3, Roger

    2017-01-01

    Long-chain bases (LCBs) are the precursors to ceramide and sphingolipids in eukaryotic cells. They are formed by the action of serine palmitoyl-CoA transferase (SPT), a complex of integral membrane proteins located in the endoplasmic reticulum. SPT activity is negatively regulated by Orm proteins to prevent the toxic overaccumulation of LCBs. Here we show that overaccumulation of LCBs in yeast results in their conversion to a hitherto undescribed LCB derivative, an LCB vinyl ether. The ...

  14. Urinary acylcarnitines are altered in human kidney cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganti, Sheila; Taylor, Sandra L; Kim, Kyoungmi; Hoppel, Charles L; Guo, Lining; Yang, Joy; Evans, Christopher; Weiss, Robert H

    2012-06-15

    Kidney cancer often diagnosed at late stages when treatment options are severely limited. Thus, greater understanding of tumor metabolism leading ultimately to novel approaches to diagnosis is needed. Our laboratory has been utilizing metabolomics to evaluate compounds appearing in kidney cancer patients' biofluids at concentrations different from control patients. Here, we collected urine samples from kidney cancer patients and analyzed them by chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Once normalized to control for urinary concentration, samples were analyzed by two independent laboratories. After technical validation, we now show differential urinary concentrations of several acylcarnitines as a function of both cancer status and kidney cancer grade, with most acylcarnitines being increased in the urine of cancer patients and in those patients with high cancer grades. This finding was validated in a mouse xenograft model of human kidney cancer. Biological validation shows carbon chain length-dependent effects of the acylcarnitines on cytotoxicity in vitro, and higher chain length acylcarnitines demonstrated inhibitory effects on NF-κB activation, suggesting an immune modulatory effect of these compounds. Thus, acylcarnitines in the kidney cancer urine may reflect alterations in metabolism, cell component synthesis and/or immune surveillance, and may help explain the profound chemotherapy resistance seen with this cancer. This study shows for the first time the value of a novel class of metabolites which may lead to new therapeutic approaches for cancer and may prove useful in cancer biomarker studies. Furthermore, these findings open up a new area of investigation into the metabolic basis of kidney cancer. Copyright © 2011 UICC.

  15. Acylcarnitines profile best predicts survival in horses with atypical myopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Boemer

    Full Text Available Equine atypical myopathy (AM is caused by hypoglycin A intoxication and is characterized by a high fatality rate. Predictive estimation of survival in AM horses is necessary to prevent unnecessary suffering of animals that are unlikely to survive and to focus supportive therapy on horses with a possible favourable prognosis of survival. We hypothesized that outcome may be predicted early in the course of disease based on the assumption that the acylcarnitine profile reflects the derangement of muscle energetics. We developed a statistical model to prognosticate the risk of death of diseased animals and found that estimation of outcome may be drawn from three acylcarnitines (C2, C10:2 and C18 -carnitines with a high sensitivity and specificity. The calculation of the prognosis of survival makes it possible to distinguish the horses that will survive from those that will die despite severe signs of acute rhabdomyolysis in both groups.

  16. Acylcarnitines profile best predicts survival in horses with atypical myopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detilleux, Johann; Cello, Christophe; Amory, Hélène; Marcillaud-Pitel, Christel; Richard, Eric; van Galen, Gaby; van Loon, Gunther; Lefère, Laurence; Votion, Dominique-Marie

    2017-01-01

    Equine atypical myopathy (AM) is caused by hypoglycin A intoxication and is characterized by a high fatality rate. Predictive estimation of survival in AM horses is necessary to prevent unnecessary suffering of animals that are unlikely to survive and to focus supportive therapy on horses with a possible favourable prognosis of survival. We hypothesized that outcome may be predicted early in the course of disease based on the assumption that the acylcarnitine profile reflects the derangement of muscle energetics. We developed a statistical model to prognosticate the risk of death of diseased animals and found that estimation of outcome may be drawn from three acylcarnitines (C2, C10:2 and C18 -carnitines) with a high sensitivity and specificity. The calculation of the prognosis of survival makes it possible to distinguish the horses that will survive from those that will die despite severe signs of acute rhabdomyolysis in both groups. PMID:28846683

  17. Radioiodinated carnitine and acylcarnitine analogs as potential myocardial imaging agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, D.S.

    1991-01-01

    R-carnitine is extremely important in mammalian energy metabolism. Gamma-butyrobetaine, the immediate biosynthetic precursor to R-carnitine, is synthesized in many organs. However, only liver can hydroxylate gamma-butyrobetaine to carnitine. Thus the transport of carnitine from its site of synthesis to the site of utilization is of utmost importance. Carnitine is found in highest concentration in cardiac and skeletal muscle, where it is required for the transport of fatty acids into the mitochondria. Before fatty acids are utilized as fuel for the myocyte by beta-oxidation, they are bound to carnitine as an acylcarnitine ester at the 3-hydroxyl, and transported across the micochondrial membranes. R,S-Carnitine has been shown to be taken up by myocytes. The author has begun a study on the use of carnitine derivatives as potential carriers for the site-specific delivery of radioiodine to bidning sites in the myocardium. Such agents labeled with a gamma-emitting nuclide such as iodine-123 would be useful for the noninvasive imaging of these tissues. The aim was to synthesize a variety of radiolabeled analogs of carnitine and acylcarnitine to address questions of transport, binding and availability for myocardial metabolism. These analogs consist of N-alkylated derivatives of carnitine, acylcarnitine esters as well as carnitine amides and ethers. One C-alkylated derivative showed interesting biodistribution, elevated myocardial uptake and competition with carnitine for binding in the myocardium

  18. Ultrafast excited state relaxation in long-chain polyenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antognazza, Maria Rosa; Lueer, Larry; Polli, Dario; Christensen, Ronald L.; Schrock, Richard R.; Lanzani, Guglielmo; Cerullo, Giulio

    2010-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Excited state dynamics of a long-chain polyene studied by femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy. - Abstract: We present a comprehensive study, by femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy, of excited state dynamics in a polyene that approaches the infinite chain limit. By excitation with sub-10-fs pulses resonant with the 0-0 S 0 → S 2 transition, we observe rapid loss of stimulated emission from the bright excited state S 2 , followed by population of the hot S 1 state within 150 fs. Vibrational cooling of S 1 takes place within 500 fs and is followed by decay back to S 0 with 1 ps time constant. By excitation with excess vibrational energy we also observe the ultrafast formation of a long-living absorption, that is assigned to the triplet state generated by singlet fission.

  19. Analysis of long-chain fatty acid binding activity in vesicles of the outer membrane generated from Escherchia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, P.N.

    1987-01-01

    Escherichia coli transports long-chain fatty acids across the dual membrane by a high affinity, saturable, energy-dependent process. The fadL gene codes for an outer membrane protein which appears to act specifically as a long-chain fatty acid binding protein when fatty acid utilization is blocked by mutation. In an effort to understand the function of the fadL gene product, FLP, membranes have been isolated from fadL + and fadL - strains following osmotic lysis. Following isolation, total membranes were separated into inner and outer membrane fractions and assayed for long-chain fatty acid binding activity. Outer membrane vesicles were incubated 2-5 min at 37 0 C with 3 H oleate (C/sub 18:1/), cooled to 0 0 C, and centrifuged through a Lipidex 100 column for 3 min to remove the unbound fatty acid. The level of fatty acid binding was quantitated by scintillation counting of the eluate. Outer membrane vesicles generated from a fadL + strain bind 325 pmol fatty acid/mg protein whereas vesicles generated for a mutant strain bind 175 pmol fatty acid/mg protein. These data suggest that FLP acts at least as a long-chain fatty acid binding protein on the surface of the cell

  20. Serum long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, mercury, and risk of sudden cardiac death in men: a prospective population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyrki K Virtanen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Fish consumption has been associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD, especially sudden cardiac death (SCD. Fish is the major source of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. It is also a major source of methylmercury, which was associated with increased risk of CVD in this study population. Impact of interaction between long-chain n-3 PUFA and methylmercury on the SCD risk is unknown. METHODS: A total of 1857 men from the prospective, population-based Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor study, aged 42-60 years and free of CVD at baseline in 1984-1989, were studied. Serum long-chain n-3 PUFA was used as the marker for long-chain n-3 PUFA intake and hair mercury as the marker for mercury exposure. RESULTS: During the mean follow-up of 20.1 years, 91 SCD events occurred. In the multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models, serum long-chain n-3 PUFA concentration was not associated with the risk of SCD until hair mercury was accounted for; then the hazard ratio (HR in the highest vs. lowest tertile was 0.54 [95% confidence interval (CI 0.32 to 0.91, p for trend = 0.046]. When the analyses were stratified by hair mercury content, among those with lower hair mercury, each 0.5 percentage unit increase in the serum long-chain n-3 PUFA was associated with HR of 0.77 (95% CI 0.64 to 0.93, whereas no association was seen among those with higher hair mercury (p for interaction = 0.01. Among the individual long-chain n-3 PUFA, docosahexaenoic acid was most strongly associated with the risk. CONCLUSION: High exposure to mercury may reduce the benefits of long-chain n-3 PUFA on SCD.

  1. Serum Long-Chain n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids, Mercury, and Risk of Sudden Cardiac Death in Men: A Prospective Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Jyrki K.; Laukkanen, Jari A.; Mursu, Jaakko; Voutilainen, Sari; Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Fish consumption has been associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), especially sudden cardiac death (SCD). Fish is the major source of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. It is also a major source of methylmercury, which was associated with increased risk of CVD in this study population. Impact of interaction between long-chain n-3 PUFA and methylmercury on the SCD risk is unknown. Methods A total of 1857 men from the prospective, population-based Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor study, aged 42–60 years and free of CVD at baseline in 1984–1989, were studied. Serum long-chain n-3 PUFA was used as the marker for long-chain n-3 PUFA intake and hair mercury as the marker for mercury exposure. Results During the mean follow-up of 20.1 years, 91 SCD events occurred. In the multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models, serum long-chain n-3 PUFA concentration was not associated with the risk of SCD until hair mercury was accounted for; then the hazard ratio (HR) in the highest vs. lowest tertile was 0.54 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.32 to 0.91, p for trend  = 0.046]. When the analyses were stratified by hair mercury content, among those with lower hair mercury, each 0.5 percentage unit increase in the serum long-chain n-3 PUFA was associated with HR of 0.77 (95% CI 0.64 to 0.93), whereas no association was seen among those with higher hair mercury (p for interaction  = 0.01). Among the individual long-chain n-3 PUFA, docosahexaenoic acid was most strongly associated with the risk. Conclusion High exposure to mercury may reduce the benefits of long-chain n-3 PUFA on SCD. PMID:22815906

  2. The structure and organization of the human carnitine/acylcarnitine translocase (CACT1) gene2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iacobazzi, V.; Naglieri, M. A.; Stanley, C. A.; Wanders, R. J.; Palmieri, F.

    1998-01-01

    The carnitine/acylcarnitine translocase (CACT) transports acylcarnitines into mitochondria in exchange for free carnitine and it is, therefore, essential for the fatty acid beta-oxidation pathway. We have determined the exon-intron structure of the human CACT gene, which is responsible for a genetic

  3. Dynamic changes of plasma acylcarnitine levels induced by fasting and sunflower oil challenge test in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa, C. C.; de Almeida, I. T.; Jakobs, C.; Poll-The, B. T.; Duran, M.

    1999-01-01

    The dynamic changes of plasma acylcarnitine levels in 1- to 7-y-old children during fasting and after the ingestion of sunflower oil were studied. Glucose, 3-hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetate, FFA, and individual plasma acylcarnitine levels were monitored in both conditions. Fasting experiments lasted

  4. Assessment of plasma acylcarnitines before and after weight loss in obese subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schooneman, Marieke G.; Napolitano, Antonella; Houten, Sander M.; Ambler, Graeme K.; Murgatroyd, Peter R.; Miller, Sam R.; Hollak, Carla E. M.; Tan, Chong Y.; Virtue, Samuel; Vidal-Puig, Antonio; Nunez, Derek J.; Soeters, Maarten R.

    2016-01-01

    Acylcarnitines, fatty acid oxidation (FAO) intermediates, have been implicated in diet-induced insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus, as increased levels are found in obese insulin resistant humans. Moreover plasma acylcarnitines have been associated with clinical parameters related to

  5. 21 CFR 862.1055 - Newborn screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem mass spectrometry. 862.1055 Section 862.1055 Food and... screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem mass spectrometry. (a) Identification. A newborn screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem...

  6. Crystallisation and chain conformation of long chain n-alkanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorce, J.

    2000-06-01

    Hydrocarbon chains are a basic component in a number of systems as diverse as biological membranes, phospholipids and polymers. A better understanding of the physical properties of n-alkane chains should provide a better understanding of these more complex systems. With this aim, vibrational spectroscopy has been extensively used. This technique, sensitive to molecular details, is the only one able to both identify and quantify conformational disorder present in paraffinic systems. To achieve this, methyl deformations have been widely used as ''internal standards'' for the normalisation of peak areas. However, in the case of n-alkanes with short chain length, such as n-C 44 H 90 for example, the infrared spectra recorded at liquid nitrogen temperature and reported here show the sensitivity of these latter peaks to the various crystal structures formed. Indeed, the main frequencies of the symmetric methyl bending mode were found between 1384 cm -1 and 1368 cm -1 as a function of the crystal form. Changes in the frequency of the first order of the L.A.M. present in the Raman spectra were also observed. At higher temperatures, non all-trans conformers, inferred from different infrared bands present in the wagging mode region, were found to be essentially placed at the end of the n-alkane chains. At the monoclinic phase transition, the concentration of end-gauche conformers, proportional to the area of the infrared band at 1342 cm -1 , increases abruptly. On the contrary, in the spectra recorded at liquid nitrogen temperature no such band is observed. We also studied the degree of disorder in two purely monodisperse long chain n-alkanes, namely n-C 198 H 398 and n-C 246 H 494 . The chain conformation as well as the tilt angle of the chains from the crystal surfaces were determined by means of low frequency Raman spectroscopy and S.A.X.S. measurements on solution-crystallised samples. The increase in the number of end-gauche conformers which was expected to occur with

  7. Possible roles of long-chain sphingomyelines and sphingomyelin synthase 2 in mouse macrophage inflammatory response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Hideaki; Yoshida, Tetsuya; Sanaki, Takao; Shigaki, Shuhei; Morita, Hirotoshi; Oyama, Miki; Mitsui, Masaru; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Nakano, Toru; Mitsutake, Susumu; Igarashi, Yasuyuki; Takemoto, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the precise role of sphingomyelin synthase 2 (SMS2) in sphingomyelin (SM) metabolism and their anti-inflammatory properties, we analyzed species of major SM and ceramide (Cer) (18:1, 18:0 sphingoid backbone, C14 - C26 N-acyl part) in SMS2 knockout and wild-type mouse plasma and liver using HPLC-MS. SMS2 deficiency significantly decreased very long chain SM (SM (d18:1/22:0) and SM (d18:1/24:0 or d18:0/24:1)) and increased very long chain Cer (Cer (d18:1/24:0 or d18:0/24:1) and Cer (d18:1/24:1)), but not long chain SM (SM (d18:1/16:0), SM (d18:1/18:0 or d18:0/18:1) and SM (d18:1/18:1)) in plasma. To examine the effects of SM on inflammation, we studied the role of very long chain SM in macrophage activation. Addition of SM (d18:1/24:0) strongly upregulated several macrophage activation markers, SM (d18:1/6:0) and Cer (d18:1/24:0) however, did not. It was suggested that very long chain SM but not long chain SM were decreased in SMS2-deficient mice liver and plasma. And the exogenously added very long chain SM (d18:1/24:0) could activate macrophages directly, suggesting a novel role of plasma very long chain SM in modulating macrophage activation and resulting inflammation. - Highlights: • Very long-chain SM species were decreased in SMS2 knockout mouse plasma and liver. • Very long-chain ceramide species were increased in SMS2 knockout mouse plasma. • SMS2 deficiency diminished the inflammatory response of macrophages. • Very long-chain SM enhanced ICAM1 and iNOS expression in peritoneal macrophages.

  8. Biodiscovery of new Australian thraustochytrids for production of biodiesel and long-chain omega-3 oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee Chang, Kim Jye [CSIRO, Hobart, TAS (Australia). Energy Transformed National Research Flagship; CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, Hobart, TAS (Australia); Tasmania Univ., Hobart, TAS (Australia). School of Plant Science; Dunstan, Graeme A.; Blackburn, Susan I. [CSIRO, Hobart, TAS (Australia). Energy Transformed National Research Flagship; CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, Hobart, TAS (Australia); Abell, Guy C.J.; Clementson, Lesley A. [CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, Hobart, TAS (Australia); Nichols, Peter D. [CSIRO, Hobart, TAS (Australia). Food Futures National Research Flagship; CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, Hobart, TAS (Australia); Koutoulis, Anthony [Tasmania Univ., Hobart, TAS (Australia). School of Plant Science

    2012-03-15

    Heterotrophic growth of thraustochytrids has potential in co-producing a feedstock for biodiesel and long-chain (LC, {>=}C{sub 20}) omega-3 oils. Biodiscovery of thraustochytrids from Tasmania (temperate) and Queensland (tropical), Australia, covered a biogeographic range of habitats including fresh, brackish, and marine waters. A total of 36 thraustochytrid strains were isolated and separated into eight chemotaxonomic groups (A-H) based on fatty acid (FA) and sterol composition which clustered closely with four different genera obtained by 18S rDNA molecular identification. Differences in the relative proportions (%FA) of long-chain C{sub 20}, C{sub 22}, omega-3, and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), including docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), docosapentaenoic acid, arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and saturated FA, as well as the presence of odd-chain PUFA (OC-PUFA) were the major factors influencing the separation of these groups. OC-PUFA were detected in temperate strains of groups A, B, and C (Schizochytrium and Thraustochytrium). Group D (Ulkenia) had high omega-3 LC-PUFA (53% total fatty acids (TFA)) and EPA up to 11.2% TFA. Strains from groups E and F (Aurantiochytrium) contained DHA levels of 50-61% TFA after 7 days of growth in basal medium at 20 C. Groups G and H (Aurantiochytrium) strains had high levels of 15:0 (20-30% TFA) and the sum of saturated FA was in the range of 32-51%. {beta},{beta}-Carotene, canthaxanthin, and astaxanthin were identified in selected strains. Phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic groupings demonstrated similar patterns for the majority of strains. Our results demonstrate the potential of these new Australian thraustochytrids for the production of biodiesel in addition to omega-3 LC-PUFA-rich oils. (orig.)

  9. Structured medium and long chain triglycerides show short-term increases in fat oxidation, but no changes in adiposity in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roynette, Catherine E; Rudkowska, Iwona; Nakhasi, Dilip K; Jones, Peter J H

    2008-05-01

    Medium chain triglycerides (MCT) have been suggested as modulators of human energy expenditure (EE) and thus may influence total and regional body fat distribution. To investigate in overweight men the effects of structured medium and long chain triglycerides on EE, substrate oxidation and body adiposity, compared to extra virgin olive oil (OO). In a 6 week single-blind crossover study, 23 overweight men were randomly assigned to consume a standard high-fat diet of which 75% total fat was provided as either structured medium and long chain triglycerides referred to as structured oil (StO), or OO. EE and body composition were measured using indirect calorimetry and magnetic resonance imaging, respectively, at weeks 1 and 6 of each phase. Body weight decreased (pstructured medium and long chain triglyceride oil increases short-term fat oxidation but fails to modulate body weight or adiposity through a change in EE.

  10. Thirteen-year prospective study between fish consumption, long-chain n-3 fatty acids intakes and cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesse-Guyot, E; Péneau, S; Ferry, M; Jeandel, C; Hercberg, S; Galan, P

    2011-02-01

    Because of their structural, anti-inflammatory and antithrombic properties, long-chain n-3 fatty acids may be key factors in the aging process. We sought to elucidate the association between intake of long-chain n-3 fatty acids and/or fish and cognitive function evaluated 13 years after dietary assessment. Prospective population-based study. 3,294 adults from the SU.VI.MAX study (Supplementation with Antioxidant Vitamins and Minerals study). MEASUREMENTS/STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Subjects underwent a standardized clinical examination which included cognitive tests and self-reported cognitive difficulties scale (2007-2009). Poor scores were defined using percentiles as cut-off. Dietary data were assessed through repeated 24-h dietary records. Odd ratio (OR), comparing the fourth (Q4) to the first quartile (Q1), of having a poor score were calculated using adjusted logistic regression. Self-reported cognitive difficulties were less frequent among subjects with higher intakes of total n-3 long chain fatty acids (OR = 0.72, CI 95%=0.56-0.92) and eicosapentaenoic acid (OR Q4 versus Q1 = 0.74, CI 95%=0.58-0.95), even after adjustment for depressive symptoms. A borderline significant association was also found with high fish consumption (OR Q4 versus Q1 = 0.80, CI 95%=0.63-1.01). Cognitive complaints, which may be an early indicator of cognitive decline, are less frequent among the elderly who have a high long-chain n-3 acids intake, as assessed 13 years earlier.

  11. Pregnancy duration and the ratio of long-chain n-3 fatty acids to arachidonic acid in erythrocytes from Faroese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, S.F.; Hansen, Harald S.; Jensen, B.

    1989-01-01

    of long-chain n-3 FA to arachidonic acid (the (3/6) ratio) was used as the most relevant single measure of exposure. In 18 women with certain gestational age and with spontaneous onset of delivery, gestational age was significantly associated with the (3/6) ratio quantified in PC (correlation coefficient......Dietary long-chain n-3 fatty acids (FA) may prolong gestation by inhibiting formation of prostaglandins from arachidonic acid. FA were quantified in phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), and total lipids (TL) of red cells sampled during pregnancy from 29 Faroese women. The ratio...

  12. Quantitative characterization of short- and long-chain perfluorinated acids in solid matrices in Shanghai, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Fei; Zhang, Chaojie; Qu, Yan; Chen, Jing; Chen, Ling; Liu, Ying; Zhou, Qi

    2010-01-01

    Perfluorinated acids (PFAs) have been recognized as emerging environmental pollutants because of their widespread occurrences, persistence, and bioaccumulative and toxicological effects. PFAs have been detected in aquatic environment and biota in China, but the occurrences of these chemicals have not been reported in solid matrices in China. In the present study, short- and long-chain PFAs (C2-C14) have been quantitatively determined in solid matrices including sediments, soils and sludge collected in Shanghai, China. The results indicate that sludge contains more PFAs than sediments and soils, and the total PFAs concentrations in sediments, soil and sludge are 62.5-276 ng g -1 , 141-237 ng g -1 and 413-755 ng g -1 , respectively. In most cases, trifluoroacetic acid was the major PFA and accounted for 22-90% of the total PFAs. Although the levels of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) were not only lower than trifluoroacetic acid, but also lower than some short-chain PFCAs (< C8) in some individual cases, PFOA and PFOS were still the major pollution compounds in most cases and they constituted 2-34% and 1-9% of the total PFAs, respectively. Meanwhile, unlike previous studies, PFOS levels were not always higher than PFOA in solids collected in Shanghai, China. Given that some short-chain PFAs such as trifluoroacetic acid are mildly phytotoxic and their higher levels in solid matrices were collected in Shanghai, China, these chemicals should be included in future environmental monitoring efforts.

  13. Rom2-dependent phosphorylation of Elo2 controls the abundance of very long chain fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olson, Daniel K; Fröhlich, Florian; Christiano, Romain

    2015-01-01

    Sphingolipids are essential components of eukaryotic membranes, where they serve to maintain membrane integrity. They are important components of membrane trafficking and function in signaling as messenger molecules. Sphingolipids are synthesized de novo from very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA...

  14. Strain hardening in startup shear of long-chain branched polymer solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gengxin; Cheng, Shiwang; Lee, Hyojoon; Ma, Hongwei; Xu, Hongde; Chang, Taihyun; Quirk, Roderic P; Wang, Shi-Qing

    2013-08-09

    We show for the first time that entangled polymeric liquids containing long-chain branching can exhibit strain hardening upon startup shear. As the significant long-chain branching impedes chain disentanglement, Gaussian coils between entanglements can deform to reach the finite extensibility limit where the intrachain retraction force exceeds the value expected from the usual conformational entropy loss evaluated based on Gaussian chain statistics. The phenomenon is expected to lead to further theoretical understanding.

  15. Quantitative characterization of short- and long-chain perfluorinated acids in solid matrices in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei; Zhang, Chaojie; Qu, Yan; Chen, Jing; Chen, Ling; Liu, Ying; Zhou, Qi

    2010-01-01

    Perfluorinated acids (PFAs) have been recognized as emerging environmental pollutants because of their widespread occurrences, persistence, and bioaccumulative and toxicological effects. PFAs have been detected in aquatic environment and biota in China, but the occurrences of these chemicals have not been reported in solid matrices in China. In the present study, short- and long-chain PFAs (C2-C14) have been quantitatively determined in solid matrices including sediments, soils and sludge collected in Shanghai, China. The results indicate that sludge contains more PFAs than sediments and soils, and the total PFAs concentrations in sediments, soil and sludge are 62.5-276 ng g(-1), 141-237 ng g(-1) and 413-755 ng g(-1), respectively. In most cases, trifluoroacetic acid was the major PFA and accounted for 22-90% of the total PFAs. Although the levels of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) were not only lower than trifluoroacetic acid, but also lower than some short-chain PFCAs (PFAs, respectively. Meanwhile, unlike previous studies, PFOS levels were not always higher than PFOA in solids collected in Shanghai, China. Given that some short-chain PFAs such as trifluoroacetic acid are mildly phytotoxic and their higher levels in solid matrices were collected in Shanghai, China, these chemicals should be included in future environmental monitoring efforts.

  16. Heterologous co-expression of accA, fabD, and thioesterase genes for improving long-chain fatty acid production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunhee; Jeon, Eunyoung; Jung, Yeontae; Lee, Jinwon

    2012-05-01

    The goal of the present study was to increase the content of intracellular long-chain fatty acids in two bacterial strains, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 and Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655, by co-overexpressing essential enzymes that are involved in the fatty acid synthesis metabolic pathway. Recently, microbial fatty acids and their derivatives have been receiving increasing attention as an alternative source of fuel. By introducing two genes (accA and fabD) of P. aeruginosa into the two bacterial strains and by co-expressing with them the fatty acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase gene of Streptococcus pyogenes (strain MGAS10270), we have engineered recombinant strains that are efficient producers of long-chain fatty acids (C16 and C18). The recombinant strains exhibit a 1.3-1.7-fold increase in the production of long-chain fatty acids over the wild-type strains. To enhance the production of total long-chain fatty acids, we researched the carbon sources for optimized culture conditions and results were used for post-culture incubation period. E. coli SGJS17 (containing the accA, fabD, and thioesterase genes) produced the highest content of intracellular total fatty acids; in particular, the unsaturated fatty acid content was about 20-fold higher than that in the wild-type E. coli.

  17. Effects of Long Chain Fatty Acid Synthesis and Associated Gene Expression in Microalga Tetraselmis sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Catalina Adarme-Vega

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available With the depletion of global fish stocks, caused by high demand and effective fishing techniques, alternative sources for long chain omega-3 fatty acids are required for human nutrition and aquaculture feeds. Recent research has focused on land-based cultivation of microalgae, the primary producers of omega-3 fatty acids in the marine food web. The effect of salinity on fatty acids and related gene expression was studied in the model marine microalga, Tetraselmis sp. M8. Correlations were found for specific fatty acid biosynthesis and gene expression according to salinity and the growth phase. Low salinity was found to increase the conversion of C18:4 stearidonic acid (SDA to C20:4 eicosatetraenoic acid (ETA, correlating with increased transcript abundance of the Δ-6-elongase-encoding gene in salinities of 5 and 10 ppt compared to higher salinity levels. The expression of the gene encoding β-ketoacyl-coenzyme was also found to increase at lower salinities during the nutrient deprivation phase (Day 4, but decreased with further nutrient stress. Nutrient deprivation also triggered fatty acids synthesis at all salinities, and C20:5 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA increased relative to total fatty acids, with nutrient starvation achieving a maximum of 7% EPA at Day 6 at a salinity of 40 ppt.

  18. Association between very long chain fatty acids in the meibomian gland and dry eye resulting from n-3 fatty acid deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hideko; Harauma, Akiko; Takimoto, Mao; Moriguchi, Toru

    2015-06-01

    In our previously study, we reported lower tear volume in with an n-3 fatty acid deficient mice and that the docosahexaenoic acid and total n-3 fatty acid levels in these mice are significantly reduced in the meibomian gland, which secretes an oily tear product. Furthermore, we noted very long chain fatty acids (≥25 carbons) in the meibomian gland. To verify the detailed mechanism of the low tear volume in the n-3 fatty acid-deficient mice, we identified the very long chain fatty acids in the meibomian gland, measured the fatty acid composition in the tear product. Very long chain fatty acids were found to exist as monoesters. In particular, very long chain fatty acids with 25-29 carbons existed for the most part as iso or anteiso branched-chain fatty acids. n-3 fatty acid deficiency was decreased the amount of meibum secretion from meibomian gland without change of fatty acid composition. These results suggest that the n-3 fatty acid deficiency causes the enhancement of evaporation of tear film by reducing oily tear secretion along with the decrease of meibomian gland function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Zeolites relieves inhibitory stress from high concentrations of long chain fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordell, Erik; Hansson, Anna B; Karlsson, Martin

    2013-12-01

    Protein and fat rich slaughterhouse waste is a very attractive waste stream for the production of biogas because of the high biochemical methane potential of the substrate. The material has however some drawbacks as the sole material for biogas production due to the production of several process disturbing metabolites such as ammonia, sulfides and long chain fatty acids. We can in this work present results that show that zeolites have the potential to relieve inhibitory stress from the presence of long chain fatty acids. Moreover, the results strongly indicate that it is mainly acetic acid consumers that are most negatively affected by long chain fatty acids and that the mechanism of stress relief is an adsorption of long chain fatty acids to the zeolites. In addition to this, it is shown that the effect is immediate and that only a small amount of zeolites is necessary to cancel the inhibitory effect of long chain fatty acids. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Biosynthesis of triacylglycerols containing very long chain monounsaturated acyl moieties in developing seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehling, E.; Murphy, D.J.; Mukherjee, K.D.

    1990-01-01

    Particulate (15,000g) fractions from developing seeds of honesty (Lunaria annua L.) and mustard (Sinapis alba L.) synthesize radioactive very long chain monounsaturated fatty acids (gadoleic, erucic, and nervonic) from [1- 14 C]oleoyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA or from oleoyl-CoA and [2- 14 C]malonyl-CoA. The very long chain monounsaturated fatty acids are rapidly channeled to triacylglycerols and other acyl lipids without intermediate accumulation of their CoA thioesters. When [1- 14 C]oleoyl-CoA is used as the radioactive substrate, phosphatidylcholines and other phospholipids are most extensively radiolabeled by oleoyl moieties rather than by very long chain monounsaturated acyl moieties. When [2- 14 C]malonyl-CoA is used as the radioactive substrate, no radioactive oleic acid is formed and the newly synthesized very long chain monounsaturated fatty acids are extensively incorporated into phosphatidylcholines and other phospholipids as well as triacylglycerols. The pattern of labeling of the key intermediates of the Kennedy pathway, e.g. lysophosphatidic acids, phosphatidic acids, and diacylglycerols by the newly synthesized very long chain monounsaturated fatty acids is consistent with the operation of this pathway in the biosynthesis of triacylglycerols

  1. Antibacterial Activity of Long-Chain Fatty Alcohols against Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiro Inoue

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus of long-chain fatty alcohols was investigated, with a focus on normal alcohols. The antibacterial activity varied with the length of the aliphatic carbon chain and not with the water/octanol partition coefficient. 1-Nonanol, 1-decanol and 1-undecanol had bactericidal activity and membrane-damaging activity. 1-Dodecanol and 1-tridecanol had the highest antibacterial activity among the long-chain fatty alcohols tested, but had no membrane-damaging activity. Consequently, it appears that not only the antibacterial activity but also the mode of action of long-chain fatty alcohols might be determined by the length of the aliphatic carbon chain.

  2. Visual functions in phenylketonuria-evaluating the dopamine and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids depletion hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramer, Gwendolyn; Förl, Birgit; Springer, Christina; Weimer, Petra; Haege, Gisela; Mackensen, Friederike; Müller, Edith; Völcker, Hans Eberhard; Hoffmann, Georg Friedrich; Lindner, Martin; Krastel, Hermann; Burgard, Peter

    2013-01-01

    In phenylketonuria presymptomatic treatment following newborn screening prevents severe mental and physical impairment. The reasons for subtle impairments of cerebral functions despite early treatment remain unclear. We assessed a broad spectrum of visual functions in early-treated patients with phenylketonuria and evaluated two hypotheses-the dopamine and the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) depletion hypotheses. Contrast sensitivity, colour vision, electroretinography, frequency doubling technology campimetry (FDT), and their relation with blood phenylalanine and docosahexaenoic acid levels were assessed in 36 patients with phenylketonuria and 18 age-matched healthy controls. Contrast sensitivity was significantly lower and total error scores in colour vision significantly higher in patients than controls. Electroretinography results differed significantly between patients and controls. We found a trend for the effect of phenylalanine-levels on contrast sensitivity and a significant effect on colour vision/FDT results. Docosahexaenoic acid levels in erythrocytes were not associated with visual functions. This is the first evaluation of visual functions in phenylketonuria using a comprehensive ophthalmological test battery. We found no evidence supporting the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids depletion hypothesis. However, the effect of phenylalanine-levels on visual functions suggests that imbalance between phenylalanine and tyrosine may affect retinal dopamine levels in phenylketonuria. This is supported by the similar patterns of visual functions in patients with phenylketonuria observed in our study and patients with Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Plasma phospholipid long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and body weight change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Dethlefsen, Claus; Due, Karen Margrete

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the association between the proportion of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in plasma phospholipids from blood samples drawn at enrollment and subsequent change in body weight. Sex, age, and BMI were considered as potential effect modifiers.......We investigated the association between the proportion of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in plasma phospholipids from blood samples drawn at enrollment and subsequent change in body weight. Sex, age, and BMI were considered as potential effect modifiers....

  4. Liver and Muscle Contribute Differently to the Plasma Acylcarnitine Pool During Fasting and Exercise in Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, G.; Hansen, J S; Zhao, Jian-xin

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Plasma acylcarnitine levels are elevated by physiological conditions such as fasting and exercise but also in states of insulin resistance and obesity. AIM: To elucidate the contribution of liver and skeletal muscle to plasma acylcarnitines in the fasting state and during exercise...... in humans. METHODS: In 2 independent studies, young healthy males were fasted overnight and performed an acute bout of exercise to investigate either acylcarnitines in skeletal muscle biopsies and arterial-to-venous plasma differences over the exercising and resting leg (n = 9) or the flux over the hepato......-splanchnic bed (n = 10). RESULTS: In the fasting state, a pronounced release of C2- and C3-carnitines from the hepato-splanchnic bed and an uptake of free carnitine by the legs were detected. Exercise further increased the release of C3-carnitine from the hepato-splanchnic bed and the uptake of free carnitine...

  5. Elevated Medium-Chain Acylcarnitines Are Associated With Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Early Progression to Type 2 Diabetes and Induce Pancreatic β-Cell Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchuluun, Battsetseg; Al Rijjal, Dana; Prentice, Kacey J; Eversley, Judith A; Burdett, Elena; Mohan, Haneesha; Bhattacharjee, Alpana; Gunderson, Erica P; Liu, Ying; Wheeler, Michael B

    2018-05-01

    Specific circulating metabolites have emerged as important risk factors for the development of diabetes. The acylcarnitines (acylCs) are a family of metabolites known to be elevated in type 2 diabetes (T2D) and linked to peripheral insulin resistance. However, the effect of acylCs on pancreatic β-cell function is not well understood. Here, we profiled circulating acylCs in two diabetes cohorts: 1 ) women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and 2 ) women with recent GDM who later developed impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), new-onset T2D, or returned to normoglycemia within a 2-year follow-up period. We observed a specific elevation in serum medium-chain (M)-acylCs, particularly hexanoyl- and octanoylcarnitine, among women with GDM and individuals with T2D without alteration in long-chain acylCs. Mice treated with M-acylCs exhibited glucose intolerance, attributed to impaired insulin secretion. Murine and human islets exposed to elevated levels of M-acylCs developed defects in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and this was directly linked to reduced mitochondrial respiratory capacity and subsequent ability to couple glucose metabolism to insulin secretion. In conclusion, our study reveals that an elevation in circulating M-acylCs is associated with GDM and early stages of T2D onset and that this elevation directly impairs β-cell function. © 2018 by the American Diabetes Association.

  6. Breastfeeding, long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in colostrum, and infant mental development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guxens, Mònica; Mendez, Michelle A; Moltó-Puigmartí, Carolina; Julvez, Jordi; García-Esteban, Raquel; Forns, Joan; Ferrer, Muriel; Vrijheid, Martine; López-Sabater, M Carmen; Sunyer, Jordi

    2011-10-01

    Breastfeeding has been associated with improved neurodevelopment in children. However, it remains unknown to what extent nutritional advantages of breast milk may explain this relationship. We assessed the role of parental psychosocial factors and colostrum long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) levels in the relationship between breastfeeding and children's neurodevelopment. A population-based birth cohort was established in the city of Sabadell (Catalonia, Spain) as part of the INMA-INfancia y Medio Ambiente Project. A total of 657 women were recruited during the first trimester of pregnancy. Information about parental characteristics and breastfeeding was obtained by using a questionnaire, and trained psychologists assessed mental and psychomotor development by using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development in 504 children at 14 months of age. A high percentage of breastfeeds among all milk feeds accumulated during the first 14 months was positively related with child mental development (0.37 points per month of full breastfeeding [95% confidence interval: 0.06-0.67]). Maternal education, social class, and intelligence quotient only partly explained this association. Children with a longer duration of breastfeeding also exposed to higher ratios between n-3 and n-6 PUFAs in colostrum had significantly higher mental scores than children with low breastfeeding duration exposed to low levels. Greater levels of accumulated breastfeeding during the first year of life were related to higher mental development at 14 months, largely independently from a wide range of parental psychosocial factors. LC-PUFA levels seem to play a beneficial role in children's mental development when breastfeeding levels are high.

  7. Establishing very long-chain fatty alcohol and wax ester biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenning, Leonie; Yu, Tao; David, Florian; Nielsen, Jens; Siewers, Verena

    2017-05-01

    Wax esters (WEs) are neutral lipids and can be used for a broad range of commercial applications, including personal care products, lubricants, or coatings. They are synthesized by enzymatic reactions catalyzed by a fatty acyl reductase (FAR) and a wax ester synthase (WS). At present, commercially used WEs are mainly isolated from Simmondsia chinensis (jojoba), but the high extraction costs and limited harvest areas constrain their use. The use of FARs in combination with different WSs to achieve a synthesis of jojoba-like WEs in bacteria and yeast has been reported previously, but the products were restricted to C28-C36 WEs. These rather short WEs make up only a very small percentage of the total WEs in natural jojoba oil. The synthesis of longer chain WEs (up to C44) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae has so far only been achieved after substrate feeding. Here we identified new routes for producing very long-chain fatty alcohols (VLCFOHs) up to a chain length of C22 by heterologous expression of a FAR derived from Apis mellifera (AmFAR1) or Marinobacter aquaeolei VT8 (Maqu_2220) in S. cerevisiae and achieved maximum yields of 3.22 ± 0.36 mg/g cell dry weight (CDW) and 7.84 ± 3.09 mg/g CDW, respectively, after 48 h. Moreover, we enabled the synthesis of jojoba-like WEs up to a chain length of C42, catalyzed by a combination of Maqu_2220 together with the WS from S. chinensis (SciWS) and the S. cerevisiae elongase Elo2p, with a maximum yield of 12.24 ± 3.35 mg/g CDW after 48 h. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 1025-1035. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Meta-Analysis of Structured Triglyceride versus Physical Mixture Medium- and Long-Chain Triglycerides for PN in Liver Resection Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Yajie; Wang, Chengfeng

    2017-01-01

    Background. The use of total parenteral nutrition can affect liver function, causing a series of problems such as cholestasis. The aim of this meta-analysis was to compare structured triglyceride- (STG-) based lipid emulsions with physical medium-chain triglyceride (MCT)/long-chain triglyceride (LCT) mixtures in patients who had undergone liver surgery to identify any differences between these two types of parenteral nutrition. Methods. We searched the databases of PubMed, the Cochrane Librar...

  9. Molecular assessment of complex microbial communities degrading long chain fatty acids (LCFA) in methanogenic bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sousa, D.Z.; Pereira, M.A.; Smidt, H.; Stams, A.J.M.; Alves, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    Microbial diversity of anaerobic sludge after extended contact with long chain fatty acids (LCFA) was studied using molecular approaches. Samples containing high amounts of accumulated LCFA were obtained after continuous loading of two bioreactors with oleate or with palmitate. These sludge samples

  10. Long-chain alkaenone unsaturation index as sea surface temperature proxy in southwest Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, N.S.; Pasha, S.K.G.; SriRamKrishna, M.; Shirodkar, P.V.; Yadava, M.G.; Rao, K.M.

    As a proxy of the sea surface temperature (SST), C sub(37) long-chain alkenones (LCAs) preserved in sediments of the southwestern Bay of Bengal and dating back to the last glacial period, were identified in SIM GC-EI MS spectra run at m/z 530...

  11. gamma-linolenic acid does not augment long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid omega-3 status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, DAJ; Hettema, Y; van Doormaal, JJ; Muskiet, FAJ

    Augmentation of long chain polyunsaturated omega 3 fatty acid (LCPUFA omega 3) status can be reached by consumption of fish oil or by improvement of the conversion of a-linolenic acid (ALA) to LCPUFA omega 3. Since gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) might activate the rate-limiting Delta-6 desaturation, we

  12. Yeast sphingolipids do not need to contain very long chain fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerantola, Vanessa; Vionnet, Christine; Aebischer, Olivier F

    2007-01-01

    , the very long chain fatty acids (C26 and C24) account for 97%. Notwithstanding, IPCs incorporated into glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchors of 4Delta.Lass5 show normal mobility on TLC and the ceramide- and raft-dependent traffic of Gas1p (glycophospholipid-anchored surface...

  13. Environmental properties of long-chain alcohols. Structure-activity Relationship for Chronic Aquatic Toxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaefers, Christoph; Sanderson, Hans; Boshof, Udo

    2009-01-01

    Daphnia magna reproduction tests were performed with C10, C12, C14 and C15 alcohols to establish a structure-activity relationship of chronic effects of long-chain alcohols. The data generation involved substantial methodological efforts due to the exceptionally rapid biodegradability of the test...

  14. Anaerobic degradation of long-chain alkylamines by a denitrifying Pseudomonas stutzeri

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, P.D.; Ginkel, van C.G.; Plugge, C.M.

    2008-01-01

    The anaerobic degradation of tetradecylamine and other long-chain alkylamines by a newly isolated denitrifying bacterium was studied. Strain ZN6 was isolated from a mixture of soil and active sludge and was identified as representing Pseudomonas stutzeri, based on partial 16S rRNA gene sequence

  15. Identification and Characterization of Phospholipids with Very Long Chain Fatty Acids in Brewer's Yeast

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řezanka, Tomáš; Kolouchová, I.; Gharwalová, L.; Palyzová, Andrea; Sigler, Karel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 12 (2017), s. 1007-1017 ISSN 0024-4201 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-00027S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Yeast * Very long chain fatty acids * Negative electrospray ionization Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 1.934, year: 2016

  16. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in maternal and infant nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muskiet, Frits A. J.; van Goor, Saskia A.; Kuipers, Remko S.; Velzing-Aarts, Francien V.; Smit, Ella N.; Bouwstra, Hylco; Dijck-Brouwer, D. A. Janneke; Boersma, E. Rudy; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    Homo sapiens has evolved on a diet rich in alpha-linolenic acid and long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCP). We have, however, gradually changed our diet from about 10,000 years ago and accelerated this change from about 100 to 200 years ago. The many dietary changes, including lower intake of

  17. Prevalence of Long-Chain 3-Hydroxyacyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency in Estonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joost, K; Ounap, K; Zordania, R

    2012-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the prevalence of long chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (LCHADD) in the general Estonian population and among patients with symptoms suggestive of fatty acid oxidation (FAO) defects. We collected DNA from a cohort of 1,040 anonymous newborn blo...... prevalence of LCHADD in Estonia would be 1: 91,700....

  18. Can long chain n-3 fatty acids from feed be converted into very long chain n-3 fatty acids in fillets from farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lušnic Polak, M.; Demšar, L.; Luzar, U.; Polak, T.

    2017-09-01

    The link between the basic chemical and fatty acid composition of trout feed on one hand and trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) meat (fillet) was investigated.. The content of 52 fatty acids from feed and trout meat lipids was determined by in-situ transesterification and capillary column gas-liquid chromatography. On average, 100 g of trout feed contained 7.4 g of moisture, 47.7 g of proteins, 6.09 g of ash, 21.4 g of fat, and as for fatty acid composition, 47.8 wt. % were monounsaturated, 34.0 wt. % were polyunsaturated and 18.1 wt. % were saturated fatty acids, with the PS ratio 1.88, n-6/n-3 ratio 1.74, 0.80 wt. % of trans and 3.28 wt. % of very long chain n-3 fatty acids. On average, 100 g of trout meat contained 76.1 g of moisture, 21.4 g of proteins, 1.34 g of ash, 2.52 g of fat, and in the fatty acid composition 42.1 wt. % were monounsaturated, 38.2 wt. % were polyunsaturated and 18.9 wt. % were saturated fatty acids, with the PS ratio 2.02, n-6/n-3 ratio 0.98, 0.95 wt. % of trans and 13.25 wt. % of very long chain n-3 fatty acids.

  19. Pilot Experience with an External Quality Assurance Scheme for Acylcarnitines in Plasma/Serum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sala, P Ruiz; Ruijter, G; Acquaviva, C; Chabli, A; de Sain-van der Velden, M G M; Garcia-Villoria, J; Heiner-Fokkema, M R; Jeannesson-Thivisol, E; Leckstrom, K; Franzson, L; Lynes, G; Olesen, J; Onkenhout, W; Petrou, P; Drousiotou, A; Ribes, A; Vianey-Saban, C; Merinero, B

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of acylcarnitines (AC) in plasma/serum is established as a useful test for the biochemical diagnosis and the monitoring of treatment of organic acidurias and fatty acid oxidation defects. External quality assurance (EQA) for qualitative and quantitative AC is offered by ERNDIM and CDC

  20. Molecular sieve isolation technique for use in stable carbon isotope analysis of individual long-chain n-alkanes in crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Keita; Kon, Makoto; Naraoka, Hiroshi; Ishiwatari, Ryoshi; Uzaki, Minoru.

    1994-01-01

    An isolation procedure of microgram amounts of long-chain n-alkanes from crude oil using molecular sieve was examined for its applicability to stable carbon isotope analysis by gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/IRMS). The procedure examined is as follows: molecular sieve (type 5A, 200 mg) in 1 ml of isooctane solvent are mixed with a saturated hydrocarbon fraction extracted from an appropriate amount (approx. 20 mg) of crude oil and stayed at room temperatures for more than 3 hours. Long-chain n-alkanes are isolated by extraction with n-hexane after dissolution of the resulting molecular sieve with 47% hydrofluoric acid solution. The recoveries were 90±6% for C 15 -C 34 n-alkanes when their total amounts applied do not exceed 1.4 mg. No effect of the isolation procedure on carbon isotope ratios of n-alkanes was observed. (author)

  1. Long-chain perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids in Pacific cods from coastal areas in northern Japan: A major source of human dietary exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Yukiko; Sakurada, Tsukasa; Harada, Kouji H.; Koizumi, Akio; Kimura, Osamu; Endo, Tetsuya; Haraguchi, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) contamination of edible fish muscle from Japanese coastal waters. The concentrations of PFCAs with 8–14 carbon atoms (C8–C14) in Pacific cods in Hokkaido, Japan were 51 (median: pg/g-wet weight) for C8, 93 for C9, 99 for C10, 746 for C11, 416 for C12, 404 for C13, and 93 for C14. The levels of C9–C14 PFCAs in fish were strongly correlated to each other, but not to C8 and the other chlorinated persistent organic pollutants, indicating that C9–C14 PFCAs have a different emission source and/or bioaccumulation mechanism. The relative ratios between estimated PFCAs intake through fish consumption and the reported total dietary exposure of PFCAs were less than 1 for C8 to C9, but were more than 1 for C10 to C14. This result strongly suggests that fish consumption is a significant source of human dietary exposure to C10–C14 PFCAs. - Highlights: • Perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids were detected in edible cod fish from Japanese coastal waters. • The levels of long-chain PFCAs in fish were independent from those of C8 and other POPs. • Long chain PFCAs intake through fish and the reported total dietary exposure were comparable. • Sea fish such as Pacific cod may be a significant human dietary source of long-chain PFCAs. - Sea fish are a significant source of long-chain perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids for the Japanese population

  2. Production and release of acylcarnitines by primary myotubes reflect the differences in fasting fat oxidation of the donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Magnus; Chen, Shili; Zhao, Xinjie; Scheler, Mika; Irmler, Martin; Staiger, Harald; Beckers, Johannes; de Angelis, Martin Hrabé; Fritsche, Andreas; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Schleicher, Erwin D; Xu, Guowang; Lehmann, Rainer; Weigert, Cora

    2013-06-01

    Acylcarnitines are biomarkers of incomplete β-oxidation and mitochondrial lipid overload but indicate also high rates of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. It is unknown whether the production of acylcarnitines in primary human myotubes obtained from lean, metabolically healthy subjects reflects the fat oxidation in vivo. Our objective was to quantify the acylcarnitine production in myotubes obtained from subjects with low and high fasting respiratory quotient (RQ). Fasting RQ was determined by indirect calorimetry. Muscle biopsies from the vastus lateralis muscle were taken from 6 subjects with low fasting RQ (mean 0.79 ± 0.03) and 6 with high fasting RQ (0.90 ± 0.03), and satellite cells were isolated, cultured, and differentiated to myotubes. Myotubes were cultivated with 125 μM (13)C-labeled palmitate for 30 minutes and 4 and 24 hours. Quantitative profiling of 42 intracellular and 31 extracellular acylcarnitines was performed by stable isotope dilution-based metabolomics analysis by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Myotubes from donors with high fasting RQ produced and released significant higher amounts of medium-chain acylcarnitines. High (13)C8 and (13)C10 acylcarnitine levels in the extracellular compartment correlated with high fasting RQ. The decreased expression of medium-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (MCAD) in these myotubes can explain the higher rate of incomplete fatty acid oxidation. A lower intracellular [(13)C]acetylcarnitine to carnitine and lower intracellular (13)C16/(13)C18 acylcarnitine to carnitine ratio indicate reduced fatty acid oxidation capacity in these myotubes. Mitochondrial DNA content was not different. Acylcarnitine production and release from primary human myotubes of donors with high fasting RQ indicate a reduced fatty acid oxidation capacity and a higher rate of incomplete fatty acid oxidation. Thus, quantitative profiling of acylcarnitine production in human myotubes can be a suitable tool to

  3. Prenatal and early postnatal long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status : do they affect neurodevelopmental outcome in healthy term infants?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwstra, Hylco

    2007-01-01

    Long-chain metabolites of the parent essential fatty acids called long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) are major membrane components in the central nervous system. Dictary intake partly determines the availability of LCPUFAs as building btocks for neuronal structures. Fifty till sixty

  4. Long Chain N-acyl Homoserine Lactone Production by Enterobacter sp. Isolated from Human Tongue Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wai-Fong; Purmal, Kathiravan; Chin, Shenyang; Chan, Xin-Yue; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2012-01-01

    We report the isolation of N-acyl homoserine lactone-producing Enterobacter sp. isolate T1-1 from the posterior dorsal surfaces of the tongue of a healthy individual. Spent supernatants extract from Enterobacter sp. isolate T1-1 activated the biosensor Agrobacterium tumefaciens NTL4(pZLR4), suggesting production of long chain AHLs by these isolates. High resolution mass spectrometry analysis of these extracts confirmed that Enterobacter sp. isolate T1-1 produced a long chain N-acyl homoserine lactone, namely N-dodecanoyl-homoserine lactone (C12-HSL). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first isolation of Enterobacter sp., strain T1-1 from the posterior dorsal surface of the human tongue and N-acyl homoserine lactones production by this bacterium. PMID:23202161

  5. Mechanism of long chain monoenoic fatty acids acting on the energy metabolism of heart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buddecke, E; Filipovic, I; Wortberg, B; Seher, A

    1975-01-01

    The oxidation of 1-/sup 14/C-erucic (Csub(22:1)) and 1-/sup 14/C-nervonic (Csub(24:1)) acid was studied compared to 1-/sup 14/C-palmitic and -oleic acid in isolated rat and pig heart mitochondria. After mitochondrial incubation with the albumin-bound fatty acids only small amounts of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ developed from the oxidation of the long chain monoenoic acids as compared to palmitic or oleic acid. The slow down of the oxidation rate was more pronounced in rat than in pig heart mitochondria. The oxidation of palmitic or oleic acid was not found to be inhibited by the C/sub 20/-C/sub 24/-monoeneic acids, whereas palmitic or oleic acid inhibited the oxidation of erucic acid competitively. From present findings an idea may be developed of the interference on fatty acid metabolism in heart muscle by erucic and other long chain monenoic acids.

  6. Long-chain polynucleotide filler for skin rejuvenation: efficacy and complications in five patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kui Young; Seok, Joon; Rho, Nark Kyoung; Kim, Beom Joon; Kim, Myeung Nam

    2016-01-01

    Aging well has become the new target of preventative medicine, and aesthetic dermatology can contribute to this request. The polynucleotide (PN) containing products not only fill the space, but improve tissue regeneration, resulting in more natural tissue regeneration. Five Korean women received four times injections of long-chain PN filler in two-week intervals for skin rejuvenation. About 0.05 mL of material was injected in 40 points of one-side cheek. The pore and skin thickness were markedly improved in the patients in their 30s, whereas skin tone, melanin, wrinkles, and sagging were noticeably improved for patients in their 40s. There are no serious side effects. In conclusion, intradermal long-chain PN filler injection seems to be an effective and safe treatment for skin rejuvenation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Genes involved in long-chain alkene biosynthesis in Micrococcus luteus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beller, Harry R.; Goh, Ee-Been; Keasling, Jay D.

    2010-01-07

    Aliphatic hydrocarbons are highly appealing targets for advanced cellulosic biofuels, as they are already predominant components of petroleum-based gasoline and diesel fuels. We have studied alkene biosynthesis in Micrococcus luteus ATCC 4698, a close relative of Sarcina lutea (now Kocuria rhizophila), which four decades ago was reported to biosynthesize iso- and anteiso branched, long-chain alkenes. The underlying biochemistry and genetics of alkene biosynthesis were not elucidated in those studies. We show here that heterologous expression of a three-gene cluster from M. luteus (Mlut_13230-13250) in a fatty-acid overproducing E. coli strain resulted in production of long-chain alkenes, predominantly 27:3 and 29:3 (no. carbon atoms: no. C=C bonds). Heterologous expression of Mlut_13230 (oleA) alone produced no long-chain alkenes but unsaturated aliphatic monoketones, predominantly 27:2, and in vitro studies with the purified Mlut_13230 protein and tetradecanoyl-CoA produced the same C27 monoketone. Gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry confirmed the elemental composition of all detected long-chain alkenes and monoketones (putative intermediates of alkene biosynthesis). Negative controls demonstrated that the M. luteus genes were responsible for production of these metabolites. Studies with wild-type M. luteus showed that the transcript copy number of Mlut_13230-13250 and the concentrations of 29:1 alkene isomers (the dominant alkenes produced by this strain) generally corresponded with bacterial population over time. We propose a metabolic pathway for alkene biosynthesis starting with acyl-CoA (or -ACP) thioesters and involving decarboxylative Claisen condensation as a key step, which we believe is catalyzed by OleA. Such activity is consistent with our data and with the homology (including the conserved Cys-His-Asn catalytic triad) of Mlut_13230 (OleA) to FabH (?-ketoacyl-ACP synthase III), which catalyzes decarboxylative Claisen condensation during

  8. Orphan drugs in development for long-chain fatty acid oxidation disorders: challenges and progress

    OpenAIRE

    Merritt II, J Lawrence; Sun,Angela

    2015-01-01

    Angela Sun, J Lawrence Merritt II Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA Abstract: Fatty acid oxidation disorders are inborn errors of metabolism resulting in failure of ß-oxidation within or transport of fatty acids into the mitochondria. The long-chain fatty acid oxidation disorders are characterized by variable presentations ranging from newborn cardiomyopathy, to infantile hypoketotic hypoglycemia resulting from liver involvement, to skeletal myopa...

  9. Metabolism of Very Long-Chain Fatty Acids: Genes and Pathophysiology

    OpenAIRE

    Sassa, Takayuki; Kihara, Akio

    2014-01-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) are highly diverse in terms of carbon (C) chain-length and number of double bonds. FAs with C>20 are called very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs). VLCFAs are found not only as constituents of cellular lipids such as sphingolipids and glycerophospholipids but also as precursors of lipid mediators. Our understanding on the function of VLCFAs is growing in parallel with the identification of enzymes involved in VLCFA synthesis or degradation. A variety of inherited diseases, suc...

  10. Amino Acid Based Synthesis of Chiral Long Chain Diamines and Tetramines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Kokotos

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available A method for the synthesis of long chain diamines and tetramines starting from natural α-amino acids is reported. Diamines and tetramines were prepared through the Wittig olefination reaction of N-protected amino aldehydes obtained from phenylalanine and lysine. A 1,2,17,18-tetramine was synthesized using (2S-1-azido-2-[bis(tert-butoxycarbonyl-amino]-5-oxopentane as key-intermediate compound.

  11. Saturated very long chain fatty acids are required for the production of infectious human cytomegalovirus progeny.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Koyuncu

    Full Text Available Human cytomegalovirus hijacks host cell metabolism, increasing the flux of carbon from glucose to malonyl-CoA, the committed precursor to fatty acid synthesis and elongation. Inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase blocks the production of progeny virus. To probe further the role of fatty acid metabolism during infection, we performed an siRNA screen to identify host cell metabolic enzymes needed for the production of infectious cytomegalovirus progeny. The screen predicted that multiple long chain acyl-CoA synthetases and fatty acid elongases are needed during infection, and the levels of RNAs encoding several of these enzymes were upregulated by the virus. Roles for acyl-CoA synthetases and elongases during infection were confirmed by using small molecule antagonists. Consistent with a role for these enzymes, mass spectrometry-based fatty acid analysis with ¹³C-labeling revealed that malonyl-CoA is consumed by elongases to produce very long chain fatty acids, generating an approximately 8-fold increase in C26-C34 fatty acid tails in infected cells. The virion envelope was yet further enriched in C26-C34 saturated fatty acids, and elongase inhibitors caused the production of virions with lower levels of these fatty acids and markedly reduced infectivity. These results reveal a dependence of cytomegalovirus on very long chain fatty acid metabolism.

  12. Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in plasma in British meat-eating, vegetarian, and vegan men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosell, Magdalena S; Lloyd-Wright, Zouë; Appleby, Paul N; Sanders, Thomas A B; Allen, Naomi E; Key, Timothy J

    2005-08-01

    Plasma concentrations of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are lower in vegetarians and in vegans than in omnivores. No data are available on whether these concentrations differ between long- and short-term vegetarians and vegans. We compared plasma fatty acid composition in meat-eaters, vegetarians, and vegans and examined whether the proportions of eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3; EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (22:5n-3; DPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3; DHA) were related to the subjects' duration of adherence to their diets or to the proportions of plasma linoleic acid (18:2n-6; LA) and alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3; ALA). The present cross-sectional study included 196 meat-eating, 231 vegetarian, and 232 vegan men in the United Kingdom. Information on anthropometry, diet, and smoking habits was obtained through a questionnaire. Total fatty acid composition in plasma was measured. The proportions of plasma EPA and DHA were lower in the vegetarians and in the vegans than in the meat-eaters, whereas only small differences were seen for DPA. Plasma EPA, DPA, and DHA proportions were not significantly associated with the duration of time since the subjects became vegetarian or vegan, which ranged from 20 y. In the vegetarians and the vegans, plasma DHA was inversely correlated with plasma LA. The proportions of plasma long-chain n-3 fatty acids were not significantly affected by the duration of adherence to a vegetarian or vegan diet. This finding suggests that when animal foods are wholly excluded from the diet, the endogenous production of EPA and DHA results in low but stable plasma concentrations of these fatty acids.

  13. Inhibition of serine palmitoyltransferase in vitro and long-chain base biosynthesis in intact Chinese hamster ovary cells by β-chloroalanine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medlock, K.A.; Merrill, A.H. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of β-chloroalanine (β-Cl-alanine) on the serine palmitoyltransferase activity and the de novo biosynthesis of sphinganine and sphingenine were investigated in vitro with rat liver microsomes and in vivo with intact Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The inhibition in vitro was rapid, irreversible, and concentration and time dependent and apparently involved the active site because inactivation only occurred with β-Cl-L-alanine and was blocked by L-serine. These are characteristics of mechanism-based (suicide) inhibition. Serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT) was also inhibited when intact CHO cells were incubated with β-Cl-alanine and this treatment inhibited [ 14 C]serine incorporation into long-chain bases by intact cells. The concentration dependence of the loss of SPT activity and of long-chain base synthesis was identical. The effects of β-Cl-alanine appeared to occur with little perturbation of other cell functions: the cells exhibited no loss in cell viability, [ 14 C]serine uptake was not blocked, total lipid biosynthesis from [ 14 C]acetic acid was not decreased (nor was the appearance of radiolabel in cholesterol and phosphatidylcholine), and [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation into DNA was not affected. There appeared to be little effect on protein synthesis based on the incorporation of [ 3 H]leucine, which was only decreased by 14%. Although β-Cl-L-alanine is known to inhibit other pyridoxal 5'-phosphate dependent enzymes, alanine and aspartate transaminases were not inhibited under these conditions. These results establish the close association between the activity of serine palmitoyltransferase and the cellular rate of long-chain base formation and indicate that β-Cl-alanine and other mechanism-based inhibitors might be useful to study alterations in cellular long-chain base synthesis

  14. Fatty acid profile and composition of milk protein fraction in dairy cows fed long-chain unsaturated fatty acids during the transition period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Palma Rennó

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the utilization of different sources of unsaturated long-chain fatty acids in diets for dairy cows during the transition period and early lactation on the milk fatty acid profile and composition of the protein fraction. Thirty-six Holstein cows were divided into three groups, fed the following diets: control (C; soybean oil (SO; and calcium salts of long-chain unsaturated fatty acids (CS. The milk samples utilized for analysis were obtained weekly from parturition to twelve weeks of lactation; each one of the samples originated from two daily milkings. Milk composition and total nitrogen, non-protein nitrogen and non-casein nitrogen levels were analyzed. The cows receiving the diet with calcium salts had lower concentrations of non-protein nitrogen (%CP in milk compared with the animals fed the diet with soybean oil. There was a decrease in concentration of medium-chain fatty acids C12-C16, and a concomitant increase in concentrations of long-chain fatty acids >C18 in milk fat for the animals fed the diets CS and SO when compared with diet C. Soybean oil and CS diets increased milk-fat concentrations of the acids C18: 1 trans-11, C18: 2 cis-9, trans-11 and C18: 2 trans-10 cis-12 in relation to diet C. The utilization of sources of long-chain fatty acids in the diet of dairy cows increases the biological value of milk in early lactation due to higher concentrations of specific fatty acids such as CLA C18: 2cis-9, trans-11.

  15. Increased urine acylcarnitines in diabetic ApoE-/- mice: Hydroxytetradecadienoylcarnitine (C14:2-OH) reflects diabetic nephropathy in a context of hyperlipidemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirzoyan, Koryun; Klavins, Kristaps; Koal, Therese; Gillet, Marion; Marsal, Dimitri; Denis, Colette; Klein, Julie; Bascands, Jean-Loup; Schanstra, Joost P.; Saulnier-Blache, Jean-Sébastien

    2017-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia is a risk factor for initiation and progression of diabetic nephropathy but the metabolic pathways altered in the diabetic kidney in a context of hyperlipidemia remain incompletely described. Assuming that changes in urine composition reflect the alteration of renal metabolism and function, we analyzed the urine metabolite composition of diabetic (streptozotocin-treatment) and control (non diabetic) ApoE−/− mice fed a high cholesterol diet using targeted quantitative metabolomics. Urine metabolome was also compared to the plasma metabolome of the same animals. As previously shown, urine albuminuria/urine creatinine ratio (uACR) and glomerular area and plasma lipids (cholesterol, triglycerides) were more elevated in diabetic mice compared to control. After adjustment to urine creatinine, the abundance of 52 urine metabolites was significantly different in diabetic mice compared to control. Among them was a unique metabolite, C14:2-OH (3-hydroxytetradecadienoylcarnitine) that, in diabetic mice, was positively and significantly correlated with uACR, glomerular hypertrophy, blood glucose and plasma lipids. That metabolite was not detected in plasma. C14:2-OH is a long-chain acylcarnitine reminiscent of altered fatty acid beta oxidation. Other acylcarnitines, particularly the short chains C3-OH, C3-DC, C4:1, C5-DC, C5-M-DC, C5-OH that are reminiscent of altered oxidation of branched and aromatic amino acids were also exclusively detected in urine but were only correlated with plasma lipids. Finally, the renal gene expression of several enzymes involved in fatty acid and/or amino acid oxidation was significantly reduced in diabetic mice compared to control. This included the bifunctional enoyl-CoA hydratase/3-hydroxyacyl-CoA (Ehhadh) that might play a central role in C14:2-OH production. This study indicate that the development of diabetes in a context of hyperlipidemia is associated with a reduced capacity of kidney to oxidize fatty acids and amino

  16. Analysis of acylcarnitines as their N-demethylated ester derivatives by gas chromatography-chemical ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Z H; Gage, D A; Bieber, L L; Sweeley, C C

    1991-11-15

    A novel approach to the analysis of acylcarnitines has been developed. It involves a direct esterification using propyl chloroformate in aqueous propanol followed by ion-pair extraction with potassium iodide into chloroform and subsequent on-column N-demethylation of the resulting acylcarnitine propyl ester iodides. The products, acyl N-demethylcarnitine propyl esters, are volatile and are easily analyzed by gas chromatography-chemical ionization mass spectrometry. For medium-chain-length (C4-C12) acylcarnitine standards, detection limits are demonstrated to be well below 1 ng starting material using selected ion monitoring. Well-separated gas chromatographic peaks and structure-specific mass spectra are obtained with samples of synthetic and biological origin. Seven acylcarnitines have been characterized in the urine of a patient suffering from medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency.

  17. EFFECT OF ADDING THE INTERNAL STANDARD TO BLOOD SAMPLES, PRIOR TO THE PREPARATION OF BLOOD SPOTS FOR ACYLCARNITINE ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Osorio, José Henry; Pourfarzam, Morteza

    2010-01-01

    Background: some general factors can influence when determining acylcarnitines through tandem mass spectrometry. Objective: to study the effect of adding the internal standard to blood samples before the preparation of filter paper cards compared with the addition of internal standard after having the filter paper cards prepared for determining acylcarnitines in blood for tandem mass spectrometry. Methodology: two groups of blood samples were prepared: group one without adding internal standa...

  18. Muscle MRI in patients with long-chain fatty acid oxidation disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekman, Eugene F; van der Pol, W Ludo; Nievelstein, Rutger A J; Houten, Sander M; Wijburg, Frits A; Visser, Gepke

    2014-05-01

    Muscle magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a useful tool for visualizing abnormalities in neuromuscular disorders. The value of muscle MRI has not been studied in long-chain fatty acid oxidation (lcFAO) disorders. LcFAO disorders may present with metabolic myopathy including episodic rhabdomyolysis. To investigate whether lcFAO disorders are associated with muscle MRI abnormalities. Lower body MRI was performed in 20 patients with lcFAO disorders, i.e. three carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2 deficiency (CPT2D), 12 very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (VLCADD), three mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency (MTPD) and two isolated long-chain hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (LCHADD). At the time of MRI, four patients had muscle weakness, 14 had muscle pain and 13 were exercise intolerant. Median creatine kinase (CK) level of patients at the day of MRI was 398 U/L (range 35-12,483). T1W and STIR signal intensity (SI) were markedly increased in MTPD patients from girdle to lower leg. VLCADD patients showed predominantly proximal T1W SI changes, whereas LCHADD patients mostly showed distal T1W SI changes. Prominent STIR weighted signal intensity increases of almost all muscle groups were observed in patients with VLCADD and LCHADD with very high CK (>11.000) levels. lcFAO disorders are associated with specific patterns of increased T1W and STIR signal intensity. These patterns may reflect lipid accumulation and inflammation secondary to lcFAO defects and progressive muscle damage. Future studies are needed to investigate whether muscle MRI might be a useful tool to monitor disease course and to study pathogenesis of lcFAO related myopathy.

  19. Sources and proxy potential of long chain alkyl diols in lacustrine environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampen, Sebastiaan W.; Datema, Mariska; Rodrigo-Gámiz, Marta; Schouten, Stefan; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

    2014-11-01

    Long chain 1,13- and 1,15-alkyl diols form the base of a number of recently proposed proxies used for climate reconstruction. However, the sources of these lipids and environmental controls on their distribution are still poorly constrained. We have analyzed the long chain alkyl diol (LCD) composition of cultures of ten eustigmatophyte species, with three species from different families grown at various temperatures, to identify the effect of species composition and growth temperature on the LCD distribution. The results were compared with the LCD distribution of sixty-two lake surface sediments, and with previously reported LCD distributions from marine environments. The different families within the Eustigmatophyceae show distinct LCD patterns, with the freshwater family Eustigmataceae most closely resembling LCD distributions in both marine and lake environments. Unlike the other two eustigmatophyte families analyzed (Monodopsidaceae and Goniochloridaceae), C28 and C30 1,13-alkyl diols and C30 and C32 1,15-alkyl diols are all relatively abundant in the family Eustigmataceae, while the mono-unsaturated C32 1,15-alkyl diol was below detection limit. In contrast to the marine environment, LCD distributions in lakes did not show a clear relationship with temperature. The Long chain Diol Index (LDI), a proxy previously proposed for sea surface temperature reconstruction, showed a relatively weak correlation (R2 = 0.33) with mean annual air temperature used as an approximation for annual mean surface temperature of the lakes. A much-improved correlation (R2 = 0.74, p-value cultures of the family Eustigmataceae, suggesting that algae belonging to this family have an important role as a source for LCDs in lacustrine environments, or, alternatively, that the main sources of LCDs are similarly affected by temperature as the Eustigmataceae. The results suggest that LCDs may have the potential to be applicable as a palaeotemperature proxy for lacustrine environments

  20. A Tc-99m-labeled long chain fatty acid derivative for myocardial imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magata, Yasuhiro; Kawaguchi, Takayoshi; Ukon, Misa; Yamamura, Norio; Uehara, Tomoya; Ogawa, Kazuma; Arano, Yasushi; Temma, Takashi; Mukai, Takahiro; Tadamura, Eiji; Saji, Hideo

    2004-01-01

    C-11- and I-123-labeled long chain fatty acid derivatives have been reported as useful radiopharmaceuticals for the estimation of myocardial fatty acid metabolism. We have reported that Tc-99m-labeled N-[[[(2-mercaptoethyl)amino]carbonyl]methyl]-N-(2-mercaptoethyl)-6-aminohexanoic acid ([(99m)Tc]MAMA-HA), a medium chain fatty acid derivative, is metabolized by beta-oxidation in the liver and that the MAMA ligand is useful for attaching to the omega-position of fatty acid derivatives as a chelating group for Tc-99m. On the basis of these findings, we focused on developing a Tc-99m-labeled long chain fatty acid derivative that reflected fatty acid metabolism in the myocardium. In this study, we synthesized a dodecanoic acid derivative, MAMA-DA, and a hexadecanoic acid derivative, MAMA-HDA, and performed radiolabeling and biodistribution studies. [(99m)Tc]MAMA-DA and [(99m)Tc]MAMA-HDA were prepared using a ligand-exchange reaction. Biodistribution studies were carried out in normal mice and rats. Then, a high initial uptake of Tc-99m was observed, followed by a rapid clearance from the heart. The maximum heart/blood ratio was 3.6 at 2 min postinjection of [(99m)Tc]MAMA-HDA. These kinetics were similar to those with postinjection of p-[(125)I]iodophenylpentadecanoic acid. Metabolite analysis showed [(99m)Tc]MAMA-HDA was metabolized by beta-oxidation in the body. In conclusion, [(99m)Tc]MAMA-HDA is a promising compound as a long chain fatty acid analogue for estimating beta-oxidation of fatty acid in the heart.

  1. Genes involved in long-chain alkene biosynthesis in Micrococcus luteus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beller, Harry R; Goh, Ee-Been; Keasling, Jay D

    2010-02-01

    Aliphatic hydrocarbons are highly appealing targets for advanced cellulosic biofuels, as they are already predominant components of petroleum-based gasoline and diesel fuels. We have studied alkene biosynthesis in Micrococcus luteus ATCC 4698, a close relative of Sarcina lutea (now Kocuria rhizophila), which 4 decades ago was reported to biosynthesize iso- and anteiso-branched, long-chain alkenes. The underlying biochemistry and genetics of alkene biosynthesis were not elucidated in those studies. We show here that heterologous expression of a three-gene cluster from M. luteus (Mlut_13230-13250) in a fatty acid-overproducing Escherichia coli strain resulted in production of long-chain alkenes, predominantly 27:3 and 29:3 (no. carbon atoms: no. C=C bonds). Heterologous expression of Mlut_13230 (oleA) alone produced no long-chain alkenes but unsaturated aliphatic monoketones, predominantly 27:2, and in vitro studies with the purified Mlut_13230 protein and tetradecanoyl-coenzyme A (CoA) produced the same C(27) monoketone. Gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry confirmed the elemental composition of all detected long-chain alkenes and monoketones (putative intermediates of alkene biosynthesis). Negative controls demonstrated that the M. luteus genes were responsible for production of these metabolites. Studies with wild-type M. luteus showed that the transcript copy number of Mlut_13230-13250 and the concentrations of 29:1 alkene isomers (the dominant alkenes produced by this strain) generally corresponded with bacterial population over time. We propose a metabolic pathway for alkene biosynthesis starting with acyl-CoA (or-ACP [acyl carrier protein]) thioesters and involving decarboxylative Claisen condensation as a key step, which we believe is catalyzed by OleA. Such activity is consistent with our data and with the homology (including the conserved Cys-His-Asn catalytic triad) of Mlut_13230 (OleA) to FabH (beta-ketoacyl-ACP synthase III), which

  2. Critical constants and acentric factors for long-chain alkanes suitable for corresponding states applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Dimitrios, Tassios

    1997-01-01

    Several methods for the estimation of the critical temperature T-c, the critical pressure P-c, and the acentric factor omega for long-chain n-alkanes are reviewed and evaluated for the prediction of vapor pressures using Corresponding States (CS) methods, like the Lee-Kesler equation and the cubic....... Anselme, Correlation of the critical properties of alkanes and alkanols, Fluid Phase Equilibria, 56 (1990) 153-169; W. Hu, J. Lovland and P. Vonka. Generalized vapor pressure equations for n-alkanes, 1-alkenes, and 1-alkanols, Presented at the 11th Int. Congress of Chemical Engineering, Chemical Equipment...

  3. Accumulation of long-chain glycosphingolipids during aging is prevented by caloric restriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Hernández-Corbacho

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease are major causes of morbidity and mortality that are seen far more commonly in the aged population. Interestingly, kidney function declines during aging even in the absence of underlying renal disease. Declining renal function has been associated with age-related cellular damage and dysfunction with reports of increased levels of apoptosis, necrosis, and inflammation in the aged kidney. Bioactive sphingolipids have been shown to regulate these same cellular processes, and have also been suggested to play a role in aging and cellular senescence.We hypothesized that alterations in kidney sphingolipids play a role in the declining kidney function that occurs during aging. To begin to address this, the sphingolipid profile was measured in young (3 mo, middle aged (9 mo and old (17 mo C57BL/6 male mice. Interestingly, while modest changes in ceramides and sphingoid bases were evident in kidneys from older mice, the most dramatic elevations were seen in long-chain hexosylceramides (HexCer and lactosylceramides (LacCer, with C14- and C16-lactosylceramides elevated as much as 8 and 12-fold, respectively. Increases in long-chain LacCers during aging are not exclusive to the kidney, as they also occur in the liver and brain. Importantly, caloric restriction, previously shown to prevent the declining kidney function seen in aging, inhibits accumulation of long-chain HexCer/LacCers and prevents the age-associated elevation of enzymes involved in their synthesis. Additionally, long-chain LacCers are also significantly elevated in human fibroblasts isolated from elderly individuals.This study demonstrates accumulation of the glycosphingolipids HexCer and LacCer in several different organs in rodents and humans during aging. In addition, data demonstrate that HexCer and LacCer metabolism is regulated by caloric restriction. Taken together, data suggest that HexCer/LacCers are important mediators of cellular

  4. Environmental properties of long chain alcohols. Part 1: Physicochemical, environmental fate and acute aquatic toxicity properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisk, Peter; Sanderson, Hans; Wildey, Ross

    2009-01-01

    )SARs). This allows predictions of data relating to human and environmental safety profiles and patterns. These alcohols have been shown to be rapidly degradable under standard conditions up to C18. Furthermore, evidence suggests that longer chain lengths are also rapidly biodegradable. While log Kow values suggest......This paper summarises the physicochemical, biodegradation and acute aquatic ecotoxicity properties of long chain aliphatic alcohols. Properties of pure compounds are shown to follow somewhat predictable trends, which are amenable to estimation by quantitative structure-activity relationships ((Q...

  5. A Novel Protocol to Analyze Short- and Long-Chain Fatty Acids Using Nonaqueous Microchip Capillary Electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable, M. L.; Stockton, A. M.; Mora, Maria F; Willis, P. A.

    2013-01-01

    We propose a new protocol to identify and quantify both short- and long-chain saturated fatty acids in samples of astrobiological interest using non-aqueous microchip capillary electrophoresis (micronNACE) with laser induced fluorescence (LIF).

  6. The inhibition performance of long-chain alkyl-substituted benzimidazole derivatives for corrosion of mild steel in HCl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Dongqin; Tang, Yongming; Qi, Sijun; Dong, Dawei; Cang, Hui; Lu, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Inhibition performance of long-chain alkyl-substituted benzimidazole. • Benzimidazole segment donating electrons to metal surface. • Non-polar long chain enhancing inhibition by the barrier effect. • Molecular form of DBI more tightly adsorbs on the steel than its protonated form. - Abstract: The corrosion inhibition of a new benzimidazole derivative, 6-(dodecyloxy)-1H-benzo[d]imidazole (DBI), for mild steel in 1 M HCl was investigated in this paper. Computational chemistry was performed to explore the adsorption of DBI on metal surface. Inhibition performance of DBI is attributed to both the direct interaction of benzimidazole segment with iron surface and the barrier effect of the non-polar long chain against aggressive solution. Compared to the protonated form, the molecular form of DBI could more tightly interact with iron surface. These results show that the long-chain alkyl-substituted benzimidazole derivative is of great potential application as corrosion inhibitor.

  7. Standard Review Risk Assessment on Medium-chain and Long-chain Chlorinated paraffin PMN submissions by INEOS Chlor Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    This assessment was conducted under EPA’s TSCA Section 5 New Chemicals Program. EPA is assessing Medium-chain Chlorinated Paraffin (MCCP) and Long-Chain Chlorinated Paraffin (LCCP) chemicals as part of its New Chemicals Review program.

  8. Standard Review Risk Assessment on Medium-chain and Long-chain Chlorinated paraffin PMN submissions by Dover Chemical

    Science.gov (United States)

    This assessment was conducted under EPA’s TSCA Section 5 New Chemicals Program. EPA is assessing Medium-chain Chlorinated Paraffin (MCCP) and Long-Chain Chlorinated Paraffin (LCCP) chemicals as part of its New Chemicals Review program.

  9. Standard Review Risk Assessment on Medium-chain and Long-chain Chlorinated paraffin PMN submissions by Qualice, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    This assessment was conducted under EPA’s TSCA Section 5 New Chemicals Program. EPA is assessing Medium-chain Chlorinated Paraffin (MCCP) and Long-Chain Chlorinated Paraffin (LCCP) chemicals as part of its New Chemicals Review program.

  10. The relevance of serum levels of long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and prostate cancer risk: A meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Michael E.; Sio, Maria Christina D.; Sorongon, Mishell C.; Morales, Marcelino L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Our objective was to systematically analyze the evidence for an association between serum level long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) and prostate cancer risk from human epidemiological studies. Study Procedures: We searched biomedical literature databases up to November 2011 and included epidemiological studies with description of long chain n-3 PUFA and incidence of prostate cancer in humans. Critical appraisal was done by two independent reviewers. Data were pooled using the general variance-based method with random-effects model; effect estimates were expressed as risk ratio with 95% confidence interval (CI). Heterogeneity was assessed by Chi2 and quantified by I2, publication bias was also determined. Results: In total, 12 studies were included. Significant negative association was noted between high serum level of n-3 PUFA doc-osapentaenoic acid (DPA) and total prostate cancer risk (RR:0.756; 95% CI 0.599, 0.955; p = 0.019). Likewise, a positive association between high blood level of fish oil contents, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and high-grade prostate tumour incidence (RR:1.381; 95% CI 1.050, 1.817; p = 0.021) was noted; however, this finding was evident only after adjustment was done on interstudy variability through the removal of a lower quality study from the pool. Conclusions: High serum levels of long chain n-3 PUFA DPA is associated with reduced total prostate cancer risk. While high blood level of EPA and DHA is possibly associated with increased high-grade prostate tumour risk. PMID:23766835

  11. Substrate Trapping in Crystals of the Thiolase OleA Identifies Three Channels That Enable Long Chain Olefin Biosynthesis*

    OpenAIRE

    Goblirsch, Brandon R.; Jensen, Matthew R.; Mohamed, Fatuma A.; Wackett, Lawrence P.; Wilmot, Carrie M.

    2016-01-01

    Phylogenetically diverse microbes that produce long chain, olefinic hydrocarbons have received much attention as possible sources of renewable energy biocatalysts. One enzyme that is critical for this process is OleA, a thiolase superfamily enzyme that condenses two fatty acyl-CoA substrates to produce a β-ketoacid product and initiates the biosynthesis of long chain olefins in bacteria. Thiolases typically utilize a ping-pong mechanism centered on an active site cysteine residue. Reaction wi...

  12. Long-chain fatty acid triglyceride (TG) metabolism disorder impairs male fertility: a study using adipose triglyceride lipase deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaki, Hidetake; Kim, Namhyo; Nakamura, Hitomi; Kumasawa, Keiichi; Kamata, Eriko; Hirano, Ken-Ichi; Kimura, Tadashi

    2017-07-01

    Does the deletion of adipose triglyceride lipase (Atgl) gene impair male fertility? The deletion of Atgl gene impaired male fertility but the effect was partially reversed by a low long-chain triglyceride (TG) diet. ATGL specifically hydrolyses long-chain fatty acid TG to diacylglycerol and a high level of expression of ATGL in testes has been reported. However, the role of ATGL in male fertility is unknown. To investigate the effect of deletion of Atgl gene on male fertility, cauda epididymides and testes were collected from wild-type, heterozygous and homozygous Atgl-deficient mice at 10 weeks of age and epididymal sperm analysis and histological analysis of the testes were performed. To investigate whether a medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) replacement diet mitigated the impaired male fertility by deletion of Atgl gene, homozygous Atgl-deficient mice were fed a MCT replacement diet, or a standard diet including long-chain triglycerides (LCTs) in a control group, for 6 weeks from 5 weeks of age (n = 22). The systematic and local effects of the MCT replacement diet on spermatogenesis and sperm maturation in the epididymis were analyzed at 10 weeks of age. Hematoxylin and eosin staining in paraffin-embedded sections of testes and Oil Red O staining in frozen sections of testes were performed. The epididymal sperm concentrations were analyzed. Statistical analyses were performed using the Student's t-test or Mann-Whitney U test with Shapiro-Wilk Normality test. Although heterozygous mice were fertile and showed a similar number of epididymal total and motile sperm concentrations to wild-type mice, the deletion of Atgl gene in homozygous mice led to accumulation of TG deposits in testes and impaired spermatogenesis. The deletion of Atgl gene also impaired the sperm maturation process required for sperm to acquire the ability to move forward in the epididymis. The MCT replacement diet for 6 weeks increased the plasma level of non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) (1

  13. Zinc absorption in experimental osmotic diarrhea: effect of long-chain fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S Y; Wapnir, R A

    1993-03-01

    The effect of free fatty acids on zinc absorption was studied in a rat model of chronic osmotic diarrhea induced with magnesium citrate and phenolphthalein. In vivo rates of zinc removal from the lumen and analysis of tissue for zinc uptake and metallothionein alterations were monitored. One mmol/L stearate enhanced zinc absorption in rats with or without diarrhea, from 207 +/- 22 and 353 +/- 13 pmol/min x cm to 676 +/- 34 and 610 +/- 26 pmol/min x cm, respectively. Palmitate was only effective in normal rats. Zinc absorption inversely correlated with mucosal zinc content in the perfused intestinal segments, in both type of rats. Hepatic metallothionein was enhanced by zinc and even more by oleate plus zinc in both groups; kidney metallothionein in animals with diarrhea was normalized by either oleate or zinc. The data support previous reports on the effect of long-chain fatty acids on the enhancement of zinc absorption: saturation and a longer chain appear to be positive factors. A membrane modification role of long-chain fatty acids could have nutritional implications in the formulation of special diets.

  14. Phase separation in short-chain lecithin/gel-state long-chain lecithin aggregates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bian, J.; Roberts, M.F.

    1990-01-01

    Small bilayer particles for spontaneously from gel-state long-chain phospholipids such as dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and 0.2 mol fraction short-chain lecithins (e.g., diheptanoylphosphatidylcholine). When the particles are incubed at temperatures greater than the T m of the long-chain phosphatidylcholine (PC), the particles rapidly fuse (from 90-angstrom to ≥ 5,000-angstrom radius); this transition is reversible. A possible explanation for this behavior involves patching or phase separation of the short-chain component within the gel-state particle and randomization of both lipid species above T m . Differential scanning calorimetry, 1 H T 1 values of proteodiheptanoyl-PC in diheptanoyl-PC-d 26 /dipalmitoyl-PC-d 62 matrices of varying deuterium content, solid-state 2 H NMR spectroscopy as a function of temperature, and fluorescence pyrene excimer-to-monomer ratios as a function of mole fraction diheptanoyl-PC provide evidence that such phase separation must occur. These results are used to construct a phase diagram for the diheptanoyl-PC/dipalmitoyl-PC system, to propose detailed geometric models for the different lipid particles involved, and to understand phospholipase kinetics toward the different aggregates

  15. Long-chain amine-templated synthesis of gallium sulfide and gallium selenide nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seral-Ascaso, A.; Metel, S.; Pokle, A.; Backes, C.; Zhang, C. J.; Nerl, H. C.; Rode, K.; Berner, N. C.; Downing, C.; McEvoy, N.; Muñoz, E.; Harvey, A.; Gholamvand, Z.; Duesberg, G. S.; Coleman, J. N.; Nicolosi, V.

    2016-06-01

    We describe the soft chemistry synthesis of amine-templated gallium chalcogenide nanotubes through the reaction of gallium(iii) acetylacetonate and the chalcogen (sulfur, selenium) using a mixture of long-chain amines (hexadecylamine and dodecylamine) as a solvent. Beyond their role as solvent, the amines also act as a template, directing the growth of discrete units with a one-dimensional multilayer tubular nanostructure. These new materials, which broaden the family of amine-stabilized gallium chalcogenides, can be tentatively classified as direct large band gap semiconductors. Their preliminary performance as active material for electrodes in lithium ion batteries has also been tested, demonstrating great potential in energy storage field even without optimization.We describe the soft chemistry synthesis of amine-templated gallium chalcogenide nanotubes through the reaction of gallium(iii) acetylacetonate and the chalcogen (sulfur, selenium) using a mixture of long-chain amines (hexadecylamine and dodecylamine) as a solvent. Beyond their role as solvent, the amines also act as a template, directing the growth of discrete units with a one-dimensional multilayer tubular nanostructure. These new materials, which broaden the family of amine-stabilized gallium chalcogenides, can be tentatively classified as direct large band gap semiconductors. Their preliminary performance as active material for electrodes in lithium ion batteries has also been tested, demonstrating great potential in energy storage field even without optimization. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr01663d

  16. Lymphatic recovery of exogenous oleic acid in rats on long chain or specific structured triacylglycerol diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Bodil; Mu, Huiling; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2006-01-01

    Specific structured triacylglycerols, MLM (M = medium-chain fatty acid, L = long-chain fatty acid), rapidly deliver energy and long-chain fatty acids to the body and are used for longer periods in human enteral feeding. In the present study rats were fed diets of 10 wt% MLM or LLL (L = oleic acid......% and 45%, respectively). However, the recovery of exogenous 18:1 n-9 was higher after a single bolus of MLM compared with a bolus of LLL in rats on the MLM diet (40% and 24%, respectively, P = 0.009). The recovery of lymphatic 18:1 n-9 of the LLL bolus tended to depend on the diet triacylglycerol...... structure and composition (P = 0.07). This study demonstrated that with a diet containing specific structured triacylglycerol, the lymphatic recovery of 18:1 n-9 after a single bolus of fat was dependent on the triacylglycerol structure of the bolus. This indicates that the lymphatic recovery of long...

  17. Conversion of raw lignocellulosic biomass into branched long-chain alkanes through three tandem steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunrui; Ding, Daqian; Xia, Qineng; Liu, Xiaohui; Wang, Yanqin

    2016-07-07

    Synthesis of branched long-chain alkanes from renewable biomass has attracted intensive interest in recent years, but the feedstock for this synthesis is restricted to platform chemicals. Here, we develop an effective and energy-efficient process to convert raw lignocellulosic biomass (e.g., corncob) into branched diesel-range alkanes through three tandem steps for the first time. Furfural and isopropyl levulinate (LA ester) were prepared from hemicellulose and cellulose fractions of corncob in toluene/water biphasic system with added isopropanol, which was followed by double aldol condensation of furfural with LA ester into C15 oxygenates and the final hydrodeoxygenation of C15 oxygenates into branched long-chain alkanes. The core point of this tandem process is the addition of isopropanol in the first step, which enables the spontaneous transfer of levulinic acid (LA) into the toluene phase in the form of LA ester through esterification, resulting in LA ester co-existing with furfural in the same phase, which is the basis for double aldol condensation in the toluene phase. Moreover, the acidic aqueous phase and toluene can be reused and the residues, including lignin and humins in aqueous phase, can be separated and carbonized to porous carbon materials. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Very long chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency with adult onset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smelt, A H; Poorthuis, B J; Onkenhout, W

    1998-01-01

    Very long chain acyl-coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency is a severe disorder of mitochondrial beta-oxidation in infants. We report adult onset of attacks of painful rhabdomyolysis. Gas chromatography identified strongly elevated levels of tetradecenoic acid, 14:1(n-9), tetrade......Very long chain acyl-coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency is a severe disorder of mitochondrial beta-oxidation in infants. We report adult onset of attacks of painful rhabdomyolysis. Gas chromatography identified strongly elevated levels of tetradecenoic acid, 14:1(n-9......), tetradecadienoic acid, 14:2(n-6), and hexadecadienoic acid, 16:2(n-6). Palmitoyl-CoA and behenoyl-CoA dehydrogenase in fibroblasts were deficient. Muscle VLCAD activity was very low. DNA analysis revealed compound heterozygosity for two missense mutations in the VLCAD gene. The relatively mild clinical course may...... be due to residual enzyme activity as a consequence of the two missense mutations. Treatment with L-carnitine and medium chain triglycerides in the diet did not reduce the attacks of rhabdomyolysis....

  19. Reactivity of long chain alkylamines to lignin moieties: implications on hydrophobicity of lignocellulose materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudanga, Tukayi; Prasetyo, Endry Nugroho; Sipilä, Jussi; Guebitz, Georg M; Nyanhongo, Gibson S

    2010-08-20

    Enzymatic processes provide new perspectives for modification of lignocellulose materials. In the current study, laccase catalyzed coupling of long chain alkylamines to lignin model molecules and lignocellulose was investigated. Up to two molecules of dodecylamine (DA) and dihexylamine (DHA) were successfully coupled with lignin monomers (guaiacol, catechol and ferulic acid) while coupling onto complex lignin model compounds (syringylglycerol beta-guaiacyl ether, guaiacylglycerol beta-guaiacyl ether and dibenzodioxocin) yielded 1:1 coupling products. Surface analysis of beech veneers enzymatically grafted with DA showed an increase in nitrogen content of 3.18% compared to 0.71% in laccase only treated controls while the O/C ratio decreased from 0.52 to 0.46. Concomitantly the grafting of DHA or DA onto beech veneers resulted in a 53.8% and 84.2% increase in hydrophobicity, respectively when compared to simple adsorption. Therefore, laccase-mediated grafting of long chain alkylamines onto lignocellulose materials can be potentially exploited for improving their hydrophobicity. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Short term and dosage influences of palm based medium- and long-chain triacylglycerols on body fat and blood parameters in C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yee-Ying; Tang, Teck-Kim; Ab Karim, Nur Azwani; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu Mohamed; Lai, Oi-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Structured lipid medium- and long-chain triacylglycerols (MLCT) are claimed to be able to manage obesity. The present study investigated the body fat influence of enzymatically interesterifed palm-based medium- and long-chain triacylglycerols (P-MLCT) on diet-induced obesity (DIO) C57BL/6J mice compared with commercial MLCT oil (C-MLCT) and a control, which was the non enzymatically modified palm kernel and palm oil blend (PKO-PO blend). It also investigated the low fat and high fat effects of P-MLCT. DIO C57BL/6J mice were fed ad libitum with low fat (7%) and high fat (30%) experimental diets for 8 weeks before being sacrificed to obtain blood serum for analysis. From the results, there is a trend that P-MLCT fed mice were found to have the lowest body weight, body weight gain, total fat pad accumulation (perirenal, retroperitoneal, epididymal and mesenteric), total triglyceride levels and efficiency in controlling blood glucose level, compared with C-MLCT and the PKO-PO blend in both low fat and high fat diets. Nevertheless, the PKO-PO blend and P-MLCT caused significantly (P < 0.05) higher total cholesterol levels compared to C-MLCT. P-MLCT present in low fat and high fat dosage were shown to be able to suppress body fat accumulation. This effect is more prominent with the low fat dosage.

  1. Development of Long Chain Alkyl Diol δD as a Paleohydrological Proxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neary, A.; Russell, J. M.; Cordero, D.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding past hydroclimate is important to better understand and prepare for future climate changes. Past hydrological change is often studied through δD of lipid biomarkers preserved in sediment. Long chain alkyl diols are lipid biomarkers that are widely distributed in lake and marine sediments. These compounds are produced by certain species of diatoms and algae (Eustigmatophytes). Diol δD is expected to record relative precipitation and evaporation, and other lake surface processes. This would be a valuable addition to the repertoire of organic compounds used for hydrologic reconstruction, such as leaf waxes which record precipitation. While long chain alkyl diols present an opportunity to expand the range of compounds available for compound specific isotope analysis, studies of diol δD are scarce. This study aims to compare diol and leaf wax δD records from Lake Tanganyika spanning approximately the past 20 kyrs in order to elucidate the controlling factors on diol δD values and evaluate the effectiveness of such a record as a paleohydrological proxy. If viable, diol δD records could be used to gain a deeper understanding of past climates. δD leaf wax records have been previously measured in Lake Tanganyika cores (Tierney et al., 2008). This study measures δD of long chain alkyl diols from the same cores in order to compare records. Our current measurements show significant deviations of the diol record from the leaf wax record at times when large magnitude changes in the leaf wax record are occurring, such as a less pronounced Younger Dryas and a more gradual decrease in δD values after Heinrich 1 than the sudden shift expressed by the leaf wax record. In addition to generating a diol δD record through time at Lake Tanganyika, we have also measured diol δD in surface sediments from several east African lakes in order to examine the potential for a proxy calibration. A positive correlation between diol and lake water δD has been observed

  2. Achieving definitive results in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation trials of term infants: factors for consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meldrum, Suzanne J; Smith, Michael A; Prescott, Susan L; Hird, Kathryn; Simmer, Karen

    2011-04-01

    Numerous randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have been undertaken to determine whether supplementation with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) in infancy would improve the developmental outcomes of term infants. The results of such trials have been thoroughly reviewed with no definitive conclusion as to the efficacy of LCPUFA supplementation. A number of reasons for the lack of conclusive findings in this area have been proposed. This review examines such factors with the aim of determining whether an optimal method of investigation for RCTs of LCPUFA supplementation in term infants can be ascertained from previous research. While more research is required to completely inform a method that is likely to achieve definitive results, the findings of this literature review indicate future trials should investigate the effects of sex, genetic polymorphisms, the specific effects of LCPUFAs, and the optimal tests for neurodevelopmental assessment. The current literature indicates a docosahexaenoic acid dose of 0.32%, supplementation from birth to 12 months, and a total sample size of at least 286 (143 per group) should be included in the methodology of future trials. © 2011 International Life Sciences Institute.

  3. Women who take n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplements during pregnancy and lactation meet the recommended intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiaoming; Pakseresht, Mohammadreza; Wattar, Nour; Wildgrube, Jamie; Sontag, Stephanie; Andrews, Murphy; Subhan, Fatheema Begum; McCargar, Linda; Field, Catherine J

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the current study was to estimate total intake and dietary sources of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentanoic (DPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and compare DHA intakes with the recommended intakes in a cohort of pregnant and lactating women. Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls and supplement intake questionnaires were collected from 600 women in the Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) cohort at each trimester of pregnancy and 3 months postpartum. Dietary intake was estimated in 2 ways: by using a commercial software program and by using a database created for APrON. Only 27% of women during pregnancy and 25% at 3 months postpartum met the current European Union (EU) consensus recommendation for DHA. Seafood, fish, and seaweed products contributed to 79% of overall n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids intake from foods, with the majority from salmon. The estimated intake of DHA and EPA was similar between databases, but the estimated DPA intake was 20%-30% higher using the comprehensive database built for this study. Women who took a supplement containing DHA were 10.6 and 11.1 times more likely to meet the current EU consensus recommendation for pregnancy (95% confidence interval (CI): 6.952-16.07; PDHA during pregnancy and lactation, but taking a supplement significantly improved the likelihood that they would meet recommendations.

  4. Long-Chain Omega-3 Fatty Acids Supplementation Accelerates Nerve Regeneration and Prevents Neuropathic Pain Behavior in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela V. Silva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Fish oil (FO is the main source of long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs, which display relevant analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. Peripheral nerve injury is driven by degeneration, neuroinflammation, and neuronal plasticity which results in neuropathic pain (NP symptoms such as allodynia and hyperalgesia. We tested the preventive effect of an EPA/DHA-concentrate fish oil (CFO on NP development and regenerative features. Swiss mice received daily oral treatment with CFO 4.6 or 2.3 g/kg for 10 days after NP was induced by partial sciatic nerve ligation. Mechanical allodynia and thermal hypernociception were assessed 5 days after injury. CFO 2.3 g/kg significantly prevented mechanical and thermal sensitization, reduced TNF levels in the spinal cord, sciatic MPO activity, and ATF-3 expression on DRG cells. CFO improved Sciatic Functional Index (SFI as well as electrophysiological recordings, corroborating the increased GAP43 expression and total number of myelinated fibers observed in sciatic nerve. No locomotor activity impairment was observed in CFO treated groups. These results point to the regenerative and possibly protective properties of a combined EPA and DHA oral administration after peripheral nerve injury, as well as its anti-neuroinflammatory activity, evidencing ω-3 PUFAs promising therapeutic outcomes for NP treatment.

  5. Enzymatic hydrolysis of short-chain lecithin/long-chain phospholipid unilamellar vesicles: sensitivity of phospholipases to matrix phase state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, N E; Agman, N V; Roberts, M F

    1987-11-17

    Short-chain lecithin/long-chain phospholipid unilamellar vesicles (SLUVs), unlike pure long-chain lecithin vesicles, are excellent substrates for water-soluble phospholipases. Hemolysis assays show that greater than 99.5% of the short-chain lecithin is partitioned in the bilayer. In these binary component vesicles, the short-chain species is the preferred substrate, while the long-chain phospholipid can be treated as an inhibitor (phospholipase C) or poor substrate (phospholipase A2). For phospholipase C Bacillus cereus, apparent Km and Vmax values show that bilayer-solubilized diheptanoylphosphatidylcholine (diheptanoyl-PC) is nearly as good a substrate as pure micellar diheptanoyl-PC, although the extent of short-chain lecithin hydrolysis depends on the phase state of the long-chain lipid. For phospholipase A2 Naja naja naja, both Km and Vmax values show a greater range: in a gel-state matrix, diheptanoyl-PC is hydrolyzed with micellelike kinetic parameters; in a liquid-crystalline matrix, the short-chain lecithin becomes comparable to the long-chain component. Both enzymes also show an anomalous increase in specific activity toward diheptanoyl-PC around the phase transition temperature of the long-chain phospholipid. Since the short-chain lecithin does not exhibit a phase transition, this must reflect fluctuations in head-group area or vertical motions of the short-chain lecithin caused by surrounding long-chain lecithin molecules. These results are discussed in terms of a specific model for SLUV hydrolysis and a general explanation for the "interfacial activation" observed with water-soluble phospholipases.

  6. Metabolism of very long-chain Fatty acids: genes and pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassa, Takayuki; Kihara, Akio

    2014-02-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) are highly diverse in terms of carbon (C) chain-length and number of double bonds. FAs with C>20 are called very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs). VLCFAs are found not only as constituents of cellular lipids such as sphingolipids and glycerophospholipids but also as precursors of lipid mediators. Our understanding on the function of VLCFAs is growing in parallel with the identification of enzymes involved in VLCFA synthesis or degradation. A variety of inherited diseases, such as ichthyosis, macular degeneration, myopathy, mental retardation, and demyelination, are caused by mutations in the genes encoding VLCFA metabolizing enzymes. In this review, we describe mammalian VLCFAs by highlighting their tissue distribution and metabolic pathways, and we discuss responsible genes and enzymes with reference to their roles in pathophysiology.

  7. Bioavailability of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids from foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling

    2008-01-01

    Increasing recognition of the importance of the omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) has caused greater attention about dietary intake of these fatty acids. Fatty fish is the major dietary source of these fatty acids. Because of the low intake of fish at many places, foods...... enriched with omega-3 LCPUFA can be good alternatives to improve the intake of these fatty acids. Effects of lipid structures and food matrices on bioavailability of omega-3 LCPUFA have been investigated. Short term studies showed that both lipid structure and food matrix affect the bioavailability...... of these fatty acids, whereas diverse results have been reported from long-term studies. Therefore more studies are encouraged to clarify the long-term effects....

  8. Metagenomic analysis on thermophilic biogas reactors fed with high load of Long Chain Fatty Acids (LCFA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Xinyu; De Francisci, Davide; Treu, Laura

    In anaerobic digestion systems, the accumulation of long chain fatty acids (LCFA) leads to process instability and decrease of the methane production. This detrimental condition is known to be reversible depending on the concentration of the accumulated LCFAs and mainly on the microbial consortium...... due to LCFA increase in the feedstock composition. The result shows that the addition of sodium oleate caused a reversible inhibition of reactor. The correlation between the microbial community’s profile and the reactors performance indicated that Syntrophomonas was the genus most likely involved...... in sodium oleate degradation. Other genera that were found abundant are Pseudomonas, Clostridium XI and Clostridium III. The relative abundance of these genera was not significantly affected by the addition of sodium oleate, and this indicates that they are probably involved in later steps of degradation...

  9. Aggregation Behavior of Long-Chain Piperidinium Ionic Liquids in Ethylammonium Nitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caili Dai

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Micelles formed by the long-chain piperidinium ionic liquids (ILs N-alkyl-N-methylpiperidinium bromide of general formula CnPDB (n = 12, 14, 16 in ethylammonium nitrate (EAN were investigated through surface tension and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD simulations. Through surface tension measurements, the critical micelle concentration (cmc, the effectiveness of surface tension reduction (Πcmc, the maximum excess surface concentration (Гmax and the minimum area occupied per surfactant molecule (Amin can be obtained. A series of thermodynamic parameters (DG0 m, DH0 m and DS0 m of micellization can be calculated and the results showed that the micellization was entropy-driven. In addition, the DPD simulation was performed to simulate the whole aggregation process behavior to better reveal the micelle formation process.

  10. Myopathy in very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholte, H R; Van Coster, R N; de Jonge, P C

    1999-01-01

    was deficient in muscle and fibroblasts, consistent with deficiency of very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD). The gene of this enzyme had a homozygous deletion of three base pairs in exon 9, skipping lysine residue 238. Fibroblasts oxidised myristate, palmitate and oleate at a rate of 129, 62 and 38......A 30-year-old man suffered since the age of 13 years from exercise induced episodes of intense generalised muscle pain, weakness and myoglobinuria. Fasting ketogenesis was low, while blood glucose remained normal. Muscle mitochondria failed to oxidise palmitoylcarnitine. Palmitoyl-CoA dehydrogenase......% of controls. In contrast to patients with cardiac VLCAD deficiency, our patient had no lipid storage, a normal heart function, a higher rate of oleate oxidation in fibroblasts and normal free carnitine in plasma and fibroblasts. 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of muscle showed a normal oxidative...

  11. Regulation of lipolytic activity by long-chain acyl-coenzyme A in islets and adipocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Liping; Deeney, Jude T; Nolan, Christopher J

    2005-01-01

    -cells. The mechanisms by which lipolysis is regulated in different tissues is, therefore, of considerable interest. Here, the effects of long-chain acyl-CoA esters (LC-CoA) on lipase activity in islets and adipocytes were compared. Palmitoyl-CoA (Pal-CoA, 1-10 microM) stimulated lipase activity in islets from both....... The inhibitory effect of LC-CoA on adipocyte HSL was dependent on phosphorylation and enhanced by acyl-CoA-binding protein (ACBP). In contrast, the stimulatory effect on islet lipase activity was blocked by ACBP, presumably due to binding and sequestration of LC-CoA. These data suggest the following intertissue...

  12. Fluorescent assay for oxytetracycline based on a long-chain aptamer assembled onto reduced graphene oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Huimin; Gao, Sheng; Liu, Meng; Chang, Yangyang; Fan, Xinfei; Quan, Xie [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering (Ministry of Education, China), School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, 116024 (China)

    2013-07-15

    We report on a fluorescent assay for oxytetracycline (OTC) using a fluorescein-labeled long-chain aptamer assembled onto reduced graphene oxide (rGO). The π-π stacking interaction between aptamer and rGO causes the fluorescence of the label to be almost completely quenched via energy transfer so that the system has very low background fluorescence. The addition of OTC leads to the formation of G-quadruplex OTC complexes and prevents the adsorption of labeled aptamer on the surface of rGO. As a result, fluorescence is restored, and this effect allows for a quantitative assay of OTC over the 0.1–2 μM concentration range and with a detection limit of 10 nM. This method is simple, rapid, selective and sensitive. It may be applied to other small molecule analytes by applying appropriate aptamers. (author)

  13. Fluorescent assay for oxytetracycline based on a long-chain aptamer assembled onto reduced graphene oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Huimin; Gao, Sheng; Liu, Meng; Chang, Yangyang; Fan, Xinfei; Quan, Xie

    2013-01-01

    We report on a fluorescent assay for oxytetracycline (OTC) using a fluorescein-labeled long-chain aptamer assembled onto reduced graphene oxide (rGO). The π-π stacking interaction between aptamer and rGO causes the fluorescence of the label to be almost completely quenched via energy transfer so that the system has very low background fluorescence. The addition of OTC leads to the formation of G-quadruplex OTC complexes and prevents the adsorption of labeled aptamer on the surface of rGO. As a result, fluorescence is restored, and this effect allows for a quantitative assay of OTC over the 0.1–2 μM concentration range and with a detection limit of 10 nM. This method is simple, rapid, selective and sensitive. It may be applied to other small molecule analytes by applying appropriate aptamers. (author)

  14. Radiation induced solid-state polymerization of long-chain acrylates containing fluorocarbon chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibasaki, Y.; Zhu, Zhi-Qin

    1995-01-01

    γ-Ray irradiation post-polymerizations of long-chain acrylates containing fluorocarbon chain, H(CF 2 ) 10 CH 2 OCOCH=CH 2 and H(CF 2 ) 8 CH 2 OCOCH=CH 2 , were investigated and also the structures and thermal properties of comb-like polymers obtained were studied. It was found that these monomers exhibited very high polymerizability at wide temperature ranges around the melting points. Because the fluorocarbon chains are less flexible and thicker than the hydrocarbon chains, it can be expected that the aggregation force among the monomer molecules is strong and the conformational freedom of functional group for polymerization is large. According to the DSC and the X-ray diffraction measurements of the comb-like polymers obtained, the fluorocarbon chains are aggregated in a mode of hexagonal packing in the lamellar crystals. This situation can be considered as an optimum condition for the γ-ray irradiation post-polymerization. (author)

  15. Determination of long-chain fatty acids in serum by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuevas Paz, Lauro; Camayd Viera, Ivette

    2014-01-01

    The quantification of long-chain fatty acids is fundamental for the diagnosis of several peroxisome disorders, particularly those in which the β-oxidation peroxisome of fatty acids is affected. In this work the implementation of an analytical method for the determination of these markers in serum by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry is described. Besides, samples from patients with a diagnostic impression of adrenoleukodystrophy linked to the X chromosome were analyzed. The necessary experimental conditions were achieved for the separation and quantification of C22:0, C24:0 and C26:0 fatty acids in serum, which are biochemical markers of various peroxisome diseases. The application of this method allowed confirming the diagnosis of three patients with a diagnostic impression of adrenoleukodystrophy linked to the X chromosome. The application of the method in daily practice will allow the Cuban medical system to count on a new laboratory parameter for the diagnosis of peroxisome disorders

  16. Inhibition of Long Chain Fatty Acyl-CoA Synthetase (ACSL) and Ischemia Reperfusion Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Allan M.; Zhang, Man; Blakeman, Nina; Datta, Palika; Pham, Hung; Young, Lindon H.; Weis, Margaret T.; Hua, Duy H.

    2014-01-01

    Various triacsin C analogs, containing different alkenyl chains and carboxylic acid bioisoteres including 4-aminobenzoic acid, isothiazolidine dioxide, hydroxylamine, hydroxytriazene, and oxadiazolidine dione, were synthesized and their inhibitions of long chain fatty acyl-CoA synthetase (ACSL) were examined. Two methods, a cell-based assay of ACSL activity and an in situ [14C]-palmitate incorporation into extractable lipids were used to study the inhibition. Using an in vivo leukocyte recruitment inhibition protocol, the translocation of one or more cell adhesion molecules from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane on either the endothelium or leukocyte or both was inhibited by inhibitors 1, 9, and triacsin C. The results suggest that inhibition of ACSL may attenuate the vascular inflammatory component associated with ischemia reperfusion injury and lead to a decrease of infarct expansion. PMID:24480468

  17. Two novel COLVI long chains in zebrafish that are essential for muscle development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanoudjame, Laetitia; Rocancourt, Claire; Lainé, Jeanne; Klein, Arnaud; Joassard, Lucette; Gartioux, Corine; Fleury, Marjory; Lyphout, Laura; Kabashi, Edor; Ciura, Sorana; Cousin, Xavier; Allamand, Valérie

    2015-12-01

    Collagen VI (COLVI), a protein ubiquitously expressed in connective tissues, is crucial for structural integrity, cellular adhesion, migration and survival. Six different genes are recognized in mammalians, encoding six COLVI-chains that assemble as two 'short' (α1, α2) and one 'long' chain (theoretically any one of α3-6). In humans, defects in the most widely expressed heterotrimer (α123), due to mutations in the COL6A1-3 genes, cause a heterogeneous group of neuromuscular disorders, collectively termed COLVI-related muscle disorders. Little is known about the function(s) of the recently described α4-6 chains and no mutations have been detected yet. In this study, we characterized two novel COLVI long chains in zebrafish that are most homologous to the mammalian α4 chain; therefore, we named the corresponding genes col6a4a and col6a4b. These orthologues represent ancestors of the mammalian Col6a4-6 genes. By in situ hybridization and RT-qPCR, we unveiled a distinctive expression kinetics for col6a4b, compared with the other col6a genes. Using morpholino antisense oligonucleotides targeting col6a4a, col6a4b and col6a2, we modelled partial and complete COLVI deficiency, respectively. All morphant embryos presented altered muscle structure and impaired motility. While apoptosis was not drastically increased, autophagy induction was defective in all morphants. Furthermore, motoneuron axon growth was abnormal in these morphants. Importantly, some phenotypical differences emerged between col6a4a and col6a4b morphants, suggesting only partial functional redundancy. Overall, our results further confirm the importance of COLVI in zebrafish muscle development and may provide important clues for potential human phenotypes associated with deficiency of the recently described COLVI-chains. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Synthesis of a metabolically stable modified long-chain fatty acid salt and its photolabile derivative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoll, G.H.; Voges, R.; Gerok, W.; Kurz, G. (Institut fuer Organische Chemie and Biochemie, Universitaet Freiburg (Germany))

    1991-05-01

    An analogue of the long-chain fatty acid salt, sodium stearate, was synthesized in which the hydrogen atoms at carbons 2, 3, and 18 were replaced by fluorine. The key step in the synthesis was the addition of 3-iodo-2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropanoic acid amide to 15,15,15-trifluoro-1-pentadecene. Radioactivity was introduced by catalytic reduction of 2,2,3,3,18,18,18-heptafluoro-4-octadecenoic acid amide with carrier-free tritium gas yielding a product with the specific radioactivity of 2.63 TBq/mmol. The resulting 2,2,3,3,18,18,18-heptafluoro-4-octadecenoic acid has a pKa of about 0.5 and is completely dissociated under normal physiological conditions. The fluorinated fatty acid salt analogue is readily taken up into hepatocytes and proved to be metabolically inert. In an approach to the identification of proteins involved in long-chain fatty acid salt transport across membranes and intracellular compartments, the photolabile derivative 11,11-azo-2,2,3,3,18,18,18-heptafluoro(G-3H)octadecanoic acid sodium salt was synthesized with a specific radioactivity of 2.63 TBq/mmol. Photolysis of the photolabile derivative, using a light source with a maximum emission at 350 nm, occurred with a half-life of 1.5 min. The generated carbene reacted with 14C-labeled methanol and acetonitrile with covalent bond formation of 6-13%. Its efficacy for photoaffinity labeling was demonstrated by incorporation into serum albumin, the extracellular fatty acid salt-binding protein, as well as into the intracellular fatty acid salt-binding protein (FABP) of rat liver with the molecular weight of 14,000.

  19. Nitrogen sparing effect of structured triglycerides containing both medium-and long-chain fatty acids in critically ill patients; a double blind randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, B F; Ruokonen, E; Magnusson-Borg, K; Takala, J

    2001-02-01

    Patients with sepsis and trauma are characterised by hypermetabolism, insulin resistance and protein catabolism. Fat emulsions containing medium chain triglycerides have been suggested to be beneficial for these patients since medium chain fatty acids are a more readily available source of energy when compared to long chain fatty acids. The aim of this study was to compare a medium and long chain triglyceride emulsion consisting of structured triglycerides (ST) with a long chain triglyceride (LCT) emulsion in terms of effects on nitrogen balance, energy metabolism and safety. 30 ICU patients with sepsis or multiple injury received a fat emulsion with ST or 20% LCT (1.5 g triglycerides/kg body weight/day) as a component of total parenteral nutrition (TPN), for 5 days in a double blind randomised parallel group design. The main analysis was made on the 3 day per protocol population due to lack of patients at day 5. There were no differences in baseline characteristics of the two groups receiving either the LCT or the ST emulsion. The efficacy analysis was performed on the per protocol population (n=9 ST, n=11 LCT). There was a significant difference between the two treatments regarding daily nitrogen balances when the first 3 days were analysed P=0.0038). This resulted in an amelioration of the nitrogen balance on day 3 in the group on ST as compared to those on LCT (0.1+/-2.4 g vs -9.9+/-2.1 g P=0.01). The 3 day cumulative nitrogen balance was significantly better in the group receiving ST compared to those on LCT (-0.7+/-6.0 vs -16.7+/-3.9 P=0.03). This better cumulative nitrogen balance on day 3 was also preserved as a tendency (P=0.061) in the analysis of the intention to treat population, but on day 5 there was no significant difference (P=0.08). The ST emulsion was well tolerated and no difference was found compared to the LCT emulsion regarding respiratory quotient, energy expenditure, glucose or triglyceride levels during infusion. Administration of a

  20. Concentrations of long-chain acyl-acyl carrier proteins during fatty acid synthesis by chloroplasts isolated from pea (Pisum sativum), safflower (Carthamus tinctoris), and amaranthus (Amaranthus lividus) leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roughan, G.; Nishida, I.

    1990-01-01

    Fatty acid synthesis from [1-14C]acetate by chloroplasts isolated from peas and amaranthus was linear for at least 15 min, whereas incorporation of the tracer into long-chain acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) did not increase after 2-3 min. When reactions were transferred to the dark after 3-5 min, long-chain acyl-ACPs lost about 90% of their radioactivity and total fatty acids retained all of theirs. Half-lives of the long-chain acyl-ACPs were estimated to be 10-15 s. Concentrations of palmitoyl-, stearoyl-, and oleoyl-ACP as indicated by equilibrium labeling during steady-state fatty acid synthesis, ranged from 0.6-1.1, 0.2-0.7, and 0.4-1.6 microM, respectively, for peas and from 1.6-1.9, 1.3-2.6, and 0.6-1.4 microM, respectively, for amaranthus. These values are based on a chloroplast volume of 47 microliters/mg chlorophyll and varied according to the mode of the incubation. A slow increase in activity of the fatty acid synthetase in safflower chloroplasts resulted in long-chain acyl-ACPs continuing to incorporate labeled acetate for 10 min. Upon re-illumination following a dark break, however, both fatty acid synthetase activity and acyl-ACP concentrations increased very rapidly. Palmitoyl-ACP was present at concentrations up to 2.5 microM in safflower chloroplasts, whereas those of stearoyl- and oleoyl-ACPs were in the lower ranges measured for peas. Acyl-ACPs were routinely separated from extracts of chloroplasts that had been synthesising long-chain fatty acids from labeled acetate by a minor modification of the method of Mancha et al. The results compared favorably with those obtained using alternative analytical methods such as adsorption to filter paper and partition chromatography on silicic acid columns

  1. Long-chain Acyl-CoA is not increased in Myotubes established from Type 2 Diabetic Subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Just, Malene; Faergeman, Nils J; Knudsen, Jens

    2006-01-01

    Accumulation of intramuscular long-chain acyl-CoA esters (LCACoA) has previously in animal and human models been suggested to play an important role in lipid induced insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to examine whether myotubes established from type 2 diabetic (T2D) subjects and lean...... controls express differences in long-chain acyl-CoA esters (LCACoA) precultured under physiological conditions and during chronic exposure to palmitate (PA) and oleic acids (OA) with/without acute insulin stimulation. No significant differences were found between diabetic and control myotubes, neither...

  2. Microscale and nanoscale hierarchical structured mesh films with superhydrophobic and superoleophilic properties induced by long-chain fatty acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shutao; Song Yanlin; Jiang Lei

    2007-01-01

    Inspired by the lotus effect, we fabricate new microscale and nanoscale hierarchical structured copper mesh films by a simple electrochemical deposition. After modification of the long-chain fatty acid monolayer, these films show superhydrophobic and superoleophilic properties, which could be used for the effective separation of oil and water. The length of the fatty acid chain strongly influences the surface wettability of as-prepared films. It is confirmed that the cooperative effect of the hierarchical structure of the copper film and the nature of the long-chain fatty acid contribute to this unique surface wettability

  3. Investigations of model polymers: Dynamics of melts and statics of a long chain in a dilute melt of shorter chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, M.; Ceperley, D.; Frisch, H.L.; Kalos, M.H.

    1982-01-01

    We report additional results on a simple model of polymers, namely the diffusion in concentrated polymer systems and the static properties of one long chain in a dilute melt of shorter chains. It is found, for the polymer sizes and time scales amenable to our computer calculations, that there is as yet no evidence for a ''reptation'' regime in a melt. There is some indication of reptation in the case of a single chain moving through fixed obstacles. No statistically significant effect of the change, from excluded volume behavior of the long chain to ideal behavior as the shorter chains grow, is observed

  4. The hypertriglyceridemic clamp technique. Studies using long-chain and structured triglyceride emulsions in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordenström, Jörgen; Thörne, Anders; Aberg, Wiveca; Carneheim, Claes; Olivecrona, Thomas

    2006-11-01

    In a randomized crossover study, plasma kinetics of 2 different types of fat emulsions were studied in 8 healthy volunteers by using a hypertriglyceridemic clamp technique. The method involves the stabilization of serum triglyceride (TG) concentration during 180 minutes at a predetermined level (4 mmol/L) by adjustment of TG infusion rate by repeated online measurements of serum TG concentration. The fat emulsions under study were a long-chain fatty acid triglyceride (LCT) emulsion (Intralipid 20%, Fresenius Kabi, Sweden) and a structured triglyceride (STG) emulsion (Structolipid 20%, Fresenius Kabi) where medium- and long-chain fatty acids have been interesterified within a TG molecule. The hypertriglyceridemic clamp was found to have acceptable reproducibility when tested in 3 healthy individuals on 2 different occasions, as similar steady-state TG levels were obtained by infusing similar amounts of fat. The average (+/-SEM) TG concentration during the 180-minute clamp was similar for STGs and LCTs (4.0 +/- 0.1 vs 3.9 +/- 0.1 mmol/L; not significant), but the amount of fat that had to be infused was significantly higher during STG than during LCT clamping (0.31 +/- 0.04 vs 0.21 +/- 0.02 g TG per minute; P < .05). Higher serum levels of free fatty acids (1.80 +/- 0.13 vs 0.96 +/- 0.09 mmol/L; P < .05), free glycerol (1.30 +/- 0.07 vs 0.76 +/- 0.08 mmol/L; P < .001), and beta-OH butyrate (1.61 +/- 0.44 vs 1.17 +/- 0.23 mmol/L; not significant) were obtained at the end of the clamp during infusion of STGs compared with LCTs. During infusion of STGs the medium-chain fatty acids octanoic (C:8) and decanoic acid (C:10) constituted approximately half of circulating fatty acids that correspond to the compositional ratio of the emulsion. Plasma lipoprotein lipase (LPL) concentration was higher during STG than during LCT clamping (6.06 +/- 0.62 vs 3.15 +/- 0.40 mU/mL; P < .05), and there was a positive correlation between the mean LPL concentration and the amount of

  5. Metabolism of defined structured triglyceride particles compared to mixtures of medium and long chain triglycerides intravenously infused in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoens, Ch; Deckelbaum, R J; Carpentier, Y A

    2004-08-01

    The present study aimed to determine whether including medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) in specifically designed structured triglycerides (STG) with a MCFA in sn-1 and sn-3 positions and a long-chain (LC) FA in sn-2 position (MLM) would lead to different effects on plasma lipids and FA distribution into plasma and tissue lipids by comparison to a mixture of separate MCT and LCT molecules (MMM/LLL). The fatty acid (FA) composition was comparable in both lipid emulsions. Lipids were infused over 9h daily, in 2 groups of dogs (n = 6 each), for 28 days as a major component (55% of the non-protein energy intake) of total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Blood samples were obtained on specific days, before starting and just before stopping TPN. The concentration of plasma lipids was measured before starting and before stopping TPN on days 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 10, 12, 16 and 28. Biopsies were obtained from liver, muscle and adipose tissue 15 days before starting, and again on the day following cessation of TPN. In addition, the spleen was removed after the TPN period. FA composition in plasma and tissue lipids was analysed by gas liquid chromatography in different lipid components of plasma and tissues. No differences in either safety or tolerance parameters were detected between both lipid preparations. A lower rise of plasma TG (P < 0.05) was observed during MLM infusion, indicating a faster elimination rate of MLM vs MMM/LLL emulsion. In spite of the differences of TG molecules which would be assumed to affect the site of FA delivery and metabolic fate, FA distribution in phospholipids (PL) of hepatic and extrahepatic tissues did not substantially differ between both emulsions. Copyright 2003 Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Role of Intracellular Lipid Logistics in the Preferential Usage of Very Long Chain-Ceramides in Glucosylceramide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Yamaji

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Ceramide is a common precursor of sphingomyelin (SM and glycosphingolipids (GSLs in mammalian cells. Ceramide synthase 2 (CERS2, one of the six ceramide synthase isoforms, is responsible for the synthesis of very long chain fatty acid (C20–26 fatty acids (VLC-containing ceramides (VLC-Cer. It is known that the proportion of VLC species in GSLs is higher than that in SM. To address the mechanism of the VLC-preference of GSLs, we used genome editing to establish three HeLa cell mutants that expressed different amounts of CERS2 and compared the acyl chain lengths of SM and GSLs by metabolic labeling experiments. VLC-sphingolipid expression was increased along with that of CERS2, and the proportion of VLC species in glucosylceramide (GlcCer was higher than that in SM for all expression levels of CERS2. This higher proportion was still maintained even when the proportion of C16-Cer to the total ceramides was increased by disrupting the ceramide transport protein (CERT-dependent C16-Cer delivery pathway for SM synthesis. On the other hand, merging the Golgi apparatus and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER by Brefeldin A decreased the proportion of VLC species in GlcCer probably due to higher accessibility of UDP-glucose ceramide glucosyltransferase (UGCG to C16-rich ceramides. These results suggest the existence of a yet-to-be-identified mechanism rendering VLC-Cer more accessible than C16-Cer to UGCG, which is independent of CERT.

  7. Association between neurotrophin 4 and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid levels in mid-trimester amniotic fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benn, Kiesha; Passos, Mariana; Jayaram, Aswathi; Harris, Mary; Bongiovanni, Ann Marie; Skupski, Daniel; Witkin, Steven S

    2014-11-01

    The omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and the omega-6 LCPUFA arachidonic acid (AA) are essential nervous system components that increase in concentration throughout gestation. The neurotrophins, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF), neurotrophin 3 (NT3), and neurotrophin 4 (NT4) are small basic peptides crucial for fetal brain development. The DHA supplementation during pregnancy has been suggested to enhance neural development. We evaluated whether amniotic fluid DHA and AA concentrations correlated with intra-amniotic neurotrophin levels. Amniotic fluid, obtained at 15 to 19 weeks gestation from 62 women, was tested for BDNF, NGF, NT3, and NT4 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Concentrations of DHA and AA, and saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, were determined by gas chromatography. Associations were analyzed by the Spearman rank correlation test. Median levels of AA and DHA were 2.3% and 1.3% of the total intra-amniotic fatty acids, respectively. Median neurotrophin levels (pg/mL) were 36.7 for NT3, 26.8 for BDNF, 5.2 for NT4, and 0.8 for NGF. Intra-amniotic NT4 and BDNF levels were correlated (P = .0016), while NT3 and NGF levels were unrelated to each other or to BDNF or NT4. Only NT4 was positively correlated with amniotic fluid DHA (P neurotrophin and maternal age, gestational age at time of amniocentesis, amniocentesis indication, parity, or gestational age at delivery. Elevations in intra-amniotic NT4 with increasing levels of DHA and AA suggest that these LCPUFAs may specifically influence the extent of NT4-mediated fetal brain neurogenesis. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Intestinal digestibility of long-chain fatty acids in lactating dairy cows: A meta-analysis and meta-regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerman, J P; Firkins, J L; St-Pierre, N R; Lock, A L

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this analysis was to examine the intestinal digestibility of individual long-chain fatty acids (FA) in lactating dairy cows. Available data were collated from 15 publications containing 61 treatments, which reported total and individual FA duodenal flows and calculations of intestinal digestibility. All studies involved lactating dairy cows, and estimates of digestibility were based on measurements either between the duodenum and ileum (18 treatments) or between the duodenum and feces (43 treatments). Fatty acid digestibility was calculated for C16:0, C18:0, C18:1 (cis and trans isomers), C18:2, and C18:3. Digestibility of C18:0 was lower than for C18:1 and C18:3, with no difference in digestibility between saturated FA (C16:0 and C18:0). We weighted the studies by the reciprocal of the variance to generate best-fit equations to predict individual FA digestibility based on duodenal flow of FA and dietary independent variables. The flow of C18:0 negatively affected the digestibility of C18:0 and was also included in the best-fit equations for all other 18-carbon FA using duodenal flow characteristics. The type of fat supplemented had an effect on digestibility of individual FA, with whole seeds having reduced digestibility. Our meta-analysis results showed minimal differences in the digestibility of individual FA. However, C18:0 flow through the duodenum had a negative effect on the digestibility of several individual FA, with the largest negative effect on C18:0 digestibility. The mechanisms that reduce C18:0 absorption at high concentrations are unknown and warrant further investigation. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Food patterns of Australian children ages 9 to 13 y in relation to ω-3 long chain polyunsaturated intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmawaty, Setyaningrum; Lyons-Wall, Philippa; Batterham, Marijka; Charlton, Karen; Meyer, Barbara J

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine food patterns of Australian children ages 9 to 13 y in relation to ω-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (ω-3 LCPUFA) intake. Secondary analysis was conducted on nationally representative food data of 1110 Australian children ages 9 to 13 y (525 boys and 585 girls) that was obtained using two 24-h recalls. Principle component factor analysis was used to identify food patterns. Discriminant function analysis was used to identify the relationship between the food patterns and total ω-3 LCPUFA intake. Four major food patterns emerged for each sex. For boys these were labeled: "snack foods," "soft drinks," "vegetables," and "pork and meat chops, steak, and mince." For girls they were labeled: "vegetables," "take-away," "tea, coffee, iced coffee drinks" and "canned meals and soup." Fish consumption bought from take-away outlets was more frequently consumed in the "soft drink" (r = 0.577) and take-away (r = 0.485) food pattern in boys and girls, respectively. In contrast, fish prepared at home was more often consumed in "vegetables" in both boys (r = 0.018) and girls (r = 0.106), as well as in the "pork and meat chops, steak and mince" food pattern in boys (r = 0.060). There was a trend that in boys, the "vegetables" group discriminated children who consumed ω-3 LCPUFA levels similar to adequate intakes (AI) (P = 0.067), whereas in girls, the take-away food pattern discriminated for being a fish consumer (P = 0.060). Dietary patterns associated with a high consumption of vegetables and "take-aways" food that include meat and fish are likely to positively influence dietary ω-3 LCPUFA intake in Australian children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Involvement of atypical protein kinase C in the regulation of cardiac glucose and long-chain fatty acid uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daphna D.J. Habets

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The signaling pathways involved in the regulation of cardiac GLUT4 translocation/glucose uptake and CD36 translocation/ long-chain fatty acid uptake are not fully understood. We compared in heart/muscle-specific PKC-λ knockout mice the roles of atypical PKCs (PKC-ζ and PKC-λ in regulating cardiac glucose and fatty acid uptake. Results: Neither insulin-stimulated nor AMPK-mediated glucose and fatty acid uptake were inhibited upon genetic PKC-λ ablation in cardiomyocytes. In contrast, myristoylated PKC-ζ pseudosubstrate inhibited both insulin-stimulated and AMPK-mediated glucose and fatty acid uptake by >80% in both wild-type and PKC-λ-knockout cardiomyocytes. In PKC-λ knockout cardiomyocytes, PKC-ζ is the sole remaining atypical PKC isoform, and its expression level is not different from wild-type cardiomyocytes, in which it contributes to 29% and 17% of total atypical PKC expression and phosphorylation, respectively. Conclusion: Taken together, atypical PKCs are necessary for insulin-stimulated and AMPK-mediated glucose uptake into the heart, as well as for insulin-stimulated and AMPK-mediated fatty acid uptake. However, the residual PKC-ζ activity in PKC-λ-knockout cardiomyocytes is sufficient to allow optimal stimulation of glucose and fatty acid uptake, indicating that atypical PKCs are necessary but not rate-limiting in the regulation of cardiac substrate uptake and that PKC-λ and PKC-ζ have interchangeable functions in these processes.

  11. Raman spectra of long chain hydrocarbons: anharmonic calculations, experiment and implications for imaging of biomembranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šebek, Jiří; Pele, Liat; Potma, Eric O; Gerber, R Benny

    2011-07-28

    First-principles anharmonic vibrational calculations are carried out for the Raman spectrum of the C-H stretching bands in dodecane, and for the C-D bands in the deuterated molecule. The calculations use the Vibrational Self-Consistent Field (VSCF) algorithm. The results are compared with liquid-state experiments, after smoothing the isolated-molecule sharp-line computed spectra. Very good agreement between the computed and experimental results is found for the two systems. The combined theoretical and experimental results provide insights into the spectrum, elucidating the roles of symmetric and asymmetric CH(3) and CH(2) hydrogenic stretches. This is expected to be very useful for the interpretation of spectra of long-chain hydrocarbons. The results show that anharmonic effects on the spectrum are large. On the other hand, vibrational degeneracy effects seem to be rather modest at the resolution of the experiments. The degeneracy effects may have more pronounced manifestations in higher-resolution experiments. The results show that first-principles anharmonic vibrational calculations for hydrocarbons are feasible, in good agreement with experiment, opening the way for applications to many similar systems. The results may be useful for the analysis of CARS imaging of lipids, for which dodecane is a representative molecule. It is suggested that first-principles vibrational calculations may be useful also for CARS imaging of other systems. This journal is © the Owner Societies 2011

  12. Neutral fat hydrolysis and long-chain fatty acid oxidation during anaerobic digestion of slaughterhouse wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masse, L; Massé, D I; Kennedy, K J; Chou, S P

    2002-07-05

    Neutral fat hydrolysis and long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) oxidation rates were determined during the digestion of slaughterhouse wastewater in anaerobic sequencing batch reactors operated at 25 degrees C. The experimental substrate consisted of filtered slaughterhouse wastewater supplemented with pork fat particles at various average initial sizes (D(in)) ranging from 60 to 450 microm. At the D(in) tested, there was no significant particle size effect on the first-order hydrolysis rate. The neutral fat hydrolysis rate averaged 0.63 +/- 0.07 d(-1). LCFA oxidation rate was modelled using a Monod-type equation. The maximum substrate utilization rate (kmax) and the half-saturation concentration (Ks) averaged 164 +/- 37 mg LCFA/L/d and 35 +/- 31 mg LCFA/L, respectively. Pork fat particle degradation was mainly controlled by LCFA oxidation rate and, to a lesser extent, by neutral fat hydrolysis rate. Hydrolysis pretreatment of fat-containing wastewaters and sludges should not substantially accelerate their anaerobic treatment. At a D(in) of 450 microm, fat particles were found to inhibit methane production during the initial 20 h of digestion. Inhibition of methane production in the early phase of digestion was the only significant effect of fat particle size on anaerobic digestion of pork slaughterhouse wastewater. Soluble COD could not be used to determine the rate of lipid hydrolysis due to LCFA adsorption on the biomass.

  13. Alternative Sources of n-3 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Marine Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Varela

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The main source of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA in human nutrition is currently seafood, especially oily fish. Nonetheless, due to cultural or individual preferences, convenience, geographic location, or awareness of risks associated to fatty fish consumption, the intake of fatty fish is far from supplying the recommended dietary levels. The end result observed in most western countries is not only a low supply of n-3 LC-PUFA, but also an unbalance towards the intake of n-6 fatty acids, resulting mostly from the consumption of vegetable oils. Awareness of the benefits of LC-PUFA in human health has led to the use of fish oils as food supplements. However, there is a need to explore alternatives sources of LC-PUFA, especially those of microbial origin. Microalgae species with potential to accumulate lipids in high amounts and to present elevated levels of n-3 LC-PUFA are known in marine phytoplankton. This review focuses on sources of n-3 LC-PUFA, namely eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, in marine microalgae, as alternatives to fish oils. Based on current literature, examples of marketed products and potentially new species for commercial exploitation are presented.

  14. Structure and properties of mixtures based on long chain polyacrylate and 1-alcohol composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Haifeng, E-mail: haifeng.shi@gmail.com; Zhang, Lingjian; Li, Weiwei; Han, Xu; Zhang, Xingxiang

    2014-02-14

    A series of phase change materials (PCMs) based on long chain polyacrylate and 1-alcohol, i.e., poly (stearyl methacrylate) and 1-tetradecanol (PSMA/C14OH) were prepared through the solution-mixing method. Thermal energy storage capacity, thermal stability and morphology of PSMA/C14OH PCMs were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), polarized optical microscopy (POM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). DSC results demonstrated that the heat of fusion of PSMA/C14OH PCMs increased from 85.9 to 172.3 J g{sup −1} with the weight fraction of C14OH increasing from 20 to 80 wt%. And, the thermal stability also enhanced with PSMA weight. The spherulite (ca. 250 μm) in PSMA/C14OH composites containing 60 wt% C14OH proved the compatibility between PSMA and C14OH, indicating the cocrystallization behavior of alkyl side groups appeared. The cocrystallization behavior contributes the enhanced thermal stability of PSMA/C14OH PCMs, and it is suitable as the thermal energy storage materials in the future. - Highlights: • Heat storage capability of PSMA/C14OH PCMs increased with C14OH weight. • The spherulites exhibit the weight-dependence upon C14OH. • The thermal stability of PSMA/C14OH PCMs obviously improved.

  15. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status in children, adolescents and adults with phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramer, Gwendolyn; Haege, Gisela; Langhans, Claus-Dieter; Schuhmann, Vera; Burgard, Peter; Hoffmann, Georg F

    2016-06-01

    Patients with phenylketonuria have been reported to be deficient in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs). It has been postulated that good compliance with the dietary regimen negatively influences LCPUFA status. In 36 patients with phenylketonuria and 18 age-matched healthy control subjects LCPUFA-levels in plasma phospholipids and cholesteryl esters, erythrocyte phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine were evaluated. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels did not differ significantly between patients and control subjects in plasma and erythrocyte fractions. There was a significant negative correlation between SDS (standard deviation) scores of DHA-levels in erythrocyte parameters from the respective age-matched control group and patients' concurrent and long-term phenylalanine levels for erythrocyte phosphatidylethanolamine and erythrocyte phosphatidylcholine. Patients with lower (higher) phenylalanine levels had positive (negative) DHA-SDS. In contrast to previous reports we did not find lower LCPUFA-levels in patients with phenylketonuria compared to age-matched healthy control subjects. Good dietary control was associated with better LCPUFA status. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Aminocarnitine and acylaminocarnitines: Carnitine acyltransferase inhibitors affecting long-chain fatty acid and glucose metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D.J.

    1989-01-01

    DL-Aminocarnitine (DL-3-amino-4-trimethylaminobutyrate) and the acylaminocarnitines acetyl-, decanoyl- and palmitoyl-DL-aminocarnitine have been synthesized and tested as inhibitors of carnitine palmitoyl-transferase and carnitine acetyltransferase in vitro and in vivo. Acetyl-DL-aaminocarnitine is the most potent reversible inhibitor of carnitine acetyltransferase reported to date, and is competitive with respect to acetyl-L-carnitine. Mice given acetyl-DL-aminocarnitine metabolize [U- 14 C]acetyl-L-carnitine at about 60% of the rate of control mice. Palmitoyl-DL-aminocarnitine is the most potent reversible inhibitor of carnitine palmitoyltransferase reported to date. Decanoyl-DL-aminocarnitine and DL-aminocarnitine are also very potent inhibitors; all compounds inhibit the catabolism of [ 14 C]palmitate to 14 CO 2 in intact mice by at least 50%. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase controls the entry of long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondrial matrix for β-oxidation. The inhibition of carnitine palmitoyltransferase by aminocarnitine or acylaminocarnitines in vivo prevents or reverses ketogenesis in fasted mice, and causes the reversible accumulation of triglycerides in liver, kidney and plasma. Administration of DL-aminocarnitine to streptozotocindiabetic mice lowers plasma glucose levels and improves the glucose tolerance test

  17. Long-chain omega-3 from low-trophic-level fish provides value to farmed seafood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibus, Douglas M

    2015-03-01

    Low-trophic-level fish are a crucial source of long-chain (LC) omega-3 fatty acids for farmed fish and humans. Many farm-raised fish species have a clear need for these nutrients. Farmed fish deposit the LC omega-3s in their flesh and transfer them up the food chain. However, the content of LC omega-3s in farm-raised seafood continues to decline, while the content of shorter-chain plant-sourced omega-3s, and pro-inflammtory omega-6s continue to increase. This reduces its nutritional worth. The value of low-trophic-level fish is often viewed merely as its price at the dock. Some reports and metrics steer public attention towards the mass balance between quantities of low-trophic-level fish and farmed seafood. However, the the nutritional value of seafood is more important than its mere quantities. The role of low-trophic-level fish in human nutrition, health, and wellbeing is a fundamental component of its economic value to society.

  18. A directed walk model of a long chain polymer in a slit with attractive walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brak, R; Owczarek, A L; Rechnitzer, A; Whittington, S G

    2005-01-01

    We present the exact solutions of various directed walk models of polymers confined to a slit and interacting with the walls of the slit via an attractive potential. We consider three geometric constraints on the ends of the polymer and concentrate on the long chain limit. Apart from the general interest in the effect of geometrical confinement, this can be viewed as a two-dimensional model of steric stabilization and sensitized flocculation of colloidal dispersions. We demonstrate that the large width limit admits a phase diagram that is markedly different from the one found in a half-plane geometry, even when the polymer is constrained to be fixed at both ends on one wall. We are not able to find a closed form solution for the free energy for finite width, at all values of the interaction parameters, but we can calculate the asymptotic behaviour for large widths everywhere in the phase plane. This allows us to find the force between the walls induced by the polymer and hence the regions of the plane where either steric stabilization or sensitized flocculation would occur

  19. Comparison of diet-induced thermogenesis of foods containing medium- versus long-chain triacylglycerols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasai, Michio; Nosaka, Naohisa; Maki, Hideaki; Suzuki, Yoshie; Takeuchi, Hiroyuki; Aoyama, Toshiaki; Ohra, Atsushi; Harada, Youji; Okazaki, Mitsuko; Kondo, Kazuo

    2002-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 5-10 g of medium-chain triacylglycerols (MCT) on diet-induced thermogenesis in healthy humans. The study compared diet-induced thermogenesis after ingestion of test foods containing MCT and long-chain triacylglycerols (LCT), using a double-blind, crossover design. Eight male and eight female subjects participated in study 1 and study 2, respectively. In both studies, the LCT was a blend of rapeseed oil and soybean oil. In study 1, the liquid meals contained 10 g MCT (10M), a mixture of 5 g MCT and 5 g LCT (5M5L), and 10 g LCT (10L). In study 2, the subjects were given a meal (sandwich and clear soup) with the mayonnaise or margarine containing 5 g of MCT or LCT. Postprandial energy expenditure was measured by indirect calorimetry before and during the 6 h after ingestion of the test meals. Diet-induced thermogenesis was significantly greater after 5M5L and 10M Ingestion as compared to 10L ingestion. Ingestion of the mayonnaise or margarine containing 5 g MCT caused significantly larger diet-induced thermogenesis as compared to that of LCT. These results suggest that, in healthy humans, the intake of 5-10 g of MCT causes larger diet-induced thermogenesis than that of LCT, irrespective of the form of meal containing the MCT.

  20. APOE e4 and the associations of seafood and long-chain omega-3 fatty acids with cognitive decline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rest, van de Ondine; Wang, Yamin; Barnes, Lisa L.; Tangney, Christine; Bennett, David A.; Morris, Martha Clare

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between consumption of seafood and long-chain n-3 fatty acids with change in 5 cognitive domains over an average of 4.9 years. Methods: From an ongoing longitudinal, community-based epidemiologic study of aging and dementia (the Rush Memory and Aging

  1. Impact of culturing conditions on the abundance and composition of long chain alkyl diols in species of the genus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balzano, S.; Villanueva, L.; de Bar, M.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Schouten, S.

    2017-01-01

    Long chain alkyl diols (LCDs) are widespread in sediments and are synthesized, among others, by microalgae of the genus Nannochloropsis. The factors regulating the synthesis of LCDs and their biological function are, however, unclear. We investigated the changes in abundance of free + ester-bound

  2. STATISTICAL EVALUATION OF AN ANALYTICAL GC/MS METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF LONG CHAIN FATTY ACIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    In-depth evaluation of an analytical method to detect and quantify long chain fatty acids (C8 - C16) at trace level concentrations (25-1000 µg/l) is presented. The method requires derivatization of the acids with methanolic boron trifluoride, separation, and...

  3. Food withdrawal lowers energy expenditure and induces inactivity in long-chain fatty acid oxidation-deficient mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekman, Eugene F; van Weeghel, Michel; Wanders, Ronald J A; Visser, Gepke; Houten, Sander M

    2014-07-01

    Very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency is an inherited disorder of mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid β-oxidation (FAO). Patients with VLCAD deficiency may present with hypoglycemia, hepatomegaly, cardiomyopathy, and myopathy. Although several mouse models have been developed to aid in the study of the pathogenesis of long-chain FAO defects, the muscular phenotype is underexposed. To address the muscular phenotype, we used a newly developed mouse model on a mixed genetic background with a more severe defect in FAO (LCAD(-/-); VLCAD(+/-)) in addition to a validated mouse model (LCAD(-/-); VLCAD(+/+)) and compared them with wild-type (WT) mice. We found that both mouse models show a 20% reduction in energy expenditure (EE) and a 3-fold decrease in locomotor activity in the unfed state. In addition, we found a 1.7°C drop in body temperature in unfed LCAD(-/-); VLCAD(+/+) mice compared with WT body temperature. We conclude that food withdrawal-induced inactivity, hypothermia, and reduction in EE are novel phenotypes associated with FAO deficiency in mice. Unexpectedly, inactivity was not explained by rhabdomyolysis, but rather reflected the overall reduced capacity of these mice to generate heat. We suggest that mice are partly protected against the negative consequence of an FAO defect.-Diekman, E. F., van Weeghel, M., Wanders, R. J. A., Visser, G., Houten, S. M. Food withdrawal lowers energy expenditure and induces inactivity in long-chain fatty acid oxidation-deficient mouse models. © FASEB.

  4. Abnormal mitochondrial bioenergetics and heart rate dysfunction in mice lacking very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Exil, VJ; Gardner, CD; Rottman, JN; Sims, H; Bartelds, B; Khuchua, Z; Sindhal, R; Ni, GM; Strauss, AW

    Mitochondrial very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase ( VLCAD) deficiency is associated with severe hypoglycemia, cardiac dysfunction, and sudden death in neonates and children. Sudden death is common, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We report on a mouse model of VLCAD

  5. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and neurological developmental outcome at 18 months in healthy term infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwstra, H; Dijck-Brouwer, DAJ; Boehm, G; Boersma, ER; Muskiet, FAJ; Hadders-Algra, M

    Aim: Previously, we found a beneficial effect of 2 mo supplementation of infant formula with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) on neurological condition at 3 mo in healthy term infants. The aim of the present follow-up study was to evaluate whether the effect on neurological condition

  6. The Impact of Dietary Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Respiratory Illness in Infants and Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hageman, J.H.J.; Hooyenga, P.; Diersen-Schade, D.A.; Scalabrin, D.M.F.; Wichers, H.J.; Birch, E.E.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that intake of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA), especially omega-3 LCPUFA, improves respiratory health early in life. This review summarizes publications from 2009 through July 2012 that evaluated effects of fish, fish oil or LCPUFA intake during

  7. Altered Energetics of Exercise Explain Risk of Rhabdomyolysis in Very Long-Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diekman, E. F.; Visser, G.; Schmitz, J. P. J.; Nievelstein, R. A. J.; de Sain-van der Velden, M.; Wardrop, M.; van der Pol, W. L.; Houten, S. M.; van Riel, N. A. W.; Takken, T.; Jeneson, J. A. L.

    2016-01-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is common in very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (VLCADD) and other metabolic myopathies, but its pathogenic basis is poorly understood. Here, we show that prolonged bicycling exercise against a standardized moderate workload in VLCADD patients is associated with

  8. Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, fish intake, and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus123

    OpenAIRE

    Kaushik, Manas; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Spiegelman, Donna; Manson, JoAnn E; Willett, Walter C; Hu, Frank B

    2009-01-01

    Background: Diet is a key component of a healthy lifestyle in the prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The role of long-chain omega-3 (n–3) fatty acids (LCFAs) in the development of T2DM remains unresolved.

  9. Fibroblast Growth Factor-21 and the Beneficial Effects of Long-Chain n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Villarroya, J.; Flachs, Pavel; Redondo-Angulo, I.; Giralt, M.; Medříková, Daša; Villarroya, F.; Kopecký, Jan; Planavila, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 11 (2014), s. 1081-1089 ISSN 0024-4201 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-00871S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : fibroblast growth factor-21 * long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fat ty acids Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 1.854, year: 2014

  10. Establishment and Characterization of an Anaerobic Thermophilic (55 degrees C) Enrichment Culture Degrading Long-Chain Fatty Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    1995-01-01

    A thermophilic, long-chain fatty acid-oxidizing culture was enriched. Stearate was used as the substrate, and methane and carbon dioxide were the sole end products. Cultivation was possible only when a fed-batch system was used or with addition of activated carbon or bentonite. The enrichment...

  11. Long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency and early-onset liver cirrhosis in two siblings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Maldergem, L.; Tuerlinckx, D.; Wanders, R. J.; Vianey-Saban, C.; van Hoof, F.; Martin, J. J.; Fourneau, C.; Gillerot, Y.; Bachy, A.

    2000-01-01

    We present the clinical, pathological, biochemical, and molecular results on an infant girl with long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency and data on her deceased elder brother for whom this condition was retrospectively diagnosed. Clinical signs were liver enlargement and

  12. A LONG CHAIN ALCOHOL AND TWO STEROL COMPOUNDS FROM THE HEXANE EXTRACT OF STEM BARK OF Aglaia odorata Lour. (Meliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tukiran Tukiran

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A long chain alcohol, 1-eicosanol together with two sterols, β-sitosterol and stigmasterol had been isolated from hexane extract of stem bark of pacar cina (Aglaia odorata Lour (Meliaceae. These structures had been established based on spectroscopic data (IR and NMR and by comparison to those of standard compounds.   Keywords: Aglaia odorata Lour, Alcohol, Meliaceae, Sterol

  13. Involvement of atypical protein kinase C in the regulation of cardiac glucose and long-chain fatty acid uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habets, Daphna D J; Luiken, Joost J F P; Ouwens, Margriet

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The signaling pathways involved in the regulation of cardiac GLUT4 translocation/glucose uptake and CD36 translocation/long-chain fatty acid uptake are not fully understood. We compared in heart/muscle-specific PKC-¿ knockout mice the roles of atypical PKCs (PKC-¿ and PKC-¿) in regulating...

  14. Long-chain acyl-CoA-dependent regulation of gene expression in bacteria, yeast and mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Black, P N; Færgeman, Nils J.; DiRusso, C C

    2000-01-01

    ). Both repression and activation are dependent upon the function of either of the acyl-CoA synthetases Faa1p or Faa4p. In mammals, purified hepatocyte nuclear transcription factor 4alpha (HNF-4alpha) like E. coli FadR, binds long chain acyl-CoA directly. Coexpression of HNF-4alpha and acyl-CoA synthetase...

  15. Excess portal venous long-chain fatty acids induce syndrome X via HPA axis and sympathetic activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benthem, L; Keizer, Klaas-Jan; Wiegman, CH; De Boer, SF; Strubbe, JH; Steffens, AB; Kuipers, F; Scheurink, AJW

    2000-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that excessive portal venous supply of long-chain fatty acids to the liver contributes to the development of insulin resistance via activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis) and sympathetic system. Rats received an intraportal infusion of the

  16. Prenatal long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status : the importance of a balanced intake of docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2008-01-01

    This review addresses the effect of prenatal long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) status on neuro-developmental outcome. It focuses on the major LPCUFA doxosahexaenoic acid (DNA; 22:6 omega 3) and arachidonic acid (AA; 20:4 omega 6). Due to enzymatic competition high DHA intake results in

  17. Reference values of amino acids, acylcarnitines and succinylacetone by tandem mass spectrometry for use in newborn screening in southwest Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Céspedes, Nora; Valencia, Angela; Echeverry, Carlos Alberto; Arce-Plata, Maria Isabel; Colón, Cristóbal; Castiñeiras, Daisy E; Hurtado, Paula Margarita; Cocho, Jose Angel; Herrera, Sócrates; Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam

    2017-09-30

    Inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) represent an important public health problem due to current diagnosis and treatment limitations, poor life quality of affected patients, and consequent untimely child death. In contrast to classical methods, tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) has allowed simultaneous evaluation of multiple metabolites associated with IEM offering higher sensitivity, low false positive rates and high throughput. Determine concentration levels for amino acids and acylcarnitines in blood of newborns from Colombia, to establish reference values for further use in diagnosis of IEM. Implementation of a method to determine amino acids, acylcarnitines and succinylacetone in newborn dried blood spots using MS/MS, and its application in a cross-sectional study conducted in 891 healthy neonates from Cali and Quibdo cities is described. fifty-seven analytes that allow the diagnosis of more than 40 different pathologies were tested. The method showed to be linear, precise and accurate. Healthy neonates 1-18 days of age were included, 523 from Cali and 368 from Quibdo; 52% male and 48% female. Age-related differences on the concentration levels of amino acids and acylcarnitines were observed whereas no significant differences by gender were found. The study has contributed to reveal the usual concentration levels of amino acids, acylcarnitines and succinylacetone that could be used as reference for the establishment of a newborn metabolic screening program in Colombia.

  18. Anesthesia and bariatric surgery gut preparation alter plasma acylcarnitines reflective of mitochondrial fat and branched-chain amino acid oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The period around bariatric surgery offers a unique opportunity to characterize metabolism responds to dynamic shifts in energy, gut function, and anesthesia. We analyzed plasma acylcarnitines in obese women (n=17) sampled in the overnight fasted/postabsorptive state ca. 1-2 weeks prior to surgery ...

  19. Acylcarnitines as markers of exercise-associated fuel partitioning, xenometabolism, and potential signals to muscle afferent neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    With insulin-resistance or type 2 diabetes mellitus, mismatches between mitochondrial fatty acid fuel delivery and oxidative phosphorylation/tricarboxylic acid cycle activity may contribute to inordinate accumulation of short- or medium-chain acylcarnitine fatty acid derivatives (markers of incomple...

  20. Dietary intake and adipose tissue content of long-chain n-3 PUFAs and subsequent 5-y change in body weight and waist circumference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Marianne U; Madsen, Lise; Skjøth, Flemming; Berentzen, Tina L; Halkjær, Jytte; Tjønneland, Anne; Schmidt, Erik B; Sørensen, Thorkild Ia; Kristiansen, Karsten; Overvad, Kim

    2017-05-01

    Background: Adding long-chain n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) to a rodent diet reduces fat mass and prevents the development of obesity, but evidence of a similar effect in humans is rather limited. Objectives: We investigated the associations between dietary intake and adipose tissue content of long-chain n-3 PUFAs and subsequent 5-y change in body weight and waist circumference in humans. Effect modification by the carbohydrate:protein ratio and glycemic index was also investigated. Design: A total of 29,152 participants included in the Diet, Cancer, and Health cohort were followed. Dietary intake was assessed with the use of a validated 192-item semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Adipose tissue content of fatty acids was determined by gas chromatography in a random sample of the cohort ( n = 1660). Anthropometric measurements were taken at baseline and 5 y later. Associations were investigated with the use of a linear regression model. Results: For high (1.22 g/d) compared with low (0.28 g/d) total n-3 PUFA intake, the difference in 5-y weight change was 147.6 g (95% CI: -42.3, 337.5 g); P -trend = 0.088. No associations between the individual n-3 PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid were observed. Intake of n-3 PUFAs was not associated with a 5-y change in waist circumference. For high (0.16%) compared with low (0.06%) adipose tissue content of EPA, the difference in 5-y weight change was -649.6 g (95% CI: -1254.2, -44.9 g); P -trend = 0.027. No associations between total n-3 PUFA, docosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid and 5-y weight change were observed. Adipose tissue content of n-3 PUFAs was not associated with 5-y change in waist circumference. No effect modification by carbohydrate:protein ratio or glycemic index was found. Conclusion: Dietary intake and adipose tissue content of long-chain n-3 PUFAs were neither consistently nor appreciably associated with change in body weight

  1. Serum Levels of Acyl-Carnitines along the Continuum from Normal to Alzheimer's Dementia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Cristofano

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the serum levels of free L-carnitine, acetyl-L-carnitine and 34 acyl-L-carnitine in healthy subjects and in patients with or at risk of Alzheimer's disease. Twenty-nine patients with probable Alzheimer's disease, 18 with mild cognitive impairment of the amnestic type, 24 with subjective memory complaint and 46 healthy subjects were enrolled in the study, and the levels of carnitine and acyl-carnitines were measured by tandem mass spectrometry. The concentrations of acetyl-L-carnitine progressively decreased passing from healthy subjects group (mean±SD, 5.6±1.3 μmol/L to subjective memory complaint (4.3±0.9 μmol/L, mild cognitive impairment (4.0±0.53 μmol/L, up to Alzheimer's disease (3.5±0.6 μmol/L group (p<0.001. The differences were significant for the comparisons: healthy subjects vs. subjective memory complaint, mild cognitive impairment or Alzheimer's disease group; and subjective memory complaint vs. Alzheimer's disease group. Other acyl-carnitines, such as malonyl-, 3-hydroxyisovaleryl-, hexenoyl-, decanoyl-, dodecanoyl-, dodecenoyl-, myristoyl-, tetradecenoyl-, hexadecenoyl-, stearoyl-, oleyl- and linoleyl-L-carnitine, showed a similar decreasing trend, passing from healthy subjects to patients at risk of or with Alzheimer's disease. These results suggest that serum acetyl-L-carnitine and other acyl-L-carnitine levels decrease along the continuum from healthy subjects to subjective memory complaint and mild cognitive impairment subjects, up to patients with Alzheimer's disease, and that the metabolism of some acyl-carnitines is finely connected among them. These findings also suggest that the serum levels of acetyl-L-carnitine and other acyl-L-carnitines could help to identify the patients before the phenotype conversion to Alzheimer's disease and the patients who would benefit from the treatment with acetyl-L-carnitine. However, further validation on a larger number of samples in a longitudinal

  2. Serum Levels of Acyl-Carnitines along the Continuum from Normal to Alzheimer's Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapere, Nadia; La Marca, Giancarlo; Angiolillo, Antonella; Vitale, Michela; Corbi, Graziamaria; Scapagnini, Giovanni; Intrieri, Mariano; Russo, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the serum levels of free L-carnitine, acetyl-L-carnitine and 34 acyl-L-carnitine in healthy subjects and in patients with or at risk of Alzheimer’s disease. Twenty-nine patients with probable Alzheimer’s disease, 18 with mild cognitive impairment of the amnestic type, 24 with subjective memory complaint and 46 healthy subjects were enrolled in the study, and the levels of carnitine and acyl-carnitines were measured by tandem mass spectrometry. The concentrations of acetyl-L-carnitine progressively decreased passing from healthy subjects group (mean±SD, 5.6±1.3 μmol/L) to subjective memory complaint (4.3±0.9 μmol/L), mild cognitive impairment (4.0±0.53 μmol/L), up to Alzheimer’s disease (3.5±0.6 μmol/L) group (p<0.001). The differences were significant for the comparisons: healthy subjects vs. subjective memory complaint, mild cognitive impairment or Alzheimer’s disease group; and subjective memory complaint vs. Alzheimer’s disease group. Other acyl-carnitines, such as malonyl-, 3-hydroxyisovaleryl-, hexenoyl-, decanoyl-, dodecanoyl-, dodecenoyl-, myristoyl-, tetradecenoyl-, hexadecenoyl-, stearoyl-, oleyl- and linoleyl-L-carnitine, showed a similar decreasing trend, passing from healthy subjects to patients at risk of or with Alzheimer’s disease. These results suggest that serum acetyl-L-carnitine and other acyl-L-carnitine levels decrease along the continuum from healthy subjects to subjective memory complaint and mild cognitive impairment subjects, up to patients with Alzheimer’s disease, and that the metabolism of some acyl-carnitines is finely connected among them. These findings also suggest that the serum levels of acetyl-L-carnitine and other acyl-L-carnitines could help to identify the patients before the phenotype conversion to Alzheimer’s disease and the patients who would benefit from the treatment with acetyl-L-carnitine. However, further validation on a larger number of samples in a longitudinal

  3. PTH1 receptor is involved in mediating cellular response to long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Candelario

    Full Text Available The molecular pathways by which long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA influence skeletal health remain elusive. Both LCPUFA and parathyroid hormone type 1 receptor (PTH1R are known to be involved in bone metabolism while any direct link between the two is yet to be established. Here we report that LCPUFA are capable of direct, PTH1R dependent activation of extracellular ligand-regulated kinases (ERK. From a wide range of fatty acids studied, varying in chain length, saturation, and position of double bonds, eicosapentaenoic (EPA and docosahexaenoic fatty acids (DHA caused the highest ERK phosphorylation. Moreover, EPA potentiated the effect of parathyroid hormone (PTH(1-34 in a superagonistic manner. EPA or DHA dependent ERK phosphorylation was inhibited by the PTH1R antagonist and by knockdown of PTH1R. Inhibition of PTH1R downstream signaling molecules, protein kinases A (PKA and C (PKC, reduced EPA and DHA dependent ERK phosphorylation indicating that fatty acids predominantly activate G-protein pathway and not the β-arrestin pathway. Using picosecond time-resolved fluorescence microscopy and a genetically engineered PTH1R sensor (PTH-CC, we detected conformational responses to EPA similar to those caused by PTH(1-34. PTH1R antagonist blocked the EPA induced conformational response of the PTH-CC. Competitive binding studies using fluorescence anisotropy technique showed that EPA and DHA competitively bind to and alter the affinity of PTH1 receptor to PTH(1-34 leading to a superagonistic response. Finally, we showed that EPA stimulates protein kinase B (Akt phosphorylation in a PTH1R-dependent manner and affects the osteoblast survival pathway, by inhibiting glucocorticoid-induced cell death. Our findings demonstrate for the first time that LCPUFAs, EPA and DHA, can activate PTH1R receptor at nanomolar concentrations and consequently provide a putative molecular mechanism for the action of fatty acids in bone.

  4. Omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids support aerial insectivore performance more than food quantity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twining, Cornelia W; Brenna, J Thomas; Lawrence, Peter; Shipley, J Ryan; Tollefson, Troy N; Winkler, David W

    2016-09-27

    Once-abundant aerial insectivores, such as the Tree Swallow (Tachycineta bicolor), have declined steadily in the past several decades, making it imperative to understand all aspects of their ecology. Aerial insectivores forage on a mixture of aquatic and terrestrial insects that differ in fatty acid composition, specifically long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) content. Aquatic insects contain high levels of both LCPUFA and their precursor omega-3 PUFA, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), whereas terrestrial insects contain much lower levels of both. We manipulated both the quantity and quality of food for Tree Swallow chicks in a full factorial design. Diets were either high-LCPUFA or low in LCPUFA but high in ALA, allowing us to separate the effects of direct LCPUFA in diet from the ability of Tree Swallows to convert their precursor, ALA, into LCPUFA. We found that fatty acid composition was more important for Tree Swallow chick performance than food quantity. On high-LCPUFA diets, chicks grew faster, were in better condition, and had greater immunocompetence and lower basal metabolic rates compared with chicks on both low LCPUFA diets. Increasing the quantity of high-LCPUFA diets resulted in improvements to all metrics of performance while increasing the quantity of low-LCPUFA diets only resulted in greater immunocompetence and lower metabolic rates. Chicks preferentially retained LCPUFA in brain and muscle when both food quantity and LCPUFA were limited. Our work suggests that fatty acid composition is an important dimension of aerial insectivore nutritional ecology and reinforces the importance of high-quality aquatic habitat for these declining birds.

  5. Impact of medium and long chain triglycerides consumption on appetite and food intake in overweight men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Onge, M-P; Mayrsohn, B; O'Keeffe, M; Kissileff, H R; Choudhury, A R; Laferrère, B

    2014-10-01

    Medium chain triglycerides (MCT) enhance thermogenesis and may reduce food intake relative to long chain triglycerides (LCT). The goal of this study was to establish the effects of MCT on appetite and food intake and determine whether differences were due to differences in hormone concentrations. Two randomized, crossover studies were conducted in which overweight men consumed 20 g of MCT or corn oil (LCT) at breakfast. Blood samples were obtained over 3 h. In Study 1 (n=10), an ad lib lunch was served after 3 h. In Study 2 (n=7), a preload containing 10 g of test oil was given at 3 h and lunch was served 1 h later. Linear mixed model analyses were performed to determine the effects of MCT and LCT oil on change in hormones and metabolites from fasting, adjusting for body weight. Correlations were computed between differences in hormones just before the test meals and differences in intakes after the two oils for Study 1 only. Food intake at the lunch test meal after the MCT preload (Study 2) was (mean±s.e.m.) 532±389 kcal vs 804±486 kcal after LCT (Ptriglycerides (P=0.014) and glucose (P=0.066) and a higher rise in peptide YY (PYY, P=0.017) and leptin (P=0.036) compared with LCT (combined data). Correlations between differences in hormone levels (glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1), PYY) and differences in food intake were in the opposite direction to expectations. MCT consumption reduced food intake acutely but this does not seem to be mediated by changes in GLP-1, PYY and insulin.

  6. Long-chain bases from sea cucumber mitigate endoplasmic reticulum stress and inflammation in obesity mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiwei Hu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress and inflammation can induce hyperglycemia. Long-chain bases (LCBs from sea cucumber exhibit antihyperglycemic activities. However, their effects on ER stress and inflammation are unknown. We investigated the effects of LCBs on ER stress and inflammatory response in high-fat, fructose diet-induced obesity mice. Reactive oxygen species and free fatty acids were measured. Inflammatory cytokines in serum and their mRNA expressions in epididymal adipose tissues were investigated. Hepatic ER stress-related key genes were detected. c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase and nuclear factor κB inflammatory pathways were also evaluated in the liver. Results showed that LCBs reduced serum and hepatic reactive oxygen species and free fatty acids concentrations. LCBs decreased serum proinflammatory cytokines levels, namely interleukin (IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-6, macrophage inflammatory protein 1, and c-reactive protein, and increased anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 concentration. The mRNA and protein expressions of these cytokines in epididymal adipose tissues were regulated by LCBs as similar to their circulatory contents. LCBs inhibited phosphorylated c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase and inhibitor κ kinase β, and nuclear factor κB nuclear translocation. LCBs also inhibited mRNA expression of ER stress markers glucose regulated protein, activating transcription factor 6, double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase, and X-box binding protein 1, and phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor-α and inositol requiring enzyme 1α. These results indicate that LCBs can alleviate ER stress and inflammatory response. Nutritional supplementation with LCBs may offer an adjunctive therapy for RE stress-associated inflammation.

  7. Drug discovery opportunities and challenges at G protein coupled receptors for long chain free fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas D Holliday

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Discovery of G protein coupled receptors for long chain free fatty acids (FFAs, FFA1 (GPR40 and GPR120, has expanded our understanding of these nutrients as signalling molecules. These receptors have emerged as important sensors for FFA levels in the circulation or the gut lumen, based on evidence from in vitro and rodent models, and an increasing number of human studies. Here we consider their promise as therapeutic targets for metabolic disease, including type 2 diabetes and obesity. FFA1 directly mediates acute FFA-induced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in pancreatic beta-cells, while GPR120 and FFA1 trigger release of incretins from intestinal endocrine cells, and so indirectly enhance insulin secretion and promote satiety. GPR120 signalling in adipocytes and macrophages also results in insulin sensitizing and beneficial anti-inflammatory effects. Drug discovery has focussed on agonists to replicate acute benefits of FFA receptor signalling, with promising early results for FFA1 agonists in man. Controversy surrounding chronic effects of FFA1 on beta-cells illustrates that long term benefits of antagonists also need exploring. It has proved challenging to generate highly selective potent ligands for FFA1 or GPR120 subtypes, given that both receptors have hydrophobic orthosteric binding sites, which are not completely defined and have modest ligand affinity. Structure activity relationships are also reliant on functional read outs, in the absence of robust binding assays to provide direct affinity estimates. Nevertheless synthetic ligands have already helped dissect specific contributions of FFA1 and GPR120 signalling from the many possible cellular effects of FFAs. Approaches including use of fluorescent ligand binding assays, and targeting allosteric receptor sites, may improve further preclinical ligand development at these receptors, to exploit their unique potential to target multiple facets of diabetes.

  8. Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Clinical Outcomes of Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapillonne, Alexandre; Moltu, Sissel J

    2016-01-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) play specific roles during the perinatal period and are very important nutrients to consider. The possible effects of LCPUFAs, particularly docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), on various clinical outcomes of preterm infants are discussed in this paper. Since DHA accumulates in the central nervous system during development, a lot of attention has focused on the effects of DHA on neurodevelopment. Experimental studies as well as recent clinical trials show that providing larger amounts of DHA than currently and routinely provided is associated with better neurological outcomes at 18 months to 2 years. This early advantage, however, does not seem to translate into detectable change in visual and neurodevelopmental outcomes or behavior when assessed in childhood. There is growing evidence that, in addition to effects on development, omega-3 LCPUFAs may reduce the incidence or severity of neonatal morbidities by affecting different steps of the immune and anti-inflammatory response. Studies in preterm infants suggest that the omega-3 LCPUFAs may play a significant role by reducing the risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, necrotizing enterocolitis and possibly retinopathy of prematurity and sepsis. Overall, evidence is increasing to support the benefits of high-dose DHA for various health outcomes of preterm infants. These findings are of major clinical relevance mainly because infants born preterm are at particularly high risk for a nutritional deficit in omega-3 fatty acids, predisposing to adverse neonatal outcomes. Further studies are warranted to address these issues as well as to more precisely determine the LCPUFA requirement in order to favor the best possible outcomes of preterm infants. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Reinvestigation of the radiopharmaceutical production of radioiodinated long-chain fatty acids. Vol. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Shaboury, G; El-Kolaly, M T; Raieh, M [Labelled Compounds Department, Hot Laboratories Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    An improved and simple radiopharmaceutical production technique for radioiodination of {omega} - (Br) or (I) fatty acids ({omega}) - Br or I-(C H{sub 2}){sub n} Co{sub 2} H, where n = 16 to 17 with Na{sup 13I} for myocardial imaging study is described. The technique of production is reported here based on an isotope or non - isotopic exchange reaction between the inactive halogenated fatty acids and lyophilized ethanolic solution of Na{sup 131} I (previously dispensed in 0.02 M NaOH solution) at 80 Degree C within 30 min in absolute ethanol (dehydrated and redistill at 78.5 to 80 degree C over nitrobenzene b.p. 208 to 212 degree C). Although considerable radiochemical yields have been obtained using a wide variety of organic solvents as an isotropic or non-isotropic exchange media such as acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, benzene as well as di-n-propyl ketone; certain problems due to the evaporation of these solvents during the process of purification have been observed. These problems were completely avoided by the initial dissolution of the reactants in dehydrated ethyl alcohol which facilitate direct dispensing of the final radioiodinated acids in diluted human serum albumen without any decomposition. Basically, following the radioiodination process the radioiodinated fatty acids ethanolic solution is passed through out an AgCl-impregnated filter to remove the untreated inorganic radioiodine (2 to 5%). The final pure solution (containing over 99.o% radioiodinated pure fatty acids) is dispensed in human serum albumen (4%), and then sterilized by passing it through 0.22 mum milli pore bacterial filter. The technique is being applied for the radiopharmaceutical production of radioiodinated-phenyl long-chain fatty acids such as iodo phenoxy-, and iodobenzamido-heptadecanoic acids. 3 figs.

  10. Long-Chain Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Modulate Mammary Gland Composition and Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadge, Saraswoti; Thiele, Geoffrey M; Sharp, John Graham; McGuire, Timothy R; Klassen, Lynell W; Black, Paul N; DiRusso, Concetta C; Talmadge, James E

    2018-03-25

    Studies in rodents have shown that dietary modifications as mammary glands (MG) develop, regulates susceptibility to mammary tumor initiation. However, the effects of dietary PUFA composition on MGs in adult life, remains poorly understood. This study investigated morphological alterations and inflammatory microenvironments in the MGs of adult mice fed isocaloric and isolipidic liquid diets with varying compositions of omega (ω)-6 and long-chain (Lc)-ω3FA that were pair-fed. Despite similar consumption levels of the diets, mice fed the ω-3 diet had significantly lower body-weight gains, and abdominal-fat and mammary fat pad (MFP) weights. Fatty acid analysis showed significantly higher levels of Lc-ω-3FAs in the MFPs of mice on the ω-3 diet, while in the MFPs from the ω-6 group, Lc-ω-3FAs were undetectable. Our study revealed that MGs from ω-3 group had a significantly lower ductal end-point density, branching density, an absence of ductal sprouts, a thinner ductal stroma, fewer proliferating epithelial cells and a lower transcription levels of estrogen receptor 1 and amphiregulin. An analysis of the MFP and abdominal-fat showed significantly smaller adipocytes in the ω-3 group, which was accompanied by lower transcription levels of leptin, IGF1, and IGF1R. Further, MFPs from the ω-3 group had significantly decreased numbers and sizes of crown-like-structures (CLS), F4/80+ macrophages and decreased expression of proinflammatory mediators including Ptgs2, IL6, CCL2, TNFα, NFκB, and IFNγ. Together, these results support dietary Lc-ω-3FA regulation of MG structure and density and adipose tissue inflammation with the potential for dietary Lc-ω-3FA to decrease the risk of mammary gland tumor formation.

  11. Intracellular long-chain acyl CoAs activate TRPV1 channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Yu

    Full Text Available TRPV1 channels are an important class of membrane proteins that play an integral role in the regulation of intracellular cations such as calcium in many different tissue types. The anionic phospholipid phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2 is a known positive modulator of TRPV1 channels and the negatively charged phosphate groups interact with several basic amino acid residues in the proximal C-terminal TRP domain of the TRPV1 channel. We and other groups have shown that physiological sub-micromolar levels of long-chain acyl CoAs (LC-CoAs, another ubiquitous anionic lipid, can also act as positive modulators of ion channels and exchangers. Therefore, we investigated whether TRPV1 channel activity is similarly regulated by LC-CoAs. Our results show that LC-CoAs are potent activators of the TRPV1 channel and interact with the same PIP2-binding residues in TRPV1. In contrast to PIP2, LC-CoA modulation of TRPV1 is independent of Ca2+i, acting in an acyl side-chain saturation and chain-length dependent manner. Elevation of LC-CoAs in intact Jurkat T-cells leads to significant increases in agonist-induced Ca2+i levels. Our novel findings indicate that LC-CoAs represent a new fundamental mechanism for regulation of TRPV1 channel activity that may play a role in diverse cell types under physiological and pathophysiological conditions that alter fatty acid transport and metabolism such as obesity and diabetes.

  12. Increase of Long-chain Branching by Thermo-oxidative Treatment of LDPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolón-Garrido, Víctor H.; Luo, Jinji; Wagner, Manfred H.

    2011-07-01

    Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) was exposed to thermal and thermo-oxidative treatment at 170 °C, and subsequently characterized by linear-viscoelastic measurements and in uniaxial extension. The Molecular Stress Function (MSF) model was used to quantify the elongational viscosities measured. For the thermally treated samples, exposure times between 2 and 6 hours were applied. Formation of long-chain branching (LCB) was found to occur only during the first two hours of thermal treatment. At longer exposure times, no difference in the level of strain hardening was observed. This was quantified by use of the MSF model: the nonlinear parameter fmax2 increased from fmax2 = 14 for the virgin sample to fmax2 = 22 for the samples thermally treated between 2 and 6 hours. For the thermo-oxidatively treated samples, which were exposed to air during thermal treatment between 30 and 90 minutes, the level of strain hardening increases drastically up to fmax2 = 55 with increasing exposure times from 30 up to 75 min due to LCB formation, and then decreases for an exposure time of 90 minutes due to chain scission dominating LCB formation. The nonlinear parameter β of the MSF model was found to be β = 2 for all samples, indicating that the general type of the random branching structure remains the same under all thermal conditions. Consequently only the parameter fmax2 of the MSF model and the linear-viscoelastic spectra were required to describe quantitatively the experimental observations. The strain hardening index, which is sometimes used to quantify strain hardening, follows accurately the trend of the MSF model parameter fmax2.

  13. Reinvestigation of the radiopharmaceutical production of radioiodinated long-chain fatty acids. Vol. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shaboury, G.; El-Kolaly, M.T.; Raieh, M.

    1996-01-01

    An improved and simple radiopharmaceutical production technique for radioiodination of ω - (Br) or (I) fatty acids (ω) - Br or I-(C H 2 ) n Co 2 H, where n = 16 to 17 with Na 13I for myocardial imaging study is described. The technique of production is reported here based on an isotope or non - isotopic exchange reaction between the inactive halogenated fatty acids and lyophilized ethanolic solution of Na 131 I (previously dispensed in 0.02 M NaOH solution) at 80 Degree C within 30 min in absolute ethanol (dehydrated and redistill at 78.5 to 80 degree C over nitrobenzene b.p. 208 to 212 degree C). Although considerable radiochemical yields have been obtained using a wide variety of organic solvents as an isotropic or non-isotropic exchange media such as acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, benzene as well as di-n-propyl ketone; certain problems due to the evaporation of these solvents during the process of purification have been observed. These problems were completely avoided by the initial dissolution of the reactants in dehydrated ethyl alcohol which facilitate direct dispensing of the final radioiodinated acids in diluted human serum albumen without any decomposition. Basically, following the radioiodination process the radioiodinated fatty acids ethanolic solution is passed through out an AgCl-impregnated filter to remove the untreated inorganic radioiodine (2 to 5%). The final pure solution (containing over 99.o% radioiodinated pure fatty acids) is dispensed in human serum albumen (4%), and then sterilized by passing it through 0.22 mum milli pore bacterial filter. The technique is being applied for the radiopharmaceutical production of radioiodinated-phenyl long-chain fatty acids such as iodo phenoxy-, and iodobenzamido-heptadecanoic acids. 3 figs

  14. Long-chain n-3 fatty acids and inflammation: potential application in surgical and trauma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calder P.C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipids used in nutritional support of surgical or critically ill patients have been based on soybean oil, which is rich in the n-6 fatty acid linoleic acid (18:2n-6. Linoleic acid is the precursor of arachidonic acid (20:4n-6. In turn, arachidonic acid in cell membrane phospholipids is the substrate for the synthesis of a range of biologically active compounds (eicosanoids including prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes. These compounds can act as mediators in their own right and can also act as regulators of other processes, such as platelet aggregation, blood clotting, smooth muscle contraction, leukocyte chemotaxis, inflammatory cytokine production, and immune function. There is a view that an excess of n-6 fatty acids should be avoided since this could contribute to a state where physiological processes become dysregulated. One alternative is the use of fish oil. The rationale of this latter approach is that fish oil contains long chain n-3 fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid. When fish oil is provided, eicosapentaenoic acid is incorporated into cell membrane phospholipids, partly at the expense of arachidonic acid. Thus, there is less arachidonic acid available for eicosanoid synthesis. Hence, fish oil decreases production of prostaglandins like PGE2 and of leukotrienes like LTB4. Thus, n-3 fatty acids can potentially reduce platelet aggregation, blood clotting, smooth muscle contraction, and leukocyte chemotaxis, and can modulate inflammatory cytokine production and immune function. These effects have been demonstrated in cell culture, animal feeding and healthy volunteer studies. Fish oil decreases the host metabolic response and improves survival to endotoxin in laboratory animals. Recently clinical studies performed in various patient groups have indicated benefit from this approach.

  15. Metabolic engineering of the omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthetic pathway into transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-López, Noemi; Sayanova, Olga; Napier, Johnathan A; Haslam, Richard P

    2012-04-01

    Omega-3 (ω-3) very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (VLC-PUFAs) such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5 Δ5,8,11,14,17) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6 Δ4,7,10,13,16,19) have been shown to have significant roles in human health. Currently the primary dietary source of these fatty acids are marine fish; however, the increasing demand for fish and fish oil (in particular the expansion of the aquaculture industry) is placing enormous pressure on diminishing marine stocks. Such overfishing and concerns related to pollution in the marine environment have directed research towards the development of a viable alternative sustainable source of VLC-PUFAs. As a result, the last decade has seen many genes encoding the primary VLC-PUFA biosynthetic activities identified and characterized. This has allowed the reconstitution of the VLC-PUFA biosynthetic pathway in oilseed crops, producing transgenic plants engineered to accumulate ω-3 VLC-PUFAs at levels approaching those found in native marine organisms. Moreover, as a result of these engineering activities, knowledge of the fundamental processes surrounding acyl exchange and lipid remodelling has progressed. The application of new technologies, for example lipidomics and next-generation sequencing, is providing a better understanding of seed oil biosynthesis and opportunities for increasing the production of unusual fatty acids. Certainly, it is now possible to modify the composition of plant oils successfully, and, in this review, the most recent developments in this field and the challenges of producing VLC-PUFAs in the seed oil of higher plants will be described.

  16. Meta-Analysis of Structured Triglyceride versus Physical Mixture Medium- and Long-Chain Triglycerides for PN in Liver Resection Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yajie; Wang, Chengfeng

    2017-01-01

    The use of total parenteral nutrition can affect liver function, causing a series of problems such as cholestasis. The aim of this meta-analysis was to compare structured triglyceride- (STG-) based lipid emulsions with physical medium-chain triglyceride (MCT)/long-chain triglyceride (LCT) mixtures in patients who had undergone liver surgery to identify any differences between these two types of parenteral nutrition. We searched the databases of PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, EMBASE, and Chinese Biomedicine Database from January 2007 to March 2017 and included studies that compared STG-based lipid emulsions with physical MCT/LCT mixtures for surgical patients with liver disease. The STG was more beneficial than physical MCT/LCT on recovery of liver function and immune function. Therefore, STGs may represent a promising alternative to other types of lipid emulsions for hepatic surgery patients.

  17. Meta-Analysis of Structured Triglyceride versus Physical Mixture Medium- and Long-Chain Triglycerides for PN in Liver Resection Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajie Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The use of total parenteral nutrition can affect liver function, causing a series of problems such as cholestasis. The aim of this meta-analysis was to compare structured triglyceride- (STG- based lipid emulsions with physical medium-chain triglyceride (MCT/long-chain triglyceride (LCT mixtures in patients who had undergone liver surgery to identify any differences between these two types of parenteral nutrition. Methods. We searched the databases of PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, EMBASE, and Chinese Biomedicine Database from January 2007 to March 2017 and included studies that compared STG-based lipid emulsions with physical MCT/LCT mixtures for surgical patients with liver disease. Conclusion. The STG was more beneficial than physical MCT/LCT on recovery of liver function and immune function. Therefore, STGs may represent a promising alternative to other types of lipid emulsions for hepatic surgery patients.

  18. PGC-1{beta} regulates mouse carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase through estrogen-related receptor {alpha}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gacias, Mar; Perez-Marti, Albert; Pujol-Vidal, Magdalena; Marrero, Pedro F. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Pharmacy and the Institute of Biomedicine of the University of Barcelona (IBUB) (Spain); Haro, Diego, E-mail: dharo@ub.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Pharmacy and the Institute of Biomedicine of the University of Barcelona (IBUB) (Spain); Relat, Joana [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Pharmacy and the Institute of Biomedicine of the University of Barcelona (IBUB) (Spain)

    2012-07-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Cact gene is induced in mouse skeletal muscle after 24 h of fasting. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Cact gene contains a functional consensus sequence for ERR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This sequence binds ERR{alpha} both in vivo and in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This ERRE is required for the activation of Cact expression by the PGC-1/ERR axis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our results add Cact as a genuine gene target of these transcriptional regulators. -- Abstract: Carnitine/acylcarnitine translocase (CACT) is a mitochondrial-membrane carrier proteins that mediates the transport of acylcarnitines into the mitochondrial matrix for their oxidation by the mitochondrial fatty acid-oxidation pathway. CACT deficiency causes a variety of pathological conditions, such as hypoketotic hypoglycemia, cardiac arrest, hepatomegaly, hepatic dysfunction and muscle weakness, and it can be fatal in newborns and infants. Here we report that expression of the Cact gene is induced in mouse skeletal muscle after 24 h of fasting. To gain insight into the control of Cact gene expression, we examine the transcriptional regulation of the mouse Cact gene. We show that the 5 Prime -flanking region of this gene is transcriptionally active and contains a consensus sequence for the estrogen-related receptor (ERR), a member of the nuclear receptor family of transcription factors. This sequence binds ERR{alpha}in vivo and in vitro and is required for the activation of Cact expression by the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator (PGC)-1/ERR axis. We also demonstrate that XTC790, the inverse agonist of ERR{alpha}, specifically blocks Cact activation by PGC-1{beta} in C2C12 cells.

  19. PGC-1β regulates mouse carnitine–acylcarnitine translocase through estrogen-related receptor α

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gacias, Mar; Pérez-Martí, Albert; Pujol-Vidal, Magdalena; Marrero, Pedro F.; Haro, Diego; Relat, Joana

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The Cact gene is induced in mouse skeletal muscle after 24 h of fasting. ► The Cact gene contains a functional consensus sequence for ERR. ► This sequence binds ERRα both in vivo and in vitro. ► This ERRE is required for the activation of Cact expression by the PGC-1/ERR axis. ► Our results add Cact as a genuine gene target of these transcriptional regulators. -- Abstract: Carnitine/acylcarnitine translocase (CACT) is a mitochondrial-membrane carrier proteins that mediates the transport of acylcarnitines into the mitochondrial matrix for their oxidation by the mitochondrial fatty acid-oxidation pathway. CACT deficiency causes a variety of pathological conditions, such as hypoketotic hypoglycemia, cardiac arrest, hepatomegaly, hepatic dysfunction and muscle weakness, and it can be fatal in newborns and infants. Here we report that expression of the Cact gene is induced in mouse skeletal muscle after 24 h of fasting. To gain insight into the control of Cact gene expression, we examine the transcriptional regulation of the mouse Cact gene. We show that the 5′-flanking region of this gene is transcriptionally active and contains a consensus sequence for the estrogen-related receptor (ERR), a member of the nuclear receptor family of transcription factors. This sequence binds ERRαin vivo and in vitro and is required for the activation of Cact expression by the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator (PGC)-1/ERR axis. We also demonstrate that XTC790, the inverse agonist of ERRα, specifically blocks Cact activation by PGC-1β in C2C12 cells.

  20. Inhibition of gastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion by medium-chain triglycerides and long-chain triglycerides in healthy young men.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, M.I.M.; Hopman, W.P.M.; Katan, M.B.; Jansen, J.B.M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Long-chain triglycerides inhibit gastric acid secretion, but the effect of medium-chain triglycerides in humans is unknown. We compared the effects of intraduodenally perfused saline, medium-chain and long-chain triglycerides on gastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion and cholecystokinin release.

  1. Obesity interferes with the orosensory detection of long-chain fatty acids in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevrot, Michael; Passilly-Degrace, Patricia; Ancel, Déborah; Bernard, Arnaud; Enderli, Géraldine; Gomes, Marlène; Robin, Isabelle; Issanchou, Sylvie; Vergès, Bruno; Nicklaus, Sophie; Besnard, Philippe

    2014-05-01

    The association between the orosensory detection of lipids, preference for fatty foods, and body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)) is controversial in humans. We explored the oral lipid-sensing system and the orosensory-induced autonomic reflex system in lean and obese subjects. Lean (BMI: 19 to obese (BMI >30; n = 29) age-matched men were enrolled. Their oral threshold sensitivity to linoleic acid (LA) was determined by using a 3-alternative forced-choice ascending procedure, and their eating habits were established by the analysis of 4 consecutive 24-h food-consumption diaries. The effect of brief oral lipid stimulations on plasma triglyceride [(TG)pl] concentrations was analyzed in overnight-fasted lean and obese individuals subjected to a whole-mouth stimulation (sip-and-spit procedure) with a control or 1% LA emulsions for 5 min according to a within-subject randomized design. A large distribution of LA detection was shown in both groups. Mean detection thresholds were 0.053% (wt:wt) and 0.071% (wt:wt) in lean and obese subjects, respectively. No relation between the LA detection threshold and BMI was observed. The 5 subjects who detected only the higher concentration of LA (5% wt:wt) or were unable to distinguish properly between control and LA emulsions were obese. An analysis of dietary habits showed that these obese LA nontasters consumed more lipids and energy than did all other subjects. Brief whole-mouth stimulations (sip-and-spit procedure) with a control or 1% LA emulsion revealed an LA-mediated rise in (TG)pl concentrations in overnight-fasted, lean subjects. The origin of this change seemed to be hepatic. This (TG)pl upregulation was not shown in obese subjects, which suggested that obesity led to disturbances in the oral-brainstem-periphery loop. Altogether, these data strongly suggest that obesity may interfere with the orosensory system responsible for the detection of free long-chain fatty acids in humans. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials

  2. Extraction of sulphates by long chain amines; Extraction des sulfates par les amines a longues chaines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boirie, Ch [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-05-15

    The extraction of sulphuric acid by long chain amines in organic solution has been studied with a view to determining the value of the stability constants of the amine sulphates and bi-sulphates formed. We have concentrated chiefly on uranium sulphate and thorium sulphate. The formulae of the complexes extractable with amines have been established, as well as the corresponding dissociation constants. We have observed that for uranium sulphate the formula of the complex depends only on the nature of the amine, whereas for thorium this formula varies with the amine structure. From the formulae determined and the value of the constants calculated, we have been able to establish the best conditions for uranium and thorium extraction and also for a separation of these two elements. Finally we propose an application of this study to the determination of uranium in ores, where the separation of uranium by this method is particularly easy and complete. (author) [French] L'extraction de l'acide sulfurique par des amines a longues chaines en solution organique a ete etudiee en vue de la determination de la valeur des constantes de stabilite des sulfates et bisulfates d'amines formes. Parmi les sulfates, nous nous sommes particulierement interesses au sulfate d'uranium et au sulfate de thorium. Nous avons determine les formules des complexes extractibles avec les amines, ainsi que les constantes de dissociation correspondantes. Nous avons remarque que pour le sulfate d'uranium, la formule du complexe ne depend que de la nature de l'amine, alors que pour le thorium cette formule varie avec la structure de l'amine. Les formules determinees et la valeur des constantes calculees, nous ont permis de decrire les meilleures conditions d'extraction de l'uranium et du thorium ainsi que celles d'une separation de ces deux elements. Nous proposons enfin une application de cette etude au dosage de l'uranium dans les minerais, ou la separation de l'uranium par cette methode est

  3. Perinatal long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supply Are there long term consequences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demmelmair Hans

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA, especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, are essential components of biological membranes or act as precursors for eicosanoid formation, in case of the 20 carbon atom fatty acids, arachidonic acid (AA, dihomo-c-linolenic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid. During pregnancy LC-PUFA are enriched in the fetal circulation relative to maternal plasma. The corresponding placental processes have not been fully elucidated so far, but there are good indications that the LC-PUFA enrichment during the materno-fetal transfer is mediated by differences in the incorporation into lipid classes within the placenta between fatty acids and that specific fatty acid binding and transfer proteins are of major importance. In vitro a plasma membrane fatty acid binding protein could be identified, which preferentially binds DHA and AA compared to linoleic and oleic acids; in addition the m-RNA expression of fatty acid transfer protein 4 (FATP-4 in placental tissue was found to correlate significantly with the DHA percentage in cord blood phospholipids. After birth the percentage of LC-PUFA in infantile blood rapidly declines to levels depending on the dietary LC-PUFA supply, although preterm and full-term babies can convert linoleic and _-linolenic acids into AA and DHA, respectively. Breast milk provides preformed LC-PUFA, and breastfed infants have higher LC-PUFA levels in plasma and tissue than infants fed formulas without LC-PUFA. The high percentage of DHA in brain and other nervous tissue and the fact that the perinatal period is a period of fast brain growth suggests the importance of placental DHA transfer and dietary DHA content for optimal infantile development. Most but not all randomized, double blind, controlled clinical trials in preterm and in healthy full term infants demonstrated benefits of formulas supplemented with DHA and AA for the neurological development compared to formulas without LC-PUFA. Furthermore

  4. LONG-CHAIN POLYUNSATURATED ω-3 AND ω-6 FATTY ACIDS AS ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS IN DIFFERENT PERIODS OF CHILDHOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Makarova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors present modern data on the issue of rational nutrition of children in different periods of childhood. The most frequent types of disorders are listed; insufficient consumption of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids is among them. The authors show that this issue is topical not only in Russia, but also in a range of the developed countries. The authors give special attention to classification and biological role of polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially in the development of nervous and immune systems. The authors demonstrated importance of sufficient consumption of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in the period of fetal development for antenatal prevention of atopic disease. The authors list methods of recovery from deficiency of polyunsaturated fatty acids in antenatal and neonatal periods and after the first year of life.

  5. Low breast milk levels of long-chain n-3 fatty acids in allergic women, despite frequent fish intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, S; Wold, A E; Sandberg, A-S

    2011-04-01

    Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have immune regulating and anti-inflammatory effects. However, their role in allergic disease is unclear. Allergic diseases are immunologically heterogeneous, and we hypothesized that n-3 fatty acid composition in serum and breast milk may vary according to clinical manifestations. Further, animal studies have shown reduction of serum-PUFA levels during allergic inflammation. To investigate fatty acid composition in breast milk and serum from women with different atopic disease manifestations. Secondly, to determine whether low PUFA levels reflected insufficient intakes. Fatty acids were analysed in breast milk and serum of women with atopic eczema and respiratory allergy (n=16), only respiratory allergy (n=7), as well as healthy women (n=22). Dietary intake of foods expected to affect long-chain n-3 PUFA levels were estimated by food-frequency questionnaire. The fatty acid pattern was related to diagnostic group and intake of relevant food items using a multivariate pattern recognition method (partial least squares projections to latent structures and discriminant analysis). Results Women with a combination of eczema and respiratory allergy had lower breast milk levels of several PUFAs (arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA, docosahexaenoic acid, DHA, and docosapentaenoic acid, DPA), and a lower ratio of long-chain n-3 PUFAs/n-6 PUFAs. Their PUFA levels differed not only from that of healthy women, but also from that of women with only respiratory allergy. The latter had a fatty acid pattern similar to that of healthy women. Despite low EPA, DHA and DPA levels women with eczema and respiratory allergy consumed no less fish than did healthy women. Our data suggest that reduced levels of long-chain n-3 fatty acids in serum and breast milk characterize women with extensive allergic disease including eczema, and are not related to low fish intake. Consumption of PUFAs during the allergic process may explain

  6. Dose- and type-dependent effects of long-chain fatty acids on adipogenesis and lipogenesis of bovine adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanting, Chen; Yang, Q Y; Ma, G L; Du, M; Harrison, J H; Block, E

    2018-02-01

    Differentiation and lipid metabolism of adipocytes have a great influence on milk performance, health, and feed efficiency of dairy cows. The effects of dietary long-chain fatty acids (FA) on adipogenesis and lipogenesis of dairy cows are often confounded by other nutritional and physiological factors in vivo. Therefore, this study used an in vitro approach to study the effect of dose and type of long-chain FA on adipogenesis and lipogenesis of bovine adipocytes. Stromal vascular cells were isolated from adipose tissue of dairy cows and induced into mature adipocytes in the presence of various long-chain FA including myristic, palmitic, stearic, oleic, or linoleic acid. When concentrations of myristic, palmitic, and oleic acids in adipogenic mediums were 150 and 200 μM, the induced mature adipocytes had greater lipid content compared with other concentrations of FA. In addition, mature adipocytes induced at 100 μM stearic acid and 300 μM linoleic acid had the greatest content of lipid than at other concentrations. High concentrations of saturated FA were more toxic for cells than the same concentration of unsaturated FA during the induction. When commitment stage was solely treated with FA, the number of differentiated mature adipocytes was greater for oleic and linoleic acids than other FA. When the maturation stage was treated with FA, the number of mature adipocytes was not affected, but the lipid content in adipocytes was affected and ranked oleic > linoleic > myristic > stearic > palmitic. In summary, this study showed that adipogenesis and lipogenesis of bovine adipocytes were differentially affected by long-chain FA, with unsaturated FA more effective than saturated FA. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Hypothalamic GPR40 Signaling Activated by Free Long Chain Fatty Acids Suppresses CFA-Induced Inflammatory Chronic Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamoto, Kazuo; Nishinaka, Takashi; Sato, Naoya; Mankura, Mitsumasa; Koyama, Yutaka; Kasuya, Fumiyo; Tokuyama, Shogo

    2013-01-01

    GPR40 has been reported to be activated by long-chain fatty acids, such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). However, reports studying functional role of GPR40 in the brain are lacking. The present study focused on the relationship between pain regulation and GPR40, investigating the functional roles of hypothalamic GPR40 during chronic pain caused using a complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced inflammatory chronic pain mouse model. GPR40 protein expression in the hypothalamus was transiently inc...

  8. Towards the Industrial Production of Omega-3 Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids from a Genetically Modified Diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary L Hamilton

    Full Text Available The marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum can accumulate up to 30% of the omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and, as such, is considered a good source for the industrial production of EPA. However, P. tricornutum does not naturally accumulate significant levels of the more valuable omega-3 LC-PUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. Previously, we have engineered P. tricornutum to accumulate elevated levels of DHA and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA by overexpressing heterologous genes encoding enzyme activities of the LC-PUFA biosynthetic pathway. Here, the transgenic strain Pt_Elo5 has been investigated for the scalable production of EPA and DHA. Studies have been performed at the laboratory scale on the cultures growing in up to 1 L flasks a 3.5 L bubble column, a 550 L closed photobioreactor and a 1250 L raceway pond with artificial illumination. Detailed studies were carried out on the effect of different media, carbon sources and illumination on omega-3 LC-PUFAs production by transgenic strain Pt_Elo5 and wild type P. tricornutum grown in 3.5 L bubble columns. The highest content of DHA (7.5% of total fatty acids, TFA in transgenic strain was achieved in cultures grown in seawater salts, Instant Ocean (IO, supplemented with F/2 nutrients (F2N under continuous light. After identifying the optimal conditions for omega-3 LC-PUFA accumulation in the small-scale experiments we compared EPA and DHA levels of the transgenic strain grown in a larger fence-style tubular photobioreactor and a raceway pond. We observed a significant production of DHA over EPA, generating an EPA/DPA/DHA profile of 8.7%/4.5%/12.3% of TFA in cells grown in a photobioreactor, equivalent to 6.4 μg/mg dry weight DHA in a mid-exponentially growing algal culture. Omega-3 LC-PUFAs production in a raceway pond at ambient temperature but supplemented with artificial illumination (110 μmol photons m-2s-1 on a 16:8h light:dark cycle, in

  9. Macular xanthophylls and ω-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in age-related macular degeneration: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Christin; Winter, Lisa; Fröhlich, Kati; Jentsch, Susanne; Dawczynski, Jens; Jahreis, Gerhard; Böhm, Volker

    2013-05-01

    It has been shown that the functionality of the macula lutea depends on the nutritional uptake of lutein and zeaxanthin and that it is inversely associated with the risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Additionally, ω-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) may also be protective. To investigate the effect of a 12-month intervention with macular xanthophylls and ω-3 LC-PUFAs on xanthophylls and fatty acids in plasma, antioxidant capacity, and optical density of the macular pigment of patients with nonexudative AMD. The LUTEGA study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel clinical trial that was conducted for 12 months. University Eye Hospital and Institute of Nutrition, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Germany. A total of 172 individuals with nonexudative AMD. Individuals were enrolled and randomly divided as follows: placebo group, group 1 (a capsule containing 10 mg of lutein, 1 mg of zeaxanthin, 100 mg of docosahexaenoic acid, and 30 mg of eicosapentaenoic acid administered each day), and group 2 (same substances but twice the dose used in group 1). One hundred forty-five participants completed the study successfully. Plasma xanthophyll concentrations and fatty acid profiles, optical density of the macular pigment, and antioxidant capacity in plasma (6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid [Trolox] equivalent antioxidant capacity and photochemiluminescence). The concentrations of the administered carotenoids in plasma as well as the optical density of the macular pigment increased significantly in the groups randomized to receive supplementary macular xanthophylls and ω-3 LC-PUFAs after 1 month of intervention and remained at this level through the end of the study. Use of the double dose resulted in a beneficial alteration of the fatty acid profile in the plasma of patients with AMD in comparison with the dose in group 1. The lipophilic antioxidant capacity in plasma was significantly elevated

  10. Family history and obesity in youth, their effect on acylcarnitine/aminoacids metabolomics and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Structural equation modeling approach

    OpenAIRE

    Romero-Ibarguengoitia, Maria Elena; Vadillo-Ortega, Felipe; Caballero, Augusto Enrique; Ibarra-González, Isabel; Herrera-Rosas, Arturo; Serratos-Canales, María Fabiola; León-Hernández, Mireya; González-Chávez, Antonio; Mummidi, Srinivas; Duggirala, Ravindranath; López-Alvarenga, Juan Carlos

    2018-01-01

    Background: Structural equation modeling (SEM) can help understanding complex functional relationships among obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), family history of obesity, targeted metabolomics and pro-inflammatory markers. We tested two hypotheses: 1) If obesity precedes an excess of free fatty acids that increase oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction, there would be an increase of serum acylcarnitines, amino acids and cytokines in obese subjects. Acylcarnitines woul...

  11. Crystallization of the C-terminal domain of the mouse brain cytosolic long-chain acyl-CoA thioesterase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serek, Robert; Forwood, Jade K.; Hume, David A.; Martin, Jennifer L.; Kobe, Bostjan

    2006-01-01

    The C-terminal domain of the mouse long-chain acyl-CoA thioesterase has been expressed in bacteria and crystallized by vapour diffusion. The crystals diffract to 2.4 Å resolution. The mammalian long-chain acyl-CoA thioesterase, the enzyme that catalyses the hydrolysis of acyl-CoAs to free fatty acids, contains two fused 4HBT (4-hydroxybenzoyl-CoA thioesterase) motifs. The C-terminal domain of the mouse long-chain acyl-CoA thioesterase (Acot7) has been expressed in bacteria and crystallized. The crystals were obtained by vapour diffusion using PEG 2000 MME as precipitant at pH 7.0 and 290 K. The crystals have the symmetry of space group R32 (unit-cell parameters a = b = 136.83, c = 99.82 Å, γ = 120°). Two molecules are expected in the asymmetric unit. The crystals diffract to 2.4 Å resolution using the laboratory X-ray source and are suitable for crystal structure determination

  12. Dependence of the product chain-length on detergents for long-chain E-polyprenyl diphosphate synthases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jian-Jung; Ramamoorthy, Gurusankar; Poulter, C. Dale

    2013-01-01

    Long-chain E-polyprenyl diphosphate synthases (E-PDS) catalyze repetitive addition of isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) to the growing prenyl chain of an allylic diphosphate. The polyprenyl diphosphate products are required for the biosynthesis of ubiquinones and menaquinones required for electron transport during oxidative phosphorylation to generate ATP. In vitro, the long-chain PDSs require addition of phospholipids or detergents to the assay buffer to enhance product release and maintain efficient turnover. During preliminary assays of product chain-length with anionic, zwitterionic, and non-ionic detergents, we discovered considerable variability. Examination of a series of non-ionic PEG detergents with several long-chain E-PDSs from different organisms revealed that in vitro incubations with nonaethylene glycol monododecyl ether or Triton X-100 typically gave chain lengths that corresponded to those of the isoprenoid moieties in respiratory quinones synthesized in vivo. In contrast incubations in buffer with n-butanol, CHAPS, DMSO, n-octyl-β-glucopyranoside, or β-cyclodextrin or in buffer without detergent typically proceeded more slowly and gave a broad range of chain lengths. PMID:23802587

  13. Altered levels of acylcarnitines, phosphatidylcholines, and sphingomyelins in peritoneal fluid from ovarian endometriosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vouk, Katja; Ribič-Pucelj, Martina; Adamski, Jerzy; Rižner, Tea Lanišnik

    2016-05-01

    Endometriosis is a complex, polygenic, and estrogen-dependent disease that affects 6% to 10% of women of reproductive age, and 30% to 50% of women with infertility and/or pelvic pain. Surgical diagnosis of endometriosis is still the gold standard, as there are currently no diagnostic biomarkers available. Due to the invasive diagnostics, it can take up to 11 years before affected women are diagnosed and receive the appropriate treatment. We performed a targeted metabolomics study to search for potential semi-invasive biomarkers in peritoneal fluid from endometriosis patients. Our case-control study comprised 29 ovarian endometriosis patients and 36 healthy control women. The 148 metabolites included acylcarnitines, glycerophospholipids, and sphingolipids, which were quantified by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. The strength of association between the metabolites and the metabolite ratios and disease was assessed using crude and adjusted odds ratios. The best combination of biomarkers was then selected by performing step-wise logistic regression. Our analysis reveals significantly decreased concentrations of 10 metabolites, of carnitine and acylcarnitines (C0, C8:1, C6C4:1 DC, C10:1), phosphatidylcholines (PC aa C38:3, PC aa C38:4, PC aa C40:4, PC aa C40:5), and sphingomyelins (SM C16:1, SM C18:1), and 125 significantly altered metabolite ratios in patients versus control women. The best model includes two ratios: a carnitine to a phosphatidylcholine (C0/PC ae C36:0); and between two phosphatidylcholines (PC aa C30:0/PC ae C32:2). When adjusted for age, this provides sensitivity of 82.8% and specificity of 94.4%, with AUC of 0.944. Our study supports the importance of carnitine, phosphatidylcholine, and sphingomyelin metabolites in the pathophysiology of endometriosis, and confirms the potential for the combination of individual metabolite ratios to provide biomarkers for semi-invasive diagnostics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  14. Postprandial changes in plasma acylcarnitine concentrations as markers of fatty acid flux in overweight and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Roman, Maria A; Sweetman, Lawrence; Valdez, Maressa J; Parks, Elizabeth J

    2012-02-01

    This study determined whether reductions in postprandial plasma nonesterified fatty acid (FFA) flux would lead to reductions in plasma acylcarnitine (AC) concentrations. Plasma AC was measured by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry in the fasting state and over 6 hours after a high-fat (50% energy) meal was fed to 16 overweight and obese subjects with a wide range of insulin sensitivities. Body composition was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; insulin sensitivity by insulin-modified, frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test; substrate oxidation by indirect calorimetry; blood metabolite and hormone concentrations biochemically; and fatty acid flux by using stable isotope tracers. Lean body mass and fasting fat oxidation correlated positively (r > 0.522, P 0.515, P Conditions that impact fatty acid flux contribute to the control of postprandial plasma AC concentrations. These data underscore the need for a better understanding of postprandial fatty acid oxidation and dietary fat delivery in the setting of adipose insulin resistance to determine how postprandial lipemia contributes to chronic disease risk. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. First-Trimester Serum Acylcarnitine Levels to Predict Preeclampsia: A Metabolomics Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria P. H. Koster

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To expand the search for preeclampsia (PE metabolomics biomarkers through the analysis of acylcarnitines in first-trimester maternal serum. Methods. This was a nested case-control study using serum from pregnant women, drawn between 8 and 14 weeks of gestational age. Metabolites were measured using an UPLC-MS/MS based method. Concentrations were compared between controls (n=500 and early-onset- (EO- PE (n=68 or late-onset- (LO- PE (n=99 women. Metabolites with a false discovery rate <10% for both EO-PE and LO-PE were selected and added to prediction models based on maternal characteristics (MC, mean arterial pressure (MAP, and previously established biomarkers (PAPPA, PLGF, and taurine. Results. Twelve metabolites were significantly different between EO-PE women and controls, with effect levels between −18% and 29%. For LO-PE, 11 metabolites were significantly different with effect sizes between −8% and 24%. Nine metabolites were significantly different for both comparisons. The best prediction model for EO-PE consisted of MC, MAP, PAPPA, PLGF, taurine, and stearoylcarnitine (AUC = 0.784. The best prediction model for LO-PE consisted of MC, MAP, PAPPA, PLGF, and stearoylcarnitine (AUC = 0.700. Conclusion. This study identified stearoylcarnitine as a novel metabolomics biomarker for EO-PE and LO-PE. Nevertheless, metabolomics-based assays for predicting PE are not yet suitable for clinical implementation.

  16. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase from Caenorhabditis elegans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhijie; Zhai, Yujia; Fang, Junnan; Zhou, Qiangjun; Geng, Yunqi; Sun, Fei

    2010-01-01

    Very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase from Caenorhabditis elegans (cVLCAD) has been crystallized in space group C2 and its X-ray diffraction data set has been collected to 1.6 Å resolution. Unlike other VLCADs that were reported to form dimers, the purified cVLCAD was found as a homotetrameric protein according to static light-scattering measurements. Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase [acyl-CoA:(acceptor) 2,3-oxidoreductase; EC 1.3.99.3] catalyzes the first reaction step in mitochondrial fatty-acid β-oxidation. Here, the very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase from Caenorhabditis elegans (cVLCAD) has been cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3). Interestingly, unlike other very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenases, cVLCAD was found to form a tetramer by size-exclusion chromatography coupled with in-line static light-scattering, refractive-index and ultraviolet measurements. Purified cVLCAD (12 mg ml −1 ) was successfully crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method under conditions containing 100 mM Tris–HCl pH 8.0, 150 mM sodium chloride, 200 mM magnesium formate and 13% PEG 3350. The crystal has a tetragonal form and a complete diffraction data set was collected and processed to 1.8 Å resolution. The crystal belonged to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 138.6, b = 116.7, c = 115.3 Å, α = γ = 90.0, β = 124.0°. A self-rotation function indicated the existence of one noncrystallographic twofold axis. A preliminary molecular-replacement solution further confirmed the presence of two molecules in one asymmetric unit, which yields a Matthews coefficient V M of 2.76 Å 3 Da −1 and a solvent content of 55%

  17. Single-Step Access to Long-Chain α,ω-Dicarboxylic Acids by Isomerizing Hydroxycarbonylation of Unsaturated Fatty Acids

    KAUST Repository

    Goldbach, Verena

    2016-11-09

    Dicarboxylic acids are compounds of high value, but to date long-chain alpha,omega-dicarboxylic acids have been difficult to access in a direct way. Unsaturated fatty acids are ideal starting materials with their molecular structure of long methylene sequences and a carboxylate functionality, in addition to a double bond that offers itself for functionalization. Within this paper, we established a direct access to alpha,omega-dicarboxylic acids by combining isomerization and selective terminal carbonylation of the internal double bond with water as a nucleophile on unsaturated fatty acids. We identified the key elements of this reaction: a homogeneous reaction mixture ensuring sufficient contact between all reactants and a catalyst system allowing for activation of the Pd precursor under aqueous conditions. Experiments under pressure reactor conditions with [(dtbpx)Pd(OTf)(2)] as catalyst precursor revealed the importance of nucleophile and reactant concentrations and the addition of the diprotonated diphosphine ligand (dtbpxH(2))(OTf)(2) to achieve turnover numbers >120. A variety of unsaturated fatty acids, including a triglyceride, were converted to valuable long-chain dicarboxylic acids with high turnover numbers and selectivities for the linear product of >90%. We unraveled the activation pathway of the Pd-II precursor, which proceeds via a reductive elimination step forming a Pd species and oxidative addition of the diprotonated diphosphine ligand, resulting in the formation of the catalytically active Pd hydride species. Theoretical calculations identified the hydrolysis as the rate-determining step. A low nucleophile concentration in the reaction mixture in combination with this high energetic barrier limits the potential of this reaction. In conclusion, water can be utilized as a nucleophile in isomerizing functionalization reactions and gives access to long-chain dicarboxylic acids from a variety of unsaturated substrates. The activity of the catalytic

  18. Substrate Trapping in Crystals of the Thiolase OleA Identifies Three Channels That Enable Long Chain Olefin Biosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goblirsch, Brandon R.; Jensen, Matthew R.; Mohamed, Fatuma A.; Wackett, Lawrence P.; Wilmot, Carrie M.

    2016-11-04

    Phylogenetically diverse microbes that produce long chain, olefinic hydrocarbons have received much attention as possible sources of renewable energy biocatalysts. One enzyme that is critical for this process is OleA, a thiolase superfamily enzyme that condenses two fatty acyl-CoA substrates to produce a β-ketoacid product and initiates the biosynthesis of long chain olefins in bacteria. Thiolases typically utilize a ping-pong mechanism centered on an active site cysteine residue. Reaction with the first substrate produces a covalent cysteine-thioester tethered acyl group that is transferred to the second substrate through formation of a carbon-carbon bond. Although the basics of thiolase chemistry are precedented, the mechanism by which OleA accommodates two substrates with extended carbon chains and a coenzyme moiety—unusual for a thiolase—are unknown. Gaining insights into this process could enable manipulation of the system for large scale olefin production with hydrocarbon chains lengths equivalent to those of fossil fuels. In this study, mutagenesis of the active site cysteine in Xanthomonas campestris OleA (Cys143) enabled trapping of two catalytically relevant species in crystals. In the resulting structures, long chain alkyl groups (C12 and C14) and phosphopantetheinate define three substrate channels in a T-shaped configuration, explaining how OleA coordinates its two substrates and product. The C143A OleA co-crystal structure possesses a single bound acyl-CoA representing the Michaelis complex with the first substrate, whereas the C143S co-crystal structure contains both acyl-CoA and fatty acid, defining how a second substrate binds to the acyl-enzyme intermediate. An active site glutamate (Gluβ117) is positioned to deprotonate bound acyl-CoA and initiate carbon-carbon bond formation.

  19. Substrate Trapping in Crystals of the Thiolase OleA Identifies Three Channels That Enable Long Chain Olefin Biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goblirsch, Brandon R; Jensen, Matthew R; Mohamed, Fatuma A; Wackett, Lawrence P; Wilmot, Carrie M

    2016-12-23

    Phylogenetically diverse microbes that produce long chain, olefinic hydrocarbons have received much attention as possible sources of renewable energy biocatalysts. One enzyme that is critical for this process is OleA, a thiolase superfamily enzyme that condenses two fatty acyl-CoA substrates to produce a β-ketoacid product and initiates the biosynthesis of long chain olefins in bacteria. Thiolases typically utilize a ping-pong mechanism centered on an active site cysteine residue. Reaction with the first substrate produces a covalent cysteine-thioester tethered acyl group that is transferred to the second substrate through formation of a carbon-carbon bond. Although the basics of thiolase chemistry are precedented, the mechanism by which OleA accommodates two substrates with extended carbon chains and a coenzyme moiety-unusual for a thiolase-are unknown. Gaining insights into this process could enable manipulation of the system for large scale olefin production with hydrocarbon chains lengths equivalent to those of fossil fuels. In this study, mutagenesis of the active site cysteine in Xanthomonas campestris OleA (Cys 143 ) enabled trapping of two catalytically relevant species in crystals. In the resulting structures, long chain alkyl groups (C 12 and C 14 ) and phosphopantetheinate define three substrate channels in a T-shaped configuration, explaining how OleA coordinates its two substrates and product. The C143A OleA co-crystal structure possesses a single bound acyl-CoA representing the Michaelis complex with the first substrate, whereas the C143S co-crystal structure contains both acyl-CoA and fatty acid, defining how a second substrate binds to the acyl-enzyme intermediate. An active site glutamate (Gluβ 117 ) is positioned to deprotonate bound acyl-CoA and initiate carbon-carbon bond formation. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Substrate Trapping in Crystals of the Thiolase OleA Identifies Three Channels That Enable Long Chain Olefin Biosynthesis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goblirsch, Brandon R.; Jensen, Matthew R.; Mohamed, Fatuma A.; Wackett, Lawrence P.; Wilmot, Carrie M.

    2016-01-01

    Phylogenetically diverse microbes that produce long chain, olefinic hydrocarbons have received much attention as possible sources of renewable energy biocatalysts. One enzyme that is critical for this process is OleA, a thiolase superfamily enzyme that condenses two fatty acyl-CoA substrates to produce a β-ketoacid product and initiates the biosynthesis of long chain olefins in bacteria. Thiolases typically utilize a ping-pong mechanism centered on an active site cysteine residue. Reaction with the first substrate produces a covalent cysteine-thioester tethered acyl group that is transferred to the second substrate through formation of a carbon-carbon bond. Although the basics of thiolase chemistry are precedented, the mechanism by which OleA accommodates two substrates with extended carbon chains and a coenzyme moiety—unusual for a thiolase—are unknown. Gaining insights into this process could enable manipulation of the system for large scale olefin production with hydrocarbon chains lengths equivalent to those of fossil fuels. In this study, mutagenesis of the active site cysteine in Xanthomonas campestris OleA (Cys143) enabled trapping of two catalytically relevant species in crystals. In the resulting structures, long chain alkyl groups (C12 and C14) and phosphopantetheinate define three substrate channels in a T-shaped configuration, explaining how OleA coordinates its two substrates and product. The C143A OleA co-crystal structure possesses a single bound acyl-CoA representing the Michaelis complex with the first substrate, whereas the C143S co-crystal structure contains both acyl-CoA and fatty acid, defining how a second substrate binds to the acyl-enzyme intermediate. An active site glutamate (Gluβ117) is positioned to deprotonate bound acyl-CoA and initiate carbon-carbon bond formation. PMID:27815501

  1. Metabolic and endocrine effects of long-chain versus essential omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, M Luisa; Almario, Rogelio U; Buchan, Wendy; Kim, Kyoungmi; Karakas, Sidika E

    2011-12-01

    The objective of the study was to compare the effects of essential vs long-chain omega (n)-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in polycystic ovary syndrome. In this 6-week, prospective, double-blinded, placebo (soybean oil)-controlled study, 51 completers received 3.5 g n-3 PUFA per day (essential PUFA from flaxseed oil or long-chain PUFA from fish oil). Anthropometric variables, cardiovascular risk factors, and androgens were measured; oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and frequently sampled intravenous GTT (IVGTT) were conducted at baseline and 6 weeks. Between-group comparisons showed significant differences in serum triglyceride response (P = .0368), whereas the changes in disposition index also tended to differ (P = .0621). When within-group changes (after vs before intervention) were considered, fish oil and flaxseed oil lowered serum triglyceride (P = .0154 and P = .0176, respectively). Fish oil increased glucose at 120 minutes of OGTT (P = .0355), decreased the Matsuda index (P = .0378), and tended to decrease acute insulin response during IVGTT (P = .0871). Soybean oil increased glucose at 30 (P = .0030) and 60 minutes (P = .0121) and AUC for glucose (P = .0122) during OGTT, tended to decrease acute insulin response during IVGTT (P = .0848), reduced testosterone (P = .0216), and tended to reduce sex hormone-binding globulin (P = .0858). Fasting glucose, insulin, adiponectin, leptin, or high-sensitivity C-reactive protein did not change with any intervention. Long-chain vs essential n-3 PUFA-rich oils have distinct metabolic and endocrine effects in polycystic ovary syndrome; and therefore, they should not be used interchangeably. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Metabolic and Endocrine Effects of Long Chain vs. Essential Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, M. Luisa; Almario, Rogelio U.; Buchan, Wendy; Kim, Kyoungmi; Karakas, Sidika E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the effects of essential vs. long chain omega (n)-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Materials/Methods In this 6-week, prospective, double-blinded, placebo (soybean oil) controlled study, 51 completers received 3.5 g n-3 PUFA/day (essential from flaxseed oil or long chain from fish oil). Anthropometric variables, cardiovascular risk factors and androgens were measured; oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and frequently sampled intravenous GTT (FSIVGTT) were conducted at the baseline and 6 wks. Results Between group comparisons showed significant differences in serum triglyceride response (p = 0.0368), while the changes in disposition index (DI) also tended to differ (p = 0.0621). When within group changes (after vs. before intervention) were considered, fish oil and flaxseed oil lowered serum triglyceride (p = 0.0154 and p = 0.0176, respectively). Fish oil increased glucose at 120 min of OGTT (p = 0.0355); decreased Matsuda index (p= 0.0378); and tended to decrease early insulin response during IVGTT (AIRg; p = 0.0871). Soybean oil increased glucose at 30 min (p = 0.0030) and 60 min (p = 0.0121) and AUC for glucose (p = 0.0122) during OGTT; tended to decrease AIRg during IVGTT (p= 0.0848); reduced testosterone (p = 0.0216) and tended to reduce SHBG (p = 0.0858). Fasting glucose, insulin, adiponectin, leptin or hs-CRP did not change with any intervention. Conclusions Long chain vs. essential n-3 PUFA rich oils have distinct metabolic and endocrine effects in PCOS, and therefore they should not be used inter-changeably. PMID:21640360

  3. Long-chain aliphatic wax esters isolated from the sponge Chalinula saudensis (Demospongia along the Jeddah coast of the Red Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulmohsin Al-Sofyani

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The sponge Chalinula saudensis, which occurs along the Jeddah coast, has only recently been isolated and identified. In this study, the total crude organic matter of the sponge was extracted by solvents. The total crude extract was further separated by partitioning it with hexane and water, then with water and chloroform, and finally with water and t-butanol. The chloroform layer was subjected to separation by preparative layer chromatography on silica. One fraction contained four long-chain fatty acid esters, C28H56O2, C30H60O2, C32H62O2 and C36H70 O2. The second ester, C30H60O2, has been identified in the fire corals Millepora dichotoma and Millepora platyphylla. The others have not previously been reported from marine organisms; however similar long-chain esters with different long aliphatic chains and with different molecular weights have been identified from other marine organisms. These compounds are normally waxy and their presence in Chalinula saudensis plays a vital role in the biosynthetic pathways. They also act as insulators against seasonal variations.A esponja Chalinula saudensis ocorre ao longo da costa de Jeddah, Arabia Saudita, mas apenas recentemente foi isolada e identificada. No presente estudo a matéria orgânica total da esponja foi extraída por solventes e o extrato foi separado por partição sucessiva através do emprego de hexano e água, clorofórmio e água e finalmente t-butanol e água. A camada contendo clorofórmio foi então separada por cromatografia em sílica. Os resultados mostraram a presença de ésteres de quatro ácidos graxos de cadeira longa (C28H56O2, C30H60O2, C32H62O2 e C36H70O2, sendo que o segundo deles foi também identificado nos corais Millepora dichotoma e Millepora platyphylla. Não se tem evidência da presença dos demais compostos em outros organismos marinhos, embora haja relatos para ésteres semelhantes de cadeia longa, mas contendo diferentes cadeias alifáticas e diferentes pesos

  4. Long Chain Saturated and Unsaturated Carboxylic Acids: Filling a Large Gap of Knowledge in Their Enthalpies of Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Donald W; Zavitsas, Andreas A

    2017-01-06

    Despite their abundance in nature and their importance in biology, medicine, nutrition, and in industry, gas phase enthalpies of formation of many long chain saturated and unsaturated fatty acids and of dicarboxylic acids are either unavailable or have been estimated with large uncertainties. Available experimental values for stearic acid show a spread of 68 kJ mol -1 . This work fills the knowledge gap by obtaining reliable values by quantum theoretical calculations using G4 model chemistry. Compounds with up to 20 carbon atoms are treated. The theoretical results are in excellent agreement with well established experimental values when such values exist, and they provide a large number of previously unavailable values.

  5. Probe-Dependent Negative Allosteric Modulators of the Long-Chain Free Fatty Acid Receptor FFA4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watterson, Kenneth R; Hansen, Steffen V F; Hudson, Brian D

    2017-01-01

    High-affinity and selective antagonists that are able to block the actions of both endogenous and synthetic agonists of G protein-coupled receptors are integral to analysis of receptor function and to support suggestions of therapeutic potential. Although there is great interest in the potential...... of endogenous and synthetic agonists, clear agonist probe dependence in the nature of allosteric modulation was apparent. Although AH-7614 did not antagonize the second long-chain free fatty acid receptor, free fatty acid receptor 1, the simple chemical structure of AH-7614 containing features found in many...

  6. 1H NMR analysis of long-chain-branched strong polyelectrolytes obtained by vinyl/divinyl monomer copolymerization in aqueous medium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Podešva, Jiří; Spěváček, Jiří; Kratochvíl, Pavel; Netopilík, Miloš

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 7 (2013), s. 557-565 ISSN 1023-666X Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : long-chain branching * NMR * polyelectrolytes Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.487, year: 2013

  7. Dietary intervention increases n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in sceletal muscle membrane phospholipids of obese subjects. Inplications for insulin sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Steen B; Madsbad, Sten; Høy, C-E

    2006-01-01

    . Insulin resistance was estimated by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR). RESULTS The mean weight loss was 5.1 kg (range -15.3 to +1.3 kg). BMI decreased from 36.5 to 34.9 kg/m(2) (P=0.003). Saturated FA (SFA) decreased 11% (P=0.0001). Polyunsaturated FA (PUFA)n-6 increased 4% (P =0.003). Long......-chain PUFAn-3 increased 51% (P= 0.0001), mainly due to a 75% increase (PHOMA-IR correlated significantly with changes in long-chain PUFAn-3 (R=-0.57, P... that included changes in weight, fat mass, waist circumference, plasma lipids, PUFA, SFA and long-chain PUFAn-3 indicated that SFA and long-chain PUFAn-3 were independent predictors of HOMA-IR (R(2)=0.33, P

  8. Dietary intervention increases n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in skeletal muscle membrane phospholipids of obese subjects. Implications for insulin sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, S.B.; Madsbad, S.; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2006-01-01

    . Insulin resistance was estimated by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR). Results The mean weight loss was 5.1 kg (range -15.3 to +1.3 kg). BMI decreased from 36.5 to 34.9 kg/m(2) (P = 0.003). Saturated FA (SFA) decreased 11% (P = 0.0001). Polyunsaturated FA (PUFA)n-6 increased 4% (P = 0.003). Long......-chain PUFAn-3 increased 51% (P = 0.0001), mainly due to a 75% increase (P HOMA-IR correlated significantly with changes in long-chain PUFAn-3 (R = -0.57, P ... analysis that included changes in weight, fat mass, waist circumference, plasma lipids, PUFA, SFA and long-chain PUFAn-3 indicated that SFA and long-chain PUFAn-3 were independent predictors of HOMA-IR (R-2 = 0.33, P

  9. Effects of medium-chain triglycerides, long-chain triglycerides, or 2-monododecanoin on fatty acid composition in the portal vein, intestinal lymph, and systemic circulation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Yi-Qian Nancy; Ling, Pei-Ra; Qu, Jason Zhensheng; Bistrian, Bruce R

    2008-01-01

    Fatty acid absorption patterns can have a major impact on the fatty acid composition in the portal, intestinal lymph, and systemic circulation. This study sought to determine the effects of long-chain triglycerides (LCT), medium-chain triglycerides (MCT), and 2-monododecanoin (2mono) on intestinal fatty acid composition during continuous feeding over a brief period. The lipid sources were 100% LCT, 100% MCT, a 50:50 mixture of LCT and MCT (LCT/MCT), and a 50:50 mixture of LCT and 2mono (LCT/2mono). A total of 27 rats were randomly given 1 of the 4 diets at 200 kcal/kg/d, with 30% of total calories from lipids over 3 hours. MCT significantly increased each of the medium-chain fatty acids (C6:0, C8:0, and C10:0) as free fatty acids in the portal vein and about 10%/mol of C10:0 as triglycerides in the lymph compared with the other groups. There was significantly less C10:0 in lymphatic triglycerides with LCT/MCT than with MCT, but more than in the LCT and LCT/2mono diets. MCT also significantly increased the contents of C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, and C20:4 in the lymphatic triglycerides compared with all other groups including LCT/MCT. The amount of linoleic acid (C18:2) in lymphatic triglycerides followed the relative amounts of this fatty acid in the diet, with the greatest in LCT followed by LCT/MCT and LCT/2mono and least in MCT. A so-called structured lipid composed of the medium-chain fatty acid dodecanoic acid on the 2 position and long-chain fatty acids on the 1 and 3 positions appeared to be endogenously synthesized in response to the LCT/2mono diet. The original differences in MCT and LCT content in the diets were preserved in the fatty acid composition in the intestinal free fatty acids and triglycerides during feeding. In addition, the duration of lipid administration can play a role in altering fatty acid composition in the intestine.

  10. Effects of Medium-Chain Triglycerides, Long-Chain Triglycerides, or 2-Monododecanoin on Fatty Acid Composition in the Portal Vein, Intestinal Lymph, and Systemic Circulation in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy You, Yi-Qian; Ling, Pei-Ra; Qu, Jason Zhensheng; Bistrian, Bruce R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Fatty acid absorption patterns can have a major impact on the fatty acid composition in the portal, intestinal lymph, and systemic circulation. This study sought to determine the effects of long-chain triglycerides (LCT), medium-chain triglycerides (MCT), and 2-monododecanoin (2mono) on intestinal fatty acid composition during continuous feeding over a brief period. Methods The lipid sources were 100% LCT, 100% MCT, a 50:50 mixture of LCT and MCT (LCT/MCT), and a 50:50 mixture of LCT and 2mono (LCT/2mono). A total of 27 rats were randomly given 1 of the 4 diets at 200 kcal/kg/d, with 30% of total calories from lipids over 3 hours. Results MCT significantly increased each of the medium-chain fatty acids (C6:0, C8:0, and C10:0) as free fatty acids in the portal vein and about 10%/mol of C10:0 as triglycerides in the lymph compared with the other groups. There was significantly less C10:0 in lymphatic triglycerides with LCT/MCT than with MCT, but more than in the LCT and LCT/2mono diets. MCT also significantly increased the contents of C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, and C20:4 in the lymphatic triglycerides compared with all other groups including LCT/MCT. The amount of linoleic acid (C18:2) in lymphatic triglycerides followed the relative amounts of this fatty acid in the diet, with the greatest in LCT followed by LCT/MCT and LCT/2mono and least in MCT. A so-called structured lipid composed of the medium-chain fatty acid dodecanoic acid on the 2 position and long-chain fatty acids on the 1 and 3 positions appeared to be endogenously synthesized in response to the LCT/2mono diet. Conclusions The original differences in MCT and LCT content in the diets were preserved in the fatty acid composition in the intestinal free fatty acids and triglycerides during feeding. In addition, the duration of lipid administration can play a role in altering fatty acid composition in the intestine. PMID:18407910

  11. Lower n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid values in patients with phenylketonuria: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohner, Szimonetta; Fekete, Katalin; Decsi, Tamás

    2013-07-01

    The mainstream of phenylketonuria (PKU) management is lifelong restriction of protein intake; however, this dietary restriction may be accompanied by insufficient dietary intake of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA). The objective of this review was to assess whether significant depletion of LCPUFA can be detected in PKU patients on low-protein diet and whether LCPUFA supplementation is an effective way to increase the availability of LCPUFA in PKU patients. The method included structured search strategy on Ovid MEDLINE, Scopus, LILACS, and the Cochrane Library CENTRAL databases, with formal inclusion/exclusion criteria, data extraction procedure, and meta-analysis. We evaluated 9 case-control studies and 6 randomized controlled trials, dated from the inception of the databases to 2012. The meta-analysis of the case-control studies showed significantly lower values of both eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in all biomarkers investigated and that of arachidonic acid in total plasma lipids in PKU patients as compared with healthy controls. There were sufficient data to demonstrate that dietary DHA supplementation of patients with PKU significantly increases the contribution of DHA to total plasma lipids. In summary, suboptimal LCPUFA status, especially that of n-3 LCPUFA, can be detected in PKU patients. Supplementing DHA to the diet of PKU patients may improve their LCPUFA status; however, further research is needed to determine the optimal supplementation dosage and to establish beneficial functional outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Development and validation of a food frequency questionnaire to assess omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid intake in Australian children aged 9-13 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmawaty, S; Charlton, K; Lyons-Wall, P; Meyer, B J

    2017-08-01

    The present study aimed to develop a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) assessing dietary omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LCPUFA) intake in Australian children and to validate the FFQ against a 7-day food diary. The investigation comprised a cross-sectional and validation study. The study setting was two private primary schools in the in the Illawarra region of New South Wales. Twenty-two Australian children, aged 9-13 years, who were not on a special diet or receiving medical care that limited their food choice in the 3 months prior to recruitment, were recruited into the study. A total of 131 items, classified according to seven food group categories, was included in the n-3 LCPUFA FFQ, as identified from published dietary surveys and a supermarket survey. Good correlations between the FFQ and the 7-day food diary were observed for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) [r = 0.691, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.51-0.83, P food diary. However, the mean EPA, DHA and total n-3 LCPUFA intakes estimated from the FFQ were significantly higher than those from the average 7-day food diary estimates (P < 0.001). A novel n-3 LCPUFA FFQ that has been developed to estimate dietary n-3 LCPUFA intakes in Australian children has been shown to have relative validity. The FFQ provides a useful contribution to dietary assessment methodology in this age group; however, reproducibility remains to be demonstrated. © 2016 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  13. Development of Probiotic Fruit Juices Using Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 Fortified with Short Chain and Long Chain Inulin Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica White

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Typically, probiotics are consumed in dairy based products such as yogurt. However, given the rise in various diet types, non-dairy alternatives have been developed, such as inoculating fruit juices with probiotics. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 is a probiotic strain exerting a number of human health benefits such as the prevention of urinary tract infections. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the viability of L. rhamnosus GR-1 in apple cider, orange, and grape juice when fortified with either 4% short chain or 4% long chain inulin fiber over 72 h of fermentation and 30 days of refrigerated storage. The secondary objective was to determine consumer acceptability of apple cider and orange juice samples using the hedonic scale. All of the fruit juice samples achieved a mean viable count of at least 107 CFU/mL during 72 h of fermentation and 30 days of refrigerated storage. According to the sensory evaluation, which evaluated samples according to appearance, flavor, texture, and overall acceptability, apple cider juice with long chain inulin fiber proved to have the highest score for all characteristics except appearance. Therefore, this study indicated a potential for probiotic fruit juices as a valid alternative to dairy based probiotic products.

  14. The use of a long chain ionic liquid in an LiMn2O4 based lithium ion cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutto, Thomas E.; Duncan, Teresa T.

    2012-01-01

    A long chain substituted imidazolium ionic liquid, 1,2-dimethyl-3-octylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (MMOITFSI), is used as the electrolyte for reversible intercalation of Li into LiMn 2 O 4 . Ionic conductivity measurements indicate that in spite of the longer chain attached to the imidazolium ring, the conductivity for the pure liquid and with 0.5 M LiTFSI present, remains above 1 mS/cm. Cyclic voltammetry revealed high reversibility of Li + into LiMn 2 O 4 in this ionic liquid. Charge/discharge experiments indicated reversible capacity of 115 mAHr/g at a discharge rate of C/6 for 0.5 M Li in MMOITFSI. Higher discharge rates (C/3) resulted in lower capacities (below 100 mAHr/g), most likely due to the higher viscosity of the long chain ionic liquid. Improved discharge rates, of 111 mAHr/g at a higher discharge rate of C/3, were observed when 10 wt% of a short chain ionic liquid, 1,2-dimethyl-3-propylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (MMPITFSI), was added to the MMOITFSI. For both the pure MMOITFSI and the ionic liquid blend of MMOITFSI with MMPITFSI, cycle lifetimes showed minimal degradation due to intercalation by the imidazolium cation into the graphite used to enhance the conductivity of the cathode material.

  15. A novel high-performance thin layer chromatography method for quantification of long chain aliphatic hydrocarbons from Cissus quadrangularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana Jain

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Context: A high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC is an analytical technique, which can be used for the determination of constituents or marker components in various parts of the plants. Earlier studies have estimated phytoconstituents from the stem and other aerial plant parts of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. Estimation of hydrocarbons can also be successfully done using HPTLC technique using suitable derivatization. Aims: To develop and validate a simple and rapid method for the estimation of long chain aliphatic hydrocarbons from the leaves of C. quadrangularis using HPTLC technique. Methods: Precoated silica gel 60 F254 plates were used as stationary phase. The mobile phase used was hexane (100 %. The detection of spots was carried out using berberine sulphate as detecting reagent. Results: The method was validated in terms of linearity, sensitivity, accuracy, and precision. Linearity range was found to be 2-10 µg/mL, limit of detection 0.127 µg/mL, and limit of quantification 0.384 µg/mL. Conclusions: A novel, simple, accurate, precise and sensitive HPTLC method has been developed and validated for the estimation of long chain aliphatic hydrocarbons obtained from the leaves of C. quadrangularis Linn.

  16. Clear correlation of genotype with disease phenotype in very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, B S; Olpin, S; Poorthuis, B J

    1999-01-01

    Very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) catalyzes the initial rate-limiting step in mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation. VLCAD deficiency is clinically heterogenous, with three major phenotypes: a severe childhood form, with early onset, high mortality, and high incidence of cardiomyop......Very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) catalyzes the initial rate-limiting step in mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation. VLCAD deficiency is clinically heterogenous, with three major phenotypes: a severe childhood form, with early onset, high mortality, and high incidence...... of cardiomyopathy; a milder childhood form, with later onset, usually with hypoketotic hypoglycemia as the main presenting feature, low mortality, and rare cardiomyopathy; and an adult form, with isolated skeletal muscle involvement, rhabdomyolysis, and myoglobinuria, usually triggered by exercise or fasting......-phenotype relationship is in sharp contrast to what has been observed in medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency, in which no correlation between genotype and phenotype can be established....

  17. Anesthetic agents in patients with very long-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redshaw, Charlotte; Stewart, Catherine

    2014-11-01

    Very long-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrongenase deficiency (VLCADD) is a rare disorder of fatty acid metabolism that renders sufferers susceptible to hypoglycemia, liver failure, cardiomyopathy, and rhabdomyolysis. The literature about the management of these patients is hugely conflicting, suggesting that both propofol and volatile anesthesia should be avoided. We have reviewed the literature and have concluded that the source papers do not support the statements that volatile anesthetic agents are unsafe. The reports on rhabdomyolysis secondary to anesthesia appear to be due to inadequate supply of carbohydrate not volatile agents. Catabolism must be avoided with minimal fasting, glucose infusions based on age and weight, and attenuation of emotional and physical stress. General anesthesia appears to be protective of stress-induced catabolism and may offer benefits in children and anxious patients over regional anesthesia. Propofol has not been demonstrated to be harmful in VLCADD but is presented in an emulsion containing very long-chain fatty acids which can cause organ lipidosis and itself can inhibit mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism. It is therefore not recommended. Suxamethonium-induced myalgia may mimic symptoms of rhabdomyolysis and cause raised CK therefore should be avoided. Opioids, NSAIDS, regional anesthesia, and local anesthetic techniques have all been used without complication. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Family history and obesity in youth, their effect on acylcarnitine/aminoacids metabolomics and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Structural equation modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Ibarguengoitia, Maria Elena; Vadillo-Ortega, Felipe; Caballero, Augusto Enrique; Ibarra-González, Isabel; Herrera-Rosas, Arturo; Serratos-Canales, María Fabiola; León-Hernández, Mireya; González-Chávez, Antonio; Mummidi, Srinivas; Duggirala, Ravindranath; López-Alvarenga, Juan Carlos

    2018-01-01

    Structural equation modeling (SEM) can help understanding complex functional relationships among obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), family history of obesity, targeted metabolomics and pro-inflammatory markers. We tested two hypotheses: 1) If obesity precedes an excess of free fatty acids that increase oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction, there would be an increase of serum acylcarnitines, amino acids and cytokines in obese subjects. Acylcarnitines would be related to non-alcoholic fatty disease that will induce insulin resistance. 2) If a positive family history of obesity and type 2 diabetes are the major determinants of the metabolomic profile, there would be higher concentration of amino acids and acylcarnitines in patients with this background that will induce obesity and NAFLD which in turn will induce insulin resistance. 137 normoglycemic subjects, mean age (SD) of 30.61 (8.6) years divided in three groups: BMI30 with absence of NAFLD (G2), n = 24; and BMI>30 with NAFLD (G3), n = 31. Family history of obesity (any) was present in 53%. Both models were adjusted in SEM. Family history of obesity predicted obesity but could not predict acylcarnitines and amino acid concentrations (effect size obesity phenotype. Family history of obesity is the major predictor of obesity, and the metabolic abnormalities on amino acids, acylcarnitines, inflammation, insulin resistance, and NAFLD.

  19. Family history and obesity in youth, their effect on acylcarnitine/aminoacids metabolomics and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Structural equation modeling approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elena Romero-Ibarguengoitia

    Full Text Available Structural equation modeling (SEM can help understanding complex functional relationships among obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, family history of obesity, targeted metabolomics and pro-inflammatory markers. We tested two hypotheses: 1 If obesity precedes an excess of free fatty acids that increase oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction, there would be an increase of serum acylcarnitines, amino acids and cytokines in obese subjects. Acylcarnitines would be related to non-alcoholic fatty disease that will induce insulin resistance. 2 If a positive family history of obesity and type 2 diabetes are the major determinants of the metabolomic profile, there would be higher concentration of amino acids and acylcarnitines in patients with this background that will induce obesity and NAFLD which in turn will induce insulin resistance.137 normoglycemic subjects, mean age (SD of 30.61 (8.6 years divided in three groups: BMI30 with absence of NAFLD (G2, n = 24; and BMI>30 with NAFLD (G3, n = 31. Family history of obesity (any was present in 53%. Both models were adjusted in SEM. Family history of obesity predicted obesity but could not predict acylcarnitines and amino acid concentrations (effect size <0.2, but did predict obesity phenotype.Family history of obesity is the major predictor of obesity, and the metabolic abnormalities on amino acids, acylcarnitines, inflammation, insulin resistance, and NAFLD.

  20. Acylcarnitine Profiles in Plasma and Tissues of Hyperglycemic NZO Mice Correlate with Metabolite Changes of Human Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Weiser, Anna; Giesbertz, Pieter; Daniel, Hannelore; Spanier, Britta

    2018-01-01

    The New Zealand obese (NZO) mouse is a polygenic model for obesity and diabetes with obese females and obese, diabetes-prone males, used to study traits of the metabolic syndrome like type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), obesity, and dyslipidaemia. By using LC-MS/MS, we here examine the suitability of this model to mirror tissue-specific changes in acylcarnitine (AC) and amino acid (AA) species preceding T2DM which may reflect patterns investigated in human metabolism. We observed high concentrat...

  1. Labelling of long chain fatty acids by non isotopic nucleophilic halogen exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallaba, E.; Al-Suhybani, A.A.; Zaki, F.S.

    1985-01-01

    The parameters of two exchange methods for preparing pure 97% labelled 17-Br-HDA in acetone and in benzene with dry NaI in a closed system are described. In aprotic solvents the need for a phase transfer catalyst up to 50 μg is necessary to dissolve the dry NaI. The use of aqueous medium in the exchange is totally prohibited. Energies of activation are calculated for both reactions. (author)

  2. Thermodynamic Interactions between Polystyrene and Long-Chain Poly(n-Alkyl Acrylates) Derived from Plant Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu; Robertson, Megan L

    2015-06-10

    Vegetable oils and their fatty acids are promising sources for the derivation of polymers. Long-chain poly(n-alkyl acrylates) and poly(n-alkyl methacrylates) are readily derived from fatty acids through conversion of the carboxylic acid end-group to an acrylate or methacrylate group. The resulting polymers contain long alkyl side-chains with around 10-22 carbon atoms. Regardless of the monomer source, the presence of alkyl side-chains in poly(n-alkyl acrylates) and poly(n-alkyl methacrylates) provides a convenient mechanism for tuning their physical properties. The development of structured multicomponent materials, including block copolymers and blends, containing poly(n-alkyl acrylates) and poly(n-alkyl methacrylates) requires knowledge of the thermodynamic interactions governing their self-assembly, typically described by the Flory-Huggins interaction parameter χ. We have investigated the χ parameter between polystyrene and long-chain poly(n-alkyl acrylate) homopolymers and copolymers: specifically we have included poly(stearyl acrylate), poly(lauryl acrylate), and their random copolymers. Lauryl and stearyl acrylate were chosen as model alkyl acrylates derived from vegetable oils and have alkyl side-chain lengths of 12 and 18 carbon atoms, respectively. Polystyrene is included in this study as a model petroleum-sourced polymer, which has wide applicability in commercially relevant multicomponent polymeric materials. Two independent methods were employed to measure the χ parameter: cloud point measurements on binary blends and characterization of the order-disorder transition of triblock copolymers, which were in relatively good agreement with one another. The χ parameter was found to be independent of the alkyl side-chain length (n) for large values of n (i.e., n > 10). This behavior is in stark contrast to the n-dependence of the χ parameter predicted from solubility parameter theory. Our study complements prior work investigating the interactions between

  3. A critical role for very long-chain fatty acid elongases in oleic acid-mediated Saccharomyces cerevisiae cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiao; Du, Xiuxiu; Ma, Ke; Shi, Ping; Liu, Wenbin; Sun, Jing; Peng, Min; Huang, Zhiwei

    2018-03-01

    Elongases FEN1/ELO2 and SUR4/ELO3 are important enzymes involved in the elongation of long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) to very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The molecular mechanism of the involvement of these elongases in lipotoxicity is unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of VLCFA elongases in oleic acid-mediated yeast cytotoxicity. The spot test showed that yeast strains with the deletion of ELO2 or ELO3 were strikingly sensitive to oleic acid, while there was no change on the growth of strain with deleted ELO1 which was involved in the elongation of C 14 fatty acid (FA) to C 16 FA. By using GC-MS, the unsaturation index was increased in elo2△ and elo3△ mutants after treatment with oleic acid (OLA). However, the proportion of VLCFAs was increased in response to OLA in the wild-type strain. The growth inhibition of elo2△ and elo3△ could be partially rescued by two commonly used antioxidant agents N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and Ascorbic acid (VC). The further study showed that exposure to excess OLA led to an increase in the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and a decline in the quantity of reduced glutathione (GSH) in both the wild type and mutant strains. However, the antioxidant enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were increased in the wild type and elo1△ strains, while they were significantly decreased in the mutants of elo2△ and elo3△ after treated with excess OLA. Thus, oxidative damage mainly contributed to the cell death induced by OLA in ole2△ and ole3△. Taken together, although disruption of ELO2 or ELO3 did not affect the cellular lipid unsaturation, they altered the distribution and propotion of cellular VLCFAs, leading to the cell membrane impairment, which augmented the ability of OLA to permeabilize the plasma membrane. The data suggest that the very long-chain fatty acids elongases ELO2 and ELO3

  4. Lipidomic analysis of Botryococcus (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta) - Identification of lipid classes containing very long chain fatty acids by offline two-dimensional LC-tandem MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Řezanka, Tomáš; Lukavský, Jaromír; Vítová, Milada; Nedbalová, Linda; Sigler, Karel

    2018-04-01

    Very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) were identified in four strains of the green alga Botryococcus braunii (Trebouxiophyceae). The algae contained a series of monoenoic fatty acids up to triacontenoic acid and further VLCFAs in amounts around 1% of total fatty acids. The separation of lipid classes using hydrophilic interaction chromatography revealed that the most abundant VLCFAs (28:2, 28:1 and 28:0) were contained in neutral lipids (triacylglycerols and/or diacylglycerols) and in phospholipids (phosphatidic acid and/or phosphatidylcholine). Using non-aqueous reversed-phase liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (NARP-LC/MS 2 ) of the appropriate collected fractions, molecular species of triacylglycerols containing one or two VLCFAs were described and phosphatidylcholines containing VLCFAs were separated for the first time. Because the presence of Botryosphaerella sudetica (Chlorophyceae) as contaminant of Botryococcus braunii strain Droop 1950/807-1 placed some doubts on the results of previous studies, a strain of this green alga of was also analyzed. In contrast to Botryococcus, C16, a substantially lower proportion of C18 polyunsaturated fatty acids and no VLCFAs were detected in Botryosphaerella. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Randomized clinical trial of new intravenous lipid (SMOFlipid 20%) versus medium-chain triglycerides/long-chain triglycerides in adult patients undergoing gastrointestinal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming-Hsun; Wang, Ming-Yang; Yang, Chin-Yao; Kuo, Min-Liang; Lin, Ming-Tsan

    2014-09-01

    SMOFlipid 20% is intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) containing long-chain triglycerides (LCT), medium-chain triglycerides (MCT), olive oil, and fish oil as a mixed emulsion containing α-tocopherol. The aim was to assess the efficacy of this new ILE in gastrointestinal surgery compared with MCT/LCT. In this prospective study, 40 patients were randomized to SMOFlipid 20% or MCT/LCT (Lipovenoes 20%) group. Clinical and biochemistry data were collected. Inflammatory markers (CRP, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, TGF-β1) and oxidative stress (ROS and superoxide) were measured. Thirty-five patients (17 males and 18 females) with a mean age of 57 years completed the study. The patients' demographic characteristics (age, gender, height, body weight, and BMI) were similar without significant differences between groups. The increment of triglyceride on day 6 from baseline was significantly lower in SMOFlipid group than in Lipovenoes MCT/LCT group. Inflammatory markers, as well as superoxide radical and total oxygen radical were not different between groups. Despite the comparable effect on inflammatory response, because of its well-balanced fatty acid pattern, relatively low n-6:n-3 ratio, and high vitamin E content, SMOFlipid had a better triglyceride-lowering effect as compared with MCT/LCT in adult patients undergoing gastrointestinal surgery. © 2013 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  6. CPT1α over-expression increases long-chain fatty acid oxidation and reduces cell viability with incremental palmitic acid concentration in 293T cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jambor de Sousa, Ulrike L.; Koss, Michael D.; Fillies, Marion; Gahl, Anja; Scheeder, Martin R.L.; Cardoso, M. Cristina; Leonhardt, Heinrich; Geary, Nori; Langhans, Wolfgang; Leonhardt, Monika

    2005-01-01

    To test the cellular response to an increased fatty acid oxidation, we generated a vector for an inducible expression of the rate-limiting enzyme carnitine palmitoyl-transferase 1α (CPT1α). Human embryonic 293T kidney cells were transiently transfected and expression of the CPT1α transgene in the tet-on vector was activated with doxycycline. Fatty acid oxidation was measured by determining the conversion of supplemented, synthetic cis-10-heptadecenoic acid (C17:1n-7) to C15:ln-7. CPT1α over-expression increased mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid oxidation about 6-fold. Addition of palmitic acid (PA) decreased viability of CPT1α over-expressing cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Both, PA and CPT1α over-expression increased cell death. Interestingly, PA reduced total cell number only in cells over-expressing CPT1α, suggesting an effect on cell proliferation that requires PA translocation across the mitochondrial inner membrane. This inducible expression system should be well suited to study the roles of CPT1 and fatty acid oxidation in lipotoxicity and metabolism in vivo

  7. Validity of food frequency questionnaire-based estimates of long-term long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin, Alice; Di Giuseppe, Daniela; Burgaz, Ann; Håkansson, Niclas; Cederholm, Tommy; Michaëlsson, Karl; Wolk, Alicja

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate how long-term dietary intake of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3 PUFAs), estimated by repeated food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) over 15 years, is correlated with LCn-3 PUFAs in adipose tissue (AT). Subcutaneous adipose tissue was obtained in 2003-2004 (AT-03) from 239 randomly selected women, aged 55-75 years, after completion of a 96-item FFQ (FFQ-03). All participants had previously returned an identical FFQ in 1997 (FFQ-97) and a 67-item version in 1987-1990 (FFQ-87). Pearson product-moment correlations were used to evaluate associations between intake of total and individual LCn-3 PUFAs as estimated by the three FFQ assessments and AT-03 content (% of total fatty acids). FFQ-estimated mean relative intake of LCn-3 PUFAs (% of total fat intake) increased between all three assessments (FFQ-87, 0.55 ± 0.34; FFQ-97, 0.74 ± 0.64; FFQ-03, 0.88 ± 0.56). Validity, in terms of Pearson correlations between FFQ-03 estimates and AT-03 content, was 0.41 (95% CI 0.30-0.51) for total LCn-3 PUFA and ranged from 0.29 to 0.48 for individual fatty acids; lower correlation was observed among participants with higher percentage body fat. With regard to long-term intake estimates, past dietary intake was also correlated with AT-03 content, with correlation coefficients in the range of 0.21-0.33 and 0.21-0.34 for FFQ-97 and FFQ-87, respectively. The correlations were improved by using average estimates from two or more FFQ assessments. Exclusion of fish oil supplement users (14%) did not alter the correlations. These data indicate reasonable validity of FFQ-based estimates of long-term (up to 15 years) LCn-3 PUFA intake, justifying their use in studies of diet-disease associations.

  8. Modeling of anaerobic degradation of solid slaughterhouse waste: inhibition effects of long-chain fatty acids or ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokshina, L Y; Vavilin, V A; Salminen, E; Rintala, J

    2003-01-01

    The anaerobic bioconversion of solid poultry slaughterhouse wastes was kinetically investigated. The modified version of simulation model was applied for description of experimental data in mesophilic laboratory digester and assays. Additionally, stages of formation and consumption of long chain fatty acids (LCFA) were included in the model. Batch data on volatile solids, ammonium, acetate, butyrate, propionate, LCFA concentrations, pH level, cumulative volume, and methane partial pressure were used for model calibration. As a reference, the model was used to describe digestion of solid sorted household waste. Simulation results showed that an inhibition of polymer hydrolysis by volatile fatty acids and acetogenesis by NH3 or LCFA could be responsible for the complex system dynamics during degradation of lipid- and protein-rich wastes.

  9. Expression of the long-chain fatty acid receptor GPR120 in the gonadotropes of the mouse anterior pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, Ryutaro; Deura, Chikaya; Imoto, Shingo; Nose, Kazuhiro; Fukushima, Nobuyuki

    2015-01-01

    G-protein-coupled receptor 120 (GPR120) has been known to be a receptor of long-chain fatty acids. Here, we investigated GPR120 expression in the mouse pituitary gland via real-time PCR, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry. GPR120 mRNA was abundantly expressed in the pituitary gland of ad-lib fed animals. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry revealed GPR120 expression in the gonadotropes of the anterior pituitary gland, but not in thyrotropes, somatotropes, lactotropes, corticotropes, melanotropes, and the posterior pituitary gland. Furthermore, 24 h of fasting induced an increase in GPR120 mRNA expression in the pituitary gland. These results demonstrate that GPR120 in mouse pituitary gonadotropes is upregulated by fasting and that it may play a role in controlling gonadotropin secretion.

  10. The effects of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on bone formation and growth factors in adolescent boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, C. T.; Mølgaard, C.; Gyldenløve, S. N.

    2012-01-01

    NTRODUCTION: Animal studies indicate that n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) increase bone formation. To our knowledge, no studies have examined this in growing humans. This study investigated whether bone mass and markers of bone formation and growth were (i) associated...... with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) status and (ii) affected by fish oil supplementation, in adolescent boys. METHODS: Seventy-eight healthy, slightly overweight 13- to 15-y-old boys were randomly assigned to breads with DHA-rich fish oil (1.1 g/d n-3 LCPUFA) or control for 16 wk. Whole-body bone mineral content (BMC......), bone area (BA), bone mineral density (BMD), plasma osteocalcin, and growth factors were measured at wk 0 and wk 16, as well as diet, physical activity, and n-3 LCPUFA status in erythrocytes. RESULTS: Fish oil strongly increased DHA status (P = 0.0001). No associations were found between DHA status...

  11. Dielectric studies on binary mixtures of Tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) and long-chain primary alcohols (modifiers)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dash, S.K.; Swain, B.B.

    1993-01-01

    Dielectric constant (ε) of Tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP), in binary mixtures with five long-chain primary alcohols viz; 1-butanol, 1-pentanol, 1-hexanol, 1-heptanol and 1-octanol has been measured at ν = 455 kHz and at temperature 302 K. The data is used to evaluate mutual correlation factor g ab , excess molar polarization ΔP and excess free energy of mixing ΔF ab by using Winkelmann-Quitzsch eqn. for binary mixtures to assess the suitability of the alcohols as modifiers. The trend of variation of these parameters exhibit marked dependence on chain-length of the alcohols indicating 1-heptanol to be an efficient modifier. (author)

  12. Production of long chain alkyl esters from carbon dioxide and electricity by a two-stage bacterial process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtinen, Tapio; Efimova, Elena; Tremblay, Pier-Luc; Santala, Suvi; Zhang, Tian; Santala, Ville

    2017-11-01

    Microbial electrosynthesis (MES) is a promising technology for the reduction of carbon dioxide into value-added multicarbon molecules. In order to broaden the product profile of MES processes, we developed a two-stage process for microbial conversion of carbon dioxide and electricity into long chain alkyl esters. In the first stage, the carbon dioxide is reduced to organic compounds, mainly acetate, in a MES process by Sporomusa ovata. In the second stage, the liquid end-products of the MES process are converted to the final product by a second microorganism, Acinetobacter baylyi in an aerobic bioprocess. In this proof-of-principle study, we demonstrate for the first time the bacterial production of long alkyl esters (wax esters) from carbon dioxide and electricity as the sole sources of carbon and energy. The process holds potential for the efficient production of carbon-neutral chemicals or biofuels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Low-energy electron transmission and secondary-electron emission experiments on crystalline and molten long-chain alkanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, N.; Sugita, K.; Seki, K.; Inokuchi, H.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the results of low-energy electron transmission and secondary-electron emission experiments on thin films of long-chain alkanes deposited on metal substrates. The spectral changes due to crystal-melt phase transition were measured in situ in both experiments. The ground-state energy V 0 of the quasifree electron in crystalline state was determined to be 0.5 +- 0.1 eV. The value of V 0 for the molten state was found to be negative. Further, in the crystalline state evidence is found for a direct correspondence between the transmission maxima and the high value of the density of states in the conduction bands

  14. Activation of Short and Long Chain Fatty Acid Sensing Machinery in the Ileum Lowers Glucose Production in Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadeh-Tahmasebi, Melika; Duca, Frank A; Rasmussen, Brittany A; Bauer, Paige V; Côté, Clémence D; Filippi, Beatrice M; Lam, Tony K T

    2016-04-15

    Evidence continues to emerge detailing the myriad of ways the gut microbiota influences host energy homeostasis. Among the potential mechanisms, short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), the byproducts of microbial fermentation of dietary fibers, exhibit correlative beneficial metabolic effects in humans and rodents, including improvements in glucose homeostasis. The underlying mechanisms, however, remain elusive. We here report that one of the main bacterially produced SCFAs, propionate, activates ileal mucosal free fatty acid receptor 2 to trigger a negative feedback pathway to lower hepatic glucose production in healthy rats in vivo We further demonstrate that an ileal glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor-dependent neuronal network is necessary for ileal propionate and long chain fatty acid sensing to regulate glucose homeostasis. These findings highlight the potential to manipulate fatty acid sensing machinery in the ileum to regulate glucose homeostasis. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Aspects of the regulation of long-chain fatty acid oxidation in bovine liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesse, B.W.; Emery, R.S.; Thomas, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    Factors involved in regulation of bovine hepatic fatty acid oxidation were examined using liver slices. Fatty acid oxidation was measured as the conversion of l-[ 14 C] palmitate to 14 CO 2 and total [ 14 C] acid-soluble metabolites. Extended (5 to 7 d) fasting of Holstein cows had relatively little effect on palmitate oxidation to acid-soluble metabolites by liver slices, although oxidation to CO 2 was decreased. Feeding a restricted roughage, high concentrate ration to lactating cows resulted in inhibition of palmitate oxidation. Insulin, glucose, and acetate inhibited palmitate oxidation by bovine liver slices. The authors suggest the regulation of bovine hepatic fatty acid oxidation may be less dependent on hormonally induced alterations in enzyme activity as observed in rat liver and more dependent upon action of rumen fermentation products or their metabolites on enzyme systems involved in fatty acid oxidation

  16. Potential therapeutic impact of omega-3 long chain-polyunsaturated fatty acids on inflammation markers in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: A double-blind, controlled randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Cruz-Guzmán, Oriana Del Rocío; Almeida-Becerril, Tomás; Solís-Serna, Alan Donovan; Atilano-Miguel, Salvador; Sánchez-González, Juan Raúl; Barbosa-Cortés, Lourdes; Ruíz-Cruz, Eugenia Dolores; Huicochea, Juan Carlos; Cárdenas-Conejo, Alan; Escobar-Cedillo, Rosa Elena; Yam-Ontiveros, Carlos Alberto; Ricárdez-Marcial, Edgar F

    2017-09-23

    Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is the most frequent dystrophy in childhood generated by a deficiency in dystrophin. DMD is a neuromuscular disease and its clinical course comprises chronic inflammation and gradual muscle weakness. Supplementation of omega-3 long chain-Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (ω-3 long chain-PUFA) reduces inflammatory markers in various disorders. The goal of this research was to analyze the influence of ω-3 long chain-PUFA intake on gene expression and blood inflammatory markers in boys with DMD. In a placebo-controlled, double. Blind, randomized trial, boys with DMD (n = 36) consumed 2.9 g/day of ω-3 long chain-PUFA or sunflower oil as control, in capsules, for a period of 6 months. Blood was analyzed at baseline and at months 1, 2, 3, and 6 of supplementation for expression of inflammatory markers in leukocytes and serum. There was high adherence to capsule intake (control: 95.3% ± 7.2%, and ω-3 long chain-PUFA: 97.4% ± 3.7% at month 6). Enrichment of EicosaPentaenoic Acid (EPA) and DocosaHexaenoic Acid (DHA) in erythrocytes increased significantly in patients supplemented with ω-3 long chain-PUFA compared with the placebo group during the 6 months of supplementation. Messenger RNA (mRNA) of the Nuclear Factor kappa beta (NF-κB) and its target genes InterLeukin 1 beta (IL-1β) and IL-6 was downregulated significantly (p Omega-3 long chain-PUFA intake decreased the serum IL-1β (-59.5%; p = 0.011) and IL-6 (-54.8%; p = 0.041), and increased the serum IL-10 (99.9%, p < 0.005), in relation to those with placebo treatment. Supplementation with ω-3 long chain-PUFA 2.9 g/day is well-tolerated, has a beneficial reductive effect on proinflammatory markers, and increases an anti-inflammatory marker, indicating that ω-3 long chain-PUFA could have a potential therapeutic impact on chronic inflammation in DMD. This research is registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT018264229). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society

  17. Establishing very long-chain fatty alcohol and wax ester biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenning, Leonie; Yu, Tao; David, Florian

    2017-01-01

    used WEs are mainly isolated from Simmondsia chinensis (jojoba), but the high extraction costs and limited harvest areas constrain their use. The use of FARs in combination with different WSs to achieve a synthesis of jojoba-like WEs in bacteria and yeast has been reported previously, but the products...... were restricted to C28-C36 WEs. These rather short WEs make up only a very small percentage of the total WEs in natural jojoba oil. The synthesis of longer chain WEs (up to C44) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae has so far only been achieved after substrate feeding. Here we identified new routes......, respectively, after 48h. Moreover, we enabled the synthesis of jojoba-like WEs up to a chain length of C42, catalyzed by a combination of Maqu_2220 together with the WS from S. chinensis (SciWS) and the S. cerevisiae elongase Elo2p, with a maximum yield of 12.24±3.35mg/g CDW after 48h....

  18. What Is the Most Effective Way of Increasing the Bioavailability of Dietary Long Chain Omega-3 Fatty Acids—Daily vs. Weekly Administration of Fish Oil?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Ghasemifard

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The recommendations on the intake of long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA vary from eating oily fish (“once to twice per week” to consuming specified daily amounts of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA (“250–500 mg per day”. It is not known if there is a difference in the uptake/bioavailability between regular daily consumption of supplementsvs. consuming fish once or twice per week. In this study, the bioavailability of a daily dose of n-3 LC-PUFA (Constant treatment, representing supplements, vs. a large weekly dose of n-3 LC-PUFA (Spike treatment, representing consuming once or twice per week, was assessed. Six-week old healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a Constant treatment, a Spike treatment or Control treatment (no n-3 LC-PUFA, for six weeks. The whole body, tissues and faeces were analysed for fatty acid content. The results showed that the major metabolic fate of the n-3 LC-PUFA (EPA+docosapentaenoic acid (DPA + DHA was towards catabolism (β-oxidation accounting for over 70% of total dietary intake, whereas deposition accounted less than 25% of total dietary intake. It was found that significantly more n-3 LC-PUFA were β-oxidised when originating from the Constant treatment (84% of dose, compared with the Spike treatment (75% of dose. Conversely, it was found that significantly more n-3 LC-PUFA were deposited when originating from the Spike treatment (23% of dose, than from the Constant treatment (15% of dose. These unexpected findings show that a large dose of n-3 LC-PUFA once per week is more effective in increasing whole body n-3 LC-PUFA content in rats compared with a smaller dose delivered daily.

  19. Characterization of Oilseed Lipids from “DHA-Producing Camelina sativa”: A New Transformed Land Plant Containing Long-Chain Omega-3 Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maged P. Mansour

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available New and sustainable sources of long-chain (LC, ≥C20 omega-3 oils containing DHA (docosahexaenoic acid, 22:6ω3 are required to meet increasing demands. The lipid content of the oilseed of a novel transgenic, DHA-producing land plant, Camelina sativa, containing microalgal genes able to produce LC omega-3 oils, contained 36% lipid by weight with triacylglycerols (TAG as the major lipid class in hexane extracts (96% of total lipid. Subsequent chloroform-methanol (CM extraction recovered further lipid (~50% polar lipid, comprising glycolipids and phospholipids and residual TAG. The main phospholipid species were phosphatidyl choline and phosphatidyl ethanolamine. The % DHA was: 6.8% (of total fatty acids in the TAG-rich hexane extract and 4.2% in the polar lipid-rich CM extract. The relative level of ALA (α-linolenic acid, 18:3ω3 in DHA-camelina seed was higher than the control. Major sterols in both DHA- and control camelina seeds were: sitosterol, campesterol, cholesterol, brassicasterol and isofucosterol. C16–C22 fatty alcohols, including iso-branched and odd-chain alcohols were present, including high levels of iso-17:0, 17:0 and 19:0. Other alcohols present were: 16:0, iso-18:0, 18:0 and 18:1 and the proportions varied between the hexane and CM extracts. These iso-branched odd-chain fatty alcohols, to our knowledge, have not been previously reported. These components may be derived from wax esters, or free fatty alcohols.

  20. Bioavailability of seocalcitol I: Relating solubility in biorelevant media with oral bioavailability in rats--effect of medium and long chain triglycerides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grove, Mette; Pedersen, Gitte P; Nielsen, Jeanet L

    2005-01-01

    Simulated intestinal media (SIM) containing bile salt (BS) and phospholipids (PL) with and without medium chain lipolytic products (MC-LP) or long chain lipolytic products (LC-LP) were developed to study the solubility of seocalcitol. Both MC-LP and LC-LP were studied in order to investigate...... the influence of fatty acid chain length on the in vitro solubility of seocalcitol. The same solubility of seocalcitol was found in media containing either MC-LP or LC-LP. The bioavailability after oral administration of seocalcitol dissolved in medium chain triglyceride (MCT), long chain triglyceride (LCT...

  1. 3-Methylcrotonyl-coenzyme A carboxylase deficiency in Amish/Mennonite adults identified by detection of increased acylcarnitines in blood spots of their children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, K M; Bennett, M J; Naylor, E W; Morton, D H

    1998-03-01

    Isolated 3-methylcrotonyl coenzyme A carboxylase (MCC) deficiency was documented in four adult women from the Amish/Mennonite population of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. Metabolic and enzymatic investigations in these individuals were instituted after the detection of abnormal acylcarnitine profiles in blood spots obtained from their newborn children, in whom MCC activity was normal.

  2. Structured versus long-chain triglycerides: a safety, tolerance, and efficacy randomized study in colorectal surgical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellantone, R; Bossola, M; Carriero, C; Malerba, M; Nucera, P; Ratto, C; Crucitti, P; Pacelli, F; Doglietto, G B; Crucitti, F

    1999-01-01

    After trauma or surgery, researchers have suggested that medium-chain triglycerides have metabolic advantages, although they are toxic in large doses. To try to reduce this potential toxicity, structured lipids, which provide a higher oxidation rate, faster clearance from blood, improved nitrogen balance, and less accumulation in the reticuloendothelial system, could be used. Therefore, we evaluated, through a blind randomized study, the safety, tolerance, and efficacy of structured triglycerides, compared with long-chain triglycerides (LCT), in patients undergoing colorectal surgery. Nineteen patients were randomized to receive long-chain or structured triglycerides as a lipid source. They received the same amount of calories (27.2/kg/d), glucose (4 g/kg/d), protein (0.2 g/kg/d), and lipids (11.2 kcal/kg/d). Patients were evaluated during and after the treatment for clinical and laboratory variables, daily and cumulative nitrogen balance, urinary excretion of 3-methyl-histidine, and urinary 3-methylhistidine/creatinine ratio. No adverse effect that required the interruption of the treatment was observed. Triglyceride levels and clinical and laboratory variables were similar in the two groups. A predominantly positive nitrogen balance was observed from day 2 until day 5 in the LCT group and from day 1 until day 4 in the structured triglycerides group. The cumulative nitrogen balance (in grams) for days 1 to 3 was 9.7+/-5.2 in the experimental group and 4.4+/-11.8 in the control group (p = .2). For days 1 to 5 it was 10.7+/-10.5 and 6.5+/-17.9 (p = .05), respectively. The excretion of 3-methylhistidine was higher in the control group but decreased in the following days and was similar to the experimental group on day 5. This study represents the first report in which structured triglycerides are administered in postoperative patients to evaluate safety, tolerance, and efficacy. It suggests that Fe73403 is safe, well tolerated, and efficacious in terms of nitrogen

  3. Hypothalamic GPR40 signaling activated by free long chain fatty acids suppresses CFA-induced inflammatory chronic pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuo Nakamoto

    Full Text Available GPR40 has been reported to be activated by long-chain fatty acids, such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. However, reports studying functional role of GPR40 in the brain are lacking. The present study focused on the relationship between pain regulation and GPR40, investigating the functional roles of hypothalamic GPR40 during chronic pain caused using a complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA-induced inflammatory chronic pain mouse model. GPR40 protein expression in the hypothalamus was transiently increased at day 7, but not at days 1, 3 and 14, after CFA injection. GPR40 was co-localized with NeuN, a neuron marker, but not with glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, an astrocyte marker. At day 1 after CFA injection, GFAP protein expression was markedly increased in the hypothalamus. These increases were significantly inhibited by the intracerebroventricular injection of flavopiridol (15 nmol, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, depending on the decreases in both the increment of GPR40 protein expression and the induction of mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia at day 7 after CFA injection. Furthermore, the level of DHA in the hypothalamus tissue was significantly increased in a flavopiridol reversible manner at day 1, but not at day 7, after CFA injection. The intracerebroventricular injection of DHA (50 µg and GW9508 (1.0 µg, a GPR40-selective agonist, significantly reduced mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia at day 7, but not at day 1, after CFA injection. These effects were inhibited by intracerebroventricular pretreatment with GW1100 (10 µg, a GPR40 antagonist. The protein expression of GPR40 was colocalized with that of β-endorphin and proopiomelanocortin, and a single intracerebroventricular injection of GW9508 (1.0 µg significantly increased the number of neurons double-stained for c-Fos and proopiomelanocortin in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. Our findings suggest that hypothalamic GPR40 activated by free long

  4. Hypothalamic GPR40 signaling activated by free long chain fatty acids suppresses CFA-induced inflammatory chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamoto, Kazuo; Nishinaka, Takashi; Sato, Naoya; Mankura, Mitsumasa; Koyama, Yutaka; Kasuya, Fumiyo; Tokuyama, Shogo

    2013-01-01

    GPR40 has been reported to be activated by long-chain fatty acids, such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). However, reports studying functional role of GPR40 in the brain are lacking. The present study focused on the relationship between pain regulation and GPR40, investigating the functional roles of hypothalamic GPR40 during chronic pain caused using a complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced inflammatory chronic pain mouse model. GPR40 protein expression in the hypothalamus was transiently increased at day 7, but not at days 1, 3 and 14, after CFA injection. GPR40 was co-localized with NeuN, a neuron marker, but not with glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), an astrocyte marker. At day 1 after CFA injection, GFAP protein expression was markedly increased in the hypothalamus. These increases were significantly inhibited by the intracerebroventricular injection of flavopiridol (15 nmol), a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, depending on the decreases in both the increment of GPR40 protein expression and the induction of mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia at day 7 after CFA injection. Furthermore, the level of DHA in the hypothalamus tissue was significantly increased in a flavopiridol reversible manner at day 1, but not at day 7, after CFA injection. The intracerebroventricular injection of DHA (50 µg) and GW9508 (1.0 µg), a GPR40-selective agonist, significantly reduced mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia at day 7, but not at day 1, after CFA injection. These effects were inhibited by intracerebroventricular pretreatment with GW1100 (10 µg), a GPR40 antagonist. The protein expression of GPR40 was colocalized with that of β-endorphin and proopiomelanocortin, and a single intracerebroventricular injection of GW9508 (1.0 µg) significantly increased the number of neurons double-stained for c-Fos and proopiomelanocortin in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. Our findings suggest that hypothalamic GPR40 activated by free long chain fatty

  5. Plasma fatty acyl-carnitines during 8 Weeks of overfeeding: relation to diet energy expenditure and body composition: the PROOF study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, George A; Redman, Leanne M; de Jonge, Lilian; Rood, Jennifer; Sutton, Elizabeth F; Smith, Steven R

    2018-01-24

    Overfeeding is a strategy for evaluating the effects of excess energy intake. In this secondary analysis we tested the possibility that different levels of dietary protein might differentially modify the response of fatty acyl-carnitines to overfeeding. Twenty-three healthy adult men and women were overfed by 40% for 8 weeks while in-patients with diets containing 5% (LPD), 15% (NPD) or 25% (HPD) protein. Plasma fatty acyl-carnitines were measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) at baseline and after 8 weeks of overfeeding. Measurements included: body composition by DXA, energy expenditure by ventilated hood and doubly-labeled water, fat cell size from subcutaneous fat biopsies, and fat distribution by CT scan. Analysis was done on 5 groups of fatty acyl-carnitines identified by principal components analysis and 6 individual short-chain fatty acyl carnitines. Higher protein intake was associated with significantly lower 8 week levels of medium chain fatty acids and C2, C4-OH and C 6:1, but higher values of C3 and C5:1 acyl-carnitines derived from essential amino acids. In contrast energy and fat intake were only weakly related to changes in fatty acyl-carnitines. A decease or smaller rise in 8 week medium chain acyl-carnitines was associated with an increase in sleeping energy expenditure (P = 0.0004), and fat free mass (P < 0.0001) and a decrease in free fatty acid concentrations (FFA) (P = 0.0067). In contrast changes in short-chain fatty acyl-carnitines were related to changes in resting energy expenditure (P = 0.0026), and fat free mass (P = 0.0007), and C4-OH was positively related to FFA (P = 0006). Protein intake was the major factor influencing changes in fatty acyl carnitines during overfeeding with higher values of most acyl-fatty acids on the low protein diet. The association of dietary protein and fat intake may explain the changes in energy expenditure and metabolic variables resulting in the observed

  6. Associations of maternal long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, methyl mercury, and infant development in the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strain, J J; Davidson, Philip W; Bonham, Maxine P; Duffy, Emeir M; Stokes-Riner, Abbie; Thurston, Sally W; Wallace, Julie M W; Robson, Paula J; Shamlaye, Conrad F; Georger, Lesley A; Sloane-Reeves, Jean; Cernichiari, Elsa; Canfield, Richard L; Cox, Christopher; Huang, Li Shan; Janciuras, Joanne; Myers, Gary J; Clarkson, Thomas W

    2008-09-01

    Fish consumption during gestation can provide the fetus with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) and other nutrients essential for growth and development of the brain. However, fish consumption also exposes the fetus to the neurotoxicant, methyl mercury (MeHg). We studied the association between these fetal exposures and early child development in the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study (SCDNS). Specifically, we examined a priori models of Omega-3 and Omega-6 LCPUFA measures in maternal serum to test the hypothesis that these LCPUFA families before or after adjusting for prenatal MeHg exposure would reveal associations with child development assessed by the BSID-II at ages 9 and 30 months. There were 229 children with complete outcome and covariate data available for analysis. At 9 months, the PDI was positively associated with total Omega-3 LCPUFA and negatively associated with the ratio of Omega-6/Omega-3 LCPUFA. These associations were stronger in models adjusted for prenatal MeHg exposure. Secondary models suggested that the MeHg effect at 9 months varied by the ratio of Omega-6/Omega-3 LCPUFA. There were no significant associations between LCPUFA measures and the PDI at 30 months. There were significant adverse associations, however, between prenatal MeHg and the 30-month PDI when the LCPUFA measures were included in the regression analysis. The BSID-II mental developmental index (MDI) was not associated with any exposure variable. These data support the potential importance to child development of prenatal availability of Omega-3 LCPUFA present in fish and of LCPUFA in the overall diet. Furthermore, they indicate that the beneficial effects of LCPUFA can obscure the determination of adverse effects of prenatal MeHg exposure in longitudinal observational studies.

  7. Low blood long chain omega-3 fatty acids in UK children are associated with poor cognitive performance and behavior: a cross-sectional analysis from the DOLAB study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Montgomery

    Full Text Available Omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA, especially DHA (docosahexaenonic acid are essential for brain development and physical health. Low blood Omega-3 LC-PUFA have been reported in children with ADHD and related behavior/learning difficulties, as have benefits from dietary supplementation. Little is known, however, about blood fatty acid status in the general child population. We therefore investigated this in relation to age-standardized measures of behavior and cognition in a representative sample of children from mainstream schools.493 schoolchildren aged 7-9 years from mainstream Oxfordshire schools, selected for below average reading performance in national assessments at age seven.Whole blood fatty acids were obtained via fingerstick samples. Reading and working memory were assessed using the British Ability Scales (II. Behaviour (ADHD-type symptoms was rated using the revised Conners' rating scales (long parent and teacher versions. Associations were examined and adjusted for relevant demographic variables.DHA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, accounted for only 1.9% and 0.55% respectively of total blood fatty acids, with DHA showing more individual variation. Controlling for sex and socio-economic status, lower DHA concentrations were associated with poorer reading ability (std. OLS coeff. = 0.09, p = <.042 and working memory performance (0.14, p = <.001. Lower DHA was also associated with higher levels of parent rated oppositional behavior and emotional lability (-0.175, p = <.0001 and -0.178, p = <.0001.In these healthy UK children with below average reading ability, concentrations of DHA and other Omega-3 LC-PUFA were low relative to adult cardiovascular health recommendations, and directly related to measures of cognition and behavior. These findings require confirmation, but suggest that the benefits from dietary supplementation with Omega-3 LC-PUFA found for ADHD, Dyspraxia, Dyslexia, and

  8. Randomized controlled trial of maternal omega-3 long-chain PUFA supplementation during pregnancy and early childhood development of attention, working memory, and inhibitory control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Jacqueline F; Makrides, Maria; Colombo, John; Smithers, Lisa G

    2014-04-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) accumulates in the hippocampus and frontal lobes of the fetal brain during the last trimester of pregnancy. These areas of the brain contribute to attention and working memory and inhibitory control (WMIC). We evaluated the effect of maternal omega-3 (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in pregnancy on child attention and WMIC. A total of 185 term-born children of mothers who were randomly allocated to consume 800 mg DHA/d (treatment) or a placebo (control) from ∼20 wk of gestation until birth were assessed with multiple measures of attention and WMIC at a mean (± SD) of 27 ± 2 mo. Primary outcomes were the average time it took to be distracted when playing with a toy (distractibility) and the accuracy of remembering a new hiding location while inhibiting a learned response to search in the previous location (WMIC). Assessments were completed by 81 children in the treatment group (mean ± SD age: 835 ± 50.4 d) and 77 children in the control group (839 ± 65.6 d). There was no effect of supplementation on primary outcomes [distractibility mean difference: -0.2 s (95% CI: -0.7, 0.4 s); WMIC mean difference: 8.9 mm (95% CI: -10.6, 28.3 mm)]. There was no difference between DHA-supplemented and control groups except that treatment-group children looked away from the toys fewer times than controls when presented with multiple toys competing for attention but less accurately remembered a repeated hiding location. These secondary effects were not consistent with any other outcomes and may have been a result of chance. Cord plasma DHA was not consistently associated with attention and WMIC. Maternal DHA supplementation during pregnancy does not enhance attention or WMIC in term-born preschoolers. The DHA for Maternal and Infant Outcomes trial was registered at www.anzctr.org.au as ACTRN1260500056906.

  9. Novel poly (arylene-ether-ether-ketone)s containing preformed imide unit and pendant long chain alkyl group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayyed, Maheboob M.; Maldar, Noormahmad N.

    2010-01-01

    The studies were carried out to get preformed imide unit containing PEEKs and Co-PEEKs with pendant long chain alkyl group. Thus two new bisphenols; N,N'-bis (4-hydroxy 2-pentadecyl phenyl) pyromellitimide (HPI) (I) and N,N'-bis (4-hydroxy 2-pentadecyl phenyl 3,3',4,4'-benzophenone tetracarboxylic imide (HBI) (II) containing imide unit, pendant C-15 alkyl substituents were synthesized, characterized by spectral data and polycondensed with 4,4'-difluorobenzophenone (DFB) to yield several PEEK and Co-PEEKs. The polymers were characterized by FTIR, inherent viscosity, solubility, and XRD. The polymers were obtained in good yields and had inherent viscosities up to 0.65 dL/g in NMP. Polymerization of mixture of two bisphenols; [(I) and BPA]; and [(II) and BPA] in various mol%, with DFB gave number of the copolymers viz. Co-PEEK-BPAPI and Co-PEEK-BPABI. Many of the Co-PEEKs had good solubility in polar solvents. The solubility of PEEK containing bulky pendant alkyl substituents did not much improve probably due to simultaneous presence of rigid imide structures. XRD analysis indicated that PEEK and Co-PEEKs were partially crystalline or amorphous depending on the nature and % content of imide-bisphenol. These new PEEK materials can be used as high performance films, coatings, gas separation membranes, in aerospace and nuclear industries.

  10. Long-Chain Metabolites of Vitamin E: Metabolic Activation as a General Concept for Lipid-Soluble Vitamins?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Martin; Kluge, Stefan; Schmölz, Lisa; Wallert, Maria; Galli, Francesco; Birringer, Marc; Lorkowski, Stefan

    2018-01-12

    Vitamins E, A, D and K comprise the class of lipid-soluble vitamins. For vitamins A and D, a metabolic conversion of precursors to active metabolites has already been described. During the metabolism of vitamin E, the long-chain metabolites (LCMs) 13'-hydroxychromanol (13'-OH) and 13'-carboxychromanol (13'-COOH) are formed by oxidative modification of the side-chain. The occurrence of these metabolites in human serum indicates a physiological relevance. Indeed, effects of the LCMs on lipid metabolism, apoptosis, proliferation and inflammatory actions as well as tocopherol and xenobiotic metabolism have been shown. Interestingly, there are several parallels between the actions of the LCMs of vitamin E and the active metabolites of vitamin A and D. The recent findings that the LCMs exert effects different from that of their precursors support their putative role as regulatory metabolites. Hence, it could be proposed that the mode of action of the LCMs might be mediated by a mechanism similar to vitamin A and D metabolites. If the physiological relevance and this concept of action of the LCMs can be confirmed, a general concept of activation of lipid-soluble vitamins via their metabolites might be deduced.

  11. Characterization of coke deposited on nano-sized Pt-Pd/H-beta spent during long-chain paraffin hydroisomerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, F.; Einicke, W.D.; Ficht, K.; Glaeser, R. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Chemical Technology; Bertmer, M. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Experimental Physics II; Kuchling, T. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. of Energy Process Engineering and Chemical Engineering

    2013-11-01

    The hydroisomerization of long-chain n-paraffins were studied in the temperature range 205- 230 C at p{sub H2}=50 bar using a bench scale trickle-bed continuous-flow reactor. The bimetallic catalysts consisted of mixtures of platinum and palladium supported on commercially available nano-sized zeolites Beta (n{sub Si}/n{sub Al} = 12 and 25) extruded with a binder ({gamma}-alumina). For hexadecane conversion, high yields to isomers (25 and 45 wt.% of mono- and multibranched isomers, respectively) without extensive cracking (>10 wt.%) were obtained at a conversion of 80 %. Long-term tests with C{sub 16}H{sub 34} and blends of solid n-paraffins for 30-60 days on stream clearly indicate that a minor loss in catalyst activity can easily be compensated by increasing the reaction temperature from 230 C to 235 C. The zeolite sample with a 'mild acidity' revealed low hydrocracking at isomerization yield up to 70 wt.% and high stability. Carbonaceous deposits formed during n-paraffin hydroisomerization were investigated by temperature-programmed oxidation, elemental analysis, ATR-FTIR and {sup 13}C MAS NMR spectroscopy showing the formation of low-temperature, hydrogen-rich coke. (orig.)

  12. Loss of Hepatic Mitochondrial Long-Chain Fatty Acid Oxidation Confers Resistance to Diet-Induced Obesity and Glucose Intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jieun; Choi, Joseph; Selen Alpergin, Ebru S; Zhao, Liang; Hartung, Thomas; Scafidi, Susanna; Riddle, Ryan C; Wolfgang, Michael J

    2017-07-18

    The liver has a large capacity for mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation, which is critical for systemic metabolic adaptations such as gluconeogenesis and ketogenesis. To understand the role of hepatic fatty acid oxidation in response to a chronic high-fat diet (HFD), we generated mice with a liver-specific deficiency of mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid β-oxidation (Cpt2 L-/- mice). Paradoxically, Cpt2 L-/- mice were resistant to HFD-induced obesity and glucose intolerance with an absence of liver damage, although they exhibited serum dyslipidemia, hepatic oxidative stress, and systemic carnitine deficiency. Feeding an HFD induced hepatokines in mice, with a loss of hepatic fatty acid oxidation that enhanced systemic energy expenditure and suppressed adiposity. Additionally, the suppression in hepatic gluconeogenesis was sufficient to improve HFD-induced glucose intolerance. These data show that inhibiting hepatic fatty acid oxidation results in a systemic hormetic response that protects mice from HFD-induced obesity and glucose intolerance. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Structural and solubility parameter correlations of gelation abilities for dihydroxylated derivatives of long-chain, naturally occurring fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mohan; Selvakumar, Sermadurai; Zhang, Xinran; Sibi, Mukund P; Weiss, Richard G

    2015-06-01

    Creating structure-property correlations at different distance scales is one of the important challenges to the rational design of molecular gelators. Here, a series of dihydroxylated derivatives of long-chain fatty acids, derived from three naturally occurring molecules-oleic, erucic and ricinoleic acids-are investigated as gelators of a wide variety of liquids. Conclusions about what constitutes a more (or less!) efficient gelator are based upon analyses of a variety of thermal, structural, molecular modeling, and rheological results. Correlations between the manner of molecular packing in the neat solid or gel states of the gelators and Hansen solubility data from the liquids leads to the conclusion that diol stereochemistry, the number of carbon atoms separating the two hydroxyl groups, and the length of the alkanoic chains are the most important structural parameters controlling efficiency of gel formation for these gelators. Some of the diol gelators are as efficient or even more efficient than the well-known, excellent gelator, (R)-12-hydroxystearic acid; others are much worse. The ability to form extensive intermolecular H-bonding networks along the alkyl chains appears to play a key role in promoting fiber growth and, thus, gelation. In toto, the results demonstrate how the efficiency of gelation can be modulated by very small structural changes and also suggest how other structural modifications may be exploited to create efficient gelators. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Short-term long chain omega3 diet protects from neuroinflammatory processes and memory impairment in aged mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie F Labrousse

    Full Text Available Regular consumption of food enriched in omega3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3 PUFAs has been shown to reduce risk of cognitive decline in elderly, and possibly development of Alzheimer's disease. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA are the most likely active components of ω3-rich PUFAs diets in the brain. We therefore hypothesized that exposing mice to a DHA and EPA enriched diet may reduce neuroinflammation and protect against memory impairment in aged mice. For this purpose, mice were exposed to a control diet throughout life and were further submitted to a diet enriched in EPA and DHA during 2 additional months. Cytokine expression together with a thorough analysis of astrocytes morphology assessed by a 3D reconstruction was measured in the hippocampus of young (3-month-old and aged (22-month-old mice. In addition, the effects of EPA and DHA on spatial memory and associated Fos activation in the hippocampus were assessed. We showed that a 2-month EPA/DHA treatment increased these long-chain ω3 PUFAs in the brain, prevented cytokines expression and astrocytes morphology changes in the hippocampus and restored spatial memory deficits and Fos-associated activation in the hippocampus of aged mice. Collectively, these data indicated that diet-induced accumulation of EPA and DHA in the brain protects against neuroinflammation and cognitive impairment linked to aging, further reinforcing the idea that increased EPA and DHA intake may provide protection to the brain of aged subjects.

  15. Evolutionary modifications of human milk composition: evidence from long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid composition of anthropoid milks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milligan, Lauren A; Bazinet, Richard P

    2008-12-01

    Brain growth in mammals is associated with increased accretion of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) in brain phospholipids. The period of maximum accumulation is during the brain growth spurt. Humans have a perinatal brain growth spurt, selectively accumulating docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and other LCPUFA from the third trimester through the second year of life. The emphasis on rapid postnatal brain growth and LCPUFA transfer during lactation has led to the suggestion that human milk LCPUFA composition may be unique. Our study tests this hypothesis by determining fatty acid composition for 11 species of captive anthropoids (n=53; Callithrix jacchus, Cebus apella, Gorilla gorilla, Hylobates lar, Leontopithecus rosalia, Macaca mulatta, Pan troglodytes, Pan paniscus, Pongo pygmaeus, Saimiri boliviensis, and Symphalangus syndactylus). Results are compared to previously published data on five species of wild anthropoids (n=28; Alouatta paliatta, Callithrix jacchus, Gorilla beringei, Leontopithecus rosalia, and Macaca sinica) and human milk fatty acid profiles. Milk LCPUFA profiles of captive anthropoids (consuming diets with a preformed source of DHA) are similar to milk from women on a Western diet, and those of wild anthropoids are similar to milk from vegan women. Collectively, the range of DHA percent composition values from nonhuman anthropoid milks (0.03-1.1) is nearly identical to that from a cross-cultural analysis of human milk (0.06-1.4). Humans do not appear to be unique in their ability to secrete LCPUFA in milk but may be unique in their access to dietary LCPUFA.

  16. Application of novel catalytic-ceramic-filler in a coupled system for long-chain dicarboxylic acids manufacturing wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Suqing; Qi, Yuanfeng; Fan, Chunzhen; He, Shengbing; Dai, Bibo; Huang, Jungchen; Zhou, Weili; Gao, Lei

    2016-02-01

    To gain systematic technology for long-chain dicarboxylic acids (LDCA) manufacturing wastewater treatment, catalytic micro-electrolysis (CME) coupling with adsorption-biodegradation sludge (AB) process was studied. Firstly, novel catalytic-ceramic-filler was prepared from scrap iron, clay and copper sulfate solution and packed in the CME reactor. To remove residual n-alkane and LDCA, the CME reactor was utilized for LDCA wastewater pretreatment. The results revealed that about 94% of n-alkane, 98% of LDCA and 84% of chemical oxygen demand (COD) were removed by the aerated CME reactor at the optimum hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 3.0 h. In this process, catalysis from Cu and montmorillonites played an important role in improving the contaminants removal. Secondly, to remove residual COD in the wastewater, AB process was designed for the secondary biological treatment, about 90% of the influent COD could be removed by biosorption, bio-flocculation and biodegradation effects. Finally, the effluent COD (about 150 mg L(-1)) discharged from the coupled CME-AB system met the requirement of the national discharged standard (COD ≤ 300 mg L(-1)). All of these results suggest that the coupled CME-AB system is a promising technology due to its high-efficient performance, and has the potential to be applied for the real LDCA wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A critical assessment of transmethylation procedures for n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid quantification of lipid classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehl, Anthony; Couëdelo, Leslie; Fonseca, Laurence; Vaysse, Carole; Cansell, Maud

    2018-06-15

    Lipid transmethylation methods described in the literature are not always evaluated with care so to insure that the methods are effective, especially on food matrix or biological samples containing polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA). The aim of the present study was to select a method suitable for all lipid species rich in long chain n-3 PUFA. Three published methods were adapted and applied on individual lipid classes. Lipid (trans)methylation efficiency was characterized in terms of reaction yield and gas chromatography (GC) analysis. The acid-catalyzed method was unable to convert triglycerides and sterol esters, while the method using an incubation at a moderate temperature was ineffective on phospholipids and sterol esters. On the whole only the method using sodium methoxide and sulfuric acid was effective on lipid classes taken individually or in a complex medium. This study highlighted the use of an appropriate (trans)methylation method for insuring an accurate fatty acid composition. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) long-chain acyl-coenzyme A synthetases expressed at high levels in developing seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznar-Moreno, Jose A; Venegas Calerón, Mónica; Martínez-Force, Enrique; Garcés, Rafael; Mullen, Robert; Gidda, Satinder K; Salas, Joaquín J

    2014-03-01

    Long chain fatty acid synthetases (LACSs) activate the fatty acid chains produced by plastidial de novo biosynthesis to generate acyl-CoA derivatives, important intermediates in lipid metabolism. Oilseeds, like sunflower, accumulate high levels of triacylglycerols (TAGs) in their seeds to nourish the embryo during germination. This requires that sunflower seed endosperm supports very active glycerolipid synthesis during development. Sunflower seed plastids produce large amounts of fatty acids, which must be activated through the action of LACSs, in order to be incorporated into TAGs. We cloned two different LACS genes from developing sunflower endosperm, HaLACS1 and HaLACS2, which displayed sequence homology with Arabidopsis LACS9 and LACS8 genes, respectively. These genes were expressed at high levels in developing seeds and exhibited distinct subcellular distributions. We generated constructs in which these proteins were fused to green fluorescent protein and performed transient expression experiments in tobacco cells. The HaLACS1 protein associated with the external envelope of tobacco chloroplasts, whereas HaLACS2 was strongly bound to the endoplasmic reticulum. Finally, both proteins were overexpressed in Escherichia coli and recovered as active enzymes in the bacterial membranes. Both enzymes displayed similar substrate specificities, with a very high preference for oleic acid and weaker activity toward stearic acid. On the basis of our findings, we discuss the role of these enzymes in sunflower oil synthesis. © 2013 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  19. Impact of sustainable feeds on omega-3 long-chain fatty acid levels in farmed Atlantic salmon, 2006-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, M; Dick, J R; Tocher, D R

    2016-02-22

    As the global population and its demand for seafood increases more of our fish will come from aquaculture. Farmed Atlantic salmon are a global commodity and, as an oily fish, contain a rich source of the health promoting long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids. Replacing the traditional finite marine ingredients, fishmeal and fish oil, in farmed salmon diets with sustainable alternatives of terrestrial origin, devoid of EPA and DHA, presents a significant challenge for the aquaculture industry. By comparing the fatty acid composition of over 3,000 Scottish Atlantic salmon farmed between 2006 and 2015, we find that terrestrial fatty acids have significantly increased alongside a decrease in EPA and DHA levels. Consequently, the nutritional value of the final product is compromised requiring double portion sizes, as compared to 2006, in order to satisfy recommended EPA + DHA intake levels endorsed by health advisory organisations. Nevertheless, farmed Scottish salmon still delivers more EPA + DHA than most other fish species and all terrestrial livestock. Our findings highlight the global shortfall of EPA and DHA and the implications this has for the human consumer and examines the potential of microalgae and genetically modified crops as future sources of these important fatty acids.

  20. Examination of fluorination effect on physical properties of saturated long-chain alcohols by DSC and Langmuir monolayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Hiromichi; Nakamura, Shohei; Okahashi, Yoshinori; Kitaguchi, Daisuke; Kawabata, Noritake; Sakamoto, Seiichi; Shibata, Osamu

    2013-02-01

    Partially fluorinated long-chain alcohols have been newly synthesized from a radical reaction, which is followed by a reductive reaction. The fluorinated alcohols have been investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and compression isotherms in a Langmuir monolayer state. Their melting points increase with an increase in chain length due to elongation of methylene groups. However, the melting points for the alcohols containing shorter fluorinated moieties are lower than those for the typical hydrogenated fatty alcohols. Using the Langmuir monolayer technique, surface pressure (π)-molecular area (A) and surface potential (ΔV)-A isotherms of monolayers of the fluorinated alcohols have been measured in the temperature range from 281.2 to 303.2K. In addition, a compressibility modulus (Cs(-1)) is calculated from the π-A isotherms. Four kinds of the alcohol monolayers show a phase transition (π(eq)) from a disordered to an ordered state upon lateral compression. The π(eq) values increase linearly with increasing temperatures. A slope of π(eq) against temperature for the alcohols with shorter fluorocarbons is unexpectedly larger than that for the corresponding fatty alcohols. Generally, fluorinated amphiphiles have a greater thermal stability (or resistance), which is a characteristic of highly fluorinated or perfluorinated compounds. Herein, however, the alcohols containing perfluorobutylated and perfluorohexylated chains show the irregular thermal behavior in both the solid and monolayer states. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. CD36 mediates both cellular uptake of very long chain fatty acids and their intestinal absorption in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drover, Victor A; Nguyen, David V; Bastie, Claire C; Darlington, Yolanda F; Abumrad, Nada A; Pessin, Jeffrey E; London, Erwin; Sahoo, Daisy; Phillips, Michael C

    2008-05-09

    The intestine has an extraordinary capacity for fatty acid (FA) absorption. Numerous candidates for a protein-mediated mechanism of dietary FA absorption have been proposed, but firm evidence for this process has remained elusive. Here we show that the scavenger receptor CD36 is required both for the uptake of very long chain FAs (VLCFAs) in cultured cells and the absorption of dietary VLCFAs in mice. We found that the fraction of CD36-dependent saturated fatty acid association/absorption in these model systems is proportional to the FA chain length and specific for fatty acids and fatty alcohols containing very long saturated acyl chains. Moreover, intestinal VLCFA absorption is completely abolished in CD36-null mice fed a high fat diet, illustrating that the predominant mechanism for VLCFA absorption is CD36-dependent. Together, these findings represent the first direct evidence for protein-facilitated FA absorption in the intestine and identify a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of diseases characterized by elevated VLCFA levels.

  2. Loss of Hepatic Mitochondrial Long-Chain Fatty Acid Oxidation Confers Resistance to Diet-Induced Obesity and Glucose Intolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieun Lee

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The liver has a large capacity for mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation, which is critical for systemic metabolic adaptations such as gluconeogenesis and ketogenesis. To understand the role of hepatic fatty acid oxidation in response to a chronic high-fat diet (HFD, we generated mice with a liver-specific deficiency of mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid β-oxidation (Cpt2L−/− mice. Paradoxically, Cpt2L−/− mice were resistant to HFD-induced obesity and glucose intolerance with an absence of liver damage, although they exhibited serum dyslipidemia, hepatic oxidative stress, and systemic carnitine deficiency. Feeding an HFD induced hepatokines in mice, with a loss of hepatic fatty acid oxidation that enhanced systemic energy expenditure and suppressed adiposity. Additionally, the suppression in hepatic gluconeogenesis was sufficient to improve HFD-induced glucose intolerance. These data show that inhibiting hepatic fatty acid oxidation results in a systemic hormetic response that protects mice from HFD-induced obesity and glucose intolerance.

  3. Novel long-chain compounds with both immunomodulatory and MenA inhibitory activities against Staphylococcus aureus and its biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seoung-Ryoung; Frandsen, Joel; Narayanasamy, Prabagaran

    2017-01-10

    Menaquinone (MK) biosynthesis pathway is a potential target for evaluating antimicrobials in gram-positive bacteria. Here, 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoate prenyltransferase (MenA) was targeted to reduce methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) growth. MenA inhibiting, long chain-based compounds were designed, synthesized and evaluated against MRSA and menaquinone utilizing bacteria in aerobic conditions. The results showed that these bacteria were susceptible to most of the compounds. Menaquinone (MK-4) supplementation rescued MRSA growth, suggesting these compounds inhibit MK biosynthesis. 3a and 7c exhibited promising inhibitory activities with MICs ranging 1-8 μg/mL against MRSA strains. The compounds did not facilitate small colony variant formation. These compounds also inhibited the biofilm growth by MRSA at high concentration. Compounds 3a, 6b and 7c displayed a promising extracellular bactericidal activity against MRSA at concentrations equal to and four-fold less than their respective MICs. We also observed cytokines released from THP-1 macrophages treated with compounds 3a, 6b and 7c and found decreases in TNF-α and IL-6 release and increase in IL-1β. These data provide evidence that MenA inhibitors act as TNF-α and IL-6 inhibitors, raising the potential for development and application of these compounds as potential immunomodulatory agents.

  4. Predictors of Australian consumers' intentions to consume conventional and novel sources of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, D N; Evans, G; Lease, H J

    2008-01-01

    To elicit predictors of variation in likelihood to purchase foods rich in long-chain omega-3 fatty acids. Responses from a community sample (n = 220) were elicited using a computer-administered questionnaire based on an adaptation of Protection Motivation Theory including measures of perceived risk and vulnerability to coronary heart disease (CHD). Other measures included health status, body mass index (BMI), perceived risk/benefits of novel technologies and sociodemographics. Descriptions of model products were presented, including farmed fish fed fishmeal (FFFF); farmed fish fed genetically modified (GM) oilseed (FFFGM); bread, milk and supplements containing fish oil (SFO) or GM oilseed. It was hypothesised that perceived vulnerability to CHD would enhance acceptance of GM products (H1). Furthermore, information describing the benefits of LCO3FA, limitations to fish supply and potential alternatives was given to a treatment group (50%) and hypothesised to have a positive effect on the acceptance of GM products (H2). No evidence was found to support H1 or H2. FFFF was most likely to be purchased (P consume) was the most important predictor of likelihood to purchase all products.

  5. Glucose Regulates Hypothalamic Long-chain Fatty Acid Metabolism via AMP-activated Kinase (AMPK) in Neurons and Astrocytes*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taïb, Bouchra; Bouyakdan, Khalil; Hryhorczuk, Cécile; Rodaros, Demetra; Fulton, Stephanie; Alquier, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    Hypothalamic controls of energy balance rely on the detection of circulating nutrients such as glucose and long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) by the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH). LCFA metabolism in the MBH plays a key role in the control of food intake and glucose homeostasis, yet it is not known if glucose regulates LCFA oxidation and esterification in the MBH and, if so, which hypothalamic cell type(s) and intracellular signaling mechanisms are involved. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of glucose on LCFA metabolism, assess the role of AMP-activated Kinase (AMPK), and to establish if changes in LCFA metabolism and its regulation by glucose vary as a function of the kind of LCFA, cell type, and brain region. We show that glucose inhibits palmitate oxidation via AMPK in hypothalamic neuronal cell lines, primary hypothalamic astrocyte cultures, and MBH slices ex vivo but not in cortical astrocytes and slice preparations. In contrast, oleate oxidation was not affected by glucose or AMPK inhibition in MBH slices. In addition, our results show that glucose increases palmitate, but not oleate, esterification into neutral lipids in neurons and MBH slices but not in hypothalamic astrocytes. These findings reveal for the first time the metabolic fate of different LCFA in the MBH, demonstrate AMPK-dependent glucose regulation of LCFA oxidation in both astrocytes and neurons, and establish metabolic coupling of glucose and LCFA as a distinguishing feature of hypothalamic nuclei critical for the control of energy balance. PMID:24240094

  6. Glucose regulates hypothalamic long-chain fatty acid metabolism via AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) in neurons and astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taïb, Bouchra; Bouyakdan, Khalil; Hryhorczuk, Cécile; Rodaros, Demetra; Fulton, Stephanie; Alquier, Thierry

    2013-12-27

    Hypothalamic controls of energy balance rely on the detection of circulating nutrients such as glucose and long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) by the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH). LCFA metabolism in the MBH plays a key role in the control of food intake and glucose homeostasis, yet it is not known if glucose regulates LCFA oxidation and esterification in the MBH and, if so, which hypothalamic cell type(s) and intracellular signaling mechanisms are involved. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of glucose on LCFA metabolism, assess the role of AMP-activated Kinase (AMPK), and to establish if changes in LCFA metabolism and its regulation by glucose vary as a function of the kind of LCFA, cell type, and brain region. We show that glucose inhibits palmitate oxidation via AMPK in hypothalamic neuronal cell lines, primary hypothalamic astrocyte cultures, and MBH slices ex vivo but not in cortical astrocytes and slice preparations. In contrast, oleate oxidation was not affected by glucose or AMPK inhibition in MBH slices. In addition, our results show that glucose increases palmitate, but not oleate, esterification into neutral lipids in neurons and MBH slices but not in hypothalamic astrocytes. These findings reveal for the first time the metabolic fate of different LCFA in the MBH, demonstrate AMPK-dependent glucose regulation of LCFA oxidation in both astrocytes and neurons, and establish metabolic coupling of glucose and LCFA as a distinguishing feature of hypothalamic nuclei critical for the control of energy balance.

  7. Association between fish consumption, long chain omega 3 fatty acids, and risk of cerebrovascular disease: Systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Chowdhury (Rajiv); S. Stevens (Sarah); D. Gorman (Donal); A. Pan (An); S. Warnakula (Samantha); S. Chowdhury (Susmita); H. Ward (Heather); L.A. Johnson (Laura); F. Crowe (Francesca); F.B. Hu (Frank); O.H. Franco (Oscar)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To clarify associations of fish consumption and long chain omega 3 fatty acids with risk of cerebrovascular disease for primary and secondary prevention. Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources: Studies published before September 2012 identified through

  8. Impaired maternal glucose homeostasis during pregnancy is associated with low status of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCP) and essential fatty acids (EFA) in the fetus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijck-Brouwer, DAJ; Hadders-Algra, M; Bouwstra, H; Decsi, T; Boehm, G; Martini, IA; Boersma, ER; Muskiet, FAJ

    Low status of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCP) and essential fatty acids (EFA) in the fetus is associated with less favorable neonatal neurological condition. A 'relative', rather than 'absolute' EFA deficiency might explain this finding. A relative EFA deficiency may derive from

  9. Effect of a long-chained fructan Raftiline HP on blood lipids and spontaneous atherosclerosis in low density receptor knockout mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Alicja; Poulsen, Morten; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz

    2002-01-01

    The effect of a long-chained fructan Raftiline HP on spontaneous hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis was studied in 40 LDLR-/- male mice receiving isocaloric, balanced in fat content, purified diets with 0 or 10% Raftiline HP, for 16 weeks. The feed intake was comparable (3.9 v. 3.8 g/day) b...

  10. Different effects of short- and long-chained fructans on large intestinal physiology and carcinogen-induced aberrant crypt foci in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Morten; Molck, Anne-Marie; Jacobsen, Bodil Lund

    2002-01-01

    Inulin-type fructans, which are nondigestible carbohydrates, have been shown to modulate the number of induced preneoplastic lesions in the colon as well as the colonic microflora in laboratory animals. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of a short- and long-chained inulin...

  11. Development of low birthweight infants at 19 months of age correlates with early intake and status of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woltil, HA; van Beusekom, CM; Okken-Beukens, M; Schaafsma, A; Muskiet, FAJ; Okken, A

    1999-01-01

    We investigated the influence of early nutrition with and without long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCP) on later development of less than or equal to 2500 g newborns receiving preterm formula without LCP (n=75), preterm formula with 18:3 omega 6 and LCP omega 3 (at two doses; n=26) or their

  12. Does supplementation of formula with evening primrose and fish oils augment long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status of low birthweight infants to that of breast-fed counterparts?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woltil, HA; van Beusekom, CM; Schaafsma, A; Okken, A; Muskiet, FAJ

    We investigated whether formulae with evening primrose and fish oils raise long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) in plasma cholesterol esters (CE), erythrocytes (RSC) and platelets (PLT) to levels encountered in breast-fed infants. Low birthweight infants (less than or equal to 2500 g)

  13. A new, simple assay for long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase in cultured skin fibroblasts using stable isotopes and GC-MS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niezen-Koning, K. E.; Wanders, R. J.; Nagel, G. T.; IJlst, L.; Heymans, H. S.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new method for measurement of long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCAD) activities in cultured skin fibroblasts. The method is based upon gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric determination of 3-OH-hexadecanoic acid formed during incubation of fibroblasts in a medium

  14. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of very long chain fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid, phytanic acid and plasmalogen for the screening of peroxisomal disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takemoto, Yasuhiko; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Horibe, Ryoko; Shimozawa, Nobuyuki; Wanders, Ronald J. A.; Kondo, Naomi

    2003-01-01

    Very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), phytanic acid, and plasmalogens are usually measured individually. A novel method for the screening of peroxisomal disorders, using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), was developed. Saturated and unsaturated fatty acids,

  15. Effects of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation of infant formula on cognition and behaviour at 9 years of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, Corina; Kikkert, Hedwig K.; Fidler, Vaclav; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2012-01-01

    AIM: Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) supplementation of infant formula may have a beneficial effect on cognitive development. This study aimed to investigate the effect of LCPUFA formula supplementation primarily on cognition and secondarily on behaviour at age 9 years. Special

  16. Disruption of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae homologue to the murine fatty acid transport protein impairs uptake and growth on long-chain fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Færgeman, Nils J.; DiRusso, C C; Elberger, A

    1997-01-01

    decrease in the uptake of the fluorescent long-chain fatty acid analogue boron dipyrromethene difluoride dodecanoic acid (BODIPY-3823); 3) a reduced rate of exogenous oleate incorporation into phospholipids; and 4) a 2-3-fold decrease in the rates of oleate uptake. These data support the hypothesis...

  17. Dietary fat types differently modulate the activity and expression of mitochondrial carnitine/acylcarnitine translocase in rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priore, Paola; Stanca, Eleonora; Gnoni, Gabriele Vincenzo; Siculella, Luisa

    2012-10-01

    The carnitine/acylcarnitine translocase (CACT), an integral protein of the mitochondrial inner membrane, belongs to the carnitine-dependent system of fatty acid transport into mitochondria, where beta-oxidation occurs. CACT exchanges cytosolic acylcarnitine or free carnitine for carnitine in the mitochondrial matrix. The object of this study was to investigate in rat liver the effect, if any, of diets enriched with saturated fatty acids (beef tallow, BT, the control), n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (fish oil, FO), n-6 PUFA (safflower oil, SO), and mono-unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) (olive oil, OO) on the activity and expression of CACT. Translocase exchange rates increased, in parallel with CACT mRNA abundance, upon FO-feeding, whereas OO-dietary treatment induced a decrease in both CACT activity and expression. No changes were observed upon SO-feeding. Nuclear run-on assay revealed that FO-treatment increased the transcriptional rate of CACT mRNA. On the other hand, only in the nuclei of hepatocytes from OO-fed rats splicing of the last intron of CACT pre-mRNA and the rate of formation of the 3'-end were affected. Overall, these findings suggest that compared to the BT-enriched diet, the SO-enriched diet did not influence CACT activity and expression, whereas FO- and OO-feeding alters CACT activity in an opposite fashion, i.e. modulating its expression at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Relationship between Long Chain n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Autism Spectrum Disorder: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Case-Control and Randomised Controlled Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajar Mazahery

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation (n-3 LCPUFA for treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD is popular. The results of previous systematic reviews and meta-analyses of n-3 LCPUFA supplementation on ASD outcomes were inconclusive. Two meta-analyses were conducted; meta-analysis 1 compared blood levels of LCPUFA and their ratios arachidonic acid (ARA to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, ARA to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, or total n-6 to total n-3 LCPUFA in ASD to those of typically developing individuals (with no neurodevelopmental disorders, and meta-analysis 2 compared the effects of n-3 LCPUFA supplementation to placebo on symptoms of ASD. Case-control studies and randomised controlled trials (RCTs were identified searching electronic databases up to May, 2016. Mean differences were pooled and analysed using inverse variance models. Heterogeneity was assessed using I2 statistic. Fifteen case-control studies (n = 1193 were reviewed. Compared with typically developed, ASD populations had lower DHA (−2.14 [95% CI −3.22 to −1.07]; p < 0.0001; I2 = 97%, EPA (−0.72 [95% CI −1.25 to −0.18]; p = 0.008; I2 = 88%, and ARA (−0.83 [95% CI, −1.48 to −0.17]; p = 0.01; I2 = 96% and higher total n-6 LCPUFA to n-3 LCPUFA ratio (0.42 [95% CI 0.06 to 0.78]; p = 0.02; I2 = 74%. Four RCTs were included in meta-analysis 2 (n = 107. Compared with placebo, n-3 LCPUFA improved social interaction (−1.96 [95% CI −3.5 to −0.34]; p = 0.02; I2 = 0 and repetitive and restricted interests and behaviours (−1.08 [95% CI −2.17 to −0.01]; p = 0.05; I2 = 0. Populations with ASD have lower n-3 LCPUFA status and n-3 LCPUFA supplementation can potentially improve some ASD symptoms. Further research with large sample size and adequate study duration is warranted to confirm the efficacy of n-3 LCPUFA.

  19. Long Chain Alcohols Produced by Trichoderma citrinoviride Have Phagodeterrent Activity Against the Bird Cherry-Oat Aphid Rhopalosiphum padi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia eGanassi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study we report the effects of fungal metabolites isolated from cultures of the fungus Trichoderma citrinoviride ITEM 4484 on the feeding preference of the aphid Rhopalosiphum padi, a major pest of cereal crops. Different phagodeterrent metabolites were purified by a combination of direct and reverse phase column chromatography and thin-layer chromatography. Chemical investigations, by spectroscopic and chemical methods, led to the identification of different long chain primary alcohols (LCOHs of the general formula R-OH, wherein R is a long, unbranched, unsubstituted, linear aliphatic group. LCOHs have been reported as components of lepidopteran pheromone blends, but their phagodeterrent effect to aphids is herein reported for the first time. We studied the effects of LCOHs on R. padi by behavioral and electrophysiological bioassays. Feeding preference tests that were carried out with winged and wingless morphs of R. padi showed that LCOHs have a distinctly high phagodeterrent activity and significantly restrain aphids from settling on treated leaves already at a concentration as low as 0.15 mM (0.036 g/l. The results of different electrophysiological analyses indicate that taste receptor neurons located on the aphid tarsomeres are involved in the LCOHs perception. Behavioral assays carried out with some commercial agrochemicals, including azadirachtin A, pyrethrum and mineral oil based products, in combination with 1-hexadecanol, the LCOH most abundantly produced by T. citrinoviride ITEM 4484, showed that these different active principles can be applied together, resulting in a useful increase of the phagodeterrent effect. Therefore these compounds can be profitably utilized for novel applications in biotechnical control of aphid pests. The LCOHs tested have no chiral centers and therefore can be obtained in good yields and at low cost through chemical synthesis, beside than from natural sources.

  20. Membrane Restructuring Events during the Enzymatic Generation of Ceramides with Very Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñalva, Daniel A; Antollini, Silvia S; Ambroggio, Ernesto E; Aveldaño, Marta I; Fanani, María L

    2018-04-10

    In rat sperm heads, sphingomyelin (SM) species that contain very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (V-SM) become ceramides (V-Cer) after inducing in vitro the acrosomal reaction. The reason for such a specific location of this conversion, catalyzed by a sphingomyelinase (SMase), has received little investigation so far. Here, the effects of SMase were compared in unilamellar vesicles (large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs), giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs)) containing phosphatidylcholine, and either V-SM or a palmitate-rich SM (P-SM). In uniformly sized LUVs at 37 °C, more V-Cer was generated and more rapidly than P-Cer. Nephelometry and dynamic light scattering showed that LUVs tended to form large lipid particles more intensely, and Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) increases suggested that lateral lipid mixing was more marked when V-Cer rather than P-Cer was produced. As reported by 6-dodecanoyl-2-dimethyl-aminopnaphthalene (Laurdan) and 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5,-hexatriene (DPH), the production of V-Cer resulted in higher and faster restriction in lipid mobility than that of P-Cer, implying a stronger increase in membrane dehydration and microviscosity. Moreover, DPH anisotropy suggested a higher solubility of V-Cer than that of P-Cer in the liquid-disordered phase. At room temperature, liquid-condensed lateral domains appeared in P-SM- but not in V-SM-containing GUVs. The former maintained their size while losing their contents gradually during SMase action, whereas the latter became permeable earlier and reduced their size in few minutes until suddenly collapsing. The fast and potent generation of V-Cer may contribute to the membrane restructuring events that occur on the acrosome-reacted sperm head.

  1. Microchip Non-Aqueous Capillary Electrophoresis (MicronNACE) Method to Analyze Long-Chain Primary Amines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Peter A.; Mora, Maria; Cable, Morgan L.; Stockton, Amanda M.

    2012-01-01

    A protocol was developed as a first step in analyzing the complex organic aerosols present on Saturn's moon Titan, as well as the analogues of these aerosols (tholins) made on Earth. Labeling of primary amines using Pacific Blue succinimidyl ester is effected in ethanol with 25 mM triethylamine to maintain basic conditions. This reaction is allowed to equilibrate for at least one hour. Separation of the labeled primary amines is performed in ethanol with 1.05 M acetic acid, and 50 mM ammonium acetate in a commercial two-layer glass device with a standard crossmicrochannel measuring 50 microns wide by 20 microns deep. Injection potentials are optimized at 2 kV from the sample (negative) to the waste well (positive), with slight bias applied to the other two wells ( 0.4 and 0.8 V) to pinch the injection plug for the 30-s injection. Separation is performed at a potential of 5 kV along the channel, which has an effective separation distance of 7 cm. The use of ethanol in this method means that long-chain primary amines can be dissolved. Due to the low pH of the separation buffer, electro-osmotic flow (EOF) is minimized to allow for separation of both short-chain and longchain amines. As the freezing point of ethanol is much lower than water, this protocol can perform separations at temperatures lower than 0 C, which would not be possible in aqueous phase. This is of particular importance when considering in situ sampling of Titan aerosols, where unnecessary heating of the sample (even to room temperature) would lead to decomposition or unpredictable side reactions, which would make it difficult to characterize the sample appropriately.

  2. Long-chain fatty acid combustion rate is associated with unique metabolite profiles in skeletal muscle mitochondria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin L Seifert

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Incomplete or limited long-chain fatty acid (LCFA combustion in skeletal muscle has been associated with insulin resistance. Signals that are responsive to shifts in LCFA beta-oxidation rate or degree of intramitochondrial catabolism are hypothesized to regulate second messenger systems downstream of the insulin receptor. Recent evidence supports a causal link between mitochondrial LCFA combustion in skeletal muscle and insulin resistance. We have used unbiased metabolite profiling of mouse muscle mitochondria with the aim of identifying candidate metabolites within or effluxed from mitochondria and that are shifted with LCFA combustion rate.Large-scale unbiased metabolomics analysis was performed using GC/TOF-MS on buffer and mitochondrial matrix fractions obtained prior to and after 20 min of palmitate catabolism (n = 7 mice/condition. Three palmitate concentrations (2, 9 and 19 microM; corresponding to low, intermediate and high oxidation rates and 9 microM palmitate plus tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle and electron transport chain inhibitors were each tested and compared to zero palmitate control incubations. Paired comparisons of the 0 and 20 min samples were made by Student's t-test. False discovery rate were estimated and Type I error rates assigned. Major metabolite groups were organic acids, amines and amino acids, free fatty acids and sugar phosphates. Palmitate oxidation was associated with unique profiles of metabolites, a subset of which correlated to palmitate oxidation rate. In particular, palmitate oxidation rate was associated with distinct changes in the levels of TCA cycle intermediates within and effluxed from mitochondria.This proof-of-principle study establishes that large-scale metabolomics methods can be applied to organelle-level models to discover metabolite patterns reflective of LCFA combustion, which may lead to identification of molecules linking muscle fat metabolism and insulin signaling. Our results suggest that

  3. Complete deficiency of mitochondrial trifunctional protein due to a novel mutation within the beta-subunit of the mitochondrial trifunctional protein gene leads to failure of long-chain fatty acid beta-oxidation with fatal outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwab, Karl Otfried; Ensenauer, Regina; Matern, Dietrich; Uyanik, Gökhan; Schnieders, Birgit; Wanders, Ronald A.; Lehnert, Willy

    2003-01-01

    The mitochondrial trifunctional protein (MTP) is a multienzyme complex which catalyses three of the four chain-shortening reactions in the beta-oxidation of long-chain fatty acids. Clinically, failure of long-chain fatty acid beta-oxidation leads to hypoketotic hypoglycaemia associated with coma,

  4. Field trial evaluation of the accumulation of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in transgenic Camelina sativa: Making fish oil substitutes in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Usher

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The global consumption of fish oils currently exceeds one million tonnes, with the natural de novo source of these important fatty acids forming the base of marine foodwebs. Here we describe the first field-based evaluation of a terrestrial source of these essential nutrients, synthesised in the seeds of transgenic Camelina sativa plants via the heterologous reconstitution of the omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthetic pathway. Our data demonstrate the robust nature of this novel trait, and the feasibility of making fish oils in genetically modified crops. Moreover, to our knowledge, this is the most complex example of plant genetic engineering to undergo environmental release and field evaluation. Keywords: Plant metabolic engineering, GM field trials, Omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, Fish oils, Camelina, Oilseeds

  5. Long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (L-CHAD) deficiency in a patient with the Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryburg, J S; Pelegano, J P; Bennett, M J; Bebin, E M

    1994-08-01

    Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome (BRRS) is an autosomal dominant condition of macrocephaly in combination with lipomas/hemangiomas, hypotonia, developmental delay, and a lipid myopathy. The etiology of the lipid storage myopathy has been unclear. We describe a black boy with findings of BRRS who also has a defect in long-chain fatty acid oxidation expressed in cultured skin fibroblasts as a deficiency of long-chain-L-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (L-CHAD). He also has an abnormal brain MRI and increased size of both lower limbs. We present this child because of his unusual combination of findings, and postulate that L-CHAD deficiency may be the cause of the lipid myopathy in BRRS.

  6. Oxidative stability of fish and algae oils containing long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in bulk and in oil-in-water emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankel, E.N.; Satue-Gracia, T.; Meyer, Anne Boye Strunge

    2002-01-01

    from algae are unusually stable to oxidation, Addition of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) prevented oxidation of both fish and algal oil emulsions without added iron and at low iron:EDTA molar concentrations. EDTA, however, promoted the oxidation of the corresponding emulsions that contained...... high iron:EDTA ratios. Therefore, to be effective as a metal chelator, EDTA must be added at molar concentrations higher than that of iron to inhibit oxidation of foods containing long-chain PUFA from either fish or algae and fortified with iron.......The oxidative stability of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-containing fish and algae oils varies widely according to their fatty acid composition, the physical and colloidal states of the lipids, the contents of tocopherols and other antioxidants...

  7. Impact of combined sodium chloride and saturated long-chain fatty acid challenge on the differentiation of T helper cells in neuroinflammation.

    OpenAIRE

    Hammer, Anna; Jorg, Stefanie; Haghikia, Aiden; Gold, Ralf; Kleinewietfeld, Markus; Müller, Dominik N.; Linker, Ralf A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: There has been a marked increase in the incidence of autoimmune diseases like multiple sclerosis (MS) in the last decades which is most likely driven by a change in environmental factors. Here, growing evidence suggests that ingredients of a Western diet like high intake of sodium chloride (NaCl) or saturated fatty acids may impact systemic immune responses, thus increasing disease susceptibility. Recently, we have shown that high dietary salt or long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) intak...

  8. Long-Chain Diacrylate Crosslinkers and Use of PEG Crosslinks in Poly(potassium acrylate-acrylic acid)/Kaolin Composite Superabsorbents

    OpenAIRE

    Koroush Kabiri; Siavash Nafisi; Mohammad jalaledin Zohuriaan-Mehr; Ali Akbar Yousefi

    2013-01-01

    Long-chain diacrylate crosslinkers based on linear α,ω-diols were synthesized and characterized using FTIR and 1H NMR spectroscopy. The highest reaction yield (99.5%) was due to polyethylene glycol diacrylate 1000 (PEGDA-1000). Then, kaolin-containing poly(potassium acrylate-acrylic acid) superabsorbent composites and kaolin-free counterparts were synthesized using PEGDA-1000.The effect of the crosslinker concentration on swelling, rheological and thermo-mechanical properties was investigated...

  9. Alkaline Ceramidase 3 (ACER3) Hydrolyzes Unsaturated Long-chain Ceramides, and Its Down-regulation Inhibits Both Cell Proliferation and Apoptosis*

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Wei; Xu, Ruijuan; Sun, Wei; Szulc, Zdzislaw M.; Bielawski, Jacek; Obeid, Lina M.; Mao, Cungui

    2010-01-01

    Ceramides with different fatty acyl chains may vary in their physiological or pathological roles; however, it remains unclear how cellular levels of individual ceramide species are regulated. Here, we demonstrate that our previously cloned human alkaline ceramidase 3 (ACER3) specifically controls the hydrolysis of ceramides carrying unsaturated long acyl chains, unsaturated long-chain (ULC) ceramides. In vitro, ACER3 only hydrolyzed C18:1-, C20:1-, C20:4-ceramides, dihydroceramides, and phyto...

  10. Transport mechanisms and wetting dynamics in molecularly thin films of long-chain alkanes at solid/vapour interface : relation to the solid-liquid phase transition

    OpenAIRE

    Lazar, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Wetting and phase transitions play a very important role our daily life. Molecularly thin films of long-chain alkanes at solid/vapour interfaces (e.g. C30H62 on silicon wafers) are very good model systems for studying the relation between wetting behaviour and (bulk) phase transitions. Immediately above the bulk melting temperature the alkanes wet partially the surface (drops). In this temperature range the substrate surface is covered with a molecularly thin ordered, solid-like alkane film (...

  11. Use of n-alkanes and long-chain alcohols as faecal markers to estimate diet composition on small ruminants grazing/browsing mountain grasslands

    OpenAIRE

    Magalhães, Rui José Ribeiro Ferreira de

    2018-01-01

    Knowledge on the grazing/browsing behaviour, especially diet selection, of the different domestic herbivorous species under diverse vegetation communities is of particular importance for the development and application of appropriate grazing management strategies that increase the efficiency of the utilization of the existing vegetation and, consequently, the sustainability of the animal production system. Plant-wax components, namely alkanes and long-chain alcohols (LCOH), have been suggeste...

  12. Purification and characterization of an amidohydrolase for N4-long-chain fatty acyl derivatives of 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine from mouse liver microsomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, K; Tsuruo, T; Tsukagoshi, S; Sakurai, Y

    1984-03-01

    N4-Long-chain fatty acyl-1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine amidohydrolase, a metabolizing enzyme for N4-acyl derivatives of 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine with long-chain fatty acids, was purified from mouse liver microsomes. The purification was accomplished by solubilization of liver microsomes with Triton X-100, diethylaminoethyl cellulose chromatography, gel filtrations, hydroxyapatite chromatography, and concanavalin A:Sepharose chromatography. On sodium dodecyl sulfate:polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the purified enzyme preparation produced a single protein band with a molecular weight of 54,000. The enzyme had an optimal pH of 9.0, and the Michaelis constant for N4-palmitoyl-1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine was 67 microM. The thiols such as dithiothreitol or 2-mercaptoethanol stabilized the enzyme and stimulated its activity. p-Chloromercuribenzoate, N-ethylmaleimide, diisopropylfluorophosphate, and phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride strongly inhibited the reaction. Bovine serum albumin markedly stimulated the enzyme activity, whereas detergents such as Triton X-100, deoxycholate, and sodium dodecyl sulfate had little effect. The enzyme did not require monovalent or divalent cations. Among the series of N4-acyl derivatives of 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine with different chain lengths of acyl residues, the purified enzyme preferentially hydrolyzed the derivatives with long-chain fatty acids (C12 to C18), and N4-palmitoyl-1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine was the most susceptible. The purified enzyme was inactive on various N-acylamino acids, amides, oligopeptides, proteins, N-acylsphingosines (ceramides), triglyceride, lecithin, and lysolecithin. These results suggest that N4-long-chain fatty acyl-1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine amidohydrolase may be a new type of linear amidase.

  13. [Overexpression of four fatty acid synthase genes elevated the efficiency of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids biosynthesis in mammalian cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guiming; Saleh, Abdulmomen Ali Mohammed; Bahwal, Said Ahmed; Wang, Kunfu; Wang, Mingfu; Wang, Didi; Ge, Tangdong; Sun, Jie

    2014-09-01

    Three long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4n-6), are the most biologically active polyunsaturated fatty acids in the body. They are important in developing and maintaining the brain function, and in preventing and treating many diseases such as cardiovascular disease, inflammation and cancer. Although mammals can biosynthesize these long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, the efficiency is very low and dietary intake is needed to meet the requirement. In this study, a multiple-genes expression vector carrying mammalian A6/A5 fatty acid desaturases and multiple-genes expression vector carrying mammalian Δ6/Δ5 fatty acid desaturases and Δ6/Δ5 fatty acid elongases coding genes was used to transfect HEK293T cells, then the overexpression of the target genes was detected. GC-MS analysis shows that the biosynthesis efficiency and level of DHA, EPA and ARA were significantly increased in cells transfected with the multiple-genes expression vector. Particularly, DHA level in these cells was 2.5 times higher than in the control cells. This study indicates mammal possess a certain mechanism for suppression of high level of biosynthesis of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, and the overexpression of Δ6/Δ5 fatty acid desaturases and Δ6/Δ5 fatty acid elongases broke this suppression mechanism so that the level of DHA, EPA and ARA was significantly increased. This study also provides a basis for potential applications of this gene construct in transgenic animal to produce high level of these long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid.

  14. [Clinical features and ACADVL gene mutation spectrum analysis of 11 Chinese patients with very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinjun, Cao; Wenjuan, Qiu; Ruinan, Zhang; Jun, Ye; Lianshu, Han; Huiwen, Zhang; Qigang, Zhang; Xuefan, Gu

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the clinical and laboratory features of very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency ( VLCADD ) and the correlations between its genotype and phenotype. Eleven patients diagnosed as VLCADD of Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine seen from September 2006 to May 2014 were included. There were 9 boys and 2 girls, whose age was 2 d-17 years. Analysis was performed on clinical features, routine laboratory examination, and tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS) , gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and genetic analysis were conducted. All cases had elevated levels of blood tetradecanoylcarnitine (C14:1) recognized as the characteristic biomarker for VLCADD. The eleven patients were classified into three groups: six cases in neonatal onset group, three in infancy onset group form patients and two in late onset group. Neonatal onset patients were characterized by hypoactivity, hypoglycemia shortly after birth. Infancy onset patients presented hepatomegaly and hypoglycemia in infancy. The two adolescent patients showed initial manifestations of exercise intolerance or rhabdomyolysis. Six of the eleven patients died at the age of 2-8 months, including four neonatal onset and two infant onset patients, with one or two null mutations. The other two neonatal onset patients were diagnosed since early birth through neonatal screening and their clinical manifestation are almost normal after treatments. Among 11 patients, seventeen different mutations in the ACADVL gene were identified, with a total mutation detection rate of 95.45% (21/22 alleles), including eleven reported mutations ( p. S22X, p. G43D, p. R511Q, p. W427X, p. A213T, p. C215R, p. G222R, p. R450H, p. R456H, c. 296-297delCA, c. 1605 + 1G > T) and six novel mutations (p. S72F, p. Q100X, p. M437T, p. D466Y, c. 1315delG insAC, IVS7 + 4 A > G). The p. R450H was the most frequent mutation identified in three alleles (13.63%, 3/22 alleles), followed by p. S22X and p. D466Y mutations which

  15. Inhibition of the neutrophil oxidative burst by sphingoid long-chain bases: role of protein kinase C in the activation of the burst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, E.; Olcott, M.C.; Bell, R.M.; Merrill, A.H.; Lambeth, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    The neutrophil oxidative burst is triggered by a variety of both particulate (opsonized zymosan) and soluble agonists [formylmethionylleucylphenylalanine (FMLP), arachidonate, short-chained diacylglycerols (DAG) and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)]. The authors show that the long-chain lipid bases sphinganine and sphingosine block activation of the burst in human neutrophils. Inhibition is reversible, does not alter cell viability, and does not affect phagocytosis. The inhibition affects the activation mechanism rather than the NADPH-oxidase enzyme. The structural requirements for inhibition include a hydrophobic carbon chain and an amino-containing headgroup, and the naturally occurring erythro sphinganine was more potent than the threo isomer. Activation of the oxidative burst by a variety of agonists was blocked by the same concentration of sphinganine indicating a common inhibited step. The authors suggest that the common step is protein kinase C, as evidenced by the following: 1) long-chain bases inhibit PKC in a micelle reconstituted system, 2) PMA-induced phophorylation is inhibited by sphinganine, and 3) sphinganine competes with ( 3 H)-phorbol dibutyrate for its cytosolic receptor (i.e. protein kinase C). The authors suggest that sphingoid long-chain bases play a role in the cellular regulations

  16. Real-Time Tracking of BODIPY-C12 Long-Chain Fatty Acid in Human Term Placenta Reveals Unique Lipid Dynamics in Cytotrophoblast Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Kolahi

    Full Text Available While the human placenta must provide selected long-chain fatty acids to support the developing fetal brain, little is known about the mechanisms underlying the transport process. We tracked the movement of the fluorescently labeled long-chain fatty acid analogue, BODIPY-C12, across the cell layers of living explants of human term placenta. Although all layers took up the fatty acid, rapid esterification of long-chain fatty acids and incorporation into lipid droplets was exclusive to the inner layer cytotrophoblast cells rather than the expected outer syncytiotrophoblast layer. Cytotrophoblast is a progenitor cell layer previously relegated to a repair role. As isolated cytotrophoblasts differentiated into syncytialized cells in culture, they weakened their lipid processing capacity. Syncytializing cells suppress previously active genes that regulate fatty-acid uptake (SLC27A2/FATP2, FABP4, ACSL5 and lipid metabolism (GPAT3, LPCAT3. We speculate that cytotrophoblast performs a previously unrecognized role in regulating placental fatty acid uptake and metabolism.

  17. Resting state electroencephalographic correlates with red cell long-chain fatty acids, memory performance and age in adolescent boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumich, Alexander; Matsudaira, Toshiko; Gow, Rachel V; Ibrahimovic, Almira; Ghebremeskel, Kebreab; Crawford, Michael; Taylor, Eric

    2009-12-01

    Abnormal fatty acid status has been implicated in the aetiology of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Delayed maturation in ADHD may result in raised frontal low frequency (theta) electroencephalographic activity (EEG) and a reduction in posterior high frequency (beta, alpha) activity. The current study used sequential linear regression to investigate the association between age, resting-state EEG and levels of long-chain polyunsaturated omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in red blood cells in 46 adolescent boys with ADHD symptoms. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels were positively associated with fast frequency activity: alpha during eyes-open and beta during eyes-closed conditions. Frontal theta activity during both eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions was inversely associated with age and positively associated with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) levels. Alpha activity correlated positively with performance on fluency for categories (semantic memory). Theta activity correlated inversely with performance on delayed (25 min) verbal memory (recall + recognition/2). No associations were observed between long-chain omega-6 and EEG measures. Results support differential associations for DHA and EPA with fast and slow EEG activity respectively. Results support EEG activity as an objective biomarker of neural function associated with long-chain omega-3 fatty acids in ADHD.

  18. The effect of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on intelligence in low birth weight infant during lactation: A meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yuan; Liu, Ya; Pan, Yun; Yuan, Xiaofeng; Chang, Pengyu; Tian, Yuan; Cui, Weiwei

    2018-01-01

    Background Low birth weight infant (LBWIs) are prone to mental and behavioural problems. As an important constituent of the brain and retina, long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are essential for foetal infant mental and visual development. The effect of lactation supplemented with long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) on the improvement of intelligence in low birth weight children requires further validation. Methods In this study, a comprehensive search of multiple databases was performed to identify studies focused the association between intelligence and long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in LBWIs. Studies that compared the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID) or the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence for Children (WISC) scores between LBWIs who were supplemented and controls that were not supplemented with LCPUFA during lactation were selected for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Results The main outcome was the mean difference in the mental development index (MDI) and psychomotor development index (PDI) of the BSID and the full scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ), verbal intelligence quotient (VIQ) and performance intelligence quotient (PIQ) of the WISC between LBWIs and controls. Our findings indicated that the mean BSID or WISC scores in LBWIs did not differ between the supplemented groups and controls. Conclusion This meta-analysis does not reveal that LCPUFA supplementation has a significant impact on the level of intelligence in LBWIs. PMID:29634752

  19. The role of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in health and disease of the retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SanGiovanni, John Paul; Chew, Emily Y

    2005-01-01

    In this work we advance the hypothesis that omega-3 (omega-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) exhibit cytoprotective and cytotherapeutic actions contributing to a number of anti-angiogenic and neuroprotective mechanisms within the retina. omega-3 LCPUFAs may modulate metabolic processes and attenuate effects of environmental exposures that activate molecules implicated in pathogenesis of vasoproliferative and neurodegenerative retinal diseases. These processes and exposures include ischemia, chronic light exposure, oxidative stress, inflammation, cellular signaling mechanisms, and aging. A number of bioactive molecules within the retina affect, and are effected by such conditions. These molecules operate within complex systems and include compounds classified as eicosanoids, angiogenic factors, matrix metalloproteinases, reactive oxygen species, cyclic nucleotides, neurotransmitters and neuromodulators, pro-inflammatory and immunoregulatory cytokines, and inflammatory phospholipids. We discuss the relationship of LCPUFAs with these bioactivators and bioactive compounds in the context of three blinding retinal diseases of public health significance that exhibit both vascular and neural pathology. How is omega-3 LCPUFA status related to retinal structure and function? Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a major dietary omega-3 LCPUFA, is also a major structural lipid of retinal photoreceptor outer segment membranes. Biophysical and biochemical properties of DHA may affect photoreceptor membrane function by altering permeability, fluidity, thickness, and lipid phase properties. Tissue DHA status affects retinal cell signaling mechanisms involved in phototransduction. DHA may operate in signaling cascades to enhance activation of membrane-bound retinal proteins and may also be involved in rhodopsin regeneration. Tissue DHA insufficiency is associated with alterations in retinal function. Visual processing deficits have been ameliorated with DHA supplementation

  20. Acylcarnitine Profiles in Plasma and Tissues of Hyperglycemic NZO Mice Correlate with Metabolite Changes of Human Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Weiser

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The New Zealand obese (NZO mouse is a polygenic model for obesity and diabetes with obese females and obese, diabetes-prone males, used to study traits of the metabolic syndrome like type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, obesity, and dyslipidaemia. By using LC-MS/MS, we here examine the suitability of this model to mirror tissue-specific changes in acylcarnitine (AC and amino acid (AA species preceding T2DM which may reflect patterns investigated in human metabolism. We observed high concentrations of fatty acid-derived ACs in 11 female mice, high abundance of branched-chain amino acid- (BCAA- derived ACs in 6 male mice, and slight increases in BCAA-derived ACs in the remaining 6 males. Principal component analysis (PCA including all ACs and AAs confirmed our hypothesis especially in plasma samples by clustering females, males with high BCAA-derived ACs, and males with slight increases in BCAA-derived ACs. Concentrations of insulin, blood glucose, NEFAs, and triacylglycerols (TAGs further supported the hypothesis of high BCAA-derived ACs being able to mirror the onset of diabetic traits in male individuals. In conclusion, alterations in AC and AA profiles overlap with observations from human studies indicating the suitability of NZO mice to study metabolic changes preceding human T2DM.

  1. Supplementation with long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) to breastfeeding mothers for improving child growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Noguera, Mario F; Calvache, Jose Andres; Bonfill Cosp, Xavier; Kotanidou, Eleni P; Galli-Tsinopoulou, Assimina

    2015-07-14

    Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA), especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are the most abundant fatty acids in the brain and are necessary for growth and maturation of an infant's brain and retina. LCPUFAs are named "essential" because they cannot be synthesised efficiently by the human body and come from maternal diet. It remains controversial whether LCPUFA supplementation to breastfeeding mothers is beneficial for the development of their infants. To assess the effectiveness and safety of supplementation with LCPUFA in breastfeeding mothers in the cognitive and physical development of their infants as well as safety for the mother and infant. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (6 August 2014), CENTRAL (Cochrane Library 2014, Issue 8), PubMed (1966 to August 2014), EMBASE (1974 to August 2014), LILACS (1982 to August 2014), Google Scholar (August 2014) and reference lists of published narrative and systematic reviews. Randomised controlled trials or cluster-randomised controlled trials evaluating the effects of LCPUFA supplementation on breastfeeding mothers (including the pregnancy period) and their infants. Two review authors independently assessed eligibility and trial quality, performed data extraction and evaluated data accuracy. We included eight randomised controlled trials involving 1567 women. All the studies were performed in high-income countries. The longest follow-up was seven years.We report the results from the longest follow-up time point from included studies. Overall, there was moderate quality evidence as assessed using the GRADE approach from these studies for the following outcomes measured beyond 24 months age of children: language development and child weight. There was low-quality evidence for the outcomes: Intelligence or solving problems ability, psychomotor development, child attention, and child visual acuity.We found no significant difference in children's neurodevelopment at long

  2. Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, fibrates and niacin as therapeutic options in the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Matthew K

    2015-10-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia affects approximately 33% of the US population. Elevated triglyceride levels are independently associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, and severe hypertriglyceridemia is a risk factor for acute pancreatitis. Guidelines for the management of severe hypertriglyceridemia (≥5.6 mmol/L [≥500 mg/dL]) recommend immediate use of triglyceride-lowering agents; however, statins remain the first line of therapy for the management of mild to moderate hypertriglyceridemia (1.7-5.6 mmol/L [150-499 mg/dL]). Statins primarily target elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, but have also been shown to reduce mean triglyceride levels by up to 18% (or 43% in patients with triglyceride levels≥3.1 mmol/L [≥273 mg/dL]). However, individuals with hypertriglyceridemia may need additional reduction in triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and remnant particles to further reduce residual CVD risk. A number of guidelines recommend the addition of fibrates, niacin, or long-chain omega-3 fatty acids if elevated triglyceride or non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels persist despite the use of high-intensity statin therapy. This review evaluates the impact of fibrates, niacin, and long-chain omega-3 fatty acids on lipid profiles and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with hypertriglyceridemia. It also assesses the adverse effects and drug-drug interactions associated with these triglyceride-lowering agents, because although they have all been shown to effectively reduce triglyceride levels in patients with hypertriglyceridemia, they differ with regard to their associated benefit-risk profiles. Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids may be a well-tolerated and effective alternative to fibrates and niacin, yet further large-scale clinical studies are required to evaluate their effects on cardiovascular outcomes and CVD risk reduction in patients with hypertriglyceridemia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. THE EFFECT OF SULPHURIC ACID CONCENTRATION ON SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF ReO4 - BY THE LONG-CHAIN ALIPHATIC TERTIARY AMINES AND ALCOHOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander G. Kasikov

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of sulphuric acid concentration on solvent extraction of ReO4- by the long-chain aliphatic tertiary amines and alcohols in a wide range of H2SO4 concentrations in initial solutions is discussed. It has been established that the influence of the sulphuric acid concentration on rhenium solvent extraction is largely due to the extraction process mechanism. In the case of the anion-exchange mechanism, ReO4- is best extracted from weakly acidic solutions, whereas when the hydrate-solvate mechanism takes place – from solutions containing 4-7 mole/l H2SO4.

  4. The sphingolipid long-chain base-Pkh1/2-Ypk1/2 signaling pathway regulates eisosome assembly and turnover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Guangzuo; Gruhler, Albrecht; Liu, Ying

    2008-01-01

    Eisosomes are recently described fungal structures that play roles in the organization of the plasma membrane and endocytosis. Their major protein components are Pil1 and Lsp1, and previous studies showed that these proteins are phosphorylated by the sphingolipid long-chain base-activated Pkh1...... that phosphorylation is critical for eisosome organization. We also found that eisosomes are dynamic structures and disassemble when the Ypk protein kinases, which are activated by the sphingolipid-Pkh signaling pathway, are inactivated or when the sphingolipid signal is pharmacologically blocked with myriocin. We...

  5. Long-Chain Acetylenic Ketones from the Micronesian Sponge Haliclona sp. Importance of the 1-yn-3-ol Group for Antitumor Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Xiong Zhou

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Two new long-chain C33 polyacetylenic compounds, halicynones A and B were isolated from the marine sponge Haliclona sp. along with known analogs. The known compound pellynol A possessing a 1-yn-3-ol terminus, exhibited strong antitumor activity against the human colon tumor cell line HCT-116 (IC50 0.026 μg/mL, however, the corresponding 1-yn-3-one, halicynone A, was inactive, which suggests an important role for the terminal 1-yn-3-ol functional group in mediating cytotoxic activity.

  6. Mechanism of the protective effects of long chain n-alkyl glucopyranosides against ultrasound-induced cytolysis of HL-60 cells

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Jason Y.; Riesz, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Recently it has been shown that long chain (C5 to C8) n-alkyl glucopyranosides completely inhibit ultrasound-induced cytolysis [1]. This protective effect has possible applications in HIFU (high intensity focused ultrasound) for tumor treatment, and in ultrasound assisted drug delivery and gene therapy. n-Alkyl glucopyranosides with hexyl (5mM), heptyl (3mM), octyl (2mM) n-alkyl chains protected 100% of HL-60 cells in-vitro from 1.057 MHz ultrasound induced cytolysis under a range of conditio...

  7. Plasma acylcarnitine profiling indicates increased fatty acid oxidation relative to tricarboxylic acid cycle capacity in young, healthy low birth weight men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribel-Madsen, Amalie; Ribel-Madsen, Rasmus; Brøns, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesized that an increased, incomplete fatty acid beta‐oxidation in mitochondria could be part of the metabolic events leading to insulin resistance and thereby an increased type 2 diabetes risk in low birth weight (LBW) compared with normal birth weight (NBW) individuals. Therefore, we...... measured fasting plasma levels of 45 acylcarnitine species in 18 LBW and 25 NBW men after an isocaloric control diet and a 5‐day high‐fat, high‐calorie diet. We demonstrated that LBW men had higher C2 and C4‐OH levels after the control diet compared with NBW men, indicating an increased fatty acid beta...

  8. The long chain of the n-hexane fraction of water hyacinth (eichhornia crassipes): extrction, estimation, GC-MS analysis and antimicrobial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, Z.; Khan, K.M.

    2015-01-01

    Oily fraction was extracted from the water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) using n-hexane by both cold and hot extraction in 5.5 ± 0.05% and 9.30 ± 0.05%, respectively, however, no difference was found in the nature of the compounds extracted by the two processes. The analysis of this oil was carried out using GC-FID and GC-MS in separate experiments and the nature of the compounds was investigated by library matching of the spectra obtained through GC-MS. This extract was found to contain 33.267% of the nonadecan-4-ol and 20.51% of a long chain ketone in addition to various quantities of the long chain nitrogenous compounds. The antibacterial activity of the extract was investigated against eight pathogenic bacteria and fungus Candida albican using disc diffusion method. The extract was found to be highly active against all tested bacterial strains except S. typhi. For most of the strains the activity of the extract was near the reference. Ciprofloxacin, clotrimazole and erythromycin were used as reference antibiotics. (author)

  9. The effect of temperature, salinity and growth rate on the stable hydrogen isotopic composition of long chain alkenones produced by Emiliania huxleyi and Gephyrocapsa oceanica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Schouten

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Two haptophyte algae, Emiliania huxleyi and Gephyrocapsa oceanica, were cultured at different temperatures and salinities to investigate the impact of these factors on the hydrogen isotopic composition of long chain alkenones synthesized by these algae. Results showed that alkenones synthesized by G. oceanica were on average depleted in D by 30 compared to those of E. huxleyi when grown under similar temperature and salinity conditions. The fractionation factor, αalkenones-H2O, ranged from 0.760 to 0.815 for E. huxleyi and from 0.741 to 0.788 for G. oceanica. There was no significant correlation of αalkenones-H2O with temperature but a positive linear correlation was observed between αalkenones-H2O and salinity with ~3 change in fractionation per salinity unit and a negative correlation between αalkenones-H2O and growth rate. This suggests that both salinity and growth rate can have a substantial impact on the stable hydrogen isotopic composition of long chain alkenones in natural environments.

  10. Long-chain ionic liquid based mixed hemimicelles and magnetic dispersed solid-phase extraction for the extraction of fluorescent whitening agents in paper materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Qiu, Bin; Chen, Xianbo; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Xiaoyuan

    2017-06-01

    A novel mixed hemimicelles and magnetic dispersive solid-phase extraction method based on long-chain ionic liquids for the extraction of five fluorescent whitening agents was established. The factors influenced on extraction efficiency were investigated. Under the optimal conditions, namely, the pH of sample solution at 8.0, the concentration of long chain ionic liquid at 0.5 mmol/L, the amount of Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticle at 12 mg, extraction time at 10 min, pH 6.0 of methanol as eluent, and the desorption time at 1 min, satisfactory results were obtained. Wide linear ranges (0.02-10 ng/mL) and good linearity were attained (0.9997-0.9999). The intraday and interday RSDs were 2.1-8.3%. Limits of detection were 0.004-0.01 ng/mL, which were decreased by almost an order of magnitude compared to direct detection without extraction. The present method was applied to extract the fluorescent whitening agents in two kinds of paper samples, obtaining satisfactory results. All showed results illustrated that the detection sensitivity was improved and the proposed method was a good choice for the enriching and monitoring of trace fluorescent whitening agents. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. One-step production of long-chain hydrocarbons from waste-biomass-derived chemicals using bi-functional heterogeneous catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Cun; Barrow, Elizabeth; Hattrick-Simpers, Jason; Lauterbach, Jochen

    2014-02-21

    In this study, we demonstrate the production of long-chain hydrocarbons (C8+) from 2-methylfuran (2MF) and butanal in a single step reactive process by utilizing a bi-functional catalyst with both acid and metallic sites. Our approach utilizes a solid acid for the hydroalkylation function and as a support as well as a transition metal as hydrodeoxygenation catalyst. A series of solid acids was screened, among which MCM-41 demonstrated the best combination of activity and stability. Platinum nanoparticles were then incorporated into the MCM-41. The Pt/MCM-41 catalyst showed 96% yield for C8+ hydrocarbons and the catalytic performance was stable over four reaction cycles of 20 hour each. The reaction pathways for the production of long-chain hydrocarbons is probed with a combination of infrared spectroscopy and steady-state reaction experiments. It is proposed that 2MF and butanal go through hydroalkylation first on the acid site followed by hydrodeoxygenation to produce the hydrocarbon fuels.

  12. Microemulsions containing long-chain oil ethyl oleate improve the oral bioavailability of piroxicam by increasing drug solubility and lymphatic transportation simultaneously.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Qiao; Song, Jia; You, Xiuhua; Xu, Dongling; Wang, Kexin; Song, Jiaqi; Guo, Qin; Li, Pengyu; Wu, Chuanbin; Hu, Haiyan

    2016-09-25

    Drug solubility and lymphatic transport enhancements are two main pathways to improve drug oral bioavailability for microemulsions. However, it is not easy to have both achieved simultaneously because excipients used for improving lymphatic transport were usually insufficient in forming microemulsions and solubilizing drugs. Our research is to explore whether ethyl oleate, an oil effective in developing microemulsions with desired solubilizing capability, could increase bioavailability to a higher extent by enhancing lymphatic transport. As a long-chain oil, ethyl oleate won larger microemulsion area than short-chain tributyrin and medium-chain GTCC. In contrast, long-chain soybean oil failed to prepare microemulsions. The solubility of piroxicam in ethyl oleate microemulsions (ME-C) increased by about 30 times than in water. ME-C also won significantly higher AUC0-t compared with tributyrin microemulsions (ME-A) and GTCC microemulsions (ME-B). Oral bioavailability in ME-C decreased by 38% after lymphatic transport was blocked by cycloheximide, severer than those in ME-A and ME-B (8% and 34%). These results suggest that improving lymphatic transport and solubility simultaneously might be a novel strategy to increase drug oral bioavailability to a higher extent than increasing solubility only. Ethyl oleate is a preferred oil candidate due to its integrated advantages of high solubilizing capability, large microemulsion area and effective lymphatic transport. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Interplay Between n-3 and n-6 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and the Endocannabinoid System in Brain Protection and Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyall, Simon C

    2017-11-01

    The brain is enriched in arachidonic acid (ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) of the n-6 and n-3 series, respectively. Both are essential for optimal brain development and function. Dietary enrichment with DHA and other long-chain n-3 PUFA, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), has shown beneficial effects on learning and memory, neuroinflammatory processes, and synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis. ARA, DHA and EPA are precursors to a diverse repertoire of bioactive lipid mediators, including endocannabinoids. The endocannabinoid system comprises cannabinoid receptors, their endogenous ligands, the endocannabinoids, and their biosynthetic and degradation enzymes. Anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) are the most widely studied endocannabinoids and are both derived from phospholipid-bound ARA. The endocannabinoid system also has well-established roles in neuroinflammation, synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis, suggesting an overlap in the neuroprotective effects observed with these different classes of lipids. Indeed, growing evidence suggests a complex interplay between n-3 and n-6 LCPUFA and the endocannabinoid system. For example, long-term DHA and EPA supplementation reduces AEA and 2-AG levels, with reciprocal increases in levels of the analogous endocannabinoid-like DHA and EPA-derived molecules. This review summarises current evidence of this interplay and discusses the therapeutic potential for brain protection and repair.

  14. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 in Fermented Rice Pudding Supplemented with Short Chain Inulin, Long Chain Inulin, and Oat as a Novel Functional Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Williams

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 is a probiotic that has been shown to reduce the risk of urogenital problems and urinary tract infections. Rice pudding is a popular gluten-free dairy product, and could be a vehicle to deliver L. rhamnosus GR-1 to a broader population. The purpose of this study was to investigate the growth and viability of L. rhamnosus GR-1 in six fermented rice pudding samples, each one supplemented with one type of prebiotic (short-chain inulin-2% w/w, 4% w/w; long-chain inulin-2% w/w, 4% w/w and oat-0.5% w/w, 1% w/w, along with control, over a 21-day storage period. The objective was to determine if the supplementation would have a positive effect on the microbial viability of L. rhamnosus GR-1, and to evaluate the sensory properties of the samples. All of the samples had viable levels of L. rhamnosus GR-1. Bacterial counts were at least 1 × 108 CFU/mL over the 21-day storage period. The probiotic rice pudding sample supplemented with 4% w/w short-chain inulin had the highest hedonic score for flavour, sweetness, texture, and overall acceptability. This study shows that the addition of short-chain inulin, long-chain inulin, and oat had no adverse supplementation effects on the viability of L. Rhamnosus GR-1. There is the potential for the production of a novel functional food.

  15. Antimicrobial medium- and long-chain free fatty acids prevent PrfA-dependent activation of virulence genes in Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternkopf Lillebæk, Eva Maria; Lambert Nielsen, Stine; Scheel Thomasen, Rikke; Færgeman, Nils J; Kallipolitis, Birgitte H

    The foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes is the causative agent of the invasive disease listeriosis. Infection by L. monocytogenes involves bacterial crossing of the intestinal barrier and intracellular replication in a variety of host cells. The PrfA protein is the master regulator of virulence factors required for bacterial entry, intracellular replication and cell-to-cell spread. PrfA-dependent activation of virulence genes occurs primarily in the blood and during intracellular infection. In contrast, PrfA does not play a significant role in regulation of virulence gene expression in the intestinal environment. In the gastrointestinal phase of infection, the bacterium encounters a variety of antimicrobial agents, including medium- and long-chain free fatty acids that are commonly found in our diet and as active components of bile. Here we show that subinhibitory concentrations of specific antimicrobial free fatty acids act to downregulate transcription of PrfA-activated virulence genes. Interestingly, the inhibitory effect is also evident in cells encoding a constitutively active variant of PrfA. Collectively, our data suggest that antimicrobial medium- and long-chain free fatty acids may act as signals to prevent PrfA-mediated activation of virulence genes in environments where PrfA activation is not required, such as in food and the gastrointestinal tract. Copyright © 2017 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. The ABC transporter Rv1272c of Mycobacterium tuberculosis enhances the import of long-chain fatty acids in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Audrey; Daniel, Jaiyanth

    2018-02-05

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), which causes tuberculosis, is capable of accumulating triacylglycerol (TAG) by utilizing fatty acids from host cells. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are involved in transport processes in all organisms. Among the classical ABC transporters in Mtb none have been implicated in fatty acid import. Since the transport of fatty acids from the host cell is important for dormancy-associated TAG synthesis in the pathogen, mycobacterial ABC transporter(s) could potentially be involved in this process. Based on sequence identities with a bacterial ABC transporter that mediates fatty acid import for TAG synthesis, we identified Rv1272c, a hitherto uncharacterized ABC-transporter in Mtb that also shows sequence identities with a plant ABC transporter involved in fatty acid transport. We expressed Rv1272c in E. coli and show that it enhances the import of radiolabeled fatty acids. We also show that Rv1272c causes a significant increase in the metabolic incorporation of radiolabeled long-chain fatty acids into cardiolipin, a tetra-acylated phospholipid, and phosphatidylglycerol in E. coli. This is the first report on the function of Rv1272c showing that it displays a long-chain fatty acid transport function. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Diatomite-supported Pd-M (M=Cu, Co, Ni) bimetal nanocatalysts for selective hydrogenation of long-chain aliphatic esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Changliang; Zhang, Hongye; Zhao, Yanfei; Chen, Sha; Liu, Zhimin

    2012-11-15

    Diatomite supported Pd-M (M=Cu, Co, Ni) bimetal nanocatalysts with various metal compositions were prepared and characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It was demonstrated that the metal nanoparticles were uniformly distributed on the support, and their size was centered around 8 nm with a relatively narrow size distribution. The catalysts were used to catalyze hydrogenation of long-chain aliphatic esters, including methyl palmitate, methyl stearate, and methyl laurate. It was indicated that the all diatomite-supported Pd-based bimetal catalysts were active to the selective hydrogenation of long-chain esters to corresponding alcohols at 270°C, originated from the synergistic effect between the metal particles and the diatomite support. For the selective hydrogenation of methyl palmitate, Pd-Cu/diatomite with metal loading of 1% and Pd/Cu=3 displayed the highest performance, giving a 1-hexadecanol yield of 82.9% at the substrate conversion of 98.8%. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Quenching Capabilities of Long-Chain Carotenoids in Light-Harvesting-2 Complexes from Rhodobacter sphaeroides with an Engineered Carotenoid Synthesis Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilbeck, Preston L; Tang, Qun; Mothersole, David J; Martin, Elizabeth C; Hunter, C Neil; Bocian, David F; Holten, Dewey; Niedzwiedzki, Dariusz M

    2016-06-23

    Six light-harvesting-2 complexes (LH2) from genetically modified strains of the purple photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter (Rb.) sphaeroides were studied using static and ultrafast optical methods and resonance Raman spectroscopy. These strains were engineered to incorporate carotenoids for which the number of conjugated groups (N = NC═C + NC═O) varies from 9 to 15. The Rb. sphaeroides strains incorporate their native carotenoids spheroidene (N = 10) and spheroidenone (N = 11), as well as longer-chain analogues including spirilloxanthin (N = 13) and diketospirilloxantion (N = 15) normally found in Rhodospirillum rubrum. Measurements of the properties of the carotenoid first singlet excited state (S1) in antennas from the Rb. sphaeroides set show that carotenoid-bacteriochlorophyll a (BChl a) interactions are similar to those in LH2 complexes from various other bacterial species and thus are not significantly impacted by differences in polypeptide composition. Instead, variations in carotenoid-to-BChl a energy transfer are primarily regulated by the N-determined energy of the carotenoid S1 excited state, which for long-chain (N ≥ 13) carotenoids is not involved in energy transfer. Furthermore, the role of the long-chain carotenoids switches from a light-harvesting supporter (via energy transfer to BChl a) to a quencher of the BChl a S1 excited state B850*. This quenching is manifested as a substantial (∼2-fold) reduction of the B850* lifetime and the B850* fluorescence quantum yield for LH2 housing the longest carotenoids.

  19. A Plasma Metabolomic Signature of the Exfoliation Syndrome Involves Amino Acids, Acylcarnitines, and Polyamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leruez, Stéphanie; Bresson, Thomas; Chao de la Barca, Juan M; Marill, Alexandre; de Saint Martin, Grégoire; Buisset, Adrien; Muller, Jeanne; Tessier, Lydie; Gadras, Cédric; Verny, Christophe; Amati-Bonneau, Patrizia; Lenaers, Guy; Gohier, Philippe; Bonneau, Dominique; Simard, Gilles; Milea, Dan; Procaccio, Vincent; Reynier, Pascal

    2018-02-01

    To determine the plasma metabolomic signature of the exfoliative syndrome (XFS), the most common cause worldwide of secondary open-angle glaucoma. We performed a targeted metabolomic study, using the standardized p180 Biocrates Absolute IDQ p180 kit with a QTRAP 5500 mass spectrometer, to compare the metabolomic profiles of plasma from individuals with XFS (n = 16), and an age- and sex-matched control group with cataract (n = 18). A total of 151 metabolites were detected correctly, 16 of which allowed for construction of an OPLS-DA model with a good predictive capability (Q2cum = 0.51) associated with a low risk of over-fitting (permQ2 = -0.48, CV-ANOVA P-value <0.001). The metabolites contributing the most to the signature were octanoyl-carnitine (C8) and decanoyl-carnitine (C10), the branched-chain amino acids (i.e., isoleucine, leucine, and valine), and tyrosine, all of which were at higher concentrations in the XFS group, whereas spermine and spermidine, together with their precursor acetyl-ornithine, were at lower concentrations than in the control group. We identified a significant metabolomic signature in the plasma of individuals with XFS. Paradoxically, this signature, characterized by lower concentrations of the neuroprotective spermine and spermidine polyamines than in controls, partially overlaps the plasma metabolomic profile associated with insulin resistance, despite the absence of evidence of insulin resistance in XFS.

  20. Mechanism of the protective effects of long chain n-alkyl glucopyranosides against ultrasound-induced cytolysis of HL-60 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jason Y; Riesz, Peter

    2007-07-01

    Recently it has been shown that long chain (C5-C8) n-alkyl glucopyranosides completely inhibit ultrasound-induced cytolysis [J.Z. Sostaric, N. Miyoshi, P. Riesz, W.G. DeGraff, and J.B. Mitchell, Free Radical Biol. Med., 39 (2005) 1539]. This protective effect has possible applications in HIFU (high intensity focused ultrasound) for tumor treatment, and in ultrasound assisted drug delivery and gene therapy. n-Alkyl glucopyranosides with hexyl (5mM), heptyl (3mM), octyl (2mM) n-alkyl chains protected 100% of HL-60 cells in vitro from 1.057 MHz ultrasound-induced cytolysis under a range of conditions that resulted in 35-100% cytolysis in the absence of glucopyranosides. However the hydrophilic methyl-beta-d-glucopyranoside did not protect cells. The surface active n-alkyl glucopyranosides accumulate at the gas-liquid interface of cavitation bubbles. The OH radicals and H atoms formed in collapsing cavitation bubbles react by H-atom abstraction from either the n-alkyl chain or the glucose moiety of the n-alkyl glucopyranosides. Owing to the high concentration of the long chain surfactants at the gas-liquid interface of cavitation bubbles, the initially formed carbon radicals on the alkyl chains are transferred to the glucose moieties to yield radicals which react with oxygen leading to the formation of hydrogen peroxide. In this work, we find that the sonochemically produced hydrogen peroxide yields from oxygen-saturated solutions of long chain (hexyl, octyl) n-alkyl glucopyranosides at 614 kHz and 1.057 MHz ultrasound increase with increasing n-alkyl glucopyranoside concentration but are independent of concentration for methyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside. These results are consistent with the previously proposed mechanism of sonoprotection [J.Z. Sostaric, N. Miyoshi, P. Riesz, W.G. DeGraff, and J.B. Mitchell, Free Radical Biol. Med., 39 (2005) 1539]. This sequence of events prevents sonodynamic cell killing by initiation of lipid peroxidation chain reactions in cellular

  1. Restoration of fillet n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid is improved by a modified fish oil finishing diet strategy for atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) smolts fed palm fatty acid distillate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codabaccus, Mohamed B; Bridle, Andrew R; Nichols, Peter D; Carter, Chris G

    2012-01-11

    Reducing the lipid content in fish prior to feeding a fish oil finishing diet (FOFD) has the potential to improve n-3 long-chain (≥ C(20)) polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) restoration. This study had two main objectives: (1) determine whether feeding Atlantic salmon smolt a 75% palm fatty acid distillate diet (75PFAD) improves the apparent digestibility (AD) of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and (2) examine whether a food deprivation period after growth on 75PFAD leads to higher n-3 LC-PUFA restoration in the fillet when applying a FOFD. The AD of SFA was higher for 75PFAD compared to that of a fish oil (FO) diet. The relative level (as % total fatty acids (FA)) of n-3 LC-PUFA was higher in unfed fish compared to that in continuously fed fish after 21 and 28 day FOFD periods, respectively. Our results suggest that a food deprivation period prior to feeding a FOFD improves the efficiency of n-3 LC-PUFA restoration in the fillet of Atlantic salmon smolt.

  2. Long chain diol index (LDI) as an organic-based sea surface temperature proxy in the Korean East Sea (NW Pacific)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal, Jong-Ku; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Kang, Su-Jin; Lee, Dong-Hun; Shin, Kyung-Hoon

    2016-04-01

    Long chain diol index (LDI) was introduced as an organic-based sea surface temperature (SST) proxy. LDI is expressed as the C30 1,15-diol abundance relative to those of C28 1,13-, C30 1,13- and C30 1,15-diols. There were a few studies which accessed the potential of LDI based on the culture, core top sediments, suspended particulate organic matters, and down-core sediments. However it is still unknown about the source of the diols and robustness as the SST proxy in the various marine environments. In the current study, we examined the applicability of the LDI in the East Sea of Korea where productivity and thus sedimentation rates are high. We will compare the LDI data with those of alkenone-based UK'37 by analyzing two multicores covering the last 100 year.

  3. Fish and long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intakes during pregnancy and risk of postpartum depression: a prospective study based on a large national birth cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm, Marin; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mothers may be reluctant to receive medical treatment of postpartum depression (PPD), despite the detrimental consequences the disorder can impose on mother and child. Research on alternative methods of prevention and treatment of PPD is warranted. Previous studies have suggested...... that long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) might have a beneficial effect on depression. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to explore the association between intake of fish and n-3 PUFAs during pregnancy and PPD in the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC). DESIGN: Exposure information from the DNBC...... was linked to the Danish patient and prescription registries for data on clinically identified cases of depression up to 1 y postpartum. Intake of fish and n-3 PUFAs was assessed in midpregnancy with a food-frequency questionnaire. Admission to the hospital for PPD (PPD-admission) and prescription...

  4. Omega-3 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Preeclampsia: Trials Say “No,” but Is It the Final Word?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis I. Burchakov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia is a dangerous disorder of pregnancy, defined as hypertension with proteinuria. Its nature remains elusive, and measures of prevention and treatment are limited. Observational studies have suggested that preeclampsia is associated with low intake of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA. In recent decades, researchers studied LCPUFA supplementation as a measure to prevent preeclampsia. Most of these trials and later systematic reviews yielded negative results. However, these trials had several important limitations associated with heterogeneity and other issues. Recent research suggests that preeclampsia trials should take into consideration the gender of the fetus (and thus sexual dimorphism of placenta, the positive effect of smoking on preeclampsia prevalence, and the possibility that high doses of LCPUFA mid-term or later may promote the disorder instead of keeping it at bay. In this review, we discuss these issues and future prospects for LCPUFA in preeclampsia research.

  5. Long chain fatty acids (LCFA) evolution for inhibition forecasting during anaerobic treatment of lipid-rich wastes: Case of milk-fed veal slaughterhouse waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Méndez, R; Le Bihan, Y; Béline, F; Lessard, P

    2017-09-01

    A detailed study of a solid slaughterhouse waste (SHW) anaerobic treatment is presented. The waste used in this study is rich in lipids and proteins residue. Long chain fatty acids (LCFA), coming from the hydrolysis of lipids were inhibitory to anaerobic processes at different degrees. Acetogenesis and methanogenesis processes were mainly affected by inhibition whereas disintegration and hydrolysis processes did not seem to be affected by high LCFA concentrations. Nevertheless, because of the high energy content, this kind of waste is very suitable for anaerobic digestion but strict control of operating conditions is required to prevent inhibition. For that, two inhibition indicators were identified in this study. Those two indicators, LCFA dynamics and LCFA/VS biomass ratio proved to be useful to predict and to estimate the process inhibition degree. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Antimicrobial medium- and long-chain free fatty acids prevent PrfA-dependent activation of virulence genes in Listeria monocytogenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sternkopf Lillebæk, Eva Maria; Lambert Nielsen, Stine; Scheel Thomasen, Rikke

    2017-01-01

    of virulence factors required for bacterial entry, intracellular replication and cell-to-cell spread. PrfA-dependent activation of virulence genes occurs primarily in the blood and during intracellular infection. In contrast, PrfA does not play a significant role in regulation of virulence gene expression...... antimicrobial free fatty acids act to downregulate transcription of PrfA-activated virulence genes. Interestingly, the inhibitory effect is also evident in cells encoding a constitutively active variant of PrfA. Collectively, our data suggest that antimicrobial medium- and long-chain free fatty acids may act...... as signals to prevent PrfA-mediated activation of virulence genes in environments where PrfA activation is not required, such as in food and the gastrointestinal tract....

  7. Long-Chain Diacrylate Crosslinkers and Use of PEG Crosslinks in Poly(potassium acrylate-acrylic acid/Kaolin Composite Superabsorbents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koroush Kabiri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-chain diacrylate crosslinkers based on linear α,ω-diols were synthesized and characterized using FTIR and 1H NMR spectroscopy. The highest reaction yield (99.5% was due to polyethylene glycol diacrylate 1000 (PEGDA-1000. Then, kaolin-containing poly(potassium acrylate-acrylic acid superabsorbent composites and kaolin-free counterparts were synthesized using PEGDA-1000.The effect of the crosslinker concentration on swelling, rheological and thermo-mechanical properties was investigated. Absorption capacity of the composite hydrogels (having ~38% kaolin was unexpectedly higher than that of kaolin-free hydrogels. This was attributed to an interfering effect of kaolin during the polymerization. Glass transition temperature was increased with crosslinker concentration enhancement and addition of kaolin up to about 10oC and 28oC, respectively. Making such K-containing superabsorbents may be taken as an effective action to achieve more durable and cheaper superabsorbents for agricultural uses.

  8. Dietary intake and adipose tissue content of long-chain n-3 PUFAs and subsequent 5-y change in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Marianne U.; Madsen, Lise; Skjøth, Flemming

    2017-01-01

    Background: Adding long-chain n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) to a rodent diet reduces fat mass and prevents the development of obesity, but evidence of a similar effect in humans is rather limited.Objectives: We investigated the associations between dietary intake and adipose tissue....... Dietary intake was assessed with the use of a validated 192-item semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Adipose tissue content of fatty acids was determined by gas chromatography in a random sample of the cohort (n = 1660). Anthropometric measurements were taken at baseline and 5 y later...... acid, docosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid were observed. Intake of n-3 PUFAs was not associated with a 5-y change in waist circumference. For high (0.16%) compared with low (0.06%) adipose tissue content of EPA, the difference in 5-y weight change was -649.6 g (95% CI: -1254.2, -44.9 g); P...

  9. Long-chain fatty acids inhibition and adaptation process in anaerobic thermophilic digestion: Batch tests, microbial community structure and mathematical modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paltsi, Jordi; Illa, J.; Prenafeta-Boldu, F.X.

    2010-01-01

    Biomass samples taken during the continuous operation of thermophilic anaerobic digestors fed with manure and exposed to successive inhibitory pulses of long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) were characterized in terms of specific metabolic activities and 16S rDNA DGGE profiling of the microbial community....... Population profiles of eubacterial and archaeal 16S rDNA genes revealed that no significant shift on microbial community composition took place upon biomass exposure to LCFA. DNA sequencing of predominant DGGE bands showed close phylogenetic affinity to ribotypes characteristic from specific beta...... kinetics considering the relation between LCFA inhibitory substrate concentration and specific biomass content, as an approximation to the adsorption process, improved the model fitting and provided a better insight on the physical nature of the LCFA inhibition process. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights...

  10. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in breast-milk and erythrocytes and neurodevelopmental outcomes in Danish late-preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stine Brøndum; Hellgren, Lars I; Larsen, Mette Krogh

    2015-01-01

    found that breast-milk content of arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was similar to reported fatty acid compositions of term human milk. Infant RBC-AA decreased from 1 week to 1 month of age and the size of the decrease was associated with better NNNS-scores at 1 month, specifically......Background: The supply of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) during pregnancy and early lactation has been shown to affect cognitive development in preterm infants, but the effect on early neurodevelopment of late-preterm infants has not yet been examined. Aim: To examine the fatty...... acid composition of late-preterm human milk and identify possible associations between infant LC-PUFA status and perinatal as well as 1-year neurobehavioral outcomes. Methods: Mother’s milk and erythrocytes (RBC) were sampled from 53 Danish late-preterm infants (33-36 weeks of gestation) 1 week and 1...

  11. Long-chain alkylimidazolium ionic liquids, a new class of cationic surfactants coated on ODS columns for anion-exchange chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Hongdeng; Zhang, Qinghua; Chen, Limei; Liu, Xia; Jiang, Shengxiang

    2008-08-01

    Separations of common inorganic anions were carried out on ODS columns coated with two long-chain alkylimidazolium ionic liquids ([C(12)MIm]Br and [C(14)MIm]Br) as new cationic surfactants for ion chromatography. With phthalate buffer solution as the mobile phases and non-suppressed conductivity detection, high column efficiencies and excellent selectivity were obtained in the separation of inorganic anions. Chromatographic parameters are calculated and the results show that the coated column possesses significant potential for the analysis of some inorganic anions such as CH(3)COO(-), IO(3)(-), Cl(-), BrO(3)(-), NO(2)(-), Br(-), NO(3)(-), SO(4)(2-), I(-), BF(4)(-), and SCN(-). The effect of eluent pH values on the separation of anions has been studied on the column coated with [C(12)MIm]Br. The stability of the coated columns was also examined.

  12. Management of familial Mediterranean fever by colchicine does not normalize the altered profile of microbial long chain fatty acids in the human metabolome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanna eKtsoyan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In our previous works we established that in an autoinflammatory condition, familial Mediterranean fever, the gut microbial diversity is specifically restructured, which also results in the altered profiles of microbial long chain fatty acids (LCFAs present in the systemic metabolome. The mainstream management of the disease is based on oral administration of colchicine to suppress clinical signs and extend remission periods and our aim was to determine whether this therapy normalizes the microbial LCFA profiles in the metabolome as well. Unexpectedly, the treatment does not normalize these profiles. Moreover, it results in the formation of new distinct microbial LCFA clusters, which are well separated from the corresponding values in healthy controls and FMF patients without the therapy. We hypothesize that the therapy alters the proinflammatory network specific for the disease, with the concomitant changes in gut microbiota and the corresponding microbial LCFAs in the metabolome.

  13. Dietary Alfalfa and Calcium Salts of Long-Chain Fatty Acids Alter Protein Utilization, Microbial Populations, and Plasma Fatty Acid Profile in Holstein Freemartin Heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yang; Qiu, Qinghua; Shao, Taoqi; Niu, Wenjing; Xia, Chuanqi; Wang, Haibo; Li, Qianwen; Gao, Zhibiao; Yu, Zhantao; Su, Huawei; Cao, Binghai

    2017-12-20

    This study presented the effects of alfalfa and calcium salts of long-chain fatty acids (CSFA) on feed intake, apparent digestibility, rumen fermentation, microbial community, plasma biochemical parameters, and fatty acid profile in Holstein freemartin heifers. Eight Holstein freemartin heifers were randomly divided into a 4 × 4 Latin Square experiment with 2 × 2 factorial diets, with or without alfalfa or CSFA. Dietary supplementation of CSFA significantly increased the apparent digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, organic matter, and significantly reduced N retention (P fatty acids in the plasma, which was expressed in reducing saturated fatty acid (ΣSFA) ratio and C14-C17 fatty acids proportion except C16:0 (P fatty acid (ΣPUFA) and unsaturated fatty acid (ΣUFA) (P fatty acids in plasma. Alfalfa and CSFA had mutual interaction effect on fat digestion and plasma triglycerides.

  14. Structured triglycerides were well tolerated and induced increased whole body fat oxidation compared with long-chain triglycerides in postoperative patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandström, R; Hyltander, A; Körner, U; Lundholm, K

    1995-01-01

    It has been proposed, on the basis of animal experiments, that medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) may exert more favorable effects on whole body metabolism of injured animals than long-chain triglycerides (LCT). Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate whether structured triglycerides are associated with increased whole body fat oxidation without promotion of ketogenesis in postoperative patients. A structured lipid emulsion (73403 Pharmacia, Sweden) containing medium- and long-chain fatty acids, esterified randomly to glycerol in a triglyceride structure, was used. Whole body fat oxidation was determined by indirect calorimetry in the postoperative period. Patients were randomized to receive structured lipids 1 day followed by LCT (Intralipid, Pharmacia) the next day or vice versa during 6 postoperative days. In part 1 of the study patients received fat at 1.0 g/kg per day in the presence of 80% of the basal requirement of nonprotein calories. In part 2 patients received fat at 1.5 g/kg per day in the presence of 120% of the nonprotein caloric requirement. Amino acids were always provided at 0.15 g N/kg per day. Structured lipids were not associated with any side effects, were rapidly cleared from the plasma compartment, and were rapidly oxidized without any significant hyperlipidemia or ketosis. Provision of structured lipids in the presence of excess of nonprotein calories (part 2) caused a significantly higher whole body fat oxidation (2.4 +/- 0.05 g/kg per day) compared with LCT provision (1.9 +/- 0.06 g/kg per day) (p structured triglycerides were associated with increased whole body fat oxidation in stressed postoperative patients, which is in line with the original metabolic and biochemical concept for structured triglycerides. The study provided evidence to support that structured lipids may represent a next generation of IV fat emulsions that may be clinically advantageous compared with conventional LCT emulsions in certain clinical conditions.

  15. Two very long chain fatty acid acyl-CoA synthetase genes, acs-20 and acs-22, have roles in the cuticle surface barrier in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriko Kage-Nakadai

    Full Text Available In multicellular organisms, the surface barrier is essential for maintaining the internal environment. In mammals, the barrier is the stratum corneum. Fatty acid transport protein 4 (FATP4 is a key factor involved in forming the stratum corneum barrier. Mice lacking Fatp4 display early neonatal lethality with features such as tight, thick, and shiny skin, and a defective skin barrier. These symptoms are strikingly similar to those of a human skin disease called restrictive dermopathy. FATP4 is a member of the FATP family that possesses acyl-CoA synthetase activity for very long chain fatty acids. How Fatp4 contributes to skin barrier function, however, remains to be elucidated. In the present study, we characterized two Caenorhabditis elegans genes, acs-20 and acs-22, that are homologous to mammalian FATPs. Animals with mutant acs-20 exhibited defects in the cuticle barrier, which normally prevents the penetration of small molecules. acs-20 mutant animals also exhibited abnormalities in the cuticle structure, but not in epidermal cell fate or cell integrity. The acs-22 mutants rarely showed a barrier defect, whereas acs-20;acs-22 double mutants had severely disrupted barrier function. Moreover, the barrier defects of acs-20 and acs-20;acs-22 mutants were rescued by acs-20, acs-22, or human Fatp4 transgenes. We further demonstrated that the incorporation of exogenous very long chain fatty acids into sphingomyelin was reduced in acs-20 and acs-22 mutants. These findings indicate that C. elegans Fatp4 homologue(s have a crucial role in the surface barrier function and this model might be useful for studying the fundamental molecular mechanisms underlying human skin barrier and relevant diseases.

  16. ELOVL4 protein preferentially elongates 20:5n3 to very long chain PUFAs over 20:4n6 and 22:6n3[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Man; Benham, Aaron; Logan, Sreemathi; Brush, R. Steven; Mandal, Md Nawajes A.; Anderson, Robert E.; Agbaga, Martin-Paul

    2012-01-01

    We hypothesized that reduction/loss of very long chain PUFAs (VLC-PUFAs) due to mutations in the ELOngase of very long chain fatty acid-4 (ELOVL4) protein contributes to retinal degeneration in autosomal dominant Stargardt-like macular dystrophy (STGD3) and age-related macular degeneration; hence, increasing VLC-PUFA in the retina of these patients could provide some therapeutic benefits. Thus, we tested the efficiency of elongation of C20-C22 PUFA by the ELOVL4 protein to determine which substrates are the best precursors for biosynthesis of VLC-PUFA. The ELOVL4 protein was expressed in pheochromocytoma cells, while green fluorescent protein-expressing and nontransduced cells served as controls. The cells were treated with 20:5n3, 22:6n3, and 20:4n6, either individually or in equal combinations. Both transduced and control cells internalized and elongated the supplemented FAs to C22-C26 precursors. Only ELOVL4-expressing cells synthesized C28-C38 VLC-PUFA from these precursors. In general, 20:5n3 was more efficiently elongated to VLC-PUFA in the ELOVL4-expressing cells, regardless of whether it was in combination with 22:6n3 or with 20:4n6. In each FA treatment group, C34 and C36 VLC-PUFAs were the predominant VLC-PUFAs in the ELOVL4-expressing cells. In summary, 20:5n3, followed by 20:4n6, seems to be the best precursor for boosting the synthesis of VLC-PUFA by ELOVL4 protein. PMID:22158834

  17. Thermosyntropha lipolytica gen. nov., sp. nov., a lipolytic, anaerobic, alkalitolerant, thermophilic bacterium utilizing short- and long-chain fatty acids in syntrophic coculture with a methanogenic archaeum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svetlitshnyi, V; Rainey, F; Wiegel, J

    1996-10-01

    Three strains of an anaerobic thermophilic organoheterotrophic lipolytic alkalitolerant bacterium, Thermosyntropha lipolytica gen. nov., sp. nov. (type strain JW/VS-265T; DSM 11003), were isolated from alkaline hot springs of Lake Bogoria (Kenya). The cells were nonmotile, non-spore forming, straight or slightly curved rods. At 60 degrees C the pH range for growth determined at 25 degrees C [pH25 degrees C] was 7.15 to 9.5, with an optimum between 8.1 and 8.9 (pH60 degrees C of 7.6 and 8.1). At a pH25 degrees C of 8.5 the temperature range for growth was from 52 to 70 degrees C, with an optimum between 60 and 66 degrees C. The shortest doubling time was around 1 h. In pure culture the bacterium grew in a mineral base medium supplemented with yeast extract, tryptone, Casamino Acids, betaine, and crotonate as carbon sources, producing acetate as a major product and constitutively a lipase. During growth in the presence of olive oil, free long-chain fatty acids were accumulated in the medium but the pure culture could not utilize olive oil, triacylglycerols, short- and long-chain fatty acids, and glycerol for growth. In syntrophic coculture (Methanobacterium strain JW/VS-M29) the lipolytic bacteria grew on triacylglycerols and linear saturated and unsaturated fatty acids with 4 to 18 carbon atoms, but glycerol was not utilized. Fatty acids with even numbers of carbon atoms were degraded to acetate and methane, while from odd-numbered fatty acids 1 mol of propionate per mol of fatty acid was additionally formed. 16S rDNA sequence analysis identified Syntrophospora and Syntrophomonas spp. as closest phylogenetic neighbors.

  18. Anti-Biofilm Activity of a Long-Chain Fatty Aldehyde from Antarctic Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAC125 against Staphylococcus epidermidis Biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casillo, Angela; Papa, Rosanna; Ricciardelli, Annarita; Sannino, Filomena; Ziaco, Marcello; Tilotta, Marco; Selan, Laura; Marino, Gennaro; Corsaro, Maria M; Tutino, Maria L; Artini, Marco; Parrilli, Ermenegilda

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is a harmless human skin colonizer responsible for ~20% of orthopedic device-related infections due to its capability to form biofilm. Nowadays there is an interest in the development of anti-biofilm molecules. Marine bacteria represent a still underexploited source of biodiversity able to synthesize a broad range of bioactive compounds, including anti-biofilm molecules. Previous results have demonstrated that the culture supernatant of Antarctic marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAC125 impairs the formation of S. epidermidis biofilm. Further, evidence supports the hydrophobic nature of the active molecule, which has been suggested to act as a signal molecule. In this paper we describe an efficient activity-guided purification protocol which allowed us to purify this anti-biofilm molecule and structurally characterize it by NMR and mass spectrometry analyses. Our results demonstrate that the anti-biofilm molecule is pentadecanal, a long-chain fatty aldehyde, whose anti- S. epidermidis biofilm activity has been assessed using both static and dynamic biofilm assays. The specificity of its action on S. epidermidis biofilm has been demonstrated by testing chemical analogs of pentadecanal differing either in the length of the aliphatic chain or in their functional group properties. Further, indications of the mode of action of pentadecanal have been collected by studying the bioluminescence of a Vibrio harveyi reporter strain for the detection of autoinducer AI-2 like activities. The data collected suggest that pentadecanal acts as an AI-2 signal. Moreover, the aldehyde metabolic role and synthesis in the Antarctic source strain has been investigated. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the identification of an anti-biofilm molecule form from cold-adapted bacteria and on the action of a long-chain fatty aldehyde acting as an anti-biofilm molecule against S. epidermidis .

  19. Unsaturated long-chain fatty acids induce the respiratory burst of human neutrophils and monocytes in whole blood

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    Osthaus Wilhelm A

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is increasingly recognized that infectious complications in patients treated with total parenteral nutrition (TPN may be caused by altered immune responses. Neutrophils and monocytes are the first line of defence against bacterial and fungal infection through superoxide anion production during the respiratory burst. To characterize the impact of three different types of lipid solutions that are applied as part of TPN formulations, we investigated the unstimulated respiratory burst activation of neutrophils and monocytes in whole blood. Methods Whole blood samples were incubated with LCT (Intralipid®, LCT/MCT (Lipofundin® and LCT-MUFA (ClinOleic® in three concentrations (0.06, 0.3 and 0.6 mg ml-1 for time periods up to one hour. Hydrogen peroxide production during the respiratory burst of neutrophils and monocytes was measured by flow cytometry. Results LCT and LCT-MUFA induced a hydrogen peroxide production in neutrophils and monocytes without presence of a physiological stimulus in contrast to LCT/MCT. Conclusion We concluded that parenteral nutrition containing unsaturated oleic (C18:1 and linoleic (C18:2 acid can induce respiratory burst of neutrophils and monocytes, resulting in an elevated risk of tissue damage by the uncontrolled production of reactive oxygen species. Contradictory observations reported in previous studies may in part be the result of different methods used to determine hydrogen peroxide production.

  20. Chemical Characterization and Oxidative Stability of Medium- and Long-Chain Fatty Acid Profiles in Tree-Borne Seed Oils

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    Da-Som Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to evaluate chemical characteristics and oxidative stability of tree-borne seed oils. A total of 15 different fatty acids were identified in six tree-borne seed oils, which included seven types of saturated fatty acids, four types of monounsaturated fatty acids, and four types of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Japanese camphor tree (JCT had a high content of medium-chain fatty acids (97.94 ± 0.04%, in which fatty acid composition was distinct from those of the other five plant seed oils. Overall, contents of tocopherols, a type of fat-soluble vitamin, ranged between 3.82 ± 0.04 mg/100 g and 101.98 ± 1.34 mg/100 g, respectively. Phytosterol contents ranged from 117.77 ± 1.32 mg/100 g to 479.45 ± 4.27 mg/100 g, respectively. Of all tree-borne seed oils, β-sitosterol was the phytosterol at the highest concentration. Contents of unsaponifiables were between 0.13 ± 0.08 and 2.01 ± 0.02, and values of acid, peroxide, and p-anisidine were between 0.79 ± 0.01 and 38.94 ± 0.24 mg KOH/g, 3.53 ± 0.21 and 127.67 ± 1.79 meq/kg, and 2.07 ± 0.51 and 9.67 ± 0.25, respectively. Oxidative stability of tree-borne seed oils was assessed through measurement of oxidation-induction periods. These results should serve as a foundation to identify the potential of tree-borne seed oils in industrial application as well as in providing fundamental data.

  1. Pronounced occurrence of long-chain alkenones and dinosterol in a 25,000-year lipid molecular fossil record from Lake Titicaca, South America

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    Theissen, Kevin M.; Zinniker, David A.; Moldowan, J. Michael; Dunbar, Robert B.; Rowe, Harold D.

    2005-02-01

    Our analysis of lipid molecular fossils from a Lake Titicaca (16° S, 69° W) sediment core reveals distinct changes in the ecology of the lake over an ˜25,000-yr period spanning latest Pleistocene to late Holocene time. Previous investigations have shown that over this time period Lake Titicaca was subject to large changes in lake level in response to regional climatic variability. Our results indicate that lake algal populations were greatly affected by the changing physical and chemical conditions in Lake Titicaca. Hydrocarbons are characterized by a combination of odd-numbered, mid- to long-chain (C 21-C 31) normal alkanes and alkenes. During periods when lake level was higher (latest Pleistocene, early Holocene, and late Holocene), the C 21n-alkane, and the C 25 and C 27 alkenes dominate hydrocarbon distributions and indicate contribution from an algal source, potentially the freshwater alga Botryococcus braunii. The C 30 4 α-methyl sterol (dinosterol) increases sharply during the mid-Holocene, suggesting a greatly increased dinoflagellate presence at that time. Long-chain alkenones (LCAs) become significant during the early Holocene and are highly abundant in mid-Holocene samples. There are relatively few published records of LCA detection in lake sediments but their occurrence is geographically widespread (Antarctica, Asia, Europe, North America). Lake Titicaca represents the first South American lake and the first low-latitude lake in which LCAs have been reported. LCA abundance and distribution may be related to the temperature-dependent response of an unidentified algal precursor. Although the LCA unsaturation indices cannot be used to determine absolute Lake Titicaca temperatures, we suspect that the published LCA U37K unsaturation calibrations can be applied to infer relative temperatures for early to mid-Holocene time when LCA concentrations are high. Using these criteria, the U37K unsaturation indices suggest relatively warmer temperatures in the

  2. Molecular characterization of elongase of very long-chain fatty acids 6 (elovl6) genes in Misgurnus anguillicaudatus and their potential roles in adaptation to cold temperature.

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    Chen, Jingwen; Cui, Yun; Yan, Jie; Jiang, Jimin; Cao, Xiaojuan; Gao, Jian

    2018-08-05

    Elongase of very long-chain fatty acids 6 (ELOVL6) is a rate-limiting enzyme catalyzing elongation of saturated and monounsaturated long-chain fatty acid. Although functional characteristics of Elovl6 have been demonstrated in mammal, the role of elovl6 in fish remains unclear. In this study, we firstly cloned three isoforms of elovl6 (elovl6a, elovl6b and elovl6-like) from loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus). Molecular characterizations of the three elovl6 isoforms in loach and their expressions of early life stages and different tissues were then determined. We also functionally characterized the three elovl6 isoforms using heterologous expression in baker's yeast. Results obtained here showed the three elovl6 proteins in loach can elongate C16:0 and C16:1 to C18:0 and C18:1, respectively. At last, to confirm the role of three loach elovl6 isoforms for elongation of fatty acids in adaption to cold stress, differences in skin histological structures, body fatty acid compositions, expressions of four hepatic lipogenesis or lipolysis related genes, and expressions of the three elovl6 isoforms and their related gene uncoupling protein 1 (ucp1) in different tissues were investigated in the loach reared in two different water temperatures (28 °C and 4 °C) for ten days. Cold stress increased ratios of C18/C16 and C20:5n-3/C18:3n-3 in loach body, and induced expressions of hepatic acyl-CoA delta-9 desaturase 1 (scd1), sterol-regulator element-binding protein 1 (srebp1), carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (cpt1) and fatty acid synthase (fas). Meanwhile, significant differences were found in expressions of the three elovl6 isoforms in different tissues between 28 °C and 4 °C groups. Overall, this study suggests that the three elovl6 isoforms in loach have ability to elongate C16 to C18, and elovl6 proteins in loach may play a role in adaptation to cold stress. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The associations between serum adiponectin, leptin, C-reactive protein, insulin, and serum long-chain omega-3 fatty acids in Labrador Retrievers

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    Streeter RM

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Renee M Streeter,1 Angela M Struble,1 Sabine Mann,2 Daryl V Nydam,2 John E Bauer,3 Marta G Castelhano,1 Rory J Todhunter,1 Bethany P Cummings,4 Joseph J Wakshlag11Department of Clinical Sciences, 2Department of Population Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA; 3Department of Clinical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA; 4Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USAAbstract: Obesity has been associated with an increased inflammatory response and insulin resistance due to adipose tissue–derived adipokines and increases in C-reactive protein (CRP. Dogs appear to be similar to other species with the exception of adiponectin, which might not be affected by obesity status. Serum long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations have been positively and negatively associated with serum adipokines. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between leptin, CRP, adiponectin, and insulin to body condition score (BCS and to the long-chain omega-3 fatty acids in serum lipoproteins, including alpha-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, docosapentanenoic acid (DPA, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA as a reflection of dietary omega-3 status in the Labrador Retriever. Seventy-seven Labrador Retrievers were evaluated for BCS, percent fasting serum lipoprotein fatty acid concentrations, as well as serum leptin, adiponectin, insulin, and CRP. A multivariable general linear regression model was constructed to examine the association between the dependent variables leptin, CRP, adiponectin, and insulin and the predictor variables of BCS, age, and sex, as well as concentrations of alpha-linolenic acid, EPA, DHA, and DPA. Adiponectin concentration was positively associated with age (P<0.0008, EPA (P=0.027 and negatively associated with DHA (P=0.008. Leptin concentration was positively associated with an increased DHA (P=0.009, BCS (P

  4. Homozygous Expression of Mutant ELOVL4 Leads to Seizures and Death in a Novel Animal Model of Very Long-Chain Fatty Acid Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopiavuori, Blake R; Deák, Ferenc; Wilkerson, Joseph L; Brush, Richard S; Rocha-Hopiavuori, Nicole A; Hopiavuori, Austin R; Ozan, Kathryn G; Sullivan, Michael T; Wren, Jonathan D; Georgescu, Constantin; Szweda, Luke; Awasthi, Vibhudutta; Towner, Rheal; Sherry, David M; Anderson, Robert E; Agbaga, Martin-Paul

    2018-02-01

    Lipids are essential components of the nervous system. However, the functions of very long-chain fatty acids (VLC-FA; ≥ 28 carbons) in the brain are unknown. The enzyme ELOngation of Very Long-chain fatty acids-4 (ELOVL4) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of VLC-FA (Agbaga et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105(35): 12843-12848, 2008; Logan et al., J Lipid Res 55(4): 698-708, 2014), which we identified in the brain as saturated fatty acids (VLC-SFA). Homozygous mutations in ELOVL4 cause severe neuropathology in humans (Ozaki et al., JAMA Neurol 72(7): 797-805, 2015; Mir et al., BMC Med Genet 15: 25, 2014; Cadieux-Dion et al., JAMA Neurol 71(4): 470-475, 2014; Bourassa et al., JAMA Neurol 72(8): 942-943, 2015; Aldahmesh et al., Am J Hum Genet 89(6): 745-750, 2011) and are post-natal lethal in mice (Cameron et al., Int J Biol Sci 3(2): 111-119, 2007; Li et al., Int J Biol Sci 3(2): 120-128, 2007; McMahon et al., Molecular Vision 13: 258-272, 2007; Vasireddy et al., Hum Mol Genet 16(5): 471-482, 2007) from dehydration due to loss of VLC-SFA that comprise the skin permeability barrier. Double transgenic mice with homozygous knock-in of the Stargardt-like macular dystrophy (STDG3; 797-801_AACTT) mutation of Elovl4 with skin-specific rescue of wild-type Elovl4 expression (S + Elovl4 mut/mut mice) develop seizures by P19 and die by P21. Electrophysiological analyses of hippocampal slices showed aberrant epileptogenic activity in S + Elovl4 mut/mut mice. FM1-43 dye release studies showed that synapses made by cultured hippocampal neurons from S + Elovl4 mut/mut mice exhibited accelerated synaptic release kinetics. Supplementation of VLC-SFA to cultured hippocampal neurons from mutant mice rescued defective synaptic release to wild-type rates. Together, these studies establish a critical, novel role for ELOVL4 and its VLC-SFA products in regulating synaptic release kinetics and epileptogenesis. Future studies aimed at understanding the molecular

  5. Curcumin and long-chain Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids for Prevention of type 2 Diabetes (COP-D): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

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    Thota, Rohith N; Acharya, Shamasunder H; Abbott, Kylie A; Garg, Manohar L

    2016-11-29

    Lifestyle interventions, including increase in physical activity and dietary counselling, have shown the ability to prevent type 2 diabetes (T2D) in high-risk state individuals, but the prevalence is still skyrocketing in Australia, in line with global prevalence. Currently, no medicines are approved by the Therapeutic Goods Administration in Australia for the management of prediabetes. Therefore, there is a need of developing a safer, biologically efficacious and cost-effective alternative for delaying the transition of individual health state from prediabetes into T2D. In the current trial we propose to evaluate the effects of curcumin and/or long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on improving glycosylated haemoglobin as a primary outcome, along with secondary outcomes of glycaemic indices, lipid profile and inflammatory parameters. Eighty individuals diagnosed with prediabetes, aged between 30 and 70 years, will be randomly assigned to double placebo, curcumin alone, fish oil alone or double active groups according to a computer-generated randomisation sequence for 12 weeks. At baseline and post-intervention visits participants will be asked to provide blood samples and undergo body composition measurements. A blood sample is used for estimating glycaemic profiles, lipid profiles and inflammatory parameters (C-reactive protein, whole blood cell count, adiponectin, leptin, interleukin-6). The interim visit includes review on compliance with supplements based on capsule log and capsule count, adverse events and anthropometric measurements. In addition to these procedures, participants provide self-reported questionnaires on dietary intake (using a 3-day food record), a physical activity questionnaire and medical history. This trial aims to determine whether curcumin and/or long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids affect surrogate markers of glycaemic control which is relevant to delaying T2D. To date 38 participants completed the trial. No changes

  6. The change in cholesterol content of long chain fatty acid egg during processing and its influence to the Rattus norvegicus L. blood cholesterol content

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    Dini Hardini

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Egg containing long chain unsaturated fatty acids is a functional food, because it is highly nutritious and could prevent diseases, (omega 3 and 6 such as coronary heart attack. The research was aimed to measure the change of egg cholesterol content during proceesing: frying, oiless frying and boiling and their influence to the blood plasma cholesterol of normal and hypercholesterolemia rat. Seven treatments of egg yolk were frying at 170°C for 3 min (welldone = GM, and 1min (half medium fried = GSM using deep fryer , oilless frying at 70°C for10 min (fried = TM, and 6 min (half fried = TSM using Teflon pan, and boiling at 100°C for 10’ (boiled = RM dan 4 min (half boiled = RSM using pan provided with thermoregulator and a fresh omega egg as a control. The Completely randomized design was apllied for 4 weeks research period. The data from different treatments were analyzed by Orthogonal Contrast. Fifty 2 months old male rats Rattus norvegicus L. separated in 2 groups; normal and hypercholesterolemia (blood cholesterol > 200 mg dl-1. The rats were placed in individual cage, fed 15 g h-1 day-1 and water drinking ad libitum. The ration was composed of 90% basal commercial feed BR II and 10% egg yolk was given to each animal at 20% of live weight. Factorial 2 x 7 of completely randomized design was applied. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. Processsing method of egg affected to cholesterol content of egg, The lowest and the highest cholesterol contents were observed in TSM (0.30 g/100g and GM (0.37 g/100g, respectively. Biological test using Rattus norvegicus L rat showed that either fresh and processed long chain fatty acid egg decreased plasma cholesterol. The highest and the lowest decreases of cholesterol content were found in the group consumed RSM (8.64% and GM (1.77% for normal rat; and control (46.3% followed by RSM (44.53% and GM (24.86%, respectively. To maintain normal cholesterol and decrease

  7. Investigation of Lipid Metabolism by a New Structured Lipid with Medium- and Long-Chain Triacylglycerols from Cinnamomum camphora Seed Oil in Healthy C57BL/6J Mice.

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    Hu, Jiang-Ning; Shen, Jin-Rong; Xiong, Chao-Yue; Zhu, Xue-Mei; Deng, Ze-Yuan

    2018-02-28

    In the present study, a new structured lipid with medium- and long-chain triacylglycerols (MLCTs) was synthesized from camellia oil (CO) and Cinnamomum camphora seed oil (CCSO) by enzymatic interesterification. Meanwhile, the antiobesity effects of structured lipid were investigated through observing the changes of enzymes related to lipid mobilization in healthy C57BL/6J mice. Results showed that after synthesis, the major triacylgeride (TAG) species of intesterificated product changed to LaCC/CLaC (12.6 ± 0.46%), LaCO/LCL (21.7 ± 0.76%), CCO/LaCL (14.2 ± 0.55%), COO/OCO (10.8 ± 0.43%), and OOO (18.6 ± 0.64%). Through second-stage molecular distillation, the purity of interesterified product (MLCT) achieved 95.6%. Later, male C57BL/6J mice were applied to study whether the new structured lipid with MLCT has the efficacy of preventing the formation of obesity or not. After feeding with different diets for 6 weeks, MLCTs could reduce body weight and fat deposition in adipose tissue, lower plasma triacylglycerols (TG) (0.89 ± 0.16 mmol/L), plasma total cholesterol (TC) (4.03 ± 0.08 mmol/L), and hepatic lipids (382 ± 34.2 mg/mice) by 28.8%, 16.0%, and 30.5%, respectively, when compared to the control 2 group. This was also accompanied by increasing fecal lipids (113%) and the level of enzymes including cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), protein kinase A (PKA), hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), and adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) related to lipid mobilization in MLCT group. From the results, it can be concluded that MLCT reduced body fat deposition probably by modulating enzymes related to lipid mobilization in C57BL/6J mice.

  8. Differential effect of maternal diet supplementation with α-Linolenic adcid or n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on glial cell phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylserine fatty acid profile in neonate rat brains

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    Cruz-Hernandez Cristina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA are of crucial importance for the development of neural tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a dietary supplementation in n-3 fatty acids in female rats during gestation and lactation on fatty acid pattern in brain glial cells phosphatidylethanolamine (PE and phosphatidylserine (PS in the neonates. Methods Sprague-Dawley rats were fed during the whole gestation and lactation period with a diet containing either docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 0.55% and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 0.75% of total fatty acids or α-linolenic acid (ALA, 2.90%. At two weeks of age, gastric content and brain glial cell PE and PS of rat neonates were analyzed for their fatty acid and dimethylacetal (DMA profile. Data were analyzed by bivariate and multivariate statistics. Results In the neonates from the group fed with n-3 LC-PUFA, the DHA level in gastric content (+65%, P Conclusion The present study confirms that early supplementation of maternal diet with n-3 fatty acids supplied as LC-PUFA is more efficient in increasing n-3 in brain glial cell PE and PS in the neonate than ALA. Negative correlation between n-6 DPA, a conventional marker of DHA deficiency, and DMA in PE suggests n-6 DPA that potentially be considered as a marker of tissue ethanolamine plasmalogen status. The combination of multivariate and bivariate statistics allowed to underline that the accretion pattern of n-3 LC-PUFA in PE and PS differ.

  9. Conversion of α-linolenic acid to long-chain omega-3 fatty acid derivatives and alterations of HDL density subfractions and plasma lipids with dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids in Monk parrots (Myiopsitta monachus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzinger, C; Larner, C; Heatley, J J; Bailey, C A; MacFarlane, R D; Bauer, J E

    2014-04-01

    The effect of α-linolenic acid from a flaxseed (FLX)-enriched diet on plasma lipid and fatty acid metabolism and possible atherosclerosis risk factors was studied in Monk parrots (Myiopsitta monachus). Twenty-four Monk parrots were randomly assigned to diets containing either 10% ground SUNs or 10% ground FLXs. Feed intake was calculated daily. Blood samples, body condition scores and body weights were obtained at -5 weeks, day 0, 7, 14, 28, 42 and 70. Plasma samples were analysed for total cholesterol, free cholesterol, triacylglycerols and lipoproteins. Phospholipid subfraction fatty acid profiles were determined. By day 70, the FLX group had significantly higher plasma phospholipid fatty acids including 18:3n-3 (α-linolenic acid), 20:5n-3 (eicosapentaenoic acid) and 22:6n-3 (docosahexaenoic acid). The sunflower group had significantly higher plasma phospholipid levels of 20:4n-6 (arachidonic acid). By day 70, the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) peak shifted resulting in significantly different HDL peak densities between the two experimental groups (1.097 g/ml FLX group and 1.095 g/ml SUN group, p = 0.028). The plasma fatty acid results indicate that Monk parrots can readily convert α-linolenic acid to the long-chain omega-3 derivatives including docosahexaenoic acid and reduce 20:4n-6 accumulation in plasma phospholipids. The reason for a shift in the HDL peak density is unknown at this time. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Structured triglycerides versus physical mixtures of medium- and long-chain triglycerides for parenteral nutrition in surgical or critically ill adult patients: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guo Hao; Zaniolo, Orietta; Schuster, Heidi; Schlotzer, Ewald; Pradelli, Lorenzo

    2017-02-01

    New generations of parenteral lipid emulsions combine Long Chain Triglycerides (LCTs) with Medium Chain Triglycerides (MCTs) either by physically mixing MCT- and LCT-containing oils or by using synthetically structured triglycerides (STGs). In order to clarify some open issues relating to their comparative effect, in particular in terms of clinical outcomes, pertinent evidence was systematically identified, reviewed and meta-analyzed. PubMed, Scopus, Wanfang Data, China Hospital Knowledge Database and Google Scholar were searched for published clinical trials comparing STGs vs. MCTs/LCTs PN regimens administered over 5-7 days in surgical and/or critically ill patients. Two independent investigators performed screening and data extraction using a predefined list of parameters. Data were pooled using RevMan ® 5.2. Quality of evidence was assessed according to Cochrane's risk of bias tool. Pre-specified high quality (HQ), incremental analyses and a post hoc subgroup analysis were performed. 21 studies were included. The meta-analysis revealed a significantly better cumulative nitrogen balance (Std. mean difference [95% CI]) (1.34 [0.98-1.7], p triglycerides were significantly lower (-0.28 mmol/L [-0.41 to -0.15], p triglyceride elimination. With regard to clinical outcomes a strong trend towards reduced LOS was observed for STG patients. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Long-chain bases and their phosphorylated derivatives differentially regulate cryptogein-induced production of reactive oxygen species in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) BY-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coursol, Sylvie; Fromentin, Jérôme; Noirot, Elodie; Brière, Christian; Robert, Franck; Morel, Johanne; Liang, Yun-Kuan; Lherminier, Jeannine; Simon-Plas, Françoise

    2015-02-01

    The proteinaceous elicitor cryptogein triggers defence reactions in Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) through a signalling cascade, including the early production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by the plasma membrane (PM)-located tobacco respiratory burst oxidase homologue D (NtRbohD). Sphingolipid long-chain bases (LCBs) are emerging as potent positive regulators of plant defence-related mechanisms. This led us to question whether both LCBs and their phosphorylated derivatives (LCB-Ps) are involved in the early signalling process triggered by cryptogein in tobacco BY-2 cells. Here, we showed that cryptogein-induced ROS production was inhibited by LCB kinase (LCBK) inhibitors. Additionally, Arabidopsis thaliana sphingosine kinase 1 and exogenously supplied LCB-Ps increased cryptogein-induced ROS production, whereas exogenously supplied LCBs had a strong opposite effect, which was not driven by a reduction in cellular viability. Immunogold-electron microscopy assay also revealed that LCB-Ps are present in the PM, which fits well with the presence of a high LCBK activity associated with this fraction. Our data demonstrate that LCBs and LCB-Ps differentially regulate cryptogein-induced ROS production in tobacco BY-2 cells, and support a model in which a cooperative synergism between LCBK/LCB-Ps and NtRbohD/ROS in the cryptogein signalling pathway is likely at the PM in tobacco BY-2 cells. © 2014 INRA New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. Long chain fatty acids and related pro-inflammatory, specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators and their intermediates in preterm human milk during the first month of lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, D T; Palac, H L; Baillif, V; Van Goethem, E; Dubourdeau, M; Van Horn, L; Martin, C R

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to measure longitudinal quantities of the long chain fatty acids, their biologically active terminal metabolites and related intermediates (also called oxylipins) in preterm human milk expressed during the first month of lactation. In a prospective cohort, breast milk was collected throughout the first month of lactation in 30 women who delivered preterm infants. Eighteen bioactive lipids and their intermediates were quantified via solid phase extraction and LC-MS/MS. Analysis by GC-FID quantified the fatty acid precursors. Arachidonic acid (ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) milk concentrations significantly declined throughout the first month. Oxylipin concentrations did not change during lactation. Positive associations existed between ARA and thromboxane B2, eicosapentaenoic acid and 18-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid, and between DHA and PDX and 14- and 17-hydroxydocosahexaenoic acids. DHA concentrations were 1.5 times higher and 14-HDHA was 1.7 times higher in milk from women taking DHA supplements. This investigation showed conditionally essential fatty acids, ARA and DHA, decreased in preterm milk, suggesting a need to supplement their intake for the breast milk-fed preterm infant. Positive associations between parent fatty acids, bioactive lipids and intermediates, as well as sensitivity of milk to maternal fatty acid intake, support consideration of a comprehensive approach to providing fatty acids for preterm infants through both maternal and infant supplementation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Lipopolysaccharide Lipid A Long-Chain Fatty Acid Is Important for Rhizobium leguminosarum Growth and Stress Adaptation in Free-Living and Nodule Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourassa, Dianna V; Kannenberg, Elmar L; Sherrier, D Janine; Buhr, R Jeffrey; Carlson, Russell W

    2017-02-01

    Rhizobium bacteria live in soil and plant environments, are capable of inducing symbiotic nodules on legumes, invade these nodules, and develop into bacteroids that fix atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia. Rhizobial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is anchored in the bacterial outer membrane through a specialized lipid A containing a very long-chain fatty acid (VLCFA). VLCFA function for rhizobial growth in soil and plant environments is not well understood. Two genes, acpXL and lpxXL, encoding acyl carrier protein and acyltransferase, are among the six genes required for biosynthesis and transfer of VLCFA to lipid A. Rhizobium leguminosarum mutant strains acpXL, acpXL - /lpxXL - , and lpxXL - were examined for LPS structure, viability, and symbiosis. Mutations in acpXL and lpxXL abolished VLCFA attachment to lipid A. The acpXL mutant transferred a shorter acyl chain instead of VLCFA. Strains without lpxXL neither added VLCFA nor a shorter acyl chain. In all strains isolated from nodule bacteria, lipid A had longer acyl chains compared with laboratory-cultured bacteria, whereas mutant strains displayed altered membrane properties, modified cationic peptide sensitivity, and diminished levels of cyclic β-glucans. In pea nodules, mutant bacteroids were atypically formed and nitrogen fixation and senescence were affected. The role of VLCFA for rhizobial environmental fitness is discussed.

  14. Changes in cholesterol homeostasis modify the response of F1B hamsters to dietary very long chain n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rader Daniel J

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The plasma lipoprotein response of F1B Golden-Syrian hamsters fed diets high in very long chain (VLC n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA is paradoxical to that observed in humans. This anomaly is attributed, in part, to low lipoprotein lipase activity and is dependent on cholesterol status. To further elucidate the mechanism(s for these responses, hamsters were fed diets containing supplemental fish oil (VLC n-3 PUFA or safflower oil (n-6 PUFA (both 10% [w/w] and either cholesterol-supplemented (0.1% cholesterol [w/w] or cholesterol-depleted (0.01% cholesterol [w/w] and 10 days prior to killing fed 0.15% lovastatin+2% cholestyramine [w/w]. Results Cholesterol-supplemented hamsters fed fish oil, relative to safflower oil, had higher non-high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations (P Conclusion These data suggest disturbing cholesterol homeostasis in F1B hamsters alters their response to dietary fatty acids, which is reflected in altered plasma lipoprotein patterns and regulation of genes associated with their metabolism.

  15. Long-chain n-3 PUFAs from fish oil enhance resting state brain glucose utilization and reduce anxiety in an adult nonhuman primate, the grey mouse lemur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pifferi, Fabien; Dorieux, Olène; Castellano, Christian-Alexandre; Croteau, Etienne; Masson, Marie; Guillermier, Martine; Van Camp, Nadja; Guesnet, Philippe; Alessandri, Jean-Marc; Cunnane, Stephen; Dhenain, Marc; Aujard, Fabienne

    2015-08-01

    Decreased brain content of DHA, the most abundant long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LCPUFA) in the brain, is accompanied by severe neurosensorial impairments linked to impaired neurotransmission and impaired brain glucose utilization. In the present study, we hypothesized that increasing n-3 LCPUFA intake at an early age may help to prevent or correct the glucose hypometabolism observed during aging and age-related cognitive decline. The effects of 12 months' supplementation with n-3 LCPUFA on brain glucose utilization assessed by positron emission tomography was tested in young adult mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus). Cognitive function was tested in parallel in the same animals. Lemurs supplemented with n-3 LCPUFA had higher brain glucose uptake and cerebral metabolic rate of glucose compared with controls in all brain regions. The n-3 LCPUFA-supplemented animals also had higher exploratory activity in an open-field task and lower evidence of anxiety in the Barnes maze. Our results demonstrate for the first time in a nonhuman primate that n-3 LCPUFA supplementation increases brain glucose uptake and metabolism and concomitantly reduces anxiety. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Effects of molecular and lattice structure on the thermal behaviours of some long chain length potassium(I) n-alkanoates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Peter N.; Ellis, Henry A.; Taylor, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Lattice structures and thermal behaviours for some long chain potassium carboxylates (nc = 8-18, inclusive) are investigated using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, X-ray Powder Diffraction, Solid State spin decoupled 13C NMR spectroscopy, Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Thermogravimetry. The measurements show that the carboxyl groups are coordinated to potassium atoms via asymmetric chelating bidentate bonding, with extensive carboxyl intermolecular interactions to yield tetrahedral metal centers, irrespective of chain length. Furthermore, the hydrocarbon chains are crystallized in the fully extended all-trans configuration and are arranged as non-overlapping lamellar bilayer structures with closely packed methyl groups from opposite layers. Additionally, odd-even alternation, observed in density and methyl group chemical shift, is ascribed to the relative vertical distances between layers in the bilayer, that are not in the same plane. Therefore, for even chain homologues, where this distances is less than for odd chain adducts, more intimate packing is indicated. The phase sequences for all compounds show several reversible crystal-crystal transition associated with kinetically controlled gauche-trans isomerism of the polymethylene chains which undergo incomplete fusion when heated to the melt. The compounds degrade above 785 K to yield carbon dioxide, water, potassium oxide and an alkene.

  17. Effects of alkalinity and salinity at low and high light intensity on hydrogen isotope fractionation of long-chain alkenones produced by Emiliania huxleyi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Weiss

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, hydrogen isotopes of long-chain alkenones have been shown to be a promising proxy for reconstructing paleo sea surface salinity due to a strong hydrogen isotope fractionation response to salinity across different environmental conditions. However, to date, the decoupling of the effects of alkalinity and salinity, parameters that co-vary in the surface ocean, on hydrogen isotope fractionation of alkenones has not been assessed. Furthermore, as the alkenone-producing haptophyte, Emiliania huxleyi, is known to grow in large blooms under high light intensities, the effect of salinity on hydrogen isotope fractionation under these high irradiances is important to constrain before using δDC37 to reconstruct paleosalinity. Batch cultures of the marine haptophyte E. huxleyi strain CCMP 1516 were grown to investigate the hydrogen isotope fractionation response to salinity at high light intensity and independently assess the effects of salinity and alkalinity under low-light conditions. Our results suggest that alkalinity does not significantly influence hydrogen isotope fractionation of alkenones, but salinity does have a strong effect. Additionally, no significant difference was observed between the fractionation responses to salinity recorded in alkenones grown under both high- and low-light conditions. Comparison with previous studies suggests that the fractionation response to salinity in culture is similar under different environmental conditions, strengthening the use of hydrogen isotope fractionation as a paleosalinity proxy.

  18. Effects of alkalinity and salinity at low and high light intensity on hydrogen isotope fractionation of long-chain alkenones produced by Emiliania huxleyi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Gabriella M.; Pfannerstill, Eva Y.; Schouten, Stefan; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; van der Meer, Marcel T. J.

    2017-12-01

    Over the last decade, hydrogen isotopes of long-chain alkenones have been shown to be a promising proxy for reconstructing paleo sea surface salinity due to a strong hydrogen isotope fractionation response to salinity across different environmental conditions. However, to date, the decoupling of the effects of alkalinity and salinity, parameters that co-vary in the surface ocean, on hydrogen isotope fractionation of alkenones has not been assessed. Furthermore, as the alkenone-producing haptophyte, Emiliania huxleyi, is known to grow in large blooms under high light intensities, the effect of salinity on hydrogen isotope fractionation under these high irradiances is important to constrain before using δDC37 to reconstruct paleosalinity. Batch cultures of the marine haptophyte E. huxleyi strain CCMP 1516 were grown to investigate the hydrogen isotope fractionation response to salinity at high light intensity and independently assess the effects of salinity and alkalinity under low-light conditions. Our results suggest that alkalinity does not significantly influence hydrogen isotope fractionation of alkenones, but salinity does have a strong effect. Additionally, no significant difference was observed between the fractionation responses to salinity recorded in alkenones grown under both high- and low-light conditions. Comparison with previous studies suggests that the fractionation response to salinity in culture is similar under different environmental conditions, strengthening the use of hydrogen isotope fractionation as a paleosalinity proxy.

  19. A Simple Method for the Detection of Long-Chain Fatty Acids in an Anaerobic Digestate Using a Quartz Crystal Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuro Kobayashi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In anaerobic digestion (AD, long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs produced by hydrolysis of lipids, exhibit toxicity against microorganisms when their concentration exceeds several millimolar. An absorption detection system using a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM was developed to monitor the LCFA concentration during an anaerobic digester’s operation treating oily organic waste. The dissociation of the LCFAs considerably improved the sensor response and, moreover, enabled it to specifically detect LCFA from the mixture of LCFA and triglyceride. Under alkaline conditions, the frequency-shift rates of the QCM sensor linearly increased in accordance with palmitic acid concentration in the range of 0–100 mg/L. Frequency changes caused by anaerobic digestate samples were successfully measured after removing suspended solids and adjusting the pH to 10.7. Finally, the QCM measurements for digestate samples demonstrated that frequency-shift rates are highly correlated with LCFA concentrations, which confirmed that the newly developed QCM sensor is helpful for LCFA monitoring in terms of rapidness and usability.

  20. COMPARISON OF PHYSICAL STABILITY PROPERTIES OF POMEGRANATE SEED OIL NANOEMULSION DOSAGE FORMS WITH LONG-CHAIN TRIGLYCERIDE AND MEDIUM-CHAIN TRIGLYCERIDE AS THE OIL PHASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Hartanti Yuliani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Pomegranate seed oil has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and chemo preventive activities. Pomegranate seed oil is lipophilic substance suitable to be prepared in emulsion dosage forms. Long-chain triglyceride (LCT and medium-chain triglyceride (MCT are commonly used as oil phase in emulsion dosage forms. This research aimed to compare the use of LCT and MCT in the Nano emulsion formula of pomegranate seed oil dosage forms. Formulation of pomegranate seed oil Nano emulsion was conducted using high energy emulsification. Parameters observed were pH, Nano emulsion type, percent transmittance, viscosity, turbidity, and droplet size before and after 3 cycles of freeze-thaw. The result showed that there was no significant difference between physical properties of pomegranate oil Nano emulsion with LCT as oil phase and pomegranate oil Nano emulsion with MCT as oil phase. Moreover, physical stability of pomegranate oil Nano emulsion with LCT as oil phase was better than pomegranate oil Nano emulsion with MCT as oil phase.

  1. MRI study of the cuprizone-induced mouse model of multiple sclerosis: demyelination is not found after co-treatment with polyprenols (long-chain isoprenoid alcohols)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodanovich, M.; Glazacheva, V.; Pan, E.; Akulov, A.; Krutenkova, E.; Trusov, V.; Yarnykh, V.

    2016-02-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a neurological disorder with poorly understood pathogenic mechanisms and a lack of effective therapies. Therefore, the search for new MS treatments remains very important. This study was performed on a commonly used cuprizone animal model of multiple sclerosis. It evaluated the effect of a plant-derived substance called Ropren® (containing approximately 95% polyprenols or long-chain isoprenoid alcohols) on cuprizone- induced demyelination. The study was performed on 27 eight-week old male CD-1 mice. To induce demyelination mice were fed 0.5% cuprizone in the standard diet for 10 weeks. Ropren® was administered in one daily intraperitoneal injection (12mg/kg), beginning on the 6th week of the experiment. On the 11th week, the corpus callosum in the brain was evaluated in all animals using magnetic resonance imaging with an 11.7 T animal scanner using T2- weighted sequence. Cuprizone treatment successfully induced the model of demyelination with a significant decrease in the size of the corpus callosum compared with the control group (p<0.01). Mice treated with both cuprizone and Ropren® did not exhibit demyelination in the corpus callosum (p<0.01). This shows the positive effect of polyprenols on cuprizone-induced demyelination in mice.

  2. Extra virgin olive oil reduces liver oxidative stress and tissue depletion of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids produced by a high saturated fat diet in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valenzuela, B.R.; Hernandez Rodas, M.C.; Espinosa, A.; Rincon Cervera, M.A.; Romero, N.; Barrera Vazquez, C.; Marambio, M.; Vivero, J.; Valenzuela, B.A.

    2016-07-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) which are synthesized mainly in the liver have relevant functions in the organism. A diet high in fat (HFD) generates an increase in the levels of fat and induces oxidative stress (lipo-peroxidation) in the liver, along with a reduction in tissue n-3 and n-6 LCPUFA. Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is rich in anti-oxidants (polyphenols and tocopherols) which help to prevent the development of oxidative stress. This study evaluated the role of EVOO in preventing the induction of fat deposition and oxidative stress in the liver and in the depletion of LCPUFA in the liver, erythrocytes and brain generated by a HFD in C57BL/6J mice. Four experimental groups (n = 10/group) were fed a control diet (CD) or a HFD for 12 weeks and were respectively supplemented with EVOO (100 mg/day). The group fed HFD showed a significant increase (p < 0.05) in fat accumulation and oxidative stress in the liver, accompanied by a reduction in the levels of n-3 and n-6 LCPUFA in the liver, erythrocytes and brain. Supplementation with EVOO mitigated the increase in fat and oxidative stress produced by HFD in the liver, along with a normalization of LCPUFA levels in the liver, erythrocytes and brain. It is proposed that EVOO supplementation protects against fat accumulation, and oxidative stress and normalizes n-3 and n-6 LCPUFA depletion induced in mice fed a HFD. (Author)

  3. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) from genesis to senescence: the influence of LCPUFA on neural development, aging, and neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Carola I F; Kiliaan, Amanda J

    2014-01-01

    Many clinical and animal studies demonstrate the importance of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) in neural development and neurodegeneration. This review will focus on involvement of LCPUFA from genesis to senescence. The LCPUFA docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid are important components of neuronal membranes, while eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and arachidonic acid also affect cardiovascular health and inflammation. In neural development, LCPUFA deficiency can lead to severe disorders like schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Perinatal LCPUFA supplementation demonstrated beneficial effects in neural development in humans and rodents resulting in improved cognition and sensorimotor integration. In normal aging, the effect of LCPUFA on prevention of cognitive impairment will be discussed. LCPUFA are important for neuronal membrane integrity and function, and also contribute in prevention of brain hypoperfusion. Cerebral perfusion can be compromised as result of obesity, cerebrovascular disease, hypertension, or diabetes mellitus type 2. Last, we will focus on the role of LCPUFA in most common neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. These disorders are characterized by impaired cognition and connectivity and both clinical and animal supplementation studies have shown the potential of LCPUFA to decrease neurodegeneration and inflammation. This review shows that LCPUFA are essential throughout life. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. SIRT3 and SIRT5 regulate the enzyme activity and cardiolipin binding of very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxun Zhang

    Full Text Available SIRT3 and SIRT5 have been shown to regulate mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation but the molecular mechanisms behind the regulation are lacking. Here, we demonstrate that SIRT3 and SIRT5 both target human very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD, a key fatty acid oxidation enzyme. SIRT3 deacetylates and SIRT5 desuccinylates K299 which serves to stabilize the essential FAD cofactor in the active site. Further, we show that VLCAD binds strongly to cardiolipin and isolated mitochondrial membranes via a domain near the C-terminus containing lysines K482, K492, and K507. Acetylation or succinylation of these residues eliminates binding of VLCAD to cardiolipin. SIRT3 deacetylates K507 while SIRT5 desuccinylates K482, K492, and K507. Sirtuin deacylation of recombinant VLCAD rescues membrane binding. Endogenous VLCAD from SIRT3 and SIRT5 knockout mouse liver shows reduced binding to cardiolipin. Thus, SIRT3 and SIRT5 promote fatty acid oxidation by converging upon VLCAD to promote its activity and membrane localization. Regulation of cardiolipin binding by reversible lysine acylation is a novel mechanism that is predicted to extrapolate to other metabolic proteins that localize to the inner mitochondrial membrane.

  5. Inhibition of serine palmitoyltransferase in vitro and long-chain base biosynthesis in intact Chinese hamster ovary cells by β-Cl-alanine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medlock, K.A.; Merrill, A.H. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT) is a pyridoxal-5'-phosphate dependent enzyme that catalyzes the first committed step of long-chain base (LCB) synthesis. Inhibition of SPT activity and de novo biosynthesis of sphinganine and sphingosine was observed in vitro and in intact Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO). In vitro studies revealed that inhibition was irreversible and concentration- and time-dependent, which are characteristics of suicide inhibition. Incubation of intact CHO cells with 5 mM β-Cl-alanine for 15 min completely inhibited SPT activity and LCB synthesis from [ 14 C]serine. The concentration dependences of inhibition of SPT activity and LCB formation were identical. There was no loss of viability of recovery of SPT activity over the 2 hour time course of these experiments. The synthesis of several other lipids was not affected by the same treatment. These results establish the association between the activity of SPT and the cellular rate of LCB formation and indicate that β-Cl-alanine can be used to study alterations in cellular LCB synthesis

  6. Long-Chain Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Have Developmental Effects on the Crop Pest, the Cabbage White Butterfly Pieris rapae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie M Hixson

    Full Text Available Nutritional enhancement of crops using genetic engineering can potentially affect herbivorous pests. Recently, oilseed crops have been genetically engineered to produce the long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA at levels similar to that found in fish oil; to provide a more sustainable source of these compounds than is currently available from wild fish capture. We examined some of the growth and development impacts of adding EPA and DHA to an artificial diet of Pieris rapae, a common pest of Brassicaceae plants. We replaced 1% canola oil with EPA: DHA (11:7 ratio in larval diets, and examined morphological traits and growth of larvae and ensuing adults across 5 dietary treatments. Diets containing increasing amounts of EPA and DHA did not affect developmental phenology, larval or pupal weight, food consumption, nor larval mortality. However, the addition of EPA and DHA in larval diets resulted in progressively heavier adults (F 4, 108 = 6.78; p = 0.011, with smaller wings (p < 0.05 and a higher frequency of wing deformities (R = 0.988; p = 0.001. We conclude that the presence of EPA and DHA in diets of larval P. rapae may alter adult mass and wing morphology; therefore, further research on the environmental impacts of EPA and DHA production on terrestrial biota is advisable.

  7. DHA-Containing Oilseed: A Timely Solution for the Sustainability Issues Surrounding Fish Oil Sources of the Health-Benefitting Long-Chain Omega-3 Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitessa, Soressa M.; Abeywardena, Mahinda; Wijesundera, Chakra; Nichols, Peter D.

    2014-01-01

    Benefits of long-chain (≥C20) omega-3 oils (LC omega-3 oils) for reduction of the risk of a range of disorders are well documented. The benefits result from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); optimal intake levels of these bioactive fatty acids for maintenance of normal health and prevention of diseases have been developed and adopted by national and international health agencies and science bodies. These developments have led to increased consumer demand for LC omega-3 oils and, coupled with increasing global population, will impact on future sustainable supply of fish. Seafood supply from aquaculture has risen over the past decades and it relies on harvest of wild catch fisheries also for its fish oil needs. Alternate sources of LC omega-3 oils are being pursued, including genetically modified soybean rich in shorter-chain stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4ω3). However, neither oils from traditional oilseeds such as linseed, nor the SDA soybean oil have shown efficient conversion to DHA. A recent breakthrough has seen the demonstration of a land plant-based oil enriched in DHA, and with omega-6 PUFA levels close to that occurring in marine sources of EPA and DHA. We review alternative sources of DHA supply with emphasis on the need for land plant oils containing EPA and DHA. PMID:24858407

  8. Thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge with grease waste: Effect of long chain fatty acids in the methane yield and its dewatering properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvestre, G.; Illa, J.; Fernández, B.; Bonmatí, A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermophilic anaerobic codigestion of sewage sludge and grease waste (GW) doubles methane yield. • High GW doses in the influent leads to instability and LCFA accumulation in the effluent. • GW addition promotes acetoclastic activity whilst worsening the hydrogenothrophic activity. • The mesophilic codigestion with GW performs better than the thermophilic one. - Abstract: Thermophilic co-digestion of sewage sludge with three different doses of trapped grease waste (GW) from the pre-treatment of a WWTP has been assessed in a CSTR bench-scale reactor. After adding 12% and 27% of grease waste (on COD basis), the organic loading rate increased from 2.2 to 2.3 and 2.8 kg COD m −3 d −1 respectively, and the methane yield increased 1.2 and 2.2 times. Further GW increase (37% on COD basis) resulted in an unstable methane yield and in long chain fatty acids (LCFA) accumulation. Although this inestability, the presence of volatile fatty acids in the effluent was negligible, showing good adaptation to fats of the thermophilic biomass. Nevertheless, the presence of LCFA in the effluent worsens its dewatering properties. Specific methanogenic activity tests showed that the addition of grease waste ameliorates the acetoclastic activity in detriment of the hydrogenotrophic activity, and suggests that the tolerance to LCFA can be further enhanced by slowly increasing the addition of lipid-rich materials

  9. DHA-Containing Oilseed: A Timely Solution for the Sustainability Issues Surrounding Fish Oil Sources of the Health-Benefitting Long-Chain Omega-3 Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soressa M. Kitessa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Benefits of long-chain (≥C20 omega-3 oils (LC omega-3 oils for reduction of the risk of a range of disorders are well documented. The benefits result from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; optimal intake levels of these bioactive fatty acids for maintenance of normal health and prevention of diseases have been developed and adopted by national and international health agencies and science bodies. These developments have led to increased consumer demand for LC omega-3 oils and, coupled with increasing global population, will impact on future sustainable supply of fish. Seafood supply from aquaculture has risen over the past decades and it relies on harvest of wild catch fisheries also for its fish oil needs. Alternate sources of LC omega-3 oils are being pursued, including genetically modified soybean rich in shorter-chain stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4ω3. However, neither oils from traditional oilseeds such as linseed, nor the SDA soybean oil have shown efficient conversion to DHA. A recent breakthrough has seen the demonstration of a land plant-based oil enriched in DHA, and with omega-6 PUFA levels close to that occurring in marine sources of EPA and DHA. We review alternative sources of DHA supply with emphasis on the need for land plant oils containing EPA and DHA.

  10. Readily Available Sources of Long-Chain Omega-3 Oils: Is Farmed Australian Seafood a Better Source of the Good Oil than Wild-Caught Seafood?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter D. Nichols

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Seafood consumption enhances intake of omega-3 long-chain (≥C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids (termed LC omega-3 oils. Humans biosynthesize only small amounts of LC-omega-3, so they are considered semi-essential nutrients in our diet. Concern has been raised that farmed fish now contain lower LC omega-3 content than wild-harvested seafood due to the use of oil blending in diets fed to farmed fish. However, we observed that two major Australian farmed finfish species, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar and barramundi (Lates calcifer, have higher oil and LC omega-3 content than the same or other species from the wild, and remain an excellent means to achieve substantial intake of LC omega-3 oils. Notwithstanding, LC omega-3 oil content has decreased in these two farmed species, due largely to replacing dietary fish oil with poultry oil. For Atlantic salmon, LC omega-3 content decreased ~30%–50% between 2002 and 2013, and the omega-3/omega-6 ratio also decreased (>5:1 to <1:1. Australian consumers increasingly seek their LC omega-3 from supplements, therefore a range of supplement products were compared. The development and future application of oilseeds containing LC omega-3 oils and their incorporation in aquafeeds would allow these health-benefitting oils to be maximized in farmed Australian seafood. Such advances can assist with preventative health care, fisheries management, aquaculture nutrition, an innovative feed/food industry and ultimately towards improved consumer health.

  11. Diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 of Mortierella alpina with specificity on long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids: A potential tool for reconstituting lipids with nutritional value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeennor, Sukanya; Veerana, Mayura; Anantayanon, Jutamas; Panchanawaporn, Sarocha; Chutrakul, Chanikul; Laoteng, Kobkul

    2017-12-10

    Based on available genome sequences and bioinformatics tools, we searched for an uncharacterized open reading frame of Mortierella alpina (MaDGAT2) using diacylglycerol acyltransferase sequence (fungal DGAT type 2B) as a query. Functional characterization of the identified native and codon-optimized M. alpina genes were then performed by heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain defective in synthesis of neutral lipid (NL). Lipid analysis of the yeast tranformant carrying MaDGAT2 showed that the NL biosynthesis and lipid particle formation were restored by the gene complementation. Substrate specificity study of the fungal enzyme by fatty acid supplementation in the transformant cultures showed that it had a broad specificity on saturated and unsaturated fatty acid substrates for esterification into triacylglycerol (TAG). The n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) with 18 and 20 carbon atoms, including linoleic acid, γ-linolenic acid, dihomo γ-linolenic and arachidonic acid could be incorporated into TAG fraction in the yeast cells. Interestingly, among n-3 PUFAs tested, the MaDGAT2 enzyme preferred eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) substrate as its highly proportional constituent found in TAG fraction. This study provides a potential genetic tool for reconstituting oils rich in long-chain PUFAs with nutritional value. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Fads1 and 2 are promoted to meet instant need for long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in goose fatty liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Rashid H; Liu, Long; Xia, Lili; Zhao, Xing; Wang, Qianqian; Sun, Xiaoxian; Zhang, Yihui; Yang, Biao; Zheng, Yun; Gong, Daoqing; Geng, Tuoyu

    2016-07-01

    Global prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) constitutes a threat to human health. Goose is a unique model of NAFLD for discovering therapeutic targets as its liver can develop severe steatosis without overt injury. Fatty acid desaturase (Fads) is a potential therapeutic target as Fads expression and mutations are associated with liver fat. Here, we hypothesized that Fads was promoted to provide a protection for goose fatty liver. To test this, goose Fads1 and Fads2 were sequenced. Fads1/2/6 expression was determined in goose liver and primary hepatocytes by quantitative PCR. Liver fatty acid composition was also analyzed by gas chromatography. Data indicated that hepatic Fads1/2/6 expression was gradually increased with the time of overfeeding. In contrast, trans-C18:1n9 fatty acid (Fads inhibitor) was reduced. However, enhanced Fads capacity for long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) synthesis was not sufficient to compensate for the depleted LC-PUFAs in goose fatty liver. Moreover, cell studies showed that Fads1/2/6 expression was regulated by fatty liver-associated factors. Together, these findings suggest Fads1/2 as protective components are promoted to meet instant need for LC-PUFAs in goose fatty liver, and we propose this is required for severe hepatic steatosis without liver injury.

  13. Degummed crude canola oil, sire breed and gender effects on intramuscular long-chain omega-3 fatty acid properties of raw and cooked lamb meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flakemore, Aaron Ross; Malau-Aduli, Bunmi Sherifat; Nichols, Peter David; Malau-Aduli, Aduli Enoch Othniel

    2017-01-01

    Omega-3 long-chain (≥C 20 ) polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3 LC-PUFA) confer important attributes to health-conscious meat consumers due to the significant role they play in brain development, prevention of coronary heart disease, obesity and hypertension. In this study, the ω3 LC-PUFA content of raw and cooked Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) muscle from genetically divergent Australian prime lambs supplemented with dietary degummed crude canola oil (DCCO) was evaluated. Samples of LTL muscle were sourced from 24 first cross ewe and wether lambs sired by Dorset, White Suffolk and Merino rams joined to Merino dams that were assigned to supplemental regimes of degummed crude canola oil (DCCO): a control diet at 0 mL/kg DM of DCCO (DCCOC); 25 mL/kg DM of DCCO (DCCOM) and 50 mL/kg DCCO (DCCOH). Lambs were individually housed and offered 1 kg/day/head for 42 days before being slaughtered. Samples for cooked analysis were prepared to a core temperature of 70 °C using conductive dry-heat. Within raw meats: DCCOH supplemented lambs had significantly ( P  culinary preparation method can be used as effective management tools to deliver nutritionally improved ω3 LC-PUFA lamb to meat consumers.

  14. Excess molar enthalpies of binary mixtures containing 2-decanone or dipentyl ether with long-chain n-alkanes at T = 298.15 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Wei-Chen; Lin, Ho-mu; Lee, Ming-Jer

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → An isothermal titration calorimeter was used for enthalpy data measurment. → The investigated systems are 2-decanone or dipentyl ether with long-chain n-alkanes. → The excess enthalpies are all positive over entire composition range. → The Patel-Teja equation of state with two parameters gives the best representation. - Abstract: Excess molar enthalpies (H E ) of binary mixtures of 2-decanone or dipentyl ether with n-alkanes, including n-dodecane, n-tetradecane, and n-hexadecane, were measured with an isothermal titration calorimeter (ITC) at T = 298.15 K under atmospheric pressure. All the measured H E values are positive over the entire range of composition, indicating that all these mixing processes are endothermic. The H E values varying with composition are found to be nearly symmetric for each binary system. It was also shown that the H E values follow the order of n-hexadecane > n-tetradecane > n-dodecane at a given composition in either the 2-decanone or dipentyl ether binary systems. An empirical Redlich-Kister equation correlated quantitatively these new H E data. The Peng-Robinson and the Patel-Teja equations of state, and the NRTL model were also applied to fit the H E results. Among these tested correlative models, the Patel-Teja equation of state with two adjustable binary interaction parameters generally yielded the best representation.

  15. DHA-containing oilseed: a timely solution for the sustainability issues surrounding fish oil sources of the health-benefitting long-chain omega-3 oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitessa, Soressa M; Abeywardena, Mahinda; Wijesundera, Chakra; Nichols, Peter D

    2014-05-22

    Benefits of long-chain (≥C20) omega-3 oils (LC omega-3 oils) for reduction of the risk of a range of disorders are well documented. The benefits result from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); optimal intake levels of these bioactive fatty acids for maintenance of normal health and prevention of diseases have been developed and adopted by national and international health agencies and science bodies. These developments have led to increased consumer demand for LC omega-3 oils and, coupled with increasing global population, will impact on future sustainable supply of fish. Seafood supply from aquaculture has risen over the past decades and it relies on harvest of wild catch fisheries also for its fish oil needs. Alternate sources of LC omega-3 oils are being pursued, including genetically modified soybean rich in shorter-chain stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4ω3). However, neither oils from traditional oilseeds such as linseed, nor the SDA soybean oil have shown efficient conversion to DHA. A recent breakthrough has seen the demonstration of a land plant-based oil enriched in DHA, and with omega-6 PUFA levels close to that occurring in marine sources of EPA and DHA. We review alternative sources of DHA supply with emphasis on the need for land plant oils containing EPA and DHA.

  16. Validity of a food frequency questionnaire to estimate long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid intake among Japanese women in early and late pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Minatsu; Jwa, Seung Chik; Ogawa, Kohei; Morisaki, Naho; Fujiwara, Takeo

    2017-01-01

    The relative validity of food frequency questionnaires for estimating long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) intake among pregnant Japanese women is currently unclear. The aim of this study was to verify the external validity of a food frequency questionnaire, originally developed for non-pregnant adults, to assess the dietary intake of LC-PUFA using dietary records and serum phospholipid levels among Japanese women in early and late pregnancy. A validation study involving 188 participants in early pregnancy and 169 participants in late pregnancy was conducted. Intake LC-PUFA was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire and evaluated using a 3-day dietary record and serum phospholipid concentrations in both early and late pregnancy. The food frequency questionnaire provided estimates of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) intake with higher precision than dietary records in both early and late pregnancy. Significant correlations were observed for LC-PUFA intake estimated using dietary records in both early and late pregnancy, particularly for EPA and DHA (correlation coefficients ranged from 0.34 to 0.40, p food frequency questionnaire, which was originally designed for non-pregnant adults and was evaluated in this study against dietary records and biological markers, has good validity for assessing LC-PUFA intake, especially EPA and DHA intake, among Japanese women in early and late pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. DietaryFish and Long-Chain n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Intake and Risk of Atrial Fibrillation: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Rong Li

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Findings on the association between long-term intake of fish or long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs and risk of atrial fibrillation (AF are inconsistent in observational studies. We conducted a meta-analysis of prospective studies to separately examine the associations between fish consumption and dietary intake of n-3 PUFAs with the risk of AF. A systematic search was conducted in PubMed and Embase to identify relevant studies. Risk estimates were combined using a random-effect model. Seven prospective cohort studies covering 206,811 participants and 12,913 AF cases were eligible. The summary relative risk of AF for the highest vs. lowest category of fish consumption and dietary intake of n-3 PUFAs was 1.01(95% confidence interval: 0.94–1.09 and 1.03 (95% confidence interval: 0.97–1.09, respectively. These null associations persisted in subgroup and dose-response analyses. There was little evidence of publication bias. This meta-analysis suggests that neither long-term intake of fish, nor of n-3 PUFAs were significantly associated with lower risk of AF.

  18. Cloning and characterization of human very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase cDNA, chromosomal assignment of the gene and identification in four patients of nine different mutations within the VLCAD gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, B S; Bross, P; Vianey-Saban, C

    1996-01-01

    Very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) is one of four straight-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACD) enzymes, which are all nuclear encoded mitochondrial flavoproteins catalyzing the initial step in fatty acid beta-oxidation. We have used the very fast, Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE...

  19. Higher de novo synthesized fatty acids and lower omega 3-and omega 6-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in umbilical vessels of women with preeclampsia and high fish intakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huiskes, Victor J. B.; Kuipers, Remko S.; Velzing-Aarts, Francien V.; Dijck-Brouwer, D. A. Janneke; van der Meulen, Jan; Muskiet, Frits A. J.

    2009-01-01

    Umbilical veins (UV) and arteries (UA) of preeclamptic women in Curacao harbor lower long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCP). The present aim was to test these findings in Mwanza (Tanzania), whose inhabitants have high LCP omega 3 and LCP omega 6 intakes from Lake Victoria fish. Women with

  20. The Groningen LCPUFA Study : No Effect of Short-Term Postnatal Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Healthy Term Infants on Cardiovascular and Anthropometric Development at 9 Years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Corina; Boehm, Gunther; Kikkert, Hedwig K.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2011-01-01

    Conflicting evidence exists on the effect of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) formula supplementation on cardiovascular health in term infants. It is known that LCPUFA supplementation does not affect infant growth, but long term outcome data are not available. The current study

  1. Continuous gradient temperature Raman spectroscopy of the long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids Docosapentaenoic (DPA, 22:5n-6) and Docosahexaenoic (DHA; 22:6n-3) from -100 to 20° C

    Science.gov (United States)

    The structural, cognitive and visual development of the human brain and retina strictly require long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). Excluding water, the mammalian brain is about 60% lipid. One of the great unanswered questions with respect to biological science in general is the absolu...

  2. Infant Formula Supplementation With Long-chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Has No Effect on Bayley Developmental Scores at 18 Months of Age-IPD Meta-analysis of 4 Large Clinical Trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beyerlein, Andreas; Hadders-Algra, Mijna; Kennedy, Katherine; Fewtrell, Mary; Singhal, Atul; Rosenfeld, Eva; Lucas, Alan; Bouwstra, Hylco; Koletzko, Berthold; von Kries, Ruediger

    Objectives: To find out whether supplementation of formula milk by long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) affects neurodevelopment at 18 months of age in term or preterm infants by an individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis. Materials and Methods: Data of 870 children from 4 large

  3. Up-Regulation of Mitochondrial Antioxidant Superoxide Dismutase Underpins Persistent Cardiac Nutritional-Preconditioning by Long Chain n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in the Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace G. Abdukeyum

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species paradoxically underpin both ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R damage and ischaemic preconditioning (IPC cardioprotection. Long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3 PUFA are highly susceptible to peroxidation, but are paradoxically cardioprotective. This study tested the hypothesis that LCn-3 PUFA cardioprotection is underpinned by peroxidation, upregulating antioxidant activity to reduce I/R-induced lipid oxidation, and the mechanisms of this nutritional preconditioning contrast to mechanisms of IPC. Rats were fed: fish oil (LCn-3 PUFA; sunflower seed oil (n-6 PUFA; or beef tallow (saturated fat, SF enriched diets for six weeks. Isolated hearts were subject to: 180 min normoxic perfusion; a 30 min coronary occlusion ischaemia protocol then 120 min normoxic reperfusion; or a 3 × 5 min global IPC protocol, 30 min ischaemia, then reperfusion. Dietary LCn-3 PUFA raised basal: membrane docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3 DHA; fatty acid peroxidisability index; concentrations of lipid oxidation products; and superoxide dismutase (MnSOD activity (but not CuZnSOD or glutathione peroxidase. Infarct size correlated inversely with basal MnSOD activity (r2 = 0.85 in the ischaemia protocol and positively with I/R-induced lipid oxidation (lipid hydroperoxides (LPO, r2 = 0.475; malondialdehyde (MDA, r2 = 0.583 across ischaemia and IPC protocols. While both dietary fish oil and IPC infarct-reduction were associated with reduced I/R-induced lipid oxidation, fish oil produced nutritional preconditioning by prior LCn-3 PUFA incorporation and increased peroxidisability leading to up-regulated mitochondrial SOD antioxidant activity.

  4. OleA Glu117 is key to condensation of two fatty-acyl coenzyme A substrates in long-chain olefin biosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Matthew R.; Goblirsch, Brandon R.; Christenson, James K.; Esler, Morgan A.; Mohamed, Fatuma A.; Wackett, Lawrence P.; Wilmot, Carrie M. (UMM)

    2017-10-12

    In the interest of decreasing dependence on fossil fuels, microbial hydrocarbon biosynthesis pathways are being studied for renewable, tailored production of specialty chemicals and biofuels. One candidate is long-chain olefin biosynthesis, a widespread bacterial pathway that produces waxy hydrocarbons. Found in three- and four-gene clusters, oleABCD encodes the enzymes necessary to produce cis-olefins that differ by alkyl chain length, degree of unsaturation, and alkyl chain branching. The first enzyme in the pathway, OleA, catalyzes the Claisen condensation of two fatty acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) molecules to form a β-keto acid. In this report, the mechanistic role of Xanthomonas campestris OleA Glu117 is investigated through mutant enzymes. Crystal structures were determined for each mutant as well as their complex with the inhibitor cerulenin. Complemented by substrate modeling, these structures suggest that Glu117 aids in substrate positioning for productive carbon–carbon bond formation. Analysis of acyl-CoA substrate hydrolysis shows diminished activity in all mutants. When the active site lacks an acidic residue in the 117 position, OleA cannot form condensed product, demonstrating that Glu117 has a critical role upstream of the essential condensation reaction. Profiling of pH dependence shows that the apparent pKa for Glu117 is affected by mutagenesis. Taken together, we propose that Glu117 is the general base needed to prime condensation via deprotonation of the second, non-covalently bound substrate during turnover. This is the first example of a member of the thiolase superfamily of condensing enzymes to contain an active site base originating from the second monomer of the dimer.

  5. Compared effects of missense mutations in Very-Long-Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase deficiency: Combined analysis by structural, functional and pharmacological approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobin-Limballe, Stéphanie; McAndrew, Ryan P; Djouadi, Fatima; Kim, Jung-Ja; Bastin, Jean

    2010-05-01

    Very-Long-Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase deficiency (VLCADD) is an autosomal recessive disorder considered as one of the more common ss-oxidation defects, possibly associated with neonatal cardiomyopathy, infantile hepatic coma, or adult-onset myopathy. Numerous gene missense mutations have been described in these VLCADD phenotypes, but only few of them have been structurally and functionally analyzed, and the molecular basis of disease variability is still poorly understood. To address this question, we first analyzed fourteen disease-causing amino acid changes using the recently described crystal structure of VLCAD. The predicted effects varied from the replacement of amino acid residues lining the substrate binding cavity, involved in holoenzyme-FAD interactions or in enzyme dimerisation, predicted to have severe functional consequences, up to amino acid substitutions outside key enzyme domains or lying on near enzyme surface, with predicted milder consequences. These data were combined with functional analysis of residual fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and VLCAD protein levels in patient cells harboring these mutations, before and after pharmacological stimulation by bezafibrate. Mutations identified as detrimental to the protein structure in the 3-D model were generally associated to profound FAO and VLCAD protein deficiencies in the patient cells, however, some mutations affecting FAD binding or monomer-monomer interactions allowed a partial response to bezafibrate. On the other hand, bezafibrate restored near-normal FAO rates in some mutations predicted to have milder consequences on enzyme structure. Overall, combination of structural, biochemical, and pharmacological analysis allowed assessment of the relative severity of individual mutations, with possible applications for disease management and therapeutic approach. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Oil from transgenic Camelina sativa containing over 25 % n-3 long-chain PUFA as the major lipid source in feed for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancor, Mónica B; Li, Keshuai; Bucerzan, Valentin S; Sprague, Matthew; Sayanova, Olga; Usher, Sarah; Han, Lihua; Norambuena, Fernando; Torrissen, Ole; Napier, Johnathan A; Tocher, Douglas R; Olsen, Rolf E

    2018-06-01

    Facing a bottleneck in the growth of aquaculture, and a gap in the supply and demand of the highly beneficial n-3 long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA), sustainable alternatives to traditional marine-based feeds are required. Therefore, in the present trial, a novel oil obtained from a genetically engineered oilseed crop, Camelina sativa, that supplied over 25 % n-3 LC-PUFA was tested as a sole dietary-added lipid source in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) feed. Three groups of fish were fed three experimental diets for 12 weeks with the same basal composition and containing 20 % added oil supplied by either a blend of fish oil and rapeseed oil (1:3) (COM) reflecting current commercial formulations, wild-type Camelina oil (WCO) or the novel transgenic Camelina oil (TCO). There were no negative effects on the growth, survival rate or health of the fish. The whole fish and flesh n-3 LC-PUFA levels were highest in fish fed TCO, with levels more than 2-fold higher compared with those of fish fed the COM and WCO diets, respectively. Diet TCO had no negative impacts on the evaluated immune and physiological parameters of head kidney monocytes. The transcriptomic responses of liver and mid-intestine showed only mild effects on metabolism genes. Overall, the results clearly indicated that the oil from transgenic Camelina was highly efficient in supplying n-3 LC-PUFA providing levels double that obtained with a current commercial standard, and similar to those a decade ago before substantial dietary fishmeal and oil replacement.

  7. Dietary long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids prevent impaired social behaviour and normalize brain dopamine levels in food allergic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Theije, Caroline G M; van den Elsen, Lieke W J; Willemsen, Linette E M; Milosevic, Vanja; Korte-Bouws, Gerdien A H; Lopes da Silva, Sofia; Broersen, Laus M; Korte, S Mechiel; Olivier, Berend; Garssen, Johan; Kraneveld, Aletta D

    2015-03-01

    Allergy is suggested to exacerbate impaired behaviour in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. We have previously shown that food allergy impaired social behaviour in mice. Dietary fatty acid composition may affect both the immune and nervous system. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) on food allergy-induced impaired social behaviour and associated deficits in prefrontal dopamine (DA) in mice. Mice were fed either control or n-3 LCPUFA-enriched diet before and during sensitization with whey. Social behaviour, acute allergic skin response and serum immunoglobulins were assessed. Monoamine levels were measured in brain and intestine and fatty acid content in brain. N-3 LCPUFA prevented impaired social behaviour of allergic mice. Moreover, n-3 LCPUFA supplementation increased docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) incorporation into the brain and restored reduced levels of prefrontal DA and its metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, 3-methoxytyramine and homovanillic acid in allergic mice. In addition to these brain effects, n-3 LCPUFA supplementation reduced the allergic skin response and restored decreased intestinal levels of serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in allergic mice. N-3 LCPUFA may have beneficial effects on food allergy-induced deficits in social behaviour, either indirectly by reducing the allergic response and restoring intestinal 5-HT signalling, or directly by DHA incorporation into neuronal membranes, affecting the DA system. Therefore, it is of interest to further investigate the relevance of food allergy-enhanced impairments in social behaviour in humans and the potential benefits of dietary n-3 LCPUFA supplementation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Changes in cholesterol homeostasis modify the response of F1B hamsters to dietary very long chain n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecker, Jaime L; Matthan, Nirupa R; Billheimer, Jeffrey T; Rader, Daniel J; Lichtenstein, Alice H

    2011-10-21

    The plasma lipoprotein response of F1B Golden-Syrian hamsters fed diets high in very long chain (VLC) n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is paradoxical to that observed in humans. This anomaly is attributed, in part, to low lipoprotein lipase activity and is dependent on cholesterol status. To further elucidate the mechanism(s) for these responses, hamsters were fed diets containing supplemental fish oil (VLC n-3 PUFA) or safflower oil (n-6 PUFA) (both 10% [w/w]) and either cholesterol-supplemented (0.1% cholesterol [w/w]) or cholesterol-depleted (0.01% cholesterol [w/w] and 10 days prior to killing fed 0.15% lovastatin+2% cholestyramine [w/w]). Cholesterol-supplemented hamsters fed fish oil, relative to safflower oil, had higher non-high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations (P safflower oil, had lower non-HDL cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations (P < 0.001) which were associated with lower hepatic SREBP-1c (p < 0.05) but not apo B-100, apo E or ACAT-2 mRNA or protein levels. Independent of cholesterol status, fish oil fed hamsters had lower HDL cholesterol concentrations (p < 0.001), which were associated with lower hepatic apoA-I protein levels (p < 0.05). These data suggest disturbing cholesterol homeostasis in F1B hamsters alters their response to dietary fatty acids, which is reflected in altered plasma lipoprotein patterns and regulation of genes associated with their metabolism.

  9. Importance of the Long-Chain Fatty Acid Beta-Hydroxylating Cytochrome P450 Enzyme YbdT for Lipopeptide Biosynthesis in Bacillus subtilis Strain OKB105

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. McInerney

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus species produce extracellular, surface-active lipopeptides such as surfactin that have wide applications in industry and medicine. The steps involved in the synthesis of 3-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A (CoA substrates needed for surfactin biosynthesis are not understood. Cell-free extracts of Bacillus subtilis strain OKB105 synthesized lipopeptide biosurfactants in presence of L-amino acids, myristic acid, coenzyme A, ATP, and H2O2, which suggested that 3-hydroxylation occurs prior to CoA ligation of the long chain fatty acids (LCFAs. We hypothesized that YbdT, a cytochrome P450 enzyme known to beta-hydroxylate LCFAs, functions to form 3-hydroxy fatty acids for lipopeptide biosynthesis. An in-frame mutation of ybdT was constructed and the resulting mutant strain (NHY1 produced predominantly non-hydroxylated lipopeptide with diminished biosurfactant and beta-hemolytic activities. Mass spectrometry showed that 95.6% of the fatty acids in the NHY1 biosurfactant were non-hydroxylated compared to only ~61% in the OKB105 biosurfactant. Cell-free extracts of the NHY1 synthesized surfactin containing 3-hydroxymyristic acid from 3-hydroxymyristoyl-CoA at a specific activity similar to that of the wild type (17 ± 2 versus 17.4 ± 6 ng biosurfactant min−1·ng·protein−1, respectively. These results showed that the mutation did not affect any function needed to synthesize surfactin once the 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA substrate was formed and that YbdT functions to supply 3-hydroxy fatty acid for surfactin biosynthesis. The fact that YbdT is a peroxidase could explain why biosurfactant production is rarely observed in anaerobically grown Bacillus species. Manipulation of LCFA specificity of YbdT could provide a new route to produce biosurfactants with activities tailored to specific functions.

  10. Coordinated defects in hepatic long chain fatty acid metabolism and triglyceride accumulation contribute to insulin resistance in non-human primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhash Kamath

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is characterized by accumulation of triglycerides (TG in hepatocytes, which may also trigger cirrhosis. The mechanisms of NAFLD are not fully understood, but insulin resistance has been proposed as a key determinant.To determine the TG content and long chain fatty acyl CoA composition profile in liver from obese non-diabetic insulin resistant (IR and lean insulin sensitive (IS baboons in relation with hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity.Twenty baboons with varying grades of adiposity were studied. Hepatic (liver and peripheral (mainly muscle insulin sensitivity was measured with a euglycemic clamp and QUICKI. Liver biopsies were performed at baseline for TG content and LCFA profile by mass spectrometry, and histological analysis. Findings were correlated with clinical and biochemical markers of adiposity and insulin resistance.Obese IR baboons had elevated liver TG content compared to IS. Furthermore, the concentration of unsaturated (LC-UFA was greater than saturated (LC-SFA fatty acyl CoA in the liver. Interestingly, LC-FA UFA and SFA correlated with waist, BMI, insulin, NEFA, TG, QUICKI, but not M/I. Histological findings of NAFLD ranging from focal to diffuse hepatic steatosis were found in obese IR baboons.Liver TG content is closely related with both hepatic and peripheral IR, whereas liver LC-UFA and LC-SFA are closely related only with hepatic IR in non-human primates. Mechanisms leading to the accumulation of TG, LC-UFA and an altered UFA: LC-SFA ratio may play an important role in the pathophysiology of fatty liver disease in humans.

  11. Effect of GPR84 deletion on obesity and diabetes development in mice fed long chain or medium chain fatty acid rich diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Toit, Eugene; Browne, Liam; Irving-Rodgers, Helen; Massa, Helen M; Fozzard, Nicolette; Jennings, Michael P; Peak, Ian R

    2017-04-20

    Although there is good evidence showing that diets rich in medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) have less marked obesogenic and diabetogenic effects than diets rich in long chain fatty acids (LCFAs), the role of the pro-inflammatory, medium chain fatty acid receptor (GPR84) in the aetiology of obesity and glucose intolerance is not well characterised. We set out to determine whether GPR84 expression influences obesity and glucose intolerance susceptibility in MCFA and LCFA rich diet fed mice. Wild type (WT) and GPR84 knockout (KO) mice were fed a control, MCFA or LCFA diet, and body mass, heart, liver and epididymal fat mass was assessed, as well as glucose tolerance and adipocyte size. LCFA diets increased body mass and decreased glucose tolerance in both WT and GPR84 KO animals while MCFA diets had no effect on these parameters. There were no differences in body weight when comparing WT and GPR84 KO mice on the respective diets. Glucose tolerance was also similar in WT and GPR84 KO mice irrespective of diet. Liver mass was increased following LCFA feeding in WT but not GPR84 KO mice. Hepatic triglyceride content was increased in GPR84 KO animals fed MCFA, and myocardial triglyceride content was increased in GPR84 KO animals fed LCFA. GPR84 deletion had no effects on body weight or glucose tolerance in mice fed either a high MCFA or LCFA diet. GPR84 may influence lipid metabolism, as GPR84 KO mice had smaller livers and increased myocardial triglyceride accumulation when fed LCFA diets, and increased liver triglyceride accumulation in responses to increased dietary MCFAs.

  12. Preparation of sn-2 long-chain polyunsaturated monoacylglycerols from fish oil by hydrolysis with a stereospecific lipase from mucor miehei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieto, Susana

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of sn-2 eicosapentaenoyi glycerol and sn-2 docosahexaenoyi glycerol by the hydrolysis of fish oil by the sn-1, sn-3 stereo-specific immobilised lipase (Lipozyme IM-20 from mucor miehei is described. Monoacylglycerols obtained after the enzymatic hydrolysis were separated by silver nitrate-coated silicic acid column chromatography Both monoacylglycerols can be individually separated in almost pure form by elution from the column with a solvent mixture. The preparation of sn-2 substituted monoacylglycerols from marine origin allows their utilization as substrates for the synthesis of structured long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid-containing triacylglycerols at specific positions.

    Se describe la preparación de sn-2 eicosapentaenoil glicerol y sn-2 docosahexaenoil glicerol mediante la hidrólisis de aceite de pescado por lipasa inmovilizada sn-1, sn-3 estereoespecífica (Lipozime IM-20 de mucor miehei. Los monoacilgliceroles obtenidos después de la hidrólisis enzimática se separaron por cromatografía en columna de ácido silícico impregnado de nitrato de plata. Ambos monoacilgliceroles pueden ser individualmente separados en forma casi pura por elución de la columna con una mezcla de solvente. La preparación de sn-2 monoacilgliceroles sustituidos de origen marino permite su utilización como sustratos para la síntesis de triacilgliceroles que contienen ácidos grasos poliinsaturados de cadena larga en posiciones específicas.

  13. Long chain fatty acids alter the interactive binding of ligands to the two principal drug binding sites of human serum albumin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keishi Yamasaki

    Full Text Available A wide variety of drugs bind to human serum albumin (HSA at its two principal sites, namely site I and site II. A number of reports indicate that drug binding to these two binding sites are not completely independent, and that interactions between ligands of these two discrete sites can play a role. In this study, the effect of the binding of long-chain fatty acids on the interactive binding between dansyl-L-asparagine (DNSA; site I ligand and ibuprofen (site II ligand at pH6.5 was examined. Binding experiments showed that the binding of sodium oleate (Ole to HSA induces conformational changes in the molecule, which, in turn, changes the individual binding of DNSA and ibuprofen, as well as the mode of interaction between these two ligands from a 'competitive-like' allosteric interaction in the case of the defatted HSA conformer to a 'nearly independent' binding in the case of non-defatted HSA conformer. Circular dichroism measurements indicated that ibuprofen and Ole are likely to modify the spatial orientation of DNSA at its binding site. Docking simulations suggest that the long-distance electric repulsion between DNSA and ibuprofen on defatted HSA contributes to a 'competitive-like' allosteric interaction, whereas extending the distance between ligands and/or increasing the flexibility or size of the DNSA binding site in fatted HSA evokes a change in the interaction mode to 'nearly independent' binding. The present findings provide further insights into the structural dynamics of HSA upon the binding of fatty acids, and its effects on drug binding and drug-drug interactions that occur on HSA.

  14. The effect of n-3 long chain fatty acids supplementation on plasma peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma and thyroid hormones in obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parizad Taraghijou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR γ is a transcription factor, which is abundantly expressed in adipose tissue and has a direct link to adiposity. It seems that long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs can regulate PPAR γ expression. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of n-3LC PUFA supplementation on plasma levels of PPAR γ and thyroid hormones in obesity. Materials and Methods: In a randomized double-blind controlled trial, 66 subjects with obesity were assigned to 2 groups. Participants in intervention group consumed omega3 capsules contained 1000 mg n-3 fatty acids (180 mg of eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA] and 120 mg of docosahexaenoic acid [DHA] and placebo group consumed placebo capsules contained paraffin twice a day for 4 wk. Fasting blood samples and weight measurements were collected at the baseline and at the end of the trial. Plasma PPAR γ and thyroid hormones were measured by ELISA. Data were analyzed using a repeated measure model-two factor for comparing two groups in two times. Results: No significant changes were observed in PPAR γ levels between and within the groups after supplementation (P>0.05. N-3LC PUFA supplementation significantly increased T4 levels after 4 wk (P<0.05 but T3 and TSH did not change significantly. Conclusion: Our study showed that n-3LC PUFAs supplementation increased T4 levels. However, no significant changes in T3, TSH and PPAR γ plasma levels were observed in obese adults.

  15. Fish, Long-Chain n-3 PUFA and Incidence of Elevated Blood Pressure: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Results from prospective cohort studies on fish or long-chain (LC n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA intake and elevated blood pressure (EBP are inconsistent. We aimed to investigate the summary effects. Pertinent studies were identified from PubMed and EMBASE database through October 2015. Multivariate-adjusted risk ratios (RRs for incidence of EBP in the highest verses the bottom category of baseline intake of fish or LC n-3 PUFA were pooled using a random-effects meta-analysis. Over the follow-up ranging from 3 to 20 years, 20,497 EBP events occurred among 56,204 adults from eight prospective cohort studies. The summary RR (SRR was 0.96 (95% CI: 0.81, 1.14; I2 = 44.70% for fish in four studies, and 0.73 (95% CI: 0.60, 0.89; I2 = 75.00% for LC n-3 PUFA in six studies (three studies for biomarker vs. three studies for diet. Circulating LC n-3 PUFA as biomarker was inversely associated with incidence of EBP (SRR: 0.67; 95% CI: 0.55, 0.83, especially docosahexaenoic acid (SRR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.45, 0.88, whereas no significant association was found for dietary intake (SRR: 0.80; 95% CI: 0.58, 1.10. The present finding suggests that increased intake of docosahexaenoic acid to improve its circulating levels may benefit primary prevention of EBP.

  16. Assessment of a land-locked Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) population as a potential genetic resource with a focus on long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancor, M B; Olsen, R E; Solstorm, D; Skulstad, O F; Tocher, D R

    2016-03-01

    The natural food for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in freshwater has relatively lower levels of omega-3 (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) than found in prey for post-smolt salmon in seawater. Land-locked salmon such as the Gullspång population feed exclusively on freshwater type lipids during its entire life cycle, a successful adaptation derived from divergent evolution. Studying land-locked populations may provide insights into the molecular and genetic control mechanisms that determine and regulate n-3 LC-PUFA biosynthesis and retention in Atlantic salmon. A two factorial study was performed comparing land-locked and farmed salmon parr fed diets formulated with fish or rapeseed oil for 8 weeks. The land-locked parr had higher capacity to synthesise n-3 LC-PUFA as indicated by higher expression and activity of desaturase and elongase enzymes. The data suggested that the land-locked salmon had reduced sensitivity to dietary fatty acid composition and that dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) did not appear to suppress expression of LC-PUFA biosynthetic genes or activity of the biosynthesis pathway, probably an evolutionary adaptation to a natural diet lower in DHA. Increased biosynthetic activity did not translate to enhanced n-3 LC-PUFA contents in the flesh and diet was the only factor affecting this parameter. Additionally, high lipogenic and glycolytic potentials were found in land-locked salmon, together with decreased lipolysis which in turn could indicate increased use of carbohydrates as an energy source and a sparing of lipid. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Morphology of blends of linear and long-chain-branched polyethylenes in the solid state: A study by SANS, SAXS, and DSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wignall, G.D.; Londono, J.D.; Lin, J.S.; Alamo, R.G.; Galante, M.J.; Mandelkern, L.

    1995-01-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), and X-ray scattering (SAXS) have been used to investigate the solid-state morphology of blends of linear (high density) and long-chain-branched (low-density) polyethylenes (HDPE/LDPE). The blends are homogeneous in the melt, as previously demonstrated by SANS using the contrast obtained by deuterating the linear polymer. However, due to the structural and melting point differences (∼ 20 C) between HDPE and LDPE, the components may phase segregate on slow cooling (0.75 C/min). For high concentrations (φ ≥ 0.5) of HDPE, relatively high rates of crystallization of the linear component lead to the formation of separate stacks of HDPE and LDPE lamellae, as indicated by two-peak SAXS curves. For predominantly branched blends, the difference in crystallization rate of the components becomes smaller and only one SAXS peak is observed, indicating that the two species are in the same lamellar stack. Moreover, the phases no longer consist of the pure component and the HDPE lamellae contain up to 15--20% LDPE (and vice versa). Rapid quenching into dry ice/2-propanol (-78 C) produces only one SAXS peak (and hence one lamellar stack) over the whole concentration range. The blends show extensive cocrystallization, along with a tendency for the branched material to be preferentially located in the amorphous interlamellar regions. For high concentrations (φ > 0.5) of HDPE-D, the overall scattering length density (SLD) is high and the excess concentration of LDPE between the lamellae enhances the SLD contrast between the crystalline and amorphous phases. Thus, the interlamellar spacing (long period) is clearly visible in the SANS pattern. The blend morphology is a strong function of the quenching rate, and samples quenched less rapidly (e.g., into water at 23 C) are similar to slowly cooled blends

  18. In ovo exposure to omega-3 fatty acids does not enhance omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanakri, K; Carragher, J; Muhlhausler, B; Hughes, R; Gibson, R

    2017-10-01

    The content of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) in chicken meat can be boosted by feeding broilers a diet containing α-linolenic acid (ALA, from flaxseed oil), some of which is converted by hepatic enzymes to n-3 LCPUFA. However, most of the accumulated n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in meat tissues is still in the form of ALA. Despite this, the levels of chicken diets are being enhanced by the inclusion of vegetable and marine sources of omega-3 fats. This study investigated whether the capacity of chicken for n-3 LCPUFA accumulation could be enhanced or inhibited by exposure to an increased supply of ALA or n-3 LCPUFA in ovo. Breeder hens were fed either flaxseed oil (High-ALA), fish oil (high n-3 LCPUFA) or tallow- (low n-3 PUFA, Control) based diets. The newly hatched chicks in each group were fed either the High-ALA or the Control diets until harvest at 42 days' post-hatch. The n-3 PUFA content of egg yolk and day-old chick meat closely matched the n-3 PUFA composition of the maternal diet. In contrast, the n-3 PUFA composition of breast and leg meat tissues of the 42-day-old offspring closely matched the diet fed post-hatch, with no significant effect of maternal diet. Indeed, there was an inhibition of n-3 LCPUFA accumulation in meat of the broilers from the maternal Fish-Oil diet group when fed the post-hatch High-ALA diet. Therefore, this approach is not valid to elevate n-3 LCPUFA in chicken meat.

  19. Long chain fatty Acyl-CoA synthetase 4 is a biomarker for and mediator of hormone resistance in human breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyu Wu

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the role of long-chain fatty acyl-CoA synthetase 4 (ACSL4 in breast cancer. Public databases were utilized to analyze the relationship between ACSL4 mRNA expression and the presence of steroid hormone and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2 in both breast cancer cell lines and tissue samples. In addition, cell lines were utilized to assess the consequences of either increased or decreased levels of ACSL4 expression. Proliferation, migration, anchorage-independent growth and apoptosis were used as biological end points. Effects on mRNA expression and signal transduction pathways were also monitored. A meta-analysis of public gene expression databases indicated that ACSL4 expression is positively correlated with a unique subtype of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC, characterized by the absence of androgen receptor (AR and therefore referred to as quadruple negative breast cancer (QNBC. Results of experiments in breast cancer cell lines suggest that simultaneous expression of ACSL4 and a receptor is associated with hormone resistance. Forced expression of ACSL4 in ACSL4-negative, estrogen receptor α (ER-positive MCF-7 cells resulted in increased growth, invasion and anchorage independent growth, as well as a loss of dependence on estrogen that was accompanied by a reduction in the levels of steroid hormone receptors. Sensitivity to tamoxifen, triacsin C and etoposide was also attenuated. Similarly, when HER2-positive, ACSL4-negative, SKBr3 breast cancer cells were induced to express ACSL4, the proliferation rate increased and the apoptotic effect of lapatinib was reduced. The growth stimulatory effect of ACSL4 expression was also observed in vivo in nude mice when MCF-7 control and ACSL4-expressing cells were utilized to induce tumors. Our data strongly suggest that ACSL4 can serve as both a biomarker for, and mediator of, an aggressive breast cancer phenotype.

  20. Composition of the epicuticular waxes coating the adaxial side of Phyllostachys aurea leaves: Identification of very-long-chain primary amides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racovita, Radu C; Jetter, Reinhard

    2016-10-01

    The present study presents comprehensive chemical analyses of cuticular wax mixtures of the bamboo Phyllostachys aurea. The epicuticular and intracuticular waxes were sampled selectively from the adaxial side of leaves on young and old plants and investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and flame ionization detection. The epi- and intracuticular layers on young and old leaves had wax loads ranging from 1.7 μg/cm(2) to 1.9 μg/cm(2). Typical very-long-chain aliphatic wax constituents were found with characteristic chain length patterns, including alkyl esters (primarily C48), alkanes (primarily C29), fatty acids (primarily C28 and C16), primary alcohols (primarily C28) and aldehydes (primarily C30). Alicyclic wax components were identified as tocopherols and triterpenoids, including substantial amounts of triterpenoid esters. Alkyl esters, alkanes, fatty acids and aldehydes were found in greater amounts in the epicuticular layer, while primary alcohols and most terpenoids accumulated more in the intracuticular wax. Alkyl esters occurred as mixtures of metamers, combining C20 alcohol with various acids into shorter ester homologs (C36C40), and a wide range of alcohols with C22 and C24 acids into longer esters (C42C52). Primary amides were identified, with a characteristic chain length profile peaking at C30. The amides were present exclusively in the epicuticular layer and thus at or near the surface, where they may affect plant-herbivore or plant-pathogen interactions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The impact of probiotics and n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on intestinal permeability in pregnancy: a randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokkala, K; Pussinen, P; Houttu, N; Koivuniemi, E; Vahlberg, T; Laitinen, K

    2018-02-27

    A disruption in intestinal barrier integrity may predispose individuals to metabolic aberrations, particularly during the vulnerable period of pregnancy. We investigated whether intestinal permeability, as measured by serum zonulin concentration, changes over the duration of pregnancy and whether this change is reflected in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activity. Second, we tested in a randomised double-blind placebo controlled clinical trial the impact of consuming dietary probiotics and/or long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) supplements in lowering serum zonulin concentration and LPS activity. The probiotic supplement was a combination of two bacteria, Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis 420 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001. This study included 200 overweight pregnant women participating in an on-going study; participants were randomised to consume either (1) probiotics, (2) LC-PUFA, (3) probiotics and LC-PUFA, or (4) placebo for each supplement. Blood samples were obtained at early, the baseline, and late pregnancy (mean 14 and 35 weeks of gestation, respectively). Serum zonulin concentration increased from early (mean (standard deviation): 62.7 (12.9) ng/ml) to late pregnancy by 5.3 (95%CI 3.7-6.9) ng/ml, and LPS activity increased from (0.16 (0.04) EU/ml) by 0.04 (95%CI 0.03-0.05) EU/ml. No differences among the intervention groups were detected in the change from early to late pregnancy in serum zonulin concentration (P=0.8) or LPS activity (P=0.2). The change in serum zonulin concentration during the pregnancy was associated with the weeks of follow up (r=0.25, Pzonulin concentration or LPS activity.

  2. PCSK9 Induces CD36 Degradation and Affects Long-Chain Fatty Acid Uptake and Triglyceride Metabolism in Adipocytes and in Mouse Liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demers, Annie; Samami, Samaneh; Lauzier, Benjamin; Des Rosiers, Christine; Ngo Sock, Emilienne Tudor; Ong, Huy; Mayer, Gaetan

    2015-12-01

    Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) promotes the degradation of the low-density lipoprotein receptor thereby elevating plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and the risk of coronary heart disease. Thus, the use of PCSK9 inhibitors holds great promise to prevent heart disease. Previous work found that PCSK9 is involved in triglyceride metabolism, independently of its action on low-density lipoprotein receptor, and that other yet unidentified receptors could mediate this effect. Therefore, we assessed whether PCSK9 enhances the degradation of CD36, a major receptor involved in transport of long-chain fatty acids and triglyceride storage. Overexpressed or recombinant PCSK9 induced CD36 degradation in cell lines and primary adipocytes and reduced the uptake of the palmitate analog Bodipy FL C16 and oxidized low-density lipoprotein in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and hepatic HepG2 cells, respectively. Surface plasmon resonance, coimmunoprecipitation, confocal immunofluorescence microscopy, and protein degradation pathway inhibitors revealed that PCSK9 directly interacts with CD36 and targets the receptor to lysosomes through a mechanism involving the proteasome. Importantly, the level of CD36 protein was increased by >3-fold upon small interfering RNA knockdown of endogenous PCSK9 in hepatic cells and similarly increased in the liver and visceral adipose tissue of Pcsk9(-/-) mice. In Pcsk9(-/-) mice, increased hepatic CD36 was correlated with an amplified uptake of fatty acid and accumulation of triglycerides and lipid droplets. Our results demonstrate an important role of PCSK9 in modulating the function of CD36 and triglyceride metabolism. PCSK9-mediated CD36 degradation may serve to limit fatty acid uptake and triglyceride accumulation in tissues, such as the liver. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Normal Levels of Plasma Free Carnitine and Acylcarnitines in Follow-Up Samples From a Presymptomatic Case of Carnitine Palmitoyl Transferase 1 (CPT1) Deficiency Detected Through Newborn Screening in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Luise; Lund, Allan; Wibrand, Flemming

    2011-01-01

    of presymptomatic CPT1A deficiency detected through newborn screening in Denmark with diagnostic levels of carnitine and acylcarnitines in the initial dried blood spot. Levels of plasma-free carnitine and acylcarnitines in follow-up samples were normal, but reverted to diagnostic levels when the patient developed...... clinical symptoms at the age of 8 months. At that time, a diagnosis of CPT1A deficiency was confirmed by sequence analysis of the CPT1A gene revealing homozygosity for a novel c.167C>T variation in exon 3. Enzyme activity measurements showed a relatively mild enzyme defect with a decreased residual enzyme...... activity of 17–25%. We conclude that CPT1A gene testing and/or enzyme assay is mandatory to confirm an abnormal newborn screen suggesting CPT1A deficiency to avoid delayed diagnoses....

  4. Calcium- and Nitric Oxide-Dependent Nuclear Accumulation of Cytosolic Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase in Response to Long Chain Bases in Tobacco BY-2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testard, Ambroise; Da Silva, Daniel; Ormancey, Mélanie; Pichereaux, Carole; Pouzet, Cécile; Jauneau, Alain; Grat, Sabine; Robe, Eugénie; Brière, Christian; Cotelle, Valérie; Mazars, Christian; Thuleau, Patrice

    2016-10-01

    Sphinganine or dihydrosphingosine (d18:0, DHS), one of the most abundant free sphingoid long chain bases (LCBs) in plants, is known to induce a calcium-dependent programmed cell death (PCD) in plants. In addition, in tobacco BY-2 cells, it has been shown that DHS triggers a rapid production of H 2 O 2 and nitric oxide (NO). Recently, in analogy to what is known in the animal field, plant cytosolic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPC), a ubiquitous enzyme involved in glycolysis, has been suggested to fulfill other functions associated with its oxidative post-translational modifications such as S-nitrosylation on cysteine residues. In particular, in mammals, stress signals inducing NO production promote S-nitrosylation of GAPC and its subsequent translocation into the nucleus where the protein participates in the establishment of apoptosis. In the present study, we investigated the behavior of GAPC in tobacco BY-2 cells treated with DHS. We found that upon DHS treatment, an S-nitrosylated form of GAPC accumulated in the nucleus. This accumulation was dependent on NO production. Two genes encoding GAPCs, namely Nt(BY-2)GAPC1 and Nt(BY-2)GAPC2, were cloned. Transient overexpression of Nt(BY-2)GAPC-green fluorescent protein (GFP) chimeric constructs indicated that both proteins localized in the cytoplasm as well as in the nucleus. Mutating into serine the two cysteine residues thought to be S-nitrosylated in response to DHS did not modify the localization of the proteins, suggesting that S-nitrosylation of GAPCs was probably not necessary for their nuclear relocalization. Interestingly, using Förster resonance energy transfer experiments, we showed that Nt(BY-2)GAPCs interact with nucleic acids in the nucleus. When GAPCs were mutated on their cysteine residues, their interaction with nucleic acids was abolished, suggesting a role for GAPCs in the protection of nucleic acids against oxidative stress. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on

  5. Microbial community adaptation influences long-chain fatty acid conversion during anaerobic codigestion of fats, oils, and grease with municipal sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziels, Ryan M; Karlsson, Anna; Beck, David A C; Ejlertsson, Jörgen; Yekta, Sepehr Shakeri; Bjorn, Annika; Stensel, H David; Svensson, Bo H

    2016-10-15

    Codigesting fats, oils, and greases with municipal wastewater sludge can greatly improve biomethane recovery at wastewater treatment facilities. Process loading rates of fats, oils, and greases have been previously tested with little knowledge of the digester microbial community structure, and high transient fat loadings have led to long chain fatty acid (LCFA) accumulation and digester upsets. This study utilized recently-developed quantitative PCR assays for syntrophic LCFA-degrading bacteria along with 16S amplicon sequencing to relate changes in microbial community structure to LCFA accumulation during transient loading increases to an anaerobic codigester receiving waste restaurant oil and municipal wastewater sludge. The 16S rRNA gene concentration of the syntrophic β-oxidizing genus Syntrophomonas increased to ∼15% of the Bacteria community in the codigester, but stayed below 3% in the control digester that was fed only wastewater sludge. Methanosaeta and Methanospirillum were the dominant methanogenic genera enriched in the codigester, and together comprised over 80% of the Archaea community by the end of the experimental period. Constrained ordination showed that changes in the codigester Bacteria and Archaea community structures were related to measures of digester performance. Notably, the effluent LCFA concentration in the codigester was positively correlated to the specific loading rate of waste oil normalized to the Syntrophomonas 16S rRNA concentration. Specific loading rates of 0-1.5 × 10(-12) g VS oil/16S gene copies-day resulted in LCFA concentrations below 30 mg/g TS, whereas LCFA accumulated up to 104 mg/g TS at higher transient loading rates. Based on the community-dependent loading limitations found, enhanced biomethane production from high loadings of fats, oils and greases can be achieved by promoting a higher biomass of slow-growing syntrophic consortia, such as with longer digester solids retention times. This work also

  6. Degummed crude canola oil, sire breed and gender effects on intramuscular long-chain omega-3 fatty acid properties of raw and cooked lamb meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Ross Flakemore

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Omega-3 long-chain (≥C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3 LC-PUFA confer important attributes to health-conscious meat consumers due to the significant role they play in brain development, prevention of coronary heart disease, obesity and hypertension. In this study, the ω3 LC-PUFA content of raw and cooked Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL muscle from genetically divergent Australian prime lambs supplemented with dietary degummed crude canola oil (DCCO was evaluated. Methods Samples of LTL muscle were sourced from 24 first cross ewe and wether lambs sired by Dorset, White Suffolk and Merino rams joined to Merino dams that were assigned to supplemental regimes of degummed crude canola oil (DCCO: a control diet at 0 mL/kg DM of DCCO (DCCOC; 25 mL/kg DM of DCCO (DCCOM and 50 mL/kg DCCO (DCCOH. Lambs were individually housed and offered 1 kg/day/head for 42 days before being slaughtered. Samples for cooked analysis were prepared to a core temperature of 70 °C using conductive dry-heat. Results Within raw meats: DCCOH supplemented lambs had significantly (P < 0.05 higher concentrations of eicosapentaenoic (EPA, 20:5ω3 and EPA + docosahexaenoic (DHA, 22:6ω3 acids than those supplemented with DCCOM or DCCOC; Dorset sired lambs contained significantly (P < 0.05 more EPA and EPA + DHA than other sire breeds; diet and sire breed interactions were significant (P < 0.05 in affecting EPA and EPA + DHA concentrations. In cooked meat, ω3 LC-PUFA concentrations in DCCOM (32 mg/100 g, DCCOH (38 mg/100 g, Dorset (36 mg/100 g, White Suffolk (32 mg/100 g, ewes (32 mg/100 g and wethers (33 mg/100 g, all exceeded the minimum content of 30 mg/100 g of edible cooked portion of EPA + DHA for Australian defined ‘source’ level ω3 LC-PUFA classification. Conclusion These results present that combinations of dietary degummed crude canola oil, sheep genetics and culinary preparation method can be used as

  7. A role for long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase-4 (ACSL4 in diet-induced phospholipid remodeling and obesity-associated adipocyte dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. Killion

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Regulation of fatty acid (FA metabolism is central to adipocyte dysfunction during diet-induced obesity (DIO. Long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase-4 (ACSL4 has been hypothesized to modulate the metabolic fates of polyunsaturated FA (PUFA, including arachidonic acid (AA, but the in vivo actions of ACSL4 are unknown. The purpose of our studies was to determine the in vivo role of adipocyte ACSL4 in regulating obesity-associated adipocyte dysfunction. Methods: We developed a novel mouse model with adipocyte-specific ablation of ACSL4 (Ad-KO using loxP Cre recombinase technology. Metabolic phenotyping of Ad-KO mice relative to their floxed littermates (ACSL4floxed was performed, including body weight and body composition over time; insulin and glucose tolerance tests; and energy expenditure, activity, and food intake in metabolic cages. Adipocytes were isolated for ex vivo adipocyte oxygen consumption by Clark electrode and lipidomics analysis. In vitro adipocyte analysis including oxygen consumption by Seahorse and real-time PCR analysis were performed to confirm our in vivo findings. Results: Ad-KO mice were protected against DIO, adipocyte death, and metabolic dysfunction. Adipocytes from Ad-KO mice fed high-fat diet (HFD had reduced incorporation of AA into phospholipids (PL, free AA, and levels of the AA lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE. Additionally, adipocytes from Ad-KO mice fed HFD had reduced p53 activation and increased adipocyte oxygen consumption (OCR, which we demonstrated are direct effects of 4-HNE on adipocytes in vitro. Conclusion: These studies are the first to elucidate ACSL4's in vivo actions to regulate the incorporation of AA into PL and downstream effects on DIO-associated adipocyte dysfunction. By reducing the incorporation of AA into PL and free fatty acid pools in adipocytes, Ad-KO mice were significantly protected against HFD-induced increases in adipose and liver fat accumulation, adipocyte death

  8. Bioconversion of α-linolenic acid into n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid in hepatocytes and ad hoc cell culture optimisation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramez Alhazzaa

    Full Text Available This study aimed to establish optimal conditions for a cell culture system that would allow the measurement of 18:3n-3 (ALA bioconversion into n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LC-PUFA, and to determine the overall pathway kinetics. Using rat hepatocytes (FaO as model cells, it was established that a maximum 20:5n-3 (EPA production from 50 µM ALA initial concentration was achieved after 3 days of incubation. Next, it was established that a gradual increase in the ALA concentration from 0 up to 125 µM lead to a proportional increase in EPA, without concomitant increase in further elongated or desaturated products, such as 22:5n-3 (DPA and 22:6n-3 (DHA in 3 day incubations. Of interest, ALA bioconversion products were observed in the culture medium. Therefore, in vitro experiments disregarding the medium fatty acid content are underestimating the metabolism efficiency. The novel application of the fatty acid mass balance (FAMB method on cell culture system (cells with medium enabled quantifying the apparent enzymatic activities for the biosynthesis of n-3 LC-PUFA. The activity of the key enzymes was estimated and showed that, under these conditions, 50% (Km of the theoretical maximal (V max = 3654 µmol.g(-1 of cell protein.hour(-1 Fads2 activity on ALA can be achieved with 81 µM initial ALA. Interestingly, the apparent activity of Elovl2 (20:5n-3 elongation was the slowest amongst other biosynthesis steps. Therefore, the possible improvement of Elovl2 activity is suggested toward a more efficient DHA production from ALA. The present study proposed and described an ad hoc optimised cell culture conditions and methodology towards achieving a reliable experimental platform, using FAMB, to assist in studying the efficiency of ALA bioconversion into n-3 LC-PUFA in vitro. The FAMB proved to be a powerful and inexpensive method to generate a detailed description of the kinetics of n-3 LC-PUFA biosynthesis enzymes activities in vitro.

  9. Systematic Analysis of Gene Expression Alterations and Clinical Outcomes for Long-Chain Acyl-Coenzyme A Synthetase Family in Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Ching Chen

    Full Text Available Dysregulated lipid metabolism contributes to cancer progression. Our previous study indicates that long-chain fatty acyl-Co A synthetase (ACSL 3 is essential for lipid upregulation induced by endoplasmic reticulum stress. In this report, we aimed to identify the role of ACSL family in cancer with systematic analysis and in vitro experiment. We explored the ACSL expression using Oncomine database to determine the gene alteration during carcinogenesis and identified the association between ACSL expression and the survival of cancer patient using PrognoScan database. ACSL1 may play a potential oncogenic role in colorectal and breast cancer and play a potential tumor suppressor role in lung cancer. Co-expression analysis revealed that ACSL1 was coexpressed with MYBPH, PTPRE, PFKFB3, SOCS3 in colon cancer and with LRRFIP1, TSC22D1 in lung cancer. In accordance with PrognoScan analysis, downregulation of ACSL1 in colon and breast cancer cell line inhibited proliferation, migration, and anchorage-independent growth. In contrast, increase of oncogenic property was observed in lung cancer cell line by attenuating ACSL1. High ACSL3 expression predicted a better prognosis in ovarian cancer; in contrast, high ACSL3 predicted a worse prognosis in melanoma. ACSL3 was coexpressed with SNUPN, TRIP13, and SEMA5A in melanoma. High expression of ACSL4 predicted a worse prognosis in colorectal cancer, but predicted better prognosis in breast, brain and lung cancer. ACSL4 was coexpressed with SERPIN2, HNRNPCL1, ITIH2, PROCR, LRRFIP1. High expression of ACSL5 predicted good prognosis in breast, ovarian, and lung cancers. ACSL5 was coexpressed with TMEM140, TAPBPL, BIRC3, PTPRE, and SERPINB1. Low ACSL6 predicted a worse prognosis in acute myeloid leukemia. ACSL6 was coexpressed with SOX6 and DARC. Altogether, different members of ACSLs are implicated in diverse types of cancer development. ACSL-coexpressed molecules may be used to further investigate the role of ACSL

  10. Identification of long and very long chain fatty acids, plasmalogen-C16:0 and phytanic acid as new lipid biomarkers in Tunisian coronary artery disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadj Ahmed, Samia; Koubaa, Nadia; Kharroubi, Wafa; Zarrouk, Amira; Mnari, Amira; Batbout, Fethi; Gamra, Habib; Hammami, Sonia; Lizard, Gérard; Hammami, Mohamed

    2017-07-01

    Long and very long chain fatty acids (LCFAs and VLCFAs) may play an active role in coronary artery diseases (CAD) etiology. Our aim was to evaluate the associations between LCPUFAs (C20:4n-6; C20:5n-3 and C22:6n-3) and VLCSFAs (C22:0, C24:0; and C26:0), as well as markers of peroxisomal integrity evaluated by phytanic acid and plasmalogen-C16:0 (PL-C16:0) in addition to the markers of lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde [MDA] and conjugated dienes [CD]) and inflammation (high sensitivity C-reactive protein [hs-CRP]) with vascular severity evaluated by Gensini score in order to determine their possible effects on CAD in Tunisian population. Lipidomic strategy based on GC/MS-SIM was used to quantify LCPUFAs, VLCSFAs, and PL-C16:0 in red blood cells of CAD patients, non-CAD patients, and controls. We observed a significant increase in phytanic acid, PL-C16:0 and VLCFAs, particularly C26:0, in CAD group compared to controls. Further our findings showed positive correlations of C26:0 with MDA and with vascular severity score (Gensini score). In addition, a significant negative correlation was shown between hs-CRP and C22:6 n-3 (r=-0.297; p=0.002) and a significant positive association was observed between hs-CRP and C20:4 n-6 levels (r=0.196; p=0.039). Our results show changes in LCPUFAs and VLCSFAs concentrations in RBC among study groups, and suggest alterations in fatty acids metabolism regulated by elongase and desaturase enzymes. The positive correlations of C20:4n-6 and the negative correlations of C22:6n-3, simultaneously with Gensini score and hs-CRP, suggest a link of both inflammation and vascular severity complication of CAD with LCPUFAs and VLCSFAs. Induction of lipid oxidation, can be one of the outcomes of LCFAs and VLCFAs accumulation in vascular tissues and, thus, playing an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Quantification of LCPUFAs and VLCSFAs, phytanic acid and PL-C16:0 simultaneously, would be of great value for the screening of

  11. Differences in elongation of very long chain fatty acids and fatty acid metabolism between triple-negative and hormone receptor-positive breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Yuji; Nishiumi, Shin; Kono, Seishi; Takao, Shintaro; Azuma, Takeshi; Yoshida, Masaru

    2017-08-29

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TN) is more aggressive than other subtypes of breast cancer and has a lower survival rate. Furthermore, detailed biological information about the disease is lacking. This study investigated characteristics of metabolic pathways in TN. We performed the metabolome analysis of 74 breast cancer tissues and the corresponding normal breast tissues using LC/MS. Furthermore, we classified the breast cancer tissues into ER-positive, PgR-positive, HER2-negative breast cancer (EP+H-) and TN, and then the differences in their metabolic pathways were investigated. The RT-PCR and immunostaining were carried out to examine the expression of ELOVL1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7. We identified 142 of hydrophilic metabolites and 278 of hydrophobic lipid metabolites in breast tissues. We found the differences between breast cancer and normal breast tissues in choline metabolism, glutamine metabolism, lipid metabolism, and so on. Most characteristic of comparison between EP+H- and TN were differences in fatty acid metabolism was which were related to the elongation of very long chain fatty acids were detected between TN and EP+H-. Real-time RT-PCR showed that the mRNA expression levels of ELOVL1, 5, and 6 were significantly upregulated by 8.5-, 4.6- and 7.0-fold, respectively, in the TN tumors compared with their levels in the corresponding normal breast tissue samples. Similarly, the mRNA expression levels of ELOVL1, 5, and 6 were also significantly higher in the EP+H- tissues than in the corresponding normal breast tissues (by 4.9-, 3.4-, and 2.1-fold, respectively). The mRNA expression level of ELOVL6 was 2.6-fold higher in the TN tumors than in the EP+H- tumors. During immunostaining, the TN and EP+H- tumors demonstrated stronger ELOVL1 and 6 staining than the corresponding normal breast tissues, but ELOVL5 was not stained strongly in the TN or EP+H- tumors. Furthermore, the TN tumors exhibited stronger ELOVL1 and 6 staining than the EP+H- tumors. Marked

  12. Secretive production of long-chain fatty acids, triacylglycerols and n-alkane-2-ones by fermentation processes; Hakkoho ni yoru ekitai nenryo no seisan wa kanoka (shishitsu no bunpi seisan)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukui, S. [University of Fukuyama, Hiroshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1995-10-20

    Secretive production of lipids, which are useful source for engine-driving fuel, by microbial process using carbohydrate biomasses as substrate has been investigated in our laboratory. This review consists of four parts concerning breedings and selection of lipid-secretive microorganisms : (1) breedings of long-chain fatty acid-secretive strains from Candida lipolytica L-1 by a step-wise mutagenesis process, (2) selection of a triacylglycerol (TG)-secretive and accumulative yeast strain Trichosporon sp. SH45Y, (3) breedings of mutants, SH45Y-derivatieves, having potent ability to produce TG secretively from glucose, a typical biomass charbohydrate, and (4) selection of microorganisms which produce liquid-n-alkane in culture medium by utilizing long-chain fatty acids and TG; a strain of Penicillium decumbens can produce liquid alkalis with a yield of approximately 60 % in weight from palm kernel oil, a commercial TG. 10 refs., 7 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. [Fat emulsion tolerance in preterm infants of different gestational ages in the early stage after birth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hui; Yang, Chuan-Zhong; Li, Huan; Wen, Wei; Huang, Fang-Fang; Huang, Zhi-Feng; Shi, Yu-Ping; Yu, Yan-Liang; Chen, Li-Lian; Yuan, Rui-Qin; Zhu, Xiao-Yu

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the fat emulsion tolerance in preterm infants of different gestational ages in the early stage after birth. A total of 98 preterm infants were enrolled and divided into extremely preterm infant group (n=17), early preterm infant group (n=48), and moderate-to-late preterm infant group (n=33). According to the dose of fat emulsion, they were further divided into low- and high-dose subgroups. The umbilical cord blood and dried blood filter papers within 3 days after birth were collected. Tandem mass spectrometry was used to measure the content of short-, medium-, and long-chain acylcarnitines. The extremely preterm infant and early preterm infant groups had a significantly lower content of long-chain acylcarnitines in the umbilical cord blood and dried blood filter papers within 3 days after birth than the moderate-to-late preterm infant group (Pemulsion subgroup had a significantly higher content of short-, medium-, and long-chain acylcarnitines than the high-dose fat emulsion subgroup among the extremely preterm infants (Pemulsion subgroups within 3 days after birth. Compared with moderate-to-late preterm infants, extremely preterm infants and early preterm infants have a lower capacity to metabolize long-chain fatty acids within 3 days after birth. Early preterm infants and moderate-to-late preterm infants may tolerate high-dose fat emulsion in the early stage after birth, but extremely preterm infants may have an insufficient capacity to metabolize high-dose fat emulsion.

  14. [Variation of long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase DNA methylation in placenta of different preeclampsia-like mouse models].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yiwei; Yang, Zi; Ding, Xiaoyan; Yu, Huan; Yi, Yanhong

    2015-10-01

    By detecting the variation of long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD) DNA methylation in preeclampsia-like mouse models generated by different ways, to explore the roles of multifactor and multiple pathways in preeclampsia pathogenesis on molecular basis. Established preeclampsia-like mouse models in different ways and divided into groups as follows: (1) Nw-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME) group: wild-type pregnant mouse received subcutaneous injection of L-NAME; (2) lipopolysaccharide (LPS) group: wild-type pregnant mouse received intraperitoneal injection of LPS; (3) apolipoprotein C-III (ApoC3) group: ApoC3 transgenic pregnant mouse with dysregulated lipid metabolism received subcutaneous injection of L-NAME; (4) β2 glycoprotein I (β-2GPI) group: wild-type pregnant mouse received subcutaneous injection of β-2GPI. According to the first injection time (on day 3, 11, 16 respectively), the L-NAME, LPS and ApoC3 groups were further subdivided into: pre-implantation (PI) experimental stage, early gestation (EG) experimental stage, and late gestation (LG) experimental stage. β-2GPI group was only injected before implantation. LCHAD gene methylation levels in placental were detected in different experimental stage. Normal saline control groups were set within wild-type and ApoC3 transgenic pregnant mice simultaneously. (1) CG sites in LCHAD DNA: 45 CG sites were detected in the range of 728 bp before LCHAD gene transcription start site, the 5, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 19, 24, 25, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 34, 35, 43 CG sites were complex sites which contained two or more CG sequences, others were single site which contained one CG sequence. The 3, 5, 6, 11, 13, 14, 18, 28 sites in L-NAME, LPS, ApoC3 and β-2GPI groups showed different high levels of methylation; the 16, 25, 31, 42, 44 sites showed different low levels of methylation; other 32 sites were unmethylated. (2) Comparison of LCHAD gene methylation between different groups: the methylation levels

  15. Nutritional enrichment of vegetable oils with long-chain n-3 fatty acids through enzymatic interesterification with a new vegetable lipase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousa, J. S.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to produce vegetable oils enriched with long-chain n-3 fatty acids of nutraceutical interest, through an enzyme-catalyzed interesterification with a new lipase, from physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.. The Vegetable Lipase Powder (biocatalyst called VLP, which has never been applied in functional foods, was obtained from the physic nut seed, and efficiently hydrolyzed the 95% of waste fish oil in 24 h. Urea precipitation was used to concentrate polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and was further interesterified with oils of different sources by means of enzymatic catalysis. After the interesterification reaction, which was also catalyzed by the VLP, the PUFA content in coconut oil increased almost ten-fold from 1.8% to 17.7%. In palm oil, the PUFA content increased two-fold from 10.5% to 21.8%, while in olive oil the level of PUFA increased from 8.6% to 21.3%. The mixture of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA (3.7% to 3.9% was incorporated into the triacylglycerol fraction of each of the coconut, palm and olive oils. Through the hydroesterification (hydrolysis followed by interesterification all the interesterified vegetable oils tested presented sufficient EPA and DHA levels to satisfy the levels recommended for intake by human adults in one tablespoon.El objetivo del presente trabajo fue producir aceites vegetales enriquecidos con ácidos grasos n-3 de cadena larga de interés nutraceutico, por interesterificación catalizada mediante una nueva lipasa, una enzima de semilla de Jatropha curcas L. La lipasa vegetal en polvo (biocatalizador llamada VLP, nunca ha sido aplicada en alimentos funcionales, se obtuvo mediante procedimientos físicos con semillas de nueces, e hidrolizó eficientemente el 95% de aceites de residuos de pescado en 24 h. La precipitación con urea se utilizó para concentrar los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados (PUFA que fueron posteriormente interesterificados con aceites de

  16. Synthesis of structured triacylglycerols containing medium-chain and long-chain fatty acids by interesterification with a stereoespecific lipase from Mucor miehei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieto, Susana

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of structured triacylglycerols sn-1, sn-3 dilauryl, sn-2 eicosapentaenoyl glycerol and sn-1, sn-3 dilauryl, sn-2 docosahexaenoyl glycerol by enzymatic interesterification under restricted water availability is described. Laurie acid, one of the substrates for interesterification, was obtained by the controlled hydrolysis of coconut oil by a non-specific lipase obtained from Candida cylindracea. The fatty acid was separated from the hydrolysis products by silverresin column chromatography and converted to methyl ester, sn-2 Eicosapentaenoyl glycerol and sn-2 docosahexaenoyl glycerol were prepared by the hydrolysis of fish oil by the sn-1, sn-3 stereospecific immobilized lipase Lipozyme IM-20 obtained from Mucor miehei as described in the accompanying paper. The interesterification was carried out in a water jacketed glass reactor and the triacylglycerol products were separated and recovered through aluminum oxide column chromatography The interesterification procedure described allows to obtain In laboratory scale structured triacylglycerols containing medium-chain fatty acids at the sn-1 and sn-3 positions and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid from marine origin at the sn-2 glycerol position.

    Se describe la preparación de triacilgliceroles estructurados sn-1, sn-3 dilauril, sn-2 ecosapentaenoil glicerol y sn-1, sn-3 diiauril, sn-2 docosahexaenoil glicerol por interesterificación enzimática bajo disponibilidad de agua reducida. Acido láurico, uno de los sustratos para la interesterificación, se obtuvo mediante hidrólisis controlada del aceite de coco por una lipasa no-específica obtenida de Candida cylindracea. Los ácidos grasos se separaron de los productos de hidrólisis mediante cromatografía en columna de resina de plata y convertidos en sus esteres metílicos, sn-2 Eicosapentaenoil glicerol y sn-2 docosahexaenoil glicerol se prepararon mediante hidrólisis de aceite de pescado por la sn-1, sn

  17. Extra virgin olive oil reduces liver oxidative stress and tissue depletion of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids produced by a high saturated fat diet in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valenzuela, R.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA which are synthesized mainly in the liver have relevant functions in the organism. A diet high in fat (HFD generates an increase in the levels of fat and induces oxidative stress (lipo-peroxidation in the liver, along with a reduction in tissue n-3 and n-6 LCPUFA. Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO is rich in anti-oxidants (polyphenols and tocopherols which help to prevent the development of oxidative stress. This study evaluated the role of EVOO in preventing the induction of fat deposition and oxidative stress in the liver and in the depletion of LCPUFA in the liver, erythrocytes and brain generated by a HFD in C57BL/6J mice. Four experimental groups (n = 10/group were fed a control diet (CD or a HFD for 12 weeks and were respectively supplemented with EVOO (100 mg/day. The group fed HFD showed a significant increase (p Los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados de cadena larga (AGPICL sintetizados principalmente por el hígado, cumplen funciones relevantes en el organismo. Una dieta alta en grasa (DAG genera un incremento en los niveles de grasa y estrés oxidativo (lipoperoxidación en hígado y una reducción en los niveles de AGPICL n-3 y n-6 en diferentes tejidos. El aceite de oliva extra virgen (AOEV es rico en antioxidantes (polifenoles y tocoferoles que ayudan a prevenir el desarrollo del estrés oxidativo. Este trabajo evaluó el rol del AOEV en la prevención del depósito de grasa, estrés oxidativo hepático y reducción de los AGPICL n-3 y n-6 en diferentes tejidos generado por una DAG en ratones C57BL/6J. Cuatro grupos experimentales (n=10/grupo fueron alimentados (12 semanas con dieta control (DC o DAG y suplementados con AOEV (100 mg/día. El grupo alimentado con DAG presentó un incremento (p < 0,05 en la acumulación de grasa y estrés oxidativo hepático, acompañado de una reducción en los niveles de AGPICL n-3 y n-6 en hígado, eritrocitos y cerebro. La suplementación con AOEV logr

  18. Plasma total odd-chain fatty acids in the monitoring of disorders of propionate, methylmalonate and biotin metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coker, M.; de Klerk, J. B.; Poll-The, B. T.; Huijmans, J. G.; Duran, M.

    1996-01-01

    Total plasma odd-numbered long-chain fatty acids were analysed in patients with methylmalonic acidaemia (vitamin B12-responsive and unresponsive), combined methylmalonic acidaemia/homocystinuria (CblC), propionic acidaemia (both neonatal-onset and late-onset), biotinidase deficiency and

  19. A randomised controlled trial investigating the effect of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on cognitive and retinal function in cognitively healthy older people: the Older People And n-3 Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (OPAL study protocol [ISRCTN72331636

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letley Louise

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The number of individuals with age-related cognitive impairment is rising dramatically in the UK and globally. There is considerable interest in the general hypothesis that improving the diet of older people may slow the progression of cognitive decline. To date, there has been little attention given to the possible protective role of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPs most commonly found in oily fish, in age-related loss of cognitive function. The main research hypothesis of this study is that an increased dietary intake of n-3 LCPs will have a positive effect on cognitive performance in older people in the UK. To test this hypothesis, a double-blind randomised placebo-controlled trial will be carried out among adults aged 70–79 years in which the intervention arm will receive daily capsules containing n-3 LCP (0.5 g/day docosahexaenoic acid and 0.2 g/day eicosapentaenoic acid while the placebo arm will receive daily capsules containing olive oil. The main outcome variable assessed at 24 months will be cognitive performance and a second major outcome variable will be retinal function. Retinal function tests are included as the retina is a specifically differentiated neural tissue and therefore represents an accessible window into the functioning of the brain. The overall purpose of this public-health research is to help define a simple and effective dietary intervention aimed at maintaining cognitive and retinal function in later life. This will be the first trial of its kind aiming to slow the decline of cognitive and retinal function in older people by increasing daily dietary intake of n-3 LCPs. The link between cognitive ability, visual function and quality of life among older people suggests that this novel line of research may have considerable public health importance.

  20. Maternal prenatal and/or postnatal n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) supplementation for preventing allergies in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunaratne, Anoja W; Makrides, Maria; Collins, Carmel T

    2015-07-22

    Allergies have become more prevalent globally over the last 20 years. Dietary consumption of n-3 (or omega 3) long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) has declined over the same period of time. This, together with the known role of n-3 LCPUFA in inhibiting inflammation, has resulted in speculation that n-3 LCPUFA may prevent allergy development. Dietary n-3 fatty acids supplements may change the developing immune system of the newborn before allergic responses are established, particularly for those with a genetic predisposition to the production of the immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibody. Individuals with IgE-mediated allergies have both the signs and symptoms of the allergic disease and a positive skin prick test (SPT) to the allergen. To assess the effect of n-3 LCPUFA supplementation in pregnant and/or breastfeeding women on allergy outcomes (food allergy, atopic dermatitis (eczema), allergic rhinitis (hay fever) and asthma/wheeze) in their children. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (6 August 2014), PubMed (1966 to 01 August 2014), CINAHL via EBSCOhost (1984 to 01 August 2014), Scopus (1995 to 01 August 2014), Web of Knowledge (1864 to 01 August 2014) and ClinicalTrials.gov (01 August 2014) and reference lists of retrieved studies. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effect of n-3 LCPUFA supplementation of pregnant and/or lactating women (compared with placebo or no treatment) on allergy outcomes of the infants or children. Trials using a cross-over design and trials examining biochemical outcomes only were not eligible for inclusion. Two review authors independently assessed eligibility and trial quality and performed data extraction. Where the review authors were also investigators on trials selected, an independent reviewer assessed trial quality and performed data extraction. Eight trials involving 3366 women and their 3175 children were included in the review. In these trials, women

  1. Suppression of wheat TaCDK8/TaWIN1 interaction negatively affects germination of Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici by interfering with very-long-chain aldehyde biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Lingyao; Chang, Cheng

    2018-01-01

    Wheat TaCDK8 interacts with TaWIN1 to regulate very-long-chain aldehyde biosynthesis required for efficient germination of Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici. Powdery mildew caused by Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici (Bgt) is a devastating disease of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Bgt infection initiates with its conidia germination on the aerial surface of wheat. In this study, we isolated the cyclin-dependent kinase 8 (TaCDK8) from wheat cultivar Jing411 and found that silencing of TaCDK8 impeded Bgt germination. The biochemical and molecular-biological assays revealed that TaCDK8 interacts with and phosphorylates the wheat transcription factor wax inducer 1 (TaWIN1) to stimulate the TaWIN1-dependent transcription. Bgt conidia on the leaves of TaWIN1-silenced plants also showed reduced germination. Gas chromatographic analysis revealed that knockdown of TaCDK8 or TaWIN1 resulted in decreases of wax components and cutin monomers in wheat leaves. Moreover, Bgt germination on leaves of TaCDK8 or TaWIN1 silenced plants could be fully restored by application of wild-type cuticular wax. In vitro studies demonstrated that very-long-chain aldehydes absent from the cuticular wax of the TaCDK8 or TaWIN1 silenced plants were capable of chemically stimulating Bgt germination. These results implicated that the suppression of TaCDK8/TaWIN1 interaction negatively affects Bgt germination by interfering with very-long-chain aldehyde biosynthesis required for efficient fungal germination.

  2. Fish oil-derived long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids reduce expression of M1-associated macrophage markers in an ex vivo adipose tissue culture model, in part through adiponectin

    OpenAIRE

    Anna A. De Boer; Jennifer M. Monk; Jennifer M. Monk; Danyelle M. Liddle; Krista A. Power; David W.L. Ma; Lindsay E. Robinson

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue (AT) macrophages (ATM) play a key role in obesity-associated pathologies, and their phenotype can be influenced by the local tissue microenvironment. Interestingly, long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) and the LC n-3 PUFA-upregulated adipokine, adiponectin (Ad), may mitigate excessive ATM inflammatory M1-polarization responses. However, to what extent LC n-3 PUFA and Ad work in concert to affect macrophage phenotype has not been examined. Thus, we used an es...

  3. Total protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003483.htm Total protein To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes ...

  4. Biosynthesis of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Octopus vulgaris: Molecular Cloning and Functional Characterisation of a Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase and an Elongation of Very Long-Chain Fatty Acid 4 Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroig, Óscar; de Llanos, Rosa; Varó, Inmaculada; Hontoria, Francisco; Tocher, Douglas R; Puig, Sergi; Navarro, Juan C

    2017-03-21

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been acknowledged as essential nutrients for cephalopods but the specific PUFAs that satisfy the physiological requirements are unknown. To expand our previous investigations on characterisation of desaturases and elongases involved in the biosynthesis of PUFAs and hence determine the dietary PUFA requirements in cephalopods, this study aimed to investigate the roles that a stearoyl-CoA desaturase (Scd) and an elongation of very long-chain fatty acid 4 (Elovl4) protein play in the biosynthesis of essential fatty acids (FAs). Our results confirmed the Octopus vulgaris Scd is a ∆9 desaturase with relatively high affinity towards saturated FAs with ≥ C 18 chain lengths. Scd was unable to desaturate 20:1 n- 15 ( ∆5 20:1) suggesting that its role in the biosynthesis of non-methylene interrupted FAs (NMI FAs) is limited to the introduction of the first unsaturation at ∆9 position. Interestingly, the previously characterised ∆5 fatty acyl desaturase was indeed able to convert 20:1 n- 9 ( ∆11 20:1) to ∆5,11 20:2, an NMI FA previously detected in octopus nephridium. Additionally, Elovl4 was able to mediate the production of 24:5 n- 3 and thus can contribute to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) biosynthesis through the Sprecher pathway. Moreover, the octopus Elovl4 was confirmed to play a key role in the biosynthesis of very long-chain (>C 24 ) PUFAs.

  5. Total algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tel, G.

    We define the notion of total algorithms for networks of processes. A total algorithm enforces that a "decision" is taken by a subset of the processes, and that participation of all processes is required to reach this decision. Total algorithms are an important building block in the design of

  6. Dietary long-chain fatty acids and carbohydrate biomarker evaluation in a controlled feeding study in participants from the Women's Health Initiative cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaoling; Huang, Ying; Neuhouser, Marian L; Tinker, Lesley F; Vitolins, Mara Z; Prentice, Ross L; Lampe, Johanna W

    2017-06-01

    Background: Biomarkers of macronutrient intake are lacking. Controlled human feeding studies that preserve the normal variation in nutrient and food consumption are necessary for the development and validation of robust nutritional biomarkers. Objective: We aimed to assess the utility of serum phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) as biomarkers of dietary intakes of fatty acids, total fat, and carbohydrate. Design: We used an individualized controlled feeding study in which 153 postmenopausal women from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) were provided with a 2-wk controlled diet that mimicked each individual's habitual food intake. A total of 41 PLFAs were measured with the use of gas chromatography in end-of-feeding-period fasting serum samples and expressed in both relative and absolute concentrations. R 2 values (percentages of variation explained) from linear regressions of (ln-transformed) consumed fatty acids (individual, groups, and broad categories) on (ln-transformed) corresponding measures of serum PLFAs alone and together with selected participant-related variables (age, race/ethnicity, body mass index, season of study participation, education level, and estimated energy intake from doubly labeled water) were used for evaluation against established urinary recovery biomarkers of energy and protein intake as benchmarks. Models to predict intakes of other nutrients were also explored. Results: Intakes of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid achieved the benchmark of R 2 > 36% with or without covariates. When all 41 serum PLFAs and participant-related covariates were initially included in the model for selection, cross-validated R 2 achieved >36% for consumed total carbohydrate (grams per day), total saturated fatty acids (SFAs), percentage of energy from SFAs, and total trans fatty acids with serum PLFAs in both relative and absolute concentrations. Conclusions: Serum PLFA biomarkers perform similarly to established energy and protein urinary

  7. Influence of dietary long-chain n-3 fatty acids from menhaden fish oil on plasma concentrations of alpha-tocopherol in geriatric beagles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jean A; Tooley, Katie A; Gradin, Joseph L; Jewell, Dennis E; Wander, Rosemary C

    2002-01-01

    To determine effects of dietary n-3 fatty acids from Menhaden fish oil on plasma alpha-tocopherol concentrations in Beagles. 32 female Beagles. For 82 days, dogs were fed diets that contained 1 of 2 ratios of n-6:n-3 fatty acids (40:1 [low n-3] and 1.4:1 [high n-3]) and 1 of 3 concentrations of all-rac-alpha-tocopheryl acetate (low, 17 mg/kg of diet; medium, 101 mg/kg; and high, 447 mg/kg) in a 2 X 3 factorial study. Diets high in n-3 fatty acids significantly increased total content of n-3 fatty acids in plasma (17.0 g/100 g of fatty acids), compared with low n-3 diets (2.02 g/100 g of fatty acids). Mean +/- SEM plasma concentration of cholesterol was significantly lower in dogs consuming high n-3 diets (4.59 +/- 0.48 mmol/L), compared with dogs consuming low n-3 diets (5.71 +/- 0.48 mmol/L). A significant interaction existed between the ratio for n-6 and n-3 fatty acids and amount of alpha-tocopheryl acetate in the diet (plasma alpha-tocopherol concentration expressed on a molar basis), because the plasma concentration of alpha-toco-pherol was higher in dogs consuming low n-3 diets, compared with those consuming high n-3 diets, at the 2 higher amounts of dietary alpha-tocopheryl acetate. Plasma alpha-tocopherol concentration expressed relative to total lipid content did not reveal effects of dietary n-3 fatty acids on concentration of alpha-tocopherol. Plasma alpha-tocopherol concentration is not dependent on dietary ratio of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids when alpha-tocopherol concentration is expressed relative to the total lipid content of plasma.

  8. Totally James

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Tom

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an interview with James Howe, author of "The Misfits" and "Totally Joe". In this interview, Howe discusses tolerance, diversity and the parallels between his own life and his literature. Howe's four books in addition to "The Misfits" and "Totally Joe" and his list of recommended books with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender,…

  9. The intake of long chain omega 3 fatty acids through fish versus capsules results in greater increments of their plasma levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Visioli Francesco

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Omega 3 fatty acids from fish appear to be more cardioprotective than equivalent amounts provided as capsules. We gave volunteers, for six weeks, either 100 g\\\\day of salmon, providing 383 mg of EPA and 544 mg of DHA or one or three capsules of fish oil\\\\day, providing 150 mg of EPA and 106 mg of DHA or 450 mg of EPA and 318 mg of DHA. We also re-evaluated data from a previous study carried out with the same design. Marked increments in plasma EPA and DHA concentrations (μg\\\\mg total lipid and percentages of total fatty acids were recorded at the end of either treatment. Such increments were linearly and significantly correlated with the dose after capsule administration. Notably, increments in plasma EPA and DHA concentration after salmon intake were significantly higher than after administration of capsules. In fact, the same increments would be obtained with at least two- and nine-fold higher doses of EPA and DHA, respectively, if administered with capsules rather than salmon. In turn, we provide experimental evidence that omega 3 fatty acids from fish are more effectively incorporated into plasma lipids than when administered as capsules and that increments in plasma concentrations of EPA and DHA given as capsules are linearly correlated with their intakes.

  10. Very-long-chain fatty acid biosynthesis is inhibited by cafenstrole, N,N-diethyl-3-mesitylsulfonyl-1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-carboxamide and its analogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, H.; Ohki, A.; Sato, Y.; Wakabayashi, K.; Tanaka, A.; Matthes, B.; Boeger, P.

    2001-01-01

    The rice herbicide cafenstrole and its analogs inhibited the incorporation of [1- 14 C]-oleate and [2- 14 C]-malonate into very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs), using Scenedesmus cells and leek microsomes from Allium porrum. Although the precise mode of interaction of cafenstrole at the molecular level is not completely clarified by the present study, it is concluded that cafenstrole acts as a specific inhibitor of the microsomal elongase enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of fatty acids with alkyl chains longer than C 18 . For a strong VLCFA biosynthesis inhibition an -SO 2 - linkage of the 1,2,4-triazole-1-carboxamides was required. Furthermore, N,N-dialkyl substitution of the carbamoyl nitrogen and electron-donating groups such as methyl at the benzene ring of 1,2,4-triazole-1-carboxamides produced a strong inhibition of VLCFA formation. A correlation was found between the phytotoxic effect against barnyardgrass (Echinochloa oryzicola) and impaired VLCFA formation. (orig.)

  11. Sex-related difference in the inductions by perfluoro-octanoic acid of peroxisomal beta-oxidation, microsomal 1-acylglycerophosphocholine acyltransferase and cytosolic long-chain acyl-CoA hydrolase in rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Y; Uy-Yu, N; Kozuka, H

    1989-01-01

    Inductions by perfluoro-octanoic acid (PFOA) of hepatomegaly, peroxisomal beta-oxidation, microsomal 1-acylglycerophosphocholine acyltransferase and cytosolic long-chain acyl-CoA hydrolase were compared in liver between male and female rats. Marked inductions of these four parameters were seen concurrently in liver of male rats, whereas the inductions in liver of female rats were far less pronounced. The sex-related difference in the response of rat liver to PFOA was much more marked than that seen with p-chlorophenoxyisobutyric acid (clofibric acid) or 2,2'-(decamethylenedithio)diethanol (tiadenol). Hormonal manipulations revealed that this sex-related difference in the inductions is strongly dependent on sex hormones, namely that testosterone is necessary for the inductions, whereas oestradiol prevented the inductions by PFOA. PMID:2570571

  12. Overexpression of human fatty acid transport protein 2/very long chain acyl-CoA synthetase 1 (FATP2/Acsvl1) reveals distinct patterns of trafficking of exogenous fatty acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melton, Elaina M. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States); Center for Cardiovascular Sciences, Albany Medical College, Albany, NY (United States); Cerny, Ronald L. [Department of Chemistry, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States); DiRusso, Concetta C. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States); Black, Paul N., E-mail: pblack2@unl.edu [Department of Biochemistry, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: •Roles of FATP2 in fatty acid transport/activation contribute to lipid homeostasis. •Use of 13C- and D-labeled fatty acids provide novel insights into FATP2 function. •FATP2-dependent trafficking of FA into phospholipids results in distinctive profiles. •FATP2 functions in the transport and activation pathways for exogenous fatty acids. -- Abstract: In mammals, the fatty acid transport proteins (FATP1 through FATP6) are members of a highly conserved family of proteins, which function in fatty acid transport proceeding through vectorial acylation and in the activation of very long chain fatty acids, branched chain fatty acids and secondary bile acids. FATP1, 2 and 4, for example directly function in fatty acid transport and very long chain fatty acids activation while FATP5 does not function in fatty acid transport but activates secondary bile acids. In the present work, we have used stable isotopically labeled fatty acids differing in carbon length and saturation in cells expressing FATP2 to gain further insights into how this protein functions in fatty acid transport and intracellular fatty acid trafficking. Our previous studies showed the expression of FATP2 modestly increased C16:0-CoA and C20:4-CoA and significantly increased C18:3-CoA and C22:6-CoA after 4 h. The increases in C16:0-CoA and C18:3-CoA suggest FATP2 must necessarily partner with a long chain acyl CoA synthetase (Acsl) to generate C16:0-CoA and C18:3-CoA through vectorial acylation. The very long chain acyl CoA synthetase activity of FATP2 is consistent in the generation of C20:4-CoA and C22:6-CoA coincident with transport from their respective exogenous fatty acids. The trafficking of exogenous fatty acids into phosphatidic acid (PA) and into the major classes of phospholipids (phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol (PI), and phosphatidyserine (PS)) resulted in distinctive profiles, which changed with the expression of FATP2. The

  13. Overexpression of human fatty acid transport protein 2/very long chain acyl-CoA synthetase 1 (FATP2/Acsvl1) reveals distinct patterns of trafficking of exogenous fatty acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melton, Elaina M.; Cerny, Ronald L.; DiRusso, Concetta C.; Black, Paul N.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Roles of FATP2 in fatty acid transport/activation contribute to lipid homeostasis. •Use of 13C- and D-labeled fatty acids provide novel insights into FATP2 function. •FATP2-dependent trafficking of FA into phospholipids results in distinctive profiles. •FATP2 functions in the transport and activation pathways for exogenous fatty acids. -- Abstract: In mammals, the fatty acid transport proteins (FATP1 through FATP6) are members of a highly conserved family of proteins, which function in fatty acid transport proceeding through vectorial acylation and in the activation of very long chain fatty acids, branched chain fatty acids and secondary bile acids. FATP1, 2 and 4, for example directly function in fatty acid transport and very long chain fatty acids activation while FATP5 does not function in fatty acid transport but activates secondary bile acids. In the present work, we have used stable isotopically labeled fatty acids differing in carbon length and saturation in cells expressing FATP2 to gain further insights into how this protein functions in fatty acid transport and intracellular fatty acid trafficking. Our previous studies showed the expression of FATP2 modestly increased C16:0-CoA and C20:4-CoA and significantly increased C18:3-CoA and C22:6-CoA after 4 h. The increases in C16:0-CoA and C18:3-CoA suggest FATP2 must necessarily partner with a long chain acyl CoA synthetase (Acsl) to generate C16:0-CoA and C18:3-CoA through vectorial acylation. The very long chain acyl CoA synthetase activity of FATP2 is consistent in the generation of C20:4-CoA and C22:6-CoA coincident with transport from their respective exogenous fatty acids. The trafficking of exogenous fatty acids into phosphatidic acid (PA) and into the major classes of phospholipids (phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol (PI), and phosphatidyserine (PS)) resulted in distinctive profiles, which changed with the expression of FATP2. The

  14. Impact of the long chain omega-acylceramides on the stratum corneum lipid nanostructure. Part 1: Thermotropic phase behaviour of CER[EOS] and CER[EOP] studied using X-ray powder diffraction and FT-Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessner, Doreen; Brezesinski, Gerald; Funari, Sergio S; Dobner, Bodo; Neubert, Reinhard H H

    2010-01-01

    The stratum corneum (SC), the outermost layer of the mammalian skin, is the main skin barrier. Ceramides (CERs) as the major constituent of the SC lipid matrix are of particular interest. At the moment, 11 classes of CERs are identified, but the effect of each single ceramide species is still not known. Therefore in this article, the thermotropic behaviour of the long chain omega-acylceramides CER[EOS] and CER[EOP] was studied using X-ray powder diffraction and FT-Raman spectroscopy. It was found that the omega-acylceramides CER[EOS] and CER[EOP] do not show a pronounced polymorphism which is observed for shorter chain ceramides as a significant feature. The phase behaviour of both ceramides is strongly influenced by the extremely long acyl-chain residue. The latter has a much stronger influence compared with the structure of the polar head group, which is discussed as extremely important for the appearance of a rich polymorphism. Despite the strong influence of the long chain, the additional OH-group of the phyto-sphingosine type CER[EOP] influences the lamellar repeat distance and the chain packing. The less polar sphingosine type CER[EOS] is stronger influenced by the long acyl-chain residue. Hydration is necessary for the formation of an extended hydrogen-bonding network between the polar head groups leading to the appearance of a long-periodicity phase (LPP). In contrast, the more polar CER[EOP] forms the LPP with densely packed alkyl chains already in the dry state.

  15. Long-chain α,ω-dioic acids as inducers of cyclosporin A-insensitive nonspecific permeability of the inner membrane of liver mitochondria loaded with calcium or strontium ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubinin, M V; Adakeeva, S I; Samartsev, V N

    2013-04-01

    Long-chain saturated monocarboxylic fatty acids can induce nonspecific permeability of the inner membrane (open pores) of liver mitochondria loaded with Ca2+ or Sr(2+) by the mechanism insensitive to cyclosporin A. In this work we investigated the effect of their metabolites - α,ω-dioic (dicarboxylic) acids - as potential inducers of pore opening by a similar mechanism. It was established that the addition of α,ω-hexadecanedioic acid (HDA) at a concentration of 10-30 µM to liver mitochondria loaded with Ca2+ or Sr(2+) leads to swelling of the organelles and release of these ions from the matrix. The maximum effect of HDA is observed at 50 µM Ca2+ concentration. Cyclosporin A at a concentration of 1 µM, previously added to the mitochondria, did not inhibit the observed processes. The calcium uniporter inhibitor ruthenium red, which blocks influx of Ca2+ and Sr(2+) to the matrix of mitochondria, prevented HDA-induced swelling. The effect of HDA as inducer of swelling of mitochondria was compared with similar effects of α,ω-tetradecanedioic and α,ω-dodecanedioic acids whose acyl chains are two and four carbon atoms shorter than HDA, respectively. It was found that the efficiency of these α,ω-dioic acids decreases with reducing number of carbon atoms in their acyl chains. It was concluded that in the presence of Ca2+ or Sr(2+) long-chain saturated α,ω-dioic acids can induce a cyclosporin A-insensitive permeability of the inner membrane (open pores) of liver mitochondria as well as their monocarboxylic analogs.

  16. De novo fatty acid biosynthesis and elongation in very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase-deficient mice supplemented with odd or even medium-chain fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucci, Sara; Behringer, Sidney; Spiekerkoetter, Ute

    2015-11-01

    An even medium-chain triglyceride (MCT)-based diet is the mainstay of treatment in very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency (VLCADD). Previous studies with magnetic resonance spectroscopy have shown an impact of MCT on the average fatty acid chain length in abdominal fat. We therefore assume that medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) are elongated and accumulate in tissue as long-chain fatty acids. In this study, we explored the hepatic effects of long-term supplementation with MCT or triheptanoin, an odd-chain C7-based triglyceride, in wild-type and VLCAD-deficient (VLCAD(-/-) ) mice after 1 year of supplementation as compared with a control diet. The de novo biosynthesis and elongation of fatty acids, and peroxisomal β-oxidation, were quantified by RT-PCR. This was followed by a comprehensive analysis of hepatic and cardiac fatty acid profiles by GC-MS. Long-term application of even and odd MCFAs strongly induced de novo biosynthesis and elongation of fatty acids in both wild-type and VLCAD(-/-) mice, leading to an alteration of the hepatic fatty acid profiles. We detected de novo-synthesized and elongated fatty acids, such as heptadecenoic acid (C17:1n9), eicosanoic acid (C20:1n9), erucic acid (C22:1n9), and mead acid (C20:3n9), that were otherwise completely absent in mice under control conditions. In parallel, the content of monounsaturated fatty acids was massively increased. Furthermore, we observed strong upregulation of peroxisomal β-oxidation in VLCAD(-/-) mice, especially when they were fed an MCT diet. Our data raise the question of whether long-term MCFA supplementation represents the most efficient treatment in the long term. Studies on the hepatic toxicity of triheptanoin are still ongoing. © 2015 FEBS.

  17. The effect of structured triglycerides on the kinetic stability of total nutrient admixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogh, Judit; Bubenik, Júlia; Dredán, Judit; Csempesz, Ferenc; Kiss, Dorottya; Zelkó, Romána

    2005-10-05

    The physical stability of two types of total parenteral nutrient (TPN) admixtures was studied as a function of storage time and temperature. One of them contained only structured triglycerides and the other exclusively long-chain triglycerides as lipid components. Droplet size of the mixtures was followed by photon correlation spectroscopy for 10 days. Zeta potential and dynamic surface tension measurements were carried out to evaluate the possible changes in the charge and interfacial surface tension of the emulsion droplets during the storage. pH values were monitored in order to follow the possible decomposition processes in the course of storage. Droplet size of emulsions prepared with lipids containing exclusively long-chain triglycerides showed remarkable increase after 4 days of storage in contrast with that of the mixtures containing structured lipids. The obtained results indicate that besides the advantageous metabolic effects of structured triglycerides, their application is recommended to improve the physical stability of TPN admixtures.

  18. Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) and nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) modulate metabolic and inflammatory markers in a spontaneous type 2 diabetes mellitus model (Stillman Salgado rats).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dain, Alejandro; Repossi, Gaston; Diaz-Gerevini, Gustavo T; Vanamala, Jairam; Das, Undurti N; Eynard, Aldo R

    2016-11-25

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a complex disease with alterations in metabolic and inflammatory markers. Stillman Salgado rats (eSS) spontaneously develop type 2 DM by middle age showing progressive impairment of glucose tolerance with hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia and hyperinsulinemia. We analyzed the effects of supplementation of ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) with or without nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) added, an antioxidant and lipoxygenase inhibitor, on metabolic and inflammatory parameters in eSS rats to evaluate whether they can delay development and/or prevent progression of DM. After weaning, eSS rats received, intraperitoneally, once a month ω-3 (EPA 35% and DHA 40%-6.25 mg/Kg) or ω-6 (90% arachidonic acid- 6. 25 mg/Kg) for twelve months. Two additional groups of rats received 1.9 mg/kg NDGA added to ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids. Blood samples were collected at day 40, and at the end of the 6th month and 12th month of age to determine plasma triglycerides (TGs), total plasma fatty acids (FA), A1C hemoglobin (HbA1C), C-reactive protein (CRP), gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), lipo and hydro peroxides, nitrites and IL-6 (in plasma and liver, kidney, and pancreas) and underwent oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) as well. Wistar and eSS rats that received saline solution were used as controls. Plasma lipids profile, TG, fasting and post-prandial blood glucose levels, and glycosylated HbA1C showed significant improvements in ω-3 and ω-3 + NDGA treated animals compared to eSS control group. ω-3 and ω-3 + NDGA groups showed an inverse correlation with fasting blood glucose and showed lower plasma levels of GGT, TG, and CRP. eSS rats treated with ω-3 LCPUFAs showed reduced level of inflammatory and oxidative indices in plasma and liver, kidney and pancreas tissues in comparison with eSS control (non-treated) and ω-6 treated groups. eSS rats are a useful model to study type 2 DM pathophysiology and related inflammatory

  19. Lead discovery for mammalian elongation of long chain fatty acids family 6 using a combination of high-throughput fluorescent-based assay and RapidFire mass spectrometry assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamiya, Mari; Sakurai, Masaaki; Teranishi, Fumie; Ikeda, Tomoko; Kamiyama, Tsutomu; Asai, Akira

    2016-01-01

    A high-throughput RapidFire mass spectrometry assay is described for elongation of very long-chain fatty acids family 6 (Elovl6). Elovl6 is a microsomal enzyme that regulates the elongation of C12-16 saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. Elovl6 may be a new therapeutic target for fat metabolism disorders such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. To identify new Elovl6 inhibitors, we developed a high-throughput fluorescence screening assay in 1536-well format. However, a number of false positives caused by fluorescent interference have been identified. To pick up the real active compounds among the primary hits from the fluorescence assay, we developed a RapidFire mass spectrometry assay and a conventional radioisotope assay. These assays have the advantage of detecting the main products directly without using fluorescent-labeled substrates. As a result, 276 compounds (30%) of the primary hits (921 compounds) in a fluorescence ultra-high-throughput screening method were identified as common active compounds in these two assays. It is concluded that both methods are very effective to eliminate false positives. Compared with the radioisotope method using an expensive 14 C-labeled substrate, the RapidFire mass spectrometry method using unlabeled substrates is a high-accuracy, high-throughput method. In addition, some of the hit compounds selected from the screening inhibited cellular fatty acid elongation in HEK293 cells expressing Elovl6 transiently. This result suggests that these compounds may be promising lead candidates for therapeutic drugs. Ultra-high-throughput fluorescence screening followed by a RapidFire mass spectrometry assay was a suitable strategy for lead discovery against Elovl6. - Highlights: • A novel assay for elongation of very-long-chain fatty acids 6 (Elovl6) is proposed. • RapidFire mass spectrometry (RF-MS) assay is useful to select real screening hits. • RF-MS assay is proved to be beneficial because of

  20. Importance of sulfide interaction with iron as regulator of the microbial community in biogas reactors and its effect on methanogenesis, volatile fatty acids turnover, and syntrophic long-chain fatty acids degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeri Yekta, Sepehr; Ziels, Ryan M; Björn, Annika; Skyllberg, Ulf; Ejlertsson, Jörgen; Karlsson, Anna; Svedlund, Matilda; Willén, Magnus; Svensson, Bo H

    2017-05-01

    The inhibitory effects of sulfide on microbial processes during anaerobic digestion have been widely addressed. However, other effects of sulfide are less explored, given that sulfide is a potential sulfur source for microorganisms and its high reactivity triggers a suit of abiotic reactions. We demonstrated that sulfide interaction with Fe regulates the dynamics and activities of microbial community during anaerobic digestion. This was manifested by the S:Fe molar ratio, whose increase adversely influenced the acetoclastic methanogens, Methanosaeta, and turnover of acetate. Dynamics of hydrogenotrophic methanogens, Methanoculleus and Methanobrevibacter, were presumably influenced by sulfide-induced changes in the partial pressure of hydrogen. Interestingly, conversion of the long-chain fatty acid (LCFA), oleate, to methane was enhanced together with the abundance of LCFA-degrading, β-oxidizing Syntrophomonas at an elevated S:Fe molar ratio. The results suggested that sulfur chemical speciation is a controlling factor for microbial community functions in anaerobic digestion processes. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Interaction between Marine-Derived n-3 Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Uric Acid on Glucose Metabolism and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kelei; Wu, Kejian; Zhao, Yimin; Huang, Tao; Lou, Dajun; Yu, Xiaomei; Li, Duo

    2015-08-26

    The present case-control study explored the interaction between marine-derived n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC PUFAs) and uric acid (UA) on glucose metabolism and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Two hundred and eleven healthy subjects in control group and 268 T2DM subjects in case group were included. Plasma phospholipid (PL) fatty acids and biochemical parameters were detected by standard methods. Plasma PL C22:6n-3 was significantly lower in case group than in control group, and was negatively correlated with fasting glucose (r = -0.177, p < 0.001). Higher plasma PL C22:6n-3 was associated with lower risk of T2DM, and the OR was 0.32 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.12 to 0.80; p = 0.016) for per unit increase of C22:6n-3. UA was significantly lower in case group than in control group. UA was positively correlated with fasting glucose in healthy subjects, but this correlation became negative in T2DM subjects. A significant interaction was observed between C22:6n-3 and UA on fasting glucose (p for interaction = 0.005): the lowering effect of C22:6n-3 was only significant in subjects with a lower level of UA. In conclusion, C22:6n-3 interacts with UA to modulate glucose metabolism.

  2. Dietary n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids modify phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activity and lipid synthesis from glucose in adipose tissue of rats fed a high-sucrose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londero, Lisiane G; Rieger, Débora K; Hansen, Fernanda; Silveira, Simone L; Martins, Tiago L; Lulhier, Francisco; da Silva, Roselis S; Souza, Diogo O; Perry, Marcos L S; de Assis, Adriano M

    2013-12-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFAs) have hypolipidemic effects and modulate intermediary metabolism to prevent or reverse insulin resistance in a way that is not completely elucidated. Here, effects of these fatty acids on the lipid profile, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) activity, lipid synthesis from glucose in epididymal adipose tissue (Ep-AT) and liver were investigated. Male rats were fed a high-sucrose diet (SU diet), containing either sunflower oil or a mixture of sunflower and fish oil (SU-FO diet), and the control group was fed a standard diet. After 13 weeks, liver, adipose tissue and blood were harvested and analysed. The dietary n-3 LCPUFAs prevented sucrose-induced increase in adiposity and serum free fat acids, serum and hepatic triacylglycerol and insulin levels. Furthermore, these n-3 LCPUFAs decreased lipid synthesis from glucose and increased PEPCK activity in the Ep-AT of rats fed the SU-FO diet compared to those fed the SU diet, besides reducing lipid synthesis from glucose in hepatic tissue. Thus, the inclusion of n-3 LCPUFAs in the diet may be beneficial for the prevention or attenuation of dyslipidemia and insulin resistance, and for reducing the risk of related chronic diseases. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Effect of supplementation with long-chain ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on behavior and cognition in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a randomized placebo-controlled intervention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widenhorn-Müller, Katharina; Schwanda, Simone; Scholz, Elke; Spitzer, Manfred; Bode, Harald

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether supplementation with the long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) affects behavioral symptoms and cognitive impairments in children 6-12 years of age diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled 16 weeks trial was conducted with 95 children diagnosed with ADHD according to DSM-IV criteria. Behavior was assessed by parents, teachers and investigators using standardized rating scales and questionnaires. Further outcome variables were working memory, speed of information processing and various measures of attention. For a subgroup of 81 participants, erythrocyte membrane fatty acid composition was analyzed before and after the intervention. Supplementation with the omega-3 fatty acid mix increased EPA and DHA concentrations in erythrocyte membranes and improved working memory function, but had no effect on other cognitive measures and parent- and teacher-rated behavior in the study population. Improved working memory correlated significantly with increased EPA, DHA and decreased AA (arachidonic acid). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Very-long-chain fatty acid biosynthesis is inhibited by cafenstrole, N,N-diethyl-3-mesitylsulfonyl-1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-carboxamide and its analogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, H.; Ohki, A.; Sato, Y.; Wakabayashi, K. [Tamagawa Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Graduate School of Agricultural Science; Kanzaki, M. [Regulatory Affairs Dept., Chugai Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Tanaka, A. [Showa Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Pharmaceutical Sciences; Matthes, B.; Boeger, P. [Konstanz Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Physiologie und Biochemie der Pflanzen

    2001-10-01

    The rice herbicide cafenstrole and its analogs inhibited the incorporation of [1-{sup 14}C]-oleate and [2-{sup 14}C]-malonate into very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs), using Scenedesmus cells and leek microsomes from Allium porrum. Although the precise mode of interaction of cafenstrole at the molecular level is not completely clarified by the present study, it is concluded that cafenstrole acts as a specific inhibitor of the microsomal elongase enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of fatty acids with alkyl chains longer than C{sub 18}. For a strong VLCFA biosynthesis inhibition an -SO{sub 2}- linkage of the 1,2,4-triazole-1-carboxamides was required. Furthermore, N,N-dialkyl substitution of the carbamoyl nitrogen and electron-donating groups such as methyl at the benzene ring of 1,2,4-triazole-1-carboxamides produced a strong inhibition of VLCFA formation. A correlation was found between the phytotoxic effect against barnyardgrass (Echinochloa oryzicola) and impaired VLCFA formation. (orig.)

  5. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study to establish the bifidogenic effect of a very-long-chain inulin extracted from globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus) in healthy human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costabile, Adele; Kolida, Sofia; Klinder, Annett; Gietl, Eva; Bäuerlein, Michael; Frohberg, Claus; Landschütze, Volker; Gibson, Glenn R

    2010-10-01

    There is growing interest in the use of inulins as substrates for the selective growth of beneficial gut bacteria such as bifidobacteria and lactobacilli because recent studies have established that their prebiotic effect is linked to several health benefits. In the present study, the impact of a very-long-chain inulin (VLCI), derived from globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus), on the human intestinal microbiota compared with maltodextrin was determined. A double-blind, cross-over study was carried out in thirty-two healthy adults who were randomised into two groups and consumed 10 g/d of either VLCI or maltodextrin, for two 3-week study periods, separated by a 3-week washout period. Numbers of faecal bifidobacteria and lactobacilli were significantly higher upon VLCI ingestion compared with the placebo. Additionally, levels of Atopobium group significantly increased, while Bacteroides-Prevotella numbers were significantly reduced. No significant changes in faecal SCFA concentrations were observed. There were no adverse gastrointestinal symptoms apart from a significant increase in mild and moderate bloating upon VLCI ingestion. These observations were also confirmed by in vitro gas production measurements. In conclusion, daily consumption of VLCI extracted from globe artichoke exerted a pronounced prebiotic effect on the human faecal microbiota composition and was well tolerated by all volunteers.

  6. Australians are not Meeting the Recommended Intakes for Omega-3 Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: Results of an Analysis from the 2011–2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara J. Meyer

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Health benefits have been attributed to omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA. Therefore it is important to know if Australians are currently meeting the recommended intake for n-3 LCPUFA and if they have increased since the last National Nutrition Survey in 1995 (NNS 1995. Dietary intake data was obtained from the recent 2011–2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (2011–2012 NNPAS. Linoleic acid (LA intakes have decreased whilst alpha-linolenic acid (LNA and n-3 LCPUFA intakes have increased primarily due to n-3 LCPUFA supplements. The median n-3 LCPUFA intakes are less than 50% of the mean n-3 LCPUFA intakes which highlights the highly-skewed n-3 LCPUFA intakes, which shows that there are some people consuming high amounts of n-3 LCPUFA, but the vast majority of the population are consuming much lower amounts. Only 20% of the population meets the recommended n-3 LCPUFA intakes and only 10% of women of childbearing age meet the recommended docosahexaenoic acid (DHA intake. Fish and seafood is by far the richest source of n-3 LCPUFA including DHA.

  7. Effect of preterm formula with and without long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on the urinary excretion of F2-isoprostanes and 8-epi-prostaglandin F2alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stier, C; Schweer, H; Jelinek, J; Watzer, B; Seyberth, H W; Leonhardt, A

    2001-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of conventional and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCP)-enriched preterm formula on the endogenous formation of F2-isoprostanes and 8-epi-prostaglandin (PG) F2alpha as possible markers of lipid peroxidation in preterm infants during their first weeks of life. In a prospective, randomized, double-blind study, infants received either formula enriched with LCP (n = 8), standard preterm formula (n = 7), or (expressed) breast milk (n = 8). Urine was sampled at study entry and after the study period of 3 weeks. The formation of F2-isoprostanes and 8-epi-PGF2alpha was evaluated by measuring the urinary excretion by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. No differences in the urinary excretion of F2-isoprostanes and 8-epi-PGF2alpha were observed at the end of the study period. This result suggests that supplementation of a preterm formula with LCP for a period of 3 weeks does not stimulate lipid peroxidation in preterm infants.

  8. Induction of Mitochondrial Changes Associated with Oxidative Stress on Very Long Chain Fatty Acids (C22:0, C24:0, or C26:0-Treated Human Neuronal Cells (SK-NB-E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira Zarrouk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In Alzheimer's disease, lipid alterations point towards peroxisomal dysfunctions. Indeed, a cortical accumulation of saturated very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs: C22:0, C24:0, C26:0, substrates for peroxisomal β-oxidation, has been found in Alzheimer patients. This study was realized to investigate the effects of VLCFAs at the mitochondrial level since mitochondrial dysfunctions play crucial roles in neurodegeneration. On human neuronal SK-NB-E cells treated with C22:0, C24:0, or C26:0 (0.1–20 μM; 48 h, an inhibition of cell growth and mitochondrial dysfunctions were observed by cell counting with trypan blue, MTT assay, and measurement of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (Δψm with DiOC6(3. A stimulation of oxidative stress was observed with DHE and MitoSOX used to quantify superoxide anion production on whole cells and at the mitochondrial level, respectively. With C24:0 and C26:0, by Western blotting, lower levels of mitochondrial complexes III and IV were detected. After staining with MitoTracker and by transmission electron microscopy used to study mitochondrial topography, mass and morphology, major changes were detected in VLCFAs treated-cells: modification of the cytoplasmic distribution of mitochondria, presence of large mitochondria, enhancement of the mitochondrial mass. Thus, VLCFAs can be potential risk factors contributing to neurodegeneration by inducing neuronal damages via mitochondrial dysfunctions.

  9. Maternal long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in infancy increases length- and weight-for-age but not BMI to 6 years when controlling for effects of maternal smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, L.M.; Tolley, E.A.; Thodosoff, J.M.; Kerling, E.H.; Sullivan, D.K.; Colombo, J.; Carlson, S.E.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) are added to infant formula but their effect on long-term growth of children is under studied. We evaluated the effects of feeding LCPUFA-supplemented formula (n=54) compared to control formula (n=15) throughout infancy on growth from birth-6 years. Growth was described using separate models developed with the MIXED procedure of SAS® that included maternal smoking history and gender. Compared to children fed control formula, children who consumed LCPUFA supplemented formula had higher length-/stature-/and weight-for-age percentiles but not body mass index (BMI) percentile from birth to 6 years. Maternal smoking predicted lower stature (2-6 years), higher weight-for-length (birth-18 months) and BMI percentile (2-6 years) independent of LCPUFA effects. Gender interacted with the effect of LCPUFA on stature, and the relationship between smoking and BMI, with a larger effect for boys. Energy intake did not explain growth differences. A relatively small control sample is a limitation. PMID:25936840

  10. Total Thyroidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez Moris E

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Total thyroidectomy is a surgery that removes all the thyroid tissue from the patient. The suspect of cancer in a thyroid nodule is the most frequent indication and it is presume when previous fine needle puncture is positive or a goiter has significant volume increase or symptomes. Less frequent indications are hyperthyroidism when it is refractory to treatment with Iodine 131 or it is contraindicated, and in cases of symptomatic thyroiditis. The thyroid gland has an important anatomic relation whith the inferior laryngeal nerve and the parathyroid glands, for this reason it is imperative to perform extremely meticulous dissection to recognize each one of these elements and ensure their preservation. It is also essential to maintain strict hemostasis, in order to avoid any postoperative bleeding that could lead to a suffocating neck hematoma, feared complication that represents a surgical emergency and endangers the patient’s life.It is essential to run a formal technique, without skipping steps, and maintain prudence and patience that should rule any surgical act.

  11. Bulk and compound-specific isotope analysis of long-chain n-alkanes from a 85,000 year sediment core from Lake Peten Petén Itzá, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, J.; Brenner, M.; Curtis, J. H.; Curtis, K.; Hodell, D. A.; Correa-Metrio, A.; Escobar, J.; Dutton, A. L.; Zimmerman, A. R.; Guilderson, T. P.

    2013-12-01

    Sediment core PI-6 from Lake Petén Itzá, Guatemala possesses an 85-ka record of climate from lowland Central America. Variations in sediment lithology suggest large, abrupt changes in precipitation during the last glacial and deglacial periods, and into the early Holocene. Study of cores from nearby Lake Quexil demonstrated the utility of using the carbon isotopic composition of leaf wax n-alkanes to infer changes in terrestrial vegetation (Huang et al. 2001). Forty-nine samples were taken from composite Petén Itzá core PI-6 to measure carbon isotopes of bulk organic carbon and long-chain n alkanes. Changes in δ13C values indicate shifts in the relative proportion of C3 to C4 biomass. The record shows largest δ13C variations are associated with Heinrich Events. Carbon isotope values in sediments deposited during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) indicate moderate precipitation and little rainfall fluctuation. The deglacial was a period of pronounced climate variability, e.g. the Bölling-Allerod and Younger Dryas. Arid times of the deglacial were inferred from samples with the greatest δ13C values in organic matter, reflecting the largest proportion of C4 plants. Such inferences are supported by stable isotope measurements on ostracod shells and analysis of pollen from the same sample depths in core PI-6. Carbon stable isotope measures on bulk organic carbon and n alkane compounds show similar trends throughout the record and the C:N ratio of Petén Itzá sediments indicates a predominantly allochthonous source for bulk organic matter. Hence, isotope measures on bulk organic carbon (δ13CTOC) in sediments from this lake are sufficient to infer climate-driven shifts in vegetation, making n-alkane extraction and isotope analysis superfluous.

  12. High resolution crystal structure of rat long chain hydroxy acid oxidase in complex with the inhibitor 4-carboxy-5-[(4-chlorophenyl)sulfanyl]-1, 2, 3-thiadiazole. Implications for inhibitor specificity and drug design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zhi-wei; Vignaud, Caroline; Jaafar, Adil; Lévy, Bernard; Guéritte, Françoise; Guénard, Daniel; Lederer, Florence; Mathews, F. Scott (CNRS-UMR); (WU-MED)

    2012-05-24

    Long chain hydroxy acid oxidase (LCHAO) is responsible for the formation of methylguanidine, a toxic compound with elevated serum levels in patients with chronic renal failure. Its isozyme glycolate oxidase (GOX), has a role in the formation of oxalate, which can lead to pathological deposits of calcium oxalate, in particular in the disease primary hyperoxaluria. Inhibitors of these two enzymes may have therapeutic value. These enzymes are the only human members of the family of FMN-dependent L-2-hydroxy acid-oxidizing enzymes, with yeast flavocytochrome b{sub 2} (Fcb2) among its well studied members. We screened a chemical library for inhibitors, using in parallel rat LCHAO, human GOX and the Fcb2 flavodehydrogenase domain (FDH). Among the hits was an inhibitor, CCPST, with an IC{sub 50} in the micromolar range for all three enzymes. We report here the crystal structure of a complex between this compound and LCHAO at 1.3 {angstrom} resolution. In comparison with a lower resolution structure of this enzyme, binding of the inhibitor induces a conformational change in part of the TIM barrel loop 4, as well as protonation of the active site histidine. The CCPST interactions are compared with those it forms with human GOX and those formed by two other inhibitors with human GOX and spinach GOX. These compounds differ from CCPST in having the sulfur replaced with a nitrogen in the five-membered ring as well as different hydrophobic substituents. The possible reason for the {approx}100-fold difference in affinity between these two series of inhibitors is discussed. The present results indicate that specificity is an issue in the quest for therapeutic inhibitors of either LCHAO or GOX, but they may give leads for this quest.

  13. Continuous gradient temperature Raman spectroscopy of the long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids docosapentaenoic (DPA, 22:5n-6) and docosahexaenoic (DHA; 22:6n-3) from -100 to 20° C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadhurst, C. Leigh; Schmidt, Walter F.; Kim, Moon S.; Nguyen, Julie K.; Qin, Jianwei; Chao, Kuanglin; Bauchan, Gary L.; Shelton, Daniel R.

    2016-05-01

    The structural, cognitive and visual development of the human brain and retina strictly require long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). Excluding water, the mammalian brain is about 60% lipid. One of the great unanswered questions with respect to biological science in general is the absolute necessity of the LC-PUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) in these fast signal processing tissues. A lipid of the same chain length with just one less diene group, docosapentaenoic acid (DPA; 22:5n-6) is fairly abundant in terrestrial food chains yet cannot substitute for DHA. Gradient Temperature Raman spectroscopy (GTRS) applies the temperature gradients utilized in differential scanning calorimetry to Raman spectroscopy, providing a straightforward technique to identify molecular rearrangements that occur near and at phase transitions. Herein we apply GTRS to DPA, and DHA from -100 to 20°C. 20 Mb three-dimensional data arrays with 1°C increments and first/second derivatives allows complete assignment of solid, liquid and transition state vibrational modes, including low intensity/frequency vibrations that cannot be readily analyzed with conventional Raman. DPA and DHA show significant spectral changes with premelting (-33 and -60°C, respectively) and melting (-27 and -44°C, respectively). The CH2-(HC=CH)-CH2 moieties are not identical in the second half of the DHA and DPA structures. The DHA molecule contains major CH2 twisting (1265 cm-1) with no noticeable CH2 bending, consistent with a flat helical structure with small pitch. Further modeling of neuronal membrane phospholipids must take into account this structure for DHA, which would be configured parallel to the hydrophilic head group line.

  14. Health economic potential of early nutrition programming: a model calculation of long-term reduction in blood pressure and related morbidity costs by use of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid-supplemented formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Niels; Grunert, Philipp; von Kries, Rüdiger; Koletzko, Berthold

    2011-12-01

    The reported effect sizes of early nutrition programming on long-term health outcomes are often small, and it has been questioned whether early interventions would be worthwhile in enhancing public health. We explored the possible health economic consequences of early nutrition programming by performing a model calculation, based on the only published study currently available for analysis, to evaluate the effects of supplementing infant formula with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) on lowering blood pressure and lowering the risk of hypertension-related diseases in later life. The costs and health effects of LC-PUFA-enriched and standard infant formulas were compared by using a Markov model, including all relevant direct and indirect costs based on German statistics. We assessed the effect size of blood pressure reduction from LC-PUFA-supplemented formula, the long-term persistence of the effect, and the effect of lowered blood pressure on hypertension-related morbidity. The cost-effectiveness analysis showed an increased life expectancy of 1.2 quality-adjusted life-years and an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of -630 Euros (discounted to present value) for the LC-PUFA formula in comparison with standard formula. LC-PUFA nutrition was the superior strategy even when the blood pressure-lowering effect was reduced to the lower 95% CI. Breastfeeding is the recommended feeding practice, but infants who are not breastfed should receive an appropriate infant formula. Following this model calculation, LC-PUFA supplementation of infant formula represents an economically worthwhile prevention strategy, based on the costs derived from hypertension-linked diseases in later life. However, because our analysis was based on a single randomized controlled trial, further studies are required to verify the validity of this thesis.

  15. Carnitine acetyltransferase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Sofia Mikkelsen; Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Færgeman, Nils Joakim

    2017-01-01

    Carnitine acetyltransferase (CRAT) deficiency has previously been shown to result in muscle insulin resistance due to accumulation of long-chain acylcarnitines. However, differences in the acylcarnitine profile and/or changes in gene expression and protein abundance of CRAT in myotubes obtained...

  16. DISORDERS OF CARNITINE TRANSPORT AND THE CARNITINE CYCLE

    OpenAIRE

    Longo, Nicola; di San Filippo, Cristina Amat; Pasquali, Marzia

    2006-01-01

    Carnitine plays an essential role in the transfer of long-chain fatty acids across the inner mitochondrial membrane. This transfer requires enzymes and transporters that accumulate carnitine within the cell (OCTN2 carnitine transporter), conjugate it with long chain fatty acids (carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1, CPT1), transfer the acylcarnitine across the inner plasma membrane (carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase, CACT), and conjugate the fatty acid back to Coenzyme A for subsequent beta ox...

  17. Fish oil-derived long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids reduce expression of M1-associated macrophage markers in an ex vivo adipose tissue culture model, in part through adiponectin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna A. De Boer

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue (AT macrophages (ATM play a key role in obesity-associated pathologies, and their phenotype can be influenced by the local tissue microenvironment. Interestingly, long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA and the LC n-3 PUFA-upregulated adipokine, adiponectin (Ad, may mitigate excessive ATM inflammatory M1-polarization responses. However, to what extent LC n-3 PUFA and Ad work in concert to affect macrophage phenotype has not been examined. Thus, we used an established ex vivo AT organ culture model using visceral AT from mice fed a control (CON; 10% w/w safflower oil n-6 PUFA-rich diet or an isocaloric fish-oil (FO; 3% w/w menhaden oil + 7% w/w safflower oil-derived LC n-3 PUFA-rich diet to generate AT conditioned media (ACM. We then evaluated if CON or FO ACM affected macrophage polarization markers in a model designed to mimic acute (18 h ACM plus LPS for the last 6 h or chronic (macrophages treated with LPS-challenged CON or FO ACM for 24 h inflammation ± Ad-neutralizing antibody and the LPS-neutralizing agent, polymyxin B. In the acute inflammation model, macrophages treated with FO ACM had decreased lipid uptake and mRNA expression of M1 markers (Nos2, Nfκb, Il6, Il18, Ccl2 and Ccl5 compared with CON ACM (p≤0.05; however, these effects were largely attenuated when Ad was neutralized (p>0.05. Further, in the chronic inflammation model, macrophages treated with FO ACM had decreased mRNA expression of M1 markers (Nos2, Tnfα, Ccl2 and Il1β and IL-6 and CCL2 secretion (p≤0.05; however, some of these effects were lost when Ad was neutralized, and were further exacerbated when both Ad and LPS were neutralized. Taken together, this work shows that LC n-3 PUFA and Ad work in concert to suppress certain M1 macrophage responses. Thus, future strategies to modulate the ATM phenotype should consider the role of both LC n-3 PUFA and Ad in mitigating obese AT inflammation.

  18. Fish Oil-Derived Long-Chain n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Reduce Expression of M1-Associated Macrophage Markers in an ex vivo Adipose Tissue Culture Model, in Part through Adiponectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Boer, Anna A; Monk, Jennifer M; Liddle, Danyelle M; Power, Krista A; Ma, David W L; Robinson, Lindsay E

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue (AT) macrophages (ATM) play a key role in obesity-associated pathologies, and their phenotype can be influenced by the local tissue microenvironment. Interestingly, long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) and the LC n-3 PUFA-upregulated adipokine, adiponectin (Ad), may mitigate excessive ATM inflammatory M1-polarization responses. However, to what extent LC n-3 PUFA and Ad work in concert to affect macrophage phenotype has not been examined. Thus, we used an established ex vivo AT organ culture model using visceral AT from mice fed a control (CON; 10% w/w safflower oil) n-6 PUFA-rich diet or an isocaloric fish oil (FO; 3% w/w menhaden oil + 7% w/w safflower oil)-derived LC n-3 PUFA-rich diet to generate AT conditioned media (ACM). We then evaluated if CON or FO ACM affected macrophage polarization markers in a model designed to mimic acute [18 h ACM plus lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for the last 6 h] or chronic (macrophages treated with LPS-challenged CON or FO ACM for 24 h) inflammation ± Ad-neutralizing antibody and the LPS-neutralizing agent, polymyxin B. In the acute inflammation model, macrophages treated with FO ACM had decreased lipid uptake and mRNA expression of M1 markers (Nos2, Nfκb, Il6, Il18, Ccl2, and Ccl5) compared with CON ACM (p ≤ 0.05); however, these effects were largely attenuated when Ad was neutralized (p > 0.05). Furthermore, in the chronic inflammation model, macrophages treated with FO ACM had decreased mRNA expression of M1 markers (Nos2, Tnfα, Ccl2, and Il1β) and IL-6 and CCL2 secretion (p ≤ 0.05); however, some of these effects were lost when Ad was neutralized, and were further exacerbated when both Ad and LPS were neutralized. Taken together, this work shows that LC n-3 PUFA and Ad work in concert to suppress certain M1 macrophage responses. Thus, future strategies to modulate the ATM phenotype should consider the role of both LC n-3 PUFA and Ad in mitigating obese AT

  19. Long-chain n-3 PUFA supplied by the usual diet decrease plasma stearoyl-CoA desaturase index in non-hypertriglyceridemic older adults at high vascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Heras, Ana M; Mayneris-Perxachs, Jordi; Cofán, Montserrat; Serra-Mir, Mercè; Castellote, Ana I; López-Sabater, Carmen; Fitó, Montserrat; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Martínez-González, Miguel-Ángel; Corella, Dolores; Estruch, Ramon; Ros, Emilio; Sala-Vila, Aleix

    2018-02-01

    The activity of stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1), the central enzyme in the synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), has been associated with de novo lipogenesis. In experimental models SCD1 is down-regulated by polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), but clinical studies are scarce. The effect of long-chain n-3 PUFA (LCn-3PUFA) supplied by the regular diet, in the absence of fatty fish or fish oil supplementation, remains to be explored. We related 1-y changes in plasma SCD1 index, as assessed by the C16:1n-7/C16:0 ratio, to both adiposity traits and nutrient intake changes in a sub-cohort (n = 243) of non-hypertriglyceridemic subjects of the PREDIMED (PREvención con DIeta MEDiterranea) trial. After adjustment for confounders, including changes in fasting triglycerides, plasma SCD1 index increased in parallel with body weight (0.221 [95% confidence interval, 0.021 to 0.422], P = 0.031) and BMI (0.115 [0.027 to 0.202], P = 0.011). Additionally, dietary LCn-3PUFA (but not MUFA or plant-derived PUFA) were associated with decreased plasma SCD1 index (-0.544 [-1.044 to -0.043], P = 0.033, for each 1 g/d-increase in LCn-3PUFA). No associations were found for other food groups, but there was a trend for fatty fish intake (-0.083 [-0.177 to 0.012], P = 0.085, for each 10 g/d-increase). Our data add clinical evidence on the down-regulation of plasma SCD1 index by LCn-3PUFA in the context of realistic changes in fish consumption in the customary, non-supplemented diet. http://www.Controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN35739639. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  20. Reduction of the n-6:n-3 long-chain PUFA ratio during pregnancy and lactation on offspring body composition: follow-up results from a randomized controlled trial up to 5 y of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brei, Christina; Stecher, Lynne; Much, Daniela; Karla, Marie-Theres; Amann-Gassner, Ulrike; Shen, Jun; Ganter, Carl; Karampinos, Dimitrios C; Brunner, Stefanie; Hauner, Hans

    2016-06-01

    It has been hypothesized that the n-6:n-3 (ω-6:ω-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) ratio in the maternal diet during the prenatal and early postnatal phase positively affects the body composition of the offspring. However, only limited data from prospective human intervention studies with long-term follow-up are available. We assessed the long-term effects of a reduced n-6:n-3 LCPUFA ratio in the diets of pregnant and lactating women [1020 mg docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) plus 180 mg eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/d together with an arachidonic acid-balanced diet compared with a control diet] on the body weights and compositions of their offspring from 2 to 5 y of age with a focus on the 5-y results. Participants in the randomized controlled trial received follow-up assessments with annual body-composition measurements including skinfold thickness (SFT) measurements (primary outcome), a sonographic assessment of abdominal subcutaneous and preperitoneal fat, and child growth. In addition, abdominal MRI was performed in a subgroup of 5-y-old children. For the statistical analysis, mixed models for repeated measures (MMRMs) were fit with the use of data from each visit since birth (except for MRI). Maternal LCPUFA supplementation did not significantly influence the children's sum of 4 SFTs [means ± SDs at 5 y of age: intervention, 23.9 ± 4.7 mm (n = 57); control, 24.5 ± 5.0 mm (n = 55); adjusted mean difference, -0.5 (95% CI: -2.2, 1.2)], growth, or ultrasonography measures at any time point in the adjusted MMRM model (all P values n = 44) at 5 y of age, which showed no significant differences in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue volumes and ratios. The current study provides no evidence that a dietary reduction of the n-6:n-3 LCPUFA ratio in the maternal diet during pregnancy and lactation is a useful early preventive strategy against obesity at preschool age. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00362089. © 2016 American

  1. Hybrid striped bass feeds based on fish oil, beef tallow, and eicosapentaenoic acid/docosahexaenoic acid supplements: Insight regarding fish oil sparing and demand for -3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowzer, J; Jackson, C; Trushenski, J

    2016-03-01

    Previous research suggests that saturated (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) rich lipids, including beef tallow, can make utilization or diet-to-tissue transfer of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) more efficient. We hypothesized that using beef tallow as an alternative to fish oil may effectively reduce the LC-PUFA demand of hybrid striped bass × and allow for greater fish oil sparing. Accordingly, we evaluated growth performance and tissue fatty acid profiles of juvenile fish (23.7 ± 0.3 g) fed diets containing menhaden fish oil (considered an ideal source of LC-PUFA for this taxon), beef tallow (BEEF ONLY), or beef tallow amended with purified sources of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and/or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) to achieve levels corresponding to 50 or 100% of those observed in the FISH ONLY feed. Diets were randomly assigned to quadruplicate tanks of fish ( = 4; 10 fish/tank), and fish were fed assigned diets to apparent satiation once daily for 10 wk. Survival (98-100%) was equivalent among treatments, but weight gain (117-180%), specific growth rate (1.1-1.5% BW/d), feed intake (1.4-1.8% BW/d), thermal growth coefficient (0.50-0.70), and feed conversion ratio (FCR; 1.1-1.4, DM basis) varied. Except for FCR, no differences were observed between the FISH ONLY and BEEF ONLY treatments, but performance was generally numerically superior among fish fed the diets containing beef tallow supplemented with DHA at the 100% or both EPA and DHA at the 50% or 100% level. Tissue fatty acid composition was significantly distorted in favor among fish fed the beef tallow-based feeds; however, profile distortion was most overt in peripheral tissues. Results suggest that beef tallow may be used as a primary lipid source in practical diets for hybrid striped bass, but performance may be improved by supplementation with LC-PUFA, particularly DHA. Furthermore, our results suggest that -3 LC-PUFA requirements reported for hybrid striped bass may not be

  2. Hydroxytyrosol prevents reduction in liver activity of Δ-5 and Δ-6 desaturases, oxidative stress, and depletion in long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid content in different tissues of high-fat diet fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Rodrigo; Echeverria, Francisca; Ortiz, Macarena; Rincón-Cervera, Miguel Ángel; Espinosa, Alejandra; Hernandez-Rodas, María Catalina; Illesca, Paola; Valenzuela, Alfonso; Videla, Luis A

    2017-04-11

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n-3), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) and arachidonic acid (AA, C20:4n-6) are long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) with relevant roles in the organism. EPA and DHA are synthesized from the precursor alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, C18:3n-3), whereas AA is produced from linoleic acid (LA, C18:2n-6) through the action of Δ5 and Δ6-desaturases. High-fat diet (HFD) decreases the activity of both desaturases and LCPUFA accretion in liver and other tissues. Hydroxytyrosol (HT), a natural antioxidant, has an important cytoprotective effects in different cells and tissues. Male mice C57BL/6 J were fed a control diet (CD) (10% fat, 20% protein, 70% carbohydrates) or a HFD (60% fat, 20% protein, 20% carbohydrates) for 12 weeks. Animals were daily supplemented with saline (CD) or 5 mg HT (HFD), and blood and the studied tissues were analyzed after the HT intervention. Parameters studied included liver histology (optical microscopy), activity of hepatic desaturases 5 and 6 (gas-liquid chromatography of methyl esters derivatives) and antioxidant enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase by spectrophotometry), oxidative stress indicators (glutathione, thiobarbituric acid reactants, and the antioxidant capacity of plasma), gene expression assays for sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c) (qPCR and ELISA), and LCPUFA profiles in liver, erythrocyte, brain, heart, and testicle (gas-liquid chromatography). HFD led to insulin resistance and liver steatosis associated with SREBP-1c upregulation, with enhancement in plasma and liver oxidative stress status and diminution in the synthesis and storage of n-6 and n-3 LCPUFAs in the studied tissues, compared to animals given control diet. HT supplementation significantly reduced fat accumulation in liver and plasma as well as tissue metabolic alterations induced by HFD. Furthermore, a normalization of desaturase activities

  3. The investigation of immunoprotective and sedative hypnotic effect of total polysaccharide from Suanzaoren decoction by serum metabonomics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xiaoyi; He, Bosai; Du, Yiyang; Sui, Zhenyu; Rong, Weiwei; Wang, Xiaotong; Li, Qing; Bi, Kaishun

    2018-06-01

    Suanzaoren decoction, as one of the traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions, has been most commonly used in Asian countries and reported to inhibit the process of immunodeficiency insomnia. Polysaccharide is important component which also contributes to the role of immunoprotective and sedative hypnotic effects. This study was aimed to explore the immunoprotective and sedative hypnotic mechanisms of polysaccharide from Suanzaoren decoction by serum metabonomics approach. With this purpose, complex physical and chemical immunodeficiency insomnia models were firstly established according to its multi-target property. Serum samples were analyzed using UHPLC/Q-TOF-MS spectrometry approach to determine endogenous metabolites. Then, principal component analysis was used to distinguish the groups, and partial least squares discriminate analysis was carried out to confirm the important variables. The serum metabolic profiling was identified and pathway analysis was performed after the total polysaccharide administration. The twenty-one potential biomarkers were screened, and the levels were all reversed to different degrees in the total polysaccharide treated groups. These potential biomarkers were mainly related to vitamin, sphingolipid, bile acid, phospholipid and acylcarnitine metabolisms. The result has indicated that total polysaccharide could inhibit insomnia triggered by immunodeficiency stimulation through regulating those metabolic pathways. This study provides a useful approach for exploring the mechanism and evaluating the efficacy of total polysaccharide from Suanzaoren decoction. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Seasonal changes on total fatty acid composition of carp (Cyprinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-21

    Jun 21, 2010 ... depression is associated with lowered ω3 PUFA levels. (Hibbeln, 1998; Maes ... The amount of long chain ω3 PUFAs differs among and can be influenced ..... composition of some Malaysian freswater fish. Food Chem. 54(1):.

  5. [The effect of long-chain polyunsaturated higher ω-3 fatty acids, benfotiamine and α-lipoic acid on the lipid metabolism in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 and cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergienko, V A; Segin, V B; Samir, A; Sergienko, A A

    2013-01-01

    Eighty-one patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM) and cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy were studied. The combined treatment with ω-3 PUFA, benfotiamine, and α-lipoic acid resulted in significant positive changes in total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, LDL and HDL cholesterol levels. The efficacy of this treatment was not associated with the improved compensation of DM but was a result of the direct influence of pharmacological agents on the metabolic rate studied.

  6. Association between Metabolite Profiles, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bénédicte Allam-Ndoul

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Underlying mechanisms associated with the development of abnormal metabolic phenotypes among obese individuals are not yet clear. Our aim is to investigate differences in plasma metabolomics profiles between normal weight (NW and overweight/obese (Ov/Ob individuals, with or without metabolic syndrome (MetS. Mass spectrometry-based metabolite profiling was used to compare metabolite levels between each group. Three main principal components factors explaining a maximum of variance were retained. Factor 1’s (long chain glycerophospholipids metabolite profile score was higher among Ov/Ob with MetS than among Ov/Ob and NW participants without MetS. This factor was positively correlated to plasma total cholesterol (total-C and triglyceride levels in the three groups, to high density lipoprotein -cholesterol (HDL-C among participants without MetS. Factor 2 (amino acids and short to long chain acylcarnitine was positively correlated to HDL-C and negatively correlated with insulin levels among NW participants. Factor 3’s (medium chain acylcarnitines metabolite profile scores were higher among NW participants than among Ov/Ob with or without MetS. Factor 3 was negatively associated with glucose levels among the Ov/Ob with MetS. Factor 1 seems to be associated with a deteriorated metabolic profile that corresponds to obesity, whereas Factors 2 and 3 seem to be rather associated with a healthy metabolic profile.

  7. Total parenteral nutrition - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007239.htm Total parenteral nutrition - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses ...

  8. Total parenteral nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000177.htm Total parenteral nutrition To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses ...

  9. Technique of total thyroidectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, R.S.

    1999-01-01

    It is essential to define the various surgical procedures that are carried out for carcinoma of the thyroid gland. They are thyroid gland, subtotal lobectomy, total thyroidectomy and near total thyroidectomy

  10. Total iron binding capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003489.htm Total iron binding capacity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total iron binding capacity (TIBC) is a blood test to ...

  11. Total well dominated trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finbow, Arthur; Frendrup, Allan; Vestergaard, Preben D.

    cardinality then G is a total well dominated graph. In this paper we study composition and decomposition of total well dominated trees. By a reversible process we prove that any total well dominated tree can both be reduced to and constructed from a family of three small trees....

  12. Total Quality Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    More than 750 NASA, government, contractor, and academic representatives attended the Seventh Annual NASA/Contractors Conference on Quality and Productivity. The panel presentations and Keynote speeches revolving around the theme of total quality leadership provided a solid base of understanding of the importance, benefits, and principles of total quality management (TQM). The presentations from the conference are summarized.

  13. Genoptraening efter total knaealloplastik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bente; Kehlet, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    The short- and long-term benefits of post-discharge physiotherapy regimens after total knee arthroplasty are debatable. A national survey including hospitals in Denmark that perform total knee arthroplasty showed a large variability in indication and regimen for post-knee arthroplasty...

  14. Laparoscopic total pancreatectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Li, Yongbin; Cai, Yunqiang; Liu, Xubao; Peng, Bing

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Laparoscopic total pancreatectomy is a complicated surgical procedure and rarely been reported. This study was conducted to investigate the safety and feasibility of laparoscopic total pancreatectomy. Patients and Methods: Three patients underwent laparoscopic total pancreatectomy between May 2014 and August 2015. We reviewed their general demographic data, perioperative details, and short-term outcomes. General morbidity was assessed using Clavien–Dindo classification and delayed gastric emptying (DGE) was evaluated by International Study Group of Pancreatic Surgery (ISGPS) definition. Diagnosis and Outcomes: The indications for laparoscopic total pancreatectomy were intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) (n = 2) and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PNET) (n = 1). All patients underwent laparoscopic pylorus and spleen-preserving total pancreatectomy, the mean operative time was 490 minutes (range 450–540 minutes), the mean estimated blood loss was 266 mL (range 100–400 minutes); 2 patients suffered from postoperative complication. All the patients recovered uneventfully with conservative treatment and discharged with a mean hospital stay 18 days (range 8–24 days). The short-term (from 108 to 600 days) follow up demonstrated 3 patients had normal and consistent glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level with acceptable quality of life. Lessons: Laparoscopic total pancreatectomy is feasible and safe in selected patients and pylorus and spleen preserving technique should be considered. Further prospective randomized studies are needed to obtain a comprehensive understanding the role of laparoscopic technique in total pancreatectomy. PMID:28099344

  15. Estonian total ozone climatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Eerme

    Full Text Available The climatological characteristics of total ozone over Estonia based on the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS data are discussed. The mean annual cycle during 1979–2000 for the site at 58.3° N and 26.5° E is compiled. The available ground-level data interpolated before TOMS, have been used for trend detection. During the last two decades, the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO corrected systematic decrease of total ozone from February–April was 3 ± 2.6% per decade. Before 1980, a spring decrease was not detectable. No decreasing trend was found in either the late autumn ozone minimum or in the summer total ozone. The QBO related signal in the spring total ozone has an amplitude of ± 20 DU and phase lag of 20 months. Between 1987–1992, the lagged covariance between the Singapore wind and the studied total ozone was weak. The spring (April–May and summer (June–August total ozone have the best correlation (coefficient 0.7 in the yearly cycle. The correlation between the May and August total ozone is higher than the one between the other summer months. Seasonal power spectra of the total ozone variance show preferred periods with an over 95% significance level. Since 1986, during the winter/spring, the contribution period of 32 days prevails instead of the earlier dominating 26 days. The spectral densities of the periods from 4 days to 2 weeks exhibit high interannual variability.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (middle atmosphere – composition and chemistry; volcanic effects – Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (climatology